WorldWideScience

Sample records for old age assistance

  1. Old, older and too old: age limits for medically assisted fatherhood?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braverman, Andrea Mechanick

    2017-02-01

    How old is too old to be a father? Can you be a little bit older or "old-ish" to be a dad without being considered an "older dad"? At some point, does one simply become too old to be a father? Unless a man requires medical assistance in family building, that answer has historically turned solely on his opportunity to have a willing female partner of reproductive age. As with so many other aspects of family building, assisted reproductive technologies have transformed the possibilities for-and spawned heated debates about-maternal age. Much attention has been given to this contentious topic for potential mothers, with many programs putting age-related limitations in place for their female patients. This article considers whether there should also be limits-and how we should approach that question-for men who require and seek medical assistance to become fathers. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. How old is too old? A contribution to the discussion on age limits for assisted reproduction technique access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocourková, Jiřina; Konečná, Hana; Burcin, Boris; Kučera, Tomáš

    2015-05-01

    In 2012, the Czech Republic established the women's age limit for access to assisted reproduction techniques at age 49 years. In this paper, the acceptability of this age limit from the children's perspective in the Czech Republic is assessed. Although the necessity of balancing the interests of parents and children is acknowledged, little research has taken children's interests into account. We have attempted to map out 'children's interests', asking older children and adolescents (aged 11-25 years) how old they would prefer their parents to be: Czech respondents would prefer to have younger parents. This finding is consistent with the optimal biological childbearing age rather than with the current postponement to a later age. So far, assisted reproduction techniques have been largely regarded as a medical treatment justifying the current women's age limit of 49 years. Had the children's perspective been taken into account, this age limit might have been lower than 49 years. We propose that reproductive health policy should adequately reflect multiple perspectives as an integral part of a multi-layered support system of a society. Copyright © 2015 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Depression in Old Age

    OpenAIRE

    MAŠTEROVÁ, Monika

    2008-01-01

    This thesis is theoretical and it engage in problems of the depression, in particular depression in old age. It divide in four chapters. In first chapter mentioned a characteristic deppresion. Here is a description, what is the depression and that exit some questionnaires, what make find, whether is a man it distress. Further here is mentioned it occurrence, history, mythes, causes, symptoms, types, treatment and consequences. In second chapter talk about age and growing old and their concomi...

  4. Euthansia and old age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Philipsen, B.D.; Muller, M.T.; van der Wal, G.

    1997-01-01

    Objective: to obtain insight into the relationship between euthanasia/physician-assisted suicide (EAS) and the age of patients to whom it was administered. Design: a descriptive retrospective study. Sample: cases of EAS reported between 1984 and 1993, in the province of North Holland in The

  5. Youth and old age

    OpenAIRE

    Thomson, John, 1837-1921, photographer

    2003-01-01

    85 x 115 mm. Woodburytype. A view showing a young Cypriot girl seated beside an aged relative in the open air. The portrait is in Thomson's 'Through Cyprus with the camera, in the autumn of 1878' (vol.1, London: Sampson Low, Marston, Searle, and Rivington, 1879). The photograph is annotated: 'Although it has been stated on high authority that in Cyprus aged parents are often treated harshly by their children, yet, in travelling through the island, one happily meets with examples of the t...

  6. Constipation in old age.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Gallagher, Paul

    2009-01-01

    The prevalence of constipation increases with age. However, constipation is not a physiological consequence of normal ageing. Indeed, the aetiology of constipation in older people is often multifactorial with co-morbid diseases, impaired mobility, reduced dietary fibre intake and prescription medications contributing significantly to constipation in many instances. A detailed clinical history and physical examination including digital rectal examination is usually sufficient to uncover the causes of constipation in older people; more specialized tests of anorectal physiology and colonic transit are rarely required. The scientific evidence base from which to develop specific treatment recommendations for constipation in older people is, for the most part, slim. Constipation can be complicated by faecal impaction and incontinence, particularly in frail older people with reduced mobility and cognitive impairment; preventative strategies are important in those at risk.

  7. Life Satisfaction in Old Age

    OpenAIRE

    BRDIČKOVÁ, Monika

    2009-01-01

    The paper describes life satisfaction in old age. The theoretical part defines negative and positive aspects of old age, and further describes cognitive and emotional changes. The main content of the theoretical part is focused on life satisfaction, purposfulness and self-conception of seniors. The practical part includes qualitative research, which survays life satisfaction of seniors, directed on four dimensions of human life: self-conception, purpose of life, family and social relations. T...

  8. Transgender, aging and old age - Do transgender people get old?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Paulo Sammarco Antunes

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study is aimed to understand transgender aging context in Brazil. Normal and abnormal were especially created by biological sciences. For being considered deviants, transgender people are not seen as human beings. They end up living in violent environments. Their life expectancy is low. Many of them do not believe to reach old age. They face a lot of prejudice and death threat. Those who get to what we call old age are considered survivals. This investigation was able to show satisfactorily their demands and needs. To be considered visible, they have to count on public policies to give them existence since their childhood. That way, we believe they will reach what we call old age with respect and dignity, already assured by the Universal Human Rights.

  9. Mobility decline in old age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rantakokko, Merja; Mänty, Minna Regina; Rantanen, Taina

    2013-01-01

    Mobility is important for community independence. With increasing age, underlying pathologies, genetic vulnerabilities, physiological and sensory impairments, and environmental barriers increase the risk for mobility decline. Understanding how mobility declines is paramount to finding ways...... to promote mobility in old age....

  10. [Thromboembolism prophylaxis in old age].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röhrig, Gabriele; Kolb, Gerald

    2018-04-01

    Anticoagulation in geriatric patients is challenging regarding the risk of bleeding complications and thromboembolic problems. Age, comorbidities, such as renal insufficiency and polymedication have a vital impact on bleeding and thromboembolic risks; however, age is not an exclusion criterion for withholding anticoagulation. Age is the main risk factor for deep vein thrombosis and atrial fibrillation becomes more relevant with aging. Older patients with atrial fibrillation have a particularly high risk of having a stroke. Therefore, very old patients benefit particularly from oral anticoagulation because the risk of bleeding is outweighed by the clinical benefit of stroke prevention. Risk of bleeding and thromboembolic problems can be easily assessed by established diagnostic tools. This article reviews the epidemiology of thromboembolic problems in the aged as well as current diagnostic and therapeutic steps for primary and secondary prevention.

  11. Mobility decline in old age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, C.J.; Siersma, V.; Mänty, Minna Regina

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Mobility-related fatigue and low socioeconomic position predicts mobility limitations and disability in old age, but the interplay between these two factors is unknown. To evaluate whether mobility-related fatigue is a stronger risk factor for mobility limitations in certain...... socioeconomic groups, the aim of this study was to examine the combined effect of mobility-related fatigue and socioeconomic position on mobility limitations in a prospective study among older Danish men and women. METHODS: Multivariate linear regression models with combined exposure variables using generalised...... estimating equations were performed using four waves of data on 2874 individuals without mobility limitations at baseline from The Danish Intervention Study on Preventive Home Visits. RESULTS: Low socioeconomic position and mobility-related fatigue are risk factors for mobility limitations in old age...

  12. Sexual activity in old age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chernyshkova Е. V.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the analysis of the principal factors influencing sexual activity of elderly persons. Data of foreign study and sociologic research carried out in Saratov region (2010 were used as the base for the analysis. It was revealed that the primary determinants of sexual activity in old age are the following: state of health, presence or absence of a partner, active lifestyle

  13. Voltaire's Portrayal of Old Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Lorna; Nelson, Judy

    1987-01-01

    Surveyed Voltaire's 50 plays to examine traits and roles assigned to elderly, influence of genre and author's age on portrayals, and factors to which elder's traits were attributed. Found elderly portrayed more favorably in tragedy than in comedy; no effect of period of life on portrayals. Wisdom was only trait consistently and specifically…

  14. When reactors reach old age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischetti, M.

    1986-01-01

    While the battle over whether to build new nuclear plants has quieted in recent times, a second struggle is shaping up in the United States as reactors approach a new stage of life: retirement. Four decades into the nuclear power age, questions of how best to dismantle and dispose of a nuclear power plant remain largely unanswered. The debates have been mainly academic until now - although reactors have operated for 25 years, decommissioning retired reactors has simply not been fully planned in this country. But the Shippingport Atomic Power Station in Pennsylvania, the first large-scale power reactor to be retired, is now being decommissioned. The work has rekindled the debates in the light of reality. Outside the United States, decommissioning is also being confronted on a new plane. Virtually all groups involved in decommissioning a reactor in the United States - the utility, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the U.S. Department of Energy, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, state public service commissions, and citizen organizations - agree that for the most part the technology to dismantle and dispose of a reactor safely is available. They disagree, however, on which technical option is the safest or cheapest and on who should pay for dismantlement. And there are further complications: Which regulations must be complied with. How much radiation exposure for workers and the public is acceptable. Even with answers to these questions, uncertainty about where to dispose of the radioactive waste and about how much residual radiation can be left at a former reactor site plagues the architects of decommissioning. This article discusses these questions

  15. Old age mortality and macroeconomic cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolden, Herbert J A; van Bodegom, David; van den Hout, Wilbert B; Westendorp, Rudi G J

    2014-01-01

    As mortality is more and more concentrated at old age, it becomes critical to identify the determinants of old age mortality. It has counter-intuitively been found that mortality rates at all ages are higher during short-term increases in economic growth. Work-stress is found to be a contributing factor to this association, but cannot explain the association for the older, retired population. Historical figures of gross domestic product (Angus Maddison) were compared with mortality rates (Human Mortality Database) of middle aged (40-44 years) and older people (70-74 years) in 19 developed countries for the period 1950-2008. Regressions were performed on the de-trended data, accounting for autocorrelation and aggregated using random effects models. Most countries show pro-cyclical associations between the economy and mortality, especially with regard to male mortality rates. On average, for every 1% increase in gross domestic product, mortality increases with 0.36% for 70-year-old to 74-year-old men (p<0.001) and 0.38% for 40-year-old to 44-year-old men (p<0.001). The effect for women is 0.18% for 70-year-olds to 74-year-olds (p=0.012) and 0.15% for 40-year-olds to 44-year-olds (p=0.118). In developed countries, mortality rates increase during upward cycles in the economy, and decrease during downward cycles. This effect is similar for the older and middle-aged population. Traditional explanations as work-stress and traffic accidents cannot explain our findings. Lower levels of social support and informal care by the working population during good economic times can play an important role, but this remains to be formally investigated.

  16. Social foundations of divorce in old age

    OpenAIRE

    Isaeva, Svetlana Andreevna

    2012-01-01

    Purpose - to find out the main reasons for divorce in old age, to assess social perception of certain situations that lead to divorce, to trace the development later in life after the divorce of former spouse. Methodology: qualitative research on how to "double reflection" in formal means of semi-structured interviews; discourse analysis of online documents on the Internet forums for the elderly. Results - allocated substantial characteristics of divorce in the third age. 1. The causes of div...

  17. A UTILITY THEORY OF OLD AGE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    HAMLIN, ROY M.

    HERZBERG'S JOB SATISFACTION MODEL SERVES AS THE BASIS FOR AN ANALYSIS OF OLD AGE. THE PATTERN VARIES AMONG INDIVIDUALS, BUT THE CAPACITY FOR ORGANIZED BEHAVIOR RATHER THAN RANDOM STRESS REDUCTION SUPPLIES EACH INDIVIDUAL WITH A TASK. THE HYPOTHESIS IS THAT IF THE OLDER INDIVIDUAL REALIZES UTILITY IN HIS YEARS BEYOND 70, HE WILL RETAIN COMPETENCE…

  18. Clutter Moves in Old Age Homecare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lutz, Peter

    2010-01-01

    This chapter introduces the notion of clutter moves as an experimental heuristic for tracing how movement threads together a range of cluttered entities in old age homecare ecologies. In particular it is concerned with older people and their cluttered technologies. It is based on empirical data o...

  19. [Psychotherapy of depression in old age].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wächtler, C

    2013-02-01

    Depression in old age is common and also dangerous due to somatic comorbidity and suicide; however, it is often not recognized and not adequately treated. Psychotherapy is almost never offered to the elderly. However, clinical experience, single-case studies and some controlled trials show effectiveness--at least to the age of 75. The psychotherapist must be aware of unusual transference and countertransference between a younger therapist and elderly patient. Psychotherapy in old age requires some modifications, especially concerning special interest in biography and history, strong empathy, "container function", and focusing. In the future, psychotherapy for the elderly should be both investigated and educated more. In addition, it is hoped that psychotherapists offer to treat elderly people with depression and that more older patients accept this professional help.

  20. Unmaking old age: political and cognitive formats of active ageing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Aske Juul; Moreira, Tiago

    2014-01-01

    Active ageing is a policy tool that dominates the way the ageing society has been constituted during the last decades. The authors argue that active ageing is an attempt at unmaking the concept of old age, by engaging in the plasticity of ageing in various ways. Through a document study...... of the different epistemes, models and forms used in the constitution of active ageing policies, the authors show how active ageing is not one coordinated set of policy instruments, but comes in different formats. In the WHO, active ageing configures individual lifestyle in order to expand the plasticity of ageing......, based on epidemiological and public health conventions. In the EU, active ageing reforms the retirement behaviour of populations in order to integrate the plasticity of ageing into the institutions, based on social gerontological and demographic conventions. These conventional arrangements are cognitive...

  1. Gratitude From Early Adulthood to Old Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allemand, Mathias; Hill, Patrick L

    2016-02-01

    Are there age differences in gratitude from early adulthood to old age? The current studies tested several ways by which an association between age and dispositional gratitude may present, by considering multiple measures on both fronts. We used data from three cross-sectional studies (total N = 1,736; total age range: 19-94). The results indicated that (a) age effects in gratitude are more likely to occur for subjective age in terms of future time perspective (i.e., people's perceptions of their remaining opportunities and time) than chronological age; (b) chronological age effects are more domain specific than general in nature; and (c) they are more likely to occur for the instrumental domain as compared to the interpersonal domain. Finally, the results indicated that (d) perceived future time, particularly with respect to remaining opportunities, mediates the relation between chronological age and general gratitude. Overall, the findings suggest that gratitude is subject to a variety of developmental influences across adulthood. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Leadership and the psychosocial work environment in old age care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundgren, Dan; Ernsth-Bravell, Marie; Kåreholt, Ingemar

    2016-03-01

    To study leadership factors and their associations with psychosocial work environmental among nursing assistants who are engaged in old age care and to analyse (i) differences in the assessment of leadership factors and the assessment of psychosocial work environmental in nursing homes and home help services and (ii) the association between the psychosocial work environment and factors that are related to leadership in nursing homes and home help services. Leadership factors are an important element of the psychosocial work environment in old age care. The physical distance between leaders and nursing assistants is larger in home help services than in nursing homes. Therefore, it is important to study leadership separately in nursing homes and home help services. Assessments from 844 nursing assistants in nursing homes and 288 in home help services (45 nursing homes and 21 home help service units) were analysed. The data were analysed using linear regression. Age, gender, number of staff at the unit, number of years at the current working unit and educational level were controlled in Model 1. Summarised indexes that were based on all independent variables except the main independent variable were additionally controlled in Model 2. Psychosocial work environment was related to leadership factors, but stronger associations occurred more frequently in nursing homes than in home help services. Empowering leadership, support from superiors, the primacy of human resources and control over decisions were associated with higher assessments on all the variables that were related to the psychosocial work environment in both the nursing homes and home help services. Organisational differences in conducting leadership in old age care must be considered. Some leadership characteristics are better prerequisites for creating and maintaining a positive psychosocial work environment for nursing assistants in nursing homes and home help services. Due to the differences in

  3. Shakespeare on old age and disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covey, H

    2000-01-01

    The plays of William Shakespeare were reviewed for references to disabilities, aging and disability, and older characters with disabilities. Shakespeare's references draw from traditional cultural notions about older people with disabilities. These traditional notions include people with physical disabilities being evil, the entertainment value of disabilty, and those who were mentally ill being wild and animal-like. He viewed the aging process as disabling and old age as a time when individuals lost some abilities to function, particularly when it came to mental capacity and physical mobility. His writings show that he used disability as a literary tool to add dimension to characters and set them apart. Contemporary literature continues to share some of Shakespeare's view on aging and disability but also departs from them in important ways. For example, contemporary treatment of disabilities and aging places more emphasis on the human side of the affects of aging and disabilities. Disabilities and aging are not cast in the same negative terms as Shakespeare used.

  4. Harm avoidance and disability in old age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Robert S; Buchman, Aron S; Arnold, Steven E; Shah, Raj C; Tang, Yuxiao; Bennett, David A

    2006-01-01

    The relation of personality to disability in old age is not well understood. The authors examined the relation of harm avoidance, a trait indicating a tendency to worry, fear uncertainty, be shy, and tire easily, to disability in a group of 474 older persons without dementia. Participants completed the 35-item Harm Avoidance scale. Disability was assessed with the Rosow-Breslau scale, a self-report measure of physical mobility. Performance-based tests of lower limb functions were also administered from which composite measures of gait, balance, and strength were derived. In a logistic regression model controlled for age, sex, education, and lower limb function, persons with high levels of harm avoidance were nearly three times as likely to report mobility limitations as persons with low levels, and these effects largely reflected fatigability and fear of uncertainty. The association of harm avoidance with disability was not explained or modified by frailty, physical activity, depressive symptoms, neuroticism, extraversion, or cognition. The results suggest that harm avoidance is associated with disability in old age.

  5. Age-Friendliness and Life Satisfaction of Young-Old and Old-Old in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alma M. L. Au

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Age-friendliness, promoted by the World Health Organization (WHO, aims to enable and support individuals in different aspects of life for fostering life satisfaction and personal well-being as they age. We identified specific aspect(s of age-friendliness associated with life satisfaction and examined similarities and differences in age-friendliness and life satisfaction in young-old and old-old adults. Six hundred and eighty-two ageing adults were asked to complete a survey questionnaire consisting of the Age-friendly City Scale, Satisfaction with Life Scale, and sociodemographic variables. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to examine the effects of various domains of age-friendliness on life satisfaction among the young-old adults (aged 65 to 74, n=351 and the old-old adults (aged 75 to 97, n=331. Common domains associated with life satisfaction in both young-old and old-old groups were transportation and social participation. Community and health services were associated with life satisfaction for the young-old group only. On the other hand, civic participation and employment was significantly associated with the old-old group only. Social participation is important for the young-old and the old-old. Ageing older adults can be a resource to the society. Implications for promoting and implementing age-friendliness were discussed in the context of successful and productive ageing and the need for a more refined taxonomy of social activities.

  6. Brain pathologies in extreme old age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neltner, Janna H; Abner, Erin L; Jicha, Gregory A; Schmitt, Frederick A; Patel, Ela; Poon, Leonard W; Marla, Gearing; Green, Robert C; Davey, Adam; Johnson, Mary Ann; Jazwinski, S Michal; Kim, Sangkyu; Davis, Daron; Woodard, John L; Kryscio, Richard J; Van Eldik, Linda J; Nelson, Peter T

    2016-01-01

    With an emphasis on evolving concepts in the field, we evaluated neuropathologic data from very old research volunteers whose brain autopsies were performed at the University of Kentucky Alzheimer's Disease Center, incorporating data from the Georgia Centenarian Study (n = 49 cases included), Nun Study (n = 17), and University of Kentucky Alzheimer's Disease Center (n = 11) cohorts. Average age of death was 102.0 (range: 98-107) years overall. Alzheimer's disease pathology was not universal (62% with "moderate" or "frequent" neuritic amyloid plaque densities), whereas frontotemporal lobar degeneration was absent. By contrast, some hippocampal neurofibrillary tangles (including primary age-related tauopathy) were observed in every case. Lewy body pathology was seen in 16.9% of subjects and hippocampal sclerosis of aging in 20.8%. We describe anatomic distributions of pigment-laden macrophages, expanded Virchow-Robin spaces, and arteriolosclerosis among Georgia Centenarians. Moderate or severe arteriolosclerosis pathology, throughout the brain, was associated with both hippocampal sclerosis of aging pathology and an ABCC9 gene variant. These results provide fresh insights into the complex cerebral multimorbidity, and a novel genetic risk factor, at the far end of the human aging spectrum. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Visual processing speed in old age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habekost, Thomas; Vogel, Asmus; Rostrup, Egill; Bundesen, Claus; Kyllingsbaek, Søren; Garde, Ellen; Ryberg, Charlotte; Waldemar, Gunhild

    2013-04-01

    Mental speed is a common concept in theories of cognitive aging, but it is difficult to get measures of the speed of a particular psychological process that are not confounded by the speed of other processes. We used Bundesen's (1990) Theory of Visual Attention (TVA) to obtain specific estimates of processing speed in the visual system controlled for the influence of response latency and individual variations of the perception threshold. A total of 33 non-demented old people (69-87 years) were tested for the ability to recognize briefly presented letters. Performance was analyzed by the TVA model. Visual processing speed decreased approximately linearly with age and was on average halved from 70 to 85 years. Less dramatic aging effects were found for the perception threshold and the visual apprehension span. In the visual domain, cognitive aging seems to be most clearly related to reductions in processing speed. © 2012 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology © 2012 The Scandinavian Psychological Associations.

  8. Social Barriers to Effective Communication in Old Age

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Sanecka

    2014-01-01

    Some communication barriers apply particularly to elderly people. The social barriers to effective communication in old age are the barriers caused by stereotypes of old age/elderly people and the barriers arising from limitations in using mass communication by seniors. Stereotypes of old age/elderly people embrace views regarding old people’s communication skills and the ideas about the correct way of communication with them. Therefore the communication problems of old people are correlated ...

  9. Loneliness, depression and sociability in old age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archana Singh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The elderly population is large in general and growing due to advancement of health care education. These people are faced with numerous physical, psychological and social role changes that challenge their sense of self and capacity to live happily. Many people experience loneliness and depression in old age, either as a result of living alone or due to lack of close family ties and reduced connections with their culture of origin, which results in an inability to actively participate in the community activities. With advancing age, it is inevitable that people lose connection with their friendship networks and that they find it more difficult to initiate new friendships and to belong to new networks. The present study was conducted to investigate the relationships among depression, loneliness and sociability in elderly people. Materials and Methods: This study was carried out on 55 elderly people (both men and women. The tools used were Beck Depression Inventory, UCLA Loneliness Scale and Sociability Scale by Eysenck. Results: Results revealed a significant relationship between depression and loneliness. Conclusion: Most of the elderly people were found to be average in the dimension of sociability and preferred remaining engaged in social interactions. The implications of the study are discussed in the article.

  10. Skeletal muscle function and hypertrophy are diminished in old age.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Degens, H.; Alway, S.E.

    2003-01-01

    Muscle loss occurs during aging. To investigate whether the hypertrophic response is attenuated at old age, we used male Fischer 344 (26 months old; n = 5) and Fischer 344 x Brown Norway rats (6, 9, and 33 months old; n = 8, 10, and 6, respectively). Hypertrophy of the left plantaris muscle was

  11. Investigating Discontinuity of Age Relations in Cognitive Functioning, General Health Status, Activity Participation, and Life Satisfaction between Young-Old and Old-Old Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihle, Andreas; Jopp, Daniela S; Oris, Michel; Fagot, Delphine; Kliegel, Matthias

    2016-11-05

    Health research suggests that findings on young-old adults cannot be generalized to old-old adults and thus that old-old age seems not a simple continuation of young-old age due to qualitative changes that result in a discontinuity in old age. Specifically, it would be of conceptual and methodological importance to inform research regarding estimates around which chronological age the beginning of old-old age could be placed at a population level, and whether this is universal or domain-specific. To derive such criteria, we investigated potential discontinuity of age relations between young-old and old-old age in a large population-based sample considering measures in different domains (processing speed, verbal abilities, general health status, activity participation, and life satisfaction). For processing speed, verbal abilities, general health status, and life satisfaction we observed some very small indication that there might be a discontinuity of age relations at the end of individuals' eighties, and for activity participation already at the beginning of individuals' eighties. In conclusion, models conceptualizing aging as a gradual development might not suffice to adequately represent the differences between the stages of young-old and old-old age due to some very small indication that there might be discontinuity in late adulthood.

  12. [Development of intelligence in old age].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rott, C

    1990-01-01

    This article attempts to find the structure of a selected spectrum of intelligence. A combination of longitudinal and cross-sectional methods is applied. Two dimensions were found, which can be named as "crystallized" and "fluid" abilities (in the sense of Horn & Cattell). Whereas, the crystallized abilities do not show any systematic variation from age 61 to 83, fluid abilities decline with age. Schaie's three-component-model is not able to describe differences and variations of crystallized intelligence. Within fluid intelligence, age changes are more important than cohort differences. There are hints that structural changes take place.

  13. Visual processing speed in old age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Habekost, Thomas; vogel, asmus; Rostrup, Egill

    2013-01-01

    of the speed of a particular psychological process that are not confounded by the speed of other processes. We used Bundesen's (1990) Theory of Visual Attention (TVA) to obtain specific estimates of processing speed in the visual system controlled for the influence of response latency and individual variations...... dramatic aging effects were found for the perception threshold and the visual apprehension span. In the visual domain, cognitive aging seems to be most clearly related to reductions in processing speed....

  14. Preserved olfactory cuing of autobiographical memories in old age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maylor, Elizabeth A; Carter, Sarah M; Hallett, Emma L

    2002-01-01

    The authors investigated whether olfactory cues can facilitate memory retrieval and whether they retain their effectiveness in old age. In Phase 1, 57 young and 57 old adults (mean ages of 21 and 84 years, respectively) were asked to recall autobiographical memories associated with each of six cue words. In Phase 2, the same words were presented again with instructions to recall new memories; on this second occasion, half of the words were accompanied by their appropriate odors. Both age groups recalled more than twice as many memories in Phase 2 with the odor than without the odor, providing evidence for substantial olfactory cuing that is remarkably intact in old age.

  15. Intellectual functioning in old and very old age: cross-sectional results from the Berlin Aging Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindenberger, U; Baltes, P B

    1997-09-01

    This study documents age trends, interrelations, and correlates of intellectual abilities in old and very old age (70-103 years) from the Berlin Aging Study (N = 516). Fourteen tests were used to assess 5 abilities: reasoning, memory, and perceptual speed from the mechanic (broad fluid) domain and knowledge and fluency from the pragmatic (broad crystallized) domain. Intellectual abilities had negative linear age relations, with more pronounced age reductions in mechanic than in pragmatic abilities. Interrelations among intellectual abilities were highly positive and did not follow the mechanic-pragmatic distinction. Sociobiographical indicators were less closely linked to intellectual functioning than sensory-sensorimotor variables, which predicted 59% of the total reliable variance in general intelligence. Results suggest that aging-induced biological factors are a prominent source of individual differences in intelligence in old and very old age.

  16. The feeling of loneliness in old age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan López Doblas

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Our purpose is to look into one of the social problems affecting the most to older people, namely the feeling of loneliness. We intend to approach this problem differentiating its social and emotional dimensions. Through a qualitative methodological strategy ?focus groups as procedure to raise data and Grounded Theory as analytical perspective? we study how that feeling is experienced among a profile of older persons particularly affected by loneliness: older widowed persons living alone. Our findings prove that these persons suffer from emotional loneliness, especially those who enter widowhood at a later age and after decades of marriage. This feeling is linked to the loss of their spouse and it is at night when it is more likely to emerge. Moreover, widowhood comes along with the risk of social loneliness because of the relational distancing from friends who used to be connected to the married couple. We have identified as well gender differences regarding the impact of loneliness, being men those who are especially frail to confront it.

  17. Active ageing and the unmaking of old age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Aske Juul

    Since the end of the 1990s, the European Union and the World Health Organization have proposed active ageing as the best possible solution to the problem of ageing populations. This dissertation discusses how active ageing policies are constructed, what effects they have in the world, and how...... partnership (PPIP) that developed technologies catering to the active late life. A thorough analysis of active ageing entails studying what precisely active ageing tries to solve. I approach ageing as a matter of concern, a term proposed by Bruno Latour to describe how myriad practices and disputed facts...... includes everyday practices as an aspect of how matters of concern are gathered; with this, I position myself theoretically and disciplinarily as an ethnologist inspired by science and technology studies. Active ageing policies can be seen as operationalisations of knowledge forms and everyday life...

  18. The Association Between Psychosocial Work Environment and Satisfaction With Old Age Care Among Care Recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundgren, Dan; Ernsth Bravell, Marie; Börjesson, Ulrika; Kåreholt, Ingemar

    2018-06-01

    This study examines the association between nursing assistants' perceptions of their psychosocial work environment and satisfaction among older people receiving care in nursing homes and home care. Cross-sectional surveys were conducted among people receiving care ( N = 1,535) and nursing assistants ( N = 1,132) in 45 nursing homes and 21 home care units within municipal old-age care. Better psychosocial work environment was related to higher satisfaction in old-age care among the recipients. Significant and stronger associations were more common in nursing homes than in home care. Perception of mastery and positive challenges at work were associated with higher recipient satisfaction both in home care and in nursing homes: social climate, perception of group work, perception of mastery, and positive challenges at work only in nursing homes. Findings suggest that recipient satisfaction may be increased by improving the psychosocial work environment for nursing assistants, both in nursing homes and in home care.

  19. Relationships between Housing and Healthy Aging in Very Old Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oswald, Frank; Wahl, Hans-Werner; Schilling, Oliver; Nygren, Carita; Fange, Agneta; Sixsmith, Andrew; Sixsmith, Judith; Szeman, Zsuzsa; Tomsone, Signe; Iwarsson, Susanne

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this work is to examine the relationship between aspects of objective and perceived housing and aspects of healthy aging, defined as independence in daily activities and subjective well-being. Furthermore, this research examined the comparability of relationships between housing and healthy aging in the five European countries.…

  20. Mobility and Well-being in Old Age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siren, Anu Kristiina; Hakamies-Blomqvist, Liisa

    2009-01-01

    This study, using focus group material, explored how independent mobility and personal wellbeing in old age are interconnected and which elements of mobility are the most essential for well-being by examining the way seniors talk about mobility and adapting to age-related mobility restrictions...

  1. The Old-Age Healthy Dependency Ratio in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muszyńska, Magdalena M; Rau, Roland

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this study is to answer the question of whether improvements in the health of the elderly in European countries could compensate for population ageing on the supply side of the labour market. We propose a state-of-health-specific (additive) decomposition of the old-age dependency ratio into an old-age healthy dependency ratio and an old-age unhealthy dependency ratio in order to participate in a discussion of the significance of changes in population health to compensate for the ageing of the labour force. Applying the proposed indicators to the Eurostat's population projection for the years 2010-2050, and assuming there will be equal improvements in life expectancy and healthy life expectancy at birth, we discuss various scenarios concerning future of the European labour force. While improvements in population health are anticipated during the years 2010-2050, the growth in the number of elderly people in Europe may be expected to lead to a rise in both healthy and unhealthy dependency ratios. The healthy dependency ratio is, however, projected to make up the greater part of the old-age dependency ratio. In the European countries in 2006, the value of the old-age dependency ratio was 25. But in the year 2050, with a positive migration balance over the years 2010-2050, there would be 18 elderly people in poor health plus 34 in good health per 100 people in the current working age range of 15-64. In the scenarios developed in this study, we demonstrate that improvements in health and progress in preventing disability will not, by themselves, compensate for the ageing of the workforce. However, coupled with a positive migration balance, at the level and with the age structure assumed in the Eurostat's population projections, these developments could ease the effect of population ageing on the supply side of the European labour market.

  2. Discursive constructions of falls prevention : Discourses of active aging versus old age as disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evron, Lotte; Ulrich, Anita; Tanggaard, Lene

    2012-01-01

    information and investment in falls prevention programs, many still drop out or decline to participate in such programs. The study explores how discourses cross swords in the domain of falls prevention. We identify two main discourses in the field: Discourses of active aging opposed to discourses of old age...... as disease. In discourses of active aging falls are constructed as preventable and not necessarily related to old age; in discourses of old age as disease falls are constructed as a disease of old age. Specific agent positions are created within discourses. Discourses of active aging construct self......-responsible citizens who are physically active and motivated to participate in falls prevention programmes; discourses of old age as disease on the other hand construct “fall patients” who accept being passive in the health care system. Older citizens who are not in need of treatment or less physically active...

  3. Ageing and exercise: building body capital in old age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergland, Astrid; Fougner, Marit; Lund, Anne; Debesay, Jonas

    2018-01-01

    Research that provides better understanding of the motivational processes in older age to maintain a healthy and active lifestyle is sought after. We apply theoretical approaches to cultural capital, active and healthy aging health to shed light on the women's experiences in maintaining physical capabilities through an active lifestyle, and thereby facilitating their own inclusion in society. Thus, the aim of this paper is to explore why older home dwelling women over the age of 70 years or more spend time in physical exercise and their experiences about the importance of participating in group exercise for their daily life.This paper reports on a qualitative study based on interviews with 16 older women aged 70 years or more and regularly attending group exercise classes in the community at an established workout center. The data were analyzed the data using an inductive content analysis approach. Three overreaching and interrelated themes emerged from the interviews: "Building body capital for independence", "Building body capital to maintain vitality and being in control" and "Building resources for social interaction". The findings suggest that group exercise is important for building body capital. The group exercise helped the women in building bodily ability to manage everyday life, maintain vitality, being in control, pursue social interaction and live independently. These body resources were important for these older women's experience of the manageability and meaningfulness of daily life. This study has provided insights into older women's understanding and experiences of the challenges of everyday life within a theoretical framework of cultural capital and health. The women acquired cultural health capital, and more specifically body capital, by participating in the group exercise classes. The women's investment in body capital through regular physical activity created resources which facilitated social participation. Therefore professionals need to be

  4. Old age mortality in Eastern and South-Eastern Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danan Gu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Eastern and South-Eastern Asian countries have witnessed a marked decline in old age mortality in recent decades. Yet no studies have investigated the trends and patterns in old age morality and cause-of-death in the region. Objective: We reviewed the trends and patterns of old age mortality and cause-of-death for countries in the region. Methods: We examined data on old age mortality in terms of life expectancy at age 65 and age-specific death rates from the 2012 Revision of the World Population Prospects for 14 countries in the region (China, Hong Kong, Democratic People's Republic of Korea, Indonesia, Japan, Lao People's Democratic Republic, Myanmar, Malaysia, Mongolia, Philippines, Republic of Korea, Singapore, Thailand, and Viet Nam and data on cause-of-death from the WHO for five countries (China, Hong Kong, Japan, Republic of Korea, and Singapore from 1980 to 2010. Results: While mortality transitions in these populations took place in different times, and at different levels of socioeconomic development and living environment, changes in their age patterns and sex differentials in mortality showed certain similarities: women witnessed a similar decline to men in spite of their lower mortality, and young elders had a larger decline than the oldest-old. In all five countries examined for cause-of-death, most of the increases in life expectancy at age 65 in both men and women were attributable to declines in mortality from stroke and heart disease. GDP per capita, educational level, and urbanization explained much of the variations in life expectancy and cause-specific mortality, indicating critical contributions of these basic socioeconomic development indicators to the mortality decline over time in the region. Conclusions: These findings shed light on the relationship between epidemiological transition, changing age patterns of mortality, and improving life expectancy in these populations.

  5. ¿Eternal beauty? The experience of aging between old erotic dancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphael Bispo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the aging experience of old erotic dancers of Brazilian television, the chacretes, stage assistants of Abelardo Barbosa (Chacrinha during the early 1970. First, I explore in this text their world views about being considered "old women". Then, I regard to their activities of controlling their bodies and the erase of marks that indicates the passage of time. I intend to demonstrate in this article that old age for many women considered "beautiful" and "sexy" is not a "major problem" than it is for any of us. What I could confirm alongside the chacretes was that we all still face aging with some concern and distance, but, at the same time, with placid manner and humor.

  6. A comparison of three types of autobiographical memories in old-old age: first memories, pivotal memories and traumatic memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen-Mansfield, Jiska; Shmotkin, Dov; Eyal, Nitza; Reichental, Yael; Hazan, Haim

    2010-01-01

    Autobiographical memory enables us to construct a personal narrative through which we identify ourselves. Especially important are memories of formative events. This study describes autobiographical memories of people who have reached old-old age (85 years and above), studying 3 types of memories of particular impact on identity and adaptation: first memories, pivotal memories and traumatic memories. In this paper, we examine the content, characteristic themes and environments, and structural characteristics of each of the 3 types of memory. The participants were 26 persons from a larger longitudinal study with an average age of 91 years; half were men and the other half women. The study integrated qualitative and quantitative tools. An open-ended questionnaire included questions about the participants' life story as well as questions about the 3 types of memories. The responses were rated by 3 independent judges on dimensions of central themes and structural characteristics. First memories had a more positive emotional tone, more references to characters from the participant's social circle, a stronger sense of group belonging, and a more narrative style than the other types of memories. Pivotal and traumatic memories were described as more personal than first memories. The 3 types of memories reflect different stages in life development, which together form a sense of identity. They present experiences from the past on select themes, which may assist in the complex task of coping with the difficulties and limitations that advanced old age presents. Future research should examine the functional role of those memories and whether they enable the old-old to support selfhood in the challenging period of last changes and losses. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. The old age health security in rural China: where to go?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Baozhen

    2015-11-04

    The huge number of rural elders and the deepening health problems (e.g. growing threats of infectious diseases and chronic diseases etc.) place enormous pressure on old age health security in rural China. This study aims to provide information for policy-makers to develop effective measures for promoting rural elders' health care service access by examining the current developments and challenges confronted by the old age health security in rural China. Search resources are electronic databases, web pages of the National Bureau of Statistics of China and the National Health and Family Planning Commission of China on the internet, China Population and Employment Statistics Yearbook, China Civil Affairs' Statistical Yearbook and China Health Statistics Yearbooks etc. Articles were identified from Elsevier, Wiley, EBSCO, EMBASE, PubMed, SCI Expanded, ProQuest, and National Knowledge Infrastructure of China (CNKI) which is the most informative database in Chinese. Search terms were "rural", "China", "health security", "cooperative medical scheme", "social medical assistance", "medical insurance" or "community based medical insurance", "old", or "elder", "elderly", or "aged", "aging". Google scholar was searched with the same combination of keywords. The results showed that old age health security in rural China had expanded to all rural elders and substantially improved health care service utilization among rural elders. Increasing chronic disease prevalence rates, pressing public health issues, inefficient rural health care service provision system and lack of sufficient financing challenged the old age health security in rural China. Increasing funds from the central and regional governments for old age health security in rural China will contribute to reducing urban-rural disparities in provision of old age health security and increasing health equity among rural elders between different regions. Meanwhile, initiating provider payment reform may contribute to

  8. Social Barriers to Effective Communication in Old Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Sanecka

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Some communication barriers apply particularly to elderly people. The social barriers to effective communication in old age are the barriers caused by stereotypes of old age/elderly people and the barriers arising from limitations in using mass communication by seniors. Stereotypes of old age/elderly people embrace views regarding old people’s communication skills and the ideas about the correct way of communication with them. Therefore the communication problems of old people are correlated with the little and poor communication processes they are participating in. This seems to be a result of impetuses of poor quality sent to seniors by their communication partners. Not only face to face communication but also mass communication is very important for the elderly population. Therefore limitations in using new technologies and new communication channels as well as a limited presence in the mass media of content created by seniors and for seniors have an impact on their life, their well-being, and their interpersonal relationships. These problems are especially important when we faced with the ever growing population of elderly people.

  9. Intelligent assistant carer for active aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizjak, Jani; Gradišek, Anton; Stepančič, Luka; Gjoreski, Hristijan; Gams, Matjaž

    2017-12-01

    We present the concept of an Intelligent Assistant Carer system for the elderly, designed to help with active aging and to facilitate the interactions with carers. The system is modular, allowing the users to choose the appropriate functions according to their needs, and is built on an open platform in order to make it compatible with third-party products and services. Currently, the system consists of a wearable device (a smartwatch) and an internet portal that manages the data and takes care of the interactions between the user, the carers, and the support services. We present in detail one of the modules, i.e., fall detection, and the results of a pilot study for the system on 150 users over the course of 3 months.

  10. Preparing for an "Insured" Old Age: Insurance Purchase and Self-Support in Old Age in Rural China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Lihong

    2018-05-21

    This article explores an emerging trend among young and middle-aged rural couples in Northeast China who have purchased recently marketized commercial insurance as a way to prepare for self-support in old age. It discusses how the commercial insurance industry has created a rural elder-care market among a population that traditionally relied on family for support in old age. It also delves into the ways in which the transformations of intergenerational exchange and family structure and a lack of health care access have contributed to the preparation for self-support in old age and have thus fostered the creation of a rural elder-care market for the insurance industry. This emerging trend reveals a transition from traditional family support to a combination of multiple ways of elder care, in particular self-support in old age. It also suggests that while the Chinese state is facing a pressing issue of supporting an increasing aging population and the Chinese family is coping with the burden of elder care, the insurance industry is playing an increasing role in elder care in China.

  11. Fermentation: an age old technology with brand new challenges

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Zyl, PJ

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The presentation is based on the new challenges facing an age old technology of fermentation. These challenges were presented at the SASM Conference, the conclusion been that the future of fermentation is only limited by our imagination. Nonetheless...

  12. LDL cholesterol still a problem in old age?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Postmus, Iris; Deelen, Joris; Sedaghat, Sanaz

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Observational studies in older subjects have shown no or inverse associations between cholesterol levels and mortality. However, in old age plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) may not reflect the lifetime level due to reverse causality, and hence the risk may...

  13. Explaining Optimistic Old Age Disability and Longevity Expectations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa-Font, Joan; Costa-Font, Montserrat

    2011-01-01

    Biased health care decision making has been regarded as responsible for inefficient behaviours (for example, the limited insurance purchase). This paper empirically examines two sets of biases in the perception of old age disability and longevity. Particularly, we test for the existence of a so called cumulative bias and, secondly, a so called…

  14. An Assessment Of Importance Of Children In Old Age Security ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... the male model, in the female model, only religion established similar relationship. The study concludes that the welfare of the elderly requires the strengthening of social security system. Keywords: Welfare, Value of children, Old age security, Extended famil. African Journal for the Psychological Study of Social Issues Vol.

  15. Migration and the Problem of Old Age People in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tika Ram Gautam

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Current trends of migration in Nepal imply that the extensive out-migration of young people from rural areas, to foreign and internal urban centres, coincides with a rise in the problem of older couples in rural areas. This article examines the impact of migration on living condition and internal feelings of old age couples by drawing on the results of sociological and demographic field studies in Kandebash Village Development Committee (VDC comprising multiethnic communities of western Nepal. The methodology for identifying older people is, social survey followed by direct interview with semi-structured questionnaire, examining variations by socio-economic strata and family structures. Comparative analysis indicates considerable heterogeneity in past and present migration patterns, both within and between countries. Economically higher status families are commonly able to reinforce their position by making better use of emigration opportunities. These families are migrating permanently to urban centers within country. Migrants from economically middle and lower status families are continuing temporary migration to foreign countries. Temporary migration, both within and between countries, is making old age couples alone in rural villages. The migrants' financial and material contributions are a nominal support. The old age lonely couples are facing many problems such as feeling loneliness, helplessness, frustration, increased household and social burdening.Key words: Migration, emigration, immigration, old age couple, rural migration, NepalDOI = 10.3126/dsaj.v2i0.1361Dhaulagiri Journal of Sociology and Anthropology Vol.2 pp.145-160

  16. The future of Old Age Psychiatry in Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    specially separated mental health services for older adults in rural or urban Nigerian ... African economy, social well-being or health services. Additionally ... Old age psychiatry has been granted sub-specialty status by the Health and ... Gillis LS, Elk R. Physical and mental incapacity in elderly white persons in Cape Town.

  17. Inherited leukoencephalopathies with clinical onset in middle and old age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nannucci, Serena; Donnini, Ida; Pantoni, Leonardo

    2014-12-15

    The currently widespread use of neuroimaging has led neurologists to often face the problem of the differential diagnosis of white matter diseases. There are various forms of leukoencephalopathies (vascular, inflammatory and immunomediated, infectious, metabolic, neoplastic) and sometimes white matter lesions are expression of a genetic disease. While many inherited leukoencephalopathies fall in the child neurologist's interest, others may have a delayed or even a typical onset in the middle or old age. This field is rapidly growing and, in the last few years, many new inherited white matter diseases have been described and genetically defined. A non-delayed recognition of middle and old age inherited leukoencephalopathies appears important to avoid unnecessary tests and therapies in the patient and to possibly anticipate the diagnosis in relatives. The aim of this review is to provide a guide to direct the diagnostic process when facing a patient with a suspicion of an inherited form of leukoencephalopathy and with clinical onset in middle or old age. Based on a MEDLINE search from 1990 to 2013, we identified 24 middle and old age onset inherited leukoencephalopathies and reviewed in this relation the most recent findings focusing on their differential diagnosis. We provide summary tables to use as a check list of clinical and neuroimaging findings that are most commonly associated with these forms of leukoencephalopathies. When present, we reported specific characteristics of single diseases. Several genetic diseases may be suspected in patients with middle or old age and white matter abnormalities. In only few instances, pathognomonic clinical or associated neuroimaging features help identifying a specific disease. Therefore, a comprehensive knowledge of the characteristics of these inherited white matter diseases appears important to improve the diagnostic work-up, optimize the choice of genetic tests, increase the number of diagnosed patients, and stimulate

  18. Development of Hand Grip Assistive Device Control System for Old People through Electromyography (EMG) Signal Acquisitions

    OpenAIRE

    Khamis Herman; Mohamaddan Shahrol; Komeda Takashi; Alias Aidil Azli; Tanjong Shirley Jonathan; Julai Norhuzaimin; Hashim Nurul ‘Izzati

    2017-01-01

    The hand grip assistive device is a glove to assist old people who suffer from hand weakness in their daily life activities. The device earlier control system only use simple on and off switch. This required old people to use both hand to activate the device. The new control system of the hand grip assistive device was developed to allow single hand operation for old people. New control system take advantages of electromyography (EMG) and flex sensor which was implemented to the device. It wa...

  19. Sweet old things: moral complexities in old age in Muriel Spark's Memento Mori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    England, Suzanne E; Rust, Martha D

    2015-04-01

    Through the lens of Muriel Spark's dark comedic novel, Memento Mori, this paper explores questions of morality, mortality, and the moral choices and performances in old age and in the systems and places of care. Spark's elderly characters are complex moral actors - some virtuous and some decidedly not - who have been receiving mysterious phone calls telling them simply, "Remember you must die." We, the co-authors, are from two different disciplines, namely Renaissance and medieval literature, and social work and critical gerontology. Among the questions that interest us is the paradox of a master narrative that on the one hand exempts the old from moral criticism yet holds them to a higher moral standard - essentially positioning them as moral nonentities, and relieving the old, their caretakers, and society of moral responsibility. Another is the question of whether moral agency in old age has distinctive aspects, and whether consciousness of one's impending mortality effects moral reasoning and performance. In this paper we offer our individual readings of the ways the novel opens up conceptual space in aging theory, and conclude with our thoughts about what our collaboration suggests for continuing cross-disciplinary dialogue. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. POLAND: NO COUNTRY FOR OLD MEN? OR: ON SOCIAL CONSTRUCTION OF OLD AGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Stypinska

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the various approaches to the phenomenon of old age in Poland from the perspective of social constructionism in sociology. It attempts to demonstrate that the defi nition of old age is not a primitive notion of essentialist character, but a set of meanings that are permanently transformed and negotiated depending on the social contexts in which they are deployed. The concept of social constructionism of Peter Berger and Thomas Luckmann serves as a theoretical prism for the analysis of the empirical material. The empirical material consists of a set of texts and commentaries from the readers and users of the Internet portal GazetaWyborcza and the report “Is Poland a country for old men?”. The major guideline for the analysis of the empirical material was to identify the major themes and spheres of social life discussed among the readers and Internet users. The subsequent steps were: synthesis and interpretation of the results.The analysis showed that the main concerns regarding the topic of old age are the following: public space as a place of alienation or even perhaps “invisibility” of older people, the labour market as an area of domination of young people, media described as the “dictatorship of young faces”, and the usage of new technologies by seniors.

  1. The couple relationship - support functions and sexuality in Old Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Josefina Arias

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyze: 1 couple relationships – support functions and characteristics of the relationships – and their difference by gender, and 2 changes that occur in those relationships and in sexual activity in older heterosexual adults in the 65-85 age range. The subjects of the analysis were intentionally selected and the data has been collected in structured and semi-structured interviews. The results obtained by quantitative and qualitative analysis show that the couple relationship in old age fulfills functions such as emotional support, companionship and cognitive advice. Analysis by gender shows significant differences in 4 out of the 5 support functions that were explored. Among the changes that take place in old age, the decrease of frequency in sexual activity appears in the first place, though the level of satisfaction is maintained; and fellowship, mutual care and positive affect in relation to the partner increase.

  2. Shaping old age: Innovation partnerships, senior centres and billiards tables as active ageing technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Aske Juul

    2017-01-01

    During the past decade active ageing has been positioned as a solution to the problem of global ageing. While the scientific, economic and even moral arguments for pursuing a more active old age has been many, the integration of active ageing in everyday practices face challenges. This chapter ex...

  3. Game at the old age, stories of old men from Mar del Plata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Paola Di Domizio

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This text attempts to problematise the topic of game at the old age. The author used the description of an experiment conducted in the city of Mar del Plata in the context of teacher education and whose participants were senior citizens and students in fourth year of their course of studies in Teacher Education in Physical Education in the province. The theoretical framework is provided by the bibliography studied in a Game Theory Seminar attended by the author in her journey to achieve a postgraduate degree as Master in Body Education and by other studies relevant to gerontology. Furthermore, the data obtained through interviews in the fieldwork described here is the input needed to analyze both conceptualizations about old age and aging and the ideas and preconceptions about game in senior citizens. This data also allows the analysis of the games of yesterday and today and the multiplicity of meanings they acquire at the old age, from the voices of the protagonists of the experience

  4. Assistive technologies to overcome sarcopenia in ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Rachel A; Callisaya, Michele L; Duque, Gustavo; Ebeling, Peter R; Scott, David

    2018-06-01

    Sarcopenia is an age-related decline in skeletal muscle mass and function that results in disability and loss of independence. It affects up to 30% of older adults. Exercise (particularly progressive resistance training) and nutrition are key strategies in preventing and reversing declines in muscle mass, strength and power during ageing, but many sarcopenic older adults fail to meet recommended levels of both physical activity and dietary nutrient intake. Assistive technology (AT) describes devices or systems used to maintain or improve physical functioning. These may help sarcopenic older adults to maintain independence, and also to achieve adequate physical activity and nutrition. There is a paucity of research exploring the use of AT in sarcopenic patients, but there is evidence that AT, including walking aids, may reduce functional decline in other populations with disability. Newer technologies, such as interactive and virtual reality games, as well as wearable devices and smartphone applications, smart homes, 3D printed foods, exoskeletons and robotics, and neuromuscular electrical stimulation also hold promise for improving engagement in physical activity and nutrition behaviours to prevent further functional declines. While AT may be beneficial for sarcopenic patients, clinicians should be aware of its potential limitations. In particular, there are high rates of patient abandonment of AT, which may be minimised by appropriate training and monitoring of use. Clinicians should preferentially prescribe AT devices which promote physical activity. Further research is required in sarcopenic populations to identify strategies for effective use of current and emerging AT devices. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Old-Age Financial Protection in Malaysia : Challenges and Pptions

    OpenAIRE

    Holzmann, Robert

    2014-01-01

    This policy paper presents key findings and suggestions on Malaysia s old-age financial protection system within the context of the country s broader social security framework. The trademark policy approach focusing on job creation instead of expanding social security programs served the country well to move it quickly to a high-middle income level. But to join the club of high-income coun...

  6. Old-age financial protection in Malaysia: Challenges and options

    OpenAIRE

    Holzmann, Robert

    2015-01-01

    This policy paper presents key findings and suggestions on Malaysia's old-age financial protection system within the context of the country's broader social security framework. The trademark policy approach focusing on job creation instead of expanding social security programs served the country well to move it quickly to a high-middle income level. But to join the club of high-income countries in a sustainable manner may require the country to review its approach to social security, includin...

  7. Shaping old age: Innovation partnerships, senior centres and billiards tables as active ageing technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Aske Juul

    2017-01-01

    During the past decade active ageing has been positioned as a solution to the problem of global ageing. While the scientific, economic and even moral arguments for pursuing a more active old age has been many, the integration of active ageing in everyday practices face challenges. This chapter...... explores the ways that active ageing policies become part of everyday practices, by proposing the concept of active ageing technologies. Active ageing technologies are material and immaterial condensations of knowledge that form old age in specific ways. Through the cases of an innovation partnership, two...... activity centres and a billiards table, the author explores how active ageing policies are transformed in practice. The chapter draws on an ethnographic study of active ageing conducted at the two activity centres, as well as the author’s participation in the innovation partnership. The author uses...

  8. Exploring the concept of optimal functionality in old age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algilani, Samal; Östlund-Lagerström, Lina; Kihlgren, Annica; Blomberg, Karin; Brummer, Robert J; Schoultz, Ida

    2014-01-01

    Background Aging is characterized by loss of function and represents a perspective that puts the focus on the negative aspects of aging. Thus, it is fundamental to shift the focus from loss of function to maintaining good health and personal satisfaction through life; in other words, to promote optimal functionality at a level appropriate for older adults. However, it is not yet known what constitutes optimal functionality from the older adult’s own perspective. Objective To explore the concept of optimal functionality in old age from the older adult’s perspective (ie, people over 65 years of age) in industrialized Western countries. Methods We undertook a scoping review and searched two electronic databases (PubMed and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature [CINAHL]) from January 2002 to July 2013 for scientific studies, using the key search term personal satisfaction. In total, 25 scientific studies were analyzed. Results Only six of the included articles applied a qualitative methodology. By analyzing the results of these articles, three major themes were identified as cornerstones in the concept of optimal functionality at old age: 1) self-related factors (eg, mental well-being); 2) body-related factors (eg, physical well-being); and 3) external factors equal to demographic and environmental factors. Conclusion There is a lack of qualitative studies in the current literature, and hence of what constitutes optimal functionality from the older adult’s perspective. The results outlined in this review identify three cornerstones (self-related factors, body-related factors, and external factors) of what constitutes optimal functionality at old age. However, it is vital that these findings are taken further and are evaluated through qualitative studies to reflect older adults’ opinions. PMID:24516333

  9. Positive Psychology and old age Psychology. Theoretical Intersections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Lombardo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This article is a theoretical review of developments and research of the posi- tive psychology and of the psychology of aging. Some concepts that are in that intersection are: psychic capital, strengths, psychological wellbeing and emo- tional regulation. In all the cases they are positive psychic factors associated to the successful aging. Since the end of the 20th century, within the psychology of aging has been developing and achieved fundamental transformations in term of theoretical bases in which it leans on. One of these transformations arises of its encounter with the positive Psychology, of recent appearance too. The theoretical work in this field is of interest because from a classic perspec- tive, from a biological view, aging is regarded as the decline in physical and psychic strengths and, therefore, the loss of those features and positive qualities that were fundamental during the youthful and mature life. Old age would be marked by a deterioration, fragility and loss of progressive selfregulation of the individual person. This view lead to ignoring clearly positive aspects of old the age such as the gathering experience or the greater availability of free time that would allow elderly people to search for ways of personal realization, among others. Of the journey for the different concepts in those that positive psychology and gerontology go being defined a group of characteristic of what we can call the psychic aging. In the first place a change appears in the perspective about what this process implies. Aging is not seen as a relentless and universal process of decline, but rather besides a great variability, it presents different aspects in those that we see the development of potentialities and resources that were not present in other ages

  10. End-of-Life Decisions and Advanced Old Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stoyles

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Despite the fact that most people die in advanced old age, little attention is given to cases involving older people in debates about the moral and legal dimensions of end-of-life decision making. The purpose of this paper is to establish some of the ways our discussions should change as we pay attention to important factors influencing end-of-life decisions for people in advanced old age. Focusing on the prevalence of comorbidities and the likelihood that people in advanced old age will experience an extended period of declining function before death, I argue that our debates should be expanded to include greater consideration of how we want to live in the final stages of life. With this, I am arguing against the tendency to think that “end-of-life” decision making concerns only making decisions about when and how it is appropriate to terminate a person’s life. I argue, further, that we should move away from the medicalization of dying.

  11. IN TODAY'S INFORMATION AGE ORGANISATIONS EXECUTIVE ASSISTANT PROFESSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bekir DEĞİRMENCİ

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available It's as old as human history in the Executive Office and of the concept has caused the unborn. From the industrial revolution, they perform the organizational activities of all employees in the area are the name of the Office. Businesses are not just places that made production. Businesses also allows the production of all kinds of people have seen the need, the important strategic decisions, increase the quali ty of production and employees must work efficiently and effectively - conscious upon arrival places always have been offices. Marketing, management, human resources, accounting, as units have been operating in all offices within the organization. In today' s information age, information offices are produced, distributed to individuals and corporations concerned, but also has been the destruction of redundant information and important information later when needed has been used places. Today's globalization i s rapid change in knowledge and technology organizations in the management of business owners and managers will help many professions on WikiMapia. Office; Administrator, officer, Secretary, will serve the objectives of the business class ser vices help kin d of elements are needed. Businesses in maintaining vital activities, production and service provision of the activities of the Organization in ensuring an effective and efficient manner within the framework of the team spirit in the conduct of managers with the most important requirements for an Assistant Manager's position has been. Most modern - day organizations close to the administrator should be looking to key features of the Administrative Assistant; the Office of the administrator, who knows how t o keep a secret is not a characteristic of people who best represent the Bureau. When a business can stand in straight execution activities Administrative Assistant has important tasks to. Executive Assistants are indispensable ingredients of today's mode rn office.

  12. Supporting aging in place & assisted living through home care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorshe, N

    2000-06-01

    This article defines assisted living, discusses the pros and cons of limited regulation, scope of service, Aging-in-Place partnerships, and how home care agencies can work with assisted-living facilities to provide care. It also examines a study on assisted living in six states that is funded by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation.

  13. Typical intellectual engagement and cognition in old age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellenbach, Myriam; Zimprich, Daniel

    2008-03-01

    Typical Intellectual Engagement (TIE) comprises the preference to engage in cognitively demanding activities and has been proposed as a potential explanatory variable of individual differences in cognitive abilities. Little is known, however, about the factorial structure of TIE, its relations to socio-demographic variables, and its influence on intellectual functioning in old age. In the present study, data of 364 adults (65-81 years) from the Zurich Longitudinal Study on Cognitive Aging (ZULU) were used to investigate the factorial structure of TIE and to examine the hypothesis that TIE is associated more strongly with crystallized intelligence than with fluid intelligence in old age. A measurement model of a second order factor based on a structure of four correlated first order factors (Reading, Problem Solving, Abstract Thinking, and Intellectual Curiosity) evinced an excellent fit. After controlling for age, sex, and formal education, TIE was more strongly associated with crystallized intelligence than with fluid intelligence, comparable to results in younger persons. More detailed analyses showed that this association is mostly defined via Reading and Intellectual Curiosity.

  14. Patterns and sources of personality development in old age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandler, Christian; Kornadt, Anna E; Hagemeyer, Birk; Neyer, Franz J

    2015-07-01

    Despite abundant evidence that personality development continues in adulthood, little is known about the patterns and sources of personality development in old age. We thus investigated mean-level trends and individual differences in change as well as the genetic and environmental sources of rank-order continuity and change in several personality traits (neuroticism, extraversion, openness, agreeableness, conscientiousness, perceived control, and affect intensity) and well-being. In addition, we analyzed the interrelation between perceived control and change in other personality traits as well as between change in personality traits and change in well-being. We analyzed data from older adult twins, aged 64-85 years at Time 1 (N = 410; 135 males and 275 females; 134 monozygotic and 63 dizygotic twin pairs), collected at 2 different time points about 5 years apart. On average, neuroticism increased, whereas extraversion, conscientiousness, and perceived control significantly decreased over time. Change in perceived control was associated with change in neuroticism and conscientiousness, pointing to particular adaptation mechanisms specific to old age. Whereas individual differences in personality traits were fairly stable due to both genetic and environmental sources, individual differences in change were primarily due to environmental sources (beyond random error) indicating plasticity in old age. Even though the average level of well-being did not significantly change over time, individual well-being tended to decrease with strongly increasing levels of neuroticism as well as decreasing extraversion, conscientiousness, and perceived control, indicating that personality traits predict well-being but not vice versa. We discuss implications for theory on personality development across the lifespan. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Learning at old age: a study on winter bees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Behrends

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Ageing is often accompanied by a decline in learning and memory abilities across the animal kingdom. Understanding age-related changes in cognitive abilities is therefore a major goal of current research. The honey bee is emerging as a novel model organism for age-related changes in brain function, because learning and memory can easily be studied in bees under controlled laboratory conditions. In addition, genetically similar workers naturally display life expectancies from six weeks (summer bees to six months (winter bees. We studied whether in honey bees, extreme longevity leads to a decline in cognitive functions. Six-month-old winter bees were conditioned either to odours or to tactile stimuli. Afterwards, long-term memory and discrimination abilities were analysed. Winter bees were kept under different conditions (flight /no flight opportunity to test for effects of foraging activity on learning performance. Despite their extreme age, winter bees did not display an age-related decline in learning or discrimination abilities, but had a slightly impaired olfactory long-term memory. The opportunity to forage indoors led to a slight decrease in learning performance. This suggests that in honey bees, unlike in most other animals, age per se does not impair associative learning. Future research will show which mechanisms protect winter bees from age-related deficits in learning.

  16. Tooth loss and subsequent disability and mortality in old age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm-Pedersen, Poul; Schultz-Larsen, Kirsten; Christiansen, Niels

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To examine whether tooth loss at age 70 is associated with onset of disability at 5-, 10-, 15-, and 20-year follow-up and to mortality at 21-year follow-up. SETTING: Community-based population in Copenhagen. DESIGN: A baseline study of a random sample of 70-year-old people born in 1914...... interviews and a medical and oral examination. Oral health was measured according to number of teeth (0, 1-9, 10-19, > or = 20). Disability was measured using the Avlund Mob-H scale at age 75, 80, 85, and 90. Mortality data were obtained from the National Death Register. RESULTS: Being edentulous or having...... one to nine teeth was associated with onset of disability at age 75 and 80. Health-related variables and education attenuated the associations between edentulism and onset of disability, although they remained marginally significant, whereas the association between having one to nine teeth and onset...

  17. Comparative analysis of old-age mortality estimations in Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eran Bendavid

    Full Text Available Survival to old ages is increasing in many African countries. While demographic tools for estimating mortality up to age 60 have improved greatly, mortality patterns above age 60 rely on models based on little or no demographic data. These estimates are important for social planning and demographic projections. We provide direct estimations of older-age mortality using survey data.Since 2005, nationally representative household surveys in ten sub-Saharan countries record counts of living and recently deceased household members: Burkina Faso, Côte d'Ivoire, Ethiopia, Namibia, Nigeria, Swaziland, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. After accounting for age heaping using multiple imputation, we use this information to estimate probability of death in 5-year intervals ((5q(x. We then compare our (5q(x estimates to those provided by the World Health Organization (WHO and the United Nations Population Division (UNPD to estimate the differences in mortality estimates, especially among individuals older than 60 years old.We obtained information on 505,827 individuals (18.4% over age 60, 1.64% deceased. WHO and UNPD mortality models match our estimates closely up to age 60 (mean difference in probability of death -1.1%. However, mortality probabilities above age 60 are lower using our estimations than either WHO or UNPD. The mean difference between our sample and the WHO is 5.9% (95% CI 3.8-7.9% and between our sample is UNPD is 13.5% (95% CI 11.6-15.5%. Regardless of the comparator, the difference in mortality estimations rises monotonically above age 60.Mortality estimations above age 60 in ten African countries exhibit large variations depending on the method of estimation. The observed patterns suggest the possibility that survival in some African countries among adults older than age 60 is better than previously thought. Improving the quality and coverage of vital information in developing countries will become increasingly important with

  18. The efficiency of multimedia learning into old age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Gerven, Pascal W M; Paas, Fred; Van Merriënboer, Jeroen J G; Hendriks, Maaike; Schmidt, Henk G

    2003-12-01

    On the basis of a multimodal model of working memory, cognitive load theory predicts that a multimedia-based instructional format leads to a better acquisition of complex subject matter than a purely visual instructional format. This study investigated the extent to which age and instructional format had an impact on training efficiency among both young and old adults. It was hypothesised that studying worked examples that are presented as a narrated animation (multimedia condition) is a more efficient means of complex skill training than studying visually presented worked examples (unimodal condition) and solving conventional problems. Furthermore, it was hypothesised that multimedia-based worked examples are especially helpful for elderly learners, who have to deal with a general decline of working-memory resources, because they address both mode-specific working-memory stores. The sample consisted of 60 young (mean age = 15.98 years) and 60 old adults (mean age = 64.48 years). Participants of both age groups were trained in either a conventional, a unimodal, or a multimedia condition. Subsequently, they had to solve a series of test problems. Dependent variables were perceived cognitive load during the training, performance on the test, and efficiency in terms of the ratio between these two variables. Results showed that for both age groups multimedia-based worked examples were more efficient than the other training formats in that less cognitive load led to at least an equal performance level. Although no difference in the beneficial effect of multimedia learning was found between the age groups, multimedia-based instructions seem promising for the elderly.

  19. Exploring the concept of optimal functionality in old age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Algilani S

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Samal Algilani,1,* Lina Östlund-Lagerström,1,2,* Annica Kihlgren,1 Karin Blomberg,1 Robert J Brummer,1,2 Ida Schoultz1,2 1Nutrition and Physical Activity Research Centre, 2Nutrition Gut Brain Interactions Research Centre, School of Health and Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Health, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Aging is characterized by loss of function and represents a perspective that puts the focus on the negative aspects of aging. Thus, it is fundamental to shift the focus from loss of function to maintaining good health and personal satisfaction through life; in other words, to promote optimal functionality at a level appropriate for older adults. However, it is not yet known what constitutes optimal functionality from the older adult's own perspective. Objective: To explore the concept of optimal functionality in old age from the older adult's perspective (ie, people over 65 years of age in industrialized Western countries. Methods: We undertook a scoping review and searched two electronic databases (PubMed and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature [CINAHL] from January 2002 to July 2013 for scientific studies, using the key search term personal satisfaction. In total, 25 scientific studies were analyzed. Results: Only six of the included articles applied a qualitative methodology. By analyzing the results of these articles, three major themes were identified as cornerstones in the concept of optimal functionality at old age: 1 self-related factors (eg, mental well-being; 2 body-related factors (eg, physical well-being; and 3 external factors equal to demographic and environmental factors. Conclusion: There is a lack of qualitative studies in the current literature, and hence of what constitutes optimal functionality from the older adult's perspective. The results outlined in this review identify three cornerstones (self-related factors, body

  20. Cohort difference in age-related trajectories in network size in old age: are networks expanding?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suanet, B.; Huxhold, O.

    2018-01-01

    Objectives. Contemporary societal views on old age as well as a rise in retirement age raise the question whether patterns of stability and/or decline in network size as found in earlier studies similarly apply to later birth cohorts of older adults. Methods. Change score models are estimated to

  1. Active Aging in Very Old Age and the Relevance of Psychological Aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paúl, Constança; Teixeira, Laetitia; Ribeiro, Oscar

    2017-01-01

    Active aging encompasses a socially and individually designed mix of different domains that range from personal and familial, to social and professional. In being a key policy concept often focused on the young-old individuals, efforts in studying its dimensions in advanced ages have seldom been made. Nevertheless, there is a recognized need to promote adequate responses to the growing number of individuals reaching advanced ages and to recognize their specific dependability on health-related aspects, services attendance, social interactions, or on psychological characteristics for what it means to "age actively." This study provides a secondary analysis of data and follows the preceding work on the operationalization of the World Health Organization's (WHO) active aging model by means of an assessment protocol to measure which variables, within the model's determinants, contribute the most for an active aging process (1). Authors used the achieved model (composed by six factors: health, psychological component, cognitive performance, social relationships, biological component, and personality) and performed multi-group analysis of structural invariance to examine hypothetical differences between age groups (aged 55 +). The structural covariances for the two age groups were statistically different. The comparison of components between age groups revealed a major relevance of the psychological component for the older age group. These findings reinforce the importance of psychological functioning in active aging in oldest old, and the need for further research on specific psychological features underlying the subjective meaning of active aging in more advanced ages.

  2. Biological psychological and social determinants of old age: Bio-psycho-social aspects of human aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Dziechciaż

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Biological psychological and social determinants of old age: Bio-psycho-social aspects of human aging. The aging of humans is a physiological and dynamic process ongoing with time. In accordance with most gerontologists’ assertions it starts in the fourth decade of life and leads to death. The process of human aging is complex and individualized, occurs in the biological, psychological and social sphere. Biological aging is characterized by progressive age-changes in metabolism and physicochemical properties of cells, leading to impaired self-regulation, regeneration, and to structural changes and functional tissues and organs. It is a natural and irreversible process which can run as successful aging, typical or pathological. Biological changes that occur with age in the human body affect mood, attitude to the environment, physical condition and social activity, and designate the place of seniors in the family and society. Psychical ageing refers to human awareness and his adaptability to the ageing process. Among adaptation attitudes we can differentiate: constructive, dependence, hostile towards others and towards self attitudes. With progressed age, difficulties with adjustment to the new situation are increasing, adverse changes in the cognitive and intellectual sphere take place, perception process involutes, perceived sensations and information received is lowered, and thinking processes change. Social ageing is limited to the role of an old person is culturally conditioned and may change as customs change. Social ageing refers to how a human being perceives the ageing process and how society sees it.

  3. Old age in Polish and American tv series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOANNA ANIOŁ

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The educational and socialization role of the media is not the latest novelty, however there are niches that have not been developed yet. Realizing the opinion-forming role of the mass media, which may be reflected in social behaviours, the authors of this article will analyse the content of chosen media products. The image of elderly people presented by the most popular Polish and American series will be examined. The research aims to find whether Desperate Housewives and Colours of happiness (original title: Barwy szczęścia adjust the image of old age to the social-demographic situation, which is constantly changing in the majority of countries. Does the colossus – television promote stereotypes which make age discrimination morally approved – or just the opposite – a well thought out image, shaping the recognition and respect for people in their “third age”?

  4. Endogenous coresidence and program incidence: South Africa's Old Age Pension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamoudi, Amar; Thomas, Duncan

    2014-07-01

    We investigate whether living arrangements respond to an arguably exogenous shift in the distribution of power in family economic decision-making. In the early 1990s, the South African Old Age Pension was expanded to cover most black South Africans above a sex-specific age cut-off resulting in a substantial increase in the income of older South Africans and potentially their say in the economic decisions of their families. Beneficiaries of the program are more likely to coreside with adults who have less human capital as measured by height and education. Since height and education are fixed for adults, this cannot be an effect of the pension income but reflects selective changes in living arrangements resulting from the pension. The findings highlight the endogeneity of living arrangements and illustrate the potential value of moving beyond theory and data that are confined to a spatially determined definition of the household.

  5. Cost of falls in old age: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrich, S; Rapp, K; Rissmann, U; Becker, C; König, H-H

    2010-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to review the evidence of the economic burden of falls in old age. This review showed that falls are a relevant economic burden. Efforts should be directed to fall-prevention programmes. Falls are a common mechanism of injury and a leading cause of costs of injury in the elderly. The purpose of this study was to review for the first time the evidence of the economic burden caused by falls in old age. A systematic review was conducted in the databases of PubMed, of the Centre for Reviews and Dissemination and in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews until June 2009. Studies were assessed for inclusion, classified and synthesised. Costs per inhabitant, the share of fall-related costs in total health care expenditures and in gross domestic products (GDP) were calculated. If appropriate, cost data were inflated to the year 2006 and converted to US Dollar (USD PPP). A total of 32 studies were included. National fall-related costs of prevalence-based studies were between 0.85% and 1.5% of the total health care expenditures, 0.07% to 0.20% of the GDP and ranged from 113 to 547 USD PPP per inhabitant. Direct costs occurred especially in higher age groups, in females, in hospitals and long-term care facilities and for fractures. Mean costs per fall victim, per fall and per fall-related hospitalisation ranged from 2,044 to 25,955; 1,059 to 10,913 and 5,654 to 42,840 USD PPP and depended on fall severity. A more detailed comparison is restricted by the limited number of studies. Falls are a relevant economic burden to society. Efforts should be directed to economic evaluations of fall-prevention programmes aiming at reducing fall-related fractures, which contribute substantially to fall-related costs.

  6. Age determination of 15 old to intermediate-age small Magellanic cloud star clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parisi, M. C.; Clariá, J. J.; Piatti, A. E.; Geisler, D.; Leiton, R.; Carraro, G.; Costa, E.; Grocholski, A. J.; Sarajedini, A.

    2014-01-01

    We present color-magnitude diagrams in the V and I bands for 15 star clusters in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) based on data taken with the Very Large Telescope (VLT, Chile). We selected these clusters from our previous work, wherein we derived cluster radial velocities and metallicities from calcium II infrared triplet (CaT) spectra also taken with the VLT. We discovered that the ages of six of our clusters have been appreciably underestimated by previous studies, which used comparatively small telescopes, graphically illustrating the need for large apertures to obtain reliable ages of old and intermediate-age SMC star clusters. In particular, three of these clusters, L4, L6, and L110, turn out to be among the oldest SMC clusters known, with ages of 7.9 ± 1.1, 8.7 ± 1.2, and 7.6 ± 1.0 Gyr, respectively, helping to fill a possible 'SMC cluster age gap'. Using the current ages and metallicities from Parisi et al., we analyze the age distribution, age gradient, and age-metallicity relation (AMR) of a sample of SMC clusters measured homogeneously. There is a suggestion of bimodality in the age distribution but it does not show a constant slope for the first 4 Gyr, and we find no evidence for an age gradient. Due to the improved ages of our cluster sample, we find that our AMR is now better represented in the intermediate/old period than we had derived in Parisi et al., where we simply took ages available in the literature. Additionally, clusters younger than ∼4 Gyr now show better agreement with the bursting model of Pagel and Tautvaišienė, but we confirm that this model is not a good representation of the AMR during the intermediate/old period. A more complicated model is needed to explain the SMC chemical evolution in that period.

  7. Staying well in old age: Predicting older adults’ wellness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia von Humboldt

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In an ageing world, the potential for ageing well in older people is still relatively unexplored.Literature has suggested that a sense of coherence (SOC is an important factor with regard to retaining a good quality of life in old age. To explore whether satisfaction with life (SWL, as well as sociodemographic, health- and lifestyle-related variables, are predictors of SOC in a community-dwelling sample of older adults and to assess significant differences in SOC amongst the four nationalities studied. Cross-national research encompassing a community-dwelling sample of 454 older adults aged 75 years and above was undertaken. Sense of coherence was assessed using the Orientation to Life Questionnaire and Satisfaction with Life (SWL was measured using the Satisfaction with Life Scale. Structural equation modelling was used to investigate a structural model of the self-reported SOC, comprising sociodemographic variables (age, gender, marital status, professional status, educational level, family’s annual income and standard of living arrangements, as well as SWL, lifestyle and health-related (physical activity and recent disease characteristics. Significant predictors were physical activity (β = 0.804; p < 0.001, recent disease (β = 0.501; p < 0.001 and SWL (β = 0.07; p = 0.004.These variables accounted for approximately 57.5%of the variability of SOC. Moreover, differences with regard to SOC were also found amongst the four nationality groups (F(3= 5.204; p = 0.002. Physical activity is the strongest predictor of self-reported SOC. Other predictors are the absence of a recent disease and SWL. The four nationalities presented significant differences with regard to SOC. This study highlighted the need for understanding the potential factors (in particular physical activity and further health-related characteristicsthat impact on older adults’ SOC.

  8. Subjective Technology Adaptivity Predicts Technology Use in Old Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamin, Stefan T; Lang, Frieder R; Beyer, Anja

    2017-01-01

    To date, not much is known about the psychological and motivational factors underlying technology use in late life. What are the interindividual determinants that lead older adults to invest in using technological innovations despite the age-related physiological changes that impose challenges on behavioral plasticity in everyday life? This research explores interindividual differences in subjective technology adaptivity - a general technology-related motivational resource that accounts for technology use in late life. More specifically, we investigate the influence of this factor relative to demographic characteristics, personality traits, and functional limitations in a longitudinal sample of community-dwelling older adults. We report results from a paper-and-pencil survey with 136 older adults between 59 and 92 years of age (mean = 71.4, SD = 7.4). Of those participants, 77 participated in a 2-year follow-up. We assessed self-reports of technology use, subjective technology adaptivity, functional limitations, and the personality traits openness to new experiences and neuroticism. Higher levels of subjective technology adaptivity were associated with technology use at the first measurement as well as increased use over the course of 2 years. Subjective technology adaptivity is a significant predictor of technology use in old age. Our findings contribute to improving the understanding of interindividual differences when using technological innovation in late life. Moreover, our findings have implications in the context of user involvement and may contribute to the successful development of innovative technology for older adults. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Old age – „how beautiful to be yourself”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilona Zakowicz

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In every given period one can observe different attitudes towards old age, death and the elderly, which are shown through varied stances and ideas about this specific period of human life. The reality of the XXI century often regarded as “vision-centric” is dominated by the cult of beauty and youth which creates increasingly demanding requirements, related mainly to the attractiveness of appearance, of the body – especially the one belonging to the elderly. The increase in the number of senior citizens compared to the rest of the society that can be witnessed nowadays leads to the elderly being a more carefully examined social group. Mediated by the media discourse the images of the elderly are becoming more common and therefore the author’s attempt at reconstructing the postmodern strategy of the rendering of late adulthood seems to be an interesting and important topic to consider

  10. Active Aging in Very Old Age and the Relevance of Psychological Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constança Paúl

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundActive aging encompasses a socially and individually designed mix of different domains that range from personal and familial, to social and professional. In being a key policy concept often focused on the young-old individuals, efforts in studying its dimensions in advanced ages have seldom been made. Nevertheless, there is a recognized need to promote adequate responses to the growing number of individuals reaching advanced ages and to recognize their specific dependability on health-related aspects, services attendance, social interactions, or on psychological characteristics for what it means to “age actively.”Objective and methodsThis study provides a secondary analysis of data and follows the preceding work on the operationalization of the World Health Organization’s (WHO active aging model by means of an assessment protocol to measure which variables, within the model’s determinants, contribute the most for an active aging process (1. Authors used the achieved model (composed by six factors: health, psychological component, cognitive performance, social relationships, biological component, and personality and performed multi-group analysis of structural invariance to examine hypothetical differences between age groups (<75 years vs. ≥75 years and to contrast obtained findings with the originally achieved model for the total sample (1,322 individuals aged 55 +.ResultsThe structural covariances for the two age groups were statistically different. The comparison of components between age groups revealed a major relevance of the psychological component for the older age group.ConclusionThese findings reinforce the importance of psychological functioning in active aging in oldest old, and the need for further research on specific psychological features underlying the subjective meaning of active aging in more advanced ages.

  11. [Positive aspects of old ages - humor of seniors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mareš, Jiří

    2015-01-01

    This survey study has five parts. In the first part two conceptual approaches to humor are characterized. One considers "the comic" to be an umbrella concept, and humor is only one of its rather positive forms. The other comes out from the umbrella concept "humor", and distinguishes between various forms of humor including the negative ones. Three main theories of humor are presented: theory of superiority, theory of incongruity, and a relief theory. The second part introduces humor in the elderly and draws the attention to the fact that we know relatively little about humor in old age because most research has been carried out in children, adolescents or adults in productive age. The third part of the study describes the process of diagnostics of humor in the elderly. For example, within the qualitative methods, in-depth interviews with seniors or analyses of their diary entries are used. Within quantitative methods, questionnaires are used, and this study presents the survey of seven most frequent ones applied in the studies of humor in the elderly. In the context of mixed methods, understanding of humor in young and seniors, or understanding of humor in relatively healthy seniors and seniors after stroke are compared. The fourth part of the study presents the Gelkopfs model on relationship between humor, treatment and cure of patients. The fifth part of the study demonstrates the options how to use humor to improve the mental state of the elderly (by means of individual or group interventions).

  12. Driver Licensing Age and Lifestyle of 16 Year Olds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preusser, David F.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    The relationship of driver licensure rate to 16-year-old lifestyles was assessed in three states: Michigan (where 56% of 16-year-olds are licensed), New York (14% licensure), and New Jersey (2% licensure). For the most part, the differences in 16-year-old licensure and mobility were not reflected in lifestyle differences. (KH)

  13. The old age security hypothesis and optimal population growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bental, B

    1989-03-01

    The application of the Samuelson-Diamond overlapping generations framework to the old age security hypothesis indicates that government intervention schemes can influence the relationship between population growth and capital accumulation. The most direct means of optimizing population growth is through taxes or subsidies that relate to the intergenerational transfer of wealth. A pay-as-you-go social security scheme, in which payment is predicated on the number of children the receiver has and is financed by taxes levied on the working population, emerges as the most likely intervention to produce the optimal steady state equilibrium. This system is able to correct any distortions the private sector may build into it. In contrast, a child support system, in which the government subsidizes or taxes workers according to their family size, can guarantee the optimal capital:labor ratio but not the optimal population growth rate. Thus, if the government seeks to decrease the population growth rate, the appropriate intervention is to levy a lump-sum social-security tax on workers and transfer the revenues to the old; the direction should be reversed if the goal is to increase population growth. Another alternative, a lump sum social security system, can guarantee optimal population growth but not a desirable capital:labor ratio. Finally, the introduction of money as a valued commodity into an economy with a high capital:labor ratio will also serve to decrease the population growth rate and solve the intergenerational transfer problem through the private sector without any need for government intervention.

  14. The "Cantankerous Old People" Next Door : How Old Age Is Represented in Serbian Television Commercials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljubica Milosavljević

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper is the result of a three-month monitoring of Serbian television commercials which aimed to study the way elderly people are represented in the media. Elderly people appear in only six commercials, more often as a functional part of a series than as protagonists. Yet in spite of the small number of commercials in which they appear, it is easy to identify the stereotypes which are translated from a social paradigm into the sphere of the media. The stereotypes on which commercials are based belong for the most part to the corpus of negative stereotypes of elderly people as hopelessly behind the times, feeble, lonely, irritating, cantankerous, etc. Some positive stereotypes are also evident, but they are mostly limited to a perception of elderly people as kindly givers of useful advice. It is interesting to note that the "cantankerous people next door" are as a rule anonymous elderly people, as are those "lost in time and space", who are mostly elderly women. In contrast, those who let their careers and images be associated with a certain product, in order to pass on their great experience and knowledge, are as a rule famous persons. Just as it is possible to make a distinction between commercials depending on whether or not the products advertised are targeted at the elderly – which they rarely are – and whether elderly people appear in leading or supporting roles, in order to make viewers laugh or annoy them, so it is possible to distinguish between the "real-life principle", which involves the translation of the society’s dominant attitudes into commercials, and "commercial reality", which either makes old age invisible or "masks" it so that it is pleasant to the eye. The reason that old people are absent from television commercials or are mostly represented in a negative light is to be found in the low purchasing power of this age group, but also in the fact that advertising in Serbia developed practically overnight, and

  15. Social Support and Successful Aging in Assisted Living Residents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howie, Laura Odell; Troutman-Jordan, Meredith; Newman, Ann M.

    2014-01-01

    Successful aging has been associated with adequate social support. However, impaired functionality, increased dependence, multiple comorbidities, and reduced social interactions place older assisted living community (ALC) residents at risk for poorer social support and less successful aging. This cross-sectional descriptive study used the revised…

  16. Attitudes of old people towards old age homes in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, T; Luk, J K; Lau, E; Woo, J

    1998-01-01

    The attitudes of older people towards old age homes (OAH) in Hong Kong and the factors which influenced their attitudes were investigated. A total of 197 non-institutionalised older subjects were interviewed with a standard questionnaire. A quarter of them admitted to having thought about going into an OAH, though most had never visited one. Half of them would consider an OAH if they lived alone with no family support, while only a few would consider it if they were living with family. If they became disabled and required help from family, a third would consider an OAH. If family support was not available, two-thirds would consider an OAH, while a few opted for social services. If advised to go into an OAH by doctors or family, about a half of the subjects would comply. On stepwise logistic regression, independent predictors of the desire for an OAH were agreeing with OAH placement if it was affordable and if one was living alone with visits from family, admitting to be happy in an OAH, and previous experience with an OAH. We concluded that older people in Hong Kong were not in favour of an OAH unless there were physical disabilities and lack of family support. They were, however, vulnerable to external pressures.

  17. [Multiprofessional inpatient psychotherapy of depression in old age].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabanel, N; Kundermann, B; Franz, M; Müller, M J

    2017-11-01

    Depression is common in old age but is often underdiagnosed and inadequately treated. Although psychotherapy is considered effective for treating elderly patients with depression, it is rarely applied in inpatient settings. Furthermore, treatment on inpatient units specialized for elderly patients and implementation of a psychotherapeutic treatment approach are currently more the exception. From this background, a multiprofessional inpatient behavioral treatment program (MVT) for elderly depressed patients was developed at a specialized unit of a university-affiliated regional psychiatric hospital. The MVT is based on specific and modularized group therapies accompanied by individual therapeutic interventions. While the provision of group therapies (such as psychotherapy, social skills training, relaxation training, euthymic and mindfulness-based methods, exercise and occupational therapy as well as psychoeducational sessions for relatives) is assigned to specific professional groups, a joint multiprofessional treatment planning is of central relevance. First evaluations of different treatment components support the high acceptability of the MVT and highlight that psychotherapeutic inpatient treatment programs for the elderly are feasible. Further research is required to investigate the clinical efficacy of psychotherapy in elderly depressive inpatients.

  18. Loneliness in old age: Psychosocial and health predictors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Kaasa

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available  Study objectives  Design  Main results  17% (CI 12.5–23.0 of the respondents answered yes. A significant correlation was demonstratedbetween a feeling of loneliness and low self-perceived health, low vision and poor hearing, low activity of dailylife (ADL function, loss of a spouse, low social network, no hobbies and possession of a safety alarm. After amultiple regression analysis of the significant variables, the remaining variables as predictors for lonelinessincluded: number of social contacts, self-perceived health, using hearing aid and having a safety alarm.: : The information is obtained from a survey conducted among 232 inhabitants in this age group in the municipalityof Tønsberg, its Northern District. The interview data are composed of the responses from 202 elderlypeople living in a house or apartment (non-institutionalized to the question «do you generally feel lonely?».The purpose of this article is to study the prevalence of loneliness in a group of elderly peopleover 80 years old and the sociodemographic, health-related and social predictors for experiencing loneliness.ABSTRACT:

  19. [Prevalence of negative stereotypes towards old age among personnel of a general hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco S, Mireya; Villarreal R, Enrique; Vargas D, Emma R; Martínez G, Lidia; Galicia R, Liliana

    2010-08-01

    Social representations are value systems. Social stereotypes are a social consensus of traits associated with a specific group. Stereotypes about older subjects, generally have negative connotations. To assess the prevalence of negative stereotypes towards older subjects among health care personnel. A questionnaire about stereotypes towards old age, with Likert type questions that included health, social motivations and personality-character domains, was applied to 52 doctors, 12 residents, 80 general nurses, 36 auxiliary nurses, four social workers and 10 medical assistants, working at a general hospital. The mean age of the professionals who answered the questionnaire was 38 years (95% confidence intervals (CI) 37-39 years) and 78% were women. The prevalence of a Global negative stereotype was 65.0%(95% CI: 59.5-70.5). The figure for the health domain was 64.5% (IC95%; 59.0-70.0), for the social motivation domain was 60%(5%CI: 54.3-65.7) and for the character personality domain was 64% (95%CI: 58.4-69.6). There is a high prevalence of a negative stereotype towards old age among health care personnel.

  20. The Old and the Oldest-old: Do They Have Different Perspectives on Adjustment to Aging?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia von Humboldt

    2015-09-01

    Conclusion: The outcomes presented in this paper stressed the varied perspectives concerning AtA, contoured in two different models, and the need of considering these when designing and implementing programs in health care for the old and the oldest-old.

  1. Staying well in old age: Predicting older adults’ wellness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia von Humboldt

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In an ageing world, the potential for ageing well in older people is still relatively unexplored. Literature has suggested that a sense of coherence (SOC is an important factor with regard to retaining a good quality of life in old age. To explore whether satisfaction with life (SWL, as well as sociodemographic, health- and lifestyle-related variables, are predictors of SOC in a community-dwelling sample of older adults and to assess significant differences in SOC amongst the four nationalities studied. Cross-national research encompassing a community-dwelling sample of 454 older adults aged 75 years and above was undertaken. Sense of coherence was assessed using the Orientation to Life Questionnaire and Satisfaction with Life (SWL was measured using the Satisfaction with Life Scale. Structural equation modelling was used to investigate a structural model of the self-reported SOC, comprising sociodemographic variables (age, gender, marital status, professional status, educational level, family’s annual income and standard of living arrangements, as well as SWL, lifestyle and health-related (physical activity and recent disease characteristics. Significant predictors were physical activity (β = 0.804; p < 0.001, recent disease (β = 0.501;p < 0.001 and SWL (β = 0.07; p = 0.004. These variables accounted for approximately 57.5% of the variability of SOC. Moreover, differences with regard to SOC were also found amongst the four nationality groups (F(3 = 5.204; p = 0.002. Physical activity is the strongest predictor of self-reported SOC. Other predictors are the absence of a recent disease and SWL. The four nationalities presented significant differences with regard to SOC. This study highlighted the need for understanding the potential factors (in particular physical activity and further health-related characteristics that impact on older adults’ SOC. In ’n wêreld wat aan die verouder is, is die potensiaal van bejaardes om goed te verouder

  2. Functional ability at age 75: is there an impact of physical inactivity from middle age to early old age?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ulla; Støvring, N; Schultz-Larsen, K

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze the impact of physical inactivity from middle age to early old age on functional ability at age 75. Physical activity is measured both as cumulated activity from age 50 to 60 to 70 and at three separate points in time. Three hundred eighty-seven men and women...... born in 1914 and living in seven municipalities in the western part of the County of Copenhagen were followed for 25 years with examinations in 1964, 1974, 1984 and 1989. Analyses were conducted with physical inactivity as an independent variable (accumulated and separately for each point in time......) and smoking, sex, school education, household composition, chronic disease at baseline and functional ability at age 70 as possible confounders. There was a strong association between physical inactivity at age 70 and disability at age 75. However, the analyses showed no effect of cumulated physical...

  3. Development of Hand Grip Assistive Device Control System for Old People through Electromyography (EMG Signal Acquisitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khamis Herman

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The hand grip assistive device is a glove to assist old people who suffer from hand weakness in their daily life activities. The device earlier control system only use simple on and off switch. This required old people to use both hand to activate the device. The new control system of the hand grip assistive device was developed to allow single hand operation for old people. New control system take advantages of electromyography (EMG and flex sensor which was implemented to the device. It was programmed into active and semi-active mode operation. EMG sensors were placed on the forearm to capture EMG signal of Flexor Digitorum Profundus muscle to activate the device. Flex sensor was used to indicate the finger position and placed on top of the finger. The signal from both sensors then used to control the device. The new control system allowed single hand operation and designed to prevent user from over depended on the device by activating it through moving their fingers.

  4. Public Pensions as the Great Equalizer? Decomposition of Old-Age Income Inequality in South Korea, 1998-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Sun-Jae

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the redistributive effects of public pensions on old-age income inequality, testing whether public pensions function as the "great equalizer." Unlike the well-known alleviating effect of public pensions on old-age poverty, the effects of public pensions on old-age income inequality more generally have been less examined, particularly outside Western countries. Using repeated cross-sectional data of elderly Koreans between 1998 and 2010, we applied Gini coefficient decomposition to measure the impact of various income sources on old-age inequality, particularly focusing on public pensions. Our findings show that, contrary to expectations, public pension benefits have inequality-intensifying effects on old-age income in Korea, even countervailing the alleviating effects of public assistance. This rather surprising result is due to the specific institutional context of the Korean public pension system and suggests that the "structuring" of welfare policies could be as important as their expansion for the elderly, particularly for developing welfare states.

  5. [Thyroid diseases in old age. Clinical aspects and therapy. Part 1: Hyperthyroidism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudorff, K H; Fahrenkrog, U; Jahnke, K

    1981-08-27

    The clinical signs of thyroid disease in older people may differ considerably from those in younger patients. The symptoms are often incorrectly interpreted and attributed to old age. The age is also important to the kind of therapy. The normal clinical hyperthyroidism-indices are not relevant in the diagnosis of hyperthyroidism in older patients. Organic symptoms predominate in old age (loss of weight, muscular asthenia, tremor, cardiac arrhythmia, stenocardia, congestive cardiomyopathy). Most of the time they are wrongly interpreted as additional symptoms of old age. Probably it is not the age that causes the difficulties in hyperthyroidism-diagnostics in old age, but the atypical symptoms of solitary or multilocular adenomas, which increase with advancing age. A special symptom of hyperthyroidism in old age, often misinterpreted, is "apathetic" hyperthyroidism. Radioiodotherapy is indicated in older patients with hyperthyroidism.

  6. Continuity and Discontinuity: The Case of Second Couplehood in Old Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koren, Chaya

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Continuity and discontinuity are controversial concepts in social theories on aging. The aim of this article is to explore these concepts using the experiences of older persons living in second couplehood in old age as a case in point. Design and Method: Based on a larger qualitative study on second couplehood in old age, following the…

  7. [Evaluating programs for preparation to old age: some theoretical thoughts and a practical example (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, H D

    1977-07-01

    In the first part methodically satisfactory experimental designs for evaluating programs for preparation to old age on the basis of Cambell & Stanely (1963) are sketched including conditions which hinder the realization of the ideal notions. In the second part an experiment for comparing two preparatory courses to old age using different methods of instruction is described. It was observed that the more demanding teaching method resulted in more anxiety for old age. This led to the conclusion, that programs for preparation to old age should be planned as a sequence of several units in which the mastering of the new ideas may be learned and in which this learning process may be supervised.

  8. [Decline in renal function in old age : Part of physiological aging versus age-related disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, F; Brinkkötter, P T

    2016-08-01

    The incidence and prevalence of chronic renal disease (CKD) in elderly patients are continuously increasing worldwide. Loss of renal function is not only considered to be part of the aging process itself but also reflects the multimorbidity of many geriatric patients. Calculating the glomerular filtration rate using specific algorithms validated for the elderly population and measuring the amount of proteinuria allow an estimation of renal function in elderly patients with high accuracy. Chronic renal failure has many clinical consequences and not only results in a delayed excretion of toxins cleared by the kidneys but also affects hematogenesis, water and electrolyte balance as well as mineral bone metabolism. Furthermore, CKD directly leads to and aggravates geriatric syndromes and in particular the onset of frailty. Therapeutic strategies to halt progression of CKD not only comprise treatment of the underlying disease but also efficient blood pressure and diabetic control and the avoidance of nephrotoxic medications.

  9. Does age of the sperm donor influence live birth outcome in assisted reproduction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghuman, N K; Mair, E; Pearce, K; Choudhary, M

    2016-03-01

    Does age of the sperm donor have an effect on reproductive outcomes (live birth rate and miscarriage occurrence) of donor insemination or in vitro fertilization treatment using donated sperm? Live birth and miscarriage occurrence in assisted reproduction treatment using donor sperms was not found to be affected by the age of sperm donors up to 45 years old. Literature on the effect of sperm donor age on outcome of medically assisted reproduction is scarce. Most researchers agree that semen parameters deteriorate with increasing paternal age. However, there is no substantial evidence to suggest that this deterioration adversely affects the reproductive outcomes in couples undergoing medically assisted reproduction. This retrospective cohort study analysed 46 078 first donor insemination treatments and fresh in vitro fertilization (IVF)/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycles using donated sperm from 1991 to 2012. The first fresh donor insemination and IVF/ICSI treatment cycles (46 078 treatment cycles) using donated sperm from the long-term anonymized data registry from 1991 to 2012 of the HFEA, the UK regulator, were analysed by the binary logistic modelling technique for association between sperm donor age and reproductive outcomes (live birth occurrence and miscarriage occurrence). The statistical package SPSS (version 21) was used for analysis and results were considered to be statistically significant if the P-value was IVF/ICSI treatment with donor sperm. The live birth occurrence decreased with increasing female age in both treatment groups; In the donor insemination treatment group, it was 11.1% in 18-34 year old women, 8.3% in 35-37 year old women and 4.7% in 38-50 year old women. The corresponding figures in the IVF/ICSI treatment group were 28.9, 22.0 and 12.9% respectively. In each of these subgroups, no evidence of declining likelihood of live birth with increasing sperm donor age was found (P > 0.05). The miscarriage occurrence (i.e. number of

  10. Stigma and old age: essays on the manipulation of the deteriorated age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Andréa Rodrigues Andrade

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The approach of the aging it is a subject handled by several sciences and knowledges. Before, the study in this area was a rarity, with the contribution of what has become a social problem, this category has received relative importance in academic arenas, television and in various areas of socialization, and as output, the purposes of third age. Among several approaches that are configured on it, we have issues of identity, social roles and stigma. This study aims to analyze the stigmatizing by which pass the elderly and how this phenomenon is interesting to reflect on the relationships between them and the other individuals in society. It was used books and articles available on the Internet, coming from authors who highlight in the subject, based on the study by Erving Goffman in his book Stigma: Notes on the management of the deteriorated image. It Will be discussed, the comprehension of stigma in Goffman, the social construction of old age and relationship with the social stigma, as they are referred to some elements, such as: social identity, visibility, concealment, techniques of information control and biography, which are relevant to reflect about concepts from stigma applyed by Goffman. Thus, this study establishes a connection between aging and stigma to not only increase knowledge on the subject, but also encourage the study and research on the topic for researchers and other interested parties.

  11. Positive Psychology and old age Psychology. Theoretical Intersections

    OpenAIRE

    Enrique Lombardo

    2015-01-01

    This article is a theoretical review of developments and research of the posi- tive psychology and of the psychology of aging. Some concepts that are in that intersection are: psychic capital, strengths, psychological wellbeing and emo- tional regulation. In all the cases they are positive psychic factors associated to the successful aging. Since the end of the 20th century, within the psychology of aging has been developing and achieved fundamental transformations in term of theoretical base...

  12. Factors influencing eating a varied diet in old age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dean, Moira; Raats, Monique M.; Grunert, Klaus G.

    2009-01-01

    3200) were above 65 years of age and living in their ownhomes. The samples were quota samples, eight groups of fifty in each country, based on gender, age and living circumstances, reflecting the diversity of each of the national populations based on education, income and urbanization of living...

  13. Trends in old-age mortality in seven European countries, 1950-1999

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, F.; Mackenbach, J. P.; Kunst, A. E.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Different from the general observed decline in old-age mortality, for The Netherlands and Norway there have been reports of stagnation in the decline since the 1980s. We detect periods of stagnation in recent old-age mortality trends, and explore for which causes of death the recent

  14. Hope and Adaptation to Old Age: Their Relationship with Individual-Demographic Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraitou, Despina; Kolovou, Chrysa; Papasozomenou, Chrysa; Paschoula, Catherine

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between hope as disposition, adaptation to old age, and individual-demographic factors. One hundred and fifty older adults, aged 60-93 years old, completed the Adult Dispositional Hope Scale developed by Snyder et AL. [1991, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 60, pp. 570-585], and the Adaptation to…

  15. Socioeconomic inequalities in mortality rates in old age in the World Health Organization Europe Region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, M.; Read, S.; Towriss, C.A.; Deeg, D.J.H.; Grundy, E.

    2013-01-01

    Socioeconomic adversity is among the foremost fundamental causes of human suffering, and this is no less true in old age. Recent reports on socioeconomic inequalities in mortality rate in old age suggest that a low socioeconomic position continues to increase the risk of death even among the oldest

  16. Pavlov's Position on Old Age within the Framework of the Theory of Higher Nervous Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windholz, George

    1995-01-01

    In later life, I. P. Pavlov incorporated his findings on aging into his theory of higher nervous activity. Some of the major findings showed that salivary conditioning and stimulus differentiation were difficult to establish in old dogs, but that conditioned reflexes established earlier in life persisted into old age. Pavlov hypothesized that…

  17. Imagining transitions in old age through the Visual Matrix method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liveng, Anne; Ramvi, Ellen; Froggett, Lynn

    2017-01-01

    Dominant discourses of ageing are often confined to what is less painful to think about and therefore idealise or denigrate ageing and later life. We present findings from an exploratory psychosocial study, in a Nordic context, into three later-life transitions: from working life to retirement, f......-generational continuity, which together link life and death, hope and despair, separation and connectedness.......Dominant discourses of ageing are often confined to what is less painful to think about and therefore idealise or denigrate ageing and later life. We present findings from an exploratory psychosocial study, in a Nordic context, into three later-life transitions: from working life to retirement......, from mental health to dementia and from life to death. Because, for some, these topics are hard to bear and therefore defended against and routinely excluded from everyday awareness, we used a method led by imagery and affect–the Visual Matrix–to elicit participant s’ free associative personal...

  18. The Human Right to Leisure in Old Age: Reinforcement of the Rights of an Aging Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karev, Iris; Doron, Israel Issi

    2017-01-01

    The right to leisure is recognized as a human right under the 1948 United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights. The actual meaning and material content of this human right is subject to debate. The aim of this study is to examine the extent and the context to which this human right is specifically recognized with regard to older persons. Methodologically, this study textually analyzed 17 different international older persons' human rights documents. The findings reveal that in the majority of these documents there is no reference to the right to leisure. In the remaining documents, the right to leisure is mostly referred to indirectly or in a narrow legal construction. These findings support the notion that despite the growing body of knowledge regarding the importance of meaningful leisure in old age-and its empowering and anti-ageist nature-this knowledge has not transformed into a legal human rights discourse.

  19. Radiation therapy for the old aged patient suffered from carcinoma of the uterine cervix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arai, Tatsuo; Morita, Shinroku; Fukuhisa, Kenjiro; Wada, Susumu.

    1984-01-01

    Since a majority of old aged patients have the troublesome complications and their physical or mental emaciation is clearly appeared, it is necessary for them to adopt a new treatment method which was considered about thier such conditions. The crude survival rate of old aged, over 71, patients suffered from carcinoma of the uterine cervix were 63.6% (7/11) for stage 1, 60% (36/60) for stage 2, 50% (53/106) for stage 3 and 28.6% (8/28) for stage 4. About 20% of patients in each stages were suffered from the complications. We considered the treatment method for the old aged patients such as follows: the radiation dose must be reduced 10% for 71 to 75 year old and 20% for 76 to 80 year old. In the case of over 81 year old, an intracavitary irradiation is only applied for the palliative aim at the out patient clinic. (author)

  20. Ageing, Health and Life Satisfaction of the Oldest Old: An Analysis for Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwozdz, Wencke; Sousa-Poza, Alfonso

    2010-01-01

    This analysis uses data from the German Socio-Economic Panel and the Survey on Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe to assess the effect of ageing and health on the life satisfaction of the oldest old (defined as 75 and older). We observe a U-shaped relationship between age and levels of life satisfaction for individuals aged between 16 and 65.…

  1. Early life physical activity and cognition at old age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dik, Miranda; Deeg, Dorly J H; Visser, Marjolein; Jonker, Cees

    Physical activity has shown to be inversely associated with cognitive decline in older people. Whether this association is already present in early life has not been investigated previously. The association between early life physical activity and cognition was studied in 1,241 subjects aged 62-85

  2. Nutritional concerns, health and survival in old age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, de C.P.G.M.; Staveren, van W.A.

    2010-01-01

    The ageing process is-apart from chance or good luck-not only influenced by factors intrinsic to the individual, but also by extrinsic factors that include environmental and lifestyle variables. This paper deals with the epidemiological evidence for the role of dietary patterns and key nutritional

  3. "Old People Are Useless:" Representations of Aging on "The Simpsons"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakeborough, Darren

    2008-01-01

    This article looks at how "The Simpsons'" representations of aging, considered ageist and stereotypical by some, can be viewed as a positive look at the elderly that attempts to subvert the same stereotypes that it seemingly employs. The Baby Boom cohort is now seen as an attractive economic group, and as they continue their journey through the…

  4. Old age as a privilege of the "selfish ones".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidovic, Mladen; Sevo, Goran; Svorcan, Petar; Milosevic, Dragoslav P; Despotovic, Nebojsa; Erceg, Predrag

    2010-10-01

    In the past couple of centuries, scientists proposed great number of aging theories but neither of them appears to be fully satisfactory. In the statistical sense, we are dealing with an even greater challenge because large array of factors affects the aging process. Although at this point the most of these factors are well known, it is the very fact of their innumerability that complicates approaches to the issue at hand. Both in life and in medicine, the cause behind an effect can rarely be unequivocally determined. Thus, it appears that through out human history longevity has been primarily affected by eradication of diseases, especially by eradication of infectious diseases and introduction of the vaccines. For that reason, maybe we should not be referring to this issue as the «fountain of youth» but rather as the «vaccine of youth». The postulate that genetic instability is the precipitating factor both of aging and cancer has withstood many tests and keeps on being reaffirmed. For this reason, it is legitimate to pose a question of whether long-lived individuals may be those with «selfish» genes and more stable genetic material. They certainly cannot avoid aging, but aging in such individuals could be delayed due to steady character of their genome, which is less susceptible to mutations. On the population level, they constitute minority because stable genome would represent an obstacle to successful evolution of the species. If this was not the case, we might not be writing all these texts today.

  5. "Old people are useless": representations of aging on the Simpsons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakeborough, Darren

    2008-01-01

    This article looks at how The Simpsons ' representations of aging, considered ageist and stereotypical by some, can be viewed as a positive look at the elderly that attempts to subvert the same stereotypes that it seemingly employs. The Baby Boom cohort is now seen as an attractive economic group, and as they continue their journey through the life cycle, they are drawing increased attention. A current scholarship exists that investigates the ways that the "aged" are seen, catered to, advertised at, seemingly marginalized, and represented in the larger context of the mass media. Relying primarily on the theoretical musings of Frederic Jameson and Linda Hutcheon, the article constructs a bridge that places The Simpsons squarely within a postmodern aesthetic and, using this rubric, shows how the inherent political nature of parodic irony can help to create an inversion of meaning.

  6. Concept of successful ageing among the community-dwelling oldest old in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato-Komata, Michiko; Hoshino, Akiko; Usui, Kanae; Katsura, Toshiki

    2015-12-01

    In Japan, increasing human longevity has forced society to rethink the notion of what constitutes 'successful ageing'. This study attempts to advocate a new concept of successful ageing that involves complete acceptance of the ageing process. Research was based on semi-structured interviews with 15 community dwelling oldest-old (aged 85 years and above) participants. The analysis was completed using a grounded theory approach. Successful ageing for the oldest old was grouped into six categories. Within these categories, we discovered the structure of successful ageing, which synthesises ideas from the adaptation process with those of physical and cognitive decreased function as well as spirituality. The oldest old in Japan work to arrive at a conclusion with their lives, all the while coping with the drawbacks of ageing, such as declining physical and cognitive functions. This resilient and flexible way of life makes their form of ageing an equally 'successful' one.

  7. Personality-situation transactions from adolescence to old age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrzus, Cornelia; Wagner, Gert G; Riediger, Michaela

    2016-05-01

    People presumably choose and create their daily environments according to their personality. Prior research shows that, for example, more extraverted people engage more often in social situations, and more conscientious people engage more often in work-related activities compared with less extraverted or less conscientious people, respectively. The current study examined such personality-situation transactions in people's daily life. Based on the assumption that older people know themselves and their personality better than younger people, we investigated whether momentary and proximate personality-situation associations (i.e., changing from 1 type of situation into another) increase with older age. Three-hundred and 78 people aged 14 to 82 years described their Big Five traits and took part in a 3-week experience-sampling phase. Using mobile-phone based assessments in daily life, participants reported on average 55 times on their momentary situation. Multilevel modeling results showed that personality-situation associations varied with the age of participants. Some of the "established" personality-situation associations, such as for extraversion and time spent with friends or conscientiousness and time spent with work activities, were only observed in adolescence and young adulthood. In contrast, other personality-situation associations appeared only in late adulthood, such as for openness and time spent with friends. Yet most personality-situation associations did not vary significantly with people's age. In addition, personality traits predicted maintaining or entering personality-congruent situations. The latter results point to the active role of personality in shaping one's environment. The findings imply that some personality-situation transactions may be largely similarly across the life span. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Multiproteinopathy, neurodegeneration and old age: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Julio C; Stephens, Melanie L; Rabinovici, Gil D; Kramer, Joel H; Miller, Bruce L; Seeley, William W

    2018-02-01

    A complex spectrum of mixed brain pathologies is common in older people. This clinical pathologic conference case study illustrates the challenges of formulating clinicopathologic correlations in late-onset neurodegenerative diseases featuring cognitive-behavioral syndromes with underlying multiple proteinopathy. Studies on the co-existence and interactions of Alzheimer's disease (AD) with neurodegenerative non-AD pathologies in the aging brain are needed to understand the pathogenesis of neurodegeneration and to support the development of diagnostic biomarkers and therapies.

  9. The Temporal Association Between Executive Function and Life-Space Mobility in Old Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poranen-Clark, Taina; von Bonsdorff, Mikaela B; Rantakokko, Merja; Portegijs, Erja; Eronen, Johanna; Pynnönen, Katja; Eriksson, Johan G; Viljanen, Anne; Rantanen, Taina

    2018-05-09

    Life-space mobility, an indicator of community mobility, describes person's movements in terms of the distance from home, the frequency of movement, and the need of assistance for movement. Executive function (EF) is a higher-order cognitive function that supervises motor control and plays a key role in a person's ability to function independently. Cognitive impairment often co-occurs with restricted life-space mobility; however, the direction of the longitudinal associations between EF and life-space mobility is unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the temporal associations between EF and life-space mobility among community-dwelling older people. One hundred eight community-dwelling persons aged 76 to 91 years participated in the 2 year follow-up study. EF was measured with the Trail Making Test. The Life-Space Assessment (range 0-120, higher scores indicate more mobility) was used to assess life-space mobility. Cross-lagged model design was used to examine longitudinal relationship between EF and life-space mobility. The model was adjusted for age and gender. Average age of participants at baseline was 82.2 (SD 4.1) years and 59% were women. Better EF at baseline predicted higher life-space mobility at follow-up (path coefficient = 3.81, 95% confidential interval; 0.84, 6.78, p = .012), whereas baseline life-space mobility did not predict EF at follow-up. EF was a determinant of life-space mobility. Supporting EF may enhance maintaining independence and active participation in old age.

  10. Age-related decline in bottom-up processing and selective attention in the very old.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuravleva, Tatyana Y; Alperin, Brittany R; Haring, Anna E; Rentz, Dorene M; Holcomb, Philip J; Daffner, Kirk R

    2014-06-01

    Previous research demonstrating age-related deficits in selective attention have not included old-old adults, an increasingly important group to study. The current investigation compared event-related potentials in 15 young-old (65-79 years old) and 23 old-old (80-99 years old) subjects during a color-selective attention task. Subjects responded to target letters in a specified color (Attend) while ignoring letters in a different color (Ignore) under both low and high loads. There were no group differences in visual acuity, accuracy, reaction time, or latency of early event-related potential components. The old-old group showed a disruption in bottom-up processing, indexed by a substantially diminished posterior N1 (smaller amplitude). They also demonstrated markedly decreased modulation of bottom-up processing based on selected visual features, indexed by the posterior selection negativity (SN), with similar attenuation under both loads. In contrast, there were no group differences in frontally mediated attentional selection, measured by the anterior selection positivity (SP). There was a robust inverse relationship between the size of the SN and SP (the smaller the SN, the larger the SP), which may represent an anteriorly supported compensatory mechanism. In the absence of a decline in top-down modulation indexed by the SP, the diminished SN may reflect age-related degradation of early bottom-up visual processing in old-old adults.

  11. Influence of the Self-Perception of Old Age on the Effect of a Healthy Aging Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Núñez, Víctor Manuel; Sarmiento-Salmorán, Elia; Marín-Cortés, Regulo; Martínez-Maldonado, María de la Luz; Ruiz-Ramos, Mirna

    2018-05-07

    It has been shown that health programs are useful for the prevention and control of chronic diseases in community-dwelling older people; however, a negative self-perception of old age could have an effect on the results. Therefore, our aim was to evaluate the effect of a healthy aging program linked to self-perception of old age in Mexican community-dwelling older people. A pre-test/post-test single-group design study was conducted in a convenience sample of 64 older people who undertook the entire healthy aging program workshop (five months’ duration). We measured self-perception of old age, efficacy of self-care, blood glucose concentration, anthropometric measures, and blood pressure before and after the workshop. A statistically significant decrease in blood glucose concentration was observed (baseline 136 ± 50 vs. post-intervention, 124 ± 45 ± 29 mg/dL, p self-perception, we found that this difference was only maintained in the subgroup of older adults with a positive self-perception of old age. Our findings suggest that the self-perception of old age influences the effect of healthy aging programs on the health of community-dwelling older people.

  12. Holocaust survivors in old age: the Jerusalem Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stessman, Jochanan; Stesssman, Jochanan; Cohen, Aaron; Hammerman-Rozenberg, Robert; Bursztyn, Michael; Azoulay, Daniel; Maaravi, Yoram; Jacobs, Jeremy M

    2008-03-01

    To examine the hypothesis that Holocaust exposure during young adulthood negatively affects physical aging, causing greater morbidity, faster deterioration in health parameters, and shorter survival. A longitudinal cohort study of the natural history of an age-homogenous representative sample born in 1920/21 and living in Jerusalem. Community-based home assessments. Four hundred fifty-eight subjects of European origin aged 70 at baseline and 77 at follow-up. Comprehensive assessment of physical, functional, and psychosocial domains; biographical history of concentration camp internment (Camp), exposure to Nazi occupation during World War II (Exposure), or lack thereof (Controls); and 7-year mortality data from the National Death Registry. Holocaust survivors of the Camp (n=93) and Exposure (n=129) groups were more likely than Controls (n=236) to be male and less educated and have less social support (P=.01), less physical activity (P=.03), greater difficulty in basic activities of daily living (P=.009), poorer self-rated health (P=.04), and greater usage of psychiatric medication (P=.008). No other differences in health parameters or physical illnesses were found. Holocaust survivors had similar rates of deterioration in health and illness parameters over the follow-up period, and 7-year mortality rates were identical. Proportional hazard models showed that being an elderly Holocaust survivor was not predictive of greater 7-year mortality. Fifty years after their Holocaust trauma, survivors still displayed significant psychosocial and functional impairment, although no evidence was found to support the hypothesis that the delayed effects of the trauma of the Holocaust negatively influence physical health, health trajectories, or mortality.

  13. Old model Nd ages in Namibian Pan-African rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawkesworth, C.J.; Kramers, J.D.

    1981-01-01

    The Nd-isotope analytical technique has been used to study the Damara high-temperature belt of Namibia formed during the widespread orogenic event categorized as Pan African. The results are presented of an investigation by Nd and Sr isotopes of the range in age and geochemical characteristics of rock sequences and provinces within both the upper mantle and the pre-existing crust which were sampled during the orogeny, and hence provided the major components of what is now a stable segment of continental crust. (U.K.)

  14. Ageing in old degenerates: asteroseismology of white dwarf stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Donoghue, D.

    1988-01-01

    Recent results on the use of pulsations in white dwarf stars as seismic probes of their structure are reviewed. The evolution of stars to the white dwarf stage is first described, followed by a discussion of their structure as expected from the theory of stellar evolution. A summary of the salient points of stellar pulsation theory is given and then compared with observations of pulsating white dwarfs: the pulsations are non-radial 'g-mode' pulsations and occur in all white dwarfs as they cool through the temperature ranges defining each of the four 'instability strips' on the white dwarf cooling curve. The presence of only some of the possible pulsation modes in any given star suggest that a filter mechanism to select these modes is at work, possibly the chemical stratification of the star. The pulsation periods can be measured very accurately so that period changes, due to evolutionary cooling, can be detected over relatively short intervals (2 - 30 years). The detection of such period changes can be used to place interesting limits on the age of the Galaxy and ultimately the age of the Universe. 17 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs

  15. Does Volunteering Experience Influence Advance Care Planning in Old Age?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Huei-Wern; Khosla, Nidhi

    2016-07-01

    Advance care planning (ACP) increases the likelihood patients will receive end-of-life care that is congruent with their preferences and lowers stress among both patients and caregivers. Previous efforts to increase ACP have mainly focused on information provision in the very late stage of life. This study examines whether a relationship exists between volunteering and ACP, and whether this relationship is associated with social support. The sample comprises 877 individuals who were aged 55+ in 2008, and were deceased before 2010. The sample is derived from seven waves (1998-2010) of data from the Health and Retirement Study. Logistic regression results showed that overall ACP and durable power of attorney for health care (DPAHC) were both higher (OR = 1.61 and 1.71, respectively) for older adults with volunteering experience in the past 10 years than those without such experience. Available social support (relatives and friends living nearby) was not associated with the relationship between volunteering and ACP. Other factors related to ACP included poorer health, death being expected, death due to cancer, older age, and being a racial minority. Involving older people in volunteer work may help to increase ACP. Future research is encouraged to identify reasons for the association between volunteering and ACP.

  16. Coping with multimorbidity in old age – a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Löffler Christin

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Comparatively few studies address the problems related to multimorbidity. This is surprising, since multimorbidity is a particular challenge for both general practitioners and patients. This study focuses on the latter, analyzing the way patients aged 65–85 cope with multimorbidity. Methods 19 narrative in-depth interviews with multimorbid patients were conducted. The data was analysed using grounded theory. Of the 19 interviewed patients 13 were female and 6 male. Mean age was 75 years. Participating patients showed a relatively homogeneous socio-economic status. Patients were recruited from the German city of Hamburg and the state of North Rhine-Westphalia. Results Despite suffering from multimorbidity, interviewees held positive attitudes towards life: At the social level, patients tried to preserve their autonomy to the most possible extent. At the emotional level, interviewees oscillated between anxiety and strength - having, however, a positive approach to life. At the practical level, patients aimed at keeping their diseases under control. The patients tended to be critical in regards to medication. Conclusions These findings might have implications for the treatment of multimorbid patients in primary care and further research: The generally presumed passivity of older individuals towards medical treatment, which can be found in literature, is not evident among our sample of older patients. In future, treatment of these patients might take their potential for pro-active cooperation more strongly into account than it is currently the case.

  17. Self-perception of when old age begins for Cambodian elders living in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubus, Nicole M

    2014-06-01

    To deepen the understanding of the life course of refugees this study explores the question: when do Cambodian elders perceive the beginning of old age? In-depth interviews were conducted with 32 Cambodians, age range 53-82, who attended an elder day center in an urban setting in Massachusetts. Interviews were transcribed and analyzed using the modified grounded theory approach. The analysis revealed that the participants primarily reported two determinants to defining when old age begins: 1) the body "has too many illnesses" due to harsh working conditions; and 2) social role transition into grandparent. This study extends research on cultural differences in aging, specifically identifying the cultural difference in the definition of when "old age" begins. Age is culturally derived and creates expectations for social roles, health, self-identity, and behavior. Understanding how refugees experience the cultural discrepancies in their expectations of aging can inform providers who serve this population.

  18. Chronic disease and independence in old age: A case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reeves, Pauline J.

    2006-01-01

    This report uses case study methodology to examine the issue of long-term care of the elderly in the United Kingdom, including where that care should take place. The report will examine the difficulties inherent in maintaining independent living for the elderly (in particular the danger and cost of falls). The case study presented is that of an elderly female patient who had suffered from chronic rheumatoid arthritis for over 10 years. She was admitted to hospital several times from December 2003 to January 2004. The discussion of her case is set in the context of the sociology of ageing; long-term care of the elderly and the UK National Service Frameworks, of which standard six relates to falls in the elderly. The report will also consider the problems in deciding whether it is necessary to terminate independent living for an individual

  19. Dopamine Receptor Genes Modulate Associative Memory in Old Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papenberg, Goran; Becker, Nina; Ferencz, Beata; Naveh-Benjamin, Moshe; Laukka, Erika J; Bäckman, Lars; Brehmer, Yvonne

    2017-02-01

    Previous research shows that associative memory declines more than item memory in aging. Although the underlying mechanisms of this selective impairment remain poorly understood, animal and human data suggest that dopaminergic modulation may be particularly relevant for associative binding. We investigated the influence of dopamine (DA) receptor genes on item and associative memory in a population-based sample of older adults (n = 525, aged 60 years), assessed with a face-scene item associative memory task. The effects of single-nucleotide polymorphisms of DA D1 (DRD1; rs4532), D2 (DRD2/ANKK1/Taq1A; rs1800497), and D3 (DRD3/Ser9Gly; rs6280) receptor genes were examined and combined into a single genetic score. Individuals carrying more beneficial alleles, presumably associated with higher DA receptor efficacy (DRD1 C allele; DRD2 A2 allele; DRD3 T allele), performed better on associative memory than persons with less beneficial genotypes. There were no effects of these genes on item memory or other cognitive measures, such as working memory, executive functioning, fluency, and perceptual speed, indicating a selective association between DA genes and associative memory. By contrast, genetic risk for Alzheimer disease (AD) was associated with worse item and associative memory, indicating adverse effects of APOE ε4 and a genetic risk score for AD (PICALM, BIN1, CLU) on episodic memory in general. Taken together, our results suggest that DA may be particularly important for associative memory, whereas AD-related genetic variations may influence overall episodic memory in older adults without dementia.

  20. Ambient Assisted Living and ageing: preliminary results of RITA project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquilano, Michela; Cavallo, Filippo; Bonaccorsi, Manuele; Esposito, Raffaele; Rovini, Erika; Filippi, Massimo; Esposito, Dario; Dario, Paolo; Carrozza, Maria Chiara

    2012-01-01

    The ageing of population is a social phenomenon that most of worldwide countries are facing. They are, and will be even more in the future, indeed trying to find solutions for improving quality of life of their elderly citizens. The project RITA wants to demonstrate that an update of the current socio-medical services with an Ambient Assisted Living (AAL) approach could improve the service efficiency and the quality of life of both elderly and caregiver. This paper presents the preliminary results obtained in RITA.

  1. Old age and vulnerability between first, second and third person perspectives. Ethnographic explorations of aging in contemporary Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grøn, Lone

    2016-12-01

    This paper is based on an ethnographic fieldwork aimed at exploring ethnographically how vulnerability in old age is perceived and experienced in contemporary Denmark. The fieldwork showed remarkable differences between two phases of the fieldwork: the first addressing vulnerability from the "outside" through group interviews with professionals, leaders and older people who were not (yet) vulnerable; and the second from the "inside" through more in depth fieldwork with older people who in diverse ways could be seen as vulnerable. After a short introduction to anthropological and social gerontological literature on characteristics of "Western" aging: medicalization, successful, healthy and active aging, I present findings from both phases of this ethnographic fieldwork arguing that the ethnographic approach reveals the composite and complex nature of vulnerability in old age and the constant interactions between first, second and third person perspectives. Through these methodological and analytical moves a complex and empirically tenable understanding of vulnerability in old age has emerged which 1. moves beyond rigid dichotomies that have characterized the study of old age, 2. integrates individual experience, social interaction and the structural and discursive context into the analysis, and 3. reveals the complex interplay between vulnerability and agency in diverse situations and settings of old age. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. DOES PHYSICAL ACTIVITY AT A YOUNG AGE REALLY MEAN A HEALTHIER ADULTHOOD AND OLD AGE?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branko Škof

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Physical education in schools endeavours to develop life patterns through encouraging regular physical activity and sports in childhood and youth, so as to establish a life-long goal that will reflect in an active, healthy lifestyle and consequently in a higher quality of life also in adulthood and old age. This, however, also raises an important question: Are these goals in fact achieved? The purpose of this paper is based on a review of available - particularly longitudinal - studies and aims at determining the extent of the impact of an active lifestyle and an appropriate level of physical fitness in youth on the health, physical activity and lifestyle in later stages of life. Despite the great interest in academic research of the issue, this question has not yet obtained a completely clear answer. The overall conclusion of most significant longitudinal studies around the world is that a physically active lifestyle developed during childhood and adolescence generally transfers to adulthood; however, the links between practising sports / doing physical activity during childhood/adolescence and adulthood are low (r = 0.09 to 0.25. The relationship between the individual stages of life decreases with an increase of the age interval under observation. On the other hand, more advanced training programmes for young people have a greater impact on the physical activity and health status of the same people in later periods of life. Many more extensive longitudinal studies will be required in order to clarify this issue. Nevertheless, a basic finding is clear: only regular and systematic physical activity both in youth and later periods can contribute to better fitness and better health.

  3. Expectations on old age in the opinion of young people with regard to sociodemographic factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Smoleń

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Old age is a natural, individual and inherent part of life, conditioned by numerous factors. Its advent is often surprising, so it is worth to prepare for it. Poland is one of the aging countries, where the proportion of older people is increasing and life expectancy is on the rise. Aim. Determining the expectations of youth in relation to old age in terms of sociodemographic factors. Materials and methods. The study was conducted in 2016 in Sanok among 360 respondents (120 students and 120 gymnasium students and 120 high school students. Diagnostic survey and survey technique were used. The research tool was the author's questionnaire survey. Statistical tests used were: the V Kramer, Chi-square and Phi tests. The significance level of p <0.05 was assumed. Results. More than half of the youth surveyed thought of their old age. A significant percentage declared that they were afraid of old age and the fear was more often expressed by women. Young people in their old age are most afraid of diseases. Main expectations regarding old age in the opinion of young people are the maintenance of health and the ability to fulfill dreams. A significant percentage of respondents indicated that in the old age they would have an excess of free time. Only about one-third of young people indicated that they had been preparing for retirement all their lives. Half of the respondents declared that when they would get older they would like te continue education. Conclusions. A conscious entry into the old age stage favors the acceptance of inevitable changes and adaptations to this period of life. This process should begin at the stage of lifelong learning.

  4. Prevention in old age psychiatry in low-resource settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bichitra Nanda Patra

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the global population is aging as a result of demographic transition. The elderly are at a higher risk of developing mental illness. This could be due to many reasons including biological factors such as multiple physical illnesses and their treatments and psychosocial factors such as migration, social isolation, and changing family structure. At times, the psychiatric illnesses in the elderly present with atypical features and often go unnoticed. There is a huge treatment gap in addressing the mental health issues of older adults in low-resource countries like India. So far, the preventive aspects in psychiatry are less developed and the mental health care mainly focuses on sickness and treatment. As the number of trained mental health professionals and resources allocated to the field of mental health is meager in low-resource settings, prevention of psychiatric disorders in older adults seems to be a cost-effective option for these settings. In this article, various measures for prevention of psychiatric disorders in elderly low-resource settings have been discussed.

  5. Three silver linings in the cloud of old age: an autobiographical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haber, David

    2014-01-01

    Through the author's experiences as a gerontological social worker, graduate student in gerontology, and gerontology professor, the author discovered not only the cloud of old age, but three silver linings.

  6. Fertility Decline, Gender Composition of Families, and Expectations of Old Age Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allendorf, Keera

    2015-08-01

    Recent fertility declines in non-Western countries may have the potential to transform gender systems. One pathway for such transformations is the creation of substantial proportions of families with children of only one gender. Such families, particularly those with only daughters, may facilitate greater symmetry between sons and daughters. This article explores whether such shifts may influence gendered expectations of old age support. In keeping with patriarchal family systems, old age support is customarily provided by sons, but not daughters, in India. Using data from the 2005 Indian Human Development Survey, I find that women with sons overwhelmingly expect old age support from a son. By contrast, women with only daughters largely expect support from a daughter or a source besides a child. These findings suggest that fertility decline may place demographic pressure on gendered patterns of old age support and the gender system more broadly.

  7. Age-Related Diseases and Clinical and Public Health Implications for the 85 Years Old and Over Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efraim Jaul

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available By 2050, the American 85 years old and over population will triple. Clinicians and the public health community need to develop a culture of sensitivity to the needs of this population and its subgroups. Sensory changes, cognitive changes, and weakness may be subtle or may be severe in the heterogeneous population of people over age 85. Falls, cardiovascular disease, and difficulty with activities of daily living are common but not universal. This paper reviews relevant changes of normal aging, diseases, and syndromes common in people over age 85, cognitive and psychological changes, social and environmental changes, and then reviews common discussions which clinicians routinely have with these patients and their families. Some hearing and vision loss are a part of normal aging as is decline in immune function. Cardiovascular disease and osteoporosis and dementia are common chronic conditions at age 85. Osteoarthritis, diabetes, and related mobility disability will increase in prevalence as the population ages and becomes more overweight. These population changes have considerable public health importance. Caregiver support, services in the home, assistive technologies, and promotion of home exercise programs as well as consideration of transportation and housing policies are recommended. For clinicians, judicious prescribing and ordering of tests includes a consideration of life expectancy, lag time to benefit, and patient goals. Furthermore, healthy behaviors starting in early childhood can optimize quality of life among the oldest-old.

  8. Fertility Decline, Gender Composition of Families, and Expectations of Old Age Support

    OpenAIRE

    Allendorf, Keera

    2014-01-01

    Recent fertility declines in non-Western countries may have the potential to transform gender systems. One pathway for such transformations is the creation of substantial proportions of families with children of only one gender. Such families, particularly those with only daughters, may facilitate greater symmetry between sons and daughters. This article explores whether such shifts may influence gendered expectations of old age support. In keeping with patriarchal family systems, old age sup...

  9. Something old, something new: data warehousing in the digital age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguire, Rob; Woolf, Andrew

    2015-04-01

    Australian Water Resource Information System (AWRIS) and the Australian Data Archive for Meteorology (ADAM). These maintain the national archive of hydrological and climate data. We are undertaking a migration of AWRIS from a 'software-centric' system to a 'data-centric' warehouse, with significant benefits in performance, scalability, and maintainability. As well, the architecture supports the use of conventional BI tools for product development and visualisation. We have also experimented with a warehouse ETL replacement for custom tsunameter ingest code in ADAM, with considerable success. Our experience suggests that there is benefit to be gained through adoption by science agencies of professional IT best practice that is mature in industry but may have been overlooked by scientific information practitioners. In the case of data warehousing, the practice requires a change of perspective from a focus on code development to a focus on data. It will continue to be relevant in the 'digital age' as vendors increasingly support integrated warehousing and 'big data' platforms.

  10. [Disembedding and remoralization. Old age security and intergenerational relations in globalized welfare capitalism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leisering, L

    2002-08-01

    The article reconstructs the changes in provision for old age since the 19th century with regard to the ensuing change in intergenerational relationships. The first finding is a broadening of the arenas of provision for old age, a historical cumulation of family (which is still relevant), welfare state and, increasingly, private provision in financial markets, adding up to a 'welfare mix' in old age. This implies a complexification of intergenerational relationships. The second finding is an ambivalent qualitative change: on the one hand relationships between generations become more anonymous and disembedded from primary social relationships; on the other hand they are politicized (they become a public issue) and remoralized. This ambivalence applies to bureaucratic provision for old age in the welfare state, i.e., to social insurance. The main thesis is that--contrary to neoliberal belief--private old-age security in global financial markets cannot be seen as individualistic and moral-free but constitutes an anonymous exchange relationship between generations on financial markets that also raises issues of intergenerational justice. We can expect that these abstract relationships between generations will be politicized and remoralized as a consequence. Welfare state and financial markets offer solutions to problems of previous forms of provision for old age but they also produce new problems of intergenerational relationships.

  11. Alterations and diseases of the gastrointestinal tract caused by old age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayerl, F.

    1981-01-01

    The dissertation reviews the publications on 'The gastrointestinal tract in old age' since 1941. As in the 1941 publication by Heinrich, particular interest is taken in diagnostic radiology. The lower age limit of the cases described was set at 55 to 60 years. Oesophageal changes ranged from functional disturbances (e.g. atonia, changes in peristalsis, or dilatation) to chronic inflammation, displacement caused by the surrounding organs, and tumours (mainly carcinoma). Formation of diverticula takes an intermediate position. Of the gastric and duodenal changes, hiatal hermia and chronic atrophic gastritis were the most frequent. Ulcers caused by old age differ from 'common' ulcers in some respects, and the symptoms may be confused with those of gastric carcinoma. Early gastric carcinoma is another disease whose incidence increases with age. Thoracic and spinal changes may cause impressions on the stomach. The effects of old age on the time of passage of contrast media, on gastric tone, and on the shape of the stomach remain unclear. Changes caused by old age in the small and large intestine range from formation of diverticula and vascular diseases (e.g. ischaemic colitis and obstruction of the mesenteric vessels) to the frequent carcinoma of the large intestine and rectum. According to this study it has to be supposed that the degenerative atrophic processes of aging and previous diseases occurring increasingly in old age, favour the provocation of ratrogenic injuries. (orig./MG) [de

  12. "Love without sex is friendship. Sex without love is desire": sex life in old age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela Berger

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with sexuality in old age. This is a comparative study between classes "A" and "D". The main objective of this paper is to state the following paradox: on the one hand, sexuality in old age has been affirmed and valued in the construction of feminine self-esteem, on the other, can not only blame the woman who can not adhere to them, as well as produce a new homogenization of "being old" now associated with the proper management of sexuality.

  13. Self-esteem development from young adulthood to old age: a cohort-sequential longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orth, Ulrich; Trzesniewski, Kali H; Robins, Richard W

    2010-04-01

    The authors examined the development of self-esteem from young adulthood to old age. Data came from the Americans' Changing Lives study, which includes 4 assessments across a 16-year period of a nationally representative sample of 3,617 individuals aged 25 years to 104 years. Latent growth curve analyses indicated that self-esteem follows a quadratic trajectory across the adult life span, increasing during young and middle adulthood, reaching a peak at about age 60 years, and then declining in old age. No cohort differences in the self-esteem trajectory were found. Women had lower self-esteem than did men in young adulthood, but their trajectories converged in old age. Whites and Blacks had similar trajectories in young and middle adulthood, but the self-esteem of Blacks declined more sharply in old age than did the self-esteem of Whites. More educated individuals had higher self-esteem than did less educated individuals, but their trajectories were similar. Moreover, the results suggested that changes in socioeconomic status and physical health account for the decline in self-esteem that occurs in old age.

  14. ["Young love is from earth--mature love is from heaven" (Turkish proverb). Attitudes to sexuality in old age].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch-Straube, U

    1982-01-01

    The prevailing attitudes towards sexuality in old age are described in a rather phenomenological analysis: sexuality ends corresponding to the termination of reproductiveness; sexual needs in old age appear to be pathological; the elderly's sexual acts are disgusting. Empirical findings corroborate those conclusions. The situation is explained by societal circumstances, by the learning histories, and by the living conditions in old age. Examples of agreement with sexuality in old age demonstrate the often idle potentialities which are hidden in this sector of life.

  15. Working memory training in old age: an examination of transfer and maintenance effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borella, Erika; Carretti, Barbara; Zanoni, Giulia; Zavagnin, Michela; De Beni, Rossana

    2013-06-01

    The present study examined the efficacy of a verbal working memory (WM) training program in old-old individuals (over 75 years of age). Thirty-six adults aged 75-87 took part in the study: 18 were randomly assigned to receive training and the remainder served as active controls. Specific training gains in a verbal WM task (criterion task), and transfer effects on measures of visuospatial WM, short-term memory, inhibition, processing speed, and fluid intelligence were examined. The trained old-old adults performed better than the controls in the criterion task, and this benefit persisted after 8 months; they also showed an increase in the efficiency of inhibitory mechanisms at follow-up compared with pretest. The results of this study suggest that the present WM training program produces benefits maintained over time even in old-old adults. These findings confirm that there is still room for plasticity in the basic mechanisms of cognition in advance old age.

  16. Is death our business? Philosophical conflicts over the end-of-life in old age psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKellar, Duncan; Ng, Felicity; Chur-Hansen, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Old age psychiatrists work with end-of-life (EOL) issues and encounter patient deaths, but death and dying have received limited focus in old age psychiatry training and research. This qualitative study explores old age psychiatrists' experience of and approach to working with patients at the EOL. Australian old age psychiatrists were purposively sampled and interviewed in-depth. Data saturation was achieved after nine participant interviews. Verbatim transcripts were analysed for themes, which were independently verified. Two dichotomous overarching themes were identified. Death is not our business reflected participants' experience of working in a mental health framework and incorporated four themes: death should not occur in psychiatry; working in a psychiatric treatment model; keeping a distance from death and unexpected death is a negative experience. Death is our business reflected participants' experience of working in an aged care context and incorporated four themes: death is part of life; encountering the EOL through dementia care; doing EOL work and expected death is a positive experience. Participants reported conflict because of the contradictory domains in which they work. They were comfortable working with patients at the EOL when death was expected, particularly in dementia. By contrast, they struggled with death as an adverse outcome in circumstances influenced by mental health culture, which was characterised by risk management, suicide prevention and a focus on recovery. This study has implications for models of care underpinning old age psychiatry. An integrated person-centred model of care may provide a contextually appropriate approach for practice.

  17. Sexuality in old age: key issues, gender differences and future proposals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noelia Fernández-Rouco

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a brief overview of some of the most important issues related to sexuality during old age. First, it presents the state of the current situation, in order to later explore some of the elements that have been considered key factors in experiencing sexuality, specifically in this stage of life, while exploring certain needs and difficulties. Similarly, some of the differences between men and women, within this context, are presented. Finally, future proposals aimed at better understanding this topic in old age are presented, with suggestions on how to improve wellbeing and care in regard to sexuality among the aging population.

  18. "Not a replacement": emotional experiences and practical consequences of Israeli second couplehood stepfamilies constructed in old age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koren, Chaya; Lipman-Schiby, Sharon

    2014-12-01

    The increase in life expectancy enhances phenomena such as second couplehood in old age following widowhood or divorce as an alternative way of coping with changes that occur with aging. Research on the phenomenon has focused mainly on individual and dyadic perspectives of the repartnered. The aim of this article was to explore repartnering from the stepfamily's perspective, which has scarcely been studied. Nineteen Israeli stepfamilies (38 multigenerational families) were recruited using criterion sampling, of men who repartnered at age 65+ and women at 60+, with children and grandchildren from a lifelong marriage that ended in widowhood or divorce. We audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim 107 semi-structured, qualitative interviews with older partners, their adult children, and grandchildren. Analysis was based on grounded theory and dyadic analysis principles adapted to families. It showed how repartnering in old age changed the family structure, constructing complex stepfamilies, which require further study. Emotional experiences refer to repartnering being a replacement for couplehood but not for parenthood/grandparenthood. Practical consequences refer to "knowing their place" within the stepfamily and included the following subthemes: showing affection; participating in memorials for the deceased spouse; sharing, listening, and assisting. Findings are discussed regarding life course and family life cycle perspectives. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Advanced maternal age: ethical and medical considerations for assisted reproductive technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Brittany J; Hilton, Tara N; Rivière, Raphaël N; Ferraro, Zachary M; Deonandan, Raywat; Walker, Mark C

    2017-01-01

    This review explores the ethical and medical challenges faced by women of advanced maternal age who decide to have children. Assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) make post-menopausal pregnancy physiologically plausible, however, one must consider the associated physical, psychological, and sociological factors involved. A quasi-systematic review was conducted in PubMed and Ovid using the key terms post-menopause, pregnancy + MeSH terms [donations, hormone replacement therapy, assisted reproductive technologies, embryo donation, donor artificial insemination, cryopreservation]. Overall, 28 papers encompassing two major themes (ethical and medical) were included in the review. There are significant ethical considerations and medical (maternal and fetal) complications related to pregnancy in peri- and post-menopausal women. When examining the ethical and sociological perspective, the literature portrays an overall positive attitude toward pregnancy in advanced maternal age. With respect to the medical complications, the general consensus in the evaluated studies suggests that there is greater risk of complication for spontaneous pregnancy when the mother is older (eg, >35 years old). This risk can be mitigated by careful medical screening of the mother and the use of ARTs in healthy women. In these instances, a woman of advanced maternal age who is otherwise healthy can carry a pregnancy with a similar risk profile to that of her younger counterparts when using donated oocytes.

  20. Associations of Midlife to Late Life Fatigue With Physical Performance and Strength in Early Old Age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mänty, Minna Regina; Kuh, Diana; Cooper, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To examine associations of fatigue in midlife and later life with physical performance and strength in early old age. METHODS: Data on approximately 1800 men and women from the UK Medical Research Council National Survey of Health and Development with data on fatigue at ages 43 and 60...... points. These associations were robust and were maintained after adjustment for a range of covariates including physical activity and health status. CONCLUSIONS: Reports of frequent fatigue were associated with poorer physical performance in early old age, especially if sustained from midlife to later...... to 64 years were used. Fatigue was defined as perceived tiredness and was assessed prospectively at ages 43 and 60 to 64 years. At both ages, participants were categorized as having no, occasional, or frequent fatigue. Physical performance and strength were measured at age 60 to 64 years using four...

  1. Sociodemographic and health profile of inmates of old age homes in and around Belgaum city, Karnataka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viveki, R G; Halappanavar, A B; Joshi, A V; Pujar, Kirankumar; Patil, Sandhya

    2013-10-01

    A new trend of admitting more and more senior citizens hailing from the Indian middle class background to old age homes is being observed in recent times. The objectives of this study were to study sociodemographic dimensions and common health problems of inmates of old age homes and to know various reasons for their admissions and their leisure time activities in old age homes. The present cross-sectional study was conducted during March and April 2010 in 4 different old age homes in and around Belgaum city, North Karnataka, by interviewing the inmates of old age homes using predesigned, pretested, structured questionnaire followed by thorough clinical examination and haemoglobin estimation by Sahli's method. The collected data was compiled and analysed using SPSS software version 14. Out of 73 elderly, 54 were females (74.0%). Majority were in the age group of 61-70 years (50.7%) and 56 were belonging to nuclear family (76.7%). Thirty-nine inmates were widow/widower (53.4%) and 42 were having no children (57.5%). Forty-seven inmates were admitted as there was nobody to take care of them (64.4%). Common health problems observed were locomotive/joint and muscle disorders (35.6%), hypertension (34.2%), diabetes mellitus (26.0%), respiratory disorders (23.3%), hearing loss (21.9%) etc. Forty-nine were having normal body mass index (67.1%) while 19.2% were underweight. Majority were having haemoglobin levels between 10-12 g/dl (58.9%). Old age homes definitely will enable the elderly to remain sociopsychologically healthy and lead active lives if effective medical and emotional support is given.

  2. Relationships among age, gender, anthropometric characteristics, and dynamic balance in children 5 to 12 years old.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butz, Sarah M; Sweeney, Jane K; Roberts, Pamela L; Rauh, Mitchell J

    2015-01-01

    To examine relationships among age, gender, anthropometrics, and dynamic balance. Height, weight, and arm and foot length were measured in 160 children with typical development aged 5 to 12 years. Dynamic balance was assessed using the Timed Up and Go (TUG) test, Pediatric Reach Test (PRT), and Pediatric Balance Scale (PBS). Moderate to good positive relationships (r = 0.61 and r = 0.56) were found between increasing age and PRT and PBS scores. A fair negative relationship (r = -0.49) was observed between age and TUG test. No significant gender-by-age group difference was observed. Age had the strongest influence on TUG and PBS scores; arm length had the strongest influence on PRT scores. Dynamic balance ability is directly related to chronological age. Age and arm length have the strongest relationships with balance scores. These findings may assist pediatric therapists in selecting dynamic balance tests according to age rather than specific diagnosis.

  3. Together and apart: a typology of re-partnering in old age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koren, Chaya

    2014-08-01

    The human need for love, friendship, and physical contact, and the fear of loneliness do not diminish with age. Widowhood and late-life divorce and increased life expectancy are likely to lead to alternative relationships, such as re-partnering. The purpose of this paper is to explore interplays between emotional and physical components of re-partnering in old age. Theoretical sampling of 20 couples included men who re-partnered at the age of 65+ years and women at the age of 60+ years, following termination of lifelong marriages due to death or divorce. Living arrangements included married or unmarried cohabitation under the same roof or in separate homes. Forty semi-structured interviews were tape-recorded and transcribed verbatim. The couple was the unit of analysis. Interplays between physical and emotional dimensions were examined using five abductive parameters derived from data analysis resulting in a fourfold typology of emotional and physical closeness/distance in re-partnering in old age: (1) living together (physically and emotionally); (2) living apart (physically) together (emotionally); (3) living together (physically) apart (emotionally); and (4) living apart (physically and emotionally). Findings revealed types of partner relationships that are different from lifelong marriages. The typology could help professionals working with older persons regarding what to expect in re-partnering in old age and be included in developmental theories as an option in old age. A quantitative tool for research and therapy purposes, entitled The Re-partnering in Old Age Typology Scale (RPOAT Scale), based on abductive parameters, could be established for measuring re-partnering relationship quality and classifying re-partnering couples.

  4. [The relationship between neuroendocrine dysfunction and free-radical oxidation in old age alcoholism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinogradov, D B; Mingazov, A Kh; Izarovskaya, I V; Babin, K A; Sinitsky, A I

    2015-01-01

    to study the relationship between dysfunction of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and free-radical oxidation in old age alcoholism. Authors examined 46 men and women, aged 60-80 years, with alcoholism. Contents of cortisol, lipid peroxidation products and the level of an oxidatively modified protein were measured. A decrease in blood cortisol content and correlations between its level and activity of free-radical oxidation were identified. The severity of neuroendocrine dysfunction in old patients was sex-related. It has been suggested that the impairment of HPA system activity may be a cause of oxidative stress and development of alcoholism.

  5. Learning and memory in mice with neuropathic pain: impact of old age and progranulin deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris eAlbuquerque

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Persistent neuropathic pain is a frequent consequence of peripheral nerve injuries, particularly in the elderly. Using the IntelliCage we studied if a sciatic nerve injury obstructed learning and memory in young and aged mice, each in wild type and progranulin deficient mice, which develop premature signs of brain aging and are more susceptible to nerve injury evoked nociceptive hypersensitivity and hence allow to assess a potential mutual aggravation of pain and old age. Both young and aged mice developed long-term nerve injury-evoked hyperalgesia and allodynia but, in both genotypes, only aged mice with neuropathic pain showed high error rates in place avoidance acquisition tasks. Once learnt however, aged mice with neuropathic pain maintained the aversive memory longer, i.e. the extinction was significantly slowed. In addition, nerve injury in progranulin deficient mice impaired the learning of spatial sequences of awarded places, particularly in aged mice, whereas easy place preference learning was not affected by nerve injury or progranulin deficiency. The sequencing task required a discrimination of clockwise and anti-clockwise sequences and spatial flexibility to re-learn a novel sequence. The loss of spatial flexibility did not occur in sham operated mice, i.e. was a consequence of nerve injury and suggests that neuropathic pain accelerates manifestations of old age and progranulin deficiency. Neuropathic pain at old age, irrespective of the genotype, resulted in a long maintenance of aversive memory suggesting a negative alliance and possibly mutual aggravation of chronic neuropathic pain and aversive memory at old age.

  6. Internet-Assisted Parent Training Intervention for Disruptive Behavior in 4-Year-Old Children: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sourander, Andre; McGrath, Patrick J; Ristkari, Terja; Cunningham, Charles; Huttunen, Jukka; Lingley-Pottie, Patricia; Hinkka-Yli-Salomäki, Susanna; Kinnunen, Malin; Vuorio, Jenni; Sinokki, Atte; Fossum, Sturla; Unruh, Anita

    2016-04-01

    There is a large gap worldwide in the provision of evidence-based early treatment of children with disruptive behavioral problems. To determine whether an Internet-assisted intervention using whole-population screening that targets the most symptomatic 4-year-old children is effective at 6 and 12 months after the start of treatment. This 2-parallel-group randomized clinical trial was performed from October 1, 2011, through November 30, 2013, at a primary health care clinic in Southwest Finland. Data analysis was performed from August 6, 2015, to December 11, 2015. Of a screened population of 4656 children, 730 met the screening criteria indicating a high level of disruptive behavioral problems. A total of 464 parents of 4-year-old children were randomized into the Strongest Families Smart Website (SFSW) intervention group (n = 232) or an education control (EC) group (n = 232). The SFSW intervention, an 11-session Internet-assisted parent training program that included weekly telephone coaching. Child Behavior Checklist version for preschool children (CBCL/1.5-5) externalizing scale (primary outcome), other CBCL/1.5-5 scales and subscores, Parenting Scale, Inventory of Callous-Unemotional Traits, and the 21-item Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale. All data were analyzed by intention to treat and per protocol. The assessments were made before randomization and 6 and 12 months after randomization. Of the children randomized, 287 (61.9%) were male and 79 (17.1%) lived in other than a family with 2 biological parents. At 12-month follow-up, improvement in the SFSW intervention group was significantly greater compared with the control group on the following measures: CBCL/1.5-5 externalizing scale (effect size, 0.34; P anxiety (effect size, 0.26; P = .003), and emotional problems (effect size, 0.31; P = .001); Inventory of Callous-Unemotional Traits callousness scores (effect size, 0.19; P = .03); and self-reported parenting skills (effect size

  7. The impact of old age on surgical outcomes of totally laparoscopic gastrectomy for gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min Gyu; Kim, Hee Sung; Kim, Byung Sik; Kwon, Sung Joon

    2013-11-01

    Old age is regarded as the risk factor of major abdominal surgery due to the lack of functional reserve and the increased presence of comorbidities. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of old age on the surgical outcomes of totally laparoscopic gastrectomy for gastric cancer. This study enrolled 389 gastric cancer patients who underwent totally laparoscopic gastrectomy at Hanyang University Guri Hospital and ASAN Medical Center. The patients were classified into two groups according to age as those older than 70 years and those younger than 70 years. Early surgical outcomes such as operation time, postoperative complications, time to first flatus, days until soft diet began, and hospital stay were evaluated. No patient was converted to open surgery. The two groups differed significantly in terms of overall postoperative complication rate, time to first flatus, days until soft diet began, and hospital stay. The patients who underwent Roux-en-Y gastrojejunostomy differed in incidence of postoperative ileus but not in severe postoperative complication rate. The results of this study demonstrated that old age can have an effect on the surgical outcomes of totally laparoscopic gastrectomy. This study especially showed that elderly patients are affected by the return of bowel movement after totally laparoscopic gastrectomy. On the other hand, however, it is presumed that old age has not had a serious impact on surgical outcomes in totally laparoscopic gastrectomy because no difference in the severe postoperative complication rate was observed.

  8. Being given a cancer diagnosis in old age: a phenomenological study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbensen, Bente Appel; Swane, Christine E; Hallberg, Ingalill Rahm

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of the study was to illuminate the lived experience of being given a cancer diagnosis in old age. Background: Little research has been done on the experience of elderly people developing cancer and the impact of the illness on their lives. Such knowledge is needed to support e...... in clinical practice, to identify the specific meaning the turning point has for an elderly person with cancer, and to understand the particular approach he or she uses to handle the awareness of being old. (C) 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved Udgivelsesdato: 2008/3......Objectives: The aim of the study was to illuminate the lived experience of being given a cancer diagnosis in old age. Background: Little research has been done on the experience of elderly people developing cancer and the impact of the illness on their lives. Such knowledge is needed to support...... elderly people in dealing with issues arising after cancer is diagnosed. Design: A descriptive phenomenological method was used to investigate the phenomenon "the lived experience of being given a cancer diagnosis in old age". Participants: In total, 16 persons (aged 65+, mean age 76, range 68...

  9. [History and poetry in women's biological twilight: menopause and old age].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz y Hermida, Julio

    2011-01-01

    This is a poetical and historical approach to the last biological stages of the evolutive development of women, namely menopause and old age. It starts with the passages found in Egyptian Papirii such as Ebers or Smith, dated 1500-2000 BC, which describe, among other symptoms, the sweating and hig body temperatures caused by the diminishing hormon secretion of the ovaries. Other important works on the subject, some of them written in the 20th century and some others composed before that date, are also quoted, such as the Edad Crítica (Critical Age) by Dr. Marañon. The final stage of a woman's life, old age, is presented through the famous sonet "Alfa y Omega" (Alpha and Omega) by poet Manuel Machado. Using poetical strokes, the author conveys an image of the many phisiopatological consequences of old age in women: osteoporosis, genital prolapse, urine incontinence and "wrinkles" ("old age is neither shown by white hair nor by wrinkles but by the heart"). The work finishes with the famous statement uttered by Napoleon Bona-parte: "God wanted to be a writer: Man is His prose; His poetry, Women". The same poetry that Dr. Cruz y Hermida has found through the complexities of the evolutive process of feminine biology.

  10. DEVELOPMENT VARIABILITY OF LONGITUDINAL SPINE FEATURES IN CHILDREN AGING 7-15 YEARS OLD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Kochan

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Increased body growth is connected with higher sensitivity to environmental influence and may be a cause of instability of body posture. This happens when trunk and lower limbs growth is more intense. Because body posture disorders are most often diagnosed in children and school adolescents, the sample chosen were subjects between 7 and 15 years old. Material and methods. The data was gathered in 2002 in the town of Polkowice. Examination concerned 2706 boys and girls aged 7 to 15 years old. The measurement included basic somatic features and for the body posture photogrammetric method was used. Results. It was indicated that the relative trunk length in both sexes was decreasing in early school period but in the three oldest groups of age there was a significant increase. The height of kyphosis was increasing significantly in both sexes with age. Most intensive growth of this parameter was observed between 12 and 13 years old subjects. In both sexes there could be seen significant increase of kyphosis depth between 12 and 14 years old and also the decrease of lumbar lordosis between 12 and 13 years old subjects. Conclusion. Significant increase of thoracical spine relative height and lumbar lordosis depth in adolescents in both sexes can be one of the causes of weakening spine stability and affect correct body posture development.

  11. Reprint of: Musculoskeletal system in the old age and the demand for healthy ageing biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collino, Sebastiano; Martin, François-Pierre; Karagounis, Leonidas G; Horcajada, Marie Noelle; Moco, Sofia; Franceschi, Claudio; Kussmann, Martin; Offord, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Population ageing has emerged as a major demographic trend worldwide due to improved health and longevity. This global ageing phenomenon will have a major impact on health-care systems worldwide due to increased morbidity and greater needs for hospitalization/institutionalization. As the ageing population increases worldwide, there is an increasing awareness not only of increased longevity but also of the importance of "healthy ageing" and "quality of life". Yet, the age related chronic inflammation is believed to be pathogenic with regards to its contribution to frailty and degenerative disorders. In particular, the frailty syndrome is increasingly being considered as a key risk indicator of adverse health outcomes. In addition, elderly may be also prone to be resistant to anabolic stimuli which is likely a key factor in the loss of skeletal muscle mass with ageing. Vital to understand these key biological processes is the development of biological markers, through system biology approaches, aiding at strategies for tailored therapeutic and personalized nutritional program. Overall aim is to prevent or attenuate decline of key physiological functions required to live an active, independent life. This review focus on core indicators of health and functions in older adults, where nutrition and tailored personalized programs could exhibit preventive roles, and where the aid of metabolomics technologies are increasingly displaying potential in revealing key molecular mechanisms/targets linked to specific ageing and/or healthy ageing processes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Musculoskeletal system in the old age and the demand for healthy ageing biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collino, Sebastiano; Martin, François-Pierre; Karagounis, Leonidas G; Horcajada, Marie Noelle; Moco, Sofia; Franceschi, Claudio; Kussmann, Martin; Offord, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Population ageing has emerged as a major demographic trend worldwide due to improved health and longevity. This global ageing phenomenon will have a major impact on health-care systems worldwide due to increased morbidity and greater needs for hospitalization/institutionalization. As the ageing population increases worldwide, there is an increasing awareness not only of increased longevity but also of the importance of "healthy ageing" and "quality of life". Yet, the age related chronic inflammation is believed to be pathogenic with regards to its contribution to frailty and degenerative disorders. In particular, the frailty syndrome is increasingly being considered as a key risk indicator of adverse health outcomes. In addition, elderly may be also prone to be resistant to anabolic stimuli which is likely a key factor in the loss of skeletal muscle mass with ageing. Vital to understand these key biological processes is the development of biological markers, through system biology approaches, aiding at strategies for tailored therapeutic and personalized nutritional program. Overall aim is to prevent or attenuate decline of key physiological functions required to live an active, independent life. This review focus on core indicators of health and functions in older adults, where nutrition and tailored personalized programs could exhibit preventive roles, and where the aid of metabolomics technologies are increasingly displaying potential in revealing key molecular mechanisms/targets linked to specific ageing and/or healthy ageing processes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. An Introduction to Export Assistance in the Internet Age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramanathan, Somasundaram; Rask, Morten

    2003-01-01

    's (2002) model about web marketing strategies for conceptualizing the Internet related developments associated with export assistance. Finally, we highlight the implications of providing export assistance over the Internet. Those interested in export assistance research and those providing export......Governments and other non-profit organizations have been providing information-oriented services for long to encourage exports. The primary targeted recipient of such services is Small and Medium sized Enterprises (SME's). The effectiveness of such activities has been researched extensively until...

  14. An Introduction to Export Assistance in the Internet Age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramanathan, Somasundaram; Rask, Morten

    2004-01-01

    's (2002) model about web marketing strategies for conceptualizing the Internet related developments associated with export assistance. Finally, we highlight the implications of providing export assistance over the Internet. Those interested in export assistance research and those providing export......Governments and other non-profit organizations have been providing information-oriented services for long to encourage exports. The primary targeted recipient of such services is Small and Medium sized Enterprises (SME's). The effectiveness of such activities has been researched extensively until...

  15. Old Age, Widows, and Rural Solitude in the Eighteenth Century Central-Southern Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco GARCÍA GONZÁLEZ

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Current research about old age during the Ancient Regime in Spain is insufficient. And the same is the case with women, despite the large number of studies about gender and family history in the past decades. Taking, as a starting point, the analysis of widow women which became heads of households, this paper aims to know which specific characteristics had those households during their old age, composition, size, typology and the tendency to solitude; which activities and livelihood they had, paying attention to those differences as an expression of inequality; and which mechanisms and social reproduction strategies they followed to deal with the effects of aging. This paper is geografically focused in a wide rural area of central-southern Spain and aims to review the assumption that single and widow women in preindustrial age had subordinted lives. 

  16. Evaluation on the implementation of respiratory protection measures in old age homes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee DT

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Diana TF Lee,1 Doris Yu,1 Margaret Ip,2 Jennifer YM Tang3 1The Nethersole School of Nursing, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, 2Department of Microbiology, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Prince of Wales Hospital, Sha Tin, 3Sau Po Centre on Ageing, The University of Hong Kong, Pok Fu Lam, Hong Kong Purpose: Old age homes (OAHs represent a vulnerable community for influenza outbreaks. Effective implementation of respiratory protection measures has been identified as an effective prevention measure to reduce mortality and morbidity caused by such outbreaks. Yet, relatively little is known about this aspect in these homes. This study evaluated the implementation of respiratory protection measures among infection control officers (ICOs and health care workers (HCWs in these homes in Hong Kong.Patients and methods: A territory-wide, cross-sectional survey was conducted in 87 OAHs. A total of 87 ICOs and 1,763 HCWs (including nurses, health workers, care workers, allied HCWs and assistants completed the questionnaires that evaluated the implementation at the organizational level and individual level, respectively. Generalized estimating equations with unstructured working correlation matrix were used to analyze the simultaneous influence of organizational and individual factors on the implementation.Results: At the organizational level, all homes had a policy on respiratory protection and implementation of such measures was generally adequate. Basic resources such as paper towels/hand dryers and equipment disinfectants, however, were rated as most inadequate by HCWs. Training opportunities were also identified as grossly inadequate. Only less than half of the ICOs and HCWs participated in training on infection control either at the initiation of employment or on a regular basis. Twenty-five percent of HCWs even indicated that they had never participated in any infection control training. At the individual level, hand hygiene, among other

  17. Believing What You Hear: The Impact of Aging Stereotypes upon the Old

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Teri; Gaines, Jean

    2010-01-01

    Stereotypes about aging and the old, both negative and positive, have significant influence upon older people themselves. Often unknowingly, older people incorporate these stereotypes into their own thinking and self-perceptions. A literature search revealed four primary hypotheses about the manner in which these self-stereotypes impact older…

  18. Two Hemispheres for Better Memory in Old Age: Role of Executive Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angel, Lucie; Fay, Severine; Bouazzaoui, Badiaa; Isingrini, Michel

    2011-01-01

    This experiment explored the functional significance of age-related hemispheric asymmetry reduction associated with episodic memory and the cognitive mechanisms that mediate this brain pattern. ERPs were recorded while young and older adults performed a word-stem cued-recall task. Results confirmed that the parietal old/new effect was of larger…

  19. The Economic Legacy of Divorce and Separation for Women in Old Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Lynn; Robb, A. Leslie

    2004-01-01

    Although progress has been made over the last 20 years, the burden of a low income in old age is still carried by unattached women. Few researchers, however, have examined exactly where the burden of poverty falls within the category of unattached older women or what the nature of this poverty is. Like any other group of older Canadians,…

  20. Nutritional care in old age: the effect of supplementation on nutritional status and performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manders, M.

    2006-01-01

    Malnutrition is frequently observed in elderly people living in nursing homes and homes for the elderly. Anorexia resulting in inadequate dietary intake is often a cause of malnutrition. Malnutrition in old age affects several aspects of functioning. Earlier research has shown that a complete

  1. Symposium 2: exercise and protein nutrition obesity, sarcopenia and their functional consequences in old age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, M.

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity is high in older persons and recent trends show a rapid increase in this prevalence. Results from observational and intervention studies (i.e. weight loss studies) show the strong negative impact of obesity on functional status in old age. There are different potential

  2. Maintaining life satisfaction at old age in spite of physical decline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Puvill-Strooband, T.J.

    2017-01-01

    Life expectancy is rising fast, but not all years gained are free of disease. Therefore, many people wonder to what extent the years that we have gained are enjoyable. Studies however show that life satisfaction generally remains high at old age. We investigate this surprising phenomenon using data

  3. Old and Unemployable? How Age-Based Stereotypes Affect Willingness to Hire Job Candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Dominic; Swift, Hannah J; Drury, Lisbeth

    2016-03-01

    Across the world, people are required, or want, to work until an increasingly old age. But how might prospective employers view job applicants who have skills and qualities that they associate with older adults? This article draws on social role theory, age stereotypes and research on hiring biases, and reports three studies using age-diverse North American participants. These studies reveal that: (1) positive older age stereotype characteristics are viewed less favorably as criteria for job hire, (2) even when the job role is low-status, a younger stereotype profile tends to be preferred, and (3) an older stereotype profile is only considered hirable when the role is explicitly cast as subordinate to that of a candidate with a younger age profile. Implications for age-positive selection procedures and ways to reduce the impact of implicit age biases are discussed.

  4. The Influence of Social Factors on Life Satisfaction in Old Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Miha Kaučič

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Research question (RQ: What is the connection between social factors and life satisfaction in old age? Purpose: The purpose of this research was to establish the influence of social factors on life satisfaction in old age. Method: The quantitative research method was used, a causal non-experimental method. As sampling data technique we used the technique of a survey questionnaire in ten statistical regions. For the analysis of causal effects and conditional associations we used the advanced statistical propensity score methods (Rubin, 2006. From the statistical set a simple random sample was chosen, we decided on proportionate stratification. For measuring life satisfaction we used Satisfaction with Life Scale (Diener, to which we added questions in order to study social factors. The research included 656 older adults aged 65 years and above, living in the home environment or in social care institutions. Results: Closely connected to life satisfaction in old age is the living conditions index (housing conditions, environment, financial situation, safety, whereas the lifestyle index (physical activity, nutrition, smoking, alcohol consumption is less closely connected. Discussion: Life satisfaction in old age is importantly influenced by social factors – suitable living conditions and less influenced by a healthy lifestyle, both of which allow for a quality life also in old age. Society: The research has an important influence on the society, as too little attention is being devoted to the phenomenon of ageing. By alerting the public we wish to contribute towards the detabuisation of ageing and ageism. For the stable healthcare system it is important that older adults remain healthy, independent and satisfied. Originality: The originality of the research is in the studying of social factor in the holistic model of satisfaction with life in the old age, which also includes physical, psychological and spiritual factors. Limitations

  5. Spirometry reference equations for central European populations from school age to old age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochat, Mascha K; Laubender, Ruediger P; Kuster, Daniela; Braendli, Otto; Moeller, Alexander; Mansmann, Ulrich; von Mutius, Erika; Wildhaber, Johannes

    2013-01-01

    Spirometry reference values are important for the interpretation of spirometry results. Reference values should be updated regularly, derived from a population as similar to the population for which they are to be used and span across all ages. Such spirometry reference equations are currently lacking for central European populations. To develop spirometry reference equations for central European populations between 8 and 90 years of age. We used data collected between January 1993 and December 2010 from a central European population. The data was modelled using "Generalized Additive Models for Location, Scale and Shape" (GAMLSS). The spirometry reference equations were derived from 118'891 individuals consisting of 60'624 (51%) females and 58'267 (49%) males. Altogether, there were 18'211 (15.3%) children under the age of 18 years. We developed spirometry reference equations for a central European population between 8 and 90 years of age that can be implemented in a wide range of clinical settings.

  6. Financial literacy is associated with white matter integrity in old age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, S Duke; Boyle, Patricia A; Arfanakis, Konstantinos; Fleischman, Debra; Yu, Lei; James, Bryan D; Bennett, David A

    2016-04-15

    Financial literacy, the ability to understand, access, and utilize information in ways that contribute to optimal financial outcomes, is important for independence and wellbeing in old age. We previously reported that financial literacy is associated with greater functional connectivity between brain regions in old age. Here, we tested the hypothesis that higher financial literacy would be associated with greater white matter integrity in old age. Participants included 346 persons without dementia (mean age=81.36, mean education=15.39, male/female=79/267, mean MMSE=28.52) from the Rush Memory and Aging Project. Financial literacy was assessed using a series of questions imbedded as part of an ongoing decision making study. White matter integrity was assessed with diffusion anisotropy measured with diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging (DTI). We tested the hypothesis that higher financial literacy is associated with higher diffusion anisotropy in white matter, adjusting for the effects of age, education, sex, and white matter hyperintense lesions. We then repeated the analysis also adjusting for cognitive function. Analyses revealed regions with significant positive associations between financial literacy and diffusion anisotropy, and many remained significant after accounting for cognitive function. White matter tracts connecting right hemisphere temporal-parietal brain regions were particularly implicated. Greater financial literacy is associated with higher diffusion anisotropy in white matter of nondemented older adults after adjusting for important covariates. These results suggest that financial literacy is positively associated with white matter integrity in old age. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Looking Very Old Age in the Eye: A Nuanced Approach to the Fourth Age in Contemporary Irish Fiction: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamorano Llena, Carmen

    2018-04-21

    Associations of young-old age with successful aging have contributed to relegating negatively perceived aspects of aging to very old age. This has prompted the formation of the social imaginary of the fourth age. Re-examinations of the fourth age foreground the diversity of aging experiences among the oldest old. In this sense, literature is in a privileged position to contribute individual narratives of aging to this field. The main aim of this article is to analyze Irish writer Jennifer Johnston's later fiction and how particularly two of her later fictional works contribute a nuanced re-examination of the fourth age through the narrativization of individual aging experiences of the oldest old in the contemporary Irish context. The work of sociologists and social theorists on re-examinations of the fourth age functions as the framework to analyze the selected fictional texts. The analysis of the oldest old characters in Truth or Fiction and Naming the Stars shows the contribution of literary texts to rethinking the fourth age as a time characterized by the inextricable combination of gains and losses, with emphasis on the diversity of the aging experiences of the oldest old and on the importance of sociocultural influence on individual aging. Combining longitudinal analyses with case studies, such as the ones suggested by these fictional texts, can provide a more accurate knowledge of the experience of advanced old age and the fourth age.

  8. Motor and non-motor symptoms in old-age onset Parkinson's disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendonça, Marcelo D; Lampreia, Tania; Miguel, Rita; Caetano, André; Barbosa, Raquel; Bugalho, Paulo

    2017-07-01

    Advancing age is a well-known risk factor for Parkinson's disease (PD). With population ageing it is expected that the total number of patients with PD onset at oldage increases. Information on the motor but particularly on non-motor phenotype of this late-onset population is lacking. We recruited 24 patients with PD onset at or over 75 years. Each patient was matched with 1 control patient with PD onset between the ages of 40 and 65 and matched for disease duration. Both groups were assessed with the UPDRS, the Non-motor symptoms scale (NMSS) and other scales to assess non-motor symptoms. Groups were compared with conditional logistic regression analysis. Old-age onset PD was, on average, 80 years at the time of PD onset while middle-age onset were 59. Disease duration was approximately 5 years in both groups. While no difference was observed in the total UPDRS-III scores, old-age onset PD was associated with higher axial symptoms (7.42 vs. 4.63, p = 0.011) and a higher frequency of dementia (7/24 vs. 0/24, p = 0.009). While no difference in the total number of non-motor symptoms was observed (6.79 vs. 6.22, p = 0.310), old-age onset patients had a higher prevalence of gastrointestinal symptoms (20/24 vs. 12/24, p = 0.037). For the same disease duration, older age onset is associated with worse axial motor dysfunction and dementia in PD patients. Beside gastrointestinal symptoms, non-motor symptoms are not associated with age.

  9. Is midlife occupational physical activity related to disability in old age? The SNAC-Kungsholmen study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Rydwik

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Leisure-time physical activity (PA has been established to be related to more years lived without disability. However, less is known about the relationship between occupational PA and disability in old age. The aim of the study was 1 to investigate whether midlife occupational PA is related to late-life disability, and 2 to test the hypothesis that the association differs according to the occupational categories of blue and white collar work. METHODS: The study population was derived from the Swedish National Study on Aging and Care, and consisted of a random sample of 1804 subjects aged 72 and above. The association of occupational PA during the longest held occupation with disability in old age was determined using logistic regression. RESULTS: There was no significant relationship between occupational PA and disability in personal or instrumental activities of daily living (ADL after controlling for demographic and health-related factors. However, in stratified analyses moderate levels of occupational PA was associated with a lower odds ratio of dependency in personal ADL amongst white collar workers, compared to low level of occupational PA (OR = 0.34 95% C1 0.12-0.98. CONCLUSIONS: Moderate levels of midlife occupational PA were associated with a decreased risk of personal ADL disability in old age among white collar workers, but not among blue collar workers. Our results highlight the importance of encouraging white collar workers to engage in physical activity during or outside work hours.

  10. Association study of FOXO3A SNPs and aging phenotypes in Danish oldest-old individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soerensen, Mette; Nygaard, Marianne; Dato, Serena

    2015-01-01

    -old Danes (age 92-93) with 4 phenotypes known to predict their survival: cognitive function, hand grip strength, activity of daily living (ADL), and self-rated health. Based on previous studies in humans and foxo animal models, we also explore self-reported diabetes, cancer, cardiovascular disease......FOXO3A variation has repeatedly been reported to associate with human longevity, yet only few studies have investigated whether FOXO3A variation also associates with aging-related traits. Here, we investigate the association of 15 FOXO3A tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 1088 oldest...... borderline significance (P = 0.054), while ADL did not (P = 0.396). Although the single-SNP associations did not formally replicate in another study population of oldest-old Danes (n = 1279, age 94-100), the estimates were of similar direction of effect as observed in the Discovery sample. A pooled analysis...

  11. Adaptation in very old age: exploring the role of resources, beliefs, and attitudes for centenarians' happiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jopp, Daniela; Rott, Christoph

    2006-06-01

    When individuals reach very old age, accumulating negative conditions represent a serious challenge to their capacity to adapt and are likely to reduce the quality of life. By examining happiness and its determinants in centenarians, this study investigated the proposal that psychological resilience may come to an end in extremely old age. Data from the population-based Heidelberg Centenarian Study indicated high levels of happiness. Basic resources (i.e., job training, cognition, health, social network, extraversion) explained a substantial proportion of variance in happiness, but some resource effects were mediated through self-referent beliefs (e.g., self-efficacy) and attitudes toward life (e.g., optimistic outlook). Results challenge the view that psychological resilience reaches a critical limit or that the self-regulatory adaptation system loses its efficiency in very advanced age. Copyright (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved.

  12. Conflicting notions of citizenship in old age: An analysis of an activation practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hees, Susan; Horstman, Klasien; Jansen, Maria; Ruwaard, Dirk

    2015-12-01

    Ageing societies and increasing healthcare expenditures are inducing Western welfare states to reform their care arrangements. In a qualitative research project, we explored how citizenship in old age is constructed in a public innovative care practice situated in the southern part of the Netherlands: the shaping of 'life cycle robust neighbourhoods'. Life cycle robustness entails a further not formally defined ideal of age-friendly places, enabling older adults to live independently for longer periods of time. Participation is being presented as an important element towards life cycle robustness. We used ethnographic methods to understand different constructions of citizenship in old age. We analysed documents and interviewed local policymakers and civil servants, managers and directors in the fields of housing, care and welfare, professionals working for these organisations, and older adults living (independently) in these neighbourhoods (n=73). Additionally, we observed formal and informal meetings and organised focus groups. Our findings demonstrate conflicting notions of old age. Policymakers and civil servants, managers and directors, professionals, and even representatives of older adults share a belief an activation policy is necessary, although they differ in how they interpret this need. Policymakers and civil servants are convinced that societal and financial incentives necessitate current reforms, managers and directors talk about quality and organisational needs, while professionals mainly strive to empower older adults (as citizens). Simultaneously, older adults try to live their lives as independent as possible. We argue that, whereas old age became a distinct category in the last century, we now recognise a new period in which this category is being more and more de-categorised. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Spirometry reference equations for central European populations from school age to old age.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mascha K Rochat

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Spirometry reference values are important for the interpretation of spirometry results. Reference values should be updated regularly, derived from a population as similar to the population for which they are to be used and span across all ages. Such spirometry reference equations are currently lacking for central European populations. OBJECTIVE: To develop spirometry reference equations for central European populations between 8 and 90 years of age. MATERIALS: We used data collected between January 1993 and December 2010 from a central European population. The data was modelled using "Generalized Additive Models for Location, Scale and Shape" (GAMLSS. RESULTS: The spirometry reference equations were derived from 118'891 individuals consisting of 60'624 (51% females and 58'267 (49% males. Altogether, there were 18'211 (15.3% children under the age of 18 years. CONCLUSION: We developed spirometry reference equations for a central European population between 8 and 90 years of age that can be implemented in a wide range of clinical settings.

  14. Health economic choices in old age: interdisciplinary perspectives on economic decisions and the aging mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Lisbeth; Phillips, John W R

    2008-01-01

    This chapter offers an integrative review of psychological and neurobiological differences between younger and older adults that might impact economic behavior. Focusing on key health economic challenges facing the elderly, it offers perspectives on how these psychological and neurobiological factors may influence decision-making over the life course and considers future interdisciplinary research directions. We review relevant literature from three domains that are essential for developing a comprehensive science of decision-making and economic behavior in aging (psychology, neuroscience, and economics), consider implications for prescription drug coverage and long-term care (LTC) insurance, and highlight future research directions. Older adults face many complex economic decisions that directly affect their health and well-being, including LTC insurance, prescription drug plans, and end of life care. Economic research suggests that many older Americans are not making cost-effective and economically rational decisions. While economic models provide insight into some of the financial incentives associated with these decisions, they typically do not consider the roles of cognition and affect in decision-making. Research has established that older age is associated with predictable declines in many cognitive functions and evidence is accumulating that distinct social motives and affect-processing profiles emerge in older age. It is unknown how these age differences impact the economic behaviors of older people and implies opportunities for path-breaking interdisciplinary research. Our chapter looks to develop interdisciplinary research to better understand the causes and consequences of age-related changes in economic decision-making and guide interventions to improve public programs and overall social welfare.

  15. Relation between trends in late middle age mortality and trends in old age mortality--is there evidence for mortality selection?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, F.; Peeters, A.; Mackenbach, J. P.; Kunst, A. E.

    2005-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: To test whether mortality selection was a dominant factor in determining trends in old age mortality, by empirically studying the existence of a negative correlation between trends in late middle age mortality and trends in old age mortality among the same cohorts. DESIGN AND

  16. Is There a Reversal in the Effect of Obesity on Mortality in Old Age?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiska Cohen-Mansfield

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies of obesity and its relationship with mortality risk in older persons have yielded conflicting results. We aimed to examine the age-related associations between obesity and mortality in older persons. Data were drawn from the Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Aging Study (CALAS, a national survey of a random sample of older Jewish persons in Israel conducted during 1989–1992. Analyses included 1369 self-respondent participants aged 75–94 from the Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Aging Study (CALAS. Mortality data at 20-year followup were recorded from the Israeli National Population Registry. Obesity was significantly predictive of higher mortality for persons aged 75–84, but from age 85 onwards, obesity had a protective effect on mortality albeit at a nonsignificant level. Being underweight was consistently predictive of mortality. Findings suggest that the common emphasis on avoiding obesity may not apply to those advancing towards old-old age, at least as far as mortality is concerned.

  17. The development of old age human resource under the background of population ageing in china

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Xin; Xu, Jian-pei

    2007-01-01

    China is the country that has the most population in quantity of the world. Rapidly growing population has brought about enormous pressure on the social and economic development. Thus population control is always one of the population policies focuses in our country. However, China has not succeed in escaping out from the pressure of population control, another challenge-population ageing is coming. This challenge also can bring the great impact on the whole social and economic development. M...

  18. Of Energy and Entropy: The Ineluctable Impact of Aging in Old Age Dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia Boccardi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer’s disease (AD represents the most common form of dementia among older age subjects, and despite decades of studies, the underlying mechanisms remain unresolved. The definition of AD has changed over the past 100 years, and while early-onset AD is commonly related to genetic mutations, late-onset AD is more likely due to a gradual accumulation of age-related modifications. “Normal brain aging” and AD may represent different pathways of successful or failed capability to adapt brain structures and cerebral functions. Cellular senescence and age-related changes (ARCs affecting the brain may be considered as biologic manifestations of increasing entropy, a measure of disorder. Late-onset AD may be regarded as the final effect of a reduced energy production, due to exhausted mitochondria, and an increased entropy in the brain. This unique trajectory enables a bioenergetics-centered strategy targeting disease-stage specific profile of brain metabolism for disease prevention and treatment.

  19. Signaling pathway activation drift during aging: Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria Syndrome fibroblasts are comparable to normal middle-age and old-age cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliper, Alexander M; Csoka, Antonei Benjamin; Buzdin, Anton; Jetka, Tomasz; Roumiantsev, Sergey; Moskalev, Alexy; Zhavoronkov, Alex

    2015-01-01

    For the past several decades, research in understanding the molecular basis of human aging has progressed significantly with the analysis of premature aging syndromes. Progerin, an altered form of lamin A, has been identified as the cause of premature aging in Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria Syndrome (HGPS), and may be a contributing causative factor in normal aging. However, the question of whether HGPS actually recapitulates the normal aging process at the cellular and organismal level, or simply mimics the aging phenotype is widely debated. In the present study we analyzed publicly available microarray datasets for fibroblasts undergoing cellular aging in culture, as well as fibroblasts derived from young, middle-age, and old-age individuals, and patients with HGPS. Using GeroScope pathway analysis and drug discovery platform we analyzed the activation states of 65 major cellular signaling pathways. Our analysis reveals that signaling pathway activation states in cells derived from chronologically young patients with HGPS strongly resemble cells taken from normal middle-aged and old individuals. This clearly indicates that HGPS may truly represent accelerated aging, rather than being just a simulacrum. Our data also points to potential pathways that could be targeted to develop drugs and drug combinations for both HGPS and normal aging.

  20. Dream content of Canadian males from adolescence to old age: An exploration of ontogenetic patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Allyson; Lafrenière, Alexandre; De Koninck, Joseph

    2017-03-01

    The present study was a first look at the ontogenetic pattern of dream content across the lifespan for men. The participants included 50 Canadian men in each of 5 age groups, from adolescence to old age including 12-17, 18-24, 25-39, 40-64, and 65-85. The last age group included 31 participants, totaling 231 males. One dream per participant was scored by two independent judges using content analysis. Trend analysis was used to determine the lifespan-developmental pattern of the dream content categories. Results demonstrated a predominance of aggressive dream imagery in the adolescent age group in line with social-developmental research. These patterns of dream imagery reflect the waking developmental patterns as proposed by social theories and recognized features of aging. Limitations and suggestions for future research, including the examining of the developmental pattern of gender differences across the lifespan, are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. EVALUATION OF ATTITUDES TOWARDS OLD AGE AMONG OLDER ADULTS IN AN INSTITUTIONAL FACILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlína Urbanová

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the research was to determine attitudes towards old age in older adults living in institutional facilities, and to compare them with the population standard. A further aim was to determine differences in attitudes towards old age by gender, age, level of education, and self-sufficiency in the older adults surveyed. Design: A cross-sectional study. Methods: A research sample consisting of 121 elderly people living in retirement homes. Data were collected using a Czech version of the AAQ questionnaire (Attitudes to Ageing Questionnaire, and Barthelʼs test of Activities of daily living was used to assess levels of self-sufficiency. Results: Older adults awarded the highest score (most positive attitude in the domain of psychosocial losses. In comparison with the population standard, older adults rated the domain of physical change (p < 0.001 and psychological growth (p < 0.001 negatively. The domain of psychosocial losses was assessed more positively by men (p < 0.001 and the elderly with moderate dependence (p < 0.001; the domain of physical changes was also positively assessed by men (p = 0.001, and older adults with university education (p = 0.002; the domain of psychological growth was rated more positively by adults over 85 years (p = 0.001, and the elderly with basic education (p = 0.040. Conclusion: Determining older adults´ attitudes towards ageing in institutional care may help in the preparation of individual care plans aimed at supporting clients in areas that have been evaluated negatively. Keywords: institutional care, quality of life, attitudes, old age, ageing, self-sufficiency.

  2. Living in old age: contributions to active aging in rural areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Conceição Antunes

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The intervention here described resulted from a research / intervention work developed with the elderly who attended an adult education workshop, which purpose was to promote active aging by means of sociocultural animation. It involved a group of 22 participants aged between 67 and 92 years. The authors developed a participatory action-research, applying the interpretive-hermeneutic paradigm and resorting to sociocultural animation techniques - methodologies that usually foster motivation and participation on the target population. Based on the interests, needs and potential of the participants seven workshops were developed: Manual and Decorative Arts; Preventive Health; Gardening; Cooking; Musical Expression; Gymnastics; and Religious Activities. Various types of activities (physical, cognitive, recreational, social, emotional and spiritual were fostered, which allowed the development of the elderly’s functional abilities (e.g. mobility, memory, creativity, critical reflection; the fostering of interactional and interpersonal processes, valuing the traditions and fomenting spirituality. The intervention had positive results as the final evaluation revealed: the participants highlighted the benefits of the project, in particular, the levels of physical and psychological well-being, the augment of the quality of their relationships with others and the acquisition of new apprenticeships. This project reiterated the importance of social and cultural activities regarding the elderly’s learning processes, welfare and quality of life.

  3. Healthy ageing and home: the perspectives of very old people in five European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sixsmith, J; Sixsmith, A; Fänge, A Malmgren; Naumann, D; Kucsera, C; Tomsone, S; Haak, M; Dahlin-Ivanoff, S; Woolrych, R

    2014-04-01

    This paper reports on in-depth research, using a grounded theory approach, to examine the ways in which very old people perceive healthy ageing in the context of living alone at home within urban settings in five European countries. This qualitative study was part of a cross-national project entitled ENABLE-AGE which examined the relationship between home and healthy ageing. Interviews explored the notion of healthy ageing, the meaning and importance of home, conceptualisations of independence and autonomy and links between healthy ageing and home. Data analysis identified five ways in which older people constructed healthy ageing: home and keeping active; managing lifestyles, health and illness; balancing social life; and balancing material and financial circumstances. Older people reflected on their everyday lives at home in terms of being engaged in purposeful, meaningful action and evaluated healthy ageing in relation to the symbolic and practical affordances of the home, contextualised within constructions of their national context. The research suggests that older people perceive healthy ageing as an active achievement, created through individual, personal effort and supported through social ties despite the health, financial and social decline associated with growing older. The physicality and spatiality of home provided the context for establishing and evaluating the notion of healthy ageing, whilst the experienced relationship between home, life history and identity created a meaningful space within which healthy ageing was negotiated. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Professor Age and Research Assistant Ratings of Passive-Avoidant and Proactive Leadership: The Role of Age-Related Work Concerns and Age Stereotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacher, Hannes; Bal, P. Matthijs

    2012-01-01

    Recent research has shown that, in general, older professors are rated to have more passive-avoidant leadership styles than younger professors by their research assistants. The current study investigated professors' age-related work concerns and research assistants' favorable age stereotypes as possible explanations for this finding. Data came…

  5. Professor age and research assistant ratings of passive-avoidant and proactive leadership : The role of age-related work concerns and age stereotypes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zacher, Hannes; Bal, P. Matthijs

    2012-01-01

    Recent research has shown that, in general, older professors are rated to have more passive-avoidant leadership styles than younger professors by their research assistants. The current study investigated professors' age-related work concerns and research assistants' favorable age stereotypes as

  6. THE OLD AGE PENSION SYSTEM IN A TAX HAVEN: THE CASE OF THE BAHAMAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JAROSŁAW POTERAJ

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents an insight into the old age pension system in The Bahamas. There are four topic paragraphs: 1. the general information about country, 2. the evolution of its pension system, 3. the present situation, and 4. challenges and foreseen changes. There, the author’s goal was to present both past and present solutions employed by The Bahamas’ pension system, in search for ideas worth consideration in international comparisons. In the summary, the author highlights as a particular Bahamian approach, on the background of other countries, the typical for a tax haven attitude that the providing for the old age should be left to the prudence of each individual. The reader will learn that in the perspective of a few decades, the Bahamian pension system is endangered with insolvency. The actuarial considerations in the country seek solution to the problem in rising the compulsory rate of social insurance contribution.

  7. Advanced maternal age: ethical and medical considerations for assisted reproductive technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harrison BJ

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Brittany J Harrison,1 Tara N Hilton,1 Raphaël N Rivière,1 Zachary M Ferraro,1–3 Raywat Deonandan,4 Mark C Walker1–3,51Faculty of Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada; 2Division of Maternal-Fetal Medicine, University of Ottawa, The Ottawa Hospital, Ottawa, ON, Canada; 3Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, The Ottawa Hospital, Ottawa, ON, Canada; 4University of Ottawa Interdisciplinary School of Health Sciences, Ottawa, ON, Canada; 5Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Newborn Care, The Ottawa Hospital, Ottawa, ON, CanadaObjectives: This review explores the ethical and medical challenges faced by women of advanced maternal age who decide to have children. Assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs make post-menopausal pregnancy physiologically plausible, however, one must consider the associated physical, psychological, and sociological factors involved.Methods: A quasi-systematic review was conducted in PubMed and Ovid using the key terms post-menopause, pregnancy + MeSH terms [donations, hormone replacement therapy, assisted reproductive technologies, embryo donation, donor artificial insemination, cryopreservation]. Overall, 28 papers encompassing two major themes (ethical and medical were included in the review.Conclusion: There are significant ethical considerations and medical (maternal and fetal complications related to pregnancy in peri- and post-menopausal women. When examining the ethical and sociological perspective, the literature portrays an overall positive attitude toward pregnancy in advanced maternal age. With respect to the medical complications, the general consensus in the evaluated studies suggests that there is greater risk of complication for spontaneous pregnancy when the mother is older (eg, >35 years old. This risk can be mitigated by careful medical screening of the mother and the use of ARTs in healthy women. In these instances, a woman of advanced maternal age who is otherwise healthy can carry a

  8. Medial abrasion syndrome: a neglected cause of knee pain in middle and old age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Shaw-Ruey; Lee, Ching-Chih; Hsu, Chia-Chen

    2015-04-01

    Knee pain is a prevailing health problem of middle and old age. Medial plica-related medial abrasion syndrome (MAS), although a well-known cause of knee pain in younger individuals, has rarely been investigated in older individuals. This prospective study was conducted to investigate the prevalence and clinical manifestations of this syndrome as a cause of knee pain in middle and old age. The outcomes of arthroscopic treatment for this syndrome were also evaluated.A total of 232 knees of 169 patients >40 years of age (41-82, median: 63 years old) suffering from chronic knee pain were analyzed. The clinical diagnosis, predisposing factors, presenting symptoms, and physical signs were investigated. The sensitivity and specificity of each parameter of the clinical presentation for the diagnosis of MAS were evaluated after confirmation by arthroscopy. For patients with MAS, the roentgenographic and arthroscopic manifestations were investigated, and arthroscopic medial release (AMR) was performed. The outcomes were evaluated by the changes in the pain domain of the Knee Society scoring system and by patient satisfaction. The prevalence of medial plica was 95%, and osteoarthritis (OA) was the most common clinical diagnosis. Symptoms of pain and crepitus in motion and local tenderness during physical examination were the most sensitive parameters for the diagnosis. A history of a single knee injury combined with local tenderness and a palpable band found during physical examination were the most specific parameters for the diagnosis. The majority of patients suffering from this syndrome were successfully treated using AMR, yielding a satisfaction rate of 85.5% after a minimum of 3 years.MAS is a common cause of knee pain in middle and old age and can be effectively treated by AMR. Its concomitance with OA warrants further investigation.

  9. The Economic Legacy of Divorced and Separated Women in Old Age

    OpenAIRE

    Lynn McDonald; A. Leslie Robb

    2003-01-01

    Although progress has been made over the last 20 years, the burden of a low income in old age is still carried by unattached women. Few researchers, however, have examined exactly where the burden of poverty falls within the category of unattached older women or the nature of this poverty. Like any other group of older Canadians, unattached women are not a homogenous population. The category of 'unattached' includes the separated, divorced, widowed and ever single, all of whom face different ...

  10. Nursing homes as the perspective and reality of guest workers in old age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljubica Milosavljević

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present the results of research conducted as part of the “Ambivalent nostalgia in the cultural heritage of gastarbeiters” project of the Ethnological-anthropological society of Serbia. The research was conducted in Kučevo and Wienna in 2014. The research focused on older guest workers or gastarbeiters who are mostly in the status of disabled pensioners, and seniors whose family members work abroad. An important criterion for determining the gasterbeiter population was entering into the sphere of work in an active capacity, specified by the assumed “temporality” in the country of work; the determination of “seniority” is based on the criteria of exiting the active sphere of work. In this way a new kind of old person, a new kind of pensioner was formed – the foreign currency pensioner whose operating strategies are partly in the focus of this paper. Aside from these strategies, the paper analyzes the strategies employed by the family members of gastarbeiters facing the old age of their relatives who reside in their country of origin either permanently or on a semi-permanent basis; as well as the strategies which the Gerontological Society of Serbia tried to develop in cooperation with the former Ministry of Diaspora RS with the aim of attracting aging gastarbeiters to domestic nursing homes, as well as stimulating the diaspora to invest in such institutions in Serbia. In short, the life experiences and attitudes of 14 pensioners interviewed in Kučevo and Vienna on issues of old age, possible – or ongoing life in a nursing home, the differences and/or similarities between them and other old folks they encountered abroad or at home, as well as experiences with working with the aging gastarbeiter population shared by six employees in a private as well as a public nursing home in Kučevo, will be the object of analysis in this paper.

  11. Labour Supply Effects of a Subsidised Old-Age Part-Time Scheme in Austria

    OpenAIRE

    Nikolaus Graf; Helmut Hofer; Rudolf Winter-Ebmer

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we evaluate the impact of the old-age part-time scheme (OAPT) on the Austrian labour market which was a policy to allow flexible retirement options for the elderly with an aim to increase labour supply. According to our matching estimates employment probability increases slightly, especially in the first two years after entrance into the programme. Furthermore, the programme seems to reduce the measured unemployment risk. However, the total number of hours worked is significantl...

  12. Prospective associations between adolescent mental health problems and positive mental wellbeing in early old age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishida, Atsushi; Richards, Marcus; Stafford, Mai

    2016-01-01

    Mental health problems in adolescence are predictive of future mental distress and psychopathology; however, few studies investigated adolescent mental health problems in relation to future mental wellbeing and none with follow-up to older age. To test prospective associations between adolescent mental health problems and mental wellbeing and life satisfaction in early old age. A total of 1561 men and women were drawn from the Medical Research Council National Survey of Health and Development (the British 1946 birth cohort). Teachers had previously completed rating scales to assess emotional adjustment and behaviours, which allowed us to extract factors of mental health problems measuring self-organisation, behavioural problems, and emotional problems during adolescence. Between the ages of 60-64 years, mental wellbeing was assessed using the Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale (WEMWBS) and life satisfaction was self-reported using the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS). After controlling for gender, social class of origin, childhood cognitive ability, and educational attainment, adolescent emotional problems were independently inversely associated with mental wellbeing and with life satisfaction. Symptoms of anxiety/depression at 60-64 years explained the association with life satisfaction but not with mental wellbeing. Associations between adolescent self-organisation and conduct problems and mental wellbeing and life satisfaction were of negligible magnitude, but higher childhood cognitive ability significantly predicted poor life satisfaction in early old age. Adolescent self-organisation and conduct problems may not be predictive of future mental wellbeing and life satisfaction. Adolescent emotional problems may be inversely associated with future wellbeing, and may be associated with lower levels of future life satisfaction through symptoms of anxiety/depression in early old age. Initiatives to prevent and treat emotional problems in adolescence may

  13. Does the association between leisure activities and survival in old age differ by living arrangement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsen, Charlotta; Agahi, Neda; Shaw, Benjamin A

    2018-01-01

    Government policies to promote ageing in place have led to a growing frail population living at home in advanced old age, many of whom live alone. Living alone in old age is associated with adverse health outcomes, but we know little about whether it moderates the health impact of other risk and protective factors. Engagement in leisure activities is considered critical to successful ageing. We investigated whether the association between different types of leisure activities and survival in non-institutionalised older adults (aged 76 and above) differs by living arrangement and gender. We used the Swedish Panel Study of Living Conditions of the Oldest Old study from 2011 and the Swedish Cause of Death Register (until 30 June 2014) to conduct Cox regression analyses (n=669). Incident mortality was 30.2% during the follow-up period. Overall level of leisure activity was not significantly associated with survival in either living arrangement, but some specific leisure activities, and associations, were different across gender and living arrangement. More specifically, certain social activities (participation in organisations and having relatives visit) were associated with longer survival, but only in men living alone. In women, most results were statistically non-significant, with the exception of solving crosswords being associated with longer survival in women living with someone. In order to facilitate engagement with life, interventions focusing on leisure activities in the oldest age groups should take gender and living arrangement into consideration when determining the type of activity most needed. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  14. Predicting and detecting adverse drug reactions in old age: challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangoni, Arduino A

    2012-05-01

    Increased, often inappropriate, drug exposure, pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic changes, reduced homeostatic reserve and frailty increase the risk of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) in the older population, thereby imposing a significant public health burden. Predicting and diagnosing ADRs in old age presents significant challenges for the clinician, even when specific risk scoring systems are available. The picture is further compounded by the potential adverse impact of several drugs on more 'global' health indicators, for example, physical function and independence, and the fragmentation of care (e.g., increased number of treating doctors and care transitions) experienced by older patients during their clinical journey. The current knowledge of drug safety in old age is also curtailed by the lack of efficacy and safety data from pre-marketing studies. Moreover, little consideration is given to individual patients' experiences and reporting of specific ADRs, particularly in the presence of cognitive impairment. Pending additional data on these issues, the close review and monitoring of individual patients' drug prescribing, clinical status and biochemical parameters remain essential to predict and detect ADRs in old age. Recently developed strategies, for example, medication reconciliation and trigger tool methodology, have the potential for ADRs risk mitigation in this population. However, more information is required on their efficacy and applicability in different healthcare settings.

  15. Genetic and environmental links between cognitive and physical functions in old age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnson, Wendy; Deary, Ian J; McGue, Matt

    2009-01-01

    of twins from the Longitudinal Study of Aging Danish Twins. Cognitive function was measured using forward and backward digit span, immediate and delayed memory, and fluency tasks. Physical function was measured using self-report of ability to carry out physical activities including walking, running......In old age, cognitive and physical functions are correlated. Knowing the correlations between genetic and environmental influences underlying this correlation can help to clarify the reasons for the observable (phenotypic) correlation. We estimated these correlations in a sample of 1,053 pairs...

  16. Death of a child and parental wellbeing in old age: Evidence from Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Chioun; Glei, Dana A.; Weinstein, Maxine; Goldman, Noreen

    2013-01-01

    The death of a child is one of the most traumatic events that a parent can experience. The psychological and physical consequences of bereavement are well established, and the consequences are more severe for mothers than fathers. However, little is known about how the death of an adult child affects parental wellbeing in old age or how the deceased child’s sex may moderate the association. We use data from the Taiwanese Longitudinal Study of Aging (TLSA) to investigate how the death of a son...

  17. [Demographic aging and social security. The insufficiency of old age pensions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham Chande, R

    1993-01-01

    The demographic transition is leading to demographic aging in Mexico, as lower fertility and greater life expectancy combine to produce absolute and percentage increases in the elderly population. Concern is growing about satisfying the material needs of the elderly population. Only a few developed countries are able to furnish adequate pensions to their retired workers through social security systems. In Mexico, class inequity is a greater determinant of the level of pension coverage than is generational solidarity. Mexico's 1990 census showed that the population of 81,250,000 was comprised of 24,517,000 economically active and 56,733,000 inactive persons. Of the 24,517,000 economically active, 7,282,000 mostly lower level employees and laborers were affiliated only with the Mexican Institute of Social Security (IMSS). 2,308,000 were covered by the IMSS and one of the complementary pension systems sponsored by the largest and most organized private companies. 2,629,000 were entitled to pensions through public sector employment and 584,000 through quasipublic employment. The remaining 11,571,000 had no rights to a pension. In other words, 47% of the labor force was not covered by any retirement pension system. 375,000 of the 5,007,000 persons over age 60 in the economically inactive population had some sort of pension from the IMSS. In 1990, 92% received the minimum pension, equivalent to 70% of the minimum salary. 229,000 had an IMSS pension and a complementary private pension. 196,000 pensioners in the public sector received an average pension of 1.5 times the minimum salary. 66,000 retired workers in quasipublic enterprises received pensions with automatic adjustments for inflation that frequently equaled 20 times the minimum salary. The total number of recipients of pensions of all types was 888,000,leaving 4,119,000 persons over 60 with no pension. Because of the deficiencies of the social security system, families must continue to be the institution that aids

  18. The Incorporation of the School Age Group of 16-18 Years Old in Gambling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MSc. Alfred Nela

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The scientific research of this paper focuses on the involvement of the school age group 16-18 years old in sports betting games impacted by beliefs on luck and social groups. For the collection of data literature is utilized, questionnaires are distributed and also focus groups were conducted. The assumptions of the assignment are: a The involvement of school age group 16-18 years in sports betting games are manners learned from their comrades, b The school age group 16-18 years old attribute to fate the participation in sports betting games. Over 64% of responses manifest that they have learned the rules from their companions. The revelations and questionnaire responses argue that over 45% of students in their classes play sports bets, and 34% think that the phenomena of sports betting depends on luck. The major part of this age group do not practice and believe in fortunate rituals or activities. The acquired data reflect that the extent of involvement of this age group is in substantial dimensions. We suggest that the decision-making bodies and service providers should develop strategies in order to reduce the phenomenon.

  19. Concrete and formal operational thought processes in young adulthood and old age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, V; Overton, W F

    1976-01-01

    A study was conducted to examine the role of concrete and formal operations in a young and old population. In addition, the present study explored the relation between operational thought and Cattell's concept of fluid and crystallized intelligence, as well as the role of differential living arrangements in maintaining operational thought. Eighty females from three age groups (18-20 years, 60-70 years and 70-80 years of age) were tested on a series of Piagetian tasks and indices of fluid and crystallized intelligence. The findings supported the notion that age-related performance differences occur in the area of formal operational thought prior to the time they occur in concrete operational thought. Except for the young sample, the operational tasks were found to be unrelated to fluid intelligence at the age levels represented in this study. Living independently as opposed to living in an old age home did not appear to be a significant factor in maintaining operational thought. Discussion focused on the necessity of identifying those factors which influence the developmental course of formal operational thought across the life span.

  20. Assessment of health status by molecular measures in adults ranging from middle-aged to old

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waaijer, M. E. C.; Westendorp, R. G. J.; Goldeck, D.

    2017-01-01

    In addition to measures already used in clinical practice, molecular measures have been proposed to assess health status, but these have not yet been introduced into clinical practice. We aimed to test the association of functional capacity measures used in current practice and molecular measures...... with age and health status. The cohort consisted of 178 middle-aged to old participants of the Leiden Longevity Study (range 42-82years). We tested associations between functional capacity measures (physical tests: grip strength, 4-meter walk, chair stand test; cognitive tests: Stroop test, digit symbol...... substitution test and 15-picture learning test) with age and with cardiovascular or metabolic disease as a measure of the health status. These associations with age and health status were also tested for molecular measures (C reactive protein (CRP), numbers of senescent p16INK4a positive cells in the epidermis...

  1. Influence of Paternal Age on Assisted Reproduction Outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-27

    We Will Retrospectively Assess Our Databases in Our Clinic; Instituto Valenciano de Infertilidad in Valencia (Spain); Searching for Assisted Reproduction Procedures; IUI Standard IVF/ICSI Cycles and Ovum Donation IVF/ICSI Cycles; Who Were Referred to Our Unit to Cryopreserve Sperm During the Period; From January 2000 to December 2006

  2. Changes in healthy food habits after transition to old age retirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helldán, Anni; Lallukka, Tea; Rahkonen, Ossi; Lahelma, Eero

    2012-08-01

    Retirement is one of the major transitions in the life course. However, it is poorly understood how health behaviours, such as food habits, might change after retirement. This study aimed to examine whether healthy food habits change after the transition to old age retirement and whether socio-demographic or health-related factors explain the association between retirement, being continuously employed and healthy food habits at follow-up. The data were derived from the Helsinki Health Study cohort on the staff of the City of Helsinki, Finland. The baseline questionnaire survey data were collected in 2000-02 and the follow-up in 2007. We included only participants who were aged 55-60 years at baseline and entered old age retirement during the follow-up (n = 1156, 76% women) or remained continuously employed (n = 1269, 79% women). Food habits from a food frequency questionnaire included eight items formed according to the Finnish and Nordic dietary recommendations. Logistic regression models were fitted to examine the associations between retirement, being continuously employed and healthy food habits at follow-up. Healthy food habits increased more among retired women than those continuously employed (P = 0.03). At follow-up retired women had healthier food habits than continuously employed women after adjusting for baseline food habits [OR = 1.36 (1.12-1.65)]. Among men, healthy food habits were unassociated with retirement. Transition to old age retirement is likely to have beneficial effects on food habits among women. This helps prevent major diseases and supports better public health among ageing people.

  3. Differential effects of enriched environment at work on cognitive decline in old age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Then, Francisca S; Luck, Tobias; Luppa, Melanie; König, Hans-Helmut; Angermeyer, Matthias C; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G

    2015-05-26

    The aim of the present study was to investigate how different mentally demanding work conditions during the professional life-i.e., enriched environments at work-might influence the rate of cognitive decline in old age. Individuals (n = 1,054) of the Leipzig Longitudinal Study of the Aged, a representative population-based cohort study of individuals aged 75 years and older, underwent cognitive testing via the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) in up to 6 measurement waves. Type and level of mentally demanding work conditions in the participants' former professional life were classified based on the O*NET job descriptor database. In multivariate mixed-model analyses (controlling for sociodemographic and health-related factors), a high level of mentally demanding work tasks stimulating verbal intelligence was significantly associated with a better cognitive functioning at baseline (on average 5 MMSE points higher) as well as a lower rate of cognitive decline (on average 2 MMSE points less) over the 8-year follow-up period compared with a low level. The rate of cognitive decline in old age was also significantly lower (on average 3 MMSE points less) in individuals who had a high level of mentally demanding work tasks stimulating executive functions than those who had a low level. The results suggest that a professional life enriched with work tasks stimulating verbal intelligence and executive functions may help to sustain a good cognitive functioning in old age (75+ years). The findings thus emphasize that today's challenging work conditions may also promote positive health effects. © 2015 American Academy of Neurology.

  4. Ill or just old? Towards a conceptual framework of the relation between ageing and disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Westendorp Rudi GJ

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Is this person ill or just old? This question reflects the pondering mind of a doctor while interpreting the complaints of an elderly person who seeks his help. Many doctors think that ageing is a non-disease. Accordingly, various attempts have been undertaken to separate pathological ageing from normal ageing. However, the existence of a normal ageing process distinct from the pathological processes causing disease later in life can be questioned. Discussion Ageing is the accumulation of damage to somatic cells, leading to cellular dysfunction, and culminates in organ dysfunction and an increased vulnerability to death. Analogously, chronic diseases initiate early in life and their development is slow before they become clinically apparent and culminate in disability or death. The definition of disease is also subject to current opinions and scientific understanding and usually, it is an act of individual creativity when physical changes are recognised as symptoms of a new disease. New diseases, however, are only rarely really new. Most new diseases have gone undiagnosed because their signs and symptoms escaped recognition or were interpreted otherwise. Many physical changes in the elderly that are not yet recognised as a disease are thus ascribed to normal ageing. Therefore, the distinction between normal ageing and disease late in life seems in large part arbitrary. Summary We think that normal ageing cannot be separated from pathological processes causing disease later in life, and we propose that the distinction is avoided.

  5. Psychosocial Impact of Assistive Technologies for Mobility and Their Implications for Active Ageing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anabela Correia Martins

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Active ageing is defined as the process of optimizing opportunities for physical, social and mental health to enable older people to actively take part in society without discrimination and to enjoy independence and good quality of life. The World Health Organization assumed this to be a process for increasing and maintaining an individual’s participation in activities to enhance his/her quality of life. In this survey, the authors addressed the following question: is assistive technology (AT for mobility contributing to enhancement of lifelong capacity and performance? Method: From June 2015 until February 2016, 96 community dwelling adults, AT users for mobility (powered wheelchairs, manual wheelchairs, lower limb prostheses, walkers, crutches and canes, aged 45–97, mean 67.02 ± 14.24 years old, 56.3% female, were interviewed using the Psychosocial Impact of Assistive Devices Scale (P-PIADS, the Activities and Participation Profile related to Mobility (APPM and demographics, clinical and questions about AT use and training. Results and Discussion: The participants’ profiles revealed moderate limitation and restrictions in participation, measured by the APPM (2.03. Most participants displayed a positive impact from AT; average scores obtained from the P-PIADS subscales were: Self-esteem 0.62, Competency 1.11 and Adaptability 1.10. The P-PIADS total was 0.96, with the powered wheelchair users scoring the highest (1.53 and the walker users scoring the lowest (0.73. All subscales and the P-PIADS total were positively correlated with the activities and participation profile. There was no relation between age and the psychosocial impact of AT or activities and participation profile. These results encourage the authors to follow up with these participants for a lifelong intervention. To accomplish that aim, currently, the protocol is implemented at the AT prescribing centers in Coimbra, Portugal in order to assess the impact of AT on

  6. "Old sertaneja song": narrating a backcountry life story about aging process in homosexuality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Alessandro Neman do Nascimento

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In contemporary times, the discussions about aging become very relevant as a consequence of the increased visibility of the old age issues presented in daily life. Many investigations and statistics bring out the growing number of people entering the so-called third age. This reality is mobilizing all social spheres in order to produce interventional strategies in agreement with the specificities required by this population, as far as what this public can revert back to the society. However, most of these studies seek to identify andlocate this population in plans of life that can often suggest the reification of norms and stereotypes that delimit what become old mean or just discuss the practice of medical care. This paper invests in questioning of modes of subjectification and lifestyles, from the intersections between generation (aging, homosexuality (sexuality and gender and territoriality (provincial town. It presents an analysis of a life story from the perspective of cultural studies and sexualities and gender to capture the subjective lines which constructsubjects and discourses, indicating social practices, modes of subjectification and social, historical, political and cultural conjunctures of determined contexts.

  7. "Old sertaneja song": narrating a backcountry life story about aging process in homosexuality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Alessandro Neman do Nascimento

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In contemporary times, the discussions about aging become very relevant as a consequence of the increased visibility of the old age issues presented in daily life. Many investigations and statistics bring out the growing number of people entering the so-called third age. This reality is mobilizing all social spheres in order to produce interventional strategies in agreement with the specificities required by this population, as far as what this public can revert back to the society. However, most of these studies seek to identify and locate this population in plans of life that can often suggest the reification of norms and stereotypes that delimit what become old mean or just discuss the practice of medical care. This paper invests in questioning of modes of subjectification and lifestyles, from the intersections between generation (aging, homosexuality (sexuality and gender and territoriality (provincial town. It presents an analysis of a life story from the perspective of cultural studies and sexualities and gender to capture the subjective lines which construct subjects and discourses, indicating social practices, modes of subjectification and social, historical, political and cultural conjunctures of determined contexts.

  8. Intima-media thickness of carotid artery in middle-aged and old-aged people with different age and sex at nanchang city by ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Qian; Chen Tian; Fan Ping; Yang Zhijie; Zhang Guoqiang; Liu Wei

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the intima-media thickness (IMT) of carotid artery in middleaged and old-aged people at different age and sex at Nanchang city and to establish the normal reference value. Methods: Excluding coronary heart disease, cerebrovascular disease and diabetes mellitus, 422 patients, above 30 years old were divided into the normal and the control groups based on whether the dangerous factors of atherosclerosis existed or not. Then each group was divided into 5 sub-groups according to age and sex and IMT of carotid artery measurement was perfrmed with ultrasound. Results: Means of IMT of carotid artery becomes higher as the age became older. IMT got predominant thick only when the age was more than 40 in male and 50 in female. Means of IMT is little higher than that in female,but there was no statistical difference between male and female group at age below 39 or above 50. Means of IMT in the control groups were higher than that in the normal groups and the differences was predominant. The ages older, the inner diameters of common carotid arteries wider, and became more predominant wide as the age was more than 50. Compared with female groups, the inner diameters of common carotid arteries of male groups were wider than those in the female groups'. The incidence rate of carotid atherosclerosis plaques was higher as the age became older, but the atherosclerosis plaques was not observed in population below 39 years old. In the population above 40 years old, the incidence rate of carotid atherosclerosis plaques was 5. 06% in the normal groups and 20. 60% in the control groups. No statistic differences exited in the incidence rate of carotid atherosclerosis plaques between the male and female groups. Carotid artery stenosis were observed i. e. five arteries were found in three control patients, and the stenosis degree exceed 50% of the diameter of artery. Conclusions: The IMT of common carotid arteries in the people at age of 40 and above 40 in the

  9. The meaning of having to live with cancer in old age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomé, B; Esbensen, B A; Dykes, A-K; Hallberg, I R

    2004-12-01

    Little is known about how older people with cancer experience their life situation. To increase the understanding of how illness is experienced in older people with cancer, the aim of this study was to investigate the meaning of living with cancer in old age. The hermeneutic phenomenological method as described by van Manen and referred to as 'phenomenology of praxis' was used. Ten persons (seven women and three men) aged 75 and over, who had a diagnosis of cancer and who had just completed cancer treatment, were interviewed in their own homes. The analysis revealed a life world affected to varying degrees by the cancer disease. The lived experiences across the interviews were revealed in four overarching essential themes: transition into a more or less disintegrated existence, sudden awareness of the finiteness of life, redefinition of one's role in life for good and for bad, meeting disease and illness. To provide individual support and appropriate care to older people with cancer it is important for health care professionals to identify and take care of disabilities and to support the reorientation in the disintegrated life situation. It is also important to have preparedness to meet the old person's thoughts about death. Thus, it is important to encourage the old person to describe her/his illness experience to increase understanding about what is meaningful for her/him.

  10. Decrease of old age population mortality in Yugoslavia: Chance to increase anticipated life expectancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radivojević Biljana M.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the level and structure of old age population mortality in Yugoslavia with an aim to determine the intensity of realized changes and to provide an answer to how much they are significant and to approach the positive trends noted in developed countries in the latest period. Although it was insufficiently represented in the demographic analysis, the analysis of mortality in old people is gaining importance in the world. Apart from the reasons which result from the increase in the number of old people and thus their greater participation in the total number of deceased, enviable results have been achieved in decreasing old age mortality, which are more and more in focus of interest. While earlier research reported on the dominant influence of the decrease of younger age mortality to the increase of the expectation of life at birth, recent analysis precisely confirm the importance of decreasing mortality in old people. In mortality conditions from 1997/98, an additional 13.4 years of life in average is expected for men in Yugoslavia, and 15.2 for women. During more than five decades, the anticipated life expectancy for people over the age of 65 increased for only 1.2 years for men and 1.9 years for women. Out of that, the greatest increase was realized in the period 1950/51 - 1960/61 in both sexes. A small decrease in the average life expectancy was marked with men in the period 1960/61 - 1970/71, and with women in the latest period. Otherwise, all up to the eighties, the annual rate of increase was considerably lower than the rate of increase for zero year. It was only in the period 1980/81-1990/91 that faster growth had an anticipated life expectancy for the 65 years old. However, during the nineties unfavorable changes continued with the older, especially, female population. When comparing the values of the average life expectancy for people over 65 in Yugoslavia with corresponding values in developed countries, the lagging in

  11. Study of psychiatric morbidity among residents of government old age homes in Delhi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raj Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: The increased demand on long-term old age care homes in urban India is a result of demographic transition together with the disintegration of joint family system and changing social values which make them increasingly vulnerable to mental health problems. Aims: This study attempted to find out an array of mental health problems and associated morbidity among inhabitant of government old age homes. Settings and Design: This was a cross-sectional study which included government run old age homes (OAHs in Delhi. Subjects and Methods: The sample comprised a total of 148 elderly in four OAHs with a mean age of 72.81 years. The World Health Organization Quality of Life-BREF Scale (QOL, Mini-Mental State Examination, Geriatric Depression Scale, Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale, Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale, and Kesseler-10 Scale were administered. Statistical Analysis: Data were analyzed through SPSS version 20.0 version. Frequency distribution and cross-tabulation used to create summary tables and compare items. Results: Female constituted two-third of study population whereas one-third of subjects were illiterate and two-third without income. The study demonstrated psychiatric morbidity profile among OAH inhabitants and exhibited mild-moderate anxiety symptoms in almost 95% followed by mild-severe depression reported by 85%, mild-moderate psychotic illnesses, psychological distress, cognitive impairments, and poor QOL. Low income and education, low social connections and loss of spouse were key risk factors. Conclusions and Recommendation: Psychiatric morbidity profile and QOL among OAH residents is influenced by various psychological, social, and economic factors. This emphasized the need for better management of the government-run OAHs to ensure better overall mental health of the residents.

  12. Old ages of two historical Romanian trees assessed by AMS radiocarbon dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patrut, Adrian; Reden, Karl F. von; Lowy, Daniel A.; Patrut, Roxana T.; Lucian Vaida, D.; Margineanu, Dragos

    2013-01-01

    Two large Romanian poplars are considered to be associated with significant historical events of the past. In order to verify these claims, wood samples collected from the broken trunks of the two poplars were radiocarbon dated by AMS. The oldest radiocarbon dates were found to be 275 ± 20 bp for the black poplar of Mocod and 316 ± 22 bp for the gray poplar of Rafaila. These values correspond to calibrated ages of 365 ± 10 and 465 ± 25 years, respectively. The dating results indicate old ages for the two trees, i.e., 455 years for the Mocod poplar and 560 years for the Rafaila poplar. Such age values validate historical information on the two large Romanian trees.

  13. Old ages of two historical Romanian trees assessed by AMS radiocarbon dating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patrut, Adrian, E-mail: apatrut@gmail.com [Babes-Bolyai University, Department of Chemistry, Arany Janos 11, 400028 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Reden, Karl F. von [Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Department of Geology and Geophysics, NOSAMS Facility, 360 Woods Hole Rd., Mailstop 8, Woods Hole, MA 02543 (United States); Lowy, Daniel A. [FlexEl, LLC, 387 Technology Drive, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Patrut, Roxana T. [Babes-Bolyai University, Department of Biology and Geology, Gh. Bilascu 44, 400015 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Lucian Vaida, D. [Museum of Border Regiment Nasaud, Granicerilor 19, 425200 Nasaud (Romania); Margineanu, Dragos [Babes-Bolyai University, Department of Chemistry, Arany Janos 11, 400028 Cluj-Napoca (Romania)

    2013-01-15

    Two large Romanian poplars are considered to be associated with significant historical events of the past. In order to verify these claims, wood samples collected from the broken trunks of the two poplars were radiocarbon dated by AMS. The oldest radiocarbon dates were found to be 275 {+-} 20 bp for the black poplar of Mocod and 316 {+-} 22 bp for the gray poplar of Rafaila. These values correspond to calibrated ages of 365 {+-} 10 and 465 {+-} 25 years, respectively. The dating results indicate old ages for the two trees, i.e., 455 years for the Mocod poplar and 560 years for the Rafaila poplar. Such age values validate historical information on the two large Romanian trees.

  14. Age and gender dependent development of Theory of Mind in 6- to 8-years old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calero, Cecilia I; Salles, Alejo; Semelman, Mariano; Sigman, Mariano

    2013-01-01

    The ability to attribute different mental states to distinct individuals, or Theory of Mind (ToM), is widely believed to be developed mostly during preschool years. How different factors such as gender, number of siblings, or coarse personality traits affect this development is not entirely agreed upon. Here, we introduce a computerized version of the scaled ToM suite of tasks introduced by Wellman and Liu (2004), which allows us to meaningfully test ToM development on children 6 to 8-years old. We find that kids this age are still not entirely proficient in all ToM tasks, and continue to show a progression of performance with age. By testing this new age range, too, we are able to observe a significant advantage of girls over boys in ToM performance. Other factors such as number of siblings, birth order, and coarse personality traits show no significant relation with the ToM task results. Finally, we introduce a novel way to quantify the scaling property of the suite involving a sequence of set inclusions on one hand and a comparison between specially tailored sets of logistic models on the other. These measures confirm the validity of the scale in the 6- to 8-years old range.

  15. Communication beliefs about youth and old age in Asia and Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Ellen Bouchard; Jin, Youngsun; Anas, Ann P; Luh, Jessica J

    2004-12-01

    Two cross-cultural studies compared beliefs in Asia and Canada about communication in later life. With an expanded version of the Language in Adulthood Questionnaire, respondents rated a young or old adult target on communication skills selected to elicit both negative and positive stereotypes. Chinese, Chinese-Canadian, and Canadian participants were compared in Study 1 while younger and older respondents from South Korea and Canada were contrasted in Study 2. All groups showed negative beliefs about hearing and memory in old age. Positive communication beliefs were also evident for empathy, storytelling and social skills. Participants in Asia showed less stereotyping overall, for both negative and positive beliefs. Significant age interactions in Study 2 reflected positive communication beliefs only for the older participants. In line with recent investigations of the multidimensional impact of Eastern traditions, greater positivity toward older adults was not observed in Asia. This work highlights the importance of assessing both positive and negative age beliefs in cross-cultural comparisons.

  16. Age and gender dependent development of theory of mind in 6 to 8-years old children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Ines Calero

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The ability to attribute different mental states to distinct individuals, or Theory of Mind (ToM, is widely believed to be developed mostly during preschool years. How different factors such as gender, number of siblings or coarse personality traits affect this development is not entirely agreed upon. Here, we introduce a computerized version of the scaled ToM suite of tasks introduced by Wellman and Liu (2004, which allows us to meaningfully test ToM development on children 6 to 8-years old. We find that kids this age are still not entirely proficient in all ToM tasks, and continue to show a progression of performance with age. By testing this age range, too, we are able to observe a significant advantage of girls over boys in ToM performance. Other factors such as number of siblings, birth order, and coarse personality traits show no significant relation with the ToM task results. Finally, we introduce a novel way to quantify the scaling property of the suite involving a sequence of set inclusions and also, a comparison between specially tailored sets of logistic models. These measures confirm the validity of the scale in the 6 to 8-years old range.

  17. Financial literacy is associated with medial brain region functional connectivity in old age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, S Duke; Boyle, Patricia A; Yu, Lei; Fleischman, Debra A; Arfanakis, Konstantinos; Leurgans, Sue; Bennett, David A

    2014-01-01

    Financial literacy refers to the ability to access and utilize financial information in ways that promote better outcomes. In old age, financial literacy has been associated with a wide range of positive characteristics; however, the neural correlates remain unclear. Recent work has suggested greater co-activity between anterior-posterior medial brain regions is associated with better brain functioning. We hypothesized financial literacy would be associated with this pattern. We assessed whole-brain functional connectivity to a posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) seed region of interest (ROI) in 138 participants of the Rush Memory and Aging Project. Results revealed financial literacy was associated with greater functional connectivity between the PCC and three regions: the right ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC), the left postcentral gyrus, and the right precuneus. Results also revealed financial literacy was associated negatively with functional connectivity between the PCC and left caudate. Post hoc analyses showed the PCC-vmPFC relationship accounted for the most variance in a regression model adjusted for all four significant functional connectivity relationships, demographic factors, and global cognition. These findings provide information on the neural mechanisms associated with financial literacy in old age. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Four-year stability, change, and multidirectionality of well-being in very-old age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wettstein, Markus; Schilling, Oliver K; Reidick, Ortrun; Wahl, Hans-Werner

    2015-09-01

    We examined stability, change, and dedifferentiation of well-being in 124 participants with a baseline age between 87 and 97 years (M = 90.56, SD = 2.92) across 7 measurement occasions over 4 years. Measures of hedonic (life satisfaction, positive affect and negative affect) and eudaimonic well-being (autonomy, purpose in life, self-acceptance, environmental mastery), as well as indicators of mental distress (depressive symptoms, attitudes toward death and dying, disease phobia) were included. Average levels indicated high well-being at all measurement occasions in the majority of indicators analyzed. However, mean numbers of depressive symptoms were close to the cutoff point of clinical depression. Analyses of intra-individual correlations revealed high loadings of depressive symptoms, positive affect, and environmental mastery on a common factor. However, several well-being indicators were not substantially interrelated on the intra-individual level, suggesting their trajectories were rather independent of each other. Acceptance of death and dying was surprisingly high and even increased, whereas mean levels in fear of death were very low and declined over time. Overall, our findings do not suggest late-life dedifferentiation of well-being trajectories in very-old age. Our results rather support the need to consider indicators of hedonic and eudaimonic well-being, as well as mental distress, to understand the multifaceted and multidirectional dynamics of well-being in very-old age. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Characteristic of intraocular pressure distribution in population of 1115 Tibetan aged 40 years old or more

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gui-Qin Wang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To analyze of characteristic of intraocular pressure(IOPdistribution in population of 1115 Tibetan aged 40 years old or more and its correlative factors such as ages, gender and anterior chamber depth in Tibetan plateau area. METHODS: A total of 1115 Tibetan permanent residents aged 40 years or older from the towns and villages of Qushui County were divided into four age groups: ≥40~RESULTS: The mean IOP of 1115(2145 eyesTibetan permanent residents aged 40 years or older was 12.9±2.7mmHg, 13.2±2.8mmHg in men and 12.7±2.5mmHg in women. The results showed that the participants with anterior chamber depth of 1/2 corneal thickness had 68.8% in 1115(2128 eyesTibetan permanent residents and anterior chamber depth decreases significantly with age(PPCONCLUSION: The mean IOP of plateau subjects was significantly lower from that of plain subjects by approximately 3 mmHg. There are lower pressure, deeper anterior chamber depth in this population of 1115 Tibetan permanent residents. The more attention should be paid to screening for glaucoma in high plateau.

  20. Denture acceptance among newly rehabilitated elderly population in old age homes in South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mallika S Shetty

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Elders in old age homes are mainly those who have been abandoned by their family and have one or more physical or mental disabilities. It is a major challenge for the dental professional to plan oral health strategy for this group of patients. Aim of the Study: Aim of the present study is to observe and determine the acceptance of new dental prosthesis among the elderly residing as inmates of 3 old age homes in Mangalore City. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted using a survey proforma. Information regarding their experience with the new denture, 1-month, 3 months and 6 months after denture insertion was gathered. Statistical analysis of the data was done using the Chi-square test with the P < 0.05 considered significant. Results: One hundred and eighty-three residents out of a total of 400 residents in 3 old age homes were denture wearers. Among them, 101 (55.2% were females, and 82 (44.8% were males. Dental prosthesis whether worn regularly, discomfort, retention, cleansing of denture during a period of 1-month, 3 months and 6 months was found to be significant satisfaction with the prosthesis, denture adhesives used, food accumulation during a period of 1-month, 3 months and 6 months was found to be nonsignificant. Conclusion: The emotional makeup of the patient must be taken into consideration during the entire procedure. We must understand that the success of the prosthesis depends mainly on the patient′s confidence in the dentist rather than the quality of the prosthesis.

  1. Anxiety Disorders in Old Age: Psychiatric Comorbidities, Quality of Life, and Prevalence According to Age, Gender, and Country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canuto, Alessandra; Weber, Kerstin; Baertschi, Marc; Andreas, Sylke; Volkert, Jana; Dehoust, Maria Christina; Sehner, Susanne; Suling, Anna; Wegscheider, Karl; Ausín, Berta; Crawford, Mike J; Da Ronch, Chiara; Grassi, Luigi; Hershkovitz, Yael; Muñoz, Manuel; Quirk, Alan; Rotenstein, Ora; Santos-Olmo, Ana Belén; Shalev, Arieh; Strehle, Jens; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; Schulz, Holger; Härter, Martin

    2018-02-01

    Previous estimates of the prevalence of anxiety disorders in late life vary greatly due to the lack of reliable diagnostic tools. This MentDis_ICF65+ study assessed 12-month prevalence rates of anxiety disorders and age- and gender-related differences in comorbidities, as well as impact on quality of life. The study used a cross-sectional multicenter survey. The study sample comprised 3,142 men and women aged 65 to 84 years, living in five European countries and Israel. Anxiety disorders were assessed using computer-assisted face-to-face interviews with an age-appropriate diagnostic interview (CIDI65+). The prevalence of anxiety disorders was 17.2%. Agoraphobia was the most frequent disorder (4.9%), followed by panic disorder (3.8%), animal phobia (3.5%), general anxiety disorder (3.1%), post-traumatic stress disorder (1.4%), social phobia (1.3%), and obsessive-compulsive disorder (0.8%). The prevalence rate of any anxiety disorder dropped by 40% to 47% in adults aged 75-84 years compared with those aged 65-74 years. Women were twice as likely to present with agoraphobia or general anxiety disorder as men. Only panic disorder and phobia were associated with comorbid major depression. The negative relationship with quality of life was limited to agoraphobia and generalized anxiety disorder. The age-appropriate CIDI65+ led to higher prevalence rates of anxiety disorders in the elderly, yet to weaker associations with comorbidities and impaired quality of life compared with previous studies. Copyright © 2017 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The importance of regional availability of health care for old age survival - Findings from German reunification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogt, Tobias C.; Vaupel, James W

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This article investigates the importance of regional health care availability for old age survival. Using German reunification as a natural experiment, we show that spatial variation in health care in East Germany considerably influenced the convergence of East German life expectancy...... toward West German levels. METHOD: We apply cause-deleted life tables and continuous mortality decomposition for the years 1982-2007 to show how reductions in circulatory mortality among the elderly affected the East German catch-up in life expectancy. RESULTS: Improvements in remaining life expectancy...

  3. Impact of physical and mental health on life satisfaction in old age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puvill, Thomas; Lindenberg, Jolanda; de Craen, Antonius J. M.

    2016-01-01

     depressive symptoms and perceived loneliness. Depressive symptoms and perceived loneliness were strongly related to lower life satisfaction (both p physical health characteristics...... having representative levels of disease and disability. Comorbidity, low cognitive function, and residual lifespan as markers of health were not associated with life satisfaction. Poor physical performance and low functional status were weakly but significantly associated with lower life satisfaction (p....... CONCLUSION: Poor physical health was hardly related to lower life satisfaction, whereas poor mental health was strongly related to lower life satisfaction. This indicates that mental health has a greater impact on life satisfaction at old age than physical health, and that physical health is less relevant...

  4. Lessons from history: Surviving old age during The Great Depression in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Sarah H; Dunkle, Ruth E

    2013-12-01

    This paper focuses on 30 couples who received a pension and other services from two private trusts in Detroit, Michigan beginning in 1929 or 1930. Results of the qualitative analysis of case files, which contain notes recorded chronologically for 17 of the couples and then surviving spouses, provide a portrait of older couples' lives prior to a partner's death, circumstances surrounding the death, and changes in the social support systems of widows and widowers until their deaths. Close examination of the experiences of these couples is a reminder of how old age and widowhood were experienced prior to the enactment of public pensions and health insurance in the United States. © 2013.

  5. Old age and gender influence the pharmacokinetics of inhaled manganese sulfate and manganese phosphate in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorman, David C.; McManus, Brian E.; Marshall, Marianne W.; James, R. Arden; Struve, Melanie F.

    2004-01-01

    In this study, we examined whether gender or age influences the pharmacokinetics of manganese sulfate (MnSO 4 ) or manganese phosphate (as the mineral form hureaulite). Young male and female rats and aged male rats (16 months old) were exposed 6 h day -1 for 5 days week -1 to air, MnSO 4 (at 0.01, 0.1, or 0.5 mg Mn m -3 ), or hureaulite (0.1 mg Mn m -3 ). Tissue manganese concentrations were determined in all groups at the end of the 90-day exposure and 45 days later. Tissue manganese concentrations were also determined in young male rats following 32 exposure days and 91 days after the 90-day exposure. Intravenous 54 Mn tracer studies were also performed in all groups immediately after the 90-day inhalation to assess whole-body manganese clearance rates. Gender and age did not affect manganese delivery to the striatum, a known target site for neurotoxicity in humans, but did influence manganese concentrations in other tissues. End-of-exposure olfactory bulb, lung, and blood manganese concentrations were higher in young male rats than in female or aged male rats and may reflect a portal-of-entry effect. Old male rats had higher testis but lower pancreas manganese concentrations when compared with young males. Young male and female rats exposed to MnSO 4 at 0.5 mg Mn m -3 had increased 54 Mn clearance rates when compared with air-exposed controls, while senescent males did not develop higher 54 Mn clearance rates. Data from this study should prove useful in developing dosimetry models for manganese that consider age or gender as potential sensitivity factors

  6. Assistive Technologies for Aged Care: Supportive or Empowering?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suchada Vichitvanichphong

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to explore the potentials of assistive technologies to support seniors’ independent living. The work looks at two salient aspects of utilizing technologies for elderly, namely direct support and empowering technologies. The research undertakes a comprehensive analysis of attempts that have been made through investigation of the literature. For this purpose, a realist review of relevant papers published since 2000 has been conducted. The paper concludes that although much research in this area targets the direct support for older adults, the effective use of technologies to maintain seniors’ physical and cognitive abilities requires further investigations. This can provide avenues of opportunities that would empower seniors for their independent living.

  7. Age and sex effects on human mutation rates. An old problem with new complexities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crow, James F.

    2006-01-01

    Base substitution mutations are far more common in human males than in females, and the frequency increases with paternal age. Both can be accounted for by the greater number of pre-meiotic cell divisions in males, especially old ones. In contrast, small deletions do not show any important age effect and occur with approximately equal frequency in the two sexes. Mutations in most genes include both types, and the sex and paternal age effect depends on the proportion of the two types. A few traits, of which Apert Syndrome is best understood, are mutation hot spots with all the mutations occurring in one or two codons, usually at one nucleotide. They occur with very high frequency almost exclusively in males and the frequency increases rapidly with paternal age. It has been suggested that the mutant cells have a selective advantage in the male germ-line prior to meiosis. Evidence for this surprising, but important, hypothesis is discussed. A possible mechanism is the conversion of asymmetrical stem-cell divisions into symmetric ones. Some traits with complex etiology show a slight paternal age effect. There is also a short discussion of the high deleterious mutation rate and the role of sexual reproduction in reducing the consequent mutation load. (author)

  8. Precarity in late life: rethinking dementia as a 'frailed' old age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenier, Amanda; Lloyd, Liz; Phillipson, Chris

    2017-02-01

    Approaches to ageing that are organised around productivity, success, and active late life have contributed to views of dementia as an unsuccessful, failed or 'frailed' old age. Operating through dominant frameworks, socio-cultural constructs and organisational practices, the 'frailties' of the body and mind are often used to mark the boundaries of health and illness in late life, and shape responses accordingly. Our concern is that both the taken for granted and the 'imagined' can further marginalise persons who occupy the locations of dementia and disablement. This article analyses the extent to which frailty and dementia are better understood in the context of new forms of insecurity affecting the life course. Drawing on the concept of 'precarity', this article shifts debates on the 'fourth age' away from age or stage-based thinking, into a recognition of the shared vulnerability and responsibilities for care. The argument of this article is that 'precarity' represents a 'new form of ageing', notably as regards its impact on the upper extremes of the life course. The article concludes with a call for a response that is grounded in an acknowledgement of the fragility and limitations which affect human lives, this requiring grounding in inclusive forms of citizenship. © 2017 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness.

  9. Estimated maximal and current brain volume predict cognitive ability in old age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royle, Natalie A.; Booth, Tom; Valdés Hernández, Maria C.; Penke, Lars; Murray, Catherine; Gow, Alan J.; Maniega, Susana Muñoz; Starr, John; Bastin, Mark E.; Deary, Ian J.; Wardlaw, Joanna M.

    2013-01-01

    Brain tissue deterioration is a significant contributor to lower cognitive ability in later life; however, few studies have appropriate data to establish how much influence prior brain volume and prior cognitive performance have on this association. We investigated the associations between structural brain imaging biomarkers, including an estimate of maximal brain volume, and detailed measures of cognitive ability at age 73 years in a large (N = 620), generally healthy, community-dwelling population. Cognitive ability data were available from age 11 years. We found positive associations (r) between general cognitive ability and estimated brain volume in youth (male, 0.28; females, 0.12), and in measured brain volume in later life (males, 0.27; females, 0.26). Our findings show that cognitive ability in youth is a strong predictor of estimated prior and measured current brain volume in old age but that these effects were the same for both white and gray matter. As 1 of the largest studies of associations between brain volume and cognitive ability with normal aging, this work contributes to the wider understanding of how some early-life factors influence cognitive aging. PMID:23850342

  10. Protein Intake and Muscle Health in Old Age: From Biological Plausibility to Clinical Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Landi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The provision of sufficient amounts of dietary proteins is central to muscle health as it ensures the supply of essential amino acids and stimulates protein synthesis. Older persons, in particular, are at high risk of insufficient protein ingestion. Furthermore, the current recommended dietary allowance for protein (0.8 g/kg/day might be inadequate for maintaining muscle health in older adults, probably as a consequence of “anabolic resistance” in aged muscle. Older individuals therefore need to ingest a greater quantity of protein to maintain muscle function. The quality of protein ingested is also essential to promoting muscle health. Given the role of leucine as the master dietary regulator of muscle protein turnover, the ingestion of protein sources enriched with this essential amino acid, or its metabolite β-hydroxy β-methylbutyrate, is thought to offer the greatest benefit in terms of preservation of muscle mass and function in old age.

  11. The meaning of having to live with cancer in old age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomé, B; Esbensen, B A; Dykes, A-K

    2004-01-01

    degrees by the cancer disease. The lived experiences across the interviews were revealed in four overarching essential themes: transition into a more or less disintegrated existence, sudden awareness of the finiteness of life, redefinition of one's role in life for good and for bad, meeting disease......Little is known about how older people with cancer experience their life situation. To increase the understanding of how illness is experienced in older people with cancer, the aim of this study was to investigate the meaning of living with cancer in old age. The hermeneutic phenomenological method...... as described by van Manen and referred to as 'phenomenology of praxis' was used. Ten persons (seven women and three men) aged 75 and over, who had a diagnosis of cancer and who had just completed cancer treatment, were interviewed in their own homes. The analysis revealed a life world affected to varying...

  12. Changes in social relations in old age. Are they influenced by functional ability?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avlund, Kirsten; Due, Pernille; Holstein, Bjørn Evald

    2002-01-01

    The aims of this article were to describe changes in social relations from ages 75 to 80, and analyze whether changes in social relations are influenced by functional ability at age 75. The study includes data from the NORA follow-up study of 75-80 year-old men and women in Jyväskylä (Finland......, close friends, acquaintances, and neighbors; 2) diversity of social relations (number of types of social contacts); 3) telephone contacts; and 4) social participation. The function of social relations was measured by instrumental social support. Functional ability was measured by tiredness and need......), Göteborg (Sweden) and Glostrup (Denmark). The present analyses include the 743 persons who participated in both studies and who answered the questions about social relations. The structure of social relations was measured by: 1) frequency of contacts with children, grand/greatgrandchildren, relatives...

  13. A velhice, entre o normal e o patológico Old age, normality versus pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Groisman

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Com a ascensão do envelhecimento da população brasileira ao posto de 'problema social', assistimos a um crescimento cada vez maior do número de especialistas dedicados a este 'grupo etário': os geriatras e gerontólogos, que ocupam papel de destaque na formulação das novas formas de gestão da velhice. No entanto, a gerontologia parece ter problemas internos na sua formulação como campo de saber, que parecem comprometer sua consolidação como profissão e seu reconhecimento como disciplina científica. No presente artigo, procuramos chamar atenção para as dificuldades que a gerontologia encontra para delimitar seu campo e definir seu objeto. Sustentamos que tais dificuldades parecem derivar de uma questão central, que é a impossibilidade de serem delimitadas as fronteiras entre o normal e o patológico, na velhice. Por fim, analisamos a questão sob um ponto de vista histórico, à luz do processo de constituição do saber médico sobre o envelhecimento.Since life expectancy of Brazilian population increased and aging was considered a "social problem", there has been a boom of specialists in old age. Gerontologists and geriatricians are now playing a relevant role in setting new trends to the management of issues related to old age. However, gerontology as a field of knowledge seems to have internal questions that apparently hinder its professional consolidation and its scientific recognition. In this article, the author focus the difficulties gerontology has in order to delimitate its field of action and to define the object of its studies. The author argues that such difficulties derive from a central point: the impossibility to delimitate the frontiers between what is normal and what is pathological in old age. He also analyzes the constitution of medical knowledge on aging in a historical perspective.

  14. Changes of coagulation and fibrinolysis in middle-old aged patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xi; Xie Ying; Zhang Weijun; Zhao Ruixiang; Peng Xinjie; Zhang Wen; Zhang Yan; Cheng Xiuqin; Wang Longhua; Guo Yonghe; Zhou Yujie; Wen Shaojun; Liu Jielin

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the changes of coagulation and fibrinolysis function in the middle-old aged patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation. Methods: The levels of D-Dimer and tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) were detected in 92 middle-aged patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (AF group) and 60 patients with sinus rhythm (control group) by immune turbidimetry and enzyme linked immunoadsorbent assay (ELISA). Univariate analysis was used to determine the differences between two groups, and covariance analysis was used to determine the factors which might affect coagulation and fibrinolysis indexes. Results: 1)The plasma levels of D-Dimer [(0.16±0.10) mg·L -1 ] and t-PA [(42.58± 30.28) μg·L -1 ] and PAI-1 [(86.03 ± 21.43) μg·L -1 ] in AF group were significantly higher than those in the control group [(0.10 ± 0.08) mg·L -1 , (26.02±13.84) μg·L -1 , (64.94±24.35) μg·L -1 ] (P<0.05 or P <0.001). The ratio of PAI-1/t-PA in AF group was higher than that in control group slightly. 2) After adjustment of the factors which included sex, age and plasma creatinine, uric acid, blood sugar, triglyceride and cholesterol, the levels of D-Dimer (P=0.047), t-PA (P=0.264) and PAI-1 (P=0.001) in AF group were higher than those in the control group. Conclusion: The middle-old aged patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation lose their balance of coagulation and fibrinolysis in the state of hypercoagulated and hypofibrinolysis. (authors)

  15. Social isolation, loneliness and health in old age: a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtin, Emilie; Knapp, Martin

    2017-05-01

    The health and well-being consequences of social isolation and loneliness in old age are increasingly being recognised. The purpose of this scoping review was to take stock of the available evidence and to highlight gaps and areas for future research. We searched nine databases for empirical papers investigating the impact of social isolation and/or loneliness on a range of health outcomes in old age. Our search, conducted between July and September 2013 yielded 11,736 articles, of which 128 items from 15 countries were included in the scoping review. Papers were reviewed, with a focus on the definitions and measurements of the two concepts, associations and causal mechanisms, differences across population groups and interventions. The evidence is largely US-focused, and loneliness is more researched than social isolation. A recent trend is the investigation of the comparative effects of social isolation and loneliness. Depression and cardiovascular health are the most often researched outcomes, followed by well-being. Almost all (but two) studies found a detrimental effect of isolation or loneliness on health. However, causal links and mechanisms are difficult to demonstrate, and further investigation is warranted. We found a paucity of research focusing on at-risk sub-groups and in the area of interventions. Future research should aim to better link the evidence on the risk factors for loneliness and social isolation and the evidence on their impact on health. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Social Security for China’s Migrant Workers – Providing for Old Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Watson

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of “migrant workers” derives from the household registration system of China’s planned economy period. The continued existence of that system conflicts with the development of an integrated labour market. The current social security system, based on household registration and a large number of local pools, discriminates against migrant workers because of their mobility and the lack of mechanisms to transfer benefits between pools. As a result, migrants have made major contributions to China’s economic development but do not get the same benefits as urban residents. Faced with this challenge, China’s government has begun to introduce policy reforms to improve social security for migrants. This article explores this development through a focus on old-age insurance. It analyses the special needs of migrants, the obstacles facing policy development and the proposed solutions. It argues that social justice and social equity require the development of a system that treats all citizens equally, and that the logic of an integrated labour market will ultimately require a unified national system of old-age insurance.

  17. Sociomedical sequels and quality of life in patients of old age group with proximal femoral fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Raskina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The sociomedical significance of osteoporosis is determined by its sequels (vertebral and peripheral skeletal fractures that are responsible for high mortality and disability rates among persons in the old age group and accordingly for high material costs in the health care system.Objective: to study sociomedical sequels and quality of life in patients with proximal femoral fractures in the old age group.Subjects and methods. 956 patients with osteoporotic fractures were followed up. Major social sequels were traced in the patients 6, 12, and 24 months after femur fractures in relation to treatment options.Results. There were 10 (8.0% and 78 (66.7% bedridden patients in the surgical and medical treatment groups, respectively. Twenty four months after fracture, recovery of function was noted in 72 (57.6% and 32 (27.35% patients receiving surgical and medical treatment, respectively.Conclusion. The findings suggest that immediate and late sequels in patients with proximal femoral fractures depend on a treatment option.

  18. Gender differentials and old age survival in the Nairobi slums, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Rachel; Chepngeno-Langat, Gloria; Evandrou, Maria; Falkingham, Jane

    2016-08-01

    This paper examines gender differentials in survival amongst older people (50+ years) in the Nairobi slums and to the best of our knowledge is the first study of its kind in an urban African setting. The results provide evidence contrary to the expected paradox of poorer self-rated health yet better survival amongst older women. Older women in the Nairobi slums have poorer self-rated health and poorer circumstances across other factors, including disability and socio-economic status. Further, older women in the slums do not have better survival. The conventional female advantage in mortality only becomes apparent after accounting for the cumulative influence of individual characteristics, social networks, health and socio-economic status, suggesting the female advantage in unadjusted old-age mortality does not apply to contexts where women experience significant disadvantage across multiple life domains. This highlights the urgent need to redress the support, status and opportunities available for women across the life course in contexts such as the Nairobi slums. In addition, a greater number of factors differentiate mortality risk amongst men than amongst women, suggesting inequality amongst slum dwelling older men and highlighting the need for gender sensitive interventions which account for the particular needs of both genders in old age. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. Patients with old age or proximal tumors benefit from metabolic syndrome in early stage gastric cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-li Wei

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Metabolic syndrome and/or its components have been demonstrated to be risk factors for several cancers. They are also found to influence survival in breast, colon and prostate cancer, but the prognostic value of metabolic syndrome in gastric cancer has not been investigated. METHODS: Clinical data and pre-treatment information of metabolic syndrome of 587 patients diagnosed with early stage gastric cancer were retrospectively collected. The associations of metabolic syndrome and/or its components with clinical characteristics and overall survival in early stage gastric cancer were analyzed. RESULTS: Metabolic syndrome was identified to be associated with a higher tumor cell differentiation (P=0.036. Metabolic syndrome was also demonstrated to be a significant and independent predictor for better survival in patients aged >50 years old (P=0.009 in multivariate analysis or patients with proximal gastric cancer (P=0.047 in multivariate analysis. No association was found between single metabolic syndrome component and overall survival in early stage gastric cancer. In addition, patients with hypertension might have a trend of better survival through a good control of blood pressure (P=0.052 in univariate analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Metabolic syndrome was associated with a better tumor cell differentiation in patients with early stage gastric cancer. Moreover, metabolic syndrome was a significant and independent predictor for better survival in patients with old age or proximal tumors.

  20. ‘Successful Ageing’ in Practice: Reflections on Health, Activity and Normality in Old Age in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Åsa Alftberg

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to contribute to the critical examination of the notions of health and activity, and to discuss how these cultural and social constructs have impact on elderly people’s lives. An ethnographic perspective gives fruitful inputs to explore how old people deal with the image of old age as one of decay and decline, while they simultaneously relate to the normative idea of so-called successful ageing. The focus is thus on how elderly people create meaning, and how they manage and make use of the contradictory cultural beliefs that are both understood as normality: old age as a passive period of life involving decline and disease, and activity as an individual responsibility in order to stay healthy. The study sample is created with two different methods, qualitative interviews and two different questionnaires, and the majority of the respondents are 65+ years old. The article demonstrates the intersection between old age and a health-promoting active lifestyle. The notion of activity includes moral values, which shape the beliefs and narratives of being old. This forms part of the concept of self-care management, which in old age is also called successful ageing. The idea that activities are health promoting is the framework in which activities are performed, but significance and meaning are rather created from practice.

  1. Changes in volunteering among the young old in the Netherlands: The impact of religion, age-norms and intergenerational transmission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suanet, B.; Broese Van Groenou, M.I.; Braam, A.W.

    2009-01-01

    The positive trend in volunteering among the Dutch young old may in part be due to a relatively favorable disposition to volunteer. Using data from the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam, volunteering rates of 55-64 year olds in 1992 and 2002 were compared and associated with (among others) three

  2. [Perceived Autonomy in Old Age scale: Factor structure and psychometric properties of the Polish adaptation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroemeke, Aleksandra

    2015-01-01

    Sense of autonomy - the possibility to choose and decide - is one of the markers of positive and active aging. The goal of this study was to examine the Polish adaptation of the Perceived Autonomy in Old Age (PAA) scale and to determine its internal structure and psychometric properties: reliability, as well as construct and discriminant validity. 277 seniors (female=187; male=90), without cognitive function disorders aged 60 to 100 (M=77.4; SD=9.2) took part in the study. Apart from the PAA, the ADL and IADL scales (self-reliance assessment) were used, as well as the Emotional State Questionnaire (a measure for positive and negative emotions) and the WHOQoL-Brief (a measure for health-related quality of life). As a result of an exploratory and confirmation factor analysis a one-factor tool with five items was built. Reliability coefficients of the scale measured with the internal consistency method and test-retest were ≥ 0.80. Positive correlations were found with indicators in the ADL, IADL, as well as in the somatic and psychological domain of life quality, and positive emotions. Negative correlations were found for negative emotions. The obtained results indicated very high reliability and accuracy for the Polish adaptation of the SPA. The tool can be used as a predictor and/or indicator of successful aging and life quality of seniors.

  3. Good news about the effects of bad old-age stereotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinquart, Martin

    2002-01-01

    The study investigates whether the confrontation with negative, age-stereotyped information leads to a deterioration of older adults' self-perceptions as suggested by the labeling theory, or whether older adults protect their self-perceptions against deterioration as suggested by theories of the resilience of the aging self. Self perceptions, as well as peer-perception of other older adults in general were assessed in a pre-post design. In the experimental group, 60 older adults received negative information about competence in old age. The control group of 40 older adults received neutral information. In the experimental condition, the general perceptions of other older adults worsened whereas their self-perception improved. In the control condition, only small changes emerged. Furthermore, the change of self-perceptions varied by the perceived applicability of the negative information for oneself. We conclude that older adults use negative age stereotypes more as a standard of reference for downward comparison rather than integrating them into their self-perceptions.

  4. Age-specific cost and public funding of a live birth following assisted reproductive treatment in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Eri; Ishihara, Osamu; Saito, Hidekazu; Kuwahara, Akira; Toyokawa, Satoshi; Kobayashi, Yasuki

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to calculate and assess the cost of assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatment cycles and live-birth events in Japan in 2010. We performed a retrospective analysis of 238,185 ART cycles, registered with the national registry of assisted reproductive treatment during 2010. Costs were calculated, using a decision analysis model. The average cost per live birth was ¥1,974,000. This varied from ¥1,155,000 in women aged birth was ¥442,000. This was ¥6,118,000 in women aged ≥ 45, 15.4 times higher than that of the 35-39-year-old age group. The costs and public funding of a live birth after ART treatment rises with age due to the lower success rates in older women. It may provide economic background to improve the current subsidy system for ART and to provide practical knowledge about fertility for the general population. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2014 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  5. Use of antiepileptic drugs and risk of falls in old age: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haasum, Ylva; Johnell, Kristina

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study is to systematically review the scientific literature to investigate if use of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) is associated with falls and/or recurrent falls in old age. We searched the literature for relevant articles in PubMed and Embase published up until 3rd December 2015. Studies on people aged 60 years and over with an observational design assessing the risk of fall in people exposed to AEDs compared to people not exposed to AED were included. We found 744 studies by searching Medline and Embase and an additional 9 studies by reviewing relevant reference lists. Of these studies, 13 fulfilled our predefined criteria. The articles were of various study design, sizes and follow-up times, and presented the results in different ways. Also, confounder adjustment varied considerably between the studies. Ten studies presented results for the association between use of any AED and any fall/injurious fall. Of these studies, 6 presented adjusted estimates, of which all but one showed statistically significant associations between use of any AED and any fall/injurious fall. Six studies investigated the association between use of any AED and recurrent falls. Of these, only 3 studies presented adjusted effect estimates of which 2 reached statistical significance for the association between use of AEDs and recurrent falls in elderly people. Our results indicate an association between use of AEDs and risk of falls and recurrent falls in older people. This finding may be clinically important given that a substantial amount of older people use these drugs. However, further research is needed to increase the knowledge about the actual risk of falls when using these drugs in old age. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. [Diagnostics and multimodal treatment of depression in old age : New developments].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eschweiler, Gerhard W

    2017-02-01

    Depressive disorders in elderly persons are frequent and can either first be manifested at a younger age and show a recurrent pattern during later life (ICD 10, F33.*) or have an onset beyond 60 years, which is termed late onset depression (LOD). This LOD has a higher tendency to chronification and implies an increased risk of progression, especially to vascular dementia. The multifactorial genesis of depression in old age includes psychosocial, vascular and metabolic factors and requires multimodal therapy modules at the biological and psychosocial level, which is now increasingly being empirically proven. Depressive disorders with executive and cognitive deficits have to be considered a defined entity with respect to prognosis and treatment. As a first step of treatment watchful waiting is appropriate, especially in depressive adjustment disorders triggered by acute psychosocial stressors (e.g. loss of relatives and conflicts). After 2-4 weeks pharmacological antidepressant therapy should be initiated, at least in a moderate depressive episode. Furthermore, the revised national guidelines for depressive disorders also explicitly recommend psychotherapy as an alternative or supplement to pharmacotherapy in the elderly. Several forms of psychotherapy are emphasized: cognitive behavioral therapy, interpersonal therapy and in particular problem solving, as this is a form of treatment that can also be carried out by other professional groups, thus alleviating the treatment gap caused by the lack of psychotherapists. In summary, a depressive disorder in old age should not induce therapeutic nihilism: after stepped diagnostic assessments, multimodal therapies are individually adapted to the physical, cognitive and social resources of the patients.

  7. Washington photometry of 14 intermediate-age to old star clusters in the Small Magellanic Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piatti, Andrés E.; Clariá, Juan J.; Bica, Eduardo; Geisler, Doug; Ahumada, Andrea V.; Girardi, Léo

    2011-10-01

    We present CCD photometry in the Washington system C, T1 and T2 passbands down to T1˜ 23 in the fields of L3, L28, HW 66, L100, HW 79, IC 1708, L106, L108, L109, NGC 643, L112, HW 84, HW 85 and HW 86, 14 Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) clusters, most of them poorly studied objects. We measured T1 magnitudes and C-T1 and T1-T2 colours for a total of 213 516 stars spread throughout cluster areas of 14.7 × 14.7 arcmin2 each. We carried out an in-depth analysis of the field star contamination of the colour-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) and statistically cleaned the cluster CMDs. Based on the best fits of isochrones computed by the Padova group to the (T1, C-T1) CMDs, as well as from the δ(T1) index and the standard giant branch procedure, we derived ages and metallicities for the cluster sample. With the exception of IC 1708, a relatively metal-poor Hyades-age cluster, the remaining 13 objects are between intermediate and old age (from 1.0 to 6.3 Gyr), their [Fe/H] values ranging from -1.4 to -0.7 dex. By combining these results with others available in the literature, we compiled a sample of 43 well-known SMC clusters older than 1 Gyr, with which we produced a revised age distribution. We found that the present clusters' age distribution reveals two primary excesses of clusters at t˜ 2 and 5 Gyr, which engraves the SMC with clear signs of enhanced formation episodes at both ages. In addition, we found that from the birth of the SMC cluster system until approximately the first 4 Gyr of its lifetime, the cluster formation resembles that of a constant formation rate scenario.

  8. Coping in old age with extreme childhood trauma: aging Holocaust survivors and their offspring facing new challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fridman, Ayala; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J; Sagi-Schwartz, Abraham; Van IJzendoorn, Marinus H

    2011-03-01

    The Holocaust has become an iconic example of immense human-made catastrophes, and survivors are now coping with normal aging processes. Childhood trauma may leave the survivors more vulnerable when they are facing stress related to old age, whereas their offspring might have a challenging role of protecting their own parents from further pain. Here we examine the psychological adaptation of Holocaust survivors and their offspring in light of these new challenges, examining satisfaction with life, mental health, cognitive abilities, dissociative symptoms, and physical health. Careful matching of female Holocaust survivors and comparison subjects living in Israel was employed to form a case-control study design with two generations, including four groups: 32 elderly female Holocaust survivors and 47 daughters, and 33 elderly women in the comparison group, and 32 daughters (total N = 174). Participants completed several measures of mental and physical health, and their cognitive functioning was examined. The current study is a follow-up of a previous study conducted 11 years ago with the same participants. Holocaust survivors showed more dissociative symptomatology (odds = 2.39) and less satisfaction with their life (odds = 2.79) as compared to a matched group. Nonetheless, adult offspring of Holocaust survivors showed no differences in their physical, psychological, and cognitive functioning as compared to matched controls. Holocaust survivors still display posttraumatic stress symptoms almost 70 years after the trauma, whereas no intergenerational transmission of trauma was found among the second generation.

  9. Feature-selective attention in healthy old age: a selective decline in selective attention?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quigley, Cliodhna; Müller, Matthias M

    2014-02-12

    Deficient selection against irrelevant information has been proposed to underlie age-related cognitive decline. We recently reported evidence for maintained early sensory selection when older and younger adults used spatial selective attention to perform a challenging task. Here we explored age-related differences when spatial selection is not possible and feature-selective attention must be deployed. We additionally compared the integrity of feedforward processing by exploiting the well established phenomenon of suppression of visual cortical responses attributable to interstimulus competition. Electroencephalogram was measured while older and younger human adults responded to brief occurrences of coherent motion in an attended stimulus composed of randomly moving, orientation-defined, flickering bars. Attention was directed to horizontal or vertical bars by a pretrial cue, after which two orthogonally oriented, overlapping stimuli or a single stimulus were presented. Horizontal and vertical bars flickered at different frequencies and thereby elicited separable steady-state visual-evoked potentials, which were used to examine the effect of feature-based selection and the competitive influence of a second stimulus on ongoing visual processing. Age differences were found in feature-selective attentional modulation of visual responses: older adults did not show consistent modulation of magnitude or phase. In contrast, the suppressive effect of a second stimulus was robust and comparable in magnitude across age groups, suggesting that bottom-up processing of the current stimuli is essentially unchanged in healthy old age. Thus, it seems that visual processing per se is unchanged, but top-down attentional control is compromised in older adults when space cannot be used to guide selection.

  10. Perceived Expectations for Active Aging, Formal Productive Roles, and Psychological Adjustment Among the Young-Old.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlova, Maria K; Silbereisen, Rainer K

    2016-01-01

    We investigated how older adults' perceptions of societal expectations for active aging, or activation demands (e.g., to stay fit and to contribute to the public good), relate to their involvement in paid work and formal volunteering and psychological adjustment. We used two waves of survey data on young-old Germans (aged 56-75, N(T1) = 1,508, N(T2) = 602). With the exception of several items on perceived activation demands, paid work and volunteering were not significant longitudinal predictors of such demands. In females, perceived activation demands increased the likelihood to work for pay a year later. Finally, among nonworking individuals, perceived activation demands predicted a better physical self-concept and a higher positive affect, whereas among nonvolunteers, such demands predicted fewer depressive symptoms a year later. We conclude that the policy debate on active aging may benefit some older German adults but is of little consequence for most of them. © The Author(s) 2015.

  11. Lipid and Alzheimer's disease genes associated with healthy aging and longevity in healthy oldest-old.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tindale, Lauren C; Leach, Stephen; Spinelli, John J; Brooks-Wilson, Angela R

    2017-03-28

    Several studies have found that long-lived individuals do not appear to carry lower numbers of common disease-associated variants than ordinary people; it has been hypothesized that they may instead carry protective variants. An intriguing type of protective variant is buffering variants that protect against variants that have deleterious effects. We genotyped 18 variants in 15 genes related to longevity or healthy aging that had been previously reported as having a gene-gene interaction or buffering effect. We compared a group of 446 healthy oldest-old 'Super-Seniors' (individuals 85 or older who have never been diagnosed with cancer, cardiovascular disease, dementia, diabetes or major pulmonary disease) to 421 random population-based midlife controls. Cases and controls were of European ancestry. Association tests of individual SNPs showed that Super-Seniors were less likely than controls to carry an APOEε4 allele or a haptoglobin HP2 allele. Interactions between APOE/FOXO3, APOE/CRYL1, and LPA/CRYL1 did not remain significant after multiple testing correction. In a network analysis of the candidate genes, lipid and cholesterol metabolism was a common theme. APOE, HP, and CRYL1 have all been associated with Alzheimer's Disease, the pathology of which involves lipid and cholesterol pathways. Age-related changes in lipid and cholesterol maintenance, particularly in the brain, may be central to healthy aging and longevity.

  12. The Age Peculiarities of 10 to 12 Year-Old School-children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. B. Badmayeva

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the problem of children’s development transformation from the standpoints of different authors. The changes in the age borders and childhood structure along with their causes are demonstrated. The childhood crisis is described, its place in the child’s development process identified. The author emphasizes the visible discord between the worlds of adults and children: being less involved in upbringing process nowadays, adults appear to be less exact in their attitude to children; their demands lack clearness and specificity. Both teachers and adults demonstrate helplessness and aloofness, which reflects in children’s consciousness and their attitude to adults, and results in the lost sense of responsibility, infantilism, egoism and moral emptiness of growing generation. The author carried out the comparative analysis of age peculiarities of middle class schoolchildren from comprehensive school. Three development stages were singled out for 10 to 12 year-olds: local caprices, rights understanding, and affirmative functional stage. The personality formation trends concerning the modern day school children are outlined, the external and internal factors determining this formation enumerated. The following influencing phenomena are mentioned, in particular: the essential socio-economic changes, fast spreading of mass-media and computer technologies, low level of parental motivation, replacement of the value-normative system (social anomie etc. The necessity of creating socio-pedagogic conditions relating to the age peculiarities of modern school children is substantiated. 

  13. The Age Peculiarities of 10 to 12 Year-Old School-children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. B. Badmayeva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the problem of children’s development transformation from the standpoints of different authors. The changes in the age borders and childhood structure along with their causes are demonstrated. The childhood crisis is described, its place in the child’s development process identified. The author emphasizes the visible discord between the worlds of adults and children: being less involved in upbringing process nowadays, adults appear to be less exact in their attitude to children; their demands lack clearness and specificity. Both teachers and adults demonstrate helplessness and aloofness, which reflects in children’s consciousness and their attitude to adults, and results in the lost sense of responsibility, infantilism, egoism and moral emptiness of growing generation. The author carried out the comparative analysis of age peculiarities of middle class schoolchildren from comprehensive school. Three development stages were singled out for 10 to 12 year-olds: local caprices, rights understanding, and affirmative functional stage. The personality formation trends concerning the modern day school children are outlined, the external and internal factors determining this formation enumerated. The following influencing phenomena are mentioned, in particular: the essential socio-economic changes, fast spreading of mass-media and computer technologies, low level of parental motivation, replacement of the value-normative system (social anomie etc. The necessity of creating socio-pedagogic conditions relating to the age peculiarities of modern school children is substantiated. 

  14. The Role of Age and Social Motivation in Developmental Transitions in Young and Old Adulthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana eNikitin

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Two diary studies investigated the role of social approach and avoidance motivation in important developmental transitions in young and old adulthood. Study 1 comprised a sample of young adults (N = 93, M = 21.5 years who moved out of their parental homes. The sample of Study 2 consisted of older adults (N = 69, M = 76.95 years who moved into senior housing. In both studies, participants reported their habitual social approach and avoidance motives as well as their daily social experience and subjective well-being over the course of two weeks. In line with the literature, social approach motives and age were related to higher subjective well-being, whereas social avoidance motives were negatively associated with subjective well-being. Time since the transition was an important moderator of the association between social avoidance motives and negative outcomes. With increasing time from the transition, the negative effects of social avoidance motives decreased. The positive effects of social approach motives remained fairly stable over time. Importantly, age did not moderate any of the associations between social motivation and outcomes. Results are discussed in terms of transition-related instability and age-related stability.

  15. Health, body image, gender, and migration status: their relationship to sexuality in old age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shkolnik, Darya; Iecovich, Esther

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the relationships between gender, migration status, perceived health, body image, and sexual activity and satisfaction among older adults. It was hypothesized that men and those who are long-standing residents in Israel will report better perceived health, a positive body image, and these will be associated with greater sexuality, compared with women, new immigrants with poorer perceived health and a negative body image. The sample included 200 respondents who were 60 years and older, functionally independent and living with a spouse or a partner for at least one year, heterosexual, and living in the community in Israel. Respondents were recruited through community-based services for older persons and snowballing. Multivariate analyses were performed to examine differences by groups of respondents and to identify the best predictors of the outcome variables. The majority had some kind of sexual activity. No significant differences were found between men and women with regard to perceived health, body image, sexual activity and satisfaction, but significant differences were found between new immigrants from former Soviet Union countries and long-standing residents in Israel. Mental health, age, and migration status were significant in explaining sexual activity, while age, education, and sexual activity were significant in explaining sexual satisfaction. A variety of factors play a role with regard to sexuality in old age, in particular immigration status. Appropriate interventions can help older adults cope with the determinants that negatively affect their mental health and sexual life.

  16. Preparations for Old Age and Well-Being in Later Life in Thailand: Gender Matters?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pothisiri, Wiraporn; Quashie, Nekehia T

    2018-06-01

    Data from the 2011 Survey of Older Persons in Thailand examines the association between preparations for old age (financial, health, caregiving, living arrangements, and spiritual) and three measures of well-being: financial satisfaction, life satisfaction, and physical health. The study further explores the role of social stratification and the gendered nature of these relationships. The sample ( N = 10,235) is restricted to adults 60 years and above, who are retired and answered the survey independently. Multivariate logistic regression analyses indicate that different forms of preparation are positively associated with post-retirement well-being for men and women but socioeconomic resources are positively associated with all three well-being outcomes. Furthermore, for women, there are significant negative interaction effects of income and financial preparation on life satisfaction, as well as negative interaction effects of disability and caregiver preparation on self-rated health. Implications for long-term care, socioeconomic inequality, and gender inequality in paid labor are discussed.

  17. It's Not How Old You Are, It's How You Are Old. State Discourse on Successful Ageing in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooke, Mark

    2016-01-01

    According to Asher and Nandy, the global population of seniors will increase to 1.41 million in 2030 and is predicted to further grow to 2 billion by 2050. This will cause a fundamental change in the world's ageing structure, with the number of seniors equal to the child population (0-14 years). Today, seniors are being encouraged to be part of…

  18. All the things I have - handling one's material room in old age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson Ranada, Asa; Hagberg, Jan-Erik

    2014-12-01

    The article explores how old people who live in their ordinary home, reason and act regarding their 'material room' (technical objects, such as household appliances, communication tools and things, such as furniture, personal belongings, gadgets, books, paintings, and memorabilia). The interest is in how they, as a consequence of their aging, look at acquiring new objects and phasing out older objects from the home. This is a broader approach than in most other studies of how old people relate to materiality in which attention is mostly paid either to adjustments to the physical environment or to the importance of personal possessions. In the latter cases, the focus is on downsizing processes (e.g. household disbandment or casser maison) in connection with a move to smaller accommodation or to a nursing home. The article is based on a study in which thirteen older people (median age 87), living in a Swedish town of medium size were interviewed (2012) for a third time. The questions concerned the need and desire for new objects, replacement of broken objects, sorting out the home or elsewhere, most cherished possessions, and the role of family members such as children and grandchildren. The results reveal the complexity of how one handles the material room. Most evident is the participants' reluctance to acquire new objects or even to replace broken things. Nearly all of them had considered, but few had started, a process of sorting out objects. These standpoints in combination resulted in a relatively intact material room, which was motivated by an ambition to simplify daily life or to facilitate the approaching dissolution of the home. Some objects of special value and other cherished objects materialized the connections between generations within a family. Some participants wanted to spare their children the burden of having to decide on what to do with their possessions. Others (mostly men), on the contrary, relied on their children to do the sorting out after

  19. A STUDY OF ELDERLY LIVING IN OLD AGE HOMES AND FAMILY IN PUNE DISTRICT OF MAHARASHTRA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahendra KrishnaAhiwale

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The older generation is caught between the decline in traditional values on one hand and the absence of adequate social security system on the other. The elderly citizens are in need of urgent attention. They don’t need our pity, but the understanding, love and care of their fellow human beings. It is our duty to see that they don’t spend the twilight years of their life in isolation, pain and misery. MATERIALS AND METHODS This study was undertaken in elderly living in two old age homes and some families of general population living in Pune, in July-2017. The data was collected from a sample of hundred and twenty elderly people, after a random selection, sixty from old-age homes (OAHs and sixty were from the families. These data were collected from two OAHs using a specially designed Interview schedule and observation technique through a house to house survey for those residing in the family. These informations thus obtained were collected, analysed, tabulated, and finally presented in the form of numbers and percentages. RESULTS Our present study shows that out of total 60 respondents taken from families, 33.3% belongs to 60-65 yrs. of age group, 47% from 65-70 yrs., 13.3% from 70-75 yrs., and 6.6% were from above 75 yrs. of age group. Out of other 60 respondents living in OAHs, these data were 3.3%, 16.6%, 47%, and 33.3% respectively. Majority of the respondents (43.3% living in the families preferred a company with their family members. Majority of the elderly (53.3% were more comfortable to make their social relationship with their inmates. Among those elderly living in OAHs, 86.6% were visiting religious places, and 3.3% were resorting to meditation. CONCLUSION It could be concluded from our present study that the general feelings of the elderly living in the families had better position than that of the elderly living in OAHs. Older persons are in need of vital support that will keep important aspects of their lifestyles

  20. Personality and Suicidal Behavior in Old Age: A Systematic Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Szücs

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundSuicide rates generally peak in the second half of life and are particularly high in older men; however, little is known about the contribution of dispositional factors to late-life suicide. Maladaptive personality traits have been strongly implicated in suicide among younger adults, but the extent to which they continue to play a role in late-life suicidal behavior is unclear. We also do not know whether specific personality profiles interact with the stressors of aging to cause suicidal behavior.MethodsWe sought to synthesize the data on personality pathology in late-life suicidal ideation and behavior via a systematic review using the PubMed, Google Scholar, PsycInfo, Scopus, Ovid, Web of Science, Embase, and Cochrane search engines. The included key words related to three descriptors: “personality,” “suicide,” and “elderly.” Included articles evaluated personality based on the Five-Factor Model (FFM or ICD/DSM diagnostic criteria in older samples with minimum age cutoffs of 50 years or older. Our original search identified 1,183 articles, of which 31 were retained.ResultsIncluded studies were heterogeneous in their design and personality measurements. Studies of categorical personality disorders were particularly scarce and suggested a stronger association with late-life suicidal ideation than with death by suicide. Only obsessive–compulsive and avoidant personality traits were associated with death by suicide in old age, but only in studies that did not control for depression. All personality constructs were positively linked to suicidal ideation, except for histrionic personality, which emerged as a negative predictor. Studies employing the FFM also indicated that older adults who died by suicide were less likely to display a maladaptive personality profile than elderly suicide attempters and younger suicide victims, having both lower levels of neuroticism and higher levels of conscientiousness than these

  1. Youth and Old Age Contrast in Nezami’s Images with Respect to Color Element

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    n Safabakhsh

    2012-05-01

    Old age and Youth are examples of concepts which have been the focus of many poets’ attention and Nezami in particular. These concepts have been beautifully depicted in Nezami’s poems through the color element. The poet has beautifully depicted the young and old generation’s appearance characteristics using his poetic talent and colorful elements of nature. On one hand, white, black and red are examples of the colors used to describe young generation directly or indirectly. On the other hand, old age is described with respect to yellow and white colors. Nezami’s description of youth and old age is well elaborated in this research with aims at analyzing these concepts with regard to the element of color.

  2. Socio-emotional selectivity in elderly and old age as a factor of subjective well-being

    OpenAIRE

    Melehin A.I.

    2016-01-01

    The article shows that the presence of social support, сonfidant network is associated with positive subjective well-being in elderly (55 - 74 years) and old age (75-90 years). However, certain types of social interaction can be considered as predictors of affective disorders and chronic somatic disorders in later ages as in normal aging and in neurodegenerative disorders. The purpose of this article is to familiarize professionals in the mental health of people of later ages with the theory ...

  3. Representations of their own sexuality and aging body by old people: phenomenological and psychodynamic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyrignac, Lucile; Bouati, Noureddine; Sagne, Alain; Gavazzi, Gaëtan; Zipper, Anne-Claire

    2017-09-01

    The sexuality of the elderly is rarely mentioned in general medicine although it holds an important place in many old people's life, and sexual well-being is a part of the global well-being according to the World Health Organization. To explore the representations of their own sexuality and aging body by the elderly. Qualitative study using semi-structured interviews in 15 healthy elderly people over 65 years of age, living at home. In-depth interviews were transcribed and submitted to qualitative content using a phenomenological and a psychodynamic analysis. The phenomenological approach allows to explore the meaning and significance of the sexuality of older people (their representations and individual experience). The psychodynamic approach allows an analysis of defense mechanisms in verbal and nonverbal behavior. Some elderly maintain a view of their sexuality in accordance with the societal standards existing before the sexual liberalization following the events of May 68 in France. For these people, sexuality is tabooed and only linked to procreation, no longer part of the aging body, and perceived as degraded, then difficult to be approached by general practitioners in relation with defense mechanisms. Other elderly people have managed to free themselves from those previous societal standards. The notion of pleasure is still present in these people and their aging body is perceived as an altered body, difficult to be accepted on account of the pressure for conformity due to actual societal standards. These standards reserve sexuality to young people and convey a picture of a sexuality that would be improper for the elderly. Understanding the representations of their sexuality by the elderly allows GPs a better approach for helping older patients to improve their sexual well-being.

  4. STAR CLUSTERS IN M31. II. OLD CLUSTER METALLICITIES AND AGES FROM HECTOSPEC DATA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldwell, Nelson; Schiavon, Ricardo; Morrison, Heather; Harding, Paul; Rose, James A.

    2011-01-01

    We present new high signal-to-noise spectroscopic data on the M31 globular cluster (GC) system, obtained with the Hectospec multifiber spectrograph on the 6.5 m MMT. More than 300 clusters have been observed at a resolution of 5 A and with a median S/N of 75 per A, providing velocities with a median uncertainty of 6 km s -1 . The primary focus of this paper is the determination of mean cluster metallicities, ages, and reddenings. Metallicities were estimated using a calibration of Lick indices with [Fe/H] provided by Galactic GCs. These match well the metallicities of 24 M31 clusters determined from Hubble Space Telescope color-magnitude diagrams, the differences having an rms of 0.2 dex. The metallicity distribution is not generally bimodal, in strong distinction with the bimodal Galactic globular distribution. Rather, the M31 distribution shows a broad peak, centered at [Fe/H] = -1, possibly with minor peaks at [Fe/H] = -1.4, -0.7, and -0.2, suggesting that the cluster systems of M31 and the Milky Way had different formation histories. Ages for clusters with [Fe/H] > - 1 were determined using the automatic stellar population analysis program EZ A ges. We find no evidence for massive clusters in M31 with intermediate ages, those between 2 and 6 Gyr. Moreover, we find that the mean ages of the old GCs are remarkably constant over about a decade in metallicity (-0.95∼< [Fe/H] ∼<0.0).

  5. Perceived health status and life satisfaction in old age, and the moderating role of social support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumitrache, Cristina G; Rubio, Laura; Rubio-Herrera, Ramona

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was on one hand to examine the associations between health impairment and life satisfaction, as well as social support and life satisfaction, and on the other, to analyze the moderating effect of social support with regard to health impairment and life satisfaction in a sample of community-dwelling older adults from urban areas of Granada, southern Spain. This was a cross-sectional survey in which a sample of 406 older adults with ages between 65 and 99 years old (M age = 74.88, SD = 6.75) was selected. Multiple stepwise regression analysis was used to assess the impact of health impairment and perceived social support on life satisfaction. Moderation analysis was performed using the bias-corrected and accelerated bootstrapping approach. Significant differences in life satisfaction scores were found by number and type of disease, restrictions in daily life activities and subjective health. Perceived health and perceived social support predicted life satisfaction. Besides global social support, emotional and affectionate support moderated the link between perceived health and life satisfaction. Older people who do not rate their health status positively and indicate low levels of social support have a higher risk of being dissatisfied with their lives and due to this they should receive special attention from gerontologists.

  6. Death of a child and parental wellbeing in old age: Evidence from Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chioun; Glei, Dana A.; Weinstein, Maxine; Goldman, Noreen

    2014-01-01

    The death of a child is one of the most traumatic events that a parent can experience. The psychological and physical consequences of bereavement are well established, and the consequences are more severe for mothers than fathers. However, little is known about how the death of an adult child affects parental wellbeing in old age or how the deceased child’s sex may moderate the association. We use data from the Taiwanese Longitudinal Study of Aging (TLSA) to investigate how the death of a son or a daughter differentially affects the wellbeing of older parents, measured by depressive symptoms and self-rated health. We find that for mothers, a son’s death is associated with an increase in depressive symptoms and a decline in self-rated health, but fathers’ health is not adversely affected by a son’s death. There is little evidence that a daughter’s death has a negative effect on either maternal or paternal wellbeing. We situate these findings within their social and cultural contexts and discuss social policies that would reduce gender and health inequality. PMID:24054310

  7. Sleep quality and cognitive function in healthy old age: the moderating role of subclinical depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutter, Christine; Zöllig, Jacqueline; Allemand, Mathias; Martin, Mike

    2012-11-01

    Previous research has yielded inconclusive results on the relationship between self-reported sleep quality and cognitive performance in healthy old age. Discrepant findings have been reported regarding processing speed and attention, executive functions, and episodic memory. However, sleep quality has also been found to be related to cognitive performance in patients with depression. Our aim was to clarify the relationship between sleep quality and cognitive performance in healthy older adults, and to evaluate the moderating role of subclinical depression on this relationship. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index was used to assess subjective sleep quality in 107 participants (age ≥ 61 years). A broad battery of neuropsychological tests measured basic cognitive processes, executive functions, and memory processes. Subclinical depression moderated the link between sleep quality and cognitive performance. More precisely, poorer sleep quality was associated with lower performance in reasoning, semantic fluency, and shifting in those with high versus low levels of subclinical depression. Our findings suggest that poor sleep quality might affect higher order cognitive processes, particularly in those reporting higher levels of subclinical depression. Findings on the relationships between sleep quality, cognitive functioning, and depressive symptomatology are discussed in relation to neurobehavioral theories of sleep. (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  8. Death of a child and parental wellbeing in old age: evidence from Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chioun; Glei, Dana A; Weinstein, Maxine; Goldman, Noreen

    2014-01-01

    The death of a child is one of the most traumatic events that a parent can experience. The psychological and physical consequences of bereavement are well established, and the consequences are more severe for mothers than fathers. However, little is known about how the death of an adult child affects parental wellbeing in old age or how the deceased child's sex may moderate the association. We use data from the Taiwanese Longitudinal Study of Aging (TLSA) to investigate how the death of a son or a daughter differentially affects the wellbeing of older parents, measured by depressive symptoms and self-rated health. We find that for mothers, a son's death is associated with an increase in depressive symptoms and a decline in self-rated health, but fathers' health is not adversely affected by a son's death. There is little evidence that a daughter's death has a negative effect on either maternal or paternal wellbeing. We situate these findings within their social and cultural contexts and discuss social policies that would reduce gender and health inequality. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Falls in old age: pills, the heart and beyond: Withdrawal of drugs and screening for cardiovascular causes in older fallers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. van der Velde (Nathalie)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractFall incidents are common in old age, with a rising injury rate with increasing age. Falling is not a diagnosis per se, but a symptom that can result from a number of diseases and abnormalities. However, even though there are abundant studies addressing possible causes of fall

  10. The mortality experience of early old-age and disability pensioners from unskilled - and semiskilled labour groups in Fredericia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, J; Jeune, B

    1980-01-01

    Survival of early old-age and disability pensioners from unskilled and semiskilled labourers was compared with the employed workers from the same local trade union. All members receiving early old-age or disability pensions during the period October 1, 1969 to September 30, 1973 were assigned...... to the index group provided they were still alive September 30, 1973. 2 active workers were selected as controls for each pensioner according to the closest age match. The pensioners had about 7 times higher mortality risk than their active fellow workers in the follow-up period from September 30, 1973...

  11. Vejez, Sabidurías y Administración Old Age, Wisdom and Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Castrillón

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available ¿Sofofobia¹ en la Administración? Los efectos negativos de las dinámicas económicas y de las prácticas de gestión actuales indican la ausencia de sensatez en múltiples dimensiones de la Administración contemporánea. Con el propósito de contribuir a contrarrestar dichas disfuncionalidades, la primera parte de este artículo exhorta a descubrir la sabiduría inspirada en la vejez, exponiendo diversas ventajas de tal aproximación. La segunda parte, aplica evocaciones concretas de la vejez para abordar problemáticas organizacionales a nivel praxeológico, epistemológico, axiológico y ontológico. Cada una de estas dimensiones, se discute en una sección en la cual se advierten posibles desviaciones patológicas, y donde también se proponen ejemplos y reflexiones de sabiduría derivados de la vejez; que esperamos permitan enriquecer, de manera creativa, las prácticas y teorías de la Administración.Sophophobia² in management? The negative effects caused by economic dynamics and of the current management practices; indicate the absence of prudence in multiple dimensions of contemporary administration. In order to help counter these disfunctions, the first part of this article exhorts readers to discover the wisdom inspired by aging, presenting several advantages of such approximation. The second part of the article, applies concrete evocations of old age to approach organizational problems at different levels: praxeological, epistemological, axiological, and ontological. For each one of these dimensions, there is a section that discusses latent pathological deviations, and also proposes wise examples and reflections related to ageing, which hopefully would enrich, in a creative manner, the theories and practices of administration.

  12. Spiritual activity is associated with better cognitive function in old age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, A W T; Lam, L C W

    2013-09-01

    This cross-sectional study aimed to explore the association between late-life spiritual activity participation and cognitive function in older Chinese adults in Hong Kong. Participants aged 60 years or older without clinical dementia or major psychiatric disorders were recruited. Dementia severity and global cognitive function were assessed using the Clinical Dementia Rating and Cantonese version of the Mini-Mental State Examination, respectively. Cognitive performance was measured using 10-minute delayed recall, the Category Verbal Fluency Test, Visual Aural Digit Span Test, and Modified Card Sorting Test. Psychological status was assessed using the Chinese version of the Purpose in Life scale. Activities participated in were categorised into 6 domains of physical, cognitive, social, prosocial, spiritual, and recreational activities. A total of 380 participants were enrolled. Bivariate correlation showed that the composite score of cognitive function was positively correlated with aerobic exercise (r = 0.14; p = 0.01), cognitive activity (r = 0.30; p < 0.001), and spiritual activity (r = 0.16; p = 0.002). Multiple linear regression suggested that frequent participation in cognitive activity (B = 0.87, beta = 0.22; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.52-1.25 and p < 0.001) and spiritual activity (B = 0.45, beta = 0.11; 95% CI = 0.13-0.76 and p = 0.01) were associated with better cognitive function after controlling for age and years of education. Engagement in spiritual activity may benefit cognitive function in old age. Longitudinal studies are recommended to further examine the causal relationship of spiritual activity and cognitive function.

  13. What's New in Old Horses? Postmortem Diagnoses in Mature and Aged Equids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, M A; Moore, G E; Bertin, F R; Kritchevsky, J E

    2016-03-01

    Postmortem findings in 241 equids admitted to a teaching hospital that were at least 15 years old at autopsy were reviewed (1) to determine disease prevalence, (2) to compare the cause of death (or euthanasia) in equids 15 to 19 years of age (n = 116) with that in equids ≥20 years of age (n = 125), and (3) to catalog coexisting lesions in equids with pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction (PPID). Breed and sex were evenly distributed between the age groups. Death or euthanasia was attributed to disease of the digestive system (41.5%), pituitary gland (12.9%), locomotor system (10.0%), nervous system (7.9%), cardiovascular system (4.6%), urinary system (4.6%), reproductive system (4.2%), respiratory system (4.2%), integumentary system (4.2%), lymphoid system (2.5%), liver (2.5%), or systemic neoplasia (1.2%). Nervous system disease was more common in the 15- to 19-year group; urinary tract disease was more common in the ≥20-year group. Neoplastic disease, regardless of systemic location, was the basis for death or euthanasia in 18.7% of all equids. Squamous cell carcinoma, lymphoma, and melanoma were the most common malignant neoplasms. PPID was the most common specific diagnosis, based on the postmortem presence of hyperplasia or adenoma, and was the reason for euthanasia in 47.7% of 65 equids with PPID. The most common nonpituitary causes for death or euthanasia in equids with PPID were colic, lameness, cancer, and spinal cord disease. Coexisting conditions in equids with PPID that were not considered the basis for euthanasia included neoplasms, infections, lameness, and recurrent airway obstruction. © The Author(s) 2015.

  14. Food activities and identity maintenance in old age: a systematic review and meta-synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plastow, Nicola Ann; Atwal, Anita; Gilhooly, Mary

    2015-01-01

    Services provided to older people should be developed based on active ageing policies. Nutrition is one aspect of active ageing, but little is known about how food activities contribute to psychological well-being in later life. This is a systematic review of qualitative and quantitative research that answers the question 'What is known about the relationship between food activities and the maintenance of identities in old age?'. We followed the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses guidelines and used quality assessment parameters to complete a systematic review and narrative synthesis. Academic Search Premier, MEDLINE, CINAHL Plus, and PsycINFO databases were searched. We initially identified 8016 articles, of which 167 full-text articles were screened for inclusion. Twenty-two articles were included in the review. There was moderate evidence from nine qualitative and two quantitative studies, of variable quality, that food activities contribute to the maintenance of women's gendered identities, the ethnic identities of men and women, and community identities. There was moderate evidence from 10 qualitative studies, of variable quality, that a change in food choice and deteriorating health changed food activity participation. These changes threatened identities. Most studies included both younger adults and older adults. In later life, there are many life experiences leading to change. Further research is needed to develop understanding of how identity and mental well-being are maintained, despite changes in everyday activities like cooking and eating. This may enable health care professionals to meet psychological needs alongside biological needs during nutritional interventions.

  15. Frontotemporal dysregulation of the SNARE protein interactome is associated with faster cognitive decline in old age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Miguel, Alfredo; Jones, Andrea A; Sawada, Ken; Barr, Alasdair M; Bayer, Thomas A; Falkai, Peter; Leurgans, Sue E; Schneider, Julie A; Bennett, David A; Honer, William G

    2018-06-01

    The molecular underpinnings associated with cognitive reserve remain poorly understood. Because animal models fail to fully recapitulate the complexity of human brain aging, postmortem studies from well-designed cohorts are crucial to unmask mechanisms conferring cognitive resistance against cumulative neuropathologies. We tested the hypothesis that functionality of the SNARE protein interactome might be an important resilience factor preserving cognitive abilities in old age. Cognition was assessed annually in participants from the Rush "Memory and Aging Project" (MAP), a community-dwelling cohort representative of the overall aging population. Associations between cognition and postmortem neurochemical data were evaluated in functional assays quantifying various species of the SNARE (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor) machinery in samples from the inferior temporal (IT, n = 154) and middle-frontal (MF, n = 174) gyri. Using blue-native gel electrophoresis, we isolated and quantified several types of complexes containing the three SNARE proteins (syntaxin-1, SNAP25, VAMP), as well as the GABAergic/glutamatergic selectively expressed complexins-I/II (CPLX1/2), in brain tissue homogenates and reconstitution assays with recombinant proteins. Multivariate analyses revealed significant associations between IT and MF neurochemical data (SNARE proteins and/or complexes), and multiple age-related neuropathologies, as well as with multiple cognitive domains of MAP participants. Controlling for demographic variables, neuropathologic indices and total synapse density, we found that temporal 150-kDa SNARE species (representative of pan-synaptic functionality) and frontal CPLX1/CPLX2 ratio of 500-kDa heteromeric species (representative of inhibitory/excitatory input functionality) were, among all the immunocharacterized complexes, the strongest predictors of cognitive function nearest death. Interestingly, these two neurochemical

  16. Socio-emotional selectivity in elderly and old age as a factor of subjective well-being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melehin A.I.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The article shows that the presence of social support, сonfidant network is associated with positive subjective well-being in elderly (55 - 74 years and old age (75-90 years. However, certain types of social interaction can be considered as predictors of affective disorders and chronic somatic disorders in later ages as in normal aging and in neurodegenerative disorders. The purpose of this article is to familiarize professionals in the mental health of people of later ages with the theory of socio-emotional selectivity (Socioemotional Selectivity Theory L.L. Carstensen, who makes a significant contribution to the understanding of the specificity and mechanisms of selection in social interaction in elderly and old age. Central mechanisms of socio-emotional selection in the later ages are the awareness of time and limited future time perspective, which enhances the awareness of mortality.

  17. Low Metallicities and Old Ages for Three Ultra-diffuse Galaxies in the Coma Cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Meng; Conroy, Charlie; Law, David; van Dokkum, Pieter; Yan, Renbin; Wake, David; Bundy, Kevin; Merritt, Allison; Abraham, Roberto; Zhang, Jielai; Bershady, Matthew; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Brinkmann, Jonathan; Drory, Niv; Grabowski, Kathleen; Masters, Karen; Pan, Kaike; Parejko, John; Weijmans, Anne-Marie; Zhang, Kai

    2018-05-01

    A large population of ultra-diffuse galaxies (UDGs) was recently discovered in the Coma cluster. Here we present optical spectra of three such UDGs, DF 7, DF 44, and DF 17, which have central surface brightnesses of μ g ≈ 24.4–25.1 mag arcsec‑2. The spectra were acquired as part of an ancillary program within the SDSS-IV MaNGA Survey. We stacked 19 fibers in the central regions from larger integral field units (IFUs) per source. With over 13.5 hr of on-source integration, we achieved a mean signal-to-noise ratio in the optical of 9.5 Å‑1, 7.9 Å‑1, and 5.0 Å‑1, respectively, for DF 7, DF 44, and DF 17. Stellar population models applied to these spectra enable measurements of recession velocities, ages, and metallicities. The recession velocities of DF 7, DF 44, and DF 17 are {6599}-25+40 km s‑1, {6402}-39+41 km s‑1, and {8315}-43+43 km s‑1, spectroscopically confirming that all of them reside in the Coma cluster. The stellar populations of these three galaxies are old and metal-poor, with ages of {7.9}-2.5+3.6 Gyr, {8.9}-3.3+4.3 Gyr, and {9.1}-5.5+3.9 Gyr, and iron abundances of [Fe/H] -{1.0}-0.4+0.3, -{1.3}-0.4+0.4, and -{0.8}-0.5+0.5, respectively. Their stellar masses are (3–6) × 108 M ⊙. The UDGs in our sample are as old or older than galaxies at similar stellar mass or velocity dispersion (only DF 44 has an independently measured dispersion). They all follow the well-established stellar mass–stellar metallicity relation, while DF 44 lies below the velocity dispersion-metallicity relation. These results, combined with the fact that UDGs are unusually large for their stellar masses, suggest that stellar mass plays a more important role in setting stellar population properties for these galaxies than either size or surface brightness.

  18. The influence of tree age and microhabitat quality on the occurrence of crustose lichens associated with old oaks

    OpenAIRE

    Ranius, Thomas; Johansson, Per; Berg, Niclas; Niklasson, Mats

    2008-01-01

    Questions: How do tree age, microhabitat characteristics and epiphytic competitors affect the occurrence of crustose lichens associated with old oaks? How do microhabitat characteristics and microclimate affect the cover of competitors (bryophytes and macrolichens)? How do microhabitat characteristics cor¬relate with microclimatic variables? Location: Southeast Sweden. Methods: Eight crustose lichen species were surveyed on 165 Quercus robur trees, 17-478 years old, at three study sit...

  19. Epinephrine and glucose modulate training-related CREB phosphorylation in old rats: relationships to age-related memory impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Ken A; Gold, Paul E

    2013-02-01

    Epinephrine enhances memory in young adult rats, in part, by increasing blood glucose levels needed to modulate memory. In old rats, epinephrine is deficient at raising blood glucose levels and thus is only moderately effective at enhancing memory. In contrast, systemic glucose injections improve memory in old rats, with resulting memory performance equal to that of young rats. The diminished response of glucose to training in old rats may blunt downstream neurochemical and molecular mechanisms needed to upregulate memory processes. In the first experiment, young adult and old rats were trained on an inhibitory avoidance task with immediate post-training injections of aCSF or glucose into the dorsal hippocampus. Old rats had significant memory impairments compared to young rats 7 days after training. Intrahippocampal injections of glucose reversed age-related deficits, improving memory scores in old rats to values seen in young rats. A second experiment examined age-related changes in activation of the transcription factor CREB, which is widely implicated in memory formation and may act downstream of hormonal and metabolic signals. Activation was assessed in response to training with systemic injections of epinephrine and glucose at doses known to enhance memory. Young adult and old rats were trained on inhibitory avoidance with immediate post-training systemic injections of saline, epinephrine, or glucose. After training, old rats had significant impairments in CREB phosphorylation in area CA1 and the dentate gyrus region of the hippocampus, and in the basolateral and lateral amygdala. Epinephrine and glucose attenuated age-related deficits in CREB phosphorylation, but were more effective in the amygdala and hippocampus, respectively. Together, these results support the view that age-related changes in blood glucose responses to epinephrine contribute to memory impairments, which may be related to alterations in regional patterns of CREB phosphorylation. Copyright

  20. Psychotropic drugs and the risk of fractures in old age: a prospective population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurminen, Janne; Puustinen, Juha; Piirtola, Maarit; Vahlberg, Tero; Kivelä, Sirkka-Liisa

    2010-07-06

    There is evidence that the use of any psychotropic and the concomitant use of two or more benzodiazepines are related to an increased risk of fractures in old age. However, also controversial results exist. The aim was to describe associations between the use of a psychotropic drug, or the concomitant use of two or more of these drugs and the risk of fractures in a population aged 65 years or over. This study was a part of a prospective longitudinal population-based study carried out in the municipality of Lieto, South-Western Finland. The objective was to describe gender-specific associations between the use of one psychotropic drug [benzodiazepine (BZD), antipsychotic (AP) or antidepressant (AD)] or the concomitant use of two or more psychotropic drugs and the risk of fractures in a population 65 years or over. Subjects were participants in the first wave of the Lieto study in 1990-1991, and they were followed up until the end of 1996. Information about fractures confirmed with radiology reports in 1,177 subjects (482 men and 695 women) during the follow-up was collected from medical records. Two follow-up periods (three and six years) were used, and previously found risk factors of fractures were adjusted as confounding factors separately for men and women. The Poisson regression model was used in the analyses. The concomitant use of two or more BZDs and the concomitant use of two or more APs were related to an increased risk of fractures during both follow-up periods after adjusting for confounding factors in men. No similar associations were found in women. The concomitant use of several BZDs and that of several APs are associated with an increase in the risk of fractures in older men. Our findings show only risk relations. We cannot draw the conclusion that these drug combinations are causes of fractures.

  1. [Nutritional state associated with social determinants in Arhuaco children aged less than 5 years-old].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Mónica; Tarazona, María C; Lamus, Francisco; Granados, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Misinformation concerning indigenous communities is an obstacle to ascertaining their healthcare status; however, the role of malnutrition concerning their morbidity and mortality is unquestionable. The aim of this study was to ascertain food security levels and identify social determinants and their association with the nutritional status of children aged less than five years-old. This was a cross-sectional, analytical study of an Arhuaco population which used non-probability sampling for convenience. Anthropometry included analyzing weight, length and head circumference based on WHO 2006 references for nutritional diagnosis. Social determinants were obtained using an instrument adapted from the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO). Relevant ethical considerations were taken into account. 169 children were evaluated and 132 surveys conducted. Growth delay regarding size was less frequent in children aged less than 6 months (p=0.03)and acute malnutrition was higher in those who went to see a traditional doctor first (p=0.01) and whose mothers had no formal schooling (p=0.05); the latter association was also found regarding obesity (p=0.00) and in those having risk factors concerning neurodevelopment too (p=0.00). Nutritional transition was higher in males (p=0.03), in children lacking complete vaccination (p=0.03) and in those whose mothers had 4 or fewer children (p=0.00). Strategies aimed at taking action regarding acute malnutrition and being overweight must be formulated, plans for monitoring growth in this population must be promoted and communication between traditional and Western medicine must be optimized, involving mothers as the main actors.

  2. Health in old age, and patients' approaches to telemedicine in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buliński, Leszek; Błachnio, Aleksandra

    2017-06-07

    Polish ageing society still experiences health-related problems and the increasing difficulties in receiving medical care. The initiation of telemedicine programmes can change this situation for better. The question arises if telemedicine is a solution that the elderly are willing to accept and take advantage of in order to raise their quality of life. Questionnaire based research was conducted in 2015 on a sample group of 312 seniors. The respondents completed the Diener Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS) and the subscale of Health States from Fragebogen zur Lebenszufriedenheit (FLZ) by Fahrenberg et al. Each participant gave their consent to take part in the research. SWLS presents a relatively stable value in the subsequent decades of being old (60-69 years M=21.93 SD=6.25; 70-79 years M=21.70 SD=5.52; 80+ M=21.38 SD=5.82). The health related quality of life (the FLZ subscale), varied in the analysed subgroups (F=7.783 p=0.000), and was related to comorbidity and polytherapy. A positive attitude towards telemedicine was expressed by 40% of those surveyed. However the seniors' need for telemedical services was more limited and did not exceed the 10%. In Poland in ageing there still dominates the experience of multiple ailments and polytherapy, something which justifies a search for new, easily accessible, and economically sound solutions for health care. Telemedicine is a promising solution although there is a need for concrete steps to be taken to raise willingness amongst geriatric patients to take advantage of telemedicine.

  3. Why Have the “Cantankerous Old People” Left the Neighborhood? The Representation of Old Age in Serbian Television Commercials – A Repeated Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljubica Milosavljević

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper represents an attempt to examine to what extent the way in which older members of society are represented in Serbian television commercials has changed in comparison to representations which were present in commercials during the three months in 2009 (Milosavljevic 2010a when the first study was conducted. As was the case in the first study, the focus is on dominant societal attitudes toward old people and old age which were utilized in making the television commercials in question. This was accomplished through analyzing both the positive and the negative stereotypes used to convey meaning in the commercials which were analyzed, as well as through the analysis of the proportional representation of older characters in advertising. The commercials which were analyzed here were broadcasted during the second half of December 2012, January and the first half of February 2013.

  4. Improving English Language Ability of Children Aged 4-5 Years Old by Using Creative Dance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabila Nur Masturah

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to know about how to improve English language ability of children aged 4-5 years old by using creative dance. The subjects of this research were seven children in group A at Bilingual Kindergarten Rumah Pelangi Pondok Bambu, East Jakarta. This research was held during April-June, 2016. The method used is classroom action research proposed by Kemmis and Taggart in two cycles. Each cycle consists of planning, acting, observing, and reflecting. The children’s English language ability was still low. The presentation of success dealt between the researcher and collaborator was 71%. The result of data analysis of pre-research was 42,1%. After being given the action, the percentage increased to 61,87%. The data got from the first cycle has not achieved its target, so the researcher conducted the second cycle. The result was 80,41%. Based on the result in the second cycle, the hypothesis is proved. Qualitatively, it is also admitted that the children’s English language ability could improve their creative movement.source language using the incorrect grammatical, the sentence is vague, the idea is not coherent and many pungtuations.

  5. Many missing rings in old Canary pines can be related with age, fires and traditional uses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Génova, M.; Santana, C.; Martínez, B.

    2017-11-01

    Aim and area of study: In the present paper we estimated the age of four monumental Pinus canariensis of Gran Canaria (Canary Islands, Spain) by means of tree-ring analysis. Many tree-ring series have been accurately studied and many missing rings have been determined. Material and methods: The trees were dead and the samples analysed were big disks. We measured numerous radii and crossdated the individual tree-ring series, paying particular attention to the existence and location of missing rings. We have distinguished between missing outer rings (MORs) and missing inner rings (MIRs) and analysed the possible causes of both. Main results: We determined an average of 8.8% total missing rings (MRs) for these long-lived trees, with a maximum of 96 MRs in a series of over 500. We have tried to establish a tree-ring chronology on Gran Canaria Island, also having the tree-ring series from Inagua site, but the long individual tree-ring series analysed do not crossdate between them. Research highlights: We consider the Canary pine a species hard to conducting dendroecological studies, especially if the samples come from managed old trees, in which a large amount of known and potentially unknown missing rings can hampered dating. Even knowing the difficulties involved in dendrochronological analyses of P. canariensis, we can confirm that it is a long-lived species, which can grow to over 500 years, and some of whose growth changes could be associated with certain historical and ecological events.

  6. Factors contributing to work related low back pain among personal care workers in old age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Simon S

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to preliminary explore the work related and individual factors that contributed to the occurrence of low back pain (LBP) that affected work activities of Personal Care Workers (PCWs). A cross-sectional study was conducted to 36 PCWs in an old age home of Hong Kong. The study is divided into three parts: 1) a questionnaire to document the workload exposure factors and the musculoskeletal symptoms survey of the PCWs, 2) work posture evaluation; and 3) an evaluation of the physical fitness and lifting capacity of the PCWs. Univariate analyses were used to explore the risk factors associated with LBP that affected work activities. The results indicated that individual physical profile and lifting capacities did not contribute to occurrence of low back pain at work. For the work demand factors, the perceived physical demands in lifting and lowering heavy objects, awkward sustain neck and back postures, loading on the back, and perceived effort of cleaning task contributed to the occurrence of LBP. For the physical environment factors, thermal stress and improper ventilation were associated with the occurrence of LBP cases. For the individual factor, LBP cases were associated with workers' self perceived muscular effort, and perceived risk of mental illness in response to work requirements.

  7. Simulation of the regularities of physical exercises learning process of boys aged 8 years old

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.V. Ivashchenko

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to determine the peculiarities of the formation of motor skills in boys aged 8 years. Materials and methods: In study participated boys of eight years old (n=48. The study used factor experiment plans. The purpose of this experiment was to optimize the modes of education and to determine the peculiarities of the formation of motor skills in boys. Results: Discriminant analysis allowed: to determine the modes of exercise in the formation of motor skills; to answer the question as to how significantly different modes of work on the effectiveness of the formation of motor skills. Established: which of the variables most significantly affect the differentiation of classes; to which class the object belongs based on the values discriminant variables. The influence of the number of approaches, the number of repetitions in the approach and the interval of rest on the level of training for movements is revealed. Conclusions: To choose the most rational mode of exercising in the process of forming motor skills can be used the first discriminating function with an emphasis on the most informative variables.

  8. Association of financial and health literacy with cognitive health in old age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Robert S; Yu, Lei; James, Bryan D; Bennett, David A; Boyle, Patricia A

    2017-03-01

    We tested the hypothesis that higher financial and health literacy is associated with better cognitive health in 755 older persons who completed a literacy measure (M = 67.9, SD = 14.5) and then had annual clinical evaluations for a mean of 3.4 years. In proportional hazards models, higher literacy was associated with decreased risk of developing incident Alzheimer's disease (n = 68) and results were similar for financial and health literacy subscales and after adjustment for potential confounders. In mixed-effects models, higher literacy was related to higher baseline level of cognition and reduced cognitive decline in multiple domains. Among the 602 persons without any cognitive impairment at baseline, higher literacy was associated with a reduced rate of cognitive decline and risk of developing incident mild cognitive impairment (n = 142). The results suggest that higher levels of financial and health literacy are associated with maintenance of cognitive health in old age.

  9. Many missing rings in old Canary pines can be related with age, fires and traditional uses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Génova, M.; Santana, C.; Martínez, B.

    2017-01-01

    Aim and area of study: In the present paper we estimated the age of four monumental Pinus canariensis of Gran Canaria (Canary Islands, Spain) by means of tree-ring analysis. Many tree-ring series have been accurately studied and many missing rings have been determined. Material and methods: The trees were dead and the samples analysed were big disks. We measured numerous radii and crossdated the individual tree-ring series, paying particular attention to the existence and location of missing rings. We have distinguished between missing outer rings (MORs) and missing inner rings (MIRs) and analysed the possible causes of both. Main results: We determined an average of 8.8% total missing rings (MRs) for these long-lived trees, with a maximum of 96 MRs in a series of over 500. We have tried to establish a tree-ring chronology on Gran Canaria Island, also having the tree-ring series from Inagua site, but the long individual tree-ring series analysed do not crossdate between them. Research highlights: We consider the Canary pine a species hard to conducting dendroecological studies, especially if the samples come from managed old trees, in which a large amount of known and potentially unknown missing rings can hampered dating. Even knowing the difficulties involved in dendrochronological analyses of P. canariensis, we can confirm that it is a long-lived species, which can grow to over 500 years, and some of whose growth changes could be associated with certain historical and ecological events

  10. Spirituality and caring in old age and the significance of religion - a hermeneutical study from Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rykkje, Linda L R; Eriksson, Katie; Raholm, Maj-Britt

    2013-06-01

    Spirituality is an important part of caring for the whole human being. However, there is lack of consensus about the concept parameter, and there is an ongoing discussion in nursing regarding the relation between religion and spirituality. Spirituality and religion is found to support health and well-being in old age, and this article portrays how older Norwegians understand religion and religious support as part of spirituality and caring. The theoretical framework in this study is Eriksson's caritative caring theory, and the research aim is to broaden the understanding of spirituality from a caring science perspective. The methodology is hermeneutical according to Gadamer. The study is based upon qualitative content analysis of 30 interviews with 17 participants above 74 years, six men and 11 women. The findings portray connectedness with a Higher power, including how Christianity has influenced upon the philosophy of life of the participants, wonders about the end of life/afterlife, and the meaning of religious symbols and rituals. The study also portrays how religious support may foster dignity, especially near the end of life, and experiences and opinions regarding support from nursing personnel. The study concludes that religiousness cannot be separated from spirituality, and that nurses should be able to provide spiritual care to a certain extent. Spiritual care including religious support according to patients' desires may foster health and preserve human dignity. © 2012 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  11. Motor performance and learning difficulties in schoolchildren aged 7 to 10 years old

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Silva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The general objective of this study was to evaluate the motor performance of children with and without learning difficulty indicatives. Took part in the study 406 students aged 7 to 10 years old, being 231 girls (56.9% and 175 (43.1% boys enrolled in a municipal public school in São José, Santa Catarina, Brazil. The indicative of learning difficulties was verified through the TDE, while motor performance was evaluated with the MABC. Boys without learning difficulties had better performance in the majority of the abilities evaluated, beyond an association between the indicative of motor problems with learning difficulties towards writing, arithmetic, reading, and in general. On the other hand, female students of the sample with and without any indicative of learning difficulties did not differentiate themselves as to motor abilities evaluated, with an association merely between the indicative of motor problems and reading problems. Based on the differences identified between girls and boys, results call attention to the need for future research in this area, considering gender as a differential variable in this relationship.

  12. Falling into the Light-using music and poetry as complementary modes of understanding falls in old age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evron, Lotte; Clausen, Nina

    that a broader understanding of falls in old age in the health care system might help health professionals to understand the complexity of falls and by this inspire older persons to prevent falls in different ways. Using poetry and music in our performance we seek to open up for a broader understanding of falls......: irresponsible behavior, disease, destiny, desire to remain independent in old age, appearing elegant/aesthetical and being physical active. One of the interviews was selected and transformed it into a poem (2-3). The poem was then translated into music by the second author. First we present the six...... understandings of falls in old age then we read the poem and finally a musical interpretation of the poem is performed by song and cello. The music is written for soprano and cello and created with direct inspiration from the poem. The fall is reproduced in a series of descending tones coming back as a "chorus...

  13. How good a clock is rotation? The stellar rotation-mass-age relationship for old field stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epstein, Courtney R.; Pinsonneault, Marc H.

    2014-01-01

    The rotation-mass-age relationship offers a promising avenue for measuring the ages of field stars, assuming the attendant uncertainties to this technique can be well characterized. We model stellar angular momentum evolution starting with a rotation distribution from open cluster M37. Our predicted rotation-mass-age relationship shows significant zero-point offsets compared to an alternative angular momentum loss law and published gyrochronology relations. Systematic errors at the 30% level are permitted by current data, highlighting the need for empirical guidance. We identify two fundamental sources of uncertainty that limit the precision of rotation-based ages and quantify their impact. Stars are born with a range of rotation rates, which leads to an age range at fixed rotation period. We find that the inherent ambiguity from the initial conditions is important for all young stars, and remains large for old stars below 0.6 M ☉ . Latitudinal surface differential rotation also introduces a minimum uncertainty into rotation period measurements and, by extension, rotation-based ages. Both models and the data from binary star systems 61 Cyg and α Cen demonstrate that latitudinal differential rotation is the limiting factor for rotation-based age precision among old field stars, inducing uncertainties at the ∼2 Gyr level. We also examine the relationship between variability amplitude, rotation period, and age. Existing ground-based surveys can detect field populations with ages as old as 1-2 Gyr, while space missions can detect stars as old as the Galactic disk. In comparison with other techniques for measuring the ages of lower main sequence stars, including geometric parallax and asteroseismology, rotation-based ages have the potential to be the most precise chronometer for 0.6-1.0 M ☉ stars.

  14. Episodic and semantic memory functioning in very old age: Explanations from executive functioning and processing speed theories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline E.J. Spaan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Structural equation modeling was used to investigate whether age-related episodic and semantic memory impairments are better explained by decline in processing speed or executive functioning (or both, rather than directly in terms of memory components. The models tested were based on an extensive review of the literature on cognitive decline in normal aging, up to very old age. A computerized test battery, measuring episodic memory (free and cued recall; recognition, semantic memory (fluency; naming accuracy and latencies, processing speed and executive functioning, was administered to 234 elderly persons ranging from young-old to very old age (55–96 years. To avoid large variance in response times due to physical instead of cognitive limitations, no motor responses were required from participants. Age-related decline in episodic and semantic memory performance was found to be the consequence of declines in processing speed and executive functioning. Processing speed mainly mediated decline of semantic memory, whereas executive functioning mainly mediated episodic memory decline. The most parsimonious model showed that both processing speed and executive functioning attributed to memory decline but independent from one another. The results suggest that at very old age, the impact of executive dysfunctions on episodic memory performance exceeds the influence of cognitive slowing.

  15. Development of an Age Band on the ManuVis for 3-Year-Old Children with Visual Impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimer, A M; Barsingerhorn, A D; Overvelde, A; Nijhuis-Van der Sanden, M W G; Boonstra, F N; Cox, R F A

    2017-08-01

    To compare fine motor performance of 3-year-old children with visual impairment with peers having normal vision, to provide reference scores for 3-year-old children with visual impairment on the ManuVis, and to assess inter-rater reliability. 26 children with visual impairment (mean age: 3 years 7 months (SD 3 months); 17 boys) and 28 children with normal vision (mean age: 3 years 7 months (SD 4 months); 14 boys) participated in the study. The ManuVis age band for 3-year-old children comprised two one-handed tasks, two two-handed tasks, and a pre-writing task. Children with visual impairment needed more time on all tasks (p children with normal vision (p Children aged 42-47 months performed significantly faster on two tasks and had better total scores than children aged 36-41 months (p children is appropriate to assess fine motor skills, and is sensitive to differences between children with visual impairment and normal vision and between half-year age groups. Reference scores are provided for 3-year-old children with visual impairment to identify delayed fine motor development.

  16. Falls in advanced old age: recalled falls and prospective follow-up of over-90-year-olds in the Cambridge City over-75s Cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthews Fiona E

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The "oldest old" are now the fastest growing section of most western populations, yet there are scarcely any data concerning even the common problem of falls amongst the very old. Prospective data collection is encouraged as the most reliable method for researching older people's falls, though in clinical practice guidelines advise taking a history of any recalled falls. This study set out to inform service planning by describing the epidemiology of falls in advanced old age using both retrospectively and prospectively collected falls data. Methods Design: Re-survey of over-90-year-olds in a longitudinal cohort study – cross-sectional interview and intensive 12-month follow-up. Participants and setting: 90 women and 20 men participating in a population-based cohort (aged 91–105 years, in care-homes and community-dwelling recruited from representative general practices in Cambridge, UK Measurements: Prospective falls data were collected using fall calendars and telephone follow-up for one year after cross-sectional survey including fall history. Results 58% were reported to have fallen at least once in the previous year and 60% in the 1-year follow-up. The proportion reported to have fallen more than once was lower using retrospective recall of the past year than prospective reports gathered the following year (34% versus 45%, as were fall rates (1.6 and 2.8 falls/person-year respectively. Repeated falls in the past year were more highly predictive of falls during the following year – IRR 4.7, 95% CI 2.6–8.7 – than just one – IRR 3.6, 95% CI 2.0–6.3, using negative binomial regression. Only 1/5 reportedly did not fall during either the year before or after interview. Conclusion Fall rates in this representative sample of over-90-year-olds are even higher than previous reports from octogenarians. Recalled falls last year, particularly repeated falls, strongly predicted falls during follow-up. Similar proportions

  17. Socioeconomic disparities in gait speed and associated characteristics in early old age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plouvier, S; Carton, M; Cyr, D; Sabia, S; Leclerc, A; Zins, M; Descatha, A

    2016-04-23

    A few studies have documented associations between socioeconomic position and gait speed, but the knowledge about factors from various domains (personal factors, lifestyle, occupation…) which contribute to these disparities is limited. Our objective was to assess socioeconomic disparities in usual gait speed in a general population in early old age in France, and to identify potential contributors to the observed disparities, including occupational factors. The study population comprised 397 men and 339 women, aged 55 to 69, recruited throughout France for the field pilot of the CONSTANCES cohort. Gait speed was measured in meters/second. Socioeconomic position was based on self-reported occupational class. Information on personal characteristics, lifestyle, comorbidities and past or current occupational physical exposure came either from the health examination, from interview or from self-administered questionnaire. Four groups were considered according to sex-specific distributions of speed (the two slowest thirds versus the fastest third, for each gender). Logistic regression models adjusted for health screening center and age allowed to the study of cross-sectional associations between: 1- slower speed and occupational class; 2- slower speed and each potential contributor; 3- occupational class and selected potential contributors. The association between speed and occupational class was then further adjusted for the factors significantly associated both with speed and occupational class, in order to assess the potential contribution of these factors to disparities. With reference to managers/executives, gait speed was reduced in less skilled categories among men (OR 1.21 [0.72-2.05] for Intermediate/Tradesmen, 1.95 [0.80-4.76] for Clerks, Sale/service workers, 2.09 [1.14-3.82] for Blue collar/Craftsmen) and among women (OR 1.12 [0.55-2.28] for Intermediate/Tradesmen, 2.33 [1.09-4.97] for Clerks, 2.48 [1.18-5.24] for Sale/service workers/Blue collar

  18. Opinions of Old Age According to Residents of Polish Public Nursing Homes and Members of the Universities of the Third Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cybulski, Mateusz; Krajewska-Kułak, Elżbieta; Jamiołkowski, Jacek

    2016-01-01

    Statistical data from the turn of the 21st century shows a significant increase in the average human life span and, what follows, an extension of old age. The aim of this study was to become familiar with the opinions submitted by respondents regarding aging and old age, health problems connected with aging and preferred health behaviors. The research was conducted between January 3rd 2013 and February 15th 2014 on a group of 200 residents of public nursing homes and 200 members of the University of the Third Age using a questionnaire created by the authors. Forty-two point five per cent of the residents of PNHs and 58.0% of the members of UTAs were of the opinion that old age can be a successful period of life. Sixty-one percent of all participants stated that the elderly are needed in society. According to respondents, the factor which was most important in delaying aging was an active lifestyle (80.0% of residents of PNH vs. 90.0% of UTA members). Perceptions of elderly people by the seniors are different, complex and multidimensional. The perception of elderly people to society can variously affect (positively or negatively) quality of life in this age group. The results of the study showed small differences between the residents of public nursing homes and students of Universities of the Third Age in the perception of old age. There is a need to integrate seniors with younger generations in order to eliminate the stereotypes prevailing in society about older people.

  19. A study on quality of life between elderly people living in old age home and within family setup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rishi Panday

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ageing in the new millennium will be greatly influenced by both global and region specific factors, although increasing numbers as well as significant changes in the socio-cultural milieu are responsible for the recent emphasis on studies pertaining to older adults in India. This has resulted in the caregiver issue becoming a growing concern for national policy makers. The family as a single unit is undergoing changes leading to significant adjustments in accommodating and caring for older adults in the family, making them more vulnerable to illness and psychosocial strains in the absence of familial support network. Aim: To assess and compare quality of life (QOL between elderly people living in old age home and within the family setup. Methods and materials: A cross sectional research design was adopted for the study. The study was conducted at two old age homes and two areas of Ranchi - Kantatoli and Kanke. The sample comprised of 80 participants who were further divided into 40 participants from old age homes and 40 participants from family. Tools such as socio-demographic data sheet and QOL scale were administered to obtain the data. Result and conclusion: Findings of this study indicate that QOL was better of those elderly people who were living in old age home in comparison of those elderly people who were living within family setup.

  20. Amino acid and acetylcholine chemistry in the central auditory system of young, middle-aged and old rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfrey, Donald A; Chen, Kejian; O'Toole, Thomas R; Mustapha, Abdurrahman I A A

    2017-07-01

    Older adults generally experience difficulties with hearing. Age-related changes in the chemistry of central auditory regions, especially the chemistry underlying synaptic transmission between neurons, may be of particular relevance for hearing changes. In this study, we used quantitative microchemical methods to map concentrations of amino acids, including the major neurotransmitters of the brain, in all the major central auditory structures of young (6 months), middle-aged (22 months), and old (33 months old) Fischer 344 x Brown Norway rats. In addition, some amino acid measurements were made for vestibular nuclei, and activities of choline acetyltransferase, the enzyme for acetylcholine synthesis, were mapped in the superior olive and auditory cortex. In old, as compared to young, rats, glutamate concentrations were lower throughout central auditory regions. Aspartate and glycine concentrations were significantly lower in many and GABA and taurine concentrations in some cochlear nucleus and superior olive regions. Glutamine concentrations and choline acetyltransferase activities were higher in most auditory cortex layers of old rats as compared to young. Where there were differences between young and old rats, amino acid concentrations in middle-aged rats often lay between those in young and old rats, suggesting gradual changes during adult life. The results suggest that hearing deficits in older adults may relate to decreases in excitatory (glutamate) as well as inhibitory (glycine and GABA) neurotransmitter amino acid functions. Chemical changes measured in aged rats often differed from changes measured after manipulations that directly damage the cochlea, suggesting that chemical changes during aging may not all be secondary to cochlear damage. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. The Association of Leisure Activities in Middle Adulthood with Cognitive Performance in Old Age: The Moderating Role of Educational Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihle, Andreas; Oris, Michel; Fagot, Delphine; Baeriswyl, Marie; Guichard, Eduardo; Kliegel, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    One of the fundamental challenges for gerontological research is how to maintain and promote intact cognitive functioning in old age. Previous research revealed that high educational level, good health status, and an active lifestyle during adulthood seem to be protective against cognitive impairment in old age. However, up to now, a detailed examination of the interaction of these relations based on a broader variety of activities and considering past and current activities is missing. The present study set out to extend the literature by investigating in more detail the interactions of educational level and health status with a broad variety of past and current leisure activities in their association with cognitive functioning in a large sample of older adults with a wide age range. A total of 2,812 older adults (aged 65-101 years) served as the sample for the present study. A test on verbal abilities and one on processing speed were applied. In addition, individuals were retrospectively interviewed regarding their educational level, current general health status, and 18 leisure activities (in terms of currently performed activities and those that had been carried out at the age of 45 years). Regressions indicated that engaging in more current activities and in more activities at the age of 45 years (both analyzed as an overall activity measure) was related to better cognitive performance in old age (r values up to 0.39, p values <0.001). These associations were more pronounced in individuals with a low (compared to a high) educational level. Present results suggest that an active lifestyle during middle adulthood may be related to better cognitive functioning in old age, particularly in individuals with a low educational level. These findings are discussed with respect to models of cognitive aging. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. The psychometric properties of the German version of the WHOQOL-OLD in the German population aged 60 and older.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Ines; Matschinger, Herbert; Riedel-Heller, Steffi; von Gottberg, Carolin; Kilian, Reinhold

    2014-09-05

    The WHOQOL-OLD is an instrument for the assessment of subjective quality of life in elderly people. It is based on the WHO definition of quality of life and is available in more than 20 languages. However, in most countries, the psychometric properties of the WHOQOL-OLD have been assessed only on the basis of small local samples and not in representative studies. In this study, the psychometric properties of the WHOQOL-OLD are evaluated based on a representative sample of Germany's elderly population. Face-to-face interviews with 1133 respondents from the German population aged 60 years and older were conducted. Quality of life was assessed by means of the WHOQOL-BREF, the WHOQOL-OLD and the SF12. Moreover, the GDS, the DemTect and the IADL were applied for the assessment of depressive symptoms, cognitive capacities and capacity for carrying out daily activities. Psychometric properties of the WHOQOL-OLD were evaluated by means of classical and probabilistic test theory, confirmatory factor analysis and multivariate regression model. Cronbach's alpha was found to be above 0.85 for four and above .75 for two of the six facets of the WHOQOL-OLD. IRT analyses indicated that all items of the WHOQOL-OLD contribute considerably to the measurement of the associated facets. While the six-facet structure of the WHOQOL-OLD was well supported by the results of the confirmatory factor analysis, a common latent factor for the WHOQOL-OLD total scale could not be identified. Correlations with other quality of life measures and multivariate regression models with GDS, IADL and the DemTect indicate a good criterion validity of all six WHOQOL-OLD facets. Study results confirm that the good psychometric properties of the WHOQOL-OLD that have been found in international studies could be replicated in a representative study of the German population. These results suggest that the WHOQOL-OLD is an instrument that is well suited to identify the needs and the wishes of an aging population.

  3. Actuarial status of the old-age and survivors insurance and disability insurance trust funds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballantyne, H C

    1982-06-01

    The 1982 Annual Report of the Board of Trustees of the Old-Age and Survivors Insurance (OASI) and Disability Insurance (DI) Trust Funds indicates sever financial problems in both the short and the long range. The short-range financial status is significantly worse than was estimated last year, after enactment of the 1981 legislation, because of continuing unfavorable economic conditions. The estimated long-range deficit is the same as the deficit that was estimated last year before the 1981 legislation and is therefore somewhat worse than was estimated immediately after enactment of the legislation. Under present law, which authorizes temporary interfund borrowing amount the OASI, DI, and Hospital Insurance (HI) Trust Funds, the OASI Trust Fund would become unable to pay benefits on time by July 1983. The assets of the DI Trust Fund, on the other hand, are expected to grow rapidly in both the short and long range. If the assets of both the OASI and DI Trust Funds were combined, however, the two funds would still become unable to pay benefits on time by the latter half of 1983, based on all four sets of economic and demographic assumptions in the 1982 report. Even if the temporary interfund borrowing authority in present law were extended, the combined assets of the OASI, DI, and HI Trust Funds would become insufficient to pay benefits on time by 1984, based on the two less favorable sets of assumptions in the 1982 report. Based on the other two, more favorable, sets of assumptions, the three combined funds could pay benefits on time through the 1980's but there would be little or no margin of safety to permit timely payment of benefits if economic conditions are even slightly less favorable.

  4. Pregnancy outcomes decline in recipients over age 44: an analysis of 27,959 fresh donor oocyte in vitro fertilization cycles from the Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Jason S; Steward, Ryan G; Dude, Annie M; Shah, Anish A; Goldfarb, James M; Muasher, Suheil J

    2014-05-01

    To use a large and recent national registry to provide an updated report on the effect of recipient age on the outcome of donor oocyte in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles. Retrospective cohort study. United States national registry for assisted reproductive technology. Recipients of donor oocyte treatment cycles between 2008 and 2010, with cycles segregated into five age cohorts: ≤34, 35 to 39, 40 to 44, 45 to 49, and ≥50 years. None. Implantation, clinical pregnancy, live-birth, and miscarriage rates. In donor oocyte IVF cycles, all age cohorts ≤39 years had similar rates of implantation, clinical pregnancy, and live birth when compared with the 40- to 44-year-old reference group. Patients in the two oldest age groups (45 to 49, ≥50 years) experienced statistically significantly lower rates of implantation, clinical pregnancy, and live birth compared with the reference group. Additionally, all outcomes in the ≥50-year-old group were statistically significantly worse than the 45- to 49-year-old group, demonstrating progressive decline with advancing age. Recent national registry data suggest that donor oocyte recipients have stable rates of pregnancy outcomes before age 45, after which there is a small but steady and significant decline. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Individual and contextual antecedents of workplace aggression in aged care nurses and certified nursing assistants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodwell, John; Demir, Defne; Gulyas, Andre

    2015-08-01

    Employees in aged care are at high risk of workplace aggression. Research rarely examines the individual and contextual antecedents of aggression for specific types of workers within these settings, such as nurses and certified nursing assistants (CNAs). The study aimed to explore characteristics of the job demands-resources model (JD-R), negative affectivity (NA) and demographics related to workplace aggression for aged care workers. The survey study was based on 208 nurses and 83 CNAs working within aged care. Data from each group were analysed separately using ordinal regressions. Both aged care nurses and CNAs reported high rates of bullying, external emotional abuse, threat of assault and physical assault. Elements of the JD-R model and individual characteristics were related to aggression types for both groups. Characteristics of the JD-R model, NA and demographics are important in understanding the antecedents of aggression observed among aged care workers. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  6. Retinal nerve fiber layer thickness measured by optical coherence tomography in Chinese teenagers aged from 13 years old to 18 years old

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Ming Zhang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To establish a reference range of retinal nerve fiber layer(RNFLthickness by optical coherence tomography(OCTin Chinese teenagers aged from 13 to 18 years old, and investigate its relationship with age, eye side, gender, and ethnic group.METHODS: A total of 402 eyes from 201 normal Chinese aged from 13 to 18 years old were recruited for this study. Optic disk with 3.4mm diameter circle in different global average, quadrant and part-time bit retinal nerve fiber layer thickness(RNFLTwas measured by RNFL thickness average analysis program. Their RNFLT at different part-time bit, quadrant and global average RNFLT around the disc were measured by OCT with 3.4mm diameter circle, using the RNFL thickness average analysis program. The data was analyzed with SPSS statistical 19.0. The influences of several factors(such as age, eye side, gender, and ethnic groupon RNFLT were also analyzed.RESULTS: The global average RNFLT at 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18 years old was 108.32±9.42μm, 109.23±9.67μm, 110.36±11.14μm, 111.27±10.21μm, 109.23±9.67μm, 112.11±8.83μm respectively. RNFLT of right eyes was 109.82±8.93μm and of left eyes was 110.33±9.89μm. All of the male's average RNFLT was 110.14±10.02μm, and all of the female's average RNFLT was 109.96±11.22μm. The average RNFLT of Han nationality was 110.22±9.31μm and of non-Han nationality was 109.87±8.65μm. The average RNFLT of all was 110.02±9.87μm, the RNFLT at the superior, nasal, inferior and temporal quadrant was 146.56 ±18.88μm, 76.49±13.28μm, 136.64±16.29μm, 82.01±12.55μm respectively. There was no significant difference in gender, eye side, and ethnic group(all PCONCLUSION: This study has established a normal standard reference of RNFLT and its related indexes by OCT in Chinese teenagers aged 13-18 years old. Gender, age, eye side, and ethnic group have no effect on their RNFLT, which has significant difference with adult's data. And for the diagnosis and follow-up of

  7. Different indicators of socioeconomic status and their relative importance as determinants of health in old age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darin-Mattsson, Alexander; Fors, Stefan; Kåreholt, Ingemar

    2017-09-26

    Socioeconomic status has been operationalised in a variety of ways, most commonly as education, social class, or income. In this study, we also use occupational complexity and a SES-index as alternative measures of socioeconomic status. Studies show that in analyses of health inequalities in the general population, the choice of indicators influence the magnitude of the observed inequalities. Less is known about the influence of indicator choice in studies of older adults. The aim of this study is twofold: i) to analyse the impact of the choice of socioeconomic status indicator on the observed health inequalities among older adults, ii) to explore whether different indicators of socioeconomic status are independently associated with health in old age. We combined data from two nationally representative Swedish surveys, providing more than 20 years of follow-up. Average marginal effects were estimated to compare the association between the five indicators of SES, and three late-life health outcomes: mobility limitations, limitations in activities of daily living (ADL), and psychological distress. All socioeconomic status indicators were associated with late-life health; there were only minor differences in the effect sizes. Income was most strongly associated to all indicators of late-life health, the associations remained statistically significant when adjusting for the other indicators. In the fully adjusted models, education contributed to the model fits with 0-3% (depending on the outcome), social class with 0-1%, occupational complexity with 1-8%, and income with 3-18%. Our results indicate overlapping properties between socioeconomic status indicators in relation to late-life health. However, income is associated to late-life health independently of all other variables. Moreover, income did not perform substantially worse than the composite SES-index in capturing health variation. Thus, if the primary objective of including an indicator of socioeconomic

  8. No Association between Variation in Longevity Candidate Genes and Aging-related Phenotypes in Oldest-old Danes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mette; Nygaard, Marianne; Debrabant, Birgit

    2016-01-01

    additional genes repeatedly considered as candidates for human longevity: APOE, APOA4, APOC3, ACE, CETP, HFE, IL6, IL6R, MTHFR, TGFB1, SIRTs 1, 3, 6; and HSPAs 1A, 1L, 14. Altogether, 1,049 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped in 1,088 oldest-old (age 92-93 years) Danes and analysed......In this study we explored the association between aging-related phenotypes previously reported to predict survival in old age and variation in 77 genes from the DNA repair pathway, 32 genes from the growth hormone 1/ insulin-like growth factor 1/insulin (GH/IGF-1/INS) signalling pathway and 16...... in the relevant phenotype over time (7 years of follow-up) and none of the SNPs could be confirmed in a replication sample of 1,281 oldest-old Danes (age 94-100). Hence, our study does not support association between common variation in the investigated longevity candidate genes and aging-related phenotypes...

  9. No Association between Variation in Longevity Candidate Genes and Aging-related Phenotypes in Oldest-old Danes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soerensen, Mette; Nygaard, Marianne; Debrabant, Birgit; Mengel-From, Jonas; Dato, Serena; Thinggaard, Mikael; Christensen, Kaare; Christiansen, Lene

    2016-06-01

    In this study we explored the association between aging-related phenotypes previously reported to predict survival in old age and variation in 77 genes from the DNA repair pathway, 32 genes from the growth hormone 1/ insulin-like growth factor 1/insulin (GH/IGF-1/INS) signalling pathway and 16 additional genes repeatedly considered as candidates for human longevity: APOE, APOA4, APOC3, ACE, CETP, HFE, IL6, IL6R, MTHFR, TGFB1, SIRTs 1, 3, 6; and HSPAs 1A, 1L, 14. Altogether, 1,049 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped in 1,088 oldest-old (age 92-93 years) Danes and analysed with phenotype data on physical functioning (hand grip strength), cognitive functioning (mini mental state examination and a cognitive composite score), activity of daily living and self-rated health. Five SNPs showed association to one of the phenotypes; however, none of these SNPs were associated with a change in the relevant phenotype over time (7 years of follow-up) and none of the SNPs could be confirmed in a replication sample of 1,281 oldest-old Danes (age 94-100). Hence, our study does not support association between common variation in the investigated longevity candidate genes and aging-related phenotypes consistently shown to predict survival. It is possible that larger sample sizes are needed to robustly reveal associations with small effect sizes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF HEALTH CAPITAL, FRAILTY AND AGING AMONG OLD PEOPLE WITH AND WITHOUT MEANS OF SUPPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jauregui JR

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This work is a comparative analysis of health capital, frailty and ageing among old people with and without means of support. Material and Methods: Target population are individuals older than 50 years old, Intervention Group have lower socio-economic status and live in slums. Control Group belong to a higher social clas living in an urban population with all the material resources. Results: The data analyzed corresponds to a sample of 448 people. Comparison between both groups was not rendered as significant. Conclusions: In Our observation, populations exposed to hostile environments evidence for decades to be functionally apt to defend themselves from it.

  11. Mortality increase in late-middle and early-old age: heterogeneity in death processes as a new explanation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ting; Yang, Yang Claire; Anderson, James J

    2013-10-01

    Deviations from the Gompertz law of exponential mortality increases in late-middle and early-old age are commonly neglected in overall mortality analyses. In this study, we examined mortality increase patterns between ages 40 and 85 in 16 low-mortality countries and demonstrated sex differences in these patterns, which also changed across period and cohort. These results suggest that the interaction between aging and death is more complicated than what is usually assumed from the Gompertz law and also challenge existing biodemographic hypotheses about the origin and mechanisms of sex differences in mortality. We propose a two-mortality model that explains these patterns as the change in the composition of intrinsic and extrinsic death rates with age. We show that the age pattern of overall mortality and the population heterogeneity therein are possibly generated by multiple dynamics specified by a two-mortality model instead of a uniform process throughout most adult ages.

  12. El resurgir de viejos fantasmas: política asistencial y mundo del trabajo = The resurgence of old ghosts: social assistance policy and labor world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ribero, Ximena Baráibar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the end of the nineties, Latin America has widened and institutionalized its social assistance policies, mainly by the implementation of Conditional Cash Transfer Programs. In Uruguay, these programs have been implemented since 2005. One of the more debatable topics regarding these programs has been their impact on work and whether transfer programs would not incentive beneficiaries to work and promote their dependency with the State. This paper presents the Uruguayan case analyzing Conditional Cash Transfer Programs and the world of work stating there is no such impact of these programs on adult work. Rather, these concerns are old ghosts which have always been present in the social assistance arena

  13. Social position and health in old age: the relevance of different indicators of social position

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avlund, Kirsten; Holstein, Bjørn E; Osler, Merete

    2003-01-01

    for men and women. In men the odds ratios of housing tenure on four health variables were strong and unaffected by education and occupation while in women the odds ratios of income on three health variables were strong and unaffected by education and occupation. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates strong......AIMS: An analysis was undertaken to investigate social inequalities in health among old men and women in relation to five indicators of social position. METHODS: The study is based on a population-based cross-sectional survey among 748 75-year-old men and women, which was performed as clinical......, consistent associations between variables of material wealth indicators and various measures of health among 75-year-old men and women....

  14. Age class, longevity and growth rate relationships: protracted growth increases in old trees in the eastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sarah E; Abrams, Marc D

    2009-11-01

    This study uses data from the International Tree-Ring Data Bank website and tree cores collected in the field to explore growth rate (basal area increment, BAI) relationships across age classes (from young to old) for eight tree species in the eastern US. These species represent a variety of ecological traits and include those in the genera Populus, Quercus, Pinus, Tsuga and Nyssa. We found that most trees in all age classes and species exhibit an increasing BAI throughout their lives. This is particularly unusual for trees in the older age classes that we expected to have declining growth in the later years, as predicted by physiological growth models. There exists an inverse relationship between growth rate and increasing age class. The oldest trees within each species have consistently slow growth throughout their lives, implying an inverse relationship between growth rate and longevity. Younger trees (trees when they are of the same age resulting from a higher proportion of fast-growing trees in these young age classes. Slow, but increasing, BAI in the oldest trees in recent decades is a continuation of their growth pattern established in previous centuries. The fact that they have not shown a decreasing growth rate in their old age contradicts physiological growth models and may be related to the stimulatory effects of global change phenomenon (climate and land-use history).

  15. SOCIO - DEMOGRAPHIC PROFILE OF OLD AGE PEOPLE LIVING IN URBAN & URBAN SLUM AREAS IN MAHARASHTRA, KARAD: A COMPARATIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leena Rahul Salunkhe

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available NTRODUCTION: Aging refers to normal, progressive and irreversible biological changes that occur over an individual’s life span. The advancement of medical science and increased awareness among the people has brought about a sharp decline in mortality and a steady decline in fertility. This has resulted in a worldwide shift in the demographic profile and has led to significant increase in the aged population. About two thirds of all older people are concentrated in the developing world. OBJECTIVES: to study & compare socio - demographic variables of old age people living in Urban & Urban slum areas. MATERIAL & METHODS: all the old age people living in urb a n slum area & rando mly selected one urban area of K arad town were interviewed by using pre structured proforma about socio - demographic variable & compared with each other. OBSERVATIONS: Total 153 from urban & 135 from urban slum were enrolled for the study. Nearly 2/3 rd subjects were above age 65yrs in both areas with more female proportions in slum area than urban area. Significant difference was found with education, occupation & socio - economic status in both areas. CONCLUSION: Ageing is a universal phenomenon, with advanced fertility control, improvement in health and social services life expectancy has increased. Ageing has profound effect on the individual status in the family, the work force, goals and organization of health, social services, policies and practices of the government

  16. Effect of maternal age on maternal and neonatal outcomes after assisted reproductive technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wennberg, Anna Lena; Opdahl, Signe; Bergh, Christina

    2016-01-01

    weeks), low birth weight (LBW; mortality (≥28 weeks). Adjusted odds ratios (AORs) were calculated. Associations between maternal age and outcomes were analyzed. RESULT(S): The risk of placenta previa (AOR 4.11-6.05), cesarean delivery (AOR 1......OBJECTIVE: To compare the effect of maternal age on assisted reproductive technology (ART) and spontaneous conception (SC) pregnancies regarding maternal and neonatal complications. DESIGN: Nordic retrospective population-based cohort study. Data from national ART registries were cross.......18-1.50), PTB (AOR 1.23-2.19), and LBW (AOR 1.44-2.35) was significantly higher in ART than in SC pregnancies for most maternal ages. In both ART and SC pregnancies, the risk of HDP, placenta previa, cesarean delivery, PTB, LBW, and SGA changed significantly with age. The AORs for adverse neonatal outcomes...

  17. Grip Strength as an Indicator of Health-Related Quality of Life in Old Age-A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musalek, Christina; Kirchengast, Sylvia

    2017-11-24

    Over the last century life expectancy has increased dramatically nearly all over the world. This dramatic absolute and relative increase of the old aged people component of the population has influenced not only population structure but also has dramatic implications for the individuals and public health services. The aim of the present pilot study was to examine the impact of physical well-being assessed by hand grip strength and social factors estimated by social contact frequency on health-related quality of life among 22 men and 41 women ranging in age between 60 and 94 years. Physical well-being was estimated by hand grip strength, data concerning subjective wellbeing and health related quality of life were collected by personal interviews based on the WHOQOL-BREF questionnaires. Number of offspring and intergenerational contacts were not related significantly to health-related quality of life, while social contacts with non-relatives and hand grip strength in contrast had a significant positive impact on health related quality of life among old aged men and women. Physical well-being and in particular muscle strength-estimated by grip strength-may increase health-related quality of life and is therefore an important source for well-being during old age. Grip strength may be used as an indicator of health-related quality of life.

  18. Disability and care-giving in old age in a Nigerian community ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: To describe the pattern of disability and care for older community residents in a selected Nigerian location. Method: Older persons living at home in Okporo Community were first identified through the traditional ruler and his assistant. The socio demographic profiles and any present diseases of these older subjects ...

  19. Growing Old and Staying Young: Population Policy in an Ageing Closed Economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Groezen, Bas; Meijdam, L.

    2004-01-01

    This paper analyses the relation between public pensions, fertility and child care in a closed economy OLG-model with endogenous fertility. It it shown that it is optimal to introduce child allowances if the government redistributes income from the young to the old, and rises when longevity

  20. Affective Development in Advanced Old Age: Analyses of Terminal Change in Positive and Negative Affect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, Oliver K.; Wahl, Hans-Werner; Wiegering, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Late-life development of affect may unfold terminal changes that are driven more by end-of-life processes and not so much by time since birth. This study aimed to explore time-to-death-related effects in measures of affect in a sample of the very old. We used longitudinal data (2 measurement occasions: 2002 and 2003) from 140 deceased…

  1. Solid pseudopapillary neoplasm of the pancreas in an old man: age ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Solid pseudopapillary tumor (SPN) of the pancreas is a rare tumor, but has favorable prognosis. It is typically observed in young women. Only few cases have been reported in young men. We report the observation of a 73-year-old man presented with a palpable mass in the left upper abdomen. CT scan showed 10 cm ...

  2. Can maintaining cognitive function at 65 years old predict successful ageing 6 years later? The PROOF study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Lionard, Karine; Thomas-Antérion, Catherine; Crawford-Achour, Emilie; Rouch, Isabelle; Trombert-Paviot, Béatrice; Barthélémy, Jean-Claude; Laurent, Bernard; Roche, Frédéric; Gonthier, Régis

    2011-03-01

    preservation of cognitive abilities is required to have a good quality of life. The predictive value of cognitive functioning at 65 years old on successful ageing 6 years later is not established. nine hundred and seventy-six questionnaires were sent by mail to a sample of healthy and voluntary French pensioners. Successful ageing was defined through health status and well-being. Cognitive abilities had been assessed 6 years earlier according to an objective method (Free and Cued Selective Recall Reminding Test (FCSRT), the Benton visual retention test and the similarities subtest of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised) and a subjective one (Goldberg's anxiety scale, Mac Nair's scale and a Visual Analogue Scale to evaluate memory abilities change in the last 5 years). six hundred and eighty-six questionnaires could be analysed. The mean age was 72.9 ± 1.2 years old with 59% of women and 99% lived at home. Well-being was negatively correlated with the FCSRT (r = -0.08, P = 0.0318) but positively related with the Benton (r = 0.09, P = 0.0125) and the similarities tests (r = 0.09, P = 0.0118). There is a negative correlation between anxious and cognitive complaints measured at baseline, and successful ageing indicators 6 years later. preservation of cognitive abilities at the age of retirement can predict a successful ageing 6 years later. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00759304.

  3. When stem cells grow old: phenotypes and mechanisms of stem cell aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Michael B.; Sinclair, David A.

    2016-01-01

    All multicellular organisms undergo a decline in tissue and organ function as they age. An attractive theory is that a loss in stem cell number and/or activity over time causes this decline. In accordance with this theory, aging phenotypes have been described for stem cells of multiple tissues, including those of the hematopoietic system, intestine, muscle, brain, skin and germline. Here, we discuss recent advances in our understanding of why adult stem cells age and how this aging impacts diseases and lifespan. With this increased understanding, it is feasible to design and test interventions that delay stem cell aging and improve both health and lifespan. PMID:26732838

  4. [Study of Basal metabolic rate of 81 young adults aged 20-29 years old in Changsha].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, X; Mao, D Q; Luo, J Y; Wu, J H; Zhuo, Q; Li, Y M

    2017-07-06

    Objective: To determine the basal metabolic rate (BMR) of young adults aged between 20-29 years old in Changsha. Methods: We recruited volunteers to join in our research project from April to May, 2015. All recruited volunteers must meet the inclusion criteria: aged 20-29 years old, height between 164-180 centimeters in males and 154-167 centimeters in females, in good health condition, and with no habit of regular physical exercise in last year. Finally, 81 qualified volunteers were selected as research objects, including 43 males and 38 females. The BMR, resting lying metabolism rate and resting sitting metabolism rate of the subjects were detected, and the determined BMR was compared with the calculated results: from the adjusted Schofield equation. Results The BMR, resting lying metabolism rate and resting sitting metabolism rate among males were (166.10±22.09), (174.22±24.56), and (179.54±23.35) kJ·m(-2)·h(-1), respectively, which were all higher than those among females were (137.70±20.04), (149.79±19.25), and (167.78±26.02) kJ·m(-2)·h(-1), respectively, ( PBMR of males and females calculated from the adjusted Schofield equation were (160.83±3.93), and (140.29±4.18) kJ·m(-2)·h(-1), respectively, and there was no significantly statistical difference found between the determined BMR and the calculated results from Schofield equation (adjusted) classified by sex, all P values >0.05. Conclusion: The BMR of young adults aged 20-29 years old in Changsha was in the national average level, and the adjusted Schofield equation displayed fine accuracy in predicting BMR of young adults aged 20-29 years old in Changsha.

  5. Role of social, cultural and economic capitals in perceived quality of life among old age people  in Kerala, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradeep R Deshmukh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To find out the relationship of collective social, economic, and cultural properties of a population on the perceived quality of life (QOL among old age people. Materials and Methods: In a community-based cross-sectional study, we analyzed information on a representative sample of 900 old age (aged > 60 years from 28 villages in Kollam district of Kerala. " WHO-Quality of Life - BREF questionnaire" was used. Ethical clearance from Institutional Ethics Committee was obtained. The mean scores for "perceived" QOL for domains such as physical health, psychological health, social relations, and control of environments were calculated. The three scales (social capital, cultural capital, and economic capital were standardized using z-score transformation to make them comparable. Using multiple linear regression, we calculated the independent effect of economic capital, social capital, and cultural capital on perceived QOL among old people adjusted for age, sex, and the presence of chronic disease. Results: For overall QOL, only cultural capital contributed significantly. An increase of one unit z-score cultural capital led to three units increase in overall QOL score (β = 3.362; 95% CI: 2.645-4.078. Social capital and cultural capital contributed significantly to the physical health domain of QOL. With one z-score increase in social capital and cultural capital, QOL score of physical health domain increased by 0.2 units (β = 0. 227; 95% CI: 0.020-0.434, and 0.5 (β = 0. 596; 95% CI: 0.384-0.808 units, respectively. Psychological health domain and environmental domain were affected by all three capitals significantly. But, the social relations domain was significantly affected only by cultural capital (β = 0. 576; 95% CI: 0.373-0.779. Conclusion: Hence, the policies for old people should envision retaining our cultural and social norms along with the economic interventions for a better palliative care.

  6. Are the Chinese Saving for Old Age?: The Relationship between Future Pension Benefits of 45-60 Years Old Chinese and Current Household Expenditures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dullemen, C E; Nagel, I; de Bruijn, J M G

    2017-01-01

    Worldwide, older people's support used to be the adult children's responsibility. In China, two generations after introducing the one-child policy in the late 70-ies, this becomes an increasingly demanding obligation. The Chinese government took the responsibility to mitigating old- age poverty risks and realized unprecedented progress in pension coverage. At the same time, the household savings increased to about 30 % of disposable income. Built on previous research on the politics of ageing, this study analyses households responses to the established governmental and firm pension programs as well as to the New Rural Pension Scheme (NRPS), introduced in 2009. The central question is: will participation in the established and new pension programs lead to higher current Chinese household expenditures and therefore to lower savings? The China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS) dataset of 2011 offered the opportunity to study the influence of the recently introduced NRPS. We find that Chinese households with members between 45 and 60 years who expect future benefits of NRPS do not have higher expenditures than those not covered by NRPS. For the participants in the established, mostly urban pension programs a correlation was found with higher current expenditures (28 % more spending on basic needs, 80 % more on luxury) However, further analysis shows that this correlation cannot be interpreted as a causal relationship. This implies that coverage by pensions, be it in urban or rural programs, does not determine higher current expenditures and lower savings.

  7. The relation of close friends to cognitive performance in old age: the mediating role of leisure activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihle, Andreas; Oris, Michel; Baeriswyl, Marie; Kliegel, Matthias

    2018-06-01

    ABSTRACTBackground:From a conceptual point of view, close friends are an important resource for promoting activity engagement in old age. Leisure activity engagement in turn is a key predictor of cognitive performance. Empirically, it remains unclear so far whether leisure activity engagement mediates between having close friends on the one hand and cognitive performance on the other, which we investigated in a large sample of older adults. We assessed cognitive performance (Mill Hill vocabulary scale and Trail Making Test (TMT) parts A and B) in 2,812 older adults. Participants reported information on leisure activity engagement and close friends. A larger number of leisure activities and a larger number of close friends were significantly related to better cognitive performance in the Mill Hill vocabulary scale and TMT parts A and B. A larger number of close friends were significantly related to a larger number of leisure activities. The number of leisure activities mediated more than half of the relation of the number of close friends to performance in all three cognitive measures. Having close friends may be helpful to stimulate and promote activity participation in old age. By enhancing individuals' cognitive reserve, this may finally preserve their cognitive performance level in old age.

  8. Chaotic behavior of light-assisted physical aging in arsenoselenide glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shpotyuk, O., E-mail: shpotyuk@novas.lviv.ua [Lviv Scientific Research Institute of Materials of SRC “Carat,” 202, Stryjska Str., Lviv 79031 (Ukraine); Institute of Physics of Jan Dlugosz University, 13/15, al. Armii Krajowej, Czestochowa 42201 (Poland); Balitska, V. [Lviv Scientific Research Institute of Materials of SRC “Carat,” 202, Stryjska Str., Lviv 79031 (Ukraine); Lviv State University of Vital Activity Safety, 35, Kleparivska str., Lviv 79007 (Ukraine); Kozdras, A. [Opole University of Technology, 75, Ozimska str., Opole 45370 (Poland); Hacinliyan, A. S. [Department of Physics, Yeditepe University, Atasehir 34755, Istanbul (Turkey); Department of Physics, Bogazici University, Bebek, Istanbul (Turkey); Department of Information Systems and Technologies, Yeditepe University, Atasehir 34755, Istanbul (Turkey); Skarlatos, Y. [Department of Physics, Bogazici University, Bebek, Istanbul (Turkey); Kusbeyzi Aybar, I. [Department of Computer Education and Instructional Technology, Yeditepe University, Atasehir 34755, Istanbul (Turkey); Aybar, O. O. [Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science and Letters, Piri Reis University, Tuzla 34940, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2014-12-15

    The theory of strange attractors is shown to be adequately applicable for analyzing the kinetics of light-assisted physical aging revealed in structural relaxation of Se-rich As-Se glasses below glass transition. Kinetics of enthalpy losses is used to determine the phase space reconstruction parameters. Observed chaotic behaviour (involving chaos and fractal consideration such as detrended fluctuation analysis, attractor identification using phase space representation, delay coordinates, mutual information, false nearest neighbours, etc.) reconstructed via the TISEAN program package is treated within a microstructure model describing multistage aging behaviour in arsenoselenide glasses. This simulation testifies that photoexposure acts as an initiating factor only at the beginning stage of physical aging, thus facilitating further atomic shrinkage of a glassy backbone.

  9. Chaotic behavior of light-assisted physical aging in arsenoselenide glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shpotyuk, O.; Balitska, V.; Kozdras, A.; Hacinliyan, A. S.; Skarlatos, Y.; Kusbeyzi Aybar, I.; Aybar, O. O.

    2014-01-01

    The theory of strange attractors is shown to be adequately applicable for analyzing the kinetics of light-assisted physical aging revealed in structural relaxation of Se-rich As-Se glasses below glass transition. Kinetics of enthalpy losses is used to determine the phase space reconstruction parameters. Observed chaotic behaviour (involving chaos and fractal consideration such as detrended fluctuation analysis, attractor identification using phase space representation, delay coordinates, mutual information, false nearest neighbours, etc.) reconstructed via the TISEAN program package is treated within a microstructure model describing multistage aging behaviour in arsenoselenide glasses. This simulation testifies that photoexposure acts as an initiating factor only at the beginning stage of physical aging, thus facilitating further atomic shrinkage of a glassy backbone

  10. Predicting and retrodicting intelligence between childhood and old age in the 6-Day Sample of the Scottish Mental Survey 1947.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deary, Ian J; Brett, Caroline E

    2015-01-01

    In studies of cognitive ageing it is useful and important to know how stable are the individual differences in cognitive ability from childhood to older age, and also to be able to estimate (retrodict) prior cognitive ability differences from those in older age. Here we contribute to these aims with new data from a follow-up study of the 6-Day Sample of the Scottish Mental Survey of 1947 (original N = 1208). The sample had cognitive, educational, social, and occupational data collected almost annually from age 11 to 27 years. Whereas previous long-term follow-up studies of the Scottish mental surveys are based upon group-administered cognitive tests at a mean age of 11 years, the present sample each had an individually-administered revised Binet test. We traced them for vital status in older age, and some agreed to take several mental tests at age 77 years (N = 131). The National Adult Reading Test at age 77 correlated .72 with the Terman-Merrill revision of the Binet Test at age 11. Adding the Moray House Test No. 12 score from age 11 and educational information took the multiple R to .81 between youth and older age. The equivalent multiple R for fluid general intelligence was .57. When the NART from age 77 was the independent variable (retrodictor) along with educational attainment, the multiple R with the Terman-Merrill IQ at age 11 was .75. No previous studies of the stability of intelligence from childhood to old age, or of the power of the NART to retrodict prior intelligence, have had individually-administered IQ data from youth. About two-thirds, at least, of the variation in verbal ability in old age can be captured by cognitive and educational information from youth. Non-verbal ability is less well predicted. A short test of pronunciation-the NART-and brief educational information can capture well over half of the variation in IQ scores obtained 66 years earlier.

  11. Optimizing the number of cleavage stage embryos to transfer on day 3 in women 38 years of age and older: a Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology database study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Judy E; Goldman, Marlene B; Hatasaka, Harry; MacKenzie, Todd A; Surrey, Eric S; Racowsky, Catherine

    2009-03-01

    To determine the optimal number of day 3 embryos to transfer in women >or=38 years by conducting an evidence-based evaluation. Retrospective analysis of 2000-2004 national SART data. National writing group. A total of 36,103 day 3 embryo transfers in women >or=38 years undergoing their first assisted reproductive technology cycle. None. Logistic regression was used to model the probability of pregnancy, delivery, and multiple births (twin or high order) based on age- and cycle-specific parameters. Pregnancy rates, delivery rates, and multiple rates increased up to transfer of three embryos in 38-year-olds and four in 39-year-olds; beyond this number, only multiple rates increased. In women >or=40 years, delivery rates and multiple rates climbed steadily with increasing numbers transferred. Multivariate analysis confirmed the statistically significant effect of age, number of oocytes retrieved, and embryo cryopreservation on delivery and multiple rates. Maximum FSH level was not an independent predictor by multivariate analysis. Use of intracytoplasmic sperm injection was associated with lowered delivery rate. No more than three or four embryos should be transferred in 38- and 39-year-olds, respectively, whereas up to five embryos could be transferred in >or=40-year-olds. Numbers of embryos to transfer should be adjusted according to number of oocytes retrieved and availability of excess embryos for cryopreservation.

  12. Executive functions and sustained attention:Comparison between age groups of 19-39 and 40-59 years old

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Rosa de Oliveira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Few studies involving the cognition of middle-aged adults are available in the international literature, particularly investigating the process of cognitive aging, executive components and attention. Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate whether there are differences in performance on neuropsychological tasks of executive functions and sustained attention between two age groups. Methods: The sample consisted of 87 adults aged from 19 to 59 years old, divided into two groups according to the age variable (younger adults and middle-aged adults. All participants were Brazilian and had no sensory, psychiatric or neurological disorders; subjects also had no history of alcohol abuse, and no self-reported use of illicit drugs or antipsychotics. The neuropsychological instruments administered were the Hayling Test, Trail Making Test, Bells Test and verbal fluency tasks. Results: Groups showed no significant differences in relation to sociodemographic variables, educational level or frequency of reading and writing habits. The younger adult group performed better than the middle-aged group on tasks that involved mainly processing speed, cognitive flexibility and lexical search. Conclusions: These findings serve as a valuable reference for cognitive processing in middle-aged adults, since a large number of comparative studies focus only on the younger and later phases of adulthood. Additional studies are needed to investigate possible interaction between different factors such as age and education.

  13. Impact of physical and mental health on life satisfaction in old age: a population based observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puvill, Thomas; Lindenberg, Jolanda; de Craen, Antonius J M; Slaets, Joris P J; Westendorp, Rudi G J

    2016-11-25

    It is widely assumed that poor health lowers life satisfaction when ageing. Yet, research suggests this relationship is not straightforward. This study investigated how older people evaluate their life when facing disease and disabilities. The Leiden 85-plus Study, a prospectively followed cohort of a cohort of a middle-sized city in the Netherlands, all aged 85 years, that was age-representative of the general population, was used. Those with severe cognitive dysfunction were excluded (n = 501). Comorbidities, physical performance, cognitive function, functional status, residual lifespan, depressive symptoms and experienced loneliness were measured during home visits. Life satisfaction was self-reported with Cantril's ladder. All analyses were performed using regression analysis. Participants reported high life satisfaction (median 8 out of 10 points) despite having representative levels of disease and disability. Comorbidity, low cognitive function, and residual lifespan as markers of health were not associated with life satisfaction. Poor physical performance and low functional status were weakly but significantly associated with lower life satisfaction (p life satisfaction (both p life satisfaction, whereas poor mental health was strongly related to lower life satisfaction. This indicates that mental health has a greater impact on life satisfaction at old age than physical health, and that physical health is less relevant for a satisfactory old age.

  14. The impact of a minimum pension on old age poverty and its budgetary cost. Evidence from Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Jacques Dethier

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the impact on old age poverty and the fiscal cost of universal minimum oldage pensions in Latin America using recent household survey data for 18 countries. Alleviatingold age poverty requires different approach from other age groups and a minimum pension islikely to be the only alternative available. First we measure old age poverty rates for all countries.Second we discuss the design of minimum pensions schemes, means-tested or not, as wellas the disincentive effects that they are expected to have on the economic and social behavior ofhouseholds including labor supply, saving and family solidarity. Third we use the household surveysto simulate the fiscal cost and the impact on poverty rates of alternative minimum pensionschemes in the 18 countries. We show that a universal minimum pension would substantiallyreduce poverty among the elderly except in Argentina, Brazil, Chile and Uruguay where minimumpension systems already exist and poverty rates are low. Such schemes have much tobe commended in terms of incentives, spillover effects and administrative simplicity but have ahigh fiscal cost. The latter is a function of the age at which benefits are awarded, the prevailinglongevity, the generosity of benefits, the efficacy of means testing, and naturally the fiscal capacityof the country.

  15. Therapeutic Manipulation of Ageing: Repurposing Old Dogs and Discovering New Tricks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallikarjun, Venkatesh; Swift, Joe

    2016-12-01

    Ageing is a leading risk factor for many debilitating diseases. While age-related diseases have been the subject of over a century of intense investigation, until recently, physiological ageing was considered unavoidable. Pharmacological and genetic studies have since shown that ageing is a malleable process and that its abrogation can prevent its associated diseases. This review summarises a sample of the most promising efforts to deliver the products of ageing research to the clinic. Current efforts include the use of clinically approved drugs that have since been repurposed, as well as the development of novel therapeutics, to target ageing. Furthermore, ongoing research has sought reliable biomarkers of ageing that will accelerate the development of such therapeutics. Development of these technologies will improve quality of late-life and help relieve the enormous stress placed on state healthcare systems by a rapidly ageing global population. Thus, for both medical and socioeconomic reasons, it is imperative that ageing is made to yield to intervention. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Fatty old hearts: role of cardiac lipotoxicity in age-related cardiomyopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos Drosatos

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Age-related cardiomyopathy accounts for a significant part of heart failure cases. Imbalance of the energetic equilibrium of the heart along with mitochondrial dysfunction and impaired β-adrenergic receptor signaling contributes in the aggravation of cardiac function in the elderly. In this review article, studies that correlate cardiac aging with lipotoxicity are summarized. The involvement of inhibition of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α, β-adrenergic receptor desensitization, and mitochondrial dysfunction as underlying mechanisms for the lipid-driven age-related cardiomyopathy are presented with the aim to indicate potential therapeutic targets for cardiac aging.

  17. "You get old. You get invisible": Social isolation and the challenge of communicating with aging women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walkner, Tammy J; Weare, Andrea M; Tully, Melissa

    2017-04-04

    Social isolation is a problem facing many older women. Isolation can contribute to poor health as adults age without social support. Increased and tailored communication offers service organizations more opportunities to provide social support to these adults. This research examines perceptions of aging to explore communication behaviors, barriers, and opportunities for improved communication and service provision for aging women. Using data from focus groups and interviews, this study finds that participants from community organizations rely on word of mouth and traditional media to communicate with their aging constituents, despite opportunities to use digital communication and to develop communication plans for this population.

  18. Personality traits in old age: measurement and rank-order stability and some mean-level change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mõttus, René; Johnson, Wendy; Deary, Ian J

    2012-03-01

    Lothian Birth Cohorts, 1936 and 1921 were used to study the longitudinal comparability of Five-Factor Model (McCrae & John, 1992) personality traits from ages 69 to 72 years and from ages 81 to 87 years, and cross-cohort comparability between ages 69 and 81 years. Personality was measured using the 50-item International Personality Item Pool (Goldberg, 1999). Satisfactory measurement invariance was established across time and cohorts. High rank-order stability was observed in both cohorts. Almost no mean-level change was observed in the younger cohort, whereas Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, and Intellect declined significantly in the older cohort. The older cohort scored higher on Agreeableness and Conscientiousness. In these cohorts, individual differences in personality traits continued to be stable even in very old age, mean-level changes accelerated.

  19. Rehearsal strategies during motor-sequence learning in old age : Execution vs motor imagery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoter, Arjan J. R.; Scherder, Erik J. A.; Kamsma, Yvo P. T.; Mulder, Theo

    Motor imagery and action-based rehearsal were compared during motor sequence-learning by young adults (M = 25 yr., SD = 3) and aged adults (M = 63 yr., SD = 7). General accuracy of aged adults was lower than that of young adults (F-1,F-28 = 7.37, p = .01) even though working-memory capacity was

  20. You're Never Too Old: Keep Active as You Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... people age 85 and older. Experts recommend four types of exercise for older adults: endurance, balance, strength, and ... started and keep moving, NIH brought together some of the nation’s leading experts on aging, exercise, and motivation. They developed a guide to exercise for older ...

  1. Methods of Suicide by Age: Sex and Race Differences among the Young and Old.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, John L.; Santos, John F.

    1986-01-01

    Annual official statistics for specific methods of suicide (firearms, hanging, poisons) by age for different sex and racial groups (Whites, Blacks, non-Whites excluding Black) were examined from 1960 to 1978. Comparisons among the age-sex-race groups, along with trends over time and differences in the methods employed, were noted. (Author/ABL)

  2. Old age and forgoing treatment: a nationwide mortality follow-back study in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martins Pereira, S.; Pasman, H.R.W.; Heide, A.; van Delden, J.J.M.; Onwuteaka-Philipsen, B.D.

    2015-01-01

    Background The ageing of the population raises the need to study forgoing treatment decisions among older people. Aim To describe the incidence and decision-making of forgoing treatment and identify age-related differences. Methods A nationwide study of a stratified sample from the Statistics

  3. Old age and forgoing treatment : a nationwide mortality follow-back study in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pereira, Sandra Martins; Pasman, H. Roeline; van der Heide, Agnes; van Delden, Johannes J. M.; Onwuteaka-Philipsen, Bregje D.

    Background The ageing of the population raises the need to study forgoing treatment decisions among older people. Aim To describe the incidence and decision-making of forgoing treatment and identify age-related differences. Methods A nationwide study of a stratified sample from the Statistics

  4. [Fruit and vegetables intake among the Chinese migrant population aged 18 to 59 years old in 2012].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mei; Wang, Linhong; Deng, Qian; Zhao, Yinjun; Huang, Zhengjing; Li, Yichong; Jiang, Yong; Wang, Limin

    2014-11-01

    To describe the intake of fruit and vegetables among employed migrant population aged 18 to 59 year-olds in China. Data from the Migrant Population Survey related to China Chronic Disease and Risk Factor Surveillance that conducted in 170 counties/districts in 31 provinces, 2012, was used. Information on non-communicable diseases and related risk factors among migrant population were collected through face-to-face questionnaire interview, physical measurement and lab tests. A total of 48 704 subjects aged 18 to 59 years old were included in our study. Sample was standardized by age and sex. Information on average daily fruit and vegetables intake, prevalence of low fruit and vegetables intake, grouped by sex, age, industries, and education level were analyzed. The average daily intakes of vegetables and fruits were 353.7 (95%CI:351.3-356.2) g and 125.1 (95%CI:123.4-126.9) g respectively, among the employed migrant population aged 18-59 years old in China. Prevalence of low fruit and vegetables intake was 44.1% (95% CI:43.5%-44.6% ) among employed migrant population, 46.2% (95% CI: 45.5%-47.0%)for males and 41.2% (95% CI:40.3%-42.0%)for females (χ(2) = 82.19, P fruit and vegetables intake was the highest among people working in accommodation and restaurants (46.2%, 95%CI:45.0%-47.3%) while the lowest seen among those working in social services (42.5%, 95%CI:41.4%-43.7%,χ(2) = 15.81, P fruit and vegetables intake showed a decrease along with the increase of education levels (χ(2) = 22.29, P fruit and vegetables intake. Being male and with low education level were risk factors linked with the higher prevalence of low fruit and vegetables intake.

  5. When stem cells grow old: phenotypes and mechanisms of stem cell aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Michael B; Sinclair, David A

    2016-01-01

    All multicellular organisms undergo a decline in tissue and organ function as they age. An attractive theory is that a loss in stem cell number and/or activity over time causes this decline. In accordance with this theory, aging phenotypes have been described for stem cells of multiple tissues, including those of the hematopoietic system, intestine, muscle, brain, skin and germline. Here, we discuss recent advances in our understanding of why adult stem cells age and how this aging impacts diseases and lifespan. With this increased understanding, it is feasible to design and test interventions that delay stem cell aging and improve both health and lifespan. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  6. Diode laser-assisted transcanalicular dacryocystorhinostomy: the effect of age on the results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahrettin Akay

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Purpose: The aim of this study was to explore the effect of age on the success of transcanalicular diode laser-assisted dacryocystorhinostomy (TCDCR. Methods: Seventy patients (70 eyes who underwent transcanalicular diode laser-assisted dacryocystorhinostomy for the treatment of nasolacrimal duct obstruction as a primary surgery were included in this retrospective, nonrandomized study. The patients were divided into two groups according to age. Mean ages were 21.3 ± 3.3 in group 1 and 60.3 ± 7.3 in group 2. The records of the 3-, 6-, and 12-month follow-up examinations were evaluated, and the anatomical and functional outcomes were noted. Functional success was defined as the absence of epiphora as indicated by the patient. Anatomical success was determined as patency of the neo-ostium with irrigation. Results: At the 3-month follow-up, 67% cases in group 1 showed anatomical success and 52% showed functional success; in group 2, the rates were 100% and 92%, respectively. Functional and anatomical success rates were the same for both the 6- and 12-month visits; 46% in group 1 and 76% in group 2. The results in group 2 were significantly better at all three follow-up visits (p<0.05. Conclusions: This study clearly showed that the older patients experienced better transcanalicular diode laser-assisted dacryocystorhinostomy results than the younger patients. The diminished inflammatory response in the older population may be a possible contributing factor to these results.

  7. Age-specific symptom prevalence in women 35–64 years old: A population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wedel Hans

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Symptom prevalence is generally believed to increase with age. The aim of this study was to evaluate the age specific prevalence of 30 general symptoms among Swedish middle-aged women. Methods A cross-sectional postal questionnaire study in seven Swedish counties in a random sample of 4,200 women 35–64 years old, with 2,991 responders. Thirty general symptoms included in the Complaint Score subscale of the Gothenburg Quality of Life Instrument were used. Results Four groups of age specific prevalence patterns were identified after adjustment for the influence of educational level, perceived health and mood, body mass index, smoking habits, use of hormone replacement therapy, and use of other symptom relieving therapy. Only five symptoms (insomnia, leg pain, joint pain, eye problems and impaired hearing increased significantly with age. Eleven symptoms (general fatigue, headache, irritability, melancholy, backache, exhaustion, feels cold, cries easily, abdominal pain, dizziness, and nausea decreased significantly with age. Two symptoms (sweating and impaired concentration had a biphasic course with a significant increase followed by a significant decrease. The remaining twelve symptoms (difficulty in relaxing, restlessness, overweight, coughing, breathlessness, diarrhoea, chest pain, constipation, nervousness, poor appetite, weight loss, and difficulty in urinating had stable prevalence with age. Conclusion Symptoms did not necessarily increase with age instead symptoms related to stress-tension-depression decreased.

  8. The meaning of having to live with cancer in old age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomé, B; Esbensen, B A; Dykes, A-K

    2004-01-01

    degrees by the cancer disease. The lived experiences across the interviews were revealed in four overarching essential themes: transition into a more or less disintegrated existence, sudden awareness of the finiteness of life, redefinition of one's role in life for good and for bad, meeting disease...... and illness. To provide individual support and appropriate care to older people with cancer it is important for health care professionals to identify and take care of disabilities and to support the reorientation in the disintegrated life situation. It is also important to have preparedness to meet the old...

  9. User-centric design of a personal assistance robot (FRASIER) for active aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padir, Taşkin; Skorinko, Jeanine; Dimitrov, Velin

    2015-01-01

    We present our preliminary results from the design process for developing the Worcester Polytechnic Institute's personal assistance robot, FRASIER, as an intelligent service robot for enabling active aging. The robot capabilities include vision-based object detection, tracking the user and help with carrying heavy items such as grocery bags or cafeteria trays. This work-in-progress report outlines our motivation and approach to developing the next generation of service robots for the elderly. Our main contribution in this paper is the development of a set of specifications based on the adopted user-centered design process, and realization of the prototype system designed to meet these specifications.

  10. Old maids have more appeal: effects of age and pheromone source on mate attraction in an orb-web spider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cory, Anna-Lena; Schneider, Jutta M

    2016-01-01

    Background. In many insects and spider species, females attract males with volatile sex pheromones, but we know surprisingly little about the costs and benefits of female pheromone emission. Here, we test the hypothesis that mate attraction by females is dynamic and strategic in the sense that investment in mate attraction is matched to the needs of the female. We use the orb-web spider Argiope bruennichi in which females risk the production of unfertilised egg clutches if they do not receive a copulation within a certain time-frame. Methods. We designed field experiments to compare mate attraction by recently matured (young) females with females close to oviposition (old). In addition, we experimentally separated the potential sources of pheromone transmission, namely the female body and the web silk. Results. In accordance with the hypothesis of strategic pheromone production, the probability of mate attraction and the number of males attracted differed between age classes. While the bodies and webs of young females were hardly found by males, the majority of old females attracted up to two males within two hours. Old females not only increased pheromone emission from their bodies but also from their webs. Capture webs alone spun by old females were significantly more efficient in attracting males than webs of younger females. Discussion. Our results suggest that females modulate their investment in signalling according to the risk of remaining unmated and that they thereby economize on the costs associated with pheromone production and emission.

  11. Old maids have more appeal: effects of age and pheromone source on mate attraction in an orb-web spider

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna-Lena Cory

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background. In many insects and spider species, females attract males with volatile sex pheromones, but we know surprisingly little about the costs and benefits of female pheromone emission. Here, we test the hypothesis that mate attraction by females is dynamic and strategic in the sense that investment in mate attraction is matched to the needs of the female. We use the orb-web spider Argiope bruennichi in which females risk the production of unfertilised egg clutches if they do not receive a copulation within a certain time-frame. Methods. We designed field experiments to compare mate attraction by recently matured (young females with females close to oviposition (old. In addition, we experimentally separated the potential sources of pheromone transmission, namely the female body and the web silk. Results. In accordance with the hypothesis of strategic pheromone production, the probability of mate attraction and the number of males attracted differed between age classes. While the bodies and webs of young females were hardly found by males, the majority of old females attracted up to two males within two hours. Old females not only increased pheromone emission from their bodies but also from their webs. Capture webs alone spun by old females were significantly more efficient in attracting males than webs of younger females. Discussion. Our results suggest that females modulate their investment in signalling according to the risk of remaining unmated and that they thereby economize on the costs associated with pheromone production and emission.

  12. The new old market: trends in hospital services for the aged.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullner, R; Cohen, D

    1990-01-01

    Hospital health care services for the rapidly aging population should continue to expand. Several recent trends include the following: The overall number and proportion of admissions for the aged have increased since 1967 and will probably continue to increase in the future; The overall percentage of older patients in smaller hospitals has dropped steadily since 1967, but smaller hospitals continue to have a higher percentage of older admissions than do larger hospitals; The aged have a different seasonal pattern of admission compared to younger persons, reaching a nadir in August and an apex between January and April. The average inpatient length of stay for the aged has been dropping steadily over the last twenty years, long before the recent cost containment emphasis; Community hospitals are expanding their operations into long-term care services, including skilled nursing home care, intermediate care, and psychiatric long-term care; Emphasis on early patient discharge has led many hospitals to concentrate on continuity of care between institutions and the community, including increased emphasis on discharge planning and the coordination of services; and Hospitals plan to continue to expand care for the aging and aged population. As the population of the nation ages, hospitals will increasingly address the needs of older persons and continue to plan actively and aggressively and market their services to the aged, not only for humanitarian reasons but also for survival in an increasingly competitive environment. In the future, hospitals seem likely to continue to acquire new and more costly technology to enhance their acute care delivery. At the same time, however, they will continue to provide an increasing array of health care services to older persons. They will convert acute care beds to long-term care use, construct and or purchase nursing homes, and expand into other areas of care for the aged. Thus, the authors predict that hospitals will indeed evolve

  13. Driving licences and medical screening in old age: Review of literature and European licensing policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siren, Anu Kristiina; Haustein, Sonja

    2015-01-01

    Chronological age, per se, seems to be, in the case of mature drivers, only a weak predictor of safe driving performance. However, screening policies based on chronological age are widely used. Nevertheless, lately, more evidence-based policies have been called for. In this paper we first......, investigate the evidence for and against having an age-based driver screening policy in place; second, we map and compare the current driving licensing policies in European Union (EU) member states in order to examine the variation; and third, we draw conclusions based on the literature and the policy mapping...... are likely to limit the mobility and potentially worsen the safety of older persons....

  14. Antioxidants and Quality of Aging: Further Evidences for a Major Role of TXNRD1 Gene Variability on Physical Performance at Old Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serena Dato

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress is a major determinant of human aging and common hallmark of age-related diseases. A protective role against free radicals accumulation was shown for thioredoxin reductase TrxR1, a key antioxidant selenoprotein. The variability of encoding gene (TXNRD1 was previously found associated with physical status at old age and extreme survival in a Danish cohort. To further investigate the influence of the gene variability on age-related physiological decline, we analyzed 9 tagging SNPs in relation to markers of physical (Activity of Daily Living, Hand Grip, Chair stand, and Walking and cognitive (Mini Mental State Examination status, in a Southern-Italian cohort of 64–107 aged individuals. We replicated the association of TXNRD1 variability with physical performance, with three variants (rs4445711, rs1128446, and rs11111979 associated with physical functioning after 85 years of age (p<0.022. In addition, we found two SNPs borderline influencing longevity (rs4964728 and rs7310505 in our cohort, the last associated with health status and survival in Northern Europeans too. Overall, the evidences of association in a different population here reported extend the proposed role of TXNRD1 gene in modulating physical decline at extreme ages, further supporting the investigation of thioredoxin pathway in relation to the quality of human aging.

  15. Antioxidants and Quality of Aging: Further Evidences for a Major Role of TXNRD1 Gene Variability on Physical Performance at Old Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dato, Serena; De Rango, Francesco; Crocco, Paolina; Passarino, Giuseppe; Rose, Giuseppina

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress is a major determinant of human aging and common hallmark of age-related diseases. A protective role against free radicals accumulation was shown for thioredoxin reductase TrxR1, a key antioxidant selenoprotein. The variability of encoding gene (TXNRD1) was previously found associated with physical status at old age and extreme survival in a Danish cohort. To further investigate the influence of the gene variability on age-related physiological decline, we analyzed 9 tagging SNPs in relation to markers of physical (Activity of Daily Living, Hand Grip, Chair stand, and Walking) and cognitive (Mini Mental State Examination) status, in a Southern-Italian cohort of 64-107 aged individuals. We replicated the association of TXNRD1 variability with physical performance, with three variants (rs4445711, rs1128446, and rs11111979) associated with physical functioning after 85 years of age (p longevity (rs4964728 and rs7310505) in our cohort, the last associated with health status and survival in Northern Europeans too. Overall, the evidences of association in a different population here reported extend the proposed role of TXNRD1 gene in modulating physical decline at extreme ages, further supporting the investigation of thioredoxin pathway in relation to the quality of human aging.

  16. Five-year change in morale is associated with negative life events in very old age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Näsman, Marina; Niklasson, Johan; Saarela, Jan; Nygård, Mikael; Olofsson, Birgitta; Conradsson, Mia; Lövheim, Hugo; Gustafson, Yngve; Nyqvist, Fredrica

    2017-10-27

    The objectives were to study changes in morale in individuals 85 years and older, and to assess the effect of negative life events on morale over a five-year follow-up period. The present study is based on longitudinal data from the Umeå85+/GERDA-study, including individuals 85 years and older at baseline (n = 204). Morale was measured with the Philadelphia Geriatric Center Morale Scale (PGCMS). Negative life events were assessed using an index including 13 negative life events occurring during the follow-up period. Linear regression was used for the multivariate analyses. The majority of the sample (69.1%) had no significant changes in morale during the five-year follow-up. However, the accumulation of negative life events was significantly associated with a greater decrease in PGCMS. A higher baseline PGCMS score did not attenuate the adverse effect negative life events had on morale. Morale seemed to be mainly stable in a five-year follow-up of very old people. It seems, nonetheless, that individuals are affected by negative life events, regardless of level of morale. Preventing negative life events and supporting individuals who experience multiple negative life events could have important implications for the care of very old people.

  17. Mitochondria in the Aging Muscles of Flies and Mice: New Perspectives for Old Characters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea del Campo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sarcopenia is the loss of muscle mass accompanied by a decrease in muscle strength and resistance and is the main cause of disability among the elderly. Muscle loss begins long before there is any clear physical impact in the senior adult. Despite all this, the molecular mechanisms underlying muscle aging are far from being understood. Recent studies have identified that not only mitochondrial metabolic dysfunction but also mitochondrial dynamics and mitochondrial calcium uptake could be involved in the degeneration of skeletal muscle mass. Mitochondrial homeostasis influences muscle quality which, in turn, could play a triggering role in signaling of systemic aging. Thus, it has become apparent that mitochondrial status in muscle cells could be a driver of whole body physiology and organismal aging. In the present review, we discuss the existing evidence for the mitochondria related mechanisms underlying the appearance of muscle aging and sarcopenia in flies and mice.

  18. "I Have to Listen to This Old Body": Femininity and the Aging Body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutagumirwa, Sylivia Karen; Bailey, Ajay

    2017-10-13

    This study explores how older women with low socioeconomic status living in rural Tanzania give meaning to their (aging) body in relation to the ideals of femininity. Ten qualitative in-depth interviews and 10 focus group discussions (N = 60) were conducted among women aged 60 and older. The findings reveal that older women perceive their aging body as "a burden." This characterization of the body is linked to the inability of the aging body to live up to the women's gendered lives. The conflict between their physical limitations and the desire to perform gendered tasks (internalized feminine habitus) affect the women's process of self-identification. This led to emotional distress and subsequently threatened their survival and well-being. The results suggest that older women need to be supported through interventions that are tailored to their cultural and socioeconomic context. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America.

  19. Hematology and biochemistry of aging-evidence of "anemia of the elderly" in old dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radakovich, Lauren B; Pannone, Stephen C; Truelove, Matthew P; Olver, Christine S; Santangelo, Kelly S

    2017-03-01

    Effects of aging on hematologic and biochemical variables are well described in people. Anemia of the elderly is attributed to iron deficiency, anemia of chronic disease, chronic kidney disease, myelodysplasia, or idiopathic causes. Limited studies have examined these variables in aging dogs, but they have typically examined single breeds in research settings. The objective of this study was to identify differences in CBC and biochemistry values between adult and aged dogs of many breeds. Dogs presenting for wellness examinations and minor dental/elective surgeries that were otherwise clinically healthy were retrospectively identified. Dogs were categorized by age: adult (1-7.9 years), senior (8-11.9 years), and geriatric (12+ years). Standard CBC and biochemistry data were collated. Asian breeds, Greyhounds, and dogs with data indicating overt underlying disease were excluded. The Kruskal-Wallis test was used to compare groups with statistical significance set at P ≤ .05. Hematocrit, MCV, and serum iron decreased with age, indicating possible iron-restricted erythropoiesis (IRE), due to iron deficiency or low-grade chronic inflammation. Total proteins, globulins, and platelet counts increased with age while albumin decreased, suggesting low-grade inflammation. Urea was increased in older dogs without a concurrent increase in creatinine, which points toward gastrointestinal bleeding or dehydration. Clinically healthy, aging dogs have changes in laboratory variables that indicate altered physiologies compared to younger adult animals, including evidence of IRE, inflammation, and potential gastrointestinal bleeding, suggesting a similar trend to that of elderly human beings. Future studies will examine markers of iron metabolism and inflammation in aging dogs. © 2017 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  20. Radiofrequency exposure in young and old: different sensitivities in light of age-relevant natural differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redmayne, Mary; Johansson, Olle

    2015-01-01

    Our environment is now permeated by anthropogenic radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation, and individuals of all ages are exposed for most of each 24 h period from transmitting devices. Despite claims that children are more likely to be vulnerable than healthy adults to unwanted effects of this exposure, there has been no recent examination of this, nor of comparative risk to the elderly or ill. We sought to clarify whether research supports the claim of increased risk in specific age-groups. First, we identified the literature which has explored age-specific pathophysiological impacts of RF-EMR. Natural life-span changes relevant to these different impacts provides context for our review of the selected literature, followed by discussion of health and well-being implications. We conclude that age-dependent RF-EMR study results, when considered in the context of developmental stage, indicate increased specific vulnerabilities in the young (fetus to adolescent), the elderly, and those with cancer. There appears to be at least one mechanism other than the known thermal mechanism causing different responses to RF-EMR depending upon the exposure parameters, the cell/physiological process involved, and according to age and health status. As well as personal health and quality-of-life impacts, an ageing population means there are economic implications for public health and policy.

  1. Association between midlife health behaviours and transitions out of employment from midlife to early old age: Whitehall II cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gareth Hagger-Johnson

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is important to determine whether unhealthy behaviours might influence transitions out of employment from midlife to old age, given the anticipated need for adults to work for longer. Our aim was to determine the association between repeated assessments of cigarette smoking, heavy/problem alcohol drinking, low physical activity and poor diet at midlife, in relation to work exit from midlife to old age. Methods Data from 7704 participants (5392 men from the Whitehall II cohort study in employment at midlife were used to evaluate the association between unhealthy behaviours and a subsequent transition out of work during 22 years follow-up, using logistic regression models. Results Men who smoked cigarettes, consistently drank alcohol heavily, or reported problem drinking, were more likely to leave employment over follow-up. Women with a consistently poor diet were more likely to leave employment. Associations were stronger when the reason for leaving was health grounds, and stronger among those with persistently unhealthy behaviours over follow-up. The size of the effects were broadly equivalent to one advancing year of age on employment. Physical health functioning over follow-up only partly accounted for the associations with work exit, whereas physical and mental functioning accounted for most of the associations with work exit on health grounds. Conclusions Unhealthy behaviours in midlife are associated with transitions out of employment into old age. Promoting healthy behaviours at midlife might support current policy initiatives aimed at extending working life. Future research should consider possible mechanisms that link behaviours to transitions out of employment, and consider sex differences in larger cohorts.

  2. Effects of circadian clock genes and environmental factors on cognitive aging in old adults in a Taiwanese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Eugene; Kuo, Po-Hsiu; Liu, Yu-Li; Yang, Albert C; Kao, Chung-Feng; Tsai, Shih-Jen

    2017-04-11

    Previous animal studies have indicated associations between circadian clock genes and cognitive impairment . In this study, we assessed whether 11 circadian clockgenes are associated with cognitive aging independently and/or through complex interactions in an old Taiwanese population. We also analyzed the interactions between environmental factors and these genes in influencing cognitive aging. A total of 634 Taiwanese subjects aged over 60 years from the Taiwan Biobank were analyzed. Mini-Mental State Examinations (MMSE) were administered to all subjects, and MMSE scores were used to evaluate cognitive function. Our data showed associations between cognitive aging and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 4 key circadian clock genes, CLOCK rs3749473 (p = 0.0017), NPAS2 rs17655330 (p = 0.0013), RORA rs13329238 (p = 0.0009), and RORB rs10781247 (p = 7.9 x 10-5). We also found that interactions between CLOCK rs3749473, NPAS2 rs17655330, RORA rs13329238, and RORB rs10781247 affected cognitive aging (p = 0.007). Finally, we investigated the influence of interactions between CLOCK rs3749473, RORA rs13329238, and RORB rs10781247 with environmental factors such as alcohol consumption, smoking status, physical activity, and social support on cognitive aging (p = 0.002 ~ 0.01). Our study indicates that circadian clock genes such as the CLOCK, NPAS2, RORA, and RORB genes may contribute to the risk of cognitive aging independently as well as through gene-gene and gene-environment interactions.

  3. Growing Up Or Growing Old? Cellular Aging Linked With Testosterone Reactivity To Stress In Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drury, Stacy S.; Shirtcliff, Elizabeth A.; Shachet, Andrew; Phan, Jenny; Mabile, Emily; Brett, Zoë H.; Wren, Michael; Esteves, Kyle; Theall, Katherine P.

    2014-01-01

    Background Given the established relation between testosterone and aging in older adults, we tested whether buccal telomere length (TL), an established cellular biomarker of aging, was associated with testosterone levels in youth. Methods Children, mean age 10.2 years, were recruited from the greater New Orleans area and salivary testosterone was measured during both an acute stressor and diurnally. Buccal TL was measured using monochrome multiplex quantitative real-time PCR (MMQ-PCR). Testosterone and telomere length data was available on 77 individuals. The association between buccal TL and testosterone was tested using multivariate Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE) to account for clustering of children within families. Results Greater peak testosterone levels (β=-0.87, p < 0.01) and slower recovery (β=-0.56, p < 0.01) and reactivity (β = -1.22, p < 0.01) following a social stressor were significantly associated with shorter buccal TL after controlling for parental age at conception, child age, sex, sociodemographic factors and puberty. No association was initially present between diurnal measurements of testosterone or morning basal testosterone levels and buccal TL. Sex significantly moderated the relation between testosterone reactivity and buccal TL. Conclusions The association between testosterone and buccal TL supports gonadal maturation as a developmentally sensitive biomarker of aging within youth. As stress levels of testosterone were significantly associated with buccal TL, these findings are consistent with the growing literature linking stress exposure and accelerated maturation. The lack of association of diurnal testosterone or morning basal levels with buccal TL bolsters the notion of a shared stress-related maturational mechanism between cellular stress and the hypothalamic pituitary gonadal (HPG) axis. These data provide novel evidence supporting the interaction of aging, physiologic stress and cellular processes as an underlying

  4. Miłosz on the Body, Old Age, and Dying: A New Language or Drama of (Nonexpression?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna Pietrych

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses Miłosz’s poetic strategies of expression in problems of the body, illness, getting old, and the impending death. Those problems are closely related to Miłosz’s personal experience. The autobiographical plane adds dramatism to Miłosz’s experiments in developing a new poetic language in his old age. Especially in Farther Surroundings seems to develop a new poetical diction in the epistemological sense. The dark tone of the poet is still present, but it gradually weakens and is replaced by words that unambiguously praise (perhaps overpraise existence, and so reveal their (selfpersuasive quality. In this perspective the profusion of texts, which Miłosz wrote in his last years, is evidence of not only of an impressive intellectual power, but also of a drama that was covered by an overload of words.

  5. Why do I dread looking old?: A test of social identity theory, terror management theory, and the double standard of aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chonody, Jill M; Teater, Barbra

    2016-01-01

    Outward appearance is one of the means by which age is determined, and fear of looking old may stem from fears about social identity and death. This study explored how social identity theory and terror management theory may help to explain the dread of looking old. University students from the United States, England, and Australia (N = 1,042) completed a questionnaire regarding their attitudes about aging and older adults. Results indicated that sex, age, beliefs about personal aging, and death anxiety explained 30.4% of the variance for participants' dread of looking old. Theoretical hypotheses were supported by our findings.

  6. The globalization of capital, the welfare state, and old age policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, Carroll L; Phillipson, Chris

    2002-01-01

    A new political economy is shaping the lives of present and future generations of older people. The key change has been the move from the mass institutions that defined growing old in the period from 1945 through the late 1970s to the more individualized structures--privatized pensions, privatized health and social care--that increasingly inform the current period. The authors examine the role of international governmental organizations in promoting this trend, with examples drawn from the work of the World Bank, World Trade Organization, and Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, and the relationship between international governmental organizations and the state. The article concludes with an assessment of the changes to citizenship that accompany globalization and the implications for political organization among older people themselves.

  7. Parenting style in childhood and mortality risk at old age: a longitudinal cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demakakos, Panayotes; Pillas, Demetris; Marmot, Michael; Steptoe, Andrew

    2018-01-01

    Background Parenting style is associated with offspring health, but whether it is associated with offspring mortality at older ages remains unknown. Aims We examined whether childhood experiences of suboptimal parenting style are associated with increased risk of death at older ages. Method Longitudinal cohort study of 1,964 community-dwelling adults aged 65 to 79 years. Results The association between parenting style and mortality was inverse and graded. Participants in the poorest parenting style score quartile had increased risk of death (hazard ratio (HR) 1.72; 95% CI, 1.20-2.48) compared with those in the optimal parenting style score quartile after adjustment for age and sex. Full adjustment for covariates partially explained this association (HR 1.49; 95% CI, 1.02-2.18). Parenting style was inversely associated with cancer and other mortality, but not cardiovascular mortality. Maternal and paternal parenting styles were individually associated with mortality. Conclusions Experiences of suboptimal parenting in childhood are associated with increased risk of death at older ages. PMID:26941265

  8. Predictors of VO2Peak in children age 6- to 7-years-old

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dencker, Magnus; Hermansen, Bianca; Bugge, Anna

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the predictors of aerobic fitness (VO2PEAK) in young children on a population-base. Participants were 436 children (229 boys and 207 girls) aged 6.7 ± 0.4 yrs. VO2PEAK was measured during a maximal treadmill exercise test. Physical activity was assessed by accelerometers....... Total body fat and total fat free mass were estimated from skinfold measurements. Regression analyses indicated that significant predictors for VO2PEAK per kilogram body mass were total body fat, maximal heart rate, sex, and age. Physical activity explained an additional 4-7%. Further analyses showed...... the main contributing factors for absolute values of VO2PEAK were fat free mass, maximal heart rate, sex, and age. Physical activity explained an additional 3-6%....

  9. Chemotherapy in Old Women with Breast Cancer: Is Age Still a Predictor for Under Treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meresse, Mégane; Bouhnik, Anne-Déborah; Bendiane, Marc-Karim; Retornaz, Frédérique; Rousseau, Frédérique; Rey, Dominique; Giorgi, Roch

    2017-05-01

    Breast cancer affects mostly older women but there are no guidelines especially devoted to adjuvant chemotherapy for this population. In this context, this study was carried out in a population-based cohort of French elderly women with breast cancer, to check adherence to the existing national guidelines according to the women's age, taking into account the evolution of the situation over time for women requiring chemotherapy. Between October 2006 and December 2008, all consecutive women included in the French Health registry for a biopsy-proven primary nonmetastatic breast cancer, aged 65-80 years at diagnosis, and living in South Eastern France, were asked to participate in a cohort study. Medical information was collected from physicians. The study population was restricted to the 223 women who were recommended adjuvant chemotherapy according to national guidelines. Those who received chemotherapy were compared to those who did not receive this treatment. Among these 223 women 55% had received chemotherapy. Only three women refused the treatment. Less than 8% have had a geriatric assessment before treatment decision and only two were proposed to participate in a clinical trial. After adjustment for comorbidity score, tumor characteristics, socio-demographic characteristics, and year of diagnosis, increasing patient age was independently associated with decreased guideline concordance for adjuvant chemotherapy. Women aged 75-80 years received chemotherapy more than four times less often than women aged 65-74 years. However, the percentage of women who received chemotherapy increased from 33% to 58% between 2006 and 2008, in parallel with the setting up of Onco-Geriatric Coordination Units in the area. In France, chronological age remains a barrier to receive chemotherapy for older breast cancer women but the establishment of a formal collaboration between oncologists and geriatricians seems to be an effective way to improve care delivery in this population.

  10. Psychological vulnerability to daily stressors in old age: Results of short-term longitudinal studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, Oliver Karl; Diehl, Manfred

    2015-08-01

    A growing numbers of intensive longitudinal studies examine the short-term variability of behavior in response to daily stressors. Collectively, these studies address the vulnerability for stress-related emotional burden as assessed in terms of the intraindividual association between daily stressors and negative affect (NA). This article provides a brief overview of the relevant research on so-called affective reactivity to daily stressors and focuses on findings on development of age-related stressor reactivity across the adult lifespan. Two theoretical propositions have been put forward. Firstly, it has been postulated that aging should be associated with increased affective reactivity, i.e. it has been assumed that the vulnerability in terms of physiological stress reactivity increases across the adult life span and, thus, a higher stress-induced emotional reactivity should result with increasing age. Secondly, it has been argued that due to the continued development of emotional self-regulation skills, there should be an age-related decrease in stress reactivity and, hence, an increased resilience. Findings on age differences in NA reactivity to daily stressors, however, have been inconsistent. A possible explanation for the inconsistent findings may lie in the fact that the postulated dynamics of increased vulnerability or resilience imply different time-related reactions to stressors. In particular, the activation and effectiveness of emotional self-regulation strategies increase with increasing time intervals from the stressors. This leads to the conclusion that with increasing age the resilience for longer periods of stress and accumulated stress should increase. Results from our own research support this hypothesis, where older adults reacted to multiple stressors in a more adaptive way than younger adults.

  11. When can insurers offer products that dominate delayed old-age pension benefit claiming?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanders, L.; De Waegenaere, A.M.B.; Nijman, T.E.

    2013-01-01

    It is common practice for public pension schemes to offer individuals the option to delay benefit claiming until after the normal retirement age, and increase the annual benefit level as a result. Existing literature shows that for non-liquidity constrained individuals, delaying benefit claiming for

  12. Temporal relationship between cognitive and physical performance in middle-aged to oldest old people

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stijntjes, Marjon; Aartsen, Marja J.; Taekema, Diana G.; Gussekloo, Jacobijn; Huisman, Martijn; Meskers, Carel G.M.; De Craen, Anton J.M.; Maier, Andrea B.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Cognitive and physical impairment frequently co-occur in older people. The aim of this study was to assess the temporal order of these age-related changes in cognitive and physical performance and to assess whether a relationship was different across specific cognitive and physical

  13. The dimensionality of between-person differences in white matter microstructure in old age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lövdén, Martin; Laukka, Erika Jonsson; Rieckmann, Anna; Kalpouzos, Grégoria; Li, Tie-Qiang; Jonsson, Tomas; Wahlund, Lars-Olof; Fratiglioni, Laura; Bäckman, Lars

    2013-06-01

    Between-person differences in white matter microstructure may partly generalize across the brain and partly play out differently for distinct tracts. We used diffusion-tensor imaging and structural equation modeling to investigate this issue in a sample of 260 adults aged 60-87 years. Mean fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity of seven white matter tracts in each hemisphere were quantified. Results showed good fit of a model positing that individual differences in white matter microstructure are structured according to tracts. A general factor, although accounting for variance in the measures, did not adequately represent the individual differences. This indicates the presence of a substantial amount of tract-specific individual differences in white matter microstructure. In addition, individual differences are to a varying degree shared between tracts, indicating that general factors also affect white matter microstructure. Age-related differences in white matter microstructure were present for all tracts. Correlations among tract factors did not generally increase as a function of age, suggesting that aging is not a process with homogenous effects on white matter microstructure across the brain. These findings highlight the need for future research to examine whether relations between white matter microstructure and diverse outcomes are specific or general. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Twin's Birth-Order Differences in Height and Body Mass Index From Birth to Old Age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yokoyama, Yoshie; Jelenkovic, Aline; Sund, Reijo

    2016-01-01

    of age was 397,466. As expected, first-born twins had greater birth weight than second-born twins. With respect to height, first-born twins were slightly taller than second-born twins in childhood. After adjusting the results for birth weight, the birth order differences decreased and were no longer...

  15. Examination of the Social Behavior of 4 Age Old Preschool Children According to Teacher Views

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amca, Dervise; Kivanç Öztug, Emine

    2016-01-01

    The main aim of this research is to compare the social behavior of children according to the teacher interviews. Screening model method has been used at this research which is one of the descriptive research methods. The study group of this research was created totally 691 children, from the age group of 4, which were observed at least 8 weeks…

  16. The Long Run: Neuroprotective Effects of Physical Exercise on Adult Neurogenesis from Youth to Old Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraulli, Daniele; Costanzi, Marco; Mastrorilli, Valentina; Farioli-Vecchioli, Stefano

    2017-01-01

    Background The rapid lengthening of life expectancy has raised the problem of providing social programs to counteract the age-related cognitive decline in a growing number of older people. Physical activity stands among the most promising interventions aimed at brain wellbeing, because of its effective neuroprotective action and low social cost. The purpose of this review is to describe the neuroprotective role exerted by physical activity in different life stages. In particular, we focus on adult neurogenesis, a process which has proved being highly responsive to physical exercise and may represent a major factor of brain health over the lifespan. Methods The most recent literature related to the subject has been reviewed. The text has been divided into three main sections, addressing the effects of physical exercise during childhood/adolescence, adulthood and aging, respectively. For each one, the most relevant studies, carried out on both human participants and rodent models, have been described. Results The data reviewed converge in indicating that physical activity exerts a positive effect on brain functioning throughout the lifespan. However, uncertainty remains about the magnitude of the effect and its biological underpinnings. Cellular and synaptic plasticity provided by adult neurogenesis are highly probable mediators, but the mechanism for their action has yet to be conclusively established. Conclusion Despite alternative mechanisms of action are currently debated, age-appropriate physical activity programs may constitute a large-scale, relatively inexpensive and powerful approach to dampen the individual and social impact of age-related cognitive decline. PMID:27000776

  17. Do the Antecedents and Consequences of Loneliness Change from Middle Adulthood into Old Age?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böger, Anne; Huxhold, Oliver

    2018-01-01

    Loneliness is a stressful experience that appears to interfere with health and social integration (SI). Recently, researchers proposed that both antecedents and consequences of loneliness may change across the life span. To fully understand the processes related to loneliness it may thus be crucial to adopt an age-differentiated perspective. This…

  18. Zygosity Differences in Height and Body Mass Index of Twins From Infancy to Old Age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jelenkovic, Aline; Yokoyama, Yoshie; Sund, Reijo

    2015-01-01

    A trend toward greater body size in dizygotic (DZ) than in monozygotic (MZ) twins has been suggested by some but not all studies, and this difference may also vary by age. We analyzed zygosity differences in mean values and variances of height and body mass index (BMI) among male and female twins...

  19. The Koori Growing Old Well Study: investigating aging and dementia in urban Aboriginal Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radford, Kylie; Mack, Holly A; Robertson, Hamish; Draper, Brian; Chalkley, Simon; Daylight, Gail; Cumming, Robert; Bennett, Hayley; Jackson Pulver, Lisa; Broe, Gerald A

    2014-06-01

    Dementia is an emerging health priority in Australian Aboriginal communities, but substantial gaps remain in our understanding of this issue, particularly for the large urban section of the population. In remote Aboriginal communities, high prevalence rates of dementia at relatively young ages have been reported. The current study is investigating aging, cognitive decline, and dementia in older urban/regional Aboriginal Australians. We partnered with five Aboriginal communities across the eastern Australian state of New South Wales, to undertake a census of all Aboriginal men and women aged 60 years and over residing in these communities. This was followed by a survey of the health, well-being, and life history of all consenting participants. Participants were also screened using three cognitive instruments. Those scoring below designated cut-offs, and a 20% random sample of those scoring above (i.e. "normal" range), completed a contact person interview (with a nominated family member) and medical assessment (blind to initial screening results), which formed the basis of "gold standard" clinical consensus determinations of cognitive impairment and dementia. This paper details our protocol for a population-based study in collaboration with local Aboriginal community organizations. The study will provide the first available prevalence rates for dementia and cognitive impairment in a representative sample of urban Aboriginal people, across city and rural communities, where the majority of Aboriginal Australians live. It will also contribute to improved assessment of dementia and cognitive impairment and to the understanding of social determinants of successful aging, of international significance.

  20. How old are you? Genet age estimates in a clonal animal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devlin-Durante, M K; Miller, M W; Precht, W F; Baums, I B

    2016-11-01

    Foundation species such as redwoods, seagrasses and corals are often long-lived and clonal. Genets may consist of hundreds of members (ramets) and originated hundreds to thousands of years ago. As climate change and other stressors exert selection pressure on species, the demography of populations changes. Yet, because size does not indicate age in clonal organisms, demographic models are missing data necessary to predict the resilience of many foundation species. Here, we correlate somatic mutations with genet age of corals and provide the first, preliminary estimates of genet age in a colonial animal. We observed somatic mutations at five microsatellite loci in rangewide samples of the endangered coral, Acropora palmata (n = 3352). Colonies harboured 342 unique mutations in 147 genets. Genet age ranged from 30 to 838 years assuming a mutation rate of 1.195 -04 per locus per year based on colony growth rates and 236 to 6500 years assuming a mutation rate of 1.542 -05 per locus per year based on sea level changes to habitat availability. Long-lived A. palmata genets imply a large capacity to tolerate past environmental change, and yet recent mass mortality events in A. palmata suggest that capacity is now being frequently exceeded. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Care of the Aged: Old Problems in Need of New Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Robert; Kane, Rosalie

    The tendency in the United States to view the nursing home as an all-purpose solution to the health problems of the elderly has created a set of self-made problems: increased dependency, depression and social isolation among the aged. In the United States, unlike in many European nations, institutional care of the elderly is conceived of and…

  2. Resting heart rate, heart rate variability and functional decline in old age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ogliari, Giulia; Mahinrad, Simin; Stott, David J

    2015-01-01

    variability was defined as the standard deviation of normal-to-normal RR intervals (SDNN). Functional status in basic (ADL) and instrumental (IADL) activities of daily living was measured using Barthel and Lawton scales, at baseline and during follow-up. RESULTS: The mean age of the study population was 75...

  3. Gray Matter Characteristics in Mid and Old Aged Adults with ASD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koolschijn, P. Cédric M. P.; Geurts, Hilde M.

    2016-01-01

    It is widely acknowledged that the brain anatomy of children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) shows a different developmental pattern then typical age-matched peers. There is however, a paucity of studies examining gray matter in mid and late adulthood in ASD. In this cross-sectional neuroimaging study, we, performed vertex-wise…

  4. Health in old age, and patients’ approaches to telemedicine in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leszek Buliński

    2017-06-01

    In Poland in ageing there still dominates the experience of multiple ailments and polytherapy, something which justifies a search for new, easily accessible, and economically sound solutions for health care. Telemedicine is a promising solution although there is a need for concrete steps to be taken to raise willingness amongst geriatric patients to take advantage of telemedicine.

  5. WAIS-III IQs, Horn's Theory, and Generational Changes from Young Adulthood to Old Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Alan S.

    2001-01-01

    Examined age changes in intellectual ability in the range from 16 to 89 years through 2 studies that involved IQs on the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale III (WAIS-III). Results are interpreted in the context of the fluid-crystallized intelligence theory of J. Horn. Studies used WAIS-III standardization data for 2,450 adults and longitudinal data…

  6. Perceived reciprocity in social exchange and health functioning in early old age: prospective findings from the GAZEL study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahrendorf, Morten; Ribet, Celine; Zins, Marie; Goldberg, Marcel; Siegrist, Johannes

    2010-05-01

    To assess prospectively the effects of perceived non-reciprocity of exchange in three different types of social engagement on health functioning in early old age. In the frame of the prospective French GAZEL cohort study, data on reciprocity in three types of role-related social engagement (principal regular activity in everyday life, marital role relationship, trusting relationships in civic life) were collected from 8679 men and 2742 women (mean age: 60.4 years) in 2005. Two years later, health functioning was assessed using the SF-36 mental and physical component scores, as well as self-perceived health. Multivariate regressions were calculated, controlling for important confounders including baseline self-perceived health. Consistent effects of perceived non-reciprocity in all three types of social exchange on mental and physical health functioning were observed. After adjustment for relevant confounders including baseline self-perceived, health effects were attenuated, but largely remained significant. Findings underline the importance of the quality of social exchange (reciprocity vs. non-reciprocity) for health functioning in early old age.

  7. Relationship between age, sex and body mass index with fundamental motor skills among 3 to 6 years-old children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vameghi Roshanak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of childhood obesity is a serious public health problem. This problem is a multi-component disease and several factors are involved in its development. The childhood obesity led to poor mastery of fundamental motor skills (FMS and failure to develop in specialized skills that required in organized sports and activities. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between age, sex and body mass index (BMI with FMS in 3 to 6 years-old children. A total of 600 preschool children (300 boys and 300 girls between the ages of 3 to 6 years old participated in this research. Subjects were selected through multi-stage cluster random sampling in five regions in Tehran. Using the Ohio State University Scale of Intra Gross Motor Assessment (OSU-SIGMA FMS were assess. Body mass index (BMI was directly measured from height (m2/weight (kg for each child. The results showed that the negative correlations between jumping, skipping, hopping and throwing skills and BMI in any 3 groups children were significant (P0.05. The boys were performed better than girls in all FMS except hopping and skipping skills. In these skills the girls were better performed in all ages. These results highlight the need to provide organized opportunities which facilitate FMS and decreased high BMI levels in preschool children.

  8. Old, down and out? Appearance, body work and positive ageing among elderly South Korean women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elfving-Hwang, Joanna

    2016-08-01

    This article offers an as yet unexplored dimension of our current understanding of the ageing body in the context of contemporary South Korea. Drawing on interviews with twenty elderly women living in the greater Seoul metropolitan area, this article explores the role of appearance, body work, and the presentation of self in the women's everyday lived experiences. Existing research on the ageing female body in South Korea has primarily focused on the so-called noin munjae ('the elderly issue') discourse, within which the ageing body is framed as passive, undesirable, or out-of-control. Contrary to this, the elderly women's own narratives of everyday beauty practices suggest that the act of sustaining well-ordered appearance in later life allows for the enforcing of positive selves in the context of personal beauty and body work. Maintaining a positive appearance was shown to play an important part of their everyday lives, and functioned as a ritual of not only presenting an appearance that signified control over the ageing body, but to continue to enjoy it. The carefully calculated engagement with various non-surgical and surgical beauty practices also emerged as an embodied practice of mediating intersubjective social encounters through which self-esteem was engendered by evidencing the self's efforts to show respect to others. The findings of this study challenge dominant discourses in the west which present body work on the ageing female body as primarily self-indulgent, or driven by anxiety about the body's inability to fit within existing youthful beauty ideals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Staging of third molar development in relation to chronological age of 5-16 year old Indian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegde, Sapna; Patodia, Akash; Dixit, Uma

    2016-12-01

    The usefulness of the developmental status of the third molar has been studied in assessment of the chronological age of adolescents in whom the development of the other permanent teeth is nearly complete. However, little is known about the timing and pattern of third-molar development in the Indian population. This study aimed to stage the third molar development in relation to chronological age of 5-16year old Indian children. In this cross-sectional observational study, the status of third molar development in relation to chronological age of 1139 Indian children aged 5-16 years was evaluated radiographically, using Orhan's modification of Demirjian's method. The frequency of occurrence of the third molars varied from 47% to 70%. Crypt formation, crown completion and root completion occurred as early as 5.4, 8.7 and 15.0 years, respectively. No significant differences based on gender or side were observed in third-molar development (p>0.05). For most stages, maxillary third molars were slightly more advanced than their mandibular counterparts (p>0.05). Considering the high degree of variability observed in third molar genesis and development, the usefulness of this tooth in age determination studies may be very limited in the age group studied. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Review of David Brooks and Darren Jorgenson, The Wanarn Painters of Place and Time: Old Age Travels in the Tjukurrpa

    OpenAIRE

    Una Rey

    2018-01-01

    The Aboriginal painting movement has long been characterised by ‘remote stars’ whose seniority connotes the last generation to embody the full lexicon of pre-contact experience of language, law (tjukurrpa) and Country. Witness, for example, Emily Kame Kngwarreye, whose career—launched in her eighties—was all ‘late’; the taciturn old men guiding the middle-aged painters at Papunya in the early 1970s; or the last Nyikina speaker, Loongkoonan, who started painting in her nineties and is now brus...

  11. Heritability and Genome-Wide Association Analyses of Serum Uric Acid in Middle and Old-Aged Chinese Twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Weijing; Zhang, Dongfeng; Xu, Chunsheng

    2018-01-01

    Serum uric acid (SUA), as the end product of purine metabolism, has proven emerging roles in human disorders. Here based on a sample of 379 middle and old-aged Chinese twin pairs, we aimed to explore the magnitude of genetic impact on SUA variation by performing sex-limitation twin modeling analy...... involved in functional genes and regulatory domains that mediate SUA level. Our findings provide clues to further elucidate molecular physiology of SUA homeostasis and identify new diagnostic biomarkers and therapeutic targets for hyperuricemia and gout....

  12. 'Holding on to life': An ethnographic study of living well at home in old age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjornsdottir, Kristin

    2018-04-01

    In recent years, much attention has been paid to how older people living at home can remain independent and manage their illness themselves, while less attention has been given to those who have become frail and need assistance with challenges of everyday life. In this article, I drew on Latimer's formulation of care for frail older people as relational and world-making and on Foucault's work related to the care of the self in developing an understanding of how frail older persons manage to live well at home in the final years of their lives. I use data from an ethnographic study of home care nursing in the homes of 15 frail older people to develop an understanding of how their care at home can be developed. The participants were holding on to life, which reflected their vitality and vulnerability as well as agency in continuing to explore ways to preserve and build their world at home. With declining ability and stamina relations with material things, relatives and official care workers become of central importance in holding on to life. Home care services can be thought of as part of life, as world-forming, where workers contribute to daily activities that support living well at home. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Application of IEUBK model in lead risk assessment of children aged 61–84 months old in central China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yanyan [MOE Key Lab of Environment and Health, Institute of Environmental Medicine, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science & Technology, Wuhan, Hubei (China); Hu, Jia [Suzhou Center for Disease Prevention and Control, Suzhou, Jiangsu (China); Wu, Wei [MOE Key Lab of Environment and Health, Institute of Environmental Medicine, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science & Technology, Wuhan, Hubei (China); Liu, Shuyun [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science & Technology, Wuhan, Hubei (China); Li, Mei [Hanyang Center for Disease Prevention and Control, Wuhan, Hubei (China); Yao, Na; Chen, Jianwei [MOE Key Lab of Environment and Health, Institute of Environmental Medicine, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science & Technology, Wuhan, Hubei (China); Ye, Linxiang [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science & Technology, Wuhan, Hubei (China); Wang, Qi, E-mail: lwq95@126.com [MOE Key Lab of Environment and Health, Institute of Environmental Medicine, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science & Technology, Wuhan, Hubei (China); Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science & Technology, Wuhan, Hubei (China); Zhou, Yikai, E-mail: zhouyk@mails.tjmu.edu.cn [MOE Key Lab of Environment and Health, Institute of Environmental Medicine, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science & Technology, Wuhan, Hubei (China)

    2016-01-15

    Few studies have focused on the accuracy of using the Integrated Exposure Uptake Biokinetic (IEUBK) model in Chinese children with site- and age-specific exposure data. This study aimed to validate the accuracy and sensitivity of the IEUBK model in lead risk assessment of Chinese children aged 61–84 months old. A total of 760 children were enrolled from two respective counties in Central China by using random cluster sampling method. Blood lead levels (BLLs) of all subjects were determined using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry, as well as that in the environmental media, such as air, drinking water, soil, dust and food. Age- and site-specific time-activity patterns and water consumption were evaluated by using questionnaires for children. Exposure parameters including outdoor and indoor activity time, ventilation rate and water consumption in this study were different from the default values of the IEUBK model. Statistical analysis revealed no significant differences between the predicted and observed BLLs. Diet and soil/dust lead intake contributed approximately 83.39% (57.40%–93.84% range) and 15.18% (3.25%–41.60% range) of total lead intake, respectively. These findings showed that the IEUBK model is suitable for lead risk assessment of Chinese children aged 61–84 months old and diet acts as an important lead source. - Highlights: • The first time to fit and discuss the IEUBK model in China based on comprehensive local children exposure parameters. • Two different exposure scenarios to apply the IEUBK model in different conditions. • The first time to report the ventilation rate in Chinese children aged 61 to 84 months. • Highlight the role of dietary to lead intake for Chinese children.

  14. Application of IEUBK model in lead risk assessment of children aged 61–84 months old in central China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yanyan; Hu, Jia; Wu, Wei; Liu, Shuyun; Li, Mei; Yao, Na; Chen, Jianwei; Ye, Linxiang; Wang, Qi; Zhou, Yikai

    2016-01-01

    Few studies have focused on the accuracy of using the Integrated Exposure Uptake Biokinetic (IEUBK) model in Chinese children with site- and age-specific exposure data. This study aimed to validate the accuracy and sensitivity of the IEUBK model in lead risk assessment of Chinese children aged 61–84 months old. A total of 760 children were enrolled from two respective counties in Central China by using random cluster sampling method. Blood lead levels (BLLs) of all subjects were determined using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry, as well as that in the environmental media, such as air, drinking water, soil, dust and food. Age- and site-specific time-activity patterns and water consumption were evaluated by using questionnaires for children. Exposure parameters including outdoor and indoor activity time, ventilation rate and water consumption in this study were different from the default values of the IEUBK model. Statistical analysis revealed no significant differences between the predicted and observed BLLs. Diet and soil/dust lead intake contributed approximately 83.39% (57.40%–93.84% range) and 15.18% (3.25%–41.60% range) of total lead intake, respectively. These findings showed that the IEUBK model is suitable for lead risk assessment of Chinese children aged 61–84 months old and diet acts as an important lead source. - Highlights: • The first time to fit and discuss the IEUBK model in China based on comprehensive local children exposure parameters. • Two different exposure scenarios to apply the IEUBK model in different conditions. • The first time to report the ventilation rate in Chinese children aged 61 to 84 months. • Highlight the role of dietary to lead intake for Chinese children.

  15. Interpersonal relationships of elderly in selected old age homes in urban India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duvvuru Jamuna

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Never before have there been so many old people in India. According the 2001 Census of India data, the projected figure for 2031 is 179 million seniors. Dual-career families, changing values, and nuclear family dynamics have altered the social landscape of India. An emerging phenomenon in urban India is the emergence of “pay and stay” homes as a late life living arrangement for middle and higher-income groups. This study focused on selected ‘pay and stay’ homes in the four cities of Hyderabad, Bangalore, Chennai, and Tiruvananthapuram. Personal interviews were conducted with 150 seniors to understand the relocation experience, the extent and nature of self-reported social networks, and evaluation by seniors of this late life arrangement. Majority of respondents were female (65%. More than half of the respondents (58% reported being currently widowed. Results show that childlessness and strained intergenerational relationships were important considerations in the decision to relocate. Majority of the seniors had never conceived that they would be spending their autumn years away from family. Occupants frequently conceived of their living space as their “home.” Living amidst non-family members, the reported network sizes were small. The absence of family members was frequently cited as a source of dissatisfaction when evaluating these homes.

  16. Neural activation patterns of successful episodic encoding: Reorganization during childhood, maintenance in old age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yee Lee Shing

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The two-component framework of episodic memory (EM development posits that the contributions of medial temporal lobe (MTL and prefrontal cortex (PFC to successful encoding differ across the lifespan. To test the framework’s hypotheses, we compared subsequent memory effects (SME of 10–12 year-old children, younger adults, and older adults using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. Memory was probed by cued recall, and SME were defined as regional activation differences during encoding between subsequently correctly recalled versus omitted items. In MTL areas, children’s SME did not differ in magnitude from those of younger and older adults. In contrast, children’s SME in PFC were weaker than the corresponding SME in younger and older adults, in line with the hypothesis that PFC contributes less to successful encoding in childhood. Differences in SME between younger and older adults were negligible. The present results suggest that, among individuals with high memory functioning, the neural circuitry contributing to successful episodic encoding is reorganized from middle childhood to adulthood. Successful episodic encoding in later adulthood, however, is characterized by the ability to maintain the activation patterns that emerged in young adulthood.

  17. The common face: Różewicz, Rembrandt and old age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Rosales Rodriguez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes an interpretation of Rembrandt’s Self-Portrait as Zeuxis Laughing (Wallraf- -Richartz Museum, Cologne as it appears in Tadeusz Różewicz’s poem Mirror. The 17th-century Dutch artist was known as a painter who portrayed the human body as it really is, i.e. with all its imperfections and changes that are brought about by the passage of time. He has also been regarded as a master who expressed the disappearance and decay of form (Simmel and the anticipation of death (Malraux by using an unconventional technique. Różewicz “appropriated” Rembrandt’s face to speak of the inevitability of getting old and dying, the limits of Logos and poetry as well as the powerlessness of a poet whose fatal destiny is to describe and testify to suffering. Rembrandt’s figure appears in a flash of light, but at the same time seems to melt into thick paint, to disappear, like the poet’s words on the surface of silence, thus suggestively representing the moment of the subject’s transformation and crossing the border between life and death, the artist’s withdrawal from the world and last breath as well as the limits of literature, i.e. the loss of discourse. In this poetic epiphany, Rembrandt is – let us refer to Harold Bloom’s famous concept of apophrades – the great dead returning in Różewicz’s work.

  18. Contribution of genetic polymorphisms on functional status at very old age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dato, S.; Sørensen, Mette; Lagani, V.

    2014-01-01

    Preservation of functional ability is a well-recognized marker of longevity. At a molecular level, a major determinant of the physiological decline occurring with aging is the imbalance between production and accumulation of oxidative damage to macromolecules, together with a decreased efficiency...... observations reported in the same cohort. Overall, our work supports the evidence that genes belonging to the pro-anti-oxidant pathway are able to modulate physical and cognitive performance after the ninth decade of life, finally influencing extreme survival.......Preservation of functional ability is a well-recognized marker of longevity. At a molecular level, a major determinant of the physiological decline occurring with aging is the imbalance between production and accumulation of oxidative damage to macromolecules, together with a decreased efficiency...

  19. How old is this bird? The age distribution under some phase sampling schemes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hautphenne, Sophie; Massaro, Melanie; Taylor, Peter

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, we use a finite-state continuous-time Markov chain with one absorbing state to model an individual's lifetime. Under this model, the time of death follows a phase-type distribution, and the transient states of the Markov chain are known as phases. We then attempt to provide an answer to the simple question "What is the conditional age distribution of the individual, given its current phase"? We show that the answer depends on how we interpret the question, and in particular, on the phase observation scheme under consideration. We then apply our results to the computation of the age pyramid for the endangered Chatham Island black robin Petroica traversi during the monitoring period 2007-2014.

  20. Association of Family Composition and Metabolic Syndrome in Korean Adults Aged over 45 Years Old.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Ju

    2015-12-01

    This study investigated the relationship between family composition and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome by gender in Korean adults aged 45 years and older. The sample consisted of 11,291 participants in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2010 to 2012. We used complex sample analyses, including strata, cluster, and sample weighting, to allow generalization to the Korean population. Complex samples crosstabs and chi-square tests were conducted to compare the percentage of sociodemographic characteristics to the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its components by gender and family composition. Next, a complex sample logistic regression was performed to examine the association between family composition and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome by gender. The percentage of adults living alone was 5.6% for men and 13.9% for women. Slightly more women (14.0%) than men (10.1%) reported living with three generations. The percentage of metabolic syndrome in Korean adults aged 45 years and older was 53.2% for men and 35.7% for women. For women, we found that living with one or three generations was significantly associated with a higher risk of metabolic syndrome, blood pressure, and triglyceride abnormality after adjusting for age, education, household income, smoking, physical activity, and body mass index, when compared to living alone. No significant relationships were found for men. A national strategy, tailored on gender and family composition, needs to be developed in order to prevent the increase of metabolic syndrome in Korean women over middle age. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Stress-Related Cognitive Interference Predicts Cognitive Function in Old Age

    OpenAIRE

    Stawski, Robert S.; Sliwinski, Martin J.; Smyth, Joshua M.; University, Syracuse

    2006-01-01

    Both subjective distress and cognitive interference have been proposed as mechanisms underlying the negative effects of stress on cognition. Studies of aging have shown that distress is associated with lower cognitive performance, but none have examined the effects of cognitive interference. One hundred eleven older adults (Mage = 80) completed measures of working memory, processing speed, and episodic memory as well as self-report measures of subjective distress and cognitive interference. C...

  2. The Long Run: Neuroprotective Effects of Physical Exercise on Adult Neurogenesis from Youth to Old Age

    OpenAIRE

    Saraulli, Daniele; Costanzi, Marco; Mastrorilli, Valentina; Farioli-Vecchioli, Stefano

    2017-01-01

    Background The rapid lengthening of life expectancy has raised the problem of providing social programs to counteract the age-related cognitive decline in a growing number of older people. Physical activity stands among the most promising interventions aimed at brain wellbeing, because of its effective neuroprotective action and low social cost. The purpose of this review is to describe the neuroprotective role exerted by physical activity in different life stages. In particular, we focus on ...

  3. Manual control age and sex differences in 4 to 11 year old children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Flatters

    Full Text Available To what degree does being male or female influence the development of manual skills in pre-pubescent children? This question is important because of the emphasis placed on developing important new manual skills during this period of a child's education (e.g. writing, drawing, using computers. We investigated age and sex-differences in the ability of 422 children to control a handheld stylus. A task battery deployed using tablet PC technology presented interactive visual targets on a computer screen whilst simultaneously recording participant's objective kinematic responses, via their interactions with the on-screen stimuli using the handheld stylus. The battery required children use the stylus to: (i make a series of aiming movements, (ii trace a series of abstract shapes and (iii track a moving object. The tasks were not familiar to the children, allowing measurement of a general ability that might be meaningfully labelled 'manual control', whilst minimising culturally determined differences in experience (as much as possible. A reliable interaction between sex and age was found on the aiming task, with girls' movement times being faster than boys in younger age groups (e.g. 4-5 years but with this pattern reversing in older children (10-11 years. The improved performance in older boys on the aiming task is consistent with prior evidence of a male advantage for gross-motor aiming tasks, which begins to emerge during adolescence. A small but reliable sex difference was found in tracing skill, with girls showing a slightly higher level of performance than boys irrespective of age. There were no reliable sex differences between boys and girls on the tracking task. Overall, the findings suggest that prepubescent girls are more likely to have superior manual control abilities for performing novel tasks. However, these small population differences do not suggest that the sexes require different educational support whilst developing their manual

  4. Does life satisfaction change in old age: results from an 8-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gana, Kamel; Bailly, Nathalie; Saada, Yaël; Joulain, Michèle; Alaphilippe, Daniel

    2013-07-01

    The unexpected positive relationship between aging and happiness was called "the paradox of well-being," which is still a matter of debate. This study examined longitudinal change in life satisfaction (LS) in older adults. LS was assessed with the satisfaction with life scale, in a sample of individuals (N = 899; aged 62-95 years, at first occasion; M = 72.73, SD = 5.68) for a period of 8 years (5 waves of data). A multiple indicator (e.g., second order) growth modeling was used to assess change in LS. Findings from both unconditional and conditional model (in which time-invariant, i.e., age, gender, and education, and time-varying, i.e., self-perceived health, covariates were incorporated in the model) indicated a linear increase in LS for the 8-year period. As expected, the results showed significant random variation in both intercept and slope, indicating that participants start at different levels and change at different rates. Our findings contribute to the debate concerning the paradox of well-being, which calls for explanation. There are few theories that provide some explanation (e.g., the socioemotional selectivity theory). However, to enhance researchers' understanding of developmental changes that contribute to the paradox of well-being, a more integrative theoretical model is needed.

  5. [Drinking behaviors and patterns among floating population aged 18-59 years old in China, 2012].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yichong; Zhang, Mei; Jiang, Yong; Deng, Qian; Zhao, Yinjun; Huang, Zhengjing; Zeng, Xinying; Wang, Limin

    2014-11-01

    To understand the drinking behaviors and patterns among floating population in China. Floating population were selected through multistage clustering sampling method, stratified by 6 major industries in 170 counties and districts from 31 provinces/autonomous regions, and Xinjiang Construction Corps, in mainland China. Design-based methods were adopted to analyze the drinking behavior in subpopulations. A total of 48 697 floating population aged 18-59 years were included in the study. The overall prevalence rate of drinking was 51.7% with 71.9% in men and 24.7% in women, in the last 12 months. Among those who ever drank, the weekly drinking prevalence and daily alcohol intake were 53.9% and 18.7 g in males while 16.7% and 4.1 g in females, respectively, among those floating population. Weekly drinking prevalence rates, for both genders, increased along with the increase of age (P population from the construction industry had the highest prevalence rates on items as weekly drinking, daily alcohol intake and prevalence of unhealthy drinking behaviors, except for hazardous drinking behaviors. Drinking behavior was prevalent among floating population in China. Significant difference was seen between genders. Unhealthy drinking behaviors varied greatly among male drinkers at different age groups or education levels as well as among those working in the different industries.

  6. Reduction of age-associated pathology in old mice by overexpression of catalase in mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treuting, Piper M; Linford, Nancy J; Knoblaugh, Sue E; Emond, M J; Morton, John F; Martin, George M; Rabinovitch, Peter S; Ladiges, Warren C

    2008-08-01

    We describe the effects of mitochondrially targeted catalase (MCAT) expression on end-of-life pathology in mice using detailed semiquantitative histopathological evaluation. We previously reported that the median and maximum life spans of MCAT mice were extended relative to those of wild-type littermates. We now report that MCAT expression is associated with reduced malignant nonhematopoietic tumor burden, reduced cardiac lesions, and a trend toward reduced systemic inflammation, with no effect on hematopoietic neoplasia or glomerulonephropathy. Combined disease burden and comorbidity are also reduced, and MCAT expression is not associated with any detrimental clinical effects. The results suggest that oxidative damage is involved in aging of C57BL/6J mice via modulation of a subset of age-associated lesions. Antioxidant interventions targeting mitochondria may therefore be a viable strategy for prevention or postponement of some age-associated diseases. The variability of the MCAT effect across tissues, however, illustrates the importance of developing semiquantitative histopathology for assessment of comorbidity in life-span studies.

  7. Hearing in middle age: a population snapshot of 40–69 year olds in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawes, Piers; Fortnum, Heather; Moore, David R.; Emsley, Richard; Norman, Paul; Cruickshanks, Karen; Davis, Adrian; Edmondson-Jones, Mark; McCormack, Abby; Lutman, Mark; Munro, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Objective To report population-based prevalence of hearing impairment based on speech recognition in noise testing in a large and inclusive sample of UK adults aged 40 to 69 years. The present study is the first to report such data. Prevalence of tinnitus and use of hearing aids is also reported. Design The research was conducted using the UK Biobank resource. The better-ear unaided speech reception threshold was measured adaptively using the Digit Triplet Test (n = 164,770). Self-report data on tinnitus, hearing aid use, noise exposure as well as demographic variables were collected. Results Overall, 10.7% of adults (95%CI 10.5–10.9%) had significant hearing impairment. Prevalence of tinnitus was 16.9% (95%CI 16.6–17.1%) and hearing aid use was 2.0% (95%CI 1.9–2.1%). Odds of hearing impairment increased with age, with a history of work- and music-related noise exposure, for lower socioeconomic background and for ethnic minority backgrounds. Males were at no higher risk of hearing impairment than females. Conclusion Around 1 in 10 adults aged 40 to 69 years have substantial hearing impairment. The reasons for excess risk of hearing impairment particularly for those from low socioeconomic and ethnic minority backgrounds require identification, as this represents a serious health inequality. The underutilization of hearing aids has altered little since the 1980s, and is a major cause for concern. PMID:24518430

  8. Determinants of Sexual and Reproductive Health among Brazilian youth (aged 18 to 29 years old

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Barbosa Fontes

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the main determinants of sexual and reproductive health of Brazilian youth. It was approved by the Ethics Committee of the Medicine Faculty of the University of Brasília, and it received support from Paho and Brazilian Ministry of Health. 1.208 youngsters (18 to 29 years old in 15 states and Federal District were interviewed at their residences, during the second semester of 2011. Margin of error, adjusted regional and nationally, was 2.8% (CI: 95%, regarding the assessed sample. A KAP scale (knowledge, attitudes, and practices with 17 questions (-17 to +17 points was generated. A questionnaire was pre-tested for consistency and validity analysis was performed. KAP scale was used as dependent variable in adjusted linear regression models. Mean KAP score was 5.65 points. Gaps in KAP were: 70% of the youth do not know when the fertility period of a woman is. 42% of youth do not recognize condoms as a method to prevent unwanted pregnancy and STDs. The main factors associated to explaining variances in KAP are gender, education, religion, access to health services, having had sexual intercourse in the last 12 months, and having friends as the main personal reference (p < 0.05. Youngsters with higher education, women, non-Protestant, who claim to know where to find health services have better KAP level of reproductive health. Studies are necessary to support public policies that increase the KAP levels in sexual and reproductive health of the most vulnerable groups, such as the segment comprising low education, men and Protestants.

  9. Terceira idade: nova identidade, reinvenção da velhice ou experiência geracional? Third age: new identity, reformulation of the old age or generational experience?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luna Rodrigues Freitas Silva

    2008-01-01

    experience in contemporary society, we mapped the discussion on the third age in literature, more specifically on their nature of innovation in relation to the identity of old age. Three hypothesis are highlighted in this analysis: the first suggests that third age can be seen as a new identity, autonomous and other than the identity of old age; the second, that its appearance can be understood as a denial of the social identity of old age; and finally, the third hypothesis assumes that the characteristics of the third age are the result of the generational experience of a particular social group. These main hypotheses about the third age are presented and discussed according to the possibilities of creation, diversification and innovation of subjective experience.

  10. An International Evaluation of Cognitive Reserve and Memory Changes in Early Old Age in 10 European Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadar, Dorina; Robitaille, Annie; Clouston, Sean; Hofer, Scott M; Piccinin, Andrea M; Muniz-Terrera, Graciela

    2017-01-01

    Cognitive reserve was postulated to explain individual differences in susceptibility to ageing, offering apparent protection to those with higher education. We investigated the association between education and change in memory in early old age. Immediate and delayed memory scores from over 10,000 individuals aged 65 years and older, from 10 countries of the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe, were modeled as a function of time in the study over an 8-year period, fitting independent latent growth models. Education was used as a marker of cognitive reserve and evaluated in association with memory performance and rate of change, while accounting for income, general health, smoking, body mass index, gender, and baseline age. In most countries, more educated individuals performed better on both memory tests at baseline, compared to those less educated. However, education was not protective against faster decline, except for in Spain for both immediate and delayed recall (0.007 [SE = 0.003] and 0.006 [SE = 0.002]), and Switzerland for immediate recall (0.006 [SE = 0.003]). Interestingly, highly educated Italian respondents had slightly faster declines in immediate recall (-0.006 [SE = 0.003]). We found weak evidence of a protective effect of education on memory change in most European samples, although there was a positive association with memory performance at individuals' baseline assessment. © 2017 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. The influence of negative life events on hippocampal and amygdala volumes in old age: a life-course perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerritsen, L; Kalpouzos, G; Westman, E; Simmons, A; Wahlund, L O; Bäckman, L; Fratiglioni, L; Wang, H X

    2015-04-01

    Psychosocial stress has been related to changes in the nervous system, with both adaptive and maladaptive consequences. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship of negative events experienced throughout the entire lifespan and hippocampal and amygdala volumes in older adults. In 466 non-demented old adults (age range 60-96 years, 58% female), hippocampal and amygdala volumes were segmented using Freesurfer. Negative life events and the age at which these events occurred were assessed by means of a structured questionnaire. Using generalized linear models, hippocampal and amygdala volumes were estimated with life events as independent variables. The statistical analyses were adjusted for age, gender, intracranial volume, lifestyle factors, cardiovascular risk factors, depressive symptoms, and cognitive functioning. Total number of negative life events and of late-life events, but not of early-life, early-adulthood, or middle-adulthood events, was related to larger amygdala volume. There were interactions of early-life events with age and gender. Participants who reported two or more early-life events had significantly smaller amygdala and hippocampal volumes with increasing age. Furthermore, smaller hippocampal volume was found in men who reported two or more early-life events, but not in women. These results suggest that the effect of negative life events on the brain depends on the time when the events occurred, with the strongest effects observed during the critical time periods of early and late life.

  12. The Luminosity Functions of Old and Intermediate-Age Globular Clusters in NGC 3610

    OpenAIRE

    Whitmore, B. C.; Schweizer, F.; Kundu, A.; Miller, B. W.

    2002-01-01

    The WFPC2 Camera on board HST has been used to obtain high-resolution images of NGC 3610, a dynamically young elliptical galaxy. These observations supersede shorter, undithered HST observations where an intermediate-age population of globular clusters was first discovered. The new observations show the bimodal color distribution of globular clusters more clearly, with peaks at (V-I)o = 0.95 and 1.17. The luminosity function (LF) of the blue, metal-poor population of clusters in NGC 3610 turn...

  13. [Sports in old age - a contribution to the development of communicative abilities (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreisbach, W; Arnold, B

    1981-05-01

    The intention of the present report is to show that particularly the negative self-assessment of older people produces disturbing developments even in their social relations. We proceed from the thesis that movement and game, i.e. the development of motor abilities forms the basis of the whole system of man. For this reason a socio-political education of the aged should include sports since it offers opportunities for developing a subjective and social awareness; in this context didactic-methodological approaches are developed.

  14. The employment of seniors in relation to their claim on old-aged persons

    OpenAIRE

    Bočková, Lenka

    2011-01-01

    The current trend of demographic aging can be alleviated by extending the working activity of older workers and seniors. In this thesis the attention is focused on the relationship between the employment of older people and setting of the pension scheme, since both affect the behaviour of older workers and seniors. The aim of this thesis was to find out the level of employment support of older workers and seniors, and to describe not only the view of seniors, who continue with work after thei...

  15. The temporal relationship between change in symptoms of prolonged grief and posttraumatic stress following old age spousal bereavement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O Connor, Maja; Nickerson, Angela; Aderka, Idan M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: High levels of both prolonged grief symptoms (PGS) and posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) are relatively common following bereavement, and the two types of bereavement complications share some of the same features. Little research has studied which of the two precedes the other...... following the death of a loved one. The purpose of this study was to examine the temporal relationship between change in high levels of PGS and PTSS during the first four years following old age spousal loss. Methods: Participants were 237 Danes (40% male; mean age = 73 years, SD = 4.4; range 65-81) who....... Results: Lower-level mediation analyses wereas performed. Results indicated that PGS mediated 83% of the relationship between time and PTSS, while PTSS only mediated 17% of the relationship between time and PGS. These results suggest that changes in PGS mediated changes in PTSS following spousal...

  16. Who Lives Alone During Old Age? Trends in the Social and Functional Disadvantages of Sweden's Solitary Living Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Benjamin A; Fors, Stefan; Fritzell, Johan; Lennartsoon, Carin; Agahi, Neda

    2017-01-01

    This study identifies specific social and functional disadvantages associated with living alone during old age in Sweden and assesses whether these associations have changed during recent decades. Data came from repeated cross-sectional surveys of Swedish adults aged 77+ during 1992-2014. Findings indicate that several types of disadvantage are consistently associated with the probability of living alone including financial insecurity and having never married for women and having never married and mobility impairment for men. Also for older men, low education has become an increasing strong determinant of living alone. These findings suggest that older adults who live alone are a subgroup that is particularly, and in some cases increasingly, vulnerable with respect to social and functional status. This has important policy implications related to addressing the needs of this growing subgroup as well as methodological implications for studies on the health effects of living alone.

  17. Promoting Well-Being in Old Age: The Psychological Benefits of Two Training Programs of Adapted Physical Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella Delle Fave

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In the last few decades, the relationship between physical conditions and mental health has increasingly attracted the interest of researchers and professionals across disciplines. This relationship is especially relevant in old age, as the challenges posed by aging at various levels represent crucial concerns for policy makers. Due to the remarkable increase in life expectancy across countries, sustainable prevention strategies are needed to help individuals preserve psychophysical well-being in old age. In particular, the regular practice of a moderately intense physical activity is recommended by the World Health Organization to enhance balance, prevent falls, strengthen muscles, and promote psychophysical well-being. Daily physical exercise represents a beneficial and low-cost strategy, easily accessible to the general population and potentially customizable to specific needs through brief training programs. Based on these premises, the present research aimed at longitudinally evaluating mental well-being among 58 Italian people aged 67–85, who were involved in two Adapted Physical Activity (APA training programs. Inclusion criteria for participation comprised high autonomy levels in daily activities, no cognitive impairment, sedentary habits or only occasional performance of moderate physical activity. Based on physical and functional assessment, 39 participants joined a program of adapted motor activity (PoliFit; Study 1, while 19 participants attended a variant program specifically designed for people with osteoporosis (OsteoFit; Study 2. Well-being dimensions were assessed through the Mental Health Continuum-Short Form, the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire and the Satisfaction with Life Scale. Physical functioning were evaluated before and after the programs through the Short Physical Performance Battery and the Handgrip Dynamometer Jamar Test. Findings highlighted that, besides physical benefits, participants reported significantly

  18. Aging and Cardiometabolic Risk in European HEMS Pilots: An Assessment of Occupational Old-Age Limits as a Regulatory Risk Management Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Hans; Nowak, Dennis; Herbig, Britta

    2017-12-11

    Old-age limits are imposed in some occupations in an effort to ensure public safety. In aviation, the "Age 60 Rule" limits permissible flight operations conducted by pilots aged 60 and over. Using a retrospective cohort design, we assessed this rule's validity by comparing age-related change rates of cardiometabolic incapacitation risk markers in European helicopter emergency medical service (HEMS) pilots near age 60 with those in younger pilots. Specifically, individual clinical, laboratory, and electrocardiogram (ECG)-based risk markers and an overall cardiovascular event risk score were determined from aeromedical examination records of 66 German, Austrian, Polish, and Czech HEMS pilots (average follow-up 8.52 years). Risk marker change rates were assessed using linear mixed models and generalized additive models. Body mass index increases over time were slower in pilots near age 60 compared to younger pilots, and fasting glucose levels increased only in the latter. Whereas the lipid profile remained unchanged in the latter, it improved in the former. An ECG-based arrhythmia risk marker increased in younger pilots, which persisted in the older pilots. Six-month risk of a fatal cardiovascular event (in or out of cockpit) was estimated between 0% and 0.3%. Between 41% and 95% of risk marker variability was due to unexplained time-stable between-person differences. To conclude, the cardiometabolic risk marker profile of HEMS pilots appears to improve over time in pilots near age 60, compared to younger pilots. Given large stable interindividual differences, we recommend individualized risk assessment of HEMS pilots near age 60 instead of general grounding. © 2017 Society for Risk Analysis.

  19. Influence of parenting styles on development of children aged three to six years old.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanthamongkolchai, Sutham; Ngaosusit, Chutima; Munsawaengsub, Chokchai

    2007-05-01

    To investigate the influences of parenting styles on development of children aged three to six years. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 360 children and their parents selected by multi-stage random sampling. The data were collected from July 24th to August 31st, 2004. The Denver II test kit and the scale by Baumrind D were used to test the child development and parenting styles respectively. A questionnaire was used to collect the family and child factors. Data were analyzed by frequency distribution and Multiple logistic regression with the significant level set at p-value of Parenting styles had significant influences on child development (p-value parenting style had a 1.9 times higher chance of having delayed development compared with those with democratic parenting style. In addition, significant family and child factors for explaining child development were family type, mother's education, father's occupation, relationship within the family, nutritional status and sex. Parenting styles had a significant influence on child development. The children raised with mixed parenting style had a 1.9 timds higher chance of having delayed development compared to those whose parents used democratic parenting style. Therefore, the parents should rear their children by using the democratic parenting style that leads to the age-appropriate development child

  20. Results of radiotherapy for brain metastases in old-aged patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nieder, C.; Niewald, M.; Schnabel, K.

    1995-01-01

    To evaluate which patients older tahn 70 years will benefit by radiotherapy for their brain metastases the data of 35 patients in this age-group who were treated between 1983 and 1994 were retrospectivley analyzed. All patients were previously untreated and received a whole-brain irradiation and concomitantly corticosteroids. The median total dose was 30 Gy (fractionation: 10 times 3 Gy in 2 weeks). Six patients each received lower or higher total doses with 50.4 Gy at maximum. Six patients failed to complete their prescribed treatment (17%). The median survival of all patients who completed their radiotherapy course was 67 days only. Patients with extracerebral metastases had a median survival of 31 days. Survival was not dependent on total dose of radiotherapy. In 56% of all cases the general condition of the patients improved or remained stable at a high level. Karnofsky-performance status was the most important prognostic factor. Advanced age is an unfavourable prognostic factor. Only patients in good general condition without extracerebral metastases had survival times which justify radiotherapy for their brain metastases. (orig./MG) [de

  1. The impact of obesity on skeletal muscle strength and structure through adolescence to old age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlinson, D J; Erskine, R M; Morse, C I; Winwood, K; Onambélé-Pearson, Gladys

    2016-06-01

    Obesity is associated with functional limitations in muscle performance and increased likelihood of developing a functional disability such as mobility, strength, postural and dynamic balance limitations. The consensus is that obese individuals, regardless of age, have a greater absolute maximum muscle strength compared to non-obese persons, suggesting that increased adiposity acts as a chronic overload stimulus on the antigravity muscles (e.g., quadriceps and calf), thus increasing muscle size and strength. However, when maximum muscular strength is normalised to body mass, obese individuals appear weaker. This relative weakness may be caused by reduced mobility, neural adaptations and changes in muscle morphology. Discrepancies in the literature remain for maximal strength normalised to muscle mass (muscle quality) and can potentially be explained through accounting for the measurement protocol contributing to muscle strength capacity that need to be explored in more depth such as antagonist muscle co-activation, muscle architecture, a criterion valid measurement of muscle size and an accurate measurement of physical activity levels. Current evidence demonstrating the effect of obesity on muscle quality is limited. These factors not being recorded in some of the existing literature suggest a potential underestimation of muscle force either in terms of absolute force production or relative to muscle mass; thus the true effect of obesity upon skeletal muscle size, structure and function, including any interactions with ageing effects, remains to be elucidated.

  2. Vascular risk factor burden, atherosclerosis, and functional dependence in old age: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welmer, Anna-Karin; Liang, Yajun; Angleman, Sara; Santoni, Giola; Yan, Zhongrui; Cai, Chuanzhu; Qiu, Chengxuan

    2014-08-01

    Vascular risk factors such as hypertension and obesity have been associated with physical limitations among older adults. The purpose of this study is to examine whether individual and aggregated vascular risk factors (VRFs) are associated with functional dependence and to what extent carotid atherosclerosis (CAS) or peripheral artery disease (PAD) may mediate the possible associations of aggregated VRFs with functional dependence. This cross-sectional study included 1,451 community-living participants aged ≥60 years in the Confucius Hometown Aging Project of China. Data on demographic features, hypertension, high total cholesterol, obesity, smoking, physical inactivity, diabetes, CAS, PAD, and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) were collected through an interview, a clinical examination, and laboratory tests. Functional dependence was defined as being dependent in at least one activity in the personal or instrumental activities of daily living. Data were analyzed using multiple logistic models controlling for potential confounders. We used the mediation model to explore the potential mediating effect of CAS and PAD on the associations of aggregated VRFs with functional dependence. Of the 1,451 participants, 222 (15.3%) had functional dependence. The likelihood of functional dependence increased linearly with increasing number of VRFs (hypertension, high total cholesterol, abdominal obesity, and physical inactivity) (p for trend dependence with clustering VRFs was mediated by CAS and PAD. Aggregation of multiple VRFs is associated with an increased likelihood of functional dependence among Chinese older adults; the association is partially mediated by carotid and peripheral artery atherosclerosis independently of CVDs.

  3. 'Help me! I'm old!' How negative aging stereotypes create dependency among older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coudin, Genevieve; Alexopoulos, Theodore

    2010-07-01

    This study examined the effects of negative aging stereotypes on self-reported loneliness, risk-taking, subjective health, and help-seeking behavior in a French sample of older adults. The aim of this study was to show the detrimental effects of negative aging stereotypes on older adults' self-evaluations and behaviors, therefore contributing to the explanations of the iatrogenic effect of social environments that increase dependency (e.g., health care institutions). In the first experiment conducted on 57 older adults, we explored the effects of positive, neutral, or negative stereotype activation on the feeling of loneliness and risk taking decision. The second experiment (n = 60) examined the impact of stereotype activation on subjective health, self-reported extraversion as well as on a genuine help-seeking behavior, by allowing participants to ask for the experimenter's help while completing a task. As predicted, negative stereotype activation resulted in lower levels of risk taking, subjective health and extraversion, and in higher feelings of loneliness and a more frequent help-seeking behavior. These findings suggest that the mere activation of negative stereotypes can have broad and deleterious effects on older individuals' self-evaluation and functioning, which in turn may contribute to the often observed dependency among older people.

  4. Midlife stress alters memory and mood-related behaviors in old age: Role of locally activated glucocorticoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheelan, Nicola; Kenyon, Christopher J; Harris, Anjanette P; Cairns, Carolynn; Al Dujaili, Emad; Seckl, Jonathan R; Yau, Joyce L W

    2018-03-01

    Chronic exposure to stress during midlife associates with subsequent age-related cognitive decline and may increase the vulnerability to develop psychiatric conditions. Increased hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity has been implicated in pathogenesis though any causative role for glucocorticoids is unestablished. This study investigated the contribution of local glucocorticoid regeneration by the intracellular enzyme 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1), in persisting midlife stress-induced behavioral effects in mice. Middle-aged (10 months old) 11β-HSD1-deficient mice and wild-type congenic controls were randomly assigned to 28 days of chronic unpredictable stress or left undisturbed (non-stressed). All mice underwent behavioral testing at the end of the stress/non-stress period and again 6-7 months later. Chronic stress impaired spatial memory in middle-aged wild-type mice. The effects, involving a wide spectrum of behavioral modalities, persisted for 6-7 months after cessation of stress into early senescence. Enduring effects after midlife stress included impaired spatial memory, enhanced contextual fear memory, impaired fear extinction, heightened anxiety, depressive-like behavior, as well as reduced hippocampal glucocorticoid receptor mRNA expression. In contrast, 11β-HSD1 deficient mice resisted both immediate and enduring effects of chronic stress, despite similar stress-induced increases in systemic glucocorticoid activity during midlife stress. In conclusion, chronic stress in midlife exerts persisting effects leading to cognitive and affective dysfunction in old age via mechanisms that depend, at least in part, on brain glucocorticoids generated locally by 11β-HSD1. This finding supports selective 11β-HSD1 inhibition as a novel therapeutic target to ameliorate the long-term consequences of stress-related psychiatric disorders in midlife. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. The influence of participation on mortality in very old age among community-living people in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haak, Maria; Löfqvist, Charlotte; Ullén, Susann; Horstmann, Vibeke; Iwarsson, Susanne

    2018-04-20

    Participation in everyday life and society is generally seen as essential for health-related outcomes and acknowledged to affect older people's well-being. To investigate if aspects of performance- and togetherness-related participation influence on mortality among very old single living people in Sweden. ENABLE-AGE Survey Study data involving single-living participants in Sweden (N = 314, aged 81-91 years), followed over 10 years were used. Multivariate Cox regression models adjusted for demographic and health-related variables were used to analyse specific items influencing mortality. Participation in performance- or togetherness-oriented activities was found to significantly influence mortality [HR 0.62 (0.44-0.88), P value 0.006, and HR 0.72 (0.53-0.97), P value 0.031, respectively]. Talking to neighbours and following local politics had a protective effect on mortality, speaking to relatives on the phone (CI 1.10-2.02) and performing leisure activities together with others (CI 1.10-2.00) had the opposite influence. That is, those performing the latter activities were significantly more likely to die earlier. The main contribution of this study is the facet of the results showing that aspects of performance- and togetherness-related participation have a protective effect on mortality in very old age. This is important knowledge for designing health promotion and preventive efforts for the ageing population. Moreover, it constitutes a contribution to the development of instruments capturing aspects of participation influencing on mortality. In the development of health promotion and preventive efforts the inclusion of participation facets could be considered in favour of potential positive influences on longevity.

  6. Age group differences in positive and negative affect among oldest-old adults: findings from the Georgia Centenarian Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jinmyoung; Martin, Peter; Poon, Leonard W; MacDonald, M; Jazwinski, S M; Green, R C; Gearing, M; Johnson, M A; Markesbery, W R; Woodard, J L; Tenover, J S; Siegler, L C; Rott, C; Rodgers, W L; Hausman, D; Arnold, J; Davey, A

    2013-01-01

    The developmental adaptation model (Martin & Martin, 2002) provides insights into how current experiences and resources (proximal variables) and past experiences (distal variables) are correlated with outcomes (e.g., well-being) in later life. Applying this model, the current study examined proximal and distal variables associated with positive and negative affect in oldest-old adults, investigating age differences. Data from 306 octogenarians and centenarians who participated in Phase III of the Georgia Centenarian Study were used. Proximal variables included physical functioning, cognitive functioning, self-rated health, number of chronic conditions, social resources, and perceived economic status; distal variables included education, social productive activities, management of personal assets, and other learning experiences. Analysis of variance and block-wise regression analyses were conducted. Octogenarians showed significantly higher levels of positive emotion than centenarians. Cognitive functioning was significantly associated with positive affect, and number of health problems was significantly associated with negative affect after controlling for gender, ethnicity, residence, and marital status. Furthermore, four significant interaction effects suggested that positive affect significantly depended on the levels of cognitive and physical functioning among centenarians, whereas positive affect was dependent on the levels of physical health problems and learning experiences among octogenarians. Findings of this study addressed the importance of current and past experiences and resources in subjective well-being among oldest-old adults as a life-long process. Mechanisms connecting aging processes at the end of a long life to subjective well-being should be explored in future studies.

  7. An audit of a specialist old age psychiatry liaison service to a medium and a high secure forensic psychiatry unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Ajit

    2006-04-01

    The elderly prison population is increasing and there is a significant amount of unidentified psychiatric morbidity among elderly prisoners. A sizeable number of elderly subjects are referred to regional forensic units. These units are able to provide advice but are reluctant to admit frail, physically ill and vulnerable elderly into their unit because the ward environment is considered inappropriate for them. A sizeable number of inpatients in medium and high secure units are elderly. This paper is an exploratory audit of referrals from a medium and high secure forensic psychiatry unit to a specialist consultation-only liaison old age psychiatry service, which was specifically developed to service the forensic unit. The demographic and clinical characteristics of the patients seen by this specialist service were similar to elderly inpatients in medium and high secure units. All referrals were judged to be appropriate and new management advice was provided in all cases. Main reasons for referral included diagnostic advice, placement advice and treatment advice. Establishing a diagnosis of dementia was considered important because Alzheimer's disease and Lewy body dementia can be treated with cholinesterase inhibitors. Placement advice was the most difficult to provide because of paucity of residential and nursing homes able and willing to accept patients with a forensic history. There is a need for a comprehensive model of specialist forensic old age psychiatry service at a regional or supraregional level. A consensus needs to be reached on the exact configuration of such a service.

  8. The relation of education, occupation, and cognitive activity to cognitive status in old age: the role of physical frailty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihle, Andreas; Gouveia, Élvio R; Gouveia, Bruna R; Freitas, Duarte L; Jurema, Jefferson; Odim, Angenay P; Kliegel, Matthias

    2017-09-01

    It remains unclear so far whether the role of cognitive reserve may differ between physically frail compared to less frail individuals. Therefore, the present study set out to investigate the relation of key markers of cognitive reserve to cognitive status in old age and its interplay with physical frailty in a large sample of older adults. We assessed Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) in 701 older adults. We measured grip strength as indicator of physical frailty and interviewed individuals on their education, past occupation, and cognitive leisure activity. Greater grip strength, longer education, higher cognitive level of job, and greater engaging in cognitive leisure activity were significantly related to higher MMSE scores. Moderation analyses showed that the relations of education, cognitive level of job, and cognitive leisure activity to MMSE scores were significantly larger in individuals with lower, compared to those with greater grip strength. Cognitive status in old age may more strongly depend on cognitive reserve accumulated during the life course in physically frail (compared to less frail) older adults. These findings may be explained by cross-domain compensation effects in vulnerable individuals.

  9. β-cell serotonin production is associated with female sex, old age, and diabetes-free condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yeong Gi; Moon, Joon Ho; Kim, Kyuho; Kim, Hyeongseok; Kim, Juok; Jeong, Ji-Seon; Lee, Junguee; Kang, Shinae; Park, Joon Seong; Kim, Hail

    2017-11-25

    Serotonin is known to be present in pancreatic β-cells and to play several physiological roles, including insulin secretion, β-cell proliferation, and paracrine inhibition of α-cells. However, the serotonin production of different cell lines and islets has not been compared based on age, sex, and diabetes related conditions. Here, we directly compared the serotonin concentrations in βTC and MIN6 cell lines, as well as in islets from mice using ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. The average serotonin concentration was 5-10 ng/mg protein in the islets of male and non-pregnant female mice. The serotonin level was higher in females than males at 8 weeks, although there was no difference at 1 year. Furthermore, we observed serotonin by immunofluorescence staining in the pancreatic tissues of mice and human. Serotonin was detected by immunofluorescence staining in a portion of β-cells from islets of old female mice, but not of male or young female mice. A similar pattern was observed in human pancreas as well. In humans, serotonin production in β-cells was associated with a diabetes-free condition. Thus, serotonin production in β-cells was associated with old age, female sex, and diabetes-free condition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Poor knowledge of age-related fertility decline and assisted reproduction among healthcare professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Désirée; Vassena, Rita; Prat, Andrés; Vernaeve, Valérie

    2017-01-01

    Reproduction is a matter of concern for individuals and society due to the postponement of childbearing, and healthcare professionals are the main source of information and counselling. This study aims to evaluate how knowledgeable healthcare professionals are about fertility and assisted reproduction, and to explore attitudes towards social oocyte freezing. A cross-sectional study was performed with 201 professionals (gynaecologists, physicians and nurses) from four public centres in Spain. Participants completed a survey about fertility, IVF, oocyte donation (OD) and social oocyte freezing, between May 2013 and March 2014. Reported mean age limits for pregnancy were 39.5 ± 4.5 (spontaneously), 43.7 ± 5.2 (IVF) and 49.0 ± 6.5 (OD). Gynaecologists reported a younger limit for spontaneous and IVF pregnancies (P 39, compared with 77.3% of other physicians and 72.9% of nurses. Regarding social oocyte freezing, 41.8% of gynaecologists thought it should be offered to every young woman, versus 62.7% of other physicians and 48.9% of nurses (P = 0.041). In conclusion, gynaecologists are more knowledgeable about fertility and assisted reproduction, while more restrictive towards social oocyte freezing. Knowledge and attitudes could influence the quality of information and counselling given to patients. Copyright © 2016 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Small effect of genetic factors on neck pain in old age: a study of 2,108 Danish twins 70 years of age and older

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartvigsen, Jan; Petersen, Hans Christian; Frederiksen, Henrik

    2005-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN: Classic twin study. OBJECTIVES: To determine the heritability of neck pain in persons 70 years of age and older. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Previous studies have shown a moderate effect of genetic factors on back pain in the elderly. Genetic influence on neck pain in old age...... calculated and compared for monozygotic and dizygotic twins. Further, heritability estimates were calculated using bivariate probit estimation. RESULTS: A total of 2,108 twin individuals, including 1,054 complete twin pairs, answered the question related to neck pain at intake into the Longitudinal Study...... environmental risk factors (rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, disc prolapse, and coronary heart disease) showed no significant additive genetic, dominant genetic, or common environmental effects. CONCLUSION: Genetic factors do not play an important role in the liability to neck pain in persons 70 years...

  12. 75 FR 31702 - Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Age in Programs or Activities Receiving Federal Assistance from...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-04

    ... Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Age in Programs or Activities Receiving Federal Assistance from the Environmental... environmental exposure risks to children (targeting a specific age group) are taking actions based on... significant'' as defined under Executive Order 12866, and (2) concerns an environmental health or safety risk...

  13. Stereotypes Associated With Age-related Conditions and Assistive Device Use in Canadian Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Sarah Anne; Kenyon, Virginia; Lagacé, Martine; Wittich, Walter; Southall, Kenneth Edmund

    2016-12-01

    Newspapers are an important source of information. The discourses within the media can influence public attitudes and support or discourage stereotypical portrayals of older individuals. This study critically examined discourses within a Canadian newspaper in terms of stereotypical depictions of age-related health conditions and assistive technology devices (ATDs). Four years (2009-2013) of Globe and Mail articles were searched for terms relevant to the research question. A total of 65 articles were retained, and a critical discourse analysis (CDA) of the texts was conducted. The articles were coded for stereotypes associated with age-related health conditions and ATDs, consequences of the stereotyping, and context (overall setting or background) of the discourse. The primary code list included 4 contexts, 13 stereotypes, and 9 consequences of stereotyping. CDA revealed discourses relating to (a) maintaining autonomy in a stereotypical world, (b) ATDs as obstacles in employment, (c) barriers to help seeking for age-related conditions, and (d) people in power setting the stage for discrimination. Our findings indicate that discourses in the Canadian media include stereotypes associated with age-related health conditions. Further, depictions of health conditions and ATDs may exacerbate existing stereotypes about older individuals, limit the options available to them, lead to a reduction in help seeking, and lower ATD use. Education about the realities of age-related health changes and ATDs is needed in order to diminish stereotypes and encourage ATD uptake and use. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Factors associated with dental caries in children aged 4-6 years old

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Widayati

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Dental caries is one of the dental health problems. Dental caries are formed because there was leftover food that sticks to the teeth, which eventually lead to tooth calcification. Impact, teeth become brittle, hollow, even broken.Dental caries experience a loss of power to make a child chewing and digestive disruption, which resulted in growth of less than the maximum. This study aims to determine the relationship of parents’ behavior towards the maintenance of dental health of children (feeding habits sweet, sticky and drinking milk, teeth maintenance, inspection tooth and mouth with dental caries in the TK R.A Bustanussholihin in Balun village Turi District of Lamongan. This study Analytics whose data is collected with a cross sectional sample of kindergarten children aged 4–6 years with a total sample of 49 children. The collection of primary data through interviews parents TK R.A Bustanussholihin student using questionnaires and secondary data obtained from the agency are in the region of the profile data TK R.A Bustanussholihin in Balun Village of Turi District of Lamongan. This study used a correlation coefficient of contingency. Based on the results of the contingency coefficient correlation test showed that the factors that have a strong relationship is the habit of feeding the sweet, sticky, and drink milk with a value of P = 0.504. While the factors that have a weak link is the habit of maintaining dental hygiene habits of children and child oral examination . From this study it can be concluded that there is a relationship or a strong correlation between feeding habits sweet, sticky and drinking milk with the incidence of dental caries in children aged 4–6. So as to prevent dental caries severity we need to hold counseling on feeding sweet, soft and gooey on the effect of dental caries as well as how it should be formula feeding or breast milk to the child to prevent rampant caries. Keywords: dental caries, sweetened

  15. Learning Analytics: The next frontier for computer assisted language learning in big data age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Qinglan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Learning analytics (LA has been applied to various learning environments, though it is quite new in the field of computer assisted language learning (CALL. This article attempts to examine the application of learning analytics in the upcoming big data age. It starts with an introduction and application of learning analytics in other fields, followed by a retrospective review of historical interaction between learning and media in CALL, and a penetrating analysis on why people would go to learning analytics to increase the efficiency of foreign language education. As approved in previous research, new technology, including big data mining and analysis, would inevitably enhance the learning of foreign languages. Potential changes that learning analytics would bring to Chinese foreign language education and researches are also presented in the article.

  16. Sleep quality disorders among the people of old and presenile age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Podhorecka

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available According to the newest research over the half of geriatric population suffers from sleep disorders. Lowered quality of sleep has got a negative influence on biopsychosocial functioning of an individual. The aim of the study was to define the magnitude of the problem of sleep quality disorders occurrence in the elderly. The research for the study was carried out by means of anonymous survey which consists of two questionnaires: The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI and a survey constructed for the sake of the study. 100 people took part in the study and the survey was aimed at people over the age of 50. The research showed that over one fifth of the subjects assess their sleep as rather bad and significant correlations between lengthening the time needed to fall asleep and waking up at night or before dawn and the lack of energy.

  17. System of physical training of persons of age mature and old.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iermakov Sergii Sidorovich

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available It is shown the results of the development of exercise for people of mature-aged and elderly, which contains three lines. The first trend is associated with the use of aerobic exercise of moderate intensity. The second direction is connected with employment in some kind of sport, including - in the veteran sports. The third area involves the use of special exercises. There are some exercises improving the system owned by the school Huashanskoy dao. A variant of autogenic training, which is to render natural images that promote relaxation and recovery is introduced in the article. Theoretically justified, that the use of exercise activates the sense of youth, is of great importance for increasing vitality, health and working capacity of older and mature.

  18. Neural intrinsic connectivity networks associated with risk aversion in old age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, S Duke; Boyle, Patricia A; Arfanakis, Konstantinos; Fleischman, Debra A; Yu, Lei; Edmonds, Emily C; Bennett, David A

    2012-02-01

    Risk aversion is associated with several important real world outcomes. Although the neurobiological correlates of risk aversion have been studied in young persons, little is known of the neurobiological correlates of risk aversion among older persons. Resting-state functional MRI data were collected on 134 non-demented participants of the Rush Memory and Aging Project, a community-based cohort study of aging. Risk aversion was measured using a series of standard questions in which participants were asked to choose between a certain monetary payment ($15) versus a gamble in which they could gain more than $15 or gain nothing, with potential gains varied across questions. Participants determined to be "high" (n=27) and "low" (n=27) in risk aversion were grouped accordingly. Using a spherical seed region of interest in the anterior cingulate cortex, voxel-wise functional connectivity network similarities were observed in bilateral frontal, anterior and posterior cingulate, insula, basal ganglia, temporal, parietal, and thalamic regions. Differences in functional connectivity were observed such that those low in risk aversion had greater connectivity to clusters in the superior, middle, and medial frontal regions, as well as cerebellar, parietal, occipital, and inferior temporal regions. Those high in risk aversion had greater connectivity to clusters in the inferior and orbital frontal, parahippocampal, and insula regions, as well as thalamic, parietal, precentral gyrus, postcentral gyrus, and middle temporal regions. Similarities and differences in functional connectivity patterns may reflect the historical recruitment of specific brain regions as a network in the active processing of risk in older adults. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Examination of the Social Behavior of 4 Age Old Preschool Children According to Teacher Views

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dervişe AMCA

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this research is to compare the social behavior of children according to the teacher interviews. Screening model method has been used at this research which is one of the descriptive research methods. The study group of this research was created totally 691 children, from the age group of 4, which were observed at least 8 weeks objectively by 52 school teachers at 42 preschools in Nicosia, Kyrenia, Guzelyurt, Famagusta and Iskele which are under the Ministry of National Education of TRNC in the academic year of 2014-2015. In order to reach the demographics of the children of the study group: "Preschool Social Behaviour Questionnaire Form For Teachers" has been used to measures the children, school and family information form, relational aggression, physical aggression, prosocial behaviour and depressive feelings of age 4 group of preschool children. The data obtained through the surveys have been transmitted to the computer environment and in order to analyze the data, Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS 20.0 for Windows Evolution version has been used. Frequency tables were used to tell the demographic characteristics on children of the research and the social behavior in preschool scale and to realize the cyclic of their behaviour. The static identifier has been given on preschool children’s social behavior scale general and their scores than the average size of the subscale, standard deviation, minimum and maximum statics as identifier. According to the research findings: children with divorced parents compared to children with married parents have higher behavior of physical aggression, behavior of relational aggression and the show of depressive feelings besides lower levels of positive social behaviors.

  20. Buddhist social networks and health in old age: A study in central Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasiwongsaroj, Kwanchit; Wada, Taizo; Okumiya, Kiyohito; Imai, Hissei; Ishimoto, Yasuko; Sakamoto, Ryota; Fujisawa, Michiko; Kimura, Yumi; Chen, Wen-ling; Fukutomi, Eriko; Matsubayashi, Kozo

    2015-11-01

    Religious social networks are well known for their capacity to improve individual health, yet the effects of friendship networks within the Buddhist context remain largely unknown. The present study aimed to compare health status and social support in community-dwelling older adults according to their level of Buddhist social network (BSN) involvement, and to examine the association between BSN involvement and functional health among older adults. A cross-sectional survey was carried out among 427 Buddhist community-dwelling older adults aged ≥60 years in Nakhon Pathom, Thailand. Data were collected from home-based personal interviews using a structured questionnaire. Health status was defined according to the measures of basic and advanced activities of daily living (ADL), the 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale and subjective quality of life. Perceived social support was assessed across the four dimensions of tangible, belonging, emotional and information support. Multiple logistic regression was used for analysis. Older adults with BSN involvement reported better functional, mental and social health status, and perceived greater social support than those without BSN involvement. In addition, BSN involvement was positively associated with independence in basic and advanced ADL. After adjusting for age, sex, education, income, morbidity and depressive symptoms, BSN showed a strong association with advanced ADL and a weak association with basic ADL. The results show that involvement in BSN could contribute positively to functional health, particularly with regard to advanced ADL. Addressing the need for involvement in these networks by older adults might help delay functional decline and save on healthcare costs. © 2014 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  1. Saxa loquuntur? Elasticity and capacity of age-old city churches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marieke C. Kuipers

    2011-10-01

    than in the French Period. The whole complex emanates a functional serenity which also does justice to the eventful history of the church. Kruisherenklooster and Kruisherenkerk (monastery and church in Maastricht also went through many new functions. In 2004 the transformation into design hotel and restaurant was completed. Here architect's office Satijnplus entered into a creative competition with the monument. The result is spectacular, but not undisputed aesthetically. After the restoration of 1994, the tower of Eusebiuskerk in Arnhem, which was severely damaged during Operation Market Garden, was redesignated for hotel- and catering and tourist functions. A panoramic elevator was installed for this purpose (AGS architecten/Otis contrasting in function and use of material with the historical substructure and running right across vaults and church bells. After the restoration (Van Hoogevest, 1979-1988 the Utrecht cathedral, Domkerk, was refurbished as 'Open Dom', inviting people to meet one another and be surprised. The tearoom was added in the side wing of the choir, projecting - as a compromise between present and past - into the cloister garth as a versatile bay window of metal and glass. After some discussion on the choice of material, this intervention was approved at the time because of the social objective and contemporary semi-transparent architecture. After a long period in which the maxims 'conservation takes precedence over renovation' and 'form follows function' dominated in the domain of preservation of monuments and historic buildings and of architecture, the current design assignment for architects in interventions is to create suitable links between old and new.

  2. EFFECTS OF AGING ON PERCEIVED EXERTION AND PAIN DURING ARM CRANKING IN WOMEN 70 TO 80 YEARS OLD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain Groslambert

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the effects of aging on perceived exertion (PE and perceived arm pain (PaP at the end of a maximal graded arm test in 70- to 80-year -old women. Twelve healthy young (mean age 22.9 ± 3.3 years, and 12 healthy elderly (mean age 74.6 ± 3.7 years women performed a maximal graded test (GXT on an arm crank ergometer until exhaustion. The results revealed no significant difference between both groups concerning PE (p > 0.05; Effect Size = 0.62 and when heart rate (HR was expressed as a theoretical maximal heart rate (THRmax (p > 0.05; Effect Size = 0.17. Nevertheless, PaP was significantly lower (p < 0.05; Effect Size = 2.95 in the elderly compared to the young group. In conclusion, these results suggest that, at the end of GXT, PE is not influenced, whereas PaP may be altered by aging of the women tested in the present study. Therefore, it appears difficult to use PaP in these elderly women to regulate exercise intensity during a training program

  3. Moraine preservation and boulder erosion in the tropical Andes: interpreting old surface exposure ages in glaciated valleys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jacqueline A.; Finkel, Robert C.; Farber, Daniel L.; Rodbell, Donald T.; Seltzer, Geoffrey O.

    2005-10-01

    Cosmogenic dating provides a long-awaited means of directly dating glacial deposits that pre-date the last glacial cycle. Although the potential benefits of longer chronologies are obvious, the greater uncertainty associated with older cosmogenic ages may be less readily apparent. We illustrate the challenges of developing and interpreting a long chronology using our data from the Peruvian Andes. We used surface exposure dating with cosmogenic radionuclides (CRNs; 10Be and 26Al) to date 140 boulders on moraines in valleys bordering the Junin Plain (11° S, 76° W) in central Peru. Our chronology spans multiple glacial cycles and includes exposure ages greater than 1 million years, which indicate that long-term rates of boulder erosion have been very low. Interpreting the chronology of moraines for glaciations that predate the last glacial cycle is complicated by the need to consider boulder erosion and exhumation, surface uplift, and inheritance of CRNs from previous exposure intervals. As an example, we recalculate exposure ages using our boulder erosion rates (0.3-0.5 metres per million years) and estimated surface uplift rates to emphasise both the challenges involved in interpreting old surface exposure ages and the value of chronological data, even with large uncertainties, when reconstructing the palaeoclimate of a region.

  4. New issues and age-old challenges: a review of young people’s relationship with tobacco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stacey Williams

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The Roy Castle Lung Cancer Foundation’s report ‘New issues and age-old challenges: a review of young people’s relationship with tobacco’ highlights a roadmap for action: A return to national leadership and spreading and sustaining local excellence. Smoking is a habit developed in early age with two-thirds of smokers starting before the age of 18 and 40% per cent of smokers become regular smokers before the age of 16. The report highlights the new realities for tobacco and young people which includes: smoking, a habit forged early in life; tobacco-reduction, a (potentially slippery slope; depictions of smoking in modern media; combating complacency in a fairer society. The report also includes shifting issues in youth smoking from illicit tobacco, shisha, cannabis and electronic cigarettes. The findings illustrate that tobacco use among young people is evolving and the consequences of this continue to be felt amongst society’s worst-off citizens. The report makes a call for an overarching vision that is comprehensive and ambitious for tobacco prevention and control in the UK. The survey findings for the report were collected by MHP Communications.

  5. Individual differences and predictors of forgetting in old age: the role of processing speed and working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimprich, Daniel; Kurtz, Tanja

    2013-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to examine whether individual differences in basic cognitive abilities, processing speed, and working memory, are reliable predictors of individual differences in forgetting rates in old age. The sample for the present study comprised 364 participants aged between 65 and 80 years from the Zurich Longitudinal Study on Cognitive Aging. The impact of basic cognitive abilities on forgetting was analyzed by modeling working memory and processing speed as predictors of the amount of forgetting of 27 words, which had been learned across five trials. Forgetting was measured over a 30-minute interval by using parceling and a latent change model, in which the latent difference between recall performance after five learning trials and a delayed recall was modeled. Results implied reliable individual differences in forgetting. These individual differences in forgetting were strongly related to processing speed and working memory. Moreover, an age-related effect, which was significantly stronger for forgetting than for learning, emerged even after controlling effects of processing speed and working memory.

  6. Loneliness, Resilience, Mental Health, and Quality of Life in Old Age: A Structural Equation Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerino, Eva; Rollè, Luca; Sechi, Cristina; Brustia, Piera

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: In the scientific literature on aging, a recent core issue has been the role of individuals' internal and external resources, which are considered intrinsically connected, in contributing synergistically to physical and psychological quality of life (QoL). The current study investigates the way in which psychological factors-such as, loneliness, resilience, and mental states, in terms of depression and anxiety symptoms-affect the perceived QoL among elderly individuals. Method: Data from 290 elderly Italian participants were used to study the mediation effects of both mental health and resilience to elucidate the relationship between loneliness and psychophysical QoL. Results: The best model we obtained supports the mediation effect of both resilience and mental health between loneliness and mental and physical QoL. These results highlight that loneliness influences mental and physical QoL via two pathways, with the impact of loneliness mediated by mental health and resilience dimensions. Conclusions: The findings suggest the importance of the support that elderly people receive from social relationships. In terms of clinical interventions, the reduction of loneliness could be an important factor in primary prevention or the recovery process. A way to reduce levels of mental distress could be represented by the increasing of resilience and self-efficacy and reduction of loneliness dissatisfaction. A high degree of resiliency contributes to increasing perceived life quality at the physical and psychological levels, and at the same time, reducing anxiety and depressive symptoms.

  7. Personality-Related Determinants of Subtle Cognitive Decline in Old Age: A Population-Based Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristelle Rodriguez

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Recent studies of cases with mild cognitive impairment (MCI suggested that besides Alzheimer disease (AD-related biomarkers, some personality dimensions are associated with progression to AD. To date, there are no studies addressing the psychological determinants of subtle cognitive decline in healthy elderly controls. Methods: 488 community-dwelling healthy controls were assessed with a detailed neuropsychological battery at baseline and an 18-month follow-up. Personality factors and facets were investigated at baseline using the NEO-Personality Inventory-Revised (NEO-PI-R. Upon follow-up, there were 264 stable controls (sCON and 224 deteriorating controls (dCON. Their personality data were compared to those of the 102 MCI cases using one-way analysis of variance and logistic regression models. Results: Significantly higher scores of Openness factor (as well as Aesthetics, Ideas and Values facets were found in sCON than in both dCON and MCI cases. The three groups did not differ in the other NEO-PI-R factor and facet scores. Openess factor (and the same facets was associated with cognitive preservation in healthy controls (OR: 0.72, 95% CI: 0.59, 0.87. Lower scores in the same factor and facets conferred higher risk to have MCI (OR: 0.61, 95% CI: 0.46, 0.79. Conclusion: Higher openness to new experiences and thoughts may be a protective factor against early cognitive decline in brain aging.

  8. Brain Pathology Contributes to Simultaneous Change in Physical Frailty and Cognition in Old Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lei; Wilson, Robert S.; Boyle, Patricia A.; Schneider, Julie A.; Bennett, David. A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective. First, we tested the hypothesis that the rate of change of physical frailty and cognitive function in older adults are correlated. Next, we examined if their rates of change are associated with the same brain pathologies. Methods. About 2,167 older adults participating in the Religious Orders Study and the Rush Memory and Aging Project had annual clinical evaluations. Bivariate random coefficient models were used to estimate simultaneously the rates of change in both frailty and cognition, and the correlation of change was characterized by a joint distribution of the random effects. Then, we examined whether postmortem indices from deceased were associated with the rate of change of frailty and cognition. Results. During an average follow-up of 6 years, frailty worsened by 0.09 unit/y and cognition declined by 0.08 unit/y. Most individuals showed worsening frailty and cognition (82.8%); 17% showed progressive frailty alone and cognitive decline. The rates of change of frailty and cognition were strongly correlated (ρ = −0.73, p cognition (all ps cognitive decline. Conclusion. The rates of change in frailty and cognition are strongly correlated and this may be due in part because they share a common pathologic basis. PMID:25136002

  9. [Combined spinal epidural anesthesia during endoprosthetic surgeries for bone tumors in old-age children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matinian, N V; Saltanov, A I

    2005-01-01

    Thirty-five patients (ASA II-III) aged 12 to 17 years, diagnosed as having osteogenic sarcoma and Ewing's sarcoma localizing in the femur and tibia, were examined. Surgery was performed as sectoral resection of the affected bone along with knee joint endoprosthesis. Surgical intervention was made under combined spinal and epidural anesthesia (CSEA) with sedation, by using the methods for exact dosing of propofol (6-4 mg/kg x h). During intervention, a child's respiration remains is kept spontaneous with oxygen insufflation through a nasal catheter. CSEA was performed in two-segmental fashion. The epidural space was first catheterized. After administration of a test dose, 0.5% marcaine spinal was injected into dermatomas below the subarachnoidal space, depending on body weight (3.0-4.0 ml). Sensory blockade developed following 3-5 min and lasted 90-120 min, thereafter a local anesthetic (bupivacaine) or its mixture plus promedole was epidurally administered. ??Anesthesia was effective in all cases, motor blockade. During surgery, there was a moderate arterial hypotension that did not require the use of vasopressors. The acid-alkali balance suggested the adequacy of spontaneous respiration. The only significant complication we observed was atony of the bladder that requires its catheterization till the following day. An epidural catheter makes it possible to effect adequate postoperative analgesia.

  10. Intraindividual Coupling of Daily Stressors and Cognitive Interference in Old Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogle, Jacqueline; Sliwinski, Martin J.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. The current study examined emotional and cognitive reactions to daily stress. We examined the psychometric properties of a short cognitive interference measure and how cognitive interference was associated with measures of daily stress and negative affect (NA) between persons and within persons over time. Methods. A sample of 87 older adults (Mage = 83, range = 70–97, 28% male) completed measures of daily stress, cognitive interference, and NA on 6 days within a 14-day period. Results. The measure yielded a single-factor solution with good reliability both between and within persons. At the between-person level, NA accounted for the effects of daily stress on individual differences in cognitive interference. At the within-person level, NA and daily stress were unique predictors of cognitive interference. Furthermore, the within-person effect of daily stress on cognitive interference decreased significantly with age. Discussion. These results support theoretical work regarding associations among stress, NA, and cognitive interference, both across persons and within persons over time. PMID:21743045

  11. Individual Differences in Developmental Change: Quantifying the Amplitude and Heterogeneity in Cognitive Change across Old Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Mella

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that cognitive decline in older adults is of smaller amplitude in longitudinal than in cross-sectional studies. Yet, the measure of interest rests generally with aggregated group data. A focus on individual developmental trajectories is rare, mainly because it is difficult to assess intraindividual change reliably. Individual differences in developmental trajectories may differ quantitatively (e.g., larger or smaller decline or qualitatively (e.g., decline vs improvement, as well as in the degree of heterogeneity of change across different cognitive domains or different tasks. The present paper aims at exploring, within the Geneva Variability Study, individual change across several cognitive domains in 92 older adults (aged 59–89 years at baseline over a maximum of seven years and a half. Two novel, complementary methods were used to explore change in cognitive performance while remaining entirely at the intra-individual level. A bootstrap based confidence interval was estimated, for each participant and for each experimental condition, making it possible to define three patterns: stability, increase or decrease in performance. Within-person ANOVAs were also conducted for each individual on all the tasks. Those two methods allowed quantifying the direction, the amplitude and the heterogeneity of change for each individual. Results show that trajectories differed widely among individuals and that decline is far from being the rule.

  12. [Trends of vegetables and fruits consumption among Chinese adults aged 18 to 44 years old from 1991 to 2011].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yingting; Su, Chang; Ouyang, Yifei; Zhang, Bing

    2015-03-01

    To identify the trends of vegetables and fruits consumption among Chinese adults aged 18 to 44 years old from 1991 to 2011. Twenty four hour dietary recall data from China Health and Nutrition Survey (1991, 1993, 1997, 2000, 2004, 2006, 2009 and 2011) were used to identify the trends of vegetables and fruits consumption among Chinese between 18 and 44 years old. From 1991 to 2011, the proportion of daily consumption of vegetables rarely varied, while the vegetables intake declined significantly; and the proportion of daily consumption and intake of fruits kept increasing as follows. By 2011, the proportion of daily consumption and intake of vegetables and fruits among the respondents were 99.7%, 48.0%, 321.6 g/d, and 90.1 g/d respectively. A significant drop was found in the vegetables intake among the respondents against the vegetables intake as recommended by the Chinese dietary guidelines, up to 50.2% in 2011; a significant rise was found in the fruits intake of the respondents against the fruits intake as recommended by the said guidelines, up to 17.4% in 2011. The average daily intake of vegetables and fruits of young and middle-aged residents (18-44 age group) in nine provinces in China was found lower than that recommended in the Chinese dietary guidelines; in view of the high proportion of people having less vegetables and fruits intake that those recommended by the Chinese dietary guidelines, further measures are expected to encourage their vegetables and fruits intake.

  13. Videoconferencing and telementoring about dementia care: evaluation of a pilot model for sharing scarce old age psychiatry resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Colleen; Jackson, David; Loi, Samantha; Malta, Sue; Moore, Kirsten

    2016-09-01

    While videoconferencing, telementoring, and peer support have been shown to enhance services in some instances, there has been no research investigating the use of these technologies in supporting professionals managing clients with dementia. The objective of this research was to evaluate expansion of an old age psychiatry consultation service and pilot test a model to improve medical supervision and clinical governance for staff within regional and remote areas using remote information technology. The design was a mixed methods (qualitative and quantitative) evaluation using before, mid-point and post-implementation semi-structured interviews and questionnaires to examine orientation, acceptance, and impact underpinned by theoretical approaches to evaluation. Education evaluations used a Likert style response template. Participants were 18 dementia service staff, including staff from linked services and old age psychiatrists. Qualitative interviews addressed the pilot implementation including: expectations, experiences, strategies for improving the pilot, and perceived impact on work practice and professional development opportunities. There was high satisfaction with the program. The case conference process contributed to perceived improved outcomes for clients, family, and staff. Clinicians perceived improvement in family carer and staff carer stress and their confidence in managing clients with behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD). Thematic analysis indicated that the pilot enhanced professional development, decreased travel time, and improved team cohesion. Given the increasing aging population in regional, rural, and remote areas, initiatives using videoconferencing and telementoring will help to develop a confident and skilled workforce. This pilot program was found to be acceptable and feasible. Potential benefits for clients and family carers should be examined in future resesarch.

  14. Midlife work ability and mobility limitation in old age among non-disability and disability retirees--a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Bonsdorff, Monika E; Rantanen, Taina; Törmäkangas, Timo; Kulmala, Jenni; Hinrichs, Timo; Seitsamo, Jorma; Nygård, Clas-Håkan; Ilmarinen, Juhani; von Bonsdorff, Mikaela B

    2016-02-16

    Little is known about the wellbeing and mobility limitation of older disability retirees. Personal and environmental factors, such as time spent in working life, may either exacerbate or mitigate the onset of mobility limitation in general population. We aimed to study perceived midlife work ability as a determinant of self-reported mobility limitation in old age among municipal employees who transitioned into non-disability and disability retirement. 4329 participants of the Finnish Longitudinal Study of Municipal Employees (FLAME) had retired during January 1985 and July 2000. They had data on retirement, perceived work ability in 1985, and self-reported mobility limitation (non-disability retirement n = 2870, men 39%; and diagnose-specific disability retirement n = 1459, men 48%). Self-reported mobility was measured in 1985, 1992, 1997 and 2009. The latest score available was used to assess the number of mobility limitation. Work ability was measured by asking the respondents to evaluate their current work ability against their lifetime best in 1985. Incidence rate ratios (IRRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for work ability predicting mobility limitation in non-disability and diagnose-specific disability retirement groups were calculated using Poisson regression models. The prevalence of mobility limitation for those who transitioned into non-disability retirement (Incidence Rate, IR = 0.45, 95% CI = 0.44-0.46) was lower compared to those who retired due to disability (IR = 0.65, CI = 0.63-0.66). A one-point increase in the work ability score decreased the risk for having one more mobility limitation among non-disability and all diagnose-specific retirement groups (musculoskeletal disease, cardiovascular disease, mental disorder, and other diseases). Better midlife work ability may protect from old age mobility limitation among those who retire due to non-disability and disability. Promoting work ability in midlife may lead to more independent, active

  15. Determinants of musculoskeletal frailty and the risk of falls in old age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runge, M; Hunter, G

    2006-01-01

    Neuromuscular parameters that describe locomotion are indispensable variables for the diagnosis and treatment of frailty, fall risk and osteoporosis. A scientifically-based standardized locomotor assessment should be an essential part of medical examinations in research and clinical practice. There has been no previous consensus regarding which test procedures should be included in a locomotor assessment. The goal of this article is to provide a rationale for the selection of appropriate locomotor tests in a comprehensive locomotor assessment for elderly patients. We propose that a locomotor assessment should comprise the parameters that have been proven predictive for both falls and impending disability. The parameters should be measured in the standard units of physics. Therefore, we propose the following tests for a standardized locomotor assessment: (1) Self-selected gait velocity as the single best measure of general locomotor status and a good predictor of age-related adverse events; (2) Chair rise test (timed 5 chair rises) which measures power on vertical movement and the hip surrounding muscles as the most important neuromuscular risk factor for falls and fall-related fractures; (3) Tandem standing and tandem walking to measure postural capacity (balance) to the side; (4) Timed up and go test as a global screening procedure; (5) Clinical gait analysis with special focus on regularity; and (6) At least on a research level, movement must be measured referring to the terms of physics by mechanography. Mechanography (Leonardo force plate system, Novotec Pforzheim, Germany) records the time course of ground reaction forces, velocity of the vertical movements of the center of mass and power during unrestricted physiological movements. In the mechanogram the eccentric and concentric phases of movements can be differentiated and the storage of energy in the elastic elements of the body can be examined. The kinetics of human movement is explained by mechanograms of

  16. The ticking of the epigenetic clock: antipsychotic drugs in old age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adonis Sfera

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBackground: Exposed to antipsychotic drugs (APDs, older individuals with dementing illness are at risk of cerebrovascular adverse effects (CVAE, including sudden death. Transient microvascular dysfunctions are known to occur in younger persons exposed to APDs, however they seldom progresses to CVAE, suggesting that APDs alone are insufficient for engendering this untoward effect. It is, therefore believed that a preexistent microvascular damage is necessary for CVAE to take place, but the exact nature of this lesion remains unclear.CNS small vessel disease (SVD is a well-known age-related risk factor for strokes, dementia and sudden death, which may constitute the initial CVAE-predisposing pathology. We therefore propose a two strike CVAE paradigm in which SVD represents the first strike, while exposure to APDs, the second. In this model, both strikes must be present for CVAE to take place, and the neuroimaging load of white matter hyperintensities (WMH may be directly proportional with the CVAE risk.To investigate this hypothesis at the molecular level, we focused on a seemingly unrelated phenomenon: both APDs and SVD were found protective against a similar repertoire of cancers and their spread to the brain (1-4. Since microRNA-29 has shown efficacy against the same malignancies, and has been associated with small vessels pathology, we narrowed our search down to this miR, hypothesizing that the APDs mechanism of action includes miR-29 up-regulation, which in turn facilitates the development of SVD. Aim: to assess whether miR-29 can be utilized as a peripheral blood biomarker for SVD and CVAE risk.Method: we conducted a search of experimentally verified miR-29 target genes utilizing the public domain tools miRanda, RNA22 and Weizemann Institute of Science miRNA Analysis. We identified in total 67 experimentally verified target genes for miR-29 family, 18 of which correlate with microvascular integrity, and may be relevant for CVAE

  17. Cognitive Benefits of Social Dancing and Walking in Old Age: The Dancing Mind Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merom, Dafna; Grunseit, Anne; Eramudugolla, Ranmalee; Jefferis, Barbara; Mcneill, Jade; Anstey, Kaarin J

    2016-01-01

    A physically active lifestyle has the potential to prevent cognitive decline and dementia, yet the optimal type of physical activity/exercise remains unclear. Dance is of special interest as it complex sensorimotor rhythmic activity with additional cognitive, social, and affective dimensions. To determine whether dance benefits executive function more than walking, an activity that is simple and functional. Two-arm randomized controlled trial among community-dwelling older adults. The intervention group received 1 h of ballroom dancing twice weekly over 8 months (~69 sessions) in local community dance studios. The control group received a combination of a home walking program with a pedometer and optional biweekly group-based walking in local community park to facilitate socialization. Executive function tests: processing speed and task shift by the Trail Making Tests, response inhibition by the Stroop Color-Word Test, working memory by the Digit Span Backwards test, immediate and delayed verbal recall by the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test, and visuospatial recall by the Brief Visuospatial Memory Test (BVST). One hundred and fifteen adults (mean 69.5 years, SD 6.4) completed baseline and delayed baseline (3 weeks apart) before being randomized to either dance (n = 60) or walking (n = 55). Of those randomized, 79 (68%) completed the follow-up measurements (32 weeks from baseline). In the dance group only, "non-completers" had significantly lower baseline scores on all executive function tests than those who completed the full program. Intention-to-treat analyses showed no group effect. In a random effects model including participants who completed all measurements, adjusted for baseline score and covariates (age, education, estimated verbal intelligence, and community), a between-group effect in favor of dance was noted only for BVST total learning (Cohen's D Effect size 0.29, p = 0.07) and delayed recall (Cohen's D Effect size = 0

  18. Cognitive benefits of social dancing and walking in old age: the Dancing Mind randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dafna eMerom

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: A physically active lifestyle has the potential to prevent cognitive decline and dementia, yet the optimal type of physical activity/exercise remains unclear. Dance is of special interest as it complex sensorimotor rhythmic activity with additional cognitive, social and affective dimensions. Objectives: to determine whether dance benefits executive function more than walking, an activity that is simple and functional. Methods: Two-arm randomised controlled trial among community-dwelling older adults. The intervention group received 1 hour of ballroom dancing twice weekly over 8 months (~69sessions in local community dance studios. The control group received a combination of a home walking program with a pedometer and optional biweekly group-based walking in local community park to facilitate socialisation. Main outcomes: Main outcomes: executive function tests: processing speed and task shift by the Trail Making Tests (TMT, response inhibition by the Stroop Colour-Word Test (SCWT, working memory by the Digit Span Backwards (DSB test, immediate and delayed verbal recall by the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT and visuospatial recall by the Brief Visuospatial Memory Test (BVST. Results: One hundred and fifteen adults (69.5 years, SD6.4 completed baseline and delayed baseline (3 weeks apart before being randomised to either dance (n=60 or walking (n=55. Of those randomized, 79 (68% completed the follow-up measurements (32 weeks from baseline. In the dance group only, ‘non-completers’ had significant lower baseline scores on all executive function tests than those completed the full program. Intention-to-treat analyses showed no group effect. In a random effects model including participants who completed all measurements, adjusted for baseline score and covariates (age, education, estimated verbal intelligence, community, a between group effect in favour of dance was noted only for BVST total learning (Cohen’s D Effect size

  19. The association between high levels of cumulative life stress and aberrant resting state EEG dynamics in old age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Amanda C; Cooper, Nicholas R

    2017-07-01

    Cumulative experienced stress produces shortcomings in old adults' cognitive performance. These are reflected in electrophysiological changes tied to task execution. This study explored whether stress-related aberrations in older adults' electroencephalographic (EEG) activity were also apparent in the system at rest. To this effect, the amount of stressful life events experienced by 60 young and 60 elderly participants were assessed in conjunction with resting state power changes in the delta, theta, alpha, and beta frequencies during a resting EEG recording. Findings revealed elevated levels of delta power among elderly individuals reporting high levels of cumulative life stress. These differed significantly from young high and low stress individuals and old adults with low levels of stress. Increases of delta activity have been linked to the emergence of conditions such as Alzheimer's Disease and Mild Cognitive Impairment. Thus, a potential interpretation of our findings associates large amounts of cumulative stress with an increased risk of developing age-related cognitive pathologies in later life. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. [Old and offline? : Findings on the use of the Internet by people aged 65 years and older in Switzerland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifert, Alexander; Schelling, Hans Rudolf

    2016-10-01

    The supply of information and communication is becoming continuously more focused on the Internet. While the age groups up to 64 years have shown a vast increase in the use of the Internet since 1997, intensive use of the Internet by age groups above 64 years lags behind and this is not only the case in Switzerland. Against this background and an interest in finding out more about Internet (non)use of older people, two representative surveys were conducted in Switzerland, one in 2009 and another one in 2014. The data used were acquired throughout Switzerland via a standardized telephone survey. The random sample (2014) consisted of 1037 people aged between 65 and 100 years old. Although the digital divide between the age groups has lessened over the past years, only 55.7 % of the elderly people interviewed were using the Internet in the autumn of 2014. Internet usage differs greatly between age groups. Resources such as education, income and health positively impact actual use of the Internet. Additionally, recommendations from a person's social environment, as well as an affinity for technology and a personal benefit assessment have a positive impact on Internet usage. In particular, security concerns and difficulties of use were mentioned as predominant reasons for the non-use of the Internet. Some of the people questioned felt excluded from society because they did not use the Internet. Internet usage among elderly people depends on individual and social resources, as well as on general attitude towards technology and personal benefit expectations. The exclusion of today's elderly "offliners" should be avoided, even if the digital divide will decrease in the future.

  1. A healthy Nordic diet and physical performance in old age: findings from the longitudinal Helsinki Birth Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perälä, Mia-Maria; von Bonsdorff, Mikaela; Männistö, Satu; Salonen, Minna K; Simonen, Mika; Kanerva, Noora; Pohjolainen, Pertti; Kajantie, Eero; Rantanen, Taina; Eriksson, Johan G

    2016-03-14

    Epidemiological studies have shown that a number of nutrients are associated with better physical performance. However, little is still known about the role of the whole diet, particularly a healthy Nordic diet, in relation to physical performance. Therefore, we examined whether a healthy Nordic diet was associated with measures of physical performance 10 years later. We studied 1072 participants from the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study. Participants' diet was assessed using a validated 128-item FFQ at the mean age of 61 years, and a priori-defined Nordic diet score (NDS) was calculated. The score included Nordic fruits and berries, vegetables, cereals, PUFA:SFA and trans-fatty acids ratio, low-fat milk, fish, red and processed meat, total fat and alcohol. At the mean age of 71 years, participants' physical performance was measured using the Senior Fitness Test (SFT), and an overall SFT score was calculated. Women in the highest fourth of the NDS had on average 5 points higher SFT score compared with those in the lowest fourth (P for trend 0·005). No such association was observed in men. Women with the highest score had 17% better result in the 6-min walk test, 16% better arm curl and 20% better chair stand results compared with those with the lowest score (all P valueshealthy Nordic diet was associated with better overall physical performance among women and might help decrease the risk of disability in old age.

  2. Explaining the impact of poverty on old-age frailty in Europe: material, psychosocial and behavioural factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolz, Erwin; Mayerl, Hannes; Waxenegger, Anja; Freidl, Wolfgang

    2017-12-01

    Previous research found poverty to be associated with adverse health outcomes among older adults but the factors that translate low economic resources into poor physical health are not well understood. The goal of this analysis was to assess the impact of material, psychosocial, and behavioural factors as well as education in explaining the poverty-health link. In total, 28 360 observations from 11 390 community-dwelling respondents (65+) in the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (2004-13, 10 countries) were analysed. Multilevel growth curve models were used to assess the impact of combined income and asset poverty risk on old-age frailty (frailty index) and associated pathway variables. In total, 61.8% of the variation of poverty risk on frailty level was explained by direct and indirect effects. Results stress the role of material and particularly psychosocial factors such as perceived control and social isolation, whereas the role of health behaviour was negligible. We suggest to strengthen social policy and public health efforts in order to fight poverty and its deleterious health effects from early age on as well as to broaden the scope of interventions with regard to psychosocial factors. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  3. A spline-based regression parameter set for creating customized DARTEL MRI brain templates from infancy to old age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilke, Marko

    2018-02-01

    This dataset contains the regression parameters derived by analyzing segmented brain MRI images (gray matter and white matter) from a large population of healthy subjects, using a multivariate adaptive regression splines approach. A total of 1919 MRI datasets ranging in age from 1-75 years from four publicly available datasets (NIH, C-MIND, fCONN, and IXI) were segmented using the CAT12 segmentation framework, writing out gray matter and white matter images normalized using an affine-only spatial normalization approach. These images were then subjected to a six-step DARTEL procedure, employing an iterative non-linear registration approach and yielding increasingly crisp intermediate images. The resulting six datasets per tissue class were then analyzed using multivariate adaptive regression splines, using the CerebroMatic toolbox. This approach allows for flexibly modelling smoothly varying trajectories while taking into account demographic (age, gender) as well as technical (field strength, data quality) predictors. The resulting regression parameters described here can be used to generate matched DARTEL or SHOOT templates for a given population under study, from infancy to old age. The dataset and the algorithm used to generate it are publicly available at https://irc.cchmc.org/software/cerebromatic.php.

  4. A spline-based regression parameter set for creating customized DARTEL MRI brain templates from infancy to old age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Wilke

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This dataset contains the regression parameters derived by analyzing segmented brain MRI images (gray matter and white matter from a large population of healthy subjects, using a multivariate adaptive regression splines approach. A total of 1919 MRI datasets ranging in age from 1–75 years from four publicly available datasets (NIH, C-MIND, fCONN, and IXI were segmented using the CAT12 segmentation framework, writing out gray matter and white matter images normalized using an affine-only spatial normalization approach. These images were then subjected to a six-step DARTEL procedure, employing an iterative non-linear registration approach and yielding increasingly crisp intermediate images. The resulting six datasets per tissue class were then analyzed using multivariate adaptive regression splines, using the CerebroMatic toolbox. This approach allows for flexibly modelling smoothly varying trajectories while taking into account demographic (age, gender as well as technical (field strength, data quality predictors. The resulting regression parameters described here can be used to generate matched DARTEL or SHOOT templates for a given population under study, from infancy to old age. The dataset and the algorithm used to generate it are publicly available at https://irc.cchmc.org/software/cerebromatic.php. Keywords: MRI template creation, Multivariate adaptive regression splines, DARTEL, Structural MRI

  5. New drugs and patient-centred end-points in old age: setting the wheels in motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangoni, Arduino A; Pilotto, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Older patients with various degrees of frailty and disability, a key population target of pharmacological interventions in acute and chronic disease states, are virtually neglected in pre-marketing studies assessing the efficacy and safety of investigational drugs. Moreover, aggressively pursuing established therapeutic targets in old age, e.g. blood pressure, serum glucose or cholesterol concentrations, is not necessarily associated with the beneficial effects, and the acceptable safety, reported in younger patient cohorts. Measures of self-reported health and functional status might represent additional, more meaningful, therapeutic end-points in the older population, particularly in patients with significant frailty and relatively short life expectancy, e.g. in the presence of cancer and/or neurodegenerative disease conditions. Strategies enhancing early knowledge about key pharmacological characteristics of investigational drugs targeting older adults are discussed, together with the rationale for incorporating non-traditional, patient-centred, end-points in this ever-increasing group.

  6. Sex inequalities in HIV-related practices in the Brazilian population aged 15 to 64 years old, 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Roberta Pati Pascom

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to analyze gender differences in HIV-related practices in the Brazilian population. A national survey was carried out in 2008 with a sample size of 8,000 individuals aged 15-64 years old. The sampling was stratified by macro geographical region and urban/rural areas. Logistic regression models were used to investigate the main predictors of consistent condom use. The results showed that women have less sexy, start sexual life later than men, have fewer casual sexual partners, but use condom less frequently than men. On the other hand, the coverage of HIV testing is significantly greater among women. Significant differences by gender were seen in all HIV-related risky practices. The greater vulnerability was always associated with women, with exception of HIV testing. The low proportion of condom use in infidelity situations was a problem for box sexes and deserves special consideration when developing prevention strategies.

  7. Heterogeneity in Trajectories of Body Mass Index and Their Associations with Mortality in Old Age: A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Murayama

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This article reviewed studies to investigate the association between trajectories of body mass index (BMI and mortality among older adults. Investigators conducted a systematic search of published peer-reviewed literature in the PubMed database, and three articles that satisfied the inclusion criteria for the review were identified. All of these studies used group-based trajectory models to identify distinct BMI trajectories. Two studies were derived from the U.S. and used data from the Health and Retirement Study, with up to nine repeated observations. Most of the BMI trajectories in older Americans were increasing and fell primarily within the overweight and obese ranges. The other study was from Japan and used nationwide data, with up to seven repeated observations. BMI trajectories identified in the older Japanese were mostly decreasing and fell primarily within the normal weight range. Although the distribution of BMI trajectories was different between the two nations, the findings from these three studies consistently demonstrated that people with stable overweight trajectories had the lowest all-cause mortality rates in both countries. Beyond this, however, these studies suggested that priorities for weight control in old age should likely differ between Western and non-Western countries. Research regarding BMI trajectories and mortality in old age is very limited at present. Evidence from countries other than the U.S. and Japan is warranted in order to validate current findings and guide the development of local clinical and public health strategies for body weight management aimed at improving the health and survival of older adults.

  8. The relation of the number of languages spoken to performance in different cognitive abilities in old age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihle, Andreas; Oris, Michel; Fagot, Delphine; Kliegel, Matthias

    2016-12-01

    Findings on the association of speaking different languages with cognitive functioning in old age are inconsistent and inconclusive so far. Therefore, the present study set out to investigate the relation of the number of languages spoken to cognitive performance and its interplay with several other markers of cognitive reserve in a large sample of older adults. Two thousand eight hundred and twelve older adults served as sample for the present study. Psychometric tests on verbal abilities, basic processing speed, and cognitive flexibility were administered. In addition, individuals were interviewed on their different languages spoken on a regular basis, educational attainment, occupation, and engaging in different activities throughout adulthood. Higher number of languages regularly spoken was significantly associated with better performance in verbal abilities and processing speed, but unrelated to cognitive flexibility. Regression analyses showed that the number of languages spoken predicted cognitive performance over and above leisure activities/physical demand of job/gainful activity as respective additional predictor, but not over and above educational attainment/cognitive level of job as respective additional predictor. There was no significant moderation of the association of the number of languages spoken with cognitive performance in any model. Present data suggest that speaking different languages on a regular basis may additionally contribute to the build-up of cognitive reserve in old age. Yet, this may not be universal, but linked to verbal abilities and basic cognitive processing speed. Moreover, it may be dependent on other types of cognitive stimulation that individuals also engaged in during their life course.

  9. Influence of social support on cognitive change and mortality in old age: results from the prospective multicentre cohort study AgeCoDe

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Social support has been suggested to positively influence cognition and mortality in old age. However, this suggestion has been questioned due to inconsistent operationalisations of social support among studies and the small number of longitudinal studies available. This study aims to investigate the influence of perceived social support, understood as the emotional component of social support, on cognition and mortality in old age as part of a prospective longitudinal multicentre study in Germany. Methods A national subsample of 2,367 primary care patients was assessed twice over an observation period of 18 months regarding the influence of social support on cognitive function and mortality. Perceived social support was assessed using the 14-item version of the FSozU, which is a standardised and validated questionnaire of social support. Cognition was tested by the neuropsychological test battery of the Structured Interview for the Diagnosis of Dementia (SIDAM). The influence of perceived support on cognitive change was analysed by multivariate ANCOVA; mortality was analysed by multivariate logistic and cox regression. Results Sample cognitive change (N = 1,869): Mean age was 82.4 years (SD 3.3) at the beginning of the observation period, 65.9% were female, mean cognition was 49 (SD 4.4) in the SIDAM. Over the observation period cognitive function declined in 47.2% by a mean of 3.4 points. Sample mortality (N = 2,367): Mean age was 82.5 years (SD 3.4), 65.7% were female and 185 patients died during the observation period. Perceived social support showed no longitudinal association with cognitive change (F = 2.235; p = 0.135) and mortality (p = 0.332; CI 0.829-1.743). Conclusions Perceived social support did not influence cognition and mortality over an 18 months observation period. However, previous studies using different operationalisations of social support and longer observation periods indicate that such an influence may exist. This influence is

  10. Dental Caries and Associated Factors in Children Aged 2-4 Years Old in Mbeya City, Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwakayoka, Hery; Masalu, Joyce Rose; Namakuka Kikwilu, Emil

    2017-01-01

    Statement of the Problem: Dental caries in infants and young children is prevalent worldwide; its magnitude and associated factors vary between communities because of cultural and social economic differences. No such information was available for pre-school children in Mbeya city. Purpose: To determine dental caries status and associated factors in 2 to 4-year-old children in Mbeya city. Materials and Method: A cross sectional study was conducted among 525 children aged 2-4 years and their parents/caregivers. Caries was assessed using caries assessment spectrum and treatment index, oral hygiene by visual inspection for visible plaque on index teeth, and dietary and oral hygiene habits by a questionnaire. Kappa statistics was used to test reliability of study instruments, χ2-test and logistic regression was employed for studying associations. Results: Caries free children for dmft1, dmft2 and dmft3 were 79.8%, 83.8% and 94.7% and caries experience was 0.49 (1.23), 0.4 (1.14) and 0.10 (0.53) respectively. Older age [(OR =2.722 (1.617-4.582) p=caries. Prolonged breastfeeding for more than 1 year and breastfeeding at night had no association with dental caries. Conclusion: The prevalence of dental caries was very low. Older age and frequent consumption of factory made sugary foods at age 1-2 years were associated with higher odds of developing dental caries. Prolonged breasfeeding and breastfeeding at night had no association with dental caries. Prevention of dental caries should be instituted as soon as primary teeth start erupting, especially through discouraging consumption of factory made sugary foods/snacks. PMID:28620634

  11. Tune yourself in: Valence and arousal preferences in music-listening choices from adolescence to old age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohrdes, Caroline; Wrzus, Cornelia; Frisch, Simon; Riediger, Michaela

    2017-09-01

    In previous studies, older as compared with younger individuals were more strongly motivated to regulate their momentary affect toward pleasant and calm states. Whether these motivational differences are also reflected in regulatory behavior and whether this behavior is efficient in terms of affect change, however, is unclear. To address these issues, we conducted 3 studies with samples ranging in age from adolescence to old adulthood. In Study 1, we developed a novel and age-fair music browsing paradigm for music of diverse musical styles, dates of origin, and affective characteristics. The time spent listening to self-selected music with varying levels of valence and arousal served as an indicator of affect-regulatory preferences in 2 different affectively relevant situations, namely after mood induction in Study 2 and before an upcoming discussion with a stranger in Study 3. As predicted, we found a higher preference for music with positive valence and low arousal in older as compared with younger individuals in both studies. Additionally, the efficacy of music listening as an affect-regulatory strategy was supported because individuals' current affect significantly changed from before to after music listening (Studies 2 and 3), whereas that was not the case in an active control group listening to neutral nonmusical sounds (Study 3). These results extend previous research on affect regulation by demonstrating the utility of the music browsing paradigm as a behavioral indicator of affect-regulatory preferences in individuals from various age groups. They also provide evidence for age differences in, and affect-regulatory effects of, music-choice behavior. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Da velhice à terceira idade: o percurso histórico das identidades atreladas ao processo de envelhecimento From old age to third age: the historical course of the identities linked to the process of ageing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luna Rodrigues Freitas Silva

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo trata do surgimento histórico das noções de velhice e terceira idade como categorias identitárias atreladas ao processo de envelhecimento. A origem de tais noções está na combinação complexa de fatores como saberes médicos e sociais, agentes de gestão, movimentos políticos e interesses econômicos. Como velhice e terceira idade são identidades etárias historicamente determinadas, analisam-se os fatores que determinaram sua ascensão e sua legitimação. A velhice surge como categoria etária quando o corpo velho é tomado como objeto de estudo e quando os sistemas de aposentadoria são implementados. A terceira idade aparece como categoria etária com a especialização dos agentes de gestão do envelhecimento, o discurso reivindicador da gerontologia social e os interesses da cultura do consumo. Essas categorias são postas em campo para identificar, definir e, mais recentemente, transformar o processo de envelhecimento contemporâneo.This article discusses the historical emergence of notions of old age and third age as identity categories linked to the process of ageing. Their emergence can be understood as a result of a complex combination of factors such as medical and social knowledge, management agents, political movements and economic interests. By taking old age and third age as historically determined age identities, we seek to trace out the formation of these identities the article analizes the factors that determined their emergence and how they have grown and gained legitimacy. As an age category, 'old age' has its roots mainly in medical knowledge specialized in the study of the aged body, and the appearance of retirement. The 'third age' age category derives mainly from the specialization of the agents of management for ageing, the advocatory discourse of social gerontology and the interests of the consumer culture. These are the categories that are currently available to identify, define and, more

  13. The impact of young age on locoregional recurrence after doxorubicin-based breast conservation therapy in patients 40 years old or younger: How young is 'young'?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Julia L.; Bonnen, Mark; Outlaw, Elesyia D.; Schechter, Naomi R.; Perkins, George H.; Strom, Eric A.; Babiera, Gildy; Oswald, Mary Jane; Allen, Pamela K.; Thames, Howard D.; Buchholz, Thomas A.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate whether patients <35 years old have similar risk of locoregional recurrence after breast conservation therapy compared with patients 35 to 40 years old. Methods and materials: We retrospectively reviewed records of 196 consecutive patients ≤40 years old who received breast conservation therapy (BCT) from 1987 to 2000 for breast cancer and compared outcomes between patients <35 years old with patients 35 to 40 years old. The majority of patients received neoadjuvant chemotherapy as part of their treatment. Multivariate analysis was performed to assess risk factors for locoregional recurrence. Results: After a median follow-up of 64 months, 22 locoregional recurrences (LRR) were observed. Twenty patients developed locoregional recurrence as their first site of relapse. Two patients had bone-only metastases before their locoregional recurrence. On multivariate analysis, age <35 years was associated with a statistically significant increased risk of locoregional recurrence. The 5-year rate of locoregional control was 87.9% in patients <35 years old compared with 91.7% in patients 35 to 40 years old (p = 0.042). Conclusions: Our finding supports an increased risk of locoregional recurrence as a function of younger age after breast conservation therapy, even among young patients 40 years old and younger

  14. Analysis of playing activity of footballers 19-21-years-old age in the leading commands of Europe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaenko V.V.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Competition activity of footballers is considered 19-21-years-old age in the professional commands of Europe. For research it was served as information normatively-legal documents of Federations of football of leading European championships (request letters and protocols of matches. In research it was necessary to be attached to the construction of the statistical groupings, that allowed to analyse in a dynamics playing activity of footballers on the stage of training to higher achievements. Influence of the competition loadings is appraised on the organism of sportsmen. Participating of sportsmen of this age is set in compositions of professional commands - leaders of rating of UEFA. It is set that the basic failing in preparation of the Ukrainian young footballers is surplus pursuit after a result and accent on physical preparation. It gives advantage above other commands which work above the technique of game (Holland, Germany, Spain in youth football. However, when players from youth football pass to the grown man, results sharply fall and felt substantial blanks in individual technical preparedness.

  15. Large Omental Cystic Lymphangioma Masquerading as Mucinous Ovarian Neoplasia in an 8-Year-Old Premenarchal Girl: The Findings from Diagnostic Imaging and Laparoscopic-Assisted Excision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Akihiro; Ito, Hiroaki; Nakamura, Hiromi

    2017-12-01

    Omental cystic lymphangioma is an extremely rare abdominal mass caused by congenital malformation. An 8-year-old premenarchal girl reported abdominal pain. Diagnostic imaging revealed a large multicystic mass measuring 22 cm in diameter, which occupied the entire abdominal cavity with ascites. Emergency laparoscopy revealed a ruptured large cystic mass originating from the greater omentum; this was followed by successful laparoscopic-assisted excision. The pathological diagnosis was omental cystic lymphangioma. The present findings show that omental cystic lymphangioma masquerading as mucinous ovarian neoplasia was a rare cause of acute abdominal events in a young girl. The present case shows that minimally invasive surgery can be a feasible option, which might achieve a favorable outcome in a young patient with an omental cystic lymphangioma. Copyright © 2017 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.