WorldWideScience

Sample records for okra abelmoschus esculentus

  1. Development of Abelmoschus esculentus (Okra)-Based ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the Abelmoschus esculentus. The gel formulation was characterized for pH, viscosity, mucoadhesion, ... cultivated plant of farm fields from Meerut in the month of May. ... hydration using a magnetic stirrer (2MLH, Remi,. Mumbai, India) for 4 h.

  2. Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus Linn) inhibits lipopolysaccharide ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    extract on the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and pro-inflammatory cytokines in lipopolysaccharide ... suppressed LPS-induced NO as well as ROS compared to untreated cells. ... the human diet, supplying many nutrients. Okra.

  3. Germination and seedling growth of Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. as influenced by organic amendments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banashree Sarma

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to understand the effects of different soil organic amendments on germination and seedling vigour of Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.. Five treatments with organic amendments (farmyard manure, vermicompost and biochar and mineral fertilizers were designed in randomized block design with three replications. Results showed that organic amendments significantly enhanced per cent seed germination and emergence speed index compared to inorganic fertilizer. Highest homogeneity of seed germination (CVgt = 20.74 was observed in vermicompost. Plant height, root length and leaf area were higher in vermicompost and biochar than farmyard manure. Both allocation of biomass to above ground parts and Dickson quality index were highest in seedlings from the plots amended with vermicompost. The study revealed that compared to biochar, vermicompost and farmyard manure significantly enhanced the germination and growth of Okra seedling, but the stimulation was best in vermicompost-amended plots.

  4. Physicochemical properties of pectins from okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sengkhamparn, N.; Sagis, L.M.C.; Vries, de R.J.; Schols, H.A.; Sajjaanantakul, T.; Voragen, A.G.J.

    2010-01-01

    Okra pectin obtained by hot buffer extraction (HBSS) consists of an unusual pectic rhamnogalacturonan I structure in which acetyl groups and alpha galactose residues are substituted on rhamnose residues within the backbone. The okra Chelating agent Soluble Solids (CHSS) pectin consists of slightly d

  5. Antiadhesive Properties of Abelmoschus esculentus (Okra) Immature Fruit Extract against Helicobacter pylori Adhesion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevtsova, Anna; Glocker, Erik; Borén, Thomas; Hensel, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Background Traditional Asian and African medicine use immature okra fruits (Abelmoschus esculentus) as mucilaginous food to combat gastritis. Its effectiveness is due to polysaccharides that inhibit the adhesion of Helicobacter pylori to stomach tissue. The present study investigates the antiadhesive effect in mechanistic detail. Methodology A standardized aqueous fresh extract (Okra FE) from immature okra fruits was used for a quantitative in vitro adhesion assay with FITC-labled H. pylori J99, 2 clinical isolates, AGS cells, and fluorescence-activated cell sorting. Bacterial adhesins affected by FE were pinpointed using a dot-blot overlay assay with immobilized Lewisb, sialyl-Lewisa, H-1, laminin, and fibronectin. 125I-radiolabeled Okra FE polymer served for binding studies to different H. pylori strains and interaction experiments with BabA and SabA. Iron nanoparticles with different coatings were used to investigate the influence of the charge-dependence of an interaction on the H. pylori surface. Principal findings Okra FE dose-dependently (0.2 to 2 mg/mL) inhibited H. pylori binding to AGS cells. FE inhibited the adhesive binding of membrane proteins BabA, SabA, and HpA to its specific ligands. Radiolabeled compounds from FE bound non-specifically to different strains of H. pylori, as well as to BabA/SabA deficient mutants, indicating an interaction with a still-unknown membrane structure in the vicinity of the adhesins. The binding depended on the charge of the inhibitors. Okra FE did not lead to subsequent feedback regulation or increased expression of adhesins or virulence factors. Conclusion Non-specific interactions between high molecular compounds from okra fruits and the H. pylori surface lead to strong antiadhesive effects. PMID:24416297

  6. Regeneration of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) via apical shoot ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2012-10-25

    Oct 25, 2012 ... 1Nirmal Seeds Pvt. Ltd. Pachora, Dist – Jalgaon, India- 424201. ... 3.5 million tons (70% of the total world production) of okra produced from over .... media containing Kinetin (0.25, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5 mg/L). After three to ...

  7. Enhancement in the germination, growth and yield of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) using pre-sowing magnetic treatment of seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naz, Afshan; Jamil, Yasir; ul Haq, Zia; Iqbal, Munawar; Ahmad, Muhammad Raza; Ashraf, Muhammad Irfan; Ahmad, Rasheed

    2012-06-01

    The effect of pre-sowing magnetic treatments was investigated on germination, growth and yield of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus cv. Sapz pari). The dry okra seeds were exposed to sinusoidal magnetic field induced by an electromagnet. The average magnetic field exposure was 99 mT for 3 and 11 min and seeds with no magnetic field treatment were considered as control. Both treated and non-treated seeds were sown in experimental plots (120 m2) under similar conditions. Samples were collected at regular intervals for statistical analysis. A significant increase (P seeds per plant. The 99 mT for 11 min exposure showed better results as compared to control.

  8. Optimisation of extraction and sludge dewatering efficiencies of bio-flocculants extracted from Abelmoschus esculentus (okra).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chai Siah; Chong, Mei Fong; Robinson, John; Binner, Eleanor

    2015-07-01

    The production of natural biopolymers as flocculants for water treatment is highly desirable due to their inherent low toxicity and low environmental footprint. In this study, bio-flocculants were extracted from Hibiscus/Abelmoschus esculentus (okra) by using a water extraction method, and the extract yield and its performance in sludge dewatering were evaluated. Single factor experimental design was employed to obtain the optimum conditions for extraction temperature (25-90 °C), time (0.25-5 h), solvent loading (0.5-5 w/w) and agitation speed (0-225 rpm). Results showed that extraction yield was affected non-linearly by all experimental variables, whilst the sludge dewatering ability was only influenced by the temperature of the extraction process. The optimum extraction conditions were obtained at 70 °C, 2 h, solvent loading of 2.5 w/w and agitation at 200 rpm. Under the optimal conditions, the extract yield was 2.38%, which is comparable to the extraction of other polysaccharides (0.69-3.66%). The bio-flocculants displayed >98% removal of suspended solids and 68% water recovery during sludge dewatering, and were shown to be comparable with commercial polyacrylamide flocculants. This work shows that bio-flocculants could offer a feasible alternative to synthetic flocculants for water treatment and sludge dewatering applications, and can be extracted using only water as a solvent, minimising the environmental footprint of the extraction process.

  9. Genetic analysis for yield and its components in okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L. Moench

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konda Chandrasekhar Reddy4

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Combining ability variances and effects of yield and its components in okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L. Moenchwere studied through half diallel analysis of 45 F1 hybrids derived by crossing 10 nearly homozygous germplasm lines namelyP1(IC282248, P2(IC27826-A, P3(IC29119-B, P4(IC31398-A, P5(IC45732, P6(IC89819, P7(IC89976, P8(IC90107, P9(IC99716 andP10(IC111443 during mid kharif (July-October, 2009, at the Vegetable Research Station, Rajendranagar, Andhra Pradesh,India. Both additive and non-additive variances were important for a majority of the characters except plant height, fruit andshoot borer infestation on fruits and shoots and yellow vein mosaic virus infestation on plants. Genetic analysis revealed apreponderance of non-additive gene action for plant height, internodal length, days to 50% flowering, first flowering andfruiting node, fruit length and weight, total number of fruits and number of marketable fruits per plant, total yield and marketableyield per plant and yellow vein mosaic virus infestation on fruits and plants and a preponderance of additive gene actionfor number of branches per plant and fruit and shoot borer infestation on fruits and shoots. The parents P5(IC45732, P6(IC89819 and P7(IC89976 were high general combiners for total and marketable yield per plant and their associated traits,which could be exploited for developing prolific pure line varieties of okra. The crosses C23(IC29119-B × IC99716, C17(IC27826-A × IC111443, C42(IC89976 × IC111443 were superior specific combiners for total and marketable yield per plant withthe potential of being commercially exploited for the production of F1 hybrids. The cross combinations C42 (IC89976 × IC111443 and (IC27826-A × IC89819 having one of the parents with positively significant general combining ability effects fortotal yield and marketable yield per plant could be utilized in recombination breeding with single plant selection in the passinggenerations to capitalize

  10. Correlation and path coefficient analysis of quantitative characters in okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L. Moench

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reddivenkatagari Subbarama Krishna Reddy

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available One hundred germplasm lines of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L. Moench were evaluated in a randomized block design with two replications at the Vegetable Research Station, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India, during kharif, 2008. Correlation and path coefficient analysis were carried out to study the character association and contribution, respectively, for thirteen quantitative characters, namely plant height (cm, number of branches per plant, internodal length(cm, days to 50% flowering, first flowering node, first fruiting node, fruit length (cm, fruit width (cm, fruit weight (g, total number of fruits per plant, number of marketable fruits per plant, total yield per plant (g and marketable yield per plant (g for the identification of appropriate selection indices. Phenotypic and genotypic correlation coefficient analysis revealed that plant height, fruit length, fruit width, fruit weight, total number of fruits per plant, number of marketable fruits per plant and total yield per plant had significant positive correlation, while number of branches per plant, internodal length, days to 50% flowering, first flowering node and first fruiting node had significant negative correlation with marketable yield per plant.Genotypic path coefficient analysis revealed that fruit weight, total number of fruits per plant and number of marketable fruits per plant had positively high direct effect on marketable pod yield per plant. Correlation and path coefficient analyses revealed that fruit weight, total number of fruits per plant and number of marketable fruits per plant not only had positively significant association with marketable pod yield per plant, but also had positively high direct effect on marketable pod yield per plant and are regarded as the main determinants of marketable pod yield per plant. The improvement in marketable pod yield per plant will be efficient, if the selection is based on fruit weight, total number of fruits per

  11. Ferti-irrigational effect of paper mill effluent on agronomical characteristics of Abelmoschus esculentus L. (Okra).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vinod; Chopra, A K

    2013-11-15

    The ferti-irrigational effect of an agro-based paper mill effluent on Abelmoschus esculentus (var. IHR-31) was investigated. Different doses of paper mill effluent viz. 5, 10, 25, 50, 75 and 100% were used for fertigation ofA. esculentus along with bore well water (control). The study revealed that paper mill effluent had significant (p 0.05) changes in WHC and bulk density of the soil were observed after irrigation with paper mill effluent. The agronomical performance of A. esculentus was increased from 5 to 25% and decreased from 50 to 100% concentration of paper mill effluent as compared to control in both seasons. The heavy metals concentration was increased in A. esculentus from 5 to 100% concentrations of paper mill effluent in both seasons. Biochemical components like crude proteins, crude fiber and crude carbohydrates were found maximum with 25% paper mill effluent in both seasons. The order of Contamination Factor (Cf) of various heavy metals was Cr > Cd > Mn > Zn > Cu for soil and Zn > Mn > Cu > Cr > Cd for A. esculentus plants after fertigation with paper mill effluent. Therefore, paper mill effluent can be used as a biofertigant after appropriate dilution to improve yield of A. esculentus.

  12. The Preotective effects of Okra Powder (Abelmoschus esculentus on Histological and Histochemical Changes of Pancreatic Beta Cells and Liver Tissue of Diabetic Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naeim Erfani Majd

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Since Abelmoschus esculentus plant has many medical benefits, the present study aimed to investigate the therapeutic effects of Okra Powder (Abelmoschus esculentus against high-fat diet fed-streptozotocin (HFD/STZ-induced diabetic rats. Methods: In this experimental study, 25 Wistar Albino female rats were randomly divided into 5 groups: I: control group; II: healthy rats receiving A. esculentus (200 mg/kg; III (HFD/STZ group: Rats fed with high-fat diet (HFD (60% fat for 4 weeks and then injected low-dose STZ (35 mg/kg; IV: diabetic rats receiving A. esculentus (200mg/kg and V: diabetic rats receiving metformin (200 mg/kg. At the end of experiment, biochemical parameters, including Fasting Blood Glucose (FBG, insulin levels, Homa-IR index, ALT, AST and lipid profile were measured. Pancreas and Liver samples were removed, and 5-6 µ sections were prepared and stained by H&E and aldehyde fuchsin staining. Results: All the biochemical parameters, except HDL-C and insulin, were increased in diabetic rats, while these parameters were decreased in Okra supplementation group compared to diabetic rats (p<0.05. Furthermore, Okra improved the histological impairments of pancreas and liver, including vacuolization, and decrease of β-cells as well as hypertrophy and vacuolization of hepatocytes in diabetic rats. Conclusion: Okra powder improved biochemical parameters, liver structure and restoration of beta cells of pancreas in diabetic rats. Thus, it can be considered a complementary therapy to improve diabetic patients.

  13. ANALISA FLAVONOID DARI EKSTRAK ETANOL 96% KULIT BUAH OKRA MERAH (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench SECARA KROMATOGRAFI LAPIS TIPIS DAN SPEKTROFOTOMETRI UV-VIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nia Lisnawati

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Has done research on flavonoids Analysis of Ethanol Extract 96% Fruit Leather Red Okra In Thin Layer Chromatography and Spectrophotometer UV-Vis. The purpose of this study was to analyze the content of the fruit skin red okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench by using the method of thin layer chromatography (TLC under UV light and spectrophotometry UV-Vis. Reference standards used in this study is the Standard Solution Routine Quercetin. The results of the research that has been done by the method of thin layer chromatography obtained Rf values of 0.81 and produces the color orange. And the results of research conducted by spectrophotometry UV-Vis method obtained 333,117 mg.L-1 or 421,629 mg.kg-1 or 0,84339 %. The conclusion from this study is that the 96% ethanol extract of the fruit leather red okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench positive (+ contains flavonoids with levels of 0,84339 %.

  14. Effect of Biomixture Containing Spent Coffee Ground and Milled Egg-shells on The Yield of Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus Moench and Soil Fertility under Greenhouse Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nghia Khoi Nguyen

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effect of biomixture including spent coffee ground and milled egg-shells (ratio of 10:2 (w/w on the yield of Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus Moench and soil fertility, an experiment was conducted in the greenhouse for 3 months with four replicates for each treatment. The soil sample in this study was collected from the experimental farm of Cantho University. The biomixture was applied with 3 levels: 5, 10 and 15% (w/w. A commonly recommended inorganic fertilizer application rate for Okra was used as control treatment and 15% of used coffee ground as another treatment to study a single effect of used coffee ground on yield of Okra and soil fertility.  Results showed that although the plan performance was much better in the control treatment, the highest yield of Okra was found in the treatments amended with 10 and 5% of the biomixture and was 167 and 161 g/plant/pot, respectively. The yield was much higher in these two treatments than that in the control treatment. The appearance of Okra fruits in the amended biomixture treatments reached the standard quality for selling. Moreover, organic matter, N, P, pH, bacterial and fungal cell counts in soils were enhanced considerably when amended with this biomixture. Five percent of the biomixture performed as the best treatment to enhance Okra yield in the greenhouse experiment.

  15. Biotechnological Advancements and Begomovirus Management in Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.): Status and Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Gyan P.; Singh, Bijendra; Seth, Tania; Singh, Achuit K.; Halder, Jaydeep; Krishnan, Nagendran; Tiwari, Shailesh K.; Singh, Prabhakar M.

    2017-01-01

    Despite the importance of okra, as one of the important vegetable crop, very little attention has been paid to its genetic improvement using advanced biotechnological tools. The exploitation of marker assisted breeding in okra is often limited due to the availability of a few molecular markers, the absence of molecular genetic-map(s), and other molecular tools. Chromosome linkage-groups were not yet constructed for this crop and reports on marker development are very scanty and mostly hovering around cultivar characterization. Besides, very little progress has been observed for transgenic development. However, high throughput biotechnological tools like chromosome engineering, RNA interference (RNAi), marker-assisted recurrent selection (MARS), genome-wide selection (GWS), targeted gene replacement, next generation sequencing (NGS), and nanobiotechnology can provide a rapid way for okra improvement. Further, the etiology of many deadly viral diseases like the yellow vein mosaic virus (YVMV) and okra enation leaf curl virus (OELCV) in okra is broadly indistinct and has been shown to be caused by various begomovirus species. These diseases cause systemic infections and have a very effective mode of transmission; thus, preventing their spread has been very complicated. Biotechnological interventions have the potential to enhance okra production even under different viral-stress conditions. In this background, this review deals with the biotechnological advancements in okra per se along with the begomoviruses infecting okra, and special emphasis has been laid on the exploitation of advanced genomic tools for the development of resistant varieties.

  16. Characterisation of cell wall polysaccharides from okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sengkhamparn, N.; Verhoef, R.P.; Schols, H.A.; Sajjaanantakul, T.; Voragen, A.G.J.

    2009-01-01

    Okra pods are commonly used in Asia as a vegetable, food ingredient, as well as a traditional medicine for many different purposes; for example, as diuretic agent, for treatment of dental diseases and to reduce/prevent gastric irritations. The healthy properties are suggested to originate from the

  17. Evaluation of Fatty Acid and Amino Acid Compositions in Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus Grown in Different Geographical Locations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rokayya Sami

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Okra has different uses as a food and a remedy in traditional medicine. Since it produces many seeds, distribution of the plant is also quite easy. Although seed oil yield is low (4.7%, since the linoleic acid composition of the seed oil is quiet high (67.5%, it can still be used as a source of (UNSAT unsaturated fatty acids. In this study, samples of okra grown in four different locations were analyzed to measure fatty acid and amino acid compositions. The content of the lipid extraction ranged from 4.34% to 4.52% on a dry weight basis. Quantitatively, the main okra fatty acids were palmitic acid (29.18–43.26%, linoleic acid (32.22–43.07%, linolenic acid (6.79–12.34%, stearic acid (6.36–7.73%, oleic acid (4.31–6.98%, arachidic acid (ND–3.48%, margaric acid (1.44–2.16%, pentadecylic acid (0.63–0.92%, and myristic acid (0.21–0.49%. Aspartic acid, proline, and glutamic acids were the main amino acids in okra pods, while cysteine and tyrosine were the minor amino acids. Statistical methods revealed how the fatty acid and amino acid contents in okra may be affected by the sampling location.

  18. Comprehensive screening and selection of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) germplasm for salinity tolerance at the seedling stage and during plant ontogeny

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ikram-ul-HAQ; Asif Ali KHAN; Iqrar Ahmad KHAN; Muhammad Abubakkar AZMAT

    2012-01-01

    The okra germplasm was screened for salinity tolerance at the seedling stage and during plant ontogeny.Substantial variation existed in okra for salinity tolerance at the seedling stage.An 80 mmol/L NaCI concentration was suitable for discriminating tolerant and non-tolerant okra genotypes.The pooled ranking of the genotypes,based on individual rankings for each trait (root and shoot length,germination percentage,and relative Na+ and K+) in individual NaCl concentrations,was effective for selecting tolerant genotypes.Genotypes selected at the seedling stage maintained their tolerance to NaCI during plant ontogeny,suggesting that screening of the germplasm entries and advanced breeding materials for salt tolerance at the seedling stage is effective.Among 39 okra genotypes,five were identified as the most tolerant genotypes and showed potential for use in breeding programs that focus on the development of salt-tolerant,high-yield okra cultivars.

  19. EFFECT OF THE ADDITION OF DEFATTED OKRA SEED (Abelmoschus esculentus FLOUR ON THE CHEMICAL COMPOSITION, FUNCTIONAL PROPERTIES AND Zn BIOAVAILABILITY OF PLANTAIN (Musa paradisiacal Linn FLOUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tesleem Ibrahim

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In Nigeria it is advised that nursing mothers should give their baby plantain flour paste “amala ogede” with ‘ewedu’ Corchorus olitorius soup during the process of weaning their baby. The over matured okra that cannot be cut with kitchen knife are thrown away in Nigeria, this lead to postharvest loss of okra. The seed in this okra could be utilised by processing into okra seed flour for the fortification of plantain flour. Since the okra seed flour is rich in oil and the oil contains cyclopropenoid fatty acids which cause some toxicity concerns therefore this work is to evaluate the chemical composition, the functional properties and Zn bioavailability of plantain flour mixed with defatted okra seed flour. The nutrient content increased significantly (P≤0.05, protein; 3.88 – 11.38 %, fibre; 3.03 – 16.30 % and ash; 2.72 – 5.77 % while the fat and carbohydrate content reduced significantly (P≤0.05 as the percentage of defatted okra seed flour increased. The bulk density of the plantain flour decreased significantly (P≤0.05 from 0.795 g/cm3 to 0.769 g/cm3 as the percentage of okra seed flour increased while the least gelation concentration increased significantly (P≤0.05 (10 to 20. The calculated [Ca][Phytate]/[Zn] molar ratio for the plantain flour mixed with defatted okra seed flour (0.02 – 0.04 mol/kg were below the critical level. The increase in the least gelation concentration coupled with increase in the protein content of the resultant flour from the blend means more of the protein will be available in the food made from the plantain flour mixed with defatted okra seed flour.

  20. Study on Extraction Method of Caffeine from Okra(Abelmoschus esculentus) Seeds%黄秋葵种子中咖啡碱的提取方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅狄华

    2012-01-01

    [ Objective ] The purpose was to discuss the extraction method of caffeine from okra seeds, and lay a foundation for its deeply development and utilization. [ Method ] Microwave extraction method, reflux extraction method and ultrasonic extraction method were used to extract caffeine from okra seeds, and visible-ultraviolet spectrophotometry was used to determine its content. [ Result] When using microwave extraction method, the highest caffeine ratio of 0. 149% was obtained under the conditions of medium power and 8 min extraction time. When using reflux extraction method, the highest caffeine ration of 0. 156% was obtained under the conditions of water-alcohol ratio of 1:2 and extraction time 1 hour. When using ultrasonic extraction method, the highest caffeine ratio of 0. 142% was obtained under the conditions of extraction agent 25 ml and extraction time 30 min. [ Conclusion ] The study obtains the most convenient and the most effective extraction method of caffeine from okra seeds when using microwave extraction method, reflux extraction method and ultrasonic extraction method, lays a foundation for research on effective components extraction from okra seeds.%[目的]探讨黄秋葵(Abelmoschus esculentus)种子中咖啡碱的提取方法,为其进一步开发利用奠定基础.[方法]采用微波提取法、回流提取法和超声提取法3种方法提取黄秋葵种子中的咖啡碱,并采用可见-紫外分光光度法测定其含量.[结果]采用微波提取法时,在中等功率、微波时间8 min条件下,所得的咖啡碱的得率最高,为0.149%.采用回流提取法时,在提取剂水∶乙醇为1∶2、提取时间为1h条件下,所得的咖啡碱的得率最高,为0.156%.采用超声提取法时,在提取剂用量为25ml、超声时间为30 min条件下,所得的咖啡碱的得率最高,为0.142%.[结论]该研究得出了采用微波提取法、回流提取法和超声提取法提取黄秋葵种子中咖啡碱含量的最方便最有

  1. Genetic relationships among West African okra (Abelmoschus caillei ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-05-16

    May 16, 2008 ... Key words: West African okra, genetic relationship, Abelmoschus caillei, ... has long been a major goal in evolutionary biology. Infor- ... management as a quick, cost-effective and reliable ... affected by environment (Staub et al., 1997). ... Supernatant containing DNA was transferred into a new 2 ml U –.

  2. Flavonoids Derived from Abelmoschus esculentus Attenuates UV-B Induced Cell Damage in Human Dermal Fibroblasts Through Nrf2-ARE Pathway

    OpenAIRE

    Juilee Patwardhan; Purvi Bhatt

    2016-01-01

    Background: Ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation is a smaller fraction of the total radiation reaching the Earth but leads to extensive damage to the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and other biomolecules through formation of free radicals altering redox homeostasis of the cell. Abelmoschus esculentus (okra) has been known in Ayurveda as antidiabetic, hypolipidemic, demulscent, antispasmodic, diuretic, purgative, etc. Objective: The aim of this study is to evaluate the protective effect of flavonoids f...

  3. Phytochemical analysis, antioxidant, antistress, and nootropic activities of aqueous and methanolic seed extracts of ladies finger (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doreddula, Sathish Kumar; Bonam, Srinivasa Reddy; Gaddam, Durga Prasad; Desu, Brahma Srinivasa Rao; Ramarao, Nadendla; Pandy, Vijayapandi

    2014-01-01

    Abelmoschus esculentus L. (ladies finger, okra) is a well-known tropical vegetable, widely planted from Africa to Asia and from South Europe to America. In the present study, we investigated the in vitro antioxidant capacity and in vivo protective effect of the aqueous and methanolic seed extracts of Abelmoschus esculentus against scopolamine-induced cognitive impairment using passive avoidance task and acute restraining stress-induced behavioural and biochemical changes using elevated plus maze (EPM) and forced swimming test (FST) in mice. Our results demonstrated that the pretreatment of mice with aqueous and methanolic seed extracts of Abelmoschus esculentus (200 mg/kg, p.o.) for seven days significantly (P < 0.01) attenuated scopolamine-induced cognitive impairment in the passive avoidance test. In addition, these extracts significantly reduced the blood glucose, corticosterone, cholesterol, and triglyceride levels elevated by acute restraint stress and also significantly increased the time spent in open arm in EPM and decreased the immobility time in FST. It has also been revealed that these extracts showed a significant antioxidant activity and no signs of toxicity or death up to a dose of 2000 mg/kg, p.o. These results suggest that the seed extracts of Abelmoschus esculentus L. possess antioxidant, antistress, and nootropic activities which promisingly support the medicinal values of ladies finger as a vegetable.

  4. Phytochemical Analysis, Antioxidant, Antistress, and Nootropic Activities of Aqueous and Methanolic Seed Extracts of Ladies Finger (Abelmoschus esculentus L. in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sathish Kumar Doreddula

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Abelmoschus esculentus L. (ladies finger, okra is a well-known tropical vegetable, widely planted from Africa to Asia and from South Europe to America. In the present study, we investigated the in vitro antioxidant capacity and in vivo protective effect of the aqueous and methanolic seed extracts of Abelmoschus esculentus against scopolamine-induced cognitive impairment using passive avoidance task and acute restraining stress-induced behavioural and biochemical changes using elevated plus maze (EPM and forced swimming test (FST in mice. Our results demonstrated that the pretreatment of mice with aqueous and methanolic seed extracts of Abelmoschus esculentus (200 mg/kg, p.o. for seven days significantly (P< 0.01 attenuated scopolamine-induced cognitive impairment in the passive avoidance test. In addition, these extracts significantly reduced the blood glucose, corticosterone, cholesterol, and triglyceride levels elevated by acute restraint stress and also significantly increased the time spent in open arm in EPM and decreased the immobility time in FST. It has also been revealed that these extracts showed a significant antioxidant activity and no signs of toxicity or death up to a dose of 2000 mg/kg, p.o. These results suggest that the seed extracts of Abelmoschus esculentus L. possess antioxidant, antistress, and nootropic activities which promisingly support the medicinal values of ladies finger as a vegetable.

  5. A new flavonol glycoside from the Abelmoschus esculentus Linn.

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Background: Abelmoschus esculentus L. belonging to the family Malvaceae is a kind of one year herbage plant, which is one of the most important vegetables widely grown in Nigeria for its tender fruits and young leaves. It's easy to be cultivated and grows well in both tropical and temperate zones, that is, it is widely planted from Africa to Asia, South European to America. A new flavonol glycoside characterized as 5,7,3′,4′-tetrahydroxy-4′′-O-methyl flavonol -3-O-β-D- glucopyranoside (1) has...

  6. A new flavonol glycoside from the Abelmoschus esculentus Linn.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haibing Liao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Abelmoschus esculentus L. belonging to the family Malvaceae is a kind of one year herbage plant, which is one of the most important vegetables widely grown in Nigeria for its tender fruits and young leaves. It′s easy to be cultivated and grows well in both tropical and temperate zones, that is, it is widely planted from Africa to Asia, South European to America. A new flavonol glycoside characterized as 5,7,3′,4′-tetrahydroxy-4′′-O-methyl flavonol -3-O-β-D- glucopyranoside (1 has been isolated from the fruit of A. esculentus together with one known compound 5,7,3′,4′-tetrahydroxy flavonol -3-O-[β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→6]-β-D-glucopyranoside (2. The structure of the new compound was elucidated on the basis of its spectral data, including 2-D NMR and mass (MS spectra. The antioxidant activities of the isolated compounds 1 and 2 were evaluated by 2 assays, the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP. The present work deals with the isolation, identification and antioxidant activity of the two compounds. Materials and Methods: The compounds were isolated by Diaion HP-20, Sephedex LH-20 column chromatography methods, their structures were identified by physicochemical properties and spectroscopic analysis. The antioxidant activities of the isolated compounds 1 and 2 were evaluated by two assays, e.g., DPPH and FRAP. Results: Two flavonol glycosides have been isolated from the fruit of Abelmoschus esculentus L. for the first time, and the compound 1 was a new compound, the compound 2 was isolated from the plant for the first time. Conclusion: The results show that the two flavonol glycosides have strong ability for scavenging DPPH and FRAP free radical by the experiment of antioxidant activities, so A. esculentus may be a natural antioxidants resource.

  7. Heavy metals phyto-assessment in commonly grown vegetables: water spinach (I. aquatica) and okra (A. esculentus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Chuck Chuan; Rahman, Md Motior; Boyce, Amru Nasrulhaq; Abas, Mhd Radzi

    2016-01-01

    The growth response, metal tolerance and phytoaccumulation properties of water spinach (Ipomoea aquatica) and okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) were assessed under different contaminated spiked metals: control, 50 mg Pb/kg soil, 50 mg Zn/kg soil and 50 mg Cu/kg soil. The availability of Pb, Zn and Cu metals in both soil and plants were detected using flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The concentration and accumulation of heavy metals from soil to roots and shoots (edible parts) were evaluated in terms of translocation factor, accumulation factor and tolerance index. Okra recorded the highest accumulation of Pb (80.20 mg/kg) in its root followed by Zn in roots (35.70 mg/kg) and shoots (34.80 mg/kg) of water spinach, respectively. Different accumulation trends were observed with, Pb > Zn > Cu in okra and Zn > Pb > Cu in water spinach. Significant differences (p < 0.01) of Pb, Zn and Cu accumulation were found in both water spinach and okra cultivated among tested treatments. However, only the accumulation of Pb metal in the shoots of water spinach and okra exceeded the maximum permissible levels of the national Malaysian Food Act 1983 and Food Regulations 1985 (2006) as well as the international Codex Alimentarius Commission limits. This study has shown that both water spinach and okra have good potential as Pb and Zn phytoremediators.

  8. FABRICATION AND EVALUATION OF GLIPIZIDE ABELMOSCHUS ESCULENTUS FRUIT MUCILAGE POVIDONE CONTROLLED RELEASE MATRIX TABLETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hindustan Abdul Ahad

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation was aimed to prepare matrix type controlled release tablets of Glipizide with Abelmoschus esculentus fruit mucilage and Povidone. The polymers were studied for its functionality as a matrix forming property to sustain the Glipizide release from the dosage form. Physicochemical properties of dried powdered mucilage of Abelmoschus esculentus fruit mucilage and Povidone blend were studied. Various formulations of Glipizide Abelmoschus esculentus fruit mucilage and Povidone were prepared. The prepared tablets were found to have better pharmacopoeial parameters with low standard deviation values. The swelling behavior and release rate characteristics were studied. The in-vitro dissolution study proved that the dried Abelmoschus esculentus fruit mucilage and Povidone in combination can be used as a matrix forming polymers for making controlled release matrix tablets.

  9. Expression de différents écotypes de gombo (Abelmoschus esculentus L. au déficit hydrique intervenant pendant la boutonnisation et la floraison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sawadogo M., Zombre G., Balma D.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Behaviour of different ecotypes of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. under water deficit during budding and flowering phases. Despite numerous uses and its well known nutritional value, okra is cultivated on very small surfaces, on surroundings of traditional houses and often in dumping ground. To this little interest are added drought, diseases and pests that generate an important reduction of yield, leading okra to play the last roles in agricultural research programs of the country and this, despite the existence of early maturing ecotypes or resistant to some abiotic constraints. The low rate of improved varieties is the proof that it is necessary to develop strategies for participatory breeding programs that take into account farmers selection criteria including genotypes tolerant or resistant to drastic conditions such as water deficit to periods where the plant is expressing its genetic potential. Six ecotypes obtained through participatory plant breeding process in five agricultural districts of the country have been assessed for the tolerance to the drought occurring during the budding and the flowering phases. Results show that water deficit during budding phase has disastrous consequences for okra plants. The yield declines, and also the length, the number and the weight of fruits. Two types of period of flowering phases of okra plant have been observed: the period which intervenes during the accelerated growth phase of the main stem (type 1 and the one which starts once the growth of main stem begins to decline (type 2; this last type is the most frequently met. Water deficit during the phase of budding causes earlier flowering of type 2 plants and leads to delayed flowering of the type 1 plants. The best variables for discriminating okra ecotypes during water deficit are the relative water content (RWC, the length and the number of fruits. Three ecotypes (V1, V3 and V4 are chosen to be used in breeding program of okra for resistance

  10. Pectin from Abelmoschus esculentus: optimization of extraction and rheological properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi; Zhang, Jian-Guo; Sun, Han-Ju; Wei, Zhao-Jun

    2014-09-01

    Response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to optimize the parameters of pectin extraction from okra pods. The extracted okra pectin was then investigated by steady-shear and oscillatory rheological measurements. Statistical analysis showed that the linear term of the liquid-solid ratio, the quadratic term of the pH, and the linear term of the extraction time showed highly significant effects on pectin yield. The optimal extraction conditions that maximized the pectin yield within the experimental range of the variables researched were a pH of 3.9, an extraction time of 64 min, an extraction temperature of 60°C, and a liquid-solid ratio of 42:1. Under these conditions, the pectin yield was predicted to be 2.71%. At a liquid-solid ratio less than 2.5% w/w in aqueous solution, the pectin extracted from okra presented non-Newtonian shear-thinning behavior and could be well described by the Cross model. The okra pectin showed predominantly viscous responses (G'

  11. Acetylated Rhamnogalacturonans from Immature Fruits of Abelmoschus esculentus Inhibit the Adhesion of Helicobacter pylori to Human Gastric Cells by Interaction with Outer Membrane Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Thöle

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Polysaccharide containing extracts from immature fruits of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus are known to exhibit antiadhesive effects against bacterial adhesion of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori to stomach tissue. The present study investigates structural and functional features of polymers responsible for this inhibition of bacterial attachment to host cells. Ammonium sulfate precipitation of an aqueous extract yielded two fractions at 60% and 90% saturation with significant antiadhesive effects against H. pylori, strain J99, (FE60% 68% ± 15%; FE90% 75% ± 11% inhibition rates after preincubation of the bacteria at 1 mg/mL. Sequential extraction of okra fruits yielded hot buffer soluble solids (HBSS with dose dependent antiadhesive effects against strain J99 and three clinical isolates. Preincubation of H. pylori with HBSS (1 mg/mL led to reduced binding to 3ʹ-sialyl lactose, sialylated Lea and Lex. A reduction of bacterial binding to ligands complementary to BabA and SabA was observed when bacteria were pretreated with FE90%. Structural analysis of the antiadhesive polysaccharides (molecular weight, monomer composition, linkage analysis, stereochemistry, and acetylation indicated the presence of acetylated rhamnogalacturonan-I polymers, decorated with short galactose side chains. Deacetylation of HBSS and FE90% resulted in loss of the antiadhesive activity, indicating esterification being a prerequisite for antiadhesive activity.

  12. Chemical, physical and biological features of Okra pectin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sengkhamparn, N.

    2009-01-01

    In Thailand, many plants have been used as vegetables as well as for traditional medicine. Okra, Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench, is an example of such a plant. Examples for the medical use are treatment of gastric irritation, treatment of dental diseases, lowering cholesterol level and preven

  13. 黄秋葵疫病的发生与防治%Occurrence and control of blight disease of Abelmoschus esculentus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李瑞美

    2015-01-01

    黄秋葵疫病是危害黄秋葵的真菌病之一,发病严重时会导致黄秋葵产量和品质降低。该文综述了黄秋葵疫病的症状、病原、发生规律,并总结了防治措施。%Blight disease is one of the fungus diseases in Abelmoschus esculentus,the occurrence of which would cause seri-ous yield and quality decrease of Abelmoschus esculentus. This paper described the symptom,pathogen and occurrence regu-larity for blight disease of Abelmoschus esculentus,and control measures was summarized.

  14. Antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic potential of Abelmoschus esculentus (L. Moench. in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Sabitha

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : The present investigation was aimed to study the antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic potential of Abelmoschus esculentus peel and seed powder (AEPP and AESP in streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetic rats. Materials and Methods : Acute toxicity of AEPP and AESP was studied in rats at 2000 mg/kg dose and diabetes was induced in rats by administration of STZ (60 mg/kg, i.p.. After 14 days of blood glucose stabilization, diabetic rats received AEPP, AESP, and glibenclamide up to 28 days. The blood samples were collected on day 28 to estimate the hemoglobin (Hb, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c, serum glutamate-pyruvate transferase (SGPT, total protein (TP, and lipid profile levels. Results : In acute toxicity study, AESP and AESP did not show any toxicity or death up to a dose of 2000 mg/kg. Therefore, to assess the antidiabetic action, one by fifth and one by tenth dose of both powders were selected. Administration of AEPP and AESP at 100 and 200 mg/kg dose in diabetic rats showed significant (P < 0.001 reduction in blood glucose level and increase in body weight than diabetic control rats. A significant (P < 0.001 increased level of Hb, TP, and decreased level of HbA1c, SGPT were observed after the treatment of both doses of AEPP and AESP. Also, elevated lipid profile levels returned to near normal in diabetic rats after the administration of AEPP and AESP, 100 and 200 mg/kg dose, compared to diabetic control rats. Conclusion : The present study results, first time, support the antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic potential of A. esculentus peel and seed powder in diabetic rats.

  15. Use of plant residues for improving soil fertility, pod nutrients, root growth and pod weight of okra (Abelmoschus esculentum L).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyin-Jesu, Emmanuel Ibukunoluwa

    2007-08-01

    The effect of wood ash, sawdust, ground cocoa husk, spent grain and rice bran upon root development, ash content, pod yield and nutrient status and soil fertility for okra (Abelmoschus esculentum L NHAe 47 variety) was studied. The five organic fertilizer treatments were compared to chemical fertilizer (400kg/ha/crop NPK 15-15-15) and unfertilized controls in four field experiments replicated four times in a randomized complete block design. The results showed that the application of 6tha(-1) of plant residues increased (Ppod N, P, K, Ca, Mg and ash; root length; and pod yield of okra in all four experiments relative to the control treatment. For instance, spent grain treatment increased the okra pod yield by 99%, 33%, 50%, 49%, 65% and 67% compared to control, NPK, wood ash, cocoa husk, rice bran and sawdust treatments respectively. In the stepwise regression, out of the total R(2) value of 0.83 for the soil nutrients to the pod yield of okra; soil N accounted for 50% of the soil fertility improvement and yield of okra. Spent grain, wood ash and cocoa husk were the most effective in improving okra pod weight, pod nutrients, ash content, root length and soil fertility whereas the rice bran and sawdust were the least effective. This was because the spent grain, wood ash and cocoa husk had lower C/N ratio and higher nutrient composition than rice bran and sawdust, thus, the former enhanced an increase in pod nutrients, composition for better human dietary intake, increased the root length, pod weight of okra and improved soil fertility and plant nutrition crop. The significance of the increases in okra mineral nutrition concentration by plant residues is that consumers will consume more of these minerals in their meals and monetarily spend less for purchasing vitamins and mineral supplement drugs to meet health requirements. In addition, the increase in plant nutrition and soil fertility would help to reduce the high cost of buying synthetic inorganic fertilizers and

  16. Potential of Soil Amendments (Biochar and Gypsum in increasing Water Use Efficiency of Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aniqa eBatool

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Water being an essential component for plant growth and development, its scarcity poses serious threat to crops around the world. Climate changes and global warming are increasing the temperature of earth hence becoming an ultimate cause of water scarcity. It is need of the day to use potential soil amendments that could increase the plants’ resistance under such situations. Biochar and gypsum were used in the present study to improve the water use efficiency and growth of Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench (Lady’s Finger. A six weeks experiment was conducted under greenhouse conditions. Stress treatments were applied after thirty days of sowing. Plant height, leaf area, photosynthesis, transpiration rate, stomatal conductance and water use efficiency were determined weekly under stressed (60% field capacity and non-stressed (100% field capacity conditions. Stomatal conductance and transpiration rate decreased and reached near to zero in stressed plants. Stressed plants also showed resistance to water stress upto five weeks and gradually perished at sixth week. On the other hand, water use efficiency improved in stressed plants containing biochar and gypsum as compared to untreated plants. Biochar alone is a better strategy to promote plant growth and WUE specifically of Abelmoschus esculentus, compared to its application in combination with gypsum.

  17. Osmotic adjustment and the growth response of seven vegetable crops following water-deficit stress. [Phaseolus vulgaris L. ; Beta vulgaris L. ; Abelmoschus esculentus; Pisum sativum L. ; Capsicum annuum L. ; Spinacia oleracea L. ; Lycopersicon esculentum Mill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wullschleger, S.D. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Oosterhuis, D.M. (Univ. of Arkansas, Fayetteville (United States))

    1991-09-01

    Growth-chamber studies were conducted to examine the ability of seven vegetable crops- Blue Lake beam (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Detroit Dark Red beet (Beta vulgaris L.) Burgundy okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) (Moench), Little Marvel pea (Pisum sativum L), California Wonder bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L), New Zealand spinach (Spinacia oleracea L), and Beefsteak tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) - to adjust osmotically in response to water-deficit stress. Water stress was imposed by withholding water for 3 days, and the adjustment of leaf and root osmotic potentials upon relief of the stress and rehydration were monitored with thermocouple psychrometers. Despite similar reductions in leaf water potential and stomatal conductance among the species studied reductions in lead water potential an stomatal conductance among the species, crop-specific differences were observed in leak and root osmotic adjustment. Leaf osmotic adjustment was observed for bean, pepper, and tomato following water-deficit stress. Root osmotic adjustment was significant in bean, okra, pea and tomato. Furthermore, differences in leaf and root osmotic adjustment were also observed among five tomato cultivars. Leaf osmotic adjustment was not associated with the maintenance of leaf growth following water-deficit stress, since leaf expansion of water-stressed bean and pepper, two species capable of osmotic adjustment, was similar to that of spinach, which exhibited no leaf osmotic adjustment.

  18. Potential of soil amendments (Biochar and Gypsum) in increasing water use efficiency of Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batool, Aniqa; Taj, Samia; Rashid, Audil; Khalid, Azeem; Qadeer, Samia; Saleem, Aansa R; Ghufran, Muhammad A

    2015-01-01

    Water being an essential component for plant growth and development, its scarcity poses serious threat to crops around the world. Climate changes and global warming are increasing the temperature of earth hence becoming an ultimate cause of water scarcity. It is need of the day to use potential soil amendments that could increase the plants' resistance under such situations. Biochar and gypsum were used in the present study to improve the water use efficiency (WUE) and growth of Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench (Lady's Finger). A 6 weeks experiment was conducted under greenhouse conditions. Stress treatments were applied after 30 days of sowing. Plant height, leaf area, photosynthesis, transpiration rate (Tr), stomatal conductance and WUE were determined weekly under stressed [60% field capacity (F.C.)] and non-stressed (100% F.C.) conditions. Stomatal conductance and Tr decreased and reached near to zero in stressed plants. Stressed plants also showed resistance to water stress upto 5 weeks and gradually perished at sixth week. On the other hand, WUE improved in stressed plants containing biochar and gypsum as compared to untreated plants. Biochar alone is a better strategy to promote plant growth and WUE specifically of A. esculentus, compared to its application in combination with gypsum.

  19. Legume Starches and Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) Gum Blends: Pasting, Thermal, and Viscous Properties

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    ALAMRI, Mohammed S; MOHAMED, Abdellatif A; HUSSAIN, Shahzad; ALMANIA, Hassan A

    2013-01-01

    .... The extract (OE) was added at 5, 10, and 15% of the starch to develop dry or wet blends. The RVA revealed that the peak and final viscosity as well as the setback of both starches were reduced in the presence of OE...

  20. Chemical Constituents in Ethyl Acetate Fraction of Abelmoschus esculentus%黄秋葵乙酸乙酯部位化学成分的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐寅鹏; 石金敏; 郭明明; 敬林林; 贾陆

    2013-01-01

    采用硅胶柱色谱、Sephadex LH-20柱色谱、MCI、ODS和重结晶等多种分离纯化手段,对黄秋葵(Abelmoschus esculentus)乙酸乙酯部位的化学成分进行研究,从中分离得到了13个化合物,分别为β-谷甾醇(β-sitosterol) (1)β-胡萝卜苷(β-daucosterol) (2)、槲皮素(quercetin) (3)、东莨菪内酯(scopoletin) (4)、克利米可辛A(cleomiscosin A)(5)、克利米可辛C(cleomiscosin C) (6)、三十烷酸(triacontanoic acid)(7)、叶绿醇(phytol)(8)、十八碳二烯酸单甘油酯(glycerol-1-linoleate)(9)、亚油酸甘油三酯(trilinolein)(10)、熊果酸(ursolic acid) (11)、蕨内酰胺(pterolactarn) (12)、对羟基苯甲醛(p-hydroxy-benzaldehyde) (13).其中化合物4~12均为首次从黄秋葵中分离得到.%Thirteen compounds were obtained from EtoAc fraction of 95% ethanol extract of Abelmoschus esculentus L. by repeated column chromatography over silica gel.Sephadex LH-20,MCI,ODS,ete. By spectral analysis and physicochemi-cal properties,their chemical structures were identified as β-sitosterol (1) ,β-daucosterol (2) .quercetin (3) ,scopoletin (4) ,cleomiscosin A (5),cleomiscosin C (6) ,triacontanoic acid (7) , phytol (8) ,glycerol-1-linoleate (9) .trilinolein (10) ,ursolic acid (11) ,pterolactam (12) ,β-hydroxy-benzaldehyde (13). Compounds 4-12 were separated from A. esculentus for the first time.

  1. OKRA(HIBISCUS ESCULENTUS)AND FENUGREEK(TRIGONELLA FOENUM GRACEUM)MUCILAGE:CHARACTERIZATION AND APPLICATION AS FLOCCULANTS FOR TEXTILE EFFLUENT TAEATMENTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rajani Srinivasan; Anuradha Mishra

    2008-01-01

    The use of new food grade polysaccharides (mucilage) obtained from Hibiscus esculentus and Trigonella foenum graceum,commonly called Okra and Fenugreek,respectively,as flocculants was described.These polysaccharides were used for removal of solids (suspended solids (SS) and total dissolved solids (TDS)) and dyes from real textile effluents and aqueous solutions of different class of synthetic dyes.Influences of varying polysaccharide concentration,contact time and pH on removal of pollutant from the textile wastewater were investigated.Results showed that polysaccharides (mucilage) obtained from Okra and Fenugreek were capable of removing 90%-94% of SS,30%-44% of TDS and 30%-35% of dye using a very low concentration of polysaccharide.X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns of solid waste material obtained before and after the treatment with polysaccharides were used as a supportive evidence to explain the mechanism of flocculation.

  2. Genetic variability and heritability in cultivated okra [Abel moschus esculentus (L.) Moench

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nwangburuka, C. C.; Denton, O. A.; Khinde, O. B.; Ojo, D. K.; Popoola, A. R.

    2012-11-01

    Twenty-nine okra accessions from different agro-ecological regions in Nigeria were grown during the rainy and dry seasons, between 2006 and 2007 at Abeokuta (derived savanah) and Ilishan (rainforest) and assessed to determine their genetic variability, heritability and genetic advance from eight yield related characters. The experiment was laid out in a Randomized Complete Block Design with five replications. There was high genotypic coefficient of variability, % broad-sense heritability and genetic advance in traits such as plant height (26.2, 90.7, 51.5), fresh pod length (23.9, 98.5, 48.8), fresh pod width (23.9, 98.5, 48.8), mature pod length (28.6, 98.5, 52.3), branching per plant (29.3, 82.3, 54.8) and pod weight per plant (33.9, 90.0, 63.3), suggesting the effect of additive genes and reliability of selection based on phenotype of these traits for crop improvement. The positive and significant phenotypic and genotypic correlation between plant height at maturity, fresh pod width, seeds per pod and pods per plant, branches per plant with seed weight per plant and pod weight per plant, suggests that selection on the basis of the phenotype of these characters will lead to high seed and pod yield in okra. (Author) 26 refs.

  3. Chemical constituents in water fraction ofAbelmoschus esculentus%黄秋葵水溶性部位化学成分研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾陆; 钟丽君; 李焕芬; 敬林林

    2011-01-01

    目的 对黄秋葵Abelmoschus esculentu水溶性部位的化学成分进行研究.方法 利用MCI、ODS和硅胶等柱色谱分离纯化,根据波谱数据和理化性质鉴定结构.结果 分离得到12个化合物,分别鉴定为色氨酸(1)、鸟嘌呤脱氧核苷(2)、次黄嘌呤(3)、3,4-二羟基苯甲酸甲酯(4)、3'-脱氧次黄嘌呤核苷(5)、胸腺嘧啶脱氧核苷(6)、次黄苷(7)、胡萝卜苷(8)、金色酰胺醇酯(9)、黄嘌呤(10)、ethyl-β-D-xyloside(11)、ethyl-α-D-arabinofuranoside(12).结论 化合物2~12均为首次从黄秋葵中分离得到.%Objective To investigate the chemical constituents of Abelmoschus esculentus. Methods Compounds were isolated and purified by MCI, ODS, and silica gel column chromatography. Their chemical structures were elucidated on the basis of spectral data and physicochemical properties. Results Twelve compounds were isolated and identified as tryptophan (1), deoxyguanosine (2), hypoxanthine (3), 3, 4-dihydroxy benzoate (4), 3'-deoxyinosine (5), thymidine (6), inosine (7), β-daucosterol (8), aurantiamide acetate (9), xanthine (10), ethyl-β-D-xyloside (11), and ethyl-a-D-arabinofuranoside (12). Conclusion Except compound 1, other compounds are separated from A. Esculentus for the first time.

  4. Weed Species Distribution of Juvenile Oil Palm Tree (Elaeis guineensis Intercropped with Maize (Zea mays, Okra (Abelmoshus esculentus and Pepper (Capsicum anuum var. abbreviatum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayodele Samuel OLUWATOBI

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This field experiment was carried out to evaluate the weed species distribution in the experimental plots of an intercrop of juvenile oil palm trees (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. with maize (Zea mays Linn., okra (Abelmoschus esculentus Moench and pepper (Capsicum annuum var. abbreviatum. This was carried out during the cropping season between July and October 2012. The crops were intercropped with the juvenile oil palm trees of about 3-years-old. The experiment was laid out in a completely randomized block design with five (5 replicates. The treatments comprised of intercropping distances of 1 m, 2 m and 3 m each for the three (3 crops (maize, okra and pepper and a plot for each of the three (3 arable crops without oil palm trees as control. Weed species distribution was carried out in each of the plots to determine the Simpson’s Diversity Index (D, Simpson’s Index of Diversity (1-D and Simpson’s Reciprocal Index (1/D. Weed species’ frequency, density, relative density, relative frequency, importance value, abundance, dominance and relative dominance were also computed from data collected at 3WAP and 6WAP. The results showed that the control plot has the highest weed species distribution at 3WAP having the lowest Simpson’s Diversity Index (D of 0.0930. Okra plot has the least weed species distribution with the highest Simpson’s Diversity Index (D of 0.2726. At 6WAP, the pepper plot has the highest weed species distribution having the lowest Simpson’s Diversity Index (D of 0.1741. Control plot has the least weed species distribution with highest Simpson’s Diversity Index (D of 0.2831.

  5. Adequacy of mineral contents of raw and plain sticky sauce of common and bush okra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moyib Oluwasayo Kehinde

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In Nigeria, common okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. and bush okra (Corchorus olitorius L. are popular mucilage vegetables used as sticky sauce for easy consumption of starchy staples.Both raw vegetables and sticky sauce of common as well as bush okra were estimated for their potential in the provision of daily dietary allowance of important minerals. Modified methods of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC were used to estimate the assessed minerals.The results showed that the raw and sticky sauce of assessed common and bush okra contained appreciable levels and essential minerals, but are not adequate to meet recommended dietary allowance, except for Fe and Cu. Comparatively, the two species of okra varied significantly in their mineral content of the raw and plain sauce. There was also a negative effect of cooking on the mineral contents, which reduced significantly to an average of 30% on a dry weight basis.Therefore, the two vegetables, either as a fresh or sticky sauce, require additional sources of P, K, Na, Mg, Ca, Mn, and Zn to meet recommended dietary allowance. Furthermore, dried mucilagesauce, though, could be an appreciable post harvest management and storage but not without a loss of about one-third mineral content in the process. However, the sauce of common okra andbush okra are good sources for any of the assessed mineral restricted diets.

  6. Antioxidant and Anti-Fatigue Constituents of Okra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangbo Xia

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L. Moench, a healthy vegetable, is widely spread in tropical and subtropical areas. Previous studies have proven that okra pods possess anti-fatigue activity, and the aim of this research is to clarify the anti-fatigue constituents. To achieve this, we divided okra pods (OPD into seeds (OSD and skins (OSK, and compared the contents of total polysaccharides, total polyphenols, total flavonoids, isoquercitrin, and quercetin-3-O-gentiobiose and the antioxidant activity in vitro and anti-fatigue activity in vivo between OSD and OSK. The contents of total polyphenols and total polysaccharides were 29.5% and 14.8% in OSD and 1.25% and 43.1% in OSK, respectively. Total flavonoids, isoquercitrin and quercetin-3-O-gentiobiose (5.35%, 2.067% and 2.741%, respectively were only detected in OSD. Antioxidant assays, including 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH scavenging, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP and reducing power test, and weight-loaded swimming test showed OSD possessed significant antioxidant and anti-fatigue effects. Moreover, biochemical determination revealed that that anti-fatigue activity of OSD is caused by reducing the levels of blood lactic acid (BLA and urea nitrogen (BUN, enhancing hepatic glycogen storage and promoting antioxidant ability by lowering malondialdehyde (MDA level and increasing superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX levels. These results proved okra seeds were the anti-fatigue part of okra pods and polyphenols and flavonoids were active constituents.

  7. Responses of growth of lady’s fingers ([i]Abelmoschus esculentus [/i]L. to different treatments methods of dairy wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rana Ibrahim Al-Dulaimi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and objective. Water is one of the most important precious resources found on the earth, and are most often affected by anthropogenic activities and by industry. Pollution caused by human beings and industries is a serious concern throughout the world. Population growth, massive urbanization, rapid rate of industrialization and modern techniques in agriculture have accelerated water pollution and led to the gradual deterioration of its quality. A large quantity of waste water disposed of at sea or on land has caused environmental problems which have led to environmental pollution, economic losses and chemical risks caused by the wastewater, and its impact on agriculture. However, waste water which contain nutrients and organic matter has possible advantages for agricultural purposes. Therefore, the presented study was undertaken to assess the impact of Dairy Effluent (treated and untreated waste water on seed germination, seedling growth, dry matter production and the biochemical parameters of lady’s fingers ([i]Abelmoschus esculentus[/i] L.. Materials and methods. A field experiment in a green house was conducted to use raw and treated dairy wastewater for watering lady’s fingers (Abelmoschus esculentus L.. The plants were watered using (WW raw dairy wastewater, (T1 chemicals treatment, (T2 physical treatment, (T3 dilution method treatment and tap water (TW in pot experiments. Ten plants of each treatment /3 replicate were randomly selected and labelled for the collection of data. The data was collected sequentially, starting with chlorophyll content pre-harvest, vegetative qualities (shoot, root and seedling length and dry matter quality (shoot and root dry matter pos-tharvest. Results. The effect was seen on the germination seed and growth of the plant. The results showed inhibitory effect from dairy effluent (WW on seed germination and plant growth. Treatment with chemicals showed statistically significant differences with

  8. 黄秋葵茶叶的成分分析及其水提物的抗氧化活性测定%Ingredient analysis and antioxidant activity of water extract of Abelmoschus esculentus tea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周兆祥; 白石琦; 邹烨; 冯伟伟; 赵婷; 王鑫彤; 朱昀; 张漪静; 仰榴青

    2015-01-01

    目的:对黄秋葵茶叶营养成分和活性成分进行分析,并对其水提取物进行抗氧化活性测定。方法:采用国标法和农业行业标准方法分析黄秋葵茶叶的营养成分和活性成分,同时测定其水提物对 DPPH 自由基、羟自由基的清除作用。结果:黄秋葵茶叶(以干基计)中灰分含量为15.32%,粗蛋白含量为27.58%,粗脂肪含量为2.27%,总糖含量为12.06%;氨基酸分析结果表明,黄秋葵茶叶含有多种人体必需氨基酸;元素分析结果表明,黄秋葵茶叶中含有丰富的钾、钙、镁、铁等元素;活性成分黄酮和多糖的含量分别为1.36%和4.70%。黄秋葵茶叶水提物清除 DPPH 自由基、羟自由基的半数抑制浓度分别为156.8 mg/L 和674.5 mg/L。结论:黄秋葵茶叶具有较好的营养价值和抗氧化保健功能,为消费者提供了一种新型的绿色健康饮品。%Objective:To analyze nutritional ingredient and active ingredient of Abelmoschus esculentus tea,and study on antioxidant activity of water extract.Methods:To analyze nutritional ingredient and ac-tive ingredient of Abelmoschus esculentus tea with GB method and agriculture standard method.Scavenging effects of water extract on DPPH and OH were determined.Results:The content of ash ,crude protein, crude fat and total carbohydrate were 1 5.32%,27.58%,2.27% and 1 2.06% of dried sample,respective-ly.The amino acid analysis results showed that Abelmoschus esculentus tea contained many kinds of essential amino acid.The trace element analysis results showed that Abelmoschus esculentus tea contained K,Ca,Mg, Fe,et al.The active ingredient flavonoids and polysaccharide were 1 .36% and 4.70%,respectively.The IC50 of water extract scavenging DPPH and OH were 1 56.8 mg/L and 674.5 mg/L,respectively.Conclu-sion:Abelmoschus esculentus tea has good nutritional value and antioxidant effect which can provide a new green health drinks

  9. Film coating potential of okra gum using paracetamol tablets as a model drug

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogaji Ikoni

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to study the film coating potential of okra gum extracted from pods of Abelmoschus esculentus plant using paracetamol as a model drug. Core tablets of paracetamol were obtained from a pharmacy shop in the locality and the physicochemical properties such as weight, hardness, friability, and disintegration time were evaluated. Aqueous coating suspensions of okra gum and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (0.6%w/v were prepared and used to coat the tablets in Hi-coater. The coated tablets were evaluated for weight uniformity, diameter, thickness, hardness, friability, disintegration time, and moisture uptake at controlled humidity. The coating remained intact, durable, and resistant to chipping when challenged to catastrophic fall or rubbed on a white paper. The coated tablets had lower friability, increased disintegration time (24 min compared to the core (3 min and improved hardness, but there was no difference in the dissolution profile of the samples from the batches containing okra and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose as film formers. Changes were observed in some of the physicochemical properties of the formulations containing okra gum as with the known film former and it was convenient to conclude that these changes were due to the effect of the mechanical properties of the film formers. It was our conclusion that okra gum is a promising natural, biodegradable, cheap and eco-friendly film former in aqueous tablet film coating operation, particularly when masking of taste or objectionable odor in a solid dosage formulation is desired.

  10. Moisturizing effect of alcohol-based hand rub containing okra polysaccharide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanlayavattanakul, M; Rodchuea, C; Lourith, N

    2012-06-01

    A natural, moisturizing alcohol-based hand rub (ABHR) containing okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) polysaccharide was formulated to reduce the dryness caused by traditional hand-cleansing products. The ABHR developed also reduced infectious disease transmission. Preliminary evaluations of the stable natural hand hygiene preparations were conducted to determine preference and short-term moisturizing efficacy in volunteers. Formulations contained varying amounts of gelling agent (0.5% and 0.3% w/v). Accelerated stability testing using a centrifugation assay and six heating/cooling cycles of the ABHR bases were performed. Then, okra polysaccharide (5%, 7%, 10% and 15% w/w) was incorporated into the base, and stability tests were repeated. The moisturizing okra polysaccharide was compatible with the formulations at all concentrations. All of the formulated ABHRs were stable. Sensory evaluation was conducted in 36 volunteers. The two most preferred okra ABHRs were patch-tested in 12 volunteers; results indicated none of the preparations caused irritation. Efficacy of the most preferred moisturizing ABHR containing 0.3% gelling agent and 10% (w/v) okra extract was determined. Short-term moisturizing efficacy of a single application was examined in 20 volunteers. The okra ABHR hydrated skin significantly better than a control ABHR (P moisture was retained for 210 min of the observation period. Thus, the ABHR product containing moisturizing okra is safe, efficacious and possesses desirable properties. The formulation can be applied every 3 h for good hand hygiene with moisturizing efficacy. © 2012 The Authors. ICS © 2012 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  11. Summer cover crops and soil amendments to improve growth and nutrient uptake of okra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Q.R.; Li, Y.C.; Klassen, W. [University of Florida, Homestead, FL (United States). Center for Tropical Research & Education

    2006-04-15

    A pot experiment with summer cover crops and soil amendments was conducted in two consecutive years to elucidate the effects of these cover crops and soil amendments on 'Clemson Spineless 80' okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) yields and biomass production, and the uptake and distribution of soil nutrients and trace elements. The cover crops were sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea), cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), velvetbean (Mucuna deeringiana), and sorghum sudan-grass (Sorghum bicolor x S. bicolor var. sudanense) with fallow as the control. The organic soil amendments were biosolids (sediment from wastewater plants), N-Viro Soil (a mixture of biosolids and coal ash), coal ash (a combustion by-product from power plants), co-compost (a mixture of 3 biosolids: 7 yard waste), and yard waste compost (mainly from leaves and branches of trees and shrubs, and grass clippings) with a soil-incorporated cover crop as the control. As a subsequent vegetable crop, okra was grown after the cover crops, alone or together with the organic soil amendments, had been incorporated. All of the cover crops, except sorghum sudangrass in 2002-03, significantly improved okra fruit yields and the total biomass production. Both cover crops and soil amendments can substantially improve nutrient uptake and distribution. The results suggest that cover crops and appropriate amounts of soil amendments can be used to improve soil fertility and okra yield without adverse environmental effects or risk of contamination of the fruit. Further field studies will be required to confirm these findings.

  12. Effects of different soil amendments on the growth and yield of okra in a tropical rainforest of southwestern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adewole Moses B.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effects of different soil enhancers on the growth response of okra [Abelmoschus esculentus (L. Moench] cultivated on a ‘contaminated’ field with sewage sludge from the two oxidation ponds of the Obafemi Awolowo University (OAU, Ile-Ife, Nigeria. This was with a view to assessing the growth performance and yield of the test crop under different soil amendments. Okra variety, NHAe 47-4 with NPK 12-12-17 (IO, compost organic fertilizer (OR, Glomus mosseae mycorrhiza (MY and zero fertilizer applications as control (CT was laid out in a completely randomised block design and each treatment plot (4 x 2 m was replicated four times. Selected weather parameters were collected from a meteorological station in OAU campus during the period of the experiments. Growth parameters such as plant height, stem girth and number of leaves of okra increased with added soil amendments from four weeks after planting in the order: IO > OR > MY > CT. In 2010, the highest mean yield of 16.3 t ha-1 obtained with 6.0 t ha-1 of MY was not significantly higher than 15.4 t ha-1 obtained with application of 0.2 t ha-1 of IO, but significantly (p < 0.05 higher than 13.1 and 10.4 t ha-1 obtained with applications of 6.0 and zero t ha-1 of OR and CT respectively. Comparative okra yield, though relatively higher with mycorrhizal inoculation, but lower with no soil amendment was obtained in 2011. The study concluded that a direct linear relationship existed between solar radiation and okra productivity. Also, for a moderately ‘treated field’ with sewage sludge from domestic wastes, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi can be integrated into soil fertility management to achieve low-cost sustainable agricultural systems for enhanced productivity of okra.

  13. Effect of different fertilization and irrigation methods on nitrogen uptake, intercepted radiation and yield of okra (Abelmoschus esculentum L) grown in the Keta Sand Spit of Southeast Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danso, E O; Abenney-Mickson, S; Sabi, E B;

    2015-01-01

    uptake, crop interception of solar radiation, yield and water productivity were compared among treatments. The crop did not respond well when fertigation was done only twice, probably due to N-leaching. However, in the second and third experiments, when fertigation was done weekly for eight weeks......, the yield of drip fertigated okra was as high as or better than sprinkler irrigated okra with manure spread on the soil, sprinkler and drip with localized manure. In the second experiment, though nitrogen applied was the same (89 kg N ha−1), for all treatments, the highest N uptake, intercepted radiation...... compared to sprinkler irrigation. Therefore, drip irrigation with frequent fertigation allow reduced P-load and more efficient use of nitrogen, water and radiation than with sprinkler irrigation....

  14. Search for sources of resistance to Fusarium wilt (Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum in okra germplasm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederick Mendes Aguiar

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available – Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum (FOV is one the most destructive okra (Abelmoschus esculentus pathogens in Brazil. Fifty-four okra accessions were evaluated for resistance to FOV. Greenhouse screening was initially carried out with one FOV isolate (‘Fus-194’. Inoculation (in all assays was carried out with 21-day-old plantlets, using the root-dipping inoculation technique. Thirty-three accessions displaying differential responses in the first screening were re-evaluated in two additional assays, using two FOV isolates (‘Fus-194’ and ‘Fus-201’. Twelve accessions were rated as highly to intermediately resistant to ‘Fus-194’ during the dry/moderate temperature season, whereas nine accessions were classified as highly to intermediately resistant to ‘Fus-201’. In the assay carried out in the wet and warm season, 72% of the accessions were classified as having high and intermediate resistance to ‘Fus-194’, and 32% were resistant to ‘Fus-201’. The accessions ‘Santa Cruz-47’, ‘BR-2399’ and ‘BR-1449’ were the most promising resistance sources.

  15. Single and interactive effects of root-knot nematode and coal-smoke on okra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, M.R.; Khan, M.W. (Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh (India). Dept. of Botany)

    1994-02-01

    Effects of coal-smoke pollutants and the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita race 1, singly and jointly, were investigated on okra, Abelmoschus esculentus in 1988 and 1989. Plants in clay pots were placed at two sites (K1 and K2), 1 and 2 km away from the stack of a coal-fired thermal power plant, and also at a control site. The mean concentrations of SO[sub 2], NO[sub 2] and suspended particulate matter (SPM) were 141, 76 and 309 [mu]g m[sup -3] at K1, and 184, 93 and 205 [mu]g m[sup -3] at K2, but the concentrations of the pollutants at the control site were very low. Okra plants at the K2 site showed browning of the leaves, whereas injury was mild at K1. The intensity of the browning and the impact of nematode disease was appreciably higher in the infected plants at the polluted sites in both the years. The plants grown at the two sites exhibited suppressions in plant growth, yield and photosynthetic pigments, particularly at K2. M. incognita at the control site also cause significant reductions, but joint effects of the nematode and coal-smoke were synergistic.

  16. FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF MATRIX TABLETS BASED ON POLYELECTROLYTE COMPLEX BETWEEN OKRA MUCILAGE AND CHITOSAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashwini Rajendra

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Recent years there has been greater utilization of natural polymers in the development of delivery systems. The present work is an effort towards development of matrix tablets using polyelectrolyte complex formed between the oppositely charged natural polymers like okra mucilage obtained from pods of Abelmoschus esculentus and chitosan. The effect of pH and polymer volume ratio on yield of polyelectrolyte complex was studied. It was observed that the yield was maximum (96.45% at pH 5 and at polymer volume ratio of 9:1 between okra mucilage and chitosan. The prepared polyelectrolyte complex was also characterised by conductimetry, FTIR, DSC. The results confirmed the formation of polyelectrolyte complex between the natural polymers. The matrix tablets were formulated for model drug diclofenac sodium using the best polyelectrolyte complex at different drug to polymer ratios and compared with formulations containing individual polymers as well as marketed formulation. The prepared formulations showed satisfactory physical parameters. Formulations F2 and F3 extended the drug release for more than 8 h with (83.87± 0.8321% and (77.125± 0.125% drug release respectively in 8 h. The formulations F2 and F3 followed zero order kinetics with anomalous diffusion mechanism. The mean dissolution times were 3.6042 and 3.5935 hrs and the % dissolution efficiency were 54.9467 and 55.7203 % for formulations F2 and F3 respectively. The similarity factor f2 for formulation F2 was 61.6751 and for formulation F3, it was found to be 60.5025.The formulations were found to be stable.

  17. Assessment of Growth Performance of Two Cultivated Okra Species ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Ogunji

    The chemical analysis of plants grown in these soils showed that heavy ... The common Okra (A. esculentus) is mainly grown for market gardening in areas .... Crop Management: Seeds of the six accessions collected were subjected to ... There was no fertilizer application during trials. .... Multivariate analysis characteristics.

  18. Whitefly population dynamics in okra plantations Dinâmica populacional de mosca-branca em quiabo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germano Leão Demolin Leite

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The control of whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius biotype B (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae on okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. consists primarily in the use of insecticides, due to the lack of information on other mortality factors. The objective of this study was to evaluate the spatial and temporal population dynamics of the whitefly B. tabaci biotype B on two successive A. esculentus var. "Santa Cruz" plantations. Leaf chemical composition, leaf nitrogen and potassium contents, trichome density, canopy height, plant age, predators, parasitoids, total rainfall and median temperature were evaluated and their relationships with whitefly on okra were determined. Monthly number estimates of whitefly adults, nymphs (visual inspection and eggs (magnifying lens occurred on bottom, middle and apical parts of 30 plants/plantation (one leaf/plant. Plants senescence and natural enemies, mainly Encarsia sp., Chrysoperla spp. and Coccinellidae, were some of the factors that most contributed to whitefly reduction. The second okra plantation, 50 m apart from the first, was strongly attacked by whitefly, probably because of the insect migration from the first to the second plantation. No significant effects of the plant canopy on whitefly eggs and adults distribution were found. A higher number of whitefly nymphs was found on the medium part than on the bottom part.O controle da mosca-branca Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius biótipo B (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae em quiabeiro (Abelmoschus esculentus L. consiste principalmente no uso de inseticidas, em virtude da falta de informação sobre outros fatores de mortalidade. O objetivo deste trabalho foi compreender a dinâmica populacional, espacial e temporal da mosca-branca em dois cultivos sucessivos de quiabeiro "Santa Cruz". Avaliaram-se a composição química foliar, os níveis foliares de nitrogênio e de potássio, a densidade de tricomas, a altura de dossel, a idade de planta, predadores, parasitóides, pluviosidade total

  19. Análise Faunística de Insetos Associados à Cultura do Quiabeiro [Abelmoschus esculentus (L. Moench] em Plantio Comercial, no Município de Canindé de São Francisco, SE, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Cristina Silva

    2016-08-01

    Abstract. This research aims to study the entomofauna associated with the commercial cultivation of okra in municipality of Canindé do São Francisco, Sergipe State, Brazil, through faunal analysis. The species Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius biotype B, Aphis gossypii (Glover, Phenacoccus sp., Icerya purchasi (Maskell and Lagria villosa (Fabricius were the okra key pests. Diabrotica speciosa (Germar and Gryllus assimilis (Fabricius were plagues of secondary importance. And Leptoglossus zonatus (Dallas, Nezaraviridula L., Pachycoris torridus (Scopoli and Oxycarenus hyalinipennis (Costa were sporadic pests. Four species of predatory insects were found, a constant and dominant (Cycloneda sanguinea L. a dispersed, but constant (Eriopis connexa German and two rare (Hippodamia convergens Guérin-Méneville and Psyllobora confluens F..

  20. Avaliação da resistência de genótipos de quiabeiro à infestação por Meloidogyne incognita raça 2 e M. javanica Resistance of okra genotypes to Meloidogyne incognita race 2 and M. javanica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilmar Efrem Martinello

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Vinte e dois genótipos de quiabeiro (Abelmoschus spp. foram avaliados para resistência à Meloidogyne incognita raça 2 e M. javanica. Estes materiais, mantidos no Banco de Germoplasma da Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense, constam de quatro espécies selvagens Abelmoschus manihot (CGO 8655, A. caillei (CGO 8656, A. tetraphyllus (CGO 8657 e A. ficulneus (CGO 8658; 16 linhas de A. esculentus na sétima geração de autofecundação, resultantes de inter-cruzamentos do genótipo PI-357991 (supostamente resistentes a nematóides com as cultivares Piranema e Santa Cruz 47. Essas cultivares serviram como padrão de suscetibilidade. As plantas foram inoculadas separadamente com 5.000 ovos/segundo estádio juvenil (J2 de M. incognita raça 2 e M. javanica. Não houve diferença significativa com relação à resistência dos materiais a M. javanica. Os genótipos descendentes de 'PI-357991' mostraram-se segregantes para a reação de resistência, sendo que entre estes 'CGO 8180A7' apresentou o maior nível de tolerância à raça 2 de M. incognita. As espécies silvestres também não mostraram alguma fonte de resistência. As altas temperaturas ocorridas no período do experimento, podem ter aumentado a suscetibilidade dos genótipos aos dois patógenos.Twenty two okra genotypes were evaluated for resistance to M. incognita race 2 and M. javanica. The Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense (Brazil maintains okra genotypes in the germplasm collection, consisting of four wild Abelmoschus species and 16 F7 lines obtained from crosses between PI-357991 (considered resistant to root-knot nematodes and the local cvs, Piranema and Santa Cruz 47 (both susceptible to nematodes. No resistance was observed among okra genotypes to infection by M. javanica. The 16 F7 lines segregated for pathogenic reaction, and the CGO 8180A7 presented the highest resistance level to M. incognita race 2. The wild species did not show genetic resistance to both

  1. Factors affecting colonization and abundance of Aphis gossypii glover (hemiptera: aphididae on okra plantations Fatores que afetam a colonização e abundância de Aphis gossypii glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae em plantações de quiabeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germano Leão Demolin Leite

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The control of Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae on okra Abelmoschus esculentus (L. (Malvaceae consist primarily in the use of insecticides, due to the lack of information on other mortality factors. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of predators and parasitoids, height of canopy, plant age, leaf areas, organic compounds leaves, levels of leaf nitrogen and potassium, density of leaf trichomes, total rainfall and median temperature on attack intensity of A. gossypii on two successive A. esculentus var. Santa Cruz plantations. Monthly number estimates of A. gossypii and natural enemies (visual inspection occurred on bottom, middle and apical parts of 30 plants/plantation (one leaf/plant. Plants senescence, leaf areas and natural enemies, mainly Adialytus spp., spiders and Coccinellidae, were some of the factors that most contributed to aphid reduction. A higher number of aphids was found on the bottom part than medium and apical parts of okra plants. Total rainfall can reduce the aphid population. Trichomes non-glandular or low density, organic compounds leaves and levels of N and K were not important for reducing aphid population.O controle de Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae em quiabeiro Abelmoschus esculentus (L. (Malvaceae consiste principalmente no uso de inseticidas, em virtude da falta de informação sobre outros fatores de mortalidade. Objetivou-se com este estudo determinar os efeitos de predadores e parasitóides, altura de dossel, idade da planta, área foliar, compostos orgânicos foliares, níveis de nitrogênio e potássio, densidade de tricomas, pluviosidade e temperatura na intensidade de ataque de A. gossypii em dois cultivos sucessivos de Abelmoschus esculentus var. Santa Cruz. Estimou-se, mensalmente, o número de A. gossypii e de inimigos naturais (inspeção visual ocorridos nas folhas (uma folha/planta localizadas nas partes basal, mediana e apical de 30 plantas/plantação. Os

  2. Influência da colonização micorrízica arbuscular sobre a nutrição do quiabeiro Influence of arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi on the nutrition of okra plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Luís Louro Berbara

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available Foram estudados em casa de vegetação alguns parâmetros de crescimento em plantas de quiabo (Abelmoschus esculentus (L. Moench cv. Piranema colonizadas por dois grupos de fungos micorrízicos arbusculares, com o objetivo de determinar a influência dos inóculos na nutrição e morfologia radicular do quiabeiro. Um grupo continha apenas esporos de Acaulospora longula (A enquanto o outro, esporos de oito espécies: Glomus occultum, Glomus aggregatum, Glomus microcarpum, Acaulospora longula, Acaulospora morrowae, Sclerocystis coremioides, Sclerocystis sinuosa, Scutellospora pellucida. As plantas foram submetidas a três níveis de P (0, 10 e 60 kg ha-1 de P2O5 e coletadas em três diferentes idades (22, 32 e 47 dias, com quatro repetições para cada tratamento. Foi determinado o acúmulo de N, P, K, e Mg na raiz e parte aérea, bem como o influxo médio desses elementos e a área radicular. Os resultados indicaram, além da resposta positiva do quiabeiro ao P, uma maior eficiência da inoculação com mistura de espécies apesar de o influxo médio, determinado aos 47 dias, apresentar maiores valores para o tratamento com A. longula.An experiment was carried out in greenhouse to determine the influence of inoculation of two groups of arbuscular mycorrhizae on the nutrition and radicular morphology of the okra plant (Abelmoschus esculentus (L. Moench cv. Piranema. One group had only Acaulospora longula spores and the other a spore mixture of eight species: Glomus occultum, Glomus aggregatum, Glomus microcarpum, Acaulospora longula, Acaulospora morrowae, Sclerocystis coremioides, Sclerocystis sinuosa, Scutellospora pellucida. The experiment was held in greenhouse conditions with three levels of P (0, 10 and 60 kg ha-1 of P2O5, three samplings dates (22, 32 and 47 days and four replications. The accumulation of N, P, K, Ca and Mg in roots and shoots, root area and their influx ratio were determined. The results made evident that the mixture of

  3. Effect of Meloidogyne arenaria and Mulch Type on Okra in Microplot Experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritzinger, C H; McSorley, R; Gallaher, R N

    1998-12-01

    The effects of perennial peanut (Arachis glabrata) hay, an aged yard-waste compost (mainly woodchips), and a control treatment without amendment were determined on two population levels of root-knot (Melaidogyne arenaria) nematode over three consecutive years in field microplots. Okra (Hibiscus esculentus, susceptible to the root-knot nematode) and a rye (Secale cereale) cover crop (poor nematode host) were used in the summer and winter seasons, respectively. The organic amendment treatments affected plant growth parameters. In the first year, okra yields were greatest in peanut-amended plots. Yield differences with amendment treatment diminished in the second and third years. Okra plant height, total fruit weight, and fruit number were greater with the lower population level of the root-knot nematode. Residual levels of nutrients in soil were greater where root-knot nematode levels and damage were higher and plant growth was poor. Nutrient levels affected the growth of a subsequent rye cover crop.

  4. DESENVOLVIMENTO E PRODUÇÃO DO QUIABEIRO EM FUNÇÃO DAS DATAS DE PLANTIO GROWTH AND YIELD OF OKRA AS INFLUENCED BY PLANTING DATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Ernst Sonnenberg

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    A influência de quatro épocas de plantio (15 de maio, 15 de junho, 15 de julho e 15 de agosto de 1998 no desenvolvimento e na produção do quiabeiro (Abelmoschus esculentus (L Moench (cv. Santa Cruz 47 foi investigada em Goiânia, GO. O experimento foi conduzido na Escola de Agronomia e Engenharia de Alimentos da Universidade Federal de Goiás, em Latossolo Vermelho Amarelo, cultivado há muitos anos. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos casualizados com quatro repetições. Foram encontradas diferenças significativas (Tukey 5% entre épocas de plantio, para as seguintes características: número de frutos produzidos durante as trinta primeiras colheitas, altura das plantas no início da colheita, número de ramos laterais e número de dias da semeadura ao início do florescimento, ao início da colheita e ao início da colheita em 75% das covas. A temperatura média dos meses seguintes às datas de plantio aumentou de maio para agosto. Observou-se uma redução do período da semeadura até o início do florescimento, até o início da colheita e até o início da colheita em 75% das covas. O número de ramos laterais também foi reduzido no mesmo período. Entretanto verificou-se aumento na altura das plantas e no rendimento das primeiras trinta colheitas.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Abelmoschus esculentus; data de plantio; épocas de plantio.

    The influence of four sowing dates (May 15th, June 15th, July 15th and August 15th, 1998 on the growth and yield of okra (Abelmoschus

  5. 热风干燥联合真空降温缓苏提升黄秋葵干制品品质%Hot air drying combined vacuum ventilation tempering improving quality of dried okra products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段续; 刘文超; 任广跃

    2016-01-01

    为提升黄秋葵热风干燥产品品质,试验将真空降温缓苏技术应用于黄秋葵热风干燥过程中。研究了不同缓苏时长下黄秋葵干燥特性和品质指标的变化规律;利用Weibull分布函数分析缓苏处理对黄秋葵热风干燥过程中水分扩散机制的影响;采用一元非线性回归分析构建适用于黄秋葵真空降温缓苏-热风联合干燥过程中干燥特性和品质指标随缓苏时长变化的学数模型;以总干燥耗时、总干燥能耗、复水比、色相角以及总营养物质保存率为指标,对不同缓苏时长下的黄秋葵热风干燥进行加权综合评价。结果表明:缓苏处理能够提升黄秋葵热风干燥速率,且随着缓苏时长的延长其促进作用会增强;Weibull分布函数能够准确描述(R2>0.99且离差平方和χ2处于10-4数量级)黄秋葵真空降温缓苏-热风联合干燥过程中水分比随干燥时间的变化规律;常用函数一元非线性回归分析能够构建出黄秋葵真空降温缓苏-热风联合干燥过程中各干燥特性和品质指标随缓苏时长的变化规律的动力学模型;联合干燥过程中,缓苏60 min处理的综合评分值最高为0.55,在干燥温度和风速分别为60℃、1.5 m/s条件下,该缓苏时长较适合应用于黄秋葵热风干燥。研究表明,真空降温缓苏处理能够提升黄秋葵热风干燥的干燥速率和干燥品质,该文可为真空降温缓苏技术在高品质黄秋葵干制品工业生产上的应用提供理论依据。%Okras (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench) belong to the Malvaceae family. It is proved that okra can act as a tonic for both man and woman and enable them to increase their vitality and vigour. Due to high content of vitamin A and C, calcium, dietary fiber and low content of saturated fat, okra products, which are consumed in dried, frozen, fresh forms and also available in canned and pickled forms, are popular around the

  6. Pre-germinative treatments in okra seeds in different stadiums of fruit maturationTratamentos pré-germinativos em sementes de quiabo em diferentes estádios de maturação do fruto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Célia Maria Peixoto de Macedo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of the pre-soak and of the thermotherapy in the germination and in the energy of the okra seeds (Abelmoschus esculentus in different stadiums of maturation of the fruit. The design used was the entirely randomized with four repetitions, in a factorial outline 5 x 9, five maturation stadiums (green, semi-hard, hard, dry and dehiscent and nine treatments pre-germination: pre-soak for immersion of the seeds in water to the temperature of 30ºC for 6, 12 and 24 hours; immersion of the seeds in water to 40, 50, 60 and 70ºC for 3 minutes; thermotherapy for immersion of the seeds in water to the ebullition temperature (97ºC until cooling and intact seeds (control. The seeds were sowed in paper-towel rolls and they were maintained in camera type BOD regulated to 20-30ºC and photoperiod of 8-16 hours. The okra seeds originating from dry and dehiscent fruits presented larger germination performance. The pre-germination treatments more effective to accelerate the germination of seeds obtained from dry and dehiscent fruits are the pre-soak for 6 hours and thermotherapy at 60 °C for 3 minutes, respectively.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a influência da pré-embebição e da termoterapia na germinação e no vigor das sementes de quiabo (Abelmoschus esculentus em diferentes estádios de maturação do fruto. O delineamento foi o inteiramente casualizado com quatro repetições, num esquema fatorial 5 x 9, cinco estádios de maturação (verde, semi-duro, duro, seco e deiscente e nove tratamentos pré-germinativos: pré-embebição por imersão das sementes em água à temperatura de 30ºC por 6, 12 e 24 horas; imersão das sementes em água a 40, 50, 60 e 70ºC por 3 minutos; termoterapia por imersão das sementes em água à temperatura de ebulição (97ºC até esfriar e sementes intactas (testemunha. As sementes foram semeadas em rolos de papel-toalha que foram mantidos em câmara tipo

  7. Characterization of the okra mucilage by interaction with Gal, GalNAc and GlcNAc specific lectins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, A M; Jiang, Y J; Hwang, P Y; Shen, F S

    1995-02-23

    A bio-active polysaccharide, which was the major component of the extract of the common okra, Hibiscus esculentus, was isolated from the extract by precipitation with ethanol between 28.5 to 45%. According to a previous report (Whistler, R.L. and Conrad, H.E. (1954) J. Am. Chem. Soc. 76, 1673-1674), this polysaccharide contains the Gal alpha 1-->4Gal sequence, which is the ligand for the uropathogenic Escherichia coli and toxic lectins. Analysis of the binding property of the okra polysaccharide by precipitin assay with Gal, GalNAc and GlcNAc specific lectins showed that this okra mucilage reacted best with Mistletoe toxic lectin-I (ML-I) and precipitated over 80% of the ML-I nitrogen (5.1 micrograms N) added. It also precipitated well with Abrus precatorius (APA), Momordica charantia (MCA) and Ricinus communis (RCA1) agglutinins, but poorly with other lectins. The results obtained suggest that this polysaccharide is a valuable reagent to differentiate Gal specific lectins from the GalNAc and/or GlcNAc specific series.

  8. 黄秋葵叶粉对海兰褐蛋鸡盲肠微生物及肠道组织结构的影响%Effects of Okra Leafmeal on Intestinal Microflora and Intestinal Morphology in Laying Hens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴佳静; 周汉林; 荣光; 刘国道; 吴滴峰

    2012-01-01

    试验旨在研究饲料中添加黄秋葵叶粉对海兰褐壳蛋鸡肠道微生物及肠道组织结构的影响.选取处于同一生产水平的海兰褐壳蛋鸡450只,随机分为5组,每组3个重复,每个重复30只,试验组黄秋葵叶粉添加量分别为3%(T3)、4%(T4)、5%(T5)、6%(T6),对照组为不添加黄秋葵叶粉组(0%,T0).试验预试期1W,正试期12W.结果表明日粮中添加黄秋葵叶粉可在一定程度上降低大肠杆菌的数量,促进盲肠中双歧杆菌和乳酸杆菌的增殖,其中以4%添加量效果最好.在42 d和84d时屠宰,试验组鸡回肠、空肠和十二指肠的肠壁厚度较对照组均有提高,其中84 d时各试验组空肠肠壁厚度极显著高于对照组(P<0.01);试验组回肠、空肠和十二指肠的绒毛高度(VH)及绒毛高度/隐窝深度(V/C)均显著高于对照组;42 d时,试验组T3、T4回肠和各试验组空肠隐窝深度较对照组显著降低(P<0.05),试验组十二指肠隐窝深度较对照组均有所下降,差异不显著;84 d时,各试验组回肠及T3、T4组空肠和十二指肠隐窝深度较对照组显著降低(P<0.05).这表明,日粮中添加适量黄秋葵叶粉在一定程度上具有改善蛋鸡肠道微生物菌群和肠道组织结构的作用,其中以4%的添加量效果最好.%The experiment was conducted to study the effects of Okra leafmeal(Abelmoschus esculentus {Linnaeus) Moench) on intestinal microflora and intestinal morphology in laying hens.450 brown hens which at the same production level were selected and divided into 5 treatments at random.Each treatment had 3 replicates including 30 chickens.The experiment groups were respectively appended with additive Okra leaf meal into feedings by 3 % (T3), A% (T,), 5% (T5), S% (T6), and the control group had no additive Okra leafmeal (0% ,T0).The results showed that addition of Okra leafmeal could reduce the quantity of Escherichia coli (Migula) Castellani et Chalmers in cecum and it

  9. Interferência de plantas daninhas na cultura do quiabo Weed interference in okra crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.B. Santos

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar os períodos de interferência das plantas daninhas na cultura do quiabo (Abelmoschus esculentus na região do Médio Vale do Rio Doce, em Minas Gerais. O experimento foi conduzido em campo, entre maio e outubro de 2007. Utilizaram-se sementes do quiabo Santa Cruz-47, semeadas no espaçamento de 0,25 x 1 m. Foram estabelecidos diferentes períodos de controle das plantas daninhas na cultura, variando entre zero e 120 dias após a emergência (DAE. Foram avaliados 12 tratamentos, correspondendo a diferentes períodos de controle das plantas daninhas na cultura: capina após a emergência a partir dos 20, 40, 60, 80 e 100 dias; capina após a emergência até os 20, 40, 60, 80 e 100 dias; além de duas testemunhas com capina, ou não capinadas, ambas por 120 dias. Determinou-se o número de frutos por planta e o rendimento (produtividade, bem como os valores em dias para período anterior à interferência (PAI, período crítico de prevenção da interferência (PCPI e período total de prevenção da interferência (PTPI, considerando 5% de perdas. A partir das espécies encontradas na área experimental, avaliou-se também, em vasos, isoladamente ou em competição com o quiabeiro, a capacidade competitiva das principais plantas daninhas. Com base nos resultados, verificou-se que o PAI estimado foi de 25 DAE, indicando a época de início das capinas. Para o PCPI, o período observado foi de 75 dias, indicando PTPI de 100 DAE. Entre as plantas daninhas presentes, Eleusine indica apresentou maior capacidade competitiva sobre a cultura.An experiment was carried out under field conditions in Médio Vale do Rio Doce-MG, from May to October, 2007, to establish periods of weed interference in Abelmoschus esculentus crop. 'Santa Cruz-47' seeds were sown in a 0.25 x 1.0 m spacing, and weed control times varied from 0 to 120 days after emergence (DAE. Number of fruit per plant and yield as well as values in days

  10. INDUCED MUTAGENESIS IN ABELMOSCHUS MOSCHATUS (L. MEDIK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubey Kumari Priyanka

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Dry seeds (cultivar I – tall, branched, moisture content 3.5%; cultivar II – dwarf, unbranched, moisture content 1.5% of Abelmoschus moschatus (L. Medik (Family: Malvaceae; Common name: Ambrette; English name: Musk mallow were treated (0.25, 0.50, and 1.00% for 3h and 6h durations with chemical mutagens ethyl methane sulphonate (EMS and hydroxylamine (NH2OH to raise desirable ‘plant type’ mutants. Mutagenic sensitivity (from M1 biological damages like lethality, injury and sterility; LD50 was ascertained, M2 mutation frequency and types (cv.I: pigmented stem, lax branching, long petiole, large flower and early flowering, 1089 plants scored; cv.II: funnel, thick stem and late flowering, 1945 plants screened, mutagenic effectiveness (EMS more effective than NH2OH and efficiency (variable response but threshold dose seems to be efficient and meiotic chromosome behaviour of the plant types were assessed. Macromutants evolved were viable and may be important genetic resources in the plant species.

  11. (Jacq) on the flowering and fruiting of okra

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-05-31

    May 31, 2010 ... the fruiting of Thompson seedless grape plants was induced by ... guinea corn is used for the treatment of cancer of the nose (Gill, 1992). ... Plant materials. Okra and groundnut seeds were obtained from the seed service.

  12. Nutritional response of Okra to various packaging materials and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nutritional response of Okra to various packaging materials and chemical pickling agents. ... AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search ... and groundnut oil) and packaging materials (glass jar, plastic and stainless ...

  13. Reduce pests, enhance production: benefits of intercropping at high densities for okra farmers in Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Akanksha; Weisser, Wolfgang W; Hanna, Rachid; Houmgny, Raissa; Zytynska, Sharon E

    2017-10-01

    Intercropping can help reduce insect pest populations. However, the results of intercropping can be pest- and crop-species specific, with varying effects on crop yield, and pest suppression success. In Cameroon, okra vegetable is often grown in intercropped fields and sown with large distances between planting rows (∼ 2 m). Dominant okra pests include cotton aphids, leaf beetles and whiteflies. In a field experiment, we intercropped okra with maize and bean in different combinations (okra monoculture, okra-bean, okra-maize and okra-bean-maize) and altered plant densities (high and low) to test for the effects of diversity, crop identity and planting distances on okra pests, their predators and yield. We found crop identity and plant density, but not crop diversity to influence okra pests, their predators and okra yield. Only leaf beetles decreased okra yield and their abundance reduced at high plant density. Overall, okra grown with bean at high density was the most economically profitable combination. We suggest that when okra is grown at higher densities, legumes (e.g. beans) should be included as an additional crop. Intercropping with a leguminous crop can enhance nitrogen in the soil, benefiting other crops, while also being harvested and sold at market for additional profit. Manipulating planting distances and selecting plants based on their beneficial traits may thus help to eliminate yield gaps in sustainable agriculture. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Effect of water stress on growth and yield of okra (Abemoscus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of water stress on growth and yield of okra (Abemoscus essculentus) ... Journal of Applied Science and Technology ... The water requirements of okra plant were determined from field capacity and permanent wilting point of the soil.

  15. Antiproliferative and proapoptotic actions of okra pectin on B16F10 melanoma cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vayssade, M.; Sengkhamparn, N.; Verhoef, R.P.; Delaigue, C.; Goundiam, O.; Vigneron, P.; Voragen, A.G.J.; Schols, H.A.; Nagel, M.D.

    2010-01-01

    The proliferation and apoptosis of metastatic melanoma cells are often abnormal. We have evaluated the action of a pectic rhamnogalacturonan obtained by hot buffer extraction of okra pods (okra RG-I) on melanoma cell growth and survival in vitro. We added okra RG-I containing an almost pure RG-I car

  16. Effect of household processing on fenazaquin residues in okra fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duhan, Anil; Kumari, Beena; Gulati, Rachna

    2010-02-01

    Fenazaquin (4-[[4 (1,1-dimethylethyl) phenyl] ethoxy]quinazoline) is a new acaricide of the quinazoline class. Residue levels of fenazaquin were determined in unprocessed and processed okra fruits to evaluate the effect of different processes (washing, boiling and washing followed by boiling) in reduction of residues of this pesticide in okra. The study was carried out on okra crop (Variety, Varsha Uphar) in research farm of Chaudhary Charan Singh Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar with application of fenazaquin (Magister 10 EC) @ 125 ga.i./ha (Single Dose, T(1)) and 250 g a.i./ha (Double Dose, T(2)). Samples of okra fruits were collected on 0, 3, 7, 15 days after treatment and at harvest (30 days). Residues were estimated by gas chromatograph equipped with capillary column and nitrogen phosphorus detector. Residues reached below maximum residue limit of 0.01 mg/kg at harvest. The residues dissipated with half-life period of 3.13 days at lower dose and 4.43 days at higher dose. Processing is shown to be very effective in reducing the levels of fenazaquin residues in okra fruits. Maximum reduction (60-61%) was observed by washing + boiling followed by boiling/cooking (38-40%) and then by washing (31-32%).

  17. Okra yield fertilized with bovine manure and biofertilizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ademar Pereira de Oliveira

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of bovine manure becomes an useful and economic practice for the small and medium producers of vegetables, and the okra plant normally demands high doses of organic fertilizers. This study was carried out, from January to July 2011, at the Federal University of Paraíba, in Areia city - PB, aiming to evaluate the effect of bovine manure and biofertilizer on the productive behavior of the okra plant. The experimental design used was randomized blocks, with four repetitions in factorial scheme 6 x 2, with the doses factors of bovine manure (0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 t ha-1 with and without biofertilizer. The average mass of commercial fruit of okra, with and without biofertilizer was 18 and 16.5 g, respectively, in the doses of 27.5 and 60 t ha-1 of manure. The number of fruit plant-1 without biofertilizer was 30 fruits plant-1 of okra in the dose of 60 t ha-1 and with biofertilizer, the number of fruits plant-1 was 33 fruits in the dose of 28 t ha-1 of bovine manure. The productivity of commercial fruits of okra without biofertilizer was 20.4 t ha-1 and 22 t ha-1 with biofertilizer, respectively, in the doses of 60 and 31 t ha-1 of bovine manure.

  18. Dynamic high pressure microfluidization-assisted extraction and bioactivities of Cyperus esculentus (C. esculentus L.) leaves flavonoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Siqun; Wang, Saisai; Li, Qian; Zheng, Lian; Yue, Li; Fan, Shaoli; Tao, Guanjun

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this work was to study the effect of dynamic high pressure microfluidization (DHPM) on extracting total flavonoids from Cyperus esculentus L. (C. esculentus L.) leaves and to evaluate the antioxidant activity and antibacterial property of these flavonoids. In all the assays, pretreatment with DHPM was found to not only efficiently improve the yield of total flavonoids but also strengthen the antioxidant activity of the total flavonoids. C. esculentus L. leaves flavonoids had pronounced antioxidant activity in vivo that could significantly elevate the content of superoxide dismutase (SOD) without increasing the malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, and could also improve total antioxidant capacity in mice with a dose-dependent fashion. C. esculentus L. leaves flavonoids inhibited the growth of both Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria while no obvious inhibitory effect on Penicillium and Aspergillus could be observed. Our studies indicate that flavonoids from C. esculentus L. leaves can be taken as a natural antioxidant and bacteriostatic substance in food and pharmaceutical industry.

  19. Knolcyperus (Cyperus esculentus L.) in opmars in Nederland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mennema, J.

    1984-01-01

    In the eastern part of the province of Noord-Brabant and in the northern part of the province of Limburg, Cyperus esculentus, for the first time recorded in the Netherlands in 1975 as an alien, has developped explosively, especially in maize-fields.

  20. 78 FR 63158 - United States Standards for Grades of Okra

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-23

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service United States Standards for Grades of Okra AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Final notice. SUMMARY: The Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS... INFORMATION: Section 203(c) of the Agricultural Marketing Act of 1946 (7 U.S.C. 1621-1627), as...

  1. 77 FR 6772 - United States Standards for Grades of Okra

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-09

    ... the industry and has identified that the ``Unclassified'' section needs to be eliminated from the... identified the United States ] Standards for Grades of Okra for possible revisions. AMS would remove the... Standardization and Training Branch, Fresh Products Division, Fruit and Vegetable Programs, Agricultural...

  2. 7 CFR 318.13-16 - Regulated articles allowed interstate movement subject to specified conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...)(i) Puerto Rico Cactus Cactaceae Whole plant (b)(2)(iv), (b)(3)(ii) Okra Abelmoschus escuelentus.... Virgin Islands Cactus Cactaceae Whole plant (b)(2)(iv), (b)(3)(ii) Okra Abelmoschus escuelentus Fruit...

  3. Joint toxicity of methamidophos and cadmium acting on Abelmoschus manihot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiao-fei; ZHOU Qi-xing

    2005-01-01

    Joint toxicity of methamidophos and cadmium(Cd) on the ornamental Abelmoschus manihot was firstly examined and compared with single-factor effects of the two pollutants using ecotoxicological indexes including the inhibitory rate of seed germination, root elongation and inhibitory concentration 50% (IC50). The results indicated that methamidophos and Cd had unobvious( p > 0.05) effects on seed germination of the ornamental. There were significant( p < 0.05) inhibitory effects of Cd on root elongation of the tested plant. When the concentration of added Cd was low( < 20 mg/L), significant antagonistic effects on root elongation were observed. And synergic effects were observed when Cd was added in high dose( > 20 mg/L). However, the analysis of joint effects indicated that there were antagonistic effects between Cd and methamidophos under all the treatments. At the high concentration of Cd, joint toxicity of methamidophos and Cd was more dependent on concentration of Cd.

  4. Drying of green bean and okra under solar energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İBRAHİM DOYMAZ

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, sun drying characteristics of green bean and okra were investigated. Drying experiments were conducted in Iskenderun-Hatay, Turkey. The drying study showed that the times taken for drying of green bean and okra from the initial moisture contents of 89.5% and 88.7% (w.b. to final moisture content of around 15±0.5% (w.b. were 60 and 100 h in open sun drying, respectively. The constant rate period is absent in drying curves. The drying process took place in the falling rate period. The drying data were fitted to thirteen thin-layer drying models. The performance of these models was investigated by comparing the determination of coefficient (R2, reduced chi-square (2 and root mean square error (RMSE between the observed and predicted moisture ratios. Estimations by Approximation of diffusion (for green bean and Midilli et al. models (for okra were in good agreement with the experimental data obtained.

  5. 76 FR 64001 - United States Standards for Grades of Frozen Okra

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-17

    ... CFR part 36). Background AMS received a petition from the American Frozen Food Institute (AFFI... Service 7 CFR Part 52 United States Standards for Grades of Frozen Okra AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing... of Agriculture (USDA) has revised the United States Standards for Grades of Frozen Okra. The...

  6. Development and Fecundity of Aphis Gossypii Glover (Homoptera: Aphididae) on Three Malvaceae Hosts

    OpenAIRE

    Serdar SATAR; KERSTING, Ulrich; UYGUN, Nedim

    1999-01-01

    Aphis gossypii Glover (Homoptera, Aphididae) obtained from cotton fields near Adana in the east Mediterranean region of Turkey were colonized on Gossypium hirsutumL. 'Çukurova 1518' in a climatic room. The effect of host transfer from cotton to common mallow, Malva sylvestris L., and okra, Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench 'Bamya 501', on performance of A. gossypii was studied at constant 25 ± 1°C, 60 ± 5 % relative humidity and 16 h of artificial light (5000 l...

  7. Development and Fecundity of Aphis Gossypii Glover (Homoptera: Aphididae) on Three Malvaceae Hosts

    OpenAIRE

    Serdar SATAR; KERSTING, Ulrich; UYGUN, Nedim

    2014-01-01

    Aphis gossypii Glover (Homoptera, Aphididae) obtained from cotton fields near Adana in the east Mediterranean region of Turkey were colonized on Gossypium hirsutumL. 'Çukurova 1518' in a climatic room. The effect of host transfer from cotton to common mallow, Malva sylvestris L., and okra, Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench 'Bamya 501', on performance of A. gossypii was studied at constant 25 ± 1°C, 60 ± 5 % relative humidity and 16 h of artifici...

  8. Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria Enhance Salinity Stress Tolerance in Okra through ROS-Scavenging Enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Sheikh Hasna; Kausar, Hossain; Saud, Halimi Mohd

    2016-01-01

    Salinity is a major environmental stress that limits crop production worldwide. In this study, we characterized plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) containing 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase and examined their effect on salinity stress tolerance in okra through the induction of ROS-scavenging enzyme activity. PGPR inoculated okra plants exhibited higher germination percentage, growth parameters, and chlorophyll content than control plants. Increased antioxidant enzyme activities (SOD, APX, and CAT) and upregulation of ROS pathway genes (CAT, APX, GR, and DHAR) were observed in PGPR inoculated okra plants under salinity stress. With some exceptions, inoculation with Enterobacter sp. UPMR18 had a significant influence on all tested parameters under salt stress, as compared to other treatments. Thus, the ACC deaminase-containing PGPR isolate Enterobacter sp. UPMR18 could be an effective bioresource for enhancing salt tolerance and growth of okra plants under salinity stress.

  9. Effect of Sources of Organic Manure on Growth and Yields of Okra ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Okra, Growth, Yield, Source, Organic Manure. INTRODUCTION ... use of inorganic fertilizer has not been helpful under intensive agriculture because it is ... treatment means were separated for significant differences using Duncan ...

  10. Flavonoids derived from Abelmoschus esculentus attenuatesUV-B Induced cell damage in human dermal fibroblasts throughNrf2-ARE pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juilee Patwardhan

    2016-01-01

    Abbreviations used:ABTS: 2,2'-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline -6-sulphonic acid, AO: Acridine orange, ANOVA: Analysis of variance, ARE: Antioxidant response elements, BSA: Bovine serum albumin, CAPE: Caffeic acid phenethyl ester, CAT: Catalase, DCFH-DA: 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate, DMEM: Dulbecco's modified eagle's medium, DMSO: dimethyl sulfoxide, DNA: Deoxyribonucleic acid, DPBS: Dulbecco's phosphate-buffered saline, DPPH: 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl, ECL: Enhanced chemiluminescence, EDTA: Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, ELISA: Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, EtBr: Ethidium bromide, FBS: Fetal bovine serum, FE Fraction: Flavonoid-enriched fraction, FRAP: Ferric reducing antioxidant power, GPx: Glutathione peroxidase, GR: Glutathione reductase, GST: Glutathione-S-transferase, GSH: Reduced glutathione, GSSG: Oxidized glutathione, HDF: Human dermal fibroblast adult cells, HEPES: 4-(2-hydroxyethyl-1-piperazineethanesulphonic acid, HRP: Horseradish peroxidase, HO-1: Heme oxygenase-1, HPTLC: High-performance thin layer chromatography, Keap-1: Kelch-like ECH-associated protein-1, MTT: 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide, NaCl: sodium chloride, NFDM: nonfat dry milk, Nrf2: Nuclear factor E2-related factor 2, NQO1: NAD (P H: Quinine oxidoreductase 1, OH: Hydroxyl ions, PBST: Phosphate-buffered saline with 0.1% tween 20, PCR: Polymerase chain reaction, PMSF: Phenylmethanesulfonyl fluoride, Rf: Retention factor, ROS: Reactive oxygen species, rRNA: Ribosomal ribonucleic acid, SDS: Sodium dodecyl sulfate, SOD: Superoxide dismutase, TLC: Thin layer chromatography, TLC-DPPH: Thin layer chromatography-2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl, UV: Ultraviolet, UV-A: Ultraviolet-A, UV-B: Ultraviolet-B, UV-C: Ultraviolet-C, qPCR: Quantitative polymerase chain reaction

  11. Enhancement of drying and rehydration characteristics of okra by ultrasound pre-treatment application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tüfekçi, Senem; Özkal, Sami Gökhan

    2017-02-01

    Effect of ultrasound application prior to hot air drying on drying and rehydration kinetics, rehydration ratio and microstructure of okra slices were investigated. For this purpose, the selected parameters are ultrasound pre-treatment time (10, 20 and 30 min), ultrasound amplitude (55 and 100%) and the temperature of drying air (60 and 70 °C). 5 mm thick cylindrical shaped okra slices were used in the experiments. The samples were immersed in water and ultrasonic pre-treatments were done in water with ultrasonic probe connected to an ultrasonic generator with 20 kHz frequency. Pre-treated samples were dried in a tray drier with a 0.3 m/s air velocity. Ultrasound pre-treatment affected the drying rate of the okra slices significantly. Drying time of okra slices was decreased by the application of ultrasound pre-treatment. Modified Page model found to be the most suitable model for describing the drying characteristics of okra slices. Improvements in rehydration properties of the dried samples were observed due to the ultrasound pre-treatment. The influence of the ultrasound pre-treatment on microstructure was clearly observed through scanning electron microscopy images of the dried samples. As the amplitude of ultrasound increased the changes in structure of the okra tissue increased.

  12. Temperature and modified atmosphere affect the quality of okra Temperatura e atmosfera modificada influenciam a qualidade do quiabo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Luiz Finger

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Little information is available on the influence of temperature on plastic films wrapped okra (Albelmoschus esculentus for their postharvested conservation. This works investigated the influence of the temperature and PVC film on the development of chilling injury and storability from one of the most popular Brazilian cultivar of okra cv. Amarelinho in fruits stored at 5, 10ºC and at 25ºC. Fruits were harvest at commercial maturity stage with length ranging from 8 to 12 cm, and immediately wrapped in PVC over a polystyrene tray and than stored until visible deterioration or wilting symptoms. Lowering the temperature of storage room from 25 to 10 or 5ºC decreased the weight loss in both PVC wrapped and control fruits, with a lower rate at 5ºC. By reducing the temperature to 5 or 10ºC and wrapping the fruits in PVC film, the relative water content of the fruit pericarp was maintained throughout the storage, while at 25ºC the high weight loss was associated with significant reduction of the water content. The development of chilling symptoms was delayed by the presence of PVC film in fruits stored at 5ºC. However, at 10ºC symptoms of pitting were not developed in PVC wrapped or control fruits up to tenth day of storage. The rate of chlorophyll degradation was diminished by reducing the temperature and by wrapping the fruits with PVC film. The appearance of severe chilling symptoms at 5ºC was associated to less chlorophyll in the fruit pericarp on the control as compared to their content in the PVC wrapped fruits.Para o armazenamento do quiabo (Albelmoschus esculentus há poucas informações disponíveis sobre a influência da temperatura e filmes plásticos na conservação pós-colheita desta hortaliça. Para investigar a influência da temperatura e do filme de PVC na qualidade e desenvolvimento de sintomas de injúria por frio de uma das mais populares cultivares brasileira de quiabo cv. Amarelinho, os frutos foram armazenados a 5, 10

  13. Use of the crop maize to reduce yellow nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus L. pressure in highly infested fields in Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keller, Martina

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Cyperus esculentus L. causes high yield losses in many crops worldwide. In Switzerland it was observed for the first time about 30 years ago. Since then it has become a serious weed in several regions - especially where vegetables are produced. Growing vegetables in heavily infested fields should be abandoned due to their low competitiveness and the lack of available, effective herbicides. Contrarily, in maize several herbicides with a partial effect on C. esculentus are registered. Thus, continuous cultivation of maize including the use of the most effective herbicides against C. esculentus could help reducing infestation levels in heavily infested fields. Field trials were carried out at two sites in maize during 2011 and 2012. Different herbicide combinations, hoeing and herbicide applications combined with hoeing were the applied treatments. Split application was compared with one single application of the same amount of product. The effect of an additional, late under leaf herbicide application was determined as well. Cyperus esculentus coverage was estimated in the fields in 2011. Plots were sampled in spring 2011, autumn 2011 and autumn 2012. The Number of C. esculentus sprouts germinated from the soil samples was determined under greenhouse conditions. The most effective herbicide combination of registered active ingredients was rimsulfuron and mesotrione. Smetolachlor was effective as well, especially if combined with mechanical weed control. Halosulfuron-methyl applied twice provided the best C. esculentus control. Split application tended to be more effective than a single application. Control of C. esculentus could be improved considerably with an additional herbicide application in late June (under leaf. The treatments with highest C. esculentus control determined in the field trials and combinations thereof are effective treatment options for C. esculentus control in maize. These findings indicate and confirm that maize cropped for

  14. Seasonal Canopy Temperatures for Normal and Okra Leaf Cotton under Variable Irrigation in the Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James R. Mahan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Temperature affects a number of physiological factors in plants and is related to water use, yield and quality in many crop species. Seasonal canopy temperature, measured with infrared thermometers, is often used in conjunction with environmental factors (e.g., air temperature, humidity, solar radiation to assess crop stress and management actions in cotton. Normal and okra leaf shapes in cotton have been associated with differences in water use and canopy temperature. The okra leaf shape in cotton is generally expected to result in lower water use and lower canopy temperatures, relative to normal leaf, under water deficits. In this study canopy temperatures were monitored in okra and normal leaf varieties for a growing season at four irrigation levels. Differences in canopy temperature (<2 °C were measured between the two leaf shapes. As irrigation levels increased, canopy temperature differences between the leaf shapes declined. At the lowest irrigation level, when differences in sensible energy exchanges due to the okra leaf shape would be enhanced, the canopy temperature of the okra leaf was warmer than the normal leaf. This suggests that varietal differences that are not related to leaf shape may have more than compensated for leaf shape differences in the canopy temperature.

  15. Efeito da Incorporação de Folhas de Nim ao Solo sobre o Complexo Fusarium x Meloidogyne em Quiabeiro Effect of amendment of soil with neem leaf on Fusarium x Meloidogyne on okra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilson Soares da Silva

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da incorporação de folhas frescas de nim (Azadirachta indica ao solo, sobre o complexo Fusarium x Meloidogyne em quiabeiro (Abelmoschus esculentum em um experimento realizado em condições de casa de vegetação. Os tratamentos constaram da adição de 25g ou 50g de folhas trituradas/kg de solo previamente autoclavado e inoculado com M. incognita, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum, juntos e isoladamente, contidos em vasos com capacidade de 2 L. Solo sem folhas de nim serviu como testemunha. O experimento foi realizado seguindo um delineamento inteiramente casualizado com seis repetições, sendo cada repetição representada por um vaso com 5 plantas. As folhas foram incorporadas 30 dias antes do plantio e a avaliação deu-se 90 dias após o plantio, adotando-se a percentagem de plantas mortas como parâmetro para avaliar o efeito dos tratamentos. A incorporação de 50g de folhas frescas de nim foi eficiente para o controle de Meloidogyne e Fusarium isoladamente, bem como na interação desses patógenos. A incorporação de 25g de folhas de nim mostrou-se eficiente apenas para o controle de Meloidogyne isoladamente.The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of soil ammendment with neem (Azadirachta indica leaf on the complex Fusarium x Meloidogyne in okra (Abelmoschus esculentum in greenhouse conditions. The treatments consisted of the addition of 25g or 50g of leaves per kg of soil and infested with M. incognita and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum, together and separately, contained in pots with capacity of 2 L. Soil without supplement it served as the control. The experimental design was completely randomized with six replications and five plants per pot. The leaves were incorporate 30 days before planting and the evaluation 90 days later. The percentagem of dead plants was used to evaluate the efficiency of neem. The incorporation of 50g of fresh neem leaves was

  16. Optimization of batch alcoholic fermentation of Cyperus esculentus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esuoso, K.O. (Dept. of Chemistry, Federal Univ. of Technology, Akure (Nigeria)); Oderinde, R.A. (Dept. of Chemistry, Ibadan Univ. (Nigeria)); Vega-Catalan, F.J. (Dept. of Computer Science, Ibadan Univ. (Nigeria)); Bamiro, F.O. (Dept. of Chemical Sciences, Univ. of Agriculture, Abeokuta (Nigeria))

    1993-01-01

    In our earlier work carried out on alcoholic fermentation of molasses the optimum sugar concentration was between 14.0 and 17.0% w/v sugars, beyond which ethanol content decreased drastically. However in the present work, ethanol concentration was still high at 20% w/v sugars. This suggested that the strain had enhanced tolerance to the adverse effects of C. esculentus medium than molasses. Substituting the calculated parameter values (a[sub 1]-a[sub 10]) and optimal conditions of pH, S and T into equation, the calculated yield equals 92.7%. We again tried to verify experimentally the reliability of the theoretical optimal values obtained. The concentration of ethanol obtained was 9.2 [+-] 0.2% v/v. This was higher than the maximum concentration recorded before simulation (8.9% v/v). The experimental yield obtained was 90.3 [+-] 1.6% which is in close agreement with the simulated value of 92.7%. (orig.)

  17. Anti hypoxic and antioxidant activity of Hibiscus esculentus seeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebrahimzadeh, M. A.; Nabavi, S. F.; Nabavi, S. M.; Eslami, B.

    2010-07-01

    The anti hypoxic and antioxidant activities of Hibiscus esculentus seeds were investigated employing eight in vitro assay systems. Anti hypoxic activity was investigated in two models, haemic and circulatory. The effects were pronounced in both models of hypoxia. The anti hypoxic effects were dose-dependent. The results indicated that the extracts have a protective effect against hypoxia induced lethality in mice. The extracts showed antioxidant activity in some models. IC{sub 5}0 for DPPH radical-scavenging activity was 234 {+-} 8.9 {mu}g ml{sup 1}. The extracts showed weak nitric oxide-scavenging activity between 0.1 and 1.6 mg ml{sup -}1. The extracts showed weak Fe{sup 2}+ chelating ability. IC{sub 5}0 were 150 {+-} 13 {mu}g ml{sup -}1. The extracts also exhibited low antioxidant activity in the linoleic acid model but were capable of scavenging hydrogen peroxide in a concentration dependent manner. The total amount of phenolic compounds in each extract was determined as gallic acid equivalents and total flavonoid contents were calculated as quercetin equivalents from a calibration curve. Pharmacological effects may be attributed, at least in part, to the presence of phenols and flavonoids in the extracts. (Author) 40 refs.

  18. Development of post-harvest protocol of okra for export marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Dhall, R. K.; S R Sharma; Mahajan, B. V. C.

    2012-01-01

    The study was carried out on the harvesting and handling methods of okra with the objective to maintain the best quality of pods from harvesting to end consumer especially for export marketing. For that purpose okra cv. ‘Punjab-8’ pods were harvested with minimum handling (least injuries to the pubescence on the ridges of pod) and normal handling (no safety taken to prevent injuries on pods). Pods were precooled at 15 ± 1ºC, 90–95% RH; jumble packed in the CFB boxes of 2.0 Kg capacity and tha...

  19. Nutsedge, Biology and control of Cyperus rotundus ans Cyperus esculentus, review of a literature survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riemens, M.M.; Weide, van der R.Y.; Runia, W.T.

    2008-01-01

    In dit literatuurrapport aandacht voor de onkruiden Cyperus rotundus en Cyperus esculentus. Aan de orde komen o.a.; de geografische verspreiding, de levenscyclus, teeltmaatregelen die kunnen helpen bij de beheersing van de onkruiden en de beschikbare biologische- en chemische bestrijdingsmiddelen

  20. A preliminary investigation into the biofuel characteristics of tigernut (Cyperus esculentus) oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barminas, J.T.; Maina, H.M.; Tahir, S.; Kubmarawa, D. [Federal University of Technology, Yola (Nigeria). Dept. of Chemistry; Tsware, K. [Federal College of Education, Yola (Nigeria). Dept. of Home Economics

    2001-08-01

    Laboratory scale experiments were carried out to produce and characterise biofuel from tigernut (Cyperus esculentus) oil. Transesterification of tigernut oil afforded methyl and ethyl esters, which had fuel properties similar to common biofuels, hence tigernut could be utilised as an alternative renewable energy resource. (author)

  1. Antihypoxic and antioxidant activity of Hibiscus esculentus seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eslami, Bahman

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The antihypoxic and antioxidant activities of Hibiscus esculentus seeds were investigated employing eight in vitro assay systems. Antihypoxic activity was investigated in two models, haemic and circulatory. The effects were pronounced in both models of hypoxia. The antihypoxic effects were dose-dependent. The results indicated that the extracts have a protective effect against hypoxia induced lethality in mice. The extracts showed antioxidant activity in some models. IC50 for DPPH radical-scavenging activity was 234 ± 8.9 μg ml-1. The extracts showed weak nitric oxide-scavenging activity between 0.1 and 1.6 mg ml-1. The extracts showed weak Fe2+ chelating ability. IC50 were 150 ± 13 μg ml-1. The extracts also exhibited low antioxidant activity in the linoleic acid model but were capable of scavenging hydrogen peroxide in a concentration dependent manner. The total amount of phenolic compounds in each extract was determined as gallic acid equivalents and total flavonoid contents were calculated as quercetin equivalents from a calibration curve. Pharmacological effects may be attributed, at least in part, to the presence of phenols and flavonoids in the extracts.La actividad antihipóxica y antioxidante de semillas de Hibiscus esculentus fue investigada empleando ocho ensayos in vitro. La actividad antihipóxica fue investigada en dos modelos, uno de caracter hemínico y otro circulatorio. Los efectos fueron pronunciados en ambos modelos de hipoxia. Los efectos antihipóxicos fueron dependientes de la dosis. Los resultados indican que los extractos tienen un efecto protector contra la letabilidad inducida por hipoxia en ratones. Los extractos mostraron actividad antioxidante en algunos modelos. El IC50 para la actividad captadora de radicales fue 234 ± 8.9 μg ml-1. Los extractos muestran una débil actividad captadora de óxido nítrico comprendida entre 0.1 y 1.6 mg ml-1. Los extractos muestran una débil capacidad quelatante de Fe2+. El IC

  2. Effect of electromagnetic field on okra (Hibiscus sculentus L.) developmental stages and the effect of okra extract on breast cancer cells

    OpenAIRE

    Z. Hasani Sadrabadi; A. Majd; M. Hamzeloo-Moghdam; Irian,S

    2016-01-01

    Background and objectives: Electric, magnetic and electromagnetic fields can act as stress factors with different effects on biological systems. Due to the nutritional and medicinal values, and the increasing electromagnetic radiations, the present study was performed to investigate the effects of the electromagnetic field on the developmental stages and cytotoxic properties of okra. Methods: Both dry and wet seeds were exposed to electromagnetic field with the intensities of 2 and 4 mT for 6...

  3. Effect of electromagnetic field on okra (Hibiscus sculentus L. developmental stages and the effect of okra extract on breast cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Hasani Sadrabadi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Electric, magnetic and electromagnetic fields can act as stress factors with different effects on biological systems. Due to the nutritional and medicinal values, and the increasing electromagnetic radiations, the present study was performed to investigate the effects of the electromagnetic field on the developmental stages and cytotoxic properties of okra. Methods: Both dry and wet seeds were exposed to electromagnetic field with the intensities of 2 and 4 mT for 60 minutes. MTT assay was applied to evaluate the potential cytotoxic effects of okra extract on MCF-7 cell line. The anatomical structure of leaves in both treated and untreated (control plants were examined. Results: The results showed that a field intensity of 4 mT increased the speed of germination of wet treated seeds and the stem length of dry treated seeds. MTT assay revealed no cytotoxicity of the aqueous extracts of okra pods up to the concentration of 100 μg/mL from either the treated or the control plants towards the MCF-7 cell line. Conclusion: The results suggest that the electromagnetic fields would be able to increase the speed of germination without effects on percentage of germination.

  4. Development of post-harvest protocol of okra for export marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhall, R K; Sharma, S R; Mahajan, B V C

    2014-08-01

    The study was carried out on the harvesting and handling methods of okra with the objective to maintain the best quality of pods from harvesting to end consumer especially for export marketing. For that purpose okra cv. 'Punjab-8' pods were harvested with minimum handling (least injuries to the pubescence on the ridges of pod) and normal handling (no safety taken to prevent injuries on pods). Pods were precooled at 15 ± 1ºC, 90-95% RH; jumble packed in the CFB boxes of 2.0 Kg capacity and than stored at 8 ± 1ºC, 90-95% RH. The quality parameters of okra namely texture, chlorophyll content, physiological loss in weight, rotting percentage and general appearance were studied. The pods harvested with minimum handling and field packaging can retain their green colour, crisp texture (maximum force to puncture pod = 500.2 g) with minimum rotting (3.0%) and physiological loss in weight (15.8%) and good appearance upto 13 days of cold storage whereas normal handled pods can be stored upto 5 days at 8 ± 1ºC, 90-95% RH and thereafter lost their general appearance on the 7th day of storage and were discarded. Therefore, in order to maintain high quality of okra from harvesting to the final destination (consumer), the okra pods should be harvested with minimum handling followed by field packaging in CFB boxes.

  5. Physicochemical, functional and sensory attributes of milk prepared from irradiated tiger nut (Cyperus esculentus L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Abenaa A. Okyere; George T. Odamtten

    2014-01-01

    Five tiger nut (Cyperus esculentus L.) cultivars were collected from four different regions of Ghana and irradiated. The aim of this study was to evaluate some physicochemical, functional and sensory qualities of milk produced from irradiated tiger nut samples. Analysis was carried out for pH, total solids, moisture, sugar brix and viscosity. Finally the consumer acceptability of the milk prepared from the nuts was determined by a taste panel using the parameters of colour, taste, aroma, mout...

  6. Cytological maps of lampbrush chromosomes of European water frogs (Pelophylax esculentus complex) from the Eastern Ukraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dedukh, Dmitry; Mazepa, Glib; Shabanov, Dmitry; Rosanov, Juriy; Litvinchuk, Spartak; Borkin, Leo; Saifitdinova, Alsu; Krasikova, Alla

    2013-04-16

    Hybridogenesis (hemiclonal inheritance) is a kind of clonal reproduction in which hybrids between parental species are reproduced by crossing with one of the parental species. European water frogs (Pelophylax esculentus complex) represent an appropriate model for studying interspecies hybridization, processes of hemiclonal inheritance and polyploidization. P. esculentus complex consists of two parental species, P. ridibundus (the lake frog) and P. lessonae (the pool frog), and their hybridogenetic hybrid - P. esculentus (the edible frog). Parental and hybrid frogs can reproduce syntopically and form hemiclonal population systems. For studying mechanisms underlying the maintenance of water frog population systems it is required to characterize the karyotypes transmitted in gametes of parental and different hybrid animals of both sexes. In order to obtain an instrument for characterization of oocyte karyotypes in hybrid female frogs, we constructed cytological maps of lampbrush chromosomes from oocytes of both parental species originating in Eastern Ukraine. We further identified certain molecular components of chromosomal marker structures and mapped coilin-rich spheres and granules, chromosome associated nucleoli and special loops accumulating splicing factors. We recorded the dissimilarities between P. ridibundus and P. lessonae lampbrush chromosomes in the length of orthologous chromosomes, number and location of marker structures and interstitial (TTAGGG)n-repeat sites as well as activity of nucleolus organizer. Satellite repeat RrS1 was mapped in centromere regions of lampbrush chromosomes of the both species. Additionally, we discovered transcripts of RrS1 repeat in oocytes of P. ridibundus and P. lessonae. Moreover, G-rich transcripts of telomere repeat were revealed in association with terminal regions of P. ridibundus and P. lessonae lampbrush chromosomes. The constructed cytological maps of lampbrush chromosomes of P. ridibundus and P. lessonae provide

  7. Pecular Features of Hematopoiesis in the Liver of Mature and Immature Green Frogs (Pelophylax Esculentus Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akulenko N. M.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article describes characteristic features of the hematopoiesis in mature and immature green frogs (Pelophylax esculentus complex. Quantitative differences in liver myelograms were insignificant. However, in a sample of mature animals numerous significant correlations between the number of pigment inclusions in the liver and indicators of erythropoiesis and myelopoiesis were observed. Those correlations were absent in the immature frogs. We concluded that aft er the frogs’ breeding a lack of plastic resources, in particular, hemosiderin remains up to the hibernation.

  8. Permit – A new herbicide for control of Cyperus esculentus in maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Günnigmann, Albert

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Permit, containing the active ingredient halosulfuron (750 g/kg WG is a new herbicide in maize. It is listed in Annex I since October 2013. Permit plays a special role when dealing with the hard to control weed yellow nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus. Yellow nutsedge is an invasive plant belonging to the family Cyperaceae (sedges. Specific graminicides used to control Poaceae (sweet grasses are not effective against Cyperacea. Propagation is rapid and occurs exclusively via tubers formed in the soil. Affected areas in Germany grow rapidly, especially in Lower-Saxony. Application rates from 30-50 g/ha Permit were tested in solo or split application in 7 trials to control Cyperus esculentus in maize. Application timing proved critical for successful control. High levels of control were achieved with 30-50 g/ha Permit with single applications at BBCH 16 (efficacy 94-98% as well as with split applications at BBCH 14 and 16 of the crop (efficacy 94-99%. Because yellow nutsedge often emerges in multiple waves, the split application provides more reliable control. Permit offers new opportunities to effectively control Cyperus esculentus in maize and thus closes an important gap in the weed spectrum of currently available maize herbicides.

  9. Variability of Structural and Biomechanical Parameters of Pelophylax Esculentus (Amphibia, Anura Limb Bones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Broshko Ye. O.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Variability of Structural and Biomechanical Prameters of Pelophylax esculentus (Amphibia, Anura Limb Bones. Broshko Ye. O. — Structural and biomechanical parameters of Edible Frog, Pelophylax esculentus (Linnaeus, 1758, limb bones, namely, mass, linear dimensions, parameters of the shaft’s cross-sectional shape (cross-sectional area, moments of inertia, radiuses of inertia were investigated. Some coefficients were also estimated: diameters ratio (df/ds, cross-sectional index (ik, principal moments of inertia ratio (Imax/Imin.. Coefficients of variation of linear dimensions (11.9-20.0 % anrelative bone mass (22-35 % were established. Moments of inertia of various bones are more variable (CV = 41.67-56.35 % in relation to radii of inertia (CV = 9.68-14.67 %. Shaft’s cross-sectional shape is invariable in all cases. However, there is high individual variability of structural and biomechanical parameters of P. esculentus limb bones. Variability of parameters was limited by the certain range. We suggest the presence of stable norm in bone structure. Stylopodium bones have the primary biomechanical function among the elements of limb skeleton, because their parameters most clearly responsive to changes in body mass.

  10. Seedling imaging analysis and traditional tests to assess okra seed vigor

    OpenAIRE

    Kikuti,Ana Lúcia Pereira; Marcos-Filho,Júlio

    2013-01-01

    Seed vigor testing is an important component of quality control programs adopted by seed industry. The software Seed Vigor Imaging System (SVIS) has been successfully used for seed vigor assessment in different species. The objective of this research was to verify the SVIS efficiency to assess okra seed vigor in comparison to other vigor tests used for this species. Five seed lots of 'Clemson Americano' and four of 'Santa Cruz' were submitted to germination (speed and percentage), cold germin...

  11. Pesticides residues in okra (non-target crop) grown close to a watermelon farm in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essumang, D K; Asare, E A; Dodoo, D K

    2013-09-01

    The study looked at the levels of pesticides in okra grown close to a watermelon farm herein referred to as a non-target crop. The watermelon received some pesticide application in the course of its cultivation, and the okra which was not meant to be sprayed was also affected by the pesticide. About 500 okra samples were collected for a period of 6 weeks and pesticides extracted with 1:1 n-hexane and dichloromethane which was analysed with Agilent 2222 GC/MS coupled with 389 auto-sampler. The results confirmed accumulation of significant levels of pesticides in the non-target crop (okra grown close to watermelon farm). Levels of organochlorine pesticides ranged from 3.10 to 7.60 μg/kg whilst the organophosphorus pesticides had levels ranging from 2.80 to 2016.80 μg/kg. The synthetic pyrethroid pesticide mean levels also ranged from 0.10 to 4.10 μg/kg and were below World Health Organization/Food and Agriculture Organization-recommended residue levels, and though not appearing to constitute a grave threat to life, their occurrence is a concern, and pre-emptive techniques must be developed to thwart the contaminations. Though the non- target crop was not treated directly with the pesticides, some level of contamination with organochlorine and organophosphorus pesticides persisted in the crops. It can be inferred that application of pesticides affected the adjoining crops, meaning that inter-cropping and mix-cropping might not be acceptable when one of the crops requires pesticide application. It is important for the farmers to be trained to ensure proper application of pesticide to minimise its impact on the health of consumers.

  12. Bioaccumulation and effects of metals on oxidative stress and neurotoxicity parameters in the frogs from the Pelophylax esculentus complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokić, Marko D; Borković-Mitić, Slavica S; Krizmanić, Imre I; Mutić, Jelena J; Trifković, Jelena Đ; Gavrić, Jelena P; Despotović, Svetlana G; Gavrilović, Branka R; Radovanović, Tijana B; Pavlović, Slađan Z; Saičić, Zorica S

    2016-10-01

    Metals are involved in the formation of reactive oxygen species and can induce oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of several metals on oxidative stress in the skin and muscle of the Pelophylax esculentus "complex" frogs (parental species Pelophylax ridibundus, Pelophylax lessonae, and their hybrid Pelophylax esculentus) that inhabit the wetland Obedska Bara in Serbia, and the potential use of these species as bioindicator organisms in biomonitoring studies. The biomarkers of oxidative stress (SOD, CAT, GSH-Px, GR, GST activities and GSH, SH concentrations) and cholinesterase activity were investigated. The concentrations of nine metals (Fe, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, Cr, Hg, Ni, and Pb) were measured in the water and tissues. Correlations were established between metals and biomarkers in the tissues. The results of metal accumulation distinguished the skin of P. lessonae and muscle of P. ridibundus from other P. esculentus complex species. The oxidative stress biomarkers observed in P. ridibundus and P. esculentus had greater similarity than in P. lessonae. The P. lessonae displayed the highest number of correlations between biomarkers and metals. The results of tissue responses revealed that skin was more susceptible to metal-induced oxidative stress, with only exception of As. In the light of these findings, we can suggest the use of P. esculentus complex species as a biomonitoring species in studies of metal accumulation and metal-induced oxidative stress, but with special emphasis on P. lessonae.

  13. Study on the degumming process of Abelmoschus manihot (L. Medic fiber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Yan Li

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Abelmoschus manihot (L. Medic has drawn much attention recently due to its potential beneficial health effects. The roots, flowers and seeds of A.manihot play an important role as medical materials. In this paper, the result of the chemical composition testing shows that the main constituent of A.manihot bast of the stems is cellulose (41.80 %. A.manihot fibers are extracted from A.manihot bast by the treatment of degumming. In the degumming process, the key parameters have been optimized. The results of FTIR and XRD analysis indicated that hemicellulose, lignin, pectin and other impurities can be effectively removed by this degumming process, and the main components of A.manihot fiber was cellulose much the same as cotton, the crystallinity of A.manihot bast and fiber were 50.45% and 63.73% respectively.

  14. La culture du Gombo (Abelmoschus spp.), legume-fruit tropical (avec reference speciale a la Cote d'Ivoire)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siemonsma, J.S.

    1982-01-01

    The data for this study have been gathered in Ivory Coast during the period 1977-1980.

    The first purpose of the study was a description of the traditional okra cultivation and, in particular, the evaluation of the local planting material in order to determine its potential for cro

  15. La culture du Gombo (Abelmoschus spp.), legume-fruit tropical (avec reference speciale a la Cote d'Ivoire)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siemonsma, J.S.

    1982-01-01

    The data for this study have been gathered in Ivory Coast during the period 1977-1980.

    The first purpose of the study was a description of the traditional okra cultivation and, in particular, the evaluation of the local planting material in order to determine its potential for

  16. La culture du gombo (Abelmoschus spp) Legume fruit tropical avec reference speciale a la Cote d'Ivoire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siemonsma, J.S.

    1982-01-01

    The data for this study have been gathered in Ivory Coast during the period 1977-1980.The first purpose of the study was a description of the traditional okra cultivation and, in particular, the evaluation of the local planting material in order to determine its potential for crop improvement.The se

  17. Functional effects of dried okra powder on reconstituted dried yam flake and sensory properties of ojojo-a fried yam (Dioscorea alata L.) snack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shittu, Taofik Akinyemi; Olaitan, Ololade Funke

    2014-02-01

    Processing of raw yam (D. alata) tuber (RY) to more stable and instant form could ease the tedium in preparation, increase popularity and commercial potential of ojojo-a fried yam snack. In this study, the potential of dried okra powder (1%-5%) to reduce the sensory quality impairment in ojojo made from instant yam (D. alata) flake (YF) was tested. Inclusion of okra powder significantly increased the viscosity and increased dispersibility of reconstituted yam flour. Addition of okra powder significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the fat and increased the moisture content of ojojo. Furthermore, increasing addition of okra consistently improved the sensory acceptability of ojojo by increasing the product's moistness and fluffiness with reduced crispiness and roughness. In conclusion, addition of 0%-2% of okra powder to reconstituted YF produced ojojo samples which compared favourably with those made from RY in terms of colour, flavour and taste.

  18. Removal of Anthracene and Fluoranthene by Waxy Corn, Long Bean and Okra in Lead-Contaminated Soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somtrakoon, Khanitta; Chouychai, Waraporn; Lee, Hung

    2015-09-01

    The ability of waxy corn, long bean and okra to remove two polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from soil containing 0.63 mg Pb kg(-1) dry soil was assessed. The presence of Pb did not reduce the ability of these plants to remove the PAHs from soil. About 49 % of anthracene and 77 % of fluoranthene were removed from Pb-spiked or non-spiked soil, respectively, after 30 days. Among the plants, okra was the most efficient at removing anthracene and fluoranthene in the presence or absence of Pb in soil after 30 days. Pb did not affect fluoranthene removal, but stimulated the removal of anthracene, by long bean, waxy corn and okra. However, growth of long bean and waxy corn was poor in Pb-spiked soil and waxy corn plants died around 22 days after transplantation. The results show some promise in using plants to remove PAHs from soil which is also co-contaminated with Pb.

  19. Heavy Metal Uptake by C. esculentus, S. alterniflora and Agronomic Plants from Contaminated Soils and Sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-02-28

    HEAVY METAL UPTAKE BY C ESCULENTUS S ALIERNIFLORA ANDAGRONOIC PLANTS FR,, U’ UNIVERSITY COLL OF WALES ABERYSTWYTH DEPT OF GEOGRAPHY 6 E DAVIES 20 FE...uu-~~ HEAVY METAL UP TAKE BY C.* escu lentus, S.* a iter-nif cra AND AGRONOIMIC PLANTS FROM CONTAMINATED SOILS AND SEDIMENTSj PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR Dr...comprising a range of heavy metal contents. Analytical data for the selected soils are:- EDTA extract: jig/g soilLime Requirement AREA pH (cwt/acre) Pb

  20. An assessment of the use of native and denatured forms of okra seed proteins as coagulants in drinking water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Alfred Ndahi; Bridgeman, John

    2016-10-01

    The effects of temperature, storage time and water pH on the coagulation performance of okra seed protein in water treatment were assessed. In a jar test experiment, okra salt extract achieved a notable improvement in treatment efficiency with storage time and showed good performance in quality after thermal treatment at 60, 97 and 140 °C temperatures for 6, 4 and 2 hours, respectively. The performance improvement of more than 8% is considered to be due to the denaturation and subsequent removal of coagulation-hindering proteins in okra seed. Furthermore, the results of a sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis show two distinctive bands of protein responsible for the coagulation process after denaturation. It was further shown that at optimal coagulant dose, the pH of the treated water remained unaffected as a result of the protein's buffering capability during coagulation. Therefore, denatured okra seed exhibited improved performance compared to the native crude extract and offers clear benefits as a water treatment coagulant.

  1. Method validation and dissipation dynamics of chlorfenapyr in squash and okra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel Ghani, Sherif B; Abdallah, Osama I

    2016-03-01

    QuEChERS method combined with GC-IT-MS was developed and validated for the determination of chlorfenapyr residues in squash and okra matrices. Method accuracy, repeatability, linearity and specificity were investigated. Matrix effect was discussed. Determination coefficients (R(2)) were 0.9992 and 0.9987 in both matrices. LODs were 2.4 and 2.2μg/kg, while LOQs were 8.2 and 7.3μg/kg. Method accuracy ranged from 92.76% to 106.49%. Method precision RSDs were ⩽12.59%. A field trial to assess chlorfenapyr dissipation behavior was carried out. The developed method was employed in analyzing field samples. Dissipation behavior followed first order kinetics in both crops. Half-life values (t1/2) ranged from 0.2 to 6.58days with determination coefficient (R(2)) ranged from 0.78 to 0.96. The developed method was utilized for surveying chlorfenapyr residues in squash and okra samples collected from the market. Monitoring results are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Purification of total flavonoids of Abelmoschus manihot (L. Medic and its antioxidant properties in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan QIU

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to optimize the purification conditions and the antioxidant properties in vivo of total flavonoids from Abelmoschus manihot (L. Medic, AB-8 macroporous resin is used for static adorption and elution. The optimum purification conditions are as follows: Sample solution concerntration of 0.1 g/mL, pH 3.5, 70% ethanol as eluant, 20∶1(mL/g of eluant volum to resin weight ratio. The results in the optimum purification conditions show that the purity of TFA reaches 48.50%. There are no significant difference in indexes of mice organs between experimental groups and normal control group (P>005. MDA content exhibits a significant decrease both in serum and liver of mice (P<0.05. While the level of CAT, GSH-Px and SOD activities in serum and liver are higher in experimental groups than those in normal control group showing dose-response relationship. These results indicate that TFA has good antioxidant properties in vivo.

  3. MORPHOLOGICAL, ANATOMICAL, CYTOLOGICAL AND PALYNOLOGICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF TWO CULTIVARS OF ABELMOSCHUS MOSCHATUS (L. MEDIK (MALVACEAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubey Kumari Priyanka

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Seeds of 2 cultivars (cultivars I: seed moisture content 3.5%, 100 seed weight 1.94 gm ± 0.03, seed size 3.47 mm ± 0.08 × 3.20 mm ± 0.06; cultivars II: seed moisture content 1.5%, 100 seed weight 1.25 gm ± 0.01, seed size 2.92 mm ± 0.07 × 3.33 mm ± 0.03 of Abelmoschus moschatus (L. Medik (Family: Malvaceae were grown in the Experimental plots of University of Kalyani (West Bengal plain; 22°99´ N, 88°45´ E, elevation 48 feet above sea level, sandy loamy soil, organic carbon 0.76%, soil pH 6.85 during the rainfed seasons of 2009 and 2010 (July to December and morphological (taxonomical details, anatomical (transverse sections of ovary, stem and root, stomatal, cytological (meiotic chromosome behavior and pollen attributes (fertility, viability and acetolysis studies were assessed. Results indicated marked differences between the cultivars and based on observations cultivar I is recommended as tall, branched whereas cultivar II as dwarf, unbranched types and the cultivars may further be explored for pharmacological research.

  4. Identification and characterization of a cytotoxic polysaccharide from the flower of Abelmoschus manihot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xiao; Liu, Zhihui; Li, Shuang; Wang, Liling; Lv, Jiajia; Li, Junsheng; Ma, Xingmiao; Fan, Ling; Qian, Fang

    2016-01-01

    A low molecular weight polysaccharide was identified from the flower of Abelmoschus manihot (Linn.) Medicus, a popular herbal medicine also known as Flos A. manihot. The polysaccharide, AMPS-a, was obtained from the ethanol-extracted debris of Flos A. manihot by successive purification through DEAE-cellulose-52 and Sephadex G-100 column. AMPS-a has an estimated molecular weight of 8.8×10(3)Da and is mainly composed of β-d-glucose, α-d-mannose, α-d-galactose and α-l-fucose at a molar ratio of 1.00:0.91:2.14:1.09. The preliminary structural features were studied by hydrolysis-methylation analysis, GC-MS, FT-IR and (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy. AMPS-a contains a backbone composed of repeating units of →6)α-d-Galp-(1→6)α-d-Manp-(1→6)α-d-Galp-(1→ with β-d-Glcp (1→3)α-Fucp-(1→ branching at O-3 of mannose. AMPS-a exhibited potent inhibitory effects on the proliferation of hepatic (SMMC-7721, HepG2) and gastric (MGC-803, MKN-45) cancer cells in vitro, and the sugar branches were indispensible for the cytotoxicity. Our work contributes to the first report of a novel cytotoxic polysaccharide from Flos A. manihot that may provide a potential source of anti-tumor agent.

  5. Competição inicial entre Cyperus esculentus e arroz irrigado em condições de casa-de-vegetação Competition between Cyperus esculentus and irrigated rice under green house conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. L. Erasmo

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito competitivo de Cyperus esculentus sobre o crescimento inicial da cultura do arroz irrigado, foi instalado um experimento em casa-devegetação, na Estação Experimental da Faculdade de Agronomia - UNITINS, no munícipio de Gurupi-TO. O delineamento estatístico utilizado foi um fatorial 5x4 com três repetições completamente casualizado. Os tratamentos constaram de cinco períodos de convivência do arroz com C. esculentus (15, 25, 35, 45 e 60 dias após a emergência da cultura e quatro densidades de C. esculentus (0, 2, 4 e 8 tubérculos/vaso, correspondentes a 0; 71; 142 e 286 plantas de C. esculentus por m2, respectivamente. No final de cada período foram avaliados na cultura do arroz os seguintes parâmetros: matéria seca de plantas/vaso; área foliar/planta; matéria seca de perfilhos/vaso; n.º de perfilhos/vaso e altura média de plantas. Os resultados mostraram que o efeito da presença de C. esculentus foi mais marcante nas densidades de quatro e oito tubérculos/vaso a partir dos 35 dias de convivência. O parâmetro mais afetado foi a matéria seca de plantas/vaso, como resultado do decréscimo do número de perfilhos/vaso. A altura das plantas de arroz irrigado não foi afetada pela presença da planta daninha em nenhum período de convivência.With the objective of evaluating the competitive effect of Cyperus esculentus on the growth and production of the culture of irrigated rice, experiments were installed in green house, in the Experimental Station of the School of Agronomy - UNITINS, in Gurupi, State of Tocantins, Brazil. The statistical design used in the experiments was a factorial plot 5x4 with three replications, completely randomized. The treatments consisted of five periods of coexistence of the rice with Cyperus esculentus (15, 25, 35, 45 and 60 days after the emergency - D.A.E, of the rice and four densities of C. esculentus (0, 2, 4 and 8 tuber/pots corresponding to 0; 71; 142 e

  6. Beneficial cyanobacteria and eubacteria synergistically enhance bioavailability of soil nutrients and yield of okra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mallappa Manjunath

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Microorganisms in the rhizosphere mediate the cycling of nutrients, their enhanced mobilisation and facilitate their uptake, leading to increased root growth, biomass and yield of plants. We examined the promise of beneficial cyanobacteria and eubacteria as microbial inoculants, applied singly or in combination as consortia or biofilms, to improve growth and yields of okra. Interrelationships among the microbial activities and the micro/macro nutrient dynamics in soils and okra yield characteristics were assessed along with the changes in the soil microbiome. A significant effect of microbial inoculation on alkaline phosphatase activity was recorded both at the mid-crop and harvest stages. Microbial biomass carbon values were highest due to the Anabaena sp. - Providencia sp. (CR1 + PR3 application. The yield of okra ranged from 444.6–478.4 g−1 plant and a positive correlation (0.69 recorded between yield and root weight. The application of Azotobacter led to the highest root weight and yield. The concentration of Zn at mid-crop stage was 60–70% higher in the Azotobacter sp. and Calothrix sp. inoculated soils, as compared to uninoculated control. Iron concentration in soil was more than 2–3 folds higher than control at the mid-crop stage, especially due to the application of Anabaena-Azotobacter biofilm and Azotobacter sp. Both at the mid-crop and harvest stages, the PCR-DGGE profiles of eubacterial communities were similar among the uninoculated control, the Anabaena sp. - Providencia sp. (CW1 + PW5 and the Anabaena-Azotobacter biofilm treatments. Although the profiles of the Azotobacter, Calothrix and CR1 + PR3 treatments were identical at these stages of growth, the profile of CR1 + PR3 was clearly distinguishable. The performance of the inoculants, particularly Calothrix (T6 and consortium of Anabaena and Providencia (CR1 + PR3; T5, in terms of microbiological and nutrient data, along with generation of distinct PCR-DGGE profiles

  7. TIGER NUT (CYPERUS ESCULENTUS: SOURCE OF NATURAL ANTICANCER DRUG? BRIEF REVIEW OF EXISTING LITERATURE.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elom Seyram Achoribo

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In some parts of the world, Cyperus esculentus L. is widely used as a healthy food for both humans and animals due to their nutritional and functional properties. Current research and reviews on this plant have focused mainly on organoleptic properties, phytochemical compositions, oil content, biochemical activities, and nutritional values. The medicinal properties of Tiger nut are seldom discussed, although its medicinal use is well known in folklore activities. To explore the medicinal properties of Tiger nut, This review tries to investigate the potential anticancer properties of components issued from Tiger nut by reviewing the existing literature in the field. Based on the evidence from the review, it is recommended that there is a need for further investigation into the proposed anticancer properties of Tiger nut.

  8. Antioxidant and hepatoprotective effect of the roots of Hibiscus esculentus Linn.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunilson J

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The ethanol extract of Hibiscus esculentus Linn roots inhibited the formation of oxygen derived free radicals invitro with IC 50 of 620 µg/ml, 2300 µg/ml, 870 µg/ml and 610 µg/ml. [Fe 2+ /ascobate system], 730 µg/ml, [Fe 3+ /ADP/ascorbate system], for superoxide radical production, hydroxyl radical generation, nitric oxide radical formation and lipid peroxide formation respectively. The oral administration of the extract (250 and 500 mg/kg body weight, significantly reduce CCl 4 induced hepatotoxicity in rats, as judged from the serum and tissue activity of marker enzymes [Glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT, Glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT and alkaline phosphatase (ALP]. These results were comparable with standard drug silymarin [20 mg/kg, P.O.

  9. Cyperus esculentus - differences in growth and tuber production between cultivated and wild forms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holec, Josef

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Cyperus esculentus (yellow nutsedge belongs to the world most important weeds on arable land. This species is classified as an invasive one in Central and North-western Europe. It is not yet present as a weed in the Czech Republic, but its occurrence in neighbouring countries and its ability to survive winters in this region must be taken into account. A cultivated form of C. esculentus, known as Chufa or Tiger nuts, is occasionally grown in home gardens as a crop for its edible tubers. In pot experiments we tested the growth of both forms, weedy and cultivated one. Weight of both fresh and dry biomass of plant parts (leaves, roots, rhizomes, tubers, inflorescences was measured in monthly intervals from May till September 2012. Results show that there were no significant differences in leaf and root biomass. The weight of rhizomes was approximately 50-80 times higher in the wild form. Number of tubers was also higher in the wild form (max. 1118 pcs; crop max. 342 pcs in single pot, but the total weight of tubers was not significantly different. The cultivated form did not produce inflorescences at all, the wild form produced in average 13 inflorescences per plot. Based on our results we can state that growing of the cultivated form does not pose any risk – plants do not show intensive vegetative spread and do not produce inflorescences so crossing with the weedy form is not possible. The wild form can produce high amounts of rhizomes and tubers and is able to produce flowers under our conditions. That makes it a potentially dangerous weed in warmer regions of the Czech Republic.

  10. Greenhouse evaluation of rhizobia as biocontrol agent of root-infecting fungi in okra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Siddiqui

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Nine rhizobial strains isolated from the root nodules of Cicer arietinum, Vigna radiata, V. mungo, Samania saman, Sesbania sesban, Leucinia sp., Prosopis cineraria and Medicago sativa were used to study their effects on root-infecting fungi viz., Macrophomina phaseolina, Fusarium solani and Rhizoctonia solani. In dual culture plate assay, strains of Bradyrhizobium sp., and R. meliloti were found to inhibit radial growth of M. phaseolina, F. solani and R. solani producing zones of inhibition. Bradyrhizobium sp., and R. meliloti either used as seed dressing or as soil drench significantly suppressed root-rot infection caused by M. phaseolina, F. solani and R. solani in okra, a non-1eguminous crop under greenhouse conditions. Biomass of plants was also higher in the presence of rhizobia.

  11. Preventative and Curative Effects of Several Plant Derived Agents Against Powdery Mildew Disease of Okra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moustafa Hemdan Ahmed MOHARAM

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The preventative and curative effects of some plant derived agents based on plant extracts or essential oils were studied at different concentrations against Erysiphe cichoracearum DC. ex Merat, the causal pathogen of okra powdery mildew by the detached leaf-disk and potted plants bioassays. Through detached leaf-disk assay, the highest mean preventative effect (97.74% was recorded by neem seed oil followed by jojoba oil (89.82% and extract of Rynoutria sachalinensis (82.77%. Neem seed oil at 1% was the most effective agent followed by jojoba oil and extract of R. sachalinensis at 1.5% and 2%, respectively, where they suppressed E. cichoracearum completely. Potted plants assay revealed that neem seed oil, jojoba oil and extract of R. sachalinensis as well as the fungicide (active ingredient dinocap showed higher preventative efficacy at all leaf olds treated after 7 and 14 days of inoculation as compared with extracts of henna and garlic. Moreover, the preventative efficacy partly remained apparent after 14 days of inoculation at all leaf olds tested. In field trials through 2010 and 2011 growing seasons, when the first symptoms of powdery mildew appeared naturally, 1.5% jojoba oil, 2% extract of R. sachalinensis and 1% neem seed oil were sprayed individually twice on grown plants to evaluate their efficacy on controlling powdery mildew, growth and yield of okra. Resulted showed that neem seed oil was the most effective agent and highly decreased the disease severity to 29.92%, recorded the highly curative effect (68.15% and also improved plant growth and pods yield.

  12. Effects of coal gasification slag as a substrate for the plant Cyperus esculentus and the worm Eisenia fetida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenner, H A; Janssen-Mommen, J P; Koeman, J H

    1992-08-01

    A further development of the coal gasification process will result in an increase of the amount of coal gasification slag (CGS). As yet little is known about the effects of storage in uncovered dumps. If there are any environmental effects, they are most likely caused by accumulation of metals from the CGS or by unacceptable physical properties of the CGS. Growth inhibition, mortality, and metal accumulation were analyzed for the plant Cyperus esculentus and the worm Eisenia fetida on CGS substrate. Pulverized fuel ash (PFA) was used as a reference. Both in the substrate and in tissues the concentrations of the cations Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn and the anions As, B, Cr, Mo, Sb, and Se were determined. The availability of anions for C. esculentus and for E. fetida is greater in PFA than in CGS. The extent and rate of uptake of anionic metals by the plants is on the whole higher in the wetland situation. The availability of metals, expressed as the concentration factor (CF), in most cases appears to be smaller than 1 for nearly all elements. In E. fetida a CF greater than 1 was found only for the element As, in PFA substrate and 50% CGS. In C. esculentus a CF greater than 1 was found for B and Mo in the PFA substrate as well.

  13. La culture du gombo (Abelmoschus spp) Legume fruit tropical avec reference speciale a la Cote d'Ivoire

    OpenAIRE

    Siemonsma, J.S.

    1982-01-01

    The data for this study have been gathered in Ivory Coast during the period 1977-1980.The first purpose of the study was a description of the traditional okra cultivation and, in particular, the evaluation of the local planting material in order to determine its potential for crop improvement.The second purpose of the programme was a study of the agronomic limitations in the case of intensive cultivation and in what ways such problems might be solved.The inventories of vegetables offered for ...

  14. Phytoremediation of Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Fe, Ni, Pb and Zn from aqueous solution using Phragmites cummunis, Typha angustifolia and Cyperus esculentus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Ram; Yadav, Sangeeta

    2011-07-01

    A comparative bioaccumulation pattern and ultra structural changes were studied in Phragmites cummunis, Typha angustifolia and Cyperus esculentus in mixed metals solution of cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn). P. cummunis was observed to be a shoot accumulator for Cr, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn. However, T. angustifolia was found to be a root accumulator for Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni and Pb. In addition, C. esculentus also accumulated most of the tested heavy metals in the roots, while Mn and Fe were translocated up to leaves. Further, the long term metal treatment showed maximum accumulation of all heavy metals in P. cummunis followed by T. angustifolia and C. esculentus. Among heavy metals, Fe was accumulated maximum, i.e., >1000 microg g(-1) by all three plants. Simultaneously, the adverse effects on biochemical parameters were noted earlier in C. esculentus than T. angustifolia and P. cummunis. Ultra structural observation showed the cellular changes in wetland plants after longer exposure. Results revealed that P. cummunis and T. angustifolia had more potential for tested metals than C. esculentus. This study established that these wetland plants could be used for heavy metals phytoremediation from metal containing industrial wastewater.

  15. Biological effect of maleic acid hydrazide on Yellow Nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bohren, Christian

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Yellow Nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus L. belongs to the family of Cyperaceae. It propagates exclusively with tubers in the ground. Its abundance has strongly increased in Switzerland in the last two decades. Main reasons for this increase are changing land use and production systems, a difficult herbicide control and a low awareness level among the farmers. The actual invasion is enhanced by unintended dislocation of tubers by machines or crops/crop waste, lack of knowledge of infested fields and missing supporting measures. An obligation to announce infested fields and to control Yellow Nutsedge is currently discussed in Switzerland. Such an obligation would help contractors and buyers of crops to reduce unintended dislocation of tubers. Cleaning up infested plots is quickly expensive and complex. Maleic acid hydrazide is actually used for preventing potato tubers to germinate in stock. We tested Fazor (maleic acid hydrazide and Asulox (asulam for its efficacy on preventing germination of Yellow Nutsedge tubers. The results of our pot trial in the greenhouse are clear. The expected efficiency was not observed. Furthermore the complexity of problems with this species in agriculture is discussed and some ideas for a control strategy are given in this paper.

  16. Physicochemical, functional and sensory attributes of milk prepared from irradiated tiger nut (Cyperus esculentus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abenaa A. Okyere

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Five tiger nut (Cyperus esculentus L. cultivars were collected from four different regions of Ghana and irradiated. The aim of this study was to evaluate some physicochemical, functional and sensory qualities of milk produced from irradiated tiger nut samples. Analysis was carried out for pH, total solids, moisture, sugar brix and viscosity. Finally the consumer acceptability of the milk prepared from the nuts was determined by a taste panel using the parameters of colour, taste, aroma, mouth feel and overall acceptability. The sugar content varied from 6.0 ± 0.3% (Techiman to 15.00 ± 1.00% (Asebu Ekroful depending on the irradiation dose applied. Generally, increase in dose increased the sugar availability but decreased viscosity of the milk prepared from the nuts. The milk with the highest viscosity was from Kwahu Aduamoa and Techiman with the least viscosity from Bawjiase. Generally, no significant difference was detected by the sensory panellists with regard to mouth feel and taste among the milk samples prepared from the various tiger nut cultivars.

  17. Effect of okra cell wall and polysaccharide on physical properties and stability of ice cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuennan, Pilapa; Sajjaanantakul, Tanaboon; Goff, H Douglas

    2014-08-01

    Stabilizers are used in ice cream to increase mix viscosity, promote smooth texture, and improve frozen stability. In this study, the effects of varying concentrations (0.00%, 0.15%, 0.30%, and 0.45%) of okra cell wall (OKW) and its corresponding water-soluble polysaccharide (OKP) on the physical characteristics of ice cream were determined. Ice cream mix viscosity was measured as well as overrun, meltdown, and consumer acceptability. Ice recrystallization was determined after ice cream was subjected to temperature cycling in the range of -10 to -20 °C for 10 cycles. Mix viscosity increased significantly as the concentrations of OKW and OKP increased. The addition of either OKW or OKP at 0.15% to 0.45% significantly improved the melting resistance of ice cream. OKW and OKP at 0.15% did not affect sensory perception score for flavor, texture, and overall liking of the ice cream. OKW and OKP (0.15%) reduced ice crystal growth to 107% and 87%, respectively, as compared to 132% for the control (0.00%). Thus, our results suggested the potential use of OKW and OKP at 0.15% as a stabilizer to control ice cream quality and retard ice recrystallization. OKP, however, at 0.15% exhibited greater effect on viscosity increase and on ice recrystallization inhibition than OKW.

  18. 溶剂法提取油莎豆油的工艺研究%Extraction of Cyperus esculentus oil by solvent method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱圣芳; 田丽萍; 薛琳; 张天义

    2012-01-01

    Objective:The research aimed to provide the experimental basis for the production,development and utilization of Cyperus esculentus oil.Method:Cyperus esculentus oil was extracted by using solvent method.The effects of Frequency,extraction time,material-liquid ratio,extraction temperature on the yield rate of Cyperus esculentus oil were studied through single factor test.The optimum extraction technology of Cyperus esculentus oil was confirmed through orthogonal test.Result:When petroleum ether esculentus oil was increase gradually long with the rising of extraction temperature and the increasing amplitude(60-90 ℃) was taken as as a solvent,the yield rate of Cyperus esculentus oil was highest.Extraction of more than 2 times,Cyperus esculentus yield rate increased insignificantly.The yield rate was increased with the increasing of extraction time.The increasing trend of the yield was not obvious after 3 h.When the material-liquid ratio was 1:8,the yield large.The yield of Cyperus esculentus oil was increase gradually long with the rising of extraction temperature and the increasing amplitude was greater at 30~50 ℃.The effects of each factor on the yield of Cyperus esculentus oil in order was as follows:extraction timeextract ion temperaturematerial-liquid ratioNumber of times.Conclusion:When petroleum ether was taken as solvent,the optimum extraction technology of Cyperus esculentus oil was as follows:extracting with the material-liquid ratio of 1:10 at 40 ℃ for 4 h and three times.Under these conditions,the yield of Cyperus esculentus oil was 27.20 %.%目的:为油莎豆油的生产、开发与利用提供试验依据。方法:采用溶剂法提取油莎豆油,单因素试验考察提取次数、时间、料液比、温度对油莎豆油得率的影响,正交试验确定油莎豆油的最佳提取工艺。结果:石油醚(60~90℃)作溶剂,油莎豆油得率最高。提取2次以上,油莎豆油得率增加不大。随着

  19. STUDY OF CHRONIC TOXICITY OF THE GLYPHOSATE HERBICIDE IN SEEDS OF CORN,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cláudia Rebessi

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Glyphosate is an agrochemical from the group of phosphonates, which is widely used as a herbicide. Although it kills almost any plant, it can be used to eliminate weeds during the growth of crops that are resistant to glyphosate. This research aimed to evaluate the toxicological effects of the herbicide in a study using as test organism seeds of maize (Zea mays, okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L. Moench and arugula (Eruca sativa. The toxicological testing was to use a paper towel dampened with a sample of glyphosate and twenty seeds evenly distributed in containers with lids, left in a dry and airy place, and watered once a day for 5 days. It was possible to check the toxic effect of glyphosate for corn seeds at concentrations above 90 mg.L-1, for okra seeds at concentrations above 75 mg L-1 and arugula seeds in concentrations above 2 mg L - 1. Thus it was concluded that the seeds studied showed a high sensitivity with the possibility to be applied in toxicity testing, representing a simple and low cost.

  20. Extraction of Flavonoids from the Flowers of Abelmoschus manihot (L. Medic by Modified Supercritical CO2 Extraction and Determination of Antioxidant and Anti-Adipogenic Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingjing Li

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abelmoschus manihot (L. Medic has been used for many years in Chinese traditional medicine. In this study, supercritical CO2 plus a modifier was utilized to extract flavonoids from the flowers of Abelmoschus manihot (L. Medic. The effects of temperature (40 °C–60 °C, pressure (10–30 MPa and different concentrations of ethanol as modifier (60%–90%, ethanol:water, v/v on major flavonol content and the antioxidant activity of the extracts were studied by response surface methodology (RSM using a Box-Behnken design. The flavonol content was calculated as the sum of the concentrations of seven major flavonoids, namely rutin, hyperin, isoquercetin, hibifolin, myricetin, quercetin-3′-O-glucoside and quercetin, which were simultaneously determined by a HPLC method. The antioxidant activity was evaluated by a 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydarzyl (DPPH free radical-scavenging assay. The results showed that three factors and their interactions could be well fitted to second-order polynomial models (p < 0.05. At the optimal extraction conditions for flavonol content (20 MPa, 52 °C, and 85% ethanol content, the yield of flavonoids was 41.96 mg/g and the IC50 value was 0.288 mg/mL, respectively, suggesting the extract has high antioxidant activity. Furthermore, the anti-adipogenic activity of the extract on the 3T3-L1 cell line was investigated. The results indicated that it can downregulate PPARγ and C/EBPα expression at mRNA. In summary, in this study, we have established a cost-effective method for the extraction of flavonoids from the flowers of Abelmoschus manihot (L. Medic using supercritical fluid extraction and the extracts exhibited potent antioxidant and anti-adipogenic effects, suggesting a possible therapeutic approach for the prevention and treatment of obesity.

  1. Genomic effects on advertisement call structure in diploid and triploid hybrid waterfrogs (Anura, Pelophylax esculentus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background In anurans, differences in male mating calls have intensively been studied with respect to taxonomic classification, phylogeographic comparisons among different populations and sexual selection. Although overall successful, there is often much unexplained variation in these studies. Potential causes for such variation include differences among genotypes and breeding systems, as well as differences between populations. We investigated how these three factors affect call properties in male water frogs of Pelophylax lessonae (genotype LL), P. ridibundus (RR) and their interspecific hybrid P. esculentus which comes in diploid (LR) and triploid types (LLR, LRR). Results We investigated five call parameters that all showed a genomic dosage effect, i.e. they either decreased or increased with the L/R ratio in the order LL-LLR-LR-LRR-RR. Not all parameters differentiated equally well between the five genotypes, but combined they provided a good separation. Two of the five call parameters were also affected by the breeding system. Calls of diploid LR males varied, depending on whether these males mated with one or both of the parental species (diploid systems) or triploid hybrids (mixed ploidy systems). With the exception of the northernmost mixed-ploidy population, call differences were not related to the geographic location of the population and they were not correlated with genetic distances in the R and L genomes. Conclusions We found an influence of all three tested factors on call parameters, with the effect size decreasing from genotype through breeding system to geographic location of the population. Overall, results were in line with predictions from a dosage effect in L/R ratios, but in three call parameters all three hybrid types were more similar to one or the other parental species. Also calls of diploid hybrids varied between breeding systems in agreement with the sexual host required for successful reproduction. The lack of hybrid call differences

  2. Genomic effects on advertisement call structure in diploid and triploid hybrid waterfrogs (Anura, Pelophylax esculentus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Alexandra; Reyer, Heinz-Ulrich

    2013-12-04

    In anurans, differences in male mating calls have intensively been studied with respect to taxonomic classification, phylogeographic comparisons among different populations and sexual selection. Although overall successful, there is often much unexplained variation in these studies. Potential causes for such variation include differences among genotypes and breeding systems, as well as differences between populations. We investigated how these three factors affect call properties in male water frogs of Pelophylax lessonae (genotype LL), P. ridibundus (RR) and their interspecific hybrid P. esculentus which comes in diploid (LR) and triploid types (LLR, LRR). We investigated five call parameters that all showed a genomic dosage effect, i.e. they either decreased or increased with the L/R ratio in the order LL-LLR-LR-LRR-RR. Not all parameters differentiated equally well between the five genotypes, but combined they provided a good separation. Two of the five call parameters were also affected by the breeding system. Calls of diploid LR males varied, depending on whether these males mated with one or both of the parental species (diploid systems) or triploid hybrids (mixed ploidy systems). With the exception of the northernmost mixed-ploidy population, call differences were not related to the geographic location of the population and they were not correlated with genetic distances in the R and L genomes. We found an influence of all three tested factors on call parameters, with the effect size decreasing from genotype through breeding system to geographic location of the population. Overall, results were in line with predictions from a dosage effect in L/R ratios, but in three call parameters all three hybrid types were more similar to one or the other parental species. Also calls of diploid hybrids varied between breeding systems in agreement with the sexual host required for successful reproduction. The lack of hybrid call differences in a mixed-ploidy population at

  3. Oil Biosynthesis in Underground Oil-Rich Storage Vegetative Tissue: Comparison of Cyperus esculentus Tuber with Oil Seeds and Fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhenle; Ji, Hongying; Liu, Dantong

    2016-12-01

    Cyperus esculentus is unique in that it can accumulate rich oil in its tubers. However, the underlying mechanism of tuber oil biosynthesis is still unclear. Our transcriptional analyses of the pathways from pyruvate production up to triacylglycerol (TAG) accumulation in tubers revealed many distinct species-specific lipid expression patterns from oil seeds and fruits, indicating that in C. esculentus tuber: (i) carbon flux from sucrose toward plastid pyruvate could be produced mostly through the cytosolic glycolytic pathway; (ii) acetyl-CoA synthetase might be an important contributor to acetyl-CoA formation for plastid fatty acid biosynthesis; (iii) the expression pattern for stearoyl-ACP desaturase was associated with high oleic acid composition; (iv) it was most likely that endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated acyl-CoA synthetase played a significant role in the export of fatty acids between the plastid and ER; (v) lipid phosphate phosphatase (LPP)-δ was most probably related to the formation of the diacylglycerol (DAG) pool in the Kennedy pathway; and (vi) diacylglyceroltransacylase 2 (DGAT2) and phospholipid:diacylglycerolacyltransferase 1 (PDAT1) might play crucial roles in tuber oil biosynthesis. In contrast to oil-rich fruits, there existed many oleosins, caleosins and steroleosins with very high transcripts in tubers. Surprisingly, only a single ortholog of WRINKLED1 (WRI1)-like transcription factor was identified and it was poorly expressed during tuber development. Our study not only provides insights into lipid metabolism in tuber tissues, but also broadens our understanding of TAG synthesis in oil plants. Such knowledge is of significance in exploiting this oil-rich species and manipulating other non-seed tissues to enhance storage oil production.

  4. Growth, Yield and WUE of Drip and Sprinkler Irrigated Okra Grown On Sandy Soil Under Semi-Arid Conditions in Southeast Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plauborg, Finn

    Vegetable production systems at the Keta sand spit, Southeast Ghana, are typically managed with excessive amounts of irrigation water and fertilizers on sandy soils with low inherent water and nutrient retention capacities. The shallow groundwater which is the primary irrigation water resource...... is prone to salinization from the Keta lagoon, the Atlantic Ocean and brackish water underneath (Kortatsi and Agyeku, 1999). To ensure the sustainability of vegetable production at the Keta spit, introduction of water saving irrigation systems and improved irrigation management schemes are important. Thus...... for the drip irrigated okra crop was 269 mm compared to 379 mm for sprinkler. By adopting drip irrigation to okra, the seasonal crop water use could be reduced close to 30 %. From the results it is concluded that on rough textured sandy soil drip irrigation with frequent weekly fertigation resulted...

  5. Metal-Organic Frameworks Derived Okra-like SnO2 Encapsulated in Nitrogen-Doped Graphene for Lithium Ion Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiangyang; Chen, Sanmei; Yang, Juan; Bai, Tao; Ren, Yongpeng; Tian, Hangyu

    2017-04-26

    A facile process is developed to prepare SnO2-based composites through using metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) as precursors. The nitrogen-doped graphene wrapped okra-like SnO2 composites (SnO2@N-RGO) are successfully synthesized for the first time by using Sn-based metal-organic frameworks (Sn-MOF) as precursors. When utilized as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries, the SnO2@N-RGO composites possess a remarkably superior reversible capacity of 1041 mA h g(-1) at a constant current of 200 mA g(-1) after 180 charge-discharge processes and excellent rate capability. The excellent performance can be primarily ascribed to the unique structure of 1D okra-like SnO2 in SnO2@N-RGO which are actually composed of a great number of SnO2 primary crystallites and numerous well-defined internal voids, can effectively alleviate the huge volume change of SnO2, and facilitate the transport and storage of lithium ions. Besides, the structural stability acquires further improvement when the okra-like SnO2 are wrapped by N-doped graphene. Similarly, this synthetic strategy can be employed to synthesize other high-capacity metal-oxide-based composites starting from various metal-organic frameworks, exhibiting promising application in novel electrode material field of lithium-ion batteries.

  6. Evaluation of Abelmoschus moschatus extracts for antioxidant, free radical scavenging, antimicrobial and antiproliferative activities using in vitro assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qureshi Insaf A

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Abelmoschus moschatus Medik. leaves and seeds are considered as valuable traditional medicine. The aromatic seeds of this plant are aphrodisiac, ophthalmic, cardio tonic, antispasmodic and used in the treatment of intestinal complaints and check queasiness. To give a scientific basis for traditional usage of this medicinal plant, the seed and leaf extracts were evaluated for their antioxidant, free radical scavenging, antimicrobial and antiproliferative activities. Methods In this study, antioxidant, antimicrobial and antiproliferative activities of A. moschatus extracts were evaluated in a series of in vitro assay involving free radicals, reactive oxygen species and their IC50 values were also determined. The antioxidant activities of the seed and leaf extracts of A. moschatus were determined by total antioxidant, DPPH, and ferrous reducing antioxidant property (FRAP methods. In addition, the antiproliferative activity was also evaluated using colorectal adenocarcinoma and retinoblastoma human cancer cell lines. Moreover, six bacterial reference strains, two gram-positive (Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus, four gram-negative (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus vulgaris and Salmonella enterica paratyphi and one fungal strain (Candida albicans were used to evaluate its antimicrobial activity. Results The results from this study showed that the antioxidant activities of A. moschatus as determined by the total phenol, flavonoids, total antioxidant and FRAP methods were higher in leaf than that of the seed extracts. On the other hand, the aqueous overnight seed extract (AMS-I has shown significant radical scavenging activity as in 1, 1- Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, hydrogen peroxide, hydroxyl radical, superoxide and lipid peroxidation as compared to other seed and leaf extracts. The AMS-I and AML-IV have shown activity against six and seven microorganisms respectively. Simulteneously, AMS-IV and AML

  7. Evaluation of Abelmoschus moschatus extracts for antioxidant, free radical scavenging, antimicrobial and antiproliferative activities using in vitro assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gul, Mir Z; Bhakshu, Lepakshi M; Ahmad, Farhan; Kondapi, Anand K; Qureshi, Insaf A; Ghazi, Irfan A

    2011-08-17

    Abelmoschus moschatus Medik. leaves and seeds are considered as valuable traditional medicine. The aromatic seeds of this plant are aphrodisiac, ophthalmic, cardio tonic, antispasmodic and used in the treatment of intestinal complaints and check queasiness. To give a scientific basis for traditional usage of this medicinal plant, the seed and leaf extracts were evaluated for their antioxidant, free radical scavenging, antimicrobial and antiproliferative activities. In this study, antioxidant, antimicrobial and antiproliferative activities of A. moschatus extracts were evaluated in a series of in vitro assay involving free radicals, reactive oxygen species and their IC50 values were also determined. The antioxidant activities of the seed and leaf extracts of A. moschatus were determined by total antioxidant, DPPH, and ferrous reducing antioxidant property (FRAP) methods. In addition, the antiproliferative activity was also evaluated using colorectal adenocarcinoma and retinoblastoma human cancer cell lines. Moreover, six bacterial reference strains, two gram-positive (Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus), four gram-negative (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus vulgaris and Salmonella enterica paratyphi) and one fungal strain (Candida albicans) were used to evaluate its antimicrobial activity. The results from this study showed that the antioxidant activities of A. moschatus as determined by the total phenol, flavonoids, total antioxidant and FRAP methods were higher in leaf than that of the seed extracts. On the other hand, the aqueous overnight seed extract (AMS-I) has shown significant radical scavenging activity as in 1, 1- Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), hydrogen peroxide, hydroxyl radical, superoxide and lipid peroxidation as compared to other seed and leaf extracts. The AMS-I and AML-IV have shown activity against six and seven microorganisms respectively. Simulteneously, AMS-IV and AML-IV have demonstrated potential antiproliferative

  8. Antioxidative responses of the tissues of two wild populations of Pelophylax kl. esculentus frogs to heavy metal pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokić, Marko D; Borković-Mitić, Slavica S; Krizmanić, Imre I; Mutić, Jelena J; Vukojević, Vesna; Nasia, Mohammed; Gavrić, Jelena P; Despotović, Svetlana G; Gavrilović, Branka R; Radovanović, Tijana B; Pavlović, Slađan Z; Saičić, Zorica S

    2016-06-01

    Heavy metal pollution of the aquatic environment is of great concern worldwide. Heavy metals are capable of inducing oxidative stress by increasing the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and directly affecting the antioxidant defense system (AOS) in living organisms. The frog Pelophylax kl. esculentus is a semiaquatic species with semipermeable skin and a complex lifecycle, and represents a potentially useful bioindicator organism. The aim of this study was to investigate the accumulation of several heavy metals (Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Ni, Pb and Zn), and their effects on selected parameters of the AOS, including the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), glutathione reductase (GR), phase II biotransformation enzyme glutathione-S-transferase (GST), the total glutathione (GSH) contents and sulfhydryl (SH) group concentrations, as well as cholinesterases (ChEs) activities in the liver, skin and muscle of P. kl. esculentus. Frog samples were collected at two sites (the Danube-Tisza-Danube canal (DTDC) and the river Ponjavica) in Serbia, which are characterized by different levels of metal pollution. Differences between the metal contents in different tissues showed that the skin of frogs from the DTDC accumulated statistically higher concentrations of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn, while only the Fe concentration was lower. No significant differences between metal concentrations in muscle tissues of frogs from the DTDC and Ponjavica were observed. Examination of the parameters of the AOS revealed that frogs from the DTDC had higher concentrations of GSH in the liver and of SH groups in the skin and muscle, whereas the activities of the antioxidative enzymes SOD, GHS-Px and GR in the liver and of GR in the skin were lower than in frogs from the Ponjavica. The relationship between metal concentrations and AOS parameters showed the highest number of correlations with GSH, GR and CAT, and with Ni, Zn, Hg, Cr and Cd. Based

  9. Gamete production patterns, ploidy, and population genetics reveal evolutionary significant units in hybrid water frogs (Pelophylax esculentus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruvost, Nicolas B M; Hoffmann, Alexandra; Reyer, Heinz-Ulrich

    2013-09-01

    The European water frog Pelophylax esculentus is a natural hybrid between P. lessonae (genotype LL) and P. ridibundus (RR). It reproduces through hybridogenesis, eliminating one parental genome from its germline and producing gametes containing the genome of the other parental species. According to previous studies, this elimination and transmission pattern is very diverse. In mixed populations, where only diploid hybrids (LR) live in sympatry and mate with one or both parental species, the excluded genome varies among regions, and the remaining genome is transmitted clonally to haploid gametes. In all-hybrid populations consisting of diploid (LR) and triploid (LLR and/or LRR) frogs, diploid individuals also produce gametes clonally (1n in males, 2n in females), whereas triploids eliminate the genome they have in single copy and produce haploid gametes containing the recombined other genome. However, here, too, regional differences seem to exist, and some triploids have been reported to produce diploid gametes. In order to systematically study such regional and genotype differences in gamete production, their potential origin, and their consequences for the breeding system, we sampled frogs from five populations in three European countries, performed crossing experiments, and investigated the genetic variation through microsatellite analysis. For four populations, one in Poland, two in Germany, and one in Slovakia, our results confirmed the elimination and transmission pattern described above. In one Slovakian population, however, we found a totally different pattern. Here, triploid males (LLR) produce sperm with a clonally transmitted diploid LL genome, rather than a haploid recombined L genome, and LR females clonally produce haploid R eggs, rather than diploid LR eggs. These differences among the populations in gamete production go along with differences in genomotype composition, breeding system (i.e., the way triploids are produced), and genetic variation

  10. Períodos de interferência de plantas daninhas na cultura do quiabo Periods of weed interference in okra crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.P.S Bachega

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Poucas pesquisas têm sido realizadas sobre interferência de plantas daninhas na cultura do quiabo. Objetivou-se com este trabalho estimar os períodos de interferência da comunidade infestante no quiabeiro. Um experimento de campo foi conduzido sob dois grupos de tratamentos, mantendo períodos crescentes de 0 (testemunha, 7, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49, 63, 77, 91 e 105 dias após a emergência da cultura (DAE, com e sem controle das plantas daninhas. As plantas daninhas com maior importância relativa foram Portulaca oleracea, Nicandra physaloides e Eleusine indica. A convivência do quiabeiro com as plantas daninhas por todo o ciclo de cultivo reduziu a produtividade da cultura em 95%. O período anterior à interferência foi de 57 DAE, enquanto o período total de prevenção à interferência foi de 14 DAE. Não houve período crítico de prevenção à interferência, sendo um único controle das plantas daninhas entre 14 e 57 DAE suficiente para prevenir a interferência na cultura do quiabo.Few research works have been carried out on weed interference in okra crop. The aim of this study was to estimate the periods of weed interference in okra crop. Thus, a field trial was carried out under two groups of treatments, using increased periods of 0 (check, 7, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49, 63, 77, 91, and 105 days after crop emergence (DAE with weed control and without weed control. Weeds with highest relative importance were Portulaca oleracea, Nicandra physaloides, and Eleusine indica. Coexistence of okra crop and weeds throughout the season reduced crop yield by 95%. The period before interference was 57 DAE, while total period of interference prevention was 14 DAE. There was no critical period of interference prevention, with a single weed control between 14 and 57 DAE being sufficient for interference prevention in okra crop.

  11. Processing Effects on the Antioxidant Activities of Beverage Blends Developed from Cyperus esculentus, Hibiscus sabdariffa, and Moringa oleifera Extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badejo, Adebanjo A; Damilare, Akintoroye; Ojuade, Temitope D

    2014-09-01

    The discovery of bioactive compounds in foods has changed the dietary lifestyle of many people. Cyperus esculentus (tigernut) is highly underutilized in Africa, yet tigernut extract is highly profitable in Europe. This study aims to add value to tigernut extract by revealing its health benefits and food value. In this study, tigernut tubers were germinated or roasted and the extracts were combined with Moringa oleifera extract (MOE) or Hibiscus sabdariffa extract (HSE) and spiced with ginger to produce functional drinks. The drinks were evaluated for physicochemical characteristics, sensory parameters, and antioxidant potentials. The total phenolic content of each beverage was measured by the Folin-Ciocalteu method, and the antioxidant activity of each beverage was determined by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and 2,2'-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid assays. The beverages from the germinated tigernut extracts had the highest titratable acidity and the lowest pH, while beverages containing the roasted tigernut extract had the highest ∘Brix. Germination and roasting significantly enhanced the total phenolic content of the drinks. The beverage containing HSE and germinated tigernut extract had a total phenolic content of 45.67 mg/100 mL gallic acid equivalents, which was significantly higher than the total phenolic content of all other samples. The DPPH inhibition activity of the beverages prepared with germinated tigernut extracts was significantly higher than the DPPH inhibition activity of the beverages prepared with fresh tigernut extract. The taste and overall acceptability of drinks containing the roasted tigernut extract were preferred, while the color and appearance of drinks with the germinated samples were preferred. Roasting or germinating tigernuts before extraction and addition of MOE or HSE extracts is another way to add value and enhance the utilization of tigernuts.

  12. Tolerance of chufa (Cyperus esculentus) as a vegetation unit's representative of bioregenerative life support systems to elevated temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shklavtsova, Ekaterina; Ushakova, Sofya; Shikhov, Valentin; Kudenko, Yurii

    Plants inclusion in the photosynthesizing unit of bioregenerative life support systems (BLSS) expects knowledge of both production characteristics of plants cultivated under optimal condi-tions and their tolerance to stress-factors' effect caused by contingency origination in a system. The work was aimed at investigation of chufa (Cyperus esculentus) tolerance to the effect of super optimal air temperature of 44 subject to PAR intensity and exposure duration. Chufa was grown in light culture conditions by hydroponics method on expanded clay aggregate. The Knop solution was used as nutrition medium. Up to 30 days the plants were cultivated at the intensity of 690 micromole*m-2*s*-1 and air temperature of 25. Heat shock was employed at the age of 30 days under the air temperature of 44 during 7, 20 and 44 hours at two different PAR intensities of 690 and 1150 micromole*m-2*s*-1. Chufa heat tolerance was estimated by intensity of external 2 gas exchange and by state of leaves' photosynthetic apparatus (PSA). Effect of disturbing temperature during 44 hours at PAR intensity of 690 micromole*m-2*s*-1 resulted in frozen-in damage of PSA-leaves' die-off. Chufa plants exposed to heat stress at PAR intensity of 690 micromole*m-2*s*-1 during both 7 and 20-hours demonstrated respiration dominance over photosynthesis; and 2 emission was observed by light. Functional activity of photosynthetic apparatus estimated with respect to parameters of pulse-amplitude-modulated chlorophyll fluorescence of photosystem 2 (PS 2) decreased on 40

  13. 金花葵粗黄酮的提取工艺研究%Extraction of crude flavonoids from Abelmoschus manihot(L) flower

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨秀松

    2011-01-01

    通过对金花葵黄酮超声辅助提取工艺单因素和正交实验的研究,获得了金花葵黄酮粗提物的提取工艺参数:80℃下超声30min后,用60%乙醇、料液比1:40、提取时间75min,提取1次.经分析提取液中黄酮类物质的含量,计算每克原料的黄酮提取量为56.37mg.提取液经旋转蒸发浓缩后用冷冻干燥制得黄酮粗提物的冻干粉,每g金花葵原料可得冻干粉0.097g、黄酮含量为0.0562g,黄酮粗提物的得率和黄酮含量分别为9.7%和58%.%By the studies of Abelmoschus manihot(L) flower flavonoids ultrasound-assisted extraction that using single factor and orthogonal design, the ultrasonic-assisted extraction parameters of flavonoids crude extracts could be obtained as follows: After 80℃ temperature ultrasonic 30min, ultrasonic treatment lasted for 75min with 1:40 of 60% ethanol.and extracted one time. Calculating the content of flavonoid extract, we could see the amount of flavonoid extraction is 56.37mg per gram of raw materials. Flavonoids crude extracts concentrated by rotary e-vaporation later obtained its freeze-dried powder by freeze-drying. Abelmoschus manihot (L) flower raw material per gram of freeze -dried powder obtained 0.097g and flavonoid content was 0.0562g, The extraction rate of flavonoids and flavonoid contents were 9.7% and 58%.

  14. 黄蜀葵花对阿霉素肾病大鼠足细胞的保护作用%Protective effect of Sunset Abelmoschus on podocyte injury in adriamycin-induced nephropathy rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    边琪; 郭志勇; 胡海燕; 李娟

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨黄蜀葵花(黄葵)治疗阿霉素肾病大鼠的疗效及其对足细胞病变的影响.方法 雄性SD大鼠50只,按随机数字法分为假手术组(n=10)、模型组(n=10)、黄葵低剂量组(0.5 g·kg-1·d-1,n=10)、黄葵中剂量组(1.0 g·kg-1·d-1,n=10)和黄葵高剂量组(2.0 g·kg-1·d-1,n=10).采用单侧肾切除联合两次阿霉素(ADR)注射法,制备阿霉素肾病大鼠模型.黄葵各组于右肾摘除术当天起给予相应剂量黄葵溶液灌胃.分别在术前、术后2、4、6、8周末检测大鼠尿蛋白、尿N-乙酰葡萄糖氨基转移酶(NAG)、血清白蛋白、Scr和血脂.第8周末宰杀大鼠,取肾组织行光镜和电镜检查,并观察肾组织nephrin的分布.结果 与模型组比较,黄葵各组在各时间点的尿蛋白量和尿NAG水平均降低,以高剂量组最显著(P<0.01);且血浆白蛋白增加,血脂紊乱改善,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05).模型组及黄葵各治疗组Scr自第4周起较假手术组明显升高;第8周末,黄葵高剂量组Scr低于模型组(P<0.05).黄葵各组肾小球球性硬化和节段硬化比例均低于模型组,肾小管间质损害改善,且以高剂量组最显著.与模型组比较,黄葵各组足细胞的足突损伤减轻,足突融合程度和范围均有所改善,以高剂量组最显著.黄葵各组肾组织nephrin表达较模型组增加.结论 黄葵能减少阿霉素肾病大鼠的蛋白尿,减轻肾组织损伤和慢性化,其机制可能与改善足细胞病变有关.%Objective To explore the effect of Sunset Abelmoschus on podocyte injury in adriamycin-induced nephropathy rats.Methods Fifty male SD rats were randomly divided into five groups:sham operation group (n=10),model group (n=10),Sunset Abelmoschus low dose group (0.5 g·kg-1· d-1 n=10),middle dose group (1.0 g· kg-1· d-1,n=10) and high dose group (2.0 g· kg-1· d-1,n=10).Unilateral nephrectomy combined repeated adriamycin injection were performed to establish

  15. Grafted natural polymer as new drag reducing agent: An experimental approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulbari Hayder A.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation introduces a new natural drag reducing agent which has the ability to improve the flow in pipelines carrying aqueous or hydrocarbon liquids in turbulent flow. Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus mucilage drag reduction performance was tested in water and hydrocarbon (gas-oil media after grafting. The drag reduction test was conducted in a buildup closed loop liquid circulation system consists of two pipes 0.0127 and 0.0381 m Inside Diameter (ID, four testing sections in each pipe (0.5 to 2.0 m, tank, pump and pressure transmitters. Reynolds number (Re, additive concentration and the transported media type (water and gas-oil, were the major drag reduction variables investigated. The experimental results show that, new additive drag reduction ability is high with maximum percentage of drag reduction (%Dr up to 60% was achieved. The experimental results showed that the drag reduction ability increased by increasing the additive concentration. The %Dr was found to increase by increasing the Re by using the water-soluble additive while it was found to decrease by increasing the Re when using the oil-soluble additive. The %Dr was higher in the 0.0381 m ID pipe. Finally, the grafted and natural mucilage showed high resistance to shear forces when circulated continuously for 200 seconds in the closed-loop system.

  16. Prebiotics – A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paiboon Thammarutwasik

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Nutraceuticals and functional foods have become an important tool for consumers to manage their health and wellness.Pre-, pro-, and synbiotics are a part of this group of products shown to have properties that can modulate gastrointestinalproblems and improve general health and well being. Prebiotics are polysaccharides that can withstand acidic and enzymaticdigestion in the small intestine and can be utilized by probiotics, and gut microflora, in the large intestine for their growth andactivities that benefit the host’s health, e.g., by enhancing the immunity and mineral absorption, preventing colon cancer andother gastrointestinal diseases, and lowering cholesterol. Prebiotics, e.g., inulin, oligofructose, oligolactose, and lactulose, occur naturally in many plants, or may be synthesized from starch or other carbohydrates using appropriate enzymes.A number of plants from southern Thailand, e.g., palm fruit (Borrassus flabellifer L., jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllusLam., young coconut (Cocos nucifera Linn., rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum L., jampadah (Artocarpus integer Merr., and okra (Abelmoschus esculentus Moench. contain a considerable amount of polysaccharides that have been shown to have prebiotic properties. Prebiotics may be used as ingredients in functional foods, or may be presented as nutraceuticals in the form of capsules, tablets or powder, sometimes together with probiotic cultures.

  17. Gamete types, sex determination and stable equilibria of all-hybrid populations of diploid and triploid edible frogs (Pelophylax esculentus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiansen Ditte G

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Triploid individuals often play a key role in speciation by hybridization. An understanding of the gamete types (ploidy and genomic content and stability of hybrid populations with triploid individuals is therefore of importance for exploring the role of hybridization in evolution. The all-hybrid populations of the edible frog, Pelophylax esculentus, are unique in their composition and genetic dynamics: Diploid (genotype LR and triploid (LLR and LRR hybrids depend on each other's different gamete contributions for successful reproduction and maintenance of the populations, as the parental genotypes P. lessonae (LL and P. ridibundus (RR are absent among adults. This study provides data and interpretations on gamete types and sex determination that are essential for understanding the function, evolutionary potential and threats of this intriguing system. Results Dissection of metamorphs from a crossing experiment confirmed that sex determination is an XX-XY system with the Y confined to the L genome. From microsatellite analysis of parents and offspring from the crossings, gamete frequencies could be deduced: Triploids of both sexes mostly made haploid gametes with the genome they had in double dose, however LLR females also made approximately 10% LL gametes by automixis. LR frogs showed much variation in their gamete production. In LRR-rich populations, their LR sperm production was sufficiently high (22% to explain the observed proportion of LRR males, the formation of which has not previously been understood. A model was constructed to calculate equilibrium genotype proportions for different population types on the basis of the gamete proportions found. These equilibria agreed well with empirical literature data. Conclusion If population differentiation with respect to genotype proportions is really driven by gamete patterns, as strongly suggested by the present study, all-hybrid populations constitute not one, but several

  18. Gamete types, sex determination and stable equilibria of all-hybrid populations of diploid and triploid edible frogs (Pelophylax esculentus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, Ditte G

    2009-01-01

    Background Triploid individuals often play a key role in speciation by hybridization. An understanding of the gamete types (ploidy and genomic content) and stability of hybrid populations with triploid individuals is therefore of importance for exploring the role of hybridization in evolution. The all-hybrid populations of the edible frog, Pelophylax esculentus, are unique in their composition and genetic dynamics: Diploid (genotype LR) and triploid (LLR and LRR) hybrids depend on each other's different gamete contributions for successful reproduction and maintenance of the populations, as the parental genotypes P. lessonae (LL) and P. ridibundus (RR) are absent among adults. This study provides data and interpretations on gamete types and sex determination that are essential for understanding the function, evolutionary potential and threats of this intriguing system. Results Dissection of metamorphs from a crossing experiment confirmed that sex determination is an XX-XY system with the Y confined to the L genome. From microsatellite analysis of parents and offspring from the crossings, gamete frequencies could be deduced: Triploids of both sexes mostly made haploid gametes with the genome they had in double dose, however LLR females also made approximately 10% LL gametes by automixis. LR frogs showed much variation in their gamete production. In LRR-rich populations, their LR sperm production was sufficiently high (22%) to explain the observed proportion of LRR males, the formation of which has not previously been understood. A model was constructed to calculate equilibrium genotype proportions for different population types on the basis of the gamete proportions found. These equilibria agreed well with empirical literature data. Conclusion If population differentiation with respect to genotype proportions is really driven by gamete patterns, as strongly suggested by the present study, all-hybrid populations constitute not one, but several intrinsically different

  19. Optimization of preparation technology of Cyperus esculentus oil microcapsule%油莎豆油微胶囊制备工艺优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧阳位麒; 敬思群

    2012-01-01

    The Cyperus esculentus oil microcapsule preparation technology was optimized through single factor and orthogonal tests by means of microphotograph and particle size distribution analysis with emulsion viscosity and embedding rate as indexes.The results showed that combinations of starch octenylsuccinate HI-CAP100 and malt dextrin were used as wall material.The optimum process condition of micro-encapsulation preparation of Cyperus esculentus oil was wall material ratio(starch octenylsuccinate:malt dextrin)1:1,fuel load 20%,and dry matter content 40%.Under this condition,embedding rate could reach 77.62%.The average particle size of microencapsulation was 46.78μm.The result of the storage experiment showed that the microencapsulated Cyperus esculentus oil had characteristics of good stability.%实验以乳化液粘度和包埋率为考察指标,通过单因素及正交实验,借助显微拍照、粒径分布分析,优化了油莎豆油微胶囊制备工艺。结果表明:选用辛烯基琥珀酸酯化淀粉HI-CAP100和麦芽糊精复配作为微胶囊化油莎豆油的壁材,油莎豆油微胶囊制备最优工艺为:壁材比(辛烯基琥珀酸酯化淀粉∶麦芽糊精)为1∶1,载油量为20%,干物质含量为40%,在此条件下,油莎豆油的微胶囊包埋率可达到77.62%,平均粒径为46.78μm。贮藏实验结果表明,微胶囊化油莎豆油的贮藏稳定性较好。

  20. Enhancing the recovery of tiger nut (Cyperus esculentus) oil by mechanical pressing: Moisture content, particle size, high pressure and enzymatic pre-treatment effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezeh, Onyinye; Gordon, Michael H; Niranjan, Keshavan

    2016-03-01

    Tiger nut (Cyperus esculentus) tuber contains oil that is high in monounsaturated fatty acids, and this oil makes up about 23% of the tuber. The study aimed at evaluating the impact of several factors and enzymatic pre-treatment on the recovery of pressed tiger nut oil. Smaller particles were more favourable for pressing. High pressure pre-treatment did not increase oil recovery but enzymatic treatment did. The highest yield obtained by enzymatic treatment prior to mechanical extraction was 33% on a dry defatted basis, which represents a recovery of 90% of the oil. Tiger nut oil consists mainly of oleic acid; its acid and peroxide values reflect the high stability of the oil.

  1. Growth, Yield and WUE of Drip and Sprinkler Irrigated Okra Grown On Sandy Soil Under Semi-Arid Conditions in Southeast Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plauborg, Finn

    Vegetable production systems at the Keta sand spit, Southeast Ghana, are typically managed with excessive amounts of irrigation water and fertilizers on sandy soils with low inherent water and nutrient retention capacities. The shallow groundwater which is the primary irrigation water resource......, the main aim of our study was to explore the water sa ving potential of drip irrigation in order to save the shallow groundwater from over exploitation. A two season study (minor dry season, 2011 and major dry season, 2012) were carried out to determine the okra crop response to the following treatments: 1...... is prone to salinization from the Keta lagoon, the Atlantic Ocean and brackish water underneath (Kortatsi and Agyeku, 1999). To ensure the sustainability of vegetable production at the Keta spit, introduction of water saving irrigation systems and improved irrigation management schemes are important. Thus...

  2. Research on Process Optimization and Formula of Okra-Orange CompoundJ uiec Beverage%黄秋葵橘子复合果汁饮品工艺优化及配方研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈锐; 谭嘉丽; 刘日斌; 朱建华; 唐海梅; 杨莹; 刘廙人; 郭舒婷; 李雅

    2016-01-01

    Abstratc: A compound formula of fruit and vegetable juice was explored using okra and orange as raw materials , after juice extraction, the formula for the compound beverage was confirmed by single factor experiment and orthogonal test .The results showed that the optimal conditions as follows:the content of okra juice and orange juice were 15%and 4%, and the amounts of sugar and citric acid were 7.5%and 0.1%, respectively.The compound beverage of okra and orange beverage had bright color and better mouth feel, with fragrance of okra and orange, was a pleasant taste and nutritious drink.%以黄秋葵、橘子为主要原料,先进行黄秋葵汁液及果汁提取,然后在单因素试验的基础上通过正交试验优化复合果汁饮料工艺配方,得到最佳复合饮料主要成分配比为:黄秋葵汁液添加量15%、蔗糖7.5%、柠檬酸0.1%、橘子汁4%。在该配方条件下得到的饮料色泽明亮,甜酸适宜,具有秋葵清香、橘子甜味,是一种口感愉悦、营养丰富的健康饮料。

  3. opoku okra et al

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PUBLICATIONS1

    negative control, before incubating at 4oC on ... testing to determine the level of SLAMF7 re- ... RNase free water and measured spectropho- .... taken with Wilovert inverted microscope fitted with Olympus camera after 24 hours of incubation.

  4. Using termite nests as a source of organic matter in agrosilvicultural production systems in Amazonia Uso de ninhos de cupin como fonte de matéria orgânica em sistemas de produção agrosilviculturais na Amazônia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. S. Batalha

    1995-08-01

    Full Text Available The growth of two annual crops, okra (Abelmoschus escutentus and egg-plant (Solatium melongena and one perennial crop, andiroba (Carapa guianensis, a native forest tree of Amazonia under different treatments with organic manure derived from termite nest material of wood-feeding Nasutitermes species was tested (randomized block design. The use of 25-100 g of nest material gave no significant increase in okra productivity, and 25-200 g gave no significant response in andiroba. The combined use of NPK with 200 g of nest material gave a significant higher production in egg-plant (total number and total fresh weight of fruits when compared to the control (without fertilizer and to the treatment with NPK only.The results suggest the possibility to use termite nest material to enhance crop production in Amazonia, particularly in combination with low amounts of mineral fertilizer. Research lines for further investigations are outlined.Foi avaliado crescimento de duas espécies agriculturais anuais, quiabo (Abelmoschus esculentus e berinjela (Solatium melongena, e de uma espécie perene, andiroba (Carapa guianensis, uma árvore nativa da Amazônia sob diferentes tratamentos com matéria orgânica derivada de material de cupinzeiro de espécies xilófagas de Nasutitermes (desenho de bloco randomizado. O uso de 25-100 g de material de termiteiro não levou a um incremento significativo da produtividade em quiabo, e 25-200 g não resultou numa resposta significativa em andiroba. O uso combinado de NPK com 200 g de ninho de cupim resultou numa produção significantemente maior em S. melongena (número total e peso fresco total de frutos se comparado com o controle (sem fertilizante nenhum e com o tratamento de NPK apenas. Os resultados sugerem a possibilidade de usar material de cupinzeiro para melhorara produção agrossilvicultural na Amazônia, especialmente em combinação com pequenas quantidades de fertilizante mineral Linhas de pesquisa para futuras

  5. Amino acid, mineral and fatty acid content of pumpkin seeds (Cucurbita spp) and Cyperus esculentus nuts in the Republic of Niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glew, R H; Glew, R S; Chuang, L-T; Huang, Y-S; Millson, M; Constans, D; Vanderjagt, D J

    2006-06-01

    Dried seeds and nuts are widely consumed by indigenous populations of the western Sahel, especially those who inhabit rural areas. In light of the need for quantitative information regarding the content of particular nutrients in these plant foods, we collected dried pumpkin (Cucurbita spp) seeds and nuts of Cyperus esculentus in the Republic of Niger and analyzed them for their content of essential amino acids, minerals and trace elements, and fatty acids. On a dry weight basis, pumpkin seed contained 58.8% protein and 29.8% fat. However, the lysine score of the protein was only 65% relative to the FAO/WHO protein standard. The pumpkin seed contained useful amounts of linoleic (92 microg/g dry weight) and the following elements (on a microg per g dry weight basis): potassium (5,790), magnesium (5,690), manganese (49.3), zinc (113), selenium (1.29), copper (15.4), chromium (2.84), and molybdenum (0.81), but low amounts of calcium and iron. Except for potassium (5,573 microg/g dry weight) and chromium (2.88 microg/g dry weight), the C. esculentis nuts contained much less of these same nutrients compared to pumpkin seeds. In conclusion, pumpkin seeds represent a useful source of many nutrients essential to humans. The data in this report should of practical value to public health officials in rural areas of sub-Saharan Africa.

  6. Metabolic Rate of Diploid and Triploid Edible Frog Pelophylax esculentus Correlates Inversely with Cell Size in Tadpoles but Not in Frogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermaniuk, Adam; Rybacki, Mariusz; Taylor, Jan R E

    In multicellular organisms, cell size may have crucial consequences for basic parameters, such as body size and whole-body metabolic rate (MR). The hypothesis predicts that animals composed of smaller cells (a higher membrane surface-to-cell volume ratio) should have a higher mass-specific MR because a large part of their energy is used to maintain cell membranes and ionic gradients. In this article, we investigated the link between cell size and MR in diploid and triploid tadpoles and froglets of the hybridogenetic frog Pelophylax esculentus. In our previous study, we showed that triploids had significantly larger cells (erythrocytes, hepatocytes, and epidermal cells were measured). Therefore, we hypothesized that triploid tadpoles and froglets would have a lower standard metabolic rate (SMR). Our study demonstrated for the first time two distinct effects of polyploidy/cell size on MR within a single species developing in both aquatic and terrestrial habitats. As we hypothesized, diploid tadpoles had a higher SMR than triploids, whereas in froglets, ploidy did not affect the SMR. We also found that the water temperatures in which tadpoles were reared had no effect on the SMR of froglets after metamorphosis. Based on our results and other reports, we suggest that cell size may have more consequences for whole-body MR in aquatic habitats than in terrestrial habitats because oxygen is less available in water and its availability in relation to oxygen demand decreases with temperature.

  7. Effects of elevated CO2 concentration on growth, photosynthetic characteristics and yield of chufa (Cyperus esculentus L.) in Lunar Palace 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guanghui; Liu, Hui; Liu, Hong; Wang, Minjuan; Fu, Yuming; Shao, Lingzhi; Dong, Chen; Yu, Juan

    Elevated CO2 concentration is a common phenomenon in spaceflight environment. Effects of elevated CO2 concentration within short- and long-term on growth, photosynthetic characteristics and yield of chufa (Cyperus esculentus L.) are examined during 90 days in Lunar Palace 1. Elevated CO2 within a short-term induces a large increase in photosynthesis in chufa, long-term expose in elevated CO2 can lead to a smaller increase resulting from the inhibition of photosynthesis. It is indicated that the increased net photosynthesis per unit leaf area at elevated CO2 concentration come from an inhibition of photorespiration and an Increase of photosynthesis substrate. Low stomatal conductance reduced the transpiration. Effects of high CO2 concentration to the growth of whole plants is the main point of this research. The probable CO2 concentration affecting chufa growth is evaluated in Lunar Palace 1, and the mechanisms will be revealed. The proper CO2 concentration for highest production of chufa in spaceflight environment will be figured out, which plays an important role in plant cultivation supporting spaceflight tasks.

  8. Molecular Identification of Geminivirus Inducing Vein Yellowing in Abelmoschus manihot%引起黄蜀葵黄脉症状双生病毒的分子鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐美琼; 覃柳燕

    2011-01-01

    目的:采用分子生物学方法鉴定从广西药用植物园科研基地种植的表现曲叶、黄脉的黄蜀葵上得到病毒分离物H.方法:在电镜下观察病毒粒子的形状,并采用双生病毒的简并引物PA和PB对病样进行PCR检测.结果:从分离物H中扩增得到特异片段有同源性的均属双生病毒科菜豆花叶病毒属病毒成员,其中与一点红黄脉病毒的分离物相似性最高,在核苷酸水平上为95%.结论:引起黄蜀葵黄脉症状的病害存在双生病毒侵染,该病害可能是由一点红黄脉病毒引起.%Objective:The virus isolate H was identified by molecular biology,it was collected from Abelmoschus manihot plant showing leaf curl, yellow vein symptoms in Guangxi Botanical Garden of Medicinal Plant. Methods: The virus isolate H was observed in electron micrograph, and conformed detected by PCR using universal primer pair for the genus Geminivirus. Results:The results indicated that all sequences homologous to the specific fragment belonged to the genus Begomovirus of the family Geminiviridae. There was the highest similarity shared 95% homology at nucleotide between the specific fragment and DNA-A of Emilia yellow vein virus isolates.Conclusion:These findings suggested that there was geminiviridea in Abelmoschus manihot, and the disease probably caused by Emilla yellow vein virus.

  9. LANDSCAPE CHANGES IN A LOWLAND IN BENIN: ECOLOGICAL IMPACT ON PESTS AND NATURAL ENEMIES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucher, A; Silvie, P; Menozzi, P; Adda, C; Auzoux, S; Jean, J; Huat, J

    2015-01-01

    Habitat management involving conservative biological control could be a good crop pest management option in poor African countries. A survey was conducted from August 2013 to July 2014 in a rainfed lowland region near Pélébina, northern Benin, in order to characterize spatiotemporal landscape changes and investigate their influence on the main crop pests and their associated natural enemies. The area was mapped mainly regarding crop fields and fallows. Visual observations were recorded and a database was compiled. Major landscape composition changes were noted between rainy and dry seasons, which affected the presence of both pests and natural enemies. Cereals (rice, maize and sorghum) and cotton were grown in the humid season, and then okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) was the dominant vegetable crop in dry season. These modifications impacted fallow abundance throughout the lowland. Different cotton (e.g. Helicoverpa armigera, Dysdercus sp., Zonocerus variegatus) or rice (e.g. Diopsis longicornis, D. apicalis) pests were observed during dry season in okra crops. Dry season surveys of Poaceae in two types of fallows ('humid', 'dry') revealed the presence of very few stem borers: only 0.04% of stems sampled were infested by stem borers, with a mean of 1.13 larvae per stem. Known cereal stem borer species such as Busseola fusco, Coniesta ignefusalis, Sesamia calamistis were not clearly identified among these larvae because of their diapausing stage and white color. Unexpected pollinators (Hymenoptera Apidae, genus Braunsapis, Ceratina and Xylocopa) and predators (Crabronidae, genus Dasyproctus) were found in the stems. Sweep-net collection of insects in humid fallows allowed us to describe for the first time in Benin seven Diopsidae species (23% of adults bearing Laboulbeniomycetes ectoparasitic fungi). Some of these species were captured in rice fields during rainy season. Parasitoids (adult Chalcidoidae and Ichneumonoidae) were observed during both seasons but their

  10. Lepidopterans and their parasitoids on okra plants in Riberão Preto (SP, Brazil Lepidópteros e seus parasitoides em cultura de quiabo em Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogéria Inês Rosa Lara

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify the defoliating lepidopterans and their parasitoids occurring on okra plants in the district of Riberão Preto city (SP. Brazil. Caterpillars were collected by hand from an experimental field of okra, in March and April, 2009. They were placed individually on Petri dishes lined with wet filter paper, containing shredded okra leaves, and kept in a climactic chamber (25±1°C, 12:12h light/dark photoperiod, RH 70±10% until the emergence of lepidopterans and/or parasitoids. In all, 63 lepidopterans were obtained: three species of Noctuidae, Anomis flava (Fabricius, Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith and Pseudoplusia includens (Walker; one of Pieridae, Ascia monuste orseis (Godart, and an unidentified species of Tortricidae. One unidentified tachinid fly (Diptera and the Hymenoptera parasitoids Copidosoma floridanum (Ashmead (Encyrtidae and Euplectrus sp. (Eulophidae emerged from A. flava, while C. floridanum and an unidentified tachinid, from P. includens. This is the first report of an association between the herbivores S. frugiperda, P. includens and A. monuste orceis, the parasitoids C. floridanum and Euplectrus sp. on okra plants.Este estudo objetivou identificar lepidópteros desfolhadores e seus parasitoides em cultura de quiabo em Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brasil. As lagartas foram coletadas através de catação manual entre março e abril de 2009, individualizadas em placas de Petri forradas com papel filtro umedecido contendo pedaços de folhas de quiabo e mantidas sob condições controladas (25±1°C, 12 horas de fotofase, 70±10% de UR até a obtenção dos adultos de lepidópteros e/ou de seus parasitoides. Foram obtidos 63 adultos de lepidópteros: três espécies de Noctuidae, Anomis flava (Fabricius, Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith, Pseudoplusia includens (Walker, uma de Pieridae, Ascia monuste orseis (Godart e uma de Tortricidae não identificada. Uma espécie não identificada de taquinídeo (Diptera e os

  11. Effects of mineral nutrition conditions on heat tolerance of chufa (Сyperus esculentus L.) plant communities to super optimal air temperatures in the BTLSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shklavtsova, E. S.; Ushakova, S. A.; Shikhov, V. N.; Anishchenko, O. V.

    2014-09-01

    The use of mineralized human wastes as a basis for nutrient solutions will increase the degree of material closure of bio-technical human life support systems. As stress tolerance of plants is determined, among other factors, by the conditions under which they have been grown before exposure to a stressor, the purpose of the study is to investigate the level of tolerance of chufa (Cyperus esculentus L.) plant communities grown in solutions based on mineralized human wastes to a damaging air temperature, 45 °C. Experiments were performed with 30-day-old chufa plant communities grown hydroponically, on expanded clay aggregate, under artificial light, at 690 μmol m-2 s-1 PAR and at a temperature of 25 °C. Plants were grown in Knop’s solution and solutions based on human wastes mineralized according to Yu.A. Kudenko’s method, which contained nitrogen either as ammonium and urea or as nitrates. The heat shock treatment lasted 20 h at 690 and 1150 μmol m-2 s-1 PAR. Chufa heat tolerance was evaluated based on parameters of CO2 gas exchange, the state of its photosynthetic apparatus (PSA), and intensity of peroxidation of leaf lipids. Chufa plants grown in the solutions based on mineralized human wastes that contained ammonium and urea had lower heat tolerance than plants grown in standard mineral solutions. Heat tolerance of the plants grown in the solutions based on mineralized human wastes that mainly contained nitrate nitrogen was insignificantly different from the heat tolerance of the plants grown in standard mineral solutions. A PAR intensity increase from 690 μmol m-2 s-1 to 1150 μmol m-2 s-1 enhanced heat tolerance of chufa plant communities, irrespective of the conditions of mineral nutrition under which they had been grown.

  12. 黄秋葵粗多糖体外抗氧化活性测定%Determination of antioxidant activity of okra raw polysaccharides in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵焕焕; 贾陆; 裴迎新

    2012-01-01

    目的:测定黄秋葵粗多糖(RPS)的体外抗氧化活性.方法:采用水提醇沉淀法提取黄秋葵RPS,并用蒽酮-硫酸法测定RPS的含量,应用1,1-二苯基苦味酰基苯肼(DPPH)氧化法检测0.086、0.171、0.342、0.684、1.367和2.734 g/L RPS对 DPPH自由基(DPPH·)的清除率,水杨酸法检测0.157、0.313、0.625、1.250、2.500和5.000 g/L RPS对羟基自由基(·OH)的清除率,邻苯三酚自氧化法检测0.086、0.171、0.342、0.684、1.367和2.734 g/L RPS对超氧阴离子自由基(O2÷)的清除率,以维生素C作阳性对照.结果:黄秋葵中RPS含量为(11.23±0.04)%.RPS对DPDH·、·OH和O2÷的体外清除率呈现剂量依赖性.2.734 g/L RPS对DPPH·和O2÷的清除率分别达(44.48±0.64)%及(35.67±0.21)%,5.000 g/L RPS对·OH的清除率达(68.63±0.07)%.其清除能力较维生素C稍弱.结论:黄秋葵RPS具有较明显的体外抗氧化能力.%To study the antioxidant activity of okra raw polysaccharides( RPS ) in vitro. Methods: RPS was extracted from fresh okra by hot water, then precipitated by alcohol, and its total sugar content was determined by the an-throne-sulfuric acid method. 1, l-dipheny-2-picrylhy-drazyl ( DPPH ) oxidation method was adopted for measuring the DP-PH free radicals ( DPPH · ) clearance of 0.086,0. 171,0.342,0.684,1.367,2.734 g/L RPS, salicylic acid method was adopted for measuring hydroxyl radicals ( · OH) clearance of 0. 157,0.313,0.625,1.250,2.500,5.000 g/L RPS, pyro-gallol autoxidation method was adopted for determining superoxide anion free radicals ( 02 + ) clearance of 0. 086,0. 171, 0.342,0.684,1. 367,2. 734 g/L RPS. Vitamin C was selected as a positive control. Results: The content of RPS was ( 11. 23 ±0.04 )% . The scavenging effects of RPS had certain dosage-dependent trend and was lower than that of Vitamin C. When the concentration of RPS was 2. 734 g/L, the clearance rates of DPPH · and 02 + were ( 44. 48 ±0. 64 )% and ( 35. 67 ±0. 21 )% ,respectively. The clearance rate

  13. 中药黄蜀葵花化学成分的分离与鉴定(Ⅲ)%Isolation and identification of chemical constituents from the flowers of Abelmoschus manihot( L.)Medic (Ⅲ)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李春梅; 安雅婷; 王涛; 尚海花; 高秀梅; 张祎

    2011-01-01

    Objective To study the chemical constituents from the flowers of Abelmoschus manihot(L. ) Medic. Methods The compounds were isolated by chromatographic methods such as silica gel,ODS,Sephadex LH-20 and HPLC,and their structures were identified by physicochemical properties,especially spectral analysis. Results Nine compounds were isolated. The structures of them were identified as gossypetin 8-O-β-D-glucuronide (1), gossypetin 3-O-β-glucopyranoside-8-O-β-glucuronopyranoside (2), gossypetin 3 '-O-β-glucopyranoside(3), uiliroside(4), kaempferol 3-O-[ 3"-O-acetyl-6"-O-( E)-p-coumaroyl) ]-β-D-glucopyr-anoside(5),quercetin 3-O-[β-D-xylopyranosyl( 1→2)-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl(1→6) ]-β-D-galactopyrano-side(6) ,4-hydroxybenzoic acid β-D-glucose ester(7),protocatechuic acid(8) and protocatecheuic acid-3-O-β-glucoside(9),respectively. Conclusion Compounds 2,4-9 are obtained from Abelmoschus genus for the first time,and the spectral data in DMSO-d6 solution of S ,6 and 9 are reported firstly.%目的 研究中药黄蜀葵(Abelmoschus manihot(L.)Medic)花的化学成分.方法 采用正相硅胶、反相ODS、Sephadex LH-20等柱色谱以及HPLC等手段进行分离纯化,并通过理化性质与光谱分析方法鉴定了化合物的结构.结果 从黄蜀葵花体积分数为95%的乙醇提取物中分离鉴定了9个化合物,分别为棉皮素8-O-β-D-葡萄糖醛酸苷(gossypetin 8-O-β-D-glucuronide,1)、棉皮素-O-β-D-葡萄糖-8-O-β-D-葡萄糖醛酸(gossypetin 3-O-β-glucopyranoside-8-O-β-glucuronopyranoside,2)、棉皮素3-O-β-D-葡萄糖苷(gossypetin 3′-O-β-D-glucopyranoside,3)、tiliroside(4)、山奈酚3-O-[(3″-O-乙酰基-6″-O-(E)-对羟基桂皮酰基)]-O-β-D-葡萄糖苷(kaempferol 3-O-[3″-O-acetyl-6"-O-(E)-p-coumaroyl)]-β-D-glucopyranoside,5)、槲皮素3-O-[β-D-木糖基(1→2)-(1-L-鼠李糖基(1→6)]-O-β-D-半乳糖苷(quercetin 3-O[β-D-xylopyranosyl(1→2)-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl(1→6)-β-D-galactopyranoside,6)、4-羟

  14. Nematofauna associada à cultura do quiabo na região leste de Minas Gerais The influence of parasitic nematodes on okra crop in eastern Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosângela D'Arc de Lima Oliveira

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available A cultura do quiabo possui importância sócio-cultural para o estado de Minas Gerais (MG e 34,2% do volume de quiabo comercializado na Ceasa/Contagem procede dos municípios localizados entre Caratinga e Governador Valadares. Entretanto, o quiabeiro tem a sua produção influenciada pelos danos decorrentes de infecções causadas pelos nematóides das galhas (Meloidogyne spp.. As principais espécies desse nematóide que atacam o quiabeiro já foram relatadas no Brasil, e algumas destas podem causar a morte da planta. A correta identificação da(s espécie(s e, ou da(s raça(s de Meloidogyne presente(s nas raízes do quiabeiro é importante na escolha da medida de controle mais apropriada. Para determinar a ocorrência e distribuição de Meloidogyne spp. e outros nematóides na região leste de MG, 70 amostras de solo e raízes da cultura, provenientes de 14 localidades, foram avaliadas por características morfológicas e isoenzimáticas. Dentre as populações de Meloidogyne spp. identificadas prevaleceu M. incognita (fenótipos de Esterase I1 e I2, seguida de M. javanica (fenótipos J2 e J3 e M. arenaria (fenótipo A2. A espécie M. mayaguensis foi confirmada pela ocorrência do fenótipo M2 para esterase, N3 para malato desidrogenase, N2 para superóxido dismutase e N3 para glutamato-oxaloacetato transaminase. Este é o primeiro relato da ocorrência de M. mayaguensis em MG. Outros nematóides detectados na rizosfera do quiabeiro foram Aphelenchus sp., Criconemella sp., Helicotylenchus spp., Pratylenchus brachyurus e P. coffeae, Rotylenchulus reniformis, Rotylenchus sp., Tylenchus sp. e Tylenchorhynchus sp.Okra has a cultural and social importance for the State of Minas Gerais (MG, and 34,2% of the volume marketed in the Ceasa/Contagem, MG, come from the municipalities located near Caratinga and Governador Valadares. The okra production is influenced for the infection caused by the root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.. The main species

  15. Protective Effects of Alcohol Extract of Okra Cisplatin Induced Acute Kidney Injury%黄秋葵醇提物对顺铂致急性肾损伤的保护作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李莹; 高铭彤; 李婧毓; 刘一桐; 曾露露; 丁传波; 刘文丛; 郑毅男

    2016-01-01

    The study of okra tender fruit alcohol extract protective effects against cisplatin -induced acute kidney injury in mice.The 50 SPF ICR male mice were randomly divided into five groups:control (0.9% normal saline),model (0.9% normal saline),okra alcohol extraction from high,medium and low dose group(400、200、100 mg/kg).Respectively,7 d of intragastric administration.After 7 d,in addition to the control group, were given one hour after administration of gastric administration of cisplatin 20 mg/kg.And then intragastric administration 3 d,after eyeball plasma,serum centrifugal stay.We tested the content of serum blood urea nitrogen (BUN ), serum creatinine (CRE ),superoxide dismutase (SOD ), glutathione (GSH ) and malondialdehyde(MDA).Also measured SOD,GSH and MDA content in kidney homogenates;and inspected the changes of pathological by hematoxylin -eosin (HE).The experimental results show ,compared with the model, the okra alcohol extract high and middle dosage group,BUN,CRE content decreased and kidney tissues by GSH, SOD levels were increased (P <0.01,P <0.05).We discovered the okra alcohol extract better than the model could protectd renal pathological damage by HE.Therefore okra alcohol extract on cisplatin -induced acute kidney injury in mice has a protective effect.%为了探讨黄秋葵嫩果醇提物对顺铂致小鼠急性肾损伤是否具有保护作用,将50只 SPF级 ICR 雄性小鼠随机均分为空白对照组(0.9%生理盐水)、模型组(0.9%生理盐水)、黄秋葵醇提物(HQK)高中低剂量组(400、200、100 mg/kg),分别灌胃给药7 d,除空白对照组,于第7天给药1 h 后灌胃给顺铂20 mg/kg。再灌胃给药3 d 后,眼球取血,测定血清中尿素氮(BUN)、肌酐(CRE)、超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)、还原型谷胱甘肽(GSH)和丙二醛(MDA)的含量;测定肾脏匀浆中 SOD、GSH 和MDA 含量;并观察苏木精-伊红(HE)病理切片组织病理学变

  16. Evaluation of wound healing effect of petroleum ether and methanolic extract of Abelmoschus manihot (L. Medik., Malvaceae, and Wrightia tinctoria R. Br., Apocynaceae, in rats Avaliação do efeito de cicatrização dos extratos de éter de petróleo e metanol de Abelmoschus manihot (L. Medik., Malvaceae, e Wrightia tinctoria R. Br., Apocynaceae, em ratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pritam S. Jain

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, oxidative stress and free radicals have been implicated in impaired wound healing. Abelmoschus manihot (L. Medik., Malvaceae, and Wrightia tinctoria R. Br., Apocynaceae, plants widely used in Ayurveda, possesses anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties. The present study was undertaken to assess the potential of petroleum ether and methanolic extracts in wound healing in Wistar albino rats. The rats were divided into six groups of six animals each. Group 1 is normal wounded control, group 2 received standard drug and the other four groups were treated with two different doses each of petroleum ether and methanolic extract of A. manihot and W. tinctoria. The wound healing parameters were evaluated by using incision wounds in extract-treated rats, standard and controls. Both the doses of petroleum ether and methanolic extract significantly increased wound breaking strength when compared with the control group.Nos últimos anos, o estresse oxidativo e radicais livres têm sido implicados na cicatrização. Abelmoschus manihot (L. Medik., Malvaceae e Wrightia tinctoria R. Br., Apocynaceae, plantas utilizadas na medicina Ayurveda, possuem propriedades antiinflamatórias e antimicrobianas. O presente estudo foi realizado para avaliar o potencial dos extratos de éter de petróleo e metanólico na cicatrização de feridas em ratos Wistar. Os ratos foram divididos em seis grupos com seis animais cada. O grupo 1 foi utilizado como controle, o grupo 2 recebeu a droga padrão e os outros quatro grupos foram tratados com duas doses diferentes de cada um dos extratos de A. manihot e W. tinctoria. Os parâmetros de cicatrização foram avaliados através da incisão feridas em ratos tratados com extrato, padrões e controles. Ambas as doses dos extratos de éter de petróleo e metanólico aumentaram significativamente força de ruptura da ferida quando comparados ao grupo controle.

  17. Generation, characterization and reuse of solid wastes from a biodiesel production plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Fernando Jorge Santos; Santana, Daniele Dos Santos; Costa, Simone Soraya Brito; Oliveira, Lenise Diniz; Liduino, Vitor Silva; Servulo, Eliana Flávia Camporese

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to identify and characterize industrial solid wastes generated by a biodiesel production plant in Brazil, as well as to present strategies for the management of these materials. This plant produces every year around 100,000tons of biodiesel from vegetable oils and animal fats. The methodology of the study included technical visits, interviews with the operational and environmental management staff as well as analysis of documents, reports and computerized data systems. An approach to reduce the generation of hazardous waste was investigated. It was take into account the amount of raw material that was processed, reduction of landfill disposal, and the maximization of the their recycling and reuse. The study also identified the sources of waste generation and accordingly prepared an evaluation matrix to determine the types of waste with the higher potential for minimization. The most important residue of the process was the filter material impregnated with oil and biodiesel, requiring, therefore, measures for its minimization. The use of these residues in the production of ceramic artefacts (light bricks) was considered to be very promising, since no significant effect on the physico-chemical and mechanical properties of the artefacts produced was observed. Phytotoxicity test using seeds of Lactuva sativa (lettuce), Brassica juncea (mustard), Abelmoschus esculentus (okra), Chrysanthemum leucanthemum (daisy), Dendranthema grandiflorum (chrysanthemum) and Allium porrum (leek) were carried out. The results clearly show incorporation of the waste material into bricks did not influence relative germination and relative root elongation in comparison to control tests. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Linear spectral unmixing to monitor crop growth in typical organic and inorganic amended arid soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Battay, A.; Mahmoudi, H.

    2016-06-01

    The soils of the GCC countries are dominantly sandy which is typical of arid regions such as the Arabian Peninsula. Such soils are low in nutrients and have a poor water holding capacity associated with a high infiltration rate. Soil amendments may rehabilitate these soils by restoring essential soil properties and hence enable site revegetation and revitalization for crop production, especially in a region where food security is a priority. In this study, two inorganic amendments; AustraHort and Zeoplant pellet, and one organic locally produced compost were tested as soil amendments at the experimental field of the International Center for Biosaline Agriculture in Dubai, UAE. The main objective is to assess the remote sensing ability to monitor crop growth, for instance Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus), having these amendments, as background with the soil. Three biomass spectral vegetation indices were used namely; NDVI, TDVI and SAVI. Pure spectral signatures of the soil and the three amendments were collected, using a field spectroradiometer, in addition to the spectral signatures of Okra in two growing stages (vegetative and flowering) in the field with a mixed F.O.V of the plant and amended soil during March and May 2015. The spectral signatures were all collected using the FieldSpec® HandHeld 2 (HH2) in the spectral range 325 nm - 1075 nm over 12 plots. A set of 4 plots were assigned for each of the three amendments as follow: three replicates of a 1.5 by 1.5 meter plot with 3kg/m2 of each amendment and 54 plants, one plot as control and all plots were given irrigation treatments at 100% based on ETc. Spectra collected over the plots were inversed in the range of 400-900 nm via a Linear Mixture Model using pure soil and amendments spectral signatures as reference. Field pictures were used to determine the vegetation fraction (in term of area of the F.O.V). Hence, the Okra spectral signatures were isolated for all plots with the three types of amendments. The

  19. Inhibiton of Yellow Nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus L. and Bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon (L. Pers by a Mulch Derived from Rye (Secale cereale L. in grapevines Inhibición del Crecimiento de Chufa (Cyperus esculentus L. y Pasto Bermuda (Cynodon dactylon (L. Pers. con mulch Vegetal Proveniente de Centeno (Secale cereale L. en Vides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Ormeño-Núñez

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Two field trials (Los Andes 1998-1999 and Santiago 2004-2005 were carried out to determine growth inhibition of yellow nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus L. and bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon (L. Pers., growing on the plantation row, by mulch derived from a rye (Secale cereale L. cover crop established between grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. rows on overhead (cv. Flame Seedless and vertical (cv. Cabernet Sauvignon training. Spring mowing of the rye sown in the fall allowed for developing a thick and long lasting mulch along the grape rows. Nutsedge and bermudagrass control was 81 and 82%, respectively, and was more effective than conventional chemical (in the row + mechanical (between rows control. Glyphosate at 2% for nutsedge and 1% for bermudagrass control, applied twice (October and December, was insufficient to control either perennial weed adequately. Total broadleaved and grass/sedge weed control was 67.3 and 43.0% more effective with the rye mulch than with conventional treatments at Los Andes and Santiago, respectively. Perennial weed control levels could be explained as the new foliage of yellow nutsedge and bermudagrass was particularly susceptible to the shading provided by the rye mulch assembled prior to mid spring shoot emergence, and this effect remained active up until the beginning of autumn. The subsequent rye foliage mowing at the vegetative stage fully expressed the allelopathic effect produced by this local rye cultivar. The use of rye cover crop management and mulch could be applied as an effective weed control technique in conventional, as well as organic deciduous tree orchards.En dos ensayos de campo (Los Andes 1998-1999 y Santiago 2004-2005 se determinó el efecto inhibitorio sobre chufa (Cyperus esculentus L. y pasto bermuda (Cynodon dactylon (L. Pers. de residuos de centeno (Secale cereale L. establecido en otoño entre las hileras de vides (Vitis vinifera L. en parronal (cv. Flame Seedless y espaldera (cv. Cabernet Sauvignon

  20. 黄秋葵果胶涂膜液在冷鲜肉、冷鲜鱼保鲜中的应用研究%The Application of Pectin from Okra for Coating Preservation of Chilled Fresh Meat and Fish

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚宏亮; 赵炜; 刘宏伟; 王海洋

    2015-01-01

    以黄秋葵嫩果为原料经水提获得果胶,并配成不同浓度的水溶液对冷鲜肉片和冷鲜鱼片进行涂膜保鲜。结果显示:黄秋葵果胶涂膜液对冷鲜肉片和冷鲜鱼片均具有保鲜作用。其中,稀释液1对冷鲜肉片保鲜效果最好,可明显延长贮存期2~3 d;原液对冷鲜鱼片保鲜效果最好,可明显延长贮存期2~3 d。此为可食性涂膜保鲜液的开发和黄秋葵的深加工提供了理论基础。%The preservatives were prepared in different concentration of water and pectin extrac-ted from okra.Then they were applied as coating preservatives on chilled fresh meat and chilled fresh fish.The results showed that the preservation solution could lengthen the shelf-lives of them.Diluted 1 can freshen cold meat best and prolong the storage period of 2 to 3 days obvi-ously Dope 1 can freshen cold fresh fillets best and prolong the storage period of 2 to 3 days. This study provides the theoretical basis for the further processing of okra and the development of edible coating preservatives.

  1. TIGER NUT (CYPERUS ESCULENTUS): COMPOSITION ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    This paper is a review on little history and the composition of Tigernut ranging from proximate, mineral and amino acid ... raw, processed in to flour and be used for different purposes such as bread and substitute in animal ..... The experiment.

  2. Study on the Process of Extracting Pectin from Okra with Microwave-assisted Ammonium Oxalate%微波辅助草酸铵提取黄秋葵果胶的工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄梓琪; 吴湛霞; 林宏图; 钟杰平; 陈韩欧; 黎世尧; 谢智鹏

    2015-01-01

    以草酸铵为萃取剂,采用微波辅助提取黄秋葵果胶,通过单因素试验和正交法优选,确定了黄秋葵果胶提取的最优工艺条件。结果表明:最佳工艺条件是料液比1:20( g/mL )、草酸铵浓度13 g/L、微波功率60%×800 W、微波辐射时间20 min。在此条件下,果胶提取率达23.64%,所得果胶的各项指标均达到行业标准。%The extraction process for pectin from okra, using ammonium oxalate as the extraction solvent combined with microwave-assisted, was optimized by single factor experiment and orthogonal experiment, and then the pectin quality was analyzed. The optimum conditions were as follows: solid-liquid ratio of 1:20 ( g/mL ) , amount of ammonium oxalate 13 g·L-1 , microwave power mid-range(60%×800 W) , and microwave radiation time 20 min. Under these conditions, the extraction yield of pectin was 23. 64%, the quality indicators of the extracted pectin could meet the requirements of the industrial standard.

  3. Novel Antimicrobial Peptides EeCentrocins 1, 2 and EeStrongylocin 2 from the Edible Sea Urchin Echinus esculentus Have 6-Br-Trp Post-Translational Modifications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Runar Gjerp Solstad

    Full Text Available The global problem of microbial resistance to antibiotics has resulted in an urgent need to develop new antimicrobial agents. Natural antimicrobial peptides are considered promising candidates for drug development. Echinoderms, which rely on innate immunity factors in the defence against harmful microorganisms, are sources of novel antimicrobial peptides. This study aimed to isolate and characterise antimicrobial peptides from the Edible sea urchin Echinus esculentus. Using bioassay-guided purification and cDNA cloning, three antimicrobial peptides were characterised from the haemocytes of the sea urchin; two heterodimeric peptides and a cysteine-rich peptide. The peptides were named EeCentrocin 1 and 2 and EeStrongylocin 2, respectively, due to their apparent homology to the published centrocins and strongylocins isolated from the green sea urchin Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis. The two centrocin-like peptides EeCentrocin 1 and 2 are intramolecularly connected via a disulphide bond to form a heterodimeric structure, containing a cationic heavy chain of 30 and 32 amino acids and a light chain of 13 amino acids. Additionally, the light chain of EeCentrocin 2 seems to be N-terminally blocked by a pyroglutamic acid residue. The heavy chains of EeCentrocins 1 and 2 were synthesised and shown to be responsible for the antimicrobial activity of the natural peptides. EeStrongylocin 2 contains 6 cysteines engaged in 3 disulphide bonds. A fourth peptide (Ee4635 was also discovered but not fully characterised. Using mass spectrometric and NMR analyses, EeCentrocins 1 and 2, EeStrongylocin 2 and Ee4635 were all shown to contain post-translationally brominated Trp residues in the 6 position of the indole ring.

  4. Caracterização físico-química de frutos de quatro cultivares de quiabo Physical and chemical characteristics from fruits of four okra cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner F. da Mota

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Efetuou-se a caracterização físico-química dos frutos de quatro cultivares de quiabo neste estudo. O delineamento utilizado foi de blocos casualizados, sendo os tratamentos constituídos pelas cultivares Amarelinho, Red Velvet, Star of David e Mammoth Spinless, com cinco repetições. Na maturidade comercial os frutos da cultivar Star of David tiveram maior diâmetro, peso fresco total e teor de matéria seca, menor comprimento, teor de umidade e de vitamina C comparado com as demais cultivares. A cultivar Red Velvet teve o menor diâmetro, peso fresco, teor de matéria seca, açúcares redutores e teores de clorofilas a, b e total, e maior teor de umidade e vitamina C. Frutos da cultivar Mammoth Spinless apresentaram os maiores teores de clorofilas a, b e total. A cultivar Amarelinho teve maior comprimento e menores teores de clorofila, a, b e total. As cultivares Amarelinho e Mammoth Spinless apresentaram maiores teores de açúcares redutores.In an experiment some physical and chemical characteristics of four okra cultivars were evaluated. The experimental design was of randomized blocks, where the treatments were the cultivars Amarelinho, Red Velvet, Star of David and Mammoth Spinless with five replications. At commercial maturity fruits of the cultivar Star of David presented the largest diameter, total fresh matter, content of dry matter, smallest length, content of water and vitamin C in comparison to the other cultivars. The cultivar Red Velvet presented the smallest diameter, total fresh matter, content of dry matter, reducing sugars and content of chlorophyll a, b and total, but the largest content of water and vitamin C. The cultivar Amarelinho produced the longest fruits and the smallest content of chlorophyll a, b and total. The cultivars Amarelinho and Mammoth Spinless showed higher contents of total reducing sugars.

  5. EFEITOS DE PRODUTOS QUÍMICOS NO CONTROLE DE Meloidogyne sp SOBRE QUIABEIRO (Hibiscus sculentum L. EFFECTS OF CHEMICAL CONTROL OF Meloidogyne sp. IN Hibiscus sculentum L. IN OKRA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lincoln Fonseca Zica

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Testou-se o poder nematicida de Shell-DD, Vapan, Nemagon granulado, brometo de metila e Neantina solúvel em solos com infestacão natural de Meloidogyne sp., usando-se o quiabeiro (Hibiscus escullentum L. como referência para medir a intensidade de infestação após o tratamento. O Shell-DD (40 ml/m² exerceu notável efeito nematicida, mas o Vapan (60 ml/m², o Nemagon granulado (40 g/m² e a Neantina solúvel (solução a 0,3% - 10 l/m² deram resultados estatisticamente iguais à testemunha. As parcelas tratadas com Brometo de metila (40 ml/m² foram perdidas em consequência do efeito fitotóxico do produto sobre as sementes e plântulas do quiabeiro.

    The nematicide power of Shell-DD, vapan, granulated nemagon, methyl bromide and soluble neantina, were tested by applying them to soil affected by Meloidogyne sp. The okra plant (Hibiscus esculentum L. was used as the hosting agent, to measure the amount of worms af-ter treatment. The results showed that Shell-DD (40 ml/m² controlled the worms well, but that vapan, granulated nemagon and the soluble neantina were statistically equal to the control plot. The plots treated with methyl bromide were not included in the results because of the toxic effect of the product on the plants.

  6. Claviceps cyperi, a new cause of severe ergotism in dairy cattle consuming maize silage and teff hay contaminated with ergotised Cyperus esculentus (nut sedge on the Highveld of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.W. Naude

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available During December/January 1996/97 typical summer syndrome (hyperthermia and a 30 % drop in milk yield occurred in succession in two Holstein dairy herds (n = 240 and n = 150 milking cows, respectively on the South African Highveld. These farms are situated in the midst of the prime maize and dairy farming areas of South Africa where this condition had never been diagnosed before. The individual components of the concentrate on both farms were negative for ergot alkaloids. Endophytic fungi and/or ergot infestation of teff and other grasses fed to the cows were then suspected of being involved, but neither endophytes nor ergot alkaloids could be implicated from these sources. By measuring the serum prolactin levels of groups of sheep (n = 5 fed the first farm's total mixed ration (TMR or its three individual fibre components for a period of 11 days, the source of the ergot alkaloids was identified. A statistically significant decrease in the level of this hormone occurred only in the group on maize silage (which constituted 28 % on dry matter base of the TMR. The involvement of the maize silage was further chemically confirmed by the high levels of total ergot alkaloids, predominantly ergocryptine, found by LC-MS in the silage as well as in the TMR (115-975 ppb and 65-300 ppb, respectively. The ergot alkaloid content (mainly ergocryptine of the maize silage on the second affected farm was 875 ppb. Withdrawal of contaminated silage resulted in gradual recovery of stock on both farms. Nut sedge (Cyperus esculentus and Cyperus rotundus of the family Cyperaceae has a world-wide distribution and is a common weed in annual crops, and can be parasitized by Claviceps cyperi. Careful examination of the maize silage from both farms revealed that it was heavily contaminated with nut sedge and that it contained minute sclerotia, identified as those of Claviceps cyperi, originating from the latter. Nut sedge was abundant on both farms and it is believed that

  7. Produtividade e estado nutricional do quiabeiro em função da densidade populacional e do biofertilizante suíno Effects of plant population and swine biofertilizer application on yield and nutrient content of okra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Aparecida Nogueira Sediyama

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a produtividade e o estado nutricional do quiabeiro 'Santa Cruz', cultivado em sistema orgânico, em função de populações de plantas e doses de biofertilizante suíno. O experimento foi realizado na Fazenda Experimental da EPAMIG, em Oratórios (MG, no período de 16/10/2007 a 22/2/2008. O delineamento foi em blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições, no esquema fatorial 2 x 5, sendo duas populações de plantas e cinco doses de biofertilizante, obtido pela fermentação anaeróbica de dejeto líquido de suíno. As populações foram 23.809 e 35.714 plantas ha-1, obtidas no espaçamento de 1,4 x 0,30 m com uma planta por cova e 1,4 x 0,40 m com duas plantas por cova. As doses de biofertilizante foram: 0; 6; 12; 24 e 48 m³ ha-1, sendo 80% aplicado no sulco de plantio, 15 dias antes do transplante, e 20% em cobertura, aos 30 dias após o transplante das mudas. Avaliaram-se teor foliar de nutrientes, índice SPAD, altura de plantas, número de hastes e produção de frutos comerciais e não comerciais. A aplicação do biofertilizante suíno proporcionou plantas com bom estado nutricional. O índice SPAD correlacionou positivamente com teores foliares de N, sendo as maiores concentrações obtidas nas maiores doses de biofertilizante, especialmente na menor população de plantas. O número e a produção de frutos comerciais por planta foram maiores quando se utilizou menor população de plantas. A maior produtividade obtida na população de 35.714 plantas ha-1 foi 31,23 t ha-1 e na população de 23.809 plantas ha-1 foi 21,90 t ha-1, ambas alcançadas com a maior dose de biofertilizante aplicada. A maior produtividade comercial de frutos de quiabo foi obtida na maior população de plantas.The objective of this work was to evaluate yield and nutritional status of organically cultivated Santa Cruz okra as a function of planting densities and doses of swine biofertilizer. The experiment was carried

  8. Nitrogen applied in okra under non-tightness grown and residual fertilization Nitrogênio aplicado à cultura do quiabeiro sob cultivo não-adensado e adubação residual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinice O Cardoso

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate, in the Amazonian rainy season, the effect of nitrogen applied in okra under non-tightness grown and residual fertilization. The trial was carried out in the Embrapa Amazonia Ocidental, in Iranduba, Amazonas state, Brazil, between October/2010 and February/2011, in dystrophic Yellow Argisoil, medium texture, using pits with residual fertility. The experimental design was of randomized blocks with four repetitions (two lines with four plants, spacing of 1.5x1.0 m and four main treatments (urea: 0.0; 20.0; 40.0 and 60.0 g plant-1 corresponding to 0.0; 60.0; 120.0 and 180.0 kg ha-1 of N, respectively, in two portions using cv Dardo. Besides two additional treatments: chicken manure (1.0 L pit-1, with the cv Dardo and cv Santa Cruz-47 (with urea rate of 40.0 g plant-1. Micronutrients in pits and dripping system irrigation were applied. All the studied traits had significant quadratic response with the increase of the urea rates. The highest estimated value for the plant height (39.7 cm, canopy diameter (86.2 cm, fruit number (36.0 un plant-1, fruit average mass (17.3 g, harvest number within production cycle (26.4 un cycle-1 and of the yield (4051 kg ha-1 were observed with (g plant-1 of urea: 48.3; 43.5; 38.5; 49.7; 32.7; and 40.5, respectively. Those original traits contributed reasonably poised for plant overall performance (PC1, but subordinate there was antagonism between harvest number and fruit number versus fruit average mass and canopy diameter (PC2. The chicken manure showed positive response compared to the control treatment, but didn't differ from urea rates for all these characteristics. When compared to cv Dardo, the cv Santa Cruz-47 only presented higher values to canopy diameter and number of harvests. The economical efficiency maximum dose was 40.2 g plant-1 of urea (120.6 kg ha-1 of N, with net income per hectare equal to 2.09 tons of okra fruits.Objetivou-se avaliar, no período chuvoso amaz

  9. Effect of anti-infection oral mucosa ulcers of guinea-pig and antibacterial in vitro of total flavone of abelmoschus manihot L medic%黄蜀葵花总黄酮抗感染性口腔粘膜溃疡及体外抗菌作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张红艳; 董六一; 江勤; 方明; 李京培; 陈志武; 马传庚

    2006-01-01

    目的 研究黄蜀葵花总黄酮(Total flavone of abelmoschus manihot L medic,TFA)对感染性豚鼠口腔粘膜溃疡的治疗作用及体外抗菌作用.方法 采用感染性豚鼠口腔粘膜溃疡模型观察黄蜀葵花总黄酮的治疗作用;采用二倍稀释法观察黄蜀葵花总黄酮的最小抑菌浓度MIC.结果 黄蜀葵花总黄酮能显著缩短感染性豚鼠口腔粘膜溃疡的愈合时间和50%缩小时间;体外抗菌结果显示,TFA对表皮葡萄球菌和金黄色葡萄球菌的最低抑菌浓度(MIC)为3.125 g·L-1,对白色念珠菌的抑菌浓度为1.562~3.125 g·L-1.结论 黄蜀葵花总黄酮对感染性口腔溃疡有一定疗效.

  10. ETHNOBOTANICAL STUDIES OF WEST AFRICAN OKRA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    inter-relationship studies between people and plants in the environment which ... in heaps left to decay or thinly spread and buried was adopted. This resulted in ..... and tolerance to water logging have been handed down from generation to ...

  11. ETHNOBOTANICAL STUDIES OF WEST AFRICAN OKRA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    type”. ... societies and Jain (2005), related it as the study of how people ... Full Length R ... express their specific culture irrespective of the location they lived. .... GENDER AND OCCUPATION OF RESPONDENTS ..... Fleming & Co., London.

  12. Plantlet regeneration for stem segments and determination of total flavonoids in separate flower callus of Abelmoschus manihot L.%黄蜀葵茎段植株再生体系的建立和花各部愈伤组织总黄酮含量的测定比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    莫明雅; 王晓萌; 白洁; 陈放

    2012-01-01

    以黄蜀葵种子获得无菌苗的茎段为外植体,研究了不同浓度激素配比对愈伤组织诱导及分化再生植株的影响.结果表明:以75%酒精30s+0.1%升汞10min灭菌黄蜀葵种子,可获得较高发芽率的无菌苗;愈伤组织最适诱导培养基为改良MS+KT0.8 mg/L+IAA0.6mg/L,经愈伤组织分化不定芽的最佳培养基为MS+6-BA3.0 mg/L+NAA0.05 mg/L;最佳生根培养基为:1/2 MS+NAA0.1 mg/L;且移栽后成活率可达95%.用紫外分光光度法测定花和各部愈伤组织总黄酮的含量,对比发现:花中总黄酮的含量高于各部愈伤组织,愈伤组织中子房愈伤组织的总黄酮含量高于其他部位.%The stem segments of Abelmoschus manihot were used as explants for the studing of callus induction and plantlets regeneration. The sterilized seedlings were obtained from the seeds sterilized thirty-seconds of 75% alcohol and ten minutes of 0. 1% corrosive sublimate. The result revealed that improved MS+KTO. 8mg · L-1+IAA0. 6 mg · L-1 was the best medium for its callus induction, MS+6-BA3. 0 mg · L-1 +NAA0. 05 mg · L-1 was the optimum medium for differentiation of adventitious bud via callus, and 1/2 MS+NAA0. 1 mg · L-1 was the optimum medium for adventitious bud. The survival rate of regrowth seedling in garden soil was up to 95%. The content of total flavonoids in flower and separate callus was compared by UV spectrophotometry, and the content of total flavonoids in ovary was higher than others.

  13. Simultaneous Determination of Fat-soluble Vitamins A, E and K3 in Dried Okra by High Performance Liquid Chromatography%高效液相色谱法同时测定秋葵干蔬中的脂溶性维生素A、E、K3

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董爱军; 崔艳华; 杨鑫

    2011-01-01

    建立了同时测定秋葵干蔬中脂溶性维生素A、E、K3的反相高效液相色谱法.样品皂化后,采用C18色谱柱(150 mm×4.6 mm,5μm i.d.)进行分离,以甲醇为流动相,流速1.0 mL/min,二极管阵列检测器(DAD)在325、290、244 nm波长下同时检测,外标法定量.结果表明,脂溶性维生素A、E、K3在0.1~20.0 mg/L范围内呈良好线性,相关系数均大于0.99;3种脂溶性维生素的回收率为88%~95%,相对标准偏差(RSD)为0.8%~3.9%;检出限(LODS,S/N =3)分别为0.3、0.6、0.1 mg/kg,定量下限(LOQs,S/N= 10)分别为1.0、2.0、0.3 mg/kg.该方法具有较高的准确度和精密度,能够满足实际检测的需要.%A method was developed for the simultaneous determination of fat-soluble vitamin A, E and K3 in dried okra by reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode ar ray detection. The sample was first extracted with ethanol and followed by saponification with 50% KOH solution, then extracted with petroleum ether. The extract was separated on an Agilent Eclipse XDB C18 column(150 mm× 4. 6 mm, 5 μm I. D. ) at 30 ℃ , using methanol as mobile phase at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. The target compounds were simultaneously detected at 325, 290, 244 nm, respectively, and quantified by the external standard method. The results showed that the linear ranges for fat-soluble vitamins A, E, K3 were in the range of 0. 1 - 20. 0 mg/L with correlation coef ficients more than 0. 99. The spiked recoveries of three fat-soluble vitamins from dry okra sample were in the range of 88% - 95% with RSDs of 0. 8% - 3.9% . The limits of detection (LODs, S/N = 3) of VA, VE and VK3 were 0. 3, 0. 6, 0. 1 mg/kg, respectively, and the limits of quantitation( LOQs, S/N = 10) were 1.0, 2.0, 0.3 mg/kg, respectively. The developed method was simple and accurate, and could meet the demands for actual detection.

  14. Preparation and characterization of mucilage polysaccharide for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archana, G; Sabina, K; Babuskin, S; Radhakrishnan, K; Fayidh, Mohammed A; Babu, P Azhagu Saravana; Sivarajan, M; Sukumar, M

    2013-10-15

    In the present investigation, the polysaccharide/mucilage from waste of Abelmoscus esculentus by modification in hot extraction using two different solvents (Acetone, Methanol) were extracted, characterized and further compared with seaweed polysaccharide for their potential applications. The percentage yield, emulsifying capacity and swelling index of this mucilage were determined. The macro algae and okra waste, gave high % yield (22.2% and 8.6% respectively) and good emulsifying capacity (EC%=52.38% and 54.76% respectively) with acetone, compared to methanol (11.3% and 0.28%; EC%=50%) (PH=7) while swelling index was greater with methanol than acetone extracts respectively. The infrared (I.R.) spectrum of the samples was recorded to investigate the chemical structure of mucilage. Thermal analysis of the mucilage was done with TGA (Thermal Gravimetric Analyzer) and DSC (Differential Scanning Calorimeter) which showed both okra and algal polysaccharide were thermostable hydrogels.

  15. Assessment of morphological and molecular diversity among okra ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    kamalsidhu

    2013-05-22

    May 22, 2013 ... Key words: Decamer primers, Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), genetic diversity, ... The development and use of molecular markers for the ..... Primer sequence(5'-3') Number of alleles Amplification polymorphic information content (PIC) .... to be monomorphic in the present investigation.

  16. Ranavirus in wild edible frogs Pelophylax kl. esculentus in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ariel, Ellen; Kielgast, Jos; Svart, Hans Erik

    2009-01-01

    interviewed by phone and 10 cases were examined on suspicion of diseaseinduced mortality. All samples were negative for Bd. Ranavirus was isolated from 2 samples of recently dead frogs collected during a mass mortality event in an artificial pond near Slagelse, Denmark. The identity of the virus was confirmed...

  17. TOXICOLOGICAL TESTS WITH SEEDS FOR LEACHATE TREATMENT EVALUATION BY SLOW FILTRATION AND PHOTOCATALYSIS = ENSAIOS TOXICOLÓGICOS COM SEMENTES PARA AVALIAÇÃO DE TRATAMENTO DO CHORUME POR FILTRAÇÃO LENTA E FOTOCATÁLISE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Núbia Natália Brito

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This work had as objective to study the techniques of Slow Filtration followed by heterogeneous photocatalysis (TiO2/UV in the leachate’ treatment originating from the sanitary landfill of Limeira-SP, City. Toxicological testes were used with seeds of Abelmoschus esculentus L.; Lactuca sativa L.; Impatiens balsamina and Celosia cristata to evaluate the treatment efficiency. The toxicological testes demonstrated the possibility of use larger concentration of leachate treated in the seeds germination, and it was possible to add 96% of leachate for the Abelmoschus esculentus L seeds germination, 30% for the Lactuca sativa L, 54% for Impatiens balsamina and 40% for Celosia cristata. Also were observed parameter values reductions of the environmental importance great, such as, coloration that presented reductions approximated 76,42%, total organic carbon (TOC 67,88%, total phenols 77,13% and amoniacal nitrogen 34,63%. The treatment methodology using Slow Filtration and Photocataysis demonstrated to be an excellent option of leachate remediation. = Este trabalho teve como objetivo estudar as técnicas de Filtração Lenta seguida de Fotocatálise heterogênea (TiO2/UV no tratamento de chorume proveniente do aterro sanitário da cidade de Limeira-SP. Foram empregados ensaios toxicológicos utilizando sementes de Abelmoschus esculentus L. (Quiabo; Lactuca sativa L. (Alface; Impatiens balsamina (Balsamina e Celosia cristata (Crista-de-galo, para avaliar a eficiência do tratamento. Os ensaios toxicológicos demonstraram a possibilidade de utilização de maior concentração do chorume tratado na germinação das sementes, sendo que foi possível adicionar 96% de chorume para a germinação das sementes de quiabo, 30% para a alface, 54% para a dobrada sortida e 40% para germinação das sementes de flores crista de galo. Também foram observadas reduções dos valores de parâmetros de grande importância ambiental, tais como, coloração que

  18. UTILIZATION OF VERMIWASH POTENTIAL ON CERTAIN SUMMER VEGETABLE CROPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GORAKH NATH

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out to evaluate the impact of vermiwash on the growth, flowering and productivity of okra (Abelmoschus esculantus, lobia (Vigna unguiculata and radish (Raphnus sativus. Vermiwash was extracted from different vermicompost which was composted from different animal agro and kitchen wastes through earthworm Eisenia foetida. It was observed that treatment of vermiwash shows significantly increased in growth and productivity and decreased flowering period. The maximum significant growth was observed in 30 mg/m2 concentration of combination of buffalo dung with rice bran 38.0±1.3 cm. in case of okra, 30 mg/m2 concentration of combination of buffalo dung with gram bran (seed of Cicer arientinum 215.5±5.2 cm., in lobia crops and 30 mg/m2 concentration of buffalo dung with gram bran 20.4±1.4 cm. The significant early starting of flowering and increased in productivity was found in all treated groups with respect to control.

  19. Soil Carbon and Nitrogen Stock as Affected by Agricultural Wastes in a Typic Haplusult of Owerri, Southeastern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanley Uchenna Onwudike

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the effect of saw dust ash (SDA and poultry droppings (PD on soil physico-chemical properties, soil carbon and nitrogen stock and their effects on the growth and yield of okra (Abelmoshus esculentus on a typic haplusult in Owerri, Imo State Southeastern Nigeria. The experiment was a factorial experiment consisted of saw dust ash applied at the rates of 0, 5 and 10 t/ha and poultry droppings applied at the rates of 0, 5 and 10 t/ha. The treatments were laid out in a randomized complete block design and replicated four times. Results showed that plots amended with 10 t/ha PD + 10 t/ha SDA significantly reduced soil bulk density from 1.37 – 1.07 g/cm3, increased soil total porosity from 48.4 – 59.7% and the percentage of soil weight that is water (soil gravimetric moisture content was increased by 68.4%. There were significant improvements on soil chemical properties with plots amended with 10 t/ha PD + 10 t/ha SDA recording the highest values on soil organic carbon, soil total nitrogen and exchangeable bases. Plots amended with 10 t/ha PD + 10 t/ha SDA significantly increased soil carbon stock by 24% and soil nitrogen stock by 49.5% more than other treatments. There was significant increase in the growth of okra when compared to the un-amended soil with application of 10 t/ha PD + 10 t/ha SDA increasing the fresh okra pod yield by 78.5%. Significant positive correlation existed between SCS and organic carbon (r = 0.6128, exchangeable Mg (r= 0.5035, total nitrogen (r = 0.6167 and soil pH (r = 0.5221. SNS correlated positively with organic carbon (r = 0.5834, total nitrogen (r= 0.6101 and soil pH (r = 5150. Therefore applications of these agro-wastes are effective in improving soil properties, increasing soil carbon and nitrogen stock. From the results of the work, application of 10 t/ha PD + 10 t/ha SDA which was the treatment combination that improved soil properties and growth performances of okra than other treatments studied is

  20. Ethylene: Response of Fruit Dehiscence to CO2 and Reduced Pressure 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipe, John A.; Morgan, Page W.

    1972-01-01

    These studies were conducted to determine whether ethylene serves as a natural regulator of fruit wall dehiscence, a major visible feature of ripening in some fruits. We employed treatments to inhibit ethylene action or remove ethylene and observed their effect on fruit dehiscence. CO2 (13%), a competitive inhibitor of ethylene action in many systems, readily delayed dehiscence of detached fruits of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.), pecan (Carya illinoensis [Wang.] K. Koch), and okra (Hibiscus esculentus L.). The CO2 effect was duplicated by placing fruits under reduced pressure (200 millimeters mercury), to promote the escape of ethylene from the tissue. Dehiscence of detached fruits of these species as well as attached cotton fruits was delayed. The delay of dehiscence of cotton and okra by both treatments was achieved with fruit harvested at intervals from shortly after anthesis until shortly before natural dehiscence. Pecan fruits would not dehisce until approximately 1 month before natural dehiscence, and during that time, CO2 and reduced pressure delayed dehiscence. CO2 and ethylene were competitive in their effects on cotton fruit dehiscence. All of the results are compatible with a hypothetical role of ethylene as a natural regulator of dehiscence, a dominant aspect of ripening of cotton, pecan, and some other fruits. PMID:16658260

  1. Ethylene: Response of Fruit Dehiscence to CO(2) and Reduced Pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipe, J A; Morgan, P W

    1972-12-01

    These studies were conducted to determine whether ethylene serves as a natural regulator of fruit wall dehiscence, a major visible feature of ripening in some fruits. We employed treatments to inhibit ethylene action or remove ethylene and observed their effect on fruit dehiscence. CO(2) (13%), a competitive inhibitor of ethylene action in many systems, readily delayed dehiscence of detached fruits of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.), pecan (Carya illinoensis [Wang.] K. Koch), and okra (Hibiscus esculentus L.). The CO(2) effect was duplicated by placing fruits under reduced pressure (200 millimeters mercury), to promote the escape of ethylene from the tissue. Dehiscence of detached fruits of these species as well as attached cotton fruits was delayed. The delay of dehiscence of cotton and okra by both treatments was achieved with fruit harvested at intervals from shortly after anthesis until shortly before natural dehiscence. Pecan fruits would not dehisce until approximately 1 month before natural dehiscence, and during that time, CO(2) and reduced pressure delayed dehiscence. CO(2) and ethylene were competitive in their effects on cotton fruit dehiscence. All of the results are compatible with a hypothetical role of ethylene as a natural regulator of dehiscence, a dominant aspect of ripening of cotton, pecan, and some other fruits.

  2. Influence of cover crop and intercrop systems on Bemisia argentifolli (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) infestation and associated squash silverleaf disorder in zucchini.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manandhar, Roshan; Hooks, Cerruti R R; Wright, Mark G

    2009-04-01

    Field experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of cover cropping and intercropping on population densities of silverleaf whitefly, Bemisia argentifolli Bellow and Perring, and the incidence of squash silverleaf disorder (SSL) in zucchini, Cucurbita pepo L., in Oahu, HI. Two cover crops, buckwheat (BW), Fagopyrum esculentum Moench, and white clover (WC), Trifolium repens L., or sunn hemp (SH), Crotolaria juncea L., and an intercropped vegetable, okra, Abelmonchus esculentus L., were evaluated during the 2003, 2005, and 2006 growing seasons, respectively. Population densities of whiteflies and SSL severity varied during the three field experiments. In 2003, the severity of SSL and percentage of leaves displaying symptoms were significantly lower on zucchini plants in WC than BW plots throughout the crops' growth cycle. Additionally, the percentage of leaves per plant displaying SSL symptoms was significantly greater in bare-ground (BG) compared with the pooled BW and WC treatments on each inspection date. In 2005, zucchini intercropped with okra had lower numbers of adult whiteflies and resulted in significantly lower severity of SSL than pooled BW and WC treatments. During 2006, zucchini grown with SH had significantly lower numbers of all whitefly stages (i.e., egg, immature, and adult) and less SSL severity symptoms than BW. Despite these differences in whitefly numbers and SSL severity, marketable yields were not significantly lower in BW compared with WC or SH treatment plots during the study. The mechanisms underlying these results and the feasibility of using cover crops and intercrops to manage B. argentifolli and SSL are discussed.

  3. Evaluation of Abelmoschus moschatus seed extract in psychiatric and neurological disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haja Sherief Sheik

    2014-10-01

    Results: In the open field test, AEAM (200 and 400 mg/kg increased the numbers of rearing. However, the number of central motor and ambulation were reduced. The number of entries and the time spent in the open arm were increased, whereas the number of locomotion was decreased (pA. moschatus is an alternative source for CNS drug development. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2014; 3(5.000: 845-853

  4. Polyphenol Content and Modulatory Activities of Some Tropical Dietary Plant Extracts on the Oxidant Activities of Neutrophils and Myeloperoxidase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thierry Franck

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Young leaves of Manihot esculenta Crantz (Euphorbiaceae, Abelmoschus esculentus (Malvaceae, Hibiscus acetosella (Malvaceae and Pteridium aquilinum (Dennstaedtiaceae are currently consumed as green vegetables by peoples in sub-Saharan Africa, Latin America, Asia and their migrants living in Western Europe. Sub-Saharan peoples use Manihot, Abelmoschus and Hibiscus also in the folk medicine to alleviate fever and pain, in the treatment of conjunctivitis, rheumatism, hemorrhoid, abscesses, ... The present study investigates the effects of aqueous extracts of those plants on the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS and the release of myeloperoxidase (MPO by equine neutrophils activated with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA. The ROS production was measured by lucigenin-enhanced chemiluminescence (CL, and the release of total MPO by an ELISA method. The study also investigates the effect of the extracts on the activity of MPO by studying its nitration activity on tyrosine and by using a new technique called SIEFED (Specific Immunological Extraction Followed by Enzymatic Detection that allows studying the direct interaction of compounds with the enzyme. In all experiments, the aqueous extracts of the plants developed concentration-dependent inhibitory effects. A moderate heat treatment did not significantly modify the inhibitory capacity of the extracts in comparison to not heated ones. Total polyphenol and flavonoid contents were determined with an HPLC-UV/DAD analysis and a spectroscopic method using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. Some polyphenols with well-known antioxidant activities (caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, hyperoside, rosmarinic acid and rutin were found in the extracts and may partly explain the inhibitory activities observed. The role of those dietary and medicinal plants in the treatment of ROS-dependent inflammatory diseases could have new considerations for health.

  5. effect of cropping system on yield of some sweetpotato and okra ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    oma

    produced significantly (P<0.05) higher number of tubers per plant than Tis 8164 and Tis. 2532.op.1.13 ... remain the most feasible approach to optimizing crop production and maximizing the use of ..... Multiple cropping in tropical America,.

  6. flea beetle populations and economic yield of okra as influenced by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    plant performance and plant susceptibility to insect pests and diseases when applied together. The performance ... Incidence of mosaic disease was suppressed with increasing doses of carbofuran ..... human gastric mucosa. Journal of.

  7. An agro-economic appraisal of the response of okra to leaf ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development. Journal Home ... Such damage results in remarkable yield loss and reduced market value. ... The experiment was 3 x 5 factorial with randomized complete block design. Current ...

  8. NUTRITIONAL AND ANTI NUTRITIONAL CONSTITUENTS OF MANIHOT ESCULENTUS AND PLECUTRANTHUS ROTUNDIFOLIUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Anbuselvi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The nutritional and anti nutritional characterization of two tubers namely Manihot esculenta and Plecutranthus rotundifolius were analyzed. A comparative analysis of nutrients of cassava and Chinese potato were carried out using standard analytical techniques. Results obtained showed high amount of protein, vitamins and low amount of phosphorus were found in leaves of chinese potato. Cassava pulp revealed 65 mg of calcium and 28.6 mg of vitamin A. 29 mg of reducing sugar and 1.8 mg of phosphorus were found in cassava leaves. Anti nutrients were accumulated more in cassava than chinese potato.

  9. The Content and Bioavailability of Mineral Nutrients of Selected Wild and Traditional Edible Plants as Affected by Household Preparation Methods Practiced by Local Community in Benishangul Gumuz Regional State, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hailu, Andinet Abera; Addis, Getachew

    2016-01-01

    Edible parts of some wild and traditional vegetables used by the Gumuz community, namely, Portulaca quadrifida, Dioscorea abyssinica, Abelmoschus esculentus, and Oxytenanthera abyssinica, were evaluated for their minerals composition and bioavailability. Mineral elements, namely, Ca, Fe, Zn, and Cu, were analyzed using Shimadzu atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Effects of household processing practices on the levels of mineral elements were evaluated and the bioavailability was predicted using antinutrient-mineral molar ratios. Fe, Zn, Ca, Cu, P, Na, and K level in raw edible portions ranged in (0.64 ± 0.02–27.0 ± 6.24), (0.46 ± 0.02–0.85 ± 0.02), (24.49 ± 1.2–131.7 ± 8.3), (0.11 ± 0.01–0.46 ± 0.04), (39.13 ± 0.34–57.27 ± 0.94), (7.34 ± 0.42–20.42 ± 1.31), and (184.4 ± 1.31–816.3 ± 11.731) mg/100 g FW, respectively. Although statistically significant losses in minerals as a result of household preparation practices were observed, the amount of nutrients retained could be valuable especially in communities that have limited alternative sources of these micronutrients. The predicted minerals' bioavailability shows adequacy in terms of calcium and zinc but not iron. PMID:26981523

  10. Vermicomposting eliminates the toxicity of Lantana (Lantana camara) and turns it into a plant friendly organic fertilizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, N; Abbasi, Tasneem; Abbasi, S A

    2015-11-15

    In evidently the first study of its kind, vermicompost derived solely from a weed known to possess plant and animal toxicity was used to assess its impact on the germination and early growth of several plant species. No pre-composting or supplementation of animal manure was done to generate the vermicompost in order to ensure that the impact is clearly attributable to the weed. Whereas the weed used in this study, Lantana (Lantana camara), is known to possess strong negative allelopathy, besides plant/animal toxicity in other forms, its vermicompost was seen to be a good organic fertilizer as it increased germination success and encouraged growth of all the three botanical species explored by the authors - green gram (Vigna radiata), ladies finger (Abelmoschus esculentus) and cucumber (Cucumis sativus). In terms of several physical, chemical and biochemical attributes that were studied, the vermicompost appeared plant-friendly, giving best results in general when employed at concentrations of 1.5% in soil (w/w). Fourier transform infrared spectrometry revealed that the phenols and the sesquiterpene lactones that are responsible for the allelopathic impact of Lantana were largely destroyed in the course of vermicomposting. There is also an indication that lignin content of Lantana was reduced during its vermicomposting. The findings open up the possibility that the billions of tons of phytomass that is generated annually by Lantana and other invasives can be gainfully utilized in generating organic fertilizer via vermicomposting.

  11. Genetic diversity in Macrophomina phaseolina, the causal agent of charcoal rot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mame P. SARR

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Macrophomina phaseolina (Botryosphaeriaceae is an important soil- and seed-borne pathogen. This pathogen has a broad geographic distribution, and a large host range. The aim of the present study was to determine the genetic variation among a global set of 189 isolates of M. phaseolina, isolated from 23 hosts and 30 soil samples in 15 countries. To achieve this goal a multi-gene DNA analysis was conducted for the following five loci, ITS, TEF, ACT, CAL and TUB. Based on these results two well-defined clusters could be delineated, one corresponding to M. phaseolina s. str., for which a suitable epitype is designated. The second clade corresponds to M. pseudophaseolina, a novel species occurring on Abelmoschus esculentus, Arachis hypogaea, Hibiscus sabdarifa and Vigna unguiculata in Senegal. No consistent correlation was found among genotype, host and geographic location, and both species could even occur on the same host at the same location. Although M. pseudophaseolina is presently only known from Senegal, further research is required to determine its virulence compared to M. phaseolina, and its geographic distribution.

  12. Antioxidant Activity in Extracts of 27 Indigenous Taiwanese Vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pi-Yu Chao

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to identify the antioxidants and antioxidant axtivity in 27 of Taiwan’s indigenous vegetables. Lycium chinense (Lc, Lactuca indica (Li, and Perilla ocymoides (Po contained abundant quercetin (Que, while Artemisia lactiflora (Al and Gynura bicolor (Gb were rich in morin and kaempferol, respectively. Additionally, Nymphoides cristata (Nc and Sechium edule (Se-yellow had significantly higher levels of myricetin (Myr than other tested samples. Cyanidin (Cyan and malvidin (Mal were abundant in Gb, Abelmoschus esculentus Moench (Abe, Po, Anisogonium esculentum (Retz. Presl (Ane, Ipomoea batatas (Ib-purple, and Hemerocallis fulva (Hf-bright orange. Relatively high levels of Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC, oxygen radical absorption capacity (ORAC, and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenger were generated from extracts of Toona sinensis (Ts and Po. Significant and positive correlations between antioxidant activity and polyphenols, anthocyanidins, Que, Myr, and morin were observed, indicating that these phytochemicals were some of the main components responsible for the antioxidant activity of tested plants. The much higher antioxidant activity of Po, Ts, and Ib (purple leaf may be related to their higher Cyan, Que, and polyphenol content.

  13. Susceptibility of microorganism to selected medicinal plants in Bangladesh

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S M Masud Rana; Md Mustahsan Billah; Mohammad Salim Hossain; A K M Saifuddin; S K M Azizul Islam; Sujan Banik; Zannatul Naim; Golam Sarwar Raju

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To analyze in-vitro antimicrobial activities of some ethno-pharmacologically significant medicinal plants (methanol extract) against the pathogenic microorganisms (Escherichiacoli, Salmonella spp., Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans).Methods:The disc diffusion method was applied for antibacterial test and the poisoned food technique was applied for antifungal test.Results:The methanol extract of Terminalia chebula (bark), Phyllanthus acidus (fruits), Sarcochlamys pulcherrima (leaves) and Abelmoschus esculentus (fruits) had significant in vitro antibacterial activity angainst the entire test samples in comparison to standard drug ciprofloxacin. Most of the plant extracts showed low activity against Gram negative bacteria while potential activity against Gram positive bacteria. The antifungal activities of methanol extracts of these plants and standard drug griseofulvin were determined against two pathogenic fungi, andPolygonum lapathifolium (leaves) and Cinnamomum tamala (leaves) showed maximum activity, while Erioglossum rubiginosum (leaves) showed no antifungal activity.Conclusions:Further chemical and pharmacological investigations are required to identify and isolate chemical constituents responsible for these potential bioactivities and thus to determine their full spectrum of efficacy.

  14. Rapid modulation of ultraviolet shielding in plants is influenced by solar ultraviolet radiation and linked to alterations in flavonoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Paul W; Tobler, Mark A; Keefover-Ring, Ken; Flint, Stephan D; Barkley, Anne E; Ryel, Ronald J; Lindroth, Richard L

    2016-01-01

    The accumulation of ultraviolet (UV)-absorbing compounds (flavonoids and related phenylpropanoids) and the resultant decrease in epidermal UV transmittance (TUV ) are primary protective mechanisms employed by plants against potentially damaging solar UV radiation and are critical components of the overall acclimation response of plants to changing solar UV environments. Whether plants can adjust this UV sunscreen protection in response to rapid changes in UV, as occurs on a diurnal basis, is largely unexplored. Here, we use a combination of approaches to demonstrate that plants can modulate their UV-screening properties within minutes to hours, and these changes are driven, in part, by UV radiation. For the cultivated species Abelmoschus esculentus, large (30-50%) and reversible changes in TUV occurred on a diurnal basis, and these adjustments were associated with changes in the concentrations of whole-leaf UV-absorbing compounds and several quercetin glycosides. Similar results were found for two other species (Vicia faba and Solanum lycopersicum), but no such changes were detected in Zea mays. These findings reveal a much more dynamic UV-protection mechanism than previously recognized, raise important questions concerning the costs and benefits of UV-protection strategies in plants and have practical implications for employing UV to enhance crop vigor and quality in controlled environments.

  15. Tropical rotation crops influence nematode densities and vegetable yields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSorley, R; Dickson, D W; de Brito, J A; Hochmuth, R C

    1994-09-01

    The effects of eight summer rotation crops on nematode densities and yields of subsequent spring vegetable crops were determined in field studies conducted in north Florida from 1991 to 1993. The crop sequence was as follows: (i) rotation crops during summer 1991; (ii) cover crop of rye (Secale cereale) during winter 1991-92; (iii) 'Lemondrop L' squash (Cucurbita pepo) during spring 1992; (iv) rotation crops during summer 1992; (v) rye during winter 1992-93; (vi) 'Classic' eggplant (Solanum melongena) during spring 1993. The eight summer crop rotation treatments were as follows: 'Hale' castor (Ricinus communis), velvetbean (Mucuna deeringiana), sesame (Sesamum indicum), American jointvetch (Aeschynomene americana), weed fallow, 'SX- 17' sorghum-sudangrass (Sorghum bicolor x S. sudanense), 'Kirby' soybean (Glycine max), and 'Clemson Spineless' okra (Hibiscus esculentus) as a control. Rotations with castor, velvetbean, American jointvetch, and sorghum-sudangrass were most effective in maintaining the lowest population densities of Meloidogyne spp. (a mixture of M. incognita race 1 and M. arenaria race 1), but Paratrichodorus minor built up in the sorghum-sudangrass rotation. Yield of squash was lower (P crops evaluated here may be useful for managing nematodes in the field and for improving yields of subsequent vegetable crops.

  16. [Ploidy and genetic structure of hybrid populations of water frogs Pelophylax esculentus (L., 1758) complex (Amphibia, Ranidae) of Ukraine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezhzherin, S V; Morozov-Leonov, S Iu; Rostovskaia, O V; Shabanov, D A; Sobolenko, L Iu

    2010-01-01

    The present study of green frog hybrid populations of Ukraine, including analysis of allozyme variability and planimetric analysis oferythrocytes size has confirmed that the unique region in this area is the Severski Donets basin The allopolyploid individuals there are met very frequently (5.7% of all investigated frogs). In other areas of Ukraine only two polyploid hybrids have been recorded. Beside that, one frog was defined as triploid Rana ridibundus. According to our investigations, all triploid hybrids from the Severski Donets basin are identified as P. esculentu (=lessonae)--2 ridibundus males.

  17. Yield and Irrigation Water Use Efficiency Response of Chufa (Cyperus esculentus L. var. sativus Boeck.) to Drip Irrigation Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascual-Seva, Nuria; San Bautista, Alberto; López-Galarza, Salvador; Maroto, José Vicente; Pascual, Bernardo

    2016-04-01

    Chufa, also known as tigernut, is a typical crop in Valencia, Spain, where it is cultivated in ridges with furrow irrigation. Its cultivation uses large amounts of water, in the order of 10,000 m3 ha-1 year-1, so different studies have been undertaken in order to maximize the irrigation water use efficiency (IWUE). One of these studies faced the application of drip irrigation in the chufa cultivation, comparing three different irrigation strategies. These strategies differed on the volumetric soil water content (VSWC) when each irrigation event started. Starting each irrigation when the VSWC dropped to 90% of field capacity (FC) leaded to the highest yield, while the highest IWUE was obtained when irrigation started at 80% FC. It can be stated that starting each irrigation event when the VSWC is between 80 and 90% FC leads to the best results in terms of yield and IWUE. However, these results may still be improved by defining the best strategy in the irrigation stop, which is the aim of the herein presented research. This investigation comprises the productive response of the chufa crop with drip irrigation, determining yield and IWUE. The VSWC was monitored using multi-depth capacitance probes, with sensors at 0.10, 0.20 and 0.30 m below the top of the ridge. Each irrigation event started when the volumetric soil water content at 0.10 m dropped to 85% FC. Three irrigation strategies were considered, T1: each event being stopped when the average of the VSWC values at 0.10, 0.20 and 0.30 m depth reached the corresponding FC value; T2: each event being stopped when the VSWC values at 0.20 m reached the corresponding FC value; T3 each irrigation event lasted 30 min (corresponding to 7.33 mm). The largest yield (P ≤0.05) was obtained in T2 (2.31 kg m-2), with no statistical differences (P ≤0.05) between T1 (1.94 kg m-2) and T3 (1.92 kg m-2). The highest yield in T2 was obtained with the largest volume of irrigation water applied (722 mm), resulting in the lowest (P ≤0.01) IWUE (3.20 kg m-3) in relation to T1 (4.78 kg m-3) and T3 (5.4 kg m-3), with no statistical difference (P ≤0.05) between them. T1. The average tuber weight, size and shape showed no differences (P ≤0.05) between the strategies.

  18. Preparation of dietary fiber powder from tiger nut (Cyperus esculentus) milk ("Horchata") byproducts and its physicochemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Zapata, Elena; Fuentes-Zaragoza, Evangélica; Fernández-López, Juana; Sendra, Esther; Sayas, Estrella; Navarro, Casilda; Pérez-Alvarez, Jose Angel

    2009-09-09

    "Horchata" is a vegetable milk obtained from tiger nuts. The solid waste from horchata production was analyzed for physicochemical and microbial properties, aiming to determine its potential use as a fiber source for the food industry. The solid waste contains a high proportion of total dietary fiber (59.71 g/100 g), composed mainly of insoluble dietary fiber (99.8%). It has a high water-holding capacity (8.01 g/g) and oil-holding capacity (6.92 g/g) and a low water absorption (1.79 g/g) and water adsorption (0.23 g/g) capacities, in comparison with other dietary fiber sources. The emulsifying ability was 70.33 mL/100 mL, and the wastes showed high emulsion stability (100 mL/100 mL). The physicochemical properties indicate that tiger nut byproducts are rich in fiber and may be considered a potential ingredient in a healthy diet. However, the microbial quality was poor, meaning that it must be pasteurized prior to its addition to any food product.

  19. Hosting Capacity of Horticultural Plants for Insect Pests in Brazil Capacidad de Alojamiento de Plantas Hortícolas para Plagas de Insectos en Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germano L.D Leite

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Factors such as fertilization, allelochemicals, trichomes, weather, and natural enemies can influence pest populations. Thus, it is necessary to understand the factors that predispose vegetable species to pests and the role of polyculture, crop rotation, and neighboring plants. The objective of this research was to study the hosting capacity for pests of Abelmoschus esculentus (L., Brassica oleracea L. vars. acephala and capitata, Capsicum annuum L., Cucurbita moschata (Duchesne, Cucurbita maxima Duchesne and Cucumis sativus L., Lycopersicon esculentum Mill., Solanum gilo Raddi and Solanum melongena L., and Phaseolus vulgaris L. The higher density of Bemisia tabaci (Genn. adults on C. sativus can be due to the higher amount of pentacosane and octacosane in this plant. The occurrence of Brevicoryne brassicae (L. only in Brassica spp. can be accounted for by the nonacosane of these plants. The low trichome density and greater palmitic acid level can explain the greatest damage by Aphis gossypii Glover in A. esculentum. Empoasca sp. was more frequent in P. vulgaris followed by A. esculentum, which are plants with lower K content. Solanum melongena was attacked more by Hydrangea similis (Walker and Epitrix sp. perhaps because of higher palmitic acid and 11,14,17-eicosatrienoic methyl ester concentrations in their leaves. Frankliniella sp. exhibited more damage in C. sativus probably owing to higher pentacosane and octacosane in its leaves. Sistena sp. was more frequent in C. maxima and had higher octadecane levels and trichome density. The presence of ¥-humulene and hexacosane can explain the damage by Tuta absoluta (Meyrick on L. esculentum.Factores tales como la fertilización, aleloquímicos, tricomas, el clima y los enemigos naturales pueden influir en las poblaciones de plagas. Por lo tanto, es necesario comprender los factores que predisponen a las especies vegetales a las plagas y el papel de policultivos, rotación de cultivos y las plantas

  20. Urban and peri-urban agricultural production along railway tracks: a case study from the Mumbai Metropolitan Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prem Jose Vazhacharickal

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Urban and peri-urban agriculture (UPA contributes to food security, serves as an opportunity for income generation, and provides recreational services to urban citizens. With a population of 21 Million people, of which 60 % live in slums, UPA activities can play a crucial role in supporting people’s livelihoods in Mumbai Metropolitan Region (MMR. This study was conducted to characterize the railway gardens, determine their role in UPA production, and assess potential risks. It comprises a baseline survey among 38 railway gardeners across MMR characterized by different demographic, socio-economic, migratory, and labour characteristics. Soil, irrigation water, and plant samples were analyzed for nutrients, heavy metals, and microbial load. All the railway gardeners practiced agriculture as a primary source of income and cultivated seasonal vegetables such as lady’s finger (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench, spinach (Spinacia oleracea L., red amaranth (Amaranthus cruentus L., and white radish (Raphanus sativus var. longipinnatus which were irrigated with waste water. This irrigation water was loaded with 7–28 mg N l^(−1, 0.3–7 mg P l^(−1, and 8–32 mg K l^(−1, but also contained heavy metals such as lead (0.02–0.06 mg Pb l^(−1, cadmium (0.03–0.17 mg Cd l^(−1, mercury (0.001–0.005 mg Hg l^(−1, and pathogens such as Escherichia coli (1,100 most probable number per 100 ml. Levels of heavy metals exceeded the critical thresholds in surface soils (Cr, Ni, and Sr and produce (Pb, Cd, and Sr. The railway garden production systems can substantially foster employment and reduce economic deprivation of urban poor particularly slum dwellers and migrant people. However this production system may also cause possible health risks to producers and consumers.

  1. Divergência genética em acessos de quiabeiro com base em marcadores morfológicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martinello Gilmar Efrem

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Vinte e sete caracteres morfoagronômicos, 13 quantitativos e 14 qualitativos, foram utilizados para a avaliação da diversidade genética em 39 acessos do gênero Abelmoschus, por meio das análises de agrupamento hierárquico do vizinho mais próximo e de componentes principais, utilizando-se a distância Euclidiana média padronizada como medida de dissimilaridade. As plantas foram cultivadas em condições de campo na Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense, em Campos dos Goytacazes, utilizando-se o delineamento experimental em blocos ao acaso com quatro repetições. A formação dos grupos de acessos, com base no método hierárquico do vizinho mais próximo, revelou resultados semelhantes aos obtidos pela análise em componentes principais, já que ambos os métodos reuniram os acessos de A. esculentus e A. caillei. O método hierárquico agrupou os genótipos de forma idêntica tanto para os 27 descritores quantitativos e qualitativos quanto para os 13 descritores quantitativos separadamente, demonstrando que os descritores qualitativos tiveram pouca influência na discriminação genotípica. Por outro lado, os descritores qualitativos foram capazes de classificar corretamente as espécies, porém mascararam a variabilidade genética no germoplasma, não possibilitando um rastreamento mais abrangente dos genomas. Os descritores que menos contribuíram para a discriminação dos acessos foram, largura do epicálice, peso de 100 sementes, número de segmentos do estigma, altura da planta, comprimento da folha, largura da folha, nó do primeiro florescimento e comprimento do fruto.

  2. Antioxidant and Antiradical Activities of Manihot esculenta Crantz (Euphorbiaceae Leaves and Other Selected Tropical Green Vegetables Investigated on Lipoperoxidation and Phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA Activated Monocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ange Mouithys-Mickalad

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abelmoschus esculentus (Malvaceae, Hibiscus acetosella (Malvaceae, Manihot esculenta Crantz (Euphorbiaceae and Pteridium aquilinum (Dennstaedtiaceae leaves are currently consumed as vegetables by migrants from sub-Saharan Africa living in Western Europe and by the people in the origin countries, where these plants are also used in the folk medicine. Manihot leaves are also eaten in Latin America and some Asian countries. This work investigated the capacity of aqueous extracts prepared from those vegetables to inhibit the peroxidation of a linoleic acid emulsion. Short chain, volatile C-compounds as markers of advanced lipid peroxidation were measured by gas chromatography by following the ethylene production. The generation of lipid hydroperoxides, was monitored by spectroscopy using N-N′-dimethyl-p-phenylene-diamine (DMPD. The formation of intermediate peroxyl, and other free radicals, at the initiation of the lipid peroxidation was investigated by electron spin resonance, using α-(4-pyridyl-1-oxide-N-tert-butylnitrone as spin trap agent. The ability of the extracts to decrease the cellular production of reactive oxygen species (ROS in “inflammation like” conditions was studied by fluorescence technique using 2′,7′-dichlorofluorescine-diacetate as fluorogenic probe, in a cell model of human monocytes (HL-60 cells activated with phorbol ester. Overall the extracts displayed efficient concentration-dependent inhibitory effects. Their total polyphenol and flavonoid content was determined by classic colorimetric methods. An HPLC-UV/DAD analysis has clearly identified the presence of some polyphenolic compounds, which explains at least partially the inhibitions observed in our models. The role of these plants in the folk medicine by sub-Saharan peoples as well as in the prevention of oxidative stress and ROS related diseases requires further consideration.

  3. Beneficial effect of medicinal plants on the contractility of post-hypoxic isolated guinea pig atria - Potential implications for the treatment of ischemic-reperfusion injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bipat, Robbert; Toelsie, Jerry R; Magali, Indira; Soekhoe, Rubaina; Stender, Karin; Wangsawirana, Angelique; Oedairadjsingh, Krishan; Pawirodihardjo, Jennifer; Mans, Dennis R A

    2016-08-01

    Context Ischemic-reperfusion injury is accompanied by a decreased contractility of the myocardium. Positive-inotropic agents have proven useful for treating this condition but may exert serious side-effects. Objective In this study, aqueous preparations from Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench (Malvaceae), Annona muricata L. (Annonaceae), Bixa orellana L. (Bixaceae), Cecropia peltata L. (Moraceae), Erythrina fusca Lour. (Fabaceae), Psidium guajava L. (Myrtaceae) and Terminalia catappa L. (Combretaceae) were evaluated for their ability to improve the decreased contractility of isolated guinea pig atria after hypoxic stress. Materials and methods Guinea pig atria isolated in Ringer-Locke buffer gassed with 100% O2 at 30 °C were exposed for 5 min to hypoxia, then allowed to recover in oxygenated buffer alone or containing a single plant extract (0.001-1 mg/mL). The contractility (g/s) and beating frequency (beats/min), as well as troponin C contents of the bathing solution (ng/mL), were determined and expressed as means ± SDs. Results The extracts of A. muricata, B. orellana, C. peltata and T. catappa caused an increase in the contractility compared to untreated atria of 340 ± 102%, 151 ± 13%, 141 ± 14% and 238 ± 44%, respectively. However, the latter two preparations increased the troponin C contents of the bathing solution to 36 ± 11 and 69 ± 33, compared to the value of 11 ± 3 ng/mL found with untreated atria. Conclusions Preparations from A. muricata and B. orellana may possess positive-inotropic properties which may improve the contractility of the post-hypoxic myocardium. Studies to assess their usefulness in ischemic-reperfusion injury are warranted.

  4. Vermicomposting eliminates the toxicity of Lantana (Lantana camara) and turns it into a plant friendly organic fertilizer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hussain, N.; Abbasi, Tasneem; Abbasi, S.A., E-mail: prof.s.a.abbasi@gmail.com

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • It is shown for the first time that Lantana can lose its toxicity when vermicomposted. • The Lantana vermicompost is shown to be a good organic fertilizer. • FTIR studies identified Lantana’s toxic constituents destroyed by vermicomposting. • The findings have far-reaching implications in the gainful use of harmful weeds. - Abstract: In evidently the first study of its kind, vermicompost derived solely from a weed known to possess plant and animal toxicity was used to assess its impact on the germination and early growth of several plant species. No pre-composting or supplementation of animal manure was done to generate the vermicompost in order to ensure that the impact is clearly attributable to the weed. Whereas the weed used in this study, Lantana (Lantana camara), is known to possess strong negative allelopathy, besides plant/animal toxicity in other forms, its vermicompost was seen to be a good organic fertilizer as it increased germination success and encouraged growth of all the three botanical species explored by the authors – green gram (Vigna radiata), ladies finger (Abelmoschus esculentus) and cucumber (Cucumis sativus). In terms of several physical, chemical and biochemical attributes that were studied, the vermicompost appeared plant-friendly, giving best results in general when employed at concentrations of 1.5% in soil (w/w). Fourier transform infrared spectrometry revealed that the phenols and the sesquiterpene lactones that are responsible for the allelopathic impact of Lantana were largely destroyed in the course of vermicomposting. There is also an indication that lignin content of Lantana was reduced during its vermicomposting. The findings open up the possibility that the billions of tons of phytomass that is generated annually by Lantana and other invasives can be gainfully utilized in generating organic fertilizer via vermicomposting.

  5. Global ex-situ crop diversity conservation and the Svalbard Global Seed Vault: assessing the current status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westengen, Ola T; Jeppson, Simon; Guarino, Luigi

    2013-01-01

    Ex-situ conservation of crop diversity is a global concern, and the development of an efficient and sustainable conservation system is a historic priority recognized in international law and policy. We assess the completeness of the safety duplication collection in the Svalbard Global Seed Vault with respect to data on the world's ex-situ collections as reported by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Currently, 774,601 samples are deposited at Svalbard by 53 genebanks. We estimate that more than one third of the globally distinct accessions of 156 crop genera stored in genebanks as orthodox seeds are conserved in the Seed Vault. The numbers of safety duplicates of Triticum (wheat), Sorghum (sorghum), Pennisetum (pearl millet), Eleusine (finger millet), Cicer (chickpea) and Lens (lentil) exceed 50% of the estimated numbers of distinct accessions in global ex-situ collections. The number of accessions conserved globally generally reflects importance for food production, but there are significant gaps in the safety collection at Svalbard in some genera of high importance for food security in tropical countries, such as Amaranthus (amaranth), Chenopodium (quinoa), Eragrostis (teff) and Abelmoschus (okra). In the 29 food-crop genera with the largest number of accessions stored globally, an average of 5.5 out of the ten largest collections is already represented in the Seed Vault collection or is covered by existing deposit agreements. The high coverage of ITPGRFA Annex 1 crops and of those crops for which there is a CGIAR mandate in the current Seed Vault collection indicates that existence of international policies and institutions are important determinants for accessions to be safety duplicated at Svalbard. As a back-up site for the global conservation system, the Seed Vault plays not only a practical but also a symbolic role for enhanced integration and cooperation for conservation of crop diversity.

  6. Global ex-situ crop diversity conservation and the Svalbard Global Seed Vault: assessing the current status.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ola T Westengen

    Full Text Available Ex-situ conservation of crop diversity is a global concern, and the development of an efficient and sustainable conservation system is a historic priority recognized in international law and policy. We assess the completeness of the safety duplication collection in the Svalbard Global Seed Vault with respect to data on the world's ex-situ collections as reported by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Currently, 774,601 samples are deposited at Svalbard by 53 genebanks. We estimate that more than one third of the globally distinct accessions of 156 crop genera stored in genebanks as orthodox seeds are conserved in the Seed Vault. The numbers of safety duplicates of Triticum (wheat, Sorghum (sorghum, Pennisetum (pearl millet, Eleusine (finger millet, Cicer (chickpea and Lens (lentil exceed 50% of the estimated numbers of distinct accessions in global ex-situ collections. The number of accessions conserved globally generally reflects importance for food production, but there are significant gaps in the safety collection at Svalbard in some genera of high importance for food security in tropical countries, such as Amaranthus (amaranth, Chenopodium (quinoa, Eragrostis (teff and Abelmoschus (okra. In the 29 food-crop genera with the largest number of accessions stored globally, an average of 5.5 out of the ten largest collections is already represented in the Seed Vault collection or is covered by existing deposit agreements. The high coverage of ITPGRFA Annex 1 crops and of those crops for which there is a CGIAR mandate in the current Seed Vault collection indicates that existence of international policies and institutions are important determinants for accessions to be safety duplicated at Svalbard. As a back-up site for the global conservation system, the Seed Vault plays not only a practical but also a symbolic role for enhanced integration and cooperation for conservation of crop diversity.

  7. Extraction and analysis of prebiotics from selected plants from southern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santad Wichienchot

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Thirteen plants and their parts acquired from southern Thailand were investigated for their polysaccharide contentsand prebiotic properties. The fresh, ground samples were extracted with 50% and 95% ethanol and water at ambient and boilingtemperatures. The extracts were freeze-dried, digested with HCl buffer and -amylase, and indigestible polysaccharidecontents were determined. Base on extract yields and indigestible polysaccharide contents, ten samples were chosen aspotential sources of prebiotics. These included embryo, flesh and pericarp of palm fruit (Borrassus flabellifer L., skin, fleshand seed of jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam., flesh of rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum L., jampadah (Artocarpusinteger Merr., and young coconut (Cocos nucifera Linn., and okra pod (Hibiscus esculentus Linn.. Their extract yields (%dry wt were 26.54, 44.94, 51.69, 71.54, 59.43, 16.00, 55.73, 34.11, 22.66, and 12.39, respectively, and indigestible polysaccharidecontents (mg/g dry extract were 409.85, 334.87, 705.80, 689.08, 605.76, 403.44, 566.83, 542.56, 513.87, and 460.73, respectively.The amounts of oligosaccharide were 33.69, 47.20, 14.13, 0.00, 98.05, 29.35, 9.43, 2.40, 0.00, and 49.15 mg/g dry extract, respectively. Subsequently, five samples were chosen for further studies and possible commercial development based on theirextract yield, the amount and type of oligosaccharides, i.e. palm flesh, palm embryo, jackfruit flesh, jackfruit seed, and okrapod. Molecular weights of the polysaccharides from the five samples were 190-1,600 Daltons with a degree of polymerizationof 5-6.

  8. 76 FR 31887 - Procedures by Which the Agricultural Marketing Service Develops, Revises, Suspends, or Terminates...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-02

    ... CFR part 36). Background: AMS received a petition from the American Frozen Food Institute (AFFI... Frozen Okra AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Request for comments. SUMMARY: The... States Standards for Grades of Frozen Okra. The standards for frozen okra would be changed from...

  9. Tigernut (Cyperus esculentus L.) “milk” as a potent “nutri-drink” for the prevention of acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity in a murine model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onuoha, Nnenna Ola; Ogbusua, Nneoma Oleh; Okorie, Augustine N.; Ejike, Chukwunonso E. C. C.

    2017-01-01

    Aim/Background: Given the prevalence of toxicants in foods, beauty products, etc., and the increasing demand for “green” products, there is a need for the development of “nutri-drinks” with hepatoprotective properties. The usefulness of tigernut milk (TNM) in preventing acetaminophen (APAP)-induced liver injury was, therefore, investigated. Materials and Methods: A total of 25 rats were randomized into five equal groups. Four groups were treated with 0, 500, 1000, and 2000 kg/mg body weight (bw) TNM, respectively, per os for 2 weeks before they were challenged with 2500 mg/kg bw APAP. Biochemical markers of hepatotoxicity and oxidative stress were determined in the sera of the rats at the end of the study. Results: Serum alanine aminotransferase concentrations decreased significantly (P TNM group. Other studied liver enzymes were similarly dose-dependently reduced. These data are corroborated by histological findings. Superoxide dismutase activity (U/mg protein) was increased significantly (P TNM group, and indeed all the test groups. The malondialdehyde concentrations in the test rats were slightly lower than that of the negative control group. Conclusion: TNM at the tested concentrations significantly prevented liver injury. Phytochemicals in TNM, working directly as antioxidants or indirectly by inducing the synthesis of glutathione, may be responsible for the observed effect.

  10. Effect of tiger-nut (Cyperus esculentus) milk co-product on the surface and diffusional properties of a wheat-based matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdú, Samuel; Barat, José M; Alava, Cecibel; Grau, Raúl

    2017-06-01

    The food processing industry generates huge volumes of waste and co-products which still contain valuable compounds. Tiger-nut milk production generates large amounts of a co-product with a high insoluble fibre content, which is interesting as a bioactive component from a nutritional viewpoint. This co-product is formed by two different tissues in composition, particle size and colour terms, so two different flours were obtained from them. Both flours were included in a wheat-based matrix at different substitution levels: 5%, 10% and 20% (d.b). The surface tension of matrices, and the wettability and diffusion of water and oil, were studied. The results showed the matrix's reduced capacity to interact with solvents, principally from the 10% substitution level, with diminished surface tension, and a longer time was needed for both water and oil to wet and diffuse.

  11. Ethylene: Role in Fruit Abscission and Dehiscence Processes 12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipe, John A.; Morgan, Page W.

    1972-01-01

    Two peaks of ethylene production occur during the development of cotton fruitz (Gossypium hirsutum L.). These periods precede the occurrence of young fruit shedding and mature fruit dehiscence, both of which are abscission phenomena and the latter is generally assumed to be part of the total ripening process. Detailed study of the dehiscence process revealed that ethylene production of individual, attached cotton fruits goes through a rising, cyclic pattern which reaches a maximum prior to dehiscence. With detached pecan fruits (Carya illinoensis [Wang.] K. Koch), ethylene production measured on alternate days rose above 1 microliter per kilogram fresh weight per hour before dehiscence began and reached a peak several days prior to complete dehiscence. Ethylene production by cotton and pecan fruits was measured just prior to dehiscence and then the internal concentration of the gas near the center of the fruit was determined. From these data a ratio of production rate to internal concentration was determined which allowed calculation of the approximate ethylene concentration in the intact fruit prior to dehiscence and selection of appropriate levels to apply to fruits. Ethylene at 10 microliters per liter of air appears to saturate dehiscence of cotton, pecan, and okra (Hibiscus esculentus L.) fruits and the process is completed in 3 to 4 days. In all cases some hastening of dehiscence was observed with as little as 0.1 microliter of exogenous ethylene per liter of air. The time required for response to different levels of ethylene was determined and compared to the time course of ethylene production and dehiscence. We concluded that internal levels of ethylene rose to dehiscence-stimulating levels a sufficience time before dehiscence for the gas to have initiated the process. Since our data and calculations indicate that enough ethylene is made a sufficient time before dehiscence, to account for the process, we propose that ethylene is one of the regulators of

  12. Ethylene: role in fruit abscission and dehiscence processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipe, J A; Morgan, P W

    1972-12-01

    Two peaks of ethylene production occur during the development of cotton fruitz (Gossypium hirsutum L.). These periods precede the occurrence of young fruit shedding and mature fruit dehiscence, both of which are abscission phenomena and the latter is generally assumed to be part of the total ripening process. Detailed study of the dehiscence process revealed that ethylene production of individual, attached cotton fruits goes through a rising, cyclic pattern which reaches a maximum prior to dehiscence. With detached pecan fruits (Carya illinoensis [Wang.] K. Koch), ethylene production measured on alternate days rose above 1 microliter per kilogram fresh weight per hour before dehiscence began and reached a peak several days prior to complete dehiscence. Ethylene production by cotton and pecan fruits was measured just prior to dehiscence and then the internal concentration of the gas near the center of the fruit was determined. From these data a ratio of production rate to internal concentration was determined which allowed calculation of the approximate ethylene concentration in the intact fruit prior to dehiscence and selection of appropriate levels to apply to fruits. Ethylene at 10 microliters per liter of air appears to saturate dehiscence of cotton, pecan, and okra (Hibiscus esculentus L.) fruits and the process is completed in 3 to 4 days. In all cases some hastening of dehiscence was observed with as little as 0.1 microliter of exogenous ethylene per liter of air. The time required for response to different levels of ethylene was determined and compared to the time course of ethylene production and dehiscence. We concluded that internal levels of ethylene rose to dehiscence-stimulating levels a sufficience time before dehiscence for the gas to have initiated the process. Since our data and calculations indicate that enough ethylene is made a sufficient time before dehiscence, to account for the process, we propose that ethylene is one of the regulators of

  13. Biochemical and Histological effects of Aqueous extract of Cyperus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    Treatment with the aqueous extract of Cyperus esculentus attenuated both the biochemical effects and .... Material: Dried Cyperus esculentus tubers were procured from a local ... blood was collected via cardiac and aortic puncture.The blood was put into plain sample bottles ..... Nutrition and physical activity in NAFLD: an.

  14. Extraction and Antioxidant Activity of Phenolic Compounds from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    surface methodology (RSM). The antioxidant ... Keywords: Okra flowers, Extraction, Response surface methodology, Phenolics, Antioxidant. Tropical ... After that, the absorbance was measured at 750 nm versus ... M, pH 6.6) and 2.5 mL of 1 % potassium ferricyanide. ..... polyphenolic compounds from okra seeds and skins.

  15. 75 FR 70143 - Acequinocyl; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-17

    ... bean, edible podded; hop, dried cones; okra and vegetable, fruiting, group 8. The Interregional... degradates in or on vegetable, fruiting, group 8 at 0.7 parts per million (ppm); okra at 0.7 ppm; bean... assessments are estimated to be 2.45 parts per billion (ppb) acequinocyl for surface water and 0.0036 ppb...

  16. Turning coo-coo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Price

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] The pairing of commeal and okra, which pops up everywhere in the Caribbean, nicely captures the amalgam of African and American resources that has produced so much of the region's cultures, and bears witness to the earliness of culinary creolization - on both sides of the Atlantic. Corn(maize is, of course, native to the New World, and okra (gumbo to the Old. The Dictionary of Jamaican English includes back-to-back entries on oka and okra - the former from a Yoruba word for corn, though in Jamaica it refers to a cassava mush served with an okra sauce (Cassidy & Le Page 1967:328. And while the Ewe word kukü means "corn dumpling" (Cassidy & Le Page 1967:135, its Caribbean cognates generally signal the presence of okra - as in Bahamian cuckoo soup (Holm 1982: 55. Just to the north in the United States, that classic of southern cuisine, fried okra, is made by coating the pods in cornmeal before dropping them in the bacon drippings. At the southern end of the Caribbean, the Brazilian dish called angu (from Yoruba - see Schneider 1991:14 is made with cornmeal (or cassava-flour; its Saramaka namesake (angu, though made with rice- or banana-flour, is usually served with an okra sauce. And in Barbados, cornmeal and okra comprise the essential ingredients of a national culinary tradition, which we will spell coo-coo.2

  17. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-01-0431 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-01-0431 ref|YP_001779879.1| putative transmembrane protein [Clostridium botulinum... B1 str. Okra] gb|ACA46715.1| putative membrane protein [Clostridium botulinum B1 str. Okra] YP_001779879.1 0.21 25% ...

  18. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-08-0115 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-08-0115 ref|YP_001779879.1| putative transmembrane protein [Clostridium botulinum... B1 str. Okra] gb|ACA46715.1| putative membrane protein [Clostridium botulinum B1 str. Okra] YP_001779879.1 0.16 25% ...

  19. Journal of Agriculture and Social Research (JASR)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... science, forestry, wildlife and fisheries, environment and waste management, economics, ... Analysis of factors influencing adoption of okra production technologies ... Quality and value chain analyses of Ethiopian coffee · EMAIL FREE FULL ...

  20. STATISTICAL OPTIMIZATION OF PROCESS VARIABLES FOR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-11-03

    Nov 3, 2012 ... predictive results. The osmotic dehydration process was optimized for water loss and solutes gain. ... Process Variables Optimization for Osmotic Dehydration of Okra in Sucrose Solution. 371 ...... Science des Aliments, Vol. 10,.

  1. 7 CFR 201.56-9 - Mallow family, Malvaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... seed: Cotton, kenaf, and okra. (a) General description. (1) Germination habit: Epigeal dicot. (2) Food... epicotyl usually does not show any development within the test period. Areas of yellowish pigmentation...

  2. 缺水条件下棉株有价值经济性状的研究%Study of Economically-valuable Traits of Cotton Plants Cultivated in Water-deficit Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    I. T. KAKHKHAROV; S. M. NABIEV; O. J. JALILOV; N. A. SAAKOVA

    2002-01-01

    @@ The reproductive, adaptive heterosis and economically-valuable traits of hybrids F1, F2and F3 obtained as a result intraspecific crossing G. hirsutum L. parents with ordinary type of leaves and imported Okra-leaves parents had been studied. Perspective of use of cotton forms with types okra-leaf was shown for selection of hybrids combining high reproductive heterosis with vegetation growth, high yield index, fiber quality and early maturity.

  3. Tiger Nut

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of Cyperus esculentus (tiger nut) big yellow and small brown nuts using standard methods. ... proximate analysis show brown yellow variety had higher ash, crude protein .... The data obtained were analyzed for descriptive (i.e. mean, sum, standard .... African Journal of Biotechnology, ... the possible industrial application.

  4. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 50 of 600 ... ... Metals in the Water and Sediment from Challawa Gorge Dam, Kano, Nigeria ... Vol 7, No 1 (2014), Tiger Nut (Cyperus Esculentus): Composition, Products, Uses and ... Vol 5, No 1 (2012), In Vitro Antiplasmodial Activity and Cytotoxicity of ... List All Titles · Free To Read Titles This Journal is Open Access.

  5. African Journal of Biotechnology - Vol 15, No 22 (2016)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparative assessment of different poultry manures and inorganic fertilizer on soil ... Effects of 1.84 GHz radio-frequency electromagnetic field on sperm maturation in ... involved in mtDNA stability using the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans ... Nutritional profiles of tiger Nut (Cyperus esculentus) plant organs during its ...

  6. Biotechnology application of organic mulch as an alternative to the plastic mulch-methyl bromide system for suppressing purple and yellow nutsedges in tomato production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyperus rotundus and C. esculentus (purple and yellow nutsedges, respectively) are among the most serious weed problems in many cropping systems in Florida and other parts of the world. They have been reported to cause yield losses of 20-89% in various horticultural crops. Production systems based o...

  7. Role of cutaneous surface fluid in frog osmoregulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Erik Hviid; Ramløv, Hans

    2013-01-01

    The study investigated whether evaporative water loss (EWL) in frogs stems from water diffusing through the skin or fluid secreted by mucous glands. Osmolality of cutaneous surface fluid (CSF) of Rana esculenta (Pelophylax kl. esculentus) subjected to isoproterenol or 30 °C–34 °C was 191 ± 9...

  8. 21 CFR 155.200 - Certain other canned vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... canned vegetable II—Source III—Optional forms of vegetable ingredient Artichokes Flower buds of the... of the celery plant Cut; hearts. Collards Leaves of the collard plant Dandelion greens Leaves of the dandelion plant Kale Leaves of the kale plant Mustard greens Leaves of the mustard plant Okra Pods of the...

  9. 78 FR 76987 - Mandipropamid; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-20

    ... factors, with the exception of chemical-specific processing factors for grape wine and sherry. iii. Cancer... tolerances in or on grape at 1.4 ppm; onion, dry bulb at 0.05 ppm; onion, green at 4 ppm; okra at 1.0 ppm.... Cancer (Oral, dermal, inhalation).. Classified as not likely to be carcinogenic to humans. FQPA SF = Food...

  10. 40 CFR 180.564 - Indoxacarb; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... byproducts 0.03 Horse, fat 1.5 Horse, meat 0.05 Horse, meat byproducts 0.03 Milk 0.15 Milk, fat 4.0 Okra 0.50... Sheep, fat 1.5 Sheep, meat 0.05 Sheep, meat byproducts 0.03 Soybean, hulls 4.0 Soybean, seed...

  11. Some engineering properties of white kidney beans (Phaseolus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-12-19

    Dec 19, 2011 ... average, the bean contains 21.7 g protein, 0.75 g oil, 55.2 g total carbohydrates ..... some physico-chemical properties of Turkey okra (Hibiscus esculenta. L.) seeds. ... major commercial Turkish hazelnut varieties. J. Food Eng.

  12. Eksootilised maitsed / Sergo Sarapuu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sarapuu, Sergo

    2016-01-01

    Eksootilistest taimedest ja viljadest: laimkinkan, sõrmlaim (finger lime), draakonivili, granadill, okra, aed-harakputk, enoki ja Shimeji seened, kurkum, kalgan, lehtkapsas e kale, lootose juur, lilla porgand, kartul `Blue Congo`, roosa-valgetriibuline peet, soolarohi ja paksoi e hiina lehtnaeris ning mini-paksoi

  13. Steam Cooking Significantly Improves in Vitro Bile Acid Binding of Beets, Eggplant, Asparagus, Carrots, Green Beans and Cauliflower

    Science.gov (United States)

    The relative healthful potential of cooked beets, okra, eggplant, asparagus, carrots, green beans, cauliflower and turnips was evaluated by determining their in vitro bile acid binding using a mixture of bile acids secreted in human bile at a duodenal physiological pH of 6.3. Six treatments and two...

  14. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-08-0090 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-08-0090 ref|YP_001389914.1| carbon starvation protein CstA [Clostridium botulinum F str. Langel... Okra] gb|ABS40952.1| carbon starvation protein CstA [Clostridium botulinum F str. Langeland] gb|ACA43558.1|

  15. jfewr ©2016 - jfewr Publications

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EXAMINATION OFFICER

    (glass jar, plastic and stainless steel), as well as make a comparism when spices (garlic, ginger, mixture of garlic and ginger) ... The mean calcium content of okra stored in plastic (80.730%) ..... Figure 4: Graphical Illustration of the V. 11.700.

  16. LEGON AT 60: NEW DIRECTIONS FOR THE HUMANITIES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Akan describe our make up as Body-nipadua, Soul-okra, which links .... How often do we say, "How can this happen? How can .... saying sending girls to school entails keeping boys out of school or even ... There is no smoke without a fire.

  17. Journal of Agriculture and Social Research, Vol. 13, No.2, 2013 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chayo

    farmers had mean farm sizes of 1.05 hectares as against 1.07 hectares for Aninri Okra farmers. ... It ranks first before other vegetable crops (Babatunde, 2007). There are two ...... This will curb youth rural-urban migration, thus helping in ...

  18. Navies in Asia: A Survey of the Development of Ten Navies in South and South East Asia, 1945-1992

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-11-01

    KACHCIIH OULF OF KACHC0HH 15!J.6ý 78 -PIrt Okra ’PAPA’ ak Diu QIJLFOFKHAMBAT " BRAVO " PAKISTAN -- 4 Bma PATROL -AREAS 0 100 200 300 NAUTICAL MILES WSAflYOm...Fidel Ramos in October 1984. Although Ramos had a programme for reform, he focused on internal discipline and the reorganisation of the Army and

  19. Survival and preference of cotton boll weevil adults for alternative food sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Pimenta

    Full Text Available Abstract Plants that have potential as alternative food source (floral nectar, pollen and plant tissues to the boll weevil during the intercropping season were evaluated considering the prevalent conditions of Cerrado in the Central Brazil. Initially, we tested the nutritional adequacy for the survival of the insect of flower resource (pollen and nectar provided by eight plant species (fennel, mexican sunflower, castor bean, okra, hibiscus, sorghum, pigeonpea and sunn hemp. Subsequently, we tested if the resources provided by the selected plants continued to be exploited by the boll weevil in the presence of cotton plant, its main food source average longevity of boll weevil adults was significantly longer when they were fed on hibiscus’ flowers (166.6 ± 74.4 and okra flowers (34.7 ± 28.9 than when they fed on flowers of other six species. Subsequently, the preference of the boll weevil in the use of resources was compared between okra or hibiscus and cotton plants, in dual choice experiments. Boll weevils preferred plants of the three species in the reproductive stages than those in vegetative stages. Although the cotton plant in the reproductive stage was the most preferred plant of all, boll weevils preferred flowering okra and hibiscus than cotton at the vegetative stage.

  20. Eksootilised maitsed / Sergo Sarapuu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sarapuu, Sergo

    2016-01-01

    Eksootilistest taimedest ja viljadest: laimkinkan, sõrmlaim (finger lime), draakonivili, granadill, okra, aed-harakputk, enoki ja Shimeji seened, kurkum, kalgan, lehtkapsas e kale, lootose juur, lilla porgand, kartul `Blue Congo`, roosa-valgetriibuline peet, soolarohi ja paksoi e hiina lehtnaeris ning mini-paksoi

  1. USAF Food Habits Study. Part I. Method and Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-10-01

    071 Bananas 072 Cola 073 Avocado Salad 074 Frijole Salad 075 Burritos 076 Fresh Coffee 077 Buttered Mixed Vegetables 07ft Beef Stew 079...Avocado Salad 172 Raisin Pie 74 Frijole Salad 177 Funistrada 79 Guacamole Dip 179 Buttered Zucchini Squash 95 Wheat Germ 184 Banana Salad 98 Fried Okra

  2. 40 CFR 180.511 - Buprofezin; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... byproducts 20.0 Cotton, undelinted seed 0.35 Custard apple 0.30 Feijoa 0.30 Fruit, citrus, group 10 2.5 Fruit... 6.0 Loganberry 0.30 Lychee 0.30 Mango 0.90 Milk 0.01 Okra 4.0 Olive 3.5 Olive, oil 4.8 Papaya...

  3. Morphoanatomy of the stem in Cyperaceae Morfoanatomia do caule de algumas Cyperaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Claudia Rodrigues

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Cyperaceae are usually perennial, with underground stems mainly rhizomatous, however, other stem types may also occur, such as corms and tubers. The underground stems of five Cyperaceae species were examined. Cyperus rotundus and Fuirena umbellata have plagiotropic rhizomes, while C. esculentus, C. odoratus, Hypolytrum schraderianum and Bulbostylis paradoxa have orthotropic rhizomes. Corms occur in C. rotundus and C. esculentus, and stolons in C. esculentus. The primary body originates from the activity of the apical meristem and later, from the primary thickening meristem (PTM. Secondary growth results from secondary thickening meristem (STM activity, and occurs in rhizomes of H. schraderianum, B. paradoxa, C. odotarus and F. umbellata. The procambium and the PTM give rise to collateral bundles in H. schraderianum, and amphivasal bundles in the remaining species. The STM gives rise to the vascular system with the associated phloem and xylem. According to our results, the concept of stem type in Cyperaceae depends on external morphology, function, life phase, activity of the thickening meristems and the relative amount of parenchyma.As espécies da família Cyperaceae são normalmente perenes com caule subterrâneo principalmente do tipo rizomas, entretanto outros tipos também podem ocorrer, como cormos e tubérculos. Foram examinados os caules subterrâneos de cinco espécies de Cyperaceae. Cyperus rotundus e Fuirena umbellata tem rizoma plagiotrópico, enquanto que C. esculentus, C. odoratus, Hypolytrum schraderianum e Bulbostylis paradoxa tem rizoma ortotrópico. Em C. rotundus e C. esculentus ocorrem cormos e em C. esculentus ocorrem estolões. O corpo primário é originado a partir da atividade do meristema apical e em níveis subseqüentes, a partir do meristema de espessamento primário (MEP. O crescimento secundário é resultado da atividade do meristema de espessamento secundário (MES, e ocorre nos rizomas de H. schraderianum, B

  4. Weed Hosts of Meloidogyne arenaria and M. incognita Common in Tobacco Fields in South Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedford, E C; Fortnum, B A

    1988-10-01

    Thirty-two weed species common in South Carolina and one cultivar of tobacco were evaluated as hosts of Meloidogyne arenaria race 2 and M. incognita race 3 in the greenhouse. Egg mass production and galling differed (P Rumex crispus, Amaranthus hybridus, Ambrosia artemisiifolia, lpomoea hederacea var. integriuscula, Setaria lutescens, Sida spinosa, Portulaca oleracea, and Rumex acetosella were moderate hosts. Taraxacum officinale, Ipomoea hederacea, Cyperus esculentus, Cynodon dactyIon, Echinochloa crus-galli, Eleusine indica, Sorghum halepense, Setaria viridis, Digitaria sanguinalis, and Datura stramonium were poor hosts for M. arenaria. Amaranthus palmeri, Amaranthus hybridus, Chenopodium album, Euphorbia maculata, Setaria lutescens, Vicia villosa, Sida spinosa, Rumex crispus, and Portulaca oleracea were moderate hosts and Ipomoea hederacea var. integriuscula, Xanthium strumarium, Cyperus esculentus, Cynodon dactylon, Paspalum notatum, Eleusine indica, Setaria viridis, and Rumex acetosella were poor hosts for M. incognita. None of the above were good hosts for M. incognita. Tobacco 'PD4' supported large numbers of both nematode species.

  5. Coexistence analysis of diploid and triploid hybrid water frogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apri, M.; Suandi, D.; Soewono, E.

    2014-02-01

    A dynamical model for genotype distributions of all hybrid populations of Pelophylax esculentus in the absence of differential survival is studied here. Assuming that under natural condition the parental genotypes LL and RR do not survive into adult stage, the dynamic is then reduced into three-dimensional dynamical system of classes LR, LLR, LRR genotypes. Coexistence of diploid (LR) and triploid (LLR and LRR) genotypes is analyzed here.

  6. Olim palus, where once upon a time the marsh: distribution, demography, ecology and threats of amphibians in the Circeo National Park (Central Italy)

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio Romano; Riccardo Novaga; Andrea Costa

    2016-01-01

    The Circeo National Park lies in a territory that was deeply shaped by human activity, and represents one of the few remaining patches of plain wetland habitat in Central Italy. In this study distribution and few demographic information of the amphibians in the Park were provided. Seven species and 25 bibliographic and 84 original breeding sites were recorded, and population size estimations were carried out for a population of these three species: Pelophylax sinkl esculentus, Bufo balearicus...

  7. A preliminary survey of primitive crops cultivated in the northern Transvaal of South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    T. H. Arnold; K. J. Musil

    1983-01-01

    The different tribal economies of South Africa rely extensively on a number of primitive crop taxa which are cultivated as a primary food source. The most important of these include  Sorghum bicolor,  Pennisetum americanum, Citrullus lanatus, Lagenaria siceraria, Vigna unguiculata, Voandzeia subterranea and  Hibiscus esculentus. Morphological variation within these and a number of less important crops is discussed. The frequency with which each crop is grown and preference ratings allotted to...

  8. Phytoremediation potential and ecological and phenological changes of native pioneer plants from weathered oil spill-impacted sites at tropical wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palma-Cruz, Felipe de J; Pérez-Vargas, Josefina; Rivera Casado, Noemí Araceli; Gómez Guzmán, Octavio; Calva-Calva, Graciano

    2016-08-01

    Pioneer native plant species from weathered oil spill-affected sites were selected to study their potential for phytoremediation on the basis of their ecological and phenological changes during the phytoremediation process. Experiments were conducted in field and in greenhouse. In field, native plants from aged oil spill-impacted sites with up 400 g of weathered petroleum hydrocarbons per kilogram soil were selected. In the impacted sites, the principal dominant plant species with potential for hydrocarbons removal were Cyperus laxus, Cyperus esculentus, and Ludwigia peploides. In greenhouse, the phenology of the selected plant species was drastically affected by the hydrocarbons level above 325 g total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) per kilogram soil after 2 years of phytoremediation of soils from the aged oil spill-impacted sites. From the phytoremediation treatments, a mix-culture of C. laxus, C. esculentus, and L. peploides in soil containing 325 g TPH/kg soil, from which 20.3 % were polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and 34.2 % were asphaltenes (ASF), was able to remove up 93 % of the TPH, while in unvegetated soil the TPH removal was 12.6 %. Furthermore, evaluation of the biodiversity and life forms of plant species in the impacted sites showed that phytoremediation with C. esculentus, alone or in a mix-culture with C. laxus and L. peploides, reduces the TPH to such extent that the native plant community was progressively reestablished by replacing the cultivated species resulting in the ecological recovery of the affected soil. These results demonstrate that native Cyperus species from weathered oil spill-affected sites, specifically C. esculentus and C. laxus, alone or in a mix-culture, have particular potential for phytoremediation of soils from tropical wetlands contaminated with weathered oil hydrocarbons.

  9. Effects of industrial wastewater on growth and biomass production in commonly grown vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzma, Syeda; Azizullah, Azizullah; Bibi, Roqaia; Nabeela, Farhat; Muhammad, Uzair; Ali, Imran; Rehman, Zia Ur; Häder, Donat-Peter

    2016-06-01

    In developing countries like Pakistan, irrigation of crops with industrial and municipal wastewater is a common practice. However, the impact of wastewater irrigation on vegetables growth has rarely been studied. Therefore, the present study was conducted to determine the effect of industrial wastewater on the germination and seedling growth of some commonly grown vegetables in Pakistan. Wastewater samples were collected from two different industries (marble industry and match alam factory) at Hayatabad Industrial Estate (HIE) in Peshawar, Pakistan, and their effect on different growth parameters of four vegetables including Hibiscus esculentus, Lactuca sativa, Cucumis sativus, and Cucumis melo was investigated. The obtained results revealed that wastewater from marble industry did not affect seed germination except a minor inhibition in H. esculentus. Effluents from match alam factory stimulated seed germination in C. melo and C. sativus but had no effect on seed germination in the other two vegetables. Wastewater increased root and shoot length in H. esculentus, L. sativa and C. melo, but decreased it in C. sativus. Similarly, differential effects of wastewater were observed on fresh and dry biomass of seedlings in all vegetables. It can be concluded that wastewater may have different effects on different crops, depending upon the nature of wastewater and sensitivity of a plant species to wastewater.

  10. Aflatoxins in various food from Istanbul, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacıbekiroğlu, I; Kolak, U

    2013-01-01

    The present work reports the total aflatoxin and aflatoxin B1 levels in 62 food samples from Istanbul, Turkey. The total aflatoxin content in dried American cucumber, squash, tomato, okra and saffron samples was found to be 1.7 μg/kg. AFB1 levels in five dried vegetables (red bell pepper, American cucumber, squash, tomato and okra), two tea (linden and jasmine flower) and three spice samples (cardamom, galangal and saffron) were 1 μg/kg. Of the tested samples, 76% exceeded legal limits of total aflatoxin. The highest levels were determined in chestnut (232.9 μg/kg), nutmeg (206.1 μg/kg) and sumac (182.5 μg/kg). These findings confirm the existing knowledge that food should be regularly and effectively controlled.

  11. Three distinct begomoviruses associated with soybean in central Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Fernanda R; Cruz, A R R; Faria, J C; Zerbini, F M; Aragão, Francisco J L

    2009-01-01

    We report the complete nucleotide sequences of geminiviruses of the genus Begomovirus infecting soybean (Glycine max) in central Brazil. Samples obtained from soybean plants collected at Santo Antonio de Goiás, Goiás State, showing typical symptoms of viral infection, were analyzed. Infection was confirmed by PCR-based amplification of a DNA-A fragment with universal begomovirus primers. Total DNA from infected plants was then subjected to rolling-circle amplification (RCA), and 2.6-kb molecules were cloned into plasmid vectors. Sequencing of the three DNA-A and two DNA-B clones thus obtained confirmed infection by three distinct begomoviruses: bean golden mosaic virus, Sida micrantha mosaic virus and okra mottle virus, the last of which was reported recently to be a novel virus infecting okra plants in Brazil. Begomovirus infection of soybean plants has been reported sporadically in Brazil and has generally not been considered to be of economic relevance.

  12. 40 CFR 180.598 - Novaluron; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ....0 Milk 1.0 Milk, fat 20 Naranjilla 1.0 Okra 1.0 Plum, prune, dried 2.6 Poultry, fat 7.0 Poultry, kidney 0.80 Poultry, liver 0.80 Poultry, meat 0.40 Poultry, meat byproducts 0.80 Roselle 1.0 Sheep, fat 11 Sheep, kidney 1.0 Sheep, liver 1.0 Sheep, meat 0.60 Sheep, meat byproducts, except kidney...

  13. 40 CFR 180.639 - Flubendiamide; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Horse, liver 0.30 Horse, muscle 0.05 Milk 0.04 Milk, fat 0.30 Nut, tree, group 14 0.06 Okra 0.30 Poultry, fat 0.02 Poultry, liver 0.01 Poultry, muscle 0.01 Sheep, fat 0.30 Sheep, kidney 0.30 Sheep, liver 0.30 Sheep, muscle 0.05 Vegetable, cucurbit, group 9 0.20 Vegetable, fruiting, group 8 0.60 ppm...

  14. Modifications to a LATE MERISTEM IDENTITY1 gene are responsible for the major leaf shapes of Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andres, Ryan J; Coneva, Viktoriya; Frank, Margaret H; Tuttle, John R; Samayoa, Luis Fernando; Han, Sang-Won; Kaur, Baljinder; Zhu, Linglong; Fang, Hui; Bowman, Daryl T; Rojas-Pierce, Marcela; Haigler, Candace H; Jones, Don C; Holland, James B; Chitwood, Daniel H; Kuraparthy, Vasu

    2017-01-03

    Leaf shape varies spectacularly among plants. Leaves are the primary source of photoassimilate in crop plants, and understanding the genetic basis of variation in leaf morphology is critical to improving agricultural productivity. Leaf shape played a unique role in cotton improvement, as breeders have selected for entire and lobed leaf morphs resulting from a single locus, okra (l-D1), which is responsible for the major leaf shapes in cotton. The l-D1 locus is not only of agricultural importance in cotton, but through pioneering chimeric and morphometric studies, it has contributed to fundamental knowledge about leaf development. Here we show that an HD-Zip transcription factor homologous to the LATE MERISTEM IDENTITY1 (LMI1) gene of Arabidopsis is the causal gene underlying the l-D1 locus. The classical okra leaf shape allele has a 133-bp tandem duplication in the promoter, correlated with elevated expression, whereas an 8-bp deletion in the third exon of the presumed wild-type normal allele causes a frame-shifted and truncated coding sequence. Our results indicate that subokra is the ancestral leaf shape of tetraploid cotton that gave rise to the okra allele and that normal is a derived mutant allele that came to predominate and define the leaf shape of cultivated cotton. Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) of the LMI1-like gene in an okra variety was sufficient to induce normal leaf formation. The developmental changes in leaves conferred by this gene are associated with a photosynthetic transcriptomic signature, substantiating its use by breeders to produce a superior cotton ideotype.

  15. Push-pull Strategy with Trap Crops, Neem and Nuclear Polyhedrosis Virus for Insecticide Resistance Management in Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner in Cotton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Duraimurugan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Insecticide resistance in Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner is a major threat to cotton production in India. The virus infection was found to increase the susceptibility of H. armigera to the insecticides. But, use of Nuclear Polyhedrosis Virus (NPV on a larger scale and on cotton due to leaf alkalinity poses certain practical problems. Hence, studies were carried out to assess the effects of push-pull strategy with trap crops, neem and NPV in cotton for the management of insecticide resistant H. armigera. Field experiments were conducted on cotton (MCU5 with trap crops (okra and pigeonpea and neem was used to diversify the pests to trap crops whereby the control of these pests was assessed with the application of NPV. The preference of H. armigera was towards okra and pigeonpea as a trap crop compared to cotton. Application of NSKE on cotton diversified the H. armigera towards untreated okra and pigeonpea. Push-pull strategy with the conjunctive use of trap crops, restricted application of NSKE on cotton leaving trap crops and restricted application of NPV on trap crops was highly effective in reducing the incidence of H. armigera and damage to fruiting bodies, boll, locule and inter locule basis over cotton sole crop (untreated check. The percent recovery of NPV infected larvae varied from 37.5-47.5, 32.8-39.2 and 14.2-20.2% on okra, pigeon pea and cotton respectively. The synthetic pyrethroids resistance in field survived H. armigera at the end of the season was reduced from 87.5-93.1% to 76.4-84.3%.

  16. 75 FR 5526 - Chlorantraniliprole; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-03

    ....0 ppm; chocolate at 3.0 ppm; citrus, dried pulp at 14.0 ppm; cocoa powder at 3.0 ppm; coffee, bean...; oil radish at 0.3 ppm; okra at 0.7 ppm; olive at 4.0 ppm; olive, oil at 40.0 ppm; papaya at 2.0 ppm... seed at 0.3 ppm; poultry, fat at 0.02 ppm; poultry, meat at 0.02 ppm; poultry, meat byproducts at...

  17. Zingiber officinale (GENGIBRE COMO FONTE ENZIMÁTICA NA REDUÇÃO DE COMPOSTOS CARBONÍLICOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo A. Alves

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Various vegetables as biological catalysts were evaluated in enantioselective reduction of carbonyl compounds. The stereoselectivity of the process was in agreement with Prelog's rule for twelve of the vegetables, whereas okra and green peppers formed anti-Prelog products. Zingiber officinale exhibited the best results with 30% conversion and 89% ee. The parameters of the reaction such as time, solvent and other substrates investigated, as well as the specie, showed good chemo- and enantioselectivity.

  18. Armed Forces Food Preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-12-01

    CD CO CO CD CO CD CO (DC© (BXDCDCD ®®CO®®®®®®® 144 Chocolate Cream Pie o CD CO CD CD CO <D CO <B CO ■S» ©CDCDCD ®CDCD®®®CÖCD®® 14& Frijole Salad o CD...FRIED OKRA FRIED OYSTERS FRIED PARSNIPS FRIED PIE (FRUIT) FRIED RICE FRIJOLE SALAD FROZEN GREEN BEANS FROZEN LIMA BEANS FROZEN PEAS FRUIT

  19. Special Inspector General for Afghanistan Reconstruction Quarterly Report to the United States Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-30

    for prosecutors. DoS also stressed the importance of strengthening anti-corruption laws by drafting specifi c sentencing guidelines.168 According...Nangarhar, Nuristan, Ghazni, Paktika, Logar, Nimroz, Kandahar, Zabul AVIPA 74,168 vouchers redeemed for melon, legume , okra, vegetable, corn, and forage...and the Hajigak iron mine could total more than 1% of GDP.342 This quarter, DoS reported that it is working to help the GIRoA set up the legal and

  20. 40 CFR 180.572 - Bifenazate; tolerance for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... commodities: Commodity Parts per million Acerola 0.90 Almond, hulls 15 Apple, wet pomace 1.2 Bean, dry seed 0... byproducts 35 Cotton, undelinted seed 0.75 Feijoa 0.90 Fruit, pome, group 11 0.75 Fruit, stone, group 12... Horse, fat 0.10 Jaboticaba 0.90 Longan 5.0 Lychee 5.0 Mango 7.0 Nut, tree, group 14 0.20 Okra 2.0...

  1. Toilet compost and human urine used in agriculture: fertilizer value assessment and effect on cultivated soil properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangare, D; Sou Dakoure, M; Hijikata, N; Lahmar, R; Yacouba, H; Coulibaly, L; Funamizu, N

    2015-01-01

    Toilet compost (TC) and human urine are among natural fertilizers, which raise interest due to their double advantages to combine sanitation and nutrient recovery. However, combination of urine and TC is not so spread probably because the best ratio (urine/TC) is still an issue and urine effect on soil chemical properties remains poorly documented. This study aims to determine the best ratio of urine and TC in okra cultivation, by targeting higher fertilization effect combined with lower impact on soil chemical properties. Based on Nitrogen requirement of okra, seven treatments were compared: (T0) no fertilizer, (T1) chemical fertilizer (NPK: 14-23-14), (T2) 100% urine, (T3) 100% TC, (T4) ratio of 75% urine+25% TC, (T5) 50% urine+50% TC and (T6) 25% urine+75% TC. Results indicated that T4 (75% urine+25% TC) gave the highest plant height and yield. In contrast, T2 (100% urine) gave the lowest results among all treatments, indicating toxicity effects on plant growth and associated final yield. Such toxicity is confirmed by soil chemical properties at T2 with soil acidification and significant increase in soil salinity. In contrast, application of urine together with TC mitigates soil acidification and salinity, highlighting the efficiency of urine and TC combination on soil chemical properties. However, further investigation is necessary to refine better urine/TC ratio for okra production.

  2. 黄秋葵挥发油对小菜蛾的触角电位反应及趋性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王彦阳; 崔志新; 梁广文

    2011-01-01

    通过触角电位仪测定了小菜蛾Plutella xylostella(L.)对黄秋葵(Abelmoschus esculentus(L.)Moench Meth)挥发油的触角电位反应。结果表明,黄秋葵挥发油对小菜蛾成虫的触角电位反应强度与挥发油剂量成正比。四臂嗅觉仪实验进一步表明,黄秋葵挥发油对小菜蛾起到驱避作用。

  3. A simplified molecular method for distinguishing among species and ploidy levels in European water frogs (Pelophylax).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauswaldt, J Susanne; Höer, Manuela; Ogielska, Maria; Christiansen, Ditte G; Dziewulska-Szwajkowska, Daria; Czernicka, Elżbieta; Vences, Miguel

    2012-09-01

    Western Palearctic water frogs in the genus Pelophylax are a set of morphologically similar anuran species that form hybridogenetic complexes. Fully reliable identification of species and especially of hybrid ploidy depends on karyological and molecular methods. In central Europe, native water frog populations consist of the Pelophylax esculentus complex, that is, P. lessonae (LL), P. ridibundus (RR) and the hybrid form P. esculentus that can have different karyotypes (RL, LLR and RRL). We developed existing molecular methods further and propose a simple PCR method based on size-differences in the length of the serum albumin intron-1 and the RanaCR1, a non-LTR retrotransposon of the chicken repeat (CR) family. This PCR yields taxon-specific banding patterns that can easily be screened by standard agarose gel electrophoresis and correctly identify species in all of the 160 samples that had been identified to karyotype with other methods. To distinguish ploidy levels in LR, LLR and RRL specimens, we used the ratio of the peak heights of the larger (ridibundus specific) to the smaller (lessonae specific) bands of fluorescently labelled PCR products resolved on a capillary DNA sequencer and obtained a correct assignment of the karyotype in 93% of cases. Our new method will cut down time and expenses drastically for a reliable identification of water frogs of the P. esculentus complex and potentially for identification of other hybridogenetic complexes and/or taxa, and it even serves as a good indicator of the ploidy status of hybrid individuals.

  4. Antibacterial activities of the methanol extracts of Canarium schweinfurthii and four other Cameroonian dietary plants against multi-drug resistant Gram-negative bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joachim K. Dzotam

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial infections are among the major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The present study was designed to evaluate the in vitro antibacterial activities of the methanol extracts of five Cameroonian edible plants namely Colocasia esculenta, Triumfetta pentandra, Hibiscus esculentus, Canarium schweinfurthii and Annona muricata against a panel of 19 multidrug resistant Gram-negative bacterial strains. The liquid broth microdilution was used to determine the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC of the extracts. The preliminary phytochemical screening of the extracts was conducted according to the standard phytochemical methods. Results showed that all extracts contained compounds belonging to the classes of polyphenols, triterpenes and steroids, other classes of chemicals being selectively distributed. Canarium schweinfurthii extract showed the best activity with MIC values ranging from 64 to 1024 μg/mL against 89.5% of the 19 tested bacteria strains. MIC values below or equal to 1024 μg/mL were also recorded with Triumfetta pentandra, Annona muricata, Colocasia esculenta and Hibiscus esculentus extracts respectively against 15/19 (78.9%, 11/19 (57.9%, 10/19 (52.6% and 10/19 (52.6% tested bacteria. Extract from C. schweinfurthii displayed the lowest MIC value (64 μg/mL against Escherichia coli AG100ATet. Finally, the results of this work provide baseline information for the use of C. esculenta, T. pentandra, H. esculentus, C. schweinfurthii and A. muricata in the treatment of bacterial infections including multidrug resistant phenotypes.

  5. Antibacterial activities of the methanol extracts of Canarium schweinfurthii and four other Cameroonian dietary plants against multi-drug resistant Gram-negative bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzotam, Joachim K; Touani, Francesco K; Kuete, Victor

    2016-09-01

    Bacterial infections are among the major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The present study was designed to evaluate the in vitro antibacterial activities of the methanol extracts of five Cameroonian edible plants namely Colocasia esculenta, Triumfetta pentandra, Hibiscus esculentus, Canarium schweinfurthii and Annona muricata against a panel of 19 multidrug resistant Gram-negative bacterial strains. The liquid broth microdilution was used to determine the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) of the extracts. The preliminary phytochemical screening of the extracts was conducted according to the standard phytochemical methods. Results showed that all extracts contained compounds belonging to the classes of polyphenols, triterpenes and steroids, other classes of chemicals being selectively distributed. Canarium schweinfurthii extract showed the best activity with MIC values ranging from 64 to 1024 μg/mL against 89.5% of the 19 tested bacteria strains. MIC values below or equal to 1024 μg/mL were also recorded with Triumfetta pentandra, Annona muricata, Colocasia esculenta and Hibiscus esculentus extracts respectively against 15/19 (78.9%), 11/19 (57.9%), 10/19 (52.6%) and 10/19 (52.6%) tested bacteria. Extract from C. schweinfurthii displayed the lowest MIC value (64 μg/mL) against Escherichia coli AG100ATet. Finally, the results of this work provide baseline information for the use of C. esculenta, T. pentandra, H. esculentus, C. schweinfurthii and A. muricata in the treatment of bacterial infections including multidrug resistant phenotypes.

  6. Salida de campo a la laguna de La Nava (Fuentes de Nava, Palencia) los días 1, 2 y 3 de noviembre de 1952

    OpenAIRE

    Valverde Gómez, José Antonio, 1926-2003

    2008-01-01

    Salida de campo a la laguna de La Nava, en Fuentes de Nava, recorriendo también Grijota y Villamartín de Campos, en la provincia de Palencia, los días 1, 2 y 3 de noviembre de 1952, de la que se anotaron observaciones sobre el pez Carassius sp. (Pez rojo), el reptil Natrix maura (Culebra viperina, llamada Tropidonotus viperinus por el autor), los siguientes anfibios: Pelobates cultripes (Sapo de espuelas) y Pelophylax esculentus (Rana verde europea, llamada Rana sculenta o R.esculenta ridibun...

  7. Volatile components associated with bacterial spoilage of tropical prawns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chinivasagam, H.N.; Bremner, Allan; Wood, A.F.

    1998-01-01

    Analysis of headspace volatiles by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry from king (Penaeus plebejus), banana (P. merguiensis), tiger (P. esculentus/semisulcatus) and greasy (Metapenaeus bennettae) prawns stored in ice or ice slurry, which is effectively an environment of low oxygen tension......, whereas sulphides and amines occurred whether the predominant spoilage organism was Ps.fragi or Shewanella putrefaciens. The free amino acid profiles of banana and king prawns were high in arginine (12-14%) and low in cysteine (0.1-0.17%) and methionine (0.1-0.2%). Filter sterilised raw banana prawn broth...

  8. Efeito do bentazon e bentazon + dichlorprop na cultura do arroz irrigado e sobre as plantas daninhas Effect of bentazon and bentazon + dichlorprop on irrigated rice and weeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.A.L. dos Santos

    1979-06-01

    Full Text Available Foi instalado um experimento de campo, em solo barrento, com a finalidade de se verificar o efeito do bentazon e da mistura de bentazon + dichlorprop sobre o desenvolvimento do arroz em cultura irrigada e sobre o controle das plantas daninhas. Os tratamentos utilizados foram os seguintes: bentazon á 0,75-1,00 e1,50 kg/ha; bentazon + dichlorprop a 0,80 + 1,00 e 1,00 + 1,40 kg/ha; propanil a 4,20 kg/ha (tratamento padrão; testemunha capinada e testemunha sem capina. Todas as pulverizações foram realizadas em pósemergência. As plantas daninhas encontradas no experimento foram: capituva - Echinochloa colonum (L Link, tiririca amarela - Cyperus esculentus L., beldroega - Portulaca oleracea L. e carurú comum - Amaranthus viridis L. Bentazon a 1,00 e 1,50 kg/ha e bentazon + dichlorprop a 1,00 + 1,40 kg/ha foram eficientes no controle de P. oleracea, A. viridis e C. esculentus; já a dose menor de bentazon apresentou bons resultados contra P. oleracea e A. viridis, enquanto que a dose menor de bentazon + dichlorprop controlou apenas P. oleracea. Propanil, de uma maneira geral, proporcionou eficiente ação sobre as plantas daninhas. Nas condições em que foi realizado o experimento nenhum dos herbicidas, nas suas respectivas doses, apresentou fitotoxicidade para as plantas de arroz da variedade IAC-435 ou prejudicou a produção da cultura.Bentazon at 0.75 - 1.00 and 1.50 kg/ha a.i ., bentazon + dichlorprop at 0.80 + 1.00 and 1.00 + 1.40 kg and propanil at 4.20 kg were applied in post-emergence on irrigated rice, against the following weeds: Echinochloa colonum (L. Link, Cy-perus esc-ulentus L., Portulaca oleracea L. and Amaranthus viridis L. Bentazon at 1.00 - 1.50 kg and bentazon + dichlorprop at 1.00 + 1.40 kg gave good control of P. oleracea, A. viridis and C. esculentus; bentazon at 0.75 kg controlled P. oleracea and A. viridis; bentazon + dichlorprop at 0.80 + 1.00 kg only showed effeciency for P. oleracea; propanil, in general, gave good

  9. A preliminary survey of primitive crops cultivated in the northern Transvaal of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. H. Arnold

    1983-12-01

    Full Text Available The different tribal economies of South Africa rely extensively on a number of primitive crop taxa which are cultivated as a primary food source. The most important of these include  Sorghum bicolor,  Pennisetum americanum, Citrullus lanatus, Lagenaria siceraria, Vigna unguiculata, Voandzeia subterranea and  Hibiscus esculentus. Morphological variation within these and a number of less important crops is discussed. The frequency with which each crop is grown and preference ratings allotted to them by individual tribal families are compared between the three major ethnic regions of the northern Transvaal. Factors which determine preferences are also discussed and suggestions made relating to germ plasm conservation.

  10. Etude d'un système de désherbage de la culture cotonnière au Burundi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carême, C.

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Cotton Weeds and Study of a Chemical Cotton Weeding System in Burundi. Cotton fields maintenance is a major constraint for farmers in Burundi. A chemical cotton herbicide system has studied and used to adjust an integrated weed management system especially against Cyperus esculentus L. during annual crop rotation. "Low volume spraying" herbicides provided efficient crop weeding during the six first weeks after sowing and increased the average productivity with 16 to 33 %. Herbicides had no negative effect on the bean crops following a cotton in the rotation.

  11. Investigation of the stability of hemiclonal population systems of water frogs hybridogeneous complex by the means of simulation modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. O. Kravchenko

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of stability used in ecology and mathematics is analyzed. Stability is interpreted as the ability of the system to remain in a restricted zone of a phase space that corresponds to a certain type of systems. This approach is applied to describe changes in the structure of hemiclonal population systems of hybridogenous complex of water frogs (Pelophylax esculentus complex. Simulation model of these population systems built on a recursive difference equations in MS Excel is used. The dynamics of transitions in the part of phase space of the hemiclonal populationsystems of water frogs is described. Typology of stabile states of biosystems is analyzed.

  12. Heavy metal uptake by selected marsh plant species grown in hydroponic cultures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, C.R.; Sturgis, T.C.; Landin, M.C.

    1975-01-01

    Eight marsh plant species (Cyperus esculentus, Scirpus validus, Spartina patens, Scirpus robustus, Triglochin maritima, Distichlis spicata, Spartina alterniflora, and Spartina foliosa) were grown under greenhouse conditions in chemically controlled nutrient solutions. Heavy metals (zinc, cadmium, nickel, chromium, and lead) were added to the nutrient solutions at levels of 0, 0.5, and 1.0 mg/l. Plant parts (leaves, rhizomes, tubers, and roots) were harvested separately for each species and analyzed for heavy metal content. The concentration and plant uptake of heavy metals in each plant species will be discussed.

  13. Glyphosate/MSMA混用对抗草甘膦棉的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛巧鱼

    2004-01-01

    铁荸荠(Cyperus esculentus L.)和香附子(Cyperus rotundus L.)是美国东南部棉田中两种很棘手的杂草。Glyphosate(草甘膦)和MSMA两种除草剂混合使用的效果好于它们单独使用。当两种除草剂单独使用时,对铁荸荠的防效随着浓度的增加而增加,如glyphosate公顷用量0.4kg和0.8

  14. A preliminary survey of primitive crops cultivated in the northern Transvaal of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. H. Arnold

    1983-12-01

    Full Text Available The different tribal economies of South Africa rely extensively on a number of primitive crop taxa which are cultivated as a primary food source. The most important of these include  Sorghum bicolor,  Pennisetum americanum, Citrullus lanatus, Lagenaria siceraria, Vigna unguiculata, Voandzeia subterranea and  Hibiscus esculentus. Morphological variation within these and a number of less important crops is discussed. The frequency with which each crop is grown and preference ratings allotted to them by individual tribal families are compared between the three major ethnic regions of the northern Transvaal. Factors which determine preferences are also discussed and suggestions made relating to germ plasm conservation.

  15. Comportamento de três hortaliças de fruto submetidas ao aquecimento intermitente durante a frigoconservação Behavior of three vegetable fruits submitted to intermittent warming during cold storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.A. KLUGE

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Efeitos do aquecimento intermitente foram estudados em berinjelas, pimentões e quiabos refrigerados. Berinjelas `Piracicaba F-100' foram continuamente refrigeradas por 21 dias ou aquecidas a cada 3, 4, 5 ou 6 dias. Pimentões `Maiata' foram continuamente refrigerados por 28 dias ou aquecidos a cada 5, 6, 7 ou 8 dias. Quiabos `Santa Cruz-47' foram continuamente refrigerados por 8 dias, ou aquecidos aos 2, 3, 4 ou 5 dias. O armazenamento foi realizado à 5ºC e 90-95% UR. O aquecimento foi realizado por 24 horas à 24-25ºC e 70-75% UR (condições ambientais. O aquecimento intermitente reduziu os sintomas de injúrias pelo frio, mas provocou elevadas perdas de massa em muitos tratamentos, causando murchamento e reduzindo a comerciabilidade dos frutos após a refrigeração, principalmente em quiabos e pimentões.Effects of intermittent warming were evaluated for cold stored eggplant, pepper and okra fruits. Eggplant fruits cv. Piracicaba F-100 were continuously cold stored for 21 days or submitted to warming each 3, 4, 5 or 6 days. Pepper fruits cv. Maiata were continuously cold stored for 28 days or submitted to warming each 5, 6, 7 or 8 days. Okra pods cv. Santa Cruz-47 were continuously cold stored for 8 days or submitted to warming after 2, 3, 4 or 5 days. The cold storage temperature was 5ºC and 90-95% RH. The warming temperature was 24-25ºC and 70-75% RH (room temperature, for 24 hs. The intermittent warming reduced chilling injury in fruits, however, caused high mass loss and shriveling in most treatments. This reduced fruit marketability, mainly in okra and pepper fruits.

  16. 40 CFR 180.510 - Pyriproxyfen; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Canola, seed 0.20 Cherimoya 0.20 Citrus, oil 20 Citrus, dried pulp 2.0 Citrus hybrids 0.30 Coffee... Okra 0.02 Olive 1.0 Olive, oil 2.0 Onion, bulb 0.15 Papaya 1.0 Passionfruit 0.10 Pawpaw 1.0 Peanut 0.20... Salal 1.0 Sapodilla 1.0 Sapote, black 1.0 Sapote, mamey 1.0 Sapote, white 0.30 Sesame, seed 0.02 Soursop...

  17. 40 CFR 180.628 - Chlorantraniliprole; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Mayhaw 0.6 Milk 0.05 Milkweed, seed 0.3 Mustard, seed 0.3 Nut, tree, group 14 0.04 Oil, radish, seed 0.3 Okra 0.7 Olive 4.0 Olive, oil 40 Papaya 2.0 Passionfruit 2.0 Peppermint, tops 9.0 Persimmon 4.0... Sapote, mamey 4.0 Sapote, white 4.0 Sesame, seed 0.3 Sheep, fat 0.3 Sheep, liver 0.3 Sheep, meat 0.05...

  18. 40 CFR 180.225 - Phosphine; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., bean, green 0.1 Corn, field, grain 0.1 Corn, pop, grain 0.1 Cotton, undelinted seed 0.1 Date, dried fruit 0.1 Dill, seed 0.01 Eggplant 0.01 Endive 0.01 Grapefruit 0.01 Hazelnut 0.1 Kumquat 0.01 Lemon 0.01 Lettuce 0.01 Lime 0.01 Mango 0.01 Millet, grain 0.1 Mushroom 0.01 Nut, brazil 0.1 Oat, grain 0.1 Okra...

  19. Antibacterial activities of the methanol extracts of seven Cameroonian dietary plants against bacteria expressing MDR phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seukep, Jackson A; Fankam, Aimé G; Djeussi, Doriane E; Voukeng, Igor K; Tankeo, Simplice B; Noumdem, Jaurès Ak; Kuete, Antoine Hln; Kuete, Victor

    2013-01-01

    The morbidity and mortality caused by bacterial infections significantly increased with resistance to commonly used antibiotics. This is partially due to the activation of efflux pumps in Gram-negative bacteria. The present work designed to assess the in vitro antibacterial activities of seven Cameroonian dietary plants (Sesamum indicum, Sesamum radiatum, Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Corchous olitorius, Cyperus esculentus, Adansonia digitata, Aframomum kayserianum), against multidrug resistant (MDR) Gram-negative bacteria over expressing active efflux pumps. The standard phytochemical methods were used to detect the main classes of secondary metabolites in the extracts. The antibacterial activities of the studied extracts in the absence or presence of an efflux pump inhibitor (PAβN) were evaluated using liquid microbroth dilution method. The results obtained indicated that apart from the extract of C. esculentus, all other samples contained alkaloids, phenols and polyphenols meanwhile other classes of chemicals were selectively present. The studied extracts displayed antibacterial activities with minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) values ranged from 64 to 1024 μg/mL on the majority of the 27 tested microbial strains. The extract of S. indicum was active against 77.77% of the tested microorganisms whilst the lowest MIC value (64 μg/mL) was recorded with that of A. kayserianum against E. aerogenes EA294. The results of the present work provide baseline information on the possible used of the tested Cameroonian dietary plants in the treatment of bacterial infections including multi-drug resistant phenotypes.

  20. Tolerance of fungal infection in European water frogs exposed to Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis after experimental reduction of innate immune defenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodhams, Douglas C; Bigler, Laurent; Marschang, Rachel

    2012-10-23

    While emerging diseases are affecting many populations of amphibians, some populations are resistant. Determining the relative contributions of factors influencing disease resistance is critical for effective conservation management. Innate immune defenses in amphibian skin are vital host factors against a number of emerging pathogens such as ranaviruses and the amphibian chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd). Adult water frogs from Switzerland (Pelophylax esculentus and P. lessonae) collected in the field with their natural microbiota intact were exposed to Bd after experimental reduction of microbiota, skin peptides, both, or neither to determine the relative contributions of these defenses. Naturally-acquired Bd infections were detected in 10/51 P. lessonae and 4/19 P. esculentus, but no disease outbreaks or population declines have been detected at this site. Thus, this population was immunologically primed, and disease resistant. No mortality occurred during the 64 day experiment. Forty percent of initially uninfected frogs became sub-clinically infected upon experimental exposure to Bd. Reduction of both skin peptide and microbiota immune defenses caused frogs to gain less mass when exposed to Bd than frogs in other treatments. Microbiota-reduced frogs increased peptide production upon Bd infection. Ranavirus was undetectable in all but two frogs that appeared healthy in the field, but died within a week under laboratory conditions. Virus was detectable in both toe-clips and internal organs. Intact skin microbiota reduced immune activation and can minimize subclinical costs of infection. Tolerance of Bd or ranavirus infection may differ with ecological conditions.

  1. Determination of Cadmium, Lead and Zinc in Vegetables in Jaipur (India).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ashok; Verma, P S

    2014-01-01

    An atomic absorption spectroscopic method was used for the determination of Lead, Cadmium and Zinc in vegetables grown in and around Jaipur food stuffs irrigated with industrial waste water. Vegetable samples were collected after maturity, and analyzed, such as spinach (Spinacia oleracea), ladyfinger (Abelmoschus esulentus), pepper mint (Menthe pipereta), brinjal (Solanum melongena), coriander (Coriandrum sativum), cauliflower (Brassica oleracea), onion (Allium cepa), radish (Raphanus sativus), pointedgourd (Trichosanthes dioica), bottlegourd (Lagenaria siceraria), chilies (Capsicum annum), ribbedgourd (Luffa acutangula) and pumpkin (Curcurbites pepo). The concentration of Lead ranged between 1.40-71.06 ppm, Cadmium 0.61-34.48 ppm and Zinc 0.39-187.26 ppm in vegetable samples. The results reveal that urban consumers are at greater risk of purchasing fresh vegetables with high levels of heavy metal, beyond the permissible limits, as defined by the Indian Prevention of Food Adulteration Act, 1954 and WHO.

  2. Identifying a Potential Trap Crop for a Novel Insect Pest, Halyomorpha halys (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), in Organic Farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Anne L; Dively, Galen; Pote, John M; Zinati, Gladis; Mathews, Clarissa

    2016-04-01

    The invasive brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys, poses significant risk to organic farming systems because they rely on biological control, nonsynthetic inputs, and cultural tactics for pest management. This study evaluated the potential of five crop plants (sorghum, admiral pea, millet, okra, and sunflower) to be used as trap crops under organic production in four mid-Atlantic states. Stink bug (H. halys and endemic species) densities and host plant phenologies were recorded weekly (mid-June through September). Sorghum attracted significantly more H. halys than the other crops evaluated, followed by sunflower and okra. Seasonal average H. halys density was 1.5-4× higher on sorghum than the other crops (P densities initially higher on sunflower; as the sunflower senesced, sorghum supported significantly higher average H. halys densities. While sunflower and sorghum phenologies differed, these crops together provided a 5-wk attraction period coinciding with peak H. halys activity. The efficacies of pheromone-baited traps, flaming, applying OMRI-approved insecticides (Azera and Venerate), and vacuuming to removing stink bugs were evaluated as a management tactic. Flaming was the most effective treatment against H. halys and endemic stink bugs. Our results suggest that a trap crop composed of sorghum and sunflower may be an effective management tool for the mid-Atlantic stink bug complex, including H. halys. Future research should address the appropriate size and placement of trap crop within the farm.

  3. Host-range characterization of two Pratylenchus coffeae isolates from Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, R A; Inomoto, M M

    2002-06-01

    Two isolates of Pratylenchus coffeae were collected from coffee roots (in Marília, São Paulo State, Brazil) and Aglaonema (in Rio de Janeiro City, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil) and maintained in the laboratory on alfalfa callus. Twenty-four plants were tested in the greenhouse to characterize the host preference of these isolates. The host ranges of the isolates differed from each other and, interestingly, coffee, banana, and citrus were not among the better hosts of either isolate. Rather, sorghum, maize, rice, millet, okra, melon, eggplant, and lettuce were the best hosts of the Marília isolate. Poor hosts included French marigold, Rangpur lime, banana, sesame, peanut, sunflower, cotton, French bean, onion, and small onion. The best hosts of the Rio de Janeiro isolate were sesame, soybean, sorghum, castor oil plant, watermelon, squash, eggplant, and melon; the poorest hosts were French marigold, coffee, Rangpur lime, banana, sunflower, peanut, maize, millet, French bean, cotton, onion, sweet pepper, lettuce, okra, and small onion. These isolates have important molecular and morphological differences, suggesting host preference is linked to these characteristics.

  4. Application of bacteria from non-cultivated plants to promote growth, alter root architecture and alleviate salt stress of cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irizarry, I; White, J F

    2017-04-01

    Cotton seeds are frequently treated with acid to remove fibres and reduce seed-transmitted diseases. This process also eliminates beneficial bacteria on the seed surface. The goal of this research was to seek and apply beneficial bacteria to acid delinted cotton seeds to evaluate their growth-promoting and salt stress alleviating effects in seedlings. Bacteria were isolated from non-cultivated plants in the Malvaceae. Seeds were collected from Portia tree (Thespesia populnea) and wild cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) from coastal and arid areas of Puerto Rico. Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, Curtobacterium oceanosedimentum and Pseudomonas oryzihabitans were inoculated onto acid delinted cotton seeds. Bacteria increased cotton seed germination and length of emerging seedling radicles. Cotton seeds were inoculated with B. amyloliquefaciens to evaluate growth and root architecture of non-stressed and salt stressed seedlings. Inoculating cotton seeds with B. amyloliquefaciens led to a greater percentage of seedlings with expanded cotyledons after 8 days, enhanced primary and lateral root growth, and altered root architecture. Similar results were obtained when okra seeds were inoculated with B. amyloliquefaciens. The data supported the hypothesis that non-cultivated plants in the Malvaceae growing in stressful environments possess bacteria that promote growth, alter root architecture and alleviate salt stress of cotton and okra seedlings. This study demonstrated the effects of applying beneficial bacteria on acid delinted cotton seeds. Inoculating seeds with salt stress alleviating bacteria could improve the growth of crop seedlings that are vulnerable to soil salinization. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  5. Heavy Metal Contamination of Soil, Irrigation Water and Vegetables in Peri-Urban Agricultural Areas and Markets of Delhi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Arti; Singh, ShivDhar; Kumar, Amit

    2015-11-01

    Dietary exposure to heavy metals, namely cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), and copper (Cu), has been identified as a risk to human health through consumption of vegetable crops. The present study investigates heavy metal contamination in irrigation water, soil, and vegetables at four peri-urban and one wholesale site in Delhi, India, and estimates the health risk index. Most of the samples collected from peri-urban areas exceeded the safe limits of lead and cadmium, whereas only lead concentration was found to be higher in vegetable samples collected from the wholesale market. Average uptake of metals by vegetables from soil decreased in the order Cd>Zn>Cu>Pb. The order of metal uptake based on transfer factor was highest in okra, cauliflower, and spinach, from greatest to least. Among the vegetables from peri-urban sites, only okra crossed the safe limit for cadmium; whereas vegetables from the wholesale site exceeded the limit for lead (potato, coriander, chilies, pea, and carrot, in order from greatest to least) with respect to health risk index.

  6. Population dynamics of plant nematodes in cultivated soil: effects of combinations of cropping systems and nematicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, W S; Brodie, B B; Good, J M

    1974-07-01

    The population density of Meloidogyne incognita was significantly reduced in land that was fallowed or cropped to crotalaria, marigold, bermudagrass, or bahiagrass. The rate of population decline caused by different cropping systems was influenced by initial population densities. Crotalaria, marigold, and bare fallow were about equally effective in reducing the density of M. incognita below dctectable lcvels, usually requiring 1-3 yr. Bahiagrass and bcrmudagrass required 4-5 yr or longer to reduce M. incognita below a detectable level. A high population density of Trichodorus christiei developed in land cropped 5 yr to bermudagrass, bahiagrass, okra, and marigold. Population densities of Pratylenchus brachyurus and Xiphinema americanum increased in land cropped to crotalaria or bermudagrass. Belonolabnus Iongicaudatus was detected only in land cropped to bermudagrass, The effectiveness of nematicides in reducing M. incognita infection was rclatcd to nematode population density resulting from 5 yr of different cropping systems. Treatment with aldicarb reduced M. incognita below detectable levels following all cropping systems; treatment with ethoprop following all cropping systems except okra, treatment wflh ethylene dibromide following bahiagrass or fallow; and treatment with DBCP only after 5 yr of fallow. Tomato transplant growth was affected .by both cropping systems and nematicide treatment. Transplants grown after crotalaria and bahiagrass were significantly larger than those grown after other crops. Also, treatment with aldicarb and ethoprop significantly increased transplant size.

  7. Biologia de Psyllobora confluens alimentada com o fungo Erysiphe cichoracearum Biology of Psyllobora confluens fed with Erysiphe cichoracearum fungus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terezinha Monteiro dos Santos Cividanes

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os aspectos biológicos de Psyllobora confluens alimentada com o fungo Erysiphe cichoracearum em folhas de quiabeiro. Larvas recém-eclodidas de P. confluens foram individualizadas e alimentadas diariamente com hifas e conídios do fungo, em folhas de quiabeiro, a 23,6±3 e 27,4±2ºC e fotófase de 12 horas. A duração dos estágios imaturos, os aspectos reprodutivos e a longevidade de P. confluens foram avaliados. O período de desenvolvimento de larva a adulto foi 20,5 dias a 23,6ºC e 16,6 dias a 27,4ºC. Em ambas as temperaturas, 80% das larvas de P. confluens atingiram a fase adulta. Fêmeas de P. confluens apresentaram período de oviposição de 32,7 dias, com capacidade diária e total de oviposição de 16,8 e 439,9 ovos, respectivamente. A longevidade das fêmeas foi de 46,1 dias e a dos machos 58,7 dias. P. confluens, ao se alimentar do fungo E. cichoracearum em folhas de quiabeiro, completa o ciclo de vida e apresenta elevados padrões de sobrevivência e reprodução.The objective of this work was to assess the biological aspects of Psyllobora confluens fed with Erysiphe cichoracearum fungus in okra leaves. New hatched larvae of P. confluens were individualized and fed daily with powdery mildew hyphae and conidia of the fungus, in okra leaves, at 23.6±3 and 27.4±3ºC and 12 hours of photophase. The developmental period of immature stages, reproductive aspects and longevity of P. confluens were evaluated. The period from larvae development to adult emergence was 20.5 days at 23.6ºC and 16.6 days at 27.4ºC. Under the tested temperatures, 80% of P. confluens larvae reached the adult phase. P. confluens females showed oviposition period of 32.7 days, with daily and total capacity of oviposition of 16.8 and 439.9 eggs, respectively. The longevity of females was 46.1 days and of males 58.7 days. P. confluens fed with E. cichoracearum in okra leaves completes its life cycle and presents high

  8. Soil microflora and enzyme activities in rhizosphere of Transgenic Bt cotton hybrid under different intercropping systems and plant protection schedules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biradar, D. P.; Alagawadi, A. R.; Basavanneppa, M. A.; Udikeri, S. S.

    2012-04-01

    Field experiments were conducted over three rainy seasons of 2005-06 to 2007-08 on a Vertisol at Dharwad, Karnataka, India to study the effect of intercropping and plant protection schedules on productivity, soil microflora and enzyme activities in the rhizosphere of transgenic Bt cotton hybrid. The experiment consisted of four intercropping systems namely, Bt cotton + okra, Bt cotton + chilli, Bt cotton + onion + chilli and Bt cotton + redgram with four plant protection schedules (zero protection, protection for Bt cotton, protection for intercrop and protection for both crops). Observations on microbial populations and enzyme activities were recorded at 45, 90, 135 and 185 (at harvest) days after sowing (DAS). Averaged over years, Bt cotton + okra intercropping had significantly higher total productivity than Bt cotton + chilli and Bt cotton + redgram intercropping system and was similar to Bt cotton + chilli + onion intercropping system. With respect to plant protection schedules for bollworms, protection for both cotton and intercrops recorded significantly higher yield than the rest of the treatments. Population of total bacteria, fungi, actinomycetes, P-solubilizers, free-living N2 fixers as well as urease, phosphatase and dehydrogenase enzyme activities increased up to 135 days of crop growth followed by a decline. Among the intercropping systems, Bt cotton + chilli recorded significantly higher population of microorganisms and enzyme activities than other cropping systems. While Bt cotton with okra as intercrop recorded the least population of total bacteria and free-living N2 fixers as well as urease activity. Intercropping with redgram resulted in the least population of actinomycetes, fungi and P-solubilizers, whereas Bt cotton with chilli and onion recorded least activities of dehydrogenase and phosphatase. Among the plant protection schedules, zero protection recorded maximum population of microorganisms and enzyme activities. This was followed by the

  9. Anti-ulcerogenic activity of some plants used as folk remedy in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürbüz, Ilhan; Ustün, Osman; Yesilada, Erdem; Sezik, Ekrem; Kutsal, Osman

    2003-09-01

    Five herbal remedies used as gastroprotective crude drugs in Turkey were assessed for anti-ulcerogenic activity using the EtOH-induced ulcerogenesis model in rat. The crude drugs investigated comprises fruits of Elaeagnus angustifolia L. (Elaeagnaceae), fresh fruits of Hibiscus esculentus L. (Malvaceae), fresh roots of Papaver rhoeas L. (Papaveraceae), leaves of Phlomis grandiflora H.S. Thomson (Lamiaceae) and fresh fruits of Rosa canina L. (Rosaceae). Extracts were prepared according to the traditional indications of use. Under our experimental conditions, all extracts exhibited statistically significant gastroprotective effect with better results for Phlomis grandiflora and Rosa canina (100%). At the concentration under study, both crude drugs were more effective than the reference compound misoprostol at 0.4 mg/kg. Even the weakest anti-ulcerogenic effect observed for Papaver rhoeas roots was found statistically potent (95.6%). Histopathological studies confirmed the results of the in vivo test.

  10. Widespread occurrence of phthalic acid esters in raw oilseeds in China used for edible vegetable oil production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ai-Peng; Liu, Yu-Lan; Shi, Long-Kai

    2016-09-01

    Seven different phthalic acid esters (PAEs) were quantified in 124 samples of 16 types of oilseeds from China using a simplified GC-MS method. Di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate and di-n-butyl phthalate were found in all tested oilseed samples. Each made a high contribution to the summed total PAEs. Total PAE concentrations in 124 oilseeds ranged from 0.14 to 3.05 mg kg(-1), and the mean was 0.99 mg kg(-1). Mandulapalka (Cyperus esculentus) samples were the most severely contaminated among all the tested specimens; maize germ samples were least contaminated. Di-n-octyl phthalate and butylbenzyl phthalate were not detected in 12 and five types of oilseeds, respectively. Only eight samples contained all seven analytes. No difference was observed between woody oil-bearing plant and herbaceous oil-bearing plant in terms of PAEs content.

  11. Composição florística de plantas daninhas em um lago do Rio Solimões, Amazonas Floristic composition of weeds in a lake of Solimoes River, Amazonas, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M.F. Albertino

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available As áreas inundáveis localizadas na bacia dos rios Amazonas e Solimões são denominadas várzeas. A inundação é um evento natural que promove mudanças na estrutura e composição florística dessas comunidades. O conhecimento da diversidade de espécies é de fundamental importância para o entendimento da dinâmica da regeneração natural de espécies nos ecossistemas amazônicos. Este trabalho teve como objetivo levantar a composição florística do solo do fundo do lago do Manaquiri-AM, em um período de seca excepcional, ocorrida em 2005, na Amazônia. Foram realizadas coletas de material botânico em duas áreas do lago, em novembro de 2005; para a amostragem, utilizou-se um quadrado de madeira de 0,36 m², atirado aleatoriamente por 20 vezes em cada local de estudo. A vegetação emergente foi de 5.958 indivíduos, distribuídos em sete famílias e nove espécies. As famílias mais representativas em número de espécies foram Poaceae e Cyperaceae. Cyperus esculentus e Luziola spruceana foram as mais frequentes, e Mimosa pudica e Alternanthera sessilis, as de maior abundância. C. esculentus e M. pudica apresentaram maior número de indivíduos, de densidade e de valor de importância. As espécies de plantas encontradas neste estudo mantiveram sua capacidade de crescer e se desenvolver mesmo após longo período submersas.The swamps located at the basins of the Amazonas and Solimões rivers are denominated "várzeas". In these areas, flooding is a natural event that changes the structure and composition of the local plants. Thus, knowing the species diversity in these Amazon region areas is extremely important to understand the dynamics of the natural regeneration of the Amazon ecosystem species. Accordingly, the goal of this study was to survey the soil floristic composition at the bottom of the Manaquiri Lake, Amazon, during an exceptional dry period in 2005. Plants were collected in two areas of the lake in November 2005. Flora

  12. Behavioral Response of Nothanguina phyllobia to Selected Plant Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, A F; Orr, C C; Abernathy, J R

    1979-01-01

    The silver-leaf nightshade nenmtode, Nothanguina phyllobia, is a promising biological control agent for its only reported host, Solanum elaeagnifolium Cav. When infective larvae of N. phyllobia and stem tissue of 39 econmnically important plant species were suspended in 0.5% water agar, nematodes aggregated about S. elaeagnifolium, Solanum carolinense L., Solanum melongena L., Solanum tuberosum L., and Prunus caroliniana (Mill.) Ait. Nematodes responded to Solanum spp. via positive chemotaxis and/or klinokinesis, but aggregated near tissue of P. caroliniana as a result of orthokinetic effects. Nematodes aggregated away from tissue of Hibiscus esculentus L., Triticum aestivum L., Santolina sp., Rosa sp., and Kochia scoparia (L.) Schrad. in the absence of orthokinetic effects. Experiments that excluded light and maintained relative humidity at 100% showed N. phyllobia to ascend the stems of 35 plant species to a height of > 9 cm within 12 h. Differences in stem ascension were not attributable to stem surface characteristics.

  13. Pollution by heavy metals in the Moche River Basin, 1980 - 2010, La Libertad - Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Félix Huaranga Moreno

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The pollution of the continental waters is a problem at a world scale, mainly due to the impact of the mining tailings. Using top technologies as neutralization plants of acid waters, many companies are mitigating the impact of this functioning; so taking as a reference the changes in the concentration of heavy metals present in water, soils and cultivations of the high, middle and low basin of the Moche river, samplings of water were obtained at eight stations of the Moche river (Trujillo, Peru, and in four sectors of its margins for soils and cultivations. The most representative heavy metals in water were found in the high basin during the year 1980: iron (557.500 ppm, lead (100.375 ppm, cadmium (4.550 ppm, copper (6.900 ppm, zinc (262.900 ppm and arsenic (9.000 ppm; whereas in the soils the higher concentrations were found on the right margin of median basin in the year 1980: iron (83.400 mg/kg; lead (0.820 mg/kg; cadmium (0.012 mg/kg; copper (1.240 mg/kg; zinc (0.380 mg/kg and arsenic (0.016 mg/kg; in relation to the metal accumulation in the cultivations, iron (0.6525 mg/kg was predominant, being the yucca (Manihot esculentus the most contaminated cultivation. It is concluded that, most contamination level of water analysis was present in the high basin during 1980, whereas the right side of the median basin highest levels of contamination in the samples of soils; relating to the cultives, the yucca (Manihot esculentus was the species most contaminated.

  14. Tolerance of fungal infection in European water frogs exposed to Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis after experimental reduction of innate immune defenses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woodhams Douglas C

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While emerging diseases are affecting many populations of amphibians, some populations are resistant. Determining the relative contributions of factors influencing disease resistance is critical for effective conservation management. Innate immune defenses in amphibian skin are vital host factors against a number of emerging pathogens such as ranaviruses and the amphibian chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd. Adult water frogs from Switzerland (Pelophylax esculentus and P. lessonae collected in the field with their natural microbiota intact were exposed to Bd after experimental reduction of microbiota, skin peptides, both, or neither to determine the relative contributions of these defenses. Results Naturally-acquired Bd infections were detected in 10/51 P. lessonae and 4/19 P. esculentus, but no disease outbreaks or population declines have been detected at this site. Thus, this population was immunologically primed, and disease resistant. No mortality occurred during the 64 day experiment. Forty percent of initially uninfected frogs became sub-clinically infected upon experimental exposure to Bd. Reduction of both skin peptide and microbiota immune defenses caused frogs to gain less mass when exposed to Bd than frogs in other treatments. Microbiota-reduced frogs increased peptide production upon Bd infection. Ranavirus was undetectable in all but two frogs that appeared healthy in the field, but died within a week under laboratory conditions. Virus was detectable in both toe-clips and internal organs. Conclusion Intact skin microbiota reduced immune activation and can minimize subclinical costs of infection. Tolerance of Bd or ranavirus infection may differ with ecological conditions.

  15. Uso da eletroforese de isoenzimas para avaliação da competitividade de biotipos de tiririca Isoenzyme evaluation of intra-specific competitivity of purple nutsedge biotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. R. Silva

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve o objetivo de avaliar, por meio de eletroforese de isoenzimas, em casa de vegetação, a competitividade dos biotipos de tiririca (Cyperus rotundus L. mais freqüentes que ocorrem no estado de São Paulo. Dos quatorze sistemas enzimáticos testados, seis apresentaram polimorfismo (a e b-EST, ACP, IDH, MDH e SKDH e foram utilizados para a identificação das 66 amostras coletadas, classificando-as em 10 biotipos de Cyperus rotundus. Durante a amostragem, foram identificadas as espécies C. flavus, C. iria e C. esculentus. Foram identificados diferentes biotipos de C. rotundus, com diferentes freqüências de ocorrência no estado de São Paulo. Houve predominância de dois biotipos, que estiveram presentes em 48,5% e 21,2% dos pontos de amostragem. Os diferentes biotipos de C. rotundus mostraram-se distintos em termos de competitividade intra-específica. Os biotipos mais competitivos foram os mais freqüentes nas avaliações de campo.The objective of this research was to evaluate intra-specific competition ability of purple nutsedge Cyperus rotundus biotypes, using isoenzymes. We sampled weed populations in 66 sites all around São Paulo State - Brazil. Polymorphism was observed in six out of fourteen enzymatic systems studied (aand b-EST, ACP, IDH, MDH, and SKDH. Polymorphism was not observed for ADH, CAT, GDH, AAT, LAP, MADH, PER, and SDH. Using the information of the six polymorphic isoenzymes, it was possible to identify 10 biotypes of Cyperus rotundus and C. flavus, C. iria e C. esculentus species. The two major biotypes were predominant in 48.5% and 21.2% of the sampling sites. The competition ability assay was carried out showing that the most widely spread biotypes were the most competitive ones.

  16. The complete nucleotide sequence of a new bipartite begomovirus from Brazil infecting Abutilon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paprotka, T; Metzler, V; Jeske, H

    2010-05-01

    The complete nucleotide sequence of Abutilon mosaic Brazil virus (AbMBV), a new bipartite begomovirus from Bahia, Brazil, is described and analyzed phylogenetically. Its DNA A is most closely related to those of Sida-infecting begomoviruses from Brazil and forms a phylogenetic cluster with pepper- and Euphorbia-infecting begomoviruses from Central America. The DNA B component forms a cluster with different Sida- and okra-infecting begomoviruses from Brazil. Both components are distinct from those of the classical Abutilon mosaic virus originating from the West Indies. AbMBV is transmissible to Nicotiana benthamiana and Malva parviflora by biolistics of rolling-circle amplification products and induces characteristic mosaic and vein-clearing symptoms in M. parviflora.

  17. Nematode problems affecting agriculture in the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davide, R G

    1988-04-01

    Nematodes are considered major pests on most economic crops in the Philippines, particularly on banana, pineapple, citrus, tomato, ramie, and sugarcane. Radopholus similis is the most destructive nematode on banana, while Meloidogyne spp. are more serious on various vegetable crops such as tomato, okra, and celery and on fiber crops such as ramie. Tylenchulus semipenetrans is a problem on citrus and Rotylenchulus reniformis on pineapple and some legume crops. Hirschmanniella oryzae and Aphelenchoides besseyi are becoming serious on rice, and Pratylenchus zeae is affecting corn in some areas. Lately, Globodera rostochiensis has been causing serious damage on potato in the highlands. Control measures such as crop rotation, planting resistant varieties, chemical nematicide application, and biological control have been recommended to control these nematodes.

  18. Present status of development of NMR imaging devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatta, Junichi; Yazaki, Takehito; Abe, Yuzo; Komoike, Mitsutaka (Sanyo Electric Co. Ltd., Moriguchi, Osaka (Japan))

    1981-12-01

    The NMR spectrum of the protons in a graded magnetic field contains information on the distribution of water within the specimen. A system to process such information was made on trial, and examples of the cross-sections of a champignon, okra, lotus root and green onion are given. These proton density distribution images, i.e., the density distribution images of water have the highest resolution among those obtained to date in Japan. Studies are reported to be underway to improve the precision of this instrument and to enlarge its scale. The technical problems in obtaining an image of the relaxation time distribution, which has been proposed to be helpful in diagnosing cancer, are discussed. The present state of research in this field is reviewed.

  19. Development of a temperature-variable magnetic resonance imaging system using a 1.0T yokeless permanent magnet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terada, Y; Tamada, D; Kose, K

    2011-10-01

    A temperature variable magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) system has been developed using a 1.0 T permanent magnet. A permanent magnet, gradient coils, radiofrequency coil, and shim coil were installed in a temperature variable thermostatic bath. First, the variation in the magnetic field inhomogeneity with temperature was measured. The inhomogeneity has a specific spatial symmetry, which scales linearly with temperature, and a single-channel shim coil was designed to compensate for the inhomogeneity. The inhomogeneity was drastically reduced by shimming over a wide range of temperature from -5°C to 45°C. MR images of an okra pod acquired at different temperatures demonstrated the high potential of the system for visualizing thermally sensitive properties.

  20. Influence of microbially enriched vermicompost on yield, microbial dynamics and soil nutrients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeldurai Tensingh Baliah

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study has been conducted to explore the microbial enrichment of vermicompost with microbial inoculants such as Azospirillum brasilense, Bacillus megaterium and Pseudomonas fluorescens. The enrichment had a positive effect on the crop response, soil biological activity and soil nutrient status. The results indicated that the enriched vermicompost significantly increased crop response of Okra with reference to yield attributes. Further, the microbial enriched vermicompost significantly improved the soil microbial dynamics such as bacteria and fungi and nutrient status such as total N and available P in the amended soil. The enrichment with agronomically important microbes such as nitrogen fixer, phosphate solubilizer and plant growth promoting rhizobacteria had positive response but the response varied among the beneficial microorganisms.

  1. Mycoflora and vitamin content of sun-dried food condiments in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekundayo, C A

    1987-01-01

    The fungi most frequently isolated (of 20-100% incidence) from fresh okra, pepper fruits and melon seeds are Botryodiplodia theobromae, Rhizopus stolonifer, Trichoderma harzianum, Mucor mucedo and Fusarium oxysporum. The major mycoflora of the fruits which had been sun-dried for twenty days are comprised of Aspergillus spp and Penicillium spp which initially had formed the minor components (of less than 20% incidence) of the colonising population. The effect of sun-drying on the fruits was a statistically significant (P = 0.05) decrease in the riboflavin content and a generally small and non-significant decrease in the concentrations of thiamine, niacin, biotin and ascorbic acid. The effect of mouldiness during sun-drying was to further decrease the concentration of the vitamins.

  2. 3种天然产物中黄酮类化合物总含量的测定%Determination of total flavonoids in three natural products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩秀萍; 田海燕; 付云芝; 黄仙红; 王丽芝

    2012-01-01

    The flavonoids in three natural products (including okra leaves, rice leaves, Theorny amaranth) were determined by UV-visible spectrophotometry. The flavonoids in three natural products were ultrasonic extracted with 70% ethanol. The standard curve A=0.01175C-0.02247 of Rutin was extablished by spectrophotometry at 505 nm when the color reagent was admixtures of NaNO2-Al(NO3)3-NaOH solution. Data between the flavonoids content and absorbance had a better linear relationship r=0.9998. The total flavonoids in three natural products are okra leaves 34.40 mg/g, rice leaves 20.26 mg/g, Theorny amaranth 2.34 mg/g.%采用紫外-可见分光光度法测定3种天然产物:黄秋葵叶、水稻叶及刺苋中总黄酮类化合物的含量。用70%乙醇超声提取3种天然产物中的黄酮类化合物,以芦丁为对照品,以NaN02--AI(NO,)3--NaOH为显色系统,在505nm处进行分光光度测定,建立标准曲线A=0.01175C-0.02247,相关度r=0.9998。结果表明,3种天然物中黄酮类化合物总含量分别为黄秋葵叶:34.40mg/g;刺苋:20.26mg/g:水稻叶:2.34mg/g。

  3. Field accumulation risks of heavy metals in soil and vegetable crop irrigated with sewage water in western region of Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balkhair, Khaled S; Ashraf, Muhammad Aqeel

    2016-01-01

    Wastewater irrigated fields can cause potential contamination with heavy metals to soil and groundwater, thus pose a threat to human beings . The current study was designed to investigate the potential human health risks associated with the consumption of okra vegetable crop contaminated with toxic heavy metals. The crop was grown on a soil irrigated with treated wastewater in the western region of Saudi Arabia during 2010 and 2011. The monitored heavy metals included Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn for their bioaccumulation factors to provide baseline data regarding environmental safety and the suitability of sewage irrigation in the future. The pollution load index (PLI), enrichment factor (EF) and contamination factor (CF) of these metals were calculated. The pollution load index of the studied soils indicated their level of metal contamination. The concentrations of Ni, Pb, Cd and Cr in the edible portions were above the safe limit in 90%, 28%, 83% and 63% of the samples, respectively. The heavy metals in the edible portions were as follows: Cr > Zn > Ni > Cd > Mn > Pb > Cu > Fe. The Health Risk Index (HRI) was >1 indicating a potential health risk. The EF values designated an enhanced bio-contamination compared to other reports from Saudi Arabia and other countries around the world. The results indicated a potential pathway of human exposure to slow poisoning by heavy metals due to the indirect utilization of vegetables grown on heavy metal-contaminated soil that was irrigated by contaminated water sources. The okra tested was not safe for human use, especially for direct consumption by human beings. The irrigation source was identified as the source of the soil pollution in this study.

  4. Preferência de Bemisia tabaci biótipo B em linhagens mutantes de algodoeiro Bemisia tabaci biotype B preference in mutant cotton lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco das Chagas Vidal Neto

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Os efeitos de caracteres mutantes morfológicos do algodoeiro (Gossypium hirsutum L. r. latifolium Hutch.: folha okra, bráctea frego e planta vermelha, em relação à resistência à mosca-branca (Bemisia tabaci biótipo B Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae, foram avaliados em experimentos com ou sem chance de escolha. Os experimentos foram conduzidos em casa-de-vegetação, no delineamento de blocos ao acaso, em fatorial 23 + 1, com quatro repetições. O mutante com a característica planta vermelha foi menos atrativo e menos preferido para oviposição, em relação à planta verde, em ambos os ensaios, com ou sem escolha. Não houve preferência quanto à forma da folha e ao tipo de bráctea.The effects of cotton lines (Gossypium hirsutum L. r. latifolium Hutch. with mutants morphologic characteristics: okra leaf, frego bract and red plant in relation to host plant resistance to whitefly (Bemisia tabaci bioyipe B Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae, were evaluated in choice or no choice assays. The assays were carried out in the greenhouse conditions, according to a completely randomized block design, in a 23 + 1 in a factorial arrangement with four replications. The mutant with red plant characteristic was less attractive and less preferred for oviposition than the normal green plant does, in both, whit or without choice tests. It did not have preference in relation to the form of the leaf and bract type.

  5. Anti-allergic and anti-microbial activities of some Thai crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supinya Tewtrakul

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Thirteen Thai crops including banana, okra, jackfruit, germinated rice, rambutan, durian, jampadah, huasa potato,tamarind, coconut, mango, fan palm fruit and dioscorea tuber were tested for anti-allergic effect using RBL-2H3 cells andanti-microbial activity. These 13 crops, some of which included different parts, e.g. skin, flesh, and seed, were extracted withfour solvents separately [(95% ethanol (EtOH, 50% EtOH, water (W and hot water (HW], respectively, to obtain 112extracts. Among these extracts, mango seed in 50% EtOH possessed the highest anti-allergic activity against antigen-inducedb-hexosaminidase release as a marker of degranulation in RBL-2H3 cells with an IC50 value of 7.5±0.8 mg/ml, followed bybanana (W, IC50 = 13.5±2.4 mg/ml, okra (W, IC50 = 13.6±3.1 mg/ml, jampadah skin (HW, IC50 = 13.8±3.9 mg/ml, tamarindseed coat (HW, IC50 = 14.2±3.1 mg/ml, jampadah flesh (W, IC50 = 14.6±3.1 mg/ml; whereas other crops possessed IC50values from 21.5->100 mg/ml. Moreover, the plants showing high anti-allergic effects were also possessed marked antibacterialactivity. Rambutan peel, mango peel, mango seed and tamarind seed coat exhibited appropriate anti-bacterialactivity against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa with MIC values ranging from 250-2,000 mg/ml, but did not show any effect towards Escherichia coli and Candida albicans. This study indicates that these Thaicrops may have potential as functional foods and neutraceuticals for treatment of allergy, allergy-related diseases and somebacterial infections.

  6. Ethnomedicines used in Trinidad and Tobago for reproductive problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lans Cheryl

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Throughout history women have tried to control or enhance their fertility using herbal remedies, with various levels of societal support. Caribbean folk medicine has been influenced by European folk medicine, either through the early Spanish and French settlers or through the continuous immigration of Spanish-speaking peoples from Venezuela. Some folk uses are ancient and were documented by Galen and Pliny the Elder. Methods Thirty respondents, ten of whom were male were interviewed from September 1996 to September 2000. The respondents were obtained by snowball sampling, and were found in thirteen different sites, 12 in Trinidad (Paramin, Talparo, Sangre Grande, Mayaro, Carapichaima, Kernahan, Newlands, Todd's Road, Arima, Guayaguayare, Santa Cruz, Port of Spain and Siparia and one in Tobago (Mason Hall. Snowball sampling was used because there was no other means of identifying respondents and to cover the entire islands. The validation of the remedies was conducted with a non-experimental method. Results Plants are used for specific problems of both genders. Clusea rosea, Urena sinuata and Catharanthus roseus are used for unspecified male problems. Richeria grandis and Parinari campestris are used for erectile dysfunction. Ageratum conyzoides, Scoparia dulcis, Cucurbita pepo, Cucurbita maxima, Gomphrena globosa and Justicia pectoralis are used for prostate problems. The following plants are used for childbirth and infertility: Mimosa pudica, Ruta graveolens, Abelmoschus moschatus, Chamaesyce hirta, Cola nitida, Ambrosia cumanenesis, Pilea microphylla, Eryngium foetidum, Aristolochia rugosa, Aristolochia trilobata, Coleus aromaticus, Laportea aestuans and Vetiveria zizanioides. The following plants are used for menstrual pain and unspecified female complaints: Achyranthes indica, Artemisia absinthium, Brownea latifolia, Eleutherine bulbosa, Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, Eupatorium macrophyllum, Justicia secunda, Parthenium

  7. Ethnomedicines used in Trinidad and Tobago for reproductive problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lans, Cheryl

    2007-03-15

    Throughout history women have tried to control or enhance their fertility using herbal remedies, with various levels of societal support. Caribbean folk medicine has been influenced by European folk medicine, either through the early Spanish and French settlers or through the continuous immigration of Spanish-speaking peoples from Venezuela. Some folk uses are ancient and were documented by Galen and Pliny the Elder. Thirty respondents, ten of whom were male were interviewed from September 1996 to September 2000. The respondents were obtained by snowball sampling, and were found in thirteen different sites, 12 in Trinidad (Paramin, Talparo, Sangre Grande, Mayaro, Carapichaima, Kernahan, Newlands, Todd's Road, Arima, Guayaguayare, Santa Cruz, Port of Spain and Siparia) and one in Tobago (Mason Hall). Snowball sampling was used because there was no other means of identifying respondents and to cover the entire islands. The validation of the remedies was conducted with a non-experimental method. Plants are used for specific problems of both genders. Clusea rosea, Urena sinuata and Catharanthus roseus are used for unspecified male problems. Richeria grandis and Parinari campestris are used for erectile dysfunction. Ageratum conyzoides, Scoparia dulcis, Cucurbita pepo, Cucurbita maxima, Gomphrena globosa and Justicia pectoralis are used for prostate problems. The following plants are used for childbirth and infertility: Mimosa pudica, Ruta graveolens, Abelmoschus moschatus, Chamaesyce hirta, Cola nitida, Ambrosia cumanenesis, Pilea microphylla, Eryngium foetidum, Aristolochia rugosa, Aristolochia trilobata, Coleus aromaticus, Laportea aestuans and Vetiveria zizanioides. The following plants are used for menstrual pain and unspecified female complaints: Achyranthes indica, Artemisia absinthium, Brownea latifolia, Eleutherine bulbosa, Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, Eupatorium macrophyllum, Justicia secunda, Parthenium hysterophorus, Wedelia trilobata, Abelmoschus moschatus

  8. Inhibitory effect of essential oils against Trichosporon ovoides causing Piedra Hair Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Seema; Uniyal, Veena; Bhatt, R P

    2012-10-01

    Piedra, is an asymptomatic fungal infection of the hair shaft, resulting in the formation of nodules of different hardness on the infected hair. The infection also known as Trichomycosis nodularis is a superficial fungal infection arising from the pathogen being restricted to the stratum corneum with little or no tissue reaction. The nodules are a concretion of hyphae and fruiting bodies of the fungus. Two varieties of Piedra may be seen, Black Piedra and White Piedra. The fungus Trichosporon ovoides is involved in the occurrence of both types of Piedras. The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of selected essential oils for the control of growth of the fungus and to determine whether the antifungal effect was due to the major compounds of the oils. Two screening methods viz. Agar well diffusion assay and Minimum Inhibitory Concentration were adopted for the study. MIC and MFC were determined by tube dilution method. Essential oils from Eucalyptus, Ocimum basilicum, Mentha piperita, Cymbopogon flexuosus, Cymbopogon winterians, Trachyspermum ammi, Zingiber officinalis, Citrus limon, Cinnamomon zeylanicum, Salvia sclarea, Citrus aurantifolia, Melaleuca alternifolia, Citrus aurantium, Citrus bergamia, Pogostemon pathchouli, Cedrus atlantica, Jasminum officinale, Juniperus communis, Abelmoschus moschatus, Cyperus scariosus, Palargonium graveolens, Boswellia carterii, Rosa damascene, Veteveria zizanoides and Commiphora myrrha were evaluated. The essential oils of Cymbopogon winterians, Mentha piperita, Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Melaleuca alternifolia and Eucalyptus globulus were proved to be most effective against the fungus Trichosporon ovoides.

  9. Inhibitory effect of essential oils against Trichosporon ovoides causing Piedra Hair Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seema Saxena

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Piedra, is an asymptomatic fungal infection of the hair shaft, resulting in the formation of nodules of different hardness on the infected hair. The infection also known as Trichomycosis nodularis is a superficial fungal infection arising from the pathogen being restricted to the stratum corneum with little or no tissue reaction. The nodules are a concretion of hyphae and fruiting bodies of the fungus. Two varieties of Piedra may be seen, Black Piedra and White Piedra. The fungus Trichosporon ovoides is involved in the occurrence of both types of Piedras. The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of selected essential oils for the control of growth of the fungus and to determine whether the antifungal effect was due to the major compounds of the oils. Two screening methods viz. Agar well diffusion assay and Minimum Inhibitory Concentration were adopted for the study. MIC and MFC were determined by tube dilution method. Essential oils from Eucalyptus, Ocimum basilicum, Mentha piperita, Cymbopogon flexuosus, Cymbopogon winterians, Trachyspermum ammi, Zingiber officinalis, Citrus limon, Cinnamomon zeylanicum, Salvia sclarea, Citrus aurantifolia, Melaleuca alternifolia, Citrus aurantium, Citrus bergamia, Pogostemon pathchouli, Cedrus atlantica, Jasminum officinale, Juniperus communis, Abelmoschus moschatus, Cyperus scariosus, Palargonium graveolens, Boswellia carterii, Rosa damascene, Veteveria zizanoides and Commiphora myrrha were evaluated. The essential oils of Cymbopogon winterians, Mentha piperita, Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Melaleuca alternifolia and Eucalyptus globulus were proved to be most effective against the fungus Trichosporon ovoides.

  10. Susceptibility of microorganism to selected medicinal plants in Bangladesh

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S.M.Masud; Rana; Md.Mustahsan; Billah; Mohammad; Salim; Hossain; A.K.M.Saifuddin; S.K.M.Azizul; Islam; Sujan; Banik; Zannatul; Nairn; Golam; Sarwar; Raju

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To analyze in-vitro antimicrobial activities of some ethno-pharmacologically significant medicinal plants(methanol extract) against the pathogenic microorganisms(Escherichia coli,Salmonella spp..Bacillus cereus.Staphylococcus aureus.Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans).Methods:The disc diffusion method was applied for antibacterial test and the poisoned food technique was applied for antifungal test.Results:The methanol extract of Terminalia chebula(bark),Fhyllanthus acidus(fruits).Sarcochlamys pulcherrima(leaves) and Abelmoschus esculcntus(fruits) had significant in vitro antibacterial activity angainst the entire test samples in comparison to standard drug ciprofloxacin.Most of the plant extracts showed low activity against Gram negative bacteria while potential activity against Gram positive bacteria.The antifungal activities of methanol extracts of these plants and standard drug griseofulvin were determined against two pathogenicfungi,and Polygonum Iapathifolium(leaves) and Cinnamomum tamala(leaves) showed maximum activity,while Erioglossum rubiginosum(leaves) showed no antifungal activity.Conclusions:Further chemical and pharmacological investigations are required to identify and isolate chemical constituents responsible for these potential bioactivities and thus to determine their full spectrum of efficacy.

  11. Lead concentration and allocation in vegetable crops grown in a soil contaminated by battery residues Teores e alocação de chumbo em hortaliças cultivadas em solo contaminado por resíduos de baterias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco de S Lima

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Lead (Pb is a very stable metal in soil and is highly toxic to humans and animals. Exposure to Pb occurs via inhalation of particles from industry and soil, as well as household dust, water, and contaminated food. A greenhouse experiment was carried out to evaluate Pb contents and allocation in vegetable crops grown in a soil contaminated by battery recycling wastes. Eight plant species were studied: tomato, sweet pepper, beet, carrot, cabbage, green collards, eggplant, and okra. The experiment was set up in blocks at random with four replicates. The results showed that carrot, green collards, beet, and okra were the most Pb tolerant species, while the others were very Pb-sensitive, since they did not complete their cycle. The decreasing order for Pb accumulation in the vegetables crops was: carrot > okra > tomato > eggplant > sweet pepper > green collards > cabbage > beet. Taking into account the Pb allocation in plants, the order was: root > stems > leaves > edible parts. Although carrot translocated the lowest Pb amount into the edible part, such level exceeded the legal limit.O chumbo (Pb é um elemento extremamente estável no solo e altamente tóxico para seres humanos e animais. A contaminação com chumbo geralmente ocorre pela exposição decorrente da inalação de partículas oriundas de indústrias ou do solo, ou ainda, pela ingestão de poeira doméstica, água e alimentos de origem animal e vegetal contaminados. O presente trabalho objetivou avaliar os teores e a alocação de Pb em hortaliças cultivadas em solo contaminado com resíduos de reciclagem de baterias. O experimento foi conduzido em casa-de-vegetação com delineamento experimental em blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições. Os tratamentos corresponderam a oito hortaliças: tomate, pimentão, beterraba, cenoura, repolho, couve manteiga, berinjela e quiabo. Os resultados mostraram que as espécies mais tolerantes ao Pb foram cenoura, couve-manteiga, beterraba e

  12. Ecological sanitation products reuse for agriculture in Sahel: effects on soil properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangare, D.; Sawadogo, B.; Sou/Dakoure, M.; Ouedraogo, D. M. S.; Hijikata, N.; Yacouba, H.; Bonzi, M.; Coulibaly, L.

    2015-03-01

    The sanitary products (i.e toilet compost, urine, and greywater) from resource oriented sanitation are a low-cost alternative to chemical fertilizers and irrigation water for poor communities in dry areas. However, if these products are not managed carefully, increased soil salinity and sodium accumulation could occur. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of these products at different combinations on the properties of cultivated soil and on okra plant productivity. The treatments were: (1) fresh dam water (FDW) as a negative control, (2) FDW plus chemical fertilizer (i.e.NPK) (FDW + NPK) as a positive control, (3) treated greywater (TGW), (4) FDW plus Urine/Toilet Compost (UTC) (FDW + UTC), (5) TGW + UTC, (6) TGW + NPK. Effects on okra productivity were assessed by measuring the fresh fruit yield whereas effects on soil were evaluated through measurements of electrical conductivity (EC), sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) and total organic carbon (TOC) at various depths. Results showed that the yields obtained with TGW (0.71 t ha-1) and TGW + UTC (0.67 t ha-1) were significantly higher than the yields obtained with the positive control FDW + NPK (0.22 t ha-1) meaning that the fertilizer value of the sanitary products was higher than that of chemical fertilizer. Concerning effects on soil, SAR values increased significantly in plots treated by TGW (8.86 ± 1.52) and TGW + UTC (10.55 ± 1.85) compared to plots fertilized with FDW (5.61 ± 1.45) and FDW + NPK (2.71 ± 0.67). The TOC of plots treated with TGW + UTC (6.09 ± 0.99 g kg-1) was significantly higher than those of FDW + NPK (4.46 ± 0.22 g kg-1). Combined sanitary products from resource oriented sanitation can be reused as a nutrient source and water for food production, provided that soil salinity is monitored and the soil has high drainage capacity.

  13. Mutantes morfológicos de algodoeiro herbáceo como fonte de resistência ao bicudo Morphological mutants of upland cotton as source of boll weevil resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco das Chagas Vidal Neto

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar os efeitos de três características morfológicas mutantes de linhagens de algodoeiro herbáceo (Gossypium hirsutum L. r. latifolium Hutch., isoladas ou combinadas no mesmo genótipo, como fonte de resistência ao bicudo, Anthonomus grandis Boheman, 1843 (Coleoptera, Curculionidae. O experimento foi conduzido em campo, sob infestação natural, com delineamento de blocos ao acaso e arranjo fatorial 2´3 com um tratamento adicional, com quatro repetições. Em teste com chance de escolha, a característica bráctea frego foi a que apresentou maior redução no dano de oviposição pelo bicudo (34,71%, em relação ao equivalente normal. A folha "okra" reduziu o dano apenas quando associada à bráctea frego (40%. A combinação das três características mutantes na mesma planta proporcionou a menor porcentagem de botões com dano de oviposição (23,13%.This work aimed to evaluate the effects of three morphological mutants of upland cotton lines (Gossypium hirsutm L. r. latifolium Hutch., isolated or in combination in the same cotton genotype, as a source of resistance to boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis Boheman, 1843 (Coleoptera, Curculionidae. The experiment was carried out in the field, under natural infestation, with a completely randomized block design arranged in a factorial 2´3 plus an additional treatment, with four replications. In a multiple choice test, the character mutant frego bract presented the higher reduction on boll weevil oviposition damage (34.71%, in relation to the normal equivalent. The okra leaf reduced the boll weevil damage only when associated with frego bract (40%. The combination of the three mutant characters in the same plant presented the least square percent with oviposition damage (23.13%.

  14. Investigating the Phytochemicals and Antimicrobial Properties of Three Sedge (Cyperaceae Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiwalade Adeyemi ADENIYI

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the medicinal value of notorious sedge weeds, three species:Cyperus esculentus, Cyperus rotundus and Mariscus alternifolius were investigated for their phytochemical constituents and antimicrobial properties. Preliminary qualitative phytochemical constituents and in vitro antimicrobial activities were evaluated against four fungi species: Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus fumigatus, Penicillium chrysogenum and Candida albicans, and three bacteria species: Escherichia coli,Salmonella typhi and Staphylococcus aureus. Two solvents, water and ethanol, were used to produce the extracts and were screened for their antimicrobial activity. Antimicrobial activity evaluation of the extracts against pathogens was carried out at 100 mg/ml concentration by Disc Diffusion method for fungi, Disc Diffusion and Agar Well Diffusion methods for bacteria. Observed activities were related to standard antibiotics, antifungal and antibacterial, which served as controls. Phytochemically, the plant extracts showed the presence of carbohydrates, flavonoids, ketose sugars, steroids, reducing sugars and tannins. The ethanolic extract of C. rotundus exhibited the highest activity against A. niger, E. coli and S. aureus. No extract was active against C. albicans. From these findings, it was concluded that C. rotundus is a potential source of bioactive compounds for new drugs upon isolation and purification for treating infections caused by these pathogens.

  15. Optional Endoreplication and Selective Elimination of Parental Genomes during Oogenesis in Diploid and Triploid Hybrid European Water Frogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dedukh, Dmitry; Litvinchuk, Spartak; Rosanov, Juriy; Mazepa, Glib; Saifitdinova, Alsu; Shabanov, Dmitry; Krasikova, Alla

    2015-01-01

    Incompatibilities between parental genomes decrease viability of interspecific hybrids; however, deviations from canonical gametogenesis such as genome endoreplication and elimination can rescue hybrid organisms. To evaluate frequency and regularity of genome elimination and endoreplication during gametogenesis in hybrid animals with different ploidy, we examined genome composition in oocytes of di- and triploid hybrid frogs of the Pelophylax esculentus complex. Obtained results allowed us to suggest that during oogenesis the endoreplication involves all genomes occurring before the selective genome elimination. We accepted the hypothesis that only elimination of one copied genome occurs premeiotically in most of triploid hybrid females. At the same time, we rejected the hypothesis stating that the genome of parental species hybrid frogs co-exist with is always eliminated during oogenesis in diploid hybrids. Diploid hybrid frogs demonstrate an enlarged frequency of deviations in oogenesis comparatively to triploid hybrids. Typical for hybrid frogs deviations in gametogenesis increase variability of produced gametes and provide a mechanism for appearance of different forms of hybrids.

  16. Yield loss and economic thresholds of yellow nutsedge in irrigated rice as a function of the onset of flood irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nixon da Rosa Westendorff

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Yellow nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus is adapted to flooding and reduces yield in irrigated rice. Information on the competitive ability of this weed with the crop and the size of the economic damage caused is lacking. Mathematical models quantify the damage to crops and support control decision-making. This study aimed to determine yield losses and economic thresholds (ET of this weed in the culture according to weed population and time of onset of irrigation of the crop. The field study was conducted in the agricultural year of 2010/2011 in Pelotas/RS to evaluate the competitive ability of BRS Querência in competition with different population levels of yellow nutsedge and two periods of onset of flood irrigation (14 and 21 days after emergence. The hyperbolic model satisfactorily estimated yield losses caused by yellow nutsedge. Population of yellow nutsedge was the variable most fitted to the model. The delay of seven days for the beginning of rice irrigation causes decrease in competitive ability of BRS Querência, and based on the ET calculated to the price paid for rice, it is necessary between two and thirteen plants m-2 weed to justify the control in the first and second period of irrigation, respectively. Increases in yield, price paid for rice and control efficiency of the herbicide, besides reduction of costs of controlling promote reduction of ET of yellow nutsedge in rice crops, justifying the adoption of control measures even at smaller weed population.

  17. Weed Control and Peanut Tolerance with Ethalfluralin-Based Herbicide Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. J. Grichar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Field studies were conducted from 2007 through 2009 to determine weed efficacy and peanut (Arachis hypogaea L. response to herbicide systems that included ethalfluralin applied preplant incorporated. Control of devil's claw (Proboscidea louisianica (Mill. Thellung, yellow nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus L., Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri S. Wats., and puncturevine (Tribulus terrestris L. was most consistent with ethalfluralin followed by either imazapic or imazethapyr applied postemergence. Peanut stunting was 19% when paraquat alone was applied early-postemergence. Stunting increased to greater than 30% when ethalfluralin applied preplant incorporated was followed by S-metolachlor applied preemergence and paraquat applied early-postemergence. Stunting (7% was also observed when ethalfluralin was followed by flumioxazin plus S-metolachlor applied preemergence with lactofen applied mid-postemergence. Ethalfluralin followed by paraquat applied early-postemergence reduced peanut yield when compared to the nontreated check. Ethalfluralin applied preplant incorporated followed by imazapic applied mid-postemergence provided the greatest yield (6220 kg/ha. None of the herbicide treatments reduced peanut grade (sound mature kernels plus sound splits when compared with the nontreated check.

  18. Furrow-irrigated chufa crops in Valencia (Spain. II: Performance analysis and optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Pascual-Seva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Chufa (Cyperus esculentus L. var. sativus Boeck. is a traditional crop in the Mediterranean region of Spain, where it is only furrow irrigated. This article analyzes the irrigation performance for this crop, conducting field studies over three consecutive seasons in Valencia (Spain. Irrigation schedule was based on the volumetric soil water content, which was measured with capacitance sensors. Infiltrability was measured with blocked-furrow infiltrometers. An area velocity flow module measured the water flow, the cross-sectional geometry of furrows was determined using furrow profilometers, and times for advance and recession were recorded. WinSRFR software was used to analyze every irrigation event, determining the application efficiency (AE and distribution uniformity of the minimum (DUmin, and to optimize the combination of furrow inflow (q and cut-off time (Tco. Average values obtained for AE were 30.1%, 25.6%, and 26.7% in 2007, 2008, and 2009, respectively, and the corresponding DUmin values were 0.54, 0.61, and 0.67. Optimized results showed that it is possible to reach AE and DUmin values up to 87% and 0.86, respectively. However, understanding the q-Tco relationship that maximizes both AE and DUmin is more important than knowing the specific values. A function that related q and Tco was obtained for the typical plot dimensions, and this was validated in 2011. Therefore, this function can be used in most of the plots in the cultivation area.

  19. Effect of tiger nut fibre addition on the quality and safety of a dry-cured pork sausage ("Chorizo") during the dry-curing process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Zapata, E; Zunino, V; Pérez-Alvarez, J A; Fernández-López, J

    2013-11-01

    There is a growing interest in the revalorization of co-products from the food industry. Co-products from tiger nuts (Cyperus esculentus) milk production are a suitable fibre source. "Chorizo" is the most popular dry-cured meat product in Spain. The aim of this work was to study the effect of the tiger nut fibre addition (0, 5, and 7.5%) on the quality (composition, physicochemical, and sensorial properties) and safety (oxidation and microbial quality) of a Spanish dry-cured sausage, during the 28days of its dry-curing process. Tiger nut fibre (TNF) addition decreased fat and increased moisture content. The addition of TNF significantly increased (p<0.05) the total dietary fibre content of "Chorizo". Lightness (L*), yellowness (b*) and redness index (a*/b*) were significantly (p<0.05) affected by the fibre content. The addition of 5% and 7.5% TNF to chorizo provided rich fibre and a healthier product. Although there were slight changes in the physicochemical properties, its quality (traditional characteristics) and its safety remained.

  20. Gossypin: A phytochemical of multispectrum potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanika Patel

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Nature is the source of the various raw chemicals in the form of oils, food supplement, neutraceuticals, and colour pigments. A lot of presently existing drugs available in the market mainly belong to the natural sources including the plants, animal, microorganism, minerals and marine source. Flavonoids, benzo-c-pirone derivates are one of the main secondary flavonoid liable for the different shades of flowers like orange, yellow and red color. More than 4 000 flavonoids like flavanols, flavonols, isoflavones, flavanones, flavanonols and flavones are found in the different edible plants which are also found in the regular human diet. Flavonoids are present in vegetables, spices, tea, whole grains, fruits, wine, herbs and seeds. Gossypin, a flavonol glucoside, is present in the flowers of different plants like Gossypium indicum, Hibiscus esculentus and Hibiscus vitifolius and is one of the major chemical of plants belonging to ‘Malvaceae’ family. In the present review, we have collected all the information of gossypin and found that it has antioxidant, antiinflammatory, anticancer, anticataract, antidiabetic, analgesic and hepatoprotective activities. It also protects against beta-amyloid induced toxicity. The information provided in the present review will be beneficial to the researchers of the various field of science for the development of better alternate for various disorders. On the basis of the presented database of this review we can conclude that gossypin has various beneficial effects and it could be used for the treatment of various disorders.

  1. Review of research on the insect pests of kenaf and their control in the Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldin, N S; El-Amin, E M

    1981-01-01

    Kenaf, Hibiscus cannabinus L., is grown in many parts of the Sudan as a fibre plant. During its various stages of growth, 17 different species of insects were detected, out of which only the cotton flea beetle Podagrica puncticollis Weise is of economic importance. The attack by this pest is most serious in the seedling stage; late sowings coupled with early light showers suffer the heaviest damage. In the leaves the beetles eat out round holes ('shot-hole effect'). The entire life cycle takes about 4 to 5 weeks, and about five generations are completed on the plant depending on the weather conditions. Cultural practices incorporating early sowing and eradication of the main host plants, Hibiscus esculentus and Abutilon spp., considerably reduce the size of the initial infestation. Chemicals tested as seed-dressing or sprays for the control of the beetle failed to give good results. However, granular insecticides showed a better performance and longer residual effect. Disyston 5G was effective for six weeks and also improved the general condition of the plants.

  2. Microsatellite DNA markers: evaluating their potential for estimating the proportion of hatchery-reared offspring in a stock enhancement programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravington, M V; Ward, R D

    2004-05-01

    We describe a statistical method for estimating the effectiveness of a stock enhancement programme using nuclear DNA loci. It is based on knowing the population allele frequencies and the genotypes of the hatchery parents (mother only, or mother and father), and on determining the probability that a wild-born animal will by chance have a genotype consistent with hatchery origin. We show how to estimate the proportion of released animals in the wild population, and its standard error. The method is applied to a data set of eight microsatellite loci in brown tiger prawns (Penaeus esculentus), prior to the start of a possible enhancement programme. We conclude that, for this particular data set, the effectiveness of such an enhancement programme could be quantified accurately if both maternal and paternal genotypes are known, but not if maternal genotypes only are known. Full paternal genotyping would require offspring genotyping and thus would be expensive, but a partly typed paternal genotype from a mass homogenate of offspring would be almost as effective and much cheaper. The experiment would become feasible based on maternal genotypes alone, if a further three typical microsatellite loci could be found to add to the existing panel of eight. The methods detailed should be of interest to any enhancement project that relies on nuclear DNA markers to provide tags.

  3. MYCOFLORA ASSOCIATED WITH SOME STORED SEEDS AND THEIR CONTROL BY AQUEOUS EXTRACT FROM MEDICINAL PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZAKARIA A. M. BAKA*, MAMDOUH S. SERAG AND TAREK A. KARDOSHA

    2014-10-01

    This study aimed to isolate and identify seed-borne fungi associated with some seeds collected from Egypt markets during storage and the possibility of their control by medicinal plant extracts. The studied seeds were Sorghum bicolor, Triticum aestivum, Oryza sativa, Lens esculentus, Vigna sinensis, Arachis hypogea and Vicia faba. Thirteen fungal species were isolated from those Aspergillus niger, A. flavus and Penicillium chrysogenum were the most prevalent. Sixteen medicinal plants named Allium sativum, Aloe vera, Mentha basilicum, Musa acuminate, Eucalptus rostrata, Datura stramonium, Zingiber officinale, Azadirachta indica, Jatropha curcas, Euphorbia peplis, Ocimum basilicum, Carum carvi, Rosmarinus officinalis, Nigella sativa, Cuminum cyminum and Citrullus colocynthis were screened for their antifungal activities. Aqueous plant extracts of all mentioned plants were tested against the most prodomonant fungal species. Allium sativum, Zingiber officinale, Datura stramonium and Citrullus colocynthis exhibited the highest antifungal activity within all plants tested. Treated seeds by plant extracts showed an increase of the percentage of their germination and reduction of seed-borne fungal infection. Mycotoxins of infected seeds and fungal pathogens were also determined.

  4. Critical period for weed control in potatoes in the Huambo Province (Angola Período crítico do controle de infestantes na cultura da batateira na Província do Huambo (Angola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Monteiro

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The effects of different weed management periods on potatoes were studied in three areas (Bailundo, Chianga and Calenga of the central highlands of Angola and in three cropping seasons, from June 2005 to May 2007. Six weed-management treatments were used to identify critical periods of competition and to allow the development of more precise management recommendations. Total potato yield ranged from about 22 t ha-1 in weed-free plots to about 3 t ha-1 with no weed control a yield loss of 86%. Major weed species Galinsoga parviflora, Cyperus esculentus, Bidens biternata, Amaranthus hybridus, Nicandra physaloides, Portulaca oleracea and Datura stramonium differed from area to area. The species G. parviflora dominated the weed flora in all three areas 73, 97 and 72 plants m² 50 days after crop emergence in Bailundo, Chianga and Calenga respectively, in dry season trials; while C. esculentus was also present in Chianga and Calenga, with an average density of ca 30 plants m-2 in dry season trials. Gompertz and logistic equations were fitted to data representing increasing periods of weed-free growth and weed interference, respectively. Critical periods for weed control, with a 95% weed-free total yield, were estimated from 26 to 66 and from 20 to 61 days after emergence for the rainy and dry seasons, respectively. Weed competition before or after these critical periods had negligible effects on crop yield.Com o objectivo de obter recomendações mais precisas para a gestão das infestantes na cultura da batata 'Romano' avaliou-se o efeito de diferentes períodos de controle e de convivência em três locais do Planalto Central de Angola e em três épocas de crescimento da cultura. O delineamento experimental, por local, consistiu em blocos casualizados com três repetições. Os tratamentos consistiram de seis intervalos de controle nos quais a cultura foi mantida livre de infestantes e após cada período estas foram deixadas crescer livremente; e

  5. Effects of Pre-Treatment and Temperature on the Quality and Drying Rate of Tomatoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.A Iyanda

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The effect of pre-treatment and temperature on the quality and the drying rate of tomatos (Lycopersicon esculentus were studied. A 3× 5 factorial experiment in a randomized complete block (RCBD design was used. Firm and fresh ripe tomatoes were washed and sliced to a uniform thickness of 5mm, pre-treatment by boiling for 3 minutes was given to some of the sliced tomatoes while some were blanched by soaking in water at 90 0C for 3 minutes and the remaining part was dried raw. 200g each of the sample was dried at temperatures of 50, 55, 60, 65, and 70 0C in a cabinet drier until no moisture removal was observed. The moisture removal from the samples in the cabinet was observed and measured on an hourly basis and the vitamin C content of the dried samples was also analyzed. The results obtained for the drying rate and Vitamin C content were statistically analyzed using SPSS software to generate the ANOVA and DNMRT. It was found that samples dried at higher temperatures had higher drying rates irrespective of the pre-treatment. Raw samples and Samples dried at lower temperatures had better quality in terms of vitamin C retention.

  6. Contrasting reproductive strategies of triploid hybrid males in vertebrate mating systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruvost, N B M; Mikulíček, P; Choleva, L; Reyer, H-U

    2015-01-01

    The scarcity of parthenogenetic vertebrates is often attributed to their 'inferior' mode of clonal reproduction, which restricts them to self-reproduce their own genotype lineage and leaves little evolutionary potential with regard to speciation and evolution of sexual reproduction. Here, we show that for some taxa, such uniformity does not hold. Using hybridogenetic water frogs (Pelophylax esculentus) as a model system, we demonstrate that triploid hybrid males from two geographic regions exhibit very different reproductive modes. With an integrative data set combining field studies, crossing experiments, flow cytometry and microsatellite analyses, we found that triploid hybrids from Central Europe are rare, occur in male sex only and form diploid gametes of a single clonal lineage. In contrast, triploid hybrids from north-western Europe are widespread, occur in both sexes and produce recombined haploid gametes. These differences translate into contrasting reproductive roles between regions. In Central Europe, triploid hybrid males sexually parasitize diploid hybrids and just perpetuate their own genotype--which is the usual pattern in parthenogens. In north-western Europe, on the other hand, the triploid males are gamete donors for diploid hybrids, thereby stabilizing the mixed 2n-3n hybrid populations. By demonstrating these contrasting roles in male reproduction, we draw attention to a new significant evolutionary potential for animals with nonsexual reproduction, namely reproductive plasticity. © 2014 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2014 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  7. Production characteristics of the "higher plants-soil-like substrate" system as an element of the bioregenerative life support system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velichko, V. V.; Tikhomirov, A. A.; Ushakova, S. A.; Tikhomirova, N. A.; Shihov, V. N.; Tirranen, L. S.; Gribovskaya, I. A.

    2013-01-01

    The study addresses the possibility of long-duration operation of a higher plant conveyor, using a soil-like substrate (SLS) as the root zone. Chufa (Cyperus esculentus L.), radish (Raphanus sativus L.), and lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) were used as study material. A chufa community consisting of 4 age groups and radish and lettuce communities consisting of 2 age groups were irrigated with a nutrient solution, which contained mineral elements extracted from the SLS. After each harvest, inedible biomass of the harvested plants and inedible biomasses of wheat and saltwort were added to the SLS. The amounts of the inedible biomasses of wheat and saltwort to be added to the SLS were determined based on the nitrogen content of the edible mass of harvested plants. CO2 concentration in the growth chamber was maintained within the range of 1100-1700 ppm. The results of the study show that higher plants can be grown quite successfully using the proposed process of plant waste utilization in the SLS. The addition of chufa inedible biomass to the SLS resulted in species-specific inhibition of growth of both cultivated crops and microorganisms in the "higher plants - SLS" system. There were certain differences between the amounts of some mineral elements removed from the SLS with the harvested edible biomass and those added to it with the inedible biomasses of wheat and saltwort.

  8. Classification of explosives transformation products in plant tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larson, S.L.; Jones, R.P. (Army Corps of Engineers, Vicksburg, MI (United States). Waterways Experiment Station); Escalon, L.; Parker, D. (AScI Corp., McLean, VA (United States))

    1999-06-01

    Explosives contamination in surface or groundwater used for the irrigation of food crops and phytoremediation of explosives-contaminated soil or water using plant-assisted biodegradation have brought about concerns as to the fate of explosives in plants. Liquid scintillation counting, high-performance liquid chromatography, and gel permeation chromatography were utilized to characterize explosives (hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine and trinitrotoluene) and their metabolites in plant tissues obtained from three separate studies. Analyzing tissues of yellow nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus), corn (Zea mays), lettuce (Lacuta sativa), tomato (Lyopersicum esculentum), radish (Raphanus sativus), and parrot feather (Myriophyllum aquaticum) from three studies where exposure to explosives at nontoxic levels occurred showed that extensive transformation of the explosive contaminant occurred, variations were noted in uptake and transformation between terrestrial and aquatic plants, the products had significantly higher polarity and water solubility than the parent compounds, and the molecular sizes of the transformation products were significantly greater than those of the parent compounds.

  9. Potential of biologically active plant oils to control mosquito larvae (Culex pipiens, Diptera: Culicidae) from an Egyptian locality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khater, Hanem Fathy; Shalaby, Afaf Abdel-Salam

    2008-01-01

    The insecticidal effect of six commercially available plant oils was tested against 4th larval instars of Culex pipiens. Larvae were originally collected from Meit El-Attar, Qalyubia Governorate, Egypt, and then reared in the laboratory until F1 generation. The LC50 values were 32.42, 47.17, 71.37, 83.36, 86.06, and 152.94 ppm for fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-grecum), earth almond (Cyperus esculentus), mustard (Brassica compestris), olibanum (Boswellia serrata), rocket (Eruca sativa), and parsley (Carum ptroselinum), respectively. The tested oils altered some biological aspects of C. pipiens, for instance, developmental periods, pupation rates, and adult emergences. The lowest concentrations of olibanum and fenugreek oils caused remarkable prolongation of larval and pupal durations. Data also showed that the increase of concentrations was directly proportional to reduction in pupation rates and adult emergences. Remarkable decrease in pupation rate was achieved by mustard oil at 1000 ppm. Adult emergence was suppressed by earth almond and fenugreek oils at 25 ppm. In addition, the tested plant oils exhibited various morphological abnormalities on larvae, pupae, and adult stages. Consequently, fenugreek was the most potent oil and the major cause of malformation of both larval and pupal stages. Potency of the applied plant oils provided an excellent potential for controlling C. pipiens.

  10. Twelve years of repeated wild hog activity promotes population maintenance of an invasive clonal plant in a coastal dune ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldfield, Callie A; Evans, Jonathan P

    2016-04-01

    Invasive animals can facilitate the success of invasive plant populations through disturbance. We examined the relationship between the repeated foraging disturbance of an invasive animal and the population maintenance of an invasive plant in a coastal dune ecosystem. We hypothesized that feral wild hog (Sus scrofa) populations repeatedly utilized tubers of the clonal perennial, yellow nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus) as a food source and evaluated whether hog activity promoted the long-term maintenance of yellow nutsedge populations on St. Catherine's Island, Georgia, United States. Using generalized linear mixed models, we tested the effect of wild hog disturbance on permanent sites for yellow nutsedge culm density, tuber density, and percent cover of native plant species over a 12-year period. We found that disturbance plots had a higher number of culms and tubers and a lower percentage of native live plant cover than undisturbed control plots. Wild hogs redisturbed the disturbed plots approximately every 5 years. Our research provides demographic evidence that repeated foraging disturbances by an invasive animal promote the long-term population maintenance of an invasive clonal plant. Opportunistic facultative interactions such as we demonstrate in this study are likely to become more commonplace as greater numbers of introduced species are integrated into ecological communities around the world.

  11. Olim palus, where once upon a time the marsh: distribution, demography, ecology and threats of amphibians in the Circeo National Park (Central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Romano

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The Circeo National Park lies in a territory that was deeply shaped by human activity, and represents one of the few remaining patches of plain wetland habitat in Central Italy. In this study distribution and few demographic information of the amphibians in the Park were provided. Seven species and 25 bibliographic and 84 original breeding sites were recorded, and population size estimations were carried out for a population of these three species: Pelophylax sinkl esculentus, Bufo balearicus and Rana dalmatina. For the studied populations of pool frog and green toad the operational sex ratio and the demographic effective population size was also estimated. For Rana dalmatina, which is strictly associated to forest environment, a positive and significant correlation between the number of egg clutches and maximum depth of the swamps was found. The State plain forest is the most important habitat for amphibians’ conservation in the park. The occurrence of dangerous alien species was investigated and they are evaluated as the major threat for amphibians in the park, especially the crayfish Procambarus clarkii in the State plain forest. Index of Calling Survey were performed for anurans and the medians did not differ among species. The potential distribution of amphibians in the Park was evaluated by building a species distribution model. Finally, the absence of three species reported in literature in the 60’s of the last century (Bombina pachypus, Salamandrina perspicillata, Rana italica is also discussed.

  12. Identification of Plant Species in Spice Drugs Using ITS2 Barcode%基于 ITS2条形码序列对新型“香料”毒品植物成分的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨雪莹; 曹海丹; 裴黎; 徐鹏

    2015-01-01

    Objective The genetic analysis of ITS2 region presented here is to detect the species of plants from spice drugs using DNA barcoding method. Methods DNA from samples of “spike 99”, “K2” and “7#” collected from cases were extracted using QIAGEN DNeasy plant mini kit. The ITS2 sequence forward primer was 5’-GCGATACTTGGTGTGAAT-3’, and the reverse was 5’-GACGCTTCTCCAGACTACAAT-3’. PCR amplification was performed in a 25µL reaction mixture. Purified PCR products were sequenced in both directions with the primers used for PCR amplification on 3730XL Genetic Analyzer. To estimate the quality of the generated sequence, the original forward and reverse sequences were assembled using CodonCode Aligner V 3.71 and the conserved 5.8S and 26S rRNA sequences were removed from the ITS2 sequence. The PCR amplification products using ITS2 primers were sequenced, analyzed and BLAST in NCBI database. Results The samples of “spike 99”, “K2” and “7#” contained organic compounds which had been determined by GC-MS. “spike 99” was found to possess JWH–073 and JWH–018 components, and JWH–018 in “K2”, cannabis in “7#”, respectively. As for the DNA analysis, one sequence from both “spike 99” and “7#” and two sequences from “K2” were 100% homologous with the ITS2 sequences of Medicago sativa, cannabis sativa, humulus lupulus and Abelmoschus manihot. Conclusions All samples containing constituents from at least four kinds of plants: Medicago sativa, cannabis sativa, humulus lupulus and Abelmoschus manihot. The results were consistent with their chemical constituents and gave the evidence that the DNA approach was an essential alternative to identify the species of plant for the drug abused. DNA barcoding, involving the amplification and sequencing of relatively short, standardized genetic loci, provides a powerful tool to identify the species of plant.%目的:应用 DNA 条形码片段 ITS2对新型毒品样品中的植物成分

  13. GROWTH PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF JUVENILES OF Archachatina marginata OVUM AND Archachatina marginata saturalis SNAIL SUBSPECIES FED FORAGES AND THEIR NUTRIENT COMPOSITION IN CROSS RIVER RAINFOREST ZONE, NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. UBUA

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The growth performance characteristics of juveniles of Archachatina marginata ovum and Archachatina marginata saturalis snail subspecies were evaluated using a feeding regime of forages. The forages of choice utilized were: Sweet potato (T1, Cocoyam (T2, Banana (T3, pawpaw (T4 and Okra (T5 respectively. The nutrient composition of these forages was equally determined. Results from this study revealed that juveniles of Archachatina marginata ovum recorded better feed intake than those of Archachatina marginata saturalis. The weight gain showed significant difference (P0.05 in Ether extract among the forages. Result of CF showed relative increase across the five forages. Banana leaves had the highest value and was significantly different (P<0.05 from those of sweet Potato and pawpaw leaves. The highest NFE content was recorded in sweet potato leaves. There was significant difference (P<0.05 in the Ash content among all the forages except sweet potato. Results from this study were within the normal proximate values of these forages and confirmed that these leaves (plant protein sources are good forages for farm animals especially micro-livestock like snails and can enhanced optimum growth characteristics.

  14. Food allergy in Africa: myth or reality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kung, Shiang-Ju; Steenhoff, Andrew P; Gray, Claudia

    2014-06-01

    Food allergy has been traditionally perceived as being rare in Africa. However, the prevalence of other allergic manifestations such as asthma and atopic dermatitis continue to rise in the higher-income African countries. Since the food allergy epidemic in westernized countries has lagged behind that of allergic respiratory conditions, we hypothesize that food allergy is increasing in Africa. This article systematically reviews the evidence for food allergy in Africa, obtained through searching databases including PubMed, Medline, MD Consult, and scholarly Google. Articles are divided into categories based on strength of methodological diagnosis of food allergy. Information was found for 11 African countries: Botswana, Democratic Republic of Congo, Ghana, Kenya, Morocco, Mozambique, Nigeria, South Africa, Tanzania, Tunisia, and Zimbabwe. Most studies reflect sensitization to food or self-reported symptoms. However, a few studies had more stringent diagnostic testing that is convincing for food allergy, mostly conducted in South Africa. Apart from the foods that commonly cause allergy in westernized countries, other regionally significant or novel food allergens may include pineapple (Ghana), okra (Nigeria), and mopane worm (Botswana). Food allergy is definitely an emerging disease in Africa and resources need to be diverted to study, diagnose, treat, and prevent this important disease.

  15. Cultural and health beliefs of pregnant women in Zambia regarding pregnancy and child birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namakau C. M'soka

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Health beliefs related to pregnancy and childbirth exist in various cultures globally. Healthcare practitioners need to be aware of these beliefs so as to contextualise theirpractice in their communities.Objectives: To explore the health beliefs regarding pregnancy and childbirth of womenattending the antenatal clinic at Chawama Health Center in Lusaka Zambia.Method: This was a descriptive, cross-sectional survey of women attending antenatal care(n = 294 who were selected by systematic sampling. A researcher-administered questionnairewas used for data collection.Results: Results indicated that women attending antenatal care at Chawama Clinic held certain beliefs relating to diet, behaviour and the use of medicinal herbs during pregnancy and post-delivery. The main beliefs on diet related to a balanced diet, eating of eggs, okra, bones, offal, sugar cane, alcohol consumption and salt intake. The main beliefs on behaviour related to commencement of antenatal care, daily activities, quarrels, bad rituals, infidelity and the use of condoms during pregnancy. The main beliefs on the use of medicinal herbs were on their use to expedite the delivery process, to assist in difficult deliveries and for body cleansing following a miscarriage.Conclusion: Women attending antenatal care at the Chawama Clinic hold a number of beliefs regarding pregnancy and childbirth. Those beliefs that are of benefit to the patients should be encouraged with scientific explanations, whilst those posing a health risk should be discouraged respectfully.

  16. Comparing and Contrasting Three Cultural Food Customs from Nigeria and Analyzing the Nutrient Content of Diets from These Cultures with the Aim of Proffering Nutritional Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adegboye, Omoyemi Roseline; Smith, Chris; Anang, Daniel; Musa, Haruna

    2016-11-17

    Nigeria is a multicultural country with a diverse cultural food. Most Nigerians' cultural diet is based on staple food accompanied by stew. In the South West and Eastern region (where Yorubas and Igbos are the dominant ethnic groups), staple foods are yam and cassava by-product (garri, fufu and lafun) with vegetables prepared as stew, often over cooked, thereby losing essential micronutrients. In Northern Nigeria (where the Hausas and Fulanis are the dominant ethnic groups), grains such as sorghum, millet form the main diet; these are served with palm oil based soup made with tomatoes and okra. Meat is sometimes added. Among the Hausas, meat is usually reserved for special occasions. Various types of malnutrition prevalent in developing countries such as Nigeria are iron deficiency anemia (ID/A), protein-energy malnutrition (PEM), Vitamin A deficiency (VAD), iodine deficiency disorder (IDD). The proposed long-term measure by the Federal government of Nigeria for the resolution of these various types of malnutrition is dietary diversification. A review of the literature on Nigerian cultural diets identified gaps in knowledge with respect to the nutritional values of Nigerian ethnic diets.

  17. First detection of Klebsiella variicola producing OXA-181 carbapenemase in fresh vegetable imported from Asia to Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurfluh, K; Poirel, L; Nordmann, P; Klumpp, J; Stephan, R

    2015-01-01

    The emergence and worldwide spread of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae is of great concern to public health services. The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in fresh vegetables and spices imported from Asia to Switzerland. Twenty-two different fresh vegetable samples were purchased in March 2015 from different retail shops specializing in Asian food. The vegetables included basil leaves, bergamont leaves, coriander, curry leaves, eggplant and okra (marrow). Samples had been imported from Thailand, the Socialist Republic of Vietnam and India. After an initial enrichment-step, carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae were isolated from two carbapenem-containing selective media (SUPERCARBA II and Brilliance CRE Agar). Isolates were screened by PCR for the presence of bla KPC, bla NDM, bla OXA-48-like and bla VIM. An OXA-181-producing Klebsiella variicola was isolated in a coriander sample with origin Thailand/Vietnam. The bla OXA-181 gene was encoded in a 14'027 bp region flanked by two IS26-like elements on a 51-kb IncX3-type plasmid. The results of this study suggest that the international production and trade of fresh vegetables constitute a possible route for the spread of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae. The presence of carbapenemase-producing organisms in the food supply is alarming and an important food safety issue.

  18. Mitigation of heavy metals in different vegetables through biological washing techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Umair Sattar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Availability of nutritious and healthy food is the foremost challenging issue in all over the word. Vegetables are essential part in human diet and considered as natural reserves of nutrients gifted by Almighty Allah to human beings. Heavy metals are among the most toxic food pollutants and their intake through diet leads to several disorders. The sources of heavy metal contamination include waste water irrigation, industrial emissions, transportation and application of metal-based pesticides. In Pakistan this situation is more alarming as vegetables grown in peri-urban areas have shown high incidence of heavy metals accumulation. In this study effort was made to mitigate different heavy metals (Ar, Cd, Cr and Pb in cauliflower, spinach, okra and brinjal collected from peri-urban areas through washing with different biological solutions. Heavy metals contents were determined by using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (AAS. Vegetable showed high load of heavy metals in unwashed form that reduced significantly by washing with different biological solutions. Among the different biological solutions, washing of vegetables with 8% ginger solution was found to be more effective.

  19. Genetics and Genomics of Cotton Leaf Curl Disease, Its Viral Causal Agents and Whitefly Vector: A Way Forward to Sustain Cotton Fiber Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehboob-ur- Rahman

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Cotton leaf curl disease (CLCuD after its first epidemic in 1912 in Nigeria, has spread to different cotton growing countries including United States, Pakistan, India, and China. The disease is of viral origin—transmitted by the whitefly Bemisia tabaci, which is difficult to control because of the prevalence of multiple virulent viral strains or related species. The problem is further complicated as the CLCuD causing virus complex has a higher recombination rate. The availability of alternate host crops like tomato, okra, etc., and practicing mixed type farming system have further exaggerated the situation by adding synergy to the evolution of new viral strains and vectors. Efforts to control this disease using host plant resistance remained successful using two gene based-resistance that was broken by the evolution of new resistance breaking strain called Burewala virus. Development of transgenic cotton using both pathogen and non-pathogenic derived approaches are in progress. In future, screening for new forms of host resistance, use of DNA markers for the rapid incorporation of resistance into adapted cultivars overlaid with transgenics and using genome editing by CRISPR/Cas system would be instrumental in adding multiple layers of defense to control the disease—thus cotton fiber production will be sustained.

  20. Genetics and Genomics of Cotton Leaf Curl Disease, Its Viral Causal Agents and Whitefly Vector: A Way Forward to Sustain Cotton Fiber Security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Mehboob-Ur-; Khan, Ali Q; Rahmat, Zainab; Iqbal, Muhammad A; Zafar, Yusuf

    2017-01-01

    Cotton leaf curl disease (CLCuD) after its first epidemic in 1912 in Nigeria, has spread to different cotton growing countries including United States, Pakistan, India, and China. The disease is of viral origin-transmitted by the whitefly Bemisia tabaci, which is difficult to control because of the prevalence of multiple virulent viral strains or related species. The problem is further complicated as the CLCuD causing virus complex has a higher recombination rate. The availability of alternate host crops like tomato, okra, etc., and practicing mixed type farming system have further exaggerated the situation by adding synergy to the evolution of new viral strains and vectors. Efforts to control this disease using host plant resistance remained successful using two gene based-resistance that was broken by the evolution of new resistance breaking strain called Burewala virus. Development of transgenic cotton using both pathogen and non-pathogenic derived approaches are in progress. In future, screening for new forms of host resistance, use of DNA markers for the rapid incorporation of resistance into adapted cultivars overlaid with transgenics and using genome editing by CRISPR/Cas system would be instrumental in adding multiple layers of defense to control the disease-thus cotton fiber production will be sustained.

  1. Multiresidue Analysis of 86 Pesticides Using Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry: II-Nonleafy Vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H. EL-Saeid

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 1057 samples of fresh vegetables from import and domestic production were analyzed (cold pepper, egg plant, carrot, cucumber, potato, hot pepper, cultivation tomato, squash, beans, okra, onions, cauliflower, and green house tomato. The aim of this study was to investigate pesticide residues in market foods in Riyadh, which have been collected from Riyadh Development Company (Al-Tamer Vegetables Market. Pesticide residues were determined by gas chromatography with mass selective detector (GC-MSD. A multiresidue method was developed and described for simultaneous determination of 86 pesticides commonly used in crop protection. This method used to determine 86 pesticide residues with a broad range of physicochemical properties in fresh vegetables related to organophosphorus (OPP, organochlorines (OCP, pyrethroids, and carbamates mainly used in agriculture. Sample extract was cleaned up by using AOAC method. Pesticide residues above the maximum residue limits (MRL were detected in 15.89% of the total samples (168 from 1057 samples, but 83.90% of the total samples (887 from 1057 samples has no residues or contained pesticide residues at or below MRL. The detected and most frequently found pesticide residues were permethrin (45 times and endosulfan (34 times followed by deltamethrin (27 times. The findings of this study pointed to the following recommendations: the need for a monitoring program for pesticide residues in imported food crops.

  2. Malvastrum yellow vein virus,a new Begomovirus species associated with satellite DNA molecule

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Xueping; XIE Yan; PENG Yan; ZHANG Zhongkai

    2003-01-01

    Virus isolate Y47 was obtained from Malvastrum coromandelianum showing yellow vein symptom in Honghe, Yunnan Province. The complete nucleotide sequence of DNA-A was determined, it contains 2731 nucleotides, having typical genomic organization of a begomovirus, encoding 6 ORFs with 2 ORFs [AV1(CP) and AV2] in virion- sense DNA and 4 ORFs (AC1-AC4) in complementary- sense DNA. Comparisons show that the total DNA-A of Y47 has the highest sequence identity (77%) with that of Okra yellow vein mosaic virus-[201] (AJ002451), while less than 76% identities are found when compared with other begomoviruses. The molecular data show that virus isolate Y47 is a distinct begomovirus species, for which the name Malvastrum yellow vein virus is proposed. Satellite DNA molecule (Y47β) was found to be associated with Y47 using the primers (beta01 and beta02) specific for DNAβ. Y47β consists of 1348 nucleotides, with a functional ORF (C1) in complementary-sense DNA. Y47β Has 62%-67% sequence identity with DNAβ molecule associated with Cotton leaf curl Multan virus or Cotton leaf curl Rajasthan virus, while lower than 46% sequence identities are found when compared with other reported DNAβ molecules. Relationship dendrograms show that DNAβ molecules are co-evolved with their help begomoviruses.

  3. Regional food dishes in the Brazilian National School Food Program: Acceptability and nutritional composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo thimoteo da Cunha

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: the objective of this study was to evaluate the nutritional composition and describe the acceptability of regional culinary dishes served to students from public schools of rural and urban areas. Methods: Ten Brazilian regional dishes were evaluated for acceptability and nutritional composition. the survey was conducted in schools located in rural and urban areas of two cities in the state of São Paulo. Dish acceptability was evaluated using leftover analysis and a 5-point facial hedonic scale. the adherence index was calculated and used as an indirect measure of acceptance, and the nutritional composition was calculated based on the technical files of each dish. Results: A total of 2,384 students from 20 schools participated in the study and 1,174 tasted and evaluated the dishes. the test using the 5-point facial hedonic scale demonstrated that five dishes (Caldo verde soup, persimmon jelly, chicken with okra, puréed cornmeal with spinach, and arugula pizza had an acceptability rate above 85.0%. the mean adherence indices were 57.3% and 55.6% in urban and rural environments, respectively. Analysis of the nutritional composition of regional dishes indicates that these dishes can partially meet macronutrient recommendations. Conclusion: the tested dishes can become part of school menus as they were accepted or partly accepted by the students regardless of school location, whether rural or urban. the cultural heritage is an important resource for the food sovereignty of a country and should be constantly encouraged.

  4. Development of multiplex and construct specific PCR assay for detection of cry2Ab transgene in genetically modified crops and product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamle, Suchitra; Kumar, Arvind; Bhatnagar, Raj K

    2011-01-01

    An efficient detection system for trait validation and screening of GMOs is a much sought after procedure, which could also help in regulatory compliance. Currently, in India, a number of cry2Ab transgene carrying GM crops are undergoing field trial i.e., MON15985 cotton, Bt rice, Bt okra, Bt corn, Bt brinjal, Bt potato and Bt tomato. In this study, we report a qualitative assay for detection for cry2Ab (326 bp). Further, the amplification compatibility with promoter, p35S (195 bp), terminator, t-nos (180 bp) and marker gene, npt II ( 215 bp) was also confirmed using Bt cotton event MON15985 as reference material. The detection sensitivity was 0.1% that is far below the requirement of the stringent European Union (EU) regulations of 0.9%. The target DNA when spiked with either MECH-12 (cry1Ac), RR-soya (epsps) or MON-810 (cry1Ab) showed no inhibitory effect on cry2Ab detection. Moreover, the cry2Ab specific transgene construct (1.9 kb) was amplified and its identity confirmed by a nested PCR. Hence, a comprehensive multiplex PCR method for detection of cry2Ab gene in a GM crop/products was established. This is possibly a first report showing concurrent amplification of cry2Ab transgene, promoter, terminator and marker gene.

  5. Blood stains of the Turin Shroud 2015: beyond personal hopes and limitations of techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Minno, Giovanni; Scala, Rosanna; Ventre, Itala; de Gaetano, Giovanni

    2016-06-01

    In the early '80s, evidence was provided that, rather than a dye (red okra), hemoglobin was indeed responsible for the alleged blood stains of the Turin Shroud. Such stains were shown to belong to an MNS positive individual of the AB group, and the halos surrounding the blood stains were compatible with serum containing trace amounts of bilirubin, albumin and immunoglobulins. However, being only based on indirect and circumstantial evidence, most of these data were challenged. In the late '90s, together with the evidence of the gene coding β-globin, contamination between male and female DNA was documented on the Turin Shroud. Although the presence of male was more noticeable than female DNA, these data were considered null and void. These days, to establish that blood indisputably belongs to an MNS positive individual of the AB group, and to exclude DNA contamination, high-specificity techniques with monoclonal antibodies and molecular studies on nuclear and mitochondrial DNA are needed. Indeed, consistent with DNA contamination on the Turin Shroud, sequences from multiple subjects of different ethnic origins have been recently detected on the human mitochondrial genome extracted from dust particles of the linen. Innovative concepts are likely to come up using modern research approaches to evaluate the issue of blood stains of the Turin Shroud. Nor can we rule out the possibility that religious implications of the new findings on the Turin Shroud might be envisaged. Conceivably enough, the ongoing debate will be fierce and passionate, especially in the media.

  6. Lead and nutrient allocation in vegetables grown in soil from a battery site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Sousa Lima

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The steady growth of the Brazilian automotive industry and the resulting development of the battery market, which represent a large proportion of the lead (Pb used in the country, have made battery recycling one of the main sources of Pb soil contamination in Brazil. Plants cultivated in Pb-contaminated soil can take up this metal, which can affect the plant’s nutritional metabolism. The Pb can also be transferred into the edible parts of plants, thereby imposing threats to human health. This study was conducted to evaluate the concentration of Pb in edible parts of vegetables grown on soil contaminated by battery recycling activities. This study also investigated the effects of Pb on nutrient concentrations in plants. Plant species biomass, Pb concentration, and concentrations of macronutrients (P, K, Ca, Mg and micronutrients (Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu in plant parts were measured. The results showed that Pb concentrations in the edible parts of vegetables grown in contaminated soil were above the threshold acceptable for human consumption. Among the vegetables evaluated, only lettuce dry matter production was reduced because of the high concentration of Pb in soil. The presence of Pb altered the concentration of micronutrients in the edible parts of kale, carrots, and okra, stimulating higher Mn and Cu concentrations in these plants when cultivated in contaminated soil.

  7. Potential of biologically active plant oils to control mosquito larvae (Culex pipiens, Diptera: Culicidae from an egyptian locality Potencial de óleos de plantas biologicamente ativos para o controle da larva do mosquito Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae de localidade egípcia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanem Fathy Khater

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The insecticidal effect of six commercially available plant oils was tested against 4th larval instars of Culex pipiens. Larvae were originally collected from Meit El-Attar, Qalyubia Governorate, Egypt, and then reared in the laboratory until F1 generation. The LC50 values were 32.42, 47.17, 71.37, 83.36, 86.06, and 152.94 ppm for fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-grecum, earth almond (Cyperus esculentus, mustard (Brassica compestris, olibanum (Boswellia serrata, rocket (Eruca sativa, and parsley (Carum ptroselinum, respectively. The tested oils altered some biological aspects of C. pipiens, for instance, developmental periods, pupation rates, and adult emergences. The lowest concentrations of olibanum and fenugreek oils caused remarkable prolongation of larval and pupal durations. Data also showed that the increase of concentrations was directly proportional to reduction in pupation rates and adult emergences. Remarkable decrease in pupation rate was achieved by mustard oil at 1000 ppm. Adult emergence was suppressed by earth almond and fenugreek oils at 25 ppm. In addition, the tested plant oils exhibited various morphological abnormalities on larvae, pupae, and adult stages. Consequently, fenugreek was the most potent oil and the major cause of malformation of both larval and pupal stages. Potency of the applied plant oils provided an excellent potential for controlling C. pipiens.O efeito inseticida de seis óleos de plantas comercialmente disponíveis foi testado contra larvas de 4ºinstar de Culex pipiens. Larvas foram coletadas originalmente de Meit El-Attar, Qalyubia Governorate, Egito e então cultivadas no laboratório até a geração F1. Os valores LC50 foram 32,42, 47,17, 71,37, 83,36, 86,06 e 152,94 ppm para o feno grego (Trigonella foenum-grecum, amêndoa da terra (Cyperus esculentus, mostarda (Brassica compestris, olíbano (Boswellia serrata, rocket (Eruca sativa e salsa (Carum ptroselium, respectivamente. Os óleos testados alteraram

  8. Levantamento fitossociológico em pastagens degradadas sob condições de várzea Phyto-sociological assessment of degraded pastures under flooded low land conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.D. Tuffi Santos

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available O levantamento foi realizado em duas áreas de várzea, eventualmente inundáveis, localizadas na Fazenda Experimental de Leopoldina, da Empresa de Pesquisa Agropecuária de Minas Gerais. A área 1, de 3 ha, estava ocupada por uma pastagem de capim-angola (Brachiaria mutica, mal manejada e sem controle de plantas daninhas há mais de dez anos. A área 2, de 5 ha, estava ocupada por uma pastagem de capim-setária (Setaria anceps cv. Kazungula, implantada na estação chuvosa do ano anterior, cuja formação ficou prejudicada pelo baixo estabelecimento da forrageira. Para o estudo fitossociológico, utilizou-se o método do quadrado inventário, aplicado por meio de um quadrado de 1,0 m², lançado ao acaso 19 vezes na área 1 e 41 vezes na área 2. As espécies encontradas foram identificadas e cadastradas. Na pastagem de capim-angola foram identificadas 27 espécies, distribuídas em 11 famílias e na pastagem de capim-setária 34 espécies distribuídas em 13 famílias. As famílias mais representativas em número de espécies foram: Poaceae (11, Asteraceae (6, Papilionoideae (5, Malvaceae e Euphorbiaceae (4. As maiores freqüências foram das seguintes espécies: Cynodon dactylon, Sida rhombifolia, Cyperus esculentus, Mimosa pudica, Senna occidentalis, Setaria anceps cv. Kazungula e Paspalum urvillei. Em geral, as duas áreas apresentaram-se infestadas com plantas daninhas, inclusive com plantas tóxicas, espinescentes e de baixa palatabilidade, reduzindo a capacidade de suporte animal dos pastos e impedindo o aproveitamento adequado das áreas pelos bovinos.An assessment was carried out of two contingently flooded low land areas, located at the Experimental Farm of Leopoldina, owned by Empresa de Pesquisa Agropecuária de Minas Gerais (EPAMIG-Brazil-MG. Area 1 (3 ha was cultivated with Angola-grass (Brachiaria mutica pasture, not well managed and without any weed control for more than 10 years. Area 2 (5 ha was occupied by Setaria grass

  9. Control of yellow and purple nutsedge in elevated CO2 environments with glyphosate and halosulfuron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Christopher Marble

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2 have significantly increased over the past century and are expected to continue rising in the future. While elevated levels of CO2 will likely result in higher crop yields, weed growth is also highly likely to increase, which could increase the incidence of herbicide resistant biotypes. An experiment was conducted in 2012 to determine the effects of an elevated CO2 environment on glyphosate and halosulfuron efficacy for postemergence control of purple and yellow nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus L. and C. esculentus L.. Both species of nutsedge where grown in 3.0-L containers under either ambient or elevated (ambient + 200 µmol mol-1 CO2 in open-top field chambers and treated with either 0.5×, 1.0×, or 1.5× of the manufacturer’s labeled rate of halosulfuron, glyphosate, or a tank mix of the two herbicides. The growth of both nutsedge species responded positively to elevated CO2, purple nutsedge had increased shoot and root dry weights and yellow nutsedge had increased shoot, root, and tuber dry weights and counts. Few treatment differences were observed among the herbicides at any of the rates tested. At three weeks following herbicide application, both purple and yellow nutsedge were adequately controlled by both herbicides and combinations at all rates tested, regardless of CO2 concentration. Based on this study, it is likely that predicted future CO2 levels will have little impact on the efficacy of single applications of halosulfuron or glyphosate for control of purple and yellow nutsedge at the growth stages described here, although scenarios demanding more persistent control efforts remain a question.

  10. Control of yellow and purple nutsedge in elevated CO2 environments with glyphosate and halosulfuron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marble, S Christopher; Prior, Stephen A; Runion, G Brett; Torbert, H Allen

    2015-01-01

    Atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2) have significantly increased over the past century and are expected to continue rising in the future. While elevated levels of CO2 will likely result in higher crop yields, weed growth is also highly likely to increase, which could increase the incidence of herbicide resistant biotypes. An experiment was conducted in 2012 to determine the effects of an elevated CO2 environment on glyphosate and halosulfuron efficacy for postemergence control of purple and yellow nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus L. and C. esculentus L.). Both species of nutsedge where grown in 3.0-L containers under either ambient or elevated (ambient + 200 μmol mol(-1)) CO2 in open-top field chambers and treated with either 0.5×, 1.0×, or 1.5× of the manufacturer's labeled rate of halosulfuron, glyphosate, or a tank mix of the two herbicides. The growth of both nutsedge species responded positively to elevated CO2, purple nutsedge had increased shoot and root dry weights and yellow nutsedge had increased shoot, root, and tuber dry weights and counts. Few treatment differences were observed among the herbicides at any of the rates tested. At 3 weeks following herbicide application, both purple and yellow nutsedge were adequately controlled by both herbicides and combinations at all rates tested, regardless of CO2 concentration. Based on this study, it is likely that predicted future CO2 levels will have little impact on the efficacy of single applications of halosulfuron or glyphosate for control of purple and yellow nutsedge at the growth stages described here, although scenarios demanding more persistent control efforts remain a question.

  11. Factors affecting post-control reinvasion by seed of an invasive species, Phragmites australis, in the central Platte River, Nebraska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galatowitsch, Susan M.; Larson, Diane L.; Larson, Jennifer L.

    2016-01-01

    Invasive plants, such as Phragmites australis, can profoundly affect channel environments of large rivers by stabilizing sediments and altering water flows. Invasive plant removal is considered necessary where restoration of dynamic channels is needed to provide critical habitat for species of conservation concern. However, these programs are widely reported to be inefficient. Post-control reinvasion is frequent, suggesting increased attention is needed to prevent seed regeneration. To develop more effective responses to this invader in the Central Platte River (Nebraska, USA), we investigated several aspects of Phragmites seed ecology potentially linked to post-control reinvasion, in comparison to other common species: extent of viable seed production, importance of water transport, and regeneration responses to hydrology. We observed that although Phragmites seed does not mature until very late in the ice-free season, populations produce significant amounts of viable seed (>50 % of filled seed). Most seed transported via water in the Platte River are invasive perennial species, although Phragmites abundances are much lower than species such as Lythrum salicaria, Cyperus esculentus and Phalaris arundinacea. Seed regeneration of Phragmites varies greatly depending on hydrology, especially timing of water level changes. Flood events coinciding with the beginning of seedling emergence reduced establishment by as much as 59 % compared to flood events that occurred a few weeks later. Results of these investigations suggest that prevention of seed set (i.e., by removal of flowering culms) should be a priority in vegetation stands not being treated annually. After seeds are in the seedbank, preventing reinvasion using prescribed flooding has a low chance of success given that Phragmites can regenerate in a wide variety of hydrologic microsites.

  12. Furrow-irrigated chufa crops in Valencia (Spain. I: Productive response to two irrigation strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Pascual-Seva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Chufa (Cyperus esculentus L. var. sativus Boeck. is an important vegetable crop in Valencia (Spain, where its tubers are used to produce a refreshing drink called 'horchata'. Water is relatively inexpensive, there are no data regarding the volumes of water used to grow chufa, and the irrigation water use efficiency (IWUE has neither been determined. The aim of this research was to compare the productive responses of the chufa crop to two irrigation strategies (IS. The volumetric soil water content (VSWC was monitored with capacitance sensors. Trends in VSWC were used to determine the in situ field capacity (FC, beginning each irrigation event when the VSWC reached either approximately 45% (H1 or 60% (H2 of the FC at a soil depth of 0.10 m. The experiments were conducted over three consecutive seasons. An area velocity flow module measured the water flow. The yields, the water volumes used, and the IWUE were calculated. Plants were periodically sampled and the harvest index and relative growth rate were determined. The yield was affected by the year and by the IS. The greatest yields were obtained with the H2 strategy (on average 2.18 kg m-2 for H2 vs. 1.94 kg m-2 for H1; p≤0.01, and the average tuber weight (ATW was affected (p≤0.01 by the year and IS interaction. IWUE was affected by the year, and none of the considered factors affected the harvest index (p≤0.05. It can be concluded that maintaining a higher VSWC would increase both yield and ATW without affecting IWUE.

  13. Kisspeptin regulates steroidogenesis and spermiation in anuran amphibian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chianese, Rosanna; Ciaramella, Vincenza; Fasano, Silvia; Pierantoni, Riccardo; Meccariello, Rosaria

    2017-10-01

    Kisspeptin (Kp) system has a recognized role in the control of gonadotropic axis, at multiple levels. Recently, a major focus of research has been to assess any direct activity of this system on testis physiology. Using the amphibian anuran, Pelophylax esculentus, as animal model, we demonstrate - for the first time in non-mammalian vertebrate - that testis expresses both Kiss-1 and Gpr54 proteins during the annual sexual cycle and that ex vivo 17B-estradiol (E2, 10(-6) M) increases both proteins over control group. Since the interstitium is the main site of localization of both ligand and receptor, its possible involvement in the regulation of steroidogenesis has been evaluated by ex vivo treatment of testis pieces with increasing doses of Kp-10 (10(-9)-10(-6) M). Treatments have been carried out in February - when a new wave of spermatogenesis occurs - and affect the expression of key enzymes of steroidogenesis inducing opposite effects on testosterone and estradiol intratesticular levels. Morphological analysis of Kp-treated testes reveals higher number of tubules with spermatozoa detached from Sertoli cells than control group and the expression of connexin 43, the main junctional protein in testis, is deeply affected by the treatment. In spite of the effects on spermatozoa observed ex vivo, in vivo administration of Kp-10 has been unable to induce sperm release in cloacal fluid. In conclusion, we demonstrate Kp-10 effects on steroidogenesis with possible involvement in the balance between testosterone and estradiol levels, and report new Kp-10 activities on spermatozoa-Sertoli cell interaction. © 2017 Society for Reproduction and Fertility.

  14. Production characteristics of the complex "SLS-vegetables" as the element of bioregenerative life support system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velichko, Vladimir; Tikhomirov, Alexander A.; Ushakova, Sofya; Tirranen, Lyalya; Gros, Jean-Bernard; Lasseur, Christophe

    Previously we had shown possibility of long-term cultivation of wheat and radish uneven-aged conveyer on the soil-like substrate (SLS) with periodic introduction in the SLS of edible (in the form of a mineral solution after physicochemical burning) and inedible biomass of the plants grown on it. The given work was aimed at the study of production characteristics of the plants cultivated on the SLS with a periodic introduction of plant biomass, which consisted of harvested inedible biomass and wheat straw. The wheat straw was introduced in the SLS to compensate carrying out of mineral elements from the SLS with the edible biomass of the harvested plants. Also possibility of joint cultivation of the chosen vegetable plants under the given way of plant inedible biomass introduction in the SLS was estimated. Chufa (Cyperus esculentus L.), radish (Raphanus sativus L.) and lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) were taken as the objects of research. Plants were grown in the regime of the three-species uneven-aged conveyer. Before each next planting of plants we introduced in the SLS all inedible biomass of earlier harvested plants and wheat straw. The amount of introduced wheat straw depended on nitrogen content in edible biomass of the harvested plants. Plants irrigation was performed by means of common nutrient solution containing mineral elements extracted from the SLS. 2 concentration in a vegetation chamber was maintained in limits from 0.1The work was carried out under support of SB RAS grant 132 and INTAS grant 05-1000008-8010

  15. A study of helical and planar waves on sea urchin sperm flagella, with a theory of how they are generated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolley, D M; Vernon, G G

    2001-04-01

    When the spermatozoon of Echinus esculentus swims in sea water containing methyl cellulose (viscosity 1.5--4 Pa s), its flagellum may generate either a helical or a planar waveform, each type being stable. The helical wave, which is dextral, is complicated by the concurrent passage of miniature waves along it. These miniature waves have a pulsatile origin in the neck region of the spermatozoon. Our videotape analysis indicates that there are two pulses of mechanical activity for each true cycle of the helical wave. (The true helical frequency was obtained from the apparent wave frequency and the roll frequency of the sperm head, the latter being detectable in some sperm when lit stroboscopically.) The planar wave has a meander shape. During the propagation of planar waves, the sliding displacements are adjustable in either direction; moribund flagella can undergo unrestricted sliding. The planar waves are, in fact, exactly planar only at interfaces. Otherwise, there tend to be torsions in the interbend segments between planar bends. Mechanical stimulation of the flagellum can cause a sudden transition from the helical to the planar waveform. To account for the two modes of beating, we advance the hypothesis that circumferential linkages yield beyond a threshold strain. Whether this yield point is exceeded, we suggest, depends upon the balance between the active shear force and the external viscosity (among other factors). We propose that a subthreshold force originates in one array and then triggers the other dynein arrays circumferentially, but unidirectionally, around the base of the flagellum; whereas a suprathreshold force provokes bi-directional circumferential triggering. These may be the two patterns of activation that result in helical and planar waveforms, respectively. The transition from helical to planar bending may result from an increment in the force produced by the dynein motors. The pulsatile origin of the helical wave resembles behaviour described

  16. Management adaptation of invertebrate fisheries to an extreme marine heat wave event at a global warming hot spot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caputi, Nick; Kangas, Mervi; Denham, Ainslie; Feng, Ming; Pearce, Alan; Hetzel, Yasha; Chandrapavan, Arani

    2016-06-01

    An extreme marine heat wave which affected 2000 km of the midwest coast of Australia occurred in the 2010/11 austral summer, with sea-surface temperature (SST) anomalies of 2-5°C above normal climatology. The heat wave was influenced by a strong Leeuwin Current during an extreme La Niña event at a global warming hot spot in the Indian Ocean. This event had a significant effect on the marine ecosystem with changes to seagrass/algae and coral habitats, as well as fish kills and southern extension of the range of some tropical species. The effect has been exacerbated by above-average SST in the following two summers, 2011/12 and 2012/13. This study examined the major impact the event had on invertebrate fisheries and the management adaption applied. A 99% mortality of Roei abalone (Haliotis roei) and major reductions in recruitment of scallops (Amusium balloti), king (Penaeus latisulcatus) and tiger (P. esculentus) prawns, and blue swimmer crabs were detected with management adapting with effort reductions or spatial/temporal closures to protect the spawning stock and restocking being evaluated. This study illustrates that fisheries management under extreme temperature events requires an early identification of temperature hot spots, early detection of abundance changes (preferably using pre-recruit surveys), and flexible harvest strategies which allow a quick response to minimize the effect of heavy fishing on poor recruitment to enable protection of the spawning stock. This has required researchers, managers, and industry to adapt to fish stocks affected by an extreme environmental event that may become more frequent due to climate change.

  17. Response of benthic macrofauna to an oil pollution: Lessons from the “Prestige” oil spill on the rocky shore of Guéthary (south of the Bay of Biscay, France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castège, Iker; Milon, Emilie; Pautrizel, Françoise

    2014-08-01

    The benthic community on the rocky foreshore of Guéthary (France) has been monitored since 2002. The standardized and quantitative monitoring method counts 20 geographically referenced quadrats spread on three littoral zones: upper mediolittoral, lower mediolittoral and infralittoral zones. The setting up of this monitoring occurred when the “Prestige” sunk close to the Finistere Cape in Galicia (Spain). The oil slick following the shipwreck impacted the Guéthary foreshore in early 2003. After the “Prestige” oil spill, the taxonomic richness decreased in the studied area with a loss of 16 species - from 57 in 2002 (before the shipwreck) to 41 species in 2004. Two or 3 years later, taxonomic richness increased to a level observed prior to the oil spill. Along the years, temporal variations in community structure of benthic macrofauna are revealed by detailed analysis. Some polluo-sensitive species disappeared after 2002 and have not reappeared yet (e.g.: Hymeniacidon perlevis). Some others reappeared two or three years after the spill or even later (e.g.: Amphipholis squamata, Botryllus schlosseri, Calliostoma zizyphinum, Echinus esculentus, etc.). Noteworthy changes were found in 2004 driven by the sudden increase in abundance of grazers. The following years, these abundances went back to a stable level. The benthic community seemed to recover almost 5 years later, although a new composition of macrofauna populations was observed. In overall aspect, the complexity of the benthic ecosystem response to oil spills confirms the need of regularly updated baselines to assess the impact of pollutions and more generally to maintain marine biodiversity.

  18. Seasonal changes and sexual dimorphism in gene expression of StAR protein, steroidogenic enzymes and sex hormone receptors in the frog brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santillo, Alessandra; Falvo, Sara; Di Fiore, Maria Maddalena; Chieffi Baccari, Gabriella

    2016-12-24

    The brain of amphibians contains all the key enzymes of steroidogenesis and has a high steroidogenic activity. In seasonally-breeding amphibian species brain steroid levels fluctuate synchronously with the reproductive cycle. Here we report a study of gene expression of StAR protein, key steroidogenic enzymes and sex hormone receptors in the telencephalon (T) and diencephalon-mesencephalon (D-M) of male and female reproductive and post-reproductive Pelophylax esculentus, a seasonally breeding anuran amphibian. Significant differences in gene expression were observed between (a) the reproductive and post-reproductive phase, (b) the two brain regions and (c) male and female frogs. During the reproductive phase, star gene expression increased in the male (both T and D-M) but not in the female brain. Seasonal fluctuations in expression levels of hsd3b1, hsd17b1, srd5a1 and cyp19a1 genes for neurosteroidogenic enzymes occurred in D-M region of both sexes, with the higher levels in reproductive period. Moreover, the D-M region generally showed higher levels of gene expression than the T region in both sexes. Gene expression was higher in females than males for most genes, suggesting higher neurosteroid production in female brain. Seasonal and sex-linked changes were also observed in gene expression for androgen (ar) and estrogen (esr1, esr2) receptors, with the males showing the highest ar levels in reproductive phase and the highest esr1 and esr2 levels in post-reproductive phase; in contrast, females showed the maximum expression for all three genes in reproductive phase. The results are the first evidence for seasonal changes and sexual dimorphism of gene expression of the neurosteroidogenic pathway in amphibians.

  19. Assessment of weed species composition and species diversity in some fruit orchards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patience Olorunmaiye

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Fruits are often perennial crops and therefore can be invaded by weeds at many different times of the year because of their varied life-cycle. Thus a weed survey was conducted in some fruit orchards containing guava/soursop, mango, irvingia and plantain/banana at the National Horticultural Research Institute (NIHORT Ibadan in 2009 cropping season to determine weed species composition and species diversity. Weeds were sampled from each fruit orchard with a 0.5m × 0.5m wooden quadrat, identified to species level, counted and recorded. Data collected were used to calculate relative frequency, relative density and importance relative value for each species. Result shows that 45 weed species were encountered in all the fruit orchards and mango orchard had the highest species diversity (33 species while the least was recorded in guava/soursop orchard (10 species. All these 10 species had their relative frequencies > 5% out of which Ageratum conyzoides > Panicum maximum > Cyperus esculentus > Chromolaena odorata > Commelina erecta are of ecological importance. Three weed species: Ageratum conyzoides, Centrosema pubescens and Panicum maximum associated with all the fruit orchards in all the locations and T. procumbens was the most abundant and most dominant species in guava/soursop, irvingia and plantain/banana orchards while Echinocloa phyllopogon followed the same trend in mango orchard. These weeds are low-growing plants and regular weeding before seed formation will help to reduce their abundance in these orchards so that they do not interfere with harvesting of these fruits.

  20. Favorable fragmentation: river reservoirs can impede downstream expansion of riparian weeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rood, Stewart B; Braatne, Jeffrey H; Goater, Lori A

    2010-09-01

    River valleys represent biologically rich corridors characterized by natural disturbances that create moist and barren sites suitable for colonization by native riparian plants, and also by weeds. Dams and reservoirs interrupt the longitudinal corridors and we hypothesized that this could restrict downstream weed expansion. To consider this "reservoir impediment" hypothesis we assessed the occurrences and abundances of weeds along a 315-km river valley corridor that commenced with an unimpounded reach of the Snake River and extended through Brownlee, Oxbow, and Hells Canyon reservoirs and dams, and downstream along the Snake River. Sampling along 206 belt transects with 3610 quadrats revealed 16 noxious and four invasive weed species. Ten weeds were upland plants, with Canada thistle (Cirsium arvense) restricted to the upstream reaches, where field morning glory (Convolvulus arvensis) was also more common. In contrast, St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum) was more abundant below the dams, and medusahead wildrye (Taeniatherum caput-medusae) occurred primarily along the reservoirs. All seven riparian species were abundant in the upstream zones but sparse or absent below the dams. This pattern was observed for the facultative riparian species, poison hemlock (Conium maculatum) and perennial pepperweed (Lepidium latifolium), the obligate riparian, yellow nut sedge (Cyperus esculentus), the invasive perennial, reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea), and three invasive riparian trees, Russian olive (Elaeagnus angustifolia), false indigo (Amorpha fruticosa), and tamarisk (Tamarix spp.). The hydrophyte purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria) was also restricted to the upstream zone. These longitudinal patterns indicate that the reservoirs have impeded the downstream expansion of riparian weeds, and this may especially result from the repetitive draw-down and refilling of Brownlee Reservoir that imposes a lethal combination of drought and flood stress. The dams and

  1. Bioconcentração de chumbo e micronutrientes em hortaliças cultivadas em solo contaminado Bioconcentration of lead and micronutrients in horticultural crops grown in contaminated soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco de Sousa Lima

    2013-06-01

    and the absorption of micronutrients by horticultural crops grown in a spodosol contaminated by Pb. In addition, the distribution of Pb among the soil fractions and the relationship of these fractions to the availability of Pb to the crops was also studied. The experiment was carried out in randomized blocks in a 5x3x4 factorial scheme. The treatments were made up of five levels of Pb (0.0; 20; 50; 72 and 180 mg kg-1 of soil, three species of vegetable (okra, carrot and kale and four plant parts (root, stem, leaf and edible portions, the last level being equivalent to the investigative value for agricultural soils. According to the results, the Pb promoted a reduction in the dry mass of the carrot and okra, while having no effect on the biomass production of the kale. The Pb affected the concentration of micronutrients in the vegetable organs, a reduction in iron content being observed in the carrot, while in the kale there was an increase in the Zn content of the roots. The Pb presented as preferably adsorbed to the organic-matter fraction. Plants grown in soil contaminated at the investigative levels established by CONAMA, besides showing nutritional imbalance, may become unsuitable for human consumption, due to the high levels of the metal in the edible portions.

  2. Pró-vitaminas A em hortaliças comercializadas no mercado formal e informal de Viçosa (MG, em três estações do ano Provitamins A in vegetables marked in formal and free market at Viçosa (MG, Brazil, during three seasons of the year

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Milagres Campos

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Para fornecer dados sobre a influência climática e a forma de comercialização sobre carotenóides de vegetais, este estudo pesquisou o conteúdo de alfa e beta-caroteno e o valor de vitamina A de sete hortaliças (batata-doce, cenoura, moranga, pimentão, quiabo, tomate e vagem, na cidade de Viçosa (MG, utilizando a Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Eficiência. Compararam-se hortaliças comercializadas nos mercados formal (mercados locais e informal (feira livre durante primavera, verão e outono. A cenoura apresentou os teores mais elevados de alfa e beta-caroteno (31,17 e 58,18 µg/g, respectivamente, seguida pela moranga (4,33 e 23,16 µg/g, respectivamente, enquanto a batata-doce apresentou o teor mais reduzido de beta-caroteno (0,51 µg/g. O valor de vitamina A variou conforme o perfil de alfa e beta-caroteno. Com exceção da cenoura e do quiabo, não houve influência significativa do local de comercialização sobre o conteúdo de carotenóides. A variação do conteúdo de carotenos nas estações do ano foi inexpressiva, sendo que apenas o pimentão apresentou valores significativamente diferentes. Porções de 100 g das hortaliças analisadas fornecem entre 3 e 78% da recomendação de vitamina A.With the aim of providing data on the influence of climate and form of commercialization on carotenoid of vegetables, this study evaluate the content of alpha and beta carotene and vitamin A value of seven vegetables (sweet potato, carrot, squash, green pepper, okra, tomato and green bean market in Viçosa (MG, Brazil, using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC. It was compared vegetables commercialized in two local markets and in the free market during spring, summer and autumn. Carrot presented the highest values of alpha and beta-carotene (31.17 e 58.18 µg/g, respectively, followed by squash (4.33 and 23.16 µg/g, respectively, while sweet potato presented the lowest value of beta carotene (0.51 µg/g. The vitamin A values

  3. Is the Cry1Ab protein from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) taken up by plants from soils previously planted with Bt corn and by carrot from hydroponic culture?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Icoz, I; Andow, D; Zwahlen, C; Stotzky, G

    2009-07-01

    The uptake of the insecticidal Cry1Ab protein from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) by various crops from soils on which Bt corn had previously grown was determined. In 2005, the Cry1Ab protein was detected by Western blot in tissues (leaves plus stems) of basil, carrot, kale, lettuce, okra, parsnip, radish, snap bean, and soybean but not in tissues of beet and spinach and was estimated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to be 0.05 +/- 0.003 ng g(-1) of fresh plant tissue in basil, 0.02 +/- 0.014 ng g(-1) in okra, and 0.34 +/- 0.176 ng g(-1) in snap bean. However, the protein was not detected by ELISA in carrot, kale, lettuce, parsnip, radish, and soybean or in the soils by Western blot. In 2006, the Cry1Ab protein was detected by Western blot in tissues of basil, carrot, kale, radish, snap bean, and soybean from soils on which Bt corn had been grown the previous year and was estimated by ELISA to be 0.02 +/- 0.014 ng g(-1) of fresh plant tissue in basil, 0.19 +/- 0.060 ng g(-1) in carrot, 0.05 +/- 0.018 ng g(-1) in kale, 0.04 +/- 0.022 ng g(-1) in radish, 0.53 +/- 0.170 ng g(-1) in snap bean, and 0.15 +/- 0.071 ng g(-1) in soybean. The Cry1Ab protein was also detected by Western blot in tissues of basil, carrot, kale, radish, and snap bean but not of soybean grown in soil on which Bt corn had not been grown since 2002; the concentration was estimated by ELISA to be 0.03 +/- 0.021 ng g(-1) in basil, 0.02 +/- 0.008 ng g(-1) in carrot, 0.04 +/- 0.017 ng g(-1) in kale, 0.02 +/- 0.012 ng g(-1) in radish, 0.05 +/- 0.004 ng g(-1) in snap bean, and 0.09 +/- 0.015 ng g(-1) in soybean. The protein was detected by Western blot in 2006 in most soils on which Bt corn had or had not been grown since 2002. The Cry1Ab protein was detected by Western blot in leaves plus stems and in roots of carrot after 56 days of growth in sterile hydroponic culture to which purified Cry1Ab protein had been added and was estimated by ELISA to be 0.08 +/- 0.021 and 0.60 +/- 0.148 ng g(-1) of

  4. Snails and slugs damaging the cut foliage, Cordyline fruticosa and use of biorationals towards their management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthiga, S; Jegathambigai, V; Karunarathne, M D S D; Svinningen, A; Mikunthan, G

    2012-01-01

    Snails and slugs became a serious molluscan pests and damaging leaves of purple compacta, Cordyline fruticosa extensively grown for export at Green Farm Ltd, Sri Lanka. The export quality of leaves of C. fruticosa is lowered due to feeding of snails, Achantina fulica (Bowditch), Opeas pyrgula Schmacker and Boettgerx and Helix aspersa Muller and slugs incurring great loss to cut foliage industry. Paucity of information is available to understand snails and slugs damage and their host range that limits to develop suitable management practices. Therefore this study was aimed to determine damage, alternate hosts and to develop possible management practices. Snails and slugs damaged mainly fresh leaves of C. fruticosa. The severity of damage was 44.5% in infested field based on the visual rating method. Leaves of cassava, sting bean, okra, cucumber, passion fruit, papaya, Glyricidia and shoe flower were identified as alternate hosts and neem, Ixora and Dracaena spp were not served as alternate hosts. Among the plant materials tested for their repellence against snails and slugs revealed that neem seed powder was an irritant; neem leaves, mint leaves and Lantana leaves were acted as anti-feedant and Salt as chemical repellent. Among the barrier and bait experiments Bordeaux mixture exhibited a significant barrier effect against horizontal movement of snails. Baits made out of Metaldehyde bait, vegetables bait and jaggery had a strong effect in repelling the snails and slugs. Mulching with Madhuca longifolia punnac was the best to reduce the snails and slugs population compared to M. longifolia seed kernel powder. Oil from M. longifolia failed to reduce their population. Hence the results revealed that saponin containing M. longifolia punnac helped to eliminate snails and slugs when used as mulch. Metaldehyde, vegetable and jaggery baits are also useful to minimize their colonization further. Hence combination of these methods will help to prevent snails and slugs from

  5. Ocorrência de nova doença do algodoeiro irrigado, no Brasil, causada por Sclerotinia sclerotiorum Occurrence of a new disease of irrigated cotton, in Brazil, caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria José D´avila Charchar

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Em 1996, uma nova doença causada pelo fungo Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib. de Bary foi observada em algodoeiro (Gossypium hirsutum L., cultivar Deltapine, irrigado sob pivô central, em Paracatu, MG. Os sintomas apresentados foram murcha e podridão da haste, do pecíolo da folha e da maçã, além de serem observados no interior do capulho micélio branco e escleródios escuros do patógeno. O teste de patogenicidade foi efetuado em algodoeiro, nas cultivares Deltapine e IAC 22, e em feijoeiro e quiabeiro, aos 14 dias de idade. As plantas foram incubadas em alta umidade durante 48 horas, a 25ºC. Três dias após a inoculação, verificaram-se sintomas severos de murcha e necrose dos tecidos, de onde o patógeno foi reisolado, completando-se, assim, os postulados de Koch. Este é o primeiro relato da ocorrência natural de S. sclerotiorum em algodoeiro no Brasil.In 1996, a new disease caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib. de Bary was observed on cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. Deltapine cultivar irrigated under central pivot at Paracatu, MG, in the Savana region of Central Brazil. The symptoms were wilt, necrosis and rot. White mycelium and black sclerotia developed inside the boll. The pathogenicity test was done with two-week old cotton seedling cultivars Deltapine and IAC 22 and bean and okra seedlings. The plants were incubated at high humidity for 48 hours at 25ºC. Three days after inoculation, severe symptoms of wilt and necrosis were observed. S. sclerotiorum was reisolated from the damaged plant tissues, and Koch´s postulates were completed. This is the first report of S. sclerotiorum natural occurrence on cotton in Brazil.

  6. Preliminary identification and coat protein gene phylogenetic relationships of begomoviruses associated with native flora and cultivated plants from the Yucatan Peninsula of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Zepeda, Cecilia; Idris, Ali M; Carnevali, Germán; Brown, Judith K; Moreno-Valenzuela, Oscar A

    2007-12-01

    A number of native and cultivated eudicots in the Yucatan Peninsula of Mexico (YPM) exhibit symptoms associated with virus infection. Symptomatic leaves were collected and assessed for begomoviral detection using polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and universal primers that amplify a fragment of the coat protein gene (core Cp). Begomovirus were detected in nine native and seven cultivated species, representing seven eudicot families. DNA extracts from the 16 hosts were used for PCR amplification and sequencing of a fragment containing the coat protein (Cp) gene. The complete Cp sequence was used to establish provisional species identification. Results indicated that 13 distinct begomovirus species were represented. Among these, five potentially new begomovirus species were identified, for which we propose the names Anoda golden mosaic virus (AnGMV), Boerhavia yellow spot virus (BoYSV), Papaya golden mosaic virus (PaGMV), Desmodium leaf distortion virus (DeLDV), and Hibiscus variegation virus (HiVV). Five previously described begomoviral species were provisionally identified for the first time in the YPM; these include Euphorbia mosaic virus (EuMV), Melon chlorotic leaf curl virus (MCLCuV), Okra yellow mosaic Mexico virus (OkYMMV), Sida golden mosaic virus (SiGMV), and Tobacco apical stunt virus (TbASV). Additionally, viruses previously reported from this region, Bean golden yellow mosaic virus (BGYMV), Pepper golden mosaic virus (PepGMV), and Tomato mottle virus (ToMoV) were provisionally identified in cultivated hosts. Phylogenetic analysis provisionally placed all isolates from the YPM in a Western Hemisphere begomovirus clade.

  7. Vitamin A-rich porridge for Boarding Khalwa students with night blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swar, Mohamed Osman; Alhaj, Ishraga; Osman, Atika Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    Khalwa is a non-governmental boarding school specialized in teaching Quran to Sudanese children. Food supply to Khalwa is completely dependent on donations. Students are fed on low cost and low nutritional value diet made of sorghum flour porridge and a stew made of dry okra, onion and oil. The incidence of night blindness among these students is reported by the Nutrition Department of the Federal Ministry of Health, Sudan, in 2005 as 0.9%. In this study we interviewed and examined 453 Khalwa students in Umbada area, however blood sampling for assay of vitamin A level was not acceptable by the Khalwa authorities. Thirty four students (7.5%) showed clinical evidence of Vitamin A Deficiency (VAD), 67.6% of them for a period of less than 6 months which was consistent with their stay in Khalwa. Vitamin A fortified sugar is used in Kenya, Zambia, South Africa and Honduras but it is costly and sugar-containing foods and drinks are not in common use by Khalwa students. To supply students with a good amount of vitamin A, we prepared a new porridge formed of sorghum flour; peeled, chopped and boiled pumpkins in addition to their traditional stew. One meal per student contained 250 grams of sorghum flour and 125 grams of pumpkin which supplies 611μg (10891 I.U.) of vitamin A according to the USDA SR-25 composition tables (>100% Daily Value). Compared to the old porridge, there was significant differences (P <0.05) in vitamin A, carbohydrate, protein, fiber, fat, ash and moisture contents. All students accepted the taste of the new porridge and 91.2% agreed that it is not difficult to prepare. We conclude that adding pumpkins to Khalwa porridge is cost effective and may help preventing VAD and its deleterious effects on vision and health.

  8. Natural gums as sustained release carriers: development of gastroretentive drug delivery system of ziprasidone HCl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AJ Rajamma

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Objective of this study is to show the potential use of natural gums in the development of drug delivery systems. Therefore in this work gastro retentive tablet formulations of ziprasidone HCl were developed using simplex lattice design considering concentration of okra gum, locust bean gum and HPMC K4M as independent variables. A response surface plot and multiple regression equations were used to evaluate the effect of independent variables on hardness, flag time, floating time and drug release for 1 h, 2 h, and 8 h and for 24 h. A checkpoint batch was also prepared by considering the constraints and desirability of optimized formulation to improve its in vitro performance. Significance of result was analyzed using ANOVA and p was considered statistically significant. Results Formulation chiefly contains locust bean gum found to be favorable for hardness and floatability but combined effect of three variables was responsible for the sustained release of drug. The in vitro drug release data of check point batch (F8 was found to be sustained well compared to the most satisfactory formulation (F7 of 7 runs. The ‘n’ value was found to be between 0.5 and 1 suggesting that release of drug follows anomalous (non-fickian diffusion mechanism indicating both diffusion and erosion mechanism from these natural gums. Predicted results were almost similar to the observed experimental values indicating the accuracy of the design. In vivo floatability test indicated non adherence to the gastric mucosa and tablets remain buoyant for more than 24 h. Conclusions Study showed these eco-friendly natural gums can be considered as promising SR polymers.

  9. Morphological and Morphometrical Characterization of Meloidogyne incognita from Different Host Plants in Four Districts of Punjab, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Harpreet; Attri, Rajni

    2013-06-01

    The population of M. incognita, the root knot nematode (RKN) was found infesting five different host plants (okra, banana, sunflower, bottle gourd, and brinjal) out of 24 examined from four districts of Punjab, India (Gurdaspur, Ludhiana, Patiala, and Hoshiarpur). Morphological and morphometrical characterization indicated that in the case of mature female, the characters of body length and width, neck length, ratio 'a', anus to tail terminus (ATT), interphasmid distance (IPD), and perineal pattern were recorded as stable characters. These taxonomic characters can be reliable for identification. All characters of second-stage juvenile (J2) such as body length, stylet length, head to median bulb length (H-MB), distance from median bulb to excretory pore (MB-EP), tail length, anal body width (ABW), and ratios C and C' were highly variable. Analysis of interpopulation morphometric characters of mature female of M. incognita, namely, body length, width, and ratio 'a' were moderately variable characters (CV 0.26% to 20%) and stylet length, neck length, length of median bulb (LMB), and width of median bulb (WMB) were highly variable (CV 1.0% to 36.1%). In the perineal pattern, the two characters ATT and IPD were moderately variable (CV 8.8% to 17.6%) and two characters, anus to vulval slit (AVS) and length of vulval slit (LVS), were highly variable (CV 2.1% to 40.5%). In J2, body length, stylet length, H-MB, MB-EP, ABW, tail length, ratios C, and C' were highly variable characters (CV > 12%).

  10. Pleurotus eryngii immobilized Amberlite XAD-16 as a solid-phase biosorbent for preconcentrations of Cd2+ and Co2+ and their determination by ICP-OES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özdemir, Sadin; Okumuş, Veysi; Kılınç, Ersin; Bilgetekin, Havin; Dündar, Abdurrahman; Ziyadanogˇulları, Berrin

    2012-09-15

    This article reports a method that is used for the preconcentration and determination of Cd(2+) and Co(2+) in vegetables, using Pleurotus eryngii immobilized Amberlite XAD-16 as a solid-phase biosorbent. The concentrations of metals were determined by inductively coupled plasma-optical spectrometry (ICP-OES). Critical parameters, such as the pH of the solution, flow rate, the amount of biosorbent, type and volume of eluent, and the sample volume, that affect the solid-phase extraction (SPE) procedure were optimized. The optimum extraction conditions were determined as being a pH of 6.0 for Cd(2+) and of 5.0 for Co(2+); a sample flow rate of 2.0 mL min(-1); 200.0mg of biosorbent; and 5.0 mL of 1.0 mol L(-1) HCl as eluent. The capacities of the biosorbent for metal uptake were found to be 11.3 and 9.8 mg g(-1) for Cd(2+) and Co(2+) ions, respectively. Limit of quantitations (LOQs) were found to be 0.67 and 0.82 ng mL(-1), respectively, for Cd(2+) and Co(2+). The linear working curves were observed to be in the linear range from 1.0 to 50.0 ng mL(-1), and possessed high correlation coefficients. The use of the SPE method showed 50.7- and 35.7-fold improvements in the sensitivities of ICP-OES. The developed method was successfully applied to NCS ZC-73014 (a certified reference tea sample). Relative standard deviations (RSD) were lower than 5.0%. The Cd(2+) and Co(2+) concentrations in the different parts (leave, root, stem, and fruit) of purslane, onion, rocket, okra, and aubergine were determined after microwave digestion and solid-phase extraction by P. eryngii immobilized on Amberlite XAD-16.

  11. Biocontrol potential of Pasteuria penetrans, Pochonia chlamydosporia, Paecilomyces lilacinus and Trichoderma harzianum against Meloidogyne incognita in

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tariq MUKHTAR

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita, is a sedentary endoparasitic plant pathogen with a very wide host range, which causes annual crop losses amounting to millions of dollars. The small number of available nematicides and restrictions on the use of non-fumigant nematicides due to high toxicity to humans and non-target organisms hinder effective nematode control. A possible alternative to chemical nematicides is the use of biological control agents for the management of this nematode. In the present study, the efficacy of four biocontrol agents was tested against M. incognita at different doses. The biocontrol agents Pasteuria penetrans, Pochonia chlamydosporia, Paecilomyces lilacinus and Trichoderma harzianum were mass produced and mixed with the formalin sterilized soil at the rates of 2 × 103, 4 × 103, 6 × 103, 8 × 103, and 1 × 104 endospores/chlamydospores/cfu per g of soil. Okra seeds (cv. Sabz Pari were sown in pots of soil amended with the different agents, and 10 d after emergence, the plants were inoculated with 2000 freshly hatched second stage juveniles of M. incognita. Data on plant growth parameters and nematode infestations were recorded 7 weeks after inoculation. The antagonists varied significantly in enhancing various growth parameters and reducing nematode infestations in a dose-responsive manner. Both P. penetrans and P. lilacinus were equally effective and caused maximum reductions in number of galls, egg masses, nematode fecundity and build up as compared with T. harzianum and P. chlamydosporia. Reductions in these parameters at the concentration of 8 × 103 were statistically similar with those caused at the concentration of 1 × 104 chlamydospores/ endospores/cfu. Our results indicate that application of antagonists can suppress galling and reproduction of M. incognita resulting in enhancement of plant growth.

  12. Notes d'etymologie indo-europeenne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojan Čop

    1956-12-01

    Full Text Available Le mot est attesté dans russe mádež «Leberflecken im Gesicht der Schwangeren», serbocr. madež «Muttermal» et slovène mâdež «Fleck, Rostflecik; Mal, Muttermal». Le groupe est sans étymologie, voir Berneker, SI. EJV II, 2, et Vasmer, Russ. EW  II, 86. Le germanique fournit un groupe presque synonyme, à savoir v. norr. mōt «image, signe», boll, moet «trace, empreinte», fris. or. mōt «tache»; de ce substantif, on a dérivé le verbe v. angl. mētan «dessiner, peindre». Ce groupe est de même sans étymologie, car les rapprochements que donnent Fick-Falk-Torp III4, p. 322 et suiv. (v. norr. Mōt «Begegnung», etc., et Holthausen, Altengl. EW 225 (v. angl. etc. māēl «signe, tache» sont peu probables. weight:bold'>dalje v ags. ηanan-bēam »trdoleska«, hetit. unuηāi- »lišpati« in končno v podaljšku s *-q-- v kimr. gηymp »okrašen«, tohar. A ηamp- »krasiti«, ki ju je sestavil Lidén, Mél. Pedersen, 93.

  13. 木尔坦棉花曲叶病毒基因重组和缺失产生DNAβ相关的新型小分子%Novel DNA-β associated molecules produced by sequence recombination and deletion of cotton leaf curl Multan virus complex

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赖艺祯; 谢科; 蔡健和; 秦碧霞; 李战彪; 刘玉乐

    2012-01-01

    [目的]棉花曲叶病是棉花生产上的一种重要的病毒病害,在巴基斯坦和印度等国家地区大面积流行,造成严重的经济损失.近年在中国广西南宁的棉花田间发现了棉花曲叶病害,在广西的黄秋葵中也发生了曲叶病,二者的病原均为木尔坦棉花曲叶病毒(Cotton Leaf Curl Multan Virus,CLCuMV),为了对这2个病害有更深的了解,本文对该双生病毒伴随的DNA小分子进行测序分析.[方法]分别从广西南宁地区感染CLCuMV的3棵棉花和3棵黄秋葵中提取总DNA,用CLCuMV DNAβ的特异引物进行PCR扩增,将产物分离纯化并克隆测序,进行序列比对分析.[结果]从棉花曲叶病害中分离得到了1384 nt的新型重组DNA分子,以及从黄秋葵曲叶病害中分离得到了754 nt的新型缺失型DNA分子.研究结果表明1384 nt重组分子是由CLCuMV GX1的DNA-A和DNAβ重组而成.重组分子大部分来源于CLCuMV的DNA-A,包含基因间隔区,附近的部分AV2和AC1基因,以及反向互补的部分AC3基因.其余部分来源于伴随的DNAβ,包含A-rich区域.分析拼接片段的附近序列,发现接头部分含有2-3个共同碱基,推测为重组作用发生的位点.与以前报道的在实验室中产生的CLCuMV重组分子进行比较显示,DNA-A的基因间隔区和DNAβ的A-rich 区在重组过程中非常保守.另外,754 nt的重组小分子是由CLCuMV Okra1 DNAβ缺失突变产生,缺失了大部分的编码C1蛋白开放阅读框(Open Reading Frame,ORF)以及小部分的A-rich区.[结论]本研究在自然条件下分离到了来源于CLCuMV和卫星DNAβ的重组分子,以及DNAβ缺陷型分子.这2种重组小分子以前未见报道,这也是在中国发现的棉花曲叶病毒中首次发现重组分子.这种基因组变异现象在棉花曲叶病毒的进化和寄主适应过程中可能有重要的意义.%[Objective] Cotton leaf curl disease (CLCuD) is a major constraint to cotton production, causing great economic losses

  14. 猕猴桃花青素合成途径基因AcCHS和AcLDOX的克隆与表达分析%Cloning and Expression of Anthocyanin Pathway Genes,AcCHS and AcLDOX,in Actinidia chinensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张亮; 满玉萍; 姜正旺; 王彦昌

    2012-01-01

    Based on the highly conserved sequences of other plants,counterpart sequences of CHS(chalcone synthase,CHS)and LDOX(leucoanthocyanidin dioxygenase,LDOX)of Actinida chinesis,‘Hongyang’were obtained using the special primers. Full-length cDNAs encoding CHS and LDOX were cloned respectively from fruit of‘Hongyang’by RACE(rapid amplification of cDNA ends). The AcCHS was 1501 bp in length,encoding 389 amino acids. AcLDOX was 1381 bp in length and encoded 355 amino acids. Amino acids sequence of AcCHS exhibited over 95% homology with CHS of Abelmoschus manihot,Camellia japonica and Gossypium hirsutum. It also shared 94% and 93% homology with Vitis vinifera and Malus × domestica respectively. AcLDOX showed 94% and 93% identity with Vitis amurensis and Vitis vinifera respectively at amino acids level. The expression of AcCHS and AcLDOX in the inner pericarp of three kiwifruit cultivars with red,green and yellow color was analyzed by Real-time PCR. AcCHS expressed highly in flesh of‘Hongyang’at 65 DAF(days after flower). Expression of the gene in yellow-fleshed‘Jinnong’decreased permanently after flowering. Expression of AcLDOX increased during the early developmental stage in‘Hongyang’,but dropped quickly after 65 DAF. Interestingly,expression of AcLDOX raised markedly in the late developmental stages of green-fleshed‘Jinkui’,which was the highest among three cultivars. AcLDOX in‘Jinnong’also deregulated after flowering.%根据物种水平上蛋白保守序列设计特异引物,扩增获得‘红阳’猕猴桃花青素合成途径中查尔酮合成酶(chalcone synthase,CHS)和无色花青素双加氧酶(leucoanthocyanidin dioxygenase,LDOX)基因的特异片段,用RACE(rapid-amplification of cDNA ends)技术克隆出这两个基因的cDNA全长,长度分别为1501 bp(AcCHS)和1381 bp(AcLDOX),分别编码389个和355个氨基酸。通过比对发现AcCHS与棉花(Gossypium hirsutum

  15. Dinâmica populacional de plantas daninhas em cultivares de alface produzidas no verão em Seropédica - RJ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio de Amorim Brandão

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Diferenças na arquitetura em espécies de alface cultivadas podem levar a alterações nas populações de plantas daninhas no período de cultivo. Dessa forma, objetivou-se neste trabalho avaliar efeitos de cultivares de alface na supressão de plantas daninhas. Foram avaliadas 12 cultivares de alface dispostas no delineamento em blocos ao acaso, com três repetições. As parcelas constituíram-se de 12 plantas distribuídas em quatro linhas espaçadas em 0,30 m. As cultivares avaliadas foram: do grupo lisa (Regina 2.000, Regina 500, Regina 3.500, Maravilha de Inverno, Boston Branca, Rainha de Maio; do grupo crespa (Grand Rapids, Hanson, Camila, Banchu Red Fire e do grupo americana (Grandes Lagos, Delícia. A população de plantas daninhas foi avaliada aos 15 e 29 dias após o transplantio das cultivares. As plantas daninhas foram coletadas em um quadrado de 0,25 m de lado, lançadas ao acaso nas parcelas. Todas as plantas do interior do quadrado foram coletadas e identificadas, e o número de espécies e de indivíduos por espécie foi quantificado. Em seguida, esse material foi seco em estufa de circulação forçada a 65ºC por 72 horas, até atingir massa constante. Determinou-se a frequência (F; densidade (D; dominância (DO; frequência relativa (FR; densidade relativa (DR; dominância relativa (DOR e índice de valor de importância (IVI. As três principais plantas daninhas, com relação ao (IVI, identificadas nas duas coletas, foram a Cyperus esculentus L., Commelina benghalensis L. e Panicum maximum Jacq. As cultivares do grupo lisa Regina 500, Regina 2.000, Regina 3.500 e Rainha de Maio provocaram maior supressão de todas as espécies de plantas daninhas na segunda avaliação.

  16. BIO-MONITORING FOR URANIUM USING STREAM-SIDE TERRESTRIAL PLANTS AND MACROPHYTES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caldwell, E.; Duff, M.; Hicks, T.; Coughlin, D.; Hicks, R.; Dixon, E.

    2012-01-12

    This study evaluated the abilities of various plant species to act as bio-monitors for environmental uranium (U) contamination. Vegetation and soil samples were collected from a U processing facility. The water-way fed from facility storm and processing effluents was the focal sample site as it represented a primary U transport mechanism. Soils and sediments from areas exposed to contamination possessed U concentrations that averaged 630 mg U kg{sup -1}. Aquatic mosses proved to be exceptional accumulators of U with dry weight (dw) concentrations measuring as high as 12500 mg U kg{sup -1} (approximately 1% of the dw mass was attributable to U). The macrophytes (Phragmites communis, Scripus fontinalis and Sagittaria latifolia) were also effective accumulators of U. In general, plant roots possessed higher concentrations of U than associated upper portions of plants. For terrestrial plants, the roots of Impatiens capensis had the highest observed levels of U accumulation (1030 mg kg{sup -1}), followed by the roots of Cyperus esculentus and Solidago speciosa. The concentration ratio (CR) characterized dry weight (dw) vegetative U levels relative to that in associated dw soil. The plant species that accumulated U at levels in excess of that found in the soil were: P. communis root (CR, 17.4), I. capensis root (CR, 3.1) and S. fontinalis whole plant (CR, 1.4). Seven of the highest ten CR values were found in the roots. Correlations with concentrations of other metals with U were performed, which revealed that U concentrations in the plant were strongly correlated with nickel (Ni) concentrations (correlation: 0.992; r-squared: 0.984). Uranium in plant tissue was also strongly correlated with strontium (Sr) (correlation: 0.948; r-squared: 0.899). Strontium is chemically and physically similar to calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg), which were also positively-correlated with U. The correlation with U and these plant nutrient minerals, including iron (Fe), suggests that active

  17. Contaminación por metales pesados en la Cuenca del Río Moche, 1980 – 2010, La Libertad – Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Félix Huaranga Moreno

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available La contaminación de las aguas continentales es un problema de escala mundial,principalmente debido alimpacto de los relaves mineros. Utilizando tecnologías de punta,como plantas de neutralización de aguasácidas,muchas empresas están mitigando el impacto de su funcionamiento; por lo que tomando comoreferencia los cambios en la concentración de metales pesados presentes en aguas, suelos y cultivos de lacuenca alta, media y baja del río Moche, se realizaron muestreos de agua en ocho estaciones del río Moche(Trujillo, Perú, y en cuatro sectores de sus márgenes para suelos y cultivos. Los metales pesados másrepresentativos en el agua se presentaron en el Cuenca Alta durante el año de 1980: hierro (557.500 ppm,plomo (100.375 ppm, cadmio (4.550 ppm, cobre (6.900 ppm, zinc (262.900 ppm y arsénico (9.000 ppm;mientras que en los suelos las mayores concentraciones se encontraron en la margen derecha de la CuencaBaja para el año 1980: hierro (83.400 mg/kg; plomo (0.820 mg/kg; cadmio (0.012 mg/kg; cobre (1.240mg/kg; zinc (0.380 mg/kg y arsénico (0.016 mg/kg; en relación con la acumulación de metales en loscultivos, el hierro (0.6525 mg/kg fue el de mayor predominio, siendo la yuca (Manihot esculentus el cultivodonde se presentó. Se concluye que la mayor contaminación a nivel del análisis de agua se presentó en lacuenca alta y durante el año de 1980; mientras que la margen derecha de la cuenca media presentó los mayoresniveles de contaminación en las muestras de suelos; así como a nivel de los cultivos, la yuca (Manihotesculentus fue la especie más contaminada.

  18. Connecting past to present: Louisiana cajuns and their sense of belonging to an Acadian diaspora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Le Menestrel

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Many Cajuns claim their Acadian ancestry, despite the fact that their culture is mixed, originating from the different immigrant groups which have settled in Louisiana (French, Acadian, Spanish, Irish, Black and White Creoles…. This sense of belonging appears through the enhancement of a “blood” filiation with the Acadians from the Canadian Maritimes Provinces, of a common historic memory based on the “Grand Dérangement” experience (the expulsion of the Acadians by the British in 1755 and of the survival theme. The bond felt with the Canadian Acadians is also based on the sharing of common language and values and goes to the perception of physical resemblance. The notion of Acadian Diaspora has grown these last years within the Louisiana French revival Movement, and has been fortified  by the World Acadian Congresses (in 1994 in New Brunswick and in 1999 in Lafayette. Even though this sense of belonging is not expressed by Cajuns as a whole, it represents a criterion of definition increasingly widespread, and has given rise to several recent initiatives in “Cajun Country” (located around Lafayette, such as the creation of the Acadian Memorial, the increase of genealogical societies, the setting of exhibitions about Acadian history, and the development of tourism between Louisiana-French and Canadian-French. However, this identity marker never comes into conflict with Cajuns’ American identity. Just like the Louisiana culture as a whole, the origins of Cajun culture are multiple. The metaphor most often employed to illustrate this process of creolization is of culinary nature. It uses a local specialty, gumbo, from which almost every ingredient reveals a different origin : the basic element, roux, comes from a French technique ; okra is a vegetable imported from Africa ; filé has an Native American origin ; finally, rice and the diverse ingredients incorporated (seafood, poultry, pork or wild game are local products. Cajun

  19. Development and application of triple antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for begomovirus detection using monoclonal antibodies against Tomato yellow leaf curl Thailand virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seepiban, Channarong; Charoenvilaisiri, Saengsoon; Warin, Nuchnard; Bhunchoth, Anjana; Phironrit, Namthip; Phuangrat, Bencharong; Chatchawankanphanich, Orawan; Attathom, Supat; Gajanandana, Oraprapai

    2017-05-30

    Tomato yellow leaf curl Thailand virus, TYLCTHV, is a begomovirus that causes severe losses of tomato crops in Thailand as well as several countries in Southeast and East Asia. The development of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) and serological methods for detecting TYLCTHV is essential for epidemiological studies and screening for virus-resistant cultivars. The recombinant coat protein (CP) of TYLCTHV was expressed in Escherichia coli and used to generate MAbs against TYLCTHV through hybridoma technology. The MAbs were characterized and optimized to develop triple antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (TAS-ELISAs) for begomovirus detection. The efficiency of TAS-ELISAs for begomovirus detection was evaluated with tomato, pepper, eggplant, okra and cucurbit plants collected from several provinces in Thailand. Molecular identification of begomoviruses in these samples was also performed through PCR and DNA sequence analysis of the CP gene. Two MAbs (M1 and D2) were generated and used to develop TAS-ELISAs for begomovirus detection. The results of begomovirus detection in 147 field samples indicated that MAb M1 reacted with 2 begomovirus species, TYLCTHV and Tobacco leaf curl Yunnan virus (TbLCYnV), whereas MAb D2 reacted with 4 begomovirus species, TYLCTHV, TbLCYnV, Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (ToLCNDV) and Squash leaf curl China virus (SLCCNV). Phylogenetic analyses of CP amino acid sequences from these begomoviruses revealed that the CP sequences of begomoviruses recognized by the narrow-spectrum MAb M1 were highly conserved, sharing 93% identity with each other but only 72-81% identity with MAb M1-negative begomoviruses. The CP sequences of begomoviruses recognized by the broad-spectrum MAb D2 demonstrated a wider range of amino acid sequence identity, sharing 78-96% identity with each other and 72-91% identity with those that were not detected by MAb D2. TAS-ELISAs using the narrow-specificity MAb M1 proved highly efficient for the detection of

  20. Mitigating Environmental Risks of Wastewater Reuse for Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Busaidi, Ahmed; Ahmed, Mushtaque

    2016-04-01

    Low rainfall and overexploitation of conventional water resources present a critical problem in many regions of the Middle East and North Africa. Therefore, there is a dire need for judicious management of existing water supplies, including incorporating the use of non-conventional water resources. Treated wastewater has shown high potential for reuse in agricultural production, which can thereby contribute to the conservation of surface water and groundwater resources. Therefore, the aim of the study was to optimize treated wastewater reuse in conjunction with other available water resources by taking into consideration their quantity and quality, in addition to the agronomic, environmental, and economic components. It was a joint project between three countries (Oman, Jordan and Tunisia) and funded by USAID. In Oman, the study was done in open field at Sultan Qaboos University. Three types of crops (sweet corn, okra and maize) were grown and irrigated by four types of water (A: 50% groundwater and 50% treated wastewater, B: 100% groundwater, C: 75% treated wastewater and 25% groundwater, and D: 100% treated wastewater). Soil physicochemical properties did not show significant differences with treated wastewater irrigation as compared to groundwater. Heavy metals concentrations for both waters (treated wastewater & groundwater) were very close to each other. However, some significant differences were found between some treatments which could be an indicator for long term changes in soil chemical properties. On other hand, some chemical properties significantly increased (pelectrical conductivity, total carbon and some major elements (N, K, Mg). Soil biological analysis indicated that treated wastewater had no effect in contaminating soil horizons. Whereas, crop physical analysis showed significant increases in plant productivity when plants were irrigated with treated wastewater. The good supply of different nutrients from treated wastewater enhanced plant growth

  1. IMPACT OF IMPROVED SEEDS ON SMALL FARMERS' PRODUCTIVITY, INCOME AND LIVELIHOOD OF BARA LOCALITY IN NORTH KORDOFAN STATE, SUDAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elkhalil Elnour Briema Ahmed

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to test and identify the impact of improved seeds on small farmers' productivity, income and livelihood in Bara locality. Sixty households participants were randomly selected through a field survey during 2011 for 2008/2009, 2009/2010 and 2010/2011 cropping seasons. The study applied Multi-stage random sample technique. Based on existing farm situation and price level, the sampled farmers were obtained SDG 8604 as gross margin to cover all expenses. Results of this study also depicted that the required net income and off-farm income were 16293 and 11378 SDG, respectively. With respect to Linear Programming (LP results, a total of SDG 8890 were obtained and all crops were entered and solved. The optimal plan and existing farm situation were changed by 3.3 and 5.6% for gross margin and cash income, respectively. Results of LP also indicated a positive change in production patterns of resource use; 3.3, 6.2, 3.5, 3.3 and 9.1% for land, cash income, labour, seeds supply and productivity, respectively under existing and optimal plan. Partial crop budgeting revealed that, all treatments were financially gave positive returns. Dominance analysis showed that cowpea ainelgazal, okra, roselle and sesame herhri crops were dominated by crops of millet ashana, watermelon, groundnut and guar, respectively. Marginal analysis exposed that, for every SDG 1.00 invested in improved seeds cultivation, farmer can expect to cover the SDG 1.00 and obtain an additional SDG 1.345; then, additional seed rate implies a further marginal rate of SDG 43.9. Sensitivity analysis for cost over run and benefit reduction by 10% indicated highly stability with MRR of 1.22, 3.991 and 1.21 and 3.951% for watermelon and guar, respectively. The productivity of improved seeds compared to local ones was increased in some varieties and decreased among others. This study reached to some recommendations for improving crop productivity, production and livelihood of

  2. Levantamento fitossociológico das comunidades de plantas infestantes em áreas de produção de arroz irrigado cultivado sob diferentes sistemas de manejo Phyto-sociological survey of weed communities in flooded rice areas cultivated under different management systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.A.L. Erasmo

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho de pesquisa teve como objetivo identificar a composição florística de comunidades de plantas daninhas presentes em áreas agrícolas de várzea, manejadas em diferentes sistemas. O trabalho foi desenvolvido em áreas de produção de arroz irrigado das cooperativas: Cooperativas Mista Rural Vale do Javaés e Cooperativa Agroindustrial Rio Formoso, em Formoso do Araguaia-TO. Foram separadas três áreas de 1 ha, sendo: 1 - área sem rotação de culturas (arroz/pousio há mais de cinco anos; 2 - área com rotação de culturas (arroz/soja há mais de cinco anos; 3 - área com rotação de culturas (arroz/melancia há mais de dois anos. Para caracterização e estudo fitossociológico da comunidade infestante foi utilizado, como unidade amostral, um quadro (1,0 x 1,0 m, lançado aleatoriamente dentro da área de estudo (método do quadrado inventário, por meio de um caminhamento em ziguezague. Na área sem rotação, foram identificadas 8 famílias e 16 espécies, destacando-se a família Poaceae com maior número espécies; Fimbristylis miliacea (Cyperaceae foi a espécie com o maior índice de importância relativa (84,46%. Na área com rotação arroz/soja, foram identificadas 8 famílias e 12 espécies, destacando-se as famílias Poaceae e Cyperaceae com maior número espécies; Cyperus esculentus (Cyperaceae foi a espécie com o maior índice de importância relativa (91,4%. Na área com rotação arroz/melancia foram identificadas seis famílias e oito espécies, destacando-se as famílias Euphorbiaceae e Lamiaceae com maior número espécies; Physalis angulata (Solanaceae foi a espécie com o maior índice de importância relativa (153,1%, seguida por Eclipta alba (Compositae e Hyptis lophanta (Lamiaceae, com 40,45 e 37,6%, respectivamente.This research aimed to identify the floristic composition of weed communities present in lowland agricultural areas under different management systems. The trial was carried out in

  3. Recent researches on prebiotics for gut health in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santad Wichienchot

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: In the food industries, several oligosaccharides have received increasing attention as key components for functional foods and nutraceutical products. Prebiotics are non-digestible oligosaccharides which have been shown to have properties that can modulate gastrointestinal problems and improve gut health and well-being. Recent researches much pay attention to find alternative sources, improve specific properties and proof on health benefits of these prebiotics. Methods: This is the summary of research works have been done by our research group on prebiotics and gut health in Thailand. These works aimed to study sources of prebiotics from fruits and vegetables in Thailand, production by enzymatic synthesis of prebiotics, purification by microbial fermentation and membrane technology and applications of the prebiotics in nutraceuticals and functional foods. Results: Among the 30 parts of 14 plants, six appear to have the highest potential for commercialization based on extract yield and the amount and type of indigestible oligosaccharides. These include dragon fruit, palm flesh, palm embryo, jackfruit flesh, jackfruit seed, and okra pod. At least three of them, dragon fruit, jackfruit flesh and seed, were confirmed on their prebiotic property by selectively in vitro colonic microflora fermentation in an artificial colon system. Among 52 LAB isolates for production of GOS, BFP32 showed highest intracellular β-galactosidase activity and GOS yield. It was identified as Lactobacillus pentosus var. plantarum by 16S rDNA sequencing. Composition of GOS consisted of oligosaccharides with having DP of 3, 4 and 5. A mixture of GOS was purified successful by sequential bacterial and yeast fermentation whereas nanofiltration could be used for partial purification. Prebiotic index (PI of the GOS produced was1.19 in batch culture. A crude extract from tubers of Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L. had transfructosylating activity for

  4. Plantio irrigado de bananeiras resistentes à Sigatoka-negra consorciado com culturas anuais Irrigated banana resistant to black Sigatoka, with annual intercrops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ildeu de Souza

    2010-03-01

    July 2007, in a 3 x 5 randomized block design with split plots. The plots consisted of three banana varieties (Pacovan Ken, Caipira and Thap Maeo and subplots of four interim crops (common bean Pearl, okra Dart, watermelon Crimson Sweet and cowpea, with three replications and a control (banana without intercrop. Altogether 756 banana plants were considered, in 45 plots, using 6 central banana plants per plot, representing the main crop. The intercrops were planted in the banana interrows, in those with and those without the irrigation pipeline. The banana and intercrops were planted in the same period. Banana plants were spaced 3.0 m between rows and 2.0 m between plants and irrigated by microsprinklers spaced 6 m apart. Vegetative and reproductive characteristics of the banana varieties were evaluated in the 1st cycle. No significant effect of the crops on the banana varieties was observed, except for the traits number of days from planting to flowering and number of days from planting to harvest of the banana varieties. The cowpea use promoted delay at the crop cycle of three varieties of banana plants Pacovan Ken, Caipira e Thap Maeo.

  5. Production and marketing of vegetables for the ethnic markets in the United States Produção e marketing de hortaliças para os mercados étnicos nos Estados Unidos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis X Mangan

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Due to the growing number of immigrants in the United States, made up principally of Latinos, Asians and Africans, there has been a growing demand for products that are popular in their countries of origin. In order to meet this demand, there has been a tremendous increase in imports of agricultural products to the United States. Cassava is a good example. Imports of cassava to the US have increased 370% in the last six years. The University of Massachusetts began to evaluate vegetable crops popular among Puerto Ricans and Dominicans in 1996, and in 2002 began to evaluate crops popular among the large and growing Brazilian population in the state and region. This paper summarizes results of research on crops popular with Brazilian immigrants in the US, in addition to the evaluation of the marketing chain and impact of media outlets to promote and sell these crops. Surveys of Brazilian customers in target markets demonstrated that the majority of Brazilian immigrants in the Northeastern United States are from the state of Minas Gerais. Due to this fact, the crops chosen for research in Massachusetts were ones that were popular in this state: jiló, maxixe, taioba, abóbora and okra. In order to successfully introduce these crops into the marketplace it is critical to devote resources to promotion and marketing. In spite of their popularity among Brazilians, these vegetable crops are not normally found in the market so it is necessary to let the community know that they are available and in what locations. The most effective media outlet evaluated in this work to reach Brazilians was the television station Rede Globo International, available in the United States; however, other avenues evaluated to promote this project to Brazilians, such as Brazilian newspapers and radio programs, were also effective and less expensive. The opportunity to export agricultural products to the United States is a growing opportunity for farmers in Brazil. In order to