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Sample records for olanzapine orodispersible tablet

  1. An In Vitro Analysis of Disintegration Times of Different Formulations of Olanzapine Orodispersible Tablet: A Preliminary Report

    OpenAIRE

    Hobbs, David; Karagianis, Jamie; Treuer, Tamas; Raskin, Joel

    2013-01-01

    Background Orodispersible tablets (ODTs) are tablet or wafer forms of medication that disintegrate in the mouth, aided only by saliva. ODTs rely on different fast dissolve/disintegration manufacturing technologies. Objectives Disintegration time differences for several olanzapine ODT forms were investigated. Risperdal M-Tab® was included as a non-olanzapine ODT comparator. Research Design and Methods Eleven olanzapine ODT examples and orodispersible risperidone strengths were evaluated in vit...

  2. An in vitro analysis of disintegration times of different formulations of olanzapine orodispersible tablet: a preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, David; Karagianis, Jamie; Treuer, Tamas; Raskin, Joel

    2013-12-01

    Orodispersible tablets (ODTs) are tablet or wafer forms of medication that disintegrate in the mouth, aided only by saliva. ODTs rely on different fast dissolve/disintegration manufacturing technologies. Disintegration time differences for several olanzapine ODT forms were investigated. Risperdal M-Tab(®) was included as a non-olanzapine ODT comparator. Eleven olanzapine ODT examples and orodispersible risperidone strengths were evaluated in vitro for formulation composition, manufacturing method, disintegration and dissolution characteristics, and formulation differences in comparison with freeze dried Zydis(®) ODT. Automated dissolution test equipment captured ODT dissolution rates by measuring real-time release of active ingredient. A high-speed video camera was used to capture tablet disintegration times in warm simulated saliva. The main outcome measure was the disintegration and dissolution characteristics of the ODT formulations. The ODT manufacturing method was associated with time to disintegrate; the fastest were freeze dried tablets, followed by soft compressed tablets and then hard/dense tablets. Olanzapine Zydis(®) was the only ODT that completely disintegrated in less than 4 s for all strengths (5, 10, 15, and 20 mg), followed by 5-mg Prolanz FAST(®) (12 s) and then risperidone ODT 4 mg (40 s). Reasons for slow dissolution of the olanzapine generics may include low product potency, excipient binding, excipient solubility, active ingredient particle size and incomplete disintegration. Differences in the formulation and manufacturing process of olanzapine ODTs appear to have a strong influence on the disintegration time of the active compound; differences that may potentially impact their use in clinical practice.

  3. Comparison of clinical outcomes with orodispersible versus standard oral olanzapine tablets in nonadherent patients with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novick, Diego; Montgomery, William; Treuer, Tamas; Koyanagi, Ai; Aguado, Jaume; Kraemer, Susanne; Haro, Josep Maria

    2017-01-01

    Medication nonadherence is common in the treatment of patients with severe mental illness and is a frequent cause of relapse. Different formulations have been developed in an effort to improve medication adherence. The aim of this study was to explore whether there are differential clinical outcomes between two different formulations of olanzapine (orodispersible tablets [ODTs] vs standard oral tablets [SOT]) for the treatment of nonadherent patients with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder. Data for this analysis were from an observational study conducted in Europe (N=903). Adult schizophrenia and bipolar disorder patients in outpatient settings who initiated or changed to either olanzapine ODT or SOT according to physician decision within the last 45 days were eligible for enrollment. The follow-up period was 1 year. Of the 903 participants, 266 nonadherent patients (Medication Adherence Rating Scale score 0-4 at baseline) were included in the analysis. Clinical outcomes of interest were: 1) hospitalization and 2) relapse identified by the participating psychiatrist or hospitalization. An adjusted logistic regression model was fitted. Patients taking ODT had more severe illness at baseline ( P <0.001) as assessed with the Clinical Global Impression with mean (standard deviation [SD]) scores of ODT 4.63 (1.03) and SOT 4 (1.16). In the regression models adjusted for potential confounders, patients taking ODT had significantly lower odds for hospitalization (odds ratio =0.355; 95% confidence interval =0.13-0.974) and relapse or hospitalization (odds ratio =0.368; 95% confidence interval =0.183-0.739), respectively. Nonadherent patients with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder treated with the orodispersible formulation were less likely to be hospitalized or suffer relapse compared to those patients taking the standard oral coated tablets.

  4. Development and characterization of orodispersible tablets of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Method: Orodispersible tablets of famotidine were prepared using camphor as subliming agent and sodium starch glycollate together with crosscarmellose sodium as superdisintegrants. The formulations were evaluated for weight variation, hardness, friability, drug content, wetting time, in vitro and in-vivo dispersion, mouth ...

  5. Optimization and Formulation of Orodispersible Tablets of Meloxicam

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... 98.5% and fast drug release rate of 99.5% within 30 min, as compared with the conventional tablet (49.5%) . Conclusion: It is feasible to formulate orodispersible tablets of meloxican with acceptable disintegration time, rapid drug release and good hardness, which could be amenable to replication on an industrial scale.

  6. Development and evaluation of novel antihypertensive orodispersible tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Hafeez Ullah; Hanif, Muhammad; Sarfraz, Rai M; Maheen, Safirah; Afzal, Samina; Sher, Muhammad; Afzal, Khurram; Mahmood, Asif; Shamim, Ayesha

    2017-09-01

    Objective of present study was to enhance patient compliance in pediatrics and geriatrics patients of Hypertension. To achieve this target, innovative orodispersible tablets of atenolol and atorvastatin was developed to produce instant action by rapidly disintegrating into oral cavity. Three different techniques like direct compression, effervescent and sublimation methods were used to prepare these tablets (Five batches of tablets by each method) by using two superdisintegrants like Sodium starch glycolate and pregelatinized starch alone and in combination. Pre-formulation studies including rheological analysis (Bulk density, tapped density, Angle of repose, Carr's compressibility index, Hausner's ratio), compatibility studies such as Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometry (FTIR) and Differential scanning colorimetry (DSC), Post-compression and stability studies were also performed. Finally, results were statistically evaluated by the applying one way ANOVA test and mean. It was concluded that the formulation F8 containing Sodium starch glycolate 2% and pregelatinized starch 6% found best regarding disintegration time, wetting volume, wetting time, release studies etc. The order in which drug release was quicker is Pregelatinized starch plus Sodium starch glycolate > Pregelatinized starch > Sodium starch glycolate (primojel). It was concluded that sublimation method was the best among three methods used for orodispersible tablets formulations.

  7. ORODISPERSIBLE TABLET: A Patient Friendly Dosage Form (a Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. K. Rameesa

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The most common and preferred route of drug administration is through the oral route. Orodispersible tablets are gaining importance among novel oral drug delivery system as they have improved patient compliance and have some additional advantages compared to other formulation. They are also solid unit dosage forms, which disintegrate in the mouth within a minute in the presence of saliva due to superdisintegrants in the formulation. Thus this type of drug delivery helps a proper per oral administration in pediatric and geriatric population where swallowing is a matter of trouble. Various scientists have prepared orodispersible tablets by following various methods. However, the most common method is the direct compression method. Other special methods are Freeze Drying,Tablet Molding, Sublimation, Spray Drying, Mass extrusion, Phase transition process, etc. Since these tablets dissolve directly in the mouth, so, their taste is also an important factor. Various approaches have been taken in order to mask the bitter taste of the drug. A number of scientists have explored several drugs in this field. Like all other solid dosage forms, they are also evaluated in the field of hardness, friability, wetting time, moisture uptake, disintegration test and dissolution test.

  8. A survey of patient preferences for a placebo orodispersible tablet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wade AG

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Alan G Wade1, Gordon M Crawford1, David Young21CPS Research, Glasgow, UK; 2Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, Scotland, UKAim: To assess the attitudes and preferences of patients currently being treated for depression or anxiety disorders with traditional oral antidepressants relative to a placebo orodispersible (ODT formulation of escitalopram.Methods: This was an open study collecting patient-reported outcome data from patients with anxiety or depression that were treated with oral antidepressant medication on Day 0 before and after receiving a single placebo ODT, and on Day 3 or 4 after receiving two further daily doses of placebo ODT. Patients aged 18–80 years who were currently receiving treatment with oral antidepressants were recruited from general practice and by advertising. Patients with significant symptoms of anxiety or depression (scoring ≥9 on either the depression or anxiety subscales of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale were included in the study.Results: A total of 150 patients were enrolled in and completed the study. About 37% of the patients had had trouble with swallowing tablets, and patients with higher depression scores reported more general swallowing problems than those with lower scores (P = 0.002. Most patients (75.3% believed that an ODT might work faster but that it would make no difference to the effectiveness of the medication (63.1% or the number of side effects (81.3%. About 96% of the patients reported experiencing a pleasant taste following the placebo ODT, although seven patients did not like its taste or aftertaste. This study found that 80.7% of patients reported that the tablets were easy or very easy to get out of the packaging.Conclusion: Based on the results of the placebo version of escitalopram ODT, the escitalopram ODT is likely to be well accepted by patients suffering from anxiety or depressive symptoms.Keywords: ODT, swallowing difficulties

  9. Effect of a Disintegration Mechanism on Wetting, Water Absorption, and Disintegration Time of Orodispersible Tablets

    OpenAIRE

    Pabari, RM; Ramtoola, Z

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of disintegration mechanism of various types of disintegrants on the absorption ratio (AR), wetting time (WT), and disintegration time (DT) of orodispersible tablets (ODTs). ODTs were prepared by direct compression using mannitol as filler and disintegrants selected from a range of swellable, osmotic, and porous disintegrants. Tablets formed were characterized for their water AR, WT, and DT. The porosity and mechanical strength of the tablet...

  10. Short-term treatment with olanzapine does not modulate gut hormone secretion: olanzapine disintegrating versus standard tablets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vidarsdottir, Solrun; Roelfsema, Ferdinand; Streefland, Trea

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Treatment with olanzapine (atypical antipsychotic drug) is frequently associated with various metabolic anomalies, including obesity, dyslipidemia, and diabetes mellitus. Recent data suggest that olanzapine orally disintegrating tablets (ODT), which dissolve instantaneously in the mouth...

  11. Development and evaluation of orodispersible tablets using a natural polysaccharide isolated from Cassia tora seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harshal Pawar

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion: The present work revealed that C. tora seed polysaccharide has a good potential as a disintegrant in the formulation of orodispersible tablets. Because C. tora polysaccharide is inexpensive as compared to synthetic superdisintegrants, nontoxic, compatible, and easy to manufacture, it can be used in place of currently marketed superdisintegrants.

  12. Development of Orodispersible Tablets of Candesartan Cilexetil-β-cyclodextrin Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maddukuri Sravya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the use of inclusion complexation technique employing β-cyclodextrin in improving the dissolution profile of candesartan cilexetil, a BCS class-II drug, and to formulate the inclusion complex into orodispersible tablets. The inclusion complexes were formed by physical mixing, kneading, coevaporation, and lyophilisation methods. Inclusion complexes were characterized by FTIR, DSC, XRD, NMR, and mass spectral studies. Inclusion complexes prepared using kneading, and lyophilisation techniques in the molar ratio 1 : 5 with β-cyclodextrin were used for formulating orodispersible tablets by direct compression with different superdisintegrants like croscarmellose sodium, crospovidone, sodium starch glycolate, and low substituted hydroxypropyl cellulose in varying concentrations. The directly compressible powder was evaluated for precompression parameters, and the prepared orodispersible tablets were evaluated for postcompression parameters. Drug-excipient compatibility studies showed no interaction, and characterization proved the formation of inclusion complex. In vitro disintegration time was found to be within 3 minutes, and all the formulations showed complete drug release of 100% within 20 minutes. The optimized formulation was found to be stable after 6 months and showed no significant change in drug content. This work proved β-cyclodextrins to be effective solubilizing agent in improving the solubility of poorly water soluble drugs.

  13. Co-Processed Chitin-Mannitol as a New Excipient for Oro-Dispersible Tablets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidal Daraghmeh

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the preparation, characterization and performance of a novel excipient for use in oro-dispersible tablets (ODT. The excipient (Cop–CM consists of chitin and mannitol. The excipient with optimal physicochemical properties was obtained at a chitin: mannitol ratio of 2:8 (w/w and produced by roll compaction (RC. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, Fourier transform-Infrared (FT-IR, X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD and scanning electron microscope (SEM techniques were used to characterize Cop–CM, in addition to characterization of its powder and ODT dosage form. The effect of particle size distribution of Cop–CM was investigated and found to have no significant influence on the overall tablet physical properties. The compressibility parameter (a for Cop–CM was calculated from a Kawakita plot and found to be higher (0.661 than that of mannitol (0.576 due to the presence of the highly compressible chitin (0.818. Montelukast sodium and domperidone ODTs produced, using Cop–CM, displayed excellent physicochemical properties. The exceptional binding, fast wetting and superdisintegration properties of Cop–CM, in comparison with commercially available co-processed ODT excipients, results in a unique multifunctional base which can successfully be used in the formulation of oro-dispersible and fast immediate release tablets.

  14. Effect of a disintegration mechanism on wetting, water absorption, and disintegration time of orodispersible tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pabari, Rm; Ramtoola, Z

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of disintegration mechanism of various types of disintegrants on the absorption ratio (AR), wetting time (WT), and disintegration time (DT) of orodispersible tablets (ODTs). ODTs were prepared by direct compression using mannitol as filler and disintegrants selected from a range of swellable, osmotic, and porous disintegrants. Tablets formed were characterized for their water AR, WT, and DT. The porosity and mechanical strength of the tablets were also measured. Results show that the DT of formulated ODTs was directly related to the WT and was a function of the disintegration mechanism of the disintegrant used. The lowest WT and DT were observed for tablets formulated using the osmotic disintegrant sodium citrate and these tablets also showed the lowest AR and porosity. The wetting and disintegration of tablets containing the highly swellable disintegrant, sodium starch glycollate, was slowest despite their high water AR and high tablet porosity. Rapid wetting and disintegration of ODTs were therefore not necessarily related to the porosity of the tablets.

  15. Weight loss during therapy with olanzapine orally disintegrating tablets: two case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozumplik, Oliver; Uzun, Suzana; Jakovljević, Miro

    2009-03-01

    The aim of this article is to report weight loss in patients with schizophrenia after switching from olanzapine standard oral tablet (SOT) to olanzapine orally disintegrating tablets (ODT). In the first case report, the patient was switched to olanzapine ODT in daily dosage of 20 mg, while in the second case report, the patient was switched to olanzapine ODT in daily dosage of 15 mg, and weight loss was similar (14 kg vs. 15 kg). Switching patients from olanzapine SOT to olanzapine ODT treatment resulted in significant weight loss that was maintained during 12 months in both case reports. Further controlled clinical investigations are necessary to evaluate change in weight during treatment with olanzapine ODT, and to improve our understanding of this change.

  16. Enhanced dissolution of meloxicam from orodispersible tablets prepared by different methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Abd Elbary

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was formulation, development and evaluation of meloxicam orodispersible tablets. ODTs were prepared by two methods including sublimation technique where different subliming agents like camphor, menthol and thymol were used with Ac-Di-Sol as a superdisintegrant. Each subliming agent was used in three different concentrations (5, 10 and 15% w/w. Tablets were first prepared and later exposed to vacuum. Meloxicam ODTs were also prepared by freeze-drying an aqueous dispersion of meloxicam containing a matrix former, a sugar alcohol, and a collapse protectant. In addition, different disintegration accelerators were tested (each in 1% w/v including PVP K25, PVP K90, PEG 6000, PEG 4000, PEG 400, tween 80 and tween 20. The prepared ODTs from two methods were evaluated for weight variation, thickness, drug content, friability, hardness, wetting time, in vitro disintegration time and in vitro dissolution study. The best formulation was subjected to stability testing for 3 months at temperatures 40 °C and 75% relative humidity and at 60 °C. All formulations showed disintegration time ranging from 1 to 46 s. All the prepared formulae complied with the pharmacopoeial requirements of the drug contents. T17 gave the best in vitro disintegration and dissolution results. ODT formula T17 has shown no appreciable changes with respect to physical characters, meloxicam content and dissolution profiles when stored at elevated temperatures. In conclusion the results of this work suggest that orodispersible tablets of meloxicam with rapid disintegration time, fast drug release and good hardness can be efficiently and successfully formulated by employing freeze drying and sublimation methods.

  17. Orodispersible tablets containing taste-masked solid lipid pellets with metformin hydrochloride: Influence of process parameters on tablet properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrovick, Gustavo Freire; Kleinebudde, Peter; Breitkreutz, Jörg

    2018-01-01

    Compaction of multiparticulates into tablets, particularly into orodispersible tablets (ODTs), is challenging. The compression of pellets, made by solid lipid extrusion/spheronization processes, presents peculiar difficulties since solid lipids usually soften or melt at relatively low temperature ranges and due to applied mechanical forces. Until now, there are no reports in literature about the development of ODTs based on solid lipid pellets. To investigate the feasibility of producing such tablets, a design of experiment (DoE) approach was performed to elucidate the influence of compression force and amount of two co-processed excipients (Ludiflash ® and Parteck ® ODT) on properties of the tablets (friability, tensile strength, and disintegration time). ODTs (15 mm, flat-faced) with solid lipid pellets (250-1000 µm in diameter) containing 500 mg of metformin HCl, presenting immediate drug release profile and taste-masked properties, were targeted. During compression, a strong lamination of the tablets containing Parteck ® ODT was observed. This phenomenon was prominently observed when high compression forces (≥5 kN) and high excipient amounts (≥40%; w/w) were used. On the other hand, the DoE focused on tablets with Ludiflash ® showed better results regarding the production of ODTs. A positive influence of the compression force on the tensile strength and disintegration time of the tablets, regarding specifications of the Ph. Eur., was observed. The increase in the amount of this excipient resulted in fast disintegrating tablets, however, a negative influence on the tensile strength was noticed. After optimization of the parameters and formulation, based on the DoE results and considering the Ph. Eur. specifications for tablets, ODTs based on lipid pellets containing metformin HCl presenting immediate release profile (85% drug release in less than 30 min) and taste-masked properties (determined by an electronic tongue) were successfully

  18. Research Article. Kinetics and Mechanism of Drug Release from Loratadine Orodispersible Tablets Developed without Lactose

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    Ciurba Adriana

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study is to develop lactose-free orodispersible tablets with loratadine for patients with lactose intolerance. Materials and methods: Seven compositions (F1-F7 of 10 mg loratadine were prepared in form of orally disintegrating tablets, by direct compression, using croscarmellose sodium and pre-gelatinized starch in various concentrations as superdisintegrants, diluted with microcrystalline cellulose and combined with mannitol and maltodextrin as binder agents. The tablets had been studied in terms of their pharmacotechnical characteristics, by determining: the weight uniformity of the tablets, their friability, breaking strength and disintegration time, drug content and the dissolution profile of loratadine. The statistical analyses were performed with GraphPad Prism Software Inc. As dependent variables, both the hardness of the tablets and their disintegration ability differ between batches due to their compositional differences (as independent variables. DDSolver were used for modeling the kinetic of the dissolution processes by fitting the dissolution profiles with time-dependent equations (Zero-order, First-order, Higuchi, Korsmeyer-Peppas, Peppas-Sahlin. Results: All proposed formulas shows rapid disintegration, in less than 15 seconds, and the dissolution loratadine spans a period of about 10 minutes. Akaike index as well as R2 adjusted parameter have demonstrated that the studied dissolution profiles are the best fitted by Zero-order kinetic. Conclusion: In conclusion, association of croscarmellose sodium (7.5% with pre-gelatinized starch (6% as superdisintegrants and mannitol as the binder agent (35%, positively influences the dissolution properties of loratadine from orally fast dispersible tablets.

  19. Development and optimization of carvedilol orodispersible tablets: enhancement of pharmacokinetic parameters in rabbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aljimaee, Yazeed HM; El-Helw, Abdel-Rahim M; Ahmed, Osama AA; El-Say, Khalid M

    2015-01-01

    Background Carvedilol (CVD) is used for the treatment of essential hypertension, heart failure, and systolic dysfunction after myocardial infarction. Due to its lower aqueous solubility and extensive first-pass metabolism, the absolute bioavailability of CVD does not exceed 30%. To overcome these drawbacks, the objective of this work was to improve the solubility and onset of action of CVD through complexation with hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin and formulation of the prepared complex as orodispersible tablets (ODTs). Methods Compatibility among CVD and all tablet excipients using differential scanning calorimetry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, complexation of CVD with different polymers, and determination of the solubility of CVD in the prepared complexes were first determined. A Box-Behnken design (BBD) was used to study the effect of tablet formulation variables on the characteristics of the prepared tablets and to optimize preparation conditions. According to BBD design, 15 formulations of CVD-ODTs were prepared by direct compression and then evaluated for their quality attributes. The relative pharmacokinetic parameters of the optimized CVD-ODTs were compared with those of the marketed CVD tablet. A single dose, equivalent to 2.5 mg/kg CVD, was administered orally to New Zealand white rabbits using a double-blind, randomized, crossover design. Results The solubility of CVD was improved from 7.32 to 22.92 mg/mL after complexation with hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin at a molar ratio of 1:2 (CVD to cyclodextrin). The formulated CVD-ODTs showed satisfactory results concerning tablet hardness (5.35 kg/cm2), disintegration time (18 seconds), and maximum amount of CVD released (99.72%). The pharmacokinetic data for the optimized CVD-ODT showed a significant (Ptablet. Conclusion The optimized CVD-ODTs showed improved oral absorption of CVD and a subsequent acceleration of clinical effect, which is favored for hypertensive and cardiac patients. PMID

  20. Comparison of intramuscular olanzapine, orally disintegrating olanzapine tablets, oral risperidone solution, and intramuscular haloperidol in the management of acute agitation in an acute care psychiatric ward in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Wen-Yu; Huang, Si-Sheng; Lee, Bo-Shyan; Chiu, Nan-Ying

    2010-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare efficacy and safety among intramuscular olanzapine, intramuscular haloperidol, orally disintegrating olanzapine tablets, and oral risperidone solution for agitated patients with psychosis during the first 24 hours of treatment in an acute care psychiatric ward. Forty-two inpatients from an acute care psychiatric ward of a medical center in central Taiwan were enrolled. They were randomly assigned to 1 of the 4 treatment groups (10-mg intramuscular olanzapine, 10-mg olanzapine oral disintegrating tablet, 3-mg oral risperidone solution, or 7.5-mg intramuscular haloperidol). Agitation was measured by using the excited component of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS-EC), the Agitation-Calmness Evaluation Scale, and the Clinical Global Impression--Severity Scale during the first 24 hours. There were significant differences in the PANSS-EC total scores for the 4 intervention groups at 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, and 90 minutes after the initiation of treatment. More significant differences were found early in the treatment. In the post hoc analysis, the patients who received intramuscular olanzapine or orally disintegrating olanzapine tablets showed significantly greater improvement in PANSS-EC scores than did patients who received intramuscular haloperidol at points 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, and 90 minutes after injection. These findings suggest that intramuscular olanzapine, orally disintegrating olanzapine tablets, and oral risperidone solution are as effective treatments as intramuscular haloperidol for patients with acute agitation. Intramuscular olanzapine and disintegrating olanzapine tablets are more effective than intramuscular haloperidol in the early phase of the intervention. There is no significant difference in effectiveness among intramuscular olanzapine, orally disintegrating olanzapine tablets, and oral risperidone solution.

  1. A pharmaceutical study on chlorzoxazone orodispersible tablets: formulation, in-vitro and in-vivo evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moqbel, Helal Abdo; ElMeshad, Aliaa Nabil; El-Nabarawi, Mohamed Ahmed

    2016-10-01

    Muscle spasm needs prompt relief of symptoms. Chlorzoxazone is a centrally muscle relaxant. The aim of this study was to prepare chlorzoxazone orodispersible tablets (ODTs) allowing the drug to directly enter the systemic circulation and bypassing the first-pass metabolism for both enhancing its bioavailability and exerting a rapid relief of muscular spasm. ODTs were prepared by direct compression method using Pharmaburst®500, Starlac®, Pearlitol flash®, Prosolv® odt and F-melt® as co-processed excipients. Three ratios of the drug to the other excipients were used (0.5:1, 1:1 and 2:1). All ODTs were within the pharmacopeial limits for weight and content. ODTs containing Pharmaburst®500 showed the shortest wetting time (∼45.33 s), disintegration time (DT) (∼43.33 s) and dissolution (Q 15min 100.63%). By increasing the ratio of CLZ: Pharmaburst®500 from 0.5:1 to 1:1 and 2:1, the DT increased from 26.43 to 28.0 and 43.33 s, respectively. By using Prosolv® odt, ODTs failed to disintegrate in an acceptable time >180 s. DT of ODTs using different co-processed excipients can be arranged as follows: Pharmaburst® 500 tablets are a promising carrier for CLZ designed for management of muscle spasm due to the enhanced dissolution and rapid absorption of the drug through the oral mucosa.

  2. Application of face centred central composite design to optimise compression force and tablet diameter for the formulation of mechanically strong and fast disintegrating orodispersible tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pabari, Ritesh M; Ramtoola, Zebunnissa

    2012-07-01

    A two factor, three level (3(2)) face centred, central composite design (CCD) was applied to investigate the main and interaction effects of tablet diameter and compression force (CF) on hardness, disintegration time (DT) and porosity of mannitol based orodispersible tablets (ODTs). Tablet diameters of 10, 13 and 15 mm, and CF of 10, 15 and 20 kN were studied. Results of multiple linear regression analysis show that both the tablet diameter and CF influence tablet characteristics. A negative value of regression coefficient for tablet diameter showed an inverse relationship with hardness and DT. A positive value of regression coefficient for CF indicated an increase in hardness and DT with increasing CF as a result of the decrease in tablet porosity. Interestingly, at the larger tablet diameter of 15 mm, while hardness increased and porosity decreased with an increase in CF, the DT was resistant to change. The optimised combination was a tablet of 15 mm diameter compressed at 15 kN showing a rapid DT of 37.7s and high hardness of 71.4N. Using these parameters, ODTs containing ibuprofen showed no significant change in DT (ANOVA; p>0.05) irrespective of the hydrophobicity of the ibuprofen. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Olanzapine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olanzapine is used to treat the symptoms of schizophrenia (a mental illness that causes disturbed or unusual ... help control your symptoms, but it will not cure your condition. It may take several weeks or ...

  4. Formulation and evaluation of a bilayer tablet comprising of diclofenac potassium as orodispersible layer and diclofenac sodium as sustained release core

    OpenAIRE

    Abbas, Jabbar; Bashir, Sajid; Samie, Muhammad; Laghari, Sadaf

    2017-01-01

    Diclofenac a phenylacetic acid derivative has long been used as an anti-inflammatory and analgesic drug to treat certain conditions however its sustained release formulation with immediate release loading dose is desirable. The rationale of the current work was to develop and evaluate bilayer tablets with diclofenac potassium as orodispersible layer and diclofenac sodium as sustained release core. The diclofenac sodium core was prepared by wet granulation method while the...

  5. Bioequivalence study of a new sildenafil 100 mg orodispersible film compared to the conventional film-coated 100 mg tablet administered to healthy male volunteers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radicioni, Milko; Castiglioni, Chiara; Giori, Andrea; Cupone, Irma; Frangione, Valeria; Rovati, Stefano

    2017-01-01

    A new orodispersible film formulation of the phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor, sildenafil, has been developed to examine the advantages of an orally disintegrating film formulation and provide an alternative to the current marketed products for the treatment of erectile dysfunction. The pharmacokinetics of the sildenafil 100 mg orodispersible film (IBSA) was compared to that of the conventional marketed 100 mg film-coated tablet (Viagra®) after single-dose administration to 53 healthy male volunteers (aged 18–51 years) in a randomized, open, two-way crossover bioequivalence study. Each subject received a single oral dose of 100 mg of sildenafil as test or reference formulation administered under fasting conditions at each of the two study periods according to a randomized crossover design. There was a washout interval of ≥7 days between the two administrations of the investigational medicinal products. Blood samples for pharmacokinetic analysis were collected up to 24 h post-dosing. The primary objective was to compare the rate (peak plasma concentration; Cmax) and extent (area under the curve [AUC] from administration to last observed concentration time; AUC0–t) of sildenafil absorption after single-dose administration of test and reference. Secondary endpoints were observed to describe the plasma pharmacokinetic profiles of sildenafil and its metabolite N-desmethyl-sildenafil relative bioavailability and safety profile after single-dose administration. The mean sildenafil and N-desmethyl-sildenafil plasma concentration–time profiles up to 24 h after single-dose administration of sildenafil 100 mg orodispersible film and film-coated tablet were nearly superimposable. The bioequivalence test was fully satisfied for sildenafil and N-desmethyl-sildenafil in terms of rate and extent of bioavailability. Adverse events occurred at similar rates for the two formulations and were of mild-to-moderate severity. The results suggest that the new orodispersible film

  6. Bioequivalence study of a new sildenafil 100 mg orodispersible film compared to the conventional film-coated 100 mg tablet administered to healthy male volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radicioni M

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Milko Radicioni,1 Chiara Castiglioni,1 Andrea Giori,2 Irma Cupone,3 Valeria Frangione,4 Stefano Rovati4 1CROSS Research S.A., Phase I Unit, Arzo, Switzerland; 2IBSA Farmaceutici Italia, Lodi, Italy; 3Bouty S.p.A., Strada Padana Superiore, Cassina De’ Pecchi, Italy; 4IBSA Institut Biochimique S.A., Pambio-Noranco, Switzerland Abstract: A new orodispersible film formulation of the phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor, sildenafil, has been developed to examine the advantages of an orally disintegrating film formulation and provide an alternative to the current marketed products for the treatment of erectile dysfunction. The pharmacokinetics of the sildenafil 100 mg orodispersible film (IBSA was compared to that of the conventional marketed 100 mg film-coated tablet (Viagra® after single-dose administration to 53 healthy male volunteers (aged 18–51 years in a randomized, open, two-way crossover bioequivalence study. Each subject received a single oral dose of 100 mg of sildenafil as test or reference formulation administered under fasting conditions at each of the two study periods according to a randomized crossover design. There was a washout interval of ≥7 days between the two administrations of the investigational medicinal products. Blood samples for pharmacokinetic analysis were collected up to 24 h post-dosing. The primary objective was to compare the rate (peak plasma concentration; Cmax and extent (area under the curve [AUC] from administration to last observed concentration time; AUC0–t of sildenafil absorption after single-dose administration of test and reference. Secondary endpoints were observed to describe the plasma pharmacokinetic profiles of sildenafil and its metabolite N-desmethyl-sildenafil relative bioavailability and safety profile after single-dose administration. The mean sildenafil and N-desmethyl-sildenafil plasma concentration–time profiles up to 24 h after single-dose administration of sildenafil 100 mg

  7. Comparison of tadalafil pharmacokinetics after administration of a new orodispersible film versus a film-coated tablet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park SI

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Sang-In Park,1,* Su-Hak Heo,2,3,* Gihwan Kim,2 Seokhoon Chang,2 Keon-Hyoung Song,3 Min-Gul Kim,4 Eun-Heui Jin,5 JaeWoo Kim,5 SeungHwan Lee,1 Jang Hee Hong5,6 1Department of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Seoul National University College of Medicine and Hospital, Seoul, Republic of Korea; 2R&D Center, C.L. Pharm Co., Ltd, Seoul, Republic of Korea; 3Department of Pharmaceutical Engineering, College of Medical Science, Soonchunhyang University, Asan, Republic of Korea; 4Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju, Republic of Korea; 5Clinical Trials Center, Chungnam National University Hospital, Daejeon, Republic of Korea; 6Department of Pharmacology, College of Medicine, Chungnam National University, Daejeon, Republic of Korea *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: An orodispersible film (ODF of tadalafil may provide increased convenience for erectile dysfunction (ED patients as compared to conventional tablet formulations. In this study, we aimed to compare the pharmacokinetic, safety, and tolerability profiles of a newly developed ODF formulation of tadalafil to those of a film-coated tablet (FCT of tadalafil.Materials and methods: This study was conducted in healthy male subjects using an open-label, randomized sequence, two-period, two-formulation, single-dose, crossover design. The subjects were randomly assigned to one of two sequences of the two formulations: both the test drug (ODF and the reference drug (FCT contained 20 mg of tadalafil. Blood samples were collected up to 72 h after administration. Plasma concentrations of tadalafil were analyzed using liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. Geometric mean ratios (GMRs of the ODF to FCT formulations and their 90% CIs for the pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated. Safety and tolerability were assessed throughout the study.Results: Forty healthy male subjects were enrolled, and 36 of these completed the

  8. Long-term weight loss observed with olanzapine orally disintegrating tablets in overweight patients with chronic schizophrenia. A 1 year open-label, prospective trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chawla, Bharat; Luxton-Andrew, Heather

    2008-04-01

    To investigate the long-term weight loss outcomes during usual clinical practice after switching from olanzapine standard oral tablet (SOT) to olanzapine orally disintegrating tablets (ODT). In this open-label prospective study, 26 patients with schizophrenia who were clinically stable on olanzapine SOT treatment were switched to olanzapine ODT. All other aspects of treatment remained constant. Weight was recorded at 3, 6, and 12 months. Patients incurred an average weight loss of 2.7 +/- 0.7 kg (p = 0.001) after switching patients from olanzapine SOT to olanzapine ODT at 12 months. Peak weight loss was observed at 6 months; however, significant weight loss was achieved as early as 3 months. The majority (81.9%) of patients lost weight, while 18.1% had no weight change or weight gain. Body mass index (BMI) significantly decreased by 1.0 +/- 0.3 kg/m(2) (p = 0.001). Interestingly, patients treated with higher doses of olanzapine (> or = 20 mg) incurred a greater weight loss of their body weight (5.6%), compared to those treated with lower doses (< 20 mg), who lost 1.9% of their body weight (p = 0.04). This study demonstrated that, in usual clinical practice, switching patients from olanzapine SOT to olanzapine ODT treatment resulted in significant weight loss that was maintained over 12 months. 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Orally disintegrating olanzapine review: effectiveness, patient preference, adherence, and other properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montgomery W

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available William Montgomery1, Tamas Treuer2, Jamie Karagianis3, Haya Ascher-Svanum4, Gavan Harrison51Global Health Outcomes, Eli Lilly and Company, Sydney, Australia; 2Emerging Markets Business Unit (Neuroscience, Eli Lilly and Company, Budapest, Hungary; 3Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, IN, USA; 4Global Health Outcomes, Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, IN, USA; 5Asia-Pacific Medical Communications, Eli Lilly and Company, Sydney, AustraliaAbstract: Orally disintegrating olanzapine (ODO is a rapid-dissolving formulation of olanzapine which disintegrates in saliva almost immediately, developed as a convenient and adherence-enhancing alternative to the standard olanzapine-coated tablet (SOT. Clinical studies, which form the basis of this review, have shown ODO and SOT to have similar efficacy and tolerability profiles. However, ODO appears to have a number of advantages over SOT in terms of adherence, patient preference, and reduction in nursing burden. Overall, the existing clinical data suggests that compared to SOT, ODO is not only well-suited for difficult-to-treat, agitated, and/or nonadherent patients but, due to its potential ability to improve adherence and greater patient preference, may also be an appropriate formulation for the majority of patients for which olanzapine is the antipsychotic of choice.Keywords: orodispersible formulation, orally disintegrating, olanzapine, atypical antipsychotics, patient adherence, preference, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder

  10. A randomized controlled trial of the effect of sublingual orally disintegrating olanzapine versus oral olanzapine on body mass index: the PLATYPUS Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karagianis, J.; Grossman, L.; Landry, J.; Reed, V. A.; de Haan, L.; Maguire, G. A.; Hoffmann, V. P.; Milev, R.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder have frequently reported weight gain during olanzapine treatment. Previous studies have observed a decrease in weight gain, or weight loss, in patients switching from standard olanzapine tablets (SOT) to orally disintegrating olanzapine

  11. Orally disintegrating and oral standard olanzapine tablets similarly elevate the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance index and plasma triglyceride levels in 12 healthy men: a randomized crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidarsdottir, Solrun; Vlug, Pauline; Roelfsema, Ferdinand; Frölich, Marijke; Pijl, Hanno

    2010-09-01

    Treatment with olanzapine is associated with obesity, diabetes mellitus, and dyslipidemia. Reports have indicated that orally disintegrating tablets (ODT) cause less weight gain than oral standard tablets (OST). The aim of this study was to compare the effect of short-term treatment with these 2 distinct olanzapine formulations on glucose and lipid metabolism in healthy men. Twelve healthy men (mean ± SEM age: 25.1 ± 5.5 years) received olanzapine ODT (10 mg od, 8 days), olanzapine OST (10 mg od, 8 days), or no intervention in a randomized crossover design. At breakfast and dinner, glucose, insulin, free fatty acids (FFA), and triglyceride concentrations were measured at 10-minute intervals from 30 minutes prior to 2 hours after ingestion of standard meals. Leptin and adiponectin concentrations were measured at 20- and 30-minute intervals, respectively, between 0000h-1200h. Physical activity was assessed with an accelerometer. Fuel oxidation was measured in fasting condition by indirect calorimetry. The study was conducted from April 2006 through September 2006. Treatment with olanzapine ODT and OST equally elevated the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (P = .005). At breakfast, both formulations equally increased fasting and postprandial triglyceride concentrations (P = .013 and P = .005, respectively) while decreasing fasting and postprandial FFA concentrations (P = .004 and P = .009, respectively). Body weight, body composition, physical activity, or fuel oxidation did not differ between treatment modalities. Eight days of treatment with both olanzapine formulations similarly increased HOMA-IR and triglyceride concentrations and decreased FFA concentrations in response to standard meals without affecting anthropometrics or physical activity. These data suggest that olanzapine hampers insulin action via mechanistic routes other than body adiposity or physical inactivity. controlled-trials.com. Identifier: ISRCTN17632637. © Copyright

  12. A single-dose, randomized, two-way crossover study comparing two olanzapine tablet products in healthy adult male volunteers under fasting conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elshafeey, Ahmed H; Elsherbiny, Mohamed A; Fathallah, Mohsen M

    2009-03-01

    Olanzapine is a psychotropic agent that belongs to the thienobenzodiazepine class. The aim of this study was to assess the bioequivalence of 2 commercial 10-mg tablet formulations of olanzapine by statistical analysis of the pharmacokinetic parameters C(max), AUC from 0 to 72 hours after dosing (AUC(0-72)), and AUC(0-infinity) as required by the Egyptian health authority for the marketing of a generic product. This bioequivalence study was carried out in healthy male volunteers using a single-dose, randomized, 2-way crossover design under fasting conditions. Statistical analysis of the pharmacokinetic parameters C(max), AUC(0-72), and AUC(0-infinity) was conducted to determine bioequivalence (after log-transformation of data using analysis of variance and 90% CIs) and to gain marketing approval in Egypt. The formulations were considered to be bioequivalent if the log-transformed ratios of the 3 pharmacokinetic parameters were within the predetermined bioequivalence range (ie, 80%-125%), as established by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Both the test product (Trademark: Integrol((R)) [Global Napi Pharmaceuticals, Cairo, Egypt]) and the reference product (Trademark: Zyprexa((R)) [Eli Lilly and Company, Basingstoke, Hampshire, United Kingdom]) were administered as 10-mg tablets with 240 mL of water after an overnight fast on 2 treatment days, separated by a 2-week washout period. After dosing, serial blood samples were collected for 72 hours. Plasma samples were analyzed using a sensitive, reproducible, and accurate liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method capable of quantitating olanzapine in the range of 0.167 to 16.7 ng/mL, with a lower limit of quantitation of 0.167 ng/mL. Adverse events were reported by the volunteers as instructed or observed by the resident physician, and were recorded, tabulated, and evaluated. Twenty-four healthy adult male volunteers participated in this study. Their mean (SD) age was 24.7 (6.2) years (range, 19

  13. Preparation and Evaluation of Orodispersible Tablets Containing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    wetting and disintegration times, water absorption, and in vtro dissolution. Results: Increase in ... reagent were purchased from Sigma-Aldrich (St. Louis, MO). ... pressure and the resultant solid dispersions were collected [10]. ... were prepared. Preweighed amount of the ..... It is an ideal choice for low calorie and diabetic ...

  14. Development of a Taste-Masked Orodispersible Film Containing Dimenhydrinate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörg Breitkreutz

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Orodispersible dosage forms are promising new approaches for drug delivery. They enable an easy application, as there is no need to drink high amounts of liquids or swallow large solid dosage forms. The aim of the study was to develop an orodispersible film (ODF as an alternative to tablets, syrups or suppositories for the treatment of vomiting and nausea, especially for the pediatric population. Formulations were investigated by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron and polarized light microscopy. Additionally, two commercially available electronic taste sensing systems were used to investigate the applied taste-masking strategies. Results obtained from X-ray-diffraction and polarized light microscopy showed no recrystallization of dimenhydrinate in the formulation when cyclodextrin or maltodextrin were used as solubilizing and complexing agent. All ODFs showed fast disintegration depending on the characterization method. In order to get taste information, the dimenhydrinate formulations were analytically compared to pure drug and drug-free formulations by electronic tongues. Results obtained from both systems are comparable and were used together for the first time. It was possible to develop an ODF of dimenhydrinate that is fast disintegrating even in small volumes of liquid. Furthermore, in vitro taste assessment by two electronic tongues revealed taste-masking effects by the excipients.

  15. Polyols as filler-binders for disintegrating tablets prepared by direct compaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolhuis, Gerad K.; Rexwinkel, Erik G.; Zuurman, Klaas

    Background: Although polyols are frequently used as tablet excipients in lozenges, chewing tablets, and orodisperse tablets, special directly compressible (DC) forms are recommended as filler-binder in common disintegrating tablets. Aim: In this article, DC types of isomalt, lactitol, mannitol,

  16. Orally disintegrating olanzapine and potential differences in treatment-emergent weight gain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karagianis, Jamie; Hoffmann, Vicki Poole; Arranz, Belen; Treuer, Tamás; Maguire, Gerald A.; de Haan, Lieuwe; Chawla, Bharat

    2008-01-01

    Several papers and communications have reported possible weight reduction or less weight gain when patients start or switch to orally disintegrating olanzapine, as contrasted with standard oral olanzapine tablets. In this paper, the current literature is reviewed and hypothesized mechanisms of

  17. Development of orodispersible films with selected Indonesian medicinal plant extracts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Johanna; Eugresya, Gabriella; Hinrichs, Wouter; Tjandrawinata, Raymond; Avanti, Christina; Frijlink, H.W.; Woerdenbag, Herman

    2017-01-01

    This study focused on the incorporation into orodispersible films (ODFs) of the dried extracts of five selected Indonesian medicinal plants: Lagerstroemia speciosa (L.) Pers. (LS), Phyllanthus niruri L. (PN), Cinnamomum burmanii Blume (CB), Zingiber officinale Roscoe (ZO) and Phaleria macrocarpa

  18. Comparative study on novel test systems to determine disintegration time of orodispersible films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preis, Maren; Gronkowsky, Dorothee; Grytzan, Dominik; Breitkreutz, Jörg

    2014-08-01

    Orodispersible films (ODFs) are a promising innovative dosage form enabling drug administration without the need for water and minimizing danger of aspiration due to their fast disintegration in small amounts of liquid. This study focuses on the development of a disintegration test system for ODFs. Two systems were developed and investigated: one provides an electronic end-point, and the other shows a transferable setup of the existing disintegration tester for orodispersible tablets. Different ODF preparations were investigated to determine the suitability of the disintegration test systems. The use of different test media and the impact of different storage conditions of ODFs on their disintegration time were additionally investigated. The experiments showed acceptable reproducibility (low deviations within sample replicates due to a clear determination of the measurement end-point). High temperatures and high humidity affected some of the investigated ODFs, resulting in higher disintegration time or even no disintegration within the tested time period. The methods provided clear end-point detection and were applicable for different types of ODFs. By the modification of a conventional test system to enable application for films, a standard method could be presented to ensure uniformity in current quality control settings. © 2014 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  19. Key acceptability attributes of orodispersible films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarpa, Mariagiovanna; Paudel, Amrit; Kloprogge, Frank; Hsiao, Wen Kai; Bresciani, Massimo; Gaisford, Simon; Orlu, Mine

    2018-04-01

    The features rendering orodispersible films (ODFs) patient-centric formulations are widely discussed in the scientific literature. However there is a lack of research studies exploring ODF characteristics with a potential impact on end-user acceptability. The aim of this study was to identify the key ODF characteristics affecting end-user acceptability by developing in vitro test methods for the prediction of ODFs acceptability and correlate these formulation characteristics with the data obtained from a human panel study. Four drug-free single-polymer films were prepared by solvent casting. Solutions of poly(vinyl) alcohol (PVOH) 39 KDa (P1), PVOH 197 KDa (P2), carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) 395 KDa (C1), and CMC 725 KDa (C2) were prepared. Texture analysis and Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA) were used to assess film tack. Petri dish and drop methods were used to assess disintegration time. A human panel of 24 healthy young adults was employed to identify end-user acceptability criteria of the four study film samples. Texture analysis data of ODF tack were not found to be in agreement with the in vivo perceived stickiness in the mouth. However, measurement of the area under the adhesive force curve obtained by DMA correlated with in vivo perceived stickiness data for all samples. The disintegration times obtained by drop method were more comparable to human panel data than the petri dish method. Hence DMA and drop methods proved to be promising methodologies for the prediction of the end-user acceptability. The type and molecular weight of the film-forming polymer had a strong influence on stickiness perception, whereas only polymeric molecular weight influenced perceived disintegration time. The human panel study showed that Participant Reported Outcomes (PROs) for the perceived stickiness in the mouth and disintegration time of test films received significantly different scores between samples, and thus were identified as the key attributes with the

  20. Novel levocetirizine HCl tablets with enhanced palatability: synergistic effect of combining taste modifiers and effervescence technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Labib GS

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Gihan S Labib1,2 1Department of Pharmaceutics and Industrial Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia; 2Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt Objectives: Levocetirizine HCl, a second-generation piperazine derivative and H1-selective antihistaminic agent, possesses few side effects. The first objective of the study was to compare and evaluate the taste-masking effect of different ratios of 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin and mannitol on levocetirizine HCl using an inclusion complex and solid dispersion, respectively. The second objective was to study the possibility of preparing and evaluating effervescent tablets from the best-chosen taste-masked blends for the purpose of their use either as orodispersible tablets or as water-soluble effervescent tablets, according to patients’ will.Materials and methods: Prepared taste-masked blends were prepared and subjected to palatability, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and differential scanning calorimetry studies. Tablets containing different percentages of effervescent mixtures were prepared by direct compression on the selected taste-modified blends. Evaluation tests were conducted, including flowability and compressibility on the precompressed blends and hardness, friability, wetting time, effervescent time, in vitro, in vivo disintegration time, and in vitro dissolution study on the compressed tablets. Formulated tablets were evaluated and compared to marketed orodispersible tablets for mouth feel and palatability.Results: All prepared tablets showed convenient physical and palatability properties compared to the selected brand. The in vitro drug-release study revealed fast release of levocetirizine HCl within 5 minutes from all prepared tablets.Conclusion: Levocetirizine HCl effervescent tablets are likely to increase patient compliance with drug administration. Moreover, the use of these

  1. Novel levocetirizine HCl tablets with enhanced palatability: synergistic effect of combining taste modifiers and effervescence technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labib, Gihan S

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Levocetirizine HCl, a second-generation piperazine derivative and H1-selective antihistaminic agent, possesses few side effects. The first objective of the study was to compare and evaluate the taste-masking effect of different ratios of 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin and mannitol on levocetirizine HCl using an inclusion complex and solid dispersion, respectively. The second objective was to study the possibility of preparing and evaluating effervescent tablets from the best-chosen taste-masked blends for the purpose of their use either as orodispersible tablets or as water-soluble effervescent tablets, according to patients’ will. Materials and methods Prepared taste-masked blends were prepared and subjected to palatability, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and differential scanning calorimetry studies. Tablets containing different percentages of effervescent mixtures were prepared by direct compression on the selected taste-modified blends. Evaluation tests were conducted, including flowability and compressibility on the precompressed blends and hardness, friability, wetting time, effervescent time, in vitro, in vivo disintegration time, and in vitro dissolution study on the compressed tablets. Formulated tablets were evaluated and compared to marketed orodispersible tablets for mouth feel and palatability. Results All prepared tablets showed convenient physical and palatability properties compared to the selected brand. The in vitro drug-release study revealed fast release of levocetirizine HCl within 5 minutes from all prepared tablets. Conclusion Levocetirizine HCl effervescent tablets are likely to increase patient compliance with drug administration. Moreover, the use of these effervescent tablets in an orodispersible dosage form can improve oral drug bioavailability and act as an attractive pediatric dosage form. PMID:26379426

  2. A New Test Unit for Disintegration End-Point Determination of Orodispersible Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Ariana; Kok, Si Ling; Khong, Yuet Mei; Chan, Sui Yung; Gokhale, Rajeev

    2015-11-01

    No standard time or pharmacopoeia disintegration test method for orodispersible films (ODFs) exists. The USP disintegration test for tablets and capsules poses significant challenges for end-point determination when used for ODFs. We tested a newly developed disintegration test unit (DTU) against the USP disintegration test. The DTU is an accessory to the USP disintegration apparatus. It holds the ODF in a horizontal position, allowing top-view of the ODF during testing. A Gauge R&R study was conducted to assign relative contributions of the total variability from the operator, sample or the experimental set-up. Precision was compared using commercial ODF products in different media. Agreement between the two measurement methods was analysed. The DTU showed improved repeatability and reproducibility compared to the USP disintegration system with tighter standard deviations regardless of operator or medium. There is good agreement between the two methods, with the USP disintegration test giving generally longer disintegration times possibly due to difficulty in end-point determination. The DTU provided clear end-point determination and is suitable for quality control of ODFs during product developmental stage or manufacturing. This may facilitate the development of a standardized methodology for disintegration time determination of ODFs. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  3. Clinical utility of orally disintegrating olanzapine in Chinese patients with schizophrenia: a review of effectiveness, patient preference, adherence, and other properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao J

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Jingping Zhao,1 Jianjun Ou,1 Haibo Xue,2 Li Liu,2 William Montgomery,3 Tamas Treuer4 1Mental Health Institute of The Second Xiangya Hospital, Hunan Province Technology Institute of Psychiatry, Key Laboratory of Psychiatry and Mental Health of Hunan Province, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, 2Lilly Suzhou Pharmaceutical Co, Ltd, Jiangsu, People's Republic of China; 3Global Health Outcomes, Eli Lilly and Company, Sydney, Australia; 4Emerging Markets Business Unit (Neuroscience, Eli Lilly and Company, Budapest, Hungary Abstract: The primary objective of this systematic review was to examine the evidence for the efficacy, effectiveness, and safety of orally disintegrating olanzapine in Chinese populations. A systematic literature search was conducted using databases covering international and Chinese journals, ClinicalTrials.gov, and internal and external trial registries at Eli Lilly and Company using search terms related to target countries (People's Republic of China, Hong Kong, and Taiwan and orally disintegrating olanzapine treatment. A publication and one clinical study report were retrieved. The clinical study showed orally disintegrating olanzapine and the standard oral tablet to have similar efficacy and tolerability profiles. A bioequivalence study has shown that orally disintegrating olanzapine and the standard oral tablet have similar pharmacokinetic profiles. Orally disintegrating olanzapine and the standard oral tablet have similar efficacy and tolerability profiles. Keywords: orally disintegrating, olanzapine, Chinese, schizophrenia, patients

  4. Emphysematous pancreatitis predisposed by Olanzapine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukhen Samanta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A 32-year-old male presented to our intensive care unit with severe abdominal pain and was diagnosed as acute pancreatitis after 2 months of olanzapine therapy for bipolar disorder. His serum lipase was 900 u/L, serum triglyceride 560 mg/dL, and blood sugar, fasting and postprandial were 230 and 478 mg/dL, respectively on admission. Contrast enhanced computed tomography (CECT of abdomen was suggestive of acute pancreatitis. Repeat CECT showed gas inside pancreas and collection in peripancreatic area and patient underwent percutaneous drainage and antibiotics irrigation through the drain into pancreas. We describe the rare case of emphysematous pancreatitis due to development of diabetes, hypertriglyceridemia and immunosuppression predisposed by short duration olanzapine therapy.

  5. Serum prolactin level in patients taking olanzapine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diganta Das

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Olanzapine is a commonly used antipsychotic. Prolactin elevation is a common adverse effect of anstipsychotics, and serum prolactin elevation is seen in about 30% patients treated with olanzapine. There are confounding results about dose dependency of olanzapine and prolactin elevation, and also the duration of treatment. Method: Fifty six patients, 36 male and 20 female, who were taking olanzapine for any condition for more than a month at a constant dose were enrolled in the study. Patients’ age, weight, body mass index (BMI, serum prolactin levels, and some biochemical values were recorded. Patients were taken from the review outpatient department (OPD after due consent. Results: Five each in male and female groups showed elevation of serum prolactin (estimated to be high if >20 ng/dl for males, and >25 ng/dl for females. In females, the elevation was found at lesser dose of olanzapine (13 mg/day, in males 18 mg/day and early in the treatment (2.4 months vs. 9.7 months in males. Males tended to show raised prolactin with higher doses of olanzapine (mean 18 mg/day. Females (26.31% also showed higher prevalence of prolactin elevation compared to males (13.51%. No other parameter was found to modify the prolactin levels. Conclusion: Olanzapine causes elevation of serum prolactin, though lesser degree than some other antipsychotics. Females are more prone to have raised serum prolactin with olanzapine compared to males. However, the elevation seems to be transient. Higher doses of olanzapine tend to cause elevation of serum prolactin. Serum prolactin estimation in patients taking olanzapine may be undertaken to maintain quality life, particularly in females.

  6. Microtitrimetric determination of a drug content of pharmaceuticals containing olanzapine in non-aqueous medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KANAKAPURA BASAVAIAH

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Two simple, rapid, reliable and cost-effective methods based on titrimetry in non-aqueous medium are described for the determination of olanzapine in pharmaceuticals. In these methods, the drug dissolved in the glacial acetic acid was titrated with the acetous perchloric acid with visual and potentiometric end point detection, crystal violet being used as the indicator for visual titration. The methods are applicable over 1-15 mg range of olanzapine. The procedures were applied to determine olanzapine in pharmaceutical products and the results were found to be in a good agreement with those obtained by the reference method. Associated pharmaceutical materials did not interfere. The precision results, expressed by inter-day and intra-day relative standard deviation values, were satisfactory, higher than 2%. The accuracy was satisfactory as well. The methods proved to be suitable for the analysis of olanzapine in bulk drug and in tablets. The accuracy and reliability of the methods were further ascertained by recovery studies via a standard addition technique with percent recoveries in the range 97.51-103.7% with a standard deviation of less than 2%.

  7. Application of SeDeM expert systems in preformulation studies of pediatric ibuprofen ODT tablets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sipos Emese

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Pediatric, ibuprofen containing orodispersible tablets (ODTs were prepared using the SeDeM expert system methodology. In order to facilitate formulation, directly compressible ibuprofen was employed (Ibuprofen DC 8TM and characterized using its SeDeM profile. The mannitol based superdisintegrant Ludiflash® was characterized by the SeDeM-ODT expert system, which also allowed calculation of the optimal excipient concentration in order to obtain suitable tablet hardness and disintegration time. After adding a sweetener and a standard combination of lubricants, the optimized formulation was directly compressed into tablets and evaluated in terms of tablet hardness, friability, disintegration time and dissolution profile. The SeDeM method was applied to determine the amount of corrective excipient (Ludiflash® required for the compression of Ibuprofen DC 85TM in order to achieve suitable ODTs. Adequate tablet hardness, disintegration time, friability and dissolution profiles were found during tablet evaluation.

  8. Application of SeDeM expert systems in preformulation studies of pediatric ibuprofen ODT tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipos, Emese; Oltean, Andrea Ramona; Szabó, Zoltán-István; Rédai, Emőke-Margit; Nagy, Gabriella Dónáth

    2017-06-27

    Pediatric, ibuprofen containing orodispersible tablets (ODTs) were prepared using the SeDeM expert system methodology. In order to facilitate formulation, directly compressible ibuprofen was employed (Ibuprofen DC 8TM) and characterized using its SeDeM profile. The mannitol based superdisintegrant Ludiflash® was characterized by the SeDeM-ODT expert system, which also allowed calculation of the optimal excipient concentration in order to obtain suitable tablet hardness and disintegration time. After adding a sweetener and a standard combination of lubricants, the optimized formulation was directly compressed into tablets and evaluated in terms of tablet hardness, friability, disintegration time and dissolution profile. The SeDeM method was applied to determine the amount of corrective excipient (Ludiflash®) required for the compression of Ibuprofen DC 85TM in order to achieve suitable ODTs. Adequate tablet hardness, disintegration time, friability and dissolution profiles were found during tablet evaluation.

  9. Olanzapine-induced ischemic colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esteban Sáez-González

    Full Text Available Background: Ischemic colitis (IC is an uncommon adverse event associated with antipsychotic agents, more commonly found with phenothiazine drugs and atypical neuroleptics such as clozapine. The risk of developing ischemic colitis increases when anticholinergic drugs are associated. Case report: We report the case of a 38-year-old woman with a history of schizoaffective disorder who had been on chronic quetiapine for 3 years, and presented to the ER because of diarrhea for 5 days. Four months previously, olanzapine had been added to her psychiatric drug regimen. Physical examination revealed abdominal distension with abdominal tympanic sounds and tenderness. Emergency laboratory tests were notable for increased acute phase reagents. Tomography revealed a concentric thickening of the colonic wall in the transverse, descending and sigmoid segments, with no signs of intestinal perforation. Colonoscopy demonstrated severe mucosal involvement from the sigmoid to the hepatic flexure, with ulcerations and fibrinoid exudate. Biopsies confirmed the diagnosis of ischemic colitis. The only relevant finding in her history was the newly added drug to her baseline regimen. An adverse effect was suspected because of its anticholinergic action at the intestinal level, and the drug was withdrawn. After 6 months of follow-up clinical, laboratory and endoscopic recovery was achieved. Discussion: Antipsychotic medication should be considered as a potential cause of ischemic colitis, particularly atypical antipsychotics such as clozapine and olanzapine; despite being uncommon, this adverse event may result in high morbidity and mortality.

  10. Olanzapine induced Q-Tc shortening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoja Shafti, Saeed; Fallah Jahromi, Parisa

    2014-12-01

    Prolongation of Q-Tc interval is commonly accepted as a surrogate marker for the ability of a drug to cause torsade de pointes. In the present study, safety of olanzapine versus risperidone was compared among a group of patients with schizophrenia to see the frequency of the electrocardiographic alterations induced by those atypical antipsychotics. Two hundred and sixty-eight female inpatients with schizophrenia entered in one of the two parallel groups to participate in an open study for random assignment to olanzapine (n = 148) or risperidone (n = 120). Standard 12-lead surface electrocardiogram (ECG) was taken from each patient at baseline, before initiation of treatment, and then at the end of management, just before discharge. The parameters that were assessed included heart rate (HR), P-R interval, QRS interval, Q-T interval (corrected = Q-Tc), ventricular activation time (VAT), ST segment, T wave, axis of QRS, and finally, interventricular conduction process. A total of 37.83% of cases in the olanzapine group and 30% in the risperidone group showed some Q-Tc changes; 13.51% and 24.32% of the patients in the olanzapine group showed prolongation and shortening of the Q-Tc, respectively, while changes in the risperidone group were restricted to only prolongation of Q-Tc. Comparison of means showed a significant increment in Q-Tc by risperidone (p = 0.02). Also, comparison of proportions in the olanzapine group showed significantly more cases with shortening of Q-Tc versus its prolongation (p = 0.01). No significant alterations with respect to other variables were evident. Olanzapine and risperidone had comparable potentiality for induction of Q-Tc changes, while production of further miscellaneous alterations in ECG was more observable in the olanzapine group compared with the risperidone group. Also shortening of Q-Tc was specific to olanzapine.

  11. Preparation and evaluation of diclofenac sodium orally disintegrating tablets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iancu Valeriu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Orally disintegrating tablets (ODTs are dosage forms which disintegrate in mouth within seconds without need of water. This type of quality in dosage form can be attained by addition of different varieties of excipients. Pharmaburst™ 500 is a co-processed excipient system which allows rapid disintegration and low adhesion to punches. The aim of the present study was to develop and evaluate 25 mg diclofenac sodium ODTs (orodispersible tablets batches by direct compression method at different compression forces 10 kN (F1 and 20 kN (F2 and directly compressible excipients used in different ratio (Avicel PH 102, magnesium stearate and coprocessed excipient Pharmaburst™ 500, 70% and 80% w/w. The obtained batches were analyzed for appearance, tablet thickness, uniformity of weight, hardness, friability, disintegration time, and non-compendial methods (wetting time. Co-processed Pharmaburst™ 500 excipient 70% used for sodium diclofenac ODT obtaining determined good results for quality control tests evaluation.

  12. Pharmaceutics, Drug Delivery and Pharmaceutical Technology: A New Test Unit for Disintegration End-Point Determination of Orodispersible Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Ariana; Kok, Si Ling; Khong, Yuetmei; Chan, Sui Yung; Gokhale, Rajeev

    2015-11-01

    No standard time or pharmacopoeia disintegration test method for orodispersible films (ODFs) exists. The USP disintegration test for tablets and capsules poses significant challenges for end-point determination when used for ODFs. We tested a newly developed disintegration test unit (DTU) against the USP disintegration test. The DTU is an accessory to the USP disintegration apparatus. It holds the ODF in a horizontal position, allowing top-view of the ODF during testing. A Gauge R&R study was conducted to assign relative contributions of the total variability from the operator, sample or the experimental set-up. Precision was compared using commercial ODF products in different media. Agreement between the two measurement methods was analysed. The DTU showed improved repeatability and reproducibility compared to the USP disintegration system with tighter standard deviations regardless of operator or medium. There is good agreement between the two methods, with the USP disintegration test giving generally longer disintegration times possibly due to difficulty in end-point determination. The DTU provided clear end-point determination and is suitable for quality control of ODFs during product developmental stage or manufacturing. This may facilitate the development of a standardized methodology for disintegration time determination of ODFs. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci 104:3893-3903, 2015. Copyright © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  13. Preparation, characterization and in vitro evaluation of a polyvinyl alcohol/sodium alginate based orodispersible film containing sildenafil citrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Li-Li; Xu, Wei-Juan; Cao, Qing-Ri; Yang, Mingshi; Cui, Jing-Hao

    2014-05-01

    In this work, we developed a sildenafil citrate (SC)-loaded polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)/sodium alginate (ALG-Na) based orodispersible film (ODF) using a solvent casting method. Formulation factors such as the type and amount of plasticizers and disintegrants were optimized on the basis of characteristics of blank ODF, including the disintegration time, elastic modulus (EM) and percentage of elongation (E%). SC-loaded ODF with a loading capacity up to 25 mg in an area of 6 cm2 was prepared and evaluated in terms of mechanical properties, disintegration time and dissolution rate. The surface morphology of ODF was visualized under a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The physicochemical properties of ODF were investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The blank ODF composed of PVA, polyethylene glycol 400 (PEG 400) and ALG-Na (20:5:2, w/w) had a remarkably short disintegration time of about 20 s. However, the loading of drug extended the disintegration time (100 s) of ODF, while it still maintained satisfactory mechanical properties. SC was homogenously dispersed throughout the films and the crystalline form of drug changed, with strong hydrogen bonding between the drug and carriers. The PVA/ALG-Na based ODF containing SC prepared by the simple solvent casting method might be an alternative to conventional SC tablets for the treatment of male erectile dysfunction.

  14. Olanzapine versus haloperidol: Which can control stuttering better?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Shaygannejad

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: It seems that olanzapine does have better impact in controlling stuttering, and it may be recommended to prescribe olanzapine for stutters as the first choice to control the stuttering under a careful follow-up.

  15. Hydrophobic polymers for orodispersible films: a quality by design approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Ana Filipa; Silva, Branca M A; Silva, Cláudia; Coelho, Jorge F J; Simões, Sérgio

    2016-10-01

    To develop orodispersible films (ODF) based on hydrophobic polymers with higher stability to ordinary environmental humidity conditions without compromising their fast disintegration time. A quality by design approach was applied to screen three different formulations each one based on a different hydrophobic polymer: polyvinyl acetate, methacrylate-based copolymer and shellac. The screening formulations were characterized regarding their mechanical properties, residual water content, disintegration time and appearance, in order to find a suitable ODF formulation according to established critical quality attributes. The selected critical process parameters for the selection of appropriate ODF formulations were the percentage of the different excipients and the plasticizer type. Three hydrophobic-based matrices with fast disintegration were developed. These were generically composed by a hydrophobic polymer, a stabilizer, a disintegrant and a plasticizer. It verified that the common components within the three different formulations behave differently depending on the system/chemical environment that they were included. It was shown that it is possible to develop oral films based on hydrophobic polymers with fast disintegration time, good texture and appearance, breaking a paradigm of the ODF research field.

  16. Orodispersible films in individualized pharmacotherapy : The development of a formulation for pharmacy preparations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Caroline; Woerdenbag, Herman J.; Crediet, Stefan; Gerrits, Edwin; Lesschen, Marjan A.; Hinrichs, Wouter L.J.; Breitkreutz, Jörg; Frijlink, Henderik W.

    2015-01-01

    Orodispersible films (ODFs) are promising drug delivery systems for customized small scale pharmacy preparations. The aim of the present study was to develop a versatile casting solution suitable for the extemporaneous production of ODFs to which active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) can be

  17. Quality by design approach for optimizing the formulation and physical properties of extemporaneously prepared orodispersible films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, J. Caroline; Dohmen, Willem M. C.; Hinrichs, Wouter L. J.; Breitkreutz, Joerg; Frijlink, Henderik W.; Woerdenbag, Herman J.

    2015-01-01

    The quality by design (QbD) approach was applied for optimizing the formulation of extemporaneously prepared orodispersible films (ODFs) using Design-Expert Software. The starting formulation was based on earlier experiments and contained the film forming agents hypromellose and carbomer 974P and

  18. Eosinophilic myocarditis during treatment with olanzapine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vang, Torkel; Rosenzweig, Mary; Bruhn, Christina Hedegaard

    2016-01-01

    -mortem toxicological examination demonstrated presence of olanzapine, morphine, venlafaxine and oxazepam. Syringes indicating substance abuse were found in his home. Case 2 was a 36-year-old Caucasian man diagnosed with schizophrenia was found dead unexpectedly. There was no history of substance abuse. Current...

  19. Olanzapine Overdose in a Pin Point Pupil with Altered Sensorium

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    Naresh Midha

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background:Olanzapine is a highly tolerable and easily affordable atypical antipsychotic drug which has been commonly prescribed in both inpatient and outpatient settings for several mental disorders. Olanzapine overdose is commonly seen in psychiatric patients, who attempt suicide by intoxicating themselves with their own prescribed medications. Increased olanzapine use is associated with increased incidence of overdosing. Case Presentation:We are reporting a case of olanzapine overdosage as a cause of pinpoint pupils and altered sensorium with exclusion of other differentials. The mainstay of managementof olanzapine overdose is general supportive and symptomatic measures. Discussion: Pinpoint pupils with altered sensorium and agitation are always an alarming situation for a clinician, because of differentials like organophosphorus poisoning, pontine hemorrhage and opium overdosing. Due to olanzapine overdosage, similar clinical picture can be confusing in the emergency department and early identification of such cases is helpful to decrease the risk of fatality. Conclusion: This case highlights the significance of olanzapine overdosing as a differential diagnosis for patients presented with altered sensorium and pinpoint pupils in the emergency department. Olanzapine overdosage is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Although there is no specific antidote for olanzapine overdose, appropriate history, assessment and early diagnosis are very useful for the better outcome.

  20. Olanzapine-Induced Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyedhamze Hosseini

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS is a rare but life-threatening idiosyncratic side effect resulting from neuroleptic drugs. NMS mainly occurs in patients treated with high-potency typical antipsychotics, but rarely caused by atypical antipsychotics. Although NMS is less common with atypical antipsychotic, but it seems that its incidence is rising due to increased administration of such drugs. We present the case of a 27-year-old man with a history of paranoid schizophrenia that showed signs consistent with NMS that occurred after treatment with olanzapine. The patient was adherent to treatment. He had decreased level of consciousness, muscle rigidity, diaphoresis, fever, drooling, urinary incontinence, and high blood pressure. This patient illustrates that NMS can occur due to treatment with atypical antipsychotic drugs like olanzapine, particularly in the presence of risk factors. This phenomenon is often unrecognized, underdiagnosed, or not treated properly. Physicians should be aware that NMS with extrapyramidal syndrome could occur with olanzapine at steady state doses without recent dosage adjustments or titration. It is essential that adequate and safe dose of medication is chosen and the patient is monitored by the signs and symptoms of this lethal syndrome.

  1. Efficient production of nanoparticle-loaded orodispersible films by process integration in a stirred media mill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Denise; Finke, Jan Henrik; Kwade, Arno

    2016-09-25

    Orodispersible films possess a great potential as a versatile platform for nanoparticle-loaded oral dosage forms. In this case, poorly water-soluble organic materials were ground in a stirred media mill and embedded into a polymer matrix. The aim of this study was the shortening of this manufacturing process by the integration of several process steps into a stirred media mill without facing disadvantages regarding the film quality. Furthermore, this process integration is time conserving due to the high stress intensities provided in the mill and applicable for high solids contents and high suspension viscosities. Two organic materials, the model compound Anthraquinone and the active pharmaceutical ingredient Naproxen were investigated in this study. Besides the impact of the film processing on the crystallinity of the particles in the orodispersible film, a particle load of up to 50% was investigated with the new developed processing route. Additionally, a disintegration test was developed, combining an appropriate amount of saliva substitute and a clear endpoint determination. In summary, high nanoparticle loads in orodispersible films with good particle size preservation after film redispersion in water as well as a manufacturing of the film casting mass within a few minutes in a stirred media mill was achieved. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Olanzapine affects locomotor activity and meal size in male rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zwaal, Esther M.; Luijendijk, Mieneke C. M.; Evers, Simon S.; la Fleur, Susanne E.; Adan, Roger A. H.

    2010-01-01

    Olanzapine is an antipsychotic drug that frequently induces weight gain accompanied by increased fat deposition as a side effect To investigate how olanzapine affects different aspects of energy balance we used male rats to determine effects on meal patterns food preference locomotor activity and

  3. Olanzapine affects locomotor activity and meal size in male rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zwaal, Esther M.; Luijendijk, Mieneke C. M.; Evers, Simon S.; la Fleur, Susanne E.; Adan, Roger A. H.

    2010-01-01

    Olanzapine is an antipsychotic drug that frequently induces weight gain accompanied by increased fat deposition as a side effect. To investigate how olanzapine affects different aspects of energy balance, we used male rats to determine effects on meal patterns, food preference, locomotor activity

  4. Population pharmacokinetics analysis of olanzapine for Chinese psychotic patients based on clinical therapeutic drug monitoring data with assistance of meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Anyue; Shang, Dewei; Wen, Yuguan; Li, Liang; Zhou, Tianyan; Lu, Wei

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to build an eligible population pharmacokinetic (PK) model for olanzapine in Chinese psychotic patients based on therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) data, with assistance of meta-analysis, to facilitate individualized therapy. Population PK analysis for olanzapine was performed using NONMEM software (version 7.3.0). TDM data were collected from Guangzhou Brain Hospital (China). Because of the limitations of TDM data, model-based meta-analysis was performed to construct a structural model to assist the modeling of TDM data as prior estimates. After analyzing related covariates, a simulation was performed to predict concentrations for different types of patients under common dose regimens. A two-compartment model with first-order absorption and elimination was developed for olanzapine oral tablets, based on 23 articles with 390 data points. The model was then applied to the TDM data. Gender and smoking habits were found to be significant covariates that influence the clearance of olanzapine. To achieve a blood concentration of 20 ng/mL (the lower boundary of the recommended therapeutic range), simulation results indicated that the dose regimen of olanzapine should be 5 mg BID (twice a day), ≥ 5 mg QD (every day) plus 10 mg QN (every night), or >10 mg BID for female nonsmokers, male nonsmokers and male smokers, respectively. The population PK model, built using meta-analysis, could facilitate the modeling of TDM data collected from Chinese psychotic patients. The factors that significantly influence olanzapine disposition were determined and the final model could be used for individualized treatment.

  5. Efficacy of olanzapine in symptom relief and quality of life in gastric cancer patients receiving chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novin Nikbakhsh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Considering the incidence and prevalence rates of gastric cancer in Mazandaran Province of Iran, this research was performed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of olanzapine in symptom relief and quality of life (QOL improvement of gastric patients receiving chemotherapy. Materials and Methods: This clinical trial was conducted on thirty new cases of gastric cancer patients whose treatment protocol was planned on chemotherapy and were allocated into two groups by simple random sampling. Intervention group (15 patients received olanzapine tablets (2.5–10 mg/day a day before the beginning of chemotherapy; in the 1st day of chemotherapy to 8 weeks after chemotherapy, besides the routine treatment regimens. The control group received only the routine treatment regimens. The patients were followed for 8 weeks after intervention. All of the patients were assessed with Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS and WHO-QOL-BREF questionnaires; further, Rhodes index was used to evaluate nausea and vomiting (N/V status. Results: All the recruited patients continued the allocated interventions (no lost to follow-up. N/V decreased in the case group, but the difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.438. The patients' appetite and body mass index increased (P = 0.006. Anxiety and depression subscales of HADS had significant differences between the two groups (P 0.05. No significant increase was observed in fasting and 2-h postprandial blood glucose and lipid profile (P > 0.05. Conclusion: Olanzapine can be considered as an effective drug to increase appetite and decrease anxiety and depression in patients with gastric cancer.

  6. Immunosuppressant-Associated Neurotoxicity Responding to Olanzapine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A. Bourgeois

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Immunosuppressants, particularly tacrolimus, can induce neurotoxicity in solid organ transplantation cases. A lower clinical threshold to switch from tacrolimus to another immunosuppressant agent has been a common approach to reverse this neurotoxicity. However, immunosuppressant switch may place the graft at risk, and, in some cases, continuation of the same treatment protocol may be necessary. We report a case of immunosuppressant-associated neurotoxicity with prominent neuropsychiatric manifestation and describe psychiatric intervention with olanzapine that led to clinical improvement while continuing tacrolimus maintenance.

  7. Comparison of Risperidone and Olanzapine in Bipolar and Schizoaffective Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masand, Prakash S.; Wang, Xiaohong; Gupta, Sanjay; Schwartz, Thomas L.; Virk, Subhdeep; Hameed, Ahmad

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To compare risperidone and olanzapine for efficacy, tolerability, need for concomitant mood stabilizers, and cost of treatment in bipolar and schizoaffective disorders. Method: We conducted a retrospective chart review of 36 consecutive outpatients with DSM-IV bipolar or schizoaffective disorder seen in 3 settings who received risperidone or olanzapine for at least 1 month between May and August 1997. Results: The mean ± SD doses were 3.7 ± 3.5 mg/day of risperidone and 12.0 ± 5.4 mg/day of olanzapine. Between-treatment differences in patient characteristics, psychiatric history, Clinical Global Impressions scale ratings, and duration of treatment were not significant. Similar proportions of patients in the 2 groups reported side effects, including extrapyramidal symptoms, akathisia, tardive dyskinesia, and precipitation of mania by the respective drug. Patients in the olanzapine group received a significantly higher dose of concomitant lithium than those receiving risperidone (mean daily lithium doses: risperidone group, 750 ± 150 mg; olanzapine group, 1211 ± 186 mg; p = .006). The total daily acquisition cost per patient was $11.84 for olanzapine versus $5.81 for risperidone. Conclusion: Olanzapine and risperidone were equally efficacious and safe in the treatment of patients with bipolar or schizoaffective disorder, but treatment costs and dose of concomitant lithium were lower in risperidone-treated patients. PMID:15014747

  8. Olanzapine-induced weight gain: chronic infusion using osmotic minipumps does not result in stable plasma levels due to degradation of olanzapine in solution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zwaal, Esther M.; Luijendijk, Mieneke C. M.; Adan, Roger A. H.; la Fleur, Susanne E.

    2008-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying olanzapine-induced weight gain have not yet been fully elucidated. To examine the effects of long-term treatment with olanzapine on different aspects of energy balance, we administered olanzapine to male rats. Osmotic minipumps were chosen as preferred mode of

  9. Metabolic effects of Olanzapine versus Iloperidone: A 24 weeks ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Arun Kumar Agnihotri

    The present study is aimed to comparatively evaluate the metabolic profile of olanzapine and iloperidone in cases of ... delusional disorders, acute and transient psychotic ... Data regarding age, sex, socio-economic status, family history, and.

  10. Long-acting injectable antipsychotics: focus on olanzapine pamoate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JP Lindenmayer

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available JP LindenmayerDepartment of Psychiatry, New York University School of Medicine, New York NY, USAAbstract: Medication non-adherence in patients with schizophrenia continues to be a significant problem and threatens successful treatment outcomes. Medication non-adherence is often associated with negative consequences, including symptom exacerbation, more frequent emergency room visits, re-hospitalizations and relapse. Long-acting injectable (LAI forms of antipsychotics allow for rapid identification of non-adherence, obviate the need for the patient to take the medication on a daily basis and increase adherence to some significant degree. Eli Lilly has developed a long-acting depot formulation of olanzapine, olanzapine pamoate, which has recently been approved by the FDA for the US market, and which will be reviewed here. Olanzapine LAI appears to be an effective antipsychotic at dosages of 210 mg every 2 weeks, 300 mg every 2 weeks and 405 mg every 4 weeks in patients with acute schizophrenia, and at 150 mg every 2 weeks, 300 mg every 2 weeks and at 405 mg every 4 weeks for the maintenance treatment of stable patients. Oral supplementation appears not to be needed, particularly not at the onset of treatment with the LAI as is necessary with risperidone LAI. Its efficacy is in general comparable to the efficacy seen with oral olanzapine at a corresponding dose. The side effect profile is also comparable to the side effects observed with oral olanzapine, including lower rates of extrapyramidal symptoms, prolactin elevation and cardiovascular side effects, but significant metabolic effects. The latter include significant weight gain, lipid abnormalities and glucose dysregulation. While the injection site adverse events are overall mild, the most significant serious adverse event is the post-injection delirium sedation syndrome (PDSS. While rare, this syndrome results from inadvertent intravascular injection of olanzapine LAI and can cause a range of

  11. [The lipid metabolism abnormality in patients administered with olanzapine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amano, Taku; Hosaka, Shigetoshi; Takami, Hiroshi; Sugiyama, Chie; Oda, Kazue; Morikawa, Ryuichi

    2012-11-01

    The atypical antipsychotic medication olanzapine is a useful agent in acute and maintenance treatment of schizophrenia and related disorders. It has beneficial effects on both positive and negative symptoms, an early onset of antipsychotic action and a favourable side effect profile. On the other hand, olanzapine has many reports of causing weight gain, glucose metabolism disturbances and lipidosis. We carried out blood tests (leptin, adiponectin, remnant-like lipoprotein cholesterol (RLP-C), total cholesterol, HbA1C, 75-OGTT and etc.) on patients with schizophrenia who had taken olanzapine. As a result, leptin, neutral lipid and RLP-C were significantly correlated by BMI. (The average blood test data and BMI revealed a normal range). Most analysis results of the lipoprotein fraction by a polyacrylamide-gel-electrophoresis method were normal patterns. Furthermore, the serum insulin concentrations from 75 g glucose tolerance (75 g-OGTT) 30 minutes later, in one third of patients receiving olanzapine, registered more than 100 microU/ml. The mechanism of the insulin secretion rise by olannzapine is unknown. Olanzapine may impair glucose tolerance due in part to increased insulin resistance. These findings do not necessarily imply that olanzapine is directly associated with a risk of impairment of weight gain, glucose metabolism disturbances and lipidosis. These results suggest that it is useful to promote diet cure and exercise therapy with patients with high BMI levels.

  12. Pancreatitis following Olanzapine Therapy: A Report of Three Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas A. Kerr

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Context: Atypical antipsychotic agents (clozapine, olanzapine have been linked to metabolic effects and acute pancreatitis. Case Report: We reviewed the inpatient and outpatient records of three patients who developed acute pancreatitis while being treated with olanzapine. The mean age of the patients was 37.7 years (range 18–54 years, 2 female, 1 male. No alternative cause of acute pancreatitis was found in two of the three patients. In the remaining patient, olanzapine may have contributed to acute pancreatitis in the setting of hypertriglyceridemia. Olanzapine was discontinued in all instances. Over a mean follow-up of 14 months, one patient has had a relapsing course, but the remaining two patients have been symptom free without recurrence of acute pancreatitis. Conclusions: Our case series adds further support to the potential link between olanzapine use and acute pancreatitis. Close monitoring of metabolic parameters is suggested in patients treated with olanzapine. Alternative antipsychotic agents should be considered in patients at high risk for pancreatitis.

  13. Intramuscular Olanzapine – a UK case series of early cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor Mark

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clinical trials assessing efficacy and safety of Intramuscular (IM Olanzapine in acute schizophrenia and acute mania have previously been undertaken in studies required for drug registration in patients who were required to give informed consent. These patients may have less severe forms of psychosis than patients treated in routine practice. Data derived from naturalistic practice following the launch of IM olanzapine may be helpful for clinicians in assessing efficacy and safety of IM olanzapine. The PANSS-EC scale used in the clinical studies may represent a tool that could be used in routine clinical practice. Case presentation We report on an early unselected case series of 7 patients who received IM olanzapine in routine clinical practice settings in the UK. In this case series, olanzapine IM was generally effective, and no adverse events were reported. Adjunctive benzodiazepines were given concomitantly in 1 of the 7 subjects. This is relevant as concomitant benzodiazepines are not recommended for a minimum of 1 hour post IM olanzapine administration. PANSS-EC data was collected in 2 of the 7 subjects. Conclusion Although patients had greater severity of psychosis than clinical trial patients there were no unexpected findings. In addition the PANSS-EC scale is a scale that may be useful in assessing the efficacy of IM antipsychotics in routine clinical practice.

  14. Olanzapine and sibutramine have opposing effects on the motivation for palatable food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zwaal, Esther M.; Janhunen, Sanna K.; Luijendijk, Mieneke C. M.; Baclesanu, Roxana; Vanderschuren, Louk J. M. J.; Adan, Roger A. H.; la Fleur, Susanne E.

    2012-01-01

    Both olanzapine and sibutramine target serotonergic and noradrenergic neurotransmission and influence body weight, but in opposite ways. The second-generation antipsychotic olanzapine, an antagonist at serotonergic and noradrenergic receptors, frequently induces weight gain as a side-effect, whereas

  15. [Prescription of olanzapine in children and adolescent psychiatric patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frémaux, T; Reymann, J-M; Chevreuil, C; Bentué-Ferrer, D

    2007-01-01

    A review of the literature from 1996-2004 on the indications and adverse reactions concerning the use of olanzapine, a second generation antipsychotic agent, in children and adolescents with psychiatric illness is made in this article. Studies lasted for 2 to 3 months and a few had a follow up period up to a year. Olanzapine, dosed from 2.5 to 20 mg/day, is shown to be a useful drug in the treatment of child and adolescent onset schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, anorexia nervosa with delusions, pervasive developmental disorder, tic disorders, and aggression. OPEN AND DOUBLE-BLIND STUDIES: In 4 open labeled studies (26, 34, 39, 43) and 2 case reports (25), 53 patients, aged from 6-18 years old, afflicted by child onset schizophrenia, were treated with olanzapine for 1 1/2 weeks to one year; 19 had treatment resistant childhood schizophrenia and 34 a first episode. In the first group 13/19 showed improvement whereas, in the second group 27/34 were considered responders. Four patients in the first group who had responded to clozapine (stopped because of adverse events) did less well on olanzapine. In 5 studies, 4 open labeled (15, 20, 44) and 1 double blind (27), 59 adolescent onset schizophrenic patients were treated by olanzapine from 8 to 26 weeks; 50/59 patients were considered responders. In the open label study (20) comparing 43 adolescents treated by olanzapine (19 patients), risperidone (17 patients), or haloperidol (7 patients), improvement was significant in the three groups after 4 weeks of treatment and continued after 8 weeks. It is most interesting to mention that 2 months after the end of the study 71% (12/17) of the olanzapine group that had completed the study, 10/15 (67%) of the risperidone group, and 43% (3/7) of the haloperidol group had continued their treatment. Dropouts were for inefficacy and non-compliance in the olanzapine and risperidone groups whereas they were also for adverse events in the haloperidol group (2/4). A final double blind

  16. Pharmaceutical studies on and clinical application of olanzapine suppositories prepared as a hospital preparation

    OpenAIRE

    Matsumoto, Kazuaki; Kimura, Satoru; Takahashi, Kenichi; Yokoyama, Yuta; Miyazawa, Masayuki; Kushibiki, Satoko; Katamachi, Morio; Kizu, Junko

    2016-01-01

    Background A new formulation of olanzapine available for terminally ill patients is needed. Rectal administration using suppositories is an alternative for patients for whom administration via the oral route is not feasible. In the present study, we prepared olanzapine suppositories, and confirmed using pharmaceutical tests. Furthermore, we demonstrated the efficacy and safety of olanzapine suppositories in terminally ill patients. Methods We prepared olanzapine suppositories using bases cons...

  17. Delirium Associated with Olanzapine Therapy in an Elderly Male with Bipolar Affective Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Ravi C.; Aggarwal, Ashish

    2010-01-01

    Atypical antipsychotic medications are commonly used to treat symptoms of delirium. Olanzapine has been successfully used in the treatment of delirium. However, there have been few case reports of delirium associated with olanzapine. We hereby report a case of delirium associated with olanzapine therapy. Possible risk factors and underlying pathogenesis is discussed.

  18. Olanzapine causes hypothermia, inactivity, a deranged feeding pattern and weight gain in female Wistar rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, S. S.; Calcagnoli, F.; van Dijk, G.; Scheurink, A. J. W.

    2010-01-01

    Olanzapine is an a-typical antipsychotic drug antagonizing predominantly 5-HT and dopamine but also histamine muscarin and a adrenergic receptors In humans Olanzapine induces weight gain and increases the risk of type 2 diabetes The underlying mechanisms of Olanzapine-induced weight gain are unclear

  19. IVIVC from Long Acting Olanzapine Microspheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan D'Souza

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, four PLGA microsphere formulations of Olanzapine were characterized on the basis of their in vitro behavior at 37°C, using a dialysis based method, with the goal of obtaining an IVIVC. In vivo profiles were determined by deconvolution (Nelson-Wagner method and using fractional AUC. The in vitro and in vivo release profiles exhibited the same rank order of drug release. Further, in vivo profiles obtained with both approaches were nearly superimposable, suggesting that fractional AUC could be used as an alternative to the Nelson-Wagner method. A comparison of drug release profiles for the four formulations revealed that the in vitro profile lagged slightly behind in vivo release, but the results were not statistically significant (P0.96 between in vitro release and in vivo measurements confirmed the excellent relationship between in vitro drug release and the amount of drug absorbed in vivo. The results of this study suggest that proper selection of an in vitro method will greatly aid in establishing a Level A IVIVC for long acting injectables.

  20. Tablet telerounding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaczmarek, Bartosz F; Trinh, Quoc-Dien; Menon, Mani; Rogers, Craig G

    2012-12-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of remote rounding using commercially available standard tablets with videoconferencing system and assess patient satisfaction. Thirty-two patients with at least 2 postoperative days of hospital stay after robotic urologic procedures were included in the study. On the first postoperative day, the physician-patient encounter was performed as telerounding with videoconferencing due to the physician's duties scheduled in another affiliated hospital. On the second day, the personal bedside encounter took place. The tablet we used was an iPad2 (Apple, iOS 5.1; Apple, Cupertino, CA) with a videoconferencing application. A telerounding satisfaction survey was fulfilled by all patients on the touchscreen of the tablet. Average time of telerounding encounter was 4.5 minutes (range, 1.0-13.5 minutes), average age of the patient was 57.7 years (range, 19-80 years), and 19 were men (59%). Patients expressed a high level of satisfaction with 91% of patients stating that their care was better using telerounding and 97% of patients stating that telerounding should be a regular part of patient care in the hospital. Additionally, 94% of patients stated that they could easily communicate with their doctor over the telerounding system, 84% of patients agreed that they would feel comfortable with telerounding daily if they were hospitalized again and 81% of patients would prefer telerounding communication with their doctor than be directly seen by another doctor. Tablet telerounding using videoconferencing can be a strong supplementing tool in doctor-patient communication. It is convenient for the physician and increases the patient's hospital stay satisfaction. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Development of orodispersible polymer films with focus on the solid state characterization of crystalline loperamide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woertz, Christina; Kleinebudde, Peter

    2015-08-01

    The formulation of active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) as orodispersible films is gaining interest among novel oral drug delivery systems due to their small size, enhanced flexibility and improved patient compliance. The aim of this work was the preparation and characterization of orodispersible films containing loperamide hydrochloride (LPH) as model drug. As loperamide hydrochloride is poorly soluble in water it was used in crystalline form with a loading of 2mg/6cm(2) film. Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) and different types of hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC) in different concentrations were used as film forming polymers whereas arabic gum, xanthan gum and tragacanth served as thickening agents. Films were characterized with respect to the content uniformity, morphology, thermal behavior and crystallinity. Suspensions were investigated regarding their viscosity using a rotational rheometer and the crystal structure of the Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient (API) was analyzed using polarized light microscopy. The development of flexible, non-brittle and homogeneous films of LPH was feasible. Two polymorphic forms of LPH appeared in the film formulations dependent on the utilized polymer. While in presence of HPMC the original polymorphic form I remained stable in suspension and films, the polymorphic form II occurred in presence of HPC. Both polymorphic forms were prepared separately and a solid state characterization was performed. Polymorph I showed isometric crystals whereas polymorph II showed needle shaped crystals. Tragacanth was able to prevent the transformation to polymorph II, if it was dissolved first before HPC. When HPC was added first to the suspension, the conversion to form II occurred irreversibly also after further addition of tragacanth. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF OLANZAPINE AND QUETIAPINE IN PSYCHOTIC DISORDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bithorai Basumatary

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Psychotic disorders are a group of chronic debilitating psychiatric illness characterised by loss in touch with reality and disorders of thought, behaviour, appearance and speech. The second generation atypical antipsychotic olanzapine has been reported to be the commonly prescribed antipsychotic. However, olanzapine can cause adverse effects like weight gain, hyperglycaemia, diabetes, dyslipidaemia and metabolic syndrome. Quetiapine, another second generation antipsychotic has good efficacy and has become well established in the treatment of schizophrenia and manic episodes. There are reports on adverse effects of hyperglycaemia and diabetes with quetiapine, but these are comparatively lesser than olanzapine. The aim of the study is to compare the efficacy of olanzapine and quetiapine in patients with psychotic disorders. MATERIALS AND METHODS It was an unicentric, open label, prospective and comparative clinical study. Subjects (n=80 who were diagnosed with psychotic disorder were randomly assigned to receive olanzapine (group 1 or quetiapine (group 2. The efficacy of the two drugs was assessed on the basis Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS scores at baseline, 1 week and 6 weeks. UKU scale (Udvalg Kliniske Undersogelser and laboratory investigations were used to assess the safety profile. RESULTS The two study groups had comparable sociodemographic profile. Both the groups showed significant reduction in psychotic symptoms as compared from baseline to 1 week and 6 weeks (p<0.001. The intergroup comparison of the efficacy of the two groups did not show any statistically significant results. There was statistically insignificant differences in the occurrence of adverse effects in both the groups. Sedation (50% in both the groups was the most common adverse effect in both the groups. The use of concomitant medications was comparable in both the groups. Benzodiazepines (56.3% in the olanzapine group and 51.9% in the quetiapine group

  3. Naturalistic study of olanzapine in treatment-resistaant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Whereas the Fiji government provides all aspects of mental health care services free of charge to its citizens, many schizophrenics have failed to respond to classical antipsychotic drugs. Objective: To assess the efficacy and safety of olanzapine among various patients with severe psychiatric disorders.

  4. Metabolic effects of Olanzapine versus Iloperidone: A 24 weeks ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Atypical antipsychotics have become the mainstay of therapy for psychosis. Though extrapyramidal side effects have been reduced with atypical antipsychotics, yet there are increased concerns over metabolic effects. The present study is aimed to comparatively evaluate the metabolic profile of olanzapine and iloperidone ...

  5. The Effect of Ranitidine on Olanzapine-Induced Weight Gain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Ranjbar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Induced weight gain is a disturbing side effect of Olanzapine that affects the quality of life in psychotic patients. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of Ranitidine in attenuating or preventing Olanzapine-induced weight gain. A parallel 2-arm clinical trial was done on 52 patients with schizophrenia, schizoaffective and schizophreniform disorders who received Olanzapine for the first time. All these were first-episode admitted patients. They were randomly allocated to receive either Ranitidine or placebo. The trend of body mass index (BMI was compared between groups over 16-week course of treatment. Mean weight was 62.3 (SD: 9.6 kg at baseline. Thirty-three subjects (63.5% had positive family history of obesity. The average BMI increment was 1.1 for Ranitidine group and 2.4 for the placebo group. The multivariate analysis showed this effect to be independent of sex, family history of obesity, and baseline BMI value. The longitudinal modeling after controlling for baseline values failed to show the whole trend slope to be different. Although the slight change in trend’s slope puts forward a hypothesis that combined use of Ranitidine and Olanzapine may attenuate the weight gain long run, this needs to be retested in future larger scale long-term studies. This trial is registered with IRCT.ir 201009112181N5.

  6. Naturalistic study of olanzapine in treatment-resistaant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Naturalistic study of olanzapine in treatment-resistaant schizophrenia and acute mania, depression and obsessional disorder. ... Whereas the Fiji government provides all aspects of mental health care services free of charge to its citizens, many schizophrenics have failed to respond to classical antipsychotic drugs.

  7. Tablet Use within Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogue, Rebecca J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the scholarly literature related to tablet computer use in medicine. Forty-four research-based articles were examined for emerging categories and themes. The most studied uses for tablet computers include: patients using tablets to complete diagnostic survey instruments, medical professionals using tablet computers to view…

  8. Olanzapine monotherapy and olanzapine combination therapy in the treatment of mania: 12-week results from the European Mania in Bipolar Longitudinal Evaluation of Medication (EMBLEM) observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieta, Eduard; Panicali, Francesco; Goetz, Iris; Reed, Catherine; Comes, Merce; Tohen, Mauricio

    2008-02-01

    To evaluate the 12-week outcomes (effectiveness, tolerability, and patterns of medication use) of olanzapine (either in antimanic monotherapy or in combination with other antipsychotics, anticonvulsants, and/or lithium) in patients with bipolar mania or mixed mania. EMBLEM (European Mania in Bipolar Longitudinal Evaluation of Medication) is a 24-month prospective observational study of in- and outpatients with acute mania/mixed mania conducted in 14 European countries. Primary outcome measures included Clinical Global Impressions-Bipolar Disorder scale (overall, mania, and depression); 5-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale; and Young Mania Rating Scale. Tolerability measures included a questionnaire to assess patients' symptomatic complaints. Overall, 2004 patients received olanzapine (olanzapine monotherapy, n=673; olanzapine combination, n=1331). Concomitant therapy with antidepressants and/or anxiolytics was possible in both groups. The countries significantly differed in the use of olanzapine monotherapy versus olanzapine combination (pEMBLEM results suggest that in naturalistic settings, olanzapine (both as monotherapy and combination) may be effective in treating patients with bipolar mania. The use of olanzapine monotherapy or combination varies significantly across countries, but combination is generally the rule, rather than the exception.

  9. Evaluation of co-processed excipients used for direct compression of orally disintegrating tablets (ODT) using novel disintegration apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brniak, Witold; Jachowicz, Renata; Krupa, Anna; Skorka, Tomasz; Niwinski, Krzysztof

    2013-01-01

    The compendial method of evaluation of orodispersible tablets (ODT) is the same disintegration test as for conventional tablets. Since it does not reflect the disintegration process in the oral cavity, alternative methods are proposed that are more related to in vivo conditions, e.g. modified dissolution paddle apparatus, texture analyzer, rotating shaft apparatus, CCD camera application, or wetting time and water absorption ratio measurement. In this study, three different co-processed excipients for direct compression of orally disintegrating tablets were compared (Ludiflash, Pharmaburst, F-Melt). The properties of the prepared tablets such as tensile strength, friability, wetting time and water absorption ratio were evaluated. Disintegration time was measured using the pharmacopoeial method and the novel apparatus constructed by the authors. The apparatus was based on the idea of Narazaki et al., however it has been modified. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was applied for the analysis of the disintegration mechanism of prepared tablets. The research has shown the significant effect of excipients, compression force, temperature, volume and kind of medium on the disintegration process. The novel apparatus features better correlation of disintegration time with in vivo results (R(2) = 0.9999) than the compendial method (R(2) = 0.5788), and presents additional information on the disintegration process, e.g. swelling properties.

  10. Comparative Study Between Different Ready-Made Orally Disintegrating Platforms for the Formulation of Sumatriptan Succinate Sublingual Tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayel, Saadya A; El Nabarawi, Mohamed A; Amin, Maha M; AbouGhaly, Mohamed H H

    2017-02-01

    Sumatriptan succinate (SS) is a selective serotonin receptor agonist used for the treatment of migraine attacks, suffering from extensive first-pass metabolism and low oral bioavailability (∼14%). The aim of this work is to compare the performance of different ready-made co-processed platforms (Pharmaburst®, Prosolv ODT®, Starlac®, Pearlitol Flash®, or Ludiflash®) in the formulation of SS sublingual orodispersible tablets (ODTs) using direct compression technique. The prepared SS ODT formulae were evaluated regarding hardness, friability, simulated wetting time, and in vitro disintegration and dissolution tests. Different mucoadhesive polymers-HPMC K4M, Carbopol®, chitosan, or Polyox®-were tested aiming to increase the residence time in the sublingual area. A pharmacokinetic study on healthy human volunteers was performed, using LC/MS/MS assay, to compare the optimum sublingual formula (Ph25/HPMC) with the conventional oral tablet Imitrex®. Results showed that tablets prepared using Pharmaburst® had significantly (p disintegration times of 17.17 and 23.50 s, respectively, with Q 5 min of 83.62%. HPMC showed a significant (p tablet Imitrex®. In conclusion, Pharmaburst® was chosen as the optimum ready-made co-processed platform that can be successfully used in the preparation of SS sublingual tablets for the rapid relief of migraine attacks.

  11. Olanzapine treatment for tics in an adult woman with severe tourette syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Wen-Juh

    2012-12-01

    Olanzapine had been reported to be effective in the control of tics in a few adult female patients who had a short follow-up period. The author reports the successful outcome of long-term olanzapine treatment in an adult woman with severe Tourette syndrome. A 33-year-old woman who had severe motor and vocal tics (Modified Rush Videotape Rating Scale: 17/20) showed an excellent response to olanzapine 10 mg/day within 2 months. Her tic symptoms were well controlled with gradual reduction of her dose of olanzapine to 2.5 mg/day during the following 8 years. She was symptom-free without medications in the past 2 years. In addition, she had a normal menstrual cycle and became pregnant during the period of olanzapine treatment. Olanzapine may be the drug of first choice for treating severe Tourette syndrome in pubescent female adolescents and young women who wish to have children.

  12. Development of a modified electrode with amine-functionalized TiO{sub 2}/multi-walled carbon nanotubes nanocomposite for electrochemical sensing of the atypical neuroleptic drug olanzapine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arvand, Majid, E-mail: arvand@guilan.ac.ir; Palizkar, Bahareh

    2013-12-01

    In this work, using of amine-functionalized TiO{sub 2}/multi-walled carbon nanotubes (NH{sub 2}-TiO{sub 2}-MWCNTs) nanocomposite for modification of glassy carbon electrode (GCE) was investigated. The nanocomposite was characterized by Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The efficiency of modified electrode for electrocatalytic the oxidation of olanzapine was studied by cyclic voltammetry, square wave voltammetry and chronoamperometry. The electrochemical measurements were carried out in phosphate-buffered solution (PBS, pH 5.0). The NH{sub 2}-TiO{sub 2}-MWCNTs/GCE provided high surface area and more sensitive performance. The charge transfer coefficient (α) and the apparent charge transfer rate constant (k{sub s}) were calculated to be equal to 0.42 and 0.173 s{sup −1}, respectively. The square wave voltammetry exhibited two linear dynamic ranges and a detection limit of 0.09 μM of olanzapine. In addition, the modified electrode was employed for the determination of olanzapine in pharmaceutical and human blood serum samples in order to illustrate the applicability of proposed method. - Highlights: • A simple and rapid sensor for determination of olanzapine in tablet and serum was prepared. • The amine-functionalized TiO{sub 2}-MWCNTs/GCE showed an obvious increase in surface area. • The presence of NH{sub 2}-TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles showed good ability to distinguish the response of olanzapine.

  13. Continuous manufacturing and analytical characterization of fixed-dose, multilayer orodispersible films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thabet, Yasmin; Lunter, Dominique; Breitkreutz, Joerg

    2018-05-30

    Various drug therapies require more than one active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) for an effective treatment. There are many advantages, e.g. to improve the compliance or pharmacodynamic response in comparison to a monotherapy or to increase the therapy safety. Until now, there are only a few products available for the paediatric population due to the lack of age appropriate dosage forms or studies proving the efficacy and safety of these products. This study aims to develop orodispersible films (ODFs) in a continuous solvent casting process as child appropriate dosage form containing both enalapril maleate (EM) and hydrochlorothiazide (HCT) separated in different film layers. Furthermore, they should be characterised and the API migration analysed by confocal Raman microscopy (CRM). ODFs were successfully produced in a continuous manufacturing process in form of double- and triple-layer formulations based on hydroxypropylcellulose (HPC) or a combination of HPC and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). CRM revealed that both APIs migrate within the film layers shortly after manufacturing. PVA inhibits the migration inside the double-layer film, but is not able to prevent the API migration as an interlayer inside a triple-layer ODF. With increasing film layers, the content of residual solvents and the disintegration time increases (mono-layer films: processing two incompatible APIs. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Orodispersible films: Product transfer from lab-scale to continuous manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thabet, Yasmin; Breitkreutz, Joerg

    2018-01-15

    Orodispersible films have been described as new beneficial dosage forms for special patient populations. Due to various production settings, different requirements on film formulations are required for non- continuous and continuous manufacturing. In this study, a continuous coating machine was qualified in regards of the process conditions for film compositions and their effects on the formed films. To investigate differences between both manufacturing processes, various film formulations of hydrochlorothiazide and hydroxypropylcellulose (HPC) or hydroxypropylmethycellulose (HPMC) as film formers were produced and the resulting films were characterized. The qualification of the continuously operating coating machine reveals no uniform heat distribution during drying. Coating solutions for continuous manufacturing should provide at least a dynamic viscosity of 1 Pa*s (wet film thickness of 500 μm, velocity of 15.9 cm/min). HPC films contain higher residuals of ethanol or acetone in bench-scale than in continuous production mode. Continuous production lead to lower drug content of the films. All continuously produced films disintegrate within less than 30 s. There are observed significant effects of the production process on the film characteristics. When transferring film manufacturing from lab-scale to continuous mode, film compositions, processing conditions and suitable characterization methods have to be carefully selected and adopted. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Quality by design approach for optimizing the formulation and physical properties of extemporaneously prepared orodispersible films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, J Carolina; Dohmen, Willem M C; Hinrichs, Wouter L J; Breitkreutz, Jörg; Frijlink, Henderik W; Woerdenbag, Herman J

    2015-05-15

    The quality by design (QbD) approach was applied for optimizing the formulation of extemporaneously prepared orodispersible films (ODFs) using Design-Expert® Software. The starting formulation was based on earlier experiments and contained the film forming agents hypromellose and carbomer 974P and the plasticizer glycerol (Visser et al., 2015). Trometamol and disodium EDTA were added to stabilize the solution. To optimize this formulation a quality target product profile was established in which critical quality attributes (CQAs) such as mechanical properties and disintegration time were defined and quantified. As critical process parameters (CPP) that were evaluated for their effect on the CQAs the percentage of hypromellose and the percentage of glycerol as well as the drying time were chosen. Response surface methodology (RMS) was used to evaluate the effects of the CPPs on the CQAs of the final product. The main factor affecting tensile strength and Young's modulus was the percentage of glycerol. Elongation at break was mainly influenced by the drying temperature. Disintegration time was found to be sensitive to the percentage of hypromellose. From the results a design space could be created. As long as the formulation and process variables remain within this design space, a product is obtained with desired characteristics and that meets all set quality requirements. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Drug-printing by flexographic printing technology--a new manufacturing process for orodispersible films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Eva Maria; Schliephacke, Ralf; Breitenbach, Armin; Breitkreutz, Jörg

    2013-01-30

    Orodispersible films (ODFs) are intended to disintegrate within seconds when placed onto the tongue. The common way of manufacturing is the solvent casting method. Flexographic printing on drug-free ODFs is introduced as a highly flexible and cost-effective alternative manufacturing method in this study. Rasagiline mesylate and tadalafil were used as model drugs. Printing of rasagiline solutions and tadalafil suspensions was feasible. Up to four printing cycles were performed. The possibility to employ several printing cycles enables a continuous, highly flexible manufacturing process, for example for individualised medicine. The obtained ODFs were characterised regarding their mechanical properties, their disintegration time, API crystallinity and homogeneity. Rasagiline mesylate did not recrystallise after the printing process. Relevant film properties were not affected by printing. Results were comparable to the results of ODFs manufactured with the common solvent casting technique, but the APIs are less stressed through mixing, solvent evaporation and heat. Further, loss of material due to cutting jumbo and daughter rolls can be reduced. Therefore, a versatile new manufacturing technology particularly for processing high-potent low-dose or heat sensitive drugs is introduced in this study. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Glucagon receptor knockout mice are protected against acute olanzapine-induced hyperglycemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellani, Laura N; Peppler, Willem T; Sutton, Charles D; Whitfield, Jamie; Charron, Maureen J; Wright, David C

    2017-08-01

    To determine if glucagon is involved in mediating the increase in blood glucose levels caused by the second-generation antipsychotic drug olanzapine. Whole body glucagon receptor deficient mice (Gcgr -/- ) or WT littermate controls were injected with olanzapine (5mg/kg BW IP) and changes in blood glucose measured over the following 120min. Separate cohorts of mice were treated with olanzapine and changes in pyruvate tolerance, insulin tolerance and whole body substrate oxidation were determined. Olanzapine treatment increased serum glucagon and lead to rapid increases in blood glucose concentrations in WT mice. Gcgr -/- mice were protected against olanzapine-induced increases in blood glucose but this was not explained by differences in terminal serum insulin concentrations, enhanced AKT phosphorylation in skeletal muscle, adipose tissue or liver or differences in RER. In both genotypes olanzapine induced an equivalent degree of insulin resistance as measured using an insulin tolerance test. Olanzapine treatment led to an exaggerated glucose response to a pyruvate challenge in WT but not Gcgr -/- mice and this was paralleled by reductions in the protein content of PEPCK and G6Pase in livers from Gcgr -/- mice. Gcgr -/- mice are protected against olanzapine-induced increases in blood glucose. This is likely a result of reductions in liver glucose output, perhaps secondary to decreases in PEPCK and G6Pase protein content. Our findings highlight the central role of the liver in mediating olanzapine-induced disturbances in glucose homeostasis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Acute camptocormia induced by olanzapine: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boyer Stéphane

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Camptocormia refers to an abnormal posture with flexion of the thoraco-lumbar spine which increases during walking and resolves in supine position. This symptom is an increasingly recognized feature of parkinsonian and dystonic disorders, but may also be caused by neuromuscular diseases. There is recent evidence that both central and peripheral mechanisms may be involved in the pathogenesis of camptocormia. We report a case of acute onset of camptocormia, a rare side effect induced by olanzapine, a second-generation atypical anti-psychotic drug with fewer extra-pyramidal side-effects, increasingly used as first line therapy for schizophrenia, delusional disorders and bipolar disorder. Case presentation A 73-year-old Caucasian woman with no history of neuromuscular disorder, treated for chronic delusional disorder for the last ten years, received two injections of long-acting haloperidol. She was then referred for fatigue. Physical examination showed a frank parkinsonism without other abnormalities. Routine laboratory tests showed normal results, notably concerning creatine kinase level. Fatigue was attributed to haloperidol which was substituted for olanzapine. Our patient left the hospital after five days without complaint. She was admitted again three days later with acute back pain. Examination showed camptocormia and tenderness in paraspinal muscles. Creatine kinase level was elevated (2986 UI/L. Magnetic resonance imaging showed necrosis and edema in paraspinal muscles. Olanzapine was discontinued. Pain resolved quickly and muscle enzymes were normalized within ten days. Risperidone was later introduced without significant side-effect. The camptocormic posture had disappeared when the patient was seen as an out-patient one year later. Conclusions Camptocormia is a heterogeneous syndrome of various causes. We believe that our case illustrates the need to search for paraspinal muscle damage, including drug

  19. Oral glucose tolerance test performance in olanzapine-treated schizophrenia-spectrum patients is predicted by BMI and triglycerides but not olanzapine dose or duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guina, Jeffrey; Roy, Sayon; Gupta, Ankur; Langleben, Daniel D; Elman, Igor

    2017-07-01

    Olanzapine, an atypical antipsychotic, is associated with glucoregulatory abnormalities, but the nature of this link is not fully elucidated. This is the first olanzapine oral glucose tolerance test (oGTT) study to consider treatment dose and duration, and to compare complementary indices respectively assessing insulin sensitivity (Matsuda index) and resistance (homeostasis model assessment). Body mass index (BMI), body composition, plasma lipids, and oGTT were measured in olanzapine-treated nondiabetic patients with DSM-IV-TR diagnosis of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder (n = 35). While only one previously undiagnosed participant met diabetes criteria based on fasting plasma glucose alone (≥126 mg/dL), seven were diagnosed with oGTT (2-hr plasma glucose ≥200 mg/dL). Multiple regression analyses revealed that the Matsuda index correlated with BMI (p triglycerides (p = 0.01), but not with age, olanzapine dose, olanzapine treatment duration, or plasma cholesterol. Homeostasis model assessment and fasting plasma glucose correlated with triglycerides only (p triglycerides may be implicated in olanzapine-related glucoregulatory abnormalities. The lack of correlation between glucoregulatory abnormalities and olanzapine dose or treatment duration suggests preexisting metabolic disturbances and/or disturbances arising early in the course of treatment. Clinicians prescribing antipsychotics should consider oGTT, especially in patients with obesity and/or hypertriglyceridemia. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Olanzapine for chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting: systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chelkeba L

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting (CINV remains the most distressing event in patients receiving highly emetogenic chemotherapy (HEC or moderately emetogenic chemotherapy (MEC. Objective: Therefore, this meta-analysis was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of olanzapine containing regimen in preventing acute, delayed and overall phases of CINV. Methods: PubMed, EBSCO, and Cochrane central register of controlled trials electronic databases were searched to identify RCTs that compared the effects of olanzapine with non-olanzapine regimen in preventing CINV. Randomized clinical trials (RCTs that compared olanzapine containing regimen with non-olanzapine regimen were included. The primary outcomes were the percentage of patients achieving no vomiting or no nausea in acute, delayed and overall phases. Results: 13 RCTs that enrolled 1686 participants were included in this meta-analysis. 852 patients were assigned to olanzapine and 834 patients were assigned to non-olanzapine regimen (other standard antiemetic regimen. The percentages of no emesis achieved were 87.5%, 76.2%, 73.6% in olanzapine versus 76.7%, 61.8%, and 56.4% in non-olanzapine regimen in acute, delayed and overall phases, respectively. The percentages of no nausea were 82%, 64.3%, 61.6% in olanzapine group versus 71.3%, 41.8%, and 40.6% in non-olanzapine group in acute, delayed and overall phases, respectively. In general, olanzapine containing regimen achieved statistical superiority to non-olanzapine regimen in no vomiting endpoint in acute phase (OR 2.16; 95%CI 1.60 to 2.91, p<0.00001; I-square=5%; p=0.40, delayed phase (OR 2.28; 95%CI 1.1.46 to 3.54, p=0.0003; I-square=65%; p=0.001 and overall phase (OR 2.48; 95%CI 1.59 to 3.86, p<0.0001; I-square=69%; p< 0.0001. Conclusion: The current meta-analysis showed that olanzapine was statistically and clinically superior to non-olanzapine regimen in preventing CINV in most domains of the parameters.

  1. Metformin and berberine prevent olanzapine-induced weight gain in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yueshan Hu

    Full Text Available Olanzapine is a first line medication for the treatment of schizophrenia, but it is also one of the atypical antipsychotics carrying the highest risk of weight gain. Metformin was reported to produce significant attenuation of antipsychotic-induced weight gain in patients, while the study of preventing olanzapine-induced weight gain in an animal model is absent. Berberine, an herbal alkaloid, was shown in our previous studies to prevent fat accumulation in vitro and in vivo. Utilizing a well-replicated rat model of olanzapine-induced weight gain, here we demonstrated that two weeks of metformin or berberine treatment significantly prevented the olanzapine-induced weight gain and white fat accumulation. Neither metformin nor berberine treatment demonstrated a significant inhibition of olanzapine-increased food intake. But interestingly, a significant loss of brown adipose tissue caused by olanzapine treatment was prevented by the addition of metformin or berberine. Our gene expression analysis also demonstrated that the weight gain prevention efficacy of metformin or berberine treatment was associated with changes in the expression of multiple key genes controlling energy expenditure. This study not only demonstrates a significant preventive efficacy of metformin and berberine treatment on olanzapine-induced weight gain in rats, but also suggests a potential mechanism of action for preventing olanzapine-reduced energy expenditure.

  2. 5-Lipoxygenase-Activating Protein as a Modulator of Olanzapine-Induced Lipid Accumulation in Adipocyte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Dzitoyeva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Experiments were performed in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes differentiated in vitro into adipocytes. Cells were treated with olanzapine and a 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX activating protein (FLAP inhibitor MK-886. Lipid content was measured using an Oil Red O assay; 5-LOX and FLAP mRNA content was measured using quantitative real-time PCR; the corresponding protein contents were measured using quantitative Western blot assay. Olanzapine did not affect the cell content of 5-LOX mRNA and protein; it decreased FLAP mRNA and protein content at day five but not 24 hours after olanzapine addition. In the absence of MK-886, low concentrations of olanzapine increased lipid content only slightly, whereas a 56% increase was induced by 50 μM olanzapine. A 5-day cotreatment with 10 μM MK-886 potentiated the lipid increasing action of low concentrations of olanzapine. In contrast, in the presence of 50 μM olanzapine nanomolar and low micromolar concentrations of MK-886 reduced lipid content. These data suggest that FLAP system in adipocytes is affected by olanzapine and that it may modify how these cells respond to the second-generation antipsychotic drugs (SGADs. Clinical studies could evaluate whether the FLAP/5-LOX system could play a role in setting a variable individual susceptibility to the metabolic side effects of SGADs.

  3. Effectiveness and safety of oral olanzapine treatment transitioned from rapid-acting intramuscular olanzapine for agitation associated with schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katagiri H

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Hideaki Katagiri,1 Masanori Taketsuna,2 Shinpei Kondo,3 Kenta Kajimoto,4 Etsuko Aoi,5 Yuka Tanji1 1Bio-Medicines, Medicines Development Unit Japan, Eli Lilly Japan K.K., Kobe, Japan; 2Statistical Sciences, Medicines Development Unit Japan, Eli Lilly Japan K.K., Kobe, Japan; 3Post Marketing Study Management, Medicines Development Unit Japan, Eli Lilly Japan K.K., Kobe, Japan; 4Scientific Communications, Medicines Development Unit Japan, Eli Lilly Japan K.K., Kobe, Japan; 5Global Patient Safety Japan, Quality and Patient Safety, Eli Lilly Japan K.K., Kobe, Japan Objective: To assess the effectiveness and safety of oral olanzapine treatment transitioned from rapid-acting intramuscular olanzapine (RAIM in patients with acute agitation associated with schizophrenia in a real-world clinical setting. Methods: The postmarketing surveillance study with a 3-day observational period after the last RAIM administration was conducted (original study. Following this, an extended study was added for patients who received oral olanzapine after RAIM administration during the original study period, in order to additionally observe them for 7 days after initial RAIM administration. Effectiveness and safety from initial RAIM administration were evaluated using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale-Excited Component score and treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs, respectively. Results: The effectiveness and safety analysis set included a total of 521 and 522 patients, respectively. A majority of patients received 10 mg of RAIM (475/522 patients, 91.0%. The mean ± SD total Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale-Excited Component score was 23.6±6.2 (n=318 at baseline (before initial RAIM administration, 17.4±6.8 (n=280 at 2 hours after initial administration, 16.2±6.8 (n=246 2 days after final administration, 14.9±6.2 (n=248 3 days after final administration, 13.8±5.9 (n=242 4 days after final administration, 13.2±5.8 (n=221 7 days after initial

  4. Effect of olanzapine treatment on INR of a patient receiving warfarin therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derya Arslan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Olanzapine is an atypical antipsychotic drug, commonly used in the management of psychotic symptoms in patients with schizoprenia and bipolar affective disorder. Deep venous thrombosis is a manifestation of venous thromboembolism. It is very well known that use of antipsychotic drugs increase the risk of thrombosis in a patient with schizophrenia. It has been reported in many studies the effects of olanzapine on thrombosis but there isn't any report about the effect of olanzapine on international normalized ratio (INR. in the medical literature. In this paper, a patient with schizophrenia and also family history of deep venous thrombosis who emerged deep venous thrombosis after being started on olanzapine treatment and effect of olanzapine treatment on INR has been reported. [Cukurova Med J 2016; 41(2.000: 370-373

  5. Theoretical study on the interaction of pregabalin and olanzapine with DNA

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    ZibaHooshiarSodagar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims is to study the interaction of two drugs including pregabalin and olanzapine with DNA. For this purpose, density functional theory calculations and docking were used. The structure of pregabalin and olanzapine using B3Lyp theory level and the basis set 6-311 G(d,p was optimized. Highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO calculated for each drugs. The obtained results showed that olanzapine is more reactive than pregabalin. Docking of drugs with DNA was performed and the results showed that binding affinity of olanzapine is higher than pregabalin. Also, the graphical results revealed that olanzapine interact with DNA via 5-terminal major groove of DNA, whereas pregabalin interact with DNA via 3- termind major groove.

  6. The practical approach to the evaluation of methods used to determine the disintegration time of orally disintegrating tablets (ODTs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brniak, Witold; Jachowicz, Renata; Pelka, Przemyslaw

    2015-09-01

    Even that orodispersible tablets (ODTs) have been successfully used in therapy for more than 20 years, there is still no compendial method of their disintegration time evaluation other than the pharmacopoeial disintegration test conducted in 800-900 mL of distilled water. Therefore, several alternative tests more relevant to in vivo conditions were described by different researchers. The aim of this study was to compare these methods and correlate them with in vivo results. Six series of ODTs were prepared by direct compression. Their mechanical properties and disintegration times were measured with pharmacopoeial and alternative methods and compared with the in vivo results. The highest correlation with oral disintegration time was found in the case of own-construction apparatus with additional weight and the employment of the method proposed by Narazaki et al. The correlation coefficients were 0.9994 (p disintegration time determination is eligible and scientifically justified.

  7. Severe ischemic colitis following olanzapine use: a Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Raimundo Fernandes

    Full Text Available Ischemic colitis is the most common subtype of intestinal ischemia usually resulting from vasospasm, vessel occlusion or mesenteric hypoperfusion. Neuroleptics have seldom been linked to ischemic colitis by blocking peripheral anticholinergic and antiserotonergic receptors inducing severe gastrointestinal paresis. We report a young patient with severe ischemic colitis requiring surgery due to necrosis of the bowel. After exclusion of other potential causes, olanzapine was admitted as the cause of ischemia. Clinicians should be aware of how to recognize and treat the potentially life-threatening effects of neuroleptics.

  8. Sammenligning af sertindols og olanzapins effekt på kognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, René Ernst

    Der er gennem de senere år kommet tiltagende fokus, både nationalt og internationalt, på de kognitive deficits der ses hos patienter med skizofreni. Det er kendt at den farmakologiske behandling har indflydelse på kognition funktion, men det er endnu ikke fyldestgørende klarlagt hvorledes de enke...... enkelte atypiske antipsykotika påvirker kognitiv funktion. Der vil blive beskrevet studiedesign for SEROLA studiet, som sammenligner sertindol og olanzapin med kognition, målt med CANTAB, som primært outcome....

  9. Metabolic syndrome and drug discontinuation in schizophrenia: a randomized trial comparing aripiprazole olanzapine and haloperidol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parabiaghi, A; Tettamanti, M; D'Avanzo, B; Barbato, A

    2016-01-01

    To determine whether the prescription of aripiprazole, compared with olanzapine and haloperidol, was associated with a lower frequency of metabolic syndrome (MS) and treatment discontinuation at 1 year. Patients were randomly assigned to be treated open-label and according to usual clinical practice with either aripiprazole, olanzapine, or haloperidol and followed up for 1 year. Three hundred out-patients with persistent schizophrenia were recruited in 35 mental health services. The intention-to-treat (ITT) analysis found no significant differences in the rate of MS between aripiprazole (37%), olanzapine (47%), and haloperidol (42%). Treatment discontinuation for any cause was higher for aripiprazole (52%) than for olanzapine (33%; OR, 0.41; P = 0.004), or haloperidol (37%; OR, 0.51; P = 0.030). No significant difference was found between olanzapine and haloperidol. Time to discontinuation for any cause was longer for olanzapine than for aripiprazole (HR, 0.55; P haloperidol and aripiprazole, or between olanzapine and haloperidol. The prescription of aripiprazole did not significantly reduce the rates of MS, but its treatment retention was worse. Aripiprazole cannot be considered the safest and most effective drug for maintenance treatment of schizophrenia in routine care, although it may have a place in antipsychotic therapy. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Olanzapine versus typical neuroleptics for schizophrenia: evaluation of social and economic costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio Mariani

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available An important number of publications is reporting results from health outcomes studies comparing atypical antipsychotics (AA with typical neuroleptics (TN over 1 year of observation. Our study has prolonged the period observation of the economical and social outcomes to 4 years: 31 patients with schizophrenia were observed retrospectively during two years of TN treatment and then followed during 2 more years of olanzapine treatment after naturalistic switch. The results show a general reduction of health care interventions (territory and hospital during the olanzapine treatment period. Global costs during olanzapine treatment were lower than during TN treatment (10506 euros with TN vs 6193 euros with olanzapine over 2 years. The social outcome, measured through the registration of the number of working days in the two periods of the study (retrospective with TN and prospective with olanzapine, was better during olanzapine treatment, probably due to increased patient compliance to the rehabilitative activities offered by the Department of Mental Health. In our experience, olanzapine appeared to dominate TN treatment, as its higher acquisition costs were offset by the reduction of territorial and nosocomial health care interventions over two years of observation, and associated with higher involvement in rehabilitative and social activities.

  11. Application of miniaturized near-infrared spectroscopy for quality control of extemporaneous orodispersible films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foo, Wen Chin; Widjaja, Effendi; Khong, Yuet Mei; Gokhale, Rajeev; Chan, Sui Yung

    2018-02-20

    Extemporaneous oral preparations are routinely compounded in the pharmacy due to a lack of suitable formulations for special populations. Such small-scale pharmacy preparations also present an avenue for individualized pharmacotherapy. Orodispersible films (ODF) have increasingly been evaluated as a suitable dosage form for extemporaneous oral preparations. Nevertheless, as with all other extemporaneous preparations, safety and quality remain a concern. Although the United States Pharmacopeia (USP) recommends analytical testing of compounded preparations for quality assurance, pharmaceutical assays are typically not routinely performed for such non-sterile pharmacy preparations, due to the complexity and high cost of conventional assay methods such as high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Spectroscopic methods including Raman, infrared and near-infrared spectroscopy have been successfully applied as quality control tools in the industry. The state-of-art benchtop spectrometers used in those studies have the advantage of superior resolution and performance, but are not suitable for use in a small-scale pharmacy setting. In this study, we investigated the application of a miniaturized near infrared (NIR) spectrometer as a quality control tool for identification and quantification of drug content in extemporaneous ODFs. Miniaturized near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy is suitable for small-scale pharmacy applications in view of its small size, portability, simple user interface, rapid measurement and real-time prediction results. Nevertheless, the challenge with miniaturized NIR spectroscopy is its lower resolution compared to state-of-art benchtop equipment. We have successfully developed NIR spectroscopy calibration models for identification of ODFs containing five different drugs, and quantification of drug content in ODFs containing 2-10mg ondansetron (OND). The qualitative model for drug identification produced 100% prediction accuracy. The quantitative

  12. How can lipid nanocarriers improve transdermal delivery of olanzapine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Nimra; Vitorino, Carla; Taylor, Kevin M G

    2017-06-01

    The development of a transdermal nanocarrier drug delivery system with potential for the treatment of psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, is described. Lipid nanocarriers (LN), encompassing various solid:liquid lipid compositions were formulated and assessed as potential nanosystems for transdermal delivery of olanzapine. A previously optimized method of hot high pressure homogenization (HPH) was adopted for the production of the LN, which comprised solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN), nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) and nanoemulsions (NE). Precirol  ® was selected as the solid lipid for progression of studies. SLN exhibited the best performance for transdermal delivery of olanzapine, based on in vitro release and permeation studies, coupled with results from physicochemical characterization of several solid:liquid lipid formulations. Stability tests, performed to give an indication of long-term storage behavior of the formulations, were in good agreement with previous studies for the best choice of solid:liquid lipid ratio. Overall, these findings highlight the SLN-based formulation as promising for the further inclusion in and production of transdermal patches, representing an innovative therapeutic approach.

  13. Development and optimization of fast dissolving oro-dispersible films of granisetron HCl using Box–Behnken statistical design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hema Chaudhary

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim was to develop and optimize fast dissolving oro-dispersible films of granisetron hydrochloride (GH by two-factor, three-level Box–Behnken design as the two independent variables such as X1 (polymer and X2 (plasticizer were selected on the basis of the preliminary studies carried out before the experimental design is being implemented. A second-order polynomial equation to construct contour plots for the prediction of responses of the dependent variables such as drug release (Y1, Disintegration time (Y2, and Y3 (Tensile strength was studied. The Response surface plots were drawn, statistical validity of the polynomials was established to find the compositions of optimized formulation which was evaluated using the Franz-type diffusion cell. The designs establish the role of the derived polynomial equation and contour plots in predicting the values of dependent variables for the preparation and optimization.

  14. Long-term functional improvements in the 2-year treatment of schizophrenia outpatients with olanzapine long-acting injection

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    Ascher-Svanum H

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Haya Ascher-Svanum,1 Diego Novick,2,3 Josep Maria Haro,4 Jordan Bertsch,4 David McDonnell,1 Holland Detke11Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, IN, USA; 2Eli Lilly and Company, Windlesham, Surrey, UK; 3Departament de Psiquiatria, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Spain; 4Parc Sanitari Sant Joan de Déu, Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red en el Área de Salud Mental, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, SpainBackground: Little is known about the long-term changes in the functioning of schizophrenia patients receiving maintenance therapy with olanzapine long-acting injection (LAI, and whether observed changes differ from those seen with oral olanzapine.Methods: This study describes changes in the levels of functioning among outpatients with schizophrenia treated with olanzapine-LAI compared with oral olanzapine over 2 years. This was a secondary analysis of data from a multicenter, randomized, open-label, 2-year study comparing the long-term treatment effectiveness of monthly olanzapine-LAI (405 mg/4 weeks; n=264 with daily oral olanzapine (10 mg/day; n=260. Levels of functioning were assessed with the Heinrichs–Carpenter Quality of Life Scale. Functional status was also classified as “good”, “moderate”, or “poor”, using a previous data-driven approach. Changes in functional levels were assessed with McNemar’s test and comparisons between olanzapine-LAI and oral olanzapine employed the Student’s t-test. Results: Over the 2-year study, the patients treated with olanzapine-LAI improved their level of functioning (per Quality of Life total score from 64.0–70.8 (P<0.001. Patients on oral ­olanzapine also increased their level of functioning from 62.1–70.1 (P<0.001. At baseline, 19.2% of the olanzapine-LAI-treated patients had a “good” level of functioning, which increased to 27.5% (P<0.05. The figures for oral olanzapine were 14.2% and 24.5%, respectively (P<0.001. Results did not significantly differ between

  15. Taste-masking assessment of orally disintegrating tablets and lyophilisates with cetirizine dihydrochloride microparticles

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    Aleksandra Amelian

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Orally disintegrating tablets and oral lyophilisates are novel attractive dosage forms that disintegrate or dissolve in the buccal cavity within seconds without necessity of drinking. The major limitation in designing of these dosage forms is unpleasant taste of the drug substance. Cetirizine dihydrochloride is a H1-antihistamine substance indicated for the treatment of allergy. It is characterized by extremely bitter taste, therefore in order to deliver cetirizine dihydrochloride using orodispersible formulations, effective taste-masking is required. The aim of this study was to investigate whether microparticles containing cetirizine dihydrochloride could be successfully used to formulate orally disintegrating tablets by direct compression method and oral lyophilisates by freeze-drying process. Taste masking of cetirizine dihydrochloride was achieved by the spray-drying technique using Eudragit® E PO as the drug agent carrier. Based on the preliminary studies, optimal compositions of microparticles, tablets and lyophilisates were chosen. Obtained dosage forms were characterized for drug content, disintegration time and mechanical properties. In order to determine whether the microparticles subjected to direct compression and freeze-drying process effectively mask the bitter taste of cetirizine dihydrochloride, the in vivo and in vitro evaluation was performed. The results showed that designed formulates with microparticles containing cetirizine dihydrochloride were characterized by appropriate mechanical properties, uniformity of weight and thickness, short disintegration time, and the uniform content of the drug substance. Taste-masking assessment performed by three independent methods (e-tongue evaluation, human test panel and the in vitro drug release revealed that microparticles with Eudragit® E PO are effective taste – masking carriers of cetirizine dihydrochloride and might be used to formulate orally disintegrating tablets and oral

  16. Using Tablet on Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algoufi, Rateeba

    2016-01-01

    Technological advancements in digital devices have made educational methodology to adopt new strategies and procedures to suit the Mobile learning era. Mobile devices such as tablets are growing to be the focus of research studies and educational use around the globe in the present day. With the influence of handy computing tablets in the hands of…

  17. Ghost tablet in feces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamuro, Masaya; Morishita, Yosuke; Urata, Haruo; Okada, Hiroyuki

    2017-12-01

    Recently, we encountered a female patient who identified the presence of a ghost tablet in her fecal matter. Interestingly, although the patient was prescribed potassium chloride capsules, elemental composition analysis by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy was unable to detect the presence of either potassium or chloride in the fecal tablet remnant.

  18. A patient treated with olanzapine developing diabetes de novo : proposal for hyperglycaemia screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duiverman, M. L.; Cohen, D.; van Oven, W.; Nieboer, P.

    2007-01-01

    We report a patient with schizophrenia who developed diabetes mellitus during treatment with olanzapine. The case confirms the pattern of atypical antipsychotic-related diabetic emergencies: rapid onset in relatively young patients, often with severe glucose derangements and serious complications.

  19. LC–MS/MS assay for olanzapine in human plasma and its application to a bioequivalence study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh S. Patel

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a selective and sensitive assay for the determination of olanzapine (OLZ in human plasma based on liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS. The analyte and quetiapine as internal standard (IS were extracted from 200 μL plasma via solid phase extraction on Waters Oasis HLB cartridges. Chromatographic separation was achieved on an ACE 5C18-300 column (100 mm×4.6 mm, 5 μm under isocratic conditions in a run time of 3.5 min. Mass spectrometric detection involved electrospray ionization in the positive ion mode followed by multiple reaction monitoring (MRM of the transitions at m/z 313/256 for OLZ and m/z 384/253 for the IS. The assay was linear in the range 0.10–40.0 ng/mL with a lower limit of quantitation and limit of detection of 0.10 and 0.012 ng/mL, respectively. Intra- and inter-day precision (as coefficient of variation and relative recovery were 90%, respectively. The method was successfully applied to a bioequivalence study of 5 and 10 mg OLZ disintegrating tablets in 40 healthy Indian males with reproducibility by incurred sample reanalysis in the range −7.43 to 8.07%.

  20. Pregnancy exposure to olanzapine, quetiapine, risperidone, aripiprazole and risk of congenital malformations. A systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ennis, Zandra Nymand; Damkier, Per

    2015-01-01

    /22 (5.1%) and 100/5 (5.0%), respectively. Relative risk estimates and 95% confidence intervals were 1.0 (0.7-1.4) (olanzapine), 1.0 (0.6-1.7) (quetiapine), 1.5 (0.9-2.2) (risperidone) and 1.4 (0.5-3.1) (aripiprazole). First-trimester exposure to olanzapine is not associated with an increased risk...

  1. Differential weight restoration on olanzapine versus fluoxetine in identical twins with anorexia nervosa

    OpenAIRE

    Duvvuri, V; Cromley, T; Klabunde, M; Boutelle, K; Kaye, WH

    2012-01-01

    Objective: No studies have compared the response to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and atypical antipsychotics in anorexia nervosa. This case study examines such a comparison. Method: This report describes a case of 12-year-old identical twins with anorexia nervosa, one of whom was treated with olanzapine and the other with fluoxetine, while undergoing family therapy. Results: Twin A treated with fluoxetine went from 75 to 84.4% ideal body weight, while Twin B treated with olanzapine...

  2. Olanzapine is effective for refractory chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting irrespective of chemotherapy emetogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vig, Sierra; Seibert, Laurel; Green, Myke R

    2014-01-01

    The role of olanzapine added to a dopamine antagonist and benzodiazepine for the treatment of refractory chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) is incompletely characterized in all levels of chemotherapy emetogenicity. This retrospective study evaluated the efficacy of the addition of olanzapine in adults experiencing refractory CINV stratified by chemotherapy emetogenicity. Thirty-three adults who experienced CINV refractory to guideline-recommended prophylaxis and breakthrough antiemetics (dopamine antagonists and benzodiazepines) and received at least one dose of olanzapine 5-10 mg per os were evaluated. Failure was defined as >5 emesis events in 24 h or more than 10 cumulative doses of rescue antiemetics following first olanzapine dose per treatment cycle. Post hoc analyses investigated variables impacting olanzapine efficacy. The addition of olanzapine demonstrated an overall success rate of 70 %. This success rate did not differ between chemotherapy regimens of high versus low-to-moderate emetogenicity (p = 0.79), prophylaxis with serotonin antagonist plus corticosteroid and aprepitant versus serotonin antagonist alone (p = 0.77), or age over 50 versus ≤50 years (p > 0.99). A trend toward greater benefit was seen in women (p = 0.08). The addition of olanzapine to a dopamine antagonist and benzodiazepine demonstrated high efficacy rates for refractory CINV irrespective of chemotherapy emetogenicity. The high success rates among all groups suggests that incomplete resolution of CINV with prophylactic serotonin antagonists and breakthrough dopamine antagonists plus benzodiazepine may benefit from the addition of olanzapine regardless of gender, degree of chemotherapy emetogenicity, number of prophylactic antiemetics, or age. The trend toward greater control of emesis in women merits further investigation.

  3. Olanzapine-induced weight gain: lessons learned from developing rat models

    OpenAIRE

    van der Zwaal, E.M.

    2011-01-01

    Olanzapine is an effective and commonly prescribed antipsychotic drug, used for the treatment of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Unfortunately significant weight gain is a common side effect. In order to effectively address this side effect, it is crucial to gain insight into the underlying mechanisms. Therefore, this thesis describes the development of a number of rat models that were designed to determine the effects of olanzapine on different aspects of energy balance. In both short- a...

  4. Determination of olanzapine and N-desmethyl-olanzapine in plasma using a reversed-phase HPLC coupled with coulochemical detection: correlation of olanzapine or N-desmethyl-olanzapine concentration with metabolic parameters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mong-Liang Lu

    Full Text Available Olanzapine (OLZ is one of the most prescribed atypical antipsychotic drugs but its use is associated with unfavorable metabolic abnormalities. N-desmethyl-olanzapine (DMO, one of the OLZ metabolites by CYP1A2, has been reported to have a normalizing action on metabolic abnormalities, but this remains unclear. Our aim was to explore the correlation between the concentrations of OLZ or DMO with various metabolic parameters in schizophrenic patients.The chromatographic analysis was carried out with a solvent delivery system coupled to a Coulochem III coulometric detector to determine OLZ and DMO simultaneously in OLZ-treated patients. The correlation between the concentration of OLZ or DMO and the metabolic parameters was analyzed by the Spearman rank order correlation method (r s.The established analytical method met proper standards for accuracy and reliability and the lower limitation of quantification for each injection of DMO or OLZ was 0.02 ng. The method was successfully used for the analysis of samples from nonsmoking patients (n = 48 treated with OLZ in the dosage range of 5-20 mg per day. There was no correlation between OLZ concentrations and tested metabolic parameters. DMO concentrations were negatively correlated with glucose (r s = -0.45 and DMO concentrations normalized by doses were also negatively correlated with insulin levels (r s = -0.39; however, there was a marginally positive correlation between DMO and homocysteine levels (r s = +0.38.The observed negative correlations between levels of DMO and glucose or insulin suggest a metabolic normalization role for DMO regardless of its positive correlation with a known cardiovascular risk factor, homocysteine. Additional studies of the mechanisms underlying DMO's metabolic effects are warranted.

  5. An unusual case of hypothermia associated with therapeutic doses of olanzapine: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratnayake Shiroma L

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction We report a case of a 42-year-old man who had symptomatic hypothermia as a result of taking olanzapine for paranoid schizophrenia. According to published data, only a few cases of hypothermia associated with olanzapine have been reported since its introduction into clinical use. Case presentation A 42-year-old Sri Lankan man with schizophrenia who was being treated with a therapeutic dose of olanzapine presented with reduced level of consciousness. He had a core temperature of 32°C and was bradycardic. At the time of admission, the electrocardiogram showed sinus bradycardia with J waves. He did not have any risk factors for developing hypothermia except the use of olanzapine. There was improvement in his clinical condition with reversal of electrocardiogram changes following gradual rewarming and the omission of olanzapine. Conclusion Hypothermia induced by antipsychotic medications is not uncommon, but olanzapine-induced hypothermia is rare and occurrence has been reported during initiation or increasing the dose. But here the patient developed hypothermia without dose adjustment.

  6. Olanzapine and sibutramine have opposing effects on the motivation for palatable food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Zwaal, Esther M; Janhunen, Sanna K; Luijendijk, Mieneke C M; Baclesanu, Roxana; Vanderschuren, Louk J M J; Adan, Roger A H; La Fleur, Susanne E

    2012-04-01

    Both olanzapine and sibutramine target serotonergic and noradrenergic neurotransmission and influence body weight, but in opposite ways. The second-generation antipsychotic olanzapine, an antagonist at serotonergic and noradrenergic receptors, frequently induces weight gain as a side-effect, whereas sibutramine, a noradrenaline/serotonin reuptake inhibitor, is known as a weight-reducing agent. To investigate whether altered motivation for palatable food influences the effect of these drugs on body weight, we determined their effects on responding for sucrose pellets under a progressive ratio schedule of reinforcement in rats. We found that a low dose of olanzapine selectively increased responding to sucrose, without affecting free-feeding intake of sucrose. In contrast, sibutramine dose-dependently reduced responding to sucrose and similarly reduced free-feeding intake. Furthermore, coadministration of a dose of sibutramine that failed to affect responding to sucrose when administered alone prevented the increase in motivation by the effective dose of olanzapine. These data show that increased motivation for palatable food is likely to be a significant contributor to olanzapine-induced weight gain. Moreover, the ability of sibutramine to reduce this motivation for palatable food may play an important role in the efficacy of sibutramine as an add-on treatment to counteract olanzapine-induced weight gain.

  7. Thrombocytopenia associated with olanzapine: A case report and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swapnajeet Sahoo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available There is limited literature on olanzapine-associated thrombocytopenia. In this report, we present a case of a 32-year-old female, suffering from persistent delusional disorder who had thrombocytopenia (46,000/mm3 with the use of olanzapine 25 mg/day, 6 weeks after starting medication. Blood film did not reveal any evidence of any dysplastic cells, disturbance in the count of other cell lines, and autoimmune workup including antinuclear antibodies and anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies were found to be negative. Given no other etiology, olanzapine was gradually tapered, and platelet counts were monitored. Reduction in the dose of olanzapine led to an improvement in platelet counts which reached the normal range after complete stoppage of olanzapine. In view of continued psychotic symptoms, she was started on clozapine and which was gradually increased to 200 mg/day with biweekly monitoring of total platelet counts before each increment in the dose of clozapine. Thrombocytopenia did not recur with use of clozapine. With clozapine, her psychosis improved by nearly 60%. A review of literature revealed only eight case reports supporting the association of olanzapine and thrombocytopenia.

  8. A Comparative Study between Olanzapine and Risperidone in the Management of Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Shoja Shafti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Since a variety of comparisons between risperidone and olanzapine have resulted in diverse outcomes, so safety and efficacy of them were compared again in a new trial. Method. Sixty female schizophrenic patients entered into one of the assigned groups for random allocation to olanzapine or risperidone (n=30 in each group in a double-blind, 12-week clinical trial. Scale for Assessment of Positive Symptoms (SAPS and Scale for Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS were used as the primary outcome measures. Clinical Global Impressions-Severity Scale (CGI-S, Schedule for Assessment of Insight (SAI, and finally Simpson Angus Scale (SAS as well were employed as secondary scales. Results. While both of olanzapine and risperidone were significantly effective for improvement of positive symptoms (P<0.0001, as regards negative symptoms, it was so only by means of olanzapine (P<0.0003. CGI-S and SAI, as well, were significantly improved in both of the groups. SAS increment was significant only in the risperidone group (P<0.02. Conclusion. While both of olanzapine and risperidone were equally effective for improvement of positive symptoms and insight, olanzapine showed superior efficacy with respect to negative symptoms, along with lesser extrapyramidal side effects, in comparison with risperidone.

  9. Memantine enhances the effect of olanzapine in patients with schizophrenia: A randomized, placebo-controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Fakhri

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Glutamate dysregulation may be involved in the neuropathology of schizophrenia. Memantine, a drug approved by the FDA for the treatment of moderate to severe Alzheimer's disease, acts as a partial uncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonist. The aim of this study was to examine the efficacy of memantine as an adjunctive treatment to olanzapine in patients with schizophrenia. In this double-blind, placebo-controlled studies, patients with schizophrenia according to DSM-IV clinical criteria were selected. Patients were randomly assigned to receive either memantine (week 1:10 mg/day; weeks 2-6:20 mg/day plus olanzapine (15-20 mg/day or olanzapine plus placebo. At baseline, no statistically significant difference regarding the mean total PANSS scores between treatment groups was found. Results showed that memantine significantly improved the positive and negative PANSS score in patients maintained on olanzapine after six weeks compared to olanzapine alone (P<0.001. Furthermore, female patients showed significantly better response than males, especially in positive PANSS score. No significant changes in extrapyramidal symptoms were observed.These findings indicate that olanzapine efficacy might be augmented with memantine. Furthermore, this effect is more remarkable in female patients with schizophrenia.

  10. The promotion of olanzapine in primary care: an examination of internal industry documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spielmans, Glen I

    2009-07-01

    Media reports have discussed how olanzapine was marketed off-label for dementia and subsyndromal bipolar disorder. Much of this marketing occurred in primary care settings. However, these reports have provided few details. In legal proceedings, Lilly disclosed internal documents that detail the strategies utilized to market olanzapine. The current paper addresses the marketing of olanzapine in detail based upon a review of these documents. All 358 documents released by Lilly are publicly available online. Documents were utilized for this review if they were relevant to the marketing of olanzapine in primary care settings in the United States. It was found that olanzapine was marketed off-label in primary care settings for relatively mild symptoms that were framed as bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. A key strategy in this campaign was the use of hypothetical patient profiles in detailing visits, most of which clearly failed to meet diagnostic criteria for any recognized mental disorder. Evidence emerged that olanzapine was also marketed off-label as a treatment for dementia.

  11. Amorphization within the tablet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doreth, Maria; Hussein, Murtadha Abdul; Priemel, Petra A.

    2017-01-01

    , the feasibility of microwave irradiation to prepare amorphous solid dispersions (glass solutions) in situ was investigated. Indomethacin (IND) and polyvinylpyrrolidone K12 (PVP) were tableted at a 1:2 (w/w) ratio. In order to study the influence of moisture content and energy input on the degree of amorphization......, tablet formulations were stored at different relative humidity (32, 43 and 54% RH) and subsequently microwaved using nine different power-time combinations up to a maximum energy input of 90 kJ. XRPD results showed that up to 80% (w/w) of IND could be amorphized within the tablet. mDSC measurements...

  12. Android tablets for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Gookin, Dan

    2015-01-01

    Learn all you need to know about your Android tablet in one quick and easy reference! It's not a computer and it's not a smartphone-so what in the world is it? Whether you're new to Android or new to tablets altogether, you're about to experience mobile computing like never before with this fun, full-color guide! Inside, longtime and bestselling author Dan Gookin walks you through setting up your Android tablet, navigating the interface, browsing the web, setting up email, connecting to social media, finding plenty of apps, music, books, and movies to indulge your interests-and so much more.

  13. Switching to olanzapine long-acting injection from either oral olanzapine or any other antipsychotic: comparative post hoc analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciudad A

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Antonio Ciudad,1 Ernie Anand,2 Lovisa Berggren,3 Marta Casillas,4 Alexander Schacht,3 Elena Perrin5 1Department of Clinical Research and Development, Eli Lilly & Co, Madrid, Spain; 2Neuroscience Medical Affairs – EU, Lilly Research Centre, Windlesham, Surrey, UK; 3Global Statistical Sciences, Eli Lilly & Co, Bad Homburg, Germany; 4European Scientific Communications, Eli Lilly & Co, Madrid, Spain; 5Medical Department, Eli Lilly & Co, Suresnes, Paris, France Background: A considerable proportion of patients suffering from schizophrenia show suboptimal responses to oral antipsychotics due to inadequate adherence. Hence, they are likely to benefit from switching to a long-acting injectable formulation. These post hoc analyses assessed the clinical effects of switching to olanzapine long-acting injection (OLAI from either oral olanzapine (OLZ or other antipsychotics (non-OLZ. Methods: Post hoc analyses were done based on two randomized studies (one short-term, one long-term conducted in patients suffering from schizophrenia and treated with OLAI. The short-term study was an 8-week placebo-controlled, double-blind trial in acute patients, and the long-term study was a 2-year, oral olanzapine-controlled, open-label, follow-up of stabilized outpatients. Results: These analyses used data from 62 OLAI-treated patients (12 switched from OLZ, 50 from non-OLZ from the short-term study and 190 OLAI-treated patients (56 switched from OLZ, 134 from non-OLZ from the long-term study. Kaplan–Meier survival analyses of time to all-cause discontinuation of OLAI treatment did not differ significantly between OLZ and non-OLZ patients in the short-term study (P=0.209 or long-term study (P=0.448. Similarly, the proportions of OLZ and non-OLZ patients that discontinued OLAI were not statistically different in the short-term (16.7% versus 36.0%, respectively; P=0.198 or long-term (57.1% versus 47.8% respectively; P=0.238 studies. In the short-term study, no

  14. Olanzapine for the Prevention of Chemotherapy-Induced Nausea and Vomiting: A Comparative Study From Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaa A.M. Osman

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV is a distressing adverse effect. Neurokinin-1 receptor antagonist (NK1RA–containing regimens are the standard regimens for CINV prophylaxis in patients with cancer receiving highly or moderately emetogenic chemotherapy (HEC or MEC. NK1RA agents are expensive and were not registered in Sudan. Recently, regimens containing olanzapine, the available and affordable medication in Sudan, were introduced as another option. This study aimed to compare the efficacy of an olanzapine-containing regimen with the antiemetic regimen that was currently used in our institute for CINV prophylaxis in HEC/MEC settings. Patients and Methods: The study prospectively compared an olanzapine-containing regimen (acute phase: olanzapine, ondansetron, dexamethasone; delayed phase: olanzapine, ondansetron with an ondansetron/dexamethasone regimen (acute phase: ondansetron, dexamethasone; delayed phase: ondansetron in adult patients with cancer receiving HEC or MEC. The study outcomes were complete response (CR; no emesis and no rescue medications and nausea control (no nausea, which were assessed in the acute (0 to 24 hours, delayed (24 to 120 hours, and overall (0 to 120 hours phases. Results: The study included 131 patients (olanzapine-containing: 50 patients; ondansetron/dexamethasone: 81 patients. CR and nausea control were higher in the olanzapine-containing than in the ondansetron/dexamethasone regimen (CR: acute phase, 86% v 71.6%; P = .086; delayed phase, 72% v 30.9%; P < .001; overall phase, 66% v 25.9%; P < .001; nausea control: acute phase, 86% v 74.1%; P = .127; delayed phase, 76% v 34.6%; P < .001; overall phase, 72% v 29.6%; P < .001. The major toxicity of olanzapine was grade 1 and 2 sedation or drowsiness (25 patients. Conclusion: An olanzapine-containing regimen has better efficacy for prevention of CINV in the HEC/MEC setting. Oncologists working in a limited-resource setting should be familiar

  15. Grasp interaction with tablets

    CERN Document Server

    Wolf, Katrin

    2015-01-01

    This book presents guidelines for a future device type: a tablet that allows ergonomic front- and back-of-device interaction. These guidelines help designers and developers of user interfaces to build ergonomic applications for tablet devices, in particular for devices that enable back-of-device interaction. In addition, manufacturers of tablet devices obtain arguments that back-of-device interaction is a promising extension of the interaction design space and results in increased input capabilities, enriched design possibilities, and proven usability. The guidelines are derived from empirical studies and developed to fit the users’ skills to the way the novel device type is held. Three particular research areas that are relevant to develop design guidelines for tablet interaction are investigated: ergonomic gestures, interaction areas, and pointing techniques.

  16. Alterations to melanocortinergic, GABAergic and cannabinoid neurotransmission associated with olanzapine-induced weight gain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrina Weston-Green

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND/AIM: Second generation antipsychotics (SGAs are used to treat schizophrenia but can cause serious metabolic side-effects, such as obesity and diabetes. This study examined the effects of low to high doses of olanzapine on appetite/metabolic regulatory signals in the hypothalamus and brainstem to elucidate the mechanisms underlying olanzapine-induced obesity. METHODOLOGY/RESULTS: Levels of pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC, neuropeptide Y (NPY and glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD(65, enzyme for GABA synthesis mRNA expression, and cannabinoid CB1 receptor (CB1R binding density (using [(3H]SR-141716A were examined in the arcuate nucleus (Arc and dorsal vagal complex (DVC of female Sprague Dawley rats following 0.25, 0.5, 1.0 or 2.0 mg/kg olanzapine or vehicle (3×/day, 14-days. Consistent with its weight gain liability, olanzapine significantly decreased anorexigenic POMC and increased orexigenic NPY mRNA expression in a dose-sensitive manner in the Arc. GAD(65 mRNA expression increased and CB1R binding density decreased in the Arc and DVC. Alterations to neurotransmission signals in the brain significantly correlated with body weight and adiposity. The minimum dosage threshold required to induce weight gain in the rat was 0.5 mg/kg olanzapine. CONCLUSIONS: Olanzapine-induced weight gain is associated with reduced appetite-inhibiting POMC and increased NPY. This study also supports a role for the CB1R and GABA in the mechanisms underlying weight gain side-effects, possibly by altering POMC transmission. Metabolic dysfunction can be modelled in the female rat using low, clinically-comparable olanzapine doses when administered in-line with the half-life of the drug.

  17. A new tablet brittleness index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Xingchu; Sun, Changquan Calvin

    2015-06-01

    Brittleness is one of the important material properties that influences the success or failure of powder compaction. We have discovered that the reciprocal of diametrical elastic strain at fracture is the most suitable tablet brittleness indices (TBIs) for quantifying brittleness of pharmaceutical tablets. The new strain based TBI is supported by both theoretical considerations and a systematic statistical analysis of friability data. It is sufficiently sensitive to changes in both tablet compositions and compaction parameters. For all tested materials, it correctly shows that tablet brittleness increases with increasing tablet porosity for the same powder. In addition, TBI increases with increasing content of a brittle excipient, lactose monohydrate, in the mixtures with a plastic excipient, microcrystalline cellulose. A probability map for achieving less than 1% tablet friability at various combinations of tablet tensile strength and TBI was constructed. Data from marketed tablets validate this probability map and a TBI value of 150 is recommended as the upper limit for pharmaceutical tablets. This TBI can be calculated from the data routinely obtained during tablet diametrical breaking test, which is commonly performed for assessing tablet mechanical strength. Therefore, it is ready for adoption for quantifying tablet brittleness to guide tablet formulation development since it does not require additional experimental work. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. A comparative study of olanzapine versus asenapine in acute treatment of manic episode: A 3-week prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajeet Sidana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Treatment of bipolar disorders has evolved over the years from conventional mood stabilizers to second-generation antipsychotics. Among the atypical antipsychotics, few have been approved by Food and Drug Administration as treatment of bipolar disorders. Aim: To study the efficacy and tolerability of olanzapine and asenapine in the acute treatment of bipolar disorder-manic episode in a 3-week randomized prospective study. Materials and Methods: A 3-week randomized, prospective, comparative, flexible doses of olanzapine (5-30 mg/day and asenapine (10-20 mg/day for acute treatment of bipolar disorder-current manic episode with or without psychotic symptoms in hospitalized patients. Results: The end-point reduction in mean score of Young Mania rating scale in the olanzapine group was 15.82 in comparison to 6.88 in the asenapine group. Mean score on clinical global impression for bipolar disorder and positive and negative syndrome scale was significantly less in the olanzapine group at the end of the study. 81.81% patients in olanzapine group and 17.60% patients in asenapine group had clinical response. There was significant average weight gain in the olanzapine group - 1.9 kg in comparison to 0.87 kg in asenapine group. Conclusion: The clinical response with olanzapine is significantly higher than the asenapine in the treatment of bipolar disorder-manic episode with or without psychotic symptoms. However, there is significant weight gain in olanzapine-treated patients.

  19. Symptom response and side-effects of olanzapine and risperidone in young adults with recent onset schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bruggen, Johanna; Tijssen, Jans; Dingemans, Petrus; Gersons, Berthold; Linszen, Donald

    2003-01-01

    The symptom response and side-effects of olanzapine and risperidone were compared in patients with recent onset schizophrenia. Actively symptomatic patients n=44) randomly, received olanzapine 15 mg (median dose) or risperidone 4 mg (median dose). Symptom response and side-effects were measured

  20. Translation of randomised controlled trial findings into clinical practice: comparison of olanzapine and valproate in the EMBLEM study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novick, D; Gonzalez-Pinto, A; Haro, J M; Bertsch, J; Reed, C; Perrin, E; Tohen, M

    2009-07-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the outcomes of olanzapine- and valproate-treated patients in an observational study of acute mania with the results of a randomised controlled trial (RCT) assessing the same treatments. EMBLEM (European Mania in Bipolar Evaluation of Medication) was a 2-year, prospective, observational study of health outcomes associated with the treatment of mania. Severity of mania and depression were assessed at baseline and 6 weeks using the YMRS and the 5-item version of the HAMD, respectively. 621 patients were analysed (n=107 valproate, n=514 olanzapine). Both groups improved from baseline to 6 weeks in mean YMRS and HAMD-5 total scores, with greater mean improvements in the olanzapine compared with the valproate group. Olanzapine was associated with more weight gain and less gastrointestinal difficulties than valproate. The EMBLEM results support those of the RCT, which suggest that olanzapine monotherapy seems to be more effective than valproate monotherapy in the treatment of acute mania.

  1. Differential weight restoration on olanzapine versus fluoxetine in identical twins with anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duvvuri, Vikas; Cromley, Taya; Klabunde, Megan; Boutelle, Kerri; Kaye, Walter H

    2012-03-01

    No studies have compared the response to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and atypical antipsychotics in anorexia nervosa. This case study examines such a comparison. This report describes a case of 12-year-old identical twins with anorexia nervosa, one of whom was treated with olanzapine and the other with fluoxetine, while undergoing family therapy. Twin A treated with fluoxetine went from 75 to 84.4% ideal body weight, while Twin B treated with olanzapine went from 72 to 99.9% ideal body weight over the course of 9 months. This case supports the need for adequately powered, controlled clinical trials to test the efficacy of olanzapine in adolescents presenting with anorexia nervosa. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Olanzapine induced biochemical and histopathological changes after its chronic administration in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rehmat Shah

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Olanzapine is a second generation antipsychotic acting mainly as a dopamine D2 and serotonine 5-HT2 receptors antagonist prescribed in the treatment of schizophrenia and various other psychiatric illnesses. Even though olanzapine is widely used in psychiatry, its effects on the architecture of pancreas, liver and kidneys are little known. The histology of pancreas especially has never been studied. For these reasons, the current study was designed to elucidate the toxic effects of chronic administration of olanzapine on pancreas, liver and kidneys and the enzymes released by these tissues in an escalating dose manner. Methods: Fourteen male rats were divided into two groups equally, the olanzapine group and the controls. Olanzapine was administered in a dose of 5 mg/kg/d for the first eight weeks, 10 mg/kg/d for next four weeks and 15 mg/kg/d through the last two week period of 14 weeks experiment. The controls received acidified saline only. Both the groups received restricted diet (20 g/12 h. The body weight and level of random blood sugar (RBS were measured on a weekly basis. The levels of lipase, amylase, alanine transaminase (ALT and aspartate transaminase (AST were determined terminally. At the end of the experiment, the tissues were dissected out for histopathological evaluation. Results: Significant loss in body weight, change in the level of random blood sugar (∗∗P  0.05. The pancreas has shown derangement of beta cells and fibrotic growth. A mild to moderate focal increase in glomerular cellularity, cellular proliferation and glomerular capsules with negligible basement membranes were observed in the kidneys. No changes were observed in the architecture of the liver. Conclusion: The findings of this study indicated that the incidence of adverse effects associated with olanzapine could be prevented/alleviated/delayed by allowing restricted diet.

  3. RNA sequencing reveals a slow to fast muscle fiber type transition after olanzapine infusion in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J Lynch

    Full Text Available Second generation antipsychotics (SGAs, like olanzapine, exhibit acute metabolic side effects leading to metabolic inflexibility, hyperglycemia, adiposity and diabetes. Understanding how SGAs affect the skeletal muscle transcriptome could elucidate approaches for mitigating these side effects. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were infused intravenously with vehicle or olanzapine for 24h using a dose leading to a mild hyperglycemia. RNA-Seq was performed on gastrocnemius muscle, followed by alignment of the data with the Rat Genome Assembly 5.0. Olanzapine altered expression of 1347 out of 26407 genes. Genes encoding skeletal muscle fiber-type specific sarcomeric, ion channel, glycolytic, O2- and Ca2+-handling, TCA cycle, vascularization and lipid oxidation proteins and pathways, along with NADH shuttles and LDH isoforms were affected. Bioinformatics analyses indicate that olanzapine decreased the expression of slower and more oxidative fiber type genes (e.g., type 1, while up regulating those for the most glycolytic and least metabolically flexible, fast twitch fiber type, IIb. Protein turnover genes, necessary to bring about transition, were also up regulated. Potential upstream regulators were also identified. Olanzapine appears to be rapidly affecting the muscle transcriptome to bring about a change to a fast-glycolytic fiber type. Such fiber types are more susceptible than slow muscle to atrophy, and such transitions are observed in chronic metabolic diseases. Thus these effects could contribute to the altered body composition and metabolic disease olanzapine causes. A potential interventional strategy is implicated because aerobic exercise, in contrast to resistance exercise, can oppose such slow to fast fiber transitions.

  4. [Tablets and tablet production - with special reference to Icelandic conditions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skaftason, Jóhannes F; Jóhannesson, Thorkell

    2013-04-01

    Modern tablet compression was instituted in England in 1844 by William Brockedon (1787-1854). The first tablets made according to Brockedon´s procedures contained watersoluble salts and were most likely compressed without expedients. In USA a watershed occurred around 1887 when starch (amylum maydis) was introduced to disperse tablets in aqueous milieu in order to corroborate bioavailability of drugs in the almentary canal. About the same time great advances in tablet production were introduced by the British firm Burroughs Wellcome and Co. In Denmark on the other hand tablet production remained on low scale until after 1920. As Icelandic pharmacies and drug firms modelled themselves mostly upon Danish firms tablet production was first instituted in Iceland around 1930. The first tablet machines in Iceland were hand-driven. More efficent machines came after 1945. Around 1960 three sizeable tablet producers were in Iceland; now there is only one. Numbers of individual tablet species (generic and proprietary) on the market rose from less than 10 in 1913 to 500 in 1965, with wide variations in numbers in between. Tablets have not wiped out other medicinal forms for peroral use but most new peroral drugs have been marketed in the form of tablets during the last decades.

  5. Applicability of two automated disintegration apparatuses for rapidly disintegrating (mini)tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieber, Daniel; Lazzari, Alessia; Quodbach, Julian; Pein, Miriam

    2017-03-01

    Orally disintegrating (mini)tablets (OD(M)Ts) are of interest in the field of pharmaceutics. Their orodispersible character is defined by the disintegration time, which is measured with a basket apparatus according to the European Pharmacopoeia. This method, however, lacks applicability for ODTs and especially ODMTs. New disintegration apparatuses have been described in literature, but a qualification to assess the applicability has not been described. A qualification procedure for two automated disintegration apparatuses, OD-mate and Hermes apparatus, is introduced. Aspects of the operational qualification as well as precision and accuracy regarding a performance qualification were evaluated for both apparatuses analog to the ICH guideline Q2. While the OQ study is performed separately for each apparatus, accuracy and precision were performed following the same protocol for both testers. Small RSDs (16.9% OD-mate; 15.2% Hermes compared to 32.3% for the pharmacopeial method) were found despite very fast disintegration times (1.5 s for both apparatuses). By comparing these RSDs to practical examples, the authors propose threshold values for repeatability depending on the mean disintegration time. Obtained results from the qualification were used to assess the applicability of both apparatuses.

  6. Teach yourself visually Fire tablets

    CERN Document Server

    Marmel, Elaine

    2014-01-01

    Expert visual guidance to getting the most out of your Fire tablet Teach Yourself VISUALLY Fire Tablets is the comprehensive guide to getting the most out of your new Fire tablet. Learn to find and read new bestsellers through the Kindle app, browse the app store to find top games, surf the web, send e-mail, shop online, and much more! With expert guidance laid out in a highly visual style, this book is perfect for those new to the Fire tablet, providing all the information you need to get the most out of your device. Abundant screenshots of the Fire tablet graphically rich, touch-based Androi

  7. The Nebusarsekim Tablet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stadhouders, H.A.I.

    2008-01-01

    During the summer of 2007 an internet hype was unleashed by the breaking news that an Old Testament name of some importance, figuring in the Book of Jeremiah Ch. 39, had been positively identified on a cuneiform clay tablet, viz. a bill of receipt from the time of this prophet's floruit. Many a

  8. Olanzapine-induced weight gain: lessons learned from developing rat models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zwaal, E.M.

    2011-01-01

    Olanzapine is an effective and commonly prescribed antipsychotic drug, used for the treatment of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Unfortunately significant weight gain is a common side effect. In order to effectively address this side effect, it is crucial to gain insight into the underlying

  9. Ziprasidone as an adjuvant for clozapine- or olanzapine-associated medical morbidity in chronic schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, David C.; Fan, Xiaoduo; Copeland, Paul M.; Sharma, Bikash; Borba, Christina P.; Forstbauer, Sharon I.; Miley, Kate; Boxill, Ryan; Freudenreich, Oliver; Cather, Corey; Evins, A. Eden; Goff, Donald C.

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study sought to examine the effect of ziprasidone on olanzapine or clozapine associated medical morbidity such as insulin resistance, diabetes mellitus and impaired fasting glucose, obesity and hyperlipidemia in patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. Method This was a six-week, open label trial of ziprasidone 160 mg/day added to a stable dose of olanzapine or clozapine in twenty-one schizophrenia or schizoaffective patients with diabetes mellitus, impaired fasting glucose, or insulin resistance. Results Ten olanzapine-treated subjects and eleven clozapine-treated subjects were enrolled in the study. There were no significant differences between the two groups at baseline for age, gender, education, ethnicity, BMI, cholesterol levels, or fasting glucose. At week six, there were no significant changes in weight, BMI, cholesterol levels, or fasting glucose. There was no significant difference in psychotic, negative or depressive symptoms. QTc significantly increased at week 2 but not at week 6. Conclusions The addition of 160 mg/day of ziprasidone was well tolerate but did not produce significant improvement in fasting glucose, insulin resistance, hyperlipidemia or lead to weight loss in olanzapine- or clozapine-treated subjects with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. PMID:19283774

  10. Safety and effectiveness of olanzapine in monotherapy: a multivariate analysis of a naturalistic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciudad, Antonio; Gutiérrez, Miguel; Cañas, Fernando; Gibert, Juan; Gascón, Josep; Carrasco, José-Luis; Bobes, Julio; Gómez, Juan-Carlos; Alvarez, Enrique

    2005-07-01

    This study investigated safety and effectiveness of olanzapine in monotherapy compared with conventional antipsychotics in treatment of acute inpatients with schizophrenia. This was a prospective, comparative, nonrandomized, open-label, multisite, observational study of Spanish inpatients with an acute episode of schizophrenia. Data included safety assessments with an extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS) questionnaire and the report of spontaneous adverse events, plus clinical assessments with the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) and the Clinical Global Impressions-Severity of Illness (CGI-S). A multivariate methodology was used to more adequately determine which factors can influence safety and effectiveness of olanzapine in monotherapy. 339 patients treated with olanzapine in monotherapy (OGm) and 385 patients treated with conventional antipsychotics (CG) were included in the analysis. Treatment-emergent EPS were significantly higher in the CG (pOGm (p=0.005). Logistic regression analyses revealed that the only variable significantly correlated with treatment-emergent EPS and clinical response was treatment strategy, with patients in OGm having 1.5 times the probability of obtaining a clinical response and patients in CG having 5 times the risk of developing EPS. In this naturalistic study olanzapine in monotherapy was better-tolerated and at least as effective as conventional antipsychotics.

  11. Effect of Olanzapine on Clinical and Polysomnography Profiles in Patients with Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Zia Ul Haq Katshu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute and short-term administration of olanzapine has a favorable effect on sleep in schizophrenia patients. This study aimed to clarify the effect of olanzapine on polysomnographic profiles of schizophrenia patients during the acute phase of illness after controlling for previous drug exposure. Twenty-five drug-naïve or drug-free schizophrenia patients were assessed at baseline and after six weeks of olanzapine treatment on Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS, Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS, and Udvalg for Kliniske Undersogelser (UKU side-effect rating scale and a whole-night polysomnography; fifteen patients completed the study. There was a significant reduction in all psychopathological variables with maximum reduction in PANSS total, BPRS total, and PANSS positive scores. A significant increase in total sleep time (TST, sleep efficiency (SE, nonrapid eye movement (NREM stage 1 duration, stage 3 duration, stage 4 duration, and stage 4 percentage of TST, number of rapid eye movement (REM periods, REM duration, and REM percentage of TST was observed. REM latency at baseline inversely predicted the reduction in BPRS total and PANSS total and positive scores. In summary, short-term treatment with olanzapine produced significant improvement in clinical and polysomnography profiles of patients with schizophrenia with shorter REM latency predicting a good clinical response.

  12. Dopamine D2 receptor occupancy by olanzapine or risperidone in young patients with schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lavalaye, J.; Linszen, D. H.; Booij, J.; Reneman, L.; Gersons, B. P.; van Royen, E. A.

    1999-01-01

    A crucial characteristic of antipsychotic medication is the occupancy of the dopamine (DA) D2 receptor. We assessed striatal DA D2 receptor occupancy by olanzapine and risperidone in 36 young patients [31 males, 5 females; mean age 21.1 years (16-28)] with first episode schizophrenia, using

  13. A randomized, placebo-controlled study of zonisamide to prevent olanzapine-associated weight gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElroy, Susan L; Winstanley, Erin; Mori, Nicole; Martens, Brian; McCoy, Jessica; Moeller, Dianna; Guerdjikova, Anna I; Keck, Paul E

    2012-04-01

    Weight gain is commonly observed with olanzapine treatment. Zonisamide is an antiepileptic drug associated with weight loss. This study examined the effectiveness of zonisamide in preventing weight gain in 42 patients beginning olanzapine for bipolar disorder or schizophrenia. Each patient had a body mass index of 22 mg/kg or greater and was randomized to taking olanzapine with either zonisamide (n = 20) or placebo (n = 22) for 16 weeks. The primary outcome measure was change in body weight in kilograms from baseline. In the primary analysis using longitudinal regression, patients who received zonisamide had a significantly slower rate of weight gain and increase in body mass index than those who received placebo. The patients treated with zonisamide gained a mean (SD) of 0.9 (3.3) kg, whereas those treated with placebo gained a mean (SD) of 5.0 (5.5) kg; P = 0.01. None of the patients in the zonisamide group, compared with 7 patients (33%) in the placebo group, gained 7% of body weight or greater from baseline (Fisher exact test, P = 0.009). The zonisamide group, however, reported significantly more cognitive impairment as an adverse event than the placebo group (25% vs 0, respectively; P = 0.02). Zonisamide was effective for mitigating weight gain in patients with bipolar disorder or schizophrenia initiating treatment with olanzapine but was associated with cognitive impairment as an adverse event.

  14. An efficacy analysis of olanzapine treatment data in schizophrenia patients with catatonic signs and symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martényi, F; Metcalfe, S; Schausberger, B; Dossenbach, M R

    2001-01-01

    Thirty-five patients suffering from schizophrenia, as diagnosed by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, were preselected from 7 clinical trials according to a priori criteria of catatonic signs and symptoms based on 3 Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) items: scores for PANSS item 19 (mannerism and posturing) and either item 4 (excitement) or item 21 (motor retardation) had to exceed or equal 4 at baseline. This particular patient population represents a severely psychotic sample: mean +/- SD PANSS total scores at baseline were 129.26 +/- 19.76. After I week of olanzapine treatment, mean PANSS total score was decreased significantly (-13.14; p < .001), as was mean PANSS total score after 6 weeks of olanzapine treatment (-45.16; p < .001); additionally, the positive subscale, negative subscale, and mood scores improved significantly. A significant improvement in the catatonic signs and symptoms composite score was also observed at week 6 (-4.96; p < .001). The mean +/- SD daily dose of olanzapine was 18.00 +/- 2.89 mg after 6 weeks of treatment. The present data analysis suggests the efficacy of olanzapine in the treatment of severely ill schizophrenic patients with nonspecified catatonic signs and symptoms.

  15. The metabolic effects of olanzapine and topiramate in rats and humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, S.S.; van Dijk, G.; van Vliet, A.; Scheurink, A.J.W.

    In humans the anti-psychotic Olanzapine (OLZ) has negative side effects on metabolism: it causes weight gain and increases the risk of developing type 2 Diabetes. The anti-convulsant Topiramate (TPM) has the opposite effects: it reduces body weight and improves insulin sensitivity. Because of this,

  16. Olanzapine-Induced Mania in Bipolar Spectrum Disorder:A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Eftekhar

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To report the case of a 46-year old male with major depressive disorder, who represented manic symptoms, when olanzapine was added to his treatment. Method: A 46-year old female, with a diagnosis of treatment resistant depression was referred to the authors. He had past history of depression for more than 20 years. The symptoms were present nearly every day since 1981, without any distinct period of remission, nor any noticeable fluctuation. His irritability had been disruptive to his family all these years. His doctor had prescribed maprotiline 25 mg/day, and lorazepam, 2mg/day, in addition to fluoxetine for the last 5 months. He is also a father of two children with methylphenidateresistant and sodium valproate-responsive attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Considering the antidepressant effects of olanzapine and its positive effects on irritability, the authors added olanzapine, to the patient’s previous medications. Results: After one week, he showed new problems such as talkativeness and beginning to smoke for the first time in his life, elevated mood, grandiosity about his intelligence and abilities, talkativeness, and shopping sprees. The score on the mania rating scale was 14. Fluoxetine was discontinued and sodium valproate, were prescribed. It took around 2 months to completely control the manic symptoms. Conclusions: In the patients with depression who show bipolar spectrum disorder features, adding mood stabilizers may be preferred to the drugs as olanzapine which could induce mania.

  17. Olanzapine has better efficacy compared to risperidone for treatment of negative symptoms in schizophrenia

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    P N Suresh Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: Both treatments were well-tolerated and efficacious. Greater reductions in severity of the illness and negative symptoms were seen with olanzapine consistently through 1 year. The frequency and severity of extrapyramidal symptoms were negligible and similar in the two treatment groups. Weight gain, hyperlipidemia, and hyperglycemia were comparable in both groups. Risperidone produced significant hyperprolactinemia.

  18. Batch and flow-injection methods for the spectrophotometric determination of olanzapine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jasinska, A.; Nalewajko, E

    2004-04-22

    An indirect batch spectrophotometric and direct flow-injection (FI) visible spectrophotometric methods have been developed for the determination of the novel anti-psychotic drug olanzapine (OLA). The batch method is based on the oxidation of olanzapine by a known excess of potassium hexacyanoferrate(III) in the presence of the mixture of sulphuric and phosphoric acids (1:1 (v/v)). The absorbance of unreacted oxidant is measured at 425 nm. The absorbance decreases linearly with increasing concentration of the assayed drug. The FI method with detection at 540 nm is based on the direct oxidation of olanzapine one of two oxidants, cerium(IV) sulphate or potassium hexacyanoferrate(III) in acidic medium. The calibration graph were linear over the range of 2.5-40 {mu}g ml{sup -1} in the batch method and 0.05-300 and 0.5-250 {mu}g ml{sup -1} in the FI methods, used cerium (IV) sulphate and potassium hexacyanoferrate (III) respectively. Both FI methods gave similar results in terms of precision and accuracy. The relative standard deviation (R.S.D.), was <1%. The accuracy, obtained from recovery experiments, was 97.9-99.4%. The batch method gave slightly higher R.S.D. values (up to 2.3%) and lower values of accuracy (the recovery was between 96.5 and 96.6%). The methods developed were applied to the determination of olanzapine in a pharmaceutical product.

  19. Olanzapine Reverses MK-801-Induced Cognitive Deficits and Region-Specific Alterations of NMDA Receptor Subunits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao; Li, Jitao; Guo, Chunmei; Wang, Hongli; Sun, Yaxin; Wang, Han; Su, Yun-Ai; Li, Keqing; Si, Tianmei

    2018-01-01

    Cognitive dysfunction constitutes an essential component in schizophrenia for its early presence in the pathophysiology of the disease and close relatedness to life quality of patients. To develop effective treatment of cognitive deficits, it is important to understand their neurobiological causes and to identify potential therapeutic targets. In this study, adopting repeated MK-801 treatment as an animal model of schizophrenia, we investigated whether antipsychotic drugs, olanzapine and haloperidol, can reverse MK-801-induced cognitive deficits and how the reversal processes recruited proteins involved in glutamate neurotransmission in rat medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and hippocampus. We found that low-dose chronic MK-801 treatment impaired object-in-context recognition memory and reversal learning in the Morris water maze, leaving reference memory relatively unaffected, and that these cognitive deficits can be partially reversed by olanzapine, not haloperidol, treatment. At the molecular level, chronic MK-801 treatment resulted in the reduction of multiple N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor subunits in rat mPFC and olanzapine, not haloperidol, treatment restored the levels of GluN1 and phosphorylated GluN2B in this region. Taken together, MK-801-induced cognitive deficits may be associated with region-specific changes in NMDA receptor subunits and the reversal of specific NMDA receptor subunits may underlie the cognition-enhancing effects of olanzapine. PMID:29375333

  20. Determination of olanzapine in whole blood using simple protein precipitation and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Marie Katrine Klose; Johansen, Sys Stybe

    2009-01-01

    A simple, sensitive, and reproducible liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method has been developed and validated for the quantification of the antipsychotic drug olanzapine in whole blood using dibenzepine as internal standard (IS). After acidic methanol-induced protein precipitation......, and stability. The absolute recovery obtained was 103% for olanzapine and 68% for IS. An LOQ of 0.005 mg/kg olanzapine in whole blood was achieved. Inter- and intraday precision were less than 11% within concentrations from 0.01 to 0.50 mg/kg, and the accuracy ranged from 85 to 115%. The method was subsequently...

  1. Olanzapine-associated hypothermia: a case report of a rare event

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Monti

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Hypothermia, a potentially fatal condition, is defined as a drop of the body temperature below 35°C. The most common cause of severe hypothermia is the environmental exposure to low-temperatures. Other causes include septicemia, diabetic ketoacidosis, trauma, acute spinal cord injury, prolonged cardiac arrest and hypothyroidism. The hypothermia is an infrequent, but previously documented, adverse effect of antipsychotic medications. A 83-year-old Italian woman was transported to the Emergency Room with a reduced level of consciousness, Glasgow coma scale 7. She was bradycardic (heart rate 42 bpm, 80/150 mmHg blood pressure and respiratory rate 26/min. Her physical examination was significant for an anal temperature of 31°C. Blood exam and chest X-ray were unremarkable. In her clinical history, she was suffering from generalized anxiety disorder for the last 2 years and was prescribed olanzapine 7.5 mg daily. In recent days, the patient experienced a cognitive impairment with heat intolerance and had been reduced the dose of olanzapine 5 mg daily. On the basis of the clinical findings, the patient’s body temperature and blood exam, the diagnosis of olanzapine-associated hypothermia was made. The patient was gradually rewarmed with blankets and warm saline infusion and the olanzapine therapy was discontinued. She gradually regained consciousness after 18 h and, after 1 day, the patient’s body temperature increased up to 37.8°C with an improvement of the neurological conditions. We reported about the case of a patient treated with stable doses of olanzapine for a long period of time that developed hypothermia, a potentially fatal complication. This case shows that it is important to consider every change in the patient behavior, e.g., the poor resistance to heat present in our patient, that should exhibit warning sign of hypothermia.

  2. Buccals tablets - literature search

    OpenAIRE

    Horáček, Jan

    2007-01-01

    BUCCAL TABLETS Jan Horáček ABSTRACT My diploma thesis was aimed at summarising information about phenomena of bioadhesion in connection with administration of drugs. The work describes anatomy and physiology of oral mucosa and differencies in various parts of oral cavity. It refers about advantages and limits of administrating drugs through the oral mucosa. The part called Bioadhesion / mucoadhesion includes definition, theories, influencing factors and description of methods to determinate b...

  3. Ziprasidone versus olanzapine, risperidone or quetiapine in patients with chronic schizophrenia: a 12-week open-label, multicentre clinical trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lublin, Henrik; Haug, Hans-Joachim; Koponen, Hannu

    2009-01-01

    The efficacy, safety and tolerability of ziprasidone versus the comparators olanzapine, risperidone or quetiapine were investigated in adult patients with chronic schizophrenia, schizoaffective and schizophreniform disorders, with lack of efficacy or intolerance to their previous antipsychotic tr...

  4. Reversal of olanzapine-induced weight gain in a patient with schizophrenia by switching to asenapine: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okazaki K

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Kosuke Okazaki, Kazuhiko Yamamuro, Toshifumi Kishimoto Department of Psychiatry, Nara Medical University School of Medicine, Kashihara, Japan Aims: Antipsychotics are effective for treating schizophrenia, but atypical antipsychotics can cause several adverse side effects including weight gain, hyperprolactinemia, and extrapyramidal symptoms. Moreover, weight gain increases the risk of metabolic diseases.Methods: We treated a case of olanzapine-induced weight gain in a 41-year-old man with schizophrenia by switching his medication from olanzapine to asenapine.Results: The weight gain improved after switching the medication, from 80.3 to 75.0 kg, a weight loss of 6.6%, and there was no significant worsening of psychological symptoms or other adverse effects.Conclusions: Asenapine might be effective for treating patients with schizophrenia who experience olanzapine-induced weight gain. Keywords: olanzapine, weight gain, schizophrenia, asenapine

  5. Double-blind, placebo-controlled study of dialectical behavior therapy plus olanzapine for borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler, Joaquim; Pascual, Juan Carlos; Campins, Josefa; Barrachina, Judith; Puigdemont, Dolors; Alvarez, Enrique; Pérez, Victor

    2005-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy and safety of dialectical behavior therapy plus olanzapine compared with dialectical behavior therapy plus placebo in patients with borderline personality disorder. Sixty patients with borderline personality disorder were included in a 12-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. All patients received dialectical behavior therapy and were randomly assigned to receive either olanzapine or placebo following a 1-month baseline period. Seventy percent of the patients completed the 4-month trial. Combined treatment showed an overall improvement in most symptoms studied in both groups. Olanzapine was associated with a statistically significant improvement over placebo in depression, anxiety, and impulsivity/aggressive behavior. The mean dose of olanzapine was 8.83 mg/day. A combined psychotherapeutic plus pharmacological approach appears to lower dropout rates and constitutes an effective treatment for borderline personality disorder.

  6. Translation of randomised controlled trial findings into clinical practice: comparison of olanzapine and valproate in the EMBLEM study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novick, D; Gonzalez-Pinto, A; Haro, J M

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to compare the outcomes of olanzapine- and valproate-treated patients in an observational study of acute mania with the results of a randomised controlled trial (RCT) assessing the same treatments. METHODS: EMBLEM (European Mania in Bipolar Evaluation......: The EMBLEM results support those of the RCT, which suggest that olanzapine monotherapy seems to be more effective than valproate monotherapy in the treatment of acute mania....

  7. Tablets i skolen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorentzen, Rasmus Fink

    2012-01-01

    Denne rapport afslutter CELMS undersøgelse af Odder Kommunes projekt med indførelse af iPads på alle kommunens skoler. Undersøgelsen har til formål at belyse om der er pædagogiske og læringsmæssige fordele forbundet med brugen af tablets i undervisningen i grundskolen og i givet fald hvilke...... designer og tablet’ens egenskaber i et generelt perspektiv. Rapporten afsluttes med en række anbefalinger til henholdsvis lærere og skoleledere med henblik på videre udvikling af indsatsen....

  8. Effectiveness of olanzapine monotherapy and olanzapine combination treatment in the long term following acute mania--results of a two year observational study in bipolar disorder (EMBLEM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Pinto, Ana; Vieta, Eduard; Reed, Catherine; Novick, Diego; Barraco, Alessandra; Aguado, Jaume; Haro, Josep Maria

    2011-06-01

    This study compared the 2-year outcomes of patients with a manic/mixed episode of bipolar disorder taking olanzapine monotherapy or olanzapine in combination with other agents. EMBLEM (European Mania in Bipolar Longitudinal Evaluation of Medication) is a 2-year, prospective, observational study of clinical and functional outcomes of bipolar patients with an index manic/mixed episode. The study consisted of two phases: acute (12 weeks) and maintenance (follow-up over 2 years). The longitudinal outcome measure was the Clinical Global Impression-Bipolar Disorder scale. Cox regression models compared outcomes of both therapy groups using intention-to-treat and switching medication analysis. Treatment-emergent adverse events were also assessed. 1076 patients were included in this analysis. 29% took olanzapine as monotherapy (n = 313) and 71% as combination (n = 763) at 12-weeks post-baseline (end of study acute phase). After adjusting for patient characteristics using switching medication analysis, only relapse rates differed (p = 0.01) in favour of monotherapy-treated patients. There was no significant difference in rates of improvement, remission, and recovery. Patients treated with combination therapy reported more tremor (OR 2.37, 95%CI 1.44-3.89) and polyuria (OR 3.08, 95%CI 1.45-6.54) treatment-emergent events than monotherapy, although weight change was greater in the monotherapy group. Unknown confounding and potential selection bias may differentially impact treatment outcomes. EMBLEM patients benefitted from the selected therapy to a similar extent. Differences in patient characteristics between those prescribed monotherapy and combination therapy appear to be clinically relevant in the treatment decision. Physicians must balance the benefits and risks when determining appropriate treatment for individual patients. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Efficacy of olanzapine long-acting injection in patients with acutely exacerbated schizophrenia: an insight from effect size comparison with historical oral data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Detke Holland C

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To treat acute schizophrenia, a long-acting injectable antipsychotic needs a rapid onset of action and therapeutic profile similar to that of oral agents. The present post-hoc analyses compared results from a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of olanzapine long-acting injection (LAI for acute schizophrenia with those observed in similarly designed trials of oral olanzapine. Methods Six-week results from the olanzapine LAI study (N = 404 were compared with those of 3 oral studies (study 1: olanzapine vs. haloperidol vs. placebo [N = 335]; study 2: olanzapine vs. haloperidol vs. low-dose olanzapine [N = 431]; study 3: olanzapine vs. placebo vs. low-dose olanzapine [N = 152]. All patients had baseline Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS scores ≥24 (0–6 scale. Six-week effect sizes were calculated. Efficacy onset, pharmacokinetics, discontinuations, weight gain, and extrapyramidal symptoms were also assessed. Results At 6 weeks, mean BPRS scores decreased by 14 to 15 points for olanzapine LAI (405 mg/4 weeks, 210 or 300 mg/2 weeks, by 8 to 16 for oral olanzapine (10 ± 2.5 or 15 ± 2.5 mg/day, and by 12 to 13 for haloperidol (15 ± 5 mg/day. For those same dose groups, effect sizes vs. placebo for the BPRS were 0.7 to 0.8 for olanzapine LAI, 0.5 to 0.7 for oral olanzapine, and 0.6 for haloperidol. The first statistically significant separation from placebo on the BPRS occurred at 3 days for the olanzapine LAI groups and at 1 week for oral olanzapine and haloperidol (15 ± 5 mg/day in oral study 1 although as late as week 6 for the 10-mg/day olanzapine dose in oral study 3. Olanzapine concentrations were similar across studies. Weight gain ≥7% of baseline occurred in up to 35% of olanzapine LAI and oral patients versus up to 12% of haloperidol and placebo patients. Extrapyramidal symptoms were lowest in the olanzapine LAI groups and significantly greater

  10. Assessment of strategies for switching patients from olanzapine to risperidone: A randomized, open-label, rater-blinded study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berry Sally A

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In clinical practice, physicians often need to change the antipsychotic medications they give to patients because of an inadequate response or the presence of unacceptable or unsafe side effects. However, there is a lack of consensus in the field as to the optimal switching strategy for antipsychotics, especially with regards to the speed at which the dose of the previous antipsychotic should be reduced. This paper assesses the short-term results of strategies for the discontinuation of olanzapine when initiating risperidone. Methods In a 6-week, randomized, open-label, rater-blinded study, patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder, on a stable drug dose for more than 30 days at entry, who were intolerant of or exhibiting a suboptimal symptom response to more than 30 days of olanzapine treatment, were randomly assigned to the following switch strategies (common risperidone initiation scheme; varying olanzapine discontinuation: (i abrupt strategy, where olanzapine was discontinued at risperidone initiation; (ii gradual 1 strategy, where olanzapine was given at 50% entry dose for 1 week after risperidone initiation and then discontinued; or (iii gradual 2 strategy, where olanzapine was given at 100% entry dose for 1 week, then at 50% in the second week, and then discontinued. Results The study enrolled 123 patients on stable doses of olanzapine. Their mean age was 40.3 years and mean (± standard deviation (SD baseline Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS total score of 75.6 ± 11.5. All-cause treatment discontinuation was lowest (12% in the group with the slowest olanzapine dose reduction (gradual 2 and occurred at half the discontinuation rate in the other two groups (25% in abrupt and 28% in gradual 1. The relative risk of early discontinuation was 0.77 (confidence interval 0.61–0.99 for the slowest dose reduction compared with the other two strategies. After the medication was changed, improvements at

  11. Contextual and behavioral control of antipsychotic sensitization induced by haloperidol and olanzapine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chen; Li, Ming

    2011-01-01

    Repeated administration of haloperidol and olanzapine causes a progressively enhanced disruption of conditioned avoidance response (CAR) and a progressively enhanced inhibition of phencyclidine (PCP)-induced hyperlocomotion in rats (termed antipsychotic sensitization). Both actions are thought to reflect intrinsic antipsychotic activity. The present study examined to the extent to which antipsychotic-induced sensitization in one model (e.g. CAR) can be transferred or maintained in another (e.g. PCP hyperlocomotion) as a means of investigating the contextual and behavioral controls of antipsychotic sensitization. Well-trained male Sprague-Dawley rats were first repeatedly tested in the CAR or PCP (3.2 mg/kg, sc) hyperlocomotion model under haloperidol or olanzapine for five consecutive days. Then they were switched to the other model and tested for the expression of sensitization. Finally, all rats were switched back to the original model and retested for the expression of sensitization. Repeated haloperidol or olanzapine treatment progressively disrupted avoidance responding and decreased PCP-induced hyperlocomotion, indicating a robust sensitization. When tested in a different model, rats previously treated with haloperidol or olanzapine did not show a stronger inhibition of CAR or PCP-induced hyperlocomotion than those treated with these drugs for the first time; however, they did show such an effect when tested in the original model in which they received repeated antipsychotic treatment. These findings suggest that the expression of antipsychotic sensitization is strongly influenced by the testing environment and/or selected behavioral response under certain experimental conditions. Distinct contextual cues and behavioral responses may enter an association with unconditional drug effects via a Pavlovian conditioning process. They may also serve as occasion-setters to modulate the expression of sensitized responses. Because antipsychotic sensitization mimics

  12. Metformin for olanzapine-induced weight gain: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praharaj, Samir Kumar; Jana, Amlan Kusum; Goyal, Nishant; Sinha, Vinod Kumar

    2011-03-01

    Olanzapine is an atypical antipsychotic that is useful in schizophrenia and bipolar affective disorder, but its use is associated with troublesome weight gain and metabolic syndrome. A variety of pharmacological agents has been studied in the efforts to reverse weight gain induced by olanzapine, but current evidence is insufficient to support any particular pharmacological approach. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials of metformin for the treatment of olanzapine-induced weight gain. Systematic review of the literature revealed 12 studies that had assessed metformin for antipsychotic-induced weight gain. Of these, four studies (n= 105) met the review inclusion criteria and were included in the final analysis. Meta-analysis was performed to see the effect size of the treatment on body weight, waist circumference and body-mass index (BMI). Weighted mean difference (WMD) for body weight was 5.02 (95% CI 3.93, 6.10) kg lower with metformin as compared with placebo at 12 weeks. For waist circumference, the test for heterogeneity was significant (P= 0.00002, I(2) = 85.1%). Therefore, a random effects model was used to calculate WMD, which was 1.42 (95% CI 0.29, 3.13) cm lower with metformin as compared with placebo at 12 weeks. For BMI, WMD was 1.82 (95% CI 1.44, 2.19) kg m(-2) lower with metformin as compared with placebo at 12 weeks. Existing data suggest that short term modest weight loss is possible with metformin in patients with olanzapine-induced weight gain. © 2011 The Authors. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology © 2011 The British Pharmacological Society.

  13. Schizophrenia relapse after stopping olanzapine treatment during pregnancy: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ifteni P

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Petru Ifteni,1,2 Marius A Moga,1 Victoria Burtea,1,2 Christoph U Correll3,4 1Faculty of Medicine, Transilvania University, Brasov, Romania; 2Psychiatry and Neurology Hospital, Brasov, Romania; 3Department of Psychiatry, The Zucker Hillside Hospital, North Shore-Long Island Jewish (LIJ Health System, New York, NY, USA; 4Hofstra North Shore-LIJ School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA Abstract: Women with schizophrenia have a high risk for symptom exacerbation or relapse during pregnancy and thereafter. Relapses are more frequent when antipsychotics are discontinued. This paper describes the case of a 28-year old woman with schizophrenia who continued treatment with olanzapine during the first trimester. Olanzapine, a second-generation antipsychotic, was administered at a therapeutic dose from week 1 of gestation until week 13 when she reported the pregnancy to her psychiatrist. Despite the psychiatrist’s recommendation to continue treatment, the patient stopped olanzapine at 20 weeks. She was hospitalized at week 36 for a schizophrenia relapse and was transferred to the obstetrics department where she gave birth by Cesarean section to a normal child. This case is important, illustrating the perils of unplanned pregnancy during antipsychotic treatment and abrupt discontinuation. Ultimately, clinical decisions should be made on a case-by-case basis, weighing the risks to the mother in terms of symptom exacerbation and relapse if antipsychotic treatment is discontinued, and the potential risk to the fetus regarding possible teratogenic effects of continued antipsychotic treatment. Keywords: relapse, pregnancy, schizophrenia, olanzapine

  14. Quality of life and adverse effects of olanzapine versus risperidone therapy in patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaves, Katarina Melo; Serrano-Blanco, Antoni; Ribeiro, Susana Barbosa; Soares, Luiz Alberto Lira; Guerra, Gerlane Coelho Bernardo; do Socorro Costa Feitosa Alves, Maria; de Araújo Júnior, Raimundo Fernandes; de Paula Soares Rachetti, Vanessa; Filgueira Júnior, Antônio; de Araújo, Aurigena Antunes

    2013-03-01

    This cross-sectional study aimed to compare the effects of treatment with an atypical antipsychotic drug (olanzapine or risperidone) on quality of life (QoL) and to document adverse effects in 115 patients diagnosed with schizophrenia who attended the ambulatory service of Hospital Dr. João Machado, Natal, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil. Socioeconomic, sociodemographic, and clinical variables were compared. The QoL Scale validated for Brazil (QLS-BR) was used to evaluate QoL, and adverse effects were assessed using the Udvalg for Kliniske Undersøgelser Side Effect Rating Scale. Data were analyzed using the χ(2) test and Student's t test, with a significance level of 5 %. Patients in both drug groups showed severe impairment in the occupational domain of the QLS-BR. Global QLS-BR scores indicated impairment among risperidone users and severe impairment among olanzapine users. The most significant side effects were associated with risperidone, including asthenia/lassitude/fatigue, somnolence/sedation, paresthesia, change in visual accommodation, increased salivation, diarrhea, orthostatic posture, palpitations/tachycardia, erythema, photosensitivity, weight loss, galactorrhea, decreased sexual desire, erectile/orgasmic dysfunction, vaginal dryness, headache, and physical dependence. QoL was impaired in patients using olanzapine and in those using risperidone. Risperidone use was associated with psychic, neurological, and autonomous adverse effects and other side effects.

  15. Olanzapine-Induced Diabetic Ketoacidosis and Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome with Rhabdomyolysis: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Kyoung Sa

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Atypical antipsychotics have replaced conventional antipsychotics in the treatment of schizophrenia because they have less of a propensity to cause undesirable neurologic adverse events including extrapyramidal symptoms, tardive dyskinesia, and neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS. However, atypical antipsychotics have been known to result in various metabolic complications such as impaired glucose tolerance, diabetes and even diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA. In addition, a number of NMS cases have been reported in patients treated with atypical antipsychotics, although the absolute incidence of neurologic side effects is currently significantly low. Here, we report a patient who simultaneously developed DKA, acute renal failure and NMS with rhabdomyolysis after olanzapine treatment. Olanzapine-induced metabolic complications and NMS were dramatically improved with cessation of the olanzapine treatment and initiation of supportive management including fluid therapy, hemodialysis, and intensive glycemic control using insulin. At short-term follow-up, insulin secretion was markedly recovered as evidenced by a restoration of serum C-peptide level, and the patient no longer required any hypoglycemic medications. Despite the dramatic increase in the use of atypical antipsychotics treatment, individualized treatments along with careful monitoring may be prudent for high risk or vulnerable patients in order to avoid the development of metabolic side effects.

  16. Changes in prefrontal and amygdala activity during olanzapine treatment in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasi, Giuseppe; Popolizio, Teresa; Taurisano, Paolo; Caforio, Grazia; Romano, Raffaella; Di Giorgio, Annabella; Sambataro, Fabio; Rubino, Valeria; Latorre, Valeria; Lo Bianco, Luciana; Fazio, Leonardo; Nardini, Marcello; Weinberger, Daniel R; Bertolino, Alessandro

    2009-07-15

    Earlier imaging studies in schizophrenia have reported abnormal amygdala and prefrontal cortex activity during emotion processing. We investigated with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during emotion processing changes in activity of the amygdala and of prefrontal cortex in patients with schizophrenia during 8 weeks of olanzapine treatment. Twelve previously drug-free/naive patients with schizophrenia were treated with olanzapine for 8 weeks and underwent two fMRI scans after 4 and 8 weeks of treatment during implicit and explicit emotional processing. Twelve healthy subjects were also scanned twice to control for potential repetition effects. Results showed a diagnosis by time interaction in left amygdala and a diagnosis by time by task interaction in right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex. In particular, activity in left amygdala was greater in patients than in controls at the first scan during both explicit and implicit processing, while it was lower in patients at the second relative to the first scan. Furthermore, during implicit processing, right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex activity was lower in patients than controls at the first scan, while it was greater in patients at the second relative to the first scan. These results suggest that longitudinal treatment with olanzapine may be associated with specific changes in activity of the amygdala and prefrontal cortex during emotional processing in schizophrenia.

  17. Treatment with olanzapine is associated with modulation of the default mode network in patients with Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sambataro, Fabio; Blasi, Giuseppe; Fazio, Leonardo; Caforio, Grazia; Taurisano, Paolo; Romano, Raffaella; Di Giorgio, Annabella; Gelao, Barbara; Lo Bianco, Luciana; Papazacharias, Apostolos; Popolizio, Teresa; Nardini, Marcello; Bertolino, Alessandro

    2010-03-01

    Earlier studies have shown widespread alterations of functional connectivity of various brain networks in schizophrenia, including the default mode network (DMN). The DMN has also an important role in the performance of cognitive tasks. Furthermore, treatment with second-generation antipsychotic drugs may ameliorate to some degree working memory (WM) deficits and related brain activity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of treatment with olanzapine monotherapy on functional connectivity among brain regions of the DMN during WM. Seventeen patients underwent an 8-week prospective study and completed two functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scans at 4 and 8 weeks of treatment during the performance of the N-back WM task. To control for potential repetition effects, 19 healthy controls also underwent two fMRI scans at a similar time interval. We used spatial group-independent component analysis (ICA) to analyze fMRI data. Relative to controls, patients with schizophrenia had reduced connectivity strength within the DMN in posterior cingulate, whereas it was greater in precuneus and inferior parietal lobule. Treatment with olanzapine was associated with increases in DMN connectivity with ventromedial prefrontal cortex, but not in posterior regions of DMN. These results suggest that treatment with olanzapine is associated with the modulation of DMN connectivity in schizophrenia. In addition, our findings suggest critical functional differences in the regions of DMN.

  18. Haloperidol, risperidone, olanzapine and aripiprazole in the management of delirium: A comparison of efficacy, safety, and side effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boettger, Soenke; Jenewein, Josef; Breitbart, William

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy and side-effect profile of the typical antipsychotic haloperidol with that of the atypical antipsychotics risperidone, olanzapine, and aripiprazole in the management of delirium. The Memorial Delirium Assessment Scale (MDAS), the Karnofsky Performance Status (KPS) scale, and a side-effect rating were recorded at baseline (T1), after 2-3 days (T2), and after 4-7 days (T3). Some 21 cases were case-matched by age, preexisting dementia, and baseline MDAS scores, and subsequently analyzed. The baseline characteristics of the medication groups were not different: The mean age of the patients ranged from 64.0 to 69.6 years, dementia was present in between 23.8 and 28.6%, and baseline MDAS scores were 19.9 (haloperidol), 18.6 (risperidone), 19.4 (olanzapine), and 18.0 (aripiprazole). The doses of medication at T3 were 5.5 mg haloperidol, 1.3 mg risperidone, 7.1 mg olanzapine, and 18.3 mg aripiprazole. Over one week, the decline in MDAS scores between medications was equal, and no differences between individual MDAS scores existed at T2 or T3. After one week, the MDAS scores were 6.8 (haloperidol), 7.1 (risperidone), 11.7 (olanzapine), and 8.3 (aripiprazole). At T2, delirium resolution occurred in 42.9-52.4% of cases and at T3 in 61.9-85.7%; no differences in assessments between medications existed. Recorded side effects were extrapyramidal symptoms (EPSs) in haloperidol- and risperidone-managed patients (19 and 4.8%, respectively) and sedation with olanzapine (28.6%). Haloperidol, risperidone, aripiprazole, and olanzapine were equally effective in the management of delirium; however, they differed in terms of their side-effect profile. Extrapyramidal symptoms were most frequently recorded with haloperidol, and sedation occurred most frequently with olanzapine.

  19. Long-term administration of olanzapine induces adiposity and increases hepatic fatty acid desaturation protein in female C57BL/6J mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Po-Hsun; Chang, Geng-Ruei; Chen, Chin-Pin; Lin, Yen-Ling; Chao, I-Shuan; Shen, Ting-Ting; Mao, Frank Chiahung

    2018-01-01

    Objective(s): Weight gain and metabolic disturbances such as dyslipidemia, are frequent side effects of second-generation antipsychotics, including olanzapine. This study examined the metabolic effects of chronic olanzapine exposure. In addition, we investigated the hepatic fatty acid effects of olanzapine in female C57BL/6J mice fed a normal diet. Materials and Methods: Female C57BL/6J mice orally received olanzapine or normal saline for 7 weeks. The effects of long-term olanzapine exposure on body weight changes, food efficiency, blood glucose, triglyceride (TG), insulin, and leptin levels were observed. Hepatic TG and abdominal fat mass were investigated, and fat cell morphology was analyzed through histopathological methods. The levels of protein markers of fatty acid regulation in the liver, namely fatty acid synthase (FAS) and stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD-1), were measured. Results: Olanzapine treatment increased the food intake of the mice as well as their body weight. Biochemical analyses showed that olanzapine increased blood TG, insulin, leptin, and hepatic TG. The olanzapine group exhibited increased abdominal fat mass and fat cell enlargement in abdominal fat tissue. Western blotting of the mouse liver revealed significantly higher (1.6-fold) levels of SCD-1 in the olanzapine group relative to the control group; by contrast, FAS levels in the two groups did not differ significantly. Conclusion: Enhanced lipogenesis triggered by increased hepatic SCD-1 activity might be a probable peripheral mechanism of olanzapine-induced dyslipidemia. Some adverse metabolic effects of olanzapine may be related to the disturbance of lipid homeostasis in the liver. PMID:29922430

  20. Association of metabolic syndrome with atypical antipsychotic drug (olanzapine) short term versus long term use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikram, H.; Ahmed, T.M.; Hayat, A.; Ullah, Q.I.; Nawaz, A.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To determine the association of metabolic syndrome with atypical antipsychotic drug (olanzapine) short term versus long term use. Study Design: Case control study. Place and Duration of Study: Chemical pathology department Army Medical College Rawalpindi, from Nov 2014 to Oct 2015. Material and Methods: The study was carried out on 240 subjects, 120 cases and 120 controls. For the purpose of the study cases were divided into four groups A, B, C and D according to the duration of drug use. Group A patients included those who the last the drug olanzapine for the last three months. Group B patients included those who were using the drug olanzapine for the last six months. Group C and D included those who were using the drug for last 1 year and more than one year (2-5 years) respectively. By employing non probability convenience sampling technique the data was collected from patients having the diagnosis of psychosis as per DSM IV modified criteria through a proforma and fasting blood samples were drawn. These samples were tested for fasting serum lipid profile and fasting plasma glucose. The data obtained were analyzed using SPSS version 21. For quantitative data Mean and SD were calculated. For qualitative data frequency and percentages were calculated. Qualitative data was compared using chi square test whereas quantitative data was compared using independent sample t-test. Results: There was statistically no significant difference in fasting plasma glucose between group A and B and their controls whereas in group C and D these levels were significantly high as compared to controls. Triglyceride levels were significantly higher and HDL cholesterol levels were significantly lower in all four groups as compared to controls. Comparison of qualitative data which included waist circumference and blood pressure showed statistically no significant rise for group A whereas waist circumference showed insignificant rise and blood pressure showed statistically

  1. Intramuscular Olanzapine in the Management of Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms in Hospitalized Older Adults: A Retrospective Descriptive Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Duong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. While behavioral and psychological symptoms are frequent in hospitalized older adults with dementia or delirium, data supporting the off-label use of intramuscular atypical antipsychotics remain scarce. We examined the use of short-acting intramuscular (IM olanzapine in hospitalized older adults to manage behavioral and psychological symptoms. Methods. A retrospective observational study of inpatients 65 years or older with at least one order for olanzapine IM during admission in urban Ontario Canada was conducted. Patient demographics, prescriptions for olanzapine IM, reason for administration, perceived effectiveness, adverse events, concurrently prescribed psychotropics, comorbidities, and patient discharge destination were recorded. Results. Among 82 patients aged 65–96 years (mean ± SD 79.3 ± 7.7 85 cases were identified. Cognitive impairment or dementia affected 63.5% and 50.6% had comorbidities. Olanzapine IM was ordered 102 times and 34 patients (41% received at least one dose. The intended efficacy was achieved in 79.4% of 78 cases of 124 doses given (62.9%. Fourteen (41% patients who received doses experienced adverse events, with sedation and hypotension being the most common. Conclusions. Olanzapine IM appears effective in hospitalized older adults but is associated with potential adverse events. Structured monitoring and documentation are needed to ensure safe use in this high-risk population.

  2. Pharmaco-epidemiological description of the population of the Marche Region (central Italy treated with the antipsychotic drug olanzapine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiorenzo Mignini

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND. In Italy, even though olanzapine has been discouraged for treatment of behaviour disorders in older patients affected by dementia, some physicians chose to prescribe for them. In response to this situation, the Italian Drug Agency (Agenzia Italiana del Farmaco, AIFA promulgated a cautionary note. MATERIALS AND METHODS. This study examined epidemiological indices for olanzapine prescriptions between 2004 and 2007 in the Marche Region of central Italy and in its provinces, to assess physician compliance with the AIFA note, and to determine whether there were differences in drug prescription between populations of the same territory, or differences based on gender or age group. RESULTS. Our analyses revealed high olanzapine use among young men and mature women, suggesting that these groups are most prone to psychotic symptoms. Analysis revealed that olanzapine prescription in elderly patients was reduced in some provinces, in line with the AIFA note. CONCLUSIONS. Prudent use of olanzapine prescription, in compliance with the AIFA note, was noted throughout the Region. Furthermore, this work offers details that may be useful in future studies of adverse drug reactions.

  3. Comparison of olanzapine and risperidone in the EMBLEM Study: translation of randomized controlled trial findings into clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novick, Diego; Reed, Catherine; Haro, Josep Maria; Gonzalez-Pinto, Ana; Perrin, Elena; Aguado, Jaume; Tohen, Mauricio

    2010-09-01

    Data from the EMBLEM Study, a 2-year, prospective, observational study of health outcomes associated with acute treatment of patients experiencing a manic/mixed episode of bipolar disorder, was used to compare the effectiveness of olanzapine monotherapy versus risperidone monotherapy, and to investigate whether the treatment effects were similar to those reported in a 3-week, randomized controlled trial assessing the same treatments. Symptom severity measures included the Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS), the 5-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, and the Clinical Global Impression-Bipolar Disorder Scale. A total of 245 EMBLEM inpatients were analyzed with YMRS >or=20: olanzapine (n=209), risperidone (n=36). Both the treatment groups had similar improvements in YMRS from baseline to 6 weeks, but there was a significantly greater improvement in 5-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale in the olanzapine group. There was a similar improvement in Clinical Global Impression-Bipolar Disorder Scale in both the groups and the occurrence of treatment-emergent adverse events and weight gain did not differ between the treatment groups. The EMBLEM results partly support those of the randomized controlled trial, which suggests olanzapine and risperidone have similar improvements in mania but that olanzapine monotherapy may be more effective than risperidone monotherapy in the treatment of depressive symptoms associated with mania. Limitations include differences in study design, patient population, and length of follow-up.

  4. Olanzapine-induced neuroleptic malignant syndrome in a patient with bipolar affective disorder: Does quetiapine holds the solution?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveen Tripathi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome (NMS is a rare, severe and life threatening condition induced by antipsychotic medications. It is commonly encountered with the use of first generation antipsychotics, however cases of NMS have been reported with the use of second generation antipsychotics like Olanzapine, Risperidone, Paliperidone, Aripiprazole, Ziprasidone, Amisulpride, Quetiapine and Clozapine, though the incidence of such reports is rare. Due to decreased use of first generation antipsychotics, NMS is reported less frequently now a days. In this case report- we highlight the management issues of a patient suffering from bipolar affective disorder, who had developed NMS following intramuscular injection of haloperidol, which was withdrawn and olanzapine was given later on. The patient had again developed NMS with olanzapine. Finally the patient was managed with modified electroconvulsive therapy and discharged on Lithium carbonate and Quetiapine.

  5. Attenuating effect of reboxetine on appetite and weight gain in olanzapine-treated schizophrenia patients: a double-blind placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poyurovsky, Michael; Fuchs, Camil; Pashinian, Artashez; Levi, Aya; Faragian, Sarit; Maayan, Rachel; Gil-Ad, Irit

    2007-06-01

    Search for safe and effective strategies to diminish weight gain associated with second generation antipsychotics (SGAs) is imperative. In the present study, we sought to replicate our preliminary findings, which indicated that coadministration of the selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor reboxetine attenuates olanzapine-induced weight gain. Fifty-nine patients hospitalized for first-episode DSM-IV schizophrenic disorder participated in this randomized double-blind study. Reboxetine (4 mg/day; 31 patients) or placebo (29 patients) was coadministered with olanzapine (10 mg/day) for 6 weeks. Analysis was by intention-to-treat. Nine patients in each group prematurely discontinued the trial. Olanzapine/reboxetine-treated patients showed a significantly lower increase in body weight (mean = 3.31 kg, SD = 2.73) than their olanzapine/placebo-treated counterparts (mean = 4.91 kg, SD = 2.45). Significantly fewer olanzapine/reboxetine-treated patients gained at least 7% of their initial weight, the cutoff for clinically significant weight gain (6 [19.4%] of 31 patients vs 13 [46.4%] of 28 patients). Seven (22.6%) olanzapine/reboxetine-treated patients compared to only one patient (3.6%) in the olanzapine/placebo group revealed no weight change or even modest weight loss. Appetite increase was significantly lower in the olanzapine/reboxetine than olanzapine/placebo group and was correlated with attenuation of weight gain. Reboxetine addition was safe and well tolerated. The results confirm that coadministration of reboxetine promotes a clinically meaningful attenuation of olanzapine-induced weight gain in schizophrenia patients. If substantiated in long-term studies, along with behavioral management and diet counseling, reboxetine may have a clinical utility in controlling SGA-induced weight gain.

  6. Predictors of antipsychotic monotherapy with olanzapine during a 1-year naturalistic study of schizophrenia patients in Japan

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    Ye W

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Wenyu Ye1, Haya Ascher-Svanum2, Jennifer A Flynn3, Yuka Tanji3, Michihiro Takahashi3,41Lilly Suzhou Pharmaceutical Co, Shanghai, People's Republic of China; 2Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, IN, USA; 3Lilly Research Laboratories Japan, Eli Lilly Japan K.K., Kobe, 4Terauchi-Takahashi Psychiatric Clinic, Ashiya, JapanPurpose: Although expert guidelines for the treatment of schizophrenia recommend antipsychotic monotherapy, the use of antipsychotic polypharmacy is common. This study identified characteristics that differentiate patients with schizophrenia who are treated with olanzapine monotherapy versus polypharmacy in usual care in Japan.Patients and methods: In a large (N = 1850 prospective, observational study, Japanese patients with schizophrenia who initiated treatment with olanzapine were followed for 1 year. Consistent with past research, antipsychotic polypharmacy was defined as the concurrent use of olanzapine and another antipsychotic for at least 60 days. Switching was defined as discontinuing a prior antipsychotic therapy rather than augmenting the medication regimen. Predictors of antipsychotic monotherapy were based on information available at the time of olanzapine initiation. Baseline characteristics were compared using t-tests and Χ2 tests. Stepwise logistic regression was used to identify independent predictors of monotherapy.Results: Patients treated with olanzapine monotherapy (43.2% differed from those treated with antipsychotic polypharmacy (56.8% on demographics, treatment history, baseline symptom levels, functional levels, and treatment-emergent adverse events. Stepwise logistic regression identified multiple variables that significantly predicted monotherapy: older age, shorter duration of schizophrenia, outpatient status, comorbid medical conditions, lower body mass index, no prior anticholinergic use, no prior mood stabilizer use, and switching from a previous antipsychotic (typical or atypical

  7. Tablet splitting and weight uniformity of half-tablets of 4 medications in pharmacy practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahaineh, Linda M; Gharaibeh, Shadi F

    2012-08-01

    Tablet splitting is a common practice for multiple reasons including cost savings; however, it does not necessarily result in weight-uniform half-tablets. To determine weight uniformity of half-tablets resulting from splitting 4 products available in the Jordanian market and investigate the effect of tablet characteristics on weight uniformity of half-tablets. Ten random tablets each of warfarin 5 mg, digoxin 0.25 mg, phenobarbital 30 mg, and prednisolone 5 mg were weighed and split by 6 PharmD students using a knife. The resulting half-tablets were weighed and evaluated for weight uniformity. Other relevant physical characteristics of the 4 products were measured. The average tablet hardness of the sampled tablets ranged from 40.3 N to 68.9 N. Digoxin, phenobarbital, and prednisolone half-tablets failed the weight uniformity test; however, warfarin half-tablets passed. Digoxin, warfarin, and phenobarbital tablets had a score line and warfarin tablets had the deepest score line of 0.81 mm. Splitting warfarin tablets produces weight-uniform half-tablets that may possibly be attributed to the hardness and the presence of a deep score line. Digoxin, phenobarbital, and prednisolone tablet splitting produces highly weight variable half-tablets. This can be of clinical significance in the case of the narrow therapeutic index medication digoxin.

  8. Anti-depressive effectiveness of olanzapine, quetiapine, risperidone and ziprasidone: a pragmatic, randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Løberg Else-Marie

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Efficacy studies indicate anti-depressive effects of at least some second generation antipsychotics (SGAs. The Bergen Psychosis Project (BPP is a 24-month, pragmatic, industry-independent, randomized, head-to-head comparison of olanzapine, quetiapine, risperidone and ziprasidone in patients acutely admitted with psychosis. The aim of the study is to investigate whether differential anti-depressive effectiveness exists among SGAs in a clinically relevant sample of patients acutely admitted with psychosis. Methods Adult patients acutely admitted to an emergency ward for psychosis were randomized to olanzapine, quetiapine, risperidone or ziprasidone and followed for up to 2 years. Participants were assessed repeatedly using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale - Depression factor (PANSS-D and the Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia (CDSS. Results A total of 226 patients were included. A significant time-effect showing a steady decline in depressive symptoms in all medication groups was demonstrated. There were no substantial differences among the SGAs in reducing the PANSS-D score or the CDSS sum score. Separate analyses of groups with CDSS sum scores > 6 or ≤6, respectively, reflecting degree of depressive morbidity, revealed essentially identical results to the primary analyses. There was a high correlation between the PANSS-D and the CDSS sum score (r = 0.77; p Conclusions There was no substantial difference in anti-depressive effectiveness among olanzapine, quetiapine, risperidone or ziprasidone in this clinically relevant sample of patients acutely admitted to hospital for symptoms of psychosis. Based on our findings we can make no recommendations concerning choice of any particular SGA for targeting symptoms of depression in a patient acutely admitted with psychosis. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov ID; URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov/: NCT00932529

  9. Risperidone, quetiapine, and olanzapine adjunctive treatments in major depression with psychotic features: a comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel A

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A Gabriel Departments of Psychiatry and Community Health Sciences, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada Objectives: The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of novel antipsychotics in the treatment of psychotic depression. Method: Consecutive patients who were admitted (n = 51 with a confirmed diagnosis of major depression with psychotic features (delusions or hallucinations or both participated in this open-label, naturalistic study. All patients were treated with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs and serotonin–norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs (citalopram or venlafaxine extended release [XR], and atypical antipsychotic agents were added, as tolerated, during the first week of initiating the citalopram or venlafaxine. There were patients (n = 16 who received risperidone, who received quetiapine (n = 20, and who received olanzapine (n = 15, as an adjunctive treatment to either citalopram or venlafaxine for at least 8 weeks. Outcome measures included the Clinical Global Impression-Severity subscale (CGI-S, as the primary outcome measure, as well as the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression-21 item (HAM-D21 and the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS. Tolerance to treatments and weight changes were monitored over the period of the trial. Results: All patients completed the trial with no drop outs. At 8 weeks, there was a statistically significant (P 0.01 in the olanzapine group. Conclusion: Quetiapine, risperidone, and olanzapine, given as adjunctive treatment with SSRIS or SNRIs can significantly and equally improve depressive and psychotic symptoms, in the short-term treatment of major depression with psychotic features. The author recommends that large controlled trials be conducted to examine the differences in long-term efficacy and tolerance between the atypical antipsychotic agents, in the treatment of major depression with or without psychotic features. Keywords: depression, novels

  10. Gabapentin adjunctive to risperidone or olanzapine in partially responsive schizophrenia: an open-label pilot study

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    Adel Gabriel

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Adel GabrielDepartments of Psychiatry and Community Health Sciences, University of Calgary, Alberta, CanadaBackground: There is a great need in the treatment of schizophrenia for a drug, or drug ­combinations, to improve clinical response with fewer serious side effects. The objective of this study was to explore the therapeutic effects and tolerability of the anticonvulsant gabapentin as an adjunctive in the treatment of patients with partially responsive schizophrenia.Methods: Ten consenting patients with a confirmed Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition, Text Revision diagnosis of schizophrenia were identified. All patients failed at least one 12-week treatment trial with risperidone or olanzapine. Gabapentin was added to ongoing antipsychotic treatment with olanzapine or risperidone for eight weeks. The primary outcome measure was the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS. Other scales included the Calgary Depression Scale (CDSS and the Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale (AIMS. Repeated-measures multivariate analysis of variance was utilized to examine changes in outcome measures over time with adjunctive treatment with gabapentin.Results: There was a significant drop in the PANSS and CDSS scores at endpoint (week 8. There were no significant differences between the two treatment groups with regard to changes in all outcome measures or in AIMS score. The adjunctive treatments were well tolerated and side effects were transient.Conclusion: Gabapentin could be used successfully as an adjunct to novel antipsychotics in partially responsive schizophrenia. However, large controlled studies are needed to examine the effectiveness of gabapentin in psychotic disorders.Keywords: schizophrenia, refractory, adjunctive treatment, gabapentin, risperidone, olanzapine

  11. How do tablet properties influence swallowing behaviours?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Shinya; Taniguchi, Hiroshige; Hayashi, Hirokazu; Hori, Kazuhiro; Tsujimura, Takanori; Nakamura, Yuki; Sato, Hideaki; Inoue, Makoto

    2014-01-01

    Behavioural performance of tablet swallowing was evaluated with different tablet conditions in terms of size, number and surface coating. Four different types of tablets were prepared: small or large, and with or without a surface coating. Fourteen normal male adults were instructed to swallow the prepared tablets with 15 ml of water. The number of tablets in one trial was changed from one to three. To evaluate swallowing and tablet transport, electromyographic activity was recorded in the left suprahyoid muscles, and videofluorographic images were examined. All tablet conditions (size, number and surface coating) affected the swallowing performance in terms of total number of swallows, electromyographic burst patterns and location of remaining tablets. Increases in the size and number of tablets increased the number of swallows and electromyographic burst area and duration. In addition, all of these parameters increased while swallowing tablets without a coating compared with tablets with a coating. Location of the remaining tablets was mainly within the mouth. This study only clarified the normal pattern of tablet swallowing under several conditions in healthy subjects, but the results may facilitate comprehensive evaluation and treatment planning in terms of administering medication to dysphagic patients. © 2013 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  12. Galileo's Telescopy and Jupiter's Tablet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usher, P. D.

    2003-12-01

    A previous paper (BAAS 33:4, 1363, 2001) reported on the dramatic scene in Shakespeare's Cymbeline that features the descent of the deity Jupiter. The paper suggested that the four ghosts circling the sleeping Posthumus denote the four Galilean moons of Jupiter. The god Jupiter commands the ghosts to lay a tablet upon the prone Posthumus, but says that its value should not be overestimated. When Posthumus wakens he notices the tablet, which he calls a "book." Not only has the deity's "tablet" become the earthling's "book," but it appears that the book has covers which Posthumus evidently recognizes because without even opening the book he ascribes two further properties to it: rarity, and the very property that Jupiter had earlier attributed, viz. that one must not read too much into it. The mystery deepens when the Jovian gift undergoes a second metamorphosis, to "label." With the help of the OED, the potentially disparate terms "tablet," "book," and "label," may be explained by terms appropriate either to supernatural or worldly beings. "Tablet" may recognize the Mosaic artifact, whereas "book" and "label" are probably mundane references to Galileo's Sidereus Nuncius which appeared shortly before Cymbeline. The message of the Olympian god indicates therefore that the book is unique even as its contents have limited value. The first property celebrates the fact that Galileo's book is the first of its kind, and the second advises that all results except the discovery of Jupiter's moons have been reported earlier, in Hamlet.

  13. Development of a stability-indicating UPLC method for determining olanzapine and its associated degradation products present in active pharmaceutical ingredients and pharmaceutical dosage forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnaiah, Ch; Vishnu Murthy, M; Kumar, Ramesh; Mukkanti, K

    2011-03-25

    A simple, sensitive and reproducible ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) coupled with a photodiode array detector method was developed for the quantitative determination of olanzapine (OLN) in API and pharmaceutical dosage forms. The method is applicable to the quantification of related substances and assays of drug substances. Chromatographic separation was achieved on Acquity UPLC BEH 100-mm, 2.1-mm, and 1.7-μm C-18 columns, and the gradient eluted within a short runtime, i.e., within 10.0 min. The eluted compounds were monitored at 250 nm, the flow rate was 0.3 mL/min, and the column oven temperature was maintained at 27°C. The resolution of OLN and eight (potential, bi-products and degradation) impurities was greater than 2.0 for all pairs of components. The high correlation coefficient (r(2)>0.9991) values indicated clear correlations between the investigated compound concentrations and their peak areas within the test ranges. The repeatability and intermediate precision, expressed by the RSD, were less than 2.4%. The accuracy and validity of the method were further ascertained by performing recovery studies via a spike method. The accuracy of the method expressed as relative error was satisfactory. No interference was observed from concomitant substances normally added to the tablets. The drug was subjected to the International Conference on Harmonization (ICH)-prescribed hydrolytic, oxidative, photolytic and thermal stress conditions. The performance of the method was validated according to the present ICH guidelines for specificity, limit of detection, limit of quantification, linearity, accuracy, precision, ruggedness and robustness. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Development and Evaluation of Mucoadhesive Chlorhexidine Tablet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To formulate mucoadhesive chlorhexidine tablets and evaluate their drug release characteristics and mechanism. Methods: Chlorhexidine buccal adhesive tablets were prepared by direct compression using a blend of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) and chitosan as the bioadhesive polymers.

  15. Principles of Tablet Computing for Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzan, Harry, Jr.

    2015-01-01

    In the study of modern technology for the 21st century, one of the most popular subjects is tablet computing. Tablet computers are now used in business, government, education, and the personal lives of practically everyone--at least, it seems that way. As of October 2013, Apple has sold 170 million iPads. The success of tablets is enormous and has…

  16. Touch Screen Tablets and Emergent Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Michelle M.; Neumann, David L.

    2014-01-01

    The use of touch screen tablets by young children is increasing in the home and in early childhood settings. The simple tactile interface and finger-based operating features of tablets may facilitate preschoolers' use of tablet application software and support their educational development in domains such as literacy. This article reviews…

  17. 21 CFR 520.812 - Enrofloxacin tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Enrofloxacin tablets. 520.812 Section 520.812 Food... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.812 Enrofloxacin tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains either 22.7, 68.0, or 136.0 milligrams of enrofloxacin. (b) Sponsor. See No...

  18. The use of olanzapine in Huntington disease accompanied by psychotic symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cafer Alhan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Huntington's disease is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disease. The disease begins between the ages of 30-50, including motor symptoms, psychiatric symptoms and is characterized by progressive dementia. Common psychiatric disorders of Huntington’s disease include mood and anxiety disorders, behavior and personality changes. Psychosis is relatively rare. Here, a patient is present, who has Huntington’s disease, which is associated with psychotic symptoms. 61-year-old male patient who were followed for Huntington disease for 25 years was admitted for complaints of thinking of poisoning and refuse to eat something. Patient was started on olanzapine at dose of 5 mg/day. In follow up psychotic symptoms disappeared. Emerging psychotic symptoms in Huntington disease is created a need for antipsychotic treatment. Atypical antipsychotic agents should be preferred in the treatment and as in the case olanzapine may be used as a treatment option should be kept in mind to control both involuntary movements and psychotic symptoms in Huntington's disease with psychotic features. J Clin Exp Invest 2014; 5 (2: 326-328

  19. Differential Effects of Olanzapine and Haloperidol on MK-801-induced Memory Impairment in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jae Chun; Seo, Mi Kyoung; Park, Sung Woo; Lee, Jung Goo; Kim, Young Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Objective We investigated the differential effects of the antipsychotic drugs olanzapine and haloperidol on MK-801-induced memory impairment and neurogenesis in mice. Methods MK-801 (0.1 mg/kg) was administered 20 minutes prior to behavioral testing over 9 days. Beginning on the sixth day of MK-801 treatment, either olanzapine (0.05 mg/kg) or haloperidol (0.05 mg/kg) was administered 40 minutes prior to MK-801 for the final 4 days. Spatial memory performance was measured using a Morris water maze (MWM) test for 9 days (four trials/day). Immunohistochemistry with bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) was used to identify newborn cells labeled in tissue sections from the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. Results MK-801 administration over 9 days significantly impaired memory performance in the MWM test compared to untreated controls (p801 also resulted in a decrease in the number of BrdU-labeled cells in the dentate gyrus (28.6%; p801 in mice via the stimulating effects of neurogenesis. PMID:27489382

  20. Post-injection delirium/sedation syndrome in patients with schizophrenia treated with olanzapine long-acting injection, I: analysis of cases

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    Stefaniak Victoria J

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An advance in the treatment of schizophrenia is the development of long-acting intramuscular formulations of antipsychotics, such as olanzapine long-acting injection (LAI. During clinical trials, a post-injection syndrome characterized by signs of delirium and/or excessive sedation was identified in a small percentage of patients following injection with olanzapine LAI. Methods Safety data from all completed and ongoing trials of olanzapine LAI were reviewed for possible cases of this post-injection syndrome. Descriptive analyses were conducted to characterize incidence, clinical presentation, and outcome. Regression analyses were conducted to assess possible risk factors. Results Based on approximately 45,000 olanzapine LAI injections given to 2054 patients in clinical trials through 14 October 2008, post-injection delirium/sedation syndrome occurred in approximately 0.07% of injections or 1.4% of patients (30 cases in 29 patients. Symptomatology was consistent with olanzapine overdose (e.g., sedation, confusion, slurred speech, altered gait, or unconsciousness. However, no clinically significant decreases in vital signs were observed. Symptom onset ranged from immediate to 3 to 5 hours post injection, with a median onset time of 25 minutes post injection. All patients recovered within 1.5 to 72 hours, and the majority continued to receive further olanzapine LAI injections following the event. No clear risk factors were identified. Conclusions Post-injection delirium/sedation syndrome can be readily identified based on symptom presentation, progression, and temporal relationship to the injection, and is consistent with olanzapine overdose following probable accidental intravascular injection of a portion of the olanzapine LAI dose. Although there is no specific antidote for olanzapine overdose, patients can be treated symptomatically as needed. Special precautions include use of proper injection technique and a post

  1. TabletGaze: Unconstrained Appearance-based Gaze Estimation in Mobile Tablets

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Qiong; Veeraraghavan, Ashok; Sabharwal, Ashutosh

    2015-01-01

    We study gaze estimation on tablets, our key design goal is uncalibrated gaze estimation using the front-facing camera during natural use of tablets, where the posture and method of holding the tablet is not constrained. We collected the first large unconstrained gaze dataset of tablet users, labeled Rice TabletGaze dataset. The dataset consists of 51 subjects, each with 4 different postures and 35 gaze locations. Subjects vary in race, gender and in their need for prescription glasses, all o...

  2. Chronic treatment with olanzapine increases adiposity by changing fuel substrate and causes desensitization of the acute metabolic side effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Girault, Elodie M.; Guigas, Bruno; Alkemade, Anneke; Foppen, Ewout; Ackermans, Mariëtte T.; la Fleur, Susanne E.; Fliers, Eric; Kalsbeek, Andries

    2014-01-01

    Atypical antipsychotic drugs such as olanzapine induce weight gain and metabolic changes associated with the development of type 2 diabetes. The mechanisms underlying these metabolic side-effects are unknown at the moment. In this study, we investigated the metabolic changes induced by a chronic

  3. Chronic treatment with olanzapine increases adiposity by changing fuel substrate and causes desensitization of the acute metabolic side effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Girault, Elodie M; Guigas, Bruno; Alkemade, Anneke; Foppen, Ewout; Ackermans, Mariëtte T; la Fleur, Susanne E; Fliers, Eric; Kalsbeek, A.

    Atypical antipsychotic drugs such as olanzapine induce weight gain and metabolic changes associated with the development of type 2 diabetes. The mechanisms underlying these metabolic side-effects are unknown at the moment. In this study, we investigated the metabolic changes induced by a chronic

  4. Comparison of the effect of Olanzapine and Sertraline on patients suffering from personality disorder, receiving methadone maintenance therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mozhgan Jariani

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Borderline Personality disorder is a disabling disease affecting 2% of general population. Various drugs have been suggested for treatment of borderline Personality disorder. If a drug could alleviate a wide range of symptoms, it would be more suitable. In these disorders drug addiction is very common. This fact makes the symptoms complicated and the treatment more difficult. This study is designed to evaluate the effect of Olanzapine and Sertraline in patients suffering from personality disorders who are on methadone maintenance therapy. Materials and Methods: This clinical trial study was carried out on 120 male and female cases chosen for methadone maintenance therapy through interview by a psychiatrist based on DSM-IV-TR diagnostic criteria for BPD. Afterwards they were randomly divided into two groups. These groups separately received Olanzapine (5-10 mg daily and Sertraline (50-100 mg daily therapy. The SCL-90 questionnaire was filled out by the participants before treatment and at the 4th, 8th and 12th weeks of the treatment. Results: According to this clinical trial, Olanzapine and Sertraline were effective in ameliorating symptoms of depression, anxiety and aggression, reducing sensitivity in interpersonal relationship and alleviating obsessive symptoms, pessimistic behaviors and somatization disorders in patients with personality disorders on methadone maintenance therapy. Conclusion: As results of this study stated that Olanzapine and Sertraline are definitely effective in alleviating symptoms of patients with personality disorder, prescribing theses drugs are highly recommended for these patients. .

  5. A low TSH profile predicts olanzapine-induced weight gain and relief by adjunctive topiramate in healthy male volunteers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, Simon S; van Vliet, André; van Vugt, Barbara; Scheurink, Antonius; van Dijk, Gertjan

    2016-01-01

    Second generation antipsychotics, like olanzapine (OLZ), have become the first line drug treatment for patients with schizophrenia. However, OLZ treatment is often associated with body weight (BW) gain and metabolic derangements. Therefore, the search for prospective markers for OLZ's negative side

  6. Sertindole, in contrast to clozapine and olanzapine, does not disrupt water maze performance after acute or chronic treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Didriksen, Michael; Kreilgaard, Mads; Arnt, Jørn

    2006-01-01

    Cognitive deficits in schizophrenia are associated with poor functional outcome, and may be further aggravated by treatment with antipsychotics. In the present study the acute and chronic (3 weeks of treatment) effects of clozapine, olanzapine, and sertindole on performance in the Morris water ma...

  7. Central administration of an orexin receptor 1 antagonist prevents the stimulatory effect of Olanzapine on endogenous glucose production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Girault, Elodie M.; Foppen, Ewout; Ackermans, Mariëtte T.; Fliers, Eric; Kalsbeek, Andries

    2013-01-01

    Atypical antipsychotic drugs such as Olanzapine (Olan) induce weight gain and metabolic changes associated with the development of type 2 diabetes. The mechanisms underlying these undesired side-effects are currently unknown. It has been shown that peripheral injections of Olan activate neurons in

  8. MALDI-MS analysis and theoretical evaluation of olanzapine as a UV laser desorption ionization (LDI) matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musharraf, Syed Ghulam; Ameer, Mariam; Ali, Arslan

    2017-01-05

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) being soft ionization technique, has become a method of choice for high-throughput analysis of proteins and peptides. In this study, we have explored the potential of atypical anti-psychotic drug olanzapine (OLZ) as a matrix for MALDI-MS analysis of peptides aided with the theoretical studies. Seven small peptides were employed as target analytes to check performance of olanzapine and compared with conventional MALDI matrix α-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid (HCCA). All peptides were successfully detected when olanzapine was used as a matrix. Moreover, peptides angiotensin Ι and angiotensin ΙΙ were detected with better S/N ratio and resolution with this method as compared to their analysis by HCCA. Computational studies were performed to determine the thermochemical properties of olanzapine in order to further evaluate its similarity to MALDI matrices which were found in good agreement with the data of existing MALDI matrices. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Translation of randomised controlled trial findings into clinical practice: comparison of olanzapine and valproate in the EMBLEM study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novick, D; Gonzalez-Pinto, A; Haro, J M

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to compare the outcomes of olanzapine- and valproate-treated patients in an observational study of acute mania with the results of a randomised controlled trial (RCT) assessing the same treatments. METHODS: EMBLEM (European Mania in Bipolar Evaluation of Medi...

  10. Learning, Tablet, Culture-Coherence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norqvist, Lars

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents understandings of learning in schools where Internet-enabled Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) are taken for granted. The context is a full-scale 1:1 tablet project in Danish municipality schools where this study bring forward expressions of learning from one class (12-13 year old children) in order to offer…

  11. Treatment response to olanzapine and haloperidol and its association with dopamine D receptor occupancy in first-episode psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zipursky, Robert B; Christensen, Bruce K; Daskalakis, Zafiris; Epstein, Irvin; Roy, Paul; Furimsky, Ivana; Sanger, Todd; Kapur, Shitij

    2005-07-01

    Response to typical antipsychotic medication has been associated with achieving a level of striatal dopamine D2 receptor occupancy in the range of 65% to 70%. We undertook this study to determine whether response to the atypical antipsychotic olanzapine occurs at lower levels of D2 receptor occupancy. Eighteen patients who presented with a first episode of psychosis were randomized to receive olanzapine 5 mg daily or haloperidol 2 mg daily in a double-blind design. We acquired positron emission tomography (PET) scans using the D2 ligand [11C]raclopride within the first 15 days of treatment to determine the percentage of D2 receptors occupied by the medication. According to response, dosage was then adjusted to a maximum dosage of 20 mg daily of either drug. PET scans were repeated after 10 to 12 weeks of treatment. At the first PET scan, the 8 olanzapine-treated patients had significantly lower D2 receptor occupancies (mean 63.4%, SD 7.3) than those observed in the 10 patients treated with haloperidol (mean 73.0%, SD 6.1). When patients were rescanned following dosage adjustment, mean D2 receptor occupancies were greater than 70% in both groups. D2 receptor occupancies did not differ significantly between the olanzapine-treated group (mean 72.0%, SD 5.7) and the haloperidol-treated group (mean 78.7%, SD 7.6). These results suggest that, in patients being treated for a first episode of psychosis, olanzapine has its antipsychotic effect at approximately the same levels of D2 receptor occupancy as are achieved with low dosages of haloperidol.

  12. Natural oils as skin permeation enhancers for transdermal delivery of olanzapine: in vitro and in vivo evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Geeta; Dhawan, Sanju; HariKumar, S L

    2012-03-01

    The feasibility of development of transdermal delivery system of olanzapine utilizing natural oils as permeation enhancers was investigated. Penetration enhancing potential of corn (maize) oil, groundnut oil and jojoba oil on in vitro permeation of olanzapine across rat skin was studied. The magnitude of flux enhancement factor with corn oil, groundnut oil and jojoba oil was 7.06, 5.31 and 1.9 respectively at 5mg/ml concentration in solvent system. On the basis of in vitro permeation studies, eudragit based matrix type transdermal patches of olanzapine were fabricated using optimized concentrations of natural oils as permeation enhancers. All transdermal patches were found to be uniform with respect to physical characteristics. The interaction studies carried out by comparing the results of ultraviolet, HPLC and FTIR analyses for the pure drug, polymers and mixture of drug and polymers indicated no chemical interaction between the drug and excipients. Corn oil containing unsaturated fatty acids was found to be promising natural permeation enhancer for transdermal delivery of olanzapine with greatest cumulative amount of drug permeated (1010.68 μg/cm²/h) up to 24 h and caused no skin irritation. The fabricated transdermal patches were found to be stable. The pharmacokinetic characteristics of the final optimized matrix patch (T2) were determined after transdermal application to rabbits. The calculated relative bioavailability of TDDS was 113.6 % as compared to oral administration of olanzapine. The therapeutic effectiveness of optimized transdermal system was confirmed by tranquillizing activity in rotarod and grip mice model.

  13. Reboxetine Enhances the Olanzapine-Induced Antipsychotic-Like Effect, Cortical Dopamine Outflow and NMDA Receptor-Mediated Transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, Monica M; Jardemark, Kent; Malmerfelt, Anna; Björkholm, Carl; Svensson, Torgny H

    2010-01-01

    Preclinical data have shown that addition of the selective norepinephrine transporter (NET) inhibitor reboxetine increases the antipsychotic-like effect of the D2/3 antagonist raclopride and, in parallel, enhances cortical dopamine output. Subsequent clinical results suggested that adding reboxetine to stable treatments with various antipsychotic drugs (APDs) may improve positive, negative and depressive symptoms in schizophrenia. In this study, we investigated in rats the effects of adding reboxetine to the second-generation APD olanzapine on: (i) antipsychotic efficacy, using the conditioned avoidance response (CAR) test, (ii) extrapyramidal side effect (EPS) liability, using a catalepsy test, (iii) dopamine efflux in the medial prefrontal cortex and the nucleus accumbens, using in vivo microdialysis in freely moving animals and (iv) cortical N-methyl--aspartate (NMDA) receptor-mediated transmission, using intracellular electrophysiological recording in vitro. Reboxetine (6 mg/kg) enhanced the suppression of CAR induced by a suboptimal dose (1.25 mg/kg), but not an optimal (2.5 mg/kg) dose of olanzapine without any concomitant catalepsy. Addition of reboxetine to the low dose of olanzapine also markedly increased cortical dopamine outflow and facilitated prefrontal NMDA receptor-mediated transmission. Our data suggest that adjunctive treatment with a NET inhibitor may enhance the therapeutic effect of low-dose olanzapine in schizophrenia without increasing EPS liability and add an antidepressant action, thus in principle allowing for a dose reduction of olanzapine with a concomitant reduction of dose-related side effects, such as EPS and weight gain. PMID:20463659

  14. A Flexible-Dose Study of Paliperidone ER in Patients With Nonacute Schizophrenia Previously Treated Unsuccessfully With Oral Olanzapine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotler, Moshe; Dilbaz, Nesrin; Rosa, Fernanda; Paterakis, Periklis; Milanova, Vihra; Smulevich, Anatoly B; Lahaye, Marjolein; Schreiner, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study was to explore the tolerability, safety, and treatment response of switching from oral olanzapine to paliperidone extended release (ER). Adult patients with nonacute schizophrenia who had been treated unsuccessfully with oral olanzapine were switched to flexible doses of paliperidone ER (3 to 12 mg/d). The primary efficacy outcome was a ≥ 20% improvement in Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) total scores from baseline to endpoint for patients who switched medications because of lack of efficacy with olanzapine and noninferiority versus previous olanzapine treatment (mean endpoint change in PANSS total scores vs. baseline of ≤ 5 points) for patients who switched for reasons other than lack of efficacy. Safety and tolerability were assessed by monitoring adverse events, extrapyramidal symptoms, and weight change. Of 396 patients, 65.2% were men, mean age was 40.0 ± 12.0 years, and 75.5% had paranoid schizophrenia. Among the patients whose main reason for switching was lack of efficacy, an improvement in the PANSS total score of ≥ 20% occurred in 57.4% of patients. Noninferiority was confirmed for each subgroup of patients whose main reason for switching was something other than lack of efficacy. Paliperidone ER was generally well tolerated. Extrapyramidal symptoms as measured by total Extrapyramidal Symptom Rating Scale scores showed statistically significant and clinically relevant improvements at endpoint, the average weight decreased by 0.8 ± 5.2 kg at endpoint, and a clinically relevant weight gain of ≥ 7% occurred in 8.0% of patients. Paliperidone ER flexibly-dosed over 6 months was well tolerated and associated with a meaningful clinical response in patients with nonacute schizophrenia who had previously been unsuccessfully treated with oral olanzapine.

  15. Stage control of tablets manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. I. Kucherenko

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Today in Ukraine tuberculosis is the wide-spread infectious disease causing the death in most cases; about 700 thousand persons are suffering from it. In Ukraine epidemic of tuberculosis is progressing and spreading. In spite of all protective measures three inhabitants of our country contract tuberculosis per hour, every hour one patient dies and in common about 1.5% of the population is ill with tuberculosis. Isoniazid is antituberculous drug of the first line and it is the most effective one. Chemotherapy of tuberculosis requests long-lasting administration of antituberculous drugs that causes high risk of side effects. To prevent or lessen side effects of antituberculous medicines antioxidants use in complex therapy is perspective. Fulfilled investigations showed efficacy of combining two medical substances – isoniazid andthiotriazolin – in one dosage form. Objective.The aim of our investigation is working out the methods of standardization, in particularquantitative determination of isoniazid andthiotriazolin content in tablet mass by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Materials and Methods.During in-process investigations combined tableted remedy containing isoniazid andthiotriazolin and proper amount of adjuvants has been developed (it contains active substances isoniazid – 0.2 g,thiotriazolin – 0.05 g and adjuvants up to the 0.4 g of the tablet. During stage control of tablets manufacturingspecial attention is paid to the control of tablet mass quality. Especially it concerns quantitative determination of active substances in it. More and more attention is paid to modern physical-chemical methods of standardization in up-to-date analysis of drug products, such as ultraviolet spectrometry, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC etc. In previous scientific investigations we proved the possibility of standardization of active substances artificial compound by HPLC method and optimal conditions of analysis performing

  16. Quantitative Appearance Inspection for Film Coated Tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshino, Hiroyuki; Yamashita, Kazunari; Iwao, Yasunori; Noguchi, Shuji; Itai, Shigeru

    2016-01-01

    The decision criteria for the physical appearance of pharmaceutical products are subjective and qualitative means of evaluation that are based entirely on human interpretation. In this study, we have developed a comprehensive method for the quantitative analysis of the physical appearance of film coated tablets. Three different kinds of film coated tablets with considerable differences in their physical appearances were manufactured as models, and their surface roughness, contact angle, color measurements and physicochemical properties were investigated as potential characteristics for the quantitative analysis of their physical appearance. All of these characteristics were useful for the quantitative evaluation of the physical appearances of the tablets, and could potentially be used to establish decision criteria to assess the quality of tablets. In particular, the analysis of the surface roughness and film coating properties of the tablets by terahertz spectroscopy allowed for an effective evaluation of the tablets' properties. These results indicated the possibility of inspecting the appearance of tablets during the film coating process.

  17. Effect of Environmental Cues on Behavioral Efficacy of Haloperidol, Olanzapine and Clozapine in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Tao; Liu, Xinfeng; Li, Ming

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have reported that context can powerfully modulate the inhibitory effect of an antipsychotic drug on phencyclidine (PCP)-induced hyperlocomotion (a behavioral test used to evaluate putative antipsychotic drugs). The present study investigated the experimental conditions under which environmental stimuli exert their influence through associative conditioning processes. Experiment 1 examined the extent to which prior antipsychotic treatment in the home cages affected a drug’s ability to inhibit PCP-induced hyperlocomotion in a novel motor activity test apparatus. Five days of repeated haloperidol (0.05 mg/kg, sc) and olanzapine (2.0 mg/kg, sc) treatment in the home cages still potentiated their inhibition of PCP-induced hyperlocomotion (i.e. sensitization) assessed in a new environment, whereas the clozapine (10.0 mg/kg, sc) treatment enhanced the development of clozapine tolerance, indicating a lack of environmental modulation of antipsychotic efficacy. Experiment 2 assessed the impact of different numbers of antipsychotic administrations in either the home environment or test environment (e.g. 4, 2 or 0) on a drug’s ability to inhibit PCP-induced hyperlocomotion. Repeated administration of clozapine (5.0 mg/kg, sc) or olanzapine (1.0 mg/kg, sc) for 4 consecutive days, regardless of where these treatments occurred, caused a similar level of inhibition on PCP-induced hyperlocomotion. However, 4-day haloperidol (0.03 mg/kg, sc) treatment in the test apparatus caused a significant higher inhibition than 4-day home cage treatment. Thus, more exposures to the test environment under the influence of haloperidol (but not clozapine or olanzapine) cause a stronger inhibition than fewer exposures, indicating a strong environmental modulation. Collectively, these findings suggest that prior antipsychotic treatment in one environment could alter later antipsychotic-like response assessed in a different environment under certain test conditions. Therefore

  18. Downregulation of 5-HT7 Serotonin Receptors by the Atypical Antipsychotics Clozapine and Olanzapine. Role of Motifs in the C-Terminal Domain and Interaction with GASP-1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manfra, Ornella; Van Craenenbroeck, Kathleen; Skieterska, Kamila

    2015-01-01

    have previously found that the atypical antipsychotics clozapine and olanzapine inhibited G protein activation and, surprisingly, induced both internalization and lysosomal degradation of 5-HT7 receptors. Here, we aimed to determine the mechanism of clozapine- and olanzapine-mediated degradation of 5......-HT7 receptors. In the C-terminus of the 5-HT7 receptor, we identified two YXXΦ motifs, LR residues, and a palmitoylated cysteine anchor as potential sites involved in receptor trafficking to lysosomes followed by receptor degradation. Mutating either of these sites inhibited clozapine- and olanzapine...... of clozapine or olanzapine to the 5-HT7 receptor leads to antagonist-mediated lysosomal degradation by exposing key residues in the C-terminal tail that interact with GASP-1....

  19. Rapid tranquilization for agitated patients in emergency psychiatric rooms: a randomized trial of olanzapine, ziprasidone, haloperidol plus promethazine, haloperidol plus midazolam and haloperidol alone

    OpenAIRE

    Baldaçara,Leonardo; Sanches,Marsal; Cordeiro,Daniel Cruz; Jackowski,Andrea Parolin

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the effectiveness of intramuscular olanzapine, ziprasidone, haloperidol plus promethazine, haloperidol plus midazolam and haloperidol alone as the first medication(s) used to treat patients with agitation and aggressive behavior. METHOD: One hundred fifty patients with agitation caused by psychotic or bipolar disorder were randomly assigned under double-blind conditions to receive olanzapine, ziprasidone, haloperidol plus midazolam, haloperidol plus promethazine or halop...

  20. Olanzapine approved for the acute treatment of schizophrenia or manic/mixed episodes associated with bipolar I disorder in adolescent patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann E Maloney

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Ann E Maloney1,2, Linmarie Sikich31Maine Medical Center Research Institute, Scarborough, ME, USA; 2Department of Psychiatry, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, MA, USA; 3Department of Psychiatry, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USABackground: Severe and persistent mental illnesses in children and adolescents, such as early-onset schizophrenia spectrum (EOSS disorders and pediatric bipolar disorder (pedBP, are increasingly recognized. Few treatments have demonstrated efficacy in rigorous clinical trials. Enduring response to current medications appears limited. Recently, olanzapine was approved for the treatment of adolescents with schizophrenia or acute manic/mixed episodes in pedBP.Methods: PubMed searches were conducted for olanzapine combined with pharmacology, schizophrenia, or bipolar disorder. Searches related to schizophrenia and bipolar disorder were limited to children and adolescents. The bibliographies of the retrieved articles were hand-checked for additional relevant studies. The epidemiology, phenomenology, and treatment of EOSS and pedBP, and olanzapine’s pharmacology are reviewed. Studies of olanzapine treatment in youth with EOSS and pedBP are examined.Results: Olanzapine is efficacious for EOSS and pedBP. However, olanzapine is not more efficacious than risperidone, molindone, or haloperidol in EOSS and is less efficacious than clozapine in treatment-resistant EOSS. No comparative trials have been done in pedBP. Olanzapine is associated with weight gain, dyslipidemia, and transaminase elevations in youth. Extrapyramidal symptoms, neuroleptic malignant syndrome, and blood dyscrasias have also been reported but appear rare.Conclusions: The authors conclude that olanzapine should be considered a second-line agent in EOSS and pedBP due to its risks for significant weight gain and lipid dysregulation. Awareness of the consistent weight and metabolic changes observed in olanzapine

  1. Change in level of productivity in the treatment of schizophrenia with olanzapine or other antipsychotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osuntokun Olawale

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background When treating schizophrenia, improving patients' productivity level is a major goal considering schizophrenia is a leading cause of functional disability. Productivity level has been identified as the most preferred treatment outcome by patients with schizophrenia. However, little has been done to systematically investigate productivity levels in schizophrenia. We set out to better understand the change in productivity level among chronically ill patients with schizophrenia treated with olanzapine compared with other antipsychotic medications. We also assessed the links between productivity level and other clinical outcomes. Methods This post hoc analysis used data from 6 randomized, double-blind clinical trials of patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder, with each trial being of approximately 6 months duration. Change in productivity level was compared between olanzapine-treated patients (HGBG, n = 172; HGHJ, n = 277; HGJB, n = 171; HGLB, n = 281; HGGN, n = 159; HGDH, n = 131 and patients treated with other antipsychotic medications (separately vs. haloperidol [HGGN, n = 97; HGDH, n = 132], risperidone [HGBG, n = 167; HGGN, n = 158], quetiapine [HGJB, n = 175], ziprasidone [HGHJ, n = 271] and aripiprazole [HGLB, n = 285]. Productivity was defined as functional activities/work including working for pay, studying, housekeeping and volunteer work. Productivity level in the prior 3 months was assessed on a 5-point scale ranging from no useful functioning to functional activity/work 75% to 100% of the time. Results Chronically ill patients treated with olanzapine (OLZ experienced significantly greater improvement in productivity when compared to patients treated with risperidone (RISP (OLZ = 0.22 ± 1.19, RISP = -0.03 ± 1.17, p = 0.033 or ziprasidone (ZIP (OLZ = 0.50 ± 1.38, ZIP = 0.25 ± 1.27, p = 0.026, but did not significantly differ from the quetiapine, aripiprazole or haloperidol treatment groups. Among

  2. Intramuscular olanzapine versus intramuscular aripiprazole for the treatment of agitation in patients with schizophrenia: A pragmatic double-blind randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittipeerachon, Mantana; Chaichan, Warawat

    2016-10-01

    To evaluate and compare the effectiveness and adverse effects of intramuscular (IM) olanzapine and IM aripiprazole for the treatment of agitated patients with schizophrenia in clinical practice. A 24-hour randomized double-blind study carried out at a psychiatric hospital in Thailand enrolled adult patients (18-65years old) with schizophrenia experiencing agitation. Patients received one dose of IM olanzapine or IM aripiprazole followed by routine oral psychotropic medications. Efficacy was primarily measured using the Excited Component of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS-EC). A total of 80 patients with a PANSS-EC score range of 22-35 entered the study, of whom 13% had a medical comorbidity and 40% a history of active substance abuse. The 40 patients receiving IM olanzapine showed greater improvement than the 40 patients receiving IM aripiprazole in PANSS-EC scores at 2h after the injection (p=0.002) but not at 24h. The two treatments were well tolerated. Patients receiving IM olanzapine experienced greater somnolence than those receiving IM aripiprazole. There were no clinically relevant changes in vital signs in either group. The results indicate that IM olanzapine and aripiprazole are similarly effective and well tolerated in the real-world treatment of agitation associated with schizophrenia over the first 24h. However, in the early hours, IM olanzapine may produce more sedation and reductions in agitation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Olanzapine and haloperidol for the treatment of acute symptoms of mental disorders induced by amphetamine-type stimulants: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Xiaobin; Song, Yun; Yu, Xiaojie; Fan, Qiang; Tang, Jiyou; Chen, Xu

    2018-02-01

    This study aimed to compare olanzapine and haloperidol efficacies in the treatment of acute psychiatric symptoms due to amphetamine-type stimulants (ATSs). The Zelen II design method was used; 124 patients with acute mental disorders due to amphetamine were randomly divided into olanzapine group (n = 63) and haloperidol group (n = 61). Then, a 4-week open-label medical therapy was performed. Clinical Global Impression Scale Item 2 was employed to evaluate the onset time; meanwhile, Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) was used at baseline and at posttreatment weeks 1, 2, and 4. Moreover, adverse reactions during the treatment were recorded. Onset time in the olanzapine group was significantly earlier than in the haloperidol group; BPRS scores in the olanzapine group were significantly lower than haloperidol group values at 1 and 2 weeks of treatment. The overall effective rates had no statistically significant difference. Short-term olanzapine and haloperidol treatments had equivalent efficacies in the treatment of acute symptoms of mental disorders due to ATSs; however, olanzapine administration resulted in relatively earlier disease onset, with less adverse reactions.

  4. Topiramate for prevention of olanzapine associated weight gain and metabolic dysfunction in schizophrenia: a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narula, Preeta Kaur; Rehan, H S; Unni, K E S; Gupta, Neeraj

    2010-05-01

    Olanzapine associated weight gain (WG) is a major concern in patients with schizophrenia. The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy of topiramate to prevent olanzapine induced WG in these cases. We also studied various metabolic parameters. In this 12-week, double-blind, parallel group study, seventy-two drug-naïve, first-episode schizophrenia patients were randomized to receive olanzapine+placebo (olanzapine group) or olanzapine+topiramate (100mg/day) (topiramate group). Weight, body mass index, fasting glucose, insulin, insulin resistance (IR), leptin, lipids and blood pressure were assessed at baseline and at 12 weeks. The patients were clinically evaluated using Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and were monitored for adverse effects. Topiramate resulted in a weight loss of 1.27+/-2.28 kg (pweight gain and adverse metabolic effects. It also results in a greater clinical improvement when used with olanzapine in schizophrenia. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of olanzapine for breast cancer patients resistant to triplet antiemetic therapy with nausea due to anthracycline-containing adjuvant chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Junya; Kashiwaba, Masahiro; Komatsu, Hideaki; Ishida, Kazushige; Nihei, Satoru; Kudo, Kenzo

    2016-05-01

    Triplet antiemetic therapy with neurokinin 1 receptor blocker, 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor blocker and steroids is commonly used in patients who are highly emetic after chemotherapy. However, an alternative antiemetic therapy for patients who are resistant to triplet antiemetic therapy is not established. Olanzapine is recommended in the guidelines as an optional antiemetic drug. However, the effectiveness of adding olanzapine to triplet antiemetic therapy is unknown. In this study, the effectiveness and safety of adding olanzapine to triplet antiemetic therapy with aprepitant, palonosetron and dexamethasone as highly emetic anthracycline-containing adjuvant chemotherapy for primary breast cancer patients were prospectively investigated. Forty-five patients with breast cancer who experienced >Grade 1 nausea or any vomiting after the first cycle of chemotherapy using both epirubicin and cyclophosphamide were included. Low-dose olanzapine (2.5 mg/day) was administered orally from the first day of chemotherapy for 4 days, and the number of episodes of vomiting, scale of nausea, dietary intake and somnolence were compared with the symptoms after the first cycle. As the primary endpoint, the nausea grade was significantly improved by adding olanzapine (P effectiveness and tolerability of adding low-dose olanzapine for patients with insufficient nausea relief with triplet antiemetic therapy consisting of palonosetron, steroid and aprepitant. Published by Oxford University Press 2016. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  6. Dose Uniformity of Scored and Unscored Tablets: Application of the FDA Tablet Scoring Guidance for Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciavarella, Anthony B; Khan, Mansoor A; Gupta, Abhay; Faustino, Patrick J

    This U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) laboratory study examines the impact of tablet splitting, the effect of tablet splitters, and the presence of a tablet score on the dose uniformity of two model drugs. Whole tablets were purchased from five manufacturers for amlodipine and six for gabapentin. Two splitters were used for each drug product, and the gabapentin tablets were also split by hand. Whole and split amlodipine tablets were tested for content uniformity following the general chapter of the United States Pharmacopeia (USP) Uniformity of Dosage Units , which is a requirement of the new FDA Guidance for Industry on tablet scoring. The USP weight variation method was used for gabapentin split tablets based on the recommendation of the guidance. All whole tablets met the USP acceptance criteria for the Uniformity of Dosage Units. Variation in whole tablet content ranged from 0.5 to 2.1 standard deviation (SD) of the percent label claim. Splitting the unscored amlodipine tablets resulted in a significant increase in dose variability of 6.5-25.4 SD when compared to whole tablets. Split tablets from all amlodipine drug products did not meet the USP acceptance criteria for content uniformity. Variation in the weight for gabapentin split tablets was greater than the whole tablets, ranging from 1.3 to 9.3 SD. All fully scored gabapentin products met the USP acceptance criteria for weight variation. Size, shape, and the presence or absence of a tablet score can affect the content uniformity and weight variation of amlodipine and gabapentin tablets. Tablet splitting produced higher variability. Differences in dose variability and fragmentation were observed between tablet splitters and hand splitting. These results are consistent with the FDA's concerns that tablet splitting can have an effect on the amount of drug present in a split tablet and available for absorption. Tablet splitting has become a very common practice in the United States and throughout the

  7. Colour Reproduction on Tablet Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Zorić

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available With the advent of Internet and mobile devices client services and other print production are migrating more and more to online platforms. In a recent technology changeover it is obvious that there is growing number of printers as well need from the customers for the print service providers to expand their business to online and mobile platforms. With this technological transition there are some open questions regarding the possibilities of using the tablet devices for colour soft proofing and other colour related operations. As a display devices on a hardware level there are large similarities with the desktop display devices but the operating systems which are driving them are not yet colour smart. There have been some initial attempts to characterize the colour reproduction on this type of devices and find a possibility of using them not just for information content but also for colour managed content. In this study we have tested several tablets (Apple iPad2,Asus Transformer TF101, Samsung Galaxy Tab 1 with different display and OS technology and tested a software which is intended for colour managed viewing of the reproduction. We have measured the colour reproduction of the tablets with the digital version of the GretagMacbeth ColorChecker card and have calculated the colour differences between the colour chart data and the displayed data. We have calibrated the Ipad2 with the only existing colour management tool the Spyder Gallery and we have also tested the chart display with and without the colour correction of the software. We have found that there are differences in the colour reproduction of the display technologies and that the possibilities of a real colour managed workflow has yet to be resolved on the OS level of tablet and mobile devices

  8. Olanzapine Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... It works by changing the activity of certain natural substances in the brain. ... signs of infection excessive sweating muscle stiffness confusion fast or ... the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) MedWatch Adverse Event Reporting ...

  9. Can Tablet Computers Enhance Faculty Teaching?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Aditee P; Whicker, Shari A; Benjamin, Robert W; Hawley, Jeffrey; McGann, Kathleen A

    2015-06-01

    Learner benefits of tablet computer use have been demonstrated, yet there is little evidence regarding faculty tablet use for teaching. Our study sought to determine if supplying faculty with tablet computers and peer mentoring provided benefits to learners and faculty beyond that of non-tablet-based teaching modalities. We provided faculty with tablet computers and three 2-hour peer-mentoring workshops on tablet-based teaching. Faculty used tablets to teach, in addition to their current, non-tablet-based methods. Presurveys, postsurveys, and monthly faculty surveys assessed feasibility, utilization, and comparisons to current modalities. Learner surveys assessed perceived effectiveness and comparisons to current modalities. All feedback received from open-ended questions was reviewed by the authors and organized into categories. Of 15 eligible faculty, 14 participated. Each participant attended at least 2 of the 3 workshops, with 10 to 12 participants at each workshop. All participants found the workshops useful, and reported that the new tablet-based teaching modality added value beyond that of current teaching methods. Respondents developed the following tablet-based outputs: presentations, photo galleries, evaluation tools, and online modules. Of the outputs, 60% were used in the ambulatory clinics, 33% in intensive care unit bedside teaching rounds, and 7% in inpatient medical unit bedside teaching rounds. Learners reported that common benefits of tablet computers were: improved access/convenience (41%), improved interactive learning (38%), and improved bedside teaching and patient care (13%). A common barrier faculty identified was inconsistent wireless access (14%), while no barriers were identified by the majority of learners. Providing faculty with tablet computers and having peer-mentoring workshops to discuss their use was feasible and added value.

  10. Specifications development for "Karbatril" codenamed tablets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. I. Kucherenko

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. According to current legislation of Ukraine the specifications of tablets include the following indicators: description, identification, average weight, disintegration and assay. The aim of the study. The development of specifications and project of quality control methods for "Karbatril" codenamed tablets. Materials and methods. During the study we analyzed 6 series of tablets "Karbatril." For the description, identification, determination of the average mass, disintegration, active ingredients quantify of "Karbatril" codenamed tablets we used appropriate methods and instruments. Results and discussion. Tablets "Karbatril" were analyzed for the following parameters: - Overview - Tablets white or nearly white; - Average weight - during the study the average weight of 6 series of obtained tablets ranged from 339,0 mg to 369,9 mg according to SPU from 337,0 mg to 373,0 mg; - Disintegration – according to SPU the disintegration for tablet without shell shall not exceed 15 min. Analyzed tablets disintegrated in the period from 5 to 10 minutes; - Identification and quantification of the active ingredients of tablets were conducted using modified HPLC methods. During the identification obtained chromatograms show compliance with SPU. In quantitative determination of the active ingredients content in "Karbatril" codenamed tablets we found carbamazepine from 148.18 mg to 150.19 mg, thiotriazoline - from 98.93 mg to 99.71 mg. This data is consistent to SPU which regulates content of carbamazepine - 150 mg ± 7,5%, thiotriazoline - 100 mg ± 10%. Conclusions. This study has developed specification for "Karbatril" codenamed tablets and also methods of HPLC qualitative and quantitative determination of active ingredients. In the specification the following parameters are included: description, identification, average weight, disintegration and assay. The study drafted quality control methods which are planned to be later offered to the

  11. Pharmaceutical and analytical evaluation of triphalaguggulkalpa tablets

    OpenAIRE

    Savarikar, Shreeram S.; Barbhind, Maneesha M.; Halde, Umakant K.; Kulkarni, Alpana P.

    2011-01-01

    Aim of the Study: Development of standardized, synergistic, safe and effective traditional herbal formulations with robust scientific evidence can offer faster and more economical alternatives for the treatment of disease. The main objective was to develop a method of preparation of guggulkalpa tablets so that the tablets meet the criteria of efficacy, stability, and safety. Materials and Methods: Triphalaguggulkalpa tablet, described in sharangdharsanhita and containing guggul and triphala p...

  12. Tablet surface characterisation by various imaging techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seitavuopio, Paulus; Rantanen, Jukka; Yliruusi, Jouko

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterise tablet surfaces using different imaging and roughness analytical techniques including optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), laser profilometry and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The test materials compressed were potassium chloride (KCl......) and sodium chloride (NaCl). It was found that all methods used suggested that the KCl tablets were smoother than the NaCl tablets and higher compression pressure made the tablets smoother. Imaging methods like optical microscopy and SEM can give useful information about the roughness of the sample surface...

  13. Effects of quetiapine and olanzapine in patients with psychosis and violent behavior: a pilot randomized, open-label, comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gobbi G

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Gabriella Gobbi,1,2 Stefano Comai,1 Guy Debonnel1,2,† 1Neurobiological Psychiatric Unit, Department of Psychiatry, McGill University and McGill University Health Center, 2Institut Philippe Pinel, Department of Psychiatry, Université de Montréal, Montréal, QC, Canada †Guy Debonnel passed away on November 4, 2006 Objective: Patients suffering from psychosis are more likely than the general population to commit aggressive acts, but the therapeutics of aggressive behavior are still a matter of debate. Methods: This pilot randomized, open-label study compared the efficacy of quetiapine versus olanzapine in reducing impulsive and aggressive behaviors (primary endpoints and psychotic symptoms (secondary endpoints from baseline to days 1, 7, 14, 28, 42, 56, and 70, in 15 violent schizophrenic patients hospitalized in a maximum-security psychiatric hospital. Results: Quetiapine (525±45 mg and olanzapine (18.5±4.8 mg were both efficacious in reducing Impulsivity Rating Scale from baseline to day 70. In addition, both treatments reduced the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale, Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, and Clinical Global Impression Scale scores at day 70 compared to baseline, and no differences were observed between treatments. Moreover, quetiapine, but not olanzapine, yielded an improvement of depressive symptoms in the items “depression” in Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale and “blunted affect” in Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale. Modified Overt Aggression Scale scores were also decreased from baseline to the endpoint, but due to the limited number of patients, it was not possible to detect a significant difference. Conclusion: In this pilot study, quetiapine and olanzapine equally decreased impulsive and psychotic symptoms after 8 weeks of treatment. Double-blind, large studies are needed to confirm the validity of these two treatments in highly aggressive and violent schizophrenic patients. Keywords: schizophrenia, aggression

  14. Reversal of olanzapine-induced weight gain in a patient with schizophrenia by switching to asenapine: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Okazaki, Kosuke; Yamamuro, Kazuhiko; Kishimoto, Toshifumi

    2017-01-01

    Kosuke Okazaki, Kazuhiko Yamamuro, Toshifumi Kishimoto Department of Psychiatry, Nara Medical University School of Medicine, Kashihara, Japan Aims: Antipsychotics are effective for treating schizophrenia, but atypical antipsychotics can cause several adverse side effects including weight gain, hyperprolactinemia, and extrapyramidal symptoms. Moreover, weight gain increases the risk of metabolic diseases.Methods: We treated a case of olanzapine-induced weight gain in a 41-year-old man with s...

  15. Placebo-controlled trial of atomoxetine for weight reduction in people with schizophrenia treated with clozapine or olanzapine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, M Patricia; Warren, Kimberly R; Feldman, Stephanie; McMahon, Robert P; Kelly, Deanna L; Buchanan, Robert W

    2011-04-01

    In recent years, several pharmacological and psychosocial interventions have examined ways to prevent or treat weight gain in people receiving second-generation antipsychotics. While there has been some success, in general, results have not been compelling. Atomoxetine is a selective norepinepherine reuptake inhibitor found to be associated with appetite suppression. Therefore, we examined whether atomoxetine may be of benefit for those who have gained weight on either clozapine or olanzapine. The study was a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. All participants received the same psychosocial platform: a structured support and exercise group. People with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder, on olanzapine or clozapine, who had gained at least 7% of their pre-clozapine or pre-olanzapine weight were eligible for a 24-week, randomized, parallel group, double-blind comparison of adjunctive atomoxetine or placebo. Thirty-seven participants (20 atomoxetine, 17 placebo) were randomized and 26 participants (14 atomoxetine, 12 placebo; 70.2%) completed the study. There were no significant group differences in baseline BMI (atomoxetine: 34.5±4.9; placebo: 35.7±7.0) or weight (atomoxetine: 102.2±15.7 kg; placebo: 104.3±17.5 kg). Both treatment groups showed modest, not significant, trends in weight loss, averaging about 2 kg. Gender or baseline antipsychotic treatment did not modify treatment effects on weight. Secondary outcomes included neuropsychological assessments, symptom assessments (BPRS, SANS) and safety assessments. Of these, only the group difference in Gordon distractibility test scores was statistically significant and favored treatment with atomoxetine. Atomoxetine is not effective for weight loss in this population, but both olanzapine and clozapine participants can lose weight with structured group support and exercise.

  16. Prophylactic use of olanzapine and quetiapine from pregnancy to the postpartum period in women with bipolar disorder: a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uguz, Faruk

    2017-11-01

    The management of bipolar disorder in pregnant and postpartum women is one of the most difficult issues in clinical practice. Data on the efficacy of mood stabilizers, except lithium and antipsychotics, in the maintenance treatment of bipolar disorders during pregnancy and postpartum period are very limited. This report presents results of prophylaxis with olanzapine and quetiapine with regard to affective episodes in pregnancy to the postpartum period.

  17. A Study to Assess the Therapeutic Effect of Enalapril on Olanzapine Induced Metabolic Syndrome in Wistar Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arivazhahan, Avinash; Bairy, Laxminarayana Kurady; Nayak, Veena; Kunder, Sushil Kiran

    2017-02-01

    Metabolic Syndrome (MS) is a complex of risk factors for the development of cardiovascular complications and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (DM). Pharmacological management of the condition is complex, as multiple drug groups have to be used, as the syndrome itself is multi faceted. Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Inhibitors (ACEIs) are chiefly used to manage the hypertensive component of the syndrome. However, recent studies have shown that these drugs may have a role in the non hypertensive aspects of the syndrome as well. To evaluate the therapeutic effect of enalapril on total body weight, random blood glucose and serum lipid profile in a rodent model of olanzapine induced MS. Three different dosages (1 mg/kg/day, 10 mg/kg/day and 20 mg/kg/day) of oral enalapril were administered (for three weeks) in albino wistar rats, which received prior intra peritoneal olanzapine (for three weeks), and compared against control (normal saline) and standard (olanzapine only and enalapril only) groups. Parameters like total body weight, random blood glucose and serum lipid profile were measured at baseline, at three weeks and at six weeks. Enalapril at 20 mg/kg/day was found to be effective in reversing the weight gain, hyperglycaemia and hypercholesterolaemia, without any changes in triglycerides, High Density Lipoprotein (HDL) and Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL). 10 mg/kg/day of enalapril prevented any further rise in body weight, blood glucose, total cholesterol and serum triglycerides, after olanzapine was stopped. 1 mg/kg/day of enalapril was ineffective. High dose of enalapril may be considered as a component of therapeutic regimens to combat weight gain, hyperglycaemia and dyslipidaemia seen in MS, in addition to its antihypertensive utility. Further rodent and clinical studies may be required to ascertain the same.

  18. Olanzapine and Betamethasone Are Effective for the Treatment of Nausea and Vomiting due to Metastatic Brain Tumors of Rectal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Suzuki

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Brain lesions originating from metastasis of colorectal cancer represent 3-5% of all brain metastases and are relatively rare. Of all distant metastases of colorectal cancer, those to the liver are detected in 22-29% of cases, while those to the lungs are detected in 8-18% of cases. In contrast, brain metastasis is quite rare, with a reported incidence ranging from 0.4 to 1.8%. Treatments for metastatic brain tumors include surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy and supportive care with steroids, etc. Untreated patients exhibit a median survival of only approximately 1 month. The choice of treatment for brain metastasis depends on the number of lesions, the patient's general condition, nerve findings and presence of other metastatic lesions. We herein report the case of a 78-year-old male who presented with brain metastases originating from rectal carcinoma. He suffered from nausea, vomiting, anorexia and vertigo during body movement. He received antiemetics, glycerol and whole brain radiation therapy; however, these treatments proved ineffective. Olanzapine therapy was started at a dose of 1.25 mg every night. The persistent nausea disappeared the next day, and the frequency of vomiting subsequently decreased. The patient was able to consume solid food. Olanzapine is an antipsychotic that has recently been used as palliative therapy for refractory nausea and vomiting in patients receiving chemotherapy. We consider that olanzapine was helpful as a means of supportive care for the treatment of nausea and vomiting due to brain metastasis.

  19. A Case Report of Mania and Psychosis Five Months after Traumatic Brain Injury Successfully Treated Using Olanzapine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giordano F. Cittolin-Santos

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. There are few published pharmacologic trials for the treatment of acute mania following traumatic brain injury (TBI. To our knowledge, we present the first case report of an individual being treated and stabilized with olanzapine monotherapy for this condition. Case Presentation. We describe the case of a 53-year-old African American male admitted to an inpatient psychiatric hospital with one month of behavioral changes including irritability, decreased need for sleep, hyperverbal speech, hypergraphia, and paranoia five months after TBI. Using Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th edition (DSM-5 criteria, he was diagnosed with bipolar disorder due to traumatic brain injury, with manic features. He was serially evaluated with clinical rating scales to measure symptom severity. The Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS score upon admission was 31, and the Clinician-Rated Dimensions of Psychosis Symptom Severity (CRDPSS score was initially 9. After eight days of milieu treatment and gradual titration of olanzapine to 15 mg nightly, his symptoms completely abated, with YMRS and CRDPSS scores at zero on the day of discharge. Conclusion. Olanzapine was effective and well tolerated for the treatment of mania following TBI.

  20. The Study of the Effectiveness of Olanzapine as a Maintenance Treatment in Opioid Dependents, a Randomized Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azarekhsh Mokri

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In this research, researchers want to study the effectiveness of Olanzapine on reduction of substance abuse relapse among people who are dependent to opioid material, merely. Method: A randomized clinical trial was designed. The population was opioid dependence subjects (only men that were diagnosed based on DSM-IV TR criteria, and referred to national center of addiction studies clinic. Detoxification was done by using of Clonidine, Clonazepam, Disiklomin, and NSAIDS within7 through 10 days. In second stage, the Patients who were referred to the clinic those men who had satisfied criterions selected. Demographic forms, testimonial certificate, Addiction Severity Index, Beck Depression Questionnaire, Zung Self report anxiety test administered among selected sample. Sample divided to two groups (placebo and Olanzapine the research last for 8 weeks. Results: the results showed that addiction severity reduced in both groups, but there was not significant difference in reduction of addiction severity between two groups. There was significant difference in depression and anxiety among mean scores of base line and follow up in both groups but there was not significant difference between two groups in follow up measures. Conclusion: Altogether, the results did not confirm the effectiveness of Olanzapine on maintenance treatment of opioid dependence.

  1. Drug–drug conditioning between citalopram and haloperidol or olanzapine in a conditioned avoidance response model: implications for polypharmacy in schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparkman, Nathan L.; Li, Ming

    2016-01-01

    Patients with schizophrenia often have anxiety and depression, and thus are treated with multiple psychotherapeutic medications. This practice of polypharmacy increases the possibility for drug–drug interactions. However, the pharmacological and behavioral mechanisms underlying drug–drug interactions in schizophrenia remain poorly understood. In the present study, we adopted a preclinical approach and examined a less known behavioral mechanism, drug–drug conditioning (DDC) between haloperidol (a typical antipsychotic) or olanzapine (atypical antipsychotic) and citalopram (a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor). A rat two-way conditioned avoidance response paradigm was used to measure antipsychotic activity and determine how DDC may alter the antipsychotic efficacy in this model. Following acquisition of the avoidance response, rats were then randomly assigned to receive vehicle, citalopram (10.0 mg/kg, intraperitoneally), haloperidol (0.05 mg/kg, subcutaneously), olanzapine (1.0 mg/kg, subcutaneously), combined haloperidol with citalopram, or combined olanzapine with citalopram treatment for seven avoidance test sessions. In comparison with antipsychotic treatment alone, combined treatment with citalopram potentiated the antiavoidance effect of olanzapine or haloperidol (to a lesser extent) during the seven drug-test sessions. In addition, repeated pairing of citalopram with haloperidol or olanzapine caused citalopram to show a newly acquired avoidance-disruptive effect. This effect was context specific because citalopram paired with haloperidol or olanzapine outside the avoidance testing context (i.e. home cages) did not show such an effect. These findings indicate that concurrent antidepressant and antipsychotic treatments may engender a DDC process that follows the general Pavlovian associative conditioning principles. They also indicate that adjunctive citalopram treatment may enhance the antipsychotic efficacy of haloperidol and olanzapine in the

  2. Product development of pumpkin tablet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamgoed, T.

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The development of pumpkin tablet was studied and the drying conditions of pumpkin using a double drum dryer were optimized. The study factors were drying agents (maltodextrin D.E.13-16 andtapioca flour at different levels (3 and 5%, drying temperatures (130 and 140oC and drum dryer speeds (4 and 5 rpm. The results showed that the optimal conditions were using 3% maltodextrin D.E.13-16, dryingtemperature of 130oC and drum dryer speed of 4 rpm. The moisture, fat, bulk density, reducing sugars and granulometric retention of the obtained pumpkin powder were 3.39%, 1.42%, 1.004 g/ml, 12.63% and 0.67%, respectively and L*, a* and b* values were 73.85, -0.60 and 35.23, respectively. A study of suitable amount of icing sugar using different contents for tablet production (0, 10, 20, 30 and 40% was performedand showed that using 20% icing sugar was the most acceptable. The obtained pumpkin tablet was subjected to chemical, physical and microbiological analysis. The ash, moisture, protein, fat, fiber and carbohydratecontents were 1.87, 3.60, 3.34, 1.00, 2.26 and 87.99%, respectively. The reducing sugars and β-carotene contents were 5.44±0.61% and 3.79±0.57 mg/100g, respectively. The Aw, hardness and solubility were 0.56,3.25 kgf and 25.00 %, respectively. The L*, a* and b* values were 79.85, 0.28 and 23.64, respectively. The total microbial count and the yeast and mould count were <10 CFU/g. The shelf life of the pumpkin tabletwas at least 4 months at room temperature (35±2oC.

  3. Tablet-teknologi i fysioterapi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duus, Lene; Støve, Morten Pallisgaard; Harbo, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Projektbaggrund og formål: Med projektet har vi ønsket at udvikle, afdække, implementere og afprøve funktionalitet og design af en app-baseret elektronisk genoptræningsportal. I projektet er der afprøvet en app. rettet mod fysioterapeuten og en app. rettet mod patienten. Formålet var at afdække u...... undervisning i teknologien samt løbende support højt, hvorfor tidsaspektet for deltagerne bliver vigtig. Reference: www.ucviden.dk, Duus, L & Støve Morten P, 2014. Tablet-teknologi i Fysioterapi....

  4. Transforming the Classroom With Tablet Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargent, Lana; Miles, Elizabeth

    Identifying the most effective models for integrating new technology into the classroom and understanding its effects on educational outcomes are essential for nurse educators. This article describes an educational intervention with tablet technology (iPads) using an innovative case-based learning model in a nursing program. Students reported positive learning outcomes when using the tablet technology for learning course content.

  5. 21 CFR 520.1510 - Nitenpyram tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... order of a licensed veterinarian. (d) Conditions of use—(1) Dogs—(i) Amount—(A) One 11.4-mg tablet for dogs weighing less than 25 pounds (lb) or one 57-mg tablet for dogs weighing more than 25 lb, as needed...

  6. How Tablets Are Utilized in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditzler, Christine; Hong, Eunsook; Strudler, Neal

    2016-01-01

    New technologies are a large part of the educational landscape in the 21st century. Emergent technologies are implemented in the classroom at an exponential rate. The newest technology to be added to the daily classroom is the tablet computer. Understanding students' and teachers' perceptions about the role of tablet computers is important as this…

  7. Quantitative Determination of Metformin Hydrochloride in Tablet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To develop and validate a suitable method for the assay of metformin hydrochloride (HCl) in tablets containing croscarmellose sodium as an additive. Methods: Methanol and ethanol (99%) were assessed as solvents for sample preparation for the assay of metformin HCl in tablets containing croscarmellose ...

  8. Breaking of scored tablets : a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Santen, E; Barends, D M; Frijlink, H W

    The literature was reviewed regarding advantages, problems and performance indicators of score lines. Scored tablets provide dose flexibility, ease of swallowing and may reduce the costs of medication. However, many patients are confronted with scored tablets that are broken unequally and with

  9. Safety and effectiveness of rapid-acting intramuscular olanzapine for agitation associated with schizophrenia – Japan postmarketing surveillance study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katagiri H

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Hideaki Katagiri,1 Masanori Taketsuna,2 Shinpei Kondo,3 Kenta Kajimoto,4 Etsuko Aoi,5 Yuka Tanji1 1Bio Medicine, 2Statistical Sciences, 3Post Marketing Study Management, 4Scientific Communications, Medicines Development Unit Japan, 5Global Patient Safety Japan, Quality and Patient Safety, Eli Lilly Japan K.K., Kobe, Japan Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of rapid-acting intramuscular (IM olanzapine in the treatment of acute agitation associated with schizophrenia in real-world clinical settings in Japan.Methods: In this multicenter, postmarketing surveillance (PMS study, patients with acute agitation associated with schizophrenia were treated with IM olanzapine daily in a daily clinical setting. The observational period ranged from 1 to 7 days, including the day of initial administration. Safety was assessed by reporting treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs and adverse drug reactions (ADRs. The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale – Excited Component (PANSS-EC score was used to evaluate effectiveness at baseline and at 2 hours (after each administration, 2 days, and 3 days (end of the observational period from the last administration of the IM olanzapine injection.Results: The safety analysis set included 999 patients, and the initial dose of 10 mg was administered to 955 patients. TEAEs were reported in 28 patients (36 events, the most common of which were dyslalia (5 patients, akathisia and somno­lence (4 patients each, hepatic function abnormal (3 patients, and constipation and dehydration (2 patients each. One serious adverse event of akathisia occurred during the observation period. The PANSS-EC score (mean ± standard deviation was 23.3±6.4 (n=625 at baseline, 16.9±7.0 (n=522 at 2 hours after initial injection, and 14.9±6.5 (n=650 at the last observation carried forward.Conclusion: The results of this Japanese PMS study demonstrated that IM olanzapine is safe and has a

  10. Frequency of Extrapyramidal Adverse Reactions in Schizophrenic Outpatients Treated with Risperidone, Olanzapine, Quetiapine or Haloperidol : Results of the EIRE Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobes, Julio; Rejas, J; Garcia-Garcia, M; Rico-Villademoros, F; García-Portilla, M P; Madrigal, M; Hernández, G

    2002-09-01

    The EIRE (Estudio de Investigaciön de Resultados en Esquizofrenia - Outcomes Research Study in Schizophrenia) study was initiated in order to assess the frequency of adverse reactions [extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS), hyperprolactinaemia, sexual dysfunction and weight gain] caused by atypical antipsychotics and haloperidol in patients with schizophrenia during routine treatment in clinical practice. This paper presents the results of the assessment of extrapyramidal adverse reactions. Outpatients diagnosed with schizophrenia according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of mental disorders, 4th edition (DSM-IV), criteria and receiving a single antipsychotic (risperidone, olanzapine, quetiapine or haloperidol) for at least 4 weeks were consecutively recruited. In this cross-sectional and non-interventional study data were collected in a single visit; this included demographic and clinical characteristics, current antipsychotic and concomitant treatment, and data on several adverse effects listed in a modified version of the UKU (Udvalg for Kliniske Undersogelser - Committee on Clinical Investigations) scale. For paired comparisons of the frequency of adverse reactions between treatments the Chi-squared (χ 2 ) test was used. For estimation of the risk of a given adverse reaction with a given treatment a logistic regression method was used. 636 evaluable patients (of 669 recruited) were assessed. The frequency of EPS with haloperidol (78.3% of the cases) was higher than with risperidone (55.1%), quetiapine (39.5%) and olanzapine (35.8%) [χ 2 : p < 0.05], and the difference between risperidone and olanzapine was also statistically significant (χ 2 : p < 0.05). Very similar results were obtained in the individualised analysis of the items as regards the occurrence of akathisia, which was also more frequent in the haloperidol (36.8%) and risperidone (19.7%) groups than in the olanzapine (11.4%) and quetiapine (2.6%) groups (χ 2 : p < 0.05). Olanzapine, quetiapine

  11. Predictors of continuation with olanzapine during the 1-year naturalistic treatment of patients with schizophrenia in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye W

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Wenyu Ye1, Haya Ascher-Svanum2, Yuka Tanji3, Jennifer A Flynn3, Michihiro Takahashi3,41Lilly Suzhou Pharmaceutical Co, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China; 2Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, IN, USA; 3Lilly Research Laboratories Japan, Eli Lilly Japan KK, Kobe, 4Terauchi-Takahashi Psychiatric Clinic, Ashiya, JapanPurpose: Treatment continuation is considered an important measure of antipsychotic effectiveness in schizophrenia, reflecting the medication’s efficacy, safety, and tolerability from both patients’ and clinicians’ perspectives. This study identified characteristics of patients with schizophrenia who continue olanzapine therapy for a 1-year period in Japan.Methods: In a large (N = 1850, prospective, observational study, Japanese patients with schizophrenia who initiated treatment with olanzapine were followed for 1 year. Baseline characteristics were compared using t-tests and chi-square tests. Stepwise logistic regression was used to identify independent baseline predictors of treatment continuation.Results: Most patients (68.2% continued with olanzapine therapy for the full 1-year study period, with an average duration of 265.5 ± 119.4 days. At baseline, patients who continued were significantly more likely to be male, older, and inpatients; have longer illness duration, higher negative and cognitive symptoms, better health-related quality of life, and prior anticholinergic use. Continuers were significantly less likely to engage in social activities, live independently, work for pay, or have prior antidepressant use. Continuers showed significantly greater early (3-month improvement in global symptom severity. Logistic regression found that continuation was significantly predicted by longer illness duration, lower positive symptoms, higher negative symptoms, and better health-related quality of life.Conclusions: In this large naturalistic study in Japan, most patients with schizophrenia stayed on olanzapine therapy for

  12. A double blind, placebo-controlled, randomized crossover study of the acute metabolic effects of olanzapine in healthy volunteers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vance L Albaugh

    Full Text Available Atypical antipsychotics exhibit metabolic side effects including diabetes mellitus and obesity. The adverse events are preceded by acute worsening of oral glucose tolerance (oGTT along with reduced plasma free fatty acids (FFA and leptin in animal models. It is unclear whether the same acute effects occur in humans.A double blind, randomized, placebo-controlled crossover trial was conducted to examine the potential metabolic effects of olanzapine in healthy volunteers. Participants included male (8 and female (7 subjects [18-30 years old, BMI 18.5-25]. Subjects received placebo or olanzapine (10 mg/day for three days prior to oGTT testing. Primary endpoints included measurement of plasma leptin, oral glucose tolerance, and plasma free fatty acids (FFA. Secondary metabolic endpoints included: triglycerides, total cholesterol, high- and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, heart rate, blood pressure, body weight and BMI. Olanzapine increased glucose Area Under the Curve (AUC by 42% (2808±474 vs. 3984±444 mg/dl·min; P = 0.0105 during an oGTT. Fasting plasma leptin and triglycerides were elevated 24% (Leptin: 6.8±1.3 vs. 8.4±1.7 ng/ml; P = 0.0203 and 22% (Triglycerides: 88.9±10.1 vs. 108.2±11.6 mg/dl; P = 0.0170, whereas FFA and HDL declined by 32% (FFA: 0.38±0.06 vs. 0.26±0.04 mM; P = 0.0166 and 11% (54.2±4.7 vs. 48.9±4.3 mg/dl; P = 0.0184, respectively after olanzapine. Other measures were unchanged.Olanzapine exerts some but not all of the early endocrine/metabolic changes observed in rodent models of the metabolic side effects, and this suggest that antipsychotic effects are not limited to perturbations in glucose metabolism alone. Future prospective clinical studies should focus on identifying which reliable metabolic alterations might be useful as potential screening tools in assessing patient susceptibility to weight gain and diabetes caused by atypical antipsychotics.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00741026.

  13. Tablet Keiti: Does it Contain Astronomical Instructions?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wieczorek, Rafal

    2010-01-01

    Ethnographic data collected on Easter Island in the late XIX and first half of the XX century suggest that the extant rongorongo tablets contain songs, legends or other chanted traditions. However, we have yet to succeed in relating any one of the rongorongo texts to one of the many legends...... collected by ethnographers. An interesting observation is that, while none of the Rapanuis with whom early visitors to the island were acquainted mentioned anything about astronomy in the context of rongorongo tablets, the only piece of rongorongo texts whose meaning we are certain of is the “calendar...... tablet Mamari”. In the four lines of this tablet, also known as rongorongo text C, we encounter 30 moon glyphs arranged in a pattern that mirrors the Rapa Nui lunar calendar as recorded by early Western visitors. This presentation argues that yet another rongorongo item – tablet Keiti, also known as text...

  14. Gastric emptying of enteric-coated tablets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, H.M.; Chernish, S.M.; Rosenek, B.D.; Brunelle, R.L.; Hargrove, B.; Wellman, H.N.

    1984-01-01

    To evaluate the gastric emptying time of pharmaceutical dosage forms in a clinical setting, a relatively simple dual-radionuclide technique was developed. Placebo tablets of six different combinations of shape and size were labeled with indium-111 DTPA and enteric coated. Six volunteers participated in a single-blind and crossover study. Tablets were given in the morning of a fasting stomach with 6 oz of water containing /sup 99m/Tc pertechnetate and continuously observed with a gamma camera. A scintigraph was obtained each minute. The results suggested that the size, shape, or volume of the tablet used in this study had no significant effect in the rate of gastric emptying. The tablets emptied erratically and unpredictably, depending upon their time of arrival in the stomach in relation to the occurrence of interdigestive myoelectric contractions. The method described is a relatively simple and accurate technique to allow one to follow the gastric emptying of tablets

  15. Mathematical tablets from Tell Harmal

    CERN Document Server

    Gonçalves, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    This work offers a re-edition of twelve mathematical tablets from the site of Tell Harmal, in the borders of present-day Baghdad. In ancient times, Tell Harmal was Šaduppûm, a city representative of the region of the Diyala river and of the kingdom of Ešnunna, to which it belonged for a time. These twelve tablets were originally published in separate articles in the beginning of the 1950s and mostly contain solved problem texts. Some of the problems deal with abstract matters such as triangles and rectangles with no reference to daily life, while others are stated in explicitly empirical contexts, such as the transportation of a load of bricks, the size of a vessel, the number of men needed to build a wall and the acquisition of oil and lard. This new edition of the texts is the first to group them, and takes into account all the recent developments of the research in the history of Mesopotamian mathematics. Its introductory chapters are directed to readers interested in an overview of the mathematical con...

  16. Post-injection delirium/sedation syndrome in patients with schizophrenia treated with olanzapine long-acting injection, II: investigations of mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stickelmeyer Mary

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Olanzapine long-acting injection (LAI is a salt-based depot antipsychotic combining olanzapine and pamoic acid. The slow intramuscular dissolution of this practically insoluble salt produces an extended release of olanzapine lasting up to 4 weeks. However, in a small number of injections ( Methods Healthcare providers involved in the PDSS cases were queried for clinical information around the events. Plasma samples from patients experiencing PDSS were collected when possible (12/30 cases and olanzapine concentrations compared with the known pharmacokinetic profile for olanzapine LAI. Product batches and used vials from the PDSS cases were evaluated for compliance with established manufacturing standards and/or possible user error. Because this depot formulation depends upon slow dissolution at the intramuscular injection site, in-vitro experiments were conducted to assess solubility of olanzapine pamoate in various media. Results Injection administrators reported no unusual occurrences during the injection. No anomalies were found with the product batches or the remaining suspension in the used vials. Olanzapine concentrations during PDSS events were higher than the expected 5-73 ng/mL range, with concentrations exceeding 100 ng/mL and in some cases reaching >600 ng/mL during the first hours after injection but then returning to the expected therapeutic range within 24 to 72 hours. Solubility and dissolution rate of olanzapine pamoate were also found to be substantially greater in plasma than in other media such as those approximating the environment in muscle tissue. Conclusions Manufacturing irregularities, improper drug reconstitution, and inappropriate dosing were ruled out as possible causes of PDSS. In-vitro solubility and in-vivo pharmacokinetic investigations suggest that PDSS is related to exposure of the injected product to a substantial volume of blood. This exposure is most likely the result of unintended partial

  17. The influence of aripiprazole and olanzapine on neurotransmitters level in frontal cortex of prenatally stressed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratajczak, P; Kus, K; Gołembiowska, K; Noworyta-Sokołowska, K; Woźniak, A; Zaprutko, T; Nowakowska, E

    2016-09-01

    The study aims to verify whether alterations in the level of neurotransmitters have occurred in prenatally stressed rats (animal model of schizophrenia), and whether aripiprazole (ARI) and olanzapine (OLA) modify this level. The effects of ARI (1.5mg/kg) and OLA (0.5mg/kg) were studied by means of microdialysis in freely moving rats (observation time 120min). The level of neurotransmitters (DA, 5-HT, NA) and their metabolites (DOPAC, HVA, 5-HIAA) was analyzed by HPLC with coulochemical detection. Obtained results indicate that after a single administration of ARI and OLA in the prenatally stressed rats the increase of DA, DOPAC, and 5-HT was observed. In turn ARI administration increase the level of HVA and 5-HIAA and also decrease the level of NA. After OLA administration the level of NA and HVA increased and no significant change in 5-HIAA was observed. Alterations observed as a result of ARI and OLA administration may be pivotal in identifying animal models of mental disorders and in the analysis of neuroleptics effectiveness. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. A critical review on tablet disintegration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quodbach, Julian; Kleinebudde, Peter

    2016-09-01

    Tablet disintegration is an important factor for drug release and can be modified with excipients called tablet disintegrants. Tablet disintegrants act via different mechanisms and the efficacy of these excipients is influenced by various factors. In this review, the existing literature on tablet disintegration is critically reviewed. Potential disintegration mechanisms, as well as impact factors on the disintegration process will be discussed based on experimental evidence. Search terms for Scopus and Web of Science included "tablet disintegration", "mechanism tablet disintegration", "superdisintegrants", "disintegrants", "swelling force", "disintegration force", "disintegration mechanisms", as well as brand names of commonly applied superdisintegrants. References of identified papers were screened as well. Experimental data supports swelling and shape recovery as main mechanisms of action of disintegrants. Other tablet excipients and different manufacturing techniques greatly influence the disintegration process. The use of different excipients, experimental setups and manufacturing techniques, as well as the demand for original research led to a distinct patchwork of knowledge. Broader, more systematic approaches are necessary not only to structure the past but also future findings.

  19. Terahertz Technology: A Boon to Tablet Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagh, M. P.; Sonawane, Y. H.; Joshi, O. U.

    2009-01-01

    The terahertz gap has a frequency ranges from ∼0.3 THz to ∼10 THz in the electromagnetic spectrum which is in between microwave and infrared. The terahertz radiations are invisible to naked eye. In comparison with x-ray they are intrinsically safe, non-destructive and non-invasive. Terahertz spectroscopy enables 3D imaging of structures and materials, and the measurement of the unique spectral fingerprints of chemical and physical forms. Terahertz radiations are produced by a dendrimer based high power terahertz source and spectroscopy technologies. It resolves many of the questions left unanswered by complementary techniques, such as optical imaging, Raman and infrared spectra. In the pharmaceutical industries it enables nondestructive, internal, chemical analysis of tablets, capsules, and other dosage forms. Tablet coatings are a major factor in drug bioavailability. Therefore tablet coatings integrity and uniformity are of crucial importance to quality. Terahertz imaging gives an unparalleled certainty about the integrity of tablet coatings and the matrix performance of tablet cores. This article demonstrates the potential of terahertz pulse imaging for the analysis of tablet coating thickness by illustrating the technique on tablets. PMID:20490288

  20. Evaluation of striatal dopamine transporter density using ({sup 123}I)-{beta}-CIT SPECT in schizophrenic patients treated with olanzapine: pilot study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chul Eung; Moon, Hey Won; Choe, Won Sick; Kim, Chang Ho; Chi, Dae Yoon [Inha Univ., Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-08-01

    This pilot study was performed to understand the pharmacological effect of olanzapine, an atypical antipsychotic agent, on dopamine transporter in schizophrenic patients. Six patients (3 male, 3 female) with schizophrenia, who had not taken any psychotropic drugs for at least four weeks, were studied. Nuclear imaging using ({sup 123}I)-{beta}-CIT SPECT was obtained before and after 4-week treatment with olanzapine. Analysis of ROI on the striatum, caudate nucleus, and putamen was performed. Post-treatment uptake was significantly increased in all the ROIs compared with pre-treatment uptake. This preliminary study with the small number of schizophrenic patients suggested an increase in uptake of dopamine transporter in the striatum, caudate nucleus, and putamen after 4-week treatment with olanzapine, which warrants a large-scaled controlled study to confirm the current findings.

  1. Delirium with anticholinergic symptoms after a combination of paliperidone and olanzapine pamoate in a patient known to smoke cannabis: an unfortunate coincidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokalj, Anja; Rijavec, Nikolina; Tavčar, Rok

    2016-06-22

    We report a case of delirium with anticholinergic symptoms in a 19-year-old female patient with schizophrenia. On the day the symptoms emerged, the patient received olanzapine long-acting injection and a higher dose of paliperidone. We observed symptoms ranging from confusion to delirium as well as some anticholinergic symptoms. The delirium lasted 24 hours and was managed by intravenous fluid substitution and oral benzodiazepines. Olanzapine pamoate, paliperidone and cannabis are central nervous system (CNS) depressants, and their combination can increase the risks of CNS depression. In this case report, we review the symptoms of delirium in a case of antipsychotic overdose and provide general guidelines for managing these symptoms. We also review possible complications in combined use of cannabis, olanzapine and paliperidone. 2016 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  2. Dissolution test for glibenclamide tablets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Aparecida dos Santos Gianotto

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to develop and validate a dissolution test for glibenclamide tablets. Optimal conditions to carry out the dissolution test are 500 mL of phosphate buffer at pH 8.0, paddles at 75 rpm stirring speed, time test set to 60 min and using equipment with six vessels. The derivative UV spectrophotometric method for determination of glibenclamide released was developed, validated and compared with the HPLC method. The UVDS method presents linearity (r² = 0.9999 in the concentration range of 5-14 µg/mL. Precision and recoveries were 0.42% and 100.25%, respectively. The method was applied to three products commercially available on the Brazilian market.

  3. Comparative investigations of tablet crushing force testers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonnergaard, Jørn; Jensen, C.G.; Poulsen, L.

    2005-01-01

    The performance of 16 tablet breaking force testers was evaluated in terms of accuracy, reproducibility and repeatability. Three tablet formulations with different plastic or brittle deformation mechanisms and with target breaking forces of 50, 100 and 150 N were tested. Statistically significant...... by the concept of components of variance was 5-7 % depending on the model tablet excipient. The standard deviation within testers (repeatability) was affected by the type of model formulation showing increasing variability with increasing brittleness of the compressed material. No specific effect of altering...

  4. Teach yourself visually Windows 8 tablets

    CERN Document Server

    McFedries, Paul

    2012-01-01

    A visual guide to all the features of the new Windows 8 Tablet This must-have resource features visually rich, step-by-step instructions that show you how to get the most enjoyment from your Windows 8 tablet. Learn about the exciting new Metro UI, optimized specifically for touch devices. The most popular and commonly used apps and functions are covered too, along with the basics of syncing with a network, setting up e-mail, watching videos, listening to music, and common productivity tasks. This book provides all the guidance needed to enjoy all the best the new Windows 8 tablets have to offe

  5. Controlled-release tablet formulation of isoniazid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, N K; Kulkarni, K; Talwar, N

    1992-04-01

    Guar (GG) and Karaya gums (KG) alone and in combination with hydroxy-propylmethylcellulose (HPMC) were evaluated as release retarding materials to formulate a controlled-release tablet dosage form of isoniazid (1). In vitro release of 1 from tablets followed non-Fickian release profile with rapid initial release. Urinary excretion studies in normal subjects showed steady-state levels of 1 for 13 h. In vitro and in vivo data correlated (r = 0.9794). The studies suggested the potentiality of GG and KG as release retarding materials in formulating controlled-release tablet dosage forms of 1.

  6. Android Tablet Application Development For Dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Felker, Donn

    2011-01-01

    Get up to speed on the hottest opportunity in the application development arena App development for tablets is a booming business. Android tablets, including the popular Motorola Xoom, are gaining market share at breakneck speed, and this book can have even novice programmers creating great Android apps specifically for tablets quickly and easily. A little Java knowledge is helpful but not essential to get started creating apps. Android expert Donn Felker helps you get the Android environment up and running, use XML to create application menus, create an icon for your app, and submit your app

  7. Matrix-assisted laser-desorption/ionization mass spectrometric imaging of olanzapine in a single hair using esculetin as a matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hang; Wang, Ying; Wang, Ge; Hong, Lizhi

    2017-07-15

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-mass spectrometric imaging (MALDI-MSI) for the analysis of intact hair is a powerful tool for monitoring changes in drug consumption. The embedding of a low drug concentration in the hydrophobic hair matrix makes it difficult to extract and detect, and requires an improved method to increase detection sensitivity. In this study, an MSI method using MALDI-Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance was developed for direct identification and imaging of olanzapine in hair samples using the positive ion mode. Following decontamination, scalp hair samples from an olanzapine user were scraped from the proximal to the distal end three times, and 5mm hair sections were fixed onto an Indium-Tin-Oxide (ITO)-coated microscopic glass slide. Esculetin (6,7-dihydroxy-2H-chromen-2-one) was used as a new hydrophobic matrix to increase the affinity, extraction and ionization efficiency of olanzapine in the hair samples. The spatial distribution of olanzapine was observed using five single hairs from the same drug user. This matrix improves the affinity of olanzapine in hair for molecular imaging with mass spectrometry. This method may provide a detection power for olanzapine to the nanogram level per 5mm hair. Time course changes in the MSI results were also compared with quantitative HPLC-MS/MS for each 5mm segment of single hair shafts selected from the MALDI target. MALDI imaging intensities in single hairs showed good semi-quantitative correlation with the results from conventional HPLC-MS/MS. MALDI-MSI is suitable for monitoring drug intake with a high time resolution. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Olanzapine promotes fat accumulation in male rats by decreasing physical activity, repartitioning energy and increasing adipose tissue lipogenesis while impairing lipolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albaugh, V L; Judson, J G; She, P; Lang, C H; Maresca, K P; Joyal, J L; Lynch, C J

    2011-05-01

    Olanzapine and other atypical antipsychotics cause metabolic side effects leading to obesity and diabetes; although these continue to be an important public health concern, their underlying mechanisms remain elusive. Therefore, an animal model of these side effects was developed in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Chronic administration of olanzapine elevated fasting glucose, impaired glucose and insulin tolerance, increased fat mass but, in contrast to female rats, did not increase body weight or food intake. Acute studies were conducted to delineate the mechanisms responsible for these effects. Olanzapine markedly decreased physical activity without a compensatory decline in food intake. It also acutely elevated fasting glucose and worsened oral glucose and insulin tolerance, suggesting that these effects are adiposity independent. Hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp studies measuring (14)C-2-deoxyglucose uptake revealed tissue-specific insulin resistance. Insulin sensitivity was impaired in skeletal muscle, but either unchanged or increased in adipose tissue depots. Consistent with the olanzapine-induced hyperglycemia, there was a tendency for increased (14)C-2-deoxyglucose uptake into fat depots of fed rats and, surprisingly, free fatty acid (FFA) uptake into fat depots was elevated approximately twofold. The increased glucose and FFA uptake into adipose tissue was coupled with increased adipose tissue lipogenesis. Finally, olanzapine lowered fasting plasma FFA, and as it had no effect on isoproterenol-stimulated rises in plasma glucose, it blunted isoproterenol-stimulated in vivo lipolysis in fed rats. Collectively, these results suggest that olanzapine exerts several metabolic effects that together favor increased accumulation of fuel into adipose tissue, thereby increasing adiposity.

  9. Performance of tablet disintegrants: impact of storage conditions and relative tablet density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quodbach, Julian; Kleinebudde, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Tablet disintegration can be influenced by several parameters, such as storage conditions, type and amount of disintegrant, and relative tablet density. Even though these parameters have been mentioned in the literature, the understanding of the disintegration process is limited. In this study, water uptake and force development of disintegrating tablets are analyzed, as they reveal underlying processes and interactions. Measurements were performed on dibasic calcium phosphate tablets containing seven different disintegrants stored at different relative humidities (5-97%), and on tablets containing disintegrants with different mechanisms of action (swelling and shape recovery), compressed to different relative densities. Disintegration times of tablets containing sodium starch glycolate are affected most by storage conditions, which is displayed in decreased water uptake and force development kinetics. Disintegration times of tablets with a swelling disintegrant are only marginally affected by relative tablet density, whereas the shape recovery disintegrant requires high relative densities for quick disintegration. The influence of relative tablet density on the kinetics of water uptake and force development greatly depends on the mechanism of action. Acquired data allows a detailed analysis of the influence of storage conditions and mechanisms of action on disintegration behavior.

  10. Microstructure of Tablet-Pharmaceutical Significance, Assessment, and Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Changquan Calvin

    2017-05-01

    To summarize the microstructure - property relationship of pharmaceutical tablets and approaches to improve tablet properties through tablet microstructure engineering. The main topics reviewed here include: 1) influence of material properties and manufacturing process parameters on the evolution of tablet microstructure; 2) impact of tablet structure on tablet properties; 3) assessment of tablet microstructure; 4) development and engineering of tablet microstructure. Microstructure plays a decisive role on important pharmaceutical properties of a tablet, such as disintegration, drug release, and mechanical strength. Useful information on mechanical properties of a powder can be obtained from analyzing tablet porosity-pressure data. When helium pycnometry fails to accurately measure true density of a water-containing powder, non-linear regression of tablet density-pressure data is a useful alternative method. A component that is more uniformly distributed in a tablet generally exerts more influence on the overall tablet properties. During formulation development, it is highly recommended to examine the relationship between any property of interest and tablet porosity when possible. Tablet microstructure can be engineered by judicious selection of formulation composition, including the use of the optimum solid form of the drug and appropriate type and amount of excipients, and controlling manufacturing process.

  11. Tablets for Learning in Higher Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godsk, Mikkel

    Based on a small-scale literature review this paper identifies the top 10 affordances of post PC tablets (sometimes referred to as ‘tablet computers’) for higher education in settings where the technology is used for learning. The review shows that the predominant affordances of the technology...... are related to its ability to support engaging, inclusive, and/or collaborative learning, to provide flexibility in place, and to include multimedia and interactive content in teaching practice. However, performing the review also revealed that the notion of tablets for learning is equivocal. As a consequence......, the concepts of tabletcasts and tabletcasting are introduced as one possible framing for future research on tablets as an educational technology....

  12. Portable Tablets in Science Museum Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gronemann, Sigurd Trolle

    2016-01-01

    Despite the increasing use of portable tablets in learning, their impact has received little attention in research. In five different projects, this media-ethnographic and design-based analysis of the use of portable tablets as a learning resource in science museums investigates how young people...... is identified. It is argued that, paradoxically, museums’ decisions to innovate by introducing new technologies, such as portable tablets, and new pedagogies to support them conflict with many young people’s traditional ideas of museums and learning. The assessment of the implications of museums’ integration...... of portable tablets indicates that in making pedagogical transformations to accommodate new technologies, museums risk opposing didactic intention if pedagogies do not sufficiently attend to young learners’ systemic expectations to learning and to their expectations to the digital experience influenced...

  13. Pharmacokinetic Studies on Metoprolol - Eudragit Matrix Tablets ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    Zero order release of drug was observed from all the tablets. ... Conclusion: It can be concluded from this single-dose study that the reference and test ... effect [2]. The mean time to reach maximum plasma concentration and mean elimination.

  14. Lattice-Boltzmann Simulation of Tablet Disintegration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jiaolong; Sun, Ning; Gersappe, Dilip

    Using the lattice-Boltzmann method, we developed a 2D model to study the tablet disintegration involving the swelling and wicking mechanisms. The surface area and disintegration profile of each component were obtained by tracking the tablet structure in the simulation. Compared to pure wicking, the total surface area is larger for swelling and wicking, which indicates that the swelling force breaks the neighboring bonds. The disintegration profiles show that the tablet disintegrates faster than pure wicking, and there are more wetted active pharmaceutical ingredient particles distributed on smaller clusters. Our results indicate how the porosity would affect the disintegration process by changing the wetting area of the tablet as well as by changing the swelling force propagation.

  15. Comparative study of adverse effects of Olanzapine and Risperidone on blood suger, lipid and other side effects in psychotic disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mitra safa

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Safa M1, Mohammadi MR2, Saki M3, Delfan B4, Tarrahi MJ5, Rouhandeh M6 1. Assistant Professor, Department of psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorramabad, Iran 2. GP, Khorramabad, Iran 3. Instructor, Department of Nursing, Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorramabad, Iran 4. Associate Professor, Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorramabad, Iran 5. Instructor, Department of Epidemiology, Faculty of Health, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorramabad, Iran 6. BSc in Nursing, Khorramabad, Iran Abstract Background: Chronic mental disorders are among the problems in psychiatrics. Atypical anti psychotic drugs are new effective medications to treat these disorders. Unfortunately these drugs lead to side effects such as increase in blood glocuse, weight gain and edema. This study aims to investigate adverse effects of Olanzapine and Rispridone on lipid level and blood glocuse and other complications in patients with psychotic disorders. Materials and methods: This clinical trial-double blinded study, patients with psychotic disorders were randomly categorized into two groups. Group one treated with Olanzapine and other with Rispridone. All the subjects were initially assessed for blood sugar and lipids, and in the case of normal, they were randomly assigned to two groups in a double- blinded method to be treated with Olanzapine or Risperidone. Blood sugar and lipids tests were performed for all subjects at the 1st week and 3 months after initiation of therapy. Other complications were assessed too, then the data were analyzed using SPSS software. Results: The results of the study indicated that the levels of cholesterol, triglycerides and blood suger rose significantly at the 1st week and third month after beginning the treatment. Increase of cholesterol and triglyceride in the Olanzapine and Risperidone

  16. Distribution of crushing strength of tablets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonnergaard, Jørn

    2002-01-01

    The distribution of a given set of data is important since most parametric statistical tests are based on the assumption that the studied data are normal distributed. In analysis of fracture mechanics the Weibull distribution is widely used and the derived Weibull modulus is interpreted as a mate...... data from nine model tablet formulations and four commercial tablets are shown to follow the normal distribution. The importance of proper cleaning of the crushing strength apparatus is demonstrated....

  17. Penggunaan Tablet di Binus Online Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Agus Putranto; Wawan Saputra

    2014-01-01

    Utilization of e-learning can improve learning effectiveness and flexibility. Features of e-learning that are important in teaching and learning activities are tasks features, discussion forums and discussion face to face in a video conference. BINUS Online Learning is a program that offers students to conduct online lectures. Online BINUS need to think about software and hardware that must be provided in a tablet. Therefore, this study will analyze the use of the tablet which will be used fo...

  18. Electronic acquisition of OSCE performance using tablets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hochlehnert, Achim

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Objective Structured Clinical Examinations (OSCEs often involve a considerable amount of resources in terms of materials and organization since the scores are often recorded on paper. Computer-assisted administration is an alternative with which the need for material resources can be reduced. In particular, the use of tablets seems sensible because these are easy to transport and flexible to use.Aim: User acceptance concerning the use of tablets during OSCEs has not yet been extensively investigated. The aim of this study was to evaluate tablet-based OSCEs from the perspective of the user (examiner and the student examinee.Method: For two OSCEs in Internal Medicine at the University of Heidelberg, user acceptance was analyzed regarding tablet-based administration (satisfaction with functionality and the subjective amount of effort as perceived by the examiners. Standardized questionnaires and semi-standardized interviews were conducted (complete survey of all participating examiners. In addition, for one OSCE, the subjective evaluation of this mode of assessment was gathered from a random sample of participating students in semi-standardized interviews.Results: Overall, the examiners were very satisfied with using tablets during the assessment. The subjective amount of effort to use the tablet was found on average to be “hardly difficult”. The examiners identified the advantages of this mode of administration as being in particular the ease of use and low rate of error. During the interviews of the examinees, acceptance for the use of tablets during the assessment was also detected.Discussion: Overall, it was found that the use of tablets during OSCEs was well accepted by both examiners and examinees. We expect that this mode of assessment also offers advantages regarding assessment documentation, use of resources, and rate of error in comparison with paper-based assessments; all of these aspects should be followed up on in

  19. Tablets Helping Elderly and Disabled People

    OpenAIRE

    Castro, Mercedes de; Ruiz-Mezcua, Belén; Sánchez-Pena, José Manuel; García-Crespo, Ángel; Iglesias, Ana; Pajares, José Luis

    2012-01-01

    Proceedings of: Ambient Assisted Living Joint Programme Forum 2011 (AAL JP Forum 2011), Lecce (Italy), September 26-28, 2011 The article introduces the basics by which tablets are considered as appropriate tools for integration and promotion of the elderly in the digital world. To prove this, the paper presents three research projects carried out by CESyA that integrate Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR), Voice Synthesis, subtitling, audiodescription or audio navigation tools into tablets ...

  20. Hypomania after augmenting venlafaxine and olanzapine with sarcosine in a patient with schizophrenia: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strzelecki D

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Dominik Strzelecki, Justyna Szyburska, Magdalena Kotlicka-Antczak, Olga KałużyńskaDepartment of Affective and Psychotic Disorders, Medical University of Lódz, Central Clinical Hospital, Lódz, PolandAbstract: Glutamate is the main excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system. Dysfunction of the glutamatergic system plays an important and well-established role in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. Agents with glutamatergic properties such as N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor coagonists (ie, glycine, D-cycloserine and glycine transporter type 1 inhibitors (eg, sarcosine, bitopertin are investigated in schizophrenia with special focus on negative and cognitive symptomatology. In this article, we describe a case of a 34-year-old woman with diagnosis of schizophrenia with persistent moderate negative and cognitive symptoms, a participant of the Polish Sarcosine Study (PULSAR treated with olanzapine (25 mg per day and venlafaxine (75 mg per day. During ten weeks of sarcosine administration (2 g per day the patient’s activity and mood improved, but in the following 2 weeks, the patient reported decreased need for sleep, elevated mood, libido and general activity. We diagnosed drug-induced hypomania and recommended decreasing the daily dose of venlafaxine to 37.5 mg per day, which resulted in normalization of mood and activity in about 1 week. After this change, activity and mood remained stable and better than before adding sarcosine, and subsequent depressive symptoms were not noted. We describe here the second case report where sarcosine induced important affect changes when added to antidepressive and antipsychotic treatment, which supports the hypothesis of clinically important glutamate–serotonin interaction.Keywords: MNDA receptor, glutamatergic system, serotoninergic system

  1. Metformin attenuates olanzapine-induced hepatic, but not peripheral insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remington, Gary J; Teo, Celine; Wilson, Virginia; Chintoh, Araba; Guenette, Melanie; Ahsan, Zohra; Giacca, Adria; Hahn, Margaret K

    2015-11-01

    Antipsychotics (APs) are linked to diabetes, even without weight gain. Whether anti-diabetic drugs are efficacious in reversing the direct effects of APs on glucose pathways is largely undetermined. We tested two metformin (Met) doses to prevent impairments seen following a dose of olanzapine (Ola) (3 mg/kg); glucokinetics were measured using the hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp (HIEC). Met (150 mg/kg; n=13, or 400 mg/kg; n=11) or vehicle (Veh) (n=11) was administered through gavage preceding an overnight fast, followed by a second dose prior to the HIEC. Eleven additional animals were gavaged with Veh and received a Veh injection during the HIEC (Veh/Veh); all others received Ola. Basal glucose was similar across treatment groups. The Met 400 group had significantly greater glucose appearance (Ra) in the basal period (i.e., before Ola, or hyperinsulinemia) vs other groups. During hyperinsulinemia, glucose infusion rate (GINF) to maintain euglycemia (reflective of whole-body insulin sensitivity) was higher in Veh/Veh vs other groups. Met 150/Ola animals demonstrated increased GINF relative to Veh/Ola during early time points of the HIEC. Glucose utilization during hyperinsulinemia, relative to basal conditions, was significantly higher in Veh/Veh vs other groups. The change in hepatic glucose production (HGP) from basal to hyperinsulinemia demonstrated significantly greater decreases in Veh/Veh and Met 150/Ola groups vs Veh/Ola. Given the increase in basal Ra with Met 400, we measured serum lactate (substrate for HGP), finding increased levels in Met 400 vs Veh and Met 150. In conclusion, Met attenuates hepatic insulin resistance observed with acute Ola administration, but fails to improve peripheral insulin resistance. Use of supra-therapeutic doses of Met may mask metabolic benefits by increasing lactate. © 2015 Society for Endocrinology.

  2. Contextual and behavioral control of antipsychotic sensitization induced by haloperidol and olanzapine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chen; Li, Ming

    2012-02-01

    Repeated administration of haloperidol (HAL) and olanzapine (OLZ) causes a progressively enhanced disruption of the conditioned avoidance response (CAR) and a progressively enhanced inhibition of phencyclidine (PCP)-induced hyperlocomotion in rats (termed antipsychotic sensitization). Both actions are thought to reflect intrinsic antipsychotic activity. The present study examined the extent to which antipsychotic-induced sensitization in one model (e.g. CAR) can be transferred or maintained in another (e.g. PCP hyperlocomotion) as a means of investigating the contextual and behavioral controls of antipsychotic sensitization. Well-trained male Sprague-Dawley rats were first repeatedly tested in the CAR or the PCP (3.2 mg/kg, subcutaneously) hyperlocomotion model under HAL or OLZ for 5 consecutive days. Then they were switched to the other model and tested for the expression of sensitization. Finally, all rats were switched back to the original model and retested for the expression of sensitization. Repeated HAL or OLZ treatment progressively disrupted avoidance responding and decreased PCP-induced hyperlocomotion, indicating a robust sensitization. When tested in a different model, rats previously treated with HAL or OLZ did not show a stronger inhibition of CAR-induced or PCP-induced hyperlocomotion than those treated with these drugs for the first time; however, they did show such an effect when tested in the original model in which they received repeated antipsychotic treatment. These findings suggest that the expression of antipsychotic sensitization is strongly influenced by the testing environment and/or selected behavioral response under certain experimental conditions. Distinct contextual cues and behavioral responses may develop an association with unconditional drug effects through a Pavlovian conditioning process. They may also serve as occasion setters to modulate the expression of sensitized responses. As antipsychotic sensitization mimics the clinical

  3. Attitudes towards Smart Phones and Tablets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Akbar Ansarin

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the perceptions of advantages of smart phones and tablets on basic and general English students' language learning, self-sufficiency, and interest using smart phones and tablets at an Iranian university college during one university term. Through a survey administered to 333 basic and general English students and through selective observations and interviews, the following questions were examined: 1 Students' perceived impact of smart phones and tablets on increasing their confidence throughout the course,2  Students’ perceived comfort/enjoyment with smart phones and tablets for the students at the beginning and end of the semester,3 Students' perceived impact of devices through a comparison between pre and post survey measures on improvement of reading comprehension, reading speed, vocabulary and spelling, motivation, and preparing them for class tests and quizzes. Tablets were evaluated more positively than smart phones by the students as a means to increase confidence. Both tablets and smart phones were evaluated positively, both as a means of improving students’ motivation to learn, and as a means to develop reading comprehension, spelling, and vocabulary. However, students’ expectations regarding the impact of such devices on their reading speed, preparation for tests and quizzes, as well as comfort and enjoyment were not met.

  4. Evaluation of Tablets Divisibility in Pharmacoeconomic Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omer Yemsen

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Divisibility and dose homogeneity in scored tablets which form a part of the drugs those are in tablet forms in Turkey and have an extensive implementation area in drug therapy have a high importance for patient compliance and safety. In this study, it is aimed to evaluate Turkey%u2019s pharmaceutical market about cost differences of dividing scored tablets which has different unit quantities of the same active substance. Material and Method: In Turkey%u2019s pharmaceutical market, to detect cost differences of dividing scored tablets which has different unit quantities of the same active substance, All Drug%u2019s Price List that has been published on Turkish Medicine and Medical Devices Agency%u2019s web site is evaluated by using cost-minimization analysis method. Results: It is determined that the use of scored tablets make a price advantage of about 70%. Discussion: In conclusion, on package leaflets and outer packaging information those are prepared for the use of patients, the warning %u201CDon%u2019t divide, crack or swallow the tablets unless otherwise recommended by your doctor.%u201D should be stated and it is considered that it would be useful if the patient is informed about divisibility by the pharmacist.

  5. Evaluation of Certain Pharmaceutical Quality Attributes of Lisinopril Split Tablets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khairi M. S. Fahelelbom

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Tablet splitting is an accepted practice for the administration of drugs for a variety of reasons, including dose adjustment, ease of swallowing and cost savings. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the physical properties of lisinopril tablets as a result of splitting the tablets either by hand or with a splitting device. The impact of the splitting technique of lisinopril (Zestril® tablets, 20 mg on certain physical parameters such as weight variation, friability, disintegration, dissolution and drug content were studied. Splitting the tablets either by hand or with a splitter resulted in a minute but statistically significant average weight loss of <0.25% of the tablet to the surrounding environment. The variability in the weight of the hand-split tablet halves was more pronounced (37 out of 40 tablet halves varied by more than 10% from the mean weight than when using the tablet splitter (3 out of 40 tablet halves. The dissolution and drug content of the hand-split tablets were therefore affected because of weight differences. However, the pharmacopoeia requirements for friability and disintegration time were met. Hand splitting of tablets can result in an inaccurate dose and may present clinical safety issues, especially for drugs with a narrow therapeutic window in which large fluctuations in drug concentrations are undesirable. It is recommended to use tablets with the exact desired dose, but if this is not an option, then a tablet splitter could be used.

  6. Study of drug release and tablet characteristics of silicone adhesive matrix tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolia, Gaurav; Li, S Kevin

    2012-11-01

    Matrix tablets of a model drug acetaminophen (APAP) were prepared using a highly compressible low glass transition temperature (T(g)) polymer silicone pressure sensitive adhesive (PSA) at various binary mixtures of silicone PSA/APAP ratios. Matrix tablets of a rigid high T(g) matrix forming polymer ethyl cellulose (EC) were the reference for comparison. Drug release study was carried out using USP Apparatus 1 (basket), and the relationship between the release kinetic parameters of APAP and polymer/APAP ratio was determined to estimate the excipient percolation threshold. The critical points attributed to both silicone PSA and EC tablet percolation thresholds were found to be between 2.5% and 5% w/w. For silicone PSA tablets, satisfactory mechanical properties were obtained above the polymer percolation threshold; no cracking or chipping of the tablet was observed above this threshold. Rigid EC APAP tablets showed low tensile strength and high friability. These results suggest that silicone PSA could eliminate issues related to drug compressibility in the formulation of directly compressed oral controlled release tablets of poorly compressible drug powder such as APAP. No routinely used excipients such as binders, granulating agents, glidants, or lubricants were required for making an acceptable tablet matrix of APAP using silicone PSA. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Astronomy Learning Activities for Tablets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilachowski, Catherine A.; Morris, Frank

    2015-08-01

    Four web-based tools allow students to manipulate astronomical data to learn concepts in astronomy. The tools are HTML5, CSS3, Javascript-based applications that provide access to the content on iPad and Android tablets. The first tool “Three Color” allows students to combine monochrome astronomical images taken through different color filters or in different wavelength regions into a single color image. The second tool “Star Clusters” allows students to compare images of stars in clusters with a pre-defined template of colors and sizes in order to produce color-magnitude diagrams to determine cluster ages. The third tool adapts Travis Rector’s “NovaSearch” to allow students to examine images of the central regions of the Andromeda Galaxy to find novae. After students find a nova, they are able to measure the time over which the nova fades away. A fourth tool, Proper Pair, allows students to interact with Hipparcos data to evaluate close double stars are physical binaries or chance superpositions. Further information and access to these web-based tools are available at www.astro.indiana.edu/ala/.

  8. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF ORAL OLANZAPINE AND ORAL HALOPERIDOL ON GLUCOSE TOLERANCE LEVELS IN PATIENTS WITH SCHIZOPHRENIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G N S Sangeetha Lakshmi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Schizophrenia is a mental disorder characterized by persistent defects in the perception, thinking or the expression of reality. The term “schizophrenia” translates roughly as “shattered mind,” and comes from the Greek (schizo, “to split” or “to divide” and (phrēn, “mind”. Material and Methods: The study was designed to be a prospective control study. Schizophrenic patients taking Olanzapine and Haloperidol were selected and follow up at three weeks and six weeks was done. Results: In this prospective control study, Olanzapine and Haloperidol were associated with an increase in Blood Glucose Levels. The mean changes in Glucose remained within clinically normal range in this six week study. Conclusion: Antipsychotic treatmemt leads to the development of Diabetes mellitus in a significant 10.1% of patients within 6 weeks. Given the serious implications for morbidity and mortality attributable to diabetes mellitus, clinicians need to be aware of these risk factors when treating patients with chronic schizophrenia

  9. Effect of repeated compaction of tablets on tablet properties and work of compaction using an instrumented laboratory tablet press.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamlen, Michael John Desmond; Martini, Luigi G; Al Obaidy, Kais G

    2015-01-01

    The repeated compaction of Avicel PH101, dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCP) powder, 50:50 DCP/Avicel PH101 and Starch 1500 was studied using an instrumented laboratory tablet press which measures upper punch force, punch displacement and ejection force and operates using a V-shaped compression profile. The measurement of work compaction was demonstrated, and the test materials were ranked in order of compaction behaviour Avicel PH101 > DCP/Avicel PH101 > Starch > DCP. The behaviour of the DCP/Avicel PH101 mixture was distinctly non-linear compared with the pure components. Repeated compaction and precompression had no effect on the tensile fracture strength of Avicel PH101 tablets, although small effects on friability and disintegration time were seen. Repeated compaction and precompression reduced the tensile strength and the increased disintegration time of the DCP tablets, but improved the strength and friability of Starch 1500 tablets. Based on the data reported, routine laboratory measurement of tablet work of compaction may have potential as a critical quality attribute of a powder blend for compression. The instrumented press was suitable for student use with minimal supervisor input.

  10. Angular circulation speed of tablets in a vibratory tablet coating pan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rahul; Wassgren, Carl

    2013-03-01

    In this work, a single tablet model and a discrete element method (DEM) computer simulation are developed to obtain the angular circulation speed of tablets in a vibratory tablet coating pan for range of vibration frequencies and amplitudes. The models identify three important dimensionless parameters that influence the speed of the tablets: the dimensionless amplitude ratio (a/R), the Froude number (aω2/g), and the tablet-wall friction coefficient, where a is the peak vibration amplitude at the drum center, ω is the vibration angular frequency, R is the drum radius, and g is the acceleration due to gravity. The models predict that the angular circulation speed of tablets increases with an increase in each of these parameters. The rate of increase in the angular circulation speed is observed to decrease for larger values of a/R. The angular circulation speed reaches an asymptote beyond a tablet-wall friction coefficient value of about 0.4. Furthermore, it is found that the Froude number should be greater than one for the tablets to start circulating. The angular circulation speed increases as Froude number increases but then does not change significantly at larger values of the Froude number. Period doubling, where the motion of the bed is repeated every two cycles, occurs at a Froude number larger than five. The single tablet model, although much simpler than the DEM model, is able to predict the maximum circulation speed (the limiting case for a large value of tablet-wall friction coefficient) as well as the transition to period doubling.

  11. Effect of olanzapine combined with modified electroconvulsive therapy on cytokines, sTNFRs and neural electrophysiological characteristics in patients with schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Cheng

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze the effect of olanzapine combined with modified electroconvulsive therapy on cytokines, sTNFRs and neural electrophysiological characteristics in patients with schizophrenia. Methods: Patients with schizophrenia treated in our hospital between March 2013 and March 2016 were selected and randomly divided into two groups, the observation group received olanzapine combined with modified electroconvulsive therapy, and the control group received olanzapine therapy. After 6 weeks of treatment, serum levels of soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor (sTNFR, acute phase reaction proteins and brain function indexes as well as the neural electrophysiological characteristics were compared between the two groups. Results: After 6 weeks of treatment, serum sTNFRs, CRP, CER and AAG content of observation group were lower than those of control group while TRF content was higher than that of control group; serum brain function indexes NGF and BDNF content were higher than those of control group while GFAP, S100B, NSE and Hcy content were lower than those of control group; nerve electrophysiology indexes P300, LPP and ERN amplitude were higher than those of control group while LPP amplitude was lower than that of control group. Conclusions: Olanzapine combined with modified electroconvulsive therapy can optimize the condition of schizophrenia, reduce the abnormal degree of nerve electrophysiology and help to improve treatment outcome.

  12. Evaluation of antidepressant like property of amisulpride per se and its comparison with fluoxetine and olanzapine using forced swimming test in albino mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawar, Ganesh R; Agrawal, Rajendra P; Phadnis, Pradeep; Paliwal, Abhay; Vyas, Savita; Solanki, Pooja

    2009-01-01

    Amisulpride, an atypical antipsychotic was evaluated for antidepressant like activity in forced swimming test in Swiss albino mice. The effect of amisulpride was compared with that of fluoxetine, the standard antidepressant and olanzapine, another atypical antipsychotic claimed to have antidepressant like activity. Both acute and chronic studies were carried out. In both the studies, animals were divided into four groups (n = 8 each) and subjected to oral drug interventions as follows -- Group 1- control (distilled water, 1 mL/kg); Group 2- fluoxetine in a dose of 10 mg/kg 23.5, 5 and 1 h before the test; Group 3-amisulpride in a dose of 70 mg/kg 23.5, 5 and 1 h before the test; Group 4- olanzapine in a dose of 2 mg/kg 23.5, 5 and 1 h before the study. In the chronic study, the treatment was given daily for 28 days with last dose being given 2 h prior to the test. A time sampling method was used to score the behavioral activity in each group. Results of both the studies indicated that animals given amisulpride displayed significant improvement in swimming behavior (p Fluoxetine also showed significant difference in activity as compared to amisulpride and olanzapine (p swimming phases in albino mice (p > 0.05). We conclude that amisulpride per se has an antidepressant like activity comparable to that of olanzapine though the activity was significantly less than that of fluoxetine.

  13. The influence of chronic exposure to antipsychotic medications on brain size before and after tissue fixation: a comparison of haloperidol and olanzapine in macaque monkeys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dorph-Petersen, Karl-Anton; Pierri, Joseph N; Perel, James M

    2005-01-01

    exposed to oral haloperidol, olanzapine or sham for a 17-27 month period. The resulting plasma drug levels were comparable to those seen in subjects with schizophrenia treated with these medications. After the exposure, we observed an 8-11% reduction in mean fresh brain weights as well as left cerebrum...

  14. Effect of Liraglutide Treatment on Prediabetes and Overweight or Obesity in Clozapine- or Olanzapine-Treated Patients With Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Julie R; Vedtofte, Louise; Jakobsen, Mathilde S L

    2017-01-01

    in Denmark. Of 214 eligible participants with a schizophrenia spectrum disorder, 103 were randomized to liraglutide or placebo. Participants received stable treatment with clozapine or olanzapine, were overweight or obese, and had prediabetes. Data were collected from May 1, 2013, through February 25, 2016...

  15. Effects of switching from olanzapine to aripiprazole on the metabolic profiles of patients with schizophrenia and metabolic syndrome: a double-blind, randomized, open-label study [Corrigendum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wani RA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Wani RA, Dar MA, Chandel RK, et al Title of paper should have been “Effects of switching from olanzapine to aripiprazole on the metabolic profiles of patients with schizophrenia and metabolic syndrome: a randomized, open-label study”.  Read the original paper 

  16. Obsessive-compulsive symptoms during treatment with olanzapine and risperidone: A prospective study of 113 patients with recent-onset schizophrenia or related disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haan, Lieuwe; Beuk, Nico; Hoogenboom, Britt; Dingemans, Peter; Linszen, Don

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether severity of obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCS) differs during treatment with olanzapine or risperidone and to establish whether duration of antipsychotic treatment is related to severity of OCS. Method: We conducted a prospective study of consecutively hospitalized

  17. Ziprasidone vs olanzapine in recent-onset schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder: results of an 8-week double-blind randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grootens, K.P.; Veelen, N.M. van; Peuskens, J.; Sabbe, B.G.C.; Thys, E.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Verkes, R.J.; Kahn, R.S.

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Head-to-head comparisons of antipsychotics have predominantly included patients with chronic conditions. The aim of the present study was to compare the efficacy and tolerability of ziprasidone and olanzapine in patients with recent-onset schizophrenia. METHODS: The study was an

  18. Ziprasidone Vs Olanzapine in Recent-Onset Schizophrenia and Schizoaffective Disorder : Results of an 8-Week Double-Blind Randomized Controlled Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grootens, K. P.; van Veelen, N. M. J.; Peuskens, J.; Sabbe, B. G. C.; Thys, E.; Buitelaar, J. K.; Verkes, R. J.; Kahn, R. S.

    Introduction: Head-to-head comparisons of antipsychotics have predominantly included patients with chronic conditions. The aim of the present study was to compare the efficacy and tolerability of ziprasidone and olanzapine in patients with recent-onset schizophrenia. Methods: The study was an

  19. Evaluation of the efficacy and safety of olanzapine as an adjunctive treatment for anorexia nervosa in adolescent females: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moher David

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anorexia Nervosa (AN is a serious, debilitating condition that causes significant physical, emotional, and functional impairment. The condition is characterized by destructive weight loss behaviours and a refusal to maintain body weight at or above a minimally normal weight for age and height. AN often develops in adolescence and is a predominantly female disorder. Treatment for AN typically involves medical, nutritional and psychological interventions. Pharmacotherapy is also often used; however, the literature on the effectiveness of these drugs in a pediatric population is very limited. Olanzapine, which is an 'atypical' antipsychotic, is becoming more widespread in the treatment of AN. Olanzapine is hypothesized to facilitate weight gain, while decreasing levels of agitation and decreasing resistance to treatment in young women with AN. This randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled trial seeks to examine the effectiveness and safety of olanzapine in female youth with AN. Methods/Design Adolescent females between the ages of 12 and 17 diagnosed with AN (either restricting or binge/purge type or Eating Disorder Not Otherwise Specified with a Body Mass Index of less than or equal to 17.5, will be offered inclusion in the study. Patients will be randomly assigned to receive either olanzapine or placebo. Patients assigned to receive olanzapine will start at a low dose of 1.25 mg/day for three days, followed by 2.5 mg/day for four days, 5 mg/day for one week, then 7.5 mg/day (the target dose chosen for 10 weeks. After 10 weeks at 7.5 mg the medication will be tapered and discontinued over a period of two weeks. The effectiveness of olanzapine versus placebo will be determined by investigating the change from baseline on measures of eating attitudes and behaviors, depression and anxiety, and change in Body Mass Index at week 12, and after a follow-up period at week 40. It is anticipated that 67 participants will be recruited

  20. Characterization of the Roman curse tablet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wen; Zhang, Boyang; Fu, Lin

    2017-08-01

    The Roman curse tablet, produced in ancient Rome period, is a metal plate that inscribed with curses. In this research, several techniques were used to find out the physical structure and chemical composition of the Roman curse tablet, and testified the hypothesis that whether the tablet is made of pure lead or lead alloy. A sample of Roman Curse Tablet from the Johns Hopkins Archaeological Museum was analyzed using several different characterization techniques to determine the physical structure and chemical composition. The characterization techniques used were including optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Because of the small sample size, X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) cannot test the sample. Results from optical microscopy and SEM, enlarged images of the sample surface were studied. The result revealed that the sample surface has a rough, non-uniform, and grainy surface. AFM provides three-dimensional topography of the sample surface, studying the sample surface in atomic level. DSC studies the thermal property, which is most likely a lead-alloy, not a pure lead. However, none of these tests indicated anything about the chemical composition. Future work will be required due to the lack of measures finding out its chemical composition. Therefore, from these characterization techniques above, the Roman curse tablet sample is consisted of lead alloy, not pure lead.

  1. Iodine tablets and a nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paile, W.

    1992-01-01

    Radioactive iodine is one of the major substances released during severe nuclear accidents. Radioactive iodine is easily gasified, and if present in fallout it can enter the lungs, and thereby the circulatory system, with the inhalation of air. Once in a body, radioactive iodine accumulates in the thyroid and may result in tumours in the thyroid and, in extreme cases, impaired thyroid function. Accumulation of radioactive iodine can be prevented by taking non-radioactive, 'cold' iodine as tablets. Iodine tablets dilute the radioactive iodine that has entered the body. A dose of iodine also paralyses the thyroid temporarily by saturating its iodine-carrying capacity. To be useful iodine tablets should be taken immediately when a radioactive emission has occurred. If the tablets are taken too early or too late, they give little protection. Iodine tablets should not be taken just to be on the safe side, since their use may involve harmful side effects. Dosing instructions should also be followed with care. (orig.)

  2. Intramuscular olanzapine versus intramuscular haloperidol plus lorazepam for the treatment of acute schizophrenia with agitation: An open-label, randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Charles Lung-Cheng; Hwang, Tzung-Jeng; Chen, Yi-Hsing; Huang, Guan-Hua; Hsieh, Ming H; Chen, Hsiu-Hsi; Hwu, Hai-Gwo

    2015-05-01

    To compare the efficacy and safety profile between intramuscular (IM) olanzapine and IM haloperidol plus IM lorazepam in acute schizophrenic patients with moderate to severe agitation. This was a prospective, randomized, open-label study. Acutely agitated patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder (n = 67) were randomized to receive 10 mg IM olanzapine (n = 37) or 5 mg IM haloperidol plus 2 mg IM lorazepam (n = 30). Agitation was measured with Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale Excited Component (PANSS-EC) and Agitation-Calmness Evaluation Scale (ACES) during the first 2 hours and at 24 hours after the first injection. Safety was assessed using the Simpson-Angus Scale and Barnes Akathisia Rating Scale and by recording adverse events at 24 hours following the first injection. The Clinical Global Impression-Severity scale was also rated. The PANSS-EC scores decreased significantly at 2 hours after the first injection in both groups (olanzapine: -10.2, p haloperidol + lorazepam: -9.9, p Haloperidol plus lorazepam was not inferior to olanzapine in reducing agitation at 2 hours. There were no significant differences in PANSS-EC or ACES scores between the two groups within 2 hours following the first injection. The frequencies of adverse events and changes in Clinical Global Impression-Severity, Simpson-Angus Scale, and Barnes Akathisia Rating Scale scores from baseline to 24 hours showed no significant differences between the groups. The findings suggest that IM haloperidol (5 mg) plus lorazepam (2 mg) is not inferior to IM olanzapine (10 mg) in the treatment of acute schizophrenic patients with moderate to severe agitation (ClinialTrials.gov identifier number NCT00797277). Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Converging evidence for the association of functional genetic variation in the serotonin receptor 2a gene with prefrontal function and olanzapine treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasi, Giuseppe; De Virgilio, Caterina; Papazacharias, Apostolos; Taurisano, Paolo; Gelao, Barbara; Fazio, Leonardo; Ursini, Gianluca; Sinibaldi, Lorenzo; Andriola, Ileana; Masellis, Rita; Romano, Raffaella; Rampino, Antonio; Di Giorgio, Annabella; Lo Bianco, Luciana; Caforio, Grazia; Piva, Francesco; Popolizio, Teresa; Bellantuono, Cesario; Todarello, Orlando; Kleinman, Joel E; Gadaleta, Gemma; Weinberger, Daniel R; Bertolino, Alessandro

    2013-09-01

    Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine) receptor 2a (5-HT2AR) signaling is important for modulation of corticostriatal pathways and prefrontal activity during cognition. Furthermore, newer antipsychotic drugs target 5-HT2AR. A single-nucleotide polymorphism in the 5-HT2AR gene (HTR2A rs6314, C>T; OMIM 182135) has been weakly associated with differential 5-HT2AR signaling and with physiologic as well as behavioral effects. To use a hierarchical approach to determine the functional effects of this single-nucleotide polymorphism on 5-HT2AR messenger RNA and protein expression, on prefrontal phenotypes linked with genetic risk for schizophrenia, and on treatment with olanzapine. In silico predictions, in vitro, and case-control investigations. Academic and clinical facilities. The postmortem study included 112 brains from healthy individuals; the in vivo investigation included a total sample of 371 healthy individuals and patients with schizophrenia. EXPOSURES Patients received olanzapine monotherapy for 8 weeks. In silico predictions, messenger RNA, and protein expression in postmortem human prefrontal cortex and HeLa cells, functional magnetic resonance imaging prefrontal activity and behavior during working memory and attention in healthy individuals, and response to an 8-week trial of olanzapine treatment in patients with schizophrenia. Bioinformatic analysis predicted that rs6314 alters patterns of splicing, with possible effects on HTR2A expression. Moreover, the T allele was associated with reduced prefrontal messenger RNA expression in postmortem prefrontal cortex, with reduced protein expression in vitro, inefficient prefrontal blood oxygen level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging response during working memory and attentional control processing, and impaired working memory and attention behavior, as well as with attenuated improvement in negative symptoms after olanzapine treatment. Our results suggest that HTR2A rs6314 affects 5-HT2AR expression and

  4. Tablet computers for recording tuberculosis data at a community ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tablet computers for recording tuberculosis data at a community health centre in King Sabata Dalindyebo Local Municipality, ... South African Family Practice ... They expressed a desire to extend the use of tablets to other areas of their work.

  5. Formulation of Fast-Dissolving Tablets of Promethazine Theoclate

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    tablet containing β-cyclodextrin, crospovidone, and camphor, using direct compression method. A 33 full factorial design ... fast dissolving tablets (FDT) is the use of ... All the raw materials were passed ..... delivery systems: critical review in.

  6. The Women at work in the Linear B Tablets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nosch, Marie-Louise Bech

    2003-01-01

    The article investigates the role of women in Mycenaean society according to the Linear B tablets......The article investigates the role of women in Mycenaean society according to the Linear B tablets...

  7. Evaluation of disintegration and dissolution of chloroquine tablets in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of disintegration and dissolution of chloroquine tablets in some States in Northern Nigeria. ... This study seeks to assess the quality of chloroquine tablets in some States in Northern Nigeria by determining ... HOW TO USE AJOL.

  8. Cyclodextrins as excipients in tablet formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conceição, Jaime; Adeoye, Oluwatomide; Cabral-Marques, Helena Maria; Lobo, José Manuel Sousa

    2018-04-22

    This paper aims to provide a critical review of cyclodextrins as excipients in tablet formulations, highlighting: (i) the principal pharmaceutical applications of cyclodextrins; (ii) the most relevant technological aspects in pharmaceutical formulation development; and (iii) the actual regulatory status of cyclodextrins. Moreover, several illustrative examples are presented. Cyclodextrins can be used as complexing excipients in tablet formulations for low-dose drugs. By contrast, for medium-dose drugs and/or when the complexation efficiency is low, the methods to enhance the complexation efficiency play a key part in reducing the cyclodextrin quantity. In addition, these compounds are used as fillers, disintegrants, binders and multifunctional direct compression excipients of the tablets. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Resveratrol cocrystals with enhanced solubility and tabletability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhengzheng; Li, Wanying; Sun, Wei-Jhe; Lu, Tongbu; Tong, Henry H Y; Sun, Changquan Calvin; Zheng, Ying

    2016-07-25

    Two new 1:1 cocrystals of resveratrol (RES) with 4-aminobenzamide (RES-4ABZ) and isoniazid (RES-ISN) were synthesized by liquid assisted grinding (LAG) and rapid solvent removal (RSR) methods using ethanol as solvent. Their physiochemical properties were characterized using PXRD, DSC, solid state and solution NMR, FT-IR, and HPLC. Pharmaceutically relevant properties, including tabletability, solubility, intrinsic dissolution rate, and hygroscopicity, were evaluated. Temperature-composition phase diagram for RES-ISN cocrystal system was constructed from DSC data. Both cocrystals show higher solubility than resveratrol over a broad range of pH. They are phase stable and non-hygroscopic even under high humidity conditions. Importantly, both cocrystals exhibit improved solubility and tabletability compared with RES, which make them more suitable candidates for tablet formulation development. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Damage-tolerance strategies for nacre tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shengnan; Zhu, Xinqiao; Li, Qiyang; Wang, Rizhi; Wang, Xiaoxiang

    2016-05-01

    Nacre, a natural armor, exhibits prominent penetration resistance against predatory attacks. Unraveling its hierarchical toughening mechanisms and damage-tolerance design strategies may provide significant inspiration for the pursuit of high-performance artificial armors. In this work, relationships between the structure and mechanical performance of nacre were investigated. The results show that other than their brick-and-mortar structure, individual nacre tablets significantly contribute to the damage localization of nacre. Affected by intracrystalline organics, the tablets exhibit a unique fracture behavior. The synergistic action of the nanoscale deformation mechanisms increases the energy dissipation efficiency of the tablets and contributes to the preservation of the structural and functional integrity of the shell. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Optimization of fast dissolving etoricoxib tablets prepared by sublimation technique

    OpenAIRE

    Patel D; Patel M

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to develop fast dissolving tablets of etoricoxib. Granules containing etoricoxib, menthol, crospovidone, aspartame and mannitol were prepared by wet granulation technique. Menthol was sublimed from the granules by exposing the granules to vacuum. The porous granules were then compressed in to tablets. Alternatively, tablets were first prepared and later exposed to vacuum. The tablets were evaluated for percentage friability and disintegration time. A 3 2 ...

  12. Impact of race on efficacy and safety during treatment with olanzapine in schizophrenia, schizophreniform or schizoaffective disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoffmann Vicki

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To examine potential differences in efficacy and safety of treatment with olanzapine in patients with schizophrenia of white and black descent. Methods A post-hoc, pooled analysis of 6 randomized, double-blind trials in the treatment of schizophrenia, schizophreniform disorder, or schizoaffective disorder compared white (N = 605 and black (N = 375 patients treated with olanzapine (5 to 20 mg/day for 24 to 28 weeks. Efficacy measurements included the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS total score; and positive, negative, and general psychopathology scores; and the Clinical Global Impression of Severity (CGI-S scores at 6 months. Safety measures included differences in the frequencies of adverse events along with measures of extrapyramidal symptoms, weight, glucose, and lipid changes over time. Results 51% of black patients and 45% of white patients experienced early study discontinuation (P = .133. Of those who discontinued, significantly more white patients experienced psychiatric worsening (P = .002 while significantly more black patients discontinued for reasons other than efficacy or tolerability (P = .014. Discontinuation for intolerability was not different between groups (P = .320. For the estimated change in PANSS total score over 6 months, there was no significant difference in efficacy between white and black patients (P = .928, nor on the estimated PANSS positive (P = .435, negative (P = .756 or general psychopathology (P = .165 scores. Overall, there was no significant difference in the change in CGI-S score between groups from baseline to endpoint (P = .979. Weight change was not significantly different in white and black patients over 6 months (P = .127. However, mean weight change was significantly greater in black versus white patients at Weeks 12 and 20 only (P = .028 and P = .026, respectively. Additionally, a significantly greater percentage of black patients experienced clinically significant

  13. Tablet PC Support of Students' Learning Styles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shreya Kothaneth

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In the context of rapid technology development, it comes as no surprise that technology continues to impact the educational domain, challenging traditional teaching and learning styles. This study focuses on how students with different learning styles use instructional technology, and in particular, the tablet PC, to enhance their learning experience. The VARK model was chosen as our theoretical framework as we analyzed responses of an online survey, both from a quantitative and qualitative standpoint. Results indicate that if used correctly, the tablet PC can be used across different learning styles to enrich the educational experience.

  14. Portable Tablets in Science Museum Learning: Options and Obstacles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gronemann, Sigurd Trolle

    2017-01-01

    Despite the increasing use of portable tablets in learning, their impact has received little attention in research. In five different projects, this media-ethnographic and design-based analysis of the use of portable tablets as a learning resource in science museums investigates how young people's learning with portable tablets matches the…

  15. Ispaghula Husk-Based Extended Release Tablets of Diclofenac ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To formulate extended-release tablets of diclofenac sodium based on ispaghula husk. Methods: Tablets with varying proportions of diclofenac sodium and ispaghula husk were formulated by wet granulation technique at a fixed compression force of 10 kN. The formulated tablets were evaluated for ...

  16. 21 CFR 520.1409 - Methylprednisolone, aspirin tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Methylprednisolone, aspirin tablets. 520.1409... Methylprednisolone, aspirin tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains 0.5 milligram of methylprednisolone and 300 milligrams of aspirin. (b) Sponsor. See No. 000009 in § 510.600(c) of this chapter. (c) NAS/NRC...

  17. 21 CFR 520.1157 - Iodinated casein tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Iodinated casein tablets. 520.1157 Section 520...) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1157 Iodinated casein tablets. (a) Specifications. Each 1-gram tablet contains 25 milligrams of iodinated casein. (b) Sponsor...

  18. The Formulation of Diclofenac Sodium Hydrogel Tablets | Onyechi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The dissolution data fitted to Higuchi and Hixson-Crowell equations indicating the existence of diffusion mechanism controlling diclofenac release from the tablets. Keywords: Sustained release, diclofenac sodium hydrogel tablets, Voltarol retard tablets, film coating, dissolution profiles. Nigerian Journal of Pharmaceutical ...

  19. Double-layer Tablets of Lornoxicam: Validation of Quantification ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Double-layer Tablets of Lornoxicam: Validation of Quantification Method, In vitro Dissolution and Kinetic Modelling. ... Satisfactory results were obtained from all the tablet formulations met compendial requirements. The slowest drug release rate was obtained with tablet cores based on PVP K90 (1.21 mg%.h-1).

  20. Quality of Artesunate Tablets Sold in Pharmacies in Kumasi, Ghana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: The study was carried out to evaluate the quality of artesunate tablets sold in retail and wholesale pharmacies in Kumasi, Ghana. In particular, the study sought to ascertain the presence or otherwise of counterfeit artesunate tablets in Kumasi. Method: Artesunate tablets were purchased from pharmacies in Kumasi ...

  1. 21 CFR 520.1696d - Penicillin V potassium tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Penicillin V potassium tablets. 520.1696d Section... Penicillin V potassium tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains penicillin V potassium equivalent to 125 milligrams (200,000 units) or 250 milligrams (400,000 units) of penicillin V. (b) Sponsors. See...

  2. 21 CFR 520.434 - Chlorphenesin carbamate tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Chlorphenesin carbamate tablets. 520.434 Section 520.434 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Chlorphenesin carbamate tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains 400 milligrams of chlorphenesin...

  3. Formulation and Evaluation of Ascorbic acid Tablets by Direct ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PURPOSE: To evaluate the tableting properties of microcrystalline starch (MCS) used as a direct compression excipient in the formulation of ascorbic acid tablets and to compare with the properties of tablets produced using microcrystalline cellulose (MCC). METHODS: MCS was obtained by partial hydrolysis of cassava ( ...

  4. Fast Dissolving Tablets of Aloe Vera Gel | Madan | Tropical Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: The objective of this work was to prepare and evaluate fast dissolving tablets of the nutraceutical, freeze dried Aloe vera gel. Methods: Fast dissolving tablets of the nutraceutical, freeze-dried Aloe vera gel, were prepared by dry granulation method. The tablets were evaluated for crushing strength, disintegration ...

  5. Formulation and Evaluation of Ascorbic acid Tablets by Direct ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Formulation and Evaluation of Ascorbic acid Tablets by Direct Compression using Microcrystalline Starch as a Direct Compression Excipient. ... Abstract. PURPOSE: To evaluate the tableting properties of microcrystalline starch (MCS) used as a direct ... RESULTS: Mechanical properties of tablets formulated with MCS were

  6. 21 CFR 520.1200 - Ivermectin, fenbendazole, and praziquantel tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ivermectin, fenbendazole, and praziquantel tablets... Ivermectin, fenbendazole, and praziquantel tablets. (a) Specifications. Each chewable tablet contains either: (1) 68 micrograms (µg) ivermectin, 1.134 grams fenbendazole, and 57 milligrams (mg) praziquantel; or...

  7. The tabletting properties of Stearolac-S | Onyechi | Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    press was used to determine the unit ejection force of tablets made from the direct compression formulations. The effects of the excipients on tablet hardness, friability, disintegration and dissolution rate were also evaluated. Tablets containing 3 - 4 % w/w STEAROLAC-S gave unit ejection force values comparable to those ...

  8. Optimization of the formulation of fast disintegrating tablets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamp, Herman Vincent van

    1987-01-01

    Chapter 1 presents general information on tableting and is an introduction to the other chapters. Chapter 2 covers the mechanism of action of tablet disintegrants, in particular modern super disintegrants. The results indicate that when the tablets contain a slightly swelling but hydrophilic

  9. Multivariate modelling of the tablet manufacturing process with wet granulation for tablet optimization and in-process control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerhuis, J.A; Coenegracht, P.M J; Lerk, C.F

    1997-01-01

    The process of tablet manufacturing with granulation is described as a two-step process. The first step comprises wet granulation of the powder mixture, and in the second step the granules are compressed into tablets. For the modelling of the pharmaceutical process of wet granulation and tableting,

  10. Prediction of effects of punch shapes on tableting failure by using a multi-functional single-punch tablet press

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Osamura

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available We previously determined “Tableting properties” by using a multi-functional single-punch tablet press (GTP-1. We proposed plotting “Compactability” on the x-axis against “Manufacturability” on the y-axis to allow visual evaluation of “Tableting properties”. Various types of tableting failure occur in commercial drug production and are influenced by the amount of lubricant used and the shape of the punch. We used the GTP-1 to measure “Tableting properties” with different amounts of lubricant and compared the results with those of tableting on a commercial rotary tableting machine. Tablets compressed with a small amount of lubricant showed bad “Manufacturability”, leading to sticking of powder on punches. We also tested various punch shapes. The GTP-1 correctly predicted the actual tableting results for all punch shapes. With punches that were more likely to cause tableting failure, our system predicted the effects of lubricant quantity in the tablet formulation and the occurrence of sticking in the rotary tableting machine.

  11. Compressibility of tableting materials and properties of tablets with glyceryl behenate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mužíková Jitka

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper studies the compressibility of directly compressible tableting materials with dry binders, spray-dried lactose and microcrystalline cellulose, and glyceryl dibehenate at various concentrations. Compressibility was evaluated by means of the energy profile of compression and tensile strength of tablets. Release rate of the active ingredient, salicylic acid, from the tablets was also examined. In the case of microcrystalline cellulose, a higher concentration of glyceryl dibehenate increased the strength of tablets, while this did not occur in the case of spray-dried lactose. Increasing concentration of glyceryl dibehenate prolonged the release of salicylic acid; however, no statistically significant difference was found compared to the type of the dry binder used

  12. Quality by Design in the development of hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography method with gradient elution for the analysis of olanzapine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumpa, Anja; Stajić, Ana; Jančić-Stojanović, Biljana; Medenica, Mirjana

    2017-02-05

    This paper deals with the development of hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) method with gradient elution, in accordance with Analytical Quality by Design (AQbD) methodology, for the first time. The method is developed for olanzapine and its seven related substances. Following step by step AQbD methodology, firstly as critical process parameters (CPPs) temperature, starting content of aqueous phase and duration of linear gradient are recognized, and as critical quality attributes (CQAs) separation criterion S of critical pairs of substances are investigated. Rechtschaffen design is used for the creation of models that describe the dependence between CPPs and CQAs. The design space that is obtained at the end is used for choosing the optimal conditions (set point). The method is fully validated at the end to verify the adequacy of the chosen optimal conditions and applied to real samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. MK-801-induced deficits in social recognition in rats: reversal by aripiprazole, but not olanzapine, risperidone, or cannabidiol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deiana, Serena; Watanabe, Akihito; Yamasaki, Yuki; Amada, Naoki; Kikuchi, Tetsuro; Stott, Colin; Riedel, Gernot

    2015-12-01

    Deficiencies in social activities are hallmarks of numerous brain disorders. With respect to schizophrenia, social withdrawal belongs to the category of negative symptoms and is associated with deficits in the cognitive domain. Here, we used the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist dizocilpine (MK-801) for induction of social withdrawal in rats and assessed the efficacy of several atypical antipsychotics with different pharmacological profiles as putative treatment. In addition, we reasoned that the marijuana constituent cannabidiol (CBD) may provide benefit or could be proposed as an adjunct treatment in combination with antipsychotics. Hooded Lister rats were tested in the three-chamber version for social interaction, with an initial novelty phase, followed after 3 min by a short-term recognition memory phase. No drug treatment affected sociability. However, distinct effects on social recognition were revealed. MK-801 reduced social recognition memory at all doses (>0.03 mg/kg). Predosing with aripiprazole dose-dependently (2 or 10 mg/kg) prevented the memory decline, but doses of 0.1 mg/kg risperidone or 1 mg/kg olanzapine did not. Intriguingly, CBD impaired social recognition memory (12 and 30 mg/kg) but did not rescue the MK-801-induced deficits. When CBD was combined with protective doses of aripiprazole (CBD-aripiprazole at 12 :  or 5 : 2 mg/kg) the benefit of the antipsychotic was lost. At the same time, activity-related changes in behaviour were excluded as underlying reasons for these pharmacological effects. Collectively, the combined activity of aripiprazole on dopamine D2 and serotonin 5HT1A receptors appears to provide a significant advantage over risperidone and olanzapine with respect to the rescue of cognitive deficits reminiscent of schizophrenia. The differential pharmacological properties of CBD, which are seemingly beneficial in human patients, did not back-translate and rescue the MK-801-induced social memory deficit.

  14. Anthropometric parameters as indicators of metabolic derangements in schizophrenia patients stabilized on olanzapine in an Indian rural population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayanta Kumar Rout

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: For any given body mass, Asian Indians have higher central obesity than Europeans. A periodic measurement of body mass index (BMI and waist hip ratio (WHR is practically more feasible than other parameters of metabolic syndrome by repeated blood collection. However, few studies are available on the relative importance of BMI and WHR as markers of dyslipidemia and insulin resistance in schizophrenia patients stabilized on second generation antipsychotics in Indian population. Aim: We conducted the present study on such patients to examine whether BMI or WHR can better predict dyslipidemia and insulin resistance in these patients in a rural area. Settings and Design: The study was a hospital based case control study under rural settings on 38 schizophrenia patients stabilized on olanzapine and 30 matched controls. Materials and Methods: Fasting concentrations of blood glucose, lipid parameters and serum insulin were assessed. Data for Homeostatic model for assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR, BMI, and WHR were obtained to assess the insulin resistance, overall body fat distribution and abdominal fat dispensation respectively. Statistical analysis used: ′t′ test was performed to assay any difference in corresponding mean values between cases and controls. Dependence of HOMA-IR on key parameters was assessed by analysis of co-variance (ANCOVA study. Results: Cases exhibited significantly higher values for HOMA-IR, serum triglyceride and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLc with a significantly lower high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLc level. ANCOVA study reflected that irrespective of age and sex, HOMA-IR was dependent on serum triglyceride level and WHR (F=8.3 and 5.7 respectively, P<0.05, but not on BMI (F<0.001, P=0.997. Conclusions: Central obesity could be more closely associated with the pathogenesis of prediabetic state in our case group. So, WHR is a better anthropometric parameter than BMI for an early

  15. Astronomical Content in Rongorongo Tablet Keiti

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wieczorek, Rafal

    2011-01-01

    Th e fi eld of rongorongo research: the study of Easter Island’s native script is in a peculiar state at the moment. While relative progress has been made in structural and statistical analysis in the last decades, at the level of both single glyphs as well as entire texts, little to no advanceme...... has been achieved in the actual decipherment. To shed new light on rongorongo research, a hypothesis regarding the contents of tablet Keiti, one of the 25 obtained artifacts, is proposed. Th e content, as well as the meaning, of all but one of these 25 rongorongo texts is still unknown....... In this publication, an interpretation for the recto side of tablet Keiti is presented. It is argued that the tablet contains astronomical observations or instructions regarding the Rapa Nui lunar calendar, and is similar in content to the only other rongorongo text whose function has been partially ascertained......: tablet Mamari. If the calendrical contents of this artifact were confi rmed, this would be a major boost to our understanding of Oceania’s only native script....

  16. Research on Mobile Learning Activities Applying Tablets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurilovas, Eugenijus; Juskeviciene, Anita; Bireniene, Virginija

    2015-01-01

    The paper aims to present current research on mobile learning activities in Lithuania while implementing flagship EU-funded CCL project on application of tablet computers in education. In the paper, the quality of modern mobile learning activities based on learning personalisation, problem solving, collaboration, and flipped class methods is…

  17. ( Phaseolus lunatus ) starch as a tablet disintegrant

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ) was evaluated. The starch from the seeds was extracted and its disintegrant ability was compared with that of maize starch BP in paracetamol based tablets at concentrations of 0, 2.5, 5, 7.5 and 10 %w/w. The following properties of the starch ...

  18. Comparative bioequivalence assessment of aspirin tablets marketed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: In the last few years, aspirin has become a life saver against cardiovascular accidents. This investigation was carried out to determine possible bioequivalence between regular aspirin and soluble aspirin tablets marketed in Nigeria. Methods: The in vivo bioavailability profiles of three commercial brands of aspirin ...

  19. Evaluation of tablet disintegrant properties of microcrystalline ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was aimed at exploring the application of microcrystalline cellulose from cassava fermentation waste as a disintegrant in the formulation of paracetamol tablets for immediate release. Alkali delignification of the dried cassava fermentation fibres, followed by bleaching and acid depolymerisation was employed in ...

  20. Optimization of Premix Powders for Tableting Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todo, Hiroaki; Sato, Kazuki; Takayama, Kozo; Sugibayashi, Kenji

    2018-05-08

    Direct compression is a popular choice as it provides the simplest way to prepare the tablet. It can be easily adopted when the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) is unstable in water or to thermal drying. An optimal formulation of preliminary mixed powders (premix powders) is beneficial if prepared in advance for tableting use. The aim of this study was to find the optimal formulation of the premix powders composed of lactose (LAC), cornstarch (CS), and microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) by using statistical techniques. Based on the "Quality by Design" concept, a (3,3)-simplex lattice design consisting of three components, LAC, CS, and MCC was employed to prepare the model premix powders. Response surface method incorporating a thin-plate spline interpolation (RSM-S) was applied for estimation of the optimum premix powders for tableting use. The effect of tablet shape identified by the surface curvature on the optimization was investigated. The optimum premix powder was effective when the premix was applied to a small quantity of API, although the function of premix was limited in the case of the formulation of large amount of API. Statistical techniques are valuable to exploit new functions of well-known materials such as LAC, CS, and MCC.

  1. Playful subversions: young children and tablet use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Froes, Isabel; Pajares Tosca, Susana

    2017-01-01

    Drawing on data from empirical studies of small children (4-8 year olds) using tablets in educational settings, we explore the ways they resist the expected use of the various applications in order to invent their own forms of interaction. We propose the category of playful subversion to conceptu...

  2. Bioadhesive Controlled Release Clotrimazole Vaginal Tablets | Bhat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: This study indicates the possible use of suitable mixtures of natural and semi-synthetic cellulosic polymers for the preparation of clotrimazole mucoadhesive tablets for application as a vaginal controlled delivery system. Keywords: Clotrimazole, Swelling, Cellulosic polymers, Guar gum, Bioadhesion, Release ...

  3. 21 CFR 520.1380 - Methocarbamol tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1380 Methocarbamol tablets...) Conditions of use. (1) The drug is administered to dogs and cats as an adjunct to therapy for acute...

  4. 21 CFR 520.804 - Enalapril tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.804 Enalapril tablets. (a...). Enalapril maleate is administered as conjunctive therapy with furosemide and digoxin in the treatment of...

  5. Spectrophotometric Determination of Trimipramine in Tablet Dosage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To develop and validate simple, rapid and sensitive spectrophotometric procedures for determination of trimipramine in tablet dosage form. Methods: The methods were based on the interaction of trimipramine as n-electron donor with the ο-acceptor, iodine and various π-acceptors, namely: chloranil (CH), ...

  6. Optimized furosemide taste masked orally disintegrating tablets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Abbas Ibrahim

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Optimized orally disintegrating tablets (ODTs containing furosemide (FUR were prepared by direct compression method. Two factors, three levels (32 full factorial design was used to optimize the effect of taste masking agent (Eudragit E100; X1 and superdisintegarant; croscarmellose sodium (CCS; X2 on tablet properties. A composite was prepared by mixing ethanolic solution of FUR and Eudragit E100 with mannitol prior to mixing with other tablet ingredients. The prepared ODTs were characterized for their FUR content, hardness, friability and wetting time. The optimized ODT formulation (F1 was evaluated in term of palatability parameters and the in vivo disintegration. The manufactured ODTs were complying with the pharmacopeia guidelines regarding hardness, friability, weight variation and content. Eudragit E100 had a very slightly enhancing effect on tablets disintegration. However, the effects of both Eudragit E100 (X1 and CCS (X2 on ODTs disintegration time (Y1 were insignificant (p > 0.05. Moreover, X1 exhibited antagonistic effect on the dissolution after 5 and 30 min (D5 and D30, respectively, but only its effect on D30 is significant (p = 0.0004. Furthermore, the optimized ODTs formula showed good to acceptable taste in term of palatability, and in vivo disintegration time of this formula was about 10 s.

  7. BIOWAIVER STUDY OF ORAL TABLETTED ETHYLCELLULOSE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    classification of drugs on the basis of their solubility and permeability. ..... velocity of drug release was slower from tablets with low polymer ... when the drug solubility is high, (b) loading dose in the polymeric matrix is large and (c) lack of.

  8. Frequency of sexual dysfunction and other reproductive side-effects in patients with schizophrenia treated with risperidone, olanzapine, quetiapine, or haloperidol: the results of the EIRE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobes, J; Garc A-Portilla, M P; Rejas, J; Hern Ndez, G; Garcia-Garcia, M; Rico-Villademoros, F; Porras, A

    2003-01-01

    Atypical antipsychotics seem to differ mainly in their tolerability profile. The aim of this cross-sectional study, the Estudio de Investigaci n de Resultados en Esquizofrenia (Outcomes Research Study in Schizophrenia; EIRE study), was to assess in a clinical setting the frequency of several side-effects related to haloperidol, risperidone, olanzapine, and quetiapine. This article addresses sexual dysfunction and other reproductive side-effects (gynecomastia, menorrhage, amenorrhea, and galactorrhea). We recruited outpatients diagnosed with schizophrenia according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association, 1994) criteria and who had received a single antipsychotic (risperidone, olanzapine, quetiapine, or haloperidol) for at least 4 weeks. During a single visit, we collected data, including demographic and clinical characteristics, current antipsychotic and concomitant treatment, and adverse effects listed in a modified version of the UKU Scale. We used a Chi-squared test to determine pairs comparisons of the frequency of adverse reactions between treatments. To estimate risk of a given adverse reaction with a given treatment, we used a logistic regression method. We assessed 636 evaluable patients out of 669 recruited. Frequency of sexual dysfunction was high with haloperidol (38.1%) and also with olanzapine (35.3%), quetiapine (18.2%), and risperidone (43.2%). We found the frequency of other reproductive side-effects to be relatively low with all four drugs: haloperidol (6.9%), olanzapine (6.4%), quetiapine (2.7%), and risperidone (11.7%). Sexual dysfunction appeared to be dose-related with haloperidol, risperidone, and olanzapine. Risperidone and olanzapine showed a higher risk of sexual dysfunction and other reproductive sideeffects than haloperidol. Quetiapine showed a lower risk of sexual dysfunction during short-term treatment ( 12 weeks) are lacking. Our results suggest that none of the atypical

  9. Clinical outcomes with olanzapine long-acting injection: impact of the 3-hour observation period on patient satisfaction and well-being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand E

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Ernie Anand,1 Lovisa Berggren,2 John Landry,3 Ágoston Tóth,4 Holland C Detke5 1Neuroscience Medical Affairs, Eli Lilly & Company Ltd, Windlesham, UK; 2Global Statistical Sciences, Lilly Deutschland GmbH, Bad Homburg, Germany; 3Global Statistical Sciences, Eli Lilly Canada Inc., Toronto, ON, Canada; 4Neuroscience, Lilly Hungary, Budapest, Hungary; 5Psychiatry and Pain Disorders, Lilly Research Laboratories, Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, IN, USA Background: The objective of the present analysis is to determine the impact of the 3-hour observation period for olanzapine long-acting injection (LAI on patient satisfaction and well-being by comparing data collected before and after its implementation. Methods: This is a post hoc analysis of patients treated with olanzapine LAI in 1 a 6-month fixed-dose randomized controlled trial and/or 2 a 6-year open-label safety study. This analysis was limited to patients with schizophrenia who were treated with olanzapine LAI consistent with the approved indication and dosing recommendations of the European Union Summary of Product Characteristics (N=966. Of the 966 patients, the analysis further focused only on those patients who received both 1 at least one injection before the implementation of the 3-hour observation period and 2 at least one injection after implementation of the 3-hour observation period (N=487. Patient satisfaction was assessed with the three-item Patient Satisfaction with Medication Questionnaire-Modified. Responses were averaged across all postbaseline visits occurring before (ie, without the implementation of the 3-hour observation period and across all postbaseline visits occurring after (ie, with the implementation of the 3-hour observation period. In addition, the rate of postinjection delirium/sedation syndrome events was calculated. Results: There was no meaningful change after implementation of the 3-hour observation period in satisfaction (before: mean [SD] =4.0 [1.02] and

  10. Postinjection delirium/sedation syndrome in patients with schizophrenia receiving olanzapine long-acting injection: results from a large observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, Kristin J; Upadhyaya, Himanshu P; Landry, John L; Chhabra-Khanna, Rashna; Falk, Deborah M; Seetharama Rao, Balasubramanya; Jones, Meghan E

    2017-07-01

    Postinjection delirium/sedation syndrome (PDSS) has been reported uncommonly during treatment with olanzapine long-acting injection (LAI), a sustained-release formulation of olanzapine. The primary aim of the study was to estimate the incidence per injection and per patient of PDSS events in adult patients with schizophrenia who were receiving olanzapine LAI in real-world clinical practice. Secondary aims were to further characterise the clinical presentation of PDSS events, to identify potential risk factors associated with PDSS events and to characterise hospitalisations at baseline and post-baseline. A prospective observational study of adult patients with schizophrenia receiving olanzapine LAI from 24 countries. Data were collected on patient characteristics, olanzapine LAI treatment and any adverse events (AEs). All AEs were reviewed and adjudicated for PDSS using predetermined criteria. There were 46 confirmed PDSS events (0.044% of the 103 505 injections) in 45 patients (1.17% of the 3858 patients). Based on 45 confirmed events with time-to-onset information, 91.1% ( n =41) occurred within 1 h of injection. Time-to-recovery from the event was within 72 h for 95.6% of patients (range 6 h to 11 days). Risk factors for PDSS (per-injection) included high dose (odds ratio (OR) high/low =3.95; P =0.006) and male gender (OR female/male =0.42; P =0.017). Results of this study confirm previously reported PDSS rates, time to onset and recovery, and the severity of PDSS events, and suggest that higher doses and male gender are potential risk factors associated with PDSS. All authors are full-time employees and hold stock/stock options in Eli Lilly, which funded this study. This post-authorisation safety study (PASS) was proposed by Eli Lilly when submitting the original marketing authorisation application for olanzapine LAI in 2007. The protocol and final study report for this European Union regulatory commitment are publicly accessible via the European Network of

  11. Dose-associated changes in safety and efficacy parameters observed in a 24-week maintenance trial of olanzapine long-acting injection in patients with schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watson Susan B

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In a recently published 24-week maintenance study of olanzapine long-acting injection (LAI in schizophrenia (Kane et al., 2010, apparent dose-associated changes were noted in both efficacy and safety parameters. To help clinicians balance safety and efficacy when choosing a dose of olanzapine LAI, we further studied these changes. Methods Outpatients with schizophrenia who had maintained stability on open-label oral olanzapine for 4 to 8 weeks were randomly assigned to "low" (150 mg/2 weeks; N = 140, "medium" (405 mg/4 weeks; N = 318, or "high" (300 mg/2 weeks; N = 141 dosages of olanzapine LAI for 24 weeks. Potential relationships between dose and several safety or efficacy measures were examined via regression analysis, the Jonckheere-Terpstra test (continuous data, or the Cochran-Armitage test (categorical data. Results Safety parameters statistically significantly related to dose were mean weight change (low: +0.67 [SD = 4.38], medium: +0.89 [SD = 3.87], high: +1.70 [SD = 4.14] kg, p = .024; effect size [ES] = 0.264 high vs. low dose, mean change in prolactin (low: -5.61 [SD = 12.49], medium: -2.76 [SD = 19.02], high: +3.58 [SD = 33.78] μg/L, p = .001; ES = 0.410 high vs. low dose, fasting triglycerides change from normal at baseline to high (low: 3.2%, medium: 6.0%, high: 18.9%, p = .001; NNT = 7 high vs. low dose and fasting high-density lipoprotein cholesterol change from normal at baseline to low (low: 13.8%, medium: 19.6%, high: 30.7%, p = .019; NNT = 6 high vs. low dose. Efficacy measures significantly related to dose included Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale total score mean change (low: +2.66 [SD = 14.95], medium: -0.09 [SD = 13.47], high: -2.19 [SD = 13.11], p Conclusions Analyses of several safety and efficacy parameters revealed significant associations with dose of olanzapine LAI, with the highest dose generally showing greater efficacy as well as greater adverse changes in metabolic safety measures. When

  12. Smartphones, tablets and mobile applications for radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Székely, András; Talanow, Roland; Bágyi, Péter

    2013-05-01

    Smartphones are phone devices that may also be used for browsing, navigation and running smaller computer programs called applications. One may consider them as compact personal computers which are primarily to be used for making phone calls. Tablets or "tablet PCs" are fully functioning standalone computers the size of a thin LCD monitor that use the screen itself for control and data input. Both of these devices may be categorized based on the mobile operating system that they use. The aim of this study is to illustrate how smartphones and tablets can be used by diagnostic imaging professionals, radiographers and residents, and to introduce relevant applications that are available for their field. A search was performed on iTunes, Android Market, Blackberry App World, and Windows Phone Marketplace for mobile applications pertinent to the field of diagnostic imaging. The following terms were applied for the search strategy: (1) radiology, (2) X-ray, (3) ultrasound, (4) MRI, (5) CT, (6) radiographer, (7) nuclear medicine. Two radiologists and one radiology resident reviewed the results. Our review was limited to english-language software. Additional applications were identified by reviewing the list of similar software provided in the description of each application. We downloaded and installed all applications that appeared relevant to an appropriate mobile phone or tablet device. We identified and reviewed a total of 102 applications. We ruled out 1 non-English application and 20 other applications that were created for entertainment purposes. Thus our final list includes 81 applications in the following five categories: diagnostic reading, decision support applications, medical books, interactive encyclopedias, and journal reading programs. Smartphones and tablets offer new opportunities for diagnostic imaging practitioners; these easy-to-use devices equipped with excellent display may be used for diagnostic reading, reference, learning, consultation, and for

  13. Smartphones, tablets and mobile applications for radiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Székely, András, E-mail: andras.szekely@gmail.com [Kenézy Hospital Department of Radiology, 4043 Debrecen, Bartók Béla út 2-26 (Hungary); Talanow, Roland, E-mail: roland@talanow.info [P.O. Box 1570, Lincoln, CA 95648 (United States); Bágyi, Péter [Kenézy Hospital Department of Radiology, 4043 Debrecen, Bartók Béla út 2-26 (Hungary)

    2013-05-15

    Background: Smartphones are phone devices that may also be used for browsing, navigation and running smaller computer programs called applications. One may consider them as compact personal computers which are primarily to be used for making phone calls. Tablets or “tablet PCs” are fully functioning standalone computers the size of a thin LCD monitor that use the screen itself for control and data input. Both of these devices may be categorized based on the mobile operating system that they use. The aim of this study is to illustrate how smartphones and tablets can be used by diagnostic imaging professionals, radiographers and residents, and to introduce relevant applications that are available for their field. Materials and methods: A search was performed on iTunes, Android Market, Blackberry App World, and Windows Phone Marketplace for mobile applications pertinent to the field of diagnostic imaging. The following terms were applied for the search strategy: (1) radiology, (2) X-ray, (3) ultrasound, (4) MRI, (5) CT, (6) radiographer, (7) nuclear medicine. Two radiologists and one radiology resident reviewed the results. Our review was limited to english-language software. Additional applications were identified by reviewing the list of similar software provided in the description of each application. We downloaded and installed all applications that appeared relevant to an appropriate mobile phone or tablet device. Results: We identified and reviewed a total of 102 applications. We ruled out 1 non-English application and 20 other applications that were created for entertainment purposes. Thus our final list includes 81 applications in the following five categories: diagnostic reading, decision support applications, medical books, interactive encyclopedias, and journal reading programs. Conclusion: Smartphones and tablets offer new opportunities for diagnostic imaging practitioners; these easy-to-use devices equipped with excellent display may be used for

  14. Developing a mapping tool for tablets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Alan; Collins, Nathan; Krus, Mike

    2014-05-01

    Digital field mapping offers significant benefits when compared with traditional paper mapping techniques in that it provides closer integration with downstream geological modelling and analysis. It also provides the mapper with the ability to rapidly integrate new data with existing databases without the potential degradation caused by repeated manual transcription of numeric, graphical and meta-data. In order to achieve these benefits, a number of PC-based digital mapping tools are available which have been developed for specific communities, eg the BGS•SIGMA project, Midland Valley's FieldMove®, and a range of solutions based on ArcGIS® software, which can be combined with either traditional or digital orientation and data collection tools. However, with the now widespread availability of inexpensive tablets and smart phones, a user led demand for a fully integrated tablet mapping tool has arisen. This poster describes the development of a tablet-based mapping environment specifically designed for geologists. The challenge was to deliver a system that would feel sufficiently close to the flexibility of paper-based geological mapping while being implemented on a consumer communication and entertainment device. The first release of a tablet-based geological mapping system from this project is illustrated and will be shown as implemented on an iPad during the poster session. Midland Valley is pioneering tablet-based mapping and, along with its industrial and academic partners, will be using the application in field based projects throughout this year and will be integrating feedback in further developments of this technology.

  15. Smartphones, tablets and mobile applications for radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Székely, András; Talanow, Roland; Bágyi, Péter

    2013-01-01

    Background: Smartphones are phone devices that may also be used for browsing, navigation and running smaller computer programs called applications. One may consider them as compact personal computers which are primarily to be used for making phone calls. Tablets or “tablet PCs” are fully functioning standalone computers the size of a thin LCD monitor that use the screen itself for control and data input. Both of these devices may be categorized based on the mobile operating system that they use. The aim of this study is to illustrate how smartphones and tablets can be used by diagnostic imaging professionals, radiographers and residents, and to introduce relevant applications that are available for their field. Materials and methods: A search was performed on iTunes, Android Market, Blackberry App World, and Windows Phone Marketplace for mobile applications pertinent to the field of diagnostic imaging. The following terms were applied for the search strategy: (1) radiology, (2) X-ray, (3) ultrasound, (4) MRI, (5) CT, (6) radiographer, (7) nuclear medicine. Two radiologists and one radiology resident reviewed the results. Our review was limited to english-language software. Additional applications were identified by reviewing the list of similar software provided in the description of each application. We downloaded and installed all applications that appeared relevant to an appropriate mobile phone or tablet device. Results: We identified and reviewed a total of 102 applications. We ruled out 1 non-English application and 20 other applications that were created for entertainment purposes. Thus our final list includes 81 applications in the following five categories: diagnostic reading, decision support applications, medical books, interactive encyclopedias, and journal reading programs. Conclusion: Smartphones and tablets offer new opportunities for diagnostic imaging practitioners; these easy-to-use devices equipped with excellent display may be used for

  16. Preparation of venlafaxine hydrochloride sustained-release tablets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GUO Lingling

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available To prepare venlafxine hydrochloride sustained-release tablets.Hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose(HPMC and methyl cellulose(MC were used as main materials to prepare sustained-release tablets of velafaxine hydrochloride and the influence of important factors on in vitro release curves of venlafaxine hydrochloride sustained-release tablets was investigated.Results:The optimal prescription included 100 mg HPMC,25 mg MC,and 2.5% glidant in one tablet prepared with 30kN.The tablets were prepared with the method of wet granulation by NO.16 mesh sieve.The tablets exhibited good sustained-release property in phosphate buffered solution (pH=6.8.The as-prepared venlafxine hydrochloride sustained-release tablets have good sustained-release property.

  17. Early response or nonresponse at week 2 and week 3 predict ultimate response or nonresponse in adolescents with schizophrenia treated with olanzapine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stentebjerg-Olesen, Marie; Ganocy, Stephen J; Findling, Robert L

    2015-01-01

    %; remission was defined cross-sectionally using Andreasen et al. (2005) criteria. By week 2 (n = 69) and 3 (n = 66), olanzapine-treated youth achieved 73.3 and 85.5 % of their overall BPRS-C score reduction at 6 weeks last observation carried forward. ER and ENR patients did not differ significantly regarding...... baseline demographic, illness and treatment variables. ER 2 (frequency = 68.1 %) and ER 3 (frequency = 65.2 %) significantly predicted UR and remission (p = 0.0044-p power. A ≥ 20 % BPRS-C reduction threshold for ER had best predictive validity (area under...... and ENR groups. Adolescents with schizophrenia experienced the majority of symptomatic improvement early during olanzapine treatment. ER predicted UR and remission, with ER3 having best predictive power. A ≥ 20 % improvement threshold for defining ER was confirmed as a robust outcome indicator....

  18. Olanzapine plus dialectical behavior therapy for women with high irritability who meet criteria for borderline personality disorder: a double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linehan, Marsha M; McDavid, Joshua D; Brown, Milton Z; Sayrs, Jennifer H R; Gallop, Robert J

    2008-06-01

    This double-blind study examined whether olanzapine augments the efficacy of dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) in reducing anger and hostility in borderline personality disorder patients. Twenty-four women with borderline personality disorder (DSM-IV criteria) and high levels of irritability and anger received 6 months of DBT. Subjects were randomly assigned to receive either low-dose olanzapine or placebo and were assessed with standardized measures in a double-blind manner. The study was conducted from September 2000 to December 2002. Intent-to-treat analyses indicated that both treatment conditions resulted in significant improvement in irritability, aggression, depression, and self-inflicted injury (p borderline personality disorder. Effect sizes were moderate to large, with the small sample size likely limiting the ability to detect significant results. Overall, there were large and consistent reductions in irritability, aggression, depression, and self-injury for both groups of subjects receiving DBT.

  19. Evaluation of health resources expenditure in two groups of psychotic patients treated with olanzapine and typical neuroleptics in a Italian Mental Health Department in Calabria Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Caputo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerous Italian and international trials have studied the global costs of treatment with olanzapine and typical neuroleptics. Our analysis confirms those results. In our study, treatment with olanzapine, as compared to typical neuroleptics, was associated with a greater reduction in emergency interventions (hospitalisations, with an increased use of rehabilitation services and with a small increase in the number of working days. The differences between the two groups for this variable were not great, while the differences in the assessment scores appeared important and statistically significant. The results of present study are relative to the practice of one Italian Mental Health Department and, for this reason, cannot be generalized. Anyway, they are another indication of increased efficiency of atypicals treatment over older neuroleptics in schizophrenia.

  20. Tolerability and efficacy of paliperidone ER compared to olanzapine in the treatment of schizophrenia: A randomized, double-blind, multicentric trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandip Shah

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Paliperidone is an active metabolite of risperidone and actss through a combination of central dopamine Type 2 (D2 and serotonin Type 2 (5HT2A receptor antagonism. Aim: The present randomized, double-blind, multicentric trial was designed to determine the safety and efficacy of paliperidone extended release (ER compared to olanzapine in the treatment of acute schizophrenia. Materials and Methods: A total of 214 patients with diagnosis of schizophrenia were randomized to paliperidone ER (n=109 and olanzapine (n=106 treatment groups. Totally 206 patients were evaluated for efficacy parameters using Positive and negative syndrome scale (PANSS score and Clinical Global Impression-severity of illness (CGI-S and Clinical Global Impression-improvement of illness (CGI-I scales. Safety was assessed by treatment-emergent adverse events and movement disorders. Results: All patients showed significant reduction in PANSS scores at the end of treatment. However, the results were comparable and there was no significant difference at the end of the trial between paliperidone ER group and olanzapine group. Both the treatment groups showed decrease in the severity of illness and improvement in symptomatology. The most common adverse events reported in paliperidone ER versus olanzapine group were Extra Pyramidal Syndrome (EPS (13.7% vs. 15.6%, headache (12.7% vs. 8.9%, increased appetite (8.8% vs. 10.0% and drowsiness (4.9% vs. 303%. There was no clinically relevant difference in change from baseline to the end of the trial in abnormal involuntary movement scale (AIMS and barnes akathisia rating scale (BARS total scores between both the groups. Conclusion: Paliperidone ER is effective in controlling schizophrenic symptoms as well as exhibits comparable tolerability profile. Thus, paliperidone ER has the potential to be a useful new treatment option for patients with schizophrenia.

  1. Metformin plus sibutramine for olanzapine-associated weight gain and metabolic dysfunction in schizophrenia: a 12-week double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptista, Trino; Uzcátegui, Euderruh; Rangel, Nairy; El Fakih, Yamily; Galeazzi, Tatiana; Beaulieu, Serge; de Baptista, Enma Araujo

    2008-05-30

    Metformin (850-1700 mg) plus sibutramine (10-20 mg, n=13) or placebo (n=15) was administered for 12 weeks in olanzapine-treated chronic schizophrenia patients. Weight loss was similar in both groups: -2.8+/-3.2 kg vs. -1.4+/-2.6 kg. Except for preventing a triglyceride increase, the drug combination lacked efficacy for metabolic control in this clinical population.

  2. Oral haloperidol or olanzapine intake produces distinct and region-specific increase in cannabinoid receptor levels that is prevented by high fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delis, Foteini; Rosko, Lauren; Shroff, Aditya; Leonard, Kenneth E; Thanos, Panayotis K

    2017-10-03

    Clinical studies show higher levels of cannabinoid CB1 receptors (CB1R) in the brain of schizophrenic patients while preclinical studies report a significant functional interaction between dopamine D2 receptors and CB1Rs as well as an upregulation of CB1Rs after antipsychotic treatment. These findings prompted us to study the effects of chronic oral intake of a first and a second generation antipsychotic, haloperidol and olanzapine, on the levels and distribution of CB1Rs in the rat brain. Rats consumed either regular chow or high-fat food and drank water, haloperidol drinking solution (1.5mg/kg), or olanzapine drinking solution (10mg/kg) for four weeks. Motor and cognitive functions were tested at the end of treatment week 3 and upon drug discontinuation. Two days after drug discontinuation, rats were euthanized and brains were processed for in vitro receptor autoradiography. In chow-fed animals, haloperidol and olanzapine increased CB1R levels in the basal ganglia and the hippocampus, in a similar, but not identical pattern. In addition, olanzapine had unique effects in CB1R upregulation in higher order cognitive areas, in the secondary somatosensory cortex, in the visual and auditory cortices and the geniculate nuclei, as well as in the hypothalamus. High fat food consumption prevented antipsychotic-induced increase in CB1R levels in all regions examined, with one exception, the globus pallidus, in which they were higher in haloperidol-treated rats. The results point towards the hypothesis that increased CB1R levels could be a confounding effect of antipsychotic medication in schizophrenia that is circumveneted by high fat feeding. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Phencyclidine-induced Loss of Asymmetric Spine Synapses in Rodent Prefrontal Cortex is Reversed by Acute and Chronic Treatment with Olanzapine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsworth, John D; Morrow, Bret A; Hajszan, Tibor; Leranth, Csaba; Roth, Robert H

    2011-01-01

    Enduring cognitive deficits exist in schizophrenic patients, long-term abusers of phencyclidine (PCP), as well as in animal PCP models of schizophrenia. It has been suggested that cognitive performance and memory processes are coupled with remodeling of pyramidal dendritic spine synapses in prefrontal cortex (PFC), and that reduced spine density and number of spine synapses in the medial PFC of PCP-treated rats may potentially underlie, at least partially, the cognitive dysfunction previously observed in this animal model. The present data show that the decrease in number of asymmetric (excitatory) spine synapses in layer II/III of PFC, previously noted at 1-week post PCP treatment also occurs, to a lesser degree, in layer V. The decrease in the number of spine synapses in layer II/III was sustained and persisted for at least 4 weeks, paralleling the observed cognitive deficits. Both acute and chronic treatment with the atypical antipsychotic drug, olanzapine, starting at 1 week after PCP treatment at doses that restore cognitive function, reversed the asymmetric spine synapse loss in PFC of PCP-treated rats. Olanzapine had no significant effect on spine synapse number in saline-treated controls. These studies demonstrate that the effect of PCP on asymmetric spine synapse number in PFC lasts at least 4 weeks in this model. This spine synapse loss in PFC is reversed by acute treatment with olanzapine, and this reversal is maintained by chronic oral treatment, paralleling the time course of the restoration of the dopamine deficit, and normalization of cognitive function produced by olanzapine. PMID:21677652

  4. Melatonin for Reducing Weight Gain Following Administration of Atypical Antipsychotic Olanzapine for Adolescents with Bipolar Disorder: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafavi, Seyed-Ali; Solhi, Mahmoud; Mohammadi, Mohammad-Reza; Akhondzadeh, Shahin

    2017-06-01

    We aimed to evaluate melatonin effectiveness in weight gain reduction following olanzapine use for 11-17-year-old bipolar disorder patients. Seventy-seven adolescent outpatients, subsequent to their initial diagnosis of bipolar I disorder by a psychiatrist, entered this study. After assessing inclusion and exclusion criteria, 48 patients consented to participate. Twenty-four patients were allocated to receive olanzapine, lithium carbonate, and melatonin, and 24 patients were allocated to receive olanzapine, lithium carbonate, and placebo by simple randomization. The Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) was performed at baseline. Before treatment and after 6 and 12 weeks of treatment, weight, height, and body mass index (BMI) were measured. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) with repeated measure and t-test were used to analyze data. Nineteen patients in each group finished the study and their data were entered for analysis. Mean rise in BMI in the melatonin group compared with placebo (2.45 vs. 3.25 respectively) was marginally significant (t = 1.936; df = 36; p = 0.061). ANOVA with repeated measure also showed a marginally significant difference (F = 3.74; df = 1; p = 0.061) between groups and across time in regard to BMI. Mean body weight rise in the melatonin group compared with the placebo group (5.8 kg vs. 8.2 kg respectively) was marginally significant (t = 1.923; df = 28; p = 0.065). ANOVA with repeated measure also showed a marginally significant difference (F = 3.73; df = 1.1; p = 0.056) between groups and across time for body weight. Coadministration of melatonin with olanzapine and lithium carbonate in adolescents with bipolar disorder could reduce the sharp weight gain side effect of these drugs to near significance.

  5. A Phase II study of palonosetron, aprepitant, dexamethasone and olanzapine for the prevention of cisplatin-based chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting in patients with thoracic malignancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakashima, Kazuhisa; Murakami, Haruyasu; Yokoyama, Kouichi; Omori, Shota; Wakuda, Kazushige; Ono, Akira; Kenmotsu, Hirotsugu; Naito, Tateaki; Nishiyama, Fumie; Kikugawa, Mami; Kaneko, Masayo; Iwamoto, Yumiko; Koizumi, Satomi; Mori, Keita; Isobe, Takeshi; Takahashi, Toshiaki

    2017-09-01

    The three-drug combination of a 5-hydroxytryptamine type 3 receptor antagonist, a neurokinin 1 receptor antagonist and dexamethasone is recommended for patients receiving highly emetogenic chemotherapy. However, standard antiemetic therapy is not completely effective in all patients. We conducted an open-label, single-center, single-arm Phase II study to evaluate the efficacy of olanzapine in combination with standard antiemetic therapy in preventing chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting in patients with thoracic malignancy receiving their first cycle of cisplatin-based chemotherapy. Patients received 5 mg oral olanzapine on Days 1-5 in combination with standard antiemetic therapy. The primary endpoint was complete response (no vomiting and no use of rescue therapy) during the overall Phase (0-120 h post-chemotherapy). Twenty-three men and seven women were enrolled between May and October 2015. The median age was 64 years (range: 36-75 years). The most common chemotherapy regimen was 75 mg/m2 cisplatin and 500 mg/m2 pemetrexed, which was administered to 14 patients. Complete response rates in acute (0-24 h post-chemotherapy), delayed (24-120 h post-chemotherapy) and overall phases were 100%, 83% and 83% (90% confidence interval: 70-92%; 95% confidence interval: 66-93%), respectively. There were no Grade 3 or Grade 4 adverse events. Although four patients (13%) experienced Grade 1 somnolence, no patients discontinued olanzapine. The addition of 5 mg oral olanzapine to standard antiemetic therapy demonstrates promising efficacy in preventing cisplatin-based chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting and an acceptable safety profile in patients with thoracic malignancy. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Key Technical Aspects Influencing the Accuracy of Tablet Subdivision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Maíra T; Sá-Barreto, Lívia C L; Gratieri, Taís; Gelfuso, Guilherme M; Silva, Izabel C R; Cunha-Filho, Marcílio S S

    2017-05-01

    Tablet subdivision is a common practice used mainly for dose adjustment. The aim of this study was to investigate how the technical aspects of production as well as the method of tablets subdivision (employing a tablet splitter or a kitchen knife) influence the accuracy of this practice. Five drugs commonly used as subdivided tablets were selected. For each drug, the innovator drug product, a scored-generic and a non-scored generic were investigated totalizing fifteen drug products. Mechanical and physical tests, including image analysis, were performed. Additionally, comparisons were made between tablet subdivision method, score, shape, diluent composition and coating. Image analysis based on surface area was a useful tool as an alternative assay to evaluate the accuracy of tablet subdivision. The tablet splitter demonstrates an advantage relative to a knife as it showed better results in weight loss and friability tests. Oblong, coated and scored tablets had better results after subdivision than round, uncoated and non-scored tablets. The presence of elastic diluents such as starch and dibasic phosphate dehydrate conferred a more appropriate behaviour for the subdivision process than plastic materials such as microcrystalline cellulose and lactose. Finally, differences were observed between generics and their innovator products in all selected drugs with regard the quality control assays in divided tablet, which highlights the necessity of health regulations to consider subdivision performance at least in marketing authorization of generic products.

  7. Adjunctive Use of Olanzapine in the Treatment of Avoidant Restrictive Food Intake Disorder in Children and Adolescents in an Eating Disorders Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewerton, Timothy D; D'Agostino, Meredith

    2017-12-01

    There is little information about the pharmacological treatment of avoidant and restrictive food intake disorder (ARFID), a challenging feeding disorder associated with marked impairment and developmental arrest. This brief clinical report seeks to fill this gap. A retrospective chart review of nine patients with ARFID treated in an eating disorder (ED) program (residential, partial hospital, and intensive outpatient levels of care) with adjunctive olanzapine was undertaken. The mean initial and final olanzapine doses were 0.9 + 0.63 mg/day and 2.8 + 1.47 mg/day, respectively. There was a statistically significant difference in weight gain pre- versus post-olanzapine treatment (3.3 ± 7.3 lbs vs. 13.1 ± 7.9 lbs [2.99 ± 6.62 lb SI vs. 11.88 ± 7.17 lb SI], paired t-test (p ARFID patients. Future randomized, placebo-controlled studies in ARFID are warranted.

  8. Expression changes of serotonin receptor gene subtype 5HT3a in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from schizophrenic patients treated with haloperidol and Olanzapin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shariati, Gholam Reza; Ahangari, Ghasem; Hossein-nezhad, Arash; Asadi, Seyed Mohammad; Pooyafard, Farzaneh; Ahmadkhaniha, Hamid Reza

    2009-09-01

    Serotonin receptors are involved in pathophysiology of schizophrenia and may mediate other neurotransmitter effects. We investigated serotonin receptors gene expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of naïve schizophrenic patients, before and after treatment. Also serotonin receptor gene expression was compared in two treatment groups including Haloperidol and Olanzapine. The PBMC was separated from whole blood by Ficoll-hypaque. The total cellular RNA was extracted and the cDNA was synthesized. This process was followed by real-time PCR using primer pairs specific for 5HT(3a) serotonin receptor mRNA and beta-actin as internal control. The results showed the presence of subtype of serotonin receptor in lymphocytes. Serotonin gene expression showed significant changes in Olanzapine treatment group which correlated with Clinical Global Impression (CGI) score improvement. In conclusion, the present study has shown that human PBMC express serotonin receptors 5HT(3a). Moreover, clinical symptom improvement of Olanzapin may be demonstrated by a change in serotonin receptor gene expression.

  9. The effect of betahistine, a histamine H1 receptor agonist/H3 antagonist, on olanzapine-induced weight gain in first-episode schizophrenia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poyurovsky, Michael; Pashinian, Artashes; Levi, Aya; Weizman, Ronit; Weizman, Abraham

    2005-03-01

    Histamine antagonism has been implicated in antipsychotic drug-induced weight gain. Betahistine, a histamine enhancer with H1 agonistic/H3 antagonistic properties (48 mg t.i.d.), was coadministered with olanzapine (10 mg/day) in three first-episode schizophrenia patients for 6 weeks. Body weight was measured at baseline and weekly thereafter. Clinical rating scales were completed at baseline and at week 6. All participants gained weight (mean weight gain 3.1+/-0.9 kg) and a similar pattern of weight gain was observed: an increase during the first 2 weeks and no additional weight gain (two patients) or minor weight loss (one patient) from weeks 3 to 6. None gained 7% of baseline weight, which is the cut-off for clinically significant weight gain. Betahistine was safe and well tolerated and did not interfere with the antipsychotic effect of olanzapine. Our findings justify a placebo-controlled evaluation of the putative weight-attenuating effect of betahistine in olanzapine-induced weight gain.

  10. The Vindolanda Tablets and the Ancient Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evers, Kasper Grønlund

    The Vindolanda Tablets are rightly famous for the insights they provide into the life of Roman auxiliaries on the province of Britain’s northern frontier around the turn of the first century AD. Various authors over the years have dealt with the archaeological excavations at Vindolanda, the evide......The Vindolanda Tablets are rightly famous for the insights they provide into the life of Roman auxiliaries on the province of Britain’s northern frontier around the turn of the first century AD. Various authors over the years have dealt with the archaeological excavations at Vindolanda......, the aim is to investigate how best to comprehend the economic system attested at Vindolanda and to consider the wider implications for studies of the ancient economy in general. This is accomplished by a three-step approach: first, the nature of the Vindolandan evidence is assessed, and the state...

  11. [Safety evaluation of niuhuang jiedu tablet].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yu-Ling; Miao, Jia-wei; Li, Jing; Sung, An-Sheng; Liu, Jie

    2014-09-01

    Realgar-containing Niuhuang Jiedu tablet (NHJD) has been applied in clinic for more than 800 years. However, because realgar contains arsenic (As), it has aroused wide concerns and controversies both at home and abroad. Currently, there are two misunderstandings about realgar-containing Chinese patent medicines. First, some people exaggerated realgar's toxicity as that of arsenic. Second, they recommended to remove realgar from traditional Chinese medicine compounds. In this paper, the authors summarized the advance in studies on NHJD, and proposed different opinions: (1) It is inappropriate to take total As as the index in safety evaluation of NHJD. (2) The toxicity of NHJD is dependent on the dose and duration of administration. (3) Realgar is an active ingredient of NHJD, and shall be deeply studied. Classic realgar-containing traditional Chinese medicine prescriptions, such as Niuhuang Jiedu tablet, shall be evaluated with rigorous modern scientific basis, with the aim to guide rational and safe application.

  12. Magnetic resonance imaging of tablet dissolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nott, Kevin P

    2010-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the technique of choice for measuring hydration, and its effects, during dissolution of tablets since it non-invasively maps (1)H nuclei associated with 'mobile' water. Although most studies have used MRI systems with high-field superconducting magnets, low-field laboratory-based instruments based on permanent magnet technology are being developed that provide key data for the formulation scientist. Incorporation of dissolution hardware, in particular the United States Pharmacopeia (USP) apparatus 4 flow-through cell, allows measurements under controlled conditions for comparison against other dissolution methods. Furthermore, simultaneous image acquisition and measurement of drug concentration allow direct comparison of the drug release throughout the hydration process. The combination of low-field MRI with USP-4 apparatus provides another tool to aid tablet formulation. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. COMPARISON OF HYDROCORTISONE 10 MG TABLETS: TABLET HARDNESS OPTIMISED FOR ADULT USE HAS NEGATIVE CONSEQUENCES FOR PAEDIATRIC USE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saimbi, Sarina; Madden, Valerie; Stirling, Heather; Yahyouche, Asma; Batchelor, Hannah

    2016-09-01

    Children's medicines are not always readily available as an age appropriate product and manipulation of adult products is often required. Recently the commercial manufacturing process for 10 mg hydrocortisone tablets has changed and the compression force increased due to tablets fracturing on removal from the blister pack. However, this change led to parents of children requiring hydrocortisone reporting that the tablets were more difficult to manipulate.This study evaluated 10 mg hydrocortisone tablets for their suitability for manipulation in order to deliver an appropriate dose to children (2 mg dose). The physical properties of tablets with the old and new compression force were compared as well as the accuracy of obtaining the paediatric dose. The tablets compared were hydrocortisone Auden 10 mg tablets (Brand A, PL16876/002)-these are the newer, harder tablets- and hydrocortisone 10 mg tablets (Brand B, PL17507/0097). Tablet physical properties including friability (Copley FRV200) and tablet hardness (Copley TBF1000) were compared. The accuracy of split doses (halve and quarter tablets) were recorded on a Sartorius analytical balance. The accuracy of the 2 mg paediatric dosing was assessed by crushing the tablet, adding 10 mL of water and extracting 2 mL. The concentration was measured using UV analysis (Jenway Genova Plus) according to a calibration curve (wavelength=246 nm). Two devices were used to crush the tablets: a spoon onto a plate and a commercially available crushing device (Apothecary Ezy Crush Pill Crusher With Ergo Grip). As anticipated Brand A tablets were harder (51.85 ±5.1 N) compared to Brand B (30.99±4.1 N). Brand A tablets passed the friability testing with Auden tablets which are known to be harder tablets and therefore more force is required to crush these. Some of the experimental work within this project was conducted by Andrew Hackett and Kameron Paul-Thaper whilst at the University of Birmingham on work

  14. Formulation studies for mirtazapine orally disintegrating tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yıldız, Simay; Aytekin, Eren; Yavuz, Burçin; Bozdağ Pehlivan, Sibel; Ünlü, Nurşen

    2016-01-01

    Orally disintegrating tablets (ODTs) recently have gained much attention to fulfill the needs for pediatric, geriatric, and psychiatric patients with dysphagia. Aim of this study was to develop new ODT formulations containing mirtazapine, an antidepressant drug molecule having bitter taste, by using simple and inexpensive preparation methods such as coacervation, direct compression and to compare their characteristics with those of reference product (Remereon SolTab). Coacervation method was chosen for taste masking of mirtazapine. In vitro characterization studies such as diameter and thickness, weight variation, tablet hardness, tablet friability and disintegration time were performed on tablet formulations. Wetting time and in vitro dissolution tests of developed ODTs also studied using 900 mL 0.1 N HCl medium, 900 mL pH 6.8 phosphate buffer or 900 mL pH 4.5 acetate buffer at 37 ± 0.2 °C as dissolution medium. Ratio of Eudragit® E-100 was chosen as 6% (w/w) since the dissolution profile of A1 (6% Eudragit® E-100) was found closer to the reference product than A2 (4% Eudragit® E-100) and A3 (8% Eudragit® E-100). Group D, E and F formulations were presented better results in terms of disintegration time. Dissolution results indicated that Group E and F formulations showed optimum properties in all three dissolution media. Formulations D1, D4, D5, E3, E4, F1 and F5 found suitable as ODT formulations due to their favorable disintegration times and dissolution profiles. Developed mirtazapine ODTs were found promising in terms of showing the similar characteristics to the original formulation.

  15. Evaluation of the ease of taking mini-tablets compared with other tablet formulations in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayakawa, Yoshiyuki; Uchida, Shinya; Namiki, Noriyuki

    2016-03-10

    "Mini-tablets" (MTs) are tablets of diameter≤3mm and have been widely studied and developed. However, reports comparing MTs with other tablet formulations are few. We wished to evaluate the ease of taking a MT quantitatively in comparison with an orally disintegrating mini-tablet (ODMT), conventional tablet (CT) and conventional orally disintegrating tablet (ODT). Four types of tablets were prepared. We prepared tablets of two diameters (3mm for MTs and ODMTs vs. 8mm for CTs and ODTs) and two formulations (MTs and CTs vs. ODMTs and ODTs). Our randomized crossover trial in 18 healthy volunteers (8 men and 10 women; mean age, 22.5years) indicated that the visual analog scale (VAS) score for the ease and amount of water required for intake of MTs was significantly lower than those of CTs. An ODMT required the least amount of water and smallest VAS score for the ease of taking a tablet. Our results showed that the advantage of MTs with regard to the ease of taking and decreased amount of water required was exerted for a unit of dosing comprising tablets. These data suggested the usefulness of MTs and the importance of the number of MTs for comfortable consumption by patients. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Iodine tablets - many benefits and few disadvantages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paile, W.

    1996-01-01

    The number of thyroid cancers among children has increased steeply around Chernobyl after the nuclear catastrophe. An iodine tablet taken at the right time would have protected the thyroid from the effects of radioiodine. Nuclear fallout may contain large amounts of radioactive iodine. If this enters the body, either through inhalation or ingestion, most of it ends up in the thyroid. As a result, the thyroid may be exposed to a considerable radiation dose. High doses endanger the functioning of the thyroid, and even smaller doses may cause benign or malignant tumours in the thyroid. Sensitivity of the thyroid to radiation depends largely on the person's age. The younger the child, the higher the risk. Adults probably have a low risk. It has not been shown that people over 40 years of age would have any risk of contracting radiation-induced thyroid cancer. Iodine tablets are particularly important for children. Iodine has fewer side effects than had been thought previously. At least for children, the risk of side effects caused by one dose of iodine is so small that it can be ignored when considering whether iodine should be given in a fallout situation. The risk increases with age. It must unconditionally be left for the authorities to decide who should be given iodine tablets and when. (orig.)

  17. Seaweed tablet: a natural source of iodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briones, Annabelle V.; Ambal, Wilhelmina O.; Monroyo, Evangelina C.; Bonifacio, Teresita S.; Sison, Fe M.

    1997-01-01

    Species of seaweeds namely: Halymenia durvillaei, Laurencia flexilis and Sargassum gigantifolium were processed into dried form and formulated as tablet. Prior to tablet formulation, the seaweeds were assayed for iodine and trace elements. The seaweeds that exhibited significance values of iodine and trace elements were further analyzed for the presence of heavy metals followed by acute oral toxicity test (LD 50 ). Among the seaweeds evaluated, H. durvilaei was found to contain high level of iodine (0.255% w/w) and magnesium (1.65% w/w) with sufficient amount of zinc (25.69 ppm) and phosporous (11.68 ppm). Analysis of heavy metals showed minute amount of mercury (0.0055 ppm), cadmium (0.67 ppm) and lead (1.80 ppm). The median lethal dose (LD 50 ) of H. durvillaei administered orally in Swiss male mice is 119.1489 ± 4.9873 g/kg. Tablet formulation was based on the U.S. recommended daily allowance of 0.15 mg. of iodine per adult and children. The final product was comparable to imported Kelp pills (available in the local market) in terms of physical properties and iodine content. (Author)

  18. Early evaluation of patient risk for substantial weight gain during olanzapine treatment for schizophrenia, schizophreniform, or schizoaffective disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hardy Thomas A

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To make well informed treatment decisions for their patients, clinicians need credible information about potential risk for substantial weight gain. We therefore conducted a post-hoc analysis of clinical trial data, examining early weight gain as a predictor of later substantial weight gain. Methods Data from 669 (Study 1 and 102 (Study 2 olanzapine-treated patients diagnosed with schizophrenia, schizophreniform, or schizoaffective disorder were analyzed to identify and validate weight gain cut-offs at Weeks 1–4 that were predictive of substantial weight gain (defined as an increase of ≥ 5, 7, 10 kg or 7% of baseline weight after approximately 30 weeks of treatment. Baseline characteristics alone, baseline characteristics plus weight change from baseline to Weeks 1, 2, 3 or 4, and weight change from baseline to Weeks 1, 2, 3, or 4 alone were evaluated as predictors of substantial weight gain. Similar analyses were performed to determine BMI increase cut-offs at Weeks 1–4 of treatment that were predictive of substantial increase in BMI (1, 2 or 3 kg/m2 increase from baseline. Results At Weeks 1 and 2, predictions based on early weight gain plus baseline characteristics were more robust than those based on early weight gain alone. However, by Weeks 3 and 4, there was little difference between the operating characteristics associated with these two sets of predictors. The positive predictive values ranged from 30.1% to 73.5%, while the negative predictive values ranged from 58.1% to 89.0%. Predictions based on early BMI increase plus baseline characteristics were not uniformly more robust at any time compared to those based on early BMI increase alone. The positive predictive values ranged from 38.3% to 83.5%, while negative predictive values ranged from 42.1% to 84.7%. For analyses of both early weight gain and early BMI increase, results for the validation dataset were similar to those observed in the primary dataset

  19. ESR accident dosimetry using medicine tablets coated with sugar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kai, A.; Miki, T.; Ikeya, M.

    1990-01-01

    Properties of radiation-induced radicals in medicine tablets were investigated using electron spin resonance (ESR). A sharp ESR signal sensitive to gamma ray irradiation was observed in the sugar coating part of the tablets. The signal has anisotropic g values of g 1 = 2.0009, g 2 = 2.0007 and g 3 = 2.0002. The signal grows linearly with dose at least up to about 20 Gy. No fading was observed at room temperature even when exposed to sunlight. The dose to artificially irradiated tablets was estimated using the signal intensity and a previously determined calibration curve. The signal in sugar coated tablets can be utilised for dose measurements. In particular, the wide distribution of sugar coated tablets allows the use of the tablets as accident dosemeters. (author)

  20. The variability of ecstasy tablets composition in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Togni, Loraine R; Lanaro, Rafael; Resende, Rodrigo R; Costa, Jose L

    2015-01-01

    The content of ecstasy tablets has been changing over the years, and nowadays 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) is not always present in the tablets. The aim of this study was to investigate the chemical composition in the seized tablets labeled as ecstasy. We analyzed samples from 150 different seizures made by Sao Paulo's State Police by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. MDMA was present in 44.7% of the analyzed samples, and another twenty different active substances were identified in these tablets, such as caffeine, 2C-B, piperazines, amphetamines, phencyclidine, and others. Methamphetamine was present in 22% of these samples. The results demonstrate a huge shift in the pattern of trafficking of synthetic drugs, where MDMA has been replaced in tablets mostly by illicit psychoactive substances, in a clear attempt to bypass the law. The great variability in the tablets composition may lead to an increased risk of drug poisoning. © 2014 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  1. 'Tablet burden' in patients with metastatic breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milic, Marina; Foster, Anna; Rihawi, Karim; Anthoney, Alan; Twelves, Chris

    2016-03-01

    The implications for patients with cancer, of the 'tablet burden' resulting from increasing use of oral anticancer drugs and medication for co-morbidities have not previously been well explored. We sought to (i) quantify tablet burden in women with metastatic breast cancer (MBC), (ii) establish which groups of drug contribute most to this burden and (iii) gain insight into patients' attitudes towards oral anti-cancer treatment. One hundred patients with MBC anonymously completed a questionnaire describing their medication histories and attitudes towards their tablets. The patients (mean age 60, range 31-95) were all female and taking a median of six tablets (range 0-31) daily; 37 patients were taking >10 tablets. Oral anticancer treatment constituted the category of treatment taken by the highest proportion of patients, followed by symptomatic cancer treatments, proton pump inhibitors and cardiovascular medication. Numerically, however, symptomatic drugs accounted for 44% of all tablets and specific anti-cancer treatment for 15%; medication not directly related to the cancer accounted for the remaining 40% of tablets. A quarter of patients reported inconvenience in taking their tablets, the main reason being tablet size and one third reported forgetting their tablets at least once a week. Nearly two thirds of patients expressing a preference favoured oral anticancer treatment, the commonest reason being greater convenience. Tablet burden is considerable for many patients with MBC and can be problematic. A significant proportion of tablets represent treatment for co-morbidities, the significance of which may be questionable in women with MBC. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Replacing Smartphones With Mini Tablet Technology: An Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maneval, Rhonda; Mechtel, Marci

    Handheld technology allows students to access point-of-care resources throughout the clinical experience. To assess the viability of replacing student smartphones with tablets, an evaluation project was undertaken. Overall, students were equally dissatisfied with the 2 types of tablets that were evaluated. Students saw the potential usefulness of tablets to manage clinical assignments, interact with the learning management system, and communicate with faculty, but not for retrieving information currently accessible on their phones.

  3. Evaluation of powder and tableting properties of chitosan

    OpenAIRE

    Picker-Freyer, Katharina M.; Brink, Diana

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the process of tablet formation and the properties of the resulting tablets for 3 N-deacetylated chitosans, with a degree of deacetylation of 80%, 85%, or 90%. Material properties, such as water content, particle size and morphology, glass transition temperature, and molecular weight were studied. The process of tablet formation was analyzed by 3-D modeling, Heckel analysis, the pressure time function, and energy calculations in combination with elastic re...

  4. Preventive distribution and plans of iodine tablets stocks management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This official note includes two parts: one concerns the new preventive distribution of iodine tablets on the areas defined by the Particular Intervention Plans (P.P.I.) around nuclear facilities and the other one the setting up of iodine tablets stocks beyond the P.P.I. areas. In annexe is a guide for the elaboration of stocks management plans for steady iodine tablets. (N.C.)

  5. Development of natural gum based fast disintegrating tablets of glipizide

    OpenAIRE

    Antesh Kumar Jha; Dipak Chetia

    2012-01-01

    Dysphagia and risk of choking are leading causes of patient non-compliance in the self-administration of conventional tablets. To overcome these limitations of conventional tablets fast-disintegrating tablets were developed, using natural gums. Natural gums were evaluated for bulk swelling capacity. Powder mix containing natural gums and glipizide was evaluated for water sorption, swelling index and capillary action. For faster onset and immediate hypoglycemic action, the fast disintegrating ...

  6. Profil Disolusi Terbanding Tablet Rifampisin Merek Dan Generik

    OpenAIRE

    Nurtanti, Mutiara Poetri; Kusuma, Anjar Mahardian; Siswanto, Agus

    2010-01-01

    Obat generik saat ini masih dipandang sebelah mata oleh masyarakat karena alasan kualitas dari obat generik lebih rendah dibandingkan obat merek. Tujuan penelitian ini untuk mengetahui perbandingan profil disolusi rifampisin tablet merek (A, B, C) dengan tablet rifampisin generik (D, E). Parameter penting dalam menentukan mutu obat dalam bentuk tablet adalah penetapan kekerasan, penetapan waktu hancur dan uji disolusi. Pengambilan sampel dilakukan berdasarkan produk yang beredar di pasaran ya...

  7. Tablet-Based Functional MRI of the Trail Making Test: Effect of Tablet Interaction Mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahta Karimpoor

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The Trail Making Test (TMT is widely used for assessing executive function, frontal lobe abilities, and visual motor skills. Part A of this pen-and-paper test (TMT-A involves linking numbers randomly distributed in space, in ascending order. Part B (TMT-B alternates between linking numbers and letters. TMT-B is more demanding than TMT-A, but the mental processing that supports the performance of this test remains incompletely understood. Functional MRI (fMRI may help to clarify the relationship between TMT performance and brain activity, but providing an environment that supports real-world pen-and-paper interactions during fMRI is challenging. Previously, an fMRI-compatible tablet system was developed for writing and drawing with two modes of interaction: the original cursor-based, proprioceptive approach, and a new mode involving augmented reality to provide visual feedback of hand position (VFHP for enhanced user interaction. This study characterizes the use of the tablet during fMRI of young healthy adults (n = 22, with half of the subjects performing TMT with VFHP and the other half performing TMT without VFHP. Activation maps for both TMT-A and TMT-B performance showed considerable overlap between the two tablet modes, and no statistically differences in brain activity were detected when contrasting TMT-B vs. TMT-A for the two tablet modes. Behavioral results also showed no statistically different interaction effects for TMT-B vs. TMT-A for the two tablet modes. Tablet-based TMT scores showed reasonable convergent validity with those obtained by administering the standard pen-and-paper TMT to the same subjects. Overall, the results suggest that despite the slightly different mechanisms involved for the two modes of tablet interaction, both are suitable for use in fMRI studies involving TMT performance. This study provides information for using tablet-based TMT methods appropriately in future fMRI studies involving patients and healthy

  8. Placing wireless tablets in clinical settings for patient education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stribling, Judy C; Richardson, Joshua E

    2016-04-01

    The authors explored the feasibility and possible benefit of tablet-based educational materials for patients in clinic waiting areas. We distributed eight tablets preloaded with diagnosis-relevant information in two clinic waiting areas. Patients were surveyed about satisfaction, usability, and effects on learning. Technical issues were resolved. Thirty-seven of forty patients completed the survey. On average, the patients were satisfied in all categories. Placing tablet-based educational materials in clinic waiting areas is relatively easy to implement. Patients using tablets reported satisfaction across three domains: usability, education, and satisfaction.

  9. Placing wireless tablets in clinical settings for patient education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judy C. Stribling, MA, MLS

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The authors explored the feasibility and possible benefit of tablet-based educational materials for patients in clinic waiting areas. Methods: We distributed eight tablets preloaded with diagnosis-relevant information in two clinic waiting areas. Patients were surveyed about satisfaction, usability, and effects on learning. Technical issues were resolved. Results: Thirty-seven of forty patients completed the survey. On average, the patients were satisfied in all categories. Conclusions: Placing tablet-based educational materials in clinic waiting areas is relatively easy to implement. Patients using tablets reported satisfaction across three domains: usability, education, and satisfaction.

  10. Ginger Orally Disintegrating Tablets to Improve Swallowing in Older People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Ayumu; Funato, Hiroki; Nakai, Megumi; Iizuka, Michiro; Abe, Noriaki; Yagi, Yusuke; Shiraishi, Hisashi; Jobu, Kohei; Yokota, Junko; Hirose, Kahori; Hyodo, Masamitsu; Miyamura, Mitsuhiko

    2016-01-01

    We previously prepared and pharmaceutically evaluated ginger orally disintegrating (OD) tablets, optimized the base formulation, and carried out a clinical trial in healthy adults in their 20 s and 50s to measure their effect on salivary substance P (SP) level and improved swallowing function. In this study, we conducted clinical trials using the ginger OD tablets in older people to clinically evaluate the improvements in swallowing function resulting from the functional components of the tablet. The ginger OD tablets were prepared by mixing the excipients with the same amount of mannitol and sucrose to a concentration of 1% ginger. Eighteen healthy older adult volunteers aged 63 to 90 were included in the swallowing function test. Saliva was collected before and 15 min after administration of the placebo and ginger OD tablets. Swallowing endoscopy was performed by an otolaryngologist before administration and 15 min after administration of the ginger OD tablets. A scoring method was used to evaluate the endoscopic swallowing. Fifteen minutes after taking the ginger OD tablets, the salivary SP amount was significantly higher than prior to ingestion or after taking the placebo (pginger OD tablets. Our findings showed that the ginger OD tablets increased the salivary SP amount and improved swallowing function in older people with appreciably reduced swallowing function.

  11. [Formulation optimization of panax notoginsenoside orally fast disintegration tablets].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhi; Wei, Li; Chen, Ting

    2008-07-01

    To optimize the formulation of panax notoginsenoside orally fast disintegrating tablets. Mannitol, microcrystalline cellulose (PH 102) and lactose 80 were used as diluent. A polynomial regression algorithm was used to evaluate the relationship between the controlling factor, compacting pressure and diluent ratio, and disintegration time, tensile strength of tablets. Optimum formulation and process parameters could be determined by contrast the contour plot of tensile strength to that of disintegration time. The disintegration time and tensile strength of panax notoginsenoside oral disintegrating tablets were good, and the taste was satisfactory. Panax notoginsenoside oral disintegrating tablets achieve the goal of design and this method can be fairly used in formulation screening.

  12. Pediatric Dispersible Tablets: a Modular Approach for Rapid Prototyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Jonas; Huwyler, Jörg; Kühl, Peter; Dischinger, Angela

    2016-08-01

    The design of pediatric formulations is challenging. Solid dosage forms for children have to meet the needs of different ages, e.g. high number of dosing increments and strengths. A modular formulation strategy offering the possibility of rapid prototyping was applied. Different tablet compositions and the resulting tablet characteristics were investigated for dispersible tablets using customized analytical methods. Fluid bed granules were blended with extragranular components, and compressed to tablets. Disintegration behavior was studied with a Texture Analyzer and a Tensiometer. Methods for determination of disintegration time and water uptake of tablets were developed with a Texture Analyzer, and a Tensiometer, respectively. Twenty-two different tablet formulations were prepared and analyzed with respect to disintegration time, hardness, friability, and viscosity. Multivariate data analysis revealed a high impact of type and amount of viscosity enhancer on the disintegration behavior of tablets. An optimized formulation was selected with a disintegration time of 24 s. Methods providing additional information on the disintegration behavior of dispersible tablets compared to standard pharmacopoeia methods were established. Selecting the right type and level of viscosity enhancer and superdisintegrant was critical for developing pediatric tablets with a disintegration time of less than 30 s but still pleasant mouth feel.

  13. 78 FR 1247 - Certain Electronic Devices, Including Wireless Communication Devices, Tablet Computers, Media...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-08

    ... Wireless Communication Devices, Tablet Computers, Media Players, and Televisions, and Components Thereof... devices, including wireless communication devices, tablet computers, media players, and televisions, and... wireless communication devices, tablet computers, media players, and televisions, and components thereof...

  14. Systematic evaluation of common lubricants for optimal use in tablet formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Shubhajit; Sun, Changquan Calvin

    2018-05-30

    As an essential formulation component for large-scale tablet manufacturing, the lubricant preserves tooling by reducing die-wall friction. Unfortunately, lubrication also often results in adverse effects on tablet characteristics, such as prolonged disintegration, slowed dissolution, and reduced mechanical strength. Therefore, the choice of lubricant and its optimal concentration in a tablet formulation is a critical decision in tablet formulation development to attain low die-wall friction while minimizing negative impact on other tablet properties. Three commercially available tablet lubricants, i.e., magnesium stearate, sodium stearyl fumerate, and stearic acid, were systematically investigated in both plastic and brittle matrices to elucidate their effects on reducing die-wall friction, tablet strength, tablet hardness, tablet friability, and tablet disintegration kinetics. Clear understanding of the lubrication efficiency of commonly used lubricants as well as their impact on tablet characteristics would help future tablet formulation efforts. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Combination use of atomoxetine hydrochloride and olanzapine in the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder with comorbid disruptive behavior disorder in children and adolescents 10-18 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzer, Barry; Lopes, Vasco; Lehman, Robert

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the use of atomoxetine and olanzapine in combination to treat attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and comorbid disruptive behaviors in children and adolescents 10-18 years of age. Eleven subjects ages 10-18 received open-label atomoxetine and olanzapine for a 10 week treatment period. Patients were assessed at baseline, 2 weeks, 4 weeks, 6 weeks, and 10 weeks (posttreatment). ADHD improvement was measured through the ADHD Rating Scale (ADHD-RS) (Investigator and Parent ratings). Aggression was measured through the Modified Overt Aggression Scale (MOAS). The combined use of atomoxetine and olanzapine resulted in statistically significant improvement in ADHD symptoms and overt aggression from baseline to posttreatment. As evidenced by a 33% reduction in symptoms on the ADHD-RS-I and the MOAS, 73% of patients were considered responders to ADHD treatment, whereas 55% responded to treatment for aggression. Both medications were generally well tolerated. Olanzapine treatment was associated with significant weight gain. Patients gained, on average, 3.9 kg. throughout the treatment period. These data provide initial evidence that combination use of atomoxetine and olanzapine for the treatment of ADHD and comorbid disruptive behaviors was effective in reducing ADHD symptoms and aggressive behavior in a 10 week treatment period.

  16. Evaluation of the performance characteristics of bilayer tablets: Part II. Impact of environmental conditions on the strength of bilayer tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kottala, Niranjan; Abebe, Admassu; Sprockel, Omar; Bergum, James; Nikfar, Faranak; Cuitiño, Alberto M

    2012-12-01

    Ambient air humidity and temperature are known to influence the mechanical strength of tablets. The objective of this work is to understand the influence of processing parameters and environmental conditions (humidity and temperature) on the strength of bilayer tablets. As part of this study, bilayer tablets were compressed with different layer ratios, dwell times, layer sequences, material properties (plastic and brittle), first and second layer forces, and lubricant concentrations. Compressed tablets were stored in stability chambers controlled at predetermined conditions (40C/45%RH, 40C/75%RH) for 1, 3, and 5 days. The axial strength of the stored tablets was measured and a statistical model was developed to determine the effects of the aforementioned factors on the strength of bilayer tablets. As part of this endeavor, a full 3 × 2(4) factorial design was executed. Responses of the experiments were analyzed using PROC GLM of SAS (SAS Institute Inc, Cary, North Carolina, USA). A model was fit using all the responses to determine the significant interactions (p < 0.05). Results of this study indicated that storage conditions and storage time have significant impact on the strength of bilayer tablets. For Avicel-lactose and lactose-Avicel tablets, tablet strength decreased with the increasing humidity and storage time. But for lactose-lactose tablets, due to the formation of solid bridges upon storage, an increase in tablet strength was observed. Significant interactions were observed between processing parameters and storage conditions on the strength of bilayer tablets.

  17. Carbon Break Even Analysis: Environmental Impact of Tablets in Higher Education

    OpenAIRE

    Fadi Safieddine; Imad Nakhoul

    2016-01-01

    With the growing pace of tablets use and the large focus it is attracting especially in higher education, this paper looks at an important aspect of tablets; their carbon footprint. Studies have suggested that tablets have positive impact on the environment; especially since tablets use less energy than laptops or desktops. Recent manufacturers’ reports on the carbon footprint of tablets have revealed that a significant portion, as much as 80%, of the carbon footprint of tablets comes from pr...

  18. Effect of protective coating of aspirin tablets with acrylatemethacrylate copolymers on tablet disintegration times and dissolution rates

    OpenAIRE

    Okor R; Eichie F; Uhumwangho M; Aka-Aha A

    2007-01-01

    Tablets of aspirin (a moisture degradable drug) have been film coated with two analogous Eudragit RL and RS copolymers designated here as A and B which differ only in their cation content in the ratio 2:1 (A:B). A, is therefore more hydrophilic than B. The tablets were film coated with ethanol solutions of these two polymers. Film coating with either A or B significantly reduced the moisture uptake potentials of the tablets but caused an increase in the disintegration times of the tablets and...

  19. Mesoporous hydroxyapatite as a carrier of olanzapine for long-acting antidepression treatment in rats with induced depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shyong, Yan-Jye; Wang, Mao-Hsien; Kuo, Li-Wei; Su, Chang-Fu; Kuo, Wei-Ting; Chang, Kuo-Chi; Lin, Feng-Huei

    2017-06-10

    An antidepressant carrier, mesoporous hydroxyapatite olanzapine (mesoHAP-OLZ), was designed to maintain 3weeks of constant medication release. The carrier was intramuscularly (IM) injected, where cellular activity played a role in achieving the goal of constant release. The efficiency of the treatment was evaluated from 3 perspectives in in vivo studies: locomotor activities, biomarkers, and learning and memory ability. MesoHAP-OLZ can increase the locomotor activity in rats with induced depression determined by open field test (OFT) and forced swim test (FST). Serotonin (5-HT), one of the most important biomarker in depression can also be increased by mesoHAP-OLZ, leading to increased hippocampus activity as measured by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). MesoHAP-OLZ can also improve learning and memory ability in rats with induced depression during Morris water maze (MWM) test. Our findings further show that mesoHAP-OLZ can provide long-term drug release with a single IM injection, helping to solve the problem of non-adherent medication intake that often occurs in antidepressant therapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. The effect of federal and state off-label marketing investigations on drug prescribing: The case of olanzapine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bo; Studdert, David M; Sarpatwari, Ameet; Franklin, Jessica M; Landon, Joan; Kesselheim, Aaron S

    2017-01-01

    In the past decade, the federal government has frequently investigated and prosecuted pharmaceutical manufacturers for illegal promotion of drugs for indications not approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) ("off-label" uses). State governments can choose to coordinate with the federal investigation, or pursue their own independent state investigations. One of the largest-ever off-label prosecutions relates to the atypical antipsychotic drug olanzapine (Zyprexa). In a series of settlements between 2008 and 2010, Eli Lilly paid $1.4 billion to the federal government and over $290 million to state governments. We examined the effect of these settlements on off-label prescribing of this medication, taking advantage of geographical differences in states' involvement in the investigations and the timing of the settlements. However, we did not find a reduction in off-label prescribing; rather, there were no prescribing changes among states that joined the federal investigation, those that pursued independent state investigations, and states that pursued no investigations at all. Since the settlements of state investigations of off-label prescribing do not appear to significantly impact prescribing rates, policymakers should consider alternate ways of reducing the prevalence of non-evidence-based off-label use to complement their ongoing investigations.

  1. Keyboards: from Typewriters to Tablet Computers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gintautas Grigas

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of Lithuanian keyboards is reviewed. Keyboards are divided up to three categories according to flexibility of their adaptation for typing of Lithuanian texts: 1 mechanical typewriter keyboards (heavily adaptable, 2 electromechanical desktop or laptop computer keyboards, and 3 programmable touch screen tablet computer keyboards (easily adaptable. It is discussed how they were adapted for Lithuanian language, with solutions in other languages are compared. Both successful and unsuccessful solutions are discussed. The reasons of failures as well as their negative impact on writing culture and formation of bad habits in the work with computer are analyzed. The recommendations how to improve current situation are presented.

  2. Tramadol and acetaminophen tablets for dental pain.

    OpenAIRE

    Medve, R. A.; Wang, J.; Karim, R.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to compare the efficacy and time to analgesia of a new tramadol/acetaminophen combination tablet to those of tramadol or acetaminophen (APAP) alone. A meta-analysis was performed of 3 separate single-dose, double-blind, parallel-group trials in patients with moderate or severe pain following extraction of 2 or more third molars. Patients in each study were evenly randomized to a single dose of tramadol/APAP (75 mg/650 mg), tramadol 75 mg, APAP 650 mg, ibuprofen 40...

  3. Active Reading Behaviors in Tablet-Based Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palilonis, Jennifer; Bolchini, Davide

    2015-01-01

    Active reading is fundamental to learning. However, there is little understanding about whether traditional active reading frameworks sufficiently characterize how learners study multimedia tablet textbooks. This paper explores the nature of active reading in the tablet environment through a qualitative study that engaged 30 students in an active…

  4. Equivalency of Paper versus Tablet Computer Survey Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravert, Russell D.; Gomez-Scott, Jessica; Donnellan, M. Brent

    2015-01-01

    Survey responses collected via paper surveys and computer tablets were compared to test for differences between those methods of obtaining self-report data. College students (N = 258) were recruited in public campus locations and invited to complete identical surveys on either paper or iPad tablet. Only minor homogeneity differences were found…

  5. Students' Opinions on the Use of Tablet Computers in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duran, Muharrem; Aytaç, Tufan

    2016-01-01

    One of the most important tools for the integration of ICT in education, especially with tablet computers, has been employed in Turkey through the FATIH Project. This study aimed to determine students' views on the use of tablet computers in learning and teaching processes. Eighty-four first-year high school students studying at three schools in…

  6. Tablet use in primary education: Adoption hurdles and attitude determinants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Deursen, Alexander Johannes Aloysius Maria; Ben Allouch, Soumaya; Ruijter, Laura P.

    2016-01-01

    In the Netherlands, six primary schools recently participated in a pilot program, creating an educational environment in which children use a tablet PC. In these six schools, two studies are conducted. The first study highlights the process by which primary schools adopted tablet PCs by means of

  7. Graphics Tablet Technology in Second Year Thermal Engineering Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo, Antonio; Cejudo, José Manuel; Domínguez, Fernando; Rodríguez, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    Graphics tablet technology is well known in markets such as manufacturing, graphics arts and design but it has not yet found widespread acceptance for university teaching. A graphics tablet is an affordable teaching tool that combines the best features from traditional and new media. It allows developing a progressive, interactive lecture (as a…

  8. Tablet Use in Primary Education: Adoption Hurdles and Attitude Determinants

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Deursen, Alexander J. A. M.; ben Allouch, Somaya; Ruijter, Laura P.

    2016-01-01

    In the Netherlands, six primary schools recently participated in a pilot program, creating an educational environment in which children use a tablet PC. In these six schools, two studies are conducted. The first study highlights the process by which primary schools adopted tablet PCs by means of interviews based on diffusion of innovation theory.…

  9. Enhancing the Classroom Experience: Instructor Use of Tablets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Jeff; Hill, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Instructors continually search for innovative approaches to interact with and engage students in the classroom. The tablet offers a potential innovation for this purpose. Tablet devices from Apple, Microsoft, and other hardware vendors have overcome many of the challenges of the past (e.g. cost and limited applications) to become useful tools for…

  10. Exploring the Use of Tablets for Student Teaching Supervision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Joseph A.; Wesley, Whitney M.; Yerrick, Randy

    2016-01-01

    While research on the use of tablets in the field of education is emerging, existing research on the use of this tool for the purposes of student teaching supervision is very limited. This study aimed to explore the application of iPad tablets for student teacher supervision in a teacher preparation program at a large state university in the…

  11. Tablet-Based Education to Reduce Depression-Related Stigma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Catherine; Winkelman, Megan; Wong, Shane Shucheng

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: This study investigated the efficacy of a tablet-based multimedia education application, the Project Not Alone Depression Module, in improving depression literacy and reducing depression stigma among a community-based mental health clinic population. Methods: A total of 93 participants completed either a tablet-based multimedia…

  12. Endometrial safety of ultra-low-dose estradiol vaginal tablets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simon, James; Nachtigall, Lila; Ulrich, Lian G

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the endometrial hyperplasia and carcinoma rate after 52-week treatment with ultra-low-dose 10-microgram 17ß-estradiol vaginal tablets in postmenopausal women with vaginal atrophy.......To evaluate the endometrial hyperplasia and carcinoma rate after 52-week treatment with ultra-low-dose 10-microgram 17ß-estradiol vaginal tablets in postmenopausal women with vaginal atrophy....

  13. Endometrial safety of ultra-low-dose estradiol vaginal tablets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simon, James; Nachtigall, Lila; Ulrich, Lian G

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the endometrial hyperplasia and carcinoma rate after 52-week treatment with ultra-low-dose 10-microgram 17β-estradiol vaginal tablets in postmenopausal women with vaginal atrophy.......To evaluate the endometrial hyperplasia and carcinoma rate after 52-week treatment with ultra-low-dose 10-microgram 17β-estradiol vaginal tablets in postmenopausal women with vaginal atrophy....

  14. Effect of antacids in didanosine tablet on bioavailability of isoniazid.

    OpenAIRE

    Gallicano, K; Sahai, J; Zaror-Behrens, G; Pakuts, A

    1994-01-01

    The antacids in two didanosine placebo tablets had no significant effect on the plasma pharmacokinetics of a single oral dose of 300 mg of isoniazid administered to 12 healthy volunteers. These results suggest that isoniazid bioavailability will be unaffected by the antacids in didanosine tablets when the two medications are administered simultaneously to human immunodeficiency virus-seropositive patients.

  15. Effect of antacids in didanosine tablet on bioavailability of isoniazid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallicano, K; Sahai, J; Zaror-Behrens, G; Pakuts, A

    1994-04-01

    The antacids in two didanosine placebo tablets had no significant effect on the plasma pharmacokinetics of a single oral dose of 300 mg of isoniazid administered to 12 healthy volunteers. These results suggest that isoniazid bioavailability will be unaffected by the antacids in didanosine tablets when the two medications are administered simultaneously to human immunodeficiency virus-seropositive patients.

  16. Effect Of Formulating Additives On The Properties Of Ibuprofen Tablets

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study of the comparative effects of different formulating additives and film coating on the properties of ibuprofen tablets was made. The tested properties were hardeness (H), friability (F), the disintegration time (D) and dissolution characteristics of ibuprofen tablets. The hardeness, friability, the hardeness friability ratio ...

  17. Tablets in English Class: Students' Activities Surrounding Online Dictionary Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunting, Leona

    2015-01-01

    Tablets have become increasingly popular among young people in Sweden and this rapid increase also resonates in school, especially in classrooms for younger children. The aim of the present study is to analyze and describe how the students deal with the open instructions for a task of using online dictionaries on tablets. Specific focus is on how…

  18. 21 CFR 520.2150b - Stanozolol chewable tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ....2150b Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... treatment in dogs. (2) Administered orally to small breeds of dogs, 1/2 to 1 tablet twice daily for several weeks; to large breeds of dogs, 1 to 2 tablets twice daily for several weeks. (3) Federal law restricts...

  19. 21 CFR 520.2362 - Thenium closylate tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ....2362 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED...) Conditions of use. (1) The tablets are administered orally to dogs as a single day treatment of canine... Uncinaria stenocephala (hookworms). Dogs weighing 10 pounds and over are administered 1 tablet as a single...

  20. Design and Evaluation of an Oral Floating Matrix Tablet of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To develop floating matrix tablets of salbutamol sulphate using ethyl cellulose and acrycoat S-100 as polymers, and sodium bicarbonate, citric acid and tartaric acid as gas generating agents. Methods: Twenty four formulations were prepared and segregated into four major categories, A to D. The floating tablets ...

  1. Absorption from iron tablets given with different types of meals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallberg, L; Björn-Rasmussen, E; Ekenved, G; Garby, L; Rossander, L; Pleehachinda, R; Suwanik, R; Arvidsson, B

    1978-09-01

    The absorption of iron from tablets given with 5 types of meals was studied in 153 subjects. The meals were: a hamburger meal with beans and potatoes, a simple breakfast meal, a Latin American meal composed of black beans, rice and maize and two Southeast Asian meals composed of rice, vegetables and spices served with and without fish. The groups were directly compared by relating the absorption from the iron tablets to the absorption from a standardized reference dose of iron given on an empty stomach. The composition of meals with respect to content of meat or fish or the presence of large amounts of phytates seemed to have no influence on the absorption of iron from tablets. The absorption from iron tablets was about 40% higher when they were given with rice meals than when they were given with the other meals studied. The average decrease in absorption by meals was about 50-60% based on a comparison when tablets were given on an empty stomach. When tablets from which the iron was released more slowly were used, the absorption increased by about 30% except when they were given with rice meals, where the absorption was unchanged. The differences among the meals in their effect on the absorption of iron from tablets thus disappeared when the slow-release tablets were given.

  2. Absorption from iron tablets given with different types of meals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallberg, L; Bjoern-Rasmussen, E; Ekenved, G; Garby, L; Rossander, L; Pleehachinda, R; Suwanik, R; Arvidsson, B

    1978-01-01

    The absorption from iron tablets given with 5 types of meals was studied in 153 subjects. The meals were: a hamburger meal with beans and potatoes, a simple breakfast meal, a Latin American meal composed of black beans, rice and maize and two Southeast Asian meals composed of rice, vegetables, and spices served with and without fish. The groups were directly compared by relating the absorption from the iron tablets to the absorption from a standardized reference dose of iron given on an empty stomach. The composition of meals with respect to content of meat or fish or the presence of large amounts of phytates seemed to have no influence on the absorption of iron from tablets. The absorption from iron tablets was about 40% higher when they were given with rice meals than when they were given with the other meals studied. The average decrease in absorption by meals was about 50-60% based on a comparison when tablets were given on an empty stomach. When tablets from which the iron was released more slowly were used, the absorption increased by about 30% except when they were given with rice meals, where the absorption was unchanged. The differences among the meals in their effect on the absorption of iron from tablets thus disappeared when the slow-release tablets were given.

  3. Determination of Letrozole in Tablet Formulations by Reversed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Determination of Letrozole in Tablet Formulations by Reversed Phase High Performance Liquid Chromatography. ... The assay values for the two branded letrozole tablets tested were 99.2 and 100.2 %, respectively with % relative standard deviation (RSD) of 0.781 and 0.568, respectively. The bench top stability data of the ...

  4. Absorption from iron tablets given with different types of meals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallberg, L.; Bjoern-Rasmussen, E.; Ekenved, G.; Garby, L.; Rossander, L.; Pleehachinda, R.; Suwanik, R.; Arvidsson, B.

    1978-01-01

    The absorption from iron tablets given with 5 types of meals was studied in 153 subjects. The meals were: a hamburger meal with beans and potatoes, a simple breakfast meal, a Latin American meal composed of black beans, rice and maize and two Southeast Asian meals composed of rice, vegetables, and spices served with and without fish. The groups were directly compared by relating the absorption from the iron tablets to the absorption from a standardized reference dose of iron given on an empty stomach. The composition of meals with respect to content of meat or fish or the presence of large amounts of phytates seemed to have no influence on the absorption of iron from tablets. The absorption from iron tablets was about 40% higher when they were given with rice meals than when they were given with the other meals studied. The average decrease in absorption by meals was about 50-60% based on a comparison when tablets were given on an empty stomach. When tablets from which the iron was released more slowly were used, the absorption increased by about 30% except when they were given with rice meals, where the absorption was unchanged. The differences among the meals in their effect on the absorption of iron from tablets thus disappeared when the slow-release tablets were given. (author)

  5. Evaluation of some anionic exchange resins as potential tablet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of resin concentration and compression force on the properties of tablets using the selected resin was investigated. In addition, the disintegrant efficacy of the selected resin in the tablet formulations containing either a basic drug, e.g., dextromethorphan hydrobromide (DMP), or an acidic drug, e.g., diclofenac ...

  6. The influence of granulating solvents on drug release from tablets ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... significantly lower than the other wet granulated tablets, but higher than the matrix tablets. The granulating solvent influenced the release of drug which increased with increase in the water content. Key Words: Grewia gum: Granulating solvents; Release mechanisms. Journal of Pharmacy and Bioresources Vol.1(1) 2004: ...

  7. The rationale of scored tablets as dosage form.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodenhuis, N.; Smet, P.A.G.M. de; Barends, D.M.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the study was to get insight into the rationale of scored tablets. This was pursued by studying patient's reasons for subdividing ("breaking") scored and unscored tablets. Patients who picked up their prescriptions in 5 community pharmacies in The Netherlands were questioned. Two-hundred

  8. Formulation of Sustained-Release Diltiazem Matrix Tablets Using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Formulation of Sustained-Release Diltiazem Matrix Tablets Using Hydrophilic Gum Blends. A Moin, H.G Shivakumar. Abstract. Purpose: To develop sustained release matrix tablets of diltiazem hydrochloride (DTZ) using karaya gum (K) alone or in combination with locust bean gum (LB) and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose ...

  9. Formulation of Fast-Dissolving Tablets of Promethazine Theoclate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To optimize and formulate promethazine theoclate fast-dissolving tablets that offer a suitable approach to the treatment of nausea and vomiting. Method: The solubility of promethazine theoclate was increased by formulating it as a fast-dissolving tablet containing β-cyclodextrin, crospovidone, and camphor, using ...

  10. Comparative photostability study of Fancimef tablet and its active ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fancimef tablet is one of the multi-component drugs recently introduced into malaria therapy to combat the resistant strains of Plasmodium parasite. Like most complex organic compounds, it is expected that the organic compounds in Fancimef tablet will absorb light spectra leading to its photodecomposition and all its ...

  11. Tensile and shear methods for measuring strength of bilayer tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shao-Yu; Li, Jian-Xin; Sun, Changquan Calvin

    2017-05-15

    Both shear and tensile measurement methods have been used to quantify interfacial bonding strength of bilayer tablets. The shear method is more convenient to perform, but reproducible strength data requires careful control of the placement of tablet and contact point for shear force application. Moreover, data obtained from the shear method depend on the orientation of the bilayer tablet. Although more time-consuming to perform, the tensile method yields data that are straightforward to interpret. Thus, the tensile method is preferred in fundamental bilayer tableting research to minimize ambiguity in data interpretation. Using both shear and tensile methods, we measured the mechanical strength of bilayer tablets made of several different layer combinations of lactose and microcrystalline cellulose. We observed a good correlation between strength obtained by the tensile method and carefully conducted shear method. This suggests that the shear method may be used for routine quality test of bilayer tablets during manufacturing because of its speed and convenience, provided a protocol for careful control of the placement of the tablet interface, tablet orientation, and blade is implemented. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Challenges in detecting magnesium stearate distribution in tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakio, Satu; Vajna, Balázs; Farkas, István; Salokangas, Henri; Marosi, György; Yliruusi, Jouko

    2013-03-01

    Magnesium stearate (MS) is the most commonly used lubricant in pharmaceutical industry. During blending, MS particles form a thin layer on the surfaces of the excipient and drug particles prohibiting the bonding from forming between the particles. This hydrophobic layer decreases the tensile strength of tablets and prevents water from penetrating into the tablet restraining the disintegration and dissolution of the tablets. Although overlubrication of the powder mass during MS blending is a well-known problem, the lubricant distribution in tablets has traditionally been challenging to measure. There is currently no adequate analytical method to investigate this phenomenon. In this study, the distribution of MS in microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) tablets was investigated using three different blending scales. The crushing strength of the tablets was used as a secondary response, as its decrease is known to result from the overlubrication. In addition, coating of the MCC particles by MS in intact tablets was detected using Raman microscopic mapping. MS blending was more efficient in larger scales. Raman imaging was successfully applied to characterize MS distribution in MCC tablets despite low concentration of MS. The Raman method can provide highly valuable visual information about the proceeding of the MS blending process. However, the measuring set-up has to be carefully planned to establish reliable and reproducible results.

  13. Highly sensitive voltammetric sensor based on immobilization of bisphosphoramidate-derivative and quantum dots onto multi-walled carbon nanotubes modified gold electrode for the electrocatalytic determination of olanzapine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohammadi-Behzad, Leila [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Razi University, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Gholivand, Mohammad Bagher, E-mail: mbgholivand@yahoo.com [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Razi University, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shamsipur, Mojtaba [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Razi University, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Gholivand, Khodayar [Department of Chemistry, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Barati, Ali [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Razi University, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Gholami, Akram [Department of Chemistry, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-03-01

    In the present paper, a new bisphosphoramidate derivative compound, 1, 4-bis(N-methyl)-benzene-bis(N-phenyl, N-benzoylphosphoramidate) (BMBPBP), was synthesized and used as a mediator for the electrocatalytic oxidation of olanzapine. The electro-oxidation of olanzapine at the surface of the BMBPBP/CdS-quantum dots/multi-walled carbon nanotubes (BMBPBP/CdS-QDs/MWCNTs) modified gold electrode was studied using cyclic voltammetry, chronoamperometry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. This sensor showed an excellent electrocatalytic oxidation activity toward olanzapine at less positive potential, pronounced current response, and good sensitivity. The diffusion coefficient and kinetic parameters (such as electron transfer coefficient and the heterogeneous rate constant) were determined for olanzapine oxidation, using the electrochemical approaches. Surface morphology and electrochemical properties of the prepared modified electrode were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy techniques. The hydrodynamic amperometry at rotating modified electrode at constant potential versus reference electrode was used for detection of olanzapine. Under optimized conditions, the calibration plot was linear in the concentration range of 20 nM to 100 μM and detection limit was found to be 6 nM. The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of olanzapine in pharmaceuticals and human serum samples. - Highlights: • A highly sensitive sensor for OLZ determination was developed. • The sensor constructed based on immobilization of BMBPBP on CdS-QDs/MWCNTs Au electrode • The morphology of the modified electrode was examined by SEM. • The prepared sensor shows stable electrochemical behavior at a wide pH range. • The proposed sensor is used for trace determination of OLZ in real samples.

  14. Graphics tablet technology in second year thermal engineering teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Carrillo Andrés

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Graphics tablet technology is well known in markets such as manufacturing, graphics arts and design but they have not yet found widespread acceptance for university teaching. A graphics tablet is an affordable and efficient teaching tool that combines the best features from traditional and new media. It allows developing a progressive, interactive lecture (as a traditional blackboard does. However, the tablet is more versatile, being able to integrate graphic material such as tables, graphs, colours, etc. In addition to that, lecture notes can be saved and posted on a course website. The objective of this paper is to show the usefulness of tablet technology in undergraduate engineering teaching by sharing experiences made using a graphics tablet for lecturing a second year Thermal Engineering course. Students’ feedback is definitely positive, though there are some caveats regarding technical and operative problems.

  15. Multispectral UV imaging for determination of the tablet coating thickness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novikova, Anna; Carstensen, Jens Michael; Zeitler, J. Axel

    2017-01-01

    The applicability of off-line multispectral ultraviolet (UV) imaging in combination with multivariate data analysis was investigated to determine the coating thickness and its distribution on the tablet surface during lab scale coating. The UV imaging results were compared with the weight gain...... measured for each individual tablet and the corresponding coating thickness and its distribution measured by terahertz pulsed imaging (TPI). Three different tablet formulations were investigated, two of which contained UV active tablet cores. Three coating formulations were applied: Aquacoat® ECD (a mainly...... translucent coating) and Eudragit® NE (a turbid coating containing solid particles). It was shown that UV imaging is a fast and non-destructive method to predict individual tablet weight gain as well as coating thickness. The coating thickness distribution profiles determined by UV imaging correlated...

  16. Actual and Potential Pedagogical Use of Tablets in Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenni Rikala

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study reviews the potential of tablet technology for teaching and learning. In autumn 2012, we conducted a focused survey comprising quantitative and qualitative questions with Finnish teachers (N = 171, from 54 schools. We focused on perceived pedagogical opportunities and the actualized pedagogical potential of tablets at schools. The survey results indicate that the actual usefulness of tablets in schools was significantly less than what teachers perceived as the pedagogical potential. However, the results demonstrate the positive impact these devices are having on teaching and learning, as well as prompting changes in pedagogical perspectives. Teachers stated that tablets can diversify and enhance teaching and learning in many ways, particularly in supporting learners’ motivation and independent learning, and promoting engaging teaching methods. Nevertheless, teachers voiced concern that the student-to-device ratio at the moment is too low, thus serving as a barrier to widespread use of tablets.

  17. Use of tablets for instruction and learning in microbiology labs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Karen Louise; Jelsbak, Vibe Alopaeus; Georgsen, Marianne

    of this project are to develop a technological infrastructure to support students’ work in the lab and to develop teaching and learning resources. Our research question is: How is teaching and learning in the laboratory influenced by the tablets and the following multimodal teaching and learning materials...... and taken notes by hand. Use of tablets in the lab offers new opportunities. In September 2012, nine tablets were introduced into one of the labs of the college. Groups of students use the tablets to access documents, watch video instructions, and to document results and procedures digitally. The objectives......? The empirical part of the project has been documented through field observations in the lab (in writing and with photos). We have found the following to be characteristic of the work of the students: the students use the tablets collaboratively, take more photos than requested, use the video based instructions...

  18. Demonstration of pharmaceutical tablet coating process by injection molding technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puri, Vibha; Brancazio, David; Harinath, Eranda; Martinez, Alexander R; Desai, Parind M; Jensen, Keith D; Chun, Jung-Hoon; Braatz, Richard D; Myerson, Allan S; Trout, Bernhardt L

    2018-01-15

    We demonstrate the coating of tablets using an injection molding (IM) process that has advantage of being solvent free and can provide precision coat features. The selected core tablets comprising 10% w/w griseofulvin were prepared by an integrated hot melt extrusion-injection molding (HME-IM) process. Coating trials were conducted on a vertical injection mold machine. Polyethylene glycol and polyethylene oxide based hot melt extruded coat compositions were used. Tablet coating process feasibility was successfully demonstrated using different coating mold designs (with both overlapping and non-overlapping coatings at the weld) and coat thicknesses of 150 and 300 μm. The resultant coated tablets had acceptable appearance, seal at the weld, and immediate drug release profile (with an acceptable lag time). Since IM is a continuous process, this study opens opportunities to develop HME-IM continuous processes for transforming powder to coated tablets. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. A classification system for tableting behaviors of binary powder mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changquan Calvin Sun

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The ability to predict tableting properties of a powder mixture from individual components is of both fundamental and practical importance to the efficient formulation development of tablet products. A common tableting classification system (TCS of binary powder mixtures facilitates the systematic development of new knowledge in this direction. Based on the dependence of tablet tensile strength on weight fraction in a binary mixture, three main types of tableting behavior are identified. Each type is further divided to arrive at a total of 15 sub-classes. The proposed classification system lays a framework for a better understanding of powder interactions during compaction. Potential applications and limitations of this classification system are discussed.

  20. Monitoring tablet surface roughness during the film coating process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seitavuopio, Paulus; Heinämäki, Jyrki; Rantanen, Jukka

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the change of surface roughness and the development of the film during the film coating process using laser profilometer roughness measurements, SEM imaging, and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis. Surface roughness and texture changes developing during...... the process of film coating tablets were studied by noncontact laser profilometry and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). An EDX analysis was used to monitor the magnesium stearate and titanium dioxide of the tablets. The tablet cores were film coated with aqueous hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, and the film...... coating was performed using an instrumented pilot-scale side-vented drum coater. The SEM images of the film-coated tablets showed that within the first 30 minutes, the surface of the tablet cores was completely covered with a thin film. The magnesium signal that was monitored by SEM-EDX disappeared after...

  1. Formulation and evaluation of glipizide floating-bioadhesive tablets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayvadan K. Patel

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was formulation and in vitro evaluation of floating-bioadhesive tablets to lengthen the stay of glipizide in its absorption area. Effervescent tablets were made using chitosan (CH, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC, carbopolP934 (CP, polymethacrylic acid (PMA, citric acid, and sodium bicarbonate. Tablets with 5% effervescent base had longer lag time than 10%. The type of polymer had no significant effect on the floating lag time. All tablets floated atop the medium for 23-24 hr. Increasing carbopolP934 caused higher bioadhesion than chitosan (p < 0.05. All formulations showed a Higuchi, non-Fickian release mechanism. Tablets with 10% effervescent base, 80% CH/20% HPMC, or 80% CP/20% PMA seemed desirable.

  2. [Troubleshooting of bioinequivalence of compound valsartan tablets].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Da; Zhang, Yi-Fan; Zhan, Yan; Chen, Xiao-Yan; Zhong, Da-Fang

    2014-04-01

    The study aims to evaluate the bioequivalence of valsartan hydrochlorothiazide tablets, and to investigate the potential cause of bioinequivalence. This was a single-center study with an open, randomized double-way crossover design. Test and reference preparations containing 160 mg of valsartan and 25 mg of hydrochlorothiazide were given to 36 healthy male volunteers. Plasma concentrations of valsartan and hydrochlorothiazide were determined simultaneously by LC-MS/MS. The pharmacokinetic parameters and relative bioavailability were calculated, while the bioequivalence between test and reference preparations were evaluated. The dissolution profiles of test and reference preparations in four different mediums were determined via dissolution test and HPLC. The similarity was investigated according to the similarity factors (f2). The F(o-t) and F(0-infinity) were (139.4 +/- 65.2)% and (137.5 +/- 61.2)% for valsartan of test preparations. It led to get the conclusion that test and reference preparations were not bioequivalent for valsartan. A significant difference was observed between test and reference tablets in the valsartan dissolution test of pH 1.2 hydrochloric acid solution. The key factor of the bioinequivalence might be that dissolution of valsartan in acid medium has marked difference between two preparations.

  3. Relationships between response surfaces for tablet characteristics of placebo and API-containing tablets manufactured by direct compression method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Yoshihiro; Tsuji, Takahiro; Shirotori, Kaede; Oishi, Takuya; Kosugi, Atsushi; Kumada, Shungo; Hirai, Daijiro; Takayama, Kozo; Onuki, Yoshinori

    2017-10-30

    In this study, we evaluated the correlation between the response surfaces for the tablet characteristics of placebo and active pharmaceutical ingredient (API)-containing tablets. The quantities of lactose, cornstarch, and microcrystalline cellulose were chosen as the formulation factors. Ten tablet formulations were prepared. The tensile strength (TS) and disintegration time (DT) of tablets were measured as tablet characteristics. The response surfaces for TS and DT were estimated using a nonlinear response surface method incorporating multivariate spline interpolation, and were then compared with those of placebo tablets. A correlation was clearly observed for TS and DT of all APIs, although the value of the response surfaces for TS and DT was highly dependent on the type of API used. Based on this knowledge, the response surfaces for TS and DT of API-containing tablets were predicted from only two and four formulations using regression expression and placebo tablet data, respectively. The results from the evaluation of prediction accuracy showed that this method accurately predicted TS and DT, suggesting that it could construct a reliable response surface for TS and DT with a small number of samples. This technique assists in the effective estimation of the relationships between design variables and pharmaceutical responses during pharmaceutical development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Predictors and correlates for weight changes in patients co-treated with olanzapine and weight mitigating agents; a post-hoc analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinloth Alexandra N

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study focuses on exploring the relationship between changes in appetite or eating behaviors and subsequent weight change for adult patients with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder treated with olanzapine and adjunctive potential weight mitigating pharmacotherapy. The aim is not to compare different weight mitigating agents, but to evaluate patients' characteristics and changes in their eating behaviors during treatment. Identification of patient subgroups with different degrees of susceptibility to the effect of weight mitigating agents during olanzapine treatment may aid clinicians in treatment decisions. Methods Data were obtained from 3 randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 16-week clinical trials. Included were 158 patients with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder and a body mass index (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 who had received olanzapine treatment in combination with nizatidine (n = 68, sibutramine (n = 42, or amantadine (n = 48. Individual patients were analyzed for categorical weight loss ≥ 2 kg and weight gain ≥ 1 kg. Variables that were evaluated as potential predictors of weight outcomes included baseline patient characteristics, factors of the Eating Inventory, individual items of the Eating Behavior Assessment, and the Visual Analog Scale. Results Predictors/correlates of weight loss ≥ 2 kg included: high baseline BMI, low baseline interest in food, and a decrease from baseline to endpoint in appetite, hunger, or cravings for carbohydrates. Reduced cognitive restraint, increase in hunger, and increased overeating were associated with a higher probability of weight gain ≥ 1 kg. Conclusion The association between weight gain and lack of cognitive restraint in the presence of increased appetite suggests potential benefit of psychoeducational counseling in conjunction with adjunctive pharmacotherapeutic agents in limiting weight gain during antipsychotic drug therapy. Trial Registration This analysis was not

  5. Predictors and correlates for weight changes in patients co-treated with olanzapine and weight mitigating agents; a post-hoc analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stauffer, Virginia L; Lipkovich, Ilya; Hoffmann, Vicki Poole; Heinloth, Alexandra N; McGregor, H Scott; Kinon, Bruce J

    2009-03-28

    This study focuses on exploring the relationship between changes in appetite or eating behaviors and subsequent weight change for adult patients with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder treated with olanzapine and adjunctive potential weight mitigating pharmacotherapy. The aim is not to compare different weight mitigating agents, but to evaluate patients' characteristics and changes in their eating behaviors during treatment. Identification of patient subgroups with different degrees of susceptibility to the effect of weight mitigating agents during olanzapine treatment may aid clinicians in treatment decisions. Data were obtained from 3 randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 16-week clinical trials. Included were 158 patients with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder and a body mass index (BMI) > or = 25 kg/m2 who had received olanzapine treatment in combination with nizatidine (n = 68), sibutramine (n = 42), or amantadine (n = 48). Individual patients were analyzed for categorical weight loss > or= 2 kg and weight gain > or = 1 kg. Variables that were evaluated as potential predictors of weight outcomes included baseline patient characteristics, factors of the Eating Inventory, individual items of the Eating Behavior Assessment, and the Visual Analog Scale. Predictors/correlates of weight loss > or = 2 kg included: high baseline BMI, low baseline interest in food, and a decrease from baseline to endpoint in appetite, hunger, or cravings for carbohydrates. Reduced cognitive restraint, increase in hunger, and increased overeating were associated with a higher probability of weight gain > or = 1 kg. The association between weight gain and lack of cognitive restraint in the presence of increased appetite suggests potential benefit of psychoeducational counseling in conjunction with adjunctive pharmacotherapeutic agents in limiting weight gain during antipsychotic drug therapy. This analysis was not a clinical trial and did not involve any medical intervention.

  6. Negative effects of chronic oral chlorpromazine and olanzapine treatment on the performance of tasks designed to assess spatial learning and working memory in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, A V; Warner, S E; Vandenhuerk, L; Pillai, A; Mahadik, S P; Zhang, G; Bartlett, M G

    2008-10-28

    Learning potential and memory capacity are factors that strongly predict the level of rehabilitation and the long-term functional outcome in patients with schizophrenia. Unfortunately, however, the effects of antipsychotic drugs (i.e. the primary treatments for schizophrenia) on these components of cognition are unclear, particularly when they are administered chronically (i.e. a standard clinical practice). In this rodent study we evaluated the effects of different time periods (ranging from 2 weeks to 6 months) of oral treatment with the first generation antipsychotic chlorpromazine (10.0 mg/kg/day), or the second generation antipsychotic olanzapine (10.0 mg/kg/day) on the repeated acquisition of a water maze task (i.e. a method of assessing spatial learning potential in a repeated testing format). We assessed locomotor function (in an open field) and employed a radial arm maze (RAM) task to assess antipsychotic effects (5.0 and 10.0 mg/kg/day doses) on spatial working memory during the treatment period between 15 days and 2 months. Finally, we conducted experiments using liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) to evaluate the therapeutic relevance of our method of drug delivery (oral administration in drinking water). In the water maze experiments, both antipsychotics were associated with impairments in acquisition in the earlier test sessions that could eventually be overcome with repeated testing while olanzapine also impaired retention in probe trials. Both antipsychotics were also associated with impairments in delayed non-match-to-position trials in the RAM and some impairments of motor function (especially in the case of olanzapine) as indicated by slightly reduced swim speeds in the water maze and decreased activity in some components of the open field assessment. Finally, LC-MS/MS studies indicated that the method of antipsychotic administration generated clinically relevant plasma levels in the rat. These animal data indicate that

  7. Using a Virtual Tablet Machine to Improve Student Understanding of the Complex Processes Involved in Tablet Manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattsson, Sofia; Sjöström, Hans-Erik; Englund, Claire

    2016-06-25

    Objective. To develop and implement a virtual tablet machine simulation to aid distance students' understanding of the processes involved in tablet production. Design. A tablet simulation was created enabling students to study the effects different parameters have on the properties of the tablet. Once results were generated, students interpreted and explained them on the basis of current theory. Assessment. The simulation was evaluated using written questionnaires and focus group interviews. Students appreciated the exercise and considered it to be motivational. Students commented that they found the simulation, together with the online seminar and the writing of the report, was beneficial for their learning process. Conclusion. According to students' perceptions, the use of the tablet simulation contributed to their understanding of the compaction process.

  8. Probing of possible olanzapine binding site on human serum albumin: Combination of spectroscopic methods and molecular dynamics simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahlaei, Mohsen; Rahimi, Behnoosh; Ashrafi-Kooshk, Mohammad Reza; Sadrjavadi, Komail; Khodarahmi, Reza

    2015-01-01

    Human serum albumin (HSA)-drug binding affinity is one of the major factors that determine the pharmacokinetics, halftime and bioavailability of drugs in various tissues. In the present study, the interaction of olanzapine (OLZ), a thienobenzodiazepine drug, administered for the treatment of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, with HSA has been studied using spectroscopic methods such as ultraviolet absorbance, fluorescence and FTIR combined with computational procedures. Analyzing of the Stern–Volmer quenching data showed only one primary binding site on HSA with a binding constant of 4.12×10 4 M −1 at 298 K. Thermodynamic analyses showed enthalpy change (ΔH°) and entropy change (ΔS°) were 28.03±3.42 kJ mol −1 and −25.52±11.52 J mol −1 K −1 , respectively. Molecular docking results suggested the hydrophobic residues such as Val 216 , Leu 327 , Ala 350 and polar residues such as Glu 354 play an important role in the drug binding. Decrement in α-helix content of the protein upon OLZ binding was also confirmed by evidences provided by molecular dynamics simulation as well as FTIR spectroscopy. - Highlights: • Leu 327 , Ala 350 as well as hydrophilic residues of HSA play an important role in the binding reaction. • The drug has only one primary binding site on HSA with a binding constant of 4.12×10 4 M −1 at 298 K. • The drug binds near to site I

  9. Probing of possible olanzapine binding site on human serum albumin: Combination of spectroscopic methods and molecular dynamics simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shahlaei, Mohsen, E-mail: mohsenshahlaei@yahoo.com [Nano drug delivery research Center, Research Center, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rahimi, Behnoosh [Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Student research committee, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ashrafi-Kooshk, Mohammad Reza [Medical Biology Research Center, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sadrjavadi, Komail [Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Pharmacognosy and Biotechnology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khodarahmi, Reza, E-mail: rkhodarahmi@mbrc.ac.ir [Medical Biology Research Center, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Pharmacognosy and Biotechnology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-02-15

    Human serum albumin (HSA)-drug binding affinity is one of the major factors that determine the pharmacokinetics, halftime and bioavailability of drugs in various tissues. In the present study, the interaction of olanzapine (OLZ), a thienobenzodiazepine drug, administered for the treatment of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, with HSA has been studied using spectroscopic methods such as ultraviolet absorbance, fluorescence and FTIR combined with computational procedures. Analyzing of the Stern–Volmer quenching data showed only one primary binding site on HSA with a binding constant of 4.12×10{sup 4} M{sup −1} at 298 K. Thermodynamic analyses showed enthalpy change (ΔH°) and entropy change (ΔS°) were 28.03±3.42 kJ mol{sup −1} and −25.52±11.52 J mol{sup −1} K{sup −1}, respectively. Molecular docking results suggested the hydrophobic residues such as Val{sub 216}, Leu{sub 327}, Ala{sub 350} and polar residues such as Glu{sub 354} play an important role in the drug binding. Decrement in α-helix content of the protein upon OLZ binding was also confirmed by evidences provided by molecular dynamics simulation as well as FTIR spectroscopy. - Highlights: • Leu{sub 327}, Ala{sub 350} as well as hydrophilic residues of HSA play an important role in the binding reaction. • The drug has only one primary binding site on HSA with a binding constant of 4.12×10{sup 4} M{sup −1} at 298 K. • The drug binds near to site I.

  10. Værsgo' ta' en tablet. Om brugen af tablets i dansk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorentzen, Rasmus Fink

    2014-01-01

    Hvordan kan vi udvikle elevernes faglighed ved hjælp af it? Hvad er det i det hele taget vigtigt at lære i en tidssvarende folkeskole, så eleverne bliver klædt på til fremtidens samfund? Og kan iPads bruges til dette? Dette kapitel handler om fagdidaktik og tablets i undervisningen.......Hvordan kan vi udvikle elevernes faglighed ved hjælp af it? Hvad er det i det hele taget vigtigt at lære i en tidssvarende folkeskole, så eleverne bliver klædt på til fremtidens samfund? Og kan iPads bruges til dette? Dette kapitel handler om fagdidaktik og tablets i undervisningen....

  11. Composition profiling of seized ecstasy tablets by Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, S E; Burns, D T; Dennis, A C; Matchett, L J; Speers, J S

    2000-10-01

    Raman spectroscopy with far-red excitation has been investigated as a simple and rapid technique for composition profiling of seized ecstasy (MDMA, N-methyl-3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine) tablets. The spectra obtained are rich in vibrational bands and allow the active drug and excipient used to bulk the tablets to be identified. Relative band heights can be used to determine drug/excipient ratios and the degree of hydration of the drug while the fact that 50 tablets per hour can be analysed allows large numbers of spectra to be recorded. The ability of Raman spectroscopy to distinguish between ecstasy tablets on the basis of their chemical composition is illustrated here by a sample set of 400 tablets taken from a large seizure of > 50,000 tablets that were found in eight large bags. The tablets are all similar in appearance and carry the same logo. Conventional analysis by GC-MS showed they contained MDMA. Initial Raman studies of samples from each of the eight bags showed that despite some tablet-to-tablet variation within each bag the contents could be classified on the basis of the excipients used. The tablets in five of the bags were sorbitol-based, two were cellulose-based and one bag contained tablets with a glucose excipient. More extensive analysis of 50 tablets from each of a representative series of sample bags have distribution profiles that showed the contents of each bag were approximately normally distributed about a mean value, rather than being mixtures of several discrete types. Two of the sorbitol-containing sample sets were indistinguishable while a third was similar but not identical to these, in that it contained the same excipient and MDMA with the same degree of hydration but had a slightly different MDMA/sorbitol ratio. The cellulose-based samples were badly manufactured and showed considerable tablet-to-tablet variation in their drug/excipient ratio while the glucose-based tablets had a tight distribution in their drug/excipient ratios

  12. 78 FR 15956 - Guidance for Industry on Tablet Scoring: Nomenclature, Labeling, and Data for Evaluation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-13

    ...] Guidance for Industry on Tablet Scoring: Nomenclature, Labeling, and Data for Evaluation; Availability...) is announcing the availability of a guidance for industry entitled ``Tablet Scoring: Nomenclature... evaluating and labeling tablets that have been scored. (A scoring feature facilitates tablet splitting, which...

  13. Characterising the disintegration properties of tablets in opaque media using texture analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Scheuerle, Rebekah L.; Gerrard, Stephen E.; Kendall, Richard A.; Tuleu, Catherine; Slater, Nigel K.H.; Mahbubani, Krishnaa T.

    2015-01-01

    Tablet disintegration characterisation is used in pharmaceutical research, development, and quality control. Standard methods used to characterise tablet disintegration are often dependent on visual observation in measurement of disintegration times. This presents a challenge for disintegration studies of tablets in opaque, physiologically relevant media that could be useful for tablet formulation optimisation. In this study is explored an application of texture analysis disintegration testin...

  14. Quality Enhancement by Inclusion Complex Formation of Simvastatin Tablets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emőke Rédai

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Simvastatin is an inhibitor of hydroxy-methyl-glutaryl-coenzyme A reductase, used in the treatment of hypercholesterolemia. To enhance its bioavailability by inclusion complexation, as host molecule randommethyl-β-cyclodextrin had been used. After evaluating the complexes we chose the kneading product in 1:2 molar ratio for incorporation of 10 mg simvastatin tablets. Materials and methods: We prepared homogenous mixtures of the inclusion complex and some excipients. The tablets were prepared by direct compression. The tablets were evaluated in regard to: weight uniformity, thickness, diameter, hardness, friability, disintegration and dissolution profile. Results: Weights are in the range of 196-208 mg, diameter 6.83-6.86 mm, height 3.86-4.01 mm, hardness 78.3-113.1 N, friability 0.75- 1.19 %, disintegration above 15 minutes. The dissolved amounts of simvastatin from the tablets are higher compared to the dissolution of pure simvastatin, but lower than the dissolution of the complex itself. Excipients, like disintegrants and lubricants greatly influence the dissolution properties of the tablets. Conclusions: According to our results, tablets containing inclusion complex of simvastatin exhibit better solubility, according to the dissolved amount of simvastatin, than pure drug alone. Proper physical parameters of the tablets are obtained by application of 5 % Primellose

  15. Tablet based distributed intelligent load management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yan; Zhou, Siyuan

    2018-01-09

    A facility is connected to an electricity utility and is responsive to Demand Response Events. A plurality of devices is each individually connected to the electricity grid via an addressable switch connected to a secure network that is enabled to be individually switched off by a server. An occupant of a room in control of the plurality of devices provides via a Human Machine Interface on a tablet a preferred order of switching off the plurality of devices in case of a Demand Response Event. A configuration file based at least partially on the preferred order and on a severity of the Demand Response Events determines which devices which of the plurality devices will be switched off. The server accesses the configuration file and switches off the devices included in the configuration file.

  16. TABLET (MOBILE TECHNOLOGY FOR PROFESSIONAL MUSIC EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorbunova Irina B.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article highlights issues associated with the introduction of cloud-centric and tablet (mobile devices in music education, use of which confronts the teacher-musician fundamentally new challenges. So, it's a development of practical teaching skills with the assistance of modern technology, a search of approaches to the organization of educational process, a creation of conditions for the continuity between traditional music learning and information technologies in educational process. Authors give the characteristics of cloud computing and the perspective of its use in music schools (distance learning, sharing, cloud services, etc.. Also you can see in this article the overview of some mobile applications (for OS Android and iOS and their use in the educational process.

  17. Once Upon a Tablet: A School Toy in the Making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Froes, Isabel

    2015-01-01

    exploring what emergent behaviors are present when preschool children use and play with tablets in their formal learning environments. In order to map the array of play and usage of such devices for this research, after the first round of observations, the tablet taxonomy was outlined and has been applied......The current paper introduces the definitions of playful literacy and multimodal hyper-intertextuality, key concepts when researching children’s use of digital tablets. The pilot investigation, which took place in spring 2014 in Denmark, is part of a larger cross-cultural comparative project...

  18. Authentication of gold nanoparticle encoded pharmaceutical tablets using polarimetric signatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnicer, Artur; Arteaga, Oriol; Suñé-Negre, Josep M; Javidi, Bahram

    2016-10-01

    The counterfeiting of pharmaceutical products represents concerns for both industry and the safety of the general public. Falsification produces losses to companies and poses health risks for patients. In order to detect fake pharmaceutical tablets, we propose producing film-coated tablets with gold nanoparticle encoding. These coated tablets contain unique polarimetric signatures. We present experiments to show that ellipsometric optical techniques, in combination with machine learning algorithms, can be used to distinguish genuine and fake samples. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report using gold nanoparticles encoded with optical polarimetric classifiers to prevent the counterfeiting of pharmaceutical products.

  19. Determination of uranium by luminescent method (tablet variant)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sergeev, A.N.; Yufa, B.Ya.

    1985-01-01

    A new tablet variant of luminescent determination of uranium in rocks is developed. The analytical process includes the following operations: sample decomposition, uranium separation from luminescence quencher impurities, preparation of luminescent sample (tablet), photometry of the tablet. The method has two variants developed: the first one is characterized by a more hard decomposition, sample mass being 0.2 g; the second variant has a better detection limit (5x10 -6 %), the sample mass being 0.2-1 g. Procedures of the sample preparation for both variants of analysis are described

  20. Effects of protoporphyrin disodium (Prolmon tablets) during radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwata, Takeo; Fukutomi, Toshio

    1981-01-01

    Effects of Prolmon tablets (medicine for hepatitis) on radiation syndrome (fatigue, nausea, vomiting, etc) which appeared during an early stage of radiotherapy were studied. Two tablets of Prolmon were administered to 10 patients with various tumors three times a day with concurrent use of other medicines during radiotherapy. A marked change in GOT and GPT values did not found, and the treatment was completed without any radiation syndrome in all patients. It was suggested that the administration of Prolmon tablets together with nutrients and vitamine preparations was effective to prevent radiation syndrome. (Tsunoda, M.)

  1. Does the performance of wet granulation and tablet hardness affect the drug dissolution profile of carvedilol in matrix tablets?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Košir, Darjan; Ojsteršek, Tadej; Vrečer, Franc

    2018-06-14

    Wet granulation is mostly used process for manufacturing matrix tablets. Compared to the direct compression method, it allows for a better flow and compressibility properties of compression mixtures. Granulation, including process parameters and tableting, can influence critical quality attributes (CQAs) of hydrophilic matrix tablets. One of the most important CQAs is the drug release profile. We studied the influence of granulation process parameters (type of nozzle and water quantity used as granulation liquid) and tablet hardness on the drug release profile. Matrix tablets contained HPMC K4M hydrophilic matrix former and carvedilol as a model drug. The influence of selected HPMC characteristics on the drug release profile was also evaluated using two additional HPMC batches. For statistical evaluation, partial least square (PLS) models were generated for each time point of the drug release profile using the same number of latent factors. In this way, it was possible to evaluate how the importance of factors influencing drug dissolution changes in dependence on time throughout the drug release profile. The results of statistical evaluation show that the granulation process parameters (granulation liquid quantity and type of nozzle) and tablet hardness significantly influence the release profile. On the other hand, the influence of HPMC characteristics is negligible in comparison to the other factors studied. Using a higher granulation liquid quantity and the standard nozzle type results in larger granules with a higher density and lower porosity, which leads to a slower drug release profile. Lower tablet hardness also slows down the release profile.

  2. The present and the future of the tablet periodicals in Czech Republic

    OpenAIRE

    Kubíčková, Jana Ada

    2016-01-01

    The Thesis maps the Czech tablet magazine market tablet and describes possible approaches to tablet magazines' creation and distribution. First chapter outlines the historical timeline of tablet magazines development both in the Czech Republic and abroad, and maps the current situation of the Czech market. The chapter defines a concept of "strictly tablet magazine" and presents possible approaches to a production of such magazines. The following chapter analyses the concept from the new media...

  3. Security Approaches in Using Tablet Computers for Primary Data Collection in Clinical Research

    OpenAIRE

    Wilcox, Adam B.; Gallagher, Kathleen; Bakken, Suzanne

    2013-01-01

    Next-generation tablets (iPads and Android tablets) may potentially improve the collection and management of clinical research data. The widespread adoption of tablets, coupled with decreased software and hardware costs, has led to increased consideration of tablets for primary research data collection. When using tablets for the Washington Heights/Inwood Infrastructure for Comparative Effectiveness Research (WICER) project, we found that the devices give rise to inherent security issues asso...

  4. Life-Span Differences in the Uses and Gratifications of Tablets: Implications for Older Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Magsamen-Conrad, Kate; Dowd, John; Abuljadail, Mohammad; Alsulaiman, Saud; Shareefi, Adnan

    2015-01-01

    This study extends Uses and Gratifications theory by examining the uses and gratifications of a new technological device, the tablet computer, and investigating the differential uses and gratifications of tablet computers across the life-span. First, we utilized a six-week tablet training intervention to adapt and extend existing measures to the tablet as a technological device. Next, we used paper-based and online surveys (N=847), we confirmed four main uses of tablets: 1) Information Seekin...

  5. Does participation in a weight control program also improve clinical and functional outcomes for Chinese patients with schizophrenia treated with olanzapine?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montgomery W

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available William Montgomery,1 Tamas Treuer,2 Wenyu Ye,3 Hai Bo Xue,4 Sheng Hu Wu,4 Li Liu,4 Zbigniew Kadziola,5 Michael D Stensland,6 Haya Ascher-Svanum7 1Global Health Outcomes Eli Lilly Australia Pty Ltd, West Ryde, NSW, Australia; 2Neuroscience Research, Eli Lilly and Company, Budapest, Hungary; 3Global Statistical Sciences, Lilly Suzhou Pharmaceutical Company, Ltd, Shanghai, People's Republic of China; 4Medical Department, Lilly Suzhou Pharmaceutical Company, Ltd, Shanghai, People's Republic of China; 5Global Statistical Sciences, Eli Lilly GmbH, Vienna, Republic of Austria; 6Agile Outcomes Research, Inc., Rochester, MN, USA; 7Global Health Outcomes, Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, IN, USA Objectives: This study examined whether participation in a weight control program (WCP by patients with schizophrenia treated with olanzapine was also associated with improvements in clinical and functional outcomes. Methods: A post-hoc analysis was conducted using data from the Chinese subgroup (n=330 of a multi-country, 6-month, prospective, observational study of outpatients with schizophrenia who initiated or switched to oral olanzapine. At study entry and monthly visits, participants were assessed with the Clinical Global Impression of Severity, and measures of patient insight, social activities, and work impairment. The primary comparison was between the 153 patients who participated in a WCP at study entry (n=93 or during the study (n=60 and the 177 patients who did not participate in a weight control program (non-WCP. Mixed Models for Repeated Measures with baseline covariates were used to compare outcomes over time. Kaplan–Meier survival analysis was used to assess time to response. Results: Participants had a mean age of 29.0 years and 29.3 years, and 51.0% and 57.6% were female for WCP and non-WCP groups, respectively. Average initiated daily dose for olanzapine was 9.5±5.4 mg. WCP participants gained less weight than non-participants (3.9 kg vs

  6. Tablets, læring og nye forretningsmodeller

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Pernille Viktoria Kathja

    2011-01-01

    D. 6 oktober satte Netværk om E-Læring (NoEL) i samarbejde med InVIO fokus på Tablet-computing igennem et heldagsarrangement i Aalborg Universitets nye omgivelser på Nyhavnsgade 14. Formålet med dagen var, at stille skarpt på tablet formatet og udforske potentialerne og udfordringerne med særligt...... vægt på iPads til mobillæring og nye forretningsmodeller. Tablet –computing er de seneste år blevet mere og mere udbredt indenfor både uddannelse, arbejdsliv og i fritiden. Ønsket for dagen var derfor at bidrage med diskussion og videndeling omkring, hvad den nye håndholdte touch teknologi kommer til...... at betyde for læring, samarbejde og forretningsmodeller og dermed hvilke nye vilkår tablet computing kan bidrage med indenfor arbejdsliv og uddannelse....

  7. Diclofenac transdermal patch versus the sustained release tablet: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    polyvinyl pyrrolidone K30, with turpentine oil and sesame oil as penetration enhancers. ... therapeutic advantages over conventional oral tablets in terms of prolonged release and improvement of ..... is simple to adopt and cost-effective. In this ...

  8. Touchscreen Tablets: Coordinating Action and Perception for Mathematical Cognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duijzer, A.C.G.; Shayan, S.; Bakker, A.; van der Schaaf, M.F.; Abrahamson, Dor

    2017-01-01

    Proportional reasoning is important and yet difficult for many students, who often use additive strategies, where multiplicative strategies are better suited. In our research we explore the potential of an interactive touchscreen tablet application to promote proportional reasoning by creating

  9. Spectrophotometric Determination of Cilostazol in Tablet Dosage Form

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    Purpose: To develop simple, rapid and selective spectrophotometric methods for ... Conclusion: These validated methods may be useful for routine analysis of cilostazol ... Keywords: Cilostazol tablets, UV spectrophotometry, Linear regression ...

  10. wax matrix tablets and its implication on dissolution prof

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    acetaminophen-wax matrix tablet and hence its implication on dissolution profile. Acetaminophen-wax ... inertness, cost effectiveness, non- toxicity and more importantly their ... Liver Poole, England) at constant load (30 arbitrary units on the ...

  11. Microbiological Quality of Blister Pack Tablets in Community ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Blister pack, Community pharmacy, Good Manufacturing Practice, Microbial contamination,. Quality control ... High levels of microbial contamination in blister-packed tablets ... and their drugs approved by the Jordan Food and Drug ...

  12. Uneven Distribution of Microgranules in Divided Lansoprazole Tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teitelbaum, Gillian A; Teitelbaum, Jonathan E

    2015-10-01

    Lansoprazole is a proton pump inhibitor commonly used in children lansoprazole-containing microgranules within each half of a divided tablet. Clinicians must determine whether this difference is clinically relevant when prescribing "divided" medication to children.

  13. (PC) tablet penetration among undergraduate students of University ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Random sampling technique was adopted to select 200 students from ... The findings of the study revealed that PC tablet is a learning tool as students easily view ... computer, information and communication technology, mobile technologies ...

  14. Formulation of Fast-Dissolving Tablets of Promethazine Theoclate

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research October 2010; 9 (5): 489-497 ... gastrointestinal tract in order to achieve therapeutic success. Fast- ... The blends were lubricated with 2. %w/w each ..... Thus, addition of crospovidone to the tablet ...

  15. Quantitative analysis of some brands of chloroquine tablets ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Quantitative analysis of some brands of chloroquine tablets marketed in Maiduguri using spectrophotometric ... and compared with that of the standard, wavelength of maximum absorbance at 331nm for chloroquine. ... HOW TO USE AJOL.

  16. The Pharmaceutical Quality of Brands of Metformin Tablets in Ogun ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. The pharmaceutical quality of randomly selected brands of metformin tablets used (prescribed or dispensed) by Community Pharmacists and Doctors in Ogun state, southwestern Nigeria, were evaluated. ... The physicochemical properties of the different brands were analysed using the Pharmacopoeia standard.

  17. Tablet Computers on Trial: A Transformative Force in Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjartansdóttir, Skúlína Hlíf; Jakobsdóttir, Sólveig

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we present the results of an evaluation study of a development project for the introduction and use of tablet computers (iPads) at the lower secondary level in Nordlinga school, a compulsory school in Reykjavík. In the study, we assess the impact of the use of tablet computers on instruction and students' learning in grades 9 to 10,…

  18. FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF ISONIAZID AND ETHAMBUTOL HYDROCHLORIDE COMBINATION TABLETS

    OpenAIRE

    Margret Chandira R; Jayakar B; Palanisamy P.

    2012-01-01

    Ethambutol hydrochloride and Isoniazid Drugs are used as Antituberculosis agents. It is mainly used in the initial Treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis. Here in present study compressed tablet of Ethambutol hydrochloride and Isoniazid prepared by using HPMC, HPC, and PVPK -30 as binders. Compressed tablets of Ethambutol hydrochloride and Isoniazid were prepared by wet granulation method. Among different trials of F1 to F9 with wet granulation, the trial F1 showed satisfactory in-vitro drug re...

  19. 21 CFR 520.1720a - Phenylbutazone tablets and boluses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Section 520.1720a Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES...-mg or 1-g tablets, or 2- or 4-g boluses, in dogs and horses. (2) Nos. 000010 and 059130 for use of 100- or 200-mg or 1-g tablets in dogs and horses. (3) Nos. 000856 and 061623 for use of 100-mg or 1-g...

  20. Bioavailability of syrup and tablet formulations of cefetamet pivoxil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducharme, M P; Edwards, D J; McNamara, P J; Stoeckel, K

    1993-12-01

    Two studies examining the bioavailability of cefetamet pivoxil in healthy male subjects were conducted. In the first, the bioavailabilities of the 250-mg (M250) and M500 tablet formulations of cefetamet pivoxil to be marketed were compared with that of a tablet used in clinical trials. All products were given with food at a dose of 500 mg. In the second study, the bioavailability of the syrup formulation was evaluated under both fasting and nonfasting conditions and compared with that of the M500 tablet formulation given with food. The absolute bioavailabilities of the M500 and M250 tablets (55.0% +/- 8.0% and 55.7% +/- 7.0%, respectively) were not significantly different from that of the clinical-trial formulation (49.8% +/- 8.5%). The newer tablet formulations exhibited faster absorption as evidenced by higher peak concentrations (3.8 [M500] and 3.9 [M250] mg/liter compared with 3.2 mg/liter for the clinical-trial formulation), a shorter time to peak concentration, and a shorter mean absorption time. The syrup formulation was found to have significantly lower absolute bioavailability (37.9% +/- 6.0%) compared with that of the M500 tablet (58.4% +/- 9.0%) when both were given with food. Food had no significant effect on the bioavailability of the syrup, which averaged 34.0% +/- 8.6% under fasting conditions, although absorption was delayed by food (mean absorption time increased from 2.2 to 3.9 h). This contrasts with the results of previous studies documenting significant increases in tablet bioavailability with food. Despite the lower bioavailability of the syrup, unbound-cefetamet concentrations are expected to remain above the MICs for 90% of the strains tested for susceptible organisms for approximately 10 h of the usual 12-h dosing interval with both syrup and tablet formulations of cefetamet pivoxil given with food.

  1. Tablets enhance play by taking toddlers on a digital adventure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Stine Liv

    2017-01-01

    Tablets do not necessarily make children passive or sedentary. In a Danish nursery, a group of scientists, educators, and education consultants have studied how digital technologies can be used to enhance playful activities.......Tablets do not necessarily make children passive or sedentary. In a Danish nursery, a group of scientists, educators, and education consultants have studied how digital technologies can be used to enhance playful activities....

  2. Customer vs. e-tailer:how tablet affects mobile commerce

    OpenAIRE

    Olaleye, S. A. (Sunday Adewale)

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The emergence of mobile devices, especially the tablet, has created chances and challenges for mobile commerce vendors across the continents, as they seek to increase their profits and optimize the users’ online shopping experience. This study examines how mobile devices affect mobile commerce with regards to tablet usage for online shopping in developed and developing nations. The intervention of mobile devices in mobile commerce should be aboveboard, so that it ca...

  3. Why do adult women in Vietnam take iron tablets?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Yun

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Conducting iron supplementation programs has been a major strategy to reduce iron deficiency anemia in pregnancy. However, only a few countries have reported improvements in the anemia rate at a national level. The strategies used for control of nutrition problems need regular review to maintain and improve their effectiveness. The objective of this study was to analyze the factors in compliance with taking iron tablets, where daily doses of iron (60 mg and folic acid (400 μg were distributed in rural Vietnamese communes. Methods A cross sectional survey was conducted in Nghe An province, Vietnam in January, 2003. The study population was adult women aged less than 35 years who delivered babies between August 1st 2001 and December 1st 2002 (n = 205, of which 159 took part in the study. Data for the study were collected from a series of workshops with community leaders, focus group discussions with community members and a questionnaire survey. Results Improvements in the rate of anemia was not given a high priority as one of the commune's needs, but the participants still made efforts to continue taking iron tablets. Two major factors motivated the participants to continue taking iron tablets; their experience of fewer spells of dizziness (50%, and their concern for the health of their newborn baby (54%. When examining the reasons for taking iron tablets for at least 5–9 months, the most important factor was identified as 'a frequent supply of iron tablets' (OR = 11.93, 95% CI: 4.33–32.85. Conclusion The study found that multiple poor environmental risk factors discouraged women from taking iron tablets continuously. The availability (frequent supply of iron tablets was the most effective way to help adult women to continue taking iron tablets.

  4. Ordinance on distribution of iodine tablets to the population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This Ordinance provides for the organization of supplies of iodine tablets to the population. The tablets will be held in case of occurrences that might endanger the population following an accident provoking the emission of radioactive iodine. The Federal Health Ministry is responsible for organizing the supply to the appropriate bodies for distribution to the population. The Ordinance entered into force on 1 August 1992. (NEA)

  5. In vivo pharmacological evaluations of novel olanzapine analogues in rats: a potential new avenue for the treatment of schizophrenia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somayeh Jafari

    Full Text Available Olanzapine (Olz is one of the most effective antipsychotic drugs commonly used for treating schizophrenia. Unfortunately, Olz administration is associated with severe weight gain and metabolic disturbances. Both patients and clinicians are highly interested in the development of new antipsychotics which are as effective as atypical antipsychotics but which have a lower propensity to induce metabolic side effects. In the present study, we examined two new derivatives of Olz; OlzEt (2-ethyl-4-(4'-methylpiperazin-1'-yl-10Hbenzo[b]thieno[2,3-e][1,4]diazepine, and OlzHomo (2-ethyl-4-(4'-methyl-1',4'-diazepan-1'-yl-10H-benzo[b]thieno[2,3-e] [1,4]diazepine, for their tendency to induce weight gain in rats. Weight gain and metabolic changes were measured in female Sprague Dawley rats. Animals were treated orally with Olz, OlzEt, OlzHomo (3 or 6 mg/kg/day, or vehicle (n = 8, three times daily at eight-hour intervals for 5 weeks. Furthermore, a phencyclidine (PCP-treated rat model was used to examine the prevention of PCP-induced hyperlocomotor activity relevant for schizophrenia therapy. Male Sprague Dawley rats were pre-treated with a single dose (3 mg/kg/day of Olz, OlzEt, OlzHomo, or vehicle (n = 12, for 2 weeks. Locomotor activity was recorded following a subcutaneous injection with either saline or PCP (10 mg/kg. Olz was found to induce weight gain, hyperphagia, visceral fat accumulation, and metabolic changes associated with reduced histamatergic H1 receptor density in the hypothalamus of treated rats. In contrast, OlzEt and OlzHomo presented promising antipsychotic effects, which did not induce weight gain or fat deposition in the treated animals. Behavioural analysis showed OlzEt to attenuate PCP-induced hyperactivity to a level similar to that of Olz; however, OlzHomo showed a lower propensity to inhibit these stereotyped behaviours. Our data suggest that the therapeutic effectiveness of OlzHomo may be delivered at a higher dose than

  6. Formulation, Characterization and Physicochemical Evaluation of Potassium Citrate Effervescent Tablets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Fattahi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study was to design and formulation of potassium citrate effervescent tablet for reduction of calcium oxalate and urate kidney stones in patients suffering from kidney stones. Methods: In this study, 13 formulations were prepared from potassium citrate and effervescent base in different concentration. The flowability of powders and granules was studied. Then effervescent tablets were prepared by direct compression, fusion and wet granulation methods. The prepared tablets were evaluated for hardness, friability, effervescent time, pH, content uniformity. To amend taste of formulations, different flavoring agents were used and then panel test was done by using Latin Square method by 30 volunteers. Results: Formulations obtained from direct compression and fusion methods had good flow but low hardness. Wet granulation improves flowability and other physicochemical properties such as acceptable hardness, effervescence time ≤3 minutes, pH<6, friability < 1%, water percentage < 0.5% and accurate content uniformity. In panel test, both of combination flavors; (orange - lemon and (strawberry - raspberry had good acceptability. Conclusion: The prepared tablets by wet granulation method using PVP solution had more tablet hardness. It is a reproducible process and suitable to produce granules that are compressed into effervescent tablets due to larger agglomerates.

  7. Development and evaluation of microporous osmotic tablets of diltiazem hydrochloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afifa Bathool

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Microporous osmotic tablet of diltiazem hydrochloride was developed for colon targeting. These prepared microporous osmotic pump tablet did not require laser drilling to deliver the drug to the specific site of action. The tablets were prepared by wet granulation method. The prepared tablets were coated with microporous semipermeable membrane and enteric polymer using conventional pan coating process. The incorporation of sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS, a leachable pore-forming agent, could form in situ delivery pores while coming in contact with gastrointestinal medium. The effect of formulation variables was studied by changing the amounts of sodium alginate and NaCMC in the tablet core, osmogen, and that of pore-forming agent (SLS used in the semipermeable coating. As the amount of hydrophilic polymers increased, drug release rate prolonged. It was found that drug release was increased as the concentration of osmogen and pore-former was increased. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and Differential scanning calorimetry results showed that there was no interaction between drug and polymers. Scanning electron microscopic studies showed the formation of pores after predetermined time of coming in contact with dissolution medium. The formation of pores was dependent on the amount of pore former used in the semipermeable membrane. in vitro results showed acid-resistant, timed release at an almost zero order up to 24 hours. The developed osmotic tablets could be effectively used for prolonged delivery of Diltiazem HCl.

  8. Multispectral UV Imaging for Determination of the Tablet Coating Thickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novikova, Anna; Carstensen, Jens M; Zeitler, J Axel; Rades, Thomas; Leopold, Claudia S

    2017-06-01

    The applicability of off-line multispectral UV imaging in combination with multivariate data analysis was investigated to determine the coating thickness and its distribution on the tablet surface during lab-scale coating. The UV imaging results were compared with the weight gain measured for each individual tablet and the corresponding coating thickness and its distribution measured by terahertz pulsed imaging (TPI). Three different tablet formulations were investigated, 2 of which contained UV-active tablet cores. Three coating formulations were applied: Aquacoat® ECD (a mainly translucent coating) and Eudragit® NE (a turbid coating containing solid particles). It was shown that UV imaging is a fast and nondestructive method to predict individual tablet weight gain as well as coating thickness. The coating thickness distribution profiles determined by UV imaging correlated to the results of the TPI measurements. UV imaging appears to hold a significant potential as a process analytical technology tool for determination of the tablet coating thickness and its distribution resulting from its high measurement speed, high molar absorptivity, and a high scattering coefficient, in addition to relatively low costs. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Utilization of date syrup as a tablet binder, comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alanazi, Fars Kaed

    2010-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of using dates syrup as a tablet binder. Dates syrup (40%, 50%, 60% w/w dates syrup:water) was utilized for the granulation of sodium bicarbonate and calcium carbonate as examples for water-soluble and water-insoluble materials; correspondingly. Those two materials represent examples of bulky drugs as well. Starch paste (10% w/w starch in water) and sucrose syrup (50% w/w sucrose in water), the well-known tablet binders, were used in the granulation of the same materials for the sake of comparison. The granulations were evaluated with regard to particle size and particle size distribution, granule strength, bulk density, flowability, moisture content and compression behavior. In addition, tablets prepared and evaluated from these granules. Taste and flavor of the prepared tablet have been tested by seven healthy volunteers. Within the scope of this work, dates syrup showed excellent properties as a tablet binder in comparison to starch paste or sucrose syrup for the granulation of both water-soluble and water-insoluble materials. Also, better flavoring and masking taste have been noticed from an evaluation by human volunteers demonstrating the usefulness of the date syrup as sweetener and flavoring the tablets in addition to its use as binder.

  10. Ultrasound transmission measurements for tensile strength evaluation of tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonaho, Simo-Pekka; Takala, T Aleksi; Kuosmanen, Marko; Ketolainen, Jarkko

    2011-05-16

    Ultrasound transmission measurements were performed to evaluate the tensile strength of tablets. Tablets consisting of one ingredient were compressed from dibasic calcium phosphate dehydrate, two grades of microcrystalline cellulose and two grades of lactose monohydrate powders. From each powder, tablets with five different tensile strengths were directly compressed. Ultrasound transmission measurements were conducted on every tablet at frequencies of 2.25 MHz, 5 MHz and 10 MHz and the speed of sound was calculated from the acquired waveforms. The tensile strength of the tablets was determined using a diametrical mechanical testing machine and compared to the calculated speed of sound values. It was found that the speed of sound increased with the tensile strength for the tested excipients. There was a good correlation between the speed of sound and tensile strength. Moreover, based on the statistical tests, the groups with different tensile strengths can be differentiated from each other by measuring the speed of sound. Thus, the ultrasound transmission measurement technique is a potentially useful method for non-destructive and fast evaluation of the tensile strength of tablets. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Triiodothyronine and thyroxine content of desiccated thyroid tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees-Jones, R W; Larsen, P R

    1977-11-01

    Triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) were measured by radioimmunoassay in Pronase hydrolysates of four lots each of 1- and 2-grain tablets of desiccated thyroid (Thyroid, Armour) and thyroglobulin (Proloid, Warner-Chilcott). The methodology used was verified by studies of tablets containing known quantities of T4 and T3. One grain of desiccated thyroid contained 12 +/- 1 and 64 +/- 3 microgram (mean +/- SD) of T3 and T4 per tablet, respectively (T4/T3 molar ratio, 4.3). A 1-grain tablet of thyroglobulin contained 16 +/- 2 and 55 +/- 5 microgram of T3 and T4, respectively with a T4/T3 ratio of 2.9. Two-grain tablets generally contained twice the quantity of T3 and T4 in the 1-grain preparations. The variation in T3 and T4 content between the four lots of each tablet strength for each product was 10% or less. These estimates of T3 and T4 content are 1.5- to 2-fold greater than those previously published. This difference probably results from the more sophisticated methodology now available which does not require chromatographic separation of T3 and T4 or iodometry. Using calculations based on published estimates of T4 and T3 absorption and of the T3/T4 potency ratio, it would appear that the T3 content of desiccated thyroid and thyroglobulin provide approximately 39% and 51%, respectively, of the thyromimetic activity of these two medications.

  12. Desktop 3D printing of controlled release pharmaceutical bilayer tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaled, Shaban A; Burley, Jonathan C; Alexander, Morgan R; Roberts, Clive J

    2014-01-30

    Three dimensional (3D) printing was used as a novel medicine formulation technique for production of viable tablets capable of satisfying regulatory tests and matching the release of standard commercial tablets. Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC 2208) (Methocel™ K100M Premium) and poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) (Carbopol(®) 974P NF) were used as a hydrophilic matrix for a sustained release (SR) layer. Hypromellose(®) (HPMC 2910) was used as a binder while microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) (Pharmacel(®) 102) and sodium starch glycolate (SSG) (Primojel(®)) were used as disintegrants for an immediate release (IR) layer. Commercial guaifenesin bi-layer tablets (GBT) were used as a model drug (Mucinex(®)) for this study. There was a favourable comparison of release of the active guaifenesin from the printed hydrophilic matrix compared with the commercially available GBT. The printed formulations were also evaluated for physical and mechanical properties such as weight variation, friability, hardness and thickness as a comparison to the commercial tablet and were within acceptable range as defined by the international standards stated in the United States Pharmacopoeia (USP). All formulations (standard tablets and 3D printed tablets) showed Korsmeyer-Peppas n values between 0.27 and 0.44 which indicates Fickian diffusion drug release through a hydrated HPMC gel layer. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Bioavailability and stability of erythromycin delayed release tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogwal, S; Xide, T U

    2001-12-01

    Erythromycin is available as the free base, ethylsuccinate, estolate, stearate, gluceptate, and lactobionate derivatives. When given orally erythromycin and its derivatives except the estolate are inactivated to some extent by the gastric acid and poor absorption may result. To establish whether delayed release erythromycin tablets meet the bioequivalent requirement for the market. Sectrophotometric analysis was used to determine the dissolution percentage of the tablets in vitro. High performance liquid chromatography and IBM/XT microcomputer was used to determine the bioavailability and pharmacokinetic parameters in vivo. Dissolution percentage in thirty minutes reached 28.9% and in sixty minutes erythromycin was completely released. The parameters of the delayed release tablets were Tlag 2.3 hr, Tmax.4.5 hr, and Cmax 2.123 g/ml Ka 0.38048 hr(-1) T (1/2) 1.8 hr, V*C/F 49.721 AUC 12.9155. The relative bioavailability of erythromycin delayed release tablet to erythromycin capsules was 105.31% The content, appearance, and dissolution bioavailability of delayed release erythromycin tablets conforms to the United States pharmacopoeia standards. The tablets should be stored in a cool and dry place in airtight containers and the shelf life is temporarily assigned two years.

  14. Preparation and biological efficacy of haddock bone calcium tablets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Jiancong; Deng, Shanggui; Xie, Chao; Tong, Guozhong

    2010-03-01

    To investigate the possible use of waste products obtained after processing haddock, the present study prepared haddock bone calcium powder by NaOH and ethanol soaking (alkalinealcohol method) and prepared haddock bone calcium tablets using the powder in combination with appropriate excipients. The biological efficacy of the haddock bone calcium tablets was investigated using Wistar rats as an experiment model. Results show that the optimal parameters for the alkalinealcohol method are: NaOH concentration 1 mol/L, immersion time 30 h; ethanol concentration 60%, immersion time 15 h. A mixture of 2% polyvinylpyrrolidone in ethanol was used as an excipient at a ratio of 1:2 to full-cream milk powder, without the use of a disintegrating agent. This process provided satisfactory tablets in terms of rigidity and taste. Animal studies showed that the haddock bone calcium tablets at a dose of 2 g·kg-1·d-1 or 5g·kg-1·d-1 significantly increased blood calcium and phosphorus levels and bone calcium content in rats. Therefore, these tablets could be used for calcium supplementation and prevent osteoporosis. Although the reasons of high absorption in the rats fed with haddock bone calcium tablets are unclear, it is suggested that there are some factors, such as treatment with method of alkaline-alcohol or the added milk, may play positive roles in increasing absorption ratio.

  15. Influence of compression forces on tablets disintegration by AC Biosusceptometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corá, Luciana A; Fonseca, Paulo R; Américo, Madileine F; Oliveira, Ricardo B; Baffa, Oswaldo; Miranda, José Ricardo A

    2008-05-01

    Analysis of physical phenomena that occurs during tablet disintegration has been studied by several experimental approaches; however none of them satisfactorily describe this process. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of compression force on the tablets by associating the AC Biosusceptometry with consolidated methods in order to validate the biomagnetic technique as a tool for quality control in pharmaceutical processes. Tablets obtained at five compression levels were submitted to mechanical properties tests. For uncoated tablets, water uptake and disintegration force measurements were performed in order to compare with magnetic data. For coated tablets, magnetic measurements were carried out to establish a relationship between physical parameters of the disintegration process. According to the results, differences between the compression levels were found for water uptake, force development and magnetic area variation measurements. ACB method was able to estimate the disintegration properties as well as the kinetics of disintegration process for uncoated and coated tablets. This study provided a new approach for in vitro investigation and validated this biomagnetic technique as a tool for quality control for pharmaceutical industry. Moreover, using ACB will also be possible to test these parameters in humans allowing to establish an in vitro/in vivo correlation (IVIVC).

  16. Keep taking the tablets? Assessing the use of tablet devices in learning and teaching activities in the Further Education sector

    OpenAIRE

    Khristin Fabian; Donald MacLean

    2014-01-01

    This article summarises the methodology and outcomes of an interventionist/action research project to assess the benefits, and potential pitfalls, of the use of mobile devices in learning and teaching activities in a Further Education environment. A bank of 15 tablet devices were purchased and prepared for classroom use. Staff members were approached to scope potential activities and uses for the tablet devices. Three departments took part in the research activity: the Language School, Social...

  17. Dissolution testing of orally disintegrating tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, Johannes; Gajendran, Jayachandar; Guillot, Alexis; Schichtel, Julian; Tuereli, Akif

    2012-07-01

    For industrially manufactured pharmaceutical dosage forms, product quality tests and performance tests are required to ascertain the quality of the final product. Current compendial requirements specify a disintegration and/or a dissolution test to check the quality of oral solid dosage forms. These requirements led to a number of compendial monographs for individual products and, at times, the results obtained may not be reflective of the dosage form performance. Although a general product performance test is desirable for orally disintegrating tablets (ODTs), the complexity of the release controlling mechanisms and short time-frame of release make such tests difficult to establish. For conventional oral solid dosage forms (COSDFs), disintegration is often considered to be the prerequisite for subsequent dissolution. Hence, disintegration testing is usually insufficient to judge product performance of COSDFs. Given the very fast disintegration of ODTs, the relationship between disintegration and dissolution is worthy of closer scrutiny. This article reviews the current status of dissolution testing of ODTs to establish the product quality standards. Based on experimental results, it appears that it may be feasible to rely on the dissolution test without a need for disintegration studies for selected ODTs on the market. © 2012 The Authors. JPP © 2012 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  18. Ecstasy tablets intoxication with lethal autcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević Snežana

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Ecstasy, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, is a synthetic compound increasingly popular as a recreational drug. Tablets known as ecstasy contain MDMA, but may also contain caffeine, ephedrine, paramethoxyamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA, amphetamine, methamphetamine, and ketamine. After absorption MDMA is metabolized to MDA, 4-hydroxy-3- metoxymetamphetamine (HMMA and 4-hydroxy-3- metoxyamphetamine (HMA. After that HMMA and HMA are conjugated and excreted by urine. The aim of this report was to confirm by toxicological post mortem analyses of poisoned person organs that ecstasy had been the cause of his death. Case report. We reported the death of a 17-year-old boy after the ingestion of ecstasy. MDMA and metabolites were determined by multicolumn high performance liquid chromatography with UV spectral detection (HPLC-UV. Toxicological tests showed the presence of MDMA in all samples. When examining post mortem material (the organs, the highest concentrations were measured in the stomach (835,97 μg/g and kidney (801,14 μg/g. The minimal concentration was in the liver (22,26 μg/g. Conclusion. The obtained results of MDMA and its metabolites concentrations showed abuse of a high dose of ecstasy. .

  19. [Current situations and problem analysis of influencing factors of traditional Chinese medicine tablets on forming quality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan-Nian; Wu, Zhen-Feng; Wan, Na; Li, Yuan-Hui; Li, Hui-Ting; Yang, Ming

    2018-04-01

    The compressibility of tablets is the essential operating unit during the preparation of traditional Chinese medicine tablets, as well as a complicated process. Therefore, it is of great significance to comprehensively study the influencing factors on the formation process. This paper aimed to review the evaluation methods for the tablet forming quality and highlight the effects of material powder properties, excipients and preparation technology on the quality of traditional Chinese medicine tablets on the basis of relevant literatures. Furthermore, the common problems in tablet forming process are also analyzed to provide useful references for the development of tablet forming quality of traditional Chinese medicines. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  20. Evaluating tablet computers as a survey tool in rural communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newell, Steve M; Logan, Henrietta L; Guo, Yi; Marks, John G; Shepperd, James A

    2015-01-01

    Although tablet computers offer advantages in data collection over traditional paper-and-pencil methods, little research has examined whether the 2 formats yield similar responses, especially with underserved populations. We compared the 2 survey formats and tested whether participants' responses to common health questionnaires or perceptions of usability differed by survey format. We also tested whether we could replicate established paper-and-pencil findings via tablet computer. We recruited a sample of low-income community members living in the rural southern United States. Participants were 170 residents (black = 49%; white = 36%; other races and missing data = 15%) drawn from 2 counties meeting Florida's state statutory definition of rural with 100 persons or fewer per square mile. We randomly assigned participants to complete scales (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Inventory and Regulatory Focus Questionnaire) along with survey format usability ratings via paper-and-pencil or tablet computer. All participants rated a series of previously validated posters using a tablet computer. Finally, participants completed comparisons of the survey formats and reported survey format preferences. Participants preferred using the tablet computer and showed no significant differences between formats in mean responses, scale reliabilities, or in participants' usability ratings. Overall, participants reported similar scales responses and usability ratings between formats. However, participants reported both preferring and enjoying responding via tablet computer more. Collectively, these findings are among the first data to show that tablet computers represent a suitable substitute among an underrepresented rural sample for paper-and-pencil methodology in survey research. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.