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Sample records for okis olevate patsientide

  1. Omavalitsuste rahastamise probleeme Eestis / Olev Raju

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raju, Olev, 1948-

    2003-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Halduskultuur 2003 : teaduskonverentsi ettekanded = Administrative culture 2003 : conference papers . - Tallinn, 2004, lk. 196-207. Autor järeldab, et praegu kasutusel olev omavalitsuste finantseerimise süsteem on ammendumas, omavalitsuste tulubaasi probleemi ei lahenda neile isiku tulumaksust senisest suurema osa jätmine. Tabelid

  2. Torontos peeti eesti dokfilmifestivali "Estdoc's" / Olev Remsu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Remsu, Olev, 1947-

    2006-01-01

    Toronto eesti dokumentaalfilmide festival "Estdoc's". Demonstreeriti filme: "Sinimäed" (Raimo Jõerand), "Tiim" (Peep Puks), "Mikk" (Rein Raamat, Peeter Brambat), "6 tundi" (Rein Kotov), "Erna retk" (Vaado Sarapuu), "Tõrjutud mälestused" (Imbi Paju), "Middendorfi jälgedes" (Riho Västrik), "Mehed unustatud armeest" (Indrek Treufeldt), "Nagu noor jumal" ja "Orjus Eestis" (mõlema autor Olev Remsu)

  3. Olev Remsul kolm raamatut korraga : [vestlus] / Olev Remsu ; üles kirjut. Tarmo Teder

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Remsu, Olev, 1947-

    1997-01-01

    Olev Remsu esitleb 4. dets. 1997 Rahvusraamatukogus oma kolme uut raamatut korraga : näidendit 'Tšingis-khaan on Ungern-Sternberg', sõjaväeteemalist pilaromaani 'Artur Magnussoni suur sõjasuvi' ja publitsistika kogumikku 'Kuidas rikkuda piiri'

  4. Tarmeko on Olev Niguli elutöö / Annely Allik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Allik, Annely

    2005-01-01

    Olev Nigul on 40 aastat juhtinud Tartus tegutsevat mööblitööstusettevõtet Tarmeko. Kommenteerivad: Heli Lutsar, Triinu Lööve ja Lea Koorits. Vt. samas: Akordion ja spinning aitavad töömõtted unustada

  5. Olev Ott uuris, kuidas kooliraamatud varjavad ajalugu / Olev Ott ; küsitl. ja foto: Ülo Ignats

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ott, Olev

    2007-01-01

    intervjuu kauaaegse Rootsi ajaloo- ja usuteaduse õpetaja, Göteborgi raamatumessil osalenud Olev Otiga, kes on koostanud raamatu "Deportationerna i Estland 1941 - ett försök att förstå tomheten i svenska gymnasieläroböcker". Autor lähtus oma uurimuses 1941. a. küüditamisest, vaadates läbi Rootsi keskkooli õpikud aastast 1950-2000 eesmärgiga saada ülevaade konkreetse ajaloosündmuse kajastamisest õpikutes. Tema magistritöö tulemustest ja järeldustest

  6. Raja klooster Peipsi ääres Raja külas / Olev Suuder

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Suuder, Olev, 1949-

    2005-01-01

    Peipsi-äärsete vene vanausuliste küladest, kirikutest, Raja kloostrist. Palvela projekteeris 1902. a. W. Schilling, 1912. a. ehitati viie kupliga kirik. Ikoonimaalija Gavriil Jefimovitsh Frolovist (1854-1939), kes avas palvelas ikoonimaalimiskooli ja maalis uue kiriku ikonostaasi. Palvela fassaadide restaureerimisest, kiriku vundamendi ja põranda konserveerimisest, haljastuse kujundamisest. Uuringud: Maret Eimre, Kaja Onton. Arhitektuurne projekt: K. Onton. Teostus: Wunibald. Kirik ja kirikuaed: eritingimused ja haljastusprojekt: Kati Niibo. Teostus: Cobra Grupp. Muinsuskaitseline järelevalve: Olev Suuder. 6 ill

  7. Residual power series method for fractional Sharma-Tasso-Olever equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Kumar

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we introduce a modified analytical approximate technique to obtain solution of time fractional Sharma-Tasso-Olever equation. First, we present an alternative framework of the Residual power series method (RPSM which can be used simply and effectively to handle nonlinear fractional differential equations arising in several physical phenomena. This method is basically based on the generalized Taylor series formula and residual error function. A good result is found between our solution and the given solution. It is shown that the proposed method is reliable, efficient and easy to implement on all kinds of fractional nonlinear problems arising in science and technology.

  8. Olev Siinmaa villa ja mööbli restaureerimine : Rüütli 1a, Pärnu = Restoration of the Olev Siinmaa villa, with furniture : Rüütli 1a, Pärnu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Olev Siinmaa villa ja mööbli restaureerimist tunnustati EK arhitektuuri sihtkapitali 2006. a. restaureerimispreemiaga. Kunstiajaloolane Mart Kalm, restauraator Aado Talimaa, sisekujundaja Taso Mähar, tellija Toomas Truuvert. Žürii liikme Lilian Hansari arvamus. Värv. välisvaade, 5 sisevaadet

  9. Olev Remsu uus raamatukolmik : kirjanikust sõja- ja rännumees / Anneli Aasmäe

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Aasmäe, Anneli, 1973-

    1997-01-01

    Olev Remsu esitles 4. dets. 1997 Rahvusraamatukogus oma kolme uut raamatut korraga : näidendit 'Tšingis-khaan on Ungern-Sternberg', sõjaväeteemalist pilaromaani 'Artur Magnussoni suur sõjasuvi' ja publitsistika kogumikku 'Kuidas rikkuda piiri'

  10. Khater method for nonlinear Sharma Tasso-Olever (STO) equation of fractional order

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibi, Sadaf; Mohyud-Din, Syed Tauseef; Khan, Umar; Ahmed, Naveed

    In this work, we have implemented a direct method, known as Khater method to establish exact solutions of nonlinear partial differential equations of fractional order. Number of solutions provided by this method is greater than other traditional methods. Exact solutions of nonlinear fractional order Sharma Tasso-Olever (STO) equation are expressed in terms of kink, travelling wave, periodic and solitary wave solutions. Modified Riemann-Liouville derivative and Fractional complex transform have been used for compatibility with fractional order sense. Solutions have been graphically simulated for understanding the physical aspects and importance of the method. A comparative discussion between our established results and the results obtained by existing ones is also presented. Our results clearly reveal that the proposed method is an effective, powerful and straightforward technique to work out new solutions of various types of differential equations of non-integer order in the fields of applied sciences and engineering.

  11. Eestis on üle tuhande lõvi : [Lions-liikumisest] / Vello Talviste, Olev Saluveer, Jaan Palumets...[jt.

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2009-01-01

    Lions-liikumisega on ühinenud ka koolidirektorid. Küsimustele - mis ajendas neid seda tegema, mida lõvid ette võtavad ning kui aktuaalne on heategevuse temaatika koolis, vastavad Paide Gümnaasiumi direktor Vello Talviste, Ülenurme Gümnaasiumi direktor Olev Saluveer, Saue Gümnaasiumi direktor Jaan Palumets, Tõrva Gümnaasiumi direktor Ivar Hanvere ja Tabivere Gümnaasiumi direktor Toivo Punga

  12. Electronics and Sensor Study with the OKI SOI process

    CERN Document Server

    Arai, Yasuo

    2007-01-01

    While the SOI (Silicon-On-Insulator) device concept is very old, commercialization of the technology is relatively new and growing rapidly in high-speed processor and lowpower applications. Furthermore, features such as latch-up immunity, radiation hardness and high-temperature operation are very attractive in high energy and space applications. Once high-quality bonded SOI wafers became available in the late 90s, it opened up the possibility to get two different kinds of Si on a single wafer. This makes it possible to realize an ideal pixel detector; pairing a fully-depleted radiation sensor with CMOS circuitry in an industrial technology. In 2005 we started Si pixel R&D with OKI Electric Ind. Co., Ltd. which is the first market supplier of Fully-Depleted SOI products. We have developed processes for p+/n+ implants to the substrate and for making connections between the implants and circuits in the OKI 0.15μm FD-SOI CMOS process. We have preformed two Multi Project Wafer (MPW) runs using this SOI proces...

  13. Observing coseismic gravity change from the Japan Tohoku-Oki 2011 earthquake with GOCE gravity gradiometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fuchs, M.J.; Bouman, J.; Broerse, D.B.T.; Visser, P.N.A.M.; Vermeersen, L.L.A.

    2013-01-01

    The Japan Tohoku-Oki earthquake (9.0 Mw) of 11 March 2011 has left signatures in the Earth's gravity field that are detectable by data of the Gravity field Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) mission. Because the European Space Agency's (ESA) satellite gravity mission Gravity field and

  14. Hadal disturbance in the Japan Trench induced by the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oguri, K.; Kawamura, K.; Sakaguchi, A.

    2013-01-01

    In situ video observations and sediment core samplings were performed at two hadal sites in the Japan Trench on July, 2011, four months after the Tohoku-Oki earthquake. Video recordings documented dense nepheloid layers extending similar to 30-50 m above the sea bed. At the trench axis, benthic...

  15. Magistritöö: Olev Prints ja Tartu Jaani kiriku kadunud värvid. Keskaegse ehitusplastika polükroomiast / Johanna Lamp

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lamp, Johanna

    2014-01-01

    Koos polükroomiaga on kaduma läinud suur osa skulptuuride väljendusjõust. 1944. aasta põlengu üle elanud skluptuurid leidis 1950. aastal kunstiajaloolane Olev Prints. Skulptuuridest tehtud joonistele kinnitas ta skulptuuride küljest võetud väikesed värviproovid. Need proovid näitavad, et kasutati väga kalleid materjale. Polükroomiat peeti väga oluliseks ja sellesse investeeriti ülisuuri summasid

  16. Locating the Tohoku-Oki 2011 tsunami source using acoustic-gravity waves

    OpenAIRE

    Andriamiranto Raveloson; Rainer Kind; Xiaohui Yuan; L. Cerana

    2012-01-01

    The giant Tohoku-Oki earthquake of 11 March 2011 in offshore Japan did not only generate tsunami waves in the ocean but also infrasound (or acoustic-gravity) waves in the atmosphere. We indentified ultra-long-period signals (>500s) in the recordings of infrasound stations in northeast Asia, the northwest Pacific, and Alaska. Their source was fond close to the earthquake epicenter. Therefore, we conclude that in general, infrasound observations after a large offshore earthquake are evidence th...

  17. Actions at Kashiwazaki Kariwa Nuclear Power Station after the Niigataken Chuetsu-oki earthquake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orita, Shuichi

    2009-01-01

    'The Niigataken Chuetsu-oki Earthquake in 2007' occurred on July 16, 2007, and seismic motions beyond those of the design basis earthquake were recorded at Kashiwazaki Kariwa nuclear power station located near the epicenter. After the earthquake, inspections and seismic response analyses have been being performed to grasp seismic induced impacts on structures, systems and components (SSCs). In addition, re-definition of design basis earthquake, upgrading, management against disasters have been also being conducted. (author)

  18. Episodic slow slip events in the Japan subduction zone before the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Yoshihiro; Hino, Ryota; Kido, Motoyuki; Fujimoto, Hiromi; Osada, Yukihito; Inazu, Daisuke; Ohta, Yusaku; Iinuma, Takeshi; Ohzono, Mako; Miura, Satoshi; Mishina, Masaaki; Suzuki, Kensuke; Tsuji, Takeshi; Ashi, Juichiro

    2013-07-01

    We describe two transient slow slip events that occurred before the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake. The first transient crustal deformation, which occurred over a period of a week in November 2008, was recorded simultaneously using ocean-bottom pressure gauges and an on-shore volumetric strainmeter; this deformation has been interpreted as being an M6.8 episodic slow slip event. The second had a duration exceeding 1 month and was observed in February 2011, just before the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake; the moment magnitude of this event reached 7.0. The two events preceded interplate earthquakes of magnitudes M6.1 (December 2008) and M7.3 (March 9, 2011), respectively; the latter is the largest foreshock of the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake. Our findings indicate that these slow slip events induced increases in shear stress, which in turn triggered the interplate earthquakes. The slow slip event source area on the fault is also located within the downdip portion of the huge-coseismic-slip area of the 2011 earthquake. This demonstrates episodic slow slip and seismic behavior occurring on the same portions of the megathrust fault, suggesting that the faults undergo slip in slow slip events can also rupture seismically.

  19. Characteristic of the postseismic deformation following the 2011 Sanriku-Oki earthquake (Mw 7.2) by comparing the 1989 and 1992 Sanriku-Oki events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, Yusaku; Hino, Ryota; Ariyoshi, Keisuke; Matsuzawa, Toru; Mishina, Masaaki; Sato, Tadahiro; Tachibana, Kenji; Demachi, Tomotsugu; Miura, Satoshi

    2013-04-01

    The March 11, 2011, moment magnitude (Mw) 9.0 Tohoku earthquake (hereafter referred to as the mainshock) generated a large tsunami, which caused devastating damage and the loss of more than 15,800 lives. On March 9, 2011 at 2:45 (UTC), an M7.3 interplate earthquake (hereafter referred to as the foreshock) occurred ~45 km northeast of the epicenter of the Mw9.0 mainshock. The focal mechanism estimated by the National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (NIED) incorporates reverse fault motion with a west-northwest to east-southeast compression axis. This foreshock preceded the 2011 Tohoku earthquake by 51 h. Kato et al. [Science, 2012] pointed out aftershock migration after the foreshock along the trench axis toward the epicenter of the Mw9.0 mainshock on the basis of an earthquake catalog, which was created using a waveform correlation technique. They also estimated aseismic slip amount by the repeating earthquake analysis. Ohta et al. [GRL, 2012] proposed a coseismic and postseismic afterslip model of the foreshock based on a GPS network and ocean bottom pressure gauge sites. The estimated coseismic slip and afterslip areas show complementary spatial distributions. The slip amount for the afterslip is roughly consistent with that determined by repeating earthquake analysis carried out by Kato et al. [2012]. Ohta et al. [2012] also pointed out a volumetric strainmeter time series suggests that this event advanced with a rapid decay time constant compared with other typical large earthquakes. For verification of this exception, we investigated the postseismic deformation characteristic following the 1989 and 1992 Sanriku-Oki earthquake, which occurred 100-150 km north of the epicenter of the 2011 Sanriku-Oki event. We used four components extensometer of the Tohoku University at Miyako (39.59N, 141.98E) on the Sanriku coast for these events. To extract the characteristics of the postseismic deformation, we fitted the logarithmic function

  20. GPS-determined Crustal Deformation of South Korea after the 2011 Tohoku-Oki Earthquake: Straining Heterogeneity and Seismicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ree, J. H.; Kim, S.; Yoon, H. S.; Choi, B. K.; Park, P. H.

    2017-12-01

    The GPS-determined, pre-, co- and post-seismic crustal deformations of the Korean peninsula with respect to the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake (Baek et al., 2012, Terra Nova; Kim et al., 2015, KSCE Jour. of Civil Engineering) are all stretching ones (extensional; horizontal stretching rate larger than horizontal shortening rate). However, focal mechanism solutions of earthquakes indicate that South Korea has been at compressional regime dominated by strike- and reverse-slip faultings. We reevaluated the velocity field of GPS data to see any effect of the Tohoku-Oki earthquake on the Korean crustal deformation and seismicity. To calculate the velocity gradient tensor of GPS sites, we used a gridding method based on least-square collocation (LSC). This LSC method can overcome shortcomings of the segmentation methods including the triangulation method. For example, an undesirable, abrupt change in components of velocity field occurs at segment boundaries in the segmentation methods. It is also known that LSC method is more useful in evaluating deformation patterns in intraplate areas with relatively small displacements. Velocity vectors of South Korea, pointing in general to 113° before the Tohoku-Oki earthquake, instantly changed their direction toward the epicenter (82° on average) during the Tohoku-Oki earthquake, and then gradually returned to the original position about 2 years after the Tohoku-Oki earthquake. Our calculation of velocity gradient tensors after the Tohoku-Oki earthquake shows that the stretching and rotating fields are quite heterogeneous, and that both stretching and shortening areas exist in South Korea. In particular, after the post-seismic relaxation ceased (i.e., from two years after the Tohoku-Oki earthquake), regions with thicker and thinner crusts tend to be shortening and stretching, respectively, in South Korea. Furthermore, the straining rate is larger in the regions with thinner crust. Although there is no meaningful correlation between

  1. Intra-day response of foreign exchange markets after the Tohoku-Oki earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Shuhei; Hirata, Yoshito; Iwayama, Koji; Aihara, Kazuyuki

    2015-02-01

    Although an economy is influenced by a natural disaster, the market response to the disaster during the first 24 hours is not clearly understood. Here we show that an earthquake quickly causes temporal changes in a foreign exchange market by examining the case of the Tohoku-Oki earthquake. Recurrence plots and statistical change point detection independently show that the United States dollar-Japanese yen market responded to the earthquake activity without delay and with the delay of about 2 minutes, respectively. These findings support that the efficient market hypothesis nearly holds now in the time scale of minutes.

  2. Migrating pattern of deformation prior to the Tohoku-Oki earthquake revealed by GRACE data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panet, Isabelle; Bonvalot, Sylvain; Narteau, Clément; Remy, Dominique; Lemoine, Jean-Michel

    2018-05-01

    Understanding how and when far-field continuous motions lead to giant subduction earthquakes remains a challenge. An important limitation comes from an incomplete description of aseismic mass fluxes at depth along plate boundaries. Here we analyse Earth's gravity field variations derived from GRACE satellite data in a wide space-time domain surrounding the Mw 9.0 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake. We show that this earthquake is the extreme expression of initially silent deformation migrating from depth to the surface across the entire subduction system. Our analysis indeed reveals large-scale gravity and mass changes throughout three tectonic plates and connected slabs, starting a few months before March 2011. Before the Tohoku-Oki earthquake rupture, the gravity variations can be explained by aseismic extension of the Pacific plate slab at mid-upper mantle depth, concomitant with increasing seismicity in the shallower slab. For more than two years after the rupture, the deformation propagated far into the Pacific and Philippine Sea plate interiors, suggesting that subduction accelerated along 2,000 km of the plate boundaries in March 2011. This gravitational image of the earthquake's long-term dynamics provides unique information on deep and crustal processes over intermediate timescales, which could be used in seismic hazard assessment.

  3. Distributed fault slip model for the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake from GNSS and GRACE/GOCE satellite gravimetry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fuchs, Martin Johann; Hooper, Andrew; Broerse, D.B.T.; Bouman, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    The Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) mission (launched 2002) and the Gravity Field and Steady-State Ocean Circulation Explorer (GOCE) mission (March 2009 to November 2013) collected spaceborne gravity data for the preseismic and postseismic periods of the 2011 Tohoku-Oki

  4. Distributed fault slip model for the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake from GNSS and GRACE/GOCE satellite gravimetry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fuchs, Martin Johann; Hooper, Andrew; Broerse, Taco|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/411299344; Bouman, Johannes

    The Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) mission (launched 2002) and the Gravity Field and Steady-State Ocean Circulation Explorer (GOCE) mission (March 2009 to November 2013) collected spaceborne gravity data for the preseismic and postseismic periods of the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake.

  5. Filmidraamatehnika / Olev Remsu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Remsu, Olev, 1947-

    2004-01-01

    Peatükk sügisel ilmuvast raamatust "Filmidraamatehnika". Järgneb : juuli 2004, lk. 121-125 ; august, september 2004, lk. 153-155; oktoober 2004, lk. 119-124 ; november 2004, lk.116-123; jaanuar 2005, lk. 125-128; veebruar 2005, lk. 88-93; märts 2005, lk. 104-109; mai 2005, lk. 116-122; juuni 2005, lk.121-127; oktoober 2005, lk. 124-128; jaanuar 2006, lk. 135-138

  6. Kaali plahvatab / Olev Remsu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Remsu, Olev, 1947-

    2003-01-01

    14. veebruaril esilinastus kinos "Sõprus" populaarteaduslik film Kaali meteoriidiplahvatusest "Kaali saladus" : stsenarist ja režissöör Urmas E. Liiv : operaator Ago Ruus : produtsent Riho Västrik : OÜ Vesilind (Eesti) - Vides Filmu Studija (Läti)

  7. Antiputinlaste hingeelu / Olev Remsu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Remsu, Olev, 1947-

    2009-01-01

    Dokumentaalfilmist "Revolutsioon, mida ei tulnud", režissöör Aljona Polunina, produtsendid Jaak Kilmi ja Ilkka Matila, Kuukulgur Film ja Matila Röhr productions, 2008. Esilinastus Eestis kinos Sõprus 7. jaan. 2009

  8. "Kogu" Tammet / Olev Remsu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Remsu, Olev, 1947-

    2009-01-01

    Raul Tammeti töid sisaldavast DVD-dest "Raul Tammet filmiloomes I, II, II", mis sisaldavad filme "Kiri Giuliale", "Soolo", "Pulmapilt", "Sinise taeva all", "Piim", "Mono", "Tartu maraton 1983" ja "Küljetuul"

  9. Temporal variations of Sr isotopic compositions for the rocks from Dogo, Oki islands Shimane Prefecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimaki, Hirokazu; Xu Hong; Aoki, Ken-ichiro

    1991-01-01

    Fifty-three volcanic rocks from Dogo island, Oki, Shimane Prefecture, southwestern Japan were analyzed for Sr isotopic compositions with two basement rocks. The rock samples consist of calc-alkali rock suite, Nagaoda shoshonite-banakite suite, Oki trachyte-rhyolite suite, Dogo mugearite suite, Hei trachyte and Tsuzurao rhyolite series, and Daimanjiyama, Ohmine, Kuroshima, Shiroshimazaki, Saigo, and Misaki alkali basalt groups in the order of probable eruption sequence. The volcanic rocks of calc-alkali suite and shoshonite-banakite suite were produced before Japan Sea opening (ca. 15 Ma), and both have 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios higher than 0.7068. Long after Japan Sea opening Oki-trachyte-rhyolite suite was erupted (ca. 6.6 Ma); they have rather low 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios (0.7066-0.7081). Mugearites followed and have similar Sr isotopic composition, whereas 4.6 Ma old Daimanjiyama basalts have clearly low 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios (0.7050-0.7051). The rocks erupted 3-4 Ma seem to have the lowest 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios; they are Ohmine, Kuroshima, Shiroshimazaki alkali basalt suites (0.7044-0.7048). The 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios of the Saigo basalts erupted 0.84 Ma are higher than those erupted 3-4 Ma. The latest volcanic products in Dogo island, Misaki basalt suite has even higher 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios (0.7054-0.7057) than the Saigo basalt suite. Thus, temporal and systematic variation of Sr isotopic compositions of the volcanic rocks from Dogo can be recognized. The 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios of the rocks were once as high as 0.7066 or even higher than 0.708, but they started decreasing down to ca. 0.7044-0.7048 4-3 Ma ago. Since then the ratios rebounded to 0.7049-0.7055. The Hei trachyte and Tsuzurao rhyolite series are not included in this temporal and systematic change. The mantle diapir associated with Japan Sea spreading might have caused the decrease in the ratios, and either Pacific Ocean plate or Philippine Sea plate subduction may be responsible for this rebound. (author)

  10. Lithostratigraphy and radiocarbon dates of the Akunoura-oki core from Nagasaki bay, western Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshikawa, Shusaku; Tsujimoto, Akira; Murakami, Akiko; Mitamura, Muneki; Nagaoka, Shinji; Yamazaki, Hideo

    2008-01-01

    The latest Pleistocene to Holocene deposits are distributed in Nagasaki Bay and its surrounding area. In this study, sedimentary facies and radiocarbon dates of the Akunoura-oki core were analyzed for clarifying lithostratigraphy and depositional environments of Nagasaki Bay in the Holocene. The depositional environments inferred from the core succession are as follows: The lower sandy silt and clay (Unit 1), 3.55 m thick, are estuary deposits showing rapid deposition (about 19 mm/yr); the middle gravelly sand and sand (Unit 2), 0.60 m thick, are sandy tidal-sandbar deposits, and deposited extremely slowly (about 0.1 mm/yr) during rapid rising stage of sea-level; the upper clay and silt (Unit 3), 5.32 m thick, are inner bay deposits of slow deposition (about 1.3 mm/yr) during a persistent highstand in sea-level. (author)

  11. Seismic margin analysis for Kashiwazaki Kariwa ABWR plant considering the Niigataken Chuetsu-oki earthquake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuo, Toshihiro; Nagasawa, Kazuyuki; Kawamura, Shinichi; Ueki, Takashi; Higuchi, Tomokazu; Sakaki, Isao

    2009-01-01

    Seismic Margin Analysis (SMA) study was conducted for Kashiwazaki Kariwa (KK) ABWR representative plant (unit 6). Considering that the installation behaved in a safe manner during and after the Niigataken Chuetsu-oki (NCO) Earthquake which significantly exceeded the level of the seismic input taken into account in the design of the plant, the study to find out how much margin the ABWR plant had toward the same seismic motion was conducted. In this study fragility analyses were conducted for SSCs that were included in the accident sequences and that were considered to have relatively small margin taking EPRI margin analysis method into consideration. In order to calculate plant level seismic margin Min-Max method was adopted. As the result of this study, the plant level High Confidence Low Probability of Failure (HCLPF) acceleration for unit 6 was calculated more than tripled NCO earthquake motion. (author)

  12. Consideration for standard earthquake vibration (1). The Niigataken Chuetsu-oki Earthquake in 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishibashi, Katsuhiko

    2007-01-01

    Outline of new guideline of quakeproof design standard of nuclear power plant and the standard earthquake vibration are explained. The improvement points of new guideline are discussed on the basis of Kashiwazaki-Kariwa Nuclear Power Plant incidents. The fundamental limits of new guideline are pointed. Placement of the quakeproof design standard of nuclear power plant, JEAG4601 of Japan Electric Association, new guideline, standard earthquake vibration of new guideline, the Niigataken Chuetsu-oki Earthquake in 2007 and damage of Kashiwazaki-Kariwa Nuclear Power Plant are discussed. The safety criteria of safety review system, organization, standard and guideline should be improved on the basis of this earthquake and nuclear plant accident. The general knowledge, 'a nuclear power plant is not constructed in the area expected large earthquake', has to be realized. Preconditions of all nuclear power plants should not cause damage to anything. (S.Y.)

  13. Ground motion characteristics of 2007 Niigata-ken Chuetsu-oki earthquake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hijikata, Katsuichirou; Nishimura, Isao; Mizutani, Hiroyuki; Tokumitsu, Ryoichi; Mashimo, Mitsugu; Tanaka, Shinya

    2010-01-01

    Strong motion records of 2007 Niigata-ken Chuetsu-oki earthquake were examined in order to evaluate ground motion characteristics of the earthquake. Ground motions observed at Kashiwazaki Kariwa Nuclear Power Plant site were significantly larger than the response spectra evaluated on the basis of Noda et al. (2002), and the level of the ground motion observed at Arahama area (unit 1-4 side) was approximately twice as large as that at Ominato area (unit 5-7 side). Observation records of the offshore events other than the earthquake were also larger than the response spectra based on Noda et al. (2002), whereas records of the inland events were smaller than those. In addition, these characteristics were also observed in the vicinity of the site through the analysis of the ground motion records obtained by KiK-net. (author)

  14. Listening to data from the 2011 magnitude 9.0 Tohoku-Oki, Japan, earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Z.; Aiken, C.; Kilb, D. L.; Shelly, D. R.; Enescu, B.

    2011-12-01

    It is important for seismologists to effectively convey information about catastrophic earthquakes, such as the magnitude 9.0 earthquake in Tohoku-Oki, Japan, to general audience who may not necessarily be well-versed in the language of earthquake seismology. Given recent technological advances, previous approaches of using "snapshot" static images to represent earthquake data is now becoming obsolete, and the favored venue to explain complex wave propagation inside the solid earth and interactions among earthquakes is now visualizations that include auditory information. Here, we convert seismic data into visualizations that include sounds, the latter being a term known as 'audification', or continuous 'sonification'. By combining seismic auditory and visual information, static "snapshots" of earthquake data come to life, allowing pitch and amplitude changes to be heard in sync with viewed frequency changes in the seismograms and associated spectragrams. In addition, these visual and auditory media allow the viewer to relate earthquake generated seismic signals to familiar sounds such as thunder, popcorn popping, rattlesnakes, firecrackers, etc. We present a free software package that uses simple MATLAB tools and Apple Inc's QuickTime Pro to automatically convert seismic data into auditory movies. We focus on examples of seismic data from the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake. These examples range from near-field strong motion recordings that demonstrate the complex source process of the mainshock and early aftershocks, to far-field broadband recordings that capture remotely triggered deep tremor and shallow earthquakes. We envision audification of seismic data, which is geared toward a broad range of audiences, will be increasingly used to convey information about notable earthquakes and research frontiers in earthquake seismology (tremor, dynamic triggering, etc). Our overarching goal is that sharing our new visualization tool will foster an interest in seismology, not

  15. Structure and composition of the plate-boundary slip zone for the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chester, Frederick M; Rowe, Christie; Ujiie, Kohtaro; Kirkpatrick, James; Regalla, Christine; Remitti, Francesca; Moore, J Casey; Toy, Virginia; Wolfson-Schwehr, Monica; Bose, Santanu; Kameda, Jun; Mori, James J; Brodsky, Emily E; Eguchi, Nobuhisa; Toczko, Sean

    2013-12-06

    The mechanics of great subduction earthquakes are influenced by the frictional properties, structure, and composition of the plate-boundary fault. We present observations of the structure and composition of the shallow source fault of the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake and tsunami from boreholes drilled by the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 343 and 343T. Logging-while-drilling and core-sample observations show a single major plate-boundary fault accommodated the large slip of the Tohoku-Oki earthquake rupture, as well as nearly all the cumulative interplate motion at the drill site. The localization of deformation onto a limited thickness (less than 5 meters) of pelagic clay is the defining characteristic of the shallow earthquake fault, suggesting that the pelagic clay may be a regionally important control on tsunamigenic earthquakes.

  16. Preliminary analysis of the rupture process of 11 March 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilotte, J.; Satriano, C.; Dionicio, V.; Lancieri, M.; Bernard, P.

    2011-12-01

    The great 11 March 2011 Off the Pacific Coast of Tohoku earthquake (Mw 9.1) ruptured a ~ 200 km wide mega-thrust fault, with average displacement of ~15-20 m. The earthquake triggered a large devastating tsunami as well as strong ground motion along the east Honshu coastline. Seismic activity in this area is characterized by a number of large earthquakes with Mw ~7.2-7.9 along the down-dip portion of the mega-thrust seaward of Miyagi prefecture, with only few events of magnitude greater than 8 in last hundred years. This region was also recognized to have had a large tsunami earthquake in 869 with a source area estimated further offshore. The rupture process of the Tohoku-Oki earthquake is investigated here combining teleseismic short period P-waves back-projection imaging and broadband P-wave finite fault inversions, together with a preliminary broadband analysis of the Kik-net strong motion recordings across Japan. The main features of the Tohoku-Oki rupture process imaged by the short period (1s) back-projection are: an initial 70-80s radiation phase eastward of the epicenter, with a slow (~1-1.5 km/s) along-dip rupture propagation; a short radiation phase northward of the epicenter; and ultimately a southward radiation phase with a relatively faster rupture propagation. These features are robust and consistent using both the North American and European arrays configurations. At lower periods, the back-projection analysis reveals a shift in the radiation centroid seaward toward the trench. In contrast, the broadband (1-200s) P-waves finite fault inversion exhibits a quite complementary image with a first long period radiation phase up-dip of the epicenter followed by down-dip late southwestward radiation phase that remains however poorly constraint. The robustness and the resolution of both the back-projection and the finite fault inversion analysis are carefully assessed through bootstrap analysis, and the analysis of some of the main foreshocks and aftershocks

  17. The 2011 Tohoku-oki Earthquake related to a large velocity gradient within the Pacific plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsubara, Makoto; Obara, Kazushige

    2015-04-01

    We conduct seismic tomography using arrival time data picked by the high sensitivity seismograph network (Hi-net) operated by National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (NIED). We used earthquakes off the coast outside the seismic network around the source region of the 2011 Tohoku-oki Earthquake with the centroid depth estimated from moment tensor inversion by NIED F-net (broadband seismograph network) as well as earthquakes within the seismic network determined by Hi-net. The target region, 20-48N and 120-148E, covers the Japanese Islands from Hokkaido to Okinawa. A total of manually picked 4,622,346 P-wave and 3,062,846 S-wave arrival times for 100,733 earthquakes recorded at 1,212 stations from October 2000 to August 2009 is available for use in the tomographic method. In the final iteration, we estimate the P-wave slowness at 458,234 nodes and the S-wave slowness at 347,037 nodes. The inversion reduces the root mean square of the P-wave traveltime residual from 0.455 s to 0.187 s and that of the S-wave data from 0.692 s to 0.228 s after eight iterations (Matsubara and Obara, 2011). Centroid depths are determined using a Green's function approach (Okada et al., 2004) such as in NIED F-net. For the events distant from the seismic network, the centroid depth is more reliable than that determined by NIED Hi-net, since there are no stations above the hypocenter. We determine the upper boundary of the Pacific plate based on the velocity structure and earthquake hypocentral distribution. The upper boundary of the low-velocity (low-V) oceanic crust corresponds to the plate boundary where thrust earthquakes are expected to occur. Where we do not observe low-V oceanic crust, we determine the upper boundary of the upper layer of the double seismic zone within high-V Pacific plate. We assume the depth at the Japan Trench as 7 km. We can investigate the velocity structure within the Pacific plate such as 10 km beneath the plate boundary since the

  18. Paavo Järvi eesti muusikaga. Eesti oratooriumikoor Iisraelis. Sumera teos virtuoosses ettekandes. Väike ooper Peterburis. Olev Ehala EHLi esimeheks. "Talvepihu" taaselustab näärid. Respeito a Jobim. Tubina ühingus / Priit Kuusk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kuusk, Priit, 1938-

    2002-01-01

    Paavo Järvi esinemistest mitmete orkestritega ja eesti muusikaga. Eesti oratooriumikoor reisib Iisraeli, et osaleda Israel New Opera projektis. Saksamaa ajalehtedes avaldati tunnustavat kriitikat Sumera teose virtuoosse ettekande kohta. 24. ئ 26. I viibis Peterburis lasteteater Väike Ooper. Eesti Heliloojate Liit valis oma esimeheks Olev Ehala. Estonia Seltsi Segakoor ja Saue Poistekoor alustavad talvemuusika kontsertide sarja "Talvepihu". Bossa Nova kuninga Antonio Carlos Jobimi 75. sünniaastapäevale pühendatud kontserdist "Respeito a Jobim". 5.II toimunud Eduard Tubina ühingu aastakoosolekust

  19. Listening to the 2011 magnitude 9.0 Tohoku-Oki, Japan, earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Zhigang; Aiken, Chastity; Kilb, Debi; Shelly, David R.; Enescu, Bogdan

    2012-01-01

    The magnitude 9.0 Tohoku-Oki, Japan, earthquake on 11 March 2011 is the largest earthquake to date in Japan’s modern history and is ranked as the fourth largest earthquake in the world since 1900. This earthquake occurred within the northeast Japan subduction zone (Figure 1), where the Pacific plate is subducting beneath the Okhotsk plate at rate of ∼8–9 cm/yr (DeMets et al. 2010). This type of extremely large earthquake within a subduction zone is generally termed a “megathrust” earthquake. Strong shaking from this magnitude 9 earthquake engulfed the entire Japanese Islands, reaching a maximum acceleration ∼3 times that of gravity (3 g). Two days prior to the main event, a foreshock sequence occurred, including one earthquake of magnitude 7.2. Following the main event, numerous aftershocks occurred around the main slip region; the largest of these was magnitude 7.9. The entire foreshocks-mainshock-aftershocks sequence was well recorded by thousands of sensitive seismometers and geodetic instruments across Japan, resulting in the best-recorded megathrust earthquake in history. This devastating earthquake resulted in significant damage and high death tolls caused primarily by the associated large tsunami. This tsunami reached heights of more than 30 m, and inundation propagated inland more than 5 km from the Pacific coast, which also caused a nuclear crisis that is still affecting people’s lives in certain regions of Japan.

  20. Observation of aftershocks of the 2003 Tokachi-Oki earthquake for estimation of local site effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanaka, Hiroaki; Motoki, Kentaro; Etoh, Kiminobu; Murayama, Masanari; Komaba, Nobuhiko

    2004-03-01

    Observation of aftershocks of the 2003 Tokachi-Oki earthquake was conducted in the southern part of the Tokachi basin in Hokkaido, Japan for estimation of local site effects. We installed accelerographs at 12 sites in Chokubetsu, Toyokoro, and Taiki areas, where large strong motion records were obtained during the main shock at stations of the K-NET and KiK-net. The stations of the aftershock observation are situated with different geological conditions and some of the sites were installed on Pleistocene layers as reference sites. The site amplifications are investigated using spectral ratio of S-waves from the aftershocks. The S-wave amplification factor is dominant at a period of about 1 second at the site near the KiK-net site in Toyokoro. This amplification fits well with calculated 1D amplification of S-wave in alluvial layers with a thickness of 50 meters. In addition to the site effects, we detected nonlinear amplification of the soft soils only during the main shock. The site effects at the strong motion site of the K-NET at Chokubetsu have a dominate peak at a period of 0.4 seconds. This amplification is due to soft soils having a thickness of about 13 meters. Contrary to the results at the two areas, site effects are not significantly different at the stations in the Taiki area, because of similarity on surface geological conditions.

  1. Contribution of Satellite Gravimetry to Understanding Seismic Source Processes of the 2011 Tohoku-Oki Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Shin-Chan; Sauber, Jeanne; Riva, Riccardo

    2011-01-01

    The 2011 great Tohoku-Oki earthquake, apart from shaking the ground, perturbed the motions of satellites orbiting some hundreds km away above the ground, such as GRACE, due to coseismic change in the gravity field. Significant changes in inter-satellite distance were observed after the earthquake. These unconventional satellite measurements were inverted to examine the earthquake source processes from a radically different perspective that complements the analyses of seismic and geodetic ground recordings. We found the average slip located up-dip of the hypocenter but within the lower crust, as characterized by a limited range of bulk and shear moduli. The GRACE data constrained a group of earthquake source parameters that yield increasing dip (7-16 degrees plus or minus 2 degrees) and, simultaneously, decreasing moment magnitude (9.17-9.02 plus or minus 0.04) with increasing source depth (15-24 kilometers). The GRACE solution includes the cumulative moment released over a month and demonstrates a unique view of the long-wavelength gravimetric response to all mass redistribution processes associated with the dynamic rupture and short-term postseismic mechanisms to improve our understanding of the physics of megathrusts.

  2. Evaluation of Seismic Rupture Models for the 2011 Tohoku-Oki Earthquake Using Tsunami Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Da Chiou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Developing a realistic, three-dimensional rupture model of the large offshore earthquake is difficult to accomplish directly through band-limited ground-motion observations. A potential indirect method is using a tsunami simulation to verify the rupture model in reverse because the initial conditions of the associated tsunamis are caused by a coseismic seafloor displacement correlating to the rupture pattern along the main faulting. In this study, five well-developed rupture models for the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake were adopted to evaluate differences in simulated tsunamis and various rupture asperities. The leading wave of the simulated tsunamis triggered by the seafloor displacement in Yamazaki et al. (2011 model resulted in the smallest root-mean-squared difference (~0.082 m on average from the records of the eight DART (Deep-ocean Assessment and Reporting of Tsunamis stations. This indicates that the main seismic rupture during the 2011 Tohoku earthquake should occur in a large shallow slip in a narrow range adjacent to the Japan trench. This study also quantified the influences of ocean stratification and tides which are normally overlooked in tsunami simulations. The discrepancy between the simulations with and without stratification was less than 5% of the first peak wave height at the eight DART stations. The simulations, run with and without the presence of tides, resulted in a ~1% discrepancy in the height of the leading wave. Because simulations accounting for tides and stratification are time-consuming and their influences are negligible, particularly in the first tsunami wave, the two factors can be ignored in a tsunami prediction for practical purposes.

  3. Surface ozone and carbon monoxide levels observed at Oki, Japan: regional air pollution trends in East Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikder, Helena Akhter; Suthawaree, Jeeranut; Kato, Shungo; Kajii, Yoshizumi

    2011-03-01

    Simultaneous ground-based measurements of ozone and carbon monoxide were performed at Oki, Japan, from January 2001 to September 2002 in order to investigate the O(3) and CO characteristics and their distributions. The observations revealed that O(3) and CO concentrations were maximum in springtime and minimum in the summer. The monthly averaged concentrations of O(3) and CO were 60 and 234 ppb in spring and 23 and 106 ppb in summer, respectively. Based on direction, 5-day isentropic backward trajectory analysis was carried out to determine the transport path of air masses, preceding their arrival at Oki. Comparison between classified results from present work and results from the year 1994-1996 was carried out. The O(3) and CO concentration results of classified air masses in our analysis show similar concentration trends to previous findings; highest in the WNW/W, lowest in N/NE and medium levels in NW. Moreover, O(3) levels are higher and CO levels are lower in the present study in all categories. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Seismic-resistant design of nuclear power stations in Japan, earthquake country. Lessons learned from Chuetsu-oki earthquake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irikura, Kojiro

    2008-01-01

    The new assessment (back-check) of earthquake-proof safety was being conducted at Kashiwazaki-Kariwa Nuclear Power Plants, Tokyo Electric Co. in response to a request based on the guideline for reactor evaluation for seismic-resistant design code, revised in 2006, when the 2007 Chuetsu-oki Earthquake occurred and brought about an unexpectedly huge tremor in this area, although the magnitude of the earthquake was only 6.8 but the intensity of earthquake motion exceeded 2.5-fold more than supposed. This paper introduces how and why the guideline for seismic-resistant design of nuclear facilities was revised in 2006, the outline of the Chuetsu-oki Earthquake, and preliminary findings and lessons learned from the Earthquake. The paper specifically discusses on (1) how we may specify in advance geologic active faults as has been overlooked this time, (2) how we can make adequate models for seismic origin from which we can extract its characteristics, and (3) how the estimation of strong ground motion simulation may be possible for ground vibration level of a possibly overlooked fault. (S. Ohno)

  5. Possible scenarios for occurrence of M ~ 7 interplate earthquakes prior to and following the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake based on numerical simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata, Ryoko; Hori, Takane; Hyodo, Mamoru; Ariyoshi, Keisuke

    2016-05-10

    We show possible scenarios for the occurrence of M ~ 7 interplate earthquakes prior to and following the M ~ 9 earthquake along the Japan Trench, such as the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake. One such M ~ 7 earthquake is so-called the Miyagi-ken-Oki earthquake, for which we conducted numerical simulations of earthquake generation cycles by using realistic three-dimensional (3D) geometry of the subducting Pacific Plate. In a number of scenarios, the time interval between the M ~ 9 earthquake and the subsequent Miyagi-ken-Oki earthquake was equal to or shorter than the average recurrence interval during the later stage of the M ~ 9 earthquake cycle. The scenarios successfully reproduced important characteristics such as the recurrence of M ~ 7 earthquakes, coseismic slip distribution, afterslip distribution, the largest foreshock, and the largest aftershock of the 2011 earthquake. Thus, these results suggest that we should prepare for future M ~ 7 earthquakes in the Miyagi-ken-Oki segment even though this segment recently experienced large coseismic slip in 2011.

  6. Possible scenarios for occurrence of M ~ 7 interplate earthquakes prior to and following the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake based on numerical simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata, Ryoko; Hori, Takane; Hyodo, Mamoru; Ariyoshi, Keisuke

    2016-01-01

    We show possible scenarios for the occurrence of M ~ 7 interplate earthquakes prior to and following the M ~ 9 earthquake along the Japan Trench, such as the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake. One such M ~ 7 earthquake is so-called the Miyagi-ken-Oki earthquake, for which we conducted numerical simulations of earthquake generation cycles by using realistic three-dimensional (3D) geometry of the subducting Pacific Plate. In a number of scenarios, the time interval between the M ~ 9 earthquake and the subsequent Miyagi-ken-Oki earthquake was equal to or shorter than the average recurrence interval during the later stage of the M ~ 9 earthquake cycle. The scenarios successfully reproduced important characteristics such as the recurrence of M ~ 7 earthquakes, coseismic slip distribution, afterslip distribution, the largest foreshock, and the largest aftershock of the 2011 earthquake. Thus, these results suggest that we should prepare for future M ~ 7 earthquakes in the Miyagi-ken-Oki segment even though this segment recently experienced large coseismic slip in 2011. PMID:27161897

  7. Seasonal variation in radon concentration in the atmosphere simultaneously measured in Donghae on Korean peninsula, Matsue on Shimane peninsula, and Oki island in the sea of Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshioka, Katsuhiro; Iida, Takao; Kim, Yoon Shin

    2008-01-01

    We measured simultaneously radon concentration in the atmosphere at Donghae, Oki Island and Matsue. In Donghae, radon concentration had peaks in the winter and summer and lower values in the spring. It was the highest in the winter and lowest in the summer in Oki Island, in Matsue, the highest in the fall and lowest in the summer. The timing and frequency of arrival air mass from the ocean and the land were different among the three measuring points. The highest values in Donghae and Oki Island were because of effects of radon flow from Eurasian continent in the winter. The inversion layer often formed in the atmospheric boundary layer over the land area around the Sea of Japan caused the peak values in the summer in Donghae. The atmosphere over Oki Island is always mixed with that over the ocean because the island is small. Radon escaping from the ground of the island does not stay with the surface layer even at night, therefore, diurnal variation was almost none throughout the year. Air mass with low radon concentration coming from the Pacific Ocean caused the lowest values in the summer. In Matsue, the peak was found in the fall in which occurrences of surface inversion layer is most common in the year. (author)

  8. A monolithic pixel sensor (TRAPPISTe-2) for particle physics instrumentation in OKI 0.2μm SOI technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soung Yee, L.; Alvarez, P.; Martin, E.; Cortina, E.; Ferrer, C.

    2012-12-01

    A monolithic active pixel sensor for charged particle tracking has been developed within the frame of a research and development project called TRAPPISTe (Tracking Particles for Physics Instrumentation in SOI Technology). TRAPPISTe aims to study the feasibility of developing a monolithic pixel sensor with SOI technology. TRAPPISTe-2 is the second prototype in this series and was fabricated with an OKI 0.20μm fully depleted (FD-SOI) CMOS process. This device contains test transistors and amplifiers, as well as two pixel matrices with integrated 3-transistor and amplifier readout electronics. The results presented are based on the first electrical measurements performed on the test structures and laser measurements on the pixel matrices.

  9. Significance test for seismicity rate changes before the 1987 Chiba-toho-oki earthquake ({mu} 6.7) Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maeda, K.; Wiemer, S. [Meteorologial Research Institute, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan). Dept. of Seismology and Volcanology Research

    1999-10-01

    The paper discusses a quantitative analysis of the seismicity rates, using two independent catalogs provided by the NIED (National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention) and JMA (Japan Meteorological Agency) networks and shows that the precursory seismic quiescence is centered in the shallower part of the rupture zone of the subsequent main shock, at the depth of 20-40 km. At the hypocenter of 1987 Chiba-toho-oki earthquake, a 50% increase in the seismicity rate was detected in the NIED data, coinciding in time with the onset of quiescence. For the aid of real time monitoring of seismicity rate changes, the method to calculate the 95-percentile of confidence level for the significant rate changes has been introduced.

  10. Evaluating a kinematic method for generating broadband ground motions for great subduction zone earthquakes: Application to the 2003 Mw 8.3 Tokachi‐Oki earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirth, Erin A.; Frankel, Arthur; Vidale, John E.

    2017-01-01

    We compare broadband synthetic seismograms with recordings of the 2003 Mw">MwMw 8.3 Tokachi‐Oki earthquake to evaluate a compound rupture model, in which slip on the fault consists of multiple high‐stress‐drop asperities superimposed on a background slip distribution with longer rise times. Low‐frequency synthetics (frequency (>1  Hz">>1  Hz>1  Hz) stochastic synthetics using a matched filter at 1 Hz. We show that this compound rupture model and overall approach accurately reproduces waveform envelopes and observed response spectral accelerations (SAs) from the Tokachi‐Oki event. We find that sufficiently short subfault rise times (i.e., ∼1  Hz∼1  Hz. This is achieved by either (1) including distinct subevents with short rise times, as may be suggested by the Tokachi‐Oki data, or (2) imposing a fast‐slip velocity over the entire rupture area. We also include a systematic study on the effects of varying several kinematic rupture parameters. We find that simulated strong ground motions are sensitive to the average rupture velocity and coherence of the rupture front, with more coherent ruptures yielding higher response SAs. We also assess the effects of varying the average slip velocity and the character (i.e., area, magnitude, and location) of high‐stress‐drop subevents. Even in the absence of precise constraints on these kinematic rupture parameters, our simulations still reproduce major features in the Tokachi‐Oki earthquake data, supporting its accuracy in modeling future large earthquakes.

  11. Łokieć tenisisty - czy jest to tylko problem lokalny? = Tennis elbow - is it only a local problem?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Siedlaczek

    2015-12-01

    • 3.      Uniwersytet Kazimierza Wielkiego w Bydgoszczy, Bydgoszcz, Polska   Correspondence: mgr Marcin Siedlaczek ul. Monte Cassino 55 85-791 Bydgoszcz tel. 604631227 Marcinsied@o2.pl   Streszczenie Łokieć tenisisty jest jedną z najczęstszych dolegliwości rozpoznawanych w obszarze stawu łokciowego. Pomimo tak powszechnego występowania wiele pytań związanych z tą jednostką pozostaje niewyjaśnionych. Doniesienia dotyczące efektywności różnych form terapii również zdają się być niejednoznaczne. Celem pracy jest przybliżenie globalnych zależności występujących w ciele, które mogą wpływać na dolegliwości pacjentów oraz próba odpowiedzi na pytanie, czy zawsze należy szukać przyczyny w miejscu bólu.  Zwrócić uwagę należy na fakt, iż współczesna anatomia bardziej dzieli niż łączy, a co za tym idzie często pośrednie i bezpośrednie zależności pomiędzy nawet blisko położonymi strukturami są w badaniu czy analizie pomijane.   Abstract Tennis elbow is one of the most common disorders diagnosed in the elbow area. Despite such prevalence, lot of questions associated with this disease still remains unexplained. Reports about the effectiveness of treatment also seems to be not clear. The aim of the work is to familiarize with global relationships in a body, that can influence the disorders of patients and attempt to answer the question of whether we should always look for the pain cause in painful localization. We should pay attention to the fact, that classic anatomy divides rather than connect. Because of this fact, therapists often ignore direct and indirect relationships between even closely located structures.   Słowa kluczowe: łokieć tenisisty, powięź.   Key words: tennis elbow, fascia.

  12. Time-Dependent Crustal Deformation Associated With the 2004 Chuetsu and the 2007 Chuetsu-Oki Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneses Gutierrez, A.; Sagiya, T.

    2013-12-01

    There is an ongoing concentrated deformation along the Japan Sea coast, which has been identified as Niigata Kobe Tectonic Zone (Sagiya et al., 2000). Large historical earthquakes have occurred in this area, and in recent years, Niigata has suffered the impact of two important events, known as the 2004 Mid-Niigata Prefecture earthquake (M 6.8) and The 2007 Niigata-ken Chuetsu-Oki earthquake (M 6.6), which considerately affected the crustal deformation pattern. For this reason, we review temporal variation of crustal deformation pattern in the mid Niigata region based on daily coordinates of 28 GPS sites from the GEONET network for three time windows: before 2004, 2004-2007 and after 2007 until March 2011, to avoid effects of crustal deformation associated with the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake. We observed a migration of the deformation pattern in the East-West direction through the contraction belts for the above time windows. Before 2004, we recognize a clear shortening of 0.3ppm/yr in the area between the source regions of 2004 and 2007 quakes. After the 2004 Chuetsu earthquake, this shortening rate decreased. On the other hand, an accelerated contraction occurred to the east of this region, around the source region of the 2004 earthquake. After the 2007 earthquake, another contraction zone appeared to the northwest, near the 2007 source region. These time-dependent behaviors suggest there exists strong interaction between parallel fault segments in this area. It is crucially important to reveal such interaction to understand crustal deformation and seismogenesis in this region. We construct kinematic deformation models to interpret the time-dependent deformation pattern for each time period and to investigate mechanical interaction of coseismic as well as probably aseismic fault slips. Optimal faults parameters were established using a grid search, and computing the 95% confidence interval for each model parameter using the normalized Chi-squared distribution to

  13. Broadscale Postseismic Gravity Change Following the 2011 Tohoku-Oki Earthquake and Implication for Deformation by Viscoelastic Relaxation and Afterslip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Shin-Chan; Sauber, Jeanne; Pollitz, Fred

    2014-01-01

    The analysis of GRACE gravity data revealed post-seismic gravity increase by 6 micro-Gal over a 500 km scale within a couple of years after the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake, which is nearly 40-50% of the co-seismic gravity change. It originates mostly from changes in the isotropic component corresponding to the M(sub rr) moment tensor element. The exponential decay with rapid change in a year and gradual change afterward is a characteristic temporal pattern. Both viscoelastic relaxation and afterslip models produce reasonable agreement with the GRACE free-air gravity observation, while their Bouguer gravity patterns and seafloor vertical deformations are distinctly different. The post-seismic gravity variation is best modeled by the bi-viscous relaxation with a transient and steady state viscosity of 10(exp 18) and 10(exp 19) Pa s, respectively, for the asthenosphere. Our calculated higher-resolution viscoelastic relaxation model, underlying the partially ruptured elastic lithosphere, yields the localized post-seismic subsidence above the hypocenter reported from the GPS-acoustic seafloor surveying.

  14. Disturbances in VHF/UHF telemetry links as a possible effect of the 2003 Hokkaido Tokachi-oki earthquake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Nagamoto

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The data on radio telemetry links (for water information at VHF/UHF in Hokkaido are used to investigate the rate of disturbances on radio links (or connection failure and its association with a huge earthquake, Tokachi-oki earthquake on 26 September 2003. Especially, the telemetry links at the Tokachi region closest to the earthquake epicenter, showed a significant increase in disturbances on radio links two weeks to a few days before the earthquake on the basis of analysis during a long interval from 1 June 2002 to 3 November 2007 (over 5 years. We suggest that these severe disturbances in VHF/UHF telemetry links are attributed to the generation of seismogenic VHF/UHF radio noises (emissions. Based on this idea, we have estimated that the intensity of these seismogenic emissions is on the order of 10–19 dB μV/m. Finally, the present result was compared with other physical parameters already obtained for this earthquake.

  15. Geoengineering and seismological aspects of the Niigata-Ken Chuetsu-Oki earthquake of 16 July 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayen, R.; Brandenberg, S.J.; CoIlins, B.D.; Dickenson, S.; Ashford, S.; Kawamata, Y.; Tanaka, Y.; Koumoto, H.; Abrahamson, N.; Cluff, L.; Tokimatsu, K.

    2009-01-01

    The M6.6 Niigata-Ken Chuetsu-Oki earthquake of 16 July 2007 occurred off the west coast of Japan with a focal depth of 10 km, immediately west of Kashiwazaki City and Kariwa Village in southern Niigata Prefecture. Peak horizontal ground accelerations of 0.68 g were measured in Kashiwazaki City, as well as at the reactor floor level of the world's largest nuclear reactor, located on the coast at Kariwa Village. Liquefaction of historic and modern river deposits, aeolian dune sand, and manmade fill was widespread in the coastal region nearest the epicenter and caused ground deformations that damaged bridges, embankments, roadways, buildings, ports, railways and utilities. Landslides along the coast of southern Niigata Prefecture and in mountainous regions inland of Kashiwazaki were also widespread affecting transportation infrastructure. Liquefaction and a landslide also damaged the nuclear power plant sites. This paper, along with a companion digital map database available at http://walrus.wr.usgs.gOv/infobank/n/nii07jp/html/n-ii-07-jp.sites.kmz, describes the seismological and geo-engineering aspects of the event. ?? 2009, Earthquake Engineering Research Institute.

  16. Mitigating artifacts in back-projection source imaging with implications for frequency-dependent properties of the Tohoku-Oki earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Lingsen; Ampuero, Jean-Paul; Luo, Yingdi; Wu, Wenbo; Ni, Sidao

    2012-12-01

    Comparing teleseismic array back-projection source images of the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake with results from static and kinematic finite source inversions has revealed little overlap between the regions of high- and low-frequency slip. Motivated by this interesting observation, back-projection studies extended to intermediate frequencies, down to about 0.1 Hz, have suggested that a progressive transition of rupture properties as a function of frequency is observable. Here, by adapting the concept of array response function to non-stationary signals, we demonstrate that the "swimming artifact", a systematic drift resulting from signal non-stationarity, induces significant bias on beamforming back-projection at low frequencies. We introduce a "reference window strategy" into the multitaper-MUSIC back-projection technique and significantly mitigate the "swimming artifact" at high frequencies (1 s to 4 s). At lower frequencies, this modification yields notable, but significantly smaller, artifacts than time-domain stacking. We perform extensive synthetic tests that include a 3D regional velocity model for Japan. We analyze the recordings of the Tohoku-Oki earthquake at the USArray and at the European array at periods from 1 s to 16 s. The migration of the source location as a function of period, regardless of the back-projection methods, has characteristics that are consistent with the expected effect of the "swimming artifact". In particular, the apparent up-dip migration as a function of frequency obtained with the USArray can be explained by the "swimming artifact". This indicates that the most substantial frequency-dependence of the Tohoku-Oki earthquake source occurs at periods longer than 16 s. Thus, low-frequency back-projection needs to be further tested and validated in order to contribute to the characterization of frequency-dependent rupture properties.

  17. Heavy neutrino mixing in the T2HK, the T2HKK and an extension of the T2HK with a detector at Oki Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Yugo; Asano, Yusuke; Haba, Naoyuki; Yamada, Toshifumi

    2017-01-01

    We study the discovery potential for the mixing of heavy isospin-singlet neutrinos in extensions of the Tokai-to-Kamioka (T2K) experiment, the Tokai-to-Hyper-Kamiokande (T2HK), the Tokai-to-Hyper-Kamiokande-to-Korea (T2HKK) with a Korea detector with ≅ 1000 km baseline length and 1 circle off-axis angle, and a plan of adding a small detector at Oki Islands to the T2HK. We further pursue the possibility of measuring the neutrino mass hierarchy and the standard CP-violating phase δ CP in the presence of heavy neutrino mixing by fitting data with the standard oscillation parameters only. We show that the sensitivity to heavy neutrino mixing is highly dependent on δ CP and new CP-violating phases in the heavy neutrino mixing matrix, and deteriorates considerably when these phases conspire to suppress interference between the standard oscillation amplitude and an amplitude arising from heavy neutrino mixing, at the first oscillation peak. Although this suppression is avoided by the use of a beam with smaller off-axis angle, the T2HKK and the T2HK+small Oki detector do not show improvement over the T2HK. As for the mass hierarchy measurement, the wrong mass hierarchy is possibly favored in the T2HK because heavy neutrino mixing can mimic matter effects. In contrast, the T2HKK and the T2HK+small Oki detector are capable of correctly measuring the mass hierarchy despite heavy neutrino mixing, as measurements with different baselines resolve degeneracy between heavy neutrino mixing and matter effects. Notably, adding a small detector at Oki to the T2HK drastically ameliorates the sensitivity, which is the central appeal of this paper. As for the δ CP measurement, there can be a sizable discrepancy between the true δ CP and the value obtained by fitting data with the standard oscillation parameters only, which can be comparable to 1σ resolution of the δ CP measurement. Hence, if a hint of heavy neutrino mixing is discovered, it is necessary to incorporate the effects

  18. Heavy neutrino mixing in the T2HK, the T2HKK and an extension of the T2HK with a detector at Oki Islands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abe, Yugo [Shimane University, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Matsue (Japan); Miyakonojo College, National Institute of Technology, Miyakonojo-shi Miyazaki (Japan); Asano, Yusuke; Haba, Naoyuki; Yamada, Toshifumi [Shimane University, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Matsue (Japan)

    2017-12-15

    We study the discovery potential for the mixing of heavy isospin-singlet neutrinos in extensions of the Tokai-to-Kamioka (T2K) experiment, the Tokai-to-Hyper-Kamiokande (T2HK), the Tokai-to-Hyper-Kamiokande-to-Korea (T2HKK) with a Korea detector with ≅ 1000 km baseline length and 1 {sup circle} off-axis angle, and a plan of adding a small detector at Oki Islands to the T2HK. We further pursue the possibility of measuring the neutrino mass hierarchy and the standard CP-violating phase δ{sub CP} in the presence of heavy neutrino mixing by fitting data with the standard oscillation parameters only. We show that the sensitivity to heavy neutrino mixing is highly dependent on δ{sub CP} and new CP-violating phases in the heavy neutrino mixing matrix, and deteriorates considerably when these phases conspire to suppress interference between the standard oscillation amplitude and an amplitude arising from heavy neutrino mixing, at the first oscillation peak. Although this suppression is avoided by the use of a beam with smaller off-axis angle, the T2HKK and the T2HK+small Oki detector do not show improvement over the T2HK. As for the mass hierarchy measurement, the wrong mass hierarchy is possibly favored in the T2HK because heavy neutrino mixing can mimic matter effects. In contrast, the T2HKK and the T2HK+small Oki detector are capable of correctly measuring the mass hierarchy despite heavy neutrino mixing, as measurements with different baselines resolve degeneracy between heavy neutrino mixing and matter effects. Notably, adding a small detector at Oki to the T2HK drastically ameliorates the sensitivity, which is the central appeal of this paper. As for the δ{sub CP} measurement, there can be a sizable discrepancy between the true δ{sub CP} and the value obtained by fitting data with the standard oscillation parameters only, which can be comparable to 1σ resolution of the δ{sub CP} measurement. Hence, if a hint of heavy neutrino mixing is discovered, it is

  19. A review of the rupture characteristics of the 2011 Tohoku-oki Mw 9.1 earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lay, Thorne

    2018-05-01

    The 2011 March 11 Tohoku-oki great (Mw 9.1) earthquake ruptured the plate boundary megathrust fault offshore of northern Honshu with estimates of shallow slip of 50 m and more near the trench. Non-uniform slip extended 220 km across the width and 400 km along strike of the subduction zone. Extensive data provided by regional networks of seismic and geodetic stations in Japan and global networks of broadband seismic stations, regional and global ocean bottom pressure sensors and sea level measurement stations, seafloor GPS/Acoustic displacement sites, repeated multi-channel reflection images, extensive coastal runup and inundation observations, and in situ sampling of the shallow fault zone materials and temperature perturbation, make the event the best-recorded and most extensively studied great earthquake to date. An effort is made here to identify the more robust attributes of the rupture as well as less well constrained, but likely features. Other issues involve the degree to which the rupture corresponded to geodetically-defined preceding slip-deficit regions, the influence of re-rupture of slip regions for large events in the past few centuries, and relationships of coseismic slip to precursory slow slip, foreshocks, aftershocks, afterslip, and relocking of the megathrust. Frictional properties associated with the slip heterogeneity and in situ measurements of frictional heating of the shallow fault zone support low stress during shallow sliding and near-total shear stress drop of 10-30 MPa in large-slip regions in the shallow megathrust. The roles of fault morphology, sediments, fluids, and dynamical processes in the rupture behavior continue to be examined; consensus has not yet been achieved. The possibility of secondary sources of tsunami excitation such as inelastic deformation of the sedimentary wedge or submarine slumping remains undemonstrated; dislocation models in an elastic continuum appear to sufficiently account for most mainshock observations

  20. [Exposure to benzene and hematologic changes in workers at the Ina-Oki Drnisplast factory in Drnis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikulandra, O; Cala, D; Marković, V; Zorić, A

    1993-12-01

    In the summer of 1984 workers in the "INA-OKI Drnisplast" factory frequently complained about headaches, weight loss and irregular menstrual cycles. According to the factory engineers that might have been due to an altered composition of the paints and glues that were used in the manufacturing process that year. Those had been found to lack specifications of chemical composition. Experts from the Institute for the Safety at Work from Zagreb were called in to perform measurements of organic solvents content in the workroom air. Benzene concentrations were found to be up to five times higher than the maximum permissible levels, those of toluene up to three times and of cyclohexane up to ten times higher. The polluted part of the factory was closed down, changes were introduced into the working process (use of paints was stopped, only glues without benzene content were allowed and proper ventilation was installed) and all the workers, twenty in all, received medical treatment. After three months the working process was resumed. In 1989 all the twenty workers underwent a control medical examination. All showed signs of recovery, both objective and subjective. Their blood tests values were within normal range. All the workers continued working, save one who retired in 1988 upon recommendation of a disability commission. The cause of disablement was occupational disease--benzene poisoning. On the basis of this experience emphasis is placed on the importance, in working with benzene, of complying with the Legislation on working capacity assessment for jobs requiring special working conditions and with the Safety at work act.

  1. High-frequency source radiation during the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake, Japan, inferred from KiK-net strong-motion seismograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumagai, Hiroyuki; Pulido, Nelson; Fukuyama, Eiichi; Aoi, Shin

    2013-01-01

    investigate source processes of the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake, we utilized a source location method using high-frequency (5-10 Hz) seismic amplitudes. In this method, we assumed far-field isotropic radiation of S waves, and conducted a spatial grid search to find the best fitting source locations along the subducted slab in each successive time window. Our application of the method to the Tohoku-Oki earthquake resulted in artifact source locations at shallow depths near the trench caused by limited station coverage and noise effects. We then assumed various source node distributions along the plate, and found that the observed seismograms were most reasonably explained when assuming deep source nodes. This result suggests that the high-frequency seismic waves were radiated at deeper depths during the earthquake, a feature which is consistent with results obtained from teleseismic back-projection and strong-motion source model studies. We identified three high-frequency subevents, and compared them with the moment-rate function estimated from low-frequency seismograms. Our comparison indicated that no significant moment release occurred during the first high-frequency subevent and the largest moment-release pulse occurred almost simultaneously with the second high-frequency subevent. We speculated that the initial slow rupture propagated bilaterally from the hypocenter toward the land and trench. The landward subshear rupture propagation consisted of three successive high-frequency subevents. The trenchward propagation ruptured the strong asperity and released the largest moment near the trench.

  2. ANALYSIS OF LABOUR ACCIDENTS OCCURRING IN DISASTER RESTORATION WORK FOLLOWING THE NIIGATA CHUETSU EARTHQUAKE (2004) AND THE NIIGATA CHUETSU-OKI EARTHQUAKE (2007)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Kazuya; Noda, Masashi; Kikkawa, Naotaka; Hori, Tomohito; Tamate, Satoshi; Toyosawa, Yasuo; Suemasa, Naoaki

    Labour accidents in disaster-relief and disaster restoration work following the Niigata Chuetsu Earthquake (2004) and the Niigata Chuetsu-oki Earthquake (2007) were analysed and characterised in order to raise awareness of the risks and hazards in such work. The Niigata Chuetsu-oki Earthquake affected houses and buildings rather than roads and railways, which are generally disrupted due to landslides or slope failures caused by earthquakes. In this scenario, the predominant type of accident is a "fall to lower level," which increases mainly due to the fact that labourers are working to repair houses and buildings. On the other hand, landslides and slope failures were much more prevalent in the Niigata Chuetsu Earthquake, resulting in more accidents occurring in geotechnical works rather than in construction works. Therefore, care should be taken in preventing "fall to lower level" accidents associated with repair work on the roofs of low-rise houses, "cut or abrasion" accidents due to the demolition of damaged houses and "caught in or compressed by equipment" accidents in road works and water and sewage works.

  3. Implications of Inundation by the 2011 Tohoku-oki Tsunami for Coastal Agriculture on the Sendai Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chague-Goff, C.; Goff, J. R.; Wong, H. K.; Sugawara, D.; SzczuciEski, W.

    2013-05-01

    The 11 March 2011 Tohoku-oki tsunami inundated large areas of farmland on the Sendai Plain, leaving behind a discontinuous, but extensive, sandy to muddy deposit coating paddy rice fields. Two months after the tsunami, many areas were still inundated on the low-lying plain. Salt crusts were also observed in many places where saltwater had evaporated. Field surveys were carried out in May, August, October 2011 and February 2012 along a ~ 5 km transect north of Sendai airport, to assess the environmental impact and temporal extent of the tsunami on farmland, with particular emphasis on contamination by salts. Evaporation led to elevated conductivity in ponded water, canals and channels in May 2011 (from brackish to saline), and while rainfall resulted in dilution, brackish water was still recorded in August and October 2011, and even in a few areas in February 2012. Our study revealed that not only the sediment deposited by the tsunami (sand-dominated up to 2.9 km inland, and mud-dominated up to 4.65 km inland) but also the underlying soil was contaminated by saltwater. Concentrations of up to 10.5% Cl, 6.6% Na, 2.8% SO4 and 440 mg kg-1 Br were recorded in May 2011 in surface sediment where seawater had ponded for a long time, as shown by extensive salt crust residues. The underlying rice paddy soil was also contaminated by saltwater, down to 15 cm depth, as revealed by high levels of water-leachable ions and cations. Data gathered over four sampling seasons 2, 5, 9 and 11 months after the tsunami show that the salt content generally decreased with time. Ion concentrations were however higher in February 2012 than in October 2011, probably due to evaporation following long periods with low precipitation. In February 2012, the area with chloride concentrations likely to result in brine damage in rice seedlings still extended from ~2.3 to ~3.3 km inland, with soil contamination by salt measured down to 15 cm depth in some places. Rice production was halted in 2011, and

  4. Discoveries and Controversies in Geodetic Imaging of Deformation Before and After the M=9 Tohoku-oki Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, K.; Sun, T.; Hino, R.; Iinuma, T.; Tomita, F.; Kido, M.

    2017-12-01

    Numerous observations pertaining to the M=9.0 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake have led to new understanding of subduction zone earthquakes. By synthesizing published research results and our own findings, we explore what has been learned about fault behavior and Earth rheology from geodetic imaging of crustal deformation before and after the earthquake. Before the earthquake, megathrust locking models based on land-based geodetic observations correctly outlined the along-strike location of the future rupture zone, showing that land-based observations are capable of resolving along-strike variations in locking and creep at wavelengths comparable to distances from the network. But they predicted a locked zone that was much deeper than the actual rupture in 2011. The incorrect definition of the locking pattern in the dip direction demonstrates not only the need for seafloor geodesy but also the importance of modeling interseismic viscoelastic stress relaxation and stress shadowing. The discovery of decade-long accelerated slip downdip of the future rupture zone raises new questions on fault mechanics. After the earthquake, seafloor geodetic discovery of opposing motion offshore provided unambiguous evidence for the dominance of viscoelastic relaxation in short-term postseismic deformation. There is little deep afterslip in the fault area where the decade-long pre-earthquake slip acceleration is observed. The complementary spatial distribution of pre-slip and afterslip calls for new scientific research. However, the near absence of deep afterslip directly downdip of the main rupture is perceived to be controversial because some viscoelastic models do predict large afterslip here, although less than predicted by purely elastic models. We show that the large afterslip in these models is largely an artefact due to the use of a layered Earth model without a subducting slab. The slab acts as an "anchor" in the mantle and retards landward motion following a subduction earthquake

  5. Elastic oscillations of water column in the 2003 Tokachi-oki tsunami source: in-situ measurements and 3-D numerical modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Nosov

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available During the 2003 Tokachi-Oki tsunamigenic earthquake the real-time JAMSTEC observatory obtained records which provided a unique opportunity to have a look deep inside the tsunami source. Considering water column as a compressible medium we processed the bottom pressure records in order to estimate amplitude, duration and velocity of bottom displacement. Spectral analysis of the records revealed a clear manifestation of the low-frequency elastic oscillations of water column. We also presented 3-D finite-difference numerical model developed in the framework of linear potential theory of ideal compressible fluid to better understand dynamical processes in the tsunami source. The model reproduces position of the main spectral maximum rather correctly. However, due to neglecting of crust elasticity and to lack of exact knowledge of spatiotemporal laws of bottom motion, there is an essential difference between in-situ observed and computed spectra.

  6. PRELIMINARY ESTIMATION OF POSTSEISMIC DEFORMATION PARAMETERS FROM CONTINUOUS GPS DATA IN KOREA PENINSULA AND IEODO AFTER THE 2011 TOHOKU-OKI MW9.0 EARTHQUAKE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. A. W. Aris

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes utilization of GPS data in Korea Peninsula and IEODO ocean research station for investigation of postseismic deformation characteristic after the 2011 Tohoku-oki Mw9.0 Earthquake. Analytical logarithmic and exponential functions were used to evaluate the postseismic deformation parameters. The results found that the data in Korea Peninsula and IEODO during periods of mid-2011 – mid-2014 are fit better using logarithmic function with deformation decay at 134.5 ±0.1 days than using the exponential function. The result also clearly indicates that further investigation into postseismic deformation over longer data span should be taken into account to explain tectonic deformation over the region.

  7. Impact of the 2001 Tohoku-oki earthquake to Tokyo Metropolitan area observed by the Metropolitan Seismic Observation network (MeSO-net)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, N.; Hayashi, H.; Nakagawa, S.; Sakai, S.; Honda, R.; Kasahara, K.; Obara, K.; Aketagawa, T.; Kimura, H.; Sato, H.; Okaya, D. A.

    2011-12-01

    The March 11, 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake brought a great impact to the Tokyo metropolitan area in both seismological aspect and seismic risk management although Tokyo is located 340 km from the epicenter. The event generated very strong ground motion even in the metropolitan area and resulted severe requifaction in many places of Kanto district. National and local governments have started to discuss counter measurement for possible seismic risks in the area taking account for what they learned from the Tohoku-oki event which is much larger than ever experienced in Japan Risk mitigation strategy for the next greater earthquake caused by the Philippine Sea plate (PSP) subducting beneath the Tokyo metropolitan area is of major concern because it caused past mega-thrust earthquakes, such as the 1703 Genroku earthquake (M8.0) and the 1923 Kanto earthquake (M7.9). An M7 or greater (M7+) earthquake in this area at present has high potential to produce devastating loss of life and property with even greater global economic repercussions. The Central Disaster Management Council of Japan estimates that an M7+ earthquake will cause 11,000 fatalities and 112 trillion yen (about 1 trillion US$) economic loss. In order to mitigate disaster for greater Tokyo, the Special Project for Earthquake Disaster Mitigation in the Tokyo Metropolitan Area was launched in collaboration with scientists, engineers, and social-scientists in nationwide institutions. We will discuss the main results that are obtained in the respective fields which have been integrated to improve information on the strategy assessment for seismic risk mitigation in the Tokyo metropolitan area; the project has been much improved after the Tohoku event. In order to image seismic structure beneath the Metropolitan Tokyo area we have developed Metropolitan Seismic Observation network (MeSO-net; Hirata et al., 2009). We have installed 296 seismic stations every few km (Kasahara et al., 2011). We conducted seismic

  8. Observation of earthquake in the neighborhood of a large underground cavity. The Izu-Hanto-Toho-Oki earthquake, June 29, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komada, H; Hayashi, M [Central Research Inst. of Electric Power Industry, Abiko, Chiba (Japan). Civil Engineering Lab.

    1980-12-01

    Studies on the earthquake resistance design of underground site for such large important structures as nuclear power plants, high-level radioactive waste repositories, LNG tanks, petroleum tanks, big power transmission installations and compressed air energy storage installations have been examined at our research institute. The observations of earthquake have been examined at Shiroyama underground hydroelectric power station since July 1976 as one of the demonstration of the earthquake resistance, and the first report was already published. After the time accelerometers and dynamic strain meters were additionally installed. Good acceleration waves and dynamic strain waves of the Izu-Hanto-Toho-Oki Earthquake, June 29, 1980 were observed at Shiroyama site, at which the hypocentral distance is 77 km and the intensity scale is about 4. In this report, the characteristic of the oscillation wave in the neighborhood of underground cavity and the relationships among accelerations, velocities, deformations and dynamic strains are studied in detail on the above earthquake data.

  9. Surface faulting along the inland Itozawa normal fault (eastern Japan) and relation to the 2011 Tohoku-oki megathrust earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferry, Matthieu; Tsutsumi, Hiroyuki; Meghraoui, Mustapha; Toda, Shinji

    2013-04-01

    The 11 March 2011 Mw 9 Tohoku-oki earthquake ruptured ~500 km length of the Japan Trench along the coast of eastern Japan and significantly impacted the stress regime within the crust. The resulting change in seismicity over the Japan mainland was exhibited by the 11 April 2011 Mw 6.6 Iwaki earthquake that ruptured the Itozawa and Yunodake faults. Trending NNW and NW, respectively, these 70-80° W-dipping faults bound the Iwaki basin of Neogene age and have been reactivated simultaneously both along 15-km-long sections. Here, we present initial results from a paleoseismic excavation performed across the Itozawa fault within the Tsunagi Valley at the northern third of the observed surface rupture. At the Tsunagi site, the rupture affects a rice paddy, which provides an ideally horizontal initial state to collect detailed and accurate measurements. The surface break is composed of a continuous 30-to-40-cm-wide purely extensional crack that separates the uplifted block from a gently dipping 1-to-2-m-wide strip affected by right-stepping en-echelon cracks and locally bounded by a ~0.1-m-high reverse scarplet. Total station across-fault topographic profiles indicate the pre-earthquake ground surface was vertically deformed by ~0.6 m while direct field examinations reveal that well-defined rice paddy limits have been left-laterally offset by ~0.1 m. The 12-m-long, 3.5-m-deep trench exposes the 30-to-40-cm-thick cultivated soil overlaying a 1-m-thick red to yellow silt unit, a 2-m-thick alluvial gravel unit and a basal 0.1-1-m-thick organic-rich silt unit. Deformation associated to the 2011 rupture illustrates down-dip movement along a near-vertical fault with a well-expressed bending moment at the surface and generalized warping. On the north wall, the intermediate gravel unit displays a deformation pattern similar to granular flow with only minor discrete faulting and no splay to be continuously followed from the main fault to the surface. On the south wall, warping

  10. Sendai-Okura earthquake swarm induced by the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake in the stress shadow of NE Japan: Detailed fault structure and hypocenter migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Keisuke; Hasegawa, Akira

    2018-05-01

    We investigated the distribution and migration of hypocenters of an earthquake swarm that occurred in Sendai-Okura (NE Japan) 15 days after the 2011 M9.0 Tohoku-Oki earthquake, despite the decrease in shear stress due to the static stress change. Hypocenters of 2476 events listed in the JMA catalogue were relocated based on the JMA unified catalogue data in conjunction with data obtained by waveform cross correlation. Hypocenter relocation was successful in delineating several thin planar structures, although the original hypocenters presented a cloud-like distribution. The hypocenters of this swarm event migrated along several planes from deeper to shallower levels rather than diffusing three-dimensionally. One of the nodal planes of the focal mechanisms was nearly parallel to the planar structure of the hypocenters, supporting the idea that each earthquake occurred by causing slip on parts of the same plane. The overall migration velocity of the hypocenters could be explained by the fluid diffusion model with a typical value of hydraulic diffusivity (0.15 m2/s); however, the occurrence of some burst-like activity with much higher migration velocity suggests the possibility that aseismic slip also contributed to triggering the earthquakes. We suggest that the 2011 Sendai-Okura earthquake swarm was generated as follows. (1) The 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake caused WNW-ESE extension in the focal region of the swarm, which accordingly reduced shear stress on the fault planes. However, the WNW-ESE extension allowed fluids to move upward from the S-wave reflectors in the mid-crust immediately beneath the focal region. (2) The fluids rising from the mid-crust intruded into several existing planes, which reduced their frictional strengths and caused the observed earthquake swarm. (3) The fluids, and accordingly, the hypocenters of the triggered earthquakes, migrated upward along the fault planes. It is possible that the fluids also triggered aseismic slip, which caused

  11. Shortcomings of InSAR for studying megathrust earthquakes: The case of the M w 9.0 Tohoku-Oki earthquake

    KAUST Repository

    Feng, Guangcai

    2012-05-28

    Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) observations are sometimes the only geodetic data of large subduction-zone earthquakes. However, these data usually suffer from spatially long-wavelength orbital and atmospheric errors that can be difficult to distinguish from the coseismic deformation and may therefore result in biased fault-slip inversions. To study how well InSAR constrains fault-slip of large subduction zone earthquakes, we use data of the 11 March 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake (Mw9.0) and test InSAR-derived fault-slip models against models constrained by GPS data from the extensive nationwide network in Japan. The coseismic deformation field was mapped using InSAR data acquired from multiple ascending and descending passes of the ALOS and Envisat satellites. We then estimated several fault-slip distribution models that were constrained using the InSAR data alone, onland and seafloor GPS/acoustic data, or combinations of the different data sets. Based on comparisons of the slip models, we find that there is no real gain by including InSAR observations for determining the fault slip distribution of this earthquake. That said, however, some of the main fault-slip patterns can be retrieved using the InSAR data alone when estimating long wavelength orbital/atmospheric ramps as a part of the modeling. Our final preferred fault-slip solution of the Tohoku-Oki earthquake is based only on the GPS data and has maximum reverse- and strike-slip of 36.0 m and 6.0 m, respectively, located northeast of the epicenter at a depth of 6 km, and has a total geodetic moment is 3.6 × 1022 Nm (Mw 9.01), similar to seismological estimates.

  12. Regional stressing rate appears to control duration and decay of off-fault aftershocks in the 2011 M=9.0 Tohoku-oki, Japan, earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toda, S.; Stein, R. S.

    2013-12-01

    The 11 March 2001 M=9.0 Tohoku-oki, Japan, earthquake brought the unprecedented broad increase in seismicity over inland Japan and far offshore. The seismicity rate increase was observed at distances of up to 425 km from the locus of high seismic slip on the megathrust, which roughly corresponds to the areas over 0.1 bar Coulomb stress increase (e.g., Toda et al., 2011). Such stress perturbation in the entire eastern Honshu island gives us a great opportunity to test one of the hypotheses in rate and state friction of Dieterich (1994): aftershock duration (ta) is inversely proportional to fault stressing rate. The Tohoku-oki mainshock indeed started a stopwatch simultaneously for all the off-fault and on-fault aftershocks in various tectonic situations. We have carefully examined the aftershock decays fitting the Omori-Utsu formula in several activated regions, including on the 2011 source fault, several inland areas of Tohoku (Akita, Iwaki, northern Sendai, and Fukushima), Tokyo metropolitan area, Choshi (east of Tokyo), Izu Peninsula, and areas along the most active Itoigawa-Shizuoka Tectonic Line (ISTL) central Honshu. Comparing the regional aftershock decays with the background rates of seismicity estimated from the JMA catalog from 2000 to 2010, we measured ta. One of the extreme short duration was measured at the Izu Peninsula where the heightened seismicity was rapidly toned down to the normal in one month. Overall seismicity in the Tohoku mainshock zone has been mostly closing to normal in 2 - 3 years. Both regions are characterized by high loading rate due to plate collision and subduction. Seismicity beneath Tokyo, also characterized by complex plate interfaces and brought average 1 bar closer to failure, has not followed the simple Omori decay but being settled a new higher rate after a rapid decay. In contrast to these highly deformed regions, current seismicity in slowly loading Tohoku inland regions are still much higher than background rate, which

  13. Seismicity and state of stress near the Japan Trench axis off Miyagi, northeast Japan, after the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obana, K.; Kodaira, S.; Takahashi, T.; Yamamoto, Y.; Nakamura, Y.; No, T.; Fujie, G.; Hino, R.; Shinohara, M.

    2013-12-01

    The 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake ruptured roughly 200 km wide and 500 km long megathrust along the Japan Trench. The rupture propagated to the trench axis with a maximum slip about 50 m near the trench axis. As a consequence of this large near-trench slip, earthquakes have been activated near the axis of the Japan Trench off Miyagi, northeast Japan. We have conducted ocean bottom seismograph (OBS) experiments in the Japan Trench axis area, surrounding area of the IODP JFAST drilling site, since the occurrence of the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake. Although conventionally used OBS cannot be deployed at seafloor deeper than 6000 m water depth, we used newly developed ultra-deep OBS using ceramic sphere, which can be deployed at a depth of 9000 m, for the observations in the trench axis. The ultra-deep OBS has almost equivalent dimensions and weight with the conventionally used OBS, thus we can handle it in the same manner with the conventionally OBS without any special operation. As a result of a series of the OBS observations, we obtained accurate hypocenter locations and focal mechanisms in both seaward and landward of the trench axis. Earthquakes near the trench axis area were located within the overriding and incoming/subducting plates with very few on the plate interface below the inner trench slope landward of the trench axis. Most of the earthquakes both in the overriding and incoming/subducting plates having normal or strike-slip faulting focal mechanisms with T-axis normal to the trench axis. This indicates that tensional stress is dominant in the trench axis area. However, most seaward part of the seismicity within the overriding plate is characterized by a localized cluster of trench-normal compressional earthquakes, which may relate to spatial variation of the frictional behavior of the shallowest part of the megathrust. On the other hand, trench-normal extensional earthquakes in the incoming/subducting Pacific plate were located at depths shallower than about

  14. Olev Soansi elu ja looming / Harvet Toots

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Toots, Harvet, 1966-2002

    2003-01-01

    Lisaks uurimuse valmimise eelloost. Järgneb 11. okt. 2003, lk. 18, 14. okt. 2003, lk. 10, 16. okt. 2003, lk. 9, 18. okt. 2003, lk. 18, 21. okt. 2003, lk. 10, 23. okt. 2003, lk. 10, 25. okt. 2003, lk. 18, 28. okt. 2003, lk. 10, 30. okt. 2003, lk. 10, 1. nov. 2003, lk. 18, 4. nov. 2003, lk. 10, 6. nov. 2003, lk. 10, 8. nov. 2003, lk. 18, 11. nov. 2003, lk. 10, 13. nov. 2003, lk. 10, 15. nov. 2003, lk. 18, 18. nov. 2003, lk. 10, 20. nov. 2003, lk. 10, 22. nov. 2003, lk. 18, 25. nov. 2003, lk. 10, 27. nov. 2003, lk. 10, 29. nov. 2003, lk. 18, 4. dets. 2003, lk. 10, 6. dets. 2003, lk. 18, 9. dets. 2003, lk. 10, 11. dets. 2003, lk. 10, 13. dets. 2003, lk. 18, 16. dets. 2003, lk. 10

  15. Salt Lake Cityst Torinoni / Olev Remsu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Remsu, Olev, 1947-

    2006-01-01

    Dokumentaalfilm Eesti suusameeskonna valmistumisest Torino olümpiamängudeks "Tiim" : idee autorid Peep Puks, Hans Roosipuu : režissöör Peep Puks : F-Seitse 2006. Esilinastus toimus 26. mail Otepääl, ETVs 31. mail

  16. Viimast sõda meenutades / Olev Remsu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Remsu, Olev, 1947-

    2006-01-01

    8. ja 9. mail näitas kino "Sõprus" kaht ajaloolist dokumentaalfilmi - Kanada eestlase Marcus Kolga "Gulag 113" ja 6-osalise ajaloodokumentaalide sarja "Kuum külm sõda" teist filmi "Sinimäed" : stsenaristid Kiur Aarma, Mart Laar, Eerik-Niiles Kross, Raimo Jõerand : režissöör Raimo Jõerand : Ruut Pictures 2006. Filmide sisuks on valikuvõimalusteta eesti mehed Teises Maailmasõjas

  17. Feministid põõsas / Olev Remsu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Remsu, Olev, 1947-

    1996-01-01

    Feminismist seoses ameerika filmiga 'Striptiis' ("Striptease", re̓issöör Andrew Bergman, USA 1996). Vastukaja: Kivimaa, Katrin. Feminist tuleb põõsast välja // Eesti Päevaleht. - 1996. - 4. dets. - Lk. 7

  18. Insider Dealing / Lembit Olev, Sander Zibo

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Olev, Lembit

    1997-01-01

    Insaidkauplemise mõistest, Euroopa Liidu Nõukogu direktiivist insaidinformatsioonil põhinevate tehingute regulatsiooni koordineerimise kohta, Saksa väärtpaberikaubanduse seadusest ja insaidkaubanduse alasest kohtupraktikast Saksamaal

  19. Omavalitsuste rahastamine vajab muutmist / Olev Raju

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raju, Olev, 1948-

    2002-01-01

    Autor leiab, et omavalitsuste rahastamise reform tuleks Eestis läbi viia Euroopa riikide praktikast ja Eesti praeguse arenguetapi majanduspoliitilise olukorra analüüsist lähtuvalt. Tabel: tulumaksu eraldamise diferentseerimise variante omavalitsuste vahel. Summary: The need for reform in local government funding. Autor: Keskerakond. Parlamendisaadik

  20. Pension kasvab vaid 136 krooni? / Olev Raju

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raju, Olev, 1948-

    2005-01-01

    Tartu Ülikooli majandusprofessori sõnul näitavad kõik arvud, et valitsus kavandabki vaid 136-kroonist pensionitõusu, kuigi peaminister Juhan Palts lubas mullu Riigikogule riigieelarvekava üle andes 250-kroonist pensionitõusu

  1. Lendas üle dramaturgia / Olev Remsu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Remsu, Olev, 1947-

    2004-01-01

    Autor analüüsib Ken Kesey romaani ümbersünde teatrilaval ja kinolinal - esmalt Dale Wassermani samanimeliseks näidendiks (1963) ning seejärel Bo Goldmani ja Lawrence Haubeni filmistsenaariumiks (linastus 1975)

  2. Co-seismic slip, post-seismic slip, and largest aftershock associated with the 1994 Sanriku-haruka-oki, Japan, earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagi, Yuji; Kikuchi, Masayuki; Nishimura, Takuya

    2003-11-01

    We analyzed continuous GPS data to investigate the spatio-temporal distribution of co-seismic slip, post-seismic slip, and largest aftershock associated with the 1994 Sanriku-haruka-oki, Japan, earthquake (Mw = 7.7). To get better resolution for co-seismic and post-seismic slip distribution, we imposed a weak constraint as a priori information of the co-seismic slip determined by seismic wave analyses. We found that the post-seismic slip during 100 days following the main-shock amount to as much moment release as the main-shock, and that the sites of co-seismic slip and post-seismic slip are partitioning on a plate boundary region in complimentary fashion. The major post-seismic slip was triggered by the mainshock in western side of the co-seismic slip, and the extent of the post-seismic slip is almost unchanged with time. It rapidly developed a shear stress concentration ahead of the slip area, and triggered the largest aftershock.

  3. Fiscal 2000 survey report on regional new energy vision formulation for Oki town; 2000 nendo Okicho chiiki shin energy vision sakutei nado chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-02-01

    Efforts are in progress to build a resource circulation type town symbiotic with natural environments at Oki town, Fukuoka Prefecture, which is an agricultural community where creeks run in every direction. A new energy vision has been worked out for the town, which centers about a plan for building a resource circulation type community. The survey results are summarized in six chapters dealing with (1) the survey outline, (2) local conditions relative to energy, (3) energy supply/demand structure, (4) amount of new energy in existence, (5) records and analysis of inhabitants' approach to energy conservation, and (6) a new energy introduction plan. The new energy introduction plan consists of four items involving a short term plan or a key project, a project for medium/long term surveys or feasibility study for the commercialization of new energy, plans for reducing energy consumption, and so forth. Discussed in relation to the short term plan are the introduction of photovoltaic power generation into public facilities, installation of a photovoltaic power station to be jointly utilized by the inhabitants, establishment of a grant system for the installation of solar water heaters for domestic use, creation of an additional subsidy system for domestic photovoltaic power generation, and the like. (NEDO)

  4. Implications of the Mw9.0 Tohoku-Oki earthquake for ground motion scaling with source, path, and site parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Jonathan P.; Midorikawa, Saburoh; Graves, Robert W.; Khodaverdi, Khatareh; Kishida, Tadahiro; Miura, Hiroyuki; Bozorgnia, Yousef; Campbell, Kenneth W.

    2013-01-01

    The Mw9.0 Tohoku-oki Japan earthquake produced approximately 2,000 ground motion recordings. We consider 1,238 three-component accelerograms corrected with component-specific low-cut filters. The recordings have rupture distances between 44 km and 1,000 km, time-averaged shear wave velocities of VS30 = 90 m/s to 1,900 m/s, and usable response spectral periods of 0.01 sec to >10 sec. The data support the notion that the increase of ground motions with magnitude saturates at large magnitudes. High-frequency ground motions demonstrate faster attenuation with distance in backarc than in forearc regions, which is only captured by one of the four considered ground motion prediction equations for subduction earthquakes. Recordings within 100 km of the fault are used to estimate event terms, which are generally positive (indicating model underprediction) at short periods and zero or negative (overprediction) at long periods. We find site amplification to scale minimally with VS30 at high frequencies, in contrast with other active tectonic regions, but to scale strongly with VS30 at low frequencies.

  5. Sensitivity of Coulomb stress changes to slip models of source faults: A case study for the 2011 Mw 9.0 Tohoku-oki earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J.; Xu, C.; Furlong, K.; Zhong, B.; Xiao, Z.; Yi, L.; Chen, T.

    2017-12-01

    Although Coulomb stress changes induced by earthquake events have been used to quantify stress transfers and to retrospectively explain stress triggering among earthquake sequences, realistic reliable prospective earthquake forecasting remains scarce. To generate a robust Coulomb stress map for earthquake forecasting, uncertainties in Coulomb stress changes associated with the source fault, receiver fault and friction coefficient and Skempton's coefficient need to be exhaustively considered. In this paper, we specifically explore the uncertainty in slip models of the source fault of the 2011 Mw 9.0 Tohoku-oki earthquake as a case study. This earthquake was chosen because of its wealth of finite-fault slip models. Based on the wealth of those slip models, we compute the coseismic Coulomb stress changes induced by this mainshock. Our results indicate that nearby Coulomb stress changes for each slip model can be quite different, both for the Coulomb stress map at a given depth and on the Pacific subducting slab. The triggering rates for three months of aftershocks of the mainshock, with and without considering the uncertainty in slip models, differ significantly, decreasing from 70% to 18%. Reliable Coulomb stress changes in the three seismogenic zones of Nanki, Tonankai and Tokai are insignificant, approximately only 0.04 bar. By contrast, the portions of the Pacific subducting slab at a depth of 80 km and beneath Tokyo received a positive Coulomb stress change of approximately 0.2 bar. The standard errors of the seismicity rate and earthquake probability based on the Coulomb rate-and-state model (CRS) decay much faster with elapsed time in stress triggering zones than in stress shadows, meaning that the uncertainties in Coulomb stress changes in stress triggering zones would not drastically affect assessments of the seismicity rate and earthquake probability based on the CRS in the intermediate to long term.

  6. Modes of occurrence and accumulation mechanism of methane hydrate -result of meti exploratory test wells ''Tokai-Oki To Kumano-Nada''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujii, Tetsuya; Namikawa, Takatoshi; Nakamizu, Masaru; Tsuji, Yoshihiro; Okui, Toshiharu; Kawasaki, Masayuki; Ochiai, Koji

    2005-07-01

    In the Nankai Trough, offshore central Japan, seismic data indicates widespread existence of BSR, which is interpreted as an indicator of bottom boundary of methane hydrate bearing zone. Methane hydrate is regarded as future possible natural gas resource. However, the volume, distribution and occurrence of hydrate have been poorly understood. In order to obtain data for the understanding of methane hydrate occurrence and volume estimation, METI exploratory test wells ''Tokai-oki to Kumano-nada'' were drilled from January to May in 2004. First, LWD (Logging While Drilling) was carried out at 16 sites that were selected based on 2D and 3D seismic interpretation. Secondly, coring was carried out at 4 sites where high concentration of methane hydrate was expected based on resistivity log curve. In addition, continuous formation temperature measurement was carried out in order to investigate in-situ temperature condition in hydrate bearing sediments. Coring was carried out using both ODP type core sampler and PTCS (Pressure Temperature Core Sampler). PTCS coring were mainly focused on the hydrate bearing zone. Hydrate was confirmed in the pore space of turbidite sandstone layer in two of these sites, while it was confirmed as massive or layered condition in mud in one of the sites. Coring results suggest that most of hydrate were concentrated in sand layers in the alternation of sand and mud. The evidence may indicates permeable sandstone is ideal for hydrate accumulation. Hydrate dissociation and gas measurement test on board was also carried out and natural hydrate saturation data, which may calibrate logging results, was obtained. (Author)

  7. Auto Correlation Analysis of Coda Waves from Local Earthquakes for Detecting Temporal Changes in Shallow Subsurface Structures: the 2011 Tohoku-Oki, Japan Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakahara, Hisashi

    2015-02-01

    For monitoring temporal changes in subsurface structures I propose to use auto correlation functions of coda waves from local earthquakes recorded at surface receivers, which probably contain more body waves than surface waves. Use of coda waves requires earthquakes resulting in decreased time resolution for monitoring. Nonetheless, it may be possible to monitor subsurface structures in sufficient time resolutions in regions with high seismicity. In studying the 2011 Tohoku-Oki, Japan earthquake (Mw 9.0), for which velocity changes have been previously reported, I try to validate the method. KiK-net stations in northern Honshu are used in this analysis. For each moderate earthquake normalized auto correlation functions of surface records are stacked with respect to time windows in the S-wave coda. Aligning the stacked, normalized auto correlation functions with time, I search for changes in phases arrival times. The phases at lag times of <1 s are studied because changes at shallow depths are focused. Temporal variations in the arrival times are measured at the stations based on the stretching method. Clear phase delays are found to be associated with the mainshock and to gradually recover with time. The amounts of the phase delays are 10 % on average with the maximum of about 50 % at some stations. The deconvolution analysis using surface and subsurface records at the same stations is conducted for validation. The results show the phase delays from the deconvolution analysis are slightly smaller than those from the auto correlation analysis, which implies that the phases on the auto correlations are caused by larger velocity changes at shallower depths. The auto correlation analysis seems to have an accuracy of about several percent, which is much larger than methods using earthquake doublets and borehole array data. So this analysis might be applicable in detecting larger changes. In spite of these disadvantages, this analysis is still attractive because it can

  8. Interpretation of Crustal Deformation following the 2011 Tohoku-oki Megathrust Earthquake by the Combined Effect of Afterslip and Viscoelastic Stress Relaxation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noda, A.; Takahama, T.; Ohba, M.; Ito, T.; Matsu'ura, M.

    2015-12-01

    Crustal deformation following the 2011 Tohoku-oki megathrust earthquake, occurred at the North American-Pacific plate interface, has been revealed by GPS measurement on land (Geospatial Information Authority of Japan) and GPS/Acoustic measurement on seafloor (Japan Coast Guard). The essential causes of the postseismic crustal deformation are considered to be slow afterslip at the downdip extension of the main rupture zone and viscoelastic relaxation of stress changes induced in the asthenosphere. Crustal responses to the afterslip and the viscoelastic relaxation are different in both space and time. So, given proper plate interface geometry and proper crust-mantle rheological structure, we can estimate unbiased spatiotemporal distribution of afterslip through the inversion analysis of observed geodetic data. In the present analysis, we used a 3-D realistic model developed by Hashimoto et al. (2004) for plate interface geometry and a standard elastic-viscoelastic layered model, consisting of a 60 km-thick elastic surface layer and a Maxwell-type viscoelastic substratum with the viscosity of 1019 Pa s, for crust-mantle rheological structure. First, following Noda et al. (2013), we transformed the GPS displacement data on land into the average strains of triangular elements composed of adjacent three GPS stations. Then, by applying a sequential method of stepwise (every two months) inversion to the strain data, we estimated the spatiotemporal distribution of afterslip together with coseismic slip distribution. The estimated results show that significant afterslip has proceeded for the first one and a half years at the downdip extension of the main rupture zone off Iwate and Miyagi with decaying its rate. Finally, based on the estimated results, we computed postseismic offshore crustal movements by using the same elastic-viscoelastic structure model and compared them with seafloor geodetic observations (Watanabe et al., 2014). The good agreement between the computed

  9. Holocene deltaic succession recording millennium-scale subsidence trend near the source region of the 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake: An example from the Tsugaruishi plain, northeast Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niwa, Y.; Sugai, T.; Matsushima, Y.; Toda, S.

    2017-12-01

    For clarification of megathrust earthquake cycle with recurrence interval of several hundreds to about a thousand years, crustal movement trend on a timescale of 103-104 years can be basic and important data. Well-dated Holocene sedimentary succession provides useful information for estimation of crustal movement trend on a timescale of 103 - 104 years. Here we collected three sediment cores, TGI1, TGI2, and TGI3, from the Tsugaruishi delta plain on the central Sanriku coast, which is near the source region of the 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake and where discrepancies in crustal movement have been reported between uplift on a timescale of 105 years inferred from marine terrace versus subsidence on a timescale of 101-102 years from geodetic measurement. We recognized a Holocene deltaic succession in all three cores; basal gravel of alluvium, floodplain sand and mud, inner bay mud, prodelta delta front sand and mud, and fluvial sand and gravel, from lower to upper. In core TGI3, from the farthest inland site, the intertidal sediment facies, deposited from 7500 to 7000 cal BP, and the overlying 6-m-thick delta to floodplain facies, deposited from 7000 to 5000 cal BP, are both below the present sea level. Because a sea-level highstand due to hydroisostatic uplift around Japan occurred in the mid-Holocene, we inferred that the Tsugaruishi plain subsided during the Holocene, and the estimated subsidence rate, 1.1-1.9 mm/yr at maximum, is consistent with the recently reported subsidence rate along the southern Sanriku coast. The results of this study confirm that the central to southern Sanriku coast is subsiding, in contrast to an interpretation based on the study of marine terraces that this part of the coast is uplifting. The Holocene deltaic succession presented here will be useful for constructing an earthquake cycle model related to plate subduction.

  10. Tsunami simulation of 2011 Tohoku-Oki Earthquake. Evaluation of difference in tsunami wave pressure acting around Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station and Fukushima Daini Nuclear Power Station among different tsunami source models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujihara, Satoru; Hashimoto, Norihiko; Korenaga, Mariko; Tamiya, Takahiro

    2016-01-01

    Since the 2011 Tohoku-Oki Earthquake, evaluations based on a tsunami simulation approach have had a very important role in promoting tsunami disaster prevention measures in the case of mega-thrust earthquakes. When considering tsunami disaster prevention measures based on the knowledge obtained from tsunami simulations, it is important to carefully examine the type of tsunami source model. In current tsunami simulations, there are various ways to set the tsunami source model, and a considerable difference in tsunami behavior can be expected among the tsunami source models. In this study, we carry out a tsunami simulation of the 2011 Tohoku-Oki Earthquake around Fukushima Daiichi (I) Nuclear Power Plant and Fukushima Daini (II) Nuclear Power Plant in Fukushima Prefecture, Japan, using several tsunami source models, and evaluate the difference in the tsunami behavior in the tsunami inundation process. The results show that for an incoming tsunami inundating an inland region, there are considerable relative differences in the maximum tsunami height and wave pressure. This suggests that there could be false information used in promoting tsunami disaster prevention measures in the case of mega-thrust earthquakes, depending on the tsunami source model. (author)

  11. Spatiotemporal distribution of interplate slip following the 2003 Tokachi-oki earthquake deduced from ocean bottom pressure gauges and onland GNSS data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Y.; Nishimura, T.; Ariyoshi, K.; Matsumoto, H.

    2017-12-01

    The 2003 Tokachi-oki earthquake (Mw 8.0) is an interplate earthquake along the Kurile trench. Its co- and post-seismic deformation has been observed by onland GNSS [e.g., Miyazaki et al. 2004] and modeled with afterslip and/or viscoelastic relaxation [e.g., Itoh and Nishimura 2016]. In the offshore region, two ocean bottom pressure gauges (OBPs) are operated by JAMSTEC since July 1999 [Hirata et al. 2002] and they have continuously observed the pre-, co- and post-seismic pressure change of the 2003 event [Baba et al. 2006]. The observed pressure change can be interpreted as vertical displacement, and the resolution of slip beneath the seafloor far from the land was improved by incorporating these pressure data into onland GNSS data [Baba et al. 2006]. However, no previous studies used postseismic pressure data for several years to estimate an interplate slip. Because, in this region, an M8 class event similar to the 2003 event has occurred in 1952, it is important to clarify a healing process of an interplate coupling which may lead to a next M8 class event in terms of the earthquake cycle. Itoh and Nishimura [2017, JpGU-AGU Joint Meeting] estimated it but used only onland GNSS data. In this study, we use both onland GNSS and OBP data. For OBP data analysis, we first removed the tidal component using BAYTAP08 [Tamura et al. 1991; Tamura and Agnew 2008]. Next, we corrected the temporal fluctuation of data correlating with temperature [Baba et al. 2006]. We estimated the linear trend before the 2003 event using the corrected time series from 2002 Jan. 1 to 2003 Sep. 1 and remove the estimated trend from the data after the 2003 event. Here, we assumed a non-linear drift could be ignored. Finally, we down-sampled the remained time series with an interval of 1 month. For the onland GNSS data, we used the same data set of Itoh and Nishimura [2017, JpGU-AGU Joint Meeting]. We constructed the model consisting of coseismic slip of the 2003 and M6-7 events in the postseismic

  12. Tying the spectral ends of the M9.0 Tohoku-Oki earthquake sequence: High-frequency radiators and early quasi-static afterslip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inbal, A.; Ampuero, J. P.; Avouac, J.; Lengliné, O.; Helmberger, D. V.

    2012-12-01

    The March 11, 2011 M9.0 Tohoku-Oki earthquake was recorded by dense seismological and geodetical networks deployed in Japan, as well as by a vast number of seismic stations worldwide. These observations allow us to study the properties of the subduction interface with unprecedented accuracy and resolution. Here we examine the spectral tails of the co- and post-seismic stages using local geodetic and seismological recordings. First, we study the details of high-frequency (HF) energy radiation during the rupture by using strong-motion recordings. Second, we jointly invert 1Hz GPS, ocean-bottom GPS and aftershock data for the spatio-temporal distribution of early afterslip. In order to constrain the spatial distribution of HF radiators we model waveform envelopes recorded by Kik-net borehole accelerometers located in northeastern Japan. We compute theoretical envelopes for waves traveling in a heterogeneous scattering medium, and invert for the location and amplitude of energy radiators for frequencies ranging from 1 to 16 Hz. Because the inversion is extremely sensitive to the response of individual sites, we adopt an empirical approach and iteratively separate the source and site terms from the stacked spectra of numerous events recorded by the network. The output response functions for each site are used to stabilize the inversion. Preliminary results are consistent with far-field observations and suggest that the HF energy emitted during the M9.0 event originated at the down-dip limit of the rupture zone. We apply waveform cross-correlation to identify repeating events within the aftershock sequence, and locate them by match-filtering their waveforms with known templates. Many of these events occur on seismic asperities loaded by the surrounding creep. We jointly invert the slip histories on these fault patches and the available GPS data for the spatio-temporal distribution of afterslip during the first few hours following the mainshock. We use the Principal

  13. Auto correlation analysis of coda waves from local earthquakes for detecting temporal changes in shallow subsurface structures - The 2011 Tohoku-Oki, Japan, earthquake -

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakahara, H.

    2013-12-01

    For monitoring temporal changes in subsurface structures, I propose to use auto correlation functions of coda waves from local earthquakes recorded at surface receivers, which probably contain more body waves than surface waves. Because the use of coda waves requires earthquakes, time resolution for monitoring decreases. But at regions with high seismicity, it may be possible to monitor subsurface structures in sufficient time resolutions. Studying the 2011 Tohoku-Oki (Mw 9.0), Japan, earthquake for which velocity changes have been already reported by previous studies, I try to validate the method. KiK-net stations in northern Honshu are used in the analysis. For each moderate earthquake, normalized auto correlation functions of surface records are stacked with respect to time windows in S-wave coda. Aligning the stacked normalized auto correlation functions with time, I search for changes in arrival times of phases. The phases at lag times of less than 1s are studied because changes at shallow depths are focused. Based on the stretching method, temporal variations in the arrival times are measured at the stations. Clear phase delays are found to be associated with the mainshock and to gradually recover with time. Amounts of the phase delays are in the order of 10% on average with the maximum of about 50% at some stations. For validation, the deconvolution analysis using surface and subsurface records at the same stations are conducted. The results show that the phase delays from the deconvolution analysis are slightly smaller than those from the auto correlation analysis, which implies that the phases on the auto correlations are caused by larger velocity changes at shallower depths. The auto correlation analysis seems to have an accuracy of about several percents, which is much larger than methods using earthquake doublets and borehole array data. So this analysis might be applicable to detect larger changes. In spite of these disadvantages, this analysis is

  14. Olev Schults : SAS vajab Estonian Airi rahvusliku lennufirmana / Olev Schults ; interv. Andres Reimer

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Schults, Olev

    2008-01-01

    Estonian Airi nõukogu esimees vastab küsimustele, kas SAS arendas Läti airBalticut Estonian SAS-i arvel, mis mõte on rahvuslikul lennukompaniil, kui riik ei tohi seda finantseerida, kuidas mõjutab investorite meeleolu SAS-i Eestis tabanud poliitikute kriitika tulv

  15. The research committee of Chuetsu-oki earthquake influences to Kashiwazaki-Kariwa Nuclear Power Station. How to press-release and take care of expression in articles at press side

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamamoto, Kazuko; Narabayashi, Tadashi; Kobayashi, Masahide; Akizuki, Teruo; Onishi, Hidetoshi

    2009-01-01

    As for the influences of Chuetsu-Oki Earthquake on Kashiwazaki-Kariwa Nuclear Power Station, we can conclude that 'the safety function of the nuclear power station, that is, 'Shutdown', 'Cooling down' and 'Isolating' functioned as per designed even against an earthquake beyond assumption, and fundamental nuclear safety could assured'. Nevertheless, it is said that one of the causes that harmful rumor had spread was due to mass communication media. In the press reports on some nuclear power station when affected by an earthquake and on trouble in the nuclear power station in the future, we will propose that the publication should be really useful for habitants and citizens and be promoted in the positive and expected direction, in order not to make the same mistake as this time. JSME should aim at implement the above-mentioned proposal under cooperation with other academic societies and organizations. (author)

  16. Duration of Tsunami Generation Longer than Duration of Seismic Wave Generation in the 2011 Mw 9.0 Tohoku-Oki Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujihara, S.; Korenaga, M.; Kawaji, K.; Akiyama, S.

    2013-12-01

    We try to compare and evaluate the nature of tsunami generation and seismic wave generation in occurrence of the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake (hereafter, called as TOH11), in terms of two type of moment rate functions, inferred from finite source imaging of tsunami waveforms and seismic waveforms. Since 1970's, the nature of "tsunami earthquakes" has been discussed in many researches (e.g. Kanamori, 1972; Kanamori and Kikuchi, 1993; Kikuchi and Kanamori, 1995; Ide et al., 1993; Satake, 1994) mostly based on analysis of seismic waveform data , in terms of the "slow" nature of tsunami earthquakes (e.g., the 1992 Nicaragura earthquake). Although TOH11 is not necessarily understood as a tsunami earthquake, TOH11 is one of historical earthquakes that simultaneously generated large seismic waves and tsunami. Also, TOH11 is one of earthquakes which was observed both by seismic observation network and tsunami observation network around the Japanese islands. Therefore, for the purpose of analyzing the nature of tsunami generation, we try to utilize tsunami waveform data as much as possible. In our previous studies of TOH11 (Fujihara et al., 2012a; Fujihara et al., 2012b), we inverted tsunami waveforms at GPS wave gauges of NOWPHAS to image the spatio-temporal slip distribution. The "temporal" nature of our tsunami source model is generally consistent with the other tsunami source models (e.g., Satake et al, 2013). For seismic waveform inversion based on 1-D structure, here we inverted broadband seismograms at GSN stations based on the teleseismic body-wave inversion scheme (Kikuchi and Kanamori, 2003). Also, for seismic waveform inversion considering the inhomogeneous internal structure, we inverted strong motion seismograms at K-NET and KiK-net stations, based on 3-D Green's functions (Fujihara et al., 2013a; Fujihara et al., 2013b). The gross "temporal" nature of our seismic source models are generally consistent with the other seismic source models (e.g., Yoshida et al

  17. Oki-Doku: Number Puzzles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Cristina; Novak, Dani

    2014-01-01

    The Common Core State Standards for Mathematics (CCSSM) (CCSSI 2010) emphasize the Standards for Mathematical Practice (SMP) that describe processes and proficiencies included in the NCTM Process Standards (NCTM 2000) and in the Strands for Mathematical Proficiency (NRC 2001). The development of these mathematical practices should happen in…

  18. Estimation of strong motions on free rock surface. Identification of soil structures and strong motions on free rock surface in Kashiwazaki-Kariwa nuclear power plant during the 2007 Niigataken Chuetsu-oki earthquake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saguchi, Koichiro; Masaki, Kazuaki; Irikura, Kojiro

    2009-01-01

    Very strong ground motions (maximum acceleration 993 cm/s 2 in the borehole seismometer point of -255m in depth) were observed in the Kashiwazaki Kariwa Nuclear Power Plant during the Niigataken Chuetsu-oki Earthquake on July 16, 2007. In this study, we tried to develop new method, which can simulate waveforms on free rock surface by using the bore hole records. We identified the underground structure model at the Service Hall from aftershock records observed in vertical array, using the simulated annealing method (Ingber(1989)). Based on numerical experiments it is identified that S-wave velocity and Q values of individual layers are inverted very well. Strong motion records of main shock observed by the bore hole seismometers were simulated by using one-dimensional multiple reflection method. In this study, non-linear effect is considered by introducing non-linear coefficient c(f) for under coming wave from surface. The maximum acceleration and phase characteristics in simulated waveforms are similar to the observed one. It means that our method is useful for simulate strong motion in non-linear region. Finally, strong motions on the free rock surface at the Service Hall during the main shock are simulated. The maximum acceleration of EW component on free rock surface is estimated to be 1,207 cm/s 2 . (author)

  19. Preliminary findings and lessons learned from the 16 July 2007 earthquake at Kashiwazaki-Kariwa NPP- 'The Niigataken Chuetsu-Oki earthquake, Kashiwazaki-Kariwa NPP and Tokyo, Japan, 6-10 August 2007. Mission report. V. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    Upon request from the Government of Japan an IAEA expert mission was conducted at the Kashiwazaki-Kariwa NPP following a strong earthquake that affected the plant on 16 July 2007. The objective, as agreed with the Japanese counterpart, was to conduct a fact finding mission and to identify the preliminary lessons learned that might have implications for the international nuclear safety regime. Although the Niigataken Chuetsu-Oki earthquake on 16 July 2007 significantly exceeded the level of the seismic input taken into account in the design of the plant, the installation behaved in a safe manner, during and after the earthquake. In particular, the automatic shutdown of the reactors of Units 3, 4 and 7, which were operating at full power, and of the reactor of Unit 2, which was in the start up state, were performed successfully. Based on the reports from experts from the Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO) and the limited but representative plant walkdowns and visual observations performed by the IAEA team, safety related structures, systems and components of the plant seem to be in a much better general condition than might be expected for such a strong earthquake, and there is no visible significant damage. This is probably due to the conservatisms introduced at different stages of the design process. The combined effects of these conservatisms were apparently sufficient to compensate for uncertainties in the data and methods available at the time of the design of the plant, which led to the underestimation of the original seismic input. However, important components like the reactor vessels, the core internals and the fuel elements have not yet been examined and in-depth inspections are still to be performed. On the other hand, non-safety related structures, systems and components were affected by significant damage such as soil and anchorage failures and oil leakages. A re-evaluation of the seismic safety the Kashiwazika-Kariwa NPP needs to be done with account

  20. Superconducting Gravimeters Detect Gravity Fluctuations Induced by Mw 5.7 Earthquake Along South Pacific Rise Few Hours Before the 2011 Mw 9.0 Tohoku-Oki Earthquake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keliang Zhang Jin Ma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Gravity changes sometimes appear before a big earthquake. To determine the possible sources is important for recognizing the mechanism and further geodynamic studies. During the first two hours on March 11 before the Mw 9.0 Tohoku-Oki earthquake, the non-tidal gravity time series of superconducting gravimeters worldwide showed low-frequency (< 0.10 Hz fluctuations with amplitude of ~1 to 4 × 10-8 ms-2 lasting ~10 - 20 minutes. Through comparing global seismicity with the arrival times of seismic waves, we find that the fluctuations were induced by the Mw 5.7 earthquake that occurred at 0:14:54.68 at (53.27°S, 118.18°W along the eastern South Pacific Rise. Several body waves such as P, S are clearly recorded in the station with ~400 km distance to the hypocenter. The fluctuations are in response to the waves that propagate with a velocity of about 4 km s-1. Their amplitudes are proportional to the inverse of the epicentral distances even though the fluctuations of European sites were overlapped with waves associated with a smaller, i.e., Mw 2.6, event in Europe during this period. That is, the Mw 5.7 earthquake induced remarkable gravity fluctuations over long distances at stations all over the world. As such, the foreshocks with larger magnitudes occurred before the Mw 9.0 earthquake would have more significant influence on the gravity recordings and the seismic-wave induced component should be removed during the analysis of anomalies prior to a great earthquake in future studies.

  1. Wallenbergide Investor jätkab kasvustrateegiat / Olev Mait Makk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Makk, Olev Mait

    2001-01-01

    Wallenbergide kontrollitavast Rootsi investeerimisfirmast Investor, mille omanduses olevad firmad moodustavad kokku Euroopa suurima tööandja erasektoris. Investori gruppi kuuluvast ettevõttest SEB. Tabel: Investori portfellis olevad aktsiad; investori teenused tütarettevõtetele

  2. Po plodam ihh uznajete ihh / Olev Raju ; interv. Tatjana Opekina

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raju, Olev, 1948-

    2005-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Pravo i Pravda 30. august lk. 6-7. Tartu ülikooli majandusprofessor õiglusest ühiskonnas, tendentsidest nn kahe Eesti struktuuris, probleemidest Eesti majanduses, uuest riigieelarve projektist, tööpuudusest

  3. "Jah, tõesti, luulehing on loo..." : [luuletused] / Olev Olematu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kaevats, Mihkel, 1983-

    2003-01-01

    Sisu: "Jah, tõesti, luulehing on loo..." ; "minevik kui ainukene apoloogia..." ; "Ma mõtlen, ma mõtlen, ma mõtlen..." ; "Ma leisin Sinu männijuurte nõmmelt..." ; "kirjuta mulle, kui sa ei tule..." ; "see imeline kurv mis algab päälpool kõhtu..." ; "õlised sõrmed aluspükstel..." ; Õnn ; E.I.H.A.P.E.A.L.U.S.E.G.A.S.O.O.L.N.A.G.U.N.E.E.D.U.S.L.A.S.U.M.I.N.U.S.O.O.L. ; "algused alati armsad..."

  4. Ruudi läheb Tokyosse / Olev Remsu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Remsu, Olev, 1947-

    2006-01-01

    Lastefilm "Ruudi" : stsenaristid Aare Toikka, Aarne Mägi : režissöör Katrin Laur : nimiosas lapsnäitleja Paul Oskar Soe : operaator Rein Kotov : Allfilm - MRP Matila Röhr Productions - Schmidtz Katze Filmkollektiv 2006. Lähemalt analüüsitakse stsenaariumi

  5. Eesti maksusüsteem liitumisel Euroopa Liiduga / Olev Raju

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raju, Olev, 1948-

    2004-01-01

    Ülevaade Eesti maksusüsteemi kujunemisest ja makromajanduslikust toimest alates 1993. aastast. Tabelid: Eesti majanduse arengut iseloomustavaid arve 1998-2003; Ettevõtte tulumaksu iseloomustavaid arve Ida-Euroopa maades (2002)

  6. Olgem ajaloo suhtes ausad / Olev Reemet, Bella Sagarova

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Reemet, Olev

    2006-01-01

    Johannes Hindi kauaaegsed kaastöötajad teatavad, et J. Hindi küsimuses olid Eesti juhtkonna poole pöördumisel neile kõik uksed suletud ning Arnold Rüütel oli ainus, kes neid Eestis vastu võttis. J. Hindi küsimuse tõstatasid NSVL-i keskkomitee ja Karl Vaino. Autorid kutsuvad meediat üles mitte avaldama artikleid, kus J. Hindi nime kasutatakse poliitikute omavahelises võitluses

  7. Lõpp annab tähenduse / Olev Remsu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Remsu, Olev, 1947-

    2006-01-01

    Eesti-Saksa koostööfilm "Kõrini" : stsenaristid Hans-Werner Honert, Thomas Steinke, Valentin Kuik, Peeter Simm : režissöör Peeter Simm : operaator Rein Kotov : helilooja Sven Grünberg : osades Maarja Jakobson, Rasmus Kaljujärv, Heio von Stetten, Thomas Schmauser : Ruut Pictures (Eesti) - Saxonia Film (Saksa) 2005. Lisatud P. Simmi filmograafia lk. 106

  8. Paugub püstol, lendavad kilud / Olev Remsu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Remsu, Olev, 1947-

    2006-01-01

    Jüri Sillarti mängufilm "Kuldrannake". Kunagise retrobändi kokkutulekut kujutava filmi stsenarist on Hans Luik oma näidendi "Tõe hetk" põhjal, operaator on Mait Mäekivi, produtsendid Kristian Taska ja Hans H. Luik, tootjafirmaks Taska Productions. Pikemalt stsenaariumist

  9. The unique cultural voice : solo kannel, otsemaid / Olev Rood

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rood, Olev

    2007-01-01

    tutvustatakse Jaak Johansoni poolt Mäe talus Pringi külas Valgamaal salvestatud plaati kandlemängija ja -valmistaja Ilmar Tiidebergi muusikaga, kus plaadi 26 lugu on mängitud rahvamuusiku omavalmistatud kandlel (neid kokku on ta teinud üle 20)

  10. Rannarootslaste suurmees Hans Pöhl / Olev Liivik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Liivik, Olev, 1975-

    2011-01-01

    Arvustus: Estlandssvenskarnas hövding. En biografi över Hans Pöhl (1876-1930), estlandssvenskarnas främste företrädare och ledare = Hans Pöhl - rannarootslaste eestvõileja : Hans Pöhl (1876-1930), Eesti rootslaste vaimse liidri ja valgustaja elulugu. Stockholm, 2010

  11. Lugu, mis lendab üle kolme zhanri / Olev Remsu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Remsu, Olev, 1947-

    2006-01-01

    Üks süžee üliedukas kolmes žanris : romaan, näidend, film. Ken Kesey romaan "Lendas üle käopesa", mille alusel Dale Wasserman kirjutas samanimelise näidendi ja režissöör Milos Forman tegi 1975.a. filmi.

  12. Łokieć tenisisty - przegląd wybranych metod fizykalnych, metod zaopatrzenia ortopedycznego i masażu = Tennis elbow ty - review of selected physical methods, methods of orthopaedic supplies and massage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Siminska

    2015-02-01

    Katedra i Klinika Rehabilitacji Collegium Medicum UMK w Bydgoszczy   Streszczenie   Obecnie szeroko rozpropagowany jest zdrowy i aktywny tryb życia. Dzisiaj dominuje moda za zdrowie i podejmowanie różnych form aktywności fizycznej. Nikogo zatem nie dziwi coraz większe zainteresowanie różnymi dyscyplinami sportu, zaczynając od biegania, przez fitness a kończąc na kulturystyce. Wzrost poziomu aktywności fizyczne i jej aktywnego podejmowania  jest zauważany nie tylko wśród ludzi zajmującymi się sportem zawodowo, ale również pośród amatorów, co jest obecnie bardzo popularne. Uprawianie sportu może niestety wiązać się z powstawaniem kontuzji oraz niechcianych urazów w obrębie układu mięśniowo-szkieletowego człowieka. Oczywiście wraz z podejmowanymi formami aktywności fizycznej mogą pojawiać się nieprzyjemne dolegliwości związane z odczuwaniem bólu w kościach, stawach, mięśniach czy ścięgnach. Te dolegliwości bólowe mogą występować również podczas wykonywania codziennych, rutynowych czynności życiowych. Ponadto grupą, która jest szczególnie narażona na takie niechciane urazy i dolegliwości bólowe są osoby pracujące fizycznie, wykonujące często powtarzalne ruchy. Często występują u nich powtarzające się mikrourazy. Z wiekiem mogą one przyczynić się do powstawania zwyrodnień. Jednym a takich przykładów mikrourazów w obrębie kończyny górnej jest łokieć tenisisty. Jedną ze skutecznych metod leczenia oprócz leczenia operacyjnego jest fizykoterapia. Działania te mogą zmniejszyć dolegliwości bólowe, a także zahamować niepożądane skutki mikrouszkodzeń w obrębie stawu łokciowego.   Słowa kluczowe: łokieć tenisisty, urazy, fizykoterapia, rehabilitacja.   Abstract   Now widely publicised is a healthy and active lifestyle. Today is dominated by the fashion for health and to undertake various forms of physical activity. It is not surprising, therefore anyone growing interest in

  13. Schorzenia w obrębie stawu łokciowego. Łokieć teniststy - schorzenie i współczesne metody leczenia = Diseases within the elbow joint. Tennis elbow - condition and modern methods of treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Siminska

    2015-04-01

      Streszczenie   Według najnowszych danych Światowej Organizacji Zdrowia zauważyć należy, iż że wśród wszystkich obrażeń układu mięśniowo-szkieletowego prawie połowa to urazy tkanek miękkich (wraz ze ścięgnami i więzadłami, które często prowadzą one do powstawania przewlekłych dolegliwości  bólowych, ograniczenia ruchomości a  nawet niepełnosprawności. Ciągły rozwój medycyny oraz postęp technologiczny umożliwiają lepsze poznanie schorzeń układu mięśniowo-szkieletowego, ale również znalezienie najlepszych sposobów kompleksowej rehabilitacji. Jednym z obecnie najczęstszych urazów jest zapalenie nadkłykcia bocznego kości ramiennej, popularnie zwane „łokciem tenisisty”. Pacjent z tym schorzeniem zgłasza się z odczuwanym bólem, który  jest spowodowany zwyrodnieniem w okolicy ścięgna prostowników. Omówiono również  najczęstsze urazy, które  dotyczą stawu łokciowego. Obecnie możemy wyróżnić kilka  metod leczenia schorzenia zapalenia nadkłykcia bocznego kości ramiennej m. in. polegające na ostrzykiwaniu miejsca sprawiającego ból: pełną krwią, sterydami oraz płukanymi płytkami krwi. Ponadto możemy stosować także  terapię falami uderzeniowymi oraz zabieg koblacji topaz.   Słowa kluczowe: łokieć tenisisty, leczenie, dolegliwości bólowe nadkłykcia bocznego kości ramiennej. Abstract According to the latest World Health Organization data that should be noted that among all the injuries of the musculoskeletal system, nearly half of the soft tissue injuries (along with the tendons and ligaments, which often lead to the formation of chronic pain disorders, limitation of movable property and even disability. The continuous development of the medicine and technological advances make it possible to better know the conditions of the musculoskeletal system, but also to find the best ways for comprehensive rehabilitation. One of the currently most common injuries is inflammation of the

  14. Preliminary findings and lessons learned from the 16 July 2007 earthquake at Kashiwazaki-Kariwa NPP - 'The Niigataken Chuetsu-Oki earthquake', Kashiwazaki-Kariwa NPP and Tokyo, Japan, 6-10 August 2007. Mission report. V. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    photographs are presented that give the impression of the way the mission was conducted and showing the atmosphere of the mission, such as the meetings and encounters with the media. The preparatory meeting held at the hotel in Nagaoke, upon arrival on Sunday, is portrayed in the first photograph. The arrival at Kashiwazaki-Kariwa NPP on Monday and the encounter with the media and the technical meetings at the plant are shown in the next three photographs. The interest of the media to this event is also shown in the next two photographs taken at the exit of the meetings in the plant and in Tokyo. In the last photograph the IAEA expert team is shown at the hotel after delivery of the draft mission report to Japanese authorities. Subsequently, Volume II is organized in the following way: 1. Part I: BACKGROUND. First of all, there is a significant amount of information provided by NISA, JNES and TEPCO as general background. This information mainly relates to Japanese regulations and general data about the Kashiwazaki-Kariwa NPP and does not pertain specifically to the 16 July 2007 event. All this information is presented under the title of 'Background' and it is not necessarily referenced to any particular discussion area of the mission. 2. Part II: INFORMATION SPECIFIC TO THE THREE AREAS COVERED BY THE MISSION AS SUPPLIED BY THE JAPANESE COUNTERPART. Secondly, there is information supplied by the Japanese counterpart as information specifically relevant to the purpose of the mission, that is, the 16 July 2007 Niigataken Chuetsu-oki earthquake and in general the plant response to this event. This information includes the presentations made by counterpart specialists at the beginning of the mission and also their response to the queries raised by the IAEA team members during the course of the mission. These presentations and the responses are presented under the three discussion areas A1, A2 and A3. If a presentation or response pertains to more than one area this is also

  15. Preliminary findings and lessons learned from the 16 July 2007 earthquake at Kashiwazaki-Kariwa NPP- 'The Niigataken Chuetsu-Oki earthquake, Kashiwazaki-Kariwa NPP and Tokyo, Japan, 6-10 August 2007. Mission report. V. 1[Report to the Government of Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-08-17

    Upon request from the Government of Japan an IAEA expert mission was conducted at the Kashiwazaki-Kariwa NPP following a strong earthquake that affected the plant on 16 July 2007. The objective, as agreed with the Japanese counterpart, was to conduct a fact finding mission and to identify the preliminary lessons learned that might have implications for the international nuclear safety regime. Although the Niigataken Chuetsu-Oki earthquake on 16 July 2007 significantly exceeded the level of the seismic input taken into account in the design of the plant, the installation behaved in a safe manner, during and after the earthquake. In particular, the automatic shutdown of the reactors of Units 3, 4 and 7, which were operating at full power, and of the reactor of Unit 2, which was in the start up state, were performed successfully. Based on the reports from experts from the Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO) and the limited but representative plant walkdowns and visual observations performed by the IAEA team, safety related structures, systems and components of the plant seem to be in a much better general condition than might be expected for such a strong earthquake, and there is no visible significant damage. This is probably due to the conservatisms introduced at different stages of the design process. The combined effects of these conservatisms were apparently sufficient to compensate for uncertainties in the data and methods available at the time of the design of the plant, which led to the underestimation of the original seismic input. However, important components like the reactor vessels, the core internals and the fuel elements have not yet been examined and in-depth inspections are still to be performed. On the other hand, non-safety related structures, systems and components were affected by significant damage such as soil and anchorage failures and oil leakages. A re-evaluation of the seismic safety the Kashiwazika-Kariwa NPP needs to be done with account

  16. Kas New York või põlluriba? / Olev Remsu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Remsu, Olev, 1947-

    2006-01-01

    Autor leiab, et paljud inimesed tunnevad vajadust autoriteedi järele, kellesse nad võiksid uskuda ja kellel oleks ühiskonna üle kindel võim. Eesti poliitikas on olnud ja on kolm isaimidzhiga isiksust: Konstantin Päts, Arnold Rüütel ja Edgar Savisaar

  17. Kas Eesti koolilapse arukus kasvab? / Olev Must, Aasa Must, Vilve Raudik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Must, Olev, 1950-

    2000-01-01

    Flynni efektist (James Flynn leidis, et kui võrrelda ühe ja sama testi abil uuritud ja demograafiliselt võrreldavaid inimgruppe eri ajaperioodidel, siis on täheldatav, et intelligentsustestide sooritus muutub aja jooksul tulemuslikumaks). Juhan Torgi uurimusest ja monograafiast "Eesti laste intelligents. Trt., 1940", milles ta kasutas 1930-ndatel eestindatud testi "National Intelligence Test". J. Torgi testi taasrakendusest 1997.a.

  18. Esimene ametis olev Ameerika Ühendriikide president külastas Eestit / Eve Salundi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Salundi, Eve

    2006-01-01

    USA presidendi George W. Bushi visiidist Eestisse. Kadriorus võttis külalise vastu president Toomas Hendrik Ilves. Vt. samas: George Walker Bush; USA toetab Gruusiat; George W. Bush edastab viisateema kongressile

  19. Palk kui tööjõuturu tasakaalu tingimus / Olev Raju

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raju, Olev, 1948-

    2007-01-01

    Autori vaatluse all on kaks probleemi - turu tasakaal kui majanduse parim seisund antud situatsioonis ja tööjõuturu tasakaal Eestis. Joonis: Turutasakaalu ja defitsiidi kujunemine. Tabel 1: Keskmine tunnipalk EL-is 2004 ja 2005; Tabel 2: SKP per capita PPS, Eu25 = 100

  20. Olev ja tema tabamatu süda 1997 : subjektiivne kunstiülevaade / Raoul Kurvitz

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kurvitz, Raoul

    1998-01-01

    Kunstiaastast 1997. Veneetsia biennaalist, Kasseli documentast, Saaremaa biennaalist, Toomas Vindi raamatust "Lõppematu maastik" ja näitusest "Lõpetamata maastik" Kunstihoones, Toomas Vindi ja Ants Juske tülist, Peeter Linnapi väljapanekust näitusel "Lõpetamata maastik", kontseptuaalse kunsti näitusest Tallinna Kunstihoones, Kiwast, tema personaalnäitusest Tallinnas, Ene-Liis Semperist, tema näitusest "Videoinstallatsioonid" "Vaal"-galeriis.

  1. Tartu ja Tallinna boheemkond ning lotovõitjad : Valitud palu dokumentaalfilmide sarjast "Eesti lood" / Olev Remsu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Remsu, Olev, 1947-

    2009-01-01

    ETVs näidatud dokumentaalfilmidest sarjas "Eesti lood" - Indrek Kangro film Jaan-Jürgen Klausist "Professionaalne amatöör" (eetris 3. XII 2008), Margit Lillaku film kunstnik Sandra Jõgevast "Ars longa" (eetris 29. X 2008), Eva-Katariina Taimre "Jackpot" lotovõitjatest (eetris 19. XI 2008)

  2. Studies on Chromium-free Conversion coatings on Aluminum | Oki ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The development of a chromium-free conversion coating on aluminum has been studied using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Auger Electron (AES) and Secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) techniques. Within the limits of the resolution of the TEM, the coating is uniformly clear and featureless. It is composed ...

  3. Follow-up IAEA mission in relation to the findings and lessons learned from the 16 July 2007 earthquake at Kashiwazaki-Kariwa NPP - 'The Niigataken Chuetsu-oki earthquake', Tokyo and Kashiwazaki-Kariwa NPP, Japan, 28 January - 1 February 2008. Mission report. V. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    On 16 July 2007, a strong earthquake, the Niigataken Chuetsu-oki earthquake, with a moment magnitude of 6.6 (M JMA =6.8 according to the Japanese Meteorological Agency), occurred at 10:13 h local time with its hypocentre below the seabed of the Jo-chuetsu area in Niigata prefecture (37 deg. 33' N, 138 deg. 37'E) in Japan, affecting the Kashiwazaki-Kariwa Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) located approximately 16 km south of its epicentre. Kashiwazaki-Kariwa NPP is the biggest nuclear power plant site in the world. It is located in the Niigata prefecture, in the northwest coast of Japan, and it is operated by Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO). The site has seven units with a total of 7965 MW net installed capacity. Five reactors are of BWR type and two reactors are of ABWR type. The five BWR units entered commercial operation between 1985 and 1994 and the two ABWRs in 1996 and 1997, respectively. Following this event, the Government of Japan through the Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency (NISA) requested the IAEA to carry out a fact finding mission with the main purpose of identifying the preliminary findings and lessons learned from this event in order to share them with the international nuclear community. This first mission took place from 6 - 10 August 2007 and the mission report of the August 2007 mission is available on the IAEA web page http://www.iaea.org. The purpose of the second IAEA mission was to conduct - six months after the event - a follow-up of the preliminary findings of the August 2007 mission on the basis of the results available in January 2008 of the related studies and investigations performed. In accordance with the terms of reference for the follow-up mission and the availability of results from the performed studies and investigations, the scope of the follow-up mission focussed on three subject areas: (1) seismic design basis - design basis ground motions, including the evaluation of the seismic hazard ; (2) plant behaviour - integrity

  4. President lahkub areenilt : Konstantin Pätsi viimane avalik esinemine 21. juunil 1940. a. / Olev Liivik, Hiljar Tammela

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Liivik, Olev, 1975-

    2010-01-01

    21. juunil 1940. aastal Kadrioru presidendilossi ees toimunud meeleavalduse ning Konstantin Pätsi pöördumise kajastustest ja tõlgendustest järgneva 70 aasta jooksul ilmunud kirjutistes (ajakirjanduses, mälestustes, akadeemilistes ajalookäsitlustes, ilukirjanduses)

  5. Eesti otsib globaalsel kinnisvaraturul oma kohta. Kas Tallinn on naabritest parim? / Olev Mait Makk ; intervjueerinud Lemmi Kann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Makk, Olev Mait

    2011-01-01

    Intervjuu Cannes'is globaalsel kinnisvaramessil ja konverentsil MIPIM 2011 viibinud Seven Real Estate Advisors partneri, investeeringute ja nõustamisvaldkonna juhiga. Kinnisvara puhul on välisinvestorite poolt eelistatud sihtriik nn. uue Euroopa riikide seas Poola. Välisinvestorite suurim huvi Eestis on stabiilset rahavoogu tootvate büroo- ja kaubanduskeskuste vastu

  6. [Von den Restgütern zu den Sowchosen in Estland 1939-1953. Dokumentensammlung] / Olev Liivik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Liivik, Olev, 1975-

    2011-01-01

    Arvustus: Von den Restgütern zu den Sowchosen in Estland 1939-1953 : Dokumentensammlung / Hrsg. von David Feest, Karsten Brüggemann. Berlin : Lit Verlag, 2010. (Schriften der Baltischen historischen Kommission ; Bd. 15)

  7. Eksport küünib kolmveerandini toodangust : tehnoloogias, disainis ja asjatundlikkuses peitub edu võti / Olev Lugus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lugus, Olev

    1999-01-01

    Mööblitööstuse konkurentsivõime parandamise võti peitub tootmis-tehnoloogia kaasajastamises, disainitöö tugevdamises ja töötajate erialases ettevalmistamises. Joonis: Mööblitööstuse ekspordi struktuur riigiti 1998.a.

  8. Valitud ja valitsenud : Eesti parlamentaarsete ja muude esinduskogude ning valitsuste isikkoosseis aastail 1917-1999 / Olev Olesk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Olesk, Olev, 1921-2017

    1999-01-01

    rets. rmt.: Valitud ja valitsenud : Eesti parlamentaarsete ja muude esinduskogude ning valitsuste isikkoosseis aastail 1917-1999 / koostaja Jaan Toomla. Tallinn : Eesti Rahvusraamatukogu, 1999. 474 lk.

  9. Kas ravi välismaal on igaühe teoreetiline õigus või praktiline võimalus? Euroopa Parlamendi ja nõukogu direktiivi 2011/24/EL Eesti õigusesse ülevõtmise mudel / Sille Allikmets

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Allikmets, Sille, 1968-

    2014-01-01

    Piiriülese tervishoiuteenuse regulatsiooni arengust Euroopa Liidus. Patsientide varustamine vajaliku teabega, võrdne kohtlemine, eelloa nõue ja ravikulude katmise põhimõtted direktiivi 2011/24/EL alusel

  10. HIV-ravim võis saastuda tehases / Agnes Kuus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kuus, Agnes

    2007-01-01

    Keemiliselt saastunud HIV-ravimi Viracept sattumine Eestisse on vähetõenäoline, kuid ohutuse huvides korjatakse kõik ravimid patsientide käest tagasi ning asendatakse ravimifirma kulul. Lisa: HIVi ravi

  11. Ela ja toitu tervislikult / Ülle Laasner

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laasner, Ülle

    2005-01-01

    Toitlustuseksperdid esitlesid Otepääl juhendmaterjali "Toidusoovitused", mis on mõeldud nii tervishoiutöötajatele patsientide nõustamiseks kui ka inimesele, kes on huvitatud tasakaalustatud toitumisest

  12. Geodetic constraints on afterslip characteristics following the March 9, 2011, Sanriku-oki earthquake, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, Yusaku; Hino, Ryota; Inazu, Daisuke; Ohzono, Mako; Ito, Yoshihiro; Mishina, Masaaki; Iinuma, Takeshi; Nakajima, Junichi; Osada, Yukihito; Suzuki, Kensuke; Fujimoto, Hiromi; Tachibana, Kenji; Demachi, Tomotsugu; Miura, Satoshi

    2012-08-01

    A magnitude 7.3 foreshock occurred at the subducting Pacific plate interface on March 9, 2011, 51 h before the magnitude 9.0 Tohoku earthquake off the Pacific coast of Japan. We propose a coseismic and postseismic afterslip model of the magnitude 7.3 event based on a global positioning system network and ocean bottom pressure gauge sites. The estimated coseismic slip and afterslip areas show complementary spatial distributions; the afterslip distribution is located up-dip of the coseismic slip for the foreshock and northward of hypocenter of the Tohoku earthquake. The slip amount for the afterslip is roughly consistent with that determined by repeating earthquake analysis carried out in a previous study. The estimated moment release for the afterslip reached magnitude 6.8, even within a short time period of 51h. A volumetric strainmeter time series also suggests that this event advanced with a rapid decay time constant compared with other typical large earthquakes.

  13. Preliminary Reconnaissance Report of the 2011 Tohoku-Chiho Taiheiyo-Oki Earthquake

    CERN Document Server

    Architectural Institute of Japan

    2012-01-01

    Devastating damage in the Tohoku region of Japan occurred during and after the massive earthquake off the Pacific coast, the Tohoku earthquake, on March 11, 2011. The Architectural Institute of Japan dispatched reconnaissance teams into the field to obtain basic facts on the damage to buildings due to the massive ground motions and resultant tsunami. Their mission included collecting information on the characteristics of the earthquake itself and the observed major ground motions and tsunamis throughout the area. For the investigation of structural damage, buildings are classified by their type of construction—steel buildings, reinforced concrete buildings, wooden houses, and others—along with descriptions of special features for each category of building type. This report summarizes damage associated with ground failures including landslides and liquefaction as well as nonstructural damages such as to equipment and facilities, partitioning walls and ceilings, and functional failures in skyscrapers. A bri...

  14. Simulation analysis of earthquake response of nuclear power plant to the 2003 Miyagi-Oki earthquake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshihiro Ogata; Kiyoshi Hirotani; Masayuki Higuchi; Shingo Nakayama

    2005-01-01

    On May 26, 2003 an earthquake of magnitude scale 7.1 (Japan Meteorological Agency) occurred just offshore of Miyagi Prefecture. This was the largest earthquake ever experienced by the nuclear power plant of Tohoku Electric Power Co. in Onagawa (hereafter the Onagawa Nuclear Power Plant) during the 19 years since it had started operations in 1984. In this report, we review the vibration characteristics of the reactor building of the Onagawa Nuclear Power Plant Unit 1 based on acceleration records observed at the building, and give an account of a simulation analysis of the earthquake response carried out to ascertain the appropriateness of design procedure and a seismic safety of the building. (authors)

  15. Atmospheric gravity waves due to the Tohoku-Oki tsunami observed in the thermosphere by GOCE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia, R.F.; Doornbos, E.N.; Bruinsma, S.; Hebert, H.

    2014-01-01

    Oceanic tsunami waves couple with atmospheric gravity waves, as previously observed through ionospheric and airglow perturbations. Aerodynamic velocities and density variations are computed from Gravity Field and Steady-State Ocean Circulation Explorer (GOCE) accelerometer and thruster data during

  16. Halb raamat ja veel parem raamat / Veiko Märka

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Märka, Veiko, 1964-

    1998-01-01

    Arvustus: Remsu, Olev. Tšingis-khaan on Ungern-Sternberg : näidend. Tallinn : Perioodika, 1997. (Loomingu Raamatukogu; 1997, 35); Remsu, Olev. Artur Magnussoni suur sõjasuvi : lühiromaan. Tallinn : Eesti Raamat, 1997

  17. Vastse juubilari ajalood / Peeter Künstler

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Künstler, Peeter, 1958-2009

    1997-01-01

    Arvustus: Remsu, Olev. Artur Magnussoni suur sõjasuvi : [lühiromaan]. Tallinn : Eesti Raamat, 1997; Remsu, Olev. Tšingis-khaan on Ungern-Sternberg : [näidend]. Tallinn : Perioodika, 1997. (Loomingu rmtk.; 35)

  18. Filmiinimesed sõjaretkel, Aadu Krevald ja metsikud räpparid : Valitud palu dokumentaalfilmide sarjast "Eesti lood" II / Olev Remsu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Remsu, Olev, 1947-

    2009-01-01

    ETVs näidatud dokumentaalfilmidest sarjas "Eesti lood II" - Mart Arjukese film Ilmar Raagi osalemisest Erna retkel "Sõjamäng" (esilinastus kinos Sõprus 9. XI 2008), Igor Kurve film sporditeadlasest Aadu Krevaldist "Teaduspõhine toode" (eetris 14. I 2009), Mihkel Ulgi film räpparitest "MC Battle - sõnasõjad" (eetris 8. X 2008)

  19. Okupeeritud Eestist Saksa Reich'i: täiendusi 1941. aasta järelümberasumise uurimisse / Olev Liivik, Triin Tark

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Liivik, Olev, 1975-

    2016-01-01

    Ümberasustamise operatsiooni allikatest. Saksamaa ja NSV Liidu kokkuleppest välissakslaste järelümberasumise suhtes. Riigisakslastest ja rahvussakslastest, nende jagamisest ümberasujateks ja põgenikeks. Märtsi keskpaigaks 1941 oli enamik järelümberasujaid Saksamaale lahkunud. Järelümberasujate vastuvõtmisest ja käsitlemisest Saksa Reich'is. Mittesakslastest ümberasujad ei olnud Saksa Reich'is oodatud, kuid samal ajal tehti keeruliseks ka nende tagasipöördumine kodumaale

  20. Tohoku-Oki Earthquake Tsunami Runup and Inundation Data for Sites Around the Island of Hawaiʻi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trusdell, Frank A.; Chadderton, Amy; Hinchliffe, Graham; Hara, Andrew; Patenge, Brent; Weber, Tom

    2012-01-01

    At 0546 U.t.c. March 11, 2011, a Mw 9.0 ("great") earthquake occurred near the northeast coast of Honshu Island, Japan, generating a large tsunami that devastated the east coast of Japan and impacted many far-flung coastal sites around the Pacific Basin. After the earthquake, the Pacific Tsunami Warning Center issued a tsunami alert for the State of Hawaii, followed by a tsunami-warning notice from the local State Civil Defense on March 10, 2011 (Japan is 19 hours ahead of Hawaii). After the waves passed the islands, U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists from the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) measured inundation (maximum inland distance of flooding), runup (elevation at maximum extent of inundation) and took photographs in coastal areas around the Island of Hawaiʻi. Although the damage in West Hawaiʻi is well documented, HVO's mapping revealed that East Hawaiʻi coastlines were also impacted by the tsunami. The intent of this report is to provide runup and inundation data for sites around the Island of Hawaiʻi.

  1. Effect of mixing geopolymer and peat on bearing capacity in Ogan Komering Ilir (OKI) by California bearing ratio (CBR) test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raharja, Danang S.; Hadiwardoyo, Sigit P.; Rahayu, Wiwik; Zain, Nasuhi

    2017-06-01

    Geopolymer is binder material that consists of solid material and the activator solution. Geopolymer material has successfully replaced cement in the manufacture of concrete with aluminosilicate bonding system. Geopolymer concrete has properties similar to cement concrete with high compressive strength, low shrinkage value, relatively low creep value, as well as acid-resistant. Based on these, the addition of polymers in peat soils is expected to improve the bearing capacity of peat soils. A study on the influence of geopolymer addition in peat soils was done by comparing before and after the peat soil was mixed with geopolymer using CBR (California Bearing Ratio) test in unsoaked and soaked conditions. 10% mixture content of the peat dry was used, weighted with a variety of curing time 4 hours, 5 days, and 10 days. There were two methods of mixing: first, peat was mixed with fly ash geopolymer activators and mixed solution (waterglass, NaOH, water), and second, peat was mixed with fly ash and mixed geopolymer (waterglass, NaOH, water, fly ash). Changes were observed in specific gravity, dry density, acidity (pH), and the microscopic structure with Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). Curing time did not significantly affect the CBR value. It even shows a tendency to decline with longer curing time. The first type mixture obtained CBR value of: 5.4% for 4 hours curing, 4.6% for 5 days curing and 3.6% for 10 days curing. The second type mixture obtained CBR value of: 6.1% for 4 hours curing, 5.2% for 5 days curing and 5.2% for 10 days curing. Furthermore, the specific gravity value, dry density, pH near neutral and swelling percentage increased. From both variants, the second type mixture shows better results than the first type mixture. The results of SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy) show the structure of the peat which became denser with the fly ash particles filling the peat microporous. Also, the reaction of fly ash with geopolymer is indicated by the solid agglomerates that are larger than normal fly ash particle size.

  2. The research committee of Chuetsu-oki earthquake influences to Kashiwazaki-Kariwa Nuclear Power Station. Importance classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizumachi, Wataru; Kobayashi, Masahide

    2009-01-01

    Conventionally, the design of a nuclear reactor has been performed from a viewpoint of a safety function and the importance on earthquake-proof on the basis of not giving off the mainly included radioactivity outside. In this Niigataken-Chuetsuoki earthquake, there is almost no damage to the system, components and structure on safe also in the earthquake beyond assumption, and the validity of the design was checked. But, the situation peculiar to a big earthquake was also generated. The emergency plan room which should serve as a connection center with the exterior was not able to open a door and use at the beginning. Fire-extinguishing system piping fractured and self-defense fire fighting was not made. And so on. Discussion from the following three viewpoints was performed. (1) The importance from a viewpoint which should maintain a function also with the disaster in case of an earthquake like an emergency plan room etc. (2) In the earthquake, since the safe system and un-safe system was influenced, the importance from a viewpoint which may have influence safely inquired when the un-safe system broke down. (2) Although it was not directly related safely, discussion from a viewpoint which influences fear of insecurity, such as taking out smoke, for example, was performed. (author)

  3. Raskekujulise eesnäärmevähi operatsioon allutab haiguse pikaks ajaks kontrollile / tõlkinud Kalle Klein

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2011-01-01

    USA Fox Chase'i Vähikeskuse ja Mayo Kliiniku teadlaste sõnul on eesnäärmevähi kõige raskekujulisemat vormi põdenud ja operatsiooni läbi teinud patsientide 10-aastane vähispetsiifiline elulemusmäär 92%

  4. Külmetav haigekassa / Ain Aaviksoo

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Aaviksoo, Ain, 1974-

    2008-01-01

    Autori hinnangul on suur oht, et Eesti patsiente ootab ees Läti saatus, kus on 40-50% tervishoiukuludest patsientide endi kanda. Eesti ees seisvaid valikuid analüüsides oleks parim valik ravikindlustuse reservide läbimõeldud kasutuselevõtt, kuid eeldusel, et otsitakse ravikindlustuse rahastamisele pikaajalisi sisulisi lahendusi. Graafik: Haigekassa kulude suhteline muutus

  5. Zamerzajushtshaja Bolnitshnaja kassa / Ain Aaviksoo

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Aaviksoo, Ain, 1974-

    2008-01-01

    Autori hinnangul on suur oht, et Eesti patsiente ootab ees Läti saatus, kus on 40-50% tervishoiukuludest patsientide endi kanda. Eesti ees seisvaid valikuid analüüsides oleks parim valik ravikindlustuse reservide läbimõeldud kasutuselevõtt, kuid eeldusel, et otsitakse ravikindlustuse rahastamisele pikaajalisi sisulisi lahendusi

  6. Ravimiamet alustas MSD suhtes uurimist / Kadri Jakobson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jakobson, Kadri, 1970-

    2011-01-01

    Ravimiamet algatas ajalehes Äripäev avaldatu põhjal ravimifirma Merck Sharpe & Dohme (MSD) suhtes väärteomenetluse. Ravimitootjate liidu Riho Tapferi sõnul tutvub liit MSD korraldatud ürituse täpsete asjaoludega. Patsientide esindusühingu infojuhi Anne Veskimeistri kommentaare

  7. Viie tärni haiglad / Joe Flower ; tõlk. Marian Raamat

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Flower, Joe

    2007-01-01

    Tervihoiuasutuste äristrateegiast, mis põhineb patsientide kohtlemisel klientidena USA Connecticuti tööstuspiirkonnas asuva Griffini haigla näitel. Vt. samas: Tallinna suurima haigla juht Tõnis Allik: klienditeenindus tervishoius ei määra täna patsiendi valikuid

  8. Keemiafirmadel lasub kartellikokkuleppe kahtlus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Euroopa Komisjon kahtlustab mitmeid Suurbritannia ja Saksamaa keemiafirmasid kartellikokkuleppes. Komisjoni pressiesindaja Antonia Mochani sõnul alustatakse kahtluse all olevate firmade suhtes ametlikku menetluskäiku

  9. Sergei Lukjanenko o "dozorahh", religii i budushtshem nashei planetõ / Sergei Lukjanenko ; interv. Svetlana Tshugunova

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Лукьяненко, Сергей, 1968-

    2006-01-01

    Mängufilmi "Öine patrull" ("Notshnoi dozor") jt. filmide aluseks olevate romaanide ning stsenaariumite autor oma raamatutest, kogemustest nende filmideks saamisel ja muudest globaalsematest teemadest

  10. Ajaloost kirjanduseks ja tagasi : Balthasar Russowi kroonika kirjutamisest, kasutamisest ja ärakasutamisest / Juhan Kreem

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kreem, Juhan, 1971-

    2013-01-01

    Vaadeldakse Russowi teksti meieni kandumist, kaardistatakse kroonika kajastusi nii eesti kui baltisaksa kirjanduses ning juureldakse Russowi kroonika elujõulisuse aluseks olevate sisemiste omaduste üle

  11. Sõnumisaladuse kaitse tööandjale kuuluvate sidevahendite kasutamisel ning karistusõiguslik vastutus selle õiguse rikkumisel : [magistritöö] / Olev Kirst ; Tartu Ülikool, õigusteaduskond ; juhendaja: Jaan Ginter

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kirst, Olev

    2012-01-01

    Põhimõistete määratlemisest, sõnumisaladuse kaitse piiridest, sõnumite jälgimise vajadusest ja ulatusest, tööandja sidevahendite jälgimise õiguslikest alustest ja põhimõtetest ning praktikast, karistusõiguslikust vastutusest sõnumisaladuse rikkumisel ja kohtupraktikast (Eesti, Soome, Saksamaa, Venemaa)

  12. Vahistamise aluseks olevate tõendite kättesaadavaks tegemine kahtlustatavale. Riigikohtu kriminaalkolleegiumi 4. mai 2016. a määrus kohtuasjas 3-1-1-110-15 / Uno Lõhmus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lõhmus, Uno, 1952-

    2016-01-01

    Riigikohtu kriminaalkolleegiumi määrusest kohtuasjas 3-1-1-110-15, kriminaalmenetluse seadustiku ja selle rakenduspraktika vastavusest Euroopa Parlamendi ja nõukogu 22. mai 2012. a direktiivi 2012/13/EL sättele ja mõttele ning Euroopa Inimõiguste Kohtu tunnustatud põhimõtetele

  13. The 2011 M = 9.0 Tohoku oki earthquake more than doubled the probability of large shocks beneath Tokyo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toda, Shinji; Stein, Ross S.

    2013-01-01

    1] The Kanto seismic corridor surrounding Tokyo has hosted four to five M ≥ 7 earthquakes in the past 400 years. Immediately after the Tohoku earthquake, the seismicity rate in the corridor jumped 10-fold, while the rate of normal focal mechanisms dropped in half. The seismicity rate decayed for 6–12 months, after which it steadied at three times the pre-Tohoku rate. The seismicity rate jump and decay to a new rate, as well as the focal mechanism change, can be explained by the static stress imparted by the Tohoku rupture and postseismic creep to Kanto faults. We therefore fit the seismicity observations to a rate/state Coulomb model, which we use to forecast the time-dependent probability of large earthquakes in the Kanto seismic corridor. We estimate a 17% probability of a M ≥ 7.0 shock over the 5 year prospective period 11 March 2013 to 10 March 2018, two-and-a-half times the probability had the Tohoku earthquake not struck

  14. Seismic safety reexaminations to NPPs in Taiwan. Lessons learned from 20061226 Taiwan Hengchun and 20070716 Japan Niigata-Chuetsu oki earthquakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chow Ting; Wu Yuanchieh; Gau Yunchau

    2008-01-01

    On December 26 2006, a strong earthquake with a local magnitude M L of 7.0 hit the most southern part of Taiwan, Hengchun village, where the Maanshan Nuclear Power Station is located. This is a historic high earthquake ever been experienced to Taiwan's existing nuclear power units, and it raised high public concerns about the seismic safety of the nuclear power plants operation. More recently on July 16 2007, in Japan, where the earthquake focal mechanisms are very similar to those in Taiwan, all 7 nuclear power units in Kashiwazaki-Kariwa site were struck by a more devastating earthquake and as the result, the design earthquakes for all the nuclear units have been exceeded. Therefore, the assurance of good seismic design and the appropriateness of associated post-earthquake actions to the nuclear power units in Taiwan become very urgent topics. Based on the experiences learned from the above mentioned two earthquakes, this paper will focus on the seismic safety reexamination of Taiwan's existing nuclear power plants of the following aspects: (1) current US orientated seismic designs/regulations from earthquake probabilistic risk point of view, (2) earthquake shut-down criterion, especially the CAV parameter and its threshold value, and (3) current post earthquake actions. (author)

  15. High-resolution chronology of sediment below CCD based on Holocene paleomagnetic secular variations in the Tohoku-oki earthquake rupture zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanamatsu, Toshiya; Usami, Kazuko; McHugh, Cecilia M. G.; Ikehara, Ken

    2017-08-01

    Using high-resolution paleomagnetic data, we examined the potential for obtaining precise ages from sediment core samples recovered from deep-sea basins close to rupture zones of the 2011 and earlier earthquakes off Tohoku, Japan. Obtaining detailed stratigraphic ages from deep-sea sediments below the calcium compensation depth (CCD) is difficult, but we found that the samples contain excellent paleomagnetic secular variation records to constrain age models. Variations in paleomagnetic directions obtained from the sediments reveal systematic changes in the cores. A stacked paleomagnetic profile closely matches the Lake Biwa data sets in southwest Japan for the past 7000 years, one can establish age models based on secular variations of the geomagnetic field on sediments recovered uniquely below the CCD. Comparison of paleomagnetic directions near a tephra and a paleomagnetic direction of contemporaneous pyroclastic flow deposits acquired by different magnetization processes shows precise depositional ages reflecting the magnetization delay of the marine sediment record.Plain Language SummaryGenerally obtaining detailed ages from deep-sea sediments is difficult, because available dating method is very limited. We found that the deep-see sediment off North Japan recorded past sequential geomagnetic directions. If those records correlate well with the reference record in past 7000 years, then we could estimate age of sediment by pattern matching. Additionally a volcanic ash emitted in 915 A.D., which was intercalated in our samples, indicates a time lag in our age model. This observation makes our age model more precise.

  16. Consistency of GPS and strong-motion records: case study of the Mw9.0 Tohoku-Oki 2011 earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psimoulis, Panos; Houlié, Nicolas; Michel, Clotaire; Meindl, Michael; Rothacher, Markus

    2014-05-01

    High-rate GPS data are today commonly used to supplement seismic data for the Earth surface motions focusing on earthquake characterisation and rupture modelling. Processing of GPS records using Precise Point Positioning (PPP) can provide real-time information of seismic wave propagation, tsunami early-warning and seismic rupture. Most studies have shown differences between the GPS and seismic systems at very long periods (e.g. >100sec) and static displacements. The aim of this study is the assessment of the consistency of GPS and strong-motion records by comparing their respective displacement waveforms for several frequency bands. For this purpose, the records of the GPS (GEONET) and the strong-motion (KiK-net and K-NET) networks corresponding to the Mw9.0 Tohoku 2011 earthquake were analysed. The comparison of the displacement waveforms of collocated (distance<100m) GPS and strong-motion sites show that the consistency between the two datasets depends on the frequency of the excitation. Differences are mainly due to the GPS noise at relatively short-periods (<3-4 s) and the saturation of the strong-motion sensors for relatively long-periods (40-80 s). Furthermore the agreement between the GPS and strong-motion records also depends on the direction of the excitation signal and the distance from the epicentre. In conclusion, velocities and displacements recovered from GPS and strong-motion records are consistent for long-periods (3-100 s), proving that GPS networks can contribute to the real-time estimation of the long-period ground motion map of an earthquake.

  17. Shortcomings of InSAR for studying megathrust earthquakes: The case of the M w 9.0 Tohoku-Oki earthquake

    KAUST Repository

    Feng, Guangcai; Jonsson, Sigurjon

    2012-01-01

    .0) and test InSAR-derived fault-slip models against models constrained by GPS data from the extensive nationwide network in Japan. The coseismic deformation field was mapped using InSAR data acquired from multiple ascending and descending passes of the ALOS

  18. Samozashtshita ot oruzhija / Ljubov Semjonova

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Semjonova, Ljubov

    2002-01-01

    Andrei Dikarev, Föderatsiooni Aikido president Eestis, leiab, et Eestis on vaja rohkem teadvustada inimestele, mida tähendab isiklik julgeolek. Vt. samas interv. Politseiameti korrakaitseinspektori Vambo Olbergiga eraisikute valduses olevate relvade teemal

  19. Labour Party's fate hangs in balance / Kimberly Kweder

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kweder, Kimberly

    2007-01-01

    Koduarestis oleval kandidaadil Viktor Uspaskihhil õnnestus oma valimisringkonnas koguda 20 % häältest. Tööpartei kandidaati süüdistatakse pettuses eelmistel valmistel. Leedu politoloogide kommentaarid

  20. Kas on olemas euroopa identiteet? / Umberto Eco ; tõlk. Marju Aas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Eco, Umberto, 1932-2016

    2004-01-01

    Autor kirjeldab, kuidas ta avastas oma euroopa identiteedi. Tema sõnul on Euroopa teel, et kujuneda enamaks liikmesriikide foorumist ning tihedates sidemetes olevate linnade võrgustikust. Euroopa on kujunemas regioonide konföderatsiooniks

  1. Transitional narratives of identity among ethnic minority youth gangs in Denmark: from collectivism to individualism / Torsten Kolind, Thomas Friis Søgaard, Geoffrey Hunt, Birgitte Thylstrup

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kolind, Torsten

    2017-01-01

    Kopenhaageni rahvusvähemuses olevate meeste seas läbi viidud etnograafilisest uuringust, nende võimalustest hoida eemale jõukudesse kuulumisest, kriminaalsusest, nakrootikumide tarvitamisest ja müümisest

  2. Inimloetav ja masinloetav : mõistete analüüs / Priit Parmakson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Parmakson, Priit

    2011-01-01

    Infoühiskonnas on iseloomulik struktuuristatud, masintöötlemisele orienteeritud teabe osakaalu kasv, mille ilming on ka Eesti avalikus sektoris mitmes valdkonnas käsil olev sellesuunaline IT töö

  3. Ujuv restoran Portos / Kai Lobjakas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lobjakas, Kai, 1975-

    1999-01-01

    Tegu on terasest ja kolmest küljest klaasist kuubikuga, mis asetseb ankrus olevale ujuvalusele paigutatud puitplatvormil Duoro jõel. Kaldast on restoran eraldatud puitseintega, mille ees olev metalltala toetab katust. Autor G. P. Couto.

  4. 53 kinnipeetava kiri: Tallinna vangla asukad nõuavad riigilt 1,6 miljonit eurot valuraha / Juhan Haravee

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Haravee, Juhan, 1957-

    2017-01-01

    Tallinna vangla kinnipeetavate kirjast valitsusele, kus nõutakse vangistusseaduses olevate vastuolude tõttu tekkinud moraalse kahju hüvitamist ja kolm aastat varem avaldatud Eesti Õiguskantsleri vangistusseaduse analüüsist

  5. Heidegger meets junkfood

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1997-01-01

    Kohtla-Järve noorkriitikute ühendus "Teljenihe" (Andrei Survonen, Taisto Kollontai, Lehte Tibar, Nele Trofimov, Olev Meremaa, Isaak Vainjärv) arvustab filme "Dead Man", "Breaking the Waves", "Seven"

  6. Ülevaade Põllumajanduse Registrite ja Informatsiooni Ametist = About the Agricultural Registers and Information Board

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2004-01-01

    Põllumajanduse Registrite ja Informatsiooni Amet on põllumajandusministeeriumi haldusalas olev järelevalveasutus, mille ülesandeks on põllumajandusloomade, -toetuste ja -massiivide registri pidamine ning erinevate toetuste jagamine. Skeem: PRIA struktuur 2003 = ARIB structure 2003

  7. Norma aktsionäridel lootus erakorralisele dividendile / Annika Matson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Matson, Annika, 1976-

    2004-01-01

    Kolmandas kvartalis paremat kasumlikkust näidanud Norma juhtkond teeb aasta alguses nõukogule ettepaneku maksta erakorralisi dividende. Diagramm: Ettevõtetel olev vaba raha aktsia kohta. Kommenteerib Teet Kolts

  8. Teadmistepõhise Eesti poole - miks ja kuidas? / Olav Aarna

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Aarna, Olav, 1942-

    2004-01-01

    Autori sõnul on ühiskonnas kujunemas selge arusaam, et rahvusliku innovatsioonisüsteemi osaks oleval haridussüsteemil on arengumudeli muutmisel täita võtmeroll. Graafik: Eesti arengustsenaariumid. Tabel: Eesti haridusstsenaariumid

  9. Tapa ja Tartu vaksal ärkavad uuele elule / Rein Sikk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sikk, Rein, 1961-

    2011-01-01

    Tapa vaksalihoone (1928) renoveerimise, uute perroonide rajamise, raudteepargi kordategemise plaanidest, vana auruveduri taastamisest. Tartu linn toetab 100 000 euroga Tartu vaksalihoone (1877) muinsuskaitse all olevate ootesaalide ehitust ja algupärasel kujul taastamist

  10. President Ilves andis üle Eesti aukonsulite annetused erivajadustega noorte toetuseks

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2011-01-01

    President Toomas Hendrik Ilves andis 30. juunil 2011 Kadriorus üle lastekirurg dr. Ann Paalile ja Kellukese fondi juhatuse liikmele Olev Roosale Eesti aukonsulite annetused erivajadustega noortele muusika- ja kunstiõpinguteks

  11. Tallinnas Narva mnt. 7 asuva kohviku Zebra sisekujundus / Tiiu Truus, Tiiu Prisko, Mati Veermets...[jt.

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    põhiplaan, 11 värv. vaadet; fotod: Kalle Veesaar; laes olevate dekoratiivsete lippude graafiline kujundus on Tiiu Priskolt ja Mati Veermetsalt, tualettruumi looduskivist valamu ja põrandavaasi autor on Kaido Kivi

  12. Ettevõtlus, konkurents ja riskid hariduselus / Toomas Saal

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Saal, Toomas

    2002-01-01

    Autori hinnangul on kahetsusväärne, et riik kulutab raha riigi omanduses olevate õppeasutuste ülalpidamiseks sõltumata nende asutuste poolt pakutava hariduse kvaliteedist. Kutsehariduskonseptsioon EC/NOR

  13. Эстонская коллекция едет в Финландию / Валнер Вальме

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Вальме, Валнер, 1970-

    2010-01-01

    15. oktoobril avatakse Helsingi kunstihoones (Helsingin Taidehalli) eesti klassikalise maalikunsti näitus "Eesti värvid – 150 aastat eesti maalikunsti Enn Kunila kollektsioonist". Kuraator Harry Liivrand, kujundaja Olev Subbi. Kollektsiooni tutvustava raamatu autor on Eero Epner

  14. Korpusepoistest / Toomas Hiio

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hiio, Toomas, 1965-

    2008-01-01

    Rets. rmt.: Tiit Noormets, Toe Nõmm, Hanno Ojalo, Olev Raidla, Eigo Rosenthal, Tõnis Taavet, Mati Õun. Korpusepoisid. Tallinn : Eesti Akadeemiline Sõjaajaloo Selts : Sentinel, 2007. Punaarmee eesti üksustest aastatel 1940-1956.

  15. Automaatsete fiskaalsete stabilisaatorite mõju Eesti majandustsükli tasandamisele / Martti Randveer

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Randveer, Martti

    2003-01-01

    Ülevaade automaatsete stabilisaatorite mõjust Euroopa Majandus- ja Rahaliidu (EMU) riikides. Eestis kasutusel olevate automaatsete stabilisaatorite mõju analüüs Eesti majandustsüklile. Tabelid. Graafikud

  16. Preatonil on Eestis ja Lätis suured plaanid / Paolo Michelozzi ; interv. Toivo Tänavsuu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Michelozzi, Paolo

    2003-01-01

    Pro Kapitali Grupi juhatuse esimees Paolo Michelozzi oma rollist Pro Kapitalis, Tallinnas olevate Pro Kapitali kruntidega seonduvast, Pro Kapitali plaanidest Riias, Eesti ja Läti kinnisvaraturu erinevustest, kinnisvara hinnatõusust

  17. Eesti Ajaloomuuseumi väliekspositsioon "Klooga laager ja holokaust" = Outdoor exhibition of the Estonian History Museum "Klooga camp and the holocaust"

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2015-01-01

    Eesti Ajaloomuuseumi väliekspositsioon "Klooga laager ja holokaust" Kloogal, valminud 2013. Arhitektuuri sihtkapitali maastikuarhitektuuripreemia 2013. Arhitektuurne idee ja projekteerimine Mari Rass, Diana Taalfeld ja EA Reng. Kuraator Olev Liivik, konsultandid Ruth Bettina Birn, Tõnis Liibek, Meelis Maripuu

  18. Langt fran nordisk välfärdsmodell / Hans Norrbom

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Norrbom, Hans

    2004-01-01

    Baltimaade ja Põhjala kiiret poliitilist lähenemist pärsib Baltimaade erinev ühiskonnamudel ja madalate maksudega üliliberaalne majandus. Põhjalale sarnaneb enim ajalooliselt Rootsi ja Taaniga seotud ning Soomega keelesuguluses olev Eesti

  19. Mirage vs. Albatross - collision in the air / Rokas M. Tracevskis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tracevskis, Rokas M.

    2011-01-01

    30. augustil põrkasid Leedus kokku NATO õhuturbemissioonil olev Prantsuse hävituslennuk Mirage 2000c ja Leedu õppehävitaja L-39ZA Albatross. Leedu piloodid katapulteerusid, Prantsusmaa piloot katapulteerumist ei vajanud. Ohvreid ei olnud

  20. Inimene ja šimpans väärtustavad omandit

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2012-01-01

    Ajakirjas Evolution and Humen Behavior ilmunud USA Vanderbilti ülikooli teadlase Owen Jonesi uuringust enda omanduses olevate asjade väärtuse ülehindamise efektist inimahvide seas šimpanside näitel

  1. Lõuna 2a villa restaureerimine Pärnus = Restoration of Lõuna 2a villa in Pärnu / Jaak Huimerind, Mari Kurismaa, Mart Kalm ; kommenteerinud Liina Jänes

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Huimerind, Jaak, 1957-

    2015-01-01

    Villa Pärnus Lõuna tänav 2a, valminud 1936, restaureeritud 2014. Hoone arhitektid Olev Siinmaa, Anton Soans, restaureerimisarhitekt Jaak Huimerind, sisearhitekt Mari Kurismaa. Eesti Kultuurkapitali Arhitektuuri sihtkapitali restaureerimispreemia 2014

  2. Rahvuslik jõuluassortii / Arno Oja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Oja, Arno, 1950-

    1997-01-01

    Valton, Arvo. Rahvusluse vaateid. Tln. : Virgela, 1997. (Gramma I); Liiv, Toomas. Proosast. Tln. : Virgela, 1997. (Gramma II); Herkel, Andres. Ajalugu on rikas. Tln. : Virgela, 1997. (Gramma III); Remsu, Olev. Kuidas rikkuda piiri. Tln. : Virgela, 1997. (Gramma IV).

  3. 1) Mis teile praeguses eesti kirjanduses ei meeldi? 2) Mida tuleks teha, et asi läheks nii, nagu teile meeldib? : [küsitlus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2002-01-01

    Vastavad : Vaapo Vaher, Elo Lindsalu, Olev Remsu, Jüri Ehlvest, François Serpent, Sven Kivisildnik, Linnar Priimägi, Aino Pervik, Mati Unt, Contra, Fagira D. Morti, Aapo Ilves, Aarne Ruben, Juku-Kalle Raid

  4. Pahane Berlusconi : pole ma teile mingi kääbus / Aadu Hiietamm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hiietamm, Aadu, 1954-

    2008-01-01

    Aprillis toimuvate parlamendivalimiste võidus täiesti kindel olev Itaalia ekspeaminister Silvio Berlusconi pole rahul karikatuuridega, mis rõhutavad ta lühikest kasvu. Vt. samas: Soovitus: teenige rohkem!

  5. Sizalt kunstimuuseum Portosse

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1999-01-01

    Juunis avab koos Rotterdamiga aastal 2001 Euroopa kultuuripealinnaks olev Portos portugali arhitekti Alvaro Siza Vieira projekteeritud Serralvesi muuseumi (moodsa kunsti muuseum) hoone. Avanäituseks on 6. juunist avatav avangardi retrospektiiv "Circa 1968".

  6. Lääne turist hindab Võrumaa ehedust / Tiit Soosaar ; interv. Mari-Anne Leht

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Soosaar, Tiit

    2005-01-01

    Võrumaa turismiliidu juhatusse esimees ja turismitalu omanik vastab küsimustele maakonnas olevate turismitalude hulga, puhkajate, puhkamisvõimaluste reklaami, ida poolt saabuvate turistide kohta. Vt. samas: Võrumaad külastanud välismaalaste arv kasvas

  7. Väljak: esindusväljak = Square: the city square / Merilin Jürimets

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jürimets, Merilin

    2013-01-01

    EKA arhitektuuri ja linnaplaneerimise osakonna III kursuse 2009-2012 aastail erialase projekteerimise raames loodud lahendus,kus strateegilises asukohas olev raekoda avab tänavapinna maksimaalselt avalikkusele

  8. Kas info on sõnum? / David Vseviov

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vseviov, David, 1949-

    2009-01-01

    Tõeline infoühiskond oli vanaaja ühiskond. Infoühiskonnaks saab pidada vaid sellist ühiskonda, kus valdavale osale indiviididest teada olev informatsioon suudab kindlustada inimese iseseisva eksistentsi

  9. Julgeolekuekspert : unustage jutud Eesti palgaarmeest / Edward N. Luttwak ; interv. Peeter Kuimet

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Luttwak, Edward N.

    2006-01-01

    USA julgeolekuanalüütik soovitab Venemaa naabruses oleval Eestil oma riigikaitse üles ehitada Soome eeskujul, ajateenistus peab olema kohustuslik, et vajaduse korral end ise kaitsta, sest NATO abi ei saabu automaatselt. Lisa: Edward Nicolae Luttwak

  10. Põlvamaa veeprojektidesse paigutatakse ligi 157 miljonit / Raivo Sihver

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sihver, Raivo

    2008-01-01

    AS-i Põlva Vesi juhataja Olev Elmik ja AS-i Water Ser tegevjuht Indrek Hiiemäe allkirjastasid Põlvamaa veeprojekti 22 ehituslepingust neli Räpina lepingut. 85% rahast tuleb EL-i Ühtekuuluvusfondist

  11. Avalik kiri Vladimir Iljaševitšile / Hannes Walter

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Walter, Hannes, 1952-2004

    2012-01-01

    Vastukaja Olev Miili artiklile "Faktid väljamõeldiste vastu" (Õhtuleht, 22. juuni, 1988). Olev Miili pseudonüümi all kirjutas KGB töötaja Vladimir Iljaševitš, kes 1988. aasta aprillis avaldas üleliidulise uudisteagentuuri APN ajakirjas Globus artikli, milles õigustas ja põhjendas nõukogude võimu poolt Eestis sooritatud küüditamisi

  12. Project TANDEM (Tsunamis in the Atlantic and the English ChaNnel: Definition of the Effects through numerical Modeling) (2014-2018): a French initiative to draw lessons from the Tohoku-oki tsunami on French coastal nuclear facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hébert, Hélène; Abadie, Stéphane; Benoit, Michel; Créach, Ronan; Frère, Antoine; Gailler, Audrey; Garzaglia, Sébastien; Hayashi, Yutaka; Loevenbruck, Anne; Macary, Olivier; Marcer, Richard; Morichon, Denis; Pedreros, Rodrigo; Rebour, Vincent; Ricchiuto, Mario; Silva Jacinto, Ricardo; Terrier, Monique; Toucanne, Samuel; Traversa, Paola; Violeau, Damien

    2014-05-01

    TANDEM (Tsunamis in the Atlantic and the English ChaNnel: Definition of the Effects through numerical Modeling) is a French research project dedicated to the appraisal of coastal effects due to tsunami waves on the French coastlines, with a special focus on the Atlantic and Channel coastlines, where French civil nuclear facilities have been operating since about 30 years. This project aims at drawing conclusions from the 2011 catastrophic tsunami, and will allow, together with a Japanese research partner, to design, adapt and validate numerical methods of tsunami hazard assessment, using the outstanding database of the 2011 tsunami. Then the validated methods will be applied to estimate, as accurately as possible, the tsunami hazard for the French Atlantic and Channel coastlines, in order to provide guidance for risk assessment on the nuclear facilities. The project TANDEM follows the recommendations of International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to analyse the tsunami exposure of the nuclear facilities, as well as the recommendations of the French Nuclear Safety Authority (Autorité de Sûreté Nucléaire, ASN) in the aftermath of the 2011 catastrophe, which required the licensee of nuclear facilities to conduct complementary safety assessments (CSA), also including "the robustness beyond their design basis". The tsunami hazard deserves an appraisal in the light of the 2011 catastrophe, to check whether any unforeseen tsunami impact can be expected for these facilities. TANDEM aims at defining the tsunami effects expected for the French Atlantic and Channel coastlines, basically from numerical modeling methods, through adaptation and improvement of numerical methods, in order to study tsunami impacts down to the interaction with coastal structures (thus sometimes using 3D approaches) (WP1). Then the methods will be tested to better characterize and quantify the associated uncertainties (in the source, the propagation, and the coastal impact) (WP2). The project will benefit from a Japanese cooperation (Meteorological Research Institute, MRI) to study in detail the coastal impact of the 2011 Tohoku tsunami (WP3). In this framework TANDEM will apply the models to the French study area, which includes investigating historical documents, defining the possible tsunamigenic sources able to strike the regions of interest (earthquakes and/or landslides), and modeling the coastal effects at a regional scale and for selected sites. Using high resolution bathymetric and topographic data in the frame of Litto3D (a French project whose main objective is to build a seamless integrated topographic and bathymetric coastal Digital Terrain Model), TANDEM will thoroughly investigate possible sources, through a detailed characterization of the slope stability off the coastlines (for the Celtic and Armorican margins, Bay of Biscay), and estimate the coastal impacts. It will also consider events (Canaries) whose assumed catastrophic impact has been widely discussed these recent years, needing a reappraisal regarding French coastlines. A special attention will also be paid to the estimation of the return periods expected for the tsunami scenarios.

  13. The Electro-Spark Deposited WC-Cu Coatings Modified by Laser Treatment / Powłoki WC-Cu Naniesione Elektroiskrowo I Modyfikowane Obróbką Laserową

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radek N.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the present work was to determine the influence of laser treatment on microstructure, X-ray diffraction, microhardness, surface geometric structure and roughness, corrosion resistance and tribological properties of coatings deposited on C45 carbon steel by the electro-spark deposition (ESD process. The studies were conducted using WC-Cu electrodes produced by the powder metallurgy route. The tests show that the laser-treated electro-spark deposited WC-Cu coatings are characterized by higher corrosion resistance, surface roughness and seizure resistance which come at the expense of lower microhardness. The laser treatment process causes the homogenization of the chemical composition, structure refinement and healing of microcracks and pores of the electro-spark deposited coatings. Laser treated ESD coatings can be applied in sliding friction pairs and as protective coatings.

  14. The on-line electric vehicle wireless electric ground transportation systems

    CERN Document Server

    Cho, Dong

    2017-01-01

    This book details the design and technology of the on-line electric vehicle (OLEV) system and its enabling wireless power-transfer technology, the “shaped magnetic field in resonance” (SMFIR). The text shows how OLEV systems can achieve their three linked important goals: reduction of CO2 produced by ground transportation; improved energy efficiency of ground transportation; and contribution to the amelioration or prevention of climate change and global warming. SMFIR provides power to the OLEV by wireless transmission from underground cables using an alternating magnetic field and the reader learns how this is done. This cable network will in future be part of any local smart grid for energy supply and use thereby exploiting local and renewable energy generation to further its aims. In addition to the technical details involved with design and realization of a fleet of vehicles combined with extensive subsurface charging infrastructure, practical issues such as those involved with pedestrian safety are c...

  15. Faces of the Fleet | Navy Live

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little Creek. (U.S. Navy photo by Mass Communication Specialist 2nd Class Charles Oki/Released) Explosive Expeditionary Base Little Creek. (U.S. Navy photo by Mass Communication Specialist 2nd Class Charles Oki /spLckijogJ12 hours ago MT @CNORichardson: Congratulations to the @NavalAcademy #ClassOf2018! A lot will be

  16. Eesti Energia juhi küsimus jäi ajapuudusel lahendamata / Villy Paimets

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Paimets, Villy, 1972-

    2005-01-01

    Eesti Energia nõukogu jättis otsustamata, kas ettevõtte juhatuse esimehe kohale kuulutatakse välja avalik konkurss. Vt. samas: Oki valulaps on elektri hind; Kronoloogia: Eesti Energia on Gunnar Oki juhtimisel kõvasti kosunud

  17. 76 FR 5399 - In the Matter of Certain Printing and Imaging Devices and Components Thereof; Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-31

    ..., Ltd. of Tokyo, Japan; Ricoh Americas Corporation of West Caldwell, New Jersey; and Ricoh Electronics... 5,863,690 (``the `690 patent''). The complaint named Oki Data Corporation of Tokyo, Japan and Oki... determined to reverse the ALJ's finding that Ricoh satisfied the economic prong of the domestic industry...

  18. Tšehhi presidendi valimisel jäi puudu üksainus hääl / Krister Paris

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Paris, Krister, 1977-

    2008-01-01

    Tšehhi presidendivalimistel sai parlamendis suurima toetuse ametis olev riigipea Vaclav Klaus, kuid ka temal jäi puudu üks hääl, et pälvida kahe koja ühisistungil enamus. Vt. samas: Salatehingud kommunistidega

  19. Short Outlines of Books by Estonian Authors / Janika Kronberg, Rutt Hinrikus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kronberg, Janika, 1963-

    2009-01-01

    Arvustus: Kaplinski, Jaan. Parallelle ja parallelisme. Tartu : Tartu Ülikooli Kirjastus, c2009 ; Hellat, Henn-Kaarel. Inimese tegemine I-V. Tallinn : Faatum, 2002-2008 ; Nõu, Helga. Elu täis üllatusi. Tartu : Atlex, 2009 ; Remsu, Olev. Musketäride muundumised. [Tallinn] : Eesti Keele Sihtasutus, 2008 ; Ristikivi, Karl. Päevaraamat 1957-1968. Tallinn : Varrak, 2008

  20. Чилийские горняки уже месяц сидят под землей

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2010-01-01

    Kirde Tšiilis San Jose kaevanduses töötanud ja sinna vangi jäänud mehed on muutunud rahutuks ja süüdistavad võime oma kirjade tsenseerimises, psühholoogid tunnevad muret sügaval maapõues lõksus olevate meeste tervise pärast

  1. Päästmist ootavad Tšiili kaevurid nõuavad kirju ja veini / Evelyn Kaldoja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kaldoja, Evelyn, 1980-

    2010-01-01

    Kirde Tšiilis San Jose kaevanduses töötanud ja sinna vangi jäänud mehed on muutunud rahutuks ja süüdistavad võime oma kirjade tsenseerimises, psühholoogid tunnevad muret sügaval maapõues lõksus olevate meeste tervise pärast

  2. Fazer tahab kaaperdada Eesti Pagari tuntuimat kaubamärki / Eda-Liis Kann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kann, Eda-Liis, 1979-

    2005-01-01

    Oy Karl Fazer Ab esitas patendiametile taotluse uute kaubamärkide registreerimiseks, mis on aga väga sarnased Eesti Pagari Õnne sarja toodete pakenditel olevate kujunditega ja mille värvikombinatsioonid langevad toonide lõikes kokku

  3. Riigipea valimise hooajale anti läbinähtav start / Raimo Poom

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Poom, Raimo

    2010-01-01

    IRL-i, Reformierakonna, SDE ja roheliste fraktsioon algatasid Vabariigi Presidendi valimise seaduse muutmise, mille vastuvõtmise korral lõpeks olukord, kus suurtes omavalitsustes valib valijamehed välja vaid enamuses olev poliitiline jõud. Autori hinnangul on tegemist selgelt Tallinnale suunatud muudatusega. Edgar Savisaare võimalikust kandideerimisest 2011. a. presidendivalimistel. Vt. ka juhtkiri lk. 2: Presidendivalimiste esimesed noodid

  4. Anhaldt-Dessau vürstiriik - ideaalne kultuuripark / Tiina Tammet

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tammet, Tiina, 1971-

    2007-01-01

    Franz von Anhaldt-Dessau (1740-1817) 18. sajandil loodud Wörlitzi pargist, mis oli mandri-Euroopas esimene inglise stiilis park. Muinsuskaitse all olev kultuuripark on osa UNESCO Kesk-Elbe-Steckby-Lödderitzer Forsti biosfäärikaitsealast

  5. Mis jäi teile meelde lõppevast aastast?

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Küsimusele vastavad Tapa vallavanem Kuno Rooba, Multi Marger ASi juhataja ja omanik Rainer Miltop, ASi Lajos omanik Einar Vallbaum, Virumaa Invest OÜ juhatuse liige Olev Rohumäe, parlamendiliige Toomas Varek, SA Virumaa Muuseumide juhataja Ants Leemets, Rakvere politseiosakonna ülemkomissar, Ida-Eesti päästekeskuse koordinatsiooniteenistuse juht Maido Nõlvak

  6. Gorod vozdushnõh sharov / Jevgenia Gorski

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Gorski, Jevgenia

    2003-01-01

    Keila linna tutvustavas loos on juttu Keila linnavalitsuse galeriis toimunud näitustest. Hetkel eksponeeritakse taani kunstniku Peder Stougaardi töid. Olev Soansi infograafika püsinäitusest Keila linnavalitsuses ja Harjumaa muuseumis. Püsinäituse asukoht linnavalitsuses tähistatakse memoriaaltahvliga

  7. Res Publica aukohus heidab juhtidele ette eetikavääratust / Toomas Mattson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mattson, Toomas, 1970-

    2002-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Põhjarannik ; Severnoje Poberezhje 22. november lk. 3;4. Res Publica aukohus arvab, et Res Publica juhid on rikkunud erakonna põhikirja, sisekorda ja eetikakoodeksit Kohtla-Järve juhtumi lahendamisel. Kohtla-Järvel sai linnapeaks riisumiskahtlusega uurimise all olev Valeri Korb tänu Keskerakonna ja Res Publica koalitsioonileppele. Kommenteerib Juhan Kivirähk

  8. Vabariigi presidendi iseseisvuspäeva kõne / Toomas Hendrik Ilves

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ilves, Toomas Hendrik, 1953-

    2011-01-01

    Presidendi kõne Eesti Vabariigi 93. aastapäeva pidulikul kontserdil Estonias 24. veebruaril 2011. aastal. Vt. ka juhtkiri lk. 2: Isetehtud Eesti. Õhtulehes kommenteerivad Rainer Kattel, Olev Remsu, Agu Uudelepp ja Vitali Belobrovtsev. Õhtulehes vt. ka juhtkiri: Vaikne ja rahulik Põhjamaa? Äripäevas vt. ka juhtkiri lk. 2: Rohkem enesekindlust, rohkem eneseusaldust!

  9. Muusikapassioon mõttepeeglis. Täna kõlab "Stabat Mater" / Anne Peäske

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Peäske, Anne, 1946-

    2005-01-01

    Arvo Pärdi "Passio" ettekandest 11.sept. Rakvere Kolmainu kirikus. Elmo Lööve, Raivo Palmaru, Jaan Rääts, Toivo Tulev, Aarne Talvik, Ingmar Kurg, Olev Oja ja Eleonora Pärt Arvo Pärdi muusikast. A. Pärdi "Stabat Mater" ansambli Theatre of Voices esituses 14. sept. Rakvere Kolmainu kirikus

  10. Hollywoody tähtede kõrval on müügil suur kinnistu / Kaire Talviste

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Talviste, Kaire, 1979-

    2008-01-01

    Müüki on pandud Hollywoodi tähtede (1923. a. rajatud ja ajalooliseks mälestiseks kuulutatud) kõrval asuv kunagi Howard Hughesile kuulunud kinnistu, et rajada sinna kuni viis villat. Los Angelese linnavõimud on ehituse vastu ja koguvad raha, et eraomandis olev krunt ära osta

  11. Computer-Supplemented Structural Drill Practice Versus Computer-Supplemented Semantic Drill Practice by Beginning College German Students: A Comparative Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    610p ,/ VERSU OLEV EV, COMPUTER-SUPPLEMENTED STRUCTURAL DRILL PRACTICE OVERSUS -0MPUTER-SUPPLEMENTED SEMANTIC DRILL PRACTICE BY BEGINNING COLLGE ...refine a student’s capabilities to do specific mental/or physical performance" (p. 26). The same statement of purpose would obviously apply if the terms

  12. Fantaasiad Hiina teemadel / Leila Pärtelpoeg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pärtelpoeg, Leila, 1927-

    2006-01-01

    Hiinas praegugi tootmises ja müügil olevate vanu vorme ja dekoratsioone järgivate esemete tutvustus: kitsas laud, fajanssnõu, punane kapp, tool, kandik, panipaik-kapp, azhuurne raam tikandite raamimiseks, väike laud. Lavastused: Madis Liplap kaubandusfirmas Vipex

  13. Starting from scratch : the role of leadership in the foreign policymaking of the Baltic States, 1991-1999 / Ausra Park

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Park, Ausra

    2005-01-01

    Balti riikide eeskuju kasutades analüüsib autor väikeste riikide käitumise motiive rahvusvahelises keskkonnas, sealhulgas võimupositsioonil olevate erinevate individuaalsustega poliitikute rolli riigi välispoliitiliste eelistusete määramisel. Tabelid. Diagramm

  14. "Riik malelaual" = "Country on a Chessboard" / Tarmo Piirmets ; kommenteerinud Laura Kipper

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Piirmets, Tarmo, 1974-

    2015-01-01

    Eesti Ajaloomuuseumi näitus "Riik malelaual. Saksa okupatsioon Eestis 1941-1944" Maarjamäe suvemõisa tallihoones, kuraator Olev Liivik. 19. sajandist pärit tallihoone renoveerimisest. Autor Tarmo Piirmets (Pink); arhitektid Jaak Huimerind, AB Studio Paralleel

  15. Noorhobuste tšempionaat 2012 takistussõidus : üldjuhend / Eesti Hobusekasvatajate Selts

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2012-01-01

    Tartumaa RSK ja Sporditeeninduse MTÜ poolt koostöös Eesti hobusekasvatajate Seltsi ja Eesti Ratsaspordi Liidu ning Eesti Sporthobuste Kasvatajate Seltsiga korraldatava Noorhobuste tšempionaadi 2012 kvalifikatsioonide ja finaalvõistluse korraldamise aluseks olev üldjuhend

  16. Majanduslike ressursside defitsiit sotsiaalse tõrjutuse kujundajana / Vilve Raudik, Inger Kraav

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raudik, Vilve

    1998-01-01

    Uurimusest, mille tulemusena selgus, et halva majandusliku olukorraga seoses olev sotsiaalne tõrjutus väljendub kogu lapseea jooksul suuremas kaitsetustundes, hirmudes, lähisuhetes erinevates probleemides, psühhosomaatilistes väljendusvormides, ümbritsevas keskkonnas toimetulekus, enesekehtestamise- ja terviseprobleemides.

  17. Raamat / Matis Rodin

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rodin, Matis

    2012-01-01

    Tutvustus: Kalm, Mart. Rannalinn, seenrõdu ja viinakapp : Pärnu linnaarhitekt Olev Siinmaa. Eesti Arhitektuurimuuseum : Eesti Kunstiakadeemia, 2012; Olander, Aare. Kadunud vaated : Tallinna muutumine enam kui 400 fotol. Tänapäev, 2012; Mälestiste restaureerimine : enne ja pärast 2005-2011 / koostanud Britta Lainevool ja Ülo Puustak. Muinsuskaitseamet, 2011

  18. Eesti kunstiaarded rändasid üle mere: "Ma poleks õiglane, kui hoiaksin maalid vaid endale" / Oliver Õunmaa

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Õunmaa, Oliver

    2010-01-01

    Eesti maalikunsti ülevaatenäitus "Eesti värvid - 150 aastat eesti maalikunsti Enn Kunila kogust" Helsingi Taidehallis 24. novembrini 2010. Enn Kunila, näituse kuraatori Harry Liivranna, Helsingi kunstihoone juhataja kohusetäitja Taru Tappola kommentaarid. Näituse kujundas Olev Subbi, soomekeelse raamatu näituse kohta koostas Eero Epner

  19. Enn Kunila: kunst on Eestile hea visiitkaart / Enn Kunila ; intervjueerinud Ants Juske

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kunila, Enn, 1950-

    2010-01-01

    Ärimees ja kunstimetseen Enn Kunila tegevusvaldkondadest ja kunstikogu põhjal avatavast näitusest. Näitus "Kölerist Subbini. 150 aastat Eesti klassikalist maalikunsti Enn Kunila kogust" Tallinna Kunstihoones 24. veebruarist 1. aprillini. Kureerinud Harry Liivrand, kujundanud Olev Subbi

  20. Läbimurre: Enn Kunila saadab oma maalikogu Soome näitusele / Andres Eilart ; kommenteerinud Harry Liivrand

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Eilart, Andres

    2010-01-01

    Helsingi Taidehallis avatakse oktoobri keskel ülevaatenäitus "Viron värit - 150 vuatta virolaista maalaustaidetta Enn Kunilan kokoelmasta" ("Eesti värvid - 150 aastat eesti maalikunsti Enn Kunila kollektsioonist"). Näituse kuraator Harry Liivrand, kujundaja Olev Subbi. Mitmekeelse kunstialbumi koostajaks on kunstiteadlane Eero Epner

  1. Helsingis avatakse suur Eesti maalinäitus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2010-01-01

    Eesti maalikunsti ülevaatenäitus "Viron värit - 150 vuotta virolaista maalaustaideta Enn Kunilan kokoelamasta" ("Eesti värvid - 150 aastat eesti maalikunsti Enn Kunila kogust") Helsingi kunstihoones (Helsingin Taidehalli) 16. oktoobrist 24. novembrini 2010. Näituse kuraator Harry Liivrand, kujundaja Olev Subbi. Väljapanekut saatva raamatu on koostanud Eero Epner, kujundanud Tiit Jürna

  2. В Хельсинки открылась выставка эстонской живописи

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2010-01-01

    Helsingi kunstihoones (Helsingin Taidehalli) avati 15. oktoobril Eesti maalikunsti ülevaatenäitus "Viron värit - 150 vuotta virolaista maalaustaideta Enn Kunilan kokoelamasta" ("Eesti värvid - 150 aastat eesti maalikunsti Enn Kunila kogust"). Kuraator Harry Liivrand, kujundaja Olev Subbi. Helsingis on "Viron värit" avatud 24. novembrini

  3. Lahingustress ajab USA sõdurid jooma / Neeme Raud

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raud, Neeme, 1969-

    2007-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Postimees : na russkom jazõke, 15. märts 2007, lk. 10. USA kaitseministeeriumi siseuurimuse kohaselt kasvas alkoholi kuritarvitamine tegevteenistuses olevate USA sõjaväelaste seas aastatel 2002-2005 enam kui 30%. Alkoholi ja uimastite tarvitamisest Iraagis ja Afganistanis teenivate USA sõdurite hulgas. Vt. samas: USA relvajõududes puhkes uus homoskandaal

  4. Liivi sõda meenutab kolm sammast / Robert Nerman

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Nerman, Robert, 1946-2015

    2004-01-01

    Tallinlaste lahingut Ivan Julma väega meenutasid kolm mälestussammast: kivirist raehärra Lüdecke von Oitenile seisis kunagi Kauba 4 hoovis, praegugi Marta tänaval seisev kivirist Blasius Hocgrevele, Dominiiklaste kloostris olev Pärnu mnt. 105 asunud kiviplaat. Langenud Mustpeade mälestusmaal on Lambert Glandorfi töö

  5. Lapsevanemate kasvatusväärtused ja -meetodid laste hinnangute alusel / Inger Kraav

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kraav, Inger, 1941-

    2001-01-01

    Uuringust, mille ülesandeks oli selgitada, millised on lapsevanemate kasvatusväärtused ja kasvatusmeetodid laste nägemuses ja kas/kuivõrd lapsed tajuvad seost vanemate poolt kasutatud kasvatusmeetodite ja nende aluseks olevate väärtuste vahel. Küsitlus toimus Eesti, Soome ja Vene koolide VIII klassides

  6. The Pleasures of Mud : Estonian Summer Resort Architecture / Mart Kalm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kalm, Mart, 1961-

    2006-01-01

    Pärnu, Haapsalu, Kuressaare ja Narva-Jõesuu suvitusarhitektuurist 20. saj. esimesest poolest kuni 21. saj. alguseni. Arhitektide Olev Siinmaa, Anton Soansi, August Volbergi, Tõnis Mihkelsoni, Raivo Puusepa, Raivo Kotovi, Üla Koppeli, Andrus Kõresaare, ehitusinseneride Erich Ottingi ja Robert Ederma ning sisearhitektide Tüüne-Kristin Vaikla, Urmo Vaikla, Liisi Murula ja Raili Palingu loomingust

  7. Alustatud töö tehakse lõpuni / Colin L Powell

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Powell, Colin L

    2004-01-01

    Hinnang vangide väärkohtlemisele. ÜRO ja rahvusvahelise üldsusega koostöös olev Iraagi valitsus viib riigi vabadele ja õiglastele valimistele ning iraaklased saavad ise oma saatuse üle otsustada, tõdeb USA riigisekretär. Osalemisest Lähis-Ida rahuprotsessis

  8. Lendtäht Eesti Rahva Muuseumis / Kristina Leer

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Leer, Kristina

    1999-01-01

    Läänemere riikides ringkäigul olev taani immigrantkunsti näitus "LendTäht" 12.-30 V Eesti Rahva Muuseumis. Näituseprojekti algatas Kopenhaageni Shambala galerii. Eestist osalevad skulptor Ivan Zubaka, maalikunstnik Valeri Vinogradov. Üldkujundaja iraagi päritolu kunstnik Mahmoud Al-Ibadi

  9. Ammende villa Pärnus / Aivar Roosaar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Roosaar, Aivar

    2000-01-01

    1905. a. F. Mierits & I. Gerassimov projekti järgi ehitatud Ammende villa ajaloost, arhitektuurist, interjöörist, Olev Siinmaa kavandatud ümberehitusest, 1997.-98. a. restaureerimisprojektist. Arhitektuurne eskiis, sisekujundus: AS Pindisain - Aivar Roosaar, tehnilised joonised Oleg Mellov. Tehniline projekt: AS Tari. Tellijad Rein Kilk, Hans H. Luik. Villa valmis 1999. 15 illustratsiooni. Pindisain (arhitektibüroo)

  10. Tähtis kokkuvõtteid teha : EPA - 35 / Minna Klementi, Arnold Rüütel, Nikolai Kozlov ... [jt.] ; [intervjueerinud] Tiina Siimets

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1986-01-01

    Küsimustele vastavad EPA endised rektorid Minna Klementi ja Arnold Rüütel, rektor Nikolai Kozlov, ATK esimees Heino Veldi, ATK esimehe esimene asetäitja, ENSV minister Vello Lind, ATK esimehe asetäitja Jüri Kulbin, ATK esimehe asetäitja, EPA põllumajandusloomade aretuse kateedri professori kt. Olev Saveli

  11. Arhitektura pod ugrozoi / Viktoria Panova

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Panova, Viktoria

    2005-01-01

    World Monuments Fund (Ülemaailmne Mälestusmärkide Fond) on avaldanud hädaohus olevate arhitektuurimälestusmärkide nimekirja, kus on näiteks Riia Toomkirik, Dzhvari kloostrikompleks Gruusias, kõik Iraagi eri aegade mälestusmärgid. Eesti objekte nimekirjas ei ole

  12. Rain Seier : Ehitusjärelevalve ei vaja oma tööks buldooserit / Rain Seier ; interv. Askur Alas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Seier, Rain

    2006-01-01

    Tallinna ehitusjärelevalve teenistuse direktor vastab küsimustele, mis puudutavad kinnisvaraarendajate kõrvalekaldumist hoone projektist, Hiiu pansionaadi juhtumit, ehitusjärelevalve põhiprobleeme Tallinnas. Ta peab otstarbekaks luua kasutuses olevate ehitiste tehnilise korrasoleku kontrolli süsteem

  13. Eestluse kütkes / Krista Maajärv

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Maajärv, Krista

    2005-01-01

    2005.a. Eesti Televisiooni ekraanile jõudnud dokumentaalfimid sarjast "Eesti lood": "Kahe näoga saar" (Kerttu Soans), "Nagu noor jumal" (Olev Remsu), "Polaarrütmid" (Katharina Grepp), "Ma olen ju naine" (Kert Grünberg), "Avasta rikas nurgatagune kosmoses" (Jaan Tootsen), "Dreamland Queens" (Liina Trishkina) ja "Punk ja perekond" (Kaspar Kaljas)

  14. Belaja shkola, Dom ofitserov i notshnoi klub v raznoje vremja razmeshtshalis pod odnoi i toi zhe krõshei / Olaf Esna

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Esna, Olaf, 1934-

    2005-01-01

    Pärnu Tütarlaste Gümnaasiumi hoone ehitusest Rüütli tänavale (1866). Ehitasid eesti külamehed eesotsas Jaan Tammanniga Šveitsi arhitekti Rudolf Maagi järelvalve all. Alates 1902. a. tegutsesid nn. "valges majas" mitmed asutused, ka linnaapteek, millele projekteeris unikaalse mööbli Olev Siinmaa

  15. Skype'i eestlastest omanikel lebab pangakontol 725 miljonit krooni / Mikk Salu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Salu, Mikk, 1975-

    2006-01-01

    Endale kuuluvad Skype'i aktsiad müünud neli eestlast on viimasel ajal asutanud mitmeid firmasid, mille tegevusala on investeeringute haldamine ja arendamine. Esimene suurim ühine investeering on 25 miljonit krooni, mis läheb investeerimispanga Cresco juhi Olev Schultsi firmasse Clifton. Tabel: Ambient Sound Investments OÜ. Lisa: Clifton ja pooljuhtlülitid

  16. Gallup : kirjandus, kirjanik, kriitika ja kriitik : [küsitlus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Küsimustele vastavad: Jan Kaus, Arne Merilai, Aarne Ruben, Peeter Sauter, Asta Põldmäe, Aare Pilv, Arvo Valton, Lauri Sommer, Mari Laaniste, Toomas Raudam, Ivar Sild, Olev Remsu, Kalle Kurg, Fagira D Morti, Eeva Park, Neeme Lopp, Valle-Sten Maiste, Sirli Ojaste, Ene-Reet Soovik, Märt Väljataga, Indrek Mesikepp

  17. Salvador Dali Kopenhaagenis / Ave Räkk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Räkk, Ave

    1999-01-01

    Salvador Dalí näitus Kopenhaageni moodsa kunsti muuseumis Arkenis kuni 2. I 2000. Eksponeeritud 119 originaaljoonistust autobiograafilisest raamatust 'The secret life of Salvador Dali', umbes 300 illustratsiooni, graafikat, skulptuure, kuld ja klaasehistöid, mööblit ja üks maal: 1944. a. valminud, esmakordselt avalikkuse ees olev 'Papillion'.

  18. Vozvrashtshenije "Tihhogo Dona" / Tatjana Hartshenko

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hartshenko, Tatjana

    2006-01-01

    Sergei Bondartshuki teleseriaali "Vaikne Don" (M. Sholohhovi teose järgi) lugu. 10-seerialine epopöa oli maksmata arvete katteks 15 aastat arestituna Itaalia pangas. Seriaali on asunud uuesti monteerima režissööri poeg Fjodor Bondartshuk. Ajalehe "Pjarnuski Ekspress" vahel olev lisaleht on dateeritud 4. aprill 2006, nr. 12

  19. Kärstna lõvikuju sai käpa jälle tagasi / Aivar Aotäht

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Aotäht, Aivar, 1970-

    2007-01-01

    Kärstna Kabelimäel asuv malmist lõvikuju sai eelmisel aastal varastatu asemele uue käpa. Modelleeris skulptor Paul Uibopuu. Kunstimälestisena muinsuskaitse all olev lõvikuju pandi Kabelimäele 1844. aastal kindralleitnant Reinhold von Anrepi mälestuseks

  20. Kärstna lõvikuju saab sügiseks uue käpa / Jüri E Kukk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kukk, Jüri E., 1961-

    2007-01-01

    Kärstna Kabelimäel asuvalt metallist lõvikujult varastatud käpa asendustöödest. Uue käpa modelleeris skulptor Paul Uibopuu. Kunstimälestisena muinsuskaitse all olev lõvikuju pandi Kabelimäele 1844. aastal kindralleitnant Reinhold von Anrepi mälestuseks

  1. Pärnus taas kuldne svingiajastu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    19. ja 26. dets. esinevad Pärnus Café Grandis Pärnu linnaorkestri muusikutest koosnev bigbänd Swingkompanii G7 ja Airi Allvee, kõlavad Glenn Milleri, Duke Ellingtoni, RAimond Valgre jt lood (arranzheeringud on Olev Söödilt)

  2. Pallaslaste maalikunst rahvusraamatukogus / Jüri Hain

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hain, Jüri, 1941-

    2008-01-01

    Näitus "Pallaslaste maalikunst Eesti Rahvusraamatukogus" rahvusraamatukogu peanäitusesaalis kuni 6. XII. Andrus Johani, Valdemar Väli, Juhan Nõmmiku, Eerik Haameri, Endel Kõksi, Ene Falkenbergi, Silvia Leitu, Olev Mikiveri, Richard Sagritsa, Richard Uutmaa, Valerian Loigu ja Elmar Kitse töödest

  3. Pamjatniki pervõm / Йосеф Кац

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Кац, Йосеф, 1977-

    2006-01-01

    Presidentide Konstantin Pätsi ja Lennart Meri büstide avamine Kadrioru lossi roosiaias. K. Pätsi büst on 1938. a. Ferdi Sannamehe töö pronkskoopia ja L. Meri büst Mare Mikofi 2000. a. tehtud "Lennart Mere portree". Büstide kunstiväärtust kommenteerib Olev Subbi

  4. Friedrich Puksoo auhind

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1997-01-01

    Kaljo-Olev Veskimäele rmt. "Nõukogude unelaadne elu : tsensuur Eesti NSV-s ja tema peremahed" eest, ära märgiti Arvo Teringi töö "Descartes ja tema ideede jõudmine Baltimaile 17. saj. ja 18. saj. algul"

  5. PBF: A New Privacy-Aware Billing Framework for Online Electric Vehicles with Bidirectional Auditability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasheed Hussain

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently an online electric vehicle (OLEV concept has been introduced, where vehicles are propelled by the wirelessly transmitted electrical power from the infrastructure installed under the road while moving. The absence of secure-and-fair billing is one of the main hurdles to widely adopt this promising technology. This paper introduces a new secure and privacy-aware fair billing framework for OLEV on the move through the charging plates installed under the road. We first propose two extreme lightweight mutual authentication mechanisms, a direct authentication and a hash chain-based authentication between vehicles and the charging plates that can be used for different vehicular speeds on the road. Second, we propose a secure and privacy-aware wireless power transfer on move for the vehicles with bidirectional auditability guarantee by leveraging game theoretic approach. Each charging plate transfers a fixed amount of energy to the vehicle and bills the vehicle in a privacy-aware way accordingly. Our protocol guarantees secure, privacy-aware, and fair billing mechanism for the OLEVs while receiving electric power from the infrastructure installed under the road. Moreover, our proposed framework can play a vital role in eliminating the security and privacy challenges in the deployment of power transfer technology to the OLEVs.

  6. Postimees hääletas võitjaks Korea filmi "Tühi maja"

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2004-01-01

    Tallinna VIII Pimedate Ööde Filmifestivali võistlusfilme hindas 5-palli süsteemis viis asjatundjat : Sulev Teinemaa, Kristiina Davidjants, Olev Remsu, Jaak Allik Ja Giuseppe Gariazzo. Kõik esitavad oma hinnangu lühikokkuvõtte. Lisatud lõplik tabel

  7. Ämblikmehe uus tulemine / Laurence Lumiere

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lumiere, Laurence

    2004-01-01

    Mängufilm "Ämblikmees 2" ("Spider Man 2") : režissöör Sam Raimi : peaosatäitja Tobey Maguire : Ameerika Ühendriigid 2004. Filmi aluseks olev Stan Lee ja Steve Ditko koomiks alustas ilmumist 1962. aastal

  8. Ämblikmees ja tehnoloogilised ängid / James Thurlow ; tõlk. Vappu Thurlow

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Thurlow, James

    2004-01-01

    Mängufilm "Ämblikmees 2" ("Spider Man 2") : režissöör Sam Raimi : peaosatäitja Tobey Maguire : Ameerika Ühendriigid 2004. Filmi aluseks olev Stan Lee ja Steve Ditko koomiks alustas ilmumist 1962. aastal

  9. Urva ostis Sammelselja Norby viimased tükid / Kaisa Tahlfeld

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tahlfeld, Kaisa

    2009-01-01

    Norby Telecomi suuromanik ja pankrotiprotsessis olev Guido Sammelselg müüs telekommunikatsiooniettevõttele Linxtelecom viimased osad sideettevõttest Norby, milleks on andmesideteenuste äriüksus koos kaubamärgiga Metroo ja IP-kõneside (VoIP) äriüksus

  10. Õlitootja Werol veab halduriga vägikaigast / Toivo Tänavsuu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tänavsuu, Toivo

    2005-01-01

    Werol Tehaste ajutisel pankrotihalduril Olev Kuklasel on tekkinud menetluse käigus mitmeid tõsiseid küsimusi. Weroli nõukogu esimehe Raul Rosenbergi etteheiteid ajutisele pankrotihaldurile. Lisad: Werol: ajutine haldur tekitab kahju; Advokaat Mägi: Biodiesel on müügis

  11. Intervention The Giving of Food Tradisional Opak-Opak With Enrichment of the Yellow Tail Fish and Powder Leaves Moringa as an Food Alternative of Distraction Nutrious for Pregnant Women KEK in the Districh North Lombok

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susilo Wirawan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pregnant women who suffer Energy Chronic Defisiensi (KEK have a greater risk of morbidity, especially in comparison to normal pregnant women. As a result, the risk for having a baby with low birth weight increased. KEK pregnant women in North Lombok region increased from year to year. Researchers are making efforts to prevent it. Researchers gave “Opak” Typical North Lombok has innovated by adding Moringa leaf powder and Ikan ekor kuning. The purpose of research creates opaque products enriched nutrients Opak Kelor Ikan (OKI, knowing acceptance of pregnant women against product, reviewing and analyzing the ease of getting the product to the target product sustainability of provision. Methods: Pre-experimental research methods for the design of the product, then the organoleptic tests, selected the best products, test and product proximate ready to be given to the respondent. OKI was given for 30 days. Results: Design making panelists preferred OIC is the use of fish and moringa ratio 1:2. The content of nutrients best OKI 2.64% protein, 4.07% fat, carbohydrates 83.9%, and 2.34% ash. Meeting the needs of nutrients from the OKI to snack pregnant women is about 3–4 pieces (65 grams. Samples were feeling good (61.7%, slightly bitter at 58.3%, 96.7% said crunchy. Ease of getting OKI, easy (91.7%. How to get, walking (86.7%. Access to get in the shop (83.3%. Sustainability of the OKI shows like only 32.53%, but the majority of respondents willing to continue with the 73%. depth interview in pregnant women happy diberikan OKI because these foods commonly consumed much less nutritious for babies. The midwife stated OKI very helpful in disseminating knowledge about nutritious food for pregnant women. Stakeholders from religious leaders expressed readiness to support and dissemination of information in any religious lectures delivered so that people become more familiar with the OKI. Conclusion: OKI can be given to pregnant women and can

  12. Incidence of dizziness and vertigo in Japanese primary care clinic patients with lifestyle-related diseases: an observational study

    OpenAIRE

    Wada, Masaoki; Takeshima,Taro; Nakamura,Yosikazu; Nagasaka,Shoichiro; Kamesaki,Toyomi; Oki,Hiroshi; Kajii,Eiji

    2015-01-01

    Masaoki Wada,1,2 Taro Takeshima,1 Yosikazu Nakamura,3 Shoichiro Nagasaka,4 Toyomi Kamesaki,1 Hiroshi Oki,2 Eiji Kajii1 1Division of Community and Family Medicine, Center for Community Medicine, Jichi Medical University, Tochigi, Japan; 2Oki Clinic, Ibaraki, Japan; 3Department of Public Health, Jichi Medical University, Tochigi, Japan; 4Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Jichi Medical University, Tochigi, Japan Objective: Dizziness and vertigo are highl...

  13. Self-Organization of Friction Surface of Fe-Mn-C-B Coating With Increased Resistance to Abrasion / Samoorganizacja Powierzchni Tarcia Powłoki Fe-Mn-C-B O Zwiększonej Odporności Na Zużycie Ścierne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barszcz M.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper concerns the research on self-organization of the surface of coating of hypoeutectic alloy Fe-Mn-C-B modified Si, Ni, Cr, Cu with friction with C45 steel. The coatings were obtained by arc welding using a flux-cored wire. Tests of resistance to wear were carried out for hypoeutectic coatings with use of the friction pair pin-on-disc in the conditions of sliding friction, in model lubricating environments. The surface-active (glycerol oil and inactive (Vaseline grease lubricant was used. Tribological tests carried out showed that cooperation of hypoeutectic alloy coating with counterbody of C45 steel with lubrication with surface-active lubricant results in a significant improvement in tribological properties than in case of the lubrication with surface-inactive lubricant. The resulting effect is related to the self-organization of friction surface. After deposition and wear resistance tests, the friction surface microstructure was analysed, as well as the surface and depth distribution of the elements.

  14. Kes on tõusmas relvile? / Jürgen Rooste

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rooste, Jürgen, 1979-

    2004-01-01

    Arvustus: Oja, Martin., keelatud raamat : tekste 1996-2000. Tallinn : 9 Koma, 2003 ; Klaus, Eduard. Pommikutsikas. Tartu : Ilmamaa, 2003 ; Mölter, Artur. Leitud hing... ja purunenud süda. Põltsamaa : A. Mölter, 2003 ; Kera, Mihkel. Tähelepanekuid noorusaastatest. I. k. : Kirja Kerrallaan, 2003 ; Valme, Villem. Artur Tõhu unenägu. Tallinn : Paala Järv, 2003 ; Valdmann, Astrid, Kagovere, Ott. Haiged lapsed. Sutlema (Raplamaa) : A. Valdmann, 2004 ; Olematu, Olev. Ederlezi. [Tallinn] : Huma, 2003

  15. Short outlines of books by Estonian authors / Rutt Hinrikus, Janika Kronberg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hinrikus, Rutt, 1946-

    2002-01-01

    Ehlvest, Jüri. Taevatrepp ; Suuman, Aleksander. Tondihobu tõugud vetikatega ; Õunapuu, Ervin. Mõõk. Nagu jõgi ; Nigov, Anton. Harjutused ; Hainsalu, Lehte. Kellakuuljad ; Heinsaar, Mehis. Härra Pauli kroonikad ; Bristol, Piret. Sajandi öömajad ; Kas kuulete...? : [kuuldemängud] / koost. Tamur Tohver; Rummo, Paul-Eerik. Kohvikumuusikat ; Käsper, Kalle. Vennad Luiged ; Põldroos, Enn. Mees narrimütsiga ; Remsu, Olev. Margit Puusaag ja tema mehed ; Sauter, Peeter. Pori

  16. Alasti pioneer / Jelena Skulskaja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Skulskaja, Jelena, 1950-

    2005-01-01

    Teatri- ja filmiuudiseid Venemaalt : Kira Muratova mängufilm "Häälestaja" ("Nastroishtshik"), Aleksandr Sokurovi töös olev mängufilm Thomas Manni ja Johann Wolfgang Goethe ainetel "Faust" ning Kirill Serebrjannikovi lavastus Sovremennikus Mihhail Kononovi romaani "Alasti pioneer" järgi, peaosas Tshulpan Hamatova. Ajalehe tiitellehel kuupäevaks "märtsi lõpp (4/05)"

  17. Afganistan ja USA tülitsevad vangide ja oopiumi pärast / Heiki Suurkask

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Suurkask, Heiki, 1972-

    2005-01-01

    USA presidendi George W. Bushiga kohtumise järel nõudis Afganistani president Hamid Karzai USA käes olevate Afganistani vangide väljaandmist, ta oli nördinud teadete üle, kuidas vange on koheldud. Karzai nõudis kontrolli Afganistanis viibivate USA sõdurite üle ja relvastatud reidide lõpetamist afgaanide kodudesse. Lisa: USA ründab Afganistani narkoäri

  18. Päevaleht kasvatab tellijate arvu tasa ja targu / Aavo Kokk ; interv. Eda-Liis Kann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kokk, Aavo, 1964-

    2005-01-01

    2004. aasta ajalehtede TOP-is esikoha võitnud Eesti Päevalehe peadirektor vastab küsimustele, mis puudutavad ajalehe tiraazhi, müügistrateegiat, reklaamikäivet, reklaami müümist esikaanel ja konkurentsi ajalehega Postimees. Vt. samas: Eda-Liis Kann. Ajalehed prognoosivad reklaamikasvu. Kommenteerib OÜ Türi Rahvaleht peatoimetaja Olev Kenk. Tabel: Ajalehtede TOP 15

  19. Unest äratatud Alatskivi loss / Meeli Müüripeal, Sirje Pärismaa

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Müüripeal, Meeli, 1963-

    2005-01-01

    Alatskivi lossist (Arved von Nolcken, 1880-1885), lossi restaureerimise käigust ja seisust. Korras on viis esindusruumi. Sisekujunduse autorid: Olev Suuder, Oleg Mellov, ARC Projekt. SA Alatskivi Loss plaanidest. Kommenteerivad sihtasutuse juhataja Külli Must, lossi taastamise eestvedajad restauraator Raivo Nisu ja senine vallavanem Maie Nisu, kes kaitses 2004. a. EKA-s magistritöö "Alatskivi mõisaansambli revitaliseerimise ideeprojekt". 14 ill

  20. Short outlines of books by Estonian authors : [annotations] / Rutt Hinrikus, Janika Kronberg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hinrikus, Rutt, 1946-

    1999-01-01

    Ehin, Andres. Seljatas sada meest; Ilmet, Peep. Tuuldunud luule; Kaplinski, Jaan. Öölinnud. Öömõtted; Kender, Kaur. Iseseisvuspäev; Kesküla, Kalev. Vabariigi laulud; Luik, Viivi. Maa taevas; Nõu, Helga. Hundi silmas; Raun, Mait. Wake up; Remsu, Olev. Haapsalu tragöödia; Sauter, Peeter. Kogu moos; Undusk, Jaan. Maagiline müstiline keel; Vint, Toomas. Kunstnikuromaan

  1. Iraan Suurbritannia vastu : kes paindus? / Francis Fukuyama

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Fukuyama, Francis

    2007-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Postimees : na russkom jazõke 17. apr. lk. 7. Iraani sisepoliitikast seoses 15 Briti mereväejalaväelase arreteerimise ja vabastamisega, Iraani probleemist Islami Revolutsioonilise Kaardiväe (IRGC või Pasradan) ja sellega liidusuhetes olevate institutsioonidega nagu Basj sõjaväeline rühmitus. Autori arvates tahtsid mõned Iraani rühmitused teravdada vastasseisu Suurbritannia ja USA-ga

  2. Kunstikogumise võim / Reet Varblane

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Varblane, Reet, 1952-

    2010-01-01

    Näitus "Eesti värvid - 150 aastat eesti maalikunsti Enn Kunila kollektsioonis" Helsingi Taidehallis 24. novembrini 2010, kuraator Harry Liivrand, kujundaja Olev Subbi. Näitus "Itaalia joon. Itaalia XX sajandi kunst Pieraccini kogust" Ateneumis 16. jaanuarini 2011, kuraator Heikki Valme. Näitus "Mant. Damien Hirst ja kaasaegsed" (Young British Artists) Kiasmas 7. novembrini 2010, kuraatorid Arja Miller ja Satu Metsola

  3. Kohalik tööstus pelgab pankade ja väliskapitali kokkumängu / Margit Aedla

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Aedla, Margit, 1970-

    2003-01-01

    Tallinna Piimatööstuse juhatuse esimees Aare Annus spekuleerib võimaluse üle, mille kohaselt võidakse Eesti ühinemisel EL-iga hakata rootslaste omanduses olevate pankade kaudu mõjutama meie ettevõtete käekäiku, sest kardetakse sealsete turuliidrite positsioonide halvenemist. Eesti Ühispanga juht Ain Hanschmidt ja Hansapanga juht Indrek Neivelt välistavad sellise võimaluse

  4. Finantsstabiilsus eurotsoonis / Charles Goodhart

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Goodhart, Charles

    2004-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Kroon & Economy, nr. 3, 2004, lk. 27-38. Tõlge London School of Economicsi finantsturgude grupi asedirektori ettekandest "Financial Management in the Euro-zone" Eesti Panga avatud seminaril 1. septembril 2004. Majanduspoliitika põhiseaduslikest piirangutest Euroopa Liidus, fiskaal- ja rahapoliitika vastastikusest mõjust, finantssüsteemi ülesehitusest liikmesriikides, kriisiohjamisest välisomanduses olevate pankade puhul. Tabel

  5. Jaani kiriku vitraažid : sündmuste ahel, mis viis Tartu Jaani kiriku vitraažakna lõhkumiseni / Urmo Raus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raus, Urmo, 1969-

    2004-01-01

    Sihtasutus Jaani kirik eemaldas 2004. a. aprillis Urmo Rausi kavandatud vitraažakna, akna metallstruktuur lõigati ketaslõikuriga tükkideks. Ekspertkomisjoni (22. IX 2001, Tartu) tegevusest ja otsusest ning teostatavast uuest vitraažilahendusest. Olev Printsi Tartu Jaani kiriku uurimismaterjalidest. Tartu Jaani kiriku vitraažiprojekt on 14. IX 2003-31. VIII 2004 väljas Chartres'i rahvusvahelises vitraažikeskuses näitusel "Les passeurs de lumiere"

  6. Puutumatu Riigiprokuratuur / Manuela Pihlap

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pihlap, Manuela

    2009-01-01

    President Toomas Hendrik Ilvese visiidi ajal Aserbaidžaani 2009. a. jaanuaris toimus Bakuus meeleavaldus. Meeleavaldajad nõudsid Eestis vahi all olevate Aserbaidžaani päritolu ettevõtjate vabastamist. Lisaks süüdistatakse Aserbaidžaanis Eesti riigiprokuröri Margus Kurmi rahanõudmises ja Eesti riiki seaduste rikkumises. Meeleavaldajad lubasid pöörduda Euroopa Nõukogu poole

  7. Graafikatriennaali peapreemia läks Lätti / Kadri Karro

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Karro, Kadri

    2011-01-01

    Kumu Kunstimuuseumis avatud 15. Tallinna Graafikatriennaali "Armastuse, mitte raha pärast" Grand Prix saanud Edmunds Jansonsi (Läti) animeeritud dokumentaalfilmist "Väikese linnukese päevik" (2007). Kolm võrdset preemiat pälvinud Antonio Claudio Carvalho (Brasiilia), õde Mary Corita (Corita Kent, 1918-1986, USA) ja Alina Rudnitskaja (Venemaa) töödest. Eripreemiate saajad. Oliver Laas sai ERKF Olev Soansi mälestusfondi stipendiumi

  8. Estonian Airi president : uus äristrateegia toob ettevõttele edu / Borge Thornbech ; interv. Andres Reimer

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Thornbech, Borge

    2007-01-01

    Estonian Air asutas regionaalsete lendude korraldamiseks ettevõtte Estonian Air Regional, idee on arendada tegevust lühidistantsidel ja luua ühenduslüli lennukompanii Euroopa-liinide vahel. Kommenteerivad Olev Schults, Oleg Harlamov, Rein Mark. Vt. samas: Kõik aktsionärid vannuvad Estonian Airile truudust; Estonian Air kaalub Tartu lennuliini avamist. Kaart: Reisijate jagunemine sihtkohtade vahel. Graafikud: Estonian Air kukkus kahjumisse

  9. Arhitektuuriaasta 2007 = The year 2007 in architecture / Liina Jänes

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jänes, Liina, 1977-

    2008-01-01

    Eesti Kultuurkapitali 2007. a. arhitektuuri valdkonna peapreemia pälvis Vello Asi. Arhitektuuri sihtkapital: tegevuspremia - Kalle Komissarov, arhitektuuripreemia - Kalle Vellevoog (pansionaat Pärnus Seedri t. 4), arhitektuuri- ja sisearhitektuuri preemia - Lembit-Kaur Stöör, Tõnis Kimmel, Raili Paling ja Liis Lindvere (Tallinna sünagoog), restaureerimispreemia - Aivar Roosaar (Tartu Athena kino ja konverentsikeskus), uurimistöö preemia - Silja Konsa, Urve Sinijärv, Olev Abner, Kersti Lootus, Ants Hein (teatmeteos "Eesti pargid. 1")

  10. Eesti-Inglise filmikoostöö / Kristiina Heinmets

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Heinmets, Kristiina

    2003-01-01

    Eestis viibib 3 briti režissööri, kes osalevad koos Inglismaal filmivate eesti filmitegijate Marko Raadi, Andri Luubi ja Hendrik Toompere jun-ga lühimängufilmide koostööprojektis "The Tyne Tallinn Digital Film Challenge-2003". Lisatud lühiinfo kõigi kuue režissööri ja nende töös olevate filmide kohta

  11. Kohtumisel Bushiga tuleks tõstatada ka Estonia huku teema / Allar Viivik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Viivik, Allar

    2006-01-01

    Parvlaeval Estonia hukkunute omaste ühendused avaldasid oma pöördumises Toomas Hendrik Ilvesele soovi, et president arutaks kohtumisel USA presidendi George W. Bushiga USA julgeolekuagentuuri NSA käsutuses olevate laevahukku puudutavate salastatud dokumentide üleandmist Eestile. Pöördumisele on alla kirjutanud Estonia Litigation Associationi esimees Helje Kaskel ja Estonia Hukupõhjuste Väljaselgitamise Mittetulundusühingu (EHVM) juht Ülo Veide

  12. Kas teie arvates tuleks Ülejõe pargid Emajõe vasakkaldal taashoonestada? / intervjueerinud Ivi Drikkit ja Jüri Saar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2011-01-01

    Vastasid: Mati Tolmoff, Veljo Ipits, Toomas Savi, Verni Loodmaa, Väino Kull, Toomas Kapp, Triin Anette Kaasik, Kristjan Karis, Hele Everaus, Margot Fjuk, Janika Mölder, Hannes Astok, Jaak Adamsoo, Martin Parmas, Toivo Kabanen, Oleg Nesterenko, Tõnu Ints, Piret Uluots, Peep Peterson, Marju Lauristin, Jarno Laur, Arno Arukask, Ülo Veldre, Toomas Jürgenstein, Veera Sirg, Maie Pastik, Elmut Paavel, Avo Rosenvald, Toivo Maimets, Peeter Tulviste, Joel Luhamets, Jüri Kõre, Ants Kask, Enn Tarto, Tarmo Punger, Merle Jääger, Vladimir Šokman, Boris Habramov, Jevgenia Lindevaldt, Harri Jallajas, Natalja Trošina, Olev Raju, Nikolai Põdramägi

  13. Kunstnike Liit

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2004-01-01

    EKLi volikogu töökoosolek 5. IV. SA ERF alllfondina loodud Olev Soansi mälestusfondi toetamisest, EKLi 2005. a. aastanäituse korraldamisest Tallinna Kunstihoones, vajalikest täiendustest ja muudatustest põhikirjas, mis puudutavad tehinguid Tallinna Kunstihoone ja selle galeriiga. Võeti vastu tööjuhised SA Tallinna Kunstihoone Fondi nõukogule. EKLi uued liikmed: Kaarel Eelma, Piret Hirv, Sandra Jõgeva, Irene Jürna, Kristin Kalamees, Kristiina Laurits, Eve Margus-Villems, Villu Plink, Lembe Ruben, Katrin Sipelgas, Margus Tamm, Tanel Veenre

  14. Kõige kummalisemad elumajad / Karin Paulus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Paulus, Karin, 1975-

    2007-01-01

    Le Corbusier' proportsioonisüsteemist "Modulor", Margarete Schütte-Lihotzky ja Peter Eisenmani pakutud uudseid lahendusi arhitektuuris. Mart Kadariku projekteeritud eramust Rannamõisas; arhitektuuribüroo Künnapu & Padrik projekteeritud hoonest Triumph Plaza Tallinnas Narva maanteel; Olev Siinmaa villast Pärnus; püramiidmajadest; Gert Sarve ja Lauri Laisaare projekteeritud monoliitbetoonist eramust Tallinnas Nõmmel; KOKO Arhitektuuristuudios projekteeritud Fahle majast Tallinnas; Ülar Margi ja Indrek Tiigi projekteeritud klaasist seintega majast Tallinnas Silgu tänaval

  15. Noorte filmikonkursi võitis "Näljane tudeng" / Enriika Liiv

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Liiv, Enriika

    2007-01-01

    Noortefilmikonkursile laekus tänavu kümme filmi, millest märgiti ära viis. Parimaks tunnistati Haapsalu kolledži rakendusinformaatika tudengite film "Näljane tudeng". Võidufilmi üks autoreid Raido Kiisk ütles, et film on tehtud kolledži kursuse "Õppevideo koostamine" lõputööks. Filmi algidee ja süžee tulid Margus Vöölt, hiljem täiendasid seda Valdo Nõlvak, Tõnis Bramanis, Olev Rahkema ja Raido Kiisk

  16. A New Fractional Projective Riccati Equation Method for Solving Fractional Partial Differential Equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Qing-Hua

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a new fractional projective Riccati equation method is proposed to establish exact solutions for fractional partial differential equations in the sense of modified Riemann—Liouville derivative. This method can be seen as the fractional version of the known projective Riccati equation method. For illustrating the validity of this method, we apply this method to solve the space-time fractional Whitham—Broer—Kaup (WBK) equations and the nonlinear fractional Sharma—Tasso—Olever (STO) equation, and as a result, some new exact solutions for them are obtained. (general)

  17. Kirjanik ja pasatornaado I / Tiit Aleksejev

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Aleksejev, Tiit, 1968-

    2008-01-01

    Vene kodusõja kajastamisest 1920. aastate nõukogude proosas. Käsitletakse Isaak Babeli novellikogu "Ratsaarmee" (tõlkinud Olev Jõgi. Tallinn : Eesti Raamat, 1977), Boriss Lavrenjovi jutustust "Neljakümne esimene" (tõlkinud Jüri Karindi. Tallinn : Eesti Raamat, 1975), Viktor Kini jutustust "Valgete tagalas" (tõlkinud Jüri Ojamaa. Tallinn : Eesti Raamat, 1978), Hubert Minagrelli jutustust "Neli sõdurit" (pr. k. "Quatre soldats"), Andrei Platonovi novelli "Inimene iseendas" (ilmunud raamatus "Meistri saamine" / tõlkinud Virve Krimm. Tallinn : Eesti Raamat, 1979) ja romaani "Tševengur" (ilmunud raamatus "Tševengur. Kotlovan. Rasskazõ". Moskva, 2007), samuti ka Arkadi Gaidari loomingut

  18. Pärnu supelasutuse arhitektuurivõistlused aastatel 1922 ja 1925 = Pärnun kylpylän arkkitehtuurikilpailut vuosina 1922 ja 1925 / Inge Laurik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laurik, Inge

    2004-01-01

    1922. a. konkursi tulemused: I ja II preemia - Erich von Wolffeldt, Aleksander Nürnberg, III - Erich Gramtz. 1925. a. võistluse tulemused: II - Aleksei Golubkov ning Arnold Maydell ja Kurt Baetge, III - Olev Siinmaa. Projekti lõplik väljatöötamine tehti ülesandeks O. Siinmaale, E. Wolffeldtile ja A. Nürnbergile. Tuntumad osavõtjad: Hilding Ekelund, Uno Ullberg, Alvar Aalto. Võistlustingimused ja konkursitööde nimekirjad toodud lk. 90-95, kataloog lk. 97-108. Bibliograafia joonealustes märkustes

  19. Aspect of the 2011 off the Pacific coast Tohoku Earthquake, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Aitaro

    2012-01-01

    The 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake (Tohoku-Oki), Japan, was the first magnitude (M) 9 subduction megathrust event to be recorded by a dense network of seismic, geodetic, and tsunami observations. I here review the Tohoku-Oki earthquake in terms of, 1) asperity model, 2) earthquake source observations, 3) precedent processes, 4) postseismic slip (afetrslip). Based on finite source models of the Tohoku-Oki mainshock, the coseismic fault slip exceeded 30 m at shallow part of the subduction zone off-shore of Miyagi. The rupture reached the trench axis, producing a large uplift therein, which was likely an important factor generating devastating tsunami waves. The mainshock was preceded by slow-slip transients propagating toward the initial rupture point, which may have caused substantial stress loading, prompting the unstable dynamic rupture of the mainshock. Furthermore, a sequence of M 7-class interplate earthquakes and subsequent large afterslip events, those occurred before the mainshock rupture, might be interpreted as preparation stage of the earthquake generation. Most of slip released by the postseismic deformation following the Tohoku-Oki mainshock is located in the region peripheral to the large coseismic slip area. (author)

  20. Children of the Harvest: The Schooling of Dust Bowl and Mexican Migrants during the Depression Era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theobald, Paul; Donato, Ruben

    1990-01-01

    Chronicles experiences of depression era "Okies," juxtaposes them against experiences of Mexican Americans, and illuminates the diminution of agricultural labor in an industrializing society. Schooling for those groups was legitimized by their low occupational status. When economic circumstances improved, whites escaped from migrant…

  1. Gunnar Okk jääb vähemalt aastaks Eesti Energia etteotsa / Urmas Tooming

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tooming, Urmas

    2005-01-01

    Eesti Energia nõukogu otsustas, et Eesti Energia juhi kohale korraldatakse konkurss aasta pärast ning nõukogu esimees Urmas Sõõrumaa sai volituse juhatuse liikmetega läbi rääkida ja nende lepinguid aasta võrra pikendada. Lisa: Gunnar Oki töö

  2. Härra Eesti Energia lahkus haruldase kaevurikirkaga / Andrus Karnau

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Karnau, Andrus

    2005-01-01

    30. novembril oli Eesti Energia juhi kohalt lahkuval Gunnar Okil viimane tööpäev, kuigi Eesti Energia juhatus pakkus Gunnar Okile korralise lepingu lõppemise järel aastast lepingut, keeldus juhatuse esimees selle sõlmimisest. Lisa: Oki-ajastu

  3. Mis on hinge hind ehk Imet ei sündinud / Jaanus Kulli

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kulli, Jaanus, 1955-

    1999-01-01

    Mängufilm "Ristumine peateega" : režissöör ja produtsent Arko Okk : Stsenarist oma näidendi järgi Jaan Tätte : Operaator Dmitri Jermakov : Kunstnik Pille Jänes : Helilooja Jukka Linkola : Acuba Film 1999. Lisa : Arko Oki elu ja loomingu lühikokkuvõte

  4. Connecting to the West : Estonia seeks to sever its ties with Russian power networks / Jaclyn M Sindrich

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sindrich, Jaclyn M

    2000-01-01

    President Lennart Meri, peaminister Mart Laari, majandusminister Mihkel Pärnoja ja Eesti Energia juhatuse esimehe Gunnar Oki kohtumisel tõdeti, et Eesti jaoks on julgeolekupoliitiliseks eelistuseks ühenduse loomine Lääne-Euroopa elektrivõrkudega, mis tähendab ühtlasi Eesti elektrivõrkude lahtiühendamist Venemaa energiasüsteemist

  5. Privacy-Preserving Billing Scheme against Free-Riders for Wireless Charging Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingwen Zhao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, scientists in South Korea developed on-line electric vehicle (OLEV, which is a kind of electric vehicle that can be charged wirelessly while it is moving on the road. The battery in the vehicle can absorb electric energy from the power transmitters buried under the road without any contact with them. Several billing schemes have been presented to offer privacy-preserving billing for OLEV owners. However, they did not consider the existence of free-riders. When some vehicles are being charged after showing the tokens, vehicles that are running ahead or behind can switch on their systems and drive closely for a free charging. We describe a billing scheme against free-riders by using several cryptographic tools. Each vehicle should authenticate with a compensation-prepaid token before it can drive on the wireless-charging-enabled road. The service provider can obtain compensation if it can prove that certain vehicle is a free-rider. Our scheme is privacy-preserving so the charging will not disclose the locations and routine routes of each vehicle. In fact, our scheme is a fast authentication scheme that anonymously authenticates each user on accessing a sequence of services. Thus, it can be applied to sequential data delivering services in future 5G systems.

  6. 14C concentrations in the old woods at 6000yrBP and the variations of cosmic rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Taiichi; Sakurai, Hirohisa; Tokanai, Huyuki

    2008-01-01

    A large quantity of old woods was recently excavated with the Chuetsu-oki Earthquake in the bottom of the sea of near the Izumozaki-oki Nigata Prefecture. First of all, we have measured the radiocarbon ages for the three samples to identify the calendar ages of the woods. The radiocarbon ages were 5357±45 yrBP, 4573±52 yrBP, and 4812±52 yrBP, respectively. Using the OXCAL program, the calendar ages were calculated in the range from 6300 yrBP to 5100 yrBP. The IntCal04 data shows that the 14 C concentrations with the era are very variable with 20 per mille variations. We show a plan to investigate 14 C concentrations of the old tree rings around 6000 yrBP. (author)

  7. Aproksymacja środkowej powierzchni powłok

    OpenAIRE

    Preweda, Edward

    1997-01-01

    Konstrukcjom cienkościennym stawiany jest warunek zgodności ich powierzchni środkowej z powierzchnią określoną założeniami projektowymi. Grubość powłoki uzależniona jest od panujących w niej naprężeń i najczęściej nie jest stała dla całej powłoki. W pracy przedstawiono algorytm badania kształtu powłok uwzględniający powyższe uwarunkowania. Weryfikacja algorytmu na przykładzie hiperboloidalnych chłodni jednopowłokowych wyraźnie uwidacznia różnice pomiędzy aproksymacją powierzchni zewnętrznej i...

  8. Pienten kansojen suuri kirjallisuus : kymmenen vuotta suomalais-ugrilaisten kansojen kirjallisuushistoriaa ja runoutta viroksi / Jaan Õispuu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Õispuu, Jaan

    2006-01-01

    Soome-ugri kirjanduse eestindamisest Arvo Valtoni eestvedamisel, ka Eva Vingiano de Pina Martinsi (Eva Toulouze) tõlkekogumikele kirjutatud mahukatest saatesõnadest. Ülevaade soome-ugri rahvaste kirjanduslugudest. Sarjast "Soome-ugri luuleklassika": "Enne koitu" (1996), "Kevadhommik" (2002), "Suvepäev" (2004). Soome-ugri naisluuletajate sarjast: "Neli mordvalannat" (1998), "Neli komilannat" (1998), "Neli marilannat" (1998), "Neli udmurditari" (2002). Sarjast "Väikeste rahvaste suur kirjandus": Ashaltshi Oki "Mu kullerkupud" (2005), "Hõbepaat" (udmurdi luule antoloogia, 2005)

  9. Deep sub-micron FD-SOI for front-end application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, H.; Arai, Y.; Hara, K.; Hayakawa, H.; Hirose, K.; Ikegami, Y.; Ishino, H.; Kasaba, Y.; Kawasaki, T.; Kohriki, T.; Martin, E.; Miyake, H.; Mochizuki, A.; Tajima, H.; Tajima, O.; Takahashi, T.; Takashima, T.; Terada, S.; Tomita, H.; Tsuboyama, T.

    2007-01-01

    In order to confirm benefits of a deep sub-micron FD-SOI and to identify possible issues concerning front-end circuits with the FD-SOI, we have submitted a small design to Oki Electric Industry Co., Ltd. via the multi-chip project service of VDEC, the University of Tokyo. The initial test results and future plans for development are presented

  10. JPRS Report, Science and Technology: Europe Twenty-Fourth ISATA International Symposium on Automotive Technology and Automation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-09-05

    Consultancy, UK and F Op de Beek, Philips, The Netherlands ISSUES IN IMPLEMENTING IVHS PROGRAMS "IVHS: A Public/Private Sector " Partnership "" J R...Traffic and Driving and Y Ishii, Oki Electric Industry, Japan " Mazda Car Communication System" Mazda Car Corporation, FRG IMPROVING TRAFFIC FLOW...Universität Politecnica de Catalunya, Spain in addition, it is expected that Ford of Europe and Daimler Benz will join the project during 1991. Th? P£mo

  11. Job and life satisfaction and preference of future practice locations of physicians on remote islands in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nojima, Yoshiaki; Kumakura, Shunichi; Onoda, Keiichi; Hamano, Tsuyoshi; Kimura, Kiyoshi

    2015-05-26

    The objective of this research is to investigate job and life satisfaction and preference of future practice locations of physicians in rural and remote islands in Japan. A cross-sectional study was conducted for physicians who reside or resided on the Oki islands: isolated islands situated in the Sea of Japan between the Eurasian continent and the mainland of Japan. A questionnaire was sent to physicians on the Oki islands to evaluate physician satisfaction regarding job environment, career development, living conditions, salary, and support by local government. Data was analysed for 49 physicians; 47 were male and 2 were female, and the mean ± SD age was 44.3 ± 10.9 years. Among the variables related to physicians' satisfaction, most of the physicians (>90%) were satisfied with "team work" and "salary". On the other hand, the majority of physicians (approximately 70%) were not satisfied with the "opportunity to continue professional development". Age ≥ 50 years, graduates of medical schools other than Jichi Medical University (established in 1972 with the aim to produce rural physicians), self-selected the Oki islands as a practice location, and satisfaction in "work as a doctor", "opportunity to consult with peers about patients", "relationship with people in the community", and "acceptance by community" were found to be significant factors influencing the choice of the Oki islands as a future practice location. Factors influencing future practice locations on the remote islands were included in a self-reported questionnaire which illustrated the importance of factors that impact both the spouses and children of physicians. Improving work satisfaction, providing outreach support programmes for career development and professional support in rural practice, and building appropriate relationships between physicians and people in the community, which can in turn improve work satisfaction, may contribute to physicians' choices of practising medicine on rural and

  12. ONR Far East Scientific Information Bulletin. Volume 14, Number 4, October-December 1989

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-12-01

    universal law governing human reasoning. Logical ONRFE SCI INFO BUL 14 (4) 89 20 reasoning proceeds in small steps; large him is concerned with the...labs (like ICOT) are high-tech sweatshops Delta, a relational database machine. More with many engineers packed into rows of recently, they built Mu-X...conference, I visited the Systems Labora- however, it became apparent that this was tory, Oki Electric Industry Co., Ltd. and the not the right

  13. JPRS Report Science & Technology Europe Twenty-Fourth Isata International Symposium on Automotive Technology and Automation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-09-05

    Hirayama, Association of Electronic Technology for Automobile Traffic and Driving and Y Ishii, Oki Electric Industry, Japan " Mazda Car Communication...System" Mazda Car Corporation, FRG IMPROVING TRAFFIC FLOW "Strategies for Integrating Dynamic Route Guidance and Traffic Control Systems" MGH Bell...Chemical Structure by Means of Exafs" N Sato, Honda R&D Co. Ltd and T Minami, Honda Motor Co. Ltd, Japan 155 910904 "Microstructural and Hardness

  14. Challenges in managing freshwater fishery resource through Lebak Lebung Auction approach: a case study in Pangkalan Lampam District Ogan Komering Ilir Regency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muslimin, B.; Suadi

    2018-03-01

    Responsible management of fishery resources has been a tradition of Ogan Komering Ilir (OKI) of South Sumatera for generations. It was recorded that since 1630 the Dutch Government had made auction policy for managing water territory in OKI Regency as an effort to preserve nature and to avoid the conflict of inland water ownership. Currently, the community-based management model has been adopted by local governments into formal regulations, known as Regional Regulation on Auction of Flood Water Swamp and Rivers (Lelang Lebak Lebung dan Sungai or L3S). This paper describes the success factors and the threats for the failure of the L3S management model in OKI Regency, based on a case study in Pangkalan Lampam District. The study showed that the management mechanism through the L3S system had been well instituted and become a well-established management practice. The management model is in line with the principle of co-management and the approach has become critical success factor in L3S management. However, ecological, economic and social aspects influence the sustainability of such fishery management model. Besides, L3S management model faces limited data and information related to fish stocks, which result in difficulties in determining the total allowable catch.

  15. Tomography of the 2011 Iwaki earthquake (M 7.0) and Fukushima nuclear power plant area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tong, P. [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Dept. of Geophysics; Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China). Dept. of Mathematical Sciences; Zhao, D. [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Dept. of Geophysics; Yang, D. [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China). Dept. of Mathematical Sciences

    2012-07-01

    High-resolution tomographic images of the crust and upper mantle in and around the area of the 2011 Iwaki earthquake (M 7.0) and the Fukushima nuclear power plant are determined by inverting a large number of high-quality arrival times with both the finite-frequency and ray tomography methods. The Iwaki earthquake and its aftershocks mainly occurred in a boundary zone with strong variations in seismic velocity and Poisson's ratio. Prominent low-velocity and high Poisson's ratio zones are revealed under the Iwaki source area and the Fukushima nuclear power plant, which may reflect fluids released from the dehydration of the subducting Pacific slab under Northeast Japan. The 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake (Mw 9.0) caused static stress transfer in the overriding Okhotsk plate, resulting in the seismicity in the Iwaki source area that significantly increased immediately following the Tohoku-oki main-shock. Our results suggest that the Iwaki earthquake was triggered by the ascending fluids from the Pacific slab dehydration and the stress variation induced by the Tohoku-oki main-shock. The similar structures under the Iwaki source area and the Fukushima nuclear power plant suggest that the security of the nuclear power plant site should be strengthened to withstand potential large earthquakes in the future. (orig.)

  16. Tomography of the 2011 Iwaki earthquake (M 7.0 and Fukushima nuclear power plant area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Tong

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available High-resolution tomographic images of the crust and upper mantle in and around the area of the 2011 Iwaki earthquake (M 7.0 and the Fukushima nuclear power plant are determined by inverting a large number of high-quality arrival times with both the finite-frequency and ray tomography methods. The Iwaki earthquake and its aftershocks mainly occurred in a boundary zone with strong variations in seismic velocity and Poisson's ratio. Prominent low-velocity and high Poisson's ratio zones are revealed under the Iwaki source area and the Fukushima nuclear power plant, which may reflect fluids released from the dehydration of the subducting Pacific slab under Northeast Japan. The 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake (Mw 9.0 caused static stress transfer in the overriding Okhotsk plate, resulting in the seismicity in the Iwaki source area that significantly increased immediately following the Tohoku-oki mainshock. Our results suggest that the Iwaki earthquake was triggered by the ascending fluids from the Pacific slab dehydration and the stress variation induced by the Tohoku-oki mainshock. The similar structures under the Iwaki source area and the Fukushima nuclear power plant suggest that the security of the nuclear power plant site should be strengthened to withstand potential large earthquakes in the future.

  17. Two decades of spatiotemporal variations in subduction zone coupling offshore Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loveless, John P.; Meade, Brendan J.

    2016-02-01

    Spatial patterns of interplate coupling on global subduction zones can be used to guide seismic hazard assessment, but estimates of coupling are often constrained using a limited temporal range of geodetic data. Here we analyze ∼19 years of geodetic observations from the GEONET network to assess time-dependent variations in the spatial distribution of coupling on the subduction zones offshore Japan. We divide the position time series into five, ∼3.75-year epochs each decomposed into best-fit velocity, annual periodic signals, coseismic offsets, and postseismic effects following seven major earthquakes. Nominally interseismic velocities are interpreted in terms of a combination of tectonic block motions and earthquake cycle activity. The duration of the inferred postseismic activity covaries with the linear velocity. To address this trade-off, we assume that the nominally interseismic velocity at each station varies minimally from epoch to epoch. This approach is distinct from prior time-series analysis across the earthquake cycle in that position data are not detrended using preseismic velocity, which inherently assumes that interseismic processes are spatially stable through time, but rather the best-fit velocity at each station may vary between epochs. These velocities reveal significant consistency since 1996 in the spatial distribution of coupling on the Nankai subduction zone, with variation limited primarily to the Tokai and Bungo Channel regions, where long-term slow slip events have occurred, and persistently coupled regions coincident with areas that slipped during historic great earthquakes. On the Sagami subduction zone south of Tokyo, we also estimate relatively stable coupling through time. On the Japan-Kuril Trench, we image significant coupling variations owing to effects of the 1994 MW = 7.7 Sanriku-oki, 2003 MW = 8.2 Tokachi-oki, and 2011 MW = 9.0 Tohoku-oki earthquakes. In particular, strong coupling becomes more spatially extensive following

  18. Monitoring of the spatio-temporal change in the interplate coupling at northeastern Japan subduction zone based on the spatial gradients of surface velocity field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iinuma, Takeshi

    2018-04-01

    A monitoring method to grasp the spatio-temporal change in the interplate coupling in a subduction zone based on the spatial gradients of surface displacement rate fields is proposed. I estimated the spatio-temporal change in the interplate coupling along the plate boundary in northeastern (NE) Japan by applying the proposed method to the surface displacement rates based on global positioning system observations. The gradient of the surface velocities is calculated in each swath configured along the direction normal to the Japan Trench for time windows such as 0.5, 1, 2, 3 and 5 yr being shifted by one week during the period of 1997-2016. The gradient of the horizontal velocities is negative and has a large magnitude when the interplate coupling at the shallow part (less than approximately 50 km in depth) beneath the profile is strong, and the sign of the gradient of the vertical velocity is sensitive to the existence of the coupling at the deep part (greater than approximately 50 km in depth). The trench-parallel variation of the spatial gradients of a displacement rate field clearly corresponds to the trench-parallel variation of the amplitude of the interplate coupling on the plate interface, as well as the rupture areas of previous interplate earthquakes. Temporal changes in the trench-parallel variation of the spatial gradient of the displacement rate correspond to the strengthening or weakening of the interplate coupling. We can monitor the temporal change in the interplate coupling state by calculating the spatial gradients of the surface displacement rate field to some extent without performing inversion analyses with applying certain constraint conditions that sometimes cause over- and/or underestimation at areas of limited spatial resolution far from the observation network. The results of the calculation confirm known interplate events in the NE Japan subduction zone, such as the post-seismic slip of the 2003 M8.0 Tokachi-oki and 2005 M7.2 Miyagi-oki

  19. Teenetemärkide kandidaadid

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2000-01-01

    Esialgne, kinnitamata nimekiri isikutest, kellele presidendi kantselei ja riigiasutused taotlevad tänavu teenetemärke iseseisvuspäeva puhul. Vt. samas: vastulause, Eesti Päevaleht, 13. jaan. 2001, lk. 11. Valgetähe medal: Enn Tõugu; Ülo Lill; Arda-Maria Kirsel; Valgetähe orden I järk Hillar Aben; Valgetähe orden II järk: Õim, Haldur; Rätsep, Huno; Ross, Juhan; Ergma, Ene; Saarma, Mart; Liidja, Georg; Hižnjakov, Vladimir; Laisk, Agu; Valgetähe ordeni IV klass - Endel Valk-Falk, Valgetähe ordeni V klass - Anne Valmas. Ka bibliograaf Arvo Tering, raamatuloolane Kaljo-Olev Veskimägi, bibliograaf Ilmar Vene, TÜRi rmtk-hoidjad Kaljo Lepik ja Elsa Loorits, raamatuteadlane, TPÜ prof. emer. Mare Lott, TPÜ infoteaduste prof. Evi Rannap

  20. Quantifying slip balance in the earthquake cycle: Coseismic slip model constrained by interseismic coupling

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Lifeng

    2015-11-11

    The long-term slip on faults has to follow, on average, the plate motion, while slip deficit is accumulated over shorter time scales (e.g., between the large earthquakes). Accumulated slip deficits eventually have to be released by earthquakes and aseismic processes. In this study, we propose a new inversion approach for coseismic slip, taking interseismic slip deficit as prior information. We assume a linear correlation between coseismic slip and interseismic slip deficit, and invert for the coefficients that link the coseismic displacements to the required strain accumulation time and seismic release level of the earthquake. We apply our approach to the 2011 M9 Tohoku-Oki earthquake and the 2004 M6 Parkfield earthquake. Under the assumption that the largest slip almost fully releases the local strain (as indicated by borehole measurements, Lin et al., 2013), our results suggest that the strain accumulated along the Tohoku-Oki earthquake segment has been almost fully released during the 2011 M9 rupture. The remaining slip deficit can be attributed to the postseismic processes. Similar conclusions can be drawn for the 2004 M6 Parkfield earthquake. We also estimate the required time of strain accumulation for the 2004 M6 Parkfield earthquake to be ~25 years (confidence interval of [17, 43] years), consistent with the observed average recurrence time of ~22 years for M6 earthquakes in Parkfield. For the Tohoku-Oki earthquake, we estimate the recurrence time of~500-700 years. This new inversion approach for evaluating slip balance can be generally applied to any earthquake for which dense geodetic measurements are available.

  1. Quantifying slip balance in the earthquake cycle: Coseismic slip model constrained by interseismic coupling

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Lifeng; Hainzl, Sebastian; Mai, Paul Martin

    2015-01-01

    The long-term slip on faults has to follow, on average, the plate motion, while slip deficit is accumulated over shorter time scales (e.g., between the large earthquakes). Accumulated slip deficits eventually have to be released by earthquakes and aseismic processes. In this study, we propose a new inversion approach for coseismic slip, taking interseismic slip deficit as prior information. We assume a linear correlation between coseismic slip and interseismic slip deficit, and invert for the coefficients that link the coseismic displacements to the required strain accumulation time and seismic release level of the earthquake. We apply our approach to the 2011 M9 Tohoku-Oki earthquake and the 2004 M6 Parkfield earthquake. Under the assumption that the largest slip almost fully releases the local strain (as indicated by borehole measurements, Lin et al., 2013), our results suggest that the strain accumulated along the Tohoku-Oki earthquake segment has been almost fully released during the 2011 M9 rupture. The remaining slip deficit can be attributed to the postseismic processes. Similar conclusions can be drawn for the 2004 M6 Parkfield earthquake. We also estimate the required time of strain accumulation for the 2004 M6 Parkfield earthquake to be ~25 years (confidence interval of [17, 43] years), consistent with the observed average recurrence time of ~22 years for M6 earthquakes in Parkfield. For the Tohoku-Oki earthquake, we estimate the recurrence time of~500-700 years. This new inversion approach for evaluating slip balance can be generally applied to any earthquake for which dense geodetic measurements are available.

  2. Crowdsourced earthquake early warning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minson, Sarah E.; Brooks, Benjamin A.; Glennie, Craig L.; Murray, Jessica R.; Langbein, John O.; Owen, Susan E.; Heaton, Thomas H.; Iannucci, Robert A.; Hauser, Darren L.

    2015-01-01

    Earthquake early warning (EEW) can reduce harm to people and infrastructure from earthquakes and tsunamis, but it has not been implemented in most high earthquake-risk regions because of prohibitive cost. Common consumer devices such as smartphones contain low-cost versions of the sensors used in EEW. Although less accurate than scientific-grade instruments, these sensors are globally ubiquitous. Through controlled tests of consumer devices, simulation of an Mw (moment magnitude) 7 earthquake on California’s Hayward fault, and real data from the Mw 9 Tohoku-oki earthquake, we demonstrate that EEW could be achieved via crowdsourcing.

  3. Truth and falsity of patent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Gum Jin

    2006-10-01

    This book describes the process of the effect to build the business of patent strongly in difficult situation. The titles of this contents are finally, lawsuit if formed, the task of patent application introduction of tasks of patent negotiation, negotiation with Fujitsu, Mitsubishi, Oki and NEC, amalgamation between LG semiconductor and Hyundai Electronic Industry, life in incorporated company, current condition of application for a patent, the method to process strategy patent, how to make strong patent and effective negotiation strategy for a patent and strategy of patent application.

  4. Overview of surface ozone variability in East Asia-North Pacific region during IGAC/APARE (1994--1996).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, K S; Wang, T J; Wang, T; Tang, J; Kajii, Y; Liu, C M; Shim, S G

    2004-01-01

    Surface ozone (O3) was measured at Oki Island (Japan), Cheju Island (South Korea), Lanyu Island (Taiwan Province, China), Cape D'Aguilar (Hong Kong SAR) and Lin'an, Longfenshan, Waliguan (China mainland) during January 1994--December 1996 as a component of IGAC/APARE (International Global Atmospheric Chemistry/East Asia-North Pacific Regional Experiment). This paper gave a joint discussion on the observational results at these stations over the study region. Investigations showed that the average of surface O3 mixing ratios at the seven sites are 47.9+/-15.8, 48.1+/-17.9, 30.2+/-16.4, 31.6+/-17.5, 36.3+/-17.5, 34.8+/-11.5 and 48.2+/-9.5 ppbv, respectively. Significant diurnal variations of surface O3 have been observed at Oki, Cheju, D'Aguilar, Lin'an and Longfenshan. Their annual averaged diurnal differences range from 8 to 23 ppbv and differ in each season. Surface O3 at Lanyu and Waliguan do not show strong diurnal variability. Seasonal cycles of surface O3 showed difference at the temperate and the subtropical remote sites. Oki has a summer minimum-spring maximum, while Lanyu has a summer minimum-autumn maximum. The suburban sites at D'Aguilar and Lin'an report high-level O3 in autumn and low level O3 in summer. Surface O3 remains-high in autumn and low in winter at the rural site Longfenshan. For the global background station Waliguan, surface O3 exhibits a broad spring-summer maximum and autumn-winter minimum. The backward air trajectories to these sites have shown different pathways of long-range transport of air pollution from East Asia Continent to North Pacific Ocean. Surface O3 was found to be strongly and positively correlated with CO at Oki and Lanyu, especially in spring and autumn, reflecting the substantial photochemical buildup of O3 on a regional scale. It is believed that the regional sources of pollution in East Asia have enhanced the average surface O3 concentrations in the background atmosphere of North Pacific.

  5. Development and implementation of plant diagnostic skills training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwatare, K.; Noji, K.

    2010-01-01

    It was learned from the July 2007 Chuetsu-oki Earthquake that a need exists for simulator training methods to be revised to include the assumption of multiple failures such as those which may occur during a large earthquake. At BWR Operator Training Center Corp., multiple failure team training which focuses on plant diagnostic skills (Plant Diagnostic Skills Training) has been developed and implemented since September 2008. The contents of this training along with the results are presented and considered in this paper. (author)

  6. 実行担当者のエスノグラフィーに基づく罹災証明集中発行業務プロセスの明確化

    OpenAIRE

    小松原, 康弘; 林, 春男; 牧, 紀男; 田村, 圭子; 浦川, 豪; 吉冨, 望; 井ノ口, 宗成; 藤春, 兼久; Yasuhiro, KOMATSUBARA; Haruo, HAYASHI; Norio, MAKI; Keiko, TAMURA; Go, URAKAWA; Nozomu, YOSHITOMI; Munenari, INOGUCHI

    2008-01-01

    The 2007 Niigataken Chuetsu-oki earthquake caused a devastating damage to Kashiwazaki City, which has a population of 100,000 people and a total of 60,000 building footprints. As the first step for disaster victims to recover from the disaster, they need to receive "Damage Cetrificate". The city succeeded in issuing about 18,000 certificates for the first 14 days with the help by the GIS based Damage Certificate Issuing Program which was developed based on the lessons learned from the 2004 Ni...

  7. Evaluation of near-surface attenuation of S-waves based on PS logging and vertical array seismic observation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Genyu

    2014-01-01

    As a result of the lessons learned from the experience of Kashiwazaki-Kariwa NPP due to the 2007 Niigata Chuetsu Oki Earthquake, it has become clear that a rational method of near-surface attenuation characteristics covering a depth range from engineering bedrock to seismic bedrock urgently needs to be established. JNES performed PS logging and vertical array seismic ground motion observation at a soil ground site (SODB 1. site), sedimentary rock site, and an igneous rock site (SODB 2. site), and proposed an evaluation method of attenuation characteristics (site characteristics) for the deep underground. (author)

  8. Approach of seismic upgrading in Kashiwazaki-Kariwa Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Hitoshi

    2009-01-01

    Because guide for reviewing seismic design of nuclear power reactor facilities was reworked in 2006, we formulated new Design Base Seismic Motion Ss, and we are doing evaluation of seismic safety (back-check). In Japan, depending on aseismatic importance, equipments are classified into S-class, B-class and C-class. For S-class equipments, we evaluate it on the basis of new Ss, and do seismic upgrading. For B-class and C-class equipments, we do seismic upgrading voluntarily on the basis of the experiences of the Niigataken Chuetsu-Oki (NCO) Earthquake. (author)

  9. Comparative Studies of Organizational Factors, in Military Maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-06-01

    Washington, .. C., 1971. Vroom , V.H. Work and Motivation . N-w York: John Wiley and Sons, 1964. Zawachi, R.A. Organizational Development: A New...incentives and disincentives and included system characteristics, policies, and procedures which appeared to impact directly on the work motivation ...the outside environment. 1-7 t 7. . OkiANNIZATlOrIAL WORK MnIT OR& V :,ZAkTlONAL I PUTS 0 OTPUTS I tITIEO[1ATE .I):!I tV I SR’UPALI:F- [ PACT.t C I

  10. How is safe information about science and technology communicated tangibly?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawai, Jun; Funabiki, Jun

    2008-01-01

    Nuclear power plants hit by the Chuetsu-oki earthquake in 2007 made clear difficulties for engineers to communicate the safe information to the public. Such communication difficulties are common to advanced science in nuclear energy as well as environmental issues, biotechnologies and others. This article introduced 'science editorial guides' established in order to realize tangible expression of science and technology information' on business. Guides consist of (1) 'prepare materials for science communication', (2) arouse concerns', (3) 'encourage understanding' and (4) memorize'. (T. Tanaka)

  11. An investigation of an evaluation of the environmental conditions in analyses of a guide pipe and moorings of a drilling ship when drilling at great sea depths, Part two

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiroichi, H; Susumu, K; Tetsuo, M; Yasuhiko, M

    1983-01-01

    The application of the results of analysis of the behavior of an offshore guide pipe and a system of mooring for evaluating the critical environmental conditions in the real plane of drilling offshore wells in great water depths in the region of Miyakodzima oki and Omadedzaki oki is examined. The following criteria were used in designing the moorings and the offshore guide pipe for Miyakodzima-oki: the maximal linear stretching stress of the moorings must be less than or equal to one third the rupture strength, the maximal angle of phiim, the angle between the vertical line and the lower part of this pipe, equal to 4 degrees and the maximal stress in the guide pipe of less than 40 percent of the fluidity limit, in storm conditions these indicators must be one third the rupture strength, 10 degrees and 60 percent of the fluidity limit, respectively. Data are cited from an analysis of the guide pipe, the stress of the moorings and the equipment. The results of static and dynamic analyses of an offshore guide pipe in the conditions of the Miyakodzima oki sea are compared. It is shown that with drilling in waves with a height of 5.7 meters and a period of 8.7 seconds and a current rate of 1.5 to 2.6 meters per second the horizontal shift of the drilling ship relative to the preventers (Sbs) is 4 percent, the stretching tension of the guide pipe based on the static analysis is 93 megapascals and based on dynamic analysis (hereinafter indicated in parentheses) (93 megapascals), phiim of 3.44 degrees (3.7 degrees) and in storm conditions at a wave height of 1.42 and period of 13.8 seconds the stress of the guide pipe reaches 148 megapascals (150 megapascals) and phiim is 7.73 degrees (8.4 degrees). These data attest to the fact that the static and dynamic analysis produce approximately identical results.

  12. The vertical propagation of disturbances triggered by seismic waves of the 11 March 2011 M9.0 Tohoku earthquake over Taiwan

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Liu, J. Y.; Chen, C. H.; Sun, Y. Y.; Chen, C.; Tsai, H. F.; Yen, H. Y.; Chum, Jaroslav; Laštovička, Jan; Yang, Q. S.; Chen, W. S.; Wen, S.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 43, č. 4 (2016), s. 1759-1765 ISSN 0094-8276 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GC15-07281J Grant - others:Akademie věd České republiky(CZ) M100421201 Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : ionospheric disturbances * Pacific Coast * surface-waves * Tohoku-oki earthquake * ionograms Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 4.253, year: 2016 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/2015GL067487/full

  13. Press problem related to nuclear energy news reporting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arai, Mitsuo

    2008-01-01

    Since the event of Niigataken Chuetsu-oki Earthquake in 2007 and the subsequent press reports on damage of nuclear power station after it, a stance of media is being questioned. In order to clear this problem, basic organizational structure of the press related to nuclear energy news was analyzed. Local news department, social news department, science news department and economical news department involve in nuclear energy news the accordance with their own situations and concerns. This structure makes problem of nuclear energy news reporting complicated. Changing this system is required but very difficult. It is concluded that the press problem around nuclear energy news is strange. (author)

  14. Development of methods for evaluating active faults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-08-15

    The report for long-term evaluation of active faults was published by the Headquarters for Earthquake Research Promotion on Nov. 2010. After occurrence of the 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake, the safety review guide with regard to geology and ground of site was revised by the Nuclear Safety Commission on Mar. 2012 with scientific knowledges of the earthquake. The Nuclear Regulation Authority established on Sep. 2012 is newly planning the New Safety Design Standard related to Earthquakes and Tsunamis of Light Water Nuclear Power Reactor Facilities. With respect to those guides and standards, our investigations for developing the methods of evaluating active faults are as follows; (1) For better evaluation on activities of offshore fault, we proposed a work flow to date marine terrace (indicator for offshore fault activity) during the last 400,000 years. We also developed the analysis of fault-related fold for evaluating of blind fault. (2) To clarify the activities of active faults without superstratum, we carried out the color analysis of fault gouge and divided the activities into thousand of years and tens of thousands. (3) To reduce uncertainties of fault activities and frequency of earthquakes, we compiled the survey data and possible errors. (4) For improving seismic hazard analysis, we compiled the fault activities of the Yunotake and Itozawa faults, induced by the 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake. (author)

  15. Monolithic Active Pixel Matrix with Binary Counters (MAMBO) ASIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalid, Farah F.; Deptuch, Grzegorz; Shenai, Alpana; Yarema, Raymond J.

    2010-01-01

    Monolithic Active Matrix with Binary Counters (MAMBO) is a counting ASIC designed for detecting and measuring low energy X-rays from 6-12 keV. Each pixel contains analogue functionality implemented with a charge preamplifier, CR-RC 2 shaper and a baseline restorer. It also contains a window comparator which can be trimmed by 4 bit DACs to remove systematic offsets. The hits are registered by a 12 bit ripple counter which is reconfigured as a shift register to serially output the data from the entire ASIC. Each pixel can be tested individually. Two diverse approaches have been used to prevent coupling between the detector and electronics in MAMBO III and MAMBO IV. MAMBO III is a 3D ASIC, the bottom ASIC consists of diodes which are connected to the top ASIC using μ-bump bonds. The detector is decoupled from the electronics by physically separating them on two tiers and using several metal layers as a shield. MAMBO IV is a monolithic structure which uses a nested well approach to isolate the detector from the electronics. The ASICs are being fabricated using the SOI 0.2 (micro)m OKI process, MAMBO III is 3D bonded at T-Micro and MAMBO IV nested well structure was developed in collaboration between OKI and Fermilab.

  16. Temporal stress changes caused by earthquakes: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardebeck, Jeanne L.; Okada, Tomomi

    2018-01-01

    Earthquakes can change the stress field in the Earth’s lithosphere as they relieve and redistribute stress. Earthquake-induced stress changes have been observed as temporal rotations of the principal stress axes following major earthquakes in a variety of tectonic settings. The stress changes due to the 2011 Mw9.0 Tohoku-Oki, Japan, earthquake were particularly well documented. Earthquake stress rotations can inform our understanding of earthquake physics, most notably addressing the long-standing problem of whether the Earth’s crust at plate boundaries is “strong” or “weak.” Many of the observed stress rotations, including that due to the Tohoku-Oki earthquake, indicate near-complete stress drop in the mainshock. This implies low background differential stress, on the order of earthquake stress drop, supporting the weak crust model. Earthquake stress rotations can also be used to address other important geophysical questions, such as the level of crustal stress heterogeneity and the mechanisms of postseismic stress reloading. The quantitative interpretation of stress rotations is evolving from those based on simple analytical methods to those based on more sophisticated numerical modeling that can capture the spatial-temporal complexity of the earthquake stress changes.

  17. Tsunami Simulations in the Western Makran Using Hypothetical Heterogeneous Source Models from World's Great Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashidi, Amin; Shomali, Zaher Hossein; Keshavarz Farajkhah, Nasser

    2018-03-01

    The western segment of Makran subduction zone is characterized with almost no major seismicity and no large earthquake for several centuries. A possible episode for this behavior is that this segment is currently locked accumulating energy to generate possible great future earthquakes. Taking into account this assumption, a hypothetical rupture area is considered in the western Makran to set different tsunamigenic scenarios. Slip distribution models of four recent tsunamigenic earthquakes, i.e. 2015 Chile M w 8.3, 2011 Tohoku-Oki M w 9.0 (using two different scenarios) and 2006 Kuril Islands M w 8.3, are scaled into the rupture area in the western Makran zone. The numerical modeling is performed to evaluate near-field and far-field tsunami hazards. Heterogeneity in slip distribution results in higher tsunami amplitudes. However, its effect reduces from local tsunamis to regional and distant tsunamis. Among all considered scenarios for the western Makran, only a similar tsunamigenic earthquake to the 2011 Tohoku-Oki event can re-produce a significant far-field tsunami and is considered as the worst case scenario. The potential of a tsunamigenic source is dominated by the degree of slip heterogeneity and the location of greatest slip on the rupture area. For the scenarios with similar slip patterns, the mean slip controls their relative power. Our conclusions also indicate that along the entire Makran coasts, the southeastern coast of Iran is the most vulnerable area subjected to tsunami hazard.

  18. Aftereffects of Subduction-Zone Earthquakes: Potential Tsunami Hazards along the Japan Sea Coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minoura, Koji; Sugawara, Daisuke; Yamanoi, Tohru; Yamada, Tsutomu

    2015-10-01

    The 2011 Tohoku-Oki Earthquake is a typical subduction-zone earthquake and is the 4th largest earthquake after the beginning of instrumental observation of earthquakes in the 19th century. In fact, the 2011 Tohoku-Oki Earthquake displaced the northeast Japan island arc horizontally and vertically. The displacement largely changed the tectonic situation of the arc from compressive to tensile. The 9th century in Japan was a period of natural hazards caused by frequent large-scale earthquakes. The aseismic tsunamis that inflicted damage on the Japan Sea coast in the 11th century were related to the occurrence of massive earthquakes that represented the final stage of a period of high seismic activity. Anti-compressive tectonics triggered by the subduction-zone earthquakes induced gravitational instability, which resulted in the generation of tsunamis caused by slope failing at the arc-back-arc boundary. The crustal displacement after the 2011 earthquake infers an increased risk of unexpected local tsunami flooding in the Japan Sea coastal areas.

  19. Monolithic Active Pixel Matrix with Binary Counters (MAMBO) ASIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khalid, Farah F.; Deptuch, Grzegorz; Shenai, Alpana; Yarema, Raymond J.; /Fermilab

    2010-11-01

    Monolithic Active Matrix with Binary Counters (MAMBO) is a counting ASIC designed for detecting and measuring low energy X-rays from 6-12 keV. Each pixel contains analogue functionality implemented with a charge preamplifier, CR-RC{sup 2} shaper and a baseline restorer. It also contains a window comparator which can be trimmed by 4 bit DACs to remove systematic offsets. The hits are registered by a 12 bit ripple counter which is reconfigured as a shift register to serially output the data from the entire ASIC. Each pixel can be tested individually. Two diverse approaches have been used to prevent coupling between the detector and electronics in MAMBO III and MAMBO IV. MAMBO III is a 3D ASIC, the bottom ASIC consists of diodes which are connected to the top ASIC using {mu}-bump bonds. The detector is decoupled from the electronics by physically separating them on two tiers and using several metal layers as a shield. MAMBO IV is a monolithic structure which uses a nested well approach to isolate the detector from the electronics. The ASICs are being fabricated using the SOI 0.2 {micro}m OKI process, MAMBO III is 3D bonded at T-Micro and MAMBO IV nested well structure was developed in collaboration between OKI and Fermilab.

  20. Tsunami Simulations in the Western Makran Using Hypothetical Heterogeneous Source Models from World's Great Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashidi, Amin; Shomali, Zaher Hossein; Keshavarz Farajkhah, Nasser

    2018-04-01

    The western segment of Makran subduction zone is characterized with almost no major seismicity and no large earthquake for several centuries. A possible episode for this behavior is that this segment is currently locked accumulating energy to generate possible great future earthquakes. Taking into account this assumption, a hypothetical rupture area is considered in the western Makran to set different tsunamigenic scenarios. Slip distribution models of four recent tsunamigenic earthquakes, i.e. 2015 Chile M w 8.3, 2011 Tohoku-Oki M w 9.0 (using two different scenarios) and 2006 Kuril Islands M w 8.3, are scaled into the rupture area in the western Makran zone. The numerical modeling is performed to evaluate near-field and far-field tsunami hazards. Heterogeneity in slip distribution results in higher tsunami amplitudes. However, its effect reduces from local tsunamis to regional and distant tsunamis. Among all considered scenarios for the western Makran, only a similar tsunamigenic earthquake to the 2011 Tohoku-Oki event can re-produce a significant far-field tsunami and is considered as the worst case scenario. The potential of a tsunamigenic source is dominated by the degree of slip heterogeneity and the location of greatest slip on the rupture area. For the scenarios with similar slip patterns, the mean slip controls their relative power. Our conclusions also indicate that along the entire Makran coasts, the southeastern coast of Iran is the most vulnerable area subjected to tsunami hazard.

  1. Study on post-earthquake plant evaluation and communication (Annual safety research report, JFY 2011)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The aims of this study are to establish a post-earthquake plant evaluation method and to develop a communication system for the improving seismic safety regulations as well as encouraging public communication. The Miyagiken-oki earthquake in 2005, Onagawa Nuclear Power Plant shut down automatically. Subsequently, JNES started development of post-earthquake plant evaluation and communication system based on the experience of the cross-check analysis for Onagawa Nuclear Power Plant. The Niigata-ken Chuetsu-oki Earthquake in 2007, the plant situation was not transmitted promptly. The loss of information sharing between local community and related organizations caused the public anxiety. The importance of plant information transmission as well as seismic information gathering were recognized. The proposal for the solution of the information issues were performed by government committee, In this study the evaluation method for soundness of the main structure and equipment after earthquake event were updated. Moreover, information dissemination to the public and transparent communication methodology was examined by the Industry-Academia-Government cooperation in the Kashiwazaki-Kariwa region. (author)

  2. Study on post-earthquake plant evaluation and communication (Annual safety research report, JFY 2010)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iijima, Toru; Taoka, Hideto; Yamada, Hiroyuki; Sano, Kyoko

    2011-01-01

    The aims of this study are to establish a post-earthquake plant evaluation method and to develop a communication system for the improving seismic safety regulations as well as encouraging public communication. The Miyagiken-oki earthquake in 2005, Onagawa Nuclear Power Plant shut down automatically. Subsequently, JNES started development of post-earthquake plant evaluation and communication system based on the experience of the cross-check analysis for Onagawa Nuclear Power Plant. The Niigata-ken Chuetsu-oki Earthquake in 2007, the plant situation was not transmitted promptly. The loss of information sharing between local community and related organizations caused the public anxiety. The importance of plant information transmission as well as seismic information gathering were recognized. The proposal for the solution of the information issues were performed by government committee. In this study, the evaluation method for soundness of the main structure and equipment after earthquake event were updated. Moreover, procedure of the post-earthquake plant soundness evaluation and multi-functional seismic information system were developed. In addition, the implementation strategy of the easy-to -understand information dissemination to the public and transparent communication methodology was examined by the Industry-Academia-Government cooperation in the Kashiwazaki-Kariwa region. (author)

  3. Experimental evidence that thrust earthquake ruptures might open faults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabuchian, Vahe; Rosakis, Ares J; Bhat, Harsha S; Madariaga, Raúl; Kanamori, Hiroo

    2017-05-18

    Many of Earth's great earthquakes occur on thrust faults. These earthquakes predominantly occur within subduction zones, such as the 2011 moment magnitude 9.0 eathquake in Tohoku-Oki, Japan, or along large collision zones, such as the 1999 moment magnitude 7.7 earthquake in Chi-Chi, Taiwan. Notably, these two earthquakes had a maximum slip that was very close to the surface. This contributed to the destructive tsunami that occurred during the Tohoku-Oki event and to the large amount of structural damage caused by the Chi-Chi event. The mechanism that results in such large slip near the surface is poorly understood as shallow parts of thrust faults are considered to be frictionally stable. Here we use earthquake rupture experiments to reveal the existence of a torquing mechanism of thrust fault ruptures near the free surface that causes them to unclamp and slip large distances. Complementary numerical modelling of the experiments confirms that the hanging-wall wedge undergoes pronounced rotation in one direction as the earthquake rupture approaches the free surface, and this torque is released as soon as the rupture breaks the free surface, resulting in the unclamping and violent 'flapping' of the hanging-wall wedge. Our results imply that the shallow extent of the seismogenic zone of a subducting interface is not fixed and can extend up to the trench during great earthquakes through a torquing mechanism.

  4. Stimmen des Leis, schillernde Gewebe / Christoph Schlüren

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Schlüren, Christoph

    1995-01-01

    Baltische Werke für Streichorchester: Vol. 1: Balakauskas: Ostrobothnian Symphony, Vasks: Symphonie "Stimmen", Narbutaite: Opus Lugubre; Vol. 2: Kutavicius: Nothern Gates, Vasks: Cantabile, Tüür: Insula Deserta, Rekasius: Music for strings, Werke von Urbaitis und Juozapaitis; Ostrobothnian Chamber Orchestra, Dirigent: Juha Kangas; Finlandia / east-west CD-s 4509-97892-2 und 4509-97893-2. Vasks: Cantabile, Englischhorn-Konzert, Botschaft, Musica dolorosa, Lauda; Riga Philarmonic Orchestra, Dirigent: Kriss Rusmanis; Confer / BMG 75605-51236-2. Eller: Morgenrot, Abendrot, 5 Stücke für Streicher, Geister, Im Schatten und im Sonnenlicht, Elegia; Estonian Symphony Orchestra, Dirigent: Peeter Lilje; Forte FD 0020/2. Tubin: 11. Symphonie, Elegie für Streicher, Raid: 2. Symphonie; Estnisches Staatliches Symphonieorchester, Dirigent: Arvo Volmer; Koch 3-7291-2 H1. Sumera: Symphonien 1-3; Malmö Symphony Orchestra, Dirigent: Paavo Järvi; BIS/Disco-Center 660. Sumera: Klavierkonzert, 4. Symphonie, Musica tenera; Malmö Symphony Orchestra, Dirigent: Paavo Järvi; BIS/Disco-Center 690. Tormis: Werke für Männerchor; Estnischer Nationaler Männerchor, Dirigent: Olev Oja; Forte CDs FD 0011/2 und FD 0019/2 Tutvustatakse uusi heliplaate Baltimaade heliloojate loomingust.

  5. Kultuurkapital jagas tunnustust

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Eesti Kultuurkapitali 2007. a. arhitektuuri valdkonna peapreemia pälvis Vello Asi, kujutava ja rakenduskunsti valdkonna peapreemia Jaan Toomik. Sihkapitalide preemiad: kujutav ja rakenduskunst - Evi Viires, Vano Allsalu ja Sally Stuudio (veebikeskkond kunstikeskus.ee), kunstnike rühmitus Non Grata, kunstiühing Pallas. Arhitektuur - Raili Paling, Liis Lindvere, Lembit-Kaur Stöör, Tõnis Kimmel (Tallinna sünagoog), Silja Konsa, Urve Sinijärv, Olev Abner, Kersti Lootus, Ants Hein (teatmeteos "Eesti pargid"), Kalle Vellevoog (pansionaat Seedri t. 4 Pärnus), Aivar Roosaar (Athena konverentsi- ja kultuurikeskuse renoveerimine), Kalle Komissarov. Rahvakultuur - Kadi Pajupuu, Reet Piiri, Tiia Toomet (Tartu Mänguasjamuuseumi rajamine). Preemiaid said ka filmi "Sügisball" loominguline kollektiiv koosseisus Veiko Õunpuu, Mart Taniel, Ülo Krigul, Katrin Kissa (audiovisuaalne kunst), Jaan Rääts (helikunst), Mare Tommingas (näitekunst), X noorte laulu- ja tantsupeo kunstilised juhid Aarne Saluveer ja Maido Saar (rahvakultuur). Lisaks sellele andsid sihtkapitalid välja oma aastapreemiad. Nimekiri

  6. Geodetic characteristic of the postseismic deformation following the interplate large earthquake along the Japan Trench (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, Y.; Hino, R.; Ariyoshi, K.; Matsuzawa, T.; Mishina, M.; Sato, T.; Inazu, D.; Ito, Y.; Tachibana, K.; Demachi, T.; Miura, S.

    2013-12-01

    On March 9, 2011 at 2:45 (UTC), an M7.3 interplate earthquake (hereafter foreshock) occurred ~45 km northeast of the epicenter of the M9.0 2011 Tohoku earthquake. This foreshock preceded the 2011 Tohoku earthquake by 51 hours. Ohta et al., (2012, GRL) estimated co- and postseismic afterslip distribution based on a dense GPS network and ocean bottom pressure gauge sites. They found the afterslip distribution was mainly concentrated in the up-dip extension of the coseismic slip. The coseismic slip and afterslip distribution of the foreshock were also located in the slip deficit region (between 20-40m slip) of the coiseismic slip of the M9.0 mainshock. The slip amount for the afterslip is roughly consistent with that determined by repeating earthquake analysis carried out in a previous study (Kato et al., 2012, Science). The estimated moment release for the afterslip reached magnitude 6.8, even within a short time period of 51 hours. They also pointed out that a volumetric strainmeter time series suggests that this event advanced with a rapid decay time constant (4.8 h) compared with other typical large earthquakes. The decay time constant of the afterslip may reflect the frictional property of the plate interface, especially effective normal stress controlled by fluid. For verification of the short decay time constant of the foreshock, we investigated the postseismic deformation characteristic following the 1989 and 1992 Sanriku-Oki earthquakes (M7.1 and M6.9), 2003 and 2005 Miyagi-Oki earthquakes (M6.8 and M7.2), and 2008 Fukushima-Oki earthquake (M6.9). We used four components extensometer at Miyako (39.59N, 141.98E) on the Sanriku coast for 1989 and 1992 event. For 2003, 2005 and 2008 events, we used volumetric strainmeter at Kinka-zan (38.27N, 141.58E) and Enoshima (38.27N, 141.60E). To extract the characteristics of the postseismic deformation, we fitted the logarithmic function. The estimated decay time constants for each earthquake had almost similar range (1

  7. Incidence of dizziness and vertigo in Japanese primary care clinic patients with lifestyle-related diseases: an observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wada M

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Masaoki Wada,1,2 Taro Takeshima,1 Yosikazu Nakamura,3 Shoichiro Nagasaka,4 Toyomi Kamesaki,1 Hiroshi Oki,2 Eiji Kajii1 1Division of Community and Family Medicine, Center for Community Medicine, Jichi Medical University, Tochigi, Japan; 2Oki Clinic, Ibaraki, Japan; 3Department of Public Health, Jichi Medical University, Tochigi, Japan; 4Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Jichi Medical University, Tochigi, Japan Objective: Dizziness and vertigo are highly prevalent symptoms among patients presenting at primary care clinics, and peripheral vestibular disorder (PVD is their most frequent cause. However, the incidence of PVD has not been well documented. This study aimed to investigate the incidence of dizziness, vertigo, and PVD among patients presenting at a primary care clinic. Design: This was an observational study. Setting and participants: Between November 2011 and March 2013, we observed 393 patients, all at least 20 years old, who had been treated for chronic diseases such as hypertension, dyslipidemia, and diabetes mellitus for at least 6 months at a primary clinic (Oki Clinic in Japan. Outcome: The main outcome of interest was new incidence of dizziness, vertigo, and PVD events. During the 1-year follow-up period, the otorhinolaryngologist diagnosed and reported new PVD events. Results: The mean age of the 393 participants at entry was 65.5 years. Of the study participants, 12.7%, 82.4%, and 92.6% had diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and dyslipidemia, respectively. We followed up all the participants (100%. During the 662.5 person-years of follow-up, 121 cases of dizziness or vertigo (dizziness/vertigo and 76 cases of PVD were observed. The incidence of dizziness/vertigo and PVD was 194.7 (95% confidence interval: 161.6–232.6 per 1,000 person-years and 115.7 (95% confidence interval: 92.2–142.6 per 1,000 person-years, respectively. There were 61 cases of acute peripheral vestibulopathy, 12 of

  8. Three-dimensional site response at KiK-net downhole arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Eric M.; Tanaka, Yasuo; Baise, Laurie G.; Kayen, Robert E.

    2010-01-01

    Ground motions at two Kiban-Kyoshin Network (KiK-net) strong motion downhole array sites in Hokkaido, Japan (TKCH08 in Taiki and TKCH05 in Honbetsu) illustrate the importance of three-dimensional (3D) site effects. These sites recorded the M8.0 2003 Tokachi-Oki earthquake, with recorded accelerations above 0.4 g at both sites as well as numerous ground motions from smaller events. Weak ground motions indicate that site TKCH08 is well modeled with the assumption of plane SH waves traveling through a 1D medium (SH1D), while TKCH05 is characteristic of a poor fit to the SH1D theoretical response. We hypothesized that the misfit at TKCH05results from the heterogeneity of the subsurface. To test this hypothesis, we measured four S-wave velocity profiles in the vicinity (KiK-net site pair is ideal for assessing the relative importance of 3D site effects and nonlinear site effects. The linear ground motions at TKCH05 isolate the 3D site effects, as we hypothesized from the linear ground motions and confirmed with our subsequent SASW surveys. The Tokachi-Oki time history at TKCH08 isolates the effects of nonlinearity from spatial heterogeneity because the 3D effects are negligible. The Tokachi-Oki time history at TKCH05 includes both nonlinear and 3D site effects. Comparisons of the accuracy of the SH1D model predictions of these surface time histories from the downhole time histories indicates that the 3D site effects are at least as important as nonlinear effects in this case. The errors associated with the assumption of a 1D medium and 1D wave propagation will be carried into a nonlinear analysis that relies on these same assumptions. Thus, the presence of 3D effects should be ruled out prior to a 1D nonlinear analysis. The SH1D residuals show that 3D effects can be mistaken for nonlinear effects.

  9. Ambient Noise Green's Function Simulation of Long-Period Ground Motions for Reverse Faulting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyake, H.; Beroza, G. C.

    2009-12-01

    Long-time correlation of ambient seismic noise has been demonstrated as a useful tool for strong ground motion prediction [Prieto and Beroza, 2008]. An important advantage of ambient noise Green's functions is that they can be used for ground motion simulation without resorting to either complex 3-D velocity structure to develop theoretical Green’s functions, or aftershock records for empirical Green’s function analysis. The station-to-station approach inherent to ambient noise Green’s functions imposes some limits to its application, since they are band-limited, applied at the surface, and for a single force. We explore the applicability of this method to strong motion prediction using the 2007 Chuetsu-oki, Japan, earthquake (Mw 6.6, depth = 9 km), which excited long-period ground motions in and around the Kanto basin almost 200 km from the epicenter. We test the performance of ambient noise Green's function for long-period ground motion simulation. We use three components of F-net broadband data at KZK station, which is located near the source region, as a virtual source, and three components of six F-net stations in and around the Kanto basin to calculate the response. An advantage to applying this approach in Japan is that ambient-noise sources are active in diverse directions. The dominant period of the ambient noise for the F-net datasets is mostly 7 s over the year, and amplitudes are largest in winter. This period matches the dominant periods of the Kanto and Niigata basins. For the 9 components of the ambient noise Green’s functions, we have confirmed long-period components corresponding to Love wave and Rayleigh waves that can be used for simulation of the 2007 Chuetsu-oki earthquake. The relative amplitudes, phases, and durations of the ambient noise Green’s functions at the F-net stations in and around the Kanto basin respect to F-net KZK station are fairly well matched with those of the observed ground motions for the 2007 Chuetsu-oki

  10. Readout ASIC of pair-monitor for international linear collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Yutaro; Ikeda, Hirokazu; Ito, Kazutoshi; Miyamoto, Akiya; Nagamine, Tadashi; Sasaki, Rei; Takubo, Yosuke; Tauchi, Toshiaki; Yamamoto, Hitoshi

    2010-01-01

    The pair-monitor is a beam profile monitor at the interaction point of the international linear collider. A prototype of the readout ASIC for the pair-monitor has been designed and tested. Since the pair-monitor uses the hit distribution of electrons and positrons generated by the beam-crossing to measure the beam profile, the readout ASIC is designed to count the number of hits. In a prototype ASIC, 36 readout cells were implemented by TSMC 0.25-μm CMOS process. Each readout cell is equipped with an amplifier, comparator, 8-bit counter and 16 count-registers. By the operation test, all the ASIC component were confirmed to work correctly. As the next step, we develop the prototype ASIC with the silicon on insulator technology. It is produced with OKI 0.2-μm FD-SOI CMOS process.

  11. Üliõpilasteatrid - teistmoodi teater / Kalev Kudu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kudu, Kalev, 1961-

    2007-01-01

    Üliõpilasteatrite VI maailmakongressist 21. - 26. juulini Urbinos Itaalias. Autor oma ettekandest teemal "Üliõpilasteater kui mäss. Üliõpilasteatrite eriline missioon globaliseeruvas maailmas". Lühiintervjuu Liege'i ülikooli professori, üliõpilasteatri kunstilise juhi ja Rahvusvahelise Üliõpilasteatrite Liidu (AITU) esimehe Robert Germayga. Etendustest: "Shahrazad - neitsi Bagdadist" (Bologna ülikool, Itaalia"), "Mbomo-mvet" (Yaounde ülikool, Kamerun), "The Believed Dead" (Brescia Katoliiklik Ülikool, Itaalia), "Teenrid" (Teatro Verga, Milano ülikool, Itaalia), "Antigone" (Ateena ülikool, Kreeka), "Tilt!" (Teatro Aenigma, Urbino ülikool, Itaalia), "Paroodia" (Milano ja Urbino ülikoolide üliõpilased), "Erose tiivad" (Saloniki ülikool, Kreeka), "Kolmas laps" (Long Islandi ülikool, USA), "Lee-Oki lugu" (Hoseo ülikool, Lõuna-Korea), "Ülikond" (Vilniuse Tehnikaülikool, Leedu)

  12. Nuclear power plants in the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The Japan Atomic Industrial Forum, Inc. (JAIF) used every year to summarize a trend survey on the private nuclear power plants in the world in a shape of the 'Nuclear power plants in the world'. In this report, some data at the end of 2007/2008 was made up on bases of answers on questionnaires from electric power companies and other nuclear organizations around the world by JAIF. This report is comprised of 18 items, and contains generating capacity of the plants; effect of the Niigata-ken chuetsu-oki earthquake; current status of Japan; trends of generating capacity of operating the plants, the plant orders and generating capacity of the plants; world nuclear capacity by reactor type; status of MOX use in the world; location of the plants; the plants in the world; directory of the plants; nuclear fuel cycle facilities, and so forth. (J.P.N.)

  13. Construction of System for Seismic Observation in Deep Borehole (SODB) - Overview and Achievement Status of the Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Genyu

    2014-01-01

    The seismic responses of each unit at the Kashiwazaki-Kariwa NPP differed greatly during the 2007 Niigata-ken Chuetsu-oki Earthquake; the deep sedimentary structure around the site greatly affected these differences. To clarify underground structure and to evaluate ground motion amplification and attenuation effects more accurately in accordance with deep sedimentary structure, JNES initiated the SODB project. Deployment of a vertical seismometer array in a 3000-meter deep borehole was completed in June 2012 on the premises of NIIT. Horizontal arrays were also placed on the ground surface. Experiences and achievements in the JNES project were introduced, including development of seismic observation technology in deep boreholes, site amplification measurements from logging data, application of borehole observation data to maintenance of nuclear power plant safety, and so on. Afterwards, the relationships of other presentations in this WS, were explained. (authors)

  14. Real-Time Detection of Rupture Development: Earthquake Early Warning Using P Waves From Growing Ruptures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodera, Yuki

    2018-01-01

    Large earthquakes with long rupture durations emit P wave energy throughout the rupture period. Incorporating late-onset P waves into earthquake early warning (EEW) algorithms could contribute to robust predictions of strong ground motion. Here I describe a technique to detect in real time P waves from growing ruptures to improve the timeliness of an EEW algorithm based on seismic wavefield estimation. The proposed P wave detector, which employs a simple polarization analysis, successfully detected P waves from strong motion generation areas of the 2011 Mw 9.0 Tohoku-oki earthquake rupture. An analysis using 23 large (M ≥ 7) events from Japan confirmed that seismic intensity predictions based on the P wave detector significantly increased lead times without appreciably decreasing the prediction accuracy. P waves from growing ruptures, being one of the fastest carriers of information on ongoing rupture development, have the potential to improve the performance of EEW systems.

  15. The observation of eqrthquake in the neighborhood of a large underground cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komada, Hiroya; Hayashi, Masao

    1980-01-01

    Studies on the earthquake resistance design of underground site for such large important structures as nuclear power plants, high-level radioactive waste repositories, LNG tanks, petroleum tanks, big power transmission installations and compressed air energy storage installations have been examined at our research institute. The observations of earthquake have been examined at Shiroyama underground hydroelectric power station since July 1976 as one of the demonstration of the earthquake resistance, and the first report was already published. After the time accelerometers and dynamic strain meters were additionally installed. Good acceleration waves and dynamic strain waves of the Izu-Hanto-Toho-Oki Earthquake, June 29, 1980 were observed at Shiroyama site, at which the hypocentral distance is 77 km and the intensity scale is about 4. In this report, the characteristic of the oscillation wave in the neighborhood of underground cavity and the relationships among accelerations, velocities, deformations and dynamic strains are studied in detail on the above earthquake data. (author)

  16. Sensitivity of the coastal tsunami simulation to the complexity of the 2011 Tohoku earthquake source model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monnier, Angélique; Loevenbruck, Anne; Gailler, Audrey; Hébert, Hélène

    2016-04-01

    The 11 March 2011 Tohoku-Oki event, whether earthquake or tsunami, is exceptionally well documented. A wide range of onshore and offshore data has been recorded from seismic, geodetic, ocean-bottom pressure and sea level sensors. Along with these numerous observations, advance in inversion technique and computing facilities have led to many source studies. Rupture parameters inversion such as slip distribution and rupture history permit to estimate the complex coseismic seafloor deformation. From the numerous published seismic source studies, the most relevant coseismic source models are tested. The comparison of the predicted signals generated using both static and cinematic ruptures to the offshore and coastal measurements help determine which source model should be used to obtain the more consistent coastal tsunami simulations. This work is funded by the TANDEM project, reference ANR-11-RSNR-0023-01 of the French Programme Investissements d'Avenir (PIA 2014-2018).

  17. Site-response Estimation by 1D Heterogeneous Velocity Model using Borehole Log and its Relationship to Damping Factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Hiroaki

    2014-01-01

    In the Niigata area, which suffered from several large earthquakes such as the 2007 Chuetsu-oki earthquake, geographical observation that elucidates the S-wave structure of the underground is advancing. Modeling of S-wave velocity structure in the subsurface is underway to enable simulation of long-period ground motion. The one-dimensional velocity model by inverse analysis of micro-tremors is sufficiently appropriate for long-period site response but not for short-period, which is important for ground motion evaluation at NPP sites. The high-frequency site responses may be controlled by the strength of heterogeneity of underground structure because the heterogeneity of the 1D model plays an important role in estimating high-frequency site responses and is strongly related to the damping factor of the 1D layered velocity model. (author)

  18. Development of a new modeling technique of 3D S-wave velocity structure for strong ground motion evaluation - Integration of various geophysical and geological data using joint inversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugimoto, Yoshihiro

    2014-01-01

    A restricted stripe-like zone suffered major damage due to the 1995 Hyogo-ken Nanbu earthquake, and ground motion of the south side of the Kashiwazaki NPP site was much greater than that of the north side in the 2007 Niigata-ken Chuetsu-oki earthquake. One reason for these phenomena is thought to be the focusing effect due to irregularly shaped sedimentary basins (e.g., basin-edge structure, fold structure, etc.) This indicates that precise evaluation of S-wave velocity structure is important. A calculation program that was developed to make S-wave velocity models using the joint inversion method was presented. This program unifies various geophysical and geological data and can make a complex structure model for evaluating strong ground motion with high precision. (author)

  19. The improvement of the fire protections system for nuclear cycle facilities. Formulation of a fire protection guideline for nuclear fuel cycle facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-04-01

    The private side Fire Protection Guideline was investigated with respect to the fire having taken place at the nuclear reactor site followed by the Chuetsu-Oki earthquake in Niigata Prefecture in 2007. To improve the fire protection system especially applicable to MOX fuel fabrication facilities, JNES (Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organization) investigated private guidelines adopted in Japanese Light Water cooled Reactors, the standardized guidelines used in Nuclear Facilities in other countries including USA, and the standards in the chemical plants. The content of the guideline concerns the prevention of the fire breakout, the prevention of fire extension, the reduction of the fire effects, as well as the facility-characteristic protection countermeasures and the fire effect evaluations. (S. Ohno)

  20. How to press-release and take care of expression in articles at press side

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamamoto, Kazuko; Narabayashi, Tadashi; Kobayashi, Masahide; Akizuki, Teruo; Onishi, Hidetoshi

    2008-01-01

    As for the influences of Chuetsu-Oki Earthquake on Kashiwazaki-Kariwa Nuclear Power Station, we can conclude that 'the safety function of the nuclear power station, that is, 'Shutdown', 'Cooling down' and 'Isolating' functioned as per designed even against earthquake beyond assumption, and fundamental nuclear safety could be assured'. Nevertheless, it is said that one of the causes that harmful rumor had spread was due to mass communication media. In the press reports on some nuclear power station when affected by an earthquake and on trouble in the nuclear power station in the future, we will propose that the publication should be really useful for habitants and citizens and be promoted in the positive and expected direction, in order not to make the same mistake as this time. JSME should aim at implement the above-mentioned proposal under cooperation with other academic societies and organizations. (author)

  1. Problems with geologic fault assessment in the safety analysis of earthquake-resistance for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Yasuhiro; Nakata, Takashi; Watanabe, Mitsuhisa

    2008-01-01

    The Niigata-ken Chuetsu-oki Earthquake, occurring on July 16, 2007 in Niigata-prefecture, Japan, the magnitude of which was only 6.8, brought about an unexpectedly huge tremor in the area of Kashiwazaki-Kariwa nuclear plants, Tokyo Electric Power Co. The present paper points out that the huge tremor they experienced could be within the scope of expectation if an adequate analysis was performed for the investigation results on acoustic seafloor exploration done during the 1980's and presented at application for go-ahead for construction of the nuclear reactor and also at the occasion of official safety analysis. The present examination demonstrates clearly the existence of active faults on a large scale in the hypocentral region of the earthquake in the offshore seabed. This fact might be of extremely serious nature and the authors recommend to learn what may be a cause of overlooking the existing fault. (S. Ohno)

  2. ADAPTABILITY OF WHITE JABON (Anthocephalus cadamba Miq. SEEDLING FROM 12 POPULATIONS TO DROUGHT AND WATERLOGGING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dede J. Sudrajat

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out for investigation of the adaptability of white jabon seedlings from 12 populations to drought and water logging stresses in a controlled green house. The results showed that the adaptive responses of white jabon seedling to drought and waterlogging stresses were affected by genotype (population. The drought and waterlogging stresses significantly inhibited plant growth, biomass accumulation and allocation, leaf area, also decreased chlorophyll content, increased carotenoids contents, and accumulated free proline. Relative water content and specific leaf area tended to be higher in waterlogging and declined in drought stresses. The result clearly indicated that white jabon seedlings were more adaptive to waterlogging than to drought stresses. Moreover, there were different responses to drought and waterlogging stresses between the twelve populations. Kampar, Gowa, Kuala Kencana and OKI populations exhibited higher growth performance and stress tolerance index to be adapted to waterlogging stress, while Gowa, Pomalaa and Kampar populations had relatively better growth performance in the drought stress.

  3. SOI detector with drift field due to majority carrier flow - an alternative to biasing in depletion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trimpl, M.; Deptuch, G.; Yarema, R.

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports on a SOI detector with drift field induced by the flow of majority carriers. It is proposed as an alternative method of detector biasing compared to standard depletion. N-drift rings in n-substrate are used at the front side of the detector to provide charge collecting field in depth as well as to improve the lateral charge collection. The concept was verified on a 2.5 x 2.5 mm 2 large detector array with 20 (micro)m and 40 (micro)m pixel pitch fabricated in August 2009 using the OKI semiconductor process. First results, obtained with a radioactive source to demonstrate spatial resolution and spectroscopic performance of the detector for the two different pixel sizes will be shown and compared to results obtained with a standard depletion scheme. Two different diode designs, one using a standard p-implantation and one surrounded by an additional BPW implant will be compared as well.

  4. Comparison of the Characteristics and Performance of Flurbiprofen 8.75 mg Spray for Sore Throat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veale, David; Shephard, Adrian; Adams, Verity; Lidster, Charlotte

    2017-01-01

    Sore throat sprays provide targeted relief by delivering the active ingredient directly to the site of pain. Different sprays vary in characteristics, thus affecting delivery of the active ingredient to the throat, which can impact compliance. The characteristics and performance of FLURBIPROFEN 8.75 mg SPRAY were compared with 12 other sprays. Parameters assessed included spray angle and pattern, droplet size distribution, shot weight uniformity and shot weight throughout life. Among all sprays tested WICK Sulagil Halsspray had the smallest spray angle (46°) and also the smallest diameter spray pattern (X=32.8 mm; Y=34.4 mm). Thiovalone® Buccal Spray Suspension had both the largest spray angle (82°) and largest diameter spray pattern (X=62.6 mm; Y=78.0 mm). Hasco Sept® Aerosol Spray had the smallest droplet size (Dv90=118.4 μm) whereas OKi infiammazione e dolore® 0.16% spray had the largest (Dv90=214.34 μm). In terms of shot weight uniformity, TANTUM® VERDE GOLA 0.25% spray showed the least variation (2% RSD) between shots and UNIBEN Aerosol Spray the most (23.4% RSD). Shot weight throughout life studies showed that FLURBIPROFEN 8.75 mg SPRAY had the least deviation from shot weight (1.77%) whereas OKi infiammazione e dolore® 0.16% spray deviated the most (44.9%). FLURBIPROFEN 8.75 mg SPRAY had the second smallest spray angle/pattern and droplet size distribution and also the least variation in shot weight. Different sore throat sprays vary in different attributes, affecting delivery of the active ingredient. FLURBIPROFEN 8.75 mg SPRAY performed well overall, ranking first among all sprays tested, and providing a dose which is targeted and uniformly delivered throughout the life of the bottle. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  5. Our fingerprint in tsunami deposits - anthropogenic markers as a new tsunami identification tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellanova, P.; Schwarzbauer, J.; Reicherter, K. R.; Jaffe, B. E.; Szczucinski, W.

    2016-12-01

    Several recent geochemical studies have focused on the use of inorganic indicators to evaluate a tsunami origin of sediment in the geologic record. However, tsunami transport not only particulate sedimentary material from marine to terrestrial areas (and vice versa), but also associated organic material. Thus, tsunami deposits may be characterized by organic-geochemical parameters. Recently increased attention has been given to the use of natural organic substances (biomarkers) to identify tsunami deposits. To date no studies have been made investigating anthropogenic organic indicators in recent tsunami deposits. Anthropogenic organic markers are more sensitive and reliable markers compared to other tracers due to their specific molecular structural properties and higher source specificity. In this study we evaluate whether anthropogenic substances are useful indicators for determining whether an area has been inundated by a tsunami. We chose the Sendai Plain and Sanemoura and Oppa Bays, Japan, as study sites because the destruction of infrastructure by flooding released environmental pollutants (e.g., fuels, fats, tarmac, plastics, heavy metals, etc.) contaminating large areas of the coastal zone during the 2011 Tohoku-oki tsunami. Organic compounds from the tsunami deposits are extracted from tsunami sediment and compared with the organic signature of unaffected pre-tsunami samples using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GS/MS) based analyses. For the anthropogenic markers, compounds such as soil derived pesticides (DDT), source specific PAHs, halogenated aromatics from industrial sources were detected and used to observe the inland extent and the impact of the Tohoku-oki tsunami on the coastal region around Sendai.

  6. Detailed seismic intensity in Morioka area; Moriokashi ni okeru shosai shindo bunpu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, T; Yamamoto, H; Settai, H [Iwate University, Iwate (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Yamada, T [Obayashi Road Construction Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-01

    To reveal a seismic intensity distribution in individual areas, a large-scale detailed seismic intensity survey was conducted in Morioka City through questionnaire, as to the Hokkaido Toho-oki (HE) earthquake occurred on October 4, 1994 with a record of seismic intensity 4 at Morioka, and the Sanriku Haruka-oki (SH) earthquake occurred on December 28, 1994 with a record of seismic intensity 5 at Morioka. A relationship was also examined between the seismic intensity distribution and the properties of shallow basement in Morioka City. The range of seismic intensity was from 2.9 to 4.6 and the difference was 1.7 in the case of HE earthquake, and the range was from 3.1 to 5.0 and the difference was 1.9 in the case of SH earthquake. There were large differences in the seismic intensity at individual points. Morioka City has different geological structures in individual areas. There were differences in the S-wave velocity in the surface layer ranging from 150 to 600 m/sec, which were measured using a plate hammering seismic source at 76 areas in Morioka City. These properties of surface layers were in harmony with the seismic intensity distribution obtained from the questionnaire. For the observation of short frequency microtremors at about 490 points in the city, areas with large amplitudes, mean maximum amplitudes of vertical motion components more than 0.1 mkine were distributed in north-western region and a part of southern region. 4 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Detection of ionospheric perturbations associated with Japanese earthquakes on the basis of reception of LF transmitter signals on the satellite DEMETER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Muto

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available There have been recently reported a lot of electromagnetic phenomena associated with earthquakes (EQs. Among these, the ground-based reception of subionospheric waves from VLF/LF transmitters, is recognized as a promising tool to investigate the ionospheric perturbations associated with EQs. This paper deals with the corresponding whistler-mode signals in the upper ionosphere from those VLF/LF transmitters, which is the counterpart of subionospheric signals. The whistler-mode VLF/LF transmitter signals are detected on board the French satellite, DEMETER launched on 29 June 2004. We have chosen several large Japanese EQs including the Miyagi-oki EQ (16 August 2005; M=7.2, depth=36 km, and the target transmitter is a Japanese LF transmitter (JJY whose transmitter frequency is 40 kHz. Due to large longitudinal separation of each satellite orbit (2500 km, we have to adopt a statistical analysis over a rather long period (such as 3 weeks or one month to have reliable data set. By analyzing the spatial distribution of JJY signal intensity (in the form of signal to noise ratio SNR during a period of 4 months including the Miyagi-oki EQ, we have found significant changes in the intensity; generally the SNR is significantly depleted before the EQ, which is considered to be a precursory ionospheric signature of the EQ. This abnormal effect is reasonably explained in terms of either (1 enhanced absorption of whistler-mode LF signals in the lower ionosphere due to the lowering of the lower ionosphere, or (2 nonlinear wave-wave scattering. Finally, this analysis suggests an important role of satellite observation in the study of lithosphere-atmosphere-ionosphere coupling.

  8. Anthropogenic disruption to the seismic driving of beach ridge formation: The Sendai coast, Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goff, James, E-mail: j.goff@unsw.edu.au [School of Biological, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of New South Wales, Sydney 2052 (Australia); Knight, Jasper, E-mail: jasper.knight@wits.ac.za [School of Geography, Archaeology and Environmental Studies, University of the Witwatersrand, Private Bag 3, Johannesburg 2050 (South Africa); Sugawara, Daisuke, E-mail: sugawara@irides.tohoku.ac.jp [Hazard and Risk Evaluation Research Division, International Research, Institute of Disaster Science (IRIDeS), Tohoku University, Aoba 468-1, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-0845 (Japan); Terry, James P., E-mail: james.terry@zu.ac.ae [College of Sustainability Sciences and Humanities, Zayed University, PO Box 19282, Dubai (United Arab Emirates)

    2016-02-15

    The expected geomorphic after-effects of the M{sub w} 9.0 Tōhoku-oki earthquake of 11 March 2011 (eastern Japan) are summarized by a schematic model of seismic driving, which details seismogenic disturbances to sediment systems that affect the rate or timing of sediment delivery to coastlines over timescales of 10{sup 2}–10{sup 4} years. The immediate physical environmental responses to this high-magnitude earthquake included a large tsunami and extensive region-wide slope failures. Normally, slope failures within mountain catchments would have significant impacts on Japan's river and coastal geomorphology in the coming decades with, for example, a new beach ridge expected to form within 20–100 years on the Sendai Plain. However, human activity has significantly modified the rate and timing of geomorphic processes of the region, which will have impacts on likely geomorphic responses to seismic driving. For example, the rivers draining into Sendai Bay have been dammed, providing sediment traps that will efficiently capture bedload and much suspended sediment in transit through the river system. Instead of the expected ~ 1 km of coastal progradation and formation of a ~ 3 m high beach ridge prior to the next large tsunami, it is likely that progradation of the Sendai Plain will continue to slow or even cease as a result of damming of river systems and capture of river sediments behind dams. The resulting reduction of fluvial sediment delivery to the coast due to modification of rivers inadvertently makes seawalls and other engineered coastal structures even more necessary than they would be otherwise. - Highlights: • The Tōhoku-oki earthquake led to seismogenic landslides inland. • Seismogenic sediments are reworked through river systems to the coast. • River dams are capturing these sediments, reducing sediment supply to the coast. • Reduced coastal sediment supply is increasing tsunami risk. • Engineering of river systems is making coastal

  9. Does permanent extensional deformation in lower forearc slopes indicate shallow plate-boundary rupture?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geersen, J.; Ranero, C. R.; Kopp, H.; Behrmann, J. H.; Lange, D.; Klaucke, I.; Barrientos, S.; Diaz-Naveas, J.; Barckhausen, U.; Reichert, C.

    2018-05-01

    Seismic rupture of the shallow plate-boundary can result in large tsunamis with tragic socio-economic consequences, as exemplified by the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake. To better understand the processes involved in shallow earthquake rupture in seismic gaps (where megathrust earthquakes are expected), and investigate the tsunami hazard, it is important to assess whether the region experienced shallow earthquake rupture in the past. However, there are currently no established methods to elucidate whether a margin segment has repeatedly experienced shallow earthquake rupture, with the exception of mechanical studies on subducted fault-rocks. Here we combine new swath bathymetric data, unpublished seismic reflection images, and inter-seismic seismicity to evaluate if the pattern of permanent deformation in the marine forearc of the Northern Chile seismic gap allows inferences on past earthquake behavior. While the tectonic configuration of the middle and upper slope remains similar over hundreds of kilometers along the North Chilean margin, we document permanent extensional deformation of the lower slope localized to the region 20.8°S-22°S. Critical taper analyses, the comparison of permanent deformation to inter-seismic seismicity and plate-coupling models, as well as recent observations from other subduction-zones, including the area that ruptured during the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake, suggest that the normal faults at the lower slope may have resulted from shallow, possibly near-trench breaking earthquake ruptures in the past. In the adjacent margin segments, the 1995 Antofagasta, 2007 Tocopilla, and 2014 Iquique earthquakes were limited to the middle and upper-slope and the terrestrial forearc, and so are upper-plate normal faults. Our findings suggest a seismo-tectonic segmentation of the North Chilean margin that seems to be stable over multiple earthquake cycles. If our interpretations are correct, they indicate a high tsunami hazard posed by the yet un

  10. Role of Compressibility on Tsunami Propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdolali, Ali; Kirby, James T.

    2017-12-01

    In the present paper, we aim to reduce the discrepancies between tsunami arrival times evaluated from tsunami models and real measurements considering the role of ocean compressibility. We perform qualitative studies to reveal the phase speed reduction rate via a modified version of the Mild Slope Equation for Weakly Compressible fluid (MSEWC) proposed by Sammarco et al. (2013). The model is validated against a 3-D computational model. Physical properties of surface gravity waves are studied and compared with those for waves evaluated from an incompressible flow solver over realistic geometry for 2011 Tohoku-oki event, revealing reduction in phase speed.Plain Language SummarySubmarine earthquakes and submarine mass failures (SMFs), can generate long gravitational waves (or tsunamis) that propagate at the free surface. Tsunami waves can travel long distances and are known for their dramatic effects on coastal areas. Nowadays, numerical models are used to reconstruct the tsunamigenic events for many scientific and socioeconomic aspects i.e. Tsunami Early Warning Systems, inundation mapping, risk and hazard analysis, etc. A number of typically neglected parameters in these models cause discrepancies between model outputs and observations. Most of the tsunami models predict tsunami arrival times at distant stations slightly early in comparison to observations. In this study, we show how ocean compressibility would affect the tsunami wave propagation speed. In this framework, an efficient two-dimensional model equation for the weakly compressible ocean has been developed, validated and tested for simplified and real cases against three dimensional and incompressible solvers. Taking the effect of compressibility, the phase speed of surface gravity waves is reduced compared to that of an incompressible fluid. Then, we used the model for the case of devastating Tohoku-Oki 2011 tsunami event, improving the model accuracy. This study sheds light for future model development

  11. Anthropogenic disruption to the seismic driving of beach ridge formation: The Sendai coast, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goff, James; Knight, Jasper; Sugawara, Daisuke; Terry, James P.

    2016-01-01

    The expected geomorphic after-effects of the M_w 9.0 Tōhoku-oki earthquake of 11 March 2011 (eastern Japan) are summarized by a schematic model of seismic driving, which details seismogenic disturbances to sediment systems that affect the rate or timing of sediment delivery to coastlines over timescales of 10"2–10"4 years. The immediate physical environmental responses to this high-magnitude earthquake included a large tsunami and extensive region-wide slope failures. Normally, slope failures within mountain catchments would have significant impacts on Japan's river and coastal geomorphology in the coming decades with, for example, a new beach ridge expected to form within 20–100 years on the Sendai Plain. However, human activity has significantly modified the rate and timing of geomorphic processes of the region, which will have impacts on likely geomorphic responses to seismic driving. For example, the rivers draining into Sendai Bay have been dammed, providing sediment traps that will efficiently capture bedload and much suspended sediment in transit through the river system. Instead of the expected ~ 1 km of coastal progradation and formation of a ~ 3 m high beach ridge prior to the next large tsunami, it is likely that progradation of the Sendai Plain will continue to slow or even cease as a result of damming of river systems and capture of river sediments behind dams. The resulting reduction of fluvial sediment delivery to the coast due to modification of rivers inadvertently makes seawalls and other engineered coastal structures even more necessary than they would be otherwise. - Highlights: • The Tōhoku-oki earthquake led to seismogenic landslides inland. • Seismogenic sediments are reworked through river systems to the coast. • River dams are capturing these sediments, reducing sediment supply to the coast. • Reduced coastal sediment supply is increasing tsunami risk. • Engineering of river systems is making coastal engineering more

  12. An improvement of the GPS buoy system for detecting tsunami at far offshore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, T.; Terada, Y.; Nagai, T.; Kawaguchi, K.; Koshimura, S.; Matsushita, Y.

    2012-12-01

    We have developed a GPS buoy system for detecting a tsunami before its arrival at coasts and thereby mitigating tsunami disaster. The system was first deployed in 1997 for a short period in the Sagami bay, south of Tokyo, for basic experiments, and then deployed off Ofunato city, northeastern part of Japan, for the period 2001-2004. The system was then established at about 13km south of Cape Muroto, southwestern part of Japan, since 2004. Five tsunamis of about 10cm have been observed in these systems, including 2001 Peru earthquake (Mw8.3), 2003 Tokachi-oki earthquake (Mw8.3), 2004 Off Kii Peninsula earthquake (Mw7.4), 2010 Chile earthquake (Mw8.8), and 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake (Mw9.0). These experiments clearly showed that GPS buoy is capable of detecting tsunami with a few centimeter accuracy and can be monitored in near real time by applying an appropriate filter, real-time data transmission using radio and dissemination of obtained records of sea surface height changes through internet. Considering that the system is a powerful tool to monitor sea surface variations due to wind as well as tsunami, the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism implemented the system in a part of the Nationwide Ocean Wave information network for Ports and HArbourS (NOWPHAS) system and deployed the system at 15 sites along the coasts around the Japanese Islands. The system detected the tsunami due to the 11th March 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake with higher than 6m of tsunami height at the site Off South Iwate (Kamaishi). The Japan Meteorological Agency that was monitoring the record updated the level of the tsunami warning to the greatest value due to the result. Currently, the GPS buoy system uses a RTK-GPS which requires a land base for obtaining precise location of the buoy by a baseline analysis. This algorithm limits the distance of the buoy to, at most, 20km from the coast as the accuracy of positioning gets much worse as the baseline distance becomes longer

  13. Tsunami simulation method initiated from waveforms observed by ocean bottom pressure sensors for real-time tsunami forecast; Applied for 2011 Tohoku Tsunami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanioka, Yuichiro

    2017-04-01

    After tsunami disaster due to the 2011 Tohoku-oki great earthquake, improvement of the tsunami forecast has been an urgent issue in Japan. National Institute of Disaster Prevention is installing a cable network system of earthquake and tsunami observation (S-NET) at the ocean bottom along the Japan and Kurile trench. This cable system includes 125 pressure sensors (tsunami meters) which are separated by 30 km. Along the Nankai trough, JAMSTEC already installed and operated the cable network system of seismometers and pressure sensors (DONET and DONET2). Those systems are the most dense observation network systems on top of source areas of great underthrust earthquakes in the world. Real-time tsunami forecast has depended on estimation of earthquake parameters, such as epicenter, depth, and magnitude of earthquakes. Recently, tsunami forecast method has been developed using the estimation of tsunami source from tsunami waveforms observed at the ocean bottom pressure sensors. However, when we have many pressure sensors separated by 30km on top of the source area, we do not need to estimate the tsunami source or earthquake source to compute tsunami. Instead, we can initiate a tsunami simulation from those dense tsunami observed data. Observed tsunami height differences with a time interval at the ocean bottom pressure sensors separated by 30 km were used to estimate tsunami height distribution at a particular time. In our new method, tsunami numerical simulation was initiated from those estimated tsunami height distribution. In this paper, the above method is improved and applied for the tsunami generated by the 2011 Tohoku-oki great earthquake. Tsunami source model of the 2011 Tohoku-oki great earthquake estimated using observed tsunami waveforms, coseimic deformation observed by GPS and ocean bottom sensors by Gusman et al. (2012) is used in this study. The ocean surface deformation is computed from the source model and used as an initial condition of tsunami

  14. Slip-dependent weakening on shallow plate boundary fault in the Japan subduction zone: shallow coseismic slip facilitated by foreshock afterslip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Yoshi; Ikari, Matt; Ujiie, Kohtaro; Kopf, Achim

    2017-04-01

    Understanding of role of slow earthquakes as they relate to the occurrence of both megathrust earthquakes and tsunami earthquakes is necessary to mitigate these disasters in the near future. Laboratory shearing experiments is one of important approach to evaluate these relationships. Here, we use powdered gouge samples from JFAST (IODP Expedition 343) Hole C0019E, core sample 17R-1, which is the plate boundary fault zone in the Japan Trench subduction zone. In this region, both large coseismic slip during the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake as well as discrete slow slip events (SSE) have occurred. Experiments were conducted in a single-direct shear apparatus under normal stress of 16 MPa, with total shear displacements of up to 16 mm. We evaluate the slip-dependence of friction by extracting the velocity-dependent friction parameters a, b, and Dc , and also measure the rate of change in friction coefficient with shear displacement as the slip-dependence of friction. We report that in friction experiments using the Tohoku fault zone samples, an increase in sliding velocity exceeding that of earthquake afterslip can induce a change from steady-state frictional strength or slip hardening friction to slip-weakening frictional behavior. Our results show that the slip weakening is observed when the slip velocity exceeds 3.7 × 10-6 m/s during our experiments, while steady-state frictional strength or slip hardening is observed below 1 × 10-6 m/s. In the Japan Trench region, two slow events prior to the mainshock were observed in the mainshock area with a coseismic slip exceeding 30 m . One event is an episodic SSE with a slip velocity of 0.1 × 10-6 , and the other is afterslip after the largest Tohoku earthquake foreshock with a slip velocity exceeding 2 × 10-6 m/s. Our experiments show that slip-weakening friction should be expected at the afterslip rate, suggesting that the afterslip may have facilitated the large coseismic slip during the mainshock on the plate boundary

  15. Velocity- and slip-dependent weakening on the Tohoku plate boundary fault: shallow coseismic slip facilitated by foreshock afterslip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Y.; Ikari, M.; Ujiie, K.; Kopf, A.

    2016-12-01

    Understanding of role of slow earthquakes as they relate to the occurrence of both megathrust earthquakes and tsunami earthquakes is necessary to mitigate these disasters in the near future. Laboratory shearing experiments is one of important approach to evaluate these relationships. Here, we use powdered gouge samples from JFAST (IODP Expedition 343) Hole C0019E, core sample 17R-1, which is the plate boundary fault zone in the Japan Trench subduction zone. In this region, both large coseismic slip during the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake as well as discrete slow slip events (SSE) have occurred. Experiments were conducted in a single-direct shear apparatus under normal stress of 16 MPa, with total shear displacements of up to 16 mm. We evaluate both the velocity- and slip-dependence of friction by extracting the velocity-dependent friction parameters a, b, and Dc, and measuring the rate of change in friction coefficient with shear displacement as the slip-dependence of friction. We report that in friction experiments using the Tohoku fault zone samples, an increase in sliding velocity exceeding that of earthquake afterslip can induce a change from steady-state frictional strength or slip hardening friction to slip-weakening frictional behavior. Our results show that the slip weakening is observed when the slip velocity exceeds 1 x 10-6 m/s during our experiments, while steady-state frictional strength or slip hardening is observed below 1x10-6 m/s. In the Japan Trench region, two slow events were observed at the downdip edge of the mainshock coseismic slip zone (< 30 m) were observed. These are an episodic SSE with a slip velocity of 0.1 x 10-6, and afterslip after the largest foreshock with a slip velocity of 2 x 10-6 m/s. This suggests that the afterslip may have facilitated the large coseismic slip during the mainshock on the plate boundary fault of the Tohoku-Oki earthquake.

  16. Tsallis non-additive entropy and natural time analysis of seismicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarlis, N. V.; Skordas, E. S.; Varotsos, P.

    2017-12-01

    Within the context of Tsallis non-additive entropy [1] statistical mechanics -in the frame of which kappa distributions arise [2,3]- a derivation of the Gutenberg-Richter (GR) law of seismicity has been proposed [4,5]. Such an analysis leads to a generalized GR law [6,7] which is applied here to the earthquakes in Japan and California. These seismic data are also studied in natural time [6] revealing that although some properties of seismicity may be recovered by the non-additive entropy approach, temporal correlations between successive earthquake magnitudes should be also taken into account [6,8]. The importance of such correlations is strengthened by the observation of periods of long range correlated earthquake magnitude time series [9] a few months before all earthquakes of magnitude 7.6 or larger in the entire Japanese area from 1 January 1984 to 11 March 2011 (the day of the magnitude 9.0 Tohoku-Oki earthquake) almost simultaneously with characteristic order parameter variations of seismicity [10]. These variations appear approximately when low frequency abnormal changes of the electric and magnetic field of the Earth (less than around 1Hz) are recorded [11] before strong earthquakes as the magnitude 9.0 Tohoku-Oki earthquake in Japan in 2011 [12]. 1. C Tsallis, J Stat Phys 52 (1988) 479 2. G Livadiotis, and D J McComas, J Geophys Res 114 (2009) A11105 3. G Livadiotis, Kappa Distributions. (Elsevier, Amsterdam) 2017. doi: 10.1016/B978-0-12-804638-8.01001-9 4. O Sotolongo-Costa, A Posadas, Phys Rev Lett 92 (2004) 048501 5. R Silva, G França, C Vilar, J Alcaniz, Phys Rev E 73 (2006) 026102 6. N Sarlis, E Skordas, P Varotsos, Phys Rev E 82 (2010) 021110 7. L Telesca, Bull Seismol Soc Am 102 (2012) 886-891 8. P Varotsos, N Sarlis, E Skordas, Natural Time Analysis: The new view of time. (Springer, Berlin) 2011. doi: 10.1007/978-3-642-16449-1 9. P Varotsos, N Sarlis, E Skordas, J Geophys Res Space Physics 119 (2014) 9192. 10. N Sarlis, E Skordas, P Varotsos, T

  17. Earthquake early warning using P-waves that appear after initial S-waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodera, Y.

    2017-12-01

    As measures for underprediction for large earthquakes with finite faults and overprediction for multiple simultaneous earthquakes, Hoshiba (2013), Hoshiba and Aoki (2015), and Kodera et al. (2016) proposed earthquake early warning (EEW) methods that directly predict ground motion by computing the wave propagation of observed ground motion. These methods are expected to predict ground motion with a high accuracy even for complicated scenarios because these methods do not need source parameter estimation. On the other hand, there is room for improvement in their rapidity because they predict strong motion prediction mainly based on the observation of S-waves and do not explicitly use P-wave information available before the S-waves. In this research, we propose a real-time P-wave detector to incorporate P-wave information into these wavefield-estimation approaches. P-waves within a few seconds from the P-onsets are commonly used in many existing EEW methods. In addition, we focus on P-waves that may appear in the later part of seismic waves. Kurahashi and Irikura (2013) mentioned that P-waves radiated from strong motion generation areas (SMGAs) were recognizable after S-waves of the initial rupture point in the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku earthquake (Mw 9.0) (the Tohoku-oki earthquake). Detecting these P-waves would enhance the rapidity of prediction for the peak ground motion generated by SMGAs. We constructed a real-time P-wave detector that uses a polarity analysis. Using acceleration records in boreholes of KiK-net (band-pass filtered around 0.5-10 Hz with site amplification correction), the P-wave detector performed the principal component analysis with a sliding window of 4 s and calculated P-filter values (e.g. Ross and Ben-Zion, 2014). The application to the Tohoku-oki earthquake (Mw 9.0) showed that (1) peaks of P-filter that corresponded to SMGAs appeared in several stations located near SMGAs and (2) real-time seismic intensities (Kunugi et al

  18. Stress Drops for Oceanic Crust and Mantle Intraplate Earthquakes in the Subduction Zone of Northeastern Japan Inferred from the Spectral Inversion Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, H.; Ishikawa, K.; Arai, T.; Ibrahim, R.

    2017-12-01

    Understanding stress drop related to intraplate earthquakes in the subducting plate is very important for seismic hazard mitigation. In previous studies, Kita et al. (2015) analyzed stress drops for intraplate earthquakes under Hokkaido, Northern Japan, using S-coda wave spectral ratio analysis methods, and found that the stress drop for events occurring more than 10 km beneath the upper surface of the subducting plate (within the oceanic mantle) was larger than the stress drop for events occurring within 10 km of the upper surface of the subducting plate (in the oceanic crust). In this study, we focus on intraplate earthquakes that occur under Tohoku, Northeastern Japan, to determine whether similar stress drop differences may exist between earthquakes occurring within the upper 10 km of the subducting plate (within the oceanic crust) and those occurring deeper than 10 km (within the oceanic mantle), based on spectral inversion analysis of seismic waveforms recorded during the earthquakes. We selected 64 earthquakes with focal depths between 49-76 km and Mw 3.5-5.0 that occurred in the source area of the 2003 Miyagi-ken-oki earthquake (Mw 7.0) (region 1), and 82 earthquakes with focal depths between 49-67 km and Mw 3.5-5.5 in the source area of the 2011 Miyagi- ken-oki earthquake (Mw 7.1) (region 2). Records from the target earthquakes at 24 stations in region 1 and 21 stations in region 2 were used in the analysis. A 5-sec time window following S-wave onset was used for each station record. Borehole records of KiK-net station (MYGH04) was used as a reference station for both regions 1 and 2. We applied the spectral inversion analysis method of Matsunami et al. (2003) separately to regions 1 and 2. Our results show that stress drop generally increases with focal depth and that the stress drop for events occurring deeper than 10 km in the plate (within the oceanic mantle) were larger than the stress drop for events occurring within 10 km of the upper surface of the

  19. Holocene Tsunami Deposits From Large Tsunamis Along the Kuril Subduction Zone, Northeast Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanayama, F.; Furukawa, R.; Satake, K.; Soeda, Y.; Shigeno, K.

    2003-12-01

    Holocene tsunami deposits in eastern Hokkaido between Nemuro and Tokachi show that the Kuril subduction zone repeatedly produced earthquakes and tsunamis larger than those recorded in this region since AD 1804 (Nanayama et al., Nature, 424, 660-663, 2003). Twenty-two postulated tsunami sand layers from the past 9500 years are preserved on lake bottom near Kushiro City, and about ten postulated tsunami sand layers from the past 3000 years are preserved in peat layers on the coastal marsh of Kiritappu. We dated these ten tsunami deposits (named Ts1 to Ts10 from shallower to deeper) in peat layers by radiocarbon and tephrochronology, correlated them with historical earthquakes and tsunamis, and surveyed their spatial distribution to estimate the tsunamisO inland inundation limits. Ts10 and Ts9 are under regional tephra Ta-c2 (ca. 2.5 ka) and represent prehistorical events. Ts8 to Ts5 are between two regional tephra layers Ta-c2 and B-Tm (ca. 9th century). In particular, Ts5 is found just below B-Tm, so it is dated 9th century (Heian era). Ts4 is dated ca 13th century (Kamakura era), while Ts3, found just below Us-b and Ta-b (AD 1667-1663), is dated 17th century (Edo era). Ts2 is dated 19th century (Edo era) and may correspond to the AD 1843 Tempo Tokachi-oki earthquake (Mt 8.0) recorded in a historical document Nikkanki of Kokutai-ji temple at Akkeshi. Ts1 is inferred 20th century and may correspond to the tsunami from the AD 1960 Chilean earthquake (M 9.5) or the AD 1952 Tokachi-oki earthquake (Mt 8.2). Our detailed surveys indicate that Ts3 and Ts4 can be traced more than 3 km from the present coast line in Kirittapu marsh, much longer than the limits (< 1 km) of recent deposits Ts1 and Ts2 or documented inundation of the 19th and 20th century tsunamis. The recurrence intervals of great tsunami inundation are about 400 to 500 years, longer than that of typical interplate earthquakes along the Kuril subduction zone. The longer interval and the apparent large tsunami

  20. Revisiting T2KK and T2KO physics potential and ν{sub μ}- anti ν{sub μ} beam ratio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagiwara, Kaoru [Theory Center, KEK, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Sokendai, Department of Accelerator Science, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Ko, Pyungwon [KIAS, School of Physics, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Okamura, Naotoshi [International University of Health and Welfare, Department of Radiological Sciences, Ohtawara, Tochigi (Japan); Takaesu, Yoshitaro [University of Tokyo, Department of Physics, Tokyo (Japan)

    2017-03-15

    We revisit the sensitivity study of the Tokai-to-Kamioka-and-Korea (T2KK) and Tokai-to-Kamioka-and-Oki (T2KO) proposals where a water Cerenkov detector with the 100 kton fiducial volume is placed in Korea (L = 1000 km) and Oki island (L = 653 km) in Japan, respectively, in addition to the Super-Kamiokande for determination of the neutrino mass hierarchy and leptonic CP phase (δ{sub CP}). We systematically study the running ratio of the ν{sub μ} and anti ν{sub μ} focusing beams with dedicated background estimation for the ν{sub e} appearance and ν{sub μ} disappearance signals, especially improving treatment of the neutral-current π{sup 0} backgrounds. Using a ν{sub μ}- anti ν{sub μ} beam ratio between 3:2 and 2.5:2.5 (in units of 10{sup 21}POT with the proton energy of 40 GeV), the mass-hierarchy determination with the median sensitivity of 3-5 σ by the T2KK and 1-4 σ by the T2KO experiment are expected when sin{sup 2}θ{sub 23} = 0.5, depending on the mass-hierarchy pattern and CP phase. These sensitivities are enhanced (reduced) by 30-40% in Δχ{sup 2} when sin{sup 2}θ{sub 23} = 0.6 (0.4). The CP phase is measured with the uncertainty of 20 {sup circle} -50 {sup circle} by the T2KK and T2KO using the ν{sub μ}- anti ν{sub μ} focusing beam ratio between 3.5:1.5 and 1.5:3.5. These findings indicate that inclusion of the anti ν{sub μ} focusing beam improves the sensitivities of the T2KK and T2KO experiments to both the mass-hierarchy determination and the leptonic CP phase measurement simultaneously with the preferred beam ratio being between 3:2-2.5:2.5 (x 10{sup 21}POT). (orig.)

  1. Lasteaia ja lõbumaja vahel : eesti proosa 2008 / Vaapo Vaher

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vaher, Vaapo, 1945-

    2009-01-01

    Ülevaade 2008. aasta eesti proosast. Pikemalt käsitletakse järgmisi autoreid ja nende teoseid: Mihkel Raud "Musta pori näkku", Olev Remsu "Musketäride muundumised", Rein Põder "Juba olnud", Juhan Nurme "Ligimene", Jaan Tangsoo "Méduse'i parv", Esta Aksli "Tare poole tõttaja", Mari Saat "Lasnamäe lunastaja", Peeter Morgen "Sõnum", Mait Raun "Dr. Mööbi seiklused Inglismaal", Andrei Hvostov "Võõrad lood" ja "Projektijuht Posse", Chaneldior "Kontrolli alt väljas", Vahur Afanasjev "Kosmos", Egon Ilisson "Isased", Jaak Leer "Kaks kabanossi ja Maaja", Kärt Hellerma "Sinine missa", Elo Viiding "Püha Maama", Toomas Raudam "Miks ma ei taha olla kirjanik?", Mart Kivastik "Kurb raamat", Jüri Tuulik "Räim, pisike kena kala", Tarmo Teder "12 jõulujuttu", Dagmar Lamp (koostaja) "Tule, ma jutustan sulle loo", Eia Uus "Kahe näoga jumal", Barthol Lo Mejor "Popdada 2007-2008", Anti Saar "Nemad kaks", Ketlin Priilinn "Liiseli võti" ja "Vaim", Aita Kivi "Lähedal", Marje Ernits "Hoia mu kätt", Kati Murutar "Naisena sündinud : kakskümmend aastat hiljem", Tuule Lind "Pööratud tuul", Siiri Laidla "Lihtne lugu, ehk, Senta suvepuhkus", Kätlin Padesaar "Veel üks paradiis", Aimée Beekman "Proovielu", Lehte Hainslau "Kolmkõla, ehk, 3 kõla", Ira Lember "Ööviiulid", Tamur Kusnets "Hundipäikese aeg : metsiku jahi algus", Kaupo Pähkel "Ehatähe rüütel", Arvo Valton "Ülemiste vanake", Tiit Aleksejev "Palveränd", Ants Eret "Afgaanide vang", Mario Merirand "Afganistani päevik", Leo Kunnas "Gort Ashryn", Rein Raud "Vend", Peeter Sauter "Beibi bluu", Marion Andra "Pimend", Kristjan Sander "13 talvist hetke", Helga Nõu "Peaaegu geenius, ehk, Schrödingeri kassi otsimas", Tiit Sepa "Eefa hüüdnimega Siug", Kaarel ja Klaara Kivi "Varandus seinal", Merike Jürjo "Mälestusteta maja", Rein Vahisalu "Viies kabinet", Aarne Biin "Mees otsib naist", Erik Tohvri "Ümberasujad" ja "Sulasest sai peremees", Arnold Laugus "Elav maa", Jüri v. Grauberg "Selguse poole", J

  2. Lasteaia ja lõbumaja vahel : Eesti proosa 2008 / Vaapo Vaher

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vaher, Vaapo, 1945-

    2012-01-01

    Ülevaade 2008. aasta eesti proosast. Pikemalt käsitletakse järgmisi autoreid ja nende teoseid: Mihkel Raud "Musta pori näkku", Olev Remsu "Musketäride muundumised", Rein Põder "Juba olnud", Juhan Nurme "Ligimene", Jaan Tangsoo "Méduse'i parv", Esta Aksli "Tare poole tõttaja", Mari Saat "Lasnamäe lunastaja", Peeter Morgen "Sõnum", Mait Raun "Dr. Mööbi seiklused Inglismaal", Andrei Hvostov "Võõrad lood" ja "Projektijuht Posse", Chaneldior "Kontrolli alt väljas", Vahur Afanasjev "Kosmos", Egon Ilisson "Isased", Jaak Leer "Kaks kabanossi ja Maaja", Kärt Hellerma "Sinine missa", Elo Viiding "Püha Maama", Toomas Raudam "Miks ma ei taha olla kirjanik?", Mart Kivastik "Kurb raamat", Jüri Tuulik "Räim, pisike kena kala", Tarmo Teder "12 jõulujuttu", Dagmar Lamp (koostaja) "Tule, ma jutustan sulle loo", Eia Uus "Kahe näoga jumal", Barthol Lo Mejor "Popdada 2007-2008", Anti Saar "Nemad kaks", Ketlin Priilinn "Liiseli võti" ja "Vaim", Aita Kivi "Lähedal", Marje Ernits "Hoia mu kätt", Kati Murutar "Naisena sündinud : kakskümmend aastat hiljem", Tuule Lind "Pööratud tuul", Siiri Laidla "Lihtne lugu, ehk, Senta suvepuhkus", Kätlin Padesaar "Veel üks paradiis", Aimée Beekman "Proovielu", Lehte Hainslau "Kolmkõla, ehk, 3 kõla", Ira Lember "Ööviiulid", Tamur Kusnets "Hundipäikese aeg : metsiku jahi algus", Kaupo Pähkel "Ehatähe rüütel", Arvo Valton "Ülemiste vanake", Tiit Aleksejev "Palveränd", Ants Eret "Afgaanide vang", Mario Merirand "Afganistani päevik", Leo Kunnas "Gort Ashryn", Rein Raud "Vend", Peeter Sauter "Beibi bluu", Marion Andra "Pimend", Kristjan Sander "13 talvist hetke", Helga Nõu "Peaaegu geenius, ehk, Schrödingeri kassi otsimas", Tiit Sepa "Eefa hüüdnimega Siug", Kaarel ja Klaara Kivi "Varandus seinal", Merike Jürjo "Mälestusteta maja", Rein Vahisalu "Viies kabinet", Aarne Biin "Mees otsib naist", Erik Tohvri "Ümberasujad" ja "Sulasest sai peremees", Arnold Laugus "Elav maa", Jüri v. Grauberg "Selguse poole", J

  3. On the structural integrity evaluation about aged components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-08-15

    About one third of the nuclear power plants in Japan have been operated more than 30 years and flaws due to age-related degradation mechanisms have been detected in some components such as piping systems or core shrouds these years. Moreover, several severe earthquakes such as the Tohoku District - off the Pacific Ocean Earthquake or the Niigata-ken Chuetsu-oki Earthquake have struck some nuclear power plants in Japan recent years. Therefore, the structural integrity evaluation about nuclear installations and components considering seismic loads and aging mechanisms has become more and more important. In this study, several evaluation methods were proposed to assess the crack growth rate under the seismic loading conditions, to assess the failure conditions or the realistic failure capacities of the aged piping systems considering seismic or general loading conditions. Furthermore, analysis codes were developed considering aging mechanisms to carry out the integrity evaluation, or the failure probability evaluation which is useful in the seismic PSA evaluation. All of these assessment methods and analysis codes are being used and will be used more and more in the cross-check analyses or the safety reviews about nuclear installations and components. (author)

  4. Extracting Earth's Elastic Wave Response from Noise Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snieder, Roel; Larose, Eric

    2013-05-01

    Recent research has shown that noise can be turned from a nuisance into a useful seismic source. In seismology and other fields in science and engineering, the estimation of the system response from noise measurements has proven to be a powerful technique. To convey the essence of the method, we first treat the simplest case of a homogeneous medium to show how noise measurements can be used to estimate waves that propagate between sensors. We provide an overview of physics research—dating back more than 100 years—showing that random field fluctuations contain information about the system response. This principle has found extensive use in surface-wave seismology but can also be applied to the estimation of body waves. Because noise provides continuous illumination of the subsurface, the extracted response is ideally suited for time-lapse monitoring. We present examples of time-lapse monitoring as applied to the softening of soil after the 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake, the detection of a precursor to a landslide, and temporal changes in the lunar soil.

  5. SOI detector with drift field due to majority carrier flow - an alternative to biasing in depletion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trimpl, M.; Deptuch, G.; Yarema, R.; /Fermilab

    2010-11-01

    This paper reports on a SOI detector with drift field induced by the flow of majority carriers. It is proposed as an alternative method of detector biasing compared to standard depletion. N-drift rings in n-substrate are used at the front side of the detector to provide charge collecting field in depth as well as to improve the lateral charge collection. The concept was verified on a 2.5 x 2.5 mm{sup 2} large detector array with 20 {micro}m and 40 {micro}m pixel pitch fabricated in August 2009 using the OKI semiconductor process. First results, obtained with a radioactive source to demonstrate spatial resolution and spectroscopic performance of the detector for the two different pixel sizes will be shown and compared to results obtained with a standard depletion scheme. Two different diode designs, one using a standard p-implantation and one surrounded by an additional BPW implant will be compared as well.

  6. Necessity of radiation education suggested from press report during earthquake damage of Kashiwazaki-Kariwa Nuclear Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamamoto, Kazuko; Narabayashi, Tadashi; Itami, Toshio; Kobayashi, Masahide; Akizuki, Teruo; Onishi, Hidetoshi

    2009-01-01

    Although Kashiwazaki-Kariwa Nuclear Power Station was affected by Chuetsu-Oki earthquake, the important components in the reactor building were hardly damaged, and fundamental nuclear safety was ensured. However, as the mass communication media reported the pictures of the black smoke of fire accident of the transformer, sloshing of the pool, etc. without declaration of 'Safety' by the Central Government or sufficient explanation, the habitants on the site and the Japan's people were put into anxiety and thus, harmful rumor was spread. The people obtain the information from the mass communication media, and they believed all the reports of the mass media. Behind it, there is a fundamental knowledge among them that Radiation = 'dangerous', 'bad for health' and 'awful' = Nuclear Power Generation. This knowledge has been fixed more firmly due to the report of the earthquake damage. In order to escape from this deep-rooted scheme, it is necessary to spread the correct knowledge on the radiation. At this time, the Official Curriculum Guidelines for Junior High School are revised, and the radiation education is started for the first time in 30 years. We analyzed and evaluated the results of the survey performed by Radiation Education Forum, and, simultaneously, we considered the necessity of the radiation education judging from the reports of the mass communication media. (author)

  7. When is a Tsunami a Mega-Tsunami?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chague-Goff, C.; Goff, J. R.; Terry, J. P.; Goto, K.

    2014-12-01

    The 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami is commonly called a mega-tsunami, and this attribute has also been linked to the 2011 Tohoku-oki tsunami. However, since this term was first coined in the early 1990's there have been very few attempts to define it. As such it has been applied in a rather arbitrary fashion to a number of tsunami characteristics, such as wave height or amplitude at both the source and at distant locations, run-up height, geographical extent and impact. The first use of the term is related to a tsunami generated by a large bolide impact and indeed it seems entirely appropriate that the term should be used for such rare events on geological timescales. However, probably as a result of media-driven hyperbole, scientists have used this term at least twice in the last decade, which is hardly a significant portion of the geological timescale. It therefore seems reasonable to suggest that these recent unexpectedly large events do not fall in the category of mega-tsunami but into a category of exceptional events within historical experience and local perspective. The use of the term mega-tsunami over the past 14 years is discussed and a definition is provided that marks the relative uniqueness of these events and a new term, appropriately Japanese in origin, namely that of souteigai-tsunami, is proposed. Examples of these tsunamis will be provided.

  8. Prevent recurrence of nuclear disaster (3). Agenda on nuclear safety from earthquake engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kameda, Hiroyuki; Takada, Tsuyoshi; Ebisawa, Katsumi; Nakamura, Susumu

    2012-01-01

    Based on results of activities of committee on seismic safety of nuclear power plants (NPPs) of Japan Association for Earthquake Engineering, which started activities after Chuetsu-oki earthquake and then experienced Great East Japan Earthquake, (under close collaboration with the committee of Atomic Energy Society of Japan started activities simultaneously), and taking account of further development of concept, agenda on nuclear safety were proposed from earthquake engineering. In order to prevent recurrence of nuclear disaster, individual technical issues of earthquake engineering and comprehensive issues of integration technology, multidisciplinary collaboration and establishment of technology governance based on them were of prime importance. This article described important problems to be solved; (1) technical issues and mission of seismic safety of NPPs, (2) decision making based on risk assessment - basis of technical governance, (3) framework of risk, design and regulation - framework of required technology governance, (4) technical issues of earthquake engineering for nuclear safety, (5) role of earthquake engineering in nuclear power risk communication and (6) importance of multidisciplinary collaboration. Responsibility of engineering would be attributed to establishment of technology governance, cultivation of individual technology and integration technology, and social communications. (T. Tanaka)

  9. A complex rupture image of the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake revealed by the MeSO-net

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Ryou; Yukutake, Yohei; Ito, Hiroshi; Harada, Masatake; Aketagawa, Tamotsu; Yoshida, Akio; Sakai, Shin'ichi; Nakagawa, Shigeki; Hirata, Naoshi; Obara, Kazushige; Kimura, Hisanori

    2011-07-01

    Strong ground motions from the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake, the most powerful earthquake to have occurred in and around Japan after the installation of a modern seismic network, were recorded for more than 300 seconds by a dense and wide-span seismic network, the Metropolitan Seismic Observation Network (MeSO-net), installed around the Tokyo metropolitan area about 200 km away from the epicenter. We investigate the rupture process of the earthquake in space and time by performing semblance-enhanced stacking analysis of the waveforms in a frequency range of 0.05 to 0.5 Hz. By projecting the power of the stacked waveforms to an assumed fault plane, the rupture propagation image of the large and complex earthquake has been successfully obtained. The seismic energy was mainly generated from the off-shore areas of about 100 km away from the coast in Miyagi and Fukushima Prefectures. The shallow and eastern part of the fault along the Japan trench off Miyagi Prefecture released strong seismic energy which might have been related to the excitation of gigantic tsunami. In contrast, the southern shallow part of the fault plane, off Ibaraki Prefecture, released only minor seismic energy. Our analysis suggests that the focal areas combining both the officially-forecasted Miyagi-oki earthquake and those of historical earthquakes that occurred off the coast of Fukushima Prefecture in 1938 were broken, resulting in the 2011 great M 9 earthquake.

  10. Resource assessment of methane hydrate in the eastern Nankai Trough, Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujii, T.; Saeki, T.; Kobayashi, T.; Inamori, T.; Hayashi, M.; Takano, O.; Takayama, T.; Kawasaki, T.; Nagakubo, S.; Nakamizu, M.; Yokoi, K. [Japan Oil, Gas and Metals National Corp., Mihama-ku, Chiba (Japan). Technology and Research Center

    2008-07-01

    This study investigated the methane hydrate (MH) in the Nankai Trough offshore Japan as a potential natural gas resource. The resource assessment of MH was determined from the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI) exploratory test wells Tokai-oki to Kumano-nada. Logging-while-drilling (LWD) campaigns were launched at 16 sites, coring at 4 sites and wirelogging at 2 sites. This study used high resolution 2D/3D seismic data and introduced a new concept for the MH concentrated zone and applied it to resource assessment. MH bearing layers in the survey area were classified into 2 categories, notably MH concentrated zones and MH bearing layers other than relatively thin, low saturated MH layers. The total amount of methane gas in place was estimated to be 40 tcf as Pmean value (10 tcf as P90, 82 tcf as P10). More than 10 prospective MH concentrated zones were extracted. They were characterized by high resistivity well logs, strong seismic reflectors, high p-wave interval velocity and turbidite deposits delineated by sedimentary facies analysis. The total gas in place for MH concentrated zones was estimated to be 20 tcf (half of the total amount) as Pmean value. Sensitivity analysis revealed that the net-to-gross ratio and methane pore saturation have higher sensitivity than other parameters. As such, they are important for further detail analysis. 22 refs., 3 tabs., 9 figs.

  11. Settlement mechanism of the backfilled ground around nuclear power plant buildings. Part 2. A series of centrifuge tests and a numerical simulation by using FEM about a typical test result

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawai, Tadashi; Ishimaru, Makoto

    2009-01-01

    During the Niigataken Chuetsu-oki earthquake, rather large settlements of the backfill ground around the rigid and stable buildings were observed. In this study, five cases of centrifuge tests with shaking events were conducted to reproduce the similar type of the settlements in order to examine the mechanism of the settlements. The results from those tests showed that the ground was settled by the negative dilatancy of sandy soils anywhere in the model ground and the additional settlements were suddenly caused when the backfill ground was apart from the rigid wall modeling the rigid and stable buildings, namely a sliding failure in an active state was occurred in the backfill ground near the structure. It was confirmed that these settlements were able to be estimated by a simple method proposed in this report, in which only the differences between the self-weight of the sliding block and the soil strength calculated at the initial stress conditions were considered as the driving forces of the sliding failure, and then the accelerations calculated from the forces being divided by the mass of the sliding block were simply integrated two times with respected to the time when the ground was apart from the structure. Further, a numerical simulation by using FEM about a typical test result was conducted, and these settlements were well simulated. (author)

  12. Seismic Risk Assessment of Italian Seaports Using GIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartolomei, Anna; Corigliano, Mirko; Lai, Carlo G.

    2008-01-01

    Seaports are crucial elements in the export and import of goods and/or on the flow of travellers in the tourism industry of many industrialised nations included Italy. Experience gained from recent earthquakes (e.g. 1989 Loma Prieta in USA, 1995 Hyogoken-Nanbu and 2003 Tokachi-Oki in Japan) have dramatically demonstrated the seismic vulnerability of seaport structures and the severe damage that can be caused by ground shaking. In Italy, the Department of Civil Protection has funded a research project to develop a methodology for the seismic design of new marginal wharves and assessment of existing structures at seaports located in areas of medium or high seismicity. This paper shows part of the results of this research project, currently underway, with particular reference to the seismic risk assessment through an interactive, geographically referenced database (GIS). Standard risk assessment have been carried out for the Gioia Tauro port in Calabria (Italy) using the empirical curves implemented by the National Institute of Building Sciences (NIBS, 2004)

  13. On development and improvement of evaluation techniques for strong ground motion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-08-15

    Issues regarding evaluation of active fault and ground motion for formulation of design basis ground motion (Ss) were identified during NISA and NSC seismic safety reviewing activities, which have been conducted in the light of the revision of the relevant seismic regulatory guide in 2006 and the experiences of the Niigataken Chuetsu-oki Earthquake in 2007 and the 2011 off the Pacific Coast of Tohoku Earthquake. In this theme following four subjects were investigated to resolve the important problems for ground motion evaluation, (1) advanced evaluation of ground motion using fault model and uncertainty; (2) improving evaluation of ground motion using attenuation relation of response spectrum; (3) development of advanced technique for ground motion observation and observation tool in deep borehole; (4) improving the evaluation of site effect and seismic wave propagation characteristics. Obtained results will be incorporated into the national safety review and also in the safety standard guidelines of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) using its Extra-Budgetary Program (IAEA EBP), thereby contributing to technical cooperation in global nuclear seismic safety. (author)

  14. Are inundation limit and maximum extent of sand useful for differentiating tsunamis and storms? An example from sediment transport simulations on the Sendai Plain, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Masashi; Goto, Kazuhisa; Bricker, Jeremy D.; Imamura, Fumihiko

    2018-02-01

    We examined the quantitative difference in the distribution of tsunami and storm deposits based on numerical simulations of inundation and sediment transport due to tsunami and storm events on the Sendai Plain, Japan. The calculated distance from the shoreline inundated by the 2011 Tohoku-oki tsunami was smaller than that inundated by storm surges from hypothetical typhoon events. Previous studies have assumed that deposits observed farther inland than the possible inundation limit of storm waves and storm surge were tsunami deposits. However, confirming only the extent of inundation is insufficient to distinguish tsunami and storm deposits, because the inundation limit of storm surges may be farther inland than that of tsunamis in the case of gently sloping coastal topography such as on the Sendai Plain. In other locations, where coastal topography is steep, the maximum inland inundation extent of storm surges may be only several hundred meters, so marine-sourced deposits that are distributed several km inland can be identified as tsunami deposits by default. Over both gentle and steep slopes, another difference between tsunami and storm deposits is the total volume deposited, as flow speed over land during a tsunami is faster than during a storm surge. Therefore, the total deposit volume could also be a useful proxy to differentiate tsunami and storm deposits.

  15. Very High-rate (50 Hz) GPS for Detection of Earthquake Ground Motions : How High Do We Need to Go?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, R.

    2017-12-01

    The GPS variometric approach can measure displacements using broadcast ephemeris and a single receiver, with comparable precision to relative positioning and PPP within a short period of time. We evaluate the performance of the variometric approach to measure displacements using very high-rate (50 Hz) GPS data, which recorded from the 2013 Mw 6.6 Lushan earthquake and the 2011 Mw 9.0 Tohoku-Oki earthquake. To remove the nonlinear drift due to integration process, we present to apply a high-pass filter to reconstruct displacements using the variometric approach. Comparison between 50 Hz and 1 Hz coseismic displacements demonstrates that 1 Hz solutions often fail to faithfully manifest the seismic waves containing high-frequency (> 0.5 Hz) seismic signals, which is common for near-field stations during a moderate-magnitude earthquake. Therefore, in order to reconstruct near-field seismic waves caused by moderate or large earthquakes, it is helpful to equip monitoring stations with very high-rate GPS receivers. Results derived using the variometric approach are compared with PPP results. They display very good consistence within only a few millimeters both in static and seismic periods. High-frequency (above 10 Hz) noises of displacements derived using the variometric approach are smaller than PPP displacements in three components.

  16. KAJIAN PENDAYAGUNAAN ZAKAT PRODUKTIF SEBAGAI ALAT PEMBERDAYAAN EKONOMI MASYARAKAT (MUSTAHIQPADA LAZISMU PDM DI KABUPATEN GRESIK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syaiful Syaiful

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to perform the evaluation and testing of the PerceptionKyai and Amil Zakat to good use and management cost that is based on Islamic law / law of Islam, mainly used for the economic empowerment of the community. In this research charity for people empowerment especially productive is to cultivate their entrepreneurial spirit. Society thus not only learn about the science of religion and general science course, but they must be equipped to live to work, namely by berwirasaha. With this charity also hopes the community continues to believe and are sure that the charity funds are used properly in accordance with the functions and resources of each charity. Because the potential is large enough charity in the city of Gresik, it needs to be extracted in a convincing way to muzakki about the benefits of charity, that charity is not only used for eight asnaf it, but could diijtihati become more efficient by empowering charity for the benefit of the economic boom. The methodology of this study is to use case studies dikmebngkan by Kayin, and data analysis using Maleong. Results from this study is that the community (mustahiq and muzakki still lay with the model of productive utilization of zakat, zakat fund utilization is in accordance with the nature and origin of the zakat fund, Kyai opinion zakat should not be invested in any form, because Muhammad did not procrastinate charity, and the OKI Fiqh Council allow the use of zakat funds for investment.

  17. Characteristics of Soil Structure Interaction for Reactor Building of Kashiwazaki-Kariwa Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gil, Moon Joo; Jung, Rae Young; Hyun, Chang Hun; Kim, Moon Soo; Lim, Nam Hyoung

    2010-01-01

    On 16 July 2007, the Nigataken-chuetsu-oki earthquake registering a moment magnitude of 6.8 occurred at a depth of about 15 km. As a result of this earthquake, noticeable shaking exceeding the design ground motion was measured at the Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO) Kashiwazaki-Kariwa Nuclear Power Station (KKN), the biggest nuclear power plant in the world, located at about 16 km away from the epicenter. This earthquake triggered a fire at an electrical transformer and insignificant damage on some parts of facilities. This event gave an impulse to study on the damage and safety margin of nuclear power plant due to the strong earthquake exceeding design basis. As a part of those efforts, KARISMA (KAshiwazaki-Kariwa Research Initiative for Seismic Margin Assessment) benchmark study was launched by the IAEA in terms of an international collaborative research. The main objectives of this research are to estimate the structural behavior and to evaluate the seismic margin of reactor building considering the effects of Soil-Structure Interaction (SSI). This paper presents verification of structural model developed here and validation of soil foundation characteristics through soil-column analysis. It has also been demonstrated that the spring constants and damping coefficient obtained from impedance analysis represent well the soil foundation characteristics

  18. Atmospheric Signals Associated with Major Earthquakes. A Multi-Sensor Approach. Chapter 9

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouzounov, Dimitar; Pulinets, Sergey; Hattori, Katsumi; Kafatos, Menas; Taylor, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    We are studying the possibility of a connection between atmospheric observation recorded by several ground and satellites as earthquakes precursors. Our main goal is to search for the existence and cause of physical phenomenon related to prior earthquake activity and to gain a better understanding of the physics of earthquake and earthquake cycles. The recent catastrophic earthquake in Japan in March 2011 has provided a renewed interest in the important question of the existence of precursory signals preceding strong earthquakes. We will demonstrate our approach based on integration and analysis of several atmospheric and environmental parameters that were found associated with earthquakes. These observations include: thermal infrared radiation, radon! ion activities; air temperature and humidity and a concentration of electrons in the ionosphere. We describe a possible physical link between atmospheric observations with earthquake precursors using the latest Lithosphere-Atmosphere-Ionosphere Coupling model, one of several paradigms used to explain our observations. Initial results for the period of2003-2009 are presented from our systematic hind-cast validation studies. We present our findings of multi-sensor atmospheric precursory signals for two major earthquakes in Japan, M6.7 Niigata-ken Chuetsu-oki of July16, 2007 and the latest M9.0 great Tohoku earthquakes of March 11,2011

  19. Extremely Severe Space Weather and Geomagnetically Induced Currents in Regions with Locally Heterogeneous Ground Resistivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Shigeru; Kataoka, Ryuho; Pulkkinen, Antti; Watari, Shinichi

    2016-01-01

    Large geomagnetically induced currents (GICs) triggered by extreme space weather events are now regarded as one of the serious natural threats to the modern electrified society. The risk is described in detail in High-Impact, Low-Frequency Event Risk, A Jointly-Commissioned Summary Report of the North American Electric Reliability Corporation and the US Department of Energy's November 2009 Workshop, June 2010. For example, the March 13-14,1989 storm caused a large-scale blackout affecting about 6 million people in Quebec, Canada, and resulting in substantial economic losses in Canada and the USA (Bolduc 2002). Therefore, European and North American nations have invested in GIC research such as the Solar Shield project in the USA (Pulkkinen et al. 2009, 2015a). In 2015, the Japanese government (Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry, METI) acknowledged the importance of GIC research in Japan. After reviewing the serious damages caused by the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake, METI recognized the potential risk to the electric power grid posed by extreme space weather. During extreme events, GICs can be concerning even in mid- and low-latitude countries and have become a global issue.

  20. Interviewing insights regarding the fatalities inflicted by the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, M.; Ishida, M.; Hayashi, Y.; Mizuki, C.; Nishikawa, Y.; Tu, Y.

    2013-09-01

    One hundred fifty survivors of the 11 March 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake (Tohoku-oki earthquake) (Mw = 9.0) were interviewed to study the causes of deaths from the associated tsunami in coastal areas of Tohoku. The first official tsunami warning underestimated the height of the tsunami and 40% of the interviewees did not obtain this warning due to immediate blackouts and a lack of communication after the earthquake. Many chose to remain in dangerous locations based on the underestimated warning and their experiences with previous smaller tsunamis and/or due to misunderstanding the mitigating effects of nearby breakwaters in blocking incoming tsunamis. Some delayed their evacuation to perform family safety checks, and in many situations, the people affected misunderstood the risks involved in tsunamis. In this area, three large tsunamis have struck in the 115 yr preceding the 2011 tsunami. These tsunamis remained in the collective memory of communities, and numerous measures against future tsunami damage, such as breakwaters and tsunami evacuation drills, had been implemented. Despite these preparedness efforts, approximately 18 500 deaths and cases of missing persons occurred. The death rate with the age of 65 and above was particularly high, four times higher than that with other age groups. These interviews indicate that deaths resulted from a variety of reasons, but if residents had taken immediate action after the major ground motion stopped, most residents might have been saved. Education about the science behind earthquakes and tsunamis could help save more lives in the future.

  1. Copolymerization of Ethylene Induced by Cobalt-60 Gamma Radiation; Copolymerisation de l'ethylene induite par des rayons gamma du cobalt-60; Sopolimerizatsiya ehtilena pod dejstviem gamma-izlucheniya ot istochnika ks'yali-60; Copolimerizacion del etileno inducida por las radiaciones gamma del cobalto-60

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinberg, M.; Colombo, P. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Long Island, NY (United States)

    1963-11-15

    fraccionada. La identificacion se efectuo por espectroscopia infrarroja y la composicion se determino por analisis elemental. Para algunos de los productos de reaccion, los autores indican los puntos de fusion cristalinos, las densidades, las caracteristicas de solubilidad y los pesos moleculares. Obtuvieron pruebas de la copolimerizacion del etileno con cada uno de los siguientes monomeros: estireno, metacrilato de metilo, acetato de vinilo, acrilonitrilo, acetato de alilo, isobuteno, clorotrifluoretileno, trans 2-buteno, acrilato de metilo, isopreno, propeno, cloruro de vinilo, 1-buteno, cis 2-buteno, oxido de carbono, vinilpirrolidona, metilvinilcetona y divinilbenceno. Comprobaron que los datos experimentales obtenidos en el estudio del sistema etileno-oxido de carbono responden a una forma lineal de la ecuacion de composicion del copolimero. Encontraron el valor 22,0 para la razon ({alpha}) de las constantes de velocidad especificas correspondientes al oxido de carbono y al etileno, respectivamente, lo que indica que en calidad de monomero el oxido de carbono se activa en tal medida que se fija al extremo de una cadena de radical etilenico libre con una velocidad 22 veces mayor que un monomero etilenico. (author) [Russian] Byla izuchen vyzvannaya gamma-izlucheniem sopolimerizatsiya ehtilena s ryadom razlichnykh monomerov pri temperature 20{sup o}C i pri nachal'nykh davleniyakh do 680 atm. Ehksperimenty provodilis' staticheski v dvukhfaznykh sistemakh, za isklyucheniem sistemy ehtilen-okis' ugleroda. Razdelenie sopolimerov proizvodilos' metodami ehkstraktsii rastvoritelem i fraktsionirovannogo osazhdeniya. Dlya identifikatsii ispol'zovali infrakrasnuyu spektroskopiyu, a dlya opredeleniya sostava - ehlementarnyj analiz. Privedeny kharakte- ristiki nekotorykh produktov reaktsii, vklyuchayushchie ikh temperaturu plavleniya, plotnost', rastvorimost' i molekulyarnyj ves. Ustanovlena sopolimerizatsiya ehtilena s kazhdym iz sleduyushchikh monomerov: stirolom, metilmetakrilatom

  2. Source contribution analysis of surface particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations in northeastern Asia by source–receptor relationships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inomata, Yayoi; Kajino, Mizuo; Sato, Keiichi; Ohara, Toshimasa; Kurokawa, Jun-ichi; Ueda, Hiromasa; Tang, Ning; Hayakawa, Kazuichi; Ohizumi, Tsuyoshi; Akimoto, Hajime

    2013-01-01

    We analyzed the source–receptor relationships for particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations in northeastern Asia using an aerosol chemical transport model. The model successfully simulated the observed concentrations. In Beijing (China) benzo[a]pyren (BaP) concentrations are due to emissions from its own domain. In Noto, Oki and Tsushima (Japan), transboundary transport from northern China (>40°N, 40–60%) and central China (30–40°N, 10–40%) largely influences BaP concentrations from winter to spring, whereas the relative contribution from central China is dominant (90%) in Hedo. In the summer, the contribution from Japanese domestic sources increases (40–80%) at the 4 sites. Contributions from Japan and Russia are additional source of BaP over the northwestern Pacific Ocean in summer. The contribution rates for the concentrations from each domain are different among PAH species depending on their particulate phase oxidation rates. Reaction with O 3 on particulate surfaces may be an important component of the PAH oxidation processes. -- Highlights: •Source–receptor analysis was conducted for investigating PAHs in northeast Asia. •In winter, transboundary transport from China is large contribution in leeward. •Relative contribution from Korea, Japan, and eastern Russia is increased in summer. •This seasonal variation is strongly controlled by the meteorological conditions. •The transport distance is different among PAH species. -- Transboundary transport of PAHs in northeast Asia was investigated by source–receptor analysis

  3. Multi-Sensor Observations of Earthquake Related Atmospheric Signals over Major Geohazard Validation Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouzounov, D.; Pulinets, S.; Davindenko, D.; Hattori, K.; Kafatos, M.; Taylor, P.

    2012-01-01

    We are conducting a scientific validation study involving multi-sensor observations in our investigation of phenomena preceding major earthquakes. Our approach is based on a systematic analysis of several atmospheric and environmental parameters, which we found, are associated with the earthquakes, namely: thermal infrared radiation, outgoing long-wavelength radiation, ionospheric electron density, and atmospheric temperature and humidity. For first time we applied this approach to selected GEOSS sites prone to earthquakes or volcanoes. This provides a new opportunity to cross validate our results with the dense networks of in-situ and space measurements. We investigated two different seismic aspects, first the sites with recent large earthquakes, viz.- Tohoku-oki (M9, 2011, Japan) and Emilia region (M5.9, 2012,N. Italy). Our retrospective analysis of satellite data has shown the presence of anomalies in the atmosphere. Second, we did a retrospective analysis to check the re-occurrence of similar anomalous behavior in atmosphere/ionosphere over three regions with distinct geological settings and high seismicity: Taiwan, Japan and Kamchatka, which include 40 major earthquakes (M>5.9) for the period of 2005-2009. We found anomalous behavior before all of these events with no false negatives; false positives were less then 10%. Our initial results suggest that multi-instrument space-borne and ground observations show a systematic appearance of atmospheric anomalies near the epicentral area that could be explained by a coupling between the observed physical parameters and earthquake preparation processes.

  4. Carbon isotope ratios of atmospheric carbon dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Hitoshi; Kishima, Noriaki; Tsutaki, Yasuhiro.

    1982-01-01

    The delta 13 C values relative to PDB were measured for carbon dioxide in air samples collected at various parts of Japan and at Mauna Loa Observatory, Hawaii in the periods of 1977 and 1978. The delta 13 C values of the ''clean air'' are -7.6 % at Hawaii and -8.1 per mille Oki and Hachijo-jima islands. These values are definitely lighter than the carbon isotope ratios (-6.9 per mille) obtained by Keeling for clean airs collected at Southern California in 1955 to 1956. The increase in 12 C in atmospheric carbon dioxide is attributed to the input of the anthropogenic light carbon dioxides (combustion of fossil fuels etc.) Taking -7.6 per mille to be the isotope ratio of CO 2 in the present clean air, a simple three box model predicts that the biosphere has decreased rather than increased since 1955, implying that it is acting as the doner of carbon rather than the sink. (author)

  5. Role and development of soil parameters for seismic responses of buried lifelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, L.R.L.

    1983-01-01

    Buried lifelines, e.g. oil, gas, water and sewer pipelines have been damaged heavily in recent earthquakes such as 1971 San Fernando Earthquake, in U.S.A., 1976 Tangshan Earthquake, in China, and 1978 MiyagiKen-Oki Earthquake, in Japan, among others. Researchers on the seismic performance of these buried lifelines have been initiated in the United States and many other countries. Various analytical models have been proposed. However, only limited experimental investigations are available. The sources of earthquake damage to buried lifelines include landslide, tectonic uplift-subsidence, soil liquefaction, fault displacement and ground shaking (effects of wave propagation). This paper is concerned with the behavior of buried lifeline systems subjected to surface faulting and ground shaking. The role and development of soil parameters that significantly influence the seismic responses are discussed. The scope of this paper is to examine analytically the influence of various soil and soilstructure interaction parameters to the seismic responses of buried pipelines, to report the currently available physical data of these and related parameters for immediate applications, and to describe the experiments to obtain additional information on soil resistant characteristics to longitudinal pipe motions.

  6. Retrospective forecast of ETAS model with daily parameters estimate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcone, Giuseppe; Murru, Maura; Console, Rodolfo; Marzocchi, Warner; Zhuang, Jiancang

    2016-04-01

    We present a retrospective ETAS (Epidemic Type of Aftershock Sequence) model based on the daily updating of free parameters during the background, the learning and the test phase of a seismic sequence. The idea was born after the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake. The CSEP (Collaboratory for the Study of Earthquake Predictability) Center in Japan provided an appropriate testing benchmark for the five 1-day submitted models. Of all the models, only one was able to successfully predict the number of events that really happened. This result was verified using both the real time and the revised catalogs. The main cause of the failure was in the underestimation of the forecasted events, due to model parameters maintained fixed during the test. Moreover, the absence in the learning catalog of an event similar to the magnitude of the mainshock (M9.0), which drastically changed the seismicity in the area, made the learning parameters not suitable to describe the real seismicity. As an example of this methodological development we show the evolution of the model parameters during the last two strong seismic sequences in Italy: the 2009 L'Aquila and the 2012 Reggio Emilia episodes. The achievement of the model with daily updated parameters is compared with that of same model where the parameters remain fixed during the test time.

  7. Advanced methods on the evaluation of design earthquake motions for important power constructions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higashi, Sadanori; Shiba, Yoshiaki; Sato, Hiroaki; Sato, Yusuke; Nakajima, Masato; Sakai, Michiya; Sato, Kiyotaka

    2009-01-01

    In this report, we compiled advanced methods on the evaluation of design earthquake motions for important power constructions such as nuclear power, thermal power, and hydroelectric power facilities. For the nuclear and hydroelectric power facilities, we developed an inversion method of broad-band (0.1-5Hz) source process and obtained valid results from applying the method to the 2007 Niigata-ken Chuetsu-oki earthquake (M6.8). We have also improved our modeling techniques of thick sedimentary layered structure such as the S-wave velocity modeling by using microtremor array measurement and the frequency dependent damping factor with a lower limit. For seismic isolation design for nuclear power facilities, we proposed a design pseudo-velocity response spectrum. For the thermal power facilities, we performed three-dimensional numerical simulation of Kanto Basin for a prediction relation of long-period ground motion. We also proposed the introduction of probabilistic approach into the deterministic evaluation flow of design earthquake motions and evaluated the effect of a great earthquake with a short return period on the seismic hazard in Miyagi Prefecture, Japan. (author)

  8. Why the Japanese Nuclear Power Plants are not trusted? Verification of current nuclear energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshioka, Hitoshi

    2007-01-01

    Since the liberalization of electric power following the trend of structural reform and government's economic and financial rebuild had impacted the management of electric utilities in 1990, current nuclear power comes to be subject to government's leadership and support to promote nuclear energy. The Framework for Nuclear Energy Policy Japan of atomic energy commission in 2005 aims to (1) maintain the 30 to 40% or more share of nuclear energy in electricity generation up to 2030 and afterwards, (2) promote the nuclear fuel cycle and (3) commercialize the fast-breeder reactors. Nuclear Energy National Plan of ministry of economy, trade and industry in 2006 makes reference to construction of FBR demonstration reactor by 2025, development of Japanese next-generation LWR and also construction of second reprocessing plant. Major stakeholders related with nuclear power generation such as politicians, government (the authorities concerned), electric utilities and local governments play respective important role in nuclear policy as 'a tetrahedral structure'. The Niigataken Chuets-oki earthquake reminded risk problems of nuclear power management and shook the nuclear tetrahedron structure, which might collapse with loss of public trust. (T. Tanaka)

  9. Postavení OPEC v mezinárodních hospodářských vztazích

    OpenAIRE

    Košteková, Eva

    2008-01-01

    Bakalárska práca sa týka Organizácie krajín vyvážajúcich ropu.Cieľom práce je zhodnotiť postavenie OPEC od jeho vzniku, charakterizovať význam tejto organizácie a popísať zapojenie OPEC vo svetovej ekonomike.V prvej časti práce je základná charakteristika OPEC. Druhá časť práce skúma vývoj postavenia OPEC od jeho vzniku v roku 1960 do roku 2000 so zameraním na ropné šoky. Tretia časť práce sa zaoberá postavením OPEC v treťom miléniu, vzťahmi s EÚ a obnoviteľnými zdrojmi energie....

  10. Application of deconvolution interferometry with both Hi-net and KiK-net data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata, N.

    2013-12-01

    Application of deconvolution interferometry to wavefields observed by KiK-net, a strong-motion recording network in Japan, is useful for estimating wave velocities and S-wave splitting in the near surface. Using this technique, for example, Nakata and Snieder (2011, 2012) found changed in velocities caused by Tohoku-Oki earthquake in Japan. At the location of the borehole accelerometer of each KiK-net station, a velocity sensor is also installed as a part of a high-sensitivity seismograph network (Hi-net). I present a technique that uses both Hi-net and KiK-net records for computing deconvolution interferometry. The deconvolved waveform obtained from the combination of Hi-net and KiK-net data is similar to the waveform computed from KiK-net data only, which indicates that one can use Hi-net wavefields for deconvolution interferometry. Because Hi-net records have a high signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) and high dynamic resolution, the S/N and the quality of amplitude and phase of deconvolved waveforms can be improved with Hi-net data. These advantages are especially important for short-time moving-window seismic interferometry and deconvolution interferometry using later coda waves.

  11. DESIGN STUDY: INTEGER SUBTRACTION OPERATION TEACHING LEARNING USING MULTIMEDIA IN PRIMARY SCHOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rendi Muhammad Aris

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to develop a learning trajectory to help students understand concept of subtraction of integers using multimedia in the fourth grade. This study is thematic integrative learning in Curriculum 2013 PMRI based. The method used is design research consists of three stages; preparing for the experiment, design experiment, retrospective analysis. The studied was conducted on 20 students of grade four SDN 1 Muara Batun, OKI. The activities of students in this study consisted of six learning trajectories. The first activity asks the students to classify heroism and non-heroism acts, summarize, and classify integers and non-integer. The second activity asks the students to answer the questions in the film given. The third activity asks students to count the remaining gravel in the film. The fourth activity asks students to count remaining spent money in the film. The fifth activity invites students to play rubber seeds in the bag. The last activity asks students to answer the questions in the student worksheet. The media used along the learning activities are a ruler, rubber seed, student worksheet, money, gravel, and film. The results indicate that the learning trajectory using multimedia help students understand the concept of integer subtraction integer. Keywords: Subtraction Integer, PMRI, Multimedia DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.22342/jme.8.1.3233.95-102

  12. Quasi real-time estimation of the moment magnitude of large earthquake from static strain changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itaba, S.

    2016-12-01

    The 2011 Tohoku-Oki (off the Pacific coast of Tohoku) earthquake, of moment magnitude 9.0, was accompanied by large static strain changes (10-7), as measured by borehole strainmeters operated by the Geological Survey of Japan in the Tokai, Kii Peninsula, and Shikoku regions. A fault model for the earthquake on the boundary between the Pacific and North American plates, based on these borehole strainmeter data, yielded a moment magnitude of 8.7. On the other hand, based on the seismic wave, the prompt report of the magnitude which the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) announced just after earthquake occurrence was 7.9. Such geodetic moment magnitudes, derived from static strain changes, can be estimated almost as rapidly as determinations using seismic waves. I have to verify the validity of this method in some cases. In the case of this earthquake's largest aftershock, which occurred 29 minutes after the mainshock. The prompt report issued by JMA assigned this aftershock a magnitude of 7.3, whereas the moment magnitude derived from borehole strain data is 7.6, which is much closer to the actual moment magnitude of 7.7. In order to grasp the magnitude of a great earthquake earlier, several methods are now being suggested to reduce the earthquake disasters including tsunami. Our simple method of using static strain changes is one of the strong methods for rapid estimation of the magnitude of large earthquakes, and useful to improve the accuracy of Earthquake Early Warning.

  13. Earthquake potential revealed by tidal influence on earthquake size-frequency statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ide, Satoshi; Yabe, Suguru; Tanaka, Yoshiyuki

    2016-11-01

    The possibility that tidal stress can trigger earthquakes is long debated. In particular, a clear causal relationship between small earthquakes and the phase of tidal stress is elusive. However, tectonic tremors deep within subduction zones are highly sensitive to tidal stress levels, with tremor rate increasing at an exponential rate with rising tidal stress. Thus, slow deformation and the possibility of earthquakes at subduction plate boundaries may be enhanced during periods of large tidal stress. Here we calculate the tidal stress history, and specifically the amplitude of tidal stress, on a fault plane in the two weeks before large earthquakes globally, based on data from the global, Japanese, and Californian earthquake catalogues. We find that very large earthquakes, including the 2004 Sumatran, 2010 Maule earthquake in Chile and the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake in Japan, tend to occur near the time of maximum tidal stress amplitude. This tendency is not obvious for small earthquakes. However, we also find that the fraction of large earthquakes increases (the b-value of the Gutenberg-Richter relation decreases) as the amplitude of tidal shear stress increases. The relationship is also reasonable, considering the well-known relationship between stress and the b-value. This suggests that the probability of a tiny rock failure expanding to a gigantic rupture increases with increasing tidal stress levels. We conclude that large earthquakes are more probable during periods of high tidal stress.

  14. Efforts toward enhancing seismic safety at Kashiwazaki Kariwa Nuclear Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, Kazuhiko

    2009-01-01

    It has been two years since the Niigata-ken Chuetsu-oki Earthquake (NCOE) occurred in 2007. The earthquake brought a major disaster for Kashiwazaki, Kariwa, and the neighboring areas. First of all, we would like to give condolences to people in the devastated area and to pray for the immediate recovery. Our Kashiwazaki Kariwa Nuclear Power Station located in the same area was naturally caught up in the earthquake. The station was hit by a big tremor more than its intensity assumed to be valid at the station design stage. In spite of unexpected tremor, preventive functions for the station safety worked as expected as it designed. Critical facilities designed as high seismic class were not damaged, though considerable damages were seen in outside-facilities designed as low seismic class. We currently make efforts to inspect and recover damages. While we carefully carry out inspection and assessment to make sure the station integrity, we are also going forward restoration as well as construction for seismic safety enhancement in turn. This report introduces details of the following accounts, these are an outline of guidelines for seismic design evaluation that was revised in 2006, a situation at Kashiwazaki Kariwa Nuclear Power Station in the aftermath of the earthquake, and efforts toward enhancing seismic safety that the Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO) has made since the seismic disaster, and our approach to evaluation of facility integrity. (author)

  15. Sensationalization of reports of the Kashiwazaki-Kariwa nuclear power plant incident. A search for top stories in Japanese newspapers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, Tatsuo

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to clarify whether reports of nuclear accidents, particularly the damage done by the 2007 Niigata-ken Chuetsu-Oki earthquake to the Kashiwazaki-Kariwa nuclear power plant in Niigata, Japan, tend to be exaggerated by national media. News related to the Kashiwazaki incident was compared with that for nine other high-profile accidents in Japan, including the 1999 JCO critical accident and the 2005 JR-West Fukuchiyama Line derailment. Articles were extracted from four national newspapers in Japan, focusing on the 30 issues immediately following each accident. The numbers of articles and top stories related to the relevant accidents appearing on the front pages of the newspapers were counted. Based on these numbers, the Kashiwazaki incident was reported at a level similar to the JCO accident and Fukuchiyama line derailment in some newspapers, although these two accidents were more serious than the Kashiwazaki incident. This suggests that at least some newspapers in Japan sensationalized reports of the Kashiwazaki incident. (author)

  16. A proposal for evaluation method of crack growth due to cyclic overload for piping materials based on an elastic-plastic fracture mechanics parameter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Yoshihito; Katsuyama, Jinya; Onizawa, Kunio; Li, Yinsheng; Sugino, Hideharu

    2011-01-01

    The magnitude of Niigata-ken Chuetsu-Oki earthquake in 2007 was beyond the assumed one provided in seismic design. Therefore it becomes an important issue to evaluate the crack growth behaviors due to the cyclic overload like large earthquake. Fatigue crack growth is usually evaluated by Paris's law using the range of stress intensity factor (ΔK). However, ΔK is inappropriate in a loading condition beyond small scale yielding. In this study, the crack growth behaviors for piping materials were investigated based on an elastic-plastic fracture mechanics parameter, J-integral. It was indicated that the crack growth due to the cyclic overload beyond small scale yielding could be the sum of fatigue and ductile crack growth. The retardation effect of excessive loading on the crack growth was observed after the loading. The modified Wheeler model using J-integral has been proposed for the prediction of retardation effect. Finally, an evaluation method for crack growth behaviors due to the cyclic overload is suggested. (author)

  17. An Evaluation of Contaminant Flux Rates from Sediments of Sinclair Inlet, WA, Using a Benthic Flux Sampling Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-02-01

    rral SMNI,0&T0M 4.10 70 4.10 4.30 Caofwla 0.30 ChLqbw Mkme - 4m Iw $1NIAl" 42)7 *1 am• am7 am 0.30 27003 a00 am7 Oki O:OYIE󈧏 OM3 Qltnbw Am - lt0040...c20 020 0.m IftrodlYr rib ~wmW~ AM 7IG40 a.W2 130516.4 .42 12 20 .02 a20 42 0am ISO 0a= RS*m rib Sommom 402 83 ta20 42 l6.m .42 020 220 020 HI d M...omm 0~ $11,2824-71 1230 TV 121 12 0 axI~ IMl Ow V~al" - 40.65 km S3F42001 ISO ft 0.00 Im5 000 I .50 1.50 0.00 aoM S~dGEcFr=.i 0,54 Chrbk~m led M󈧄 r2

  18. Prevent recurrence of nuclear disaster (2). Reconstruction of safety logic diagram of nuclear system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyano, Hiroshi; Sekimura, Naoto; Nakamura, Takao; Narumiya, Yoshiyuki

    2012-01-01

    On March 11, 2011, severe accident occurred at multi units of nuclear power caused by natural disaster, which was the first of nuclear power in the world, and lead to nuclear disaster which contaminated a wide range of land and caused surrounding residents to evacuate for a long-term. Since Cyuetsu-oki earthquake and before this accident, Atomic Energy Society of Japan had activities to investigate 'safety of nuclear system' against earthquake beyond any expectation, identify research items and work out roadmap on future research activities. Correspondence against tsunami such as this accident was discussed but not included as proposal because of low tsunami hazards awareness. Based on this reflection and to prevent recurrence of nuclear disaster, reconsideration of nuclear safety from the standpoint of defense-in-depth against hazards beyond any expectation had been performed and proposed to establish roadmap for its realization. Basic principle of nuclear safety consisted of eleven principles so as to protect personnel and environment from harmful effects of radiation derived from nuclear facilities and their activities, which were categorized into three groups (responsibility and management system, personnel and environmental protection and prevention of accident initiation and effect mitigation). (T. Tanaka)

  19. The current situation in the bioenergy sector in South Ostrobothnia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauhanen, R.; Humalamaeki, H.

    2006-01-01

    In March 2006, a research project was launched about bioenergy production and use that serves the South Ostrobothnia Target 2 area. The project is funded by the European Regional Development Fund, the South Ostrobothnia Employment and Economic Centre and Sein j oki University of Applied Sciences. A meeting of experts was held in Aehtaeri during April 2006 to establish the views on the problems, bottlenecks and research needs of the bioenergy sector. The bioenergy trade was seen as regional opportunity and strength. Its domestic content, effect on employment and the regional economy plus the plentiful raw material sources of forests, fields and bogs were identified. Like-wise, the competing position between bioenergy and other forms of energy became evident. Forest owners emphasised the weakness of low energy wood prices and the risks of forest soil nutrient losses. The forest industry was concerned about a foreseen shortage of machine operators. Forest owners, municipalities, researchers and Forest Centre raised the short-sightedness of state subsidy policy. The Forest Centre also brought up the issue of operators who only seek fast profits in a fast growing trade. The issue of emissions trade benefits ending up outside the forest sector was also considered a problem. The core research needs identified were collating fragmented research in-formation for the use of operators in the Target area, mapping the bioenergy potential of the region, logistical calculations and energy wood measurement

  20. Prevalence of Japanese encephalitis virus antibody in sika deer (Cervus nippon) in Odaigahara, Kii Peninsula, Japan

    OpenAIRE

    斉藤, 美加; 荒木, 良太; 鳥居, 春己; 浅川, 満彦

    2015-01-01

    日本脳炎ウイルス(JEV)感染リスク評価の一環で, 2009年と 2010年に紀伊半島大台ヶ原で捕獲されたニホンジカ Cervus nippon(以下,シカ)の JEV抗体保有状況を調査した。JEV,Oki431S株に対し 87頭中 9頭(10.3%)が,Beijing-1株に対し 1頭( 1.1%)が抗体を保有し,年齢階層が高くなるに従い,抗体保有率の上昇傾向がみられた。これらより,シカに JEVに対する感受性がある事,大台ヶ原で JEV感染環が成立し, JEVの活動は低いが常在している地域である事が強く示唆された。 Sero-epidemiological study of Japanese encephalitis virus was conducted on sika deer (Cervus nippon) captured in Odaigahara, a forested area, on Kii peninsula, Japan, in 2009 and 2010. Nine (10.3%) out of 87 deer had neutralizing anti...

  1. Comparative mapping reveals quantitative trait loci that affect spawning time in coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Araneda

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Spawning time in salmonids is a sex-limited quantitative trait that can be modified by selection. In rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, various quantitative trait loci (QTL that affect the expression of this trait have been discovered. In this study, we describe four microsatellite loci associated with two possible spawning time QTL regions in coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch. The four loci were identified in females from two populations (early and late spawners produced by divergent selection from the same base population. Three of the loci (OmyFGT34TUF, One2ASC and One19ASC that were strongly associated with spawning time in coho salmon (p < 0.0002 were previously associated with QTL for the same trait in rainbow trout; a fourth loci (Oki10 with a suggestive association (p = 0.00035 mapped 10 cM from locus OmyFGT34TUF in rainbow trout. The changes in allelic frequency observed after three generations of selection were greater than expected because of genetic drift. This work shows that comparing information from closely-related species is a valid strategy for identifying QTLs for marker-assisted selection in species whose genomes are poorly characterized or lack a saturated genetic map.

  2. Near-trench slip potential of megaquakes evaluated from fault properties and conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirono, Tetsuro; Tsuda, Kenichi; Tanikawa, Wataru; Ampuero, Jean-Paul; Shibazaki, Bunichiro; Kinoshita, Masataka; Mori, James J.

    2016-01-01

    Near-trench slip during large megathrust earthquakes (megaquakes) is an important factor in the generation of destructive tsunamis. We proposed a new approach to assessing the near-trench slip potential quantitatively by integrating laboratory-derived properties of fault materials and simulations of fault weakening and rupture propagation. Although the permeability of the sandy Nankai Trough materials are higher than that of the clayey materials from the Japan Trench, dynamic weakening by thermally pressurized fluid is greater at the Nankai Trough owing to higher friction, although initially overpressured fluid at the Nankai Trough restrains the fault weakening. Dynamic rupture simulations reproduced the large slip near the trench observed in the 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake and predicted the possibility of a large slip of over 30 m for the impending megaquake at the Nankai Trough. Our integrative approach is applicable globally to subduction zones as a novel tool for the prediction of extreme tsunami-producing near-trench slip. PMID:27321861

  3. Rocking motion of structures under earthquakes. Overturning of 2-DOF system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Koichi; Watanabe, Tetsuya; Tanaka, Kihachiro; Tomoda, Akinori

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, huge earthquakes happen, for example, The South Hyogo prefecture Earthquake in 1995, The Mid Niigata Prefecture Earthquake in 2004, The Iwate-Miyagi Nairiku Earthquake in 2008. In The Niigataken Chuetsu-oki Earthquake in 2007, hundreds of drums fell down and water spilled out. A lot of studies about rocking behavior of rigid body had been performed from 1960's. However, these studies were only for a specific condition of the structure size or input vibration characteristics. Therefore, generalizes fall condition for earthquake is required. This paper deals with the analytical and the experimental study of the rocking vibration of 1-DOF rocking system, 2-DOF vibration-rocking system and 2-DOF rocking system under earthquakes. In this study, the equation of motion for each rocking systems are developed. The numerical model of 2-DOF rocking system is evaluated by free rocking experiment. In this paper, 'Overturning Map' which can distinguish whether structures falls or not is proposed. The overturning map of each rocking systems excited by the artificial earthquake wave calculated from the design spectrum is shown. As the result, overturning condition of structures is clarified. (author)

  4. How fault geometry controls earthquake magnitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bletery, Q.; Thomas, A.; Karlstrom, L.; Rempel, A. W.; Sladen, A.; De Barros, L.

    2016-12-01

    Recent large megathrust earthquakes, such as the Mw9.3 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake in 2004 and the Mw9.0 Tohoku-Oki earthquake in 2011, astonished the scientific community. The first event occurred in a relatively low-convergence-rate subduction zone where events of its size were unexpected. The second event involved 60 m of shallow slip in a region thought to be aseismicaly creeping and hence incapable of hosting very large magnitude earthquakes. These earthquakes highlight gaps in our understanding of mega-earthquake rupture processes and the factors controlling their global distribution. Here we show that gradients in dip angle exert a primary control on mega-earthquake occurrence. We calculate the curvature along the major subduction zones of the world and show that past mega-earthquakes occurred on flat (low-curvature) interfaces. A simplified analytic model demonstrates that shear strength heterogeneity increases with curvature. Stress loading on flat megathrusts is more homogeneous and hence more likely to be released simultaneously over large areas than on highly-curved faults. Therefore, the absence of asperities on large faults might counter-intuitively be a source of higher hazard.

  5. Comparable analysis of the distribution functions of runup heights of the 1896, 1933 and 2011 Japanese Tsunamis in the Sanriku area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. H. Choi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Data from a field survey of the 2011 Tohoku-oki tsunami in the Sanriku area of Japan is used to plot the distribution function of runup heights along the coast. It is shown that the distribution function can be approximated by a theoretical log-normal curve. The characteristics of the distribution functions of the 2011 event are compared with data from two previous catastrophic tsunamis (1896 and 1933 that occurred in almost the same region. The number of observations during the last tsunami is very large, which provides an opportunity to revise the conception of the distribution of tsunami wave heights and the relationship between statistical characteristics and the number of observed runup heights suggested by Kajiura (1983 based on a small amount of data on previous tsunamis. The distribution function of the 2011 event demonstrates the sensitivity to the number of measurements (many of them cannot be considered independent measurements and can be used to determine the characteristic scale of the coast, which corresponds to the statistical independence of observed wave heights.

  6. Settlement mechanism of the backfilled ground around nuclear power plant buildings. Part 1. A series of 1G shaking table tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishimaru, Makoto; Kawai, Tadashi

    2008-01-01

    The large ground settlement locally occurred at the backfilled ground around the Kashiwazaki-Kariwa Nuclear Power Plant buildings during the Niigataken Chuetsu-oki Earthquake in 2007. The purposes of this study are to verify the assumed mechanism of the settlement and to discuss the influence factors on the settlement. For these purposes, we conducted a series of 1G shaking table tests using a rigid structure and sand. In the tests, parameters, which were variously changed, are related to two factors; one is the horizontal ground displacement relative to the structure, the other is the ground strength against the sliding failure. The following results were obtained: (1) All the results showed that the ground settlement sizes near the structure were larger than the ground settlement sizes far from the structure, (2) From the video observed at the ground near the structure, it was found that the settlement locally occurred due to the sliding failure after the ground was separated from the structure, (3) The ground settlement sizes near the structure were large as the horizontal ground displacement sizes were large, and the soil strength arising from fines affected the ground settlement sizes near the structure. (author)

  7. Seismic Risk Assessment of Italian Seaports Using GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolomei, Anna; Corigliano, Mirko; Lai, Carlo G.

    2008-07-01

    Seaports are crucial elements in the export and import of goods and/or on the flow of travellers in the tourism industry of many industrialised nations included Italy. Experience gained from recent earthquakes (e.g. 1989 Loma Prieta in USA, 1995 Hyogoken-Nanbu and 2003 Tokachi-Oki in Japan) have dramatically demonstrated the seismic vulnerability of seaport structures and the severe damage that can be caused by ground shaking. In Italy, the Department of Civil Protection has funded a research project to develop a methodology for the seismic design of new marginal wharves and assessment of existing structures at seaports located in areas of medium or high seismicity. This paper shows part of the results of this research project, currently underway, with particular reference to the seismic risk assessment through an interactive, geographically referenced database (GIS). Standard risk assessment have been carried out for the Gioia Tauro port in Calabria (Italy) using the empirical curves implemented by the National Institute of Building Sciences (NIBS, 2004).

  8. Automatic Hypocenter Determination Method in JMA Catalog and its Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamaribuchi, K.

    2017-12-01

    The number of detectable earthquakes around Japan has increased by developing the high-sensitivity seismic observation network. After the 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake, the number of detectable earthquakes have dramatically increased due to its aftershocks and induced earthquakes. This enormous number of earthquakes caused inability of manually determination of all the hypocenters. The Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), which produces the earthquake catalog in Japan, has developed a new automatic hypocenter determination method and started its operation from April 1, 2016. This method (named PF method; Phase combination Forward search method) can determine the hypocenters of earthquakes that occur simultaneously by searching for the optimal combination of P- and S-wave arrival times and the maximum amplitudes using a Bayesian estimation technique. In the 2016 Kumamoto earthquake sequence, we successfully detected about 70,000 aftershocks automatically during the period from April 14 to the end of May, and this method contributed to the real-time monitoring of the seismic activity. Furthermore, this method can be also applied to the Earthquake Early Warning (EEW). Application of this method for EEW is called the IPF method and has been used as the hypocenter determination method of the EEW system in JMA from December 2016. By developing this method further, it is possible to contribute to not only speeding up the catalog production, but also improving reliability of the early warning.

  9. 5. Sınıf Öğrencilerinin Zihinsel Tasarıma Dayalı Yazma Modelini Metin Oluşturma Sürecinde Kullanma Becerileri

    OpenAIRE

    Temizyürek, Fahri; Çevik, Arzu

    2017-01-01

    Dilin dört temel becerisinden biri olan yazma, öğrenmenin araçlarındanbir tanesidir. Bu bakımdan öğrenirken yazmanın kullanılması gibi yazarken deöğrenmek mümkündür. Yazma becerisinin gelişimi için de öğrenme sürecine ihtiyaçduyulmaktadır. Yazılı bir metin oluşturmanın öğretilmesi, zihinsel süreçtekavratılması ile özgün yazılı metinler oluşturmak mümkündür. Yazmada birçokyöntem ve model kullanılmaktadır. Bunlardan bir tanesi de “Zihinsel TasarımaDayalı Yazma Modeli”dir. Bu model yazmanın zihi...

  10. Safety goals for seismic and tsunami risks: Lessons learned from the Fukushima Daiichi disaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saji, Genn

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Reviewed why the Fukushima disaster was not anticipated among seismologists. • Reviewed Fukushima Daiichi's preparedness against the earthquake and tsunami. • There was a large “cliff edge” in radiological consequences from the design basis tsunami. • By including earthquakes as an “external event” resulted in insufficient “defense in depths”. • Proposes a new probabilistic seismic and tsunami safety goal be developed. - Abstract: This paper first reviews why the potential occurrence of the Tohoku-oki earthquake with momentum magnitude M w of 9.0 earthquake was not anticipated by Japanese seismologists, and to clarify our limitations in predicting rare but severe earthquakes at our current knowledge in the field of geosciences. Although there was a large volume of historical records related to earthquakes and tsunamis, generally this data infer high plate coupling in regions where earthquakes were known to have already occurred, with only partial or even no coupling from the Japan Trench to a point approximately midway between the trench and the coastline—precisely the region where the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake occurred. This phenomenon has been explained as a “silent earthquake” or a fault creep as observed at the San Andreas Faults in the US. Considering the large uncertainties in seismic events, nuclear power plants should be conservatively designed with adequate safety margins. TEPCO's preparedness against seismic and tsunami hazards were reviewed in order to clarify why the established safety margin was not sufficient during the Fukushima Daiichi. It was found that the plant incorporated the necessary safety margins against seismic oscillation however, there was a large “cliff edge” in which the radiological consequences surged by several orders of magnitude from the design basis tsunami. Since the tsunami's height was greater than the ground level of the turbine hall, a large amount of the tsunami

  11. Safety goals for seismic and tsunami risks: Lessons learned from the Fukushima Daiichi disaster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saji, Genn, E-mail: sajig@bd5.so-net.ne.jp

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Reviewed why the Fukushima disaster was not anticipated among seismologists. • Reviewed Fukushima Daiichi's preparedness against the earthquake and tsunami. • There was a large “cliff edge” in radiological consequences from the design basis tsunami. • By including earthquakes as an “external event” resulted in insufficient “defense in depths”. • Proposes a new probabilistic seismic and tsunami safety goal be developed. - Abstract: This paper first reviews why the potential occurrence of the Tohoku-oki earthquake with momentum magnitude M{sub w} of 9.0 earthquake was not anticipated by Japanese seismologists, and to clarify our limitations in predicting rare but severe earthquakes at our current knowledge in the field of geosciences. Although there was a large volume of historical records related to earthquakes and tsunamis, generally this data infer high plate coupling in regions where earthquakes were known to have already occurred, with only partial or even no coupling from the Japan Trench to a point approximately midway between the trench and the coastline—precisely the region where the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake occurred. This phenomenon has been explained as a “silent earthquake” or a fault creep as observed at the San Andreas Faults in the US. Considering the large uncertainties in seismic events, nuclear power plants should be conservatively designed with adequate safety margins. TEPCO's preparedness against seismic and tsunami hazards were reviewed in order to clarify why the established safety margin was not sufficient during the Fukushima Daiichi. It was found that the plant incorporated the necessary safety margins against seismic oscillation however, there was a large “cliff edge” in which the radiological consequences surged by several orders of magnitude from the design basis tsunami. Since the tsunami's height was greater than the ground level of the turbine hall, a large amount of the

  12. A Preliminary Analysis on Empirical Attenuation of Absolute Velocity Response Spectra (1 to 10s) in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhakal, Y. P.; Kunugi, T.; Suzuki, W.; Aoi, S.

    2013-12-01

    The Mw 9.1 Tohoku-oki earthquake caused strong shakings of super high rise and high rise buildings constructed on deep sedimentary basins in Japan. Many people felt difficulty in moving inside the high rise buildings even on the Osaka basin located at distances as far as 800 km from the epicentral area. Several empirical equations are proposed to estimate the peak ground motions and absolute acceleration response spectra applicable mainly within 300 to 500km from the source area. On the other hand, Japan Meteorological Agency has recently proposed four classes of absolute velocity response spectra as suitable indices to qualitatively describe the intensity of long-period ground motions based on the observed earthquake records, human experiences, and actual damages that occurred in the high rise and super high rise buildings. The empirical prediction equations have been used in disaster mitigation planning as well as earthquake early warning. In this study, we discuss the results of our preliminary analysis on attenuation relation of absolute velocity response spectra calculated from the observed strong motion records including those from the Mw 9.1 Tohoku-oki earthquake using simple regression models with various model parameters. We used earthquakes, having Mw 6.5 or greater, and focal depths shallower than 50km, which occurred in and around Japanese archipelago. We selected those earthquakes for which the good quality records are available over 50 observation sites combined from K-NET and KiK-net. After a visual inspection on approximately 21,000 three component records from 36 earthquakes, we used about 15,000 good quality records in the period range of 1 to 10s within the hypocentral distance (R) of 800km. We performed regression analyses assuming the following five regression models. (1) log10Y (T) = c+ aMw - log10R - bR (2) log10Y (T) = c+ aMw - log10R - bR +gS (3) log10Y (T) = c+ aMw - log10R - bR + hD (4) log10Y (T) = c+ aMw - log10R - bR +gS +hD (5) log10Y

  13. The Story of Azithromycin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banić Tomišić, Z.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The invention of azithromycin (1, Figure 1, the active pharmaceutical ingredient of the antibiotic Sumamed (Croatian brand name by PLIVA; Zithromax by Pfizer in the USA belongs among the great achievements in the history of science in Croatia. From the viewpoint of commercialization of research results, it may have been one of the greatest. In addition to contributing to science and to medicine, azithromycin has also brought about an improvement in the quality of life on the global level. Owing to its exceptional therapeutic properties, it has come to be one of the most successful antibiotics worldwide. Marking the 30th anniversary of the azithromycin Yugoslav patent application, this paper gives an overview of the research that led to its discovery and comes with a list of papers and patents through which the drug has been made known to the public (Table 1, Figures 4 and 6. The invention was due to the scientists from the Research Institute of the pharmaceutical company PLIVA in Zagreb, Croatia, D. Sc. S. Đokić, M. Sc. G. Kobrehel, D. Sc. G. Lazarevski, and D. Sc. Z. Tamburašev (Figure 3. Azithromycin became the first representative of the new class of 15-membered macrolides known as azalides after the introduction of nitrogen in the macrocycle of erythromycin A (2, Figure 1. Its synthesis involved several steps (Figure 2: oximation of erithromycin A, Beckmann rearrangement of erythromycin A oxime with aromatic sulphochlorides, reduction of the produced erithromycin A iminoether, and final methylation of the nitrogen introduced in the macrocycle of erythromycin A. Because of inadequate analytical support in the late 1970s and early 1980s, the precise structure of the LD product (Figure 5 in the Beckmann rearrangement step of azithromycin synthesis was confirmed only later as 7 and not 6 as assumed (Figure 5. Today, azithromycin is known under the common chemical name of 9-deoxo-9a-aza-9a-methyl-homoerythromycin A. This paper also deals with

  14. Submarine ground water discharge and fate along the coast of Kaloko-Honokohau National Historical Park, Hawai‘i: Part I: time-series measurements of currents, waves, salinity and temperature: November, 2005-July, 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presto, M. Katherine; Storlazzi, Curt D.; Logan, Joshua B.; Grossman, Eric E.

    2007-01-01

    The impending development for the west Hawai‘i coastline adjacent to Kaloko-Honokōhau National Historical Park (KAHO) may potentially alter coastal hydrology and water quality in the marine waters of the park. Water resources are perhaps the most significant natural and cultural resource component in the park, and are critical to the health and well being of six federally listed species. KAHO contains ecosystems of brackish anchialine pools, two 11-acre fishponds, and 596 acres of coral reef habitats, all fed by groundwater originating upslope. The steep gradients on high islands, combined with typically porous substrates and high rainfall levels at upper elevations, make these settings especially vulnerable to shifts in submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) and its entrained nutrients and pollutants. Little is known about the magnitude, rate, frequency, and variability of SGD and its influence on contaminant loading to Hawaiian coastal environments. Recent studies show that groundwater flux through the park is vital to many ecosystem components including anchialine ponds and wetland biota. The function of these ecosystems may be vulnerable to changes in groundwater flow stemming from natural changes (climate and sea level) and land use (groundwater pumping and contamination). Oki and others (1999) showed that increased groundwater withdrawals for urban development since 1978 likely decreased groundwater flux to the coast by 50%. During this same time, the quality of groundwater has been vulnerable to increases in contaminant and nutrient/fertilizer additions associated with industrial, commercial and residential use upslope from KAHO (Oki and others, 1999). High-resolution measurements of waves, currents, water levels, temperature and salinity were collected in the marine portion of the park from November, 2005, through July, 2006, to establish baseline information on the magnitude, rate, frequency, and variability of SGD. These data are intended to help

  15. Stress Drops of Earthquakes on the Subducting Pacific Plate in the South-East off Hokkaido, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Y.; Yamada, T.

    2013-12-01

    Large earthquakes have been occurring repeatedly in the South-East of Hokkaido, Japan, where the Pacific Plate subducts beneath the Okhotsk Plate in the north-west direction. For example, the 2003 Tokachi-oki earthquake (Mw8.3 determined by USGS) took place in the region on September 26, 2003. Yamanaka and Kikuchi (2003) analyzed the slip distribution of the earthquake and concluded that the 2003 earthquake had ruptured the deeper half of the fault plane of the 1952 Tokachi-oki earthquake. Miyazaki et al. (2004) reported that a notable afterslip was observed at adjacent areas to the coseismic rupture zone of the 2003 earthquake, which suggests that there would be significant heterogeneities of strength, stress and frictional properties on the surface of the Pacific Plate in the region. In addition, some previous studies suggest that the region with a large slip in large earthquakes permanently have large difference of strength and the dynamic frictional stress level and that it would be able to predict the spatial pattern of slip in the next large earthquake by analyzing the stress drop of small earthquakes (e.g. Allmann and Shearer, 2007 and Yamada et al., 2010). We estimated stress drops of 150 earthquakes (4.2 ≤ M ≤ 5.0), using S-coda waves, or the waveforms from 4.00 to 9.11 seconds after the S wave arrivals, of Hi-net data. The 150 earthquakes were the ones that occurred from June, 2002 to December, 2010 in south-east of Hokkaido, Japan, from 40.5N to 43.5N and from 141.0E to 146.5E. First we selected waveforms of the closest earthquakes with magnitudes between 3.0 and 3.2 to individual 150 earthquakes as empirical Green's functions. We then calculated source spectral ratios of the 150 pairs of interested earthquakes and EGFs by deconvolving the individual S-coda waves. We finally estimated corner frequencies of earthquakes from the spectral ratios by assuming the omega-squared model of Boatwright (1978) and calculated stress drops of the earthquakes by

  16. Very low frequency earthquakes (VLFEs) detected during episodic tremor and slip (ETS) events in Cascadia using a match filter method indicate repeating events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchison, A. A.; Ghosh, A.

    2016-12-01

    Very low frequency earthquakes (VLFEs) occur in transitional zones of faults, releasing seismic energy in the 0.02-0.05 Hz frequency band over a 90 s duration and typically have magntitudes within the range of Mw 3.0-4.0. VLFEs can occur down-dip of the seismogenic zone, where they can transfer stress up-dip potentially bringing the locked zone closer to a critical failure stress. VLFEs also occur up-dip of the seismogenic zone in a region along the plate interface that can rupture coseismically during large megathrust events, such as the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake [Ide et al., 2011]. VLFEs were first detected in Cascadia during the 2011 episodic tremor and slip (ETS) event, occurring coincidentally with tremor [Ghosh et al., 2015]. However, during the 2014 ETS event, VLFEs were spatially and temporally asynchronous with tremor activity [Hutchison and Ghosh, 2016]. Such contrasting behaviors remind us that the mechanics behind such events remain elusive, yet they are responsible for the largest portion of the moment release during an ETS event. Here, we apply a match filter method using known VLFEs as template events to detect additional VLFEs. Using a grid-search centroid moment tensor inversion method, we invert stacks of the resulting match filter detections to ensure moment tensor solutions are similar to that of the respective template events. Our ability to successfully employ a match filter method to VLFE detection in Cascadia intrinsically indicates that these events can be repeating, implying that the same asperities are likely responsible for generating multiple VLFEs.

  17. Carotid plaque is a new risk factor for peripheral vestibular disorder: a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Masaoki; Takeshima, Taro; Nakamura, Yosikazu; Nagasaka, Shoichiro; Kamesaki, Toyomi; Kajii, Eiji

    2016-08-01

    Many chronic diseases are associated with dizziness or vertigo, as is peripheral vestibular disorder (PVD). Although carotid plaque development is linked to atherosclerosis, it is unclear whether such plaques can lead to the development of PVD. We therefore conducted this study to investigate the presence of an association between carotid plaque and new PVD events.In this retrospective study, we consecutively enrolled 393 patients ≥20 years old who had been treated for chronic diseases such as hypertension, dyslipidemia, and diabetes mellitus for ≥6 months at a primary care clinic (Oki Clinic, Japan) between November 2011 and March 2013. Carotid plaque presence was measured with high-resolution ultrasonography for all patients. During a 1-year follow-up period, an otorhinolaryngologist diagnosed and reported any new PVD events (the main end point). Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for new PVD occurrence were estimated using the Cox proportional hazard regression model.The mean age of the participants was 65.5 years; 33.8% were men, and 12.7%, 82.4%, and 93.1% had diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and dyslipidemia, respectively. There were 76 new PVD events; patients with carotid plaque had a greater risk of such events (crude HR: 3.25; 95% CI: 1.62-6.52) compared to those without carotid plaque. This risk was even higher after adjusting for traditional risk factors for atherosclerosis (adjusted HR: 4.41; 95% CI: 1.75-11.14).Carotid plaques are associated with an increased risk of new PVD events.

  18. Incidence of dizziness and vertigo in Japanese primary care clinic patients with lifestyle-related diseases: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Masaoki; Takeshima, Taro; Nakamura, Yosikazu; Nagasaka, Shoichiro; Kamesaki, Toyomi; Oki, Hiroshi; Kajii, Eiji

    2015-01-01

    Dizziness and vertigo are highly prevalent symptoms among patients presenting at primary care clinics, and peripheral vestibular disorder (PVD) is their most frequent cause. However, the incidence of PVD has not been well documented. This study aimed to investigate the incidence of dizziness, vertigo, and PVD among patients presenting at a primary care clinic. This was an observational study. Between November 2011 and March 2013, we observed 393 patients, all at least 20 years old, who had been treated for chronic diseases such as hypertension, dyslipidemia, and diabetes mellitus for at least 6 months at a primary clinic (Oki Clinic) in Japan. The main outcome of interest was new incidence of dizziness, vertigo, and PVD events. During the 1-year follow-up period, the otorhinolaryngologist diagnosed and reported new PVD events. The mean age of the 393 participants at entry was 65.5 years. Of the study participants, 12.7%, 82.4%, and 92.6% had diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and dyslipidemia, respectively. We followed up all the participants (100%). During the 662.5 person-years of follow-up, 121 cases of dizziness or vertigo (dizziness/vertigo) and 76 cases of PVD were observed. The incidence of dizziness/vertigo and PVD was 194.7 (95% confidence interval: 161.6-232.6) per 1,000 person-years and 115.7 (95% confidence interval: 92.2-142.6) per 1,000 person-years, respectively. There were 61 cases of acute peripheral vestibulopathy, 12 of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo, and three of Meniere's disease among the 76 PVD patients. We reported the incidence of dizziness/vertigo among Japanese primary care clinic patients, which was higher than that usually observed in the general population. Furthermore, we described the incidence of PVD and found that it was a major cause of dizziness/vertigo.

  19. Study on tsunami due to offshore earthquakes for Korea coast. Literature survey and numerical simulation on earthquake and tsunami in the Japan Sea and the East China Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuyama, Masafumi; Aoyagi, Yasuhira; Inoue, Daiei; Choi, Weon-Hack; Kang, Keum-Seok

    2008-01-01

    In Korea, there has been a concern on tsumami risks for the Nuclear Power Plants since the 1983 Nihonkai-Chubu earthquake tsunami. The maximum run-up height reached 4 m to north of the Ulchin nuclear power plant site. The east coast of Korea was also attacked by a few meters high tsunami generated by the 1993 Hokkaido Nansei-Oki earthquake. Both source areas of them were in the areas western off Hokkaido to the eastern margin of the Japan Sea, which remains another tsunami potential. Therefore it is necessary to study tsunami risks for coast of Korea by means of geological investigation and numerical simulation. Historical records of earthquake and tsunami in the Japan Sea were re-compiled to evaluate tsunami potential. A database of marine active faults in the Japan Sea was compiled to decide a regional potential of tsunami. Many developed reverse faults are found in the areas western off Hokkaido to the eastern margin of the Japan Sea. The authors have found no historical earthquake in the East China Sea which caused tunami observed at coast of Korea. Therefore five fault models were determined on the basis of the analysis results of historical records and recent research results of fault parameter and tunami. Tsunami heights were estimated by numerical simulation of nonlinear dispersion wave theory. The results of the simulations indicate that the tsunami heights in these cases are less than 0.25 m along the coast of Korea, and the tsunami risk by these assumed faults does not lead to severe impact. It is concluded that tsunami occurred in the areas western off Hokkaido to the eastern margin of the Japan Sea leads the most significant impact to Korea consequently. (author)

  20. Benthic foraminiferal distribution in surface sediments along continental slope of the southern Okinawa Trough:dependance on water masses and food supply

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    向荣; 李铁刚; 杨作升; 阎军; 曹奇原

    2003-01-01

    Benthic foraminiferal analysis of 29 samples in surface sediments from the southern Oki-nawa Trough is carried out. The results indicate that benthic foraminiferal abundance decreases rapidlywith increasing water depth. Percentage frequencies of agglutinated foraminifera further confirm themodem shallow carbonate lysocline in the southern Okinawa Trough. From continental shelf edge to thebottom of Okinawa Trough, benthic foraminiferal fauna in the surface sediments can be divided into 5assemblages: (1) Continental shelf break assemblage, dominated by Cibicides pseudoungerianus, corre-sponds to subsurface water mass of the Kuroshio Current; (2) upper continental slope assemblage, domi-nated by Cassidulina carinata, Globocassidulina subglobosa, corresponds to intermediate water mass of the Kuroshio Current; (3) intermediate continental slope assemblage, dominated by Uvigerina hispi-da, corresponds to the Okinawa Trough deep water mass above the carbonate lysocline; (4) lower con-tinental slope- trough bottom assemblage, dominated by Pullenia bulloides, Epistominella exigua andCibicidoides hyalinus, corresponds to deep water mass of the Okinawa Trough; and (5) trough bottomagglutinated assemblage, dominated by Rhabdammina spp., Bathysiphon flavidus, corresponds tostrongly dissolved environment of the trough bottom. The benthic foraminiferal fauna in the southemOkinawa Trough are controlled jointly by water masses and food supply. Water temperature, oxygenconcentration and carbonate dissolution of the water masses are important controlling factors especiallyfor the continental shelf break and trough bottom assemblages. The food supply also plays an importantrole in these benthic foraminiferal assemblages along the westem slope of the Okinawa Trough. Both theabundance and the 5 assemblages of benthic foraminifera correspond well to the organic matter supplyalong the continental slope and a lateral transport of TSM (total suspended matter) and POC (particulateorganic

  1. [Study on the effects of HTST pasteurization temperatures on Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in an industrial fluid milk-processing system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igimi, Shizunobu; Iriguchi, Shoichi; Monden, Shuko; Okada, Yumiko; Yamamoto, Shigeki; Mori, Yasuyuki

    2010-01-01

    Johne disease is ruminant chronic granulomatous enteritis caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP). The domestic animals infected with this pathogen present severe weight loss due to chronic diarrhea and a reduction in lactation yield. These result in enormous economic loss since the affected animals are subsequently subject to artificial selections and disinfection of the environment are absolutely necessary. Furthermore, MAP has been suspected to have pathological relationship to Crohn's disease, human chronic granulomatous enteritis. The bacterium grows slower on solid culture and its colony becomes visible after two months of culture. In Japan, there has been almost no investigation on pasteurization temperature of commercial milk using MAP. It comes from the fact that the growth rate of MAP is very slow and that MAP is a related species to Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which pasteurization condition has been well defined. The studies on the pasteurization conditions of commercial milk have been mainly targeted to reduce the risk of infection to Coxiella and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. However, there has been a concern about the possibility that MAP is remained in pasteurized milk because MAPs form an aggregate and the bacterium at its center may not receive enough heat to get pasteurized. From these reasons, the present study aims to investigate validity of the current pasteurization conditions of commercial milk by implementing experimental pasteurization at various pasteurization temperatures using milk experimentally infected with MAP, and to clarify if MAP is eliminated at these temperatures in order to achieve smooth enforcement of the current ministry order. We conducted plant pasteurization experiment at four pasteurization conditions (high temperature, short time (HTST); 82, 77, 72 degrees C for 15 seconds and low temperature, long time (LTLT); 63 degrees C for 30 minutes) using two MAP strains, ATCC19698 and OKY-20. In conclusion

  2. Crowd-Sourced Global Earthquake Early Warning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minson, S. E.; Brooks, B. A.; Glennie, C. L.; Murray, J. R.; Langbein, J. O.; Owen, S. E.; Iannucci, B. A.; Hauser, D. L.

    2014-12-01

    Although earthquake early warning (EEW) has shown great promise for reducing loss of life and property, it has only been implemented in a few regions due, in part, to the prohibitive cost of building the required dense seismic and geodetic networks. However, many cars and consumer smartphones, tablets, laptops, and similar devices contain low-cost versions of the same sensors used for earthquake monitoring. If a workable EEW system could be implemented based on either crowd-sourced observations from consumer devices or very inexpensive networks of instruments built from consumer-quality sensors, EEW coverage could potentially be expanded worldwide. Controlled tests of several accelerometers and global navigation satellite system (GNSS) receivers typically found in consumer devices show that, while they are significantly noisier than scientific-grade instruments, they are still accurate enough to capture displacements from moderate and large magnitude earthquakes. The accuracy of these sensors varies greatly depending on the type of data collected. Raw coarse acquisition (C/A) code GPS data are relatively noisy. These observations have a surface displacement detection threshold approaching ~1 m and would thus only be useful in large Mw 8+ earthquakes. However, incorporating either satellite-based differential corrections or using a Kalman filter to combine the raw GNSS data with low-cost acceleration data (such as from a smartphone) decreases the noise dramatically. These approaches allow detection thresholds as low as 5 cm, potentially enabling accurate warnings for earthquakes as small as Mw 6.5. Simulated performance tests show that, with data contributed from only a very small fraction of the population, a crowd-sourced EEW system would be capable of warning San Francisco and San Jose of a Mw 7 rupture on California's Hayward fault and could have accurately issued both earthquake and tsunami warnings for the 2011 Mw 9 Tohoku-oki, Japan earthquake.

  3. Facts about the Eastern Japan Great Earthquake of March 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriyama, T.

    2011-12-01

    The 2011 great earthquake was a magnitude 9.0 Mw undersea megathrust earthquake off the coast of Japan that occurred early morning UTC on Friday, 11 March 2011, with the epicenter approximately 70 kilometres east of the Oshika Peninsula of Tohoku and the hypocenter at an underwater depth of approximately 32 km. It was the most powerful known earthquake to have hit Japan, and one of the five most powerful earthquakes in the world overall since modern record keeping began in 1900. The earthquake triggered extremely destructive tsunami waves of up to 38.9 metres that struck Tohoku Japan, in some cases traveling up to 10 km inland. In addition to loss of life and destruction of infrastructure, the tsunami caused a number of nuclear accidents, primarily the ongoing level 7 meltdowns at three reactors in the Fukushima I Nuclear Power Plant complex, and the associated evacuation zones affecting hundreds of thousands of residents. The Japanese National Police Agency has confirmed 1,5457 deaths, 5,389 injured, and 7,676 people missing across eighteen prefectures, as well as over 125,000 buildings damaged or destroyed. JAXA carried out ALOS emergency observation just after the earthquake occured, and acquired more than 400 scenes over the disaster area. The coseismic interferogram by InSAR analysis cleary showing the epicenter of the earthquake and land surface deformation over Tohoku area. By comparison of before and after satellite images, the large scale damaged area by tunami are extracted. These images and data can access via JAXA website and also GEO Tohoku oki event supersite website.

  4. Shallow microearthquakes near Chongqing, China triggered by the Rayleigh waves of the 2015 M7.8 Gorkha, Nepal earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Libo; Peng, Zhigang; Johnson, Christopher W.; Pollitz, Fred F.; Li, Lu; Wang, Baoshan; Wu, Jing; Li, Qiang; Wei, Hongmei

    2017-12-01

    We present a case of remotely triggered seismicity in Southwest China by the 2015/04/25 M7.8 Gorkha, Nepal earthquake. A local magnitude ML3.8 event occurred near the Qijiang district south of Chongqing city approximately 12 min after the Gorkha mainshock. Within 30 km of this ML3.8 event there are 62 earthquakes since 2009 and only 7 ML > 3 events, which corresponds to a likelihood of 0.3% for a ML > 3 on any given day by a random chance. This observation motivates us to investigate the relationship between the ML3.8 event and the Gorkha mainshock. The ML3.8 event was listed in the China Earthquake National Center (CENC) catalog and occurred at shallow depth (∼3 km). By examining high-frequency waveforms, we identify a smaller local event (∼ML 2.5) ∼ 15 s before the ML3.8 event. Both events occurred during the first two cycles of the Rayleigh waves from the Gorkha mainshock. We perform seismic event detection based on envelope function and waveform matching by using the two events as templates. Both analyses found a statistically significant rate change during the mainshock, suggesting that they were indeed dynamically triggered by the Rayleigh waves. Both events occurred during the peak normal and dilatational stress changes (∼10-30 kPa), consistent with observations of dynamic triggering in other geothermal/volcanic regions. Although other recent events (i.e., the 2011 M9.1 Tohoku-Oki earthquake) produced similar peak ground velocities, the 2015 Gorkha mainshock was the only event that produced clear dynamic triggering in this region. The triggering site is close to hydraulic fracturing wells that began production in 2013-2014. Hence we suspect that fluid injections may increase the region's susceptibility to remote dynamic triggering.

  5. Rapid Modeling of and Response to Large Earthquakes Using Real-Time GPS Networks (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowell, B. W.; Bock, Y.; Squibb, M. B.

    2010-12-01

    Real-time GPS networks have the advantage of capturing motions throughout the entire earthquake cycle (interseismic, seismic, coseismic, postseismic), and because of this, are ideal for real-time monitoring of fault slip in the region. Real-time GPS networks provide the perfect supplement to seismic networks, which operate with lower noise and higher sampling rates than GPS networks, but only measure accelerations or velocities, putting them at a supreme disadvantage for ascertaining the full extent of slip during a large earthquake in real-time. Here we report on two examples of rapid modeling of recent large earthquakes near large regional real-time GPS networks. The first utilizes Japan’s GEONET consisting of about 1200 stations during the 2003 Mw 8.3 Tokachi-Oki earthquake about 100 km offshore Hokkaido Island and the second investigates the 2010 Mw 7.2 El Mayor-Cucapah earthquake recorded by more than 100 stations in the California Real Time Network. The principal components of strain were computed throughout the networks and utilized as a trigger to initiate earthquake modeling. Total displacement waveforms were then computed in a simulated real-time fashion using a real-time network adjustment algorithm that fixes a station far away from the rupture to obtain a stable reference frame. Initial peak ground displacement measurements can then be used to obtain an initial size through scaling relationships. Finally, a full coseismic model of the event can be run minutes after the event, given predefined fault geometries, allowing emergency first responders and researchers to pinpoint the regions of highest damage. Furthermore, we are also investigating using total displacement waveforms for real-time moment tensor inversions to look at spatiotemporal variations in slip.

  6. Temporal Changes in Stress Drop, Frictional Strength, and Earthquake Size Distribution in the 2011 Yamagata-Fukushima, NE Japan, Earthquake Swarm, Caused by Fluid Migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Keisuke; Saito, Tatsuhiko; Urata, Yumi; Asano, Youichi; Hasegawa, Akira

    2017-12-01

    In this study, we investigated temporal variations in stress drop and b-value in the earthquake swarm that occurred at the Yamagata-Fukushima border, NE Japan, after the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake. In this swarm, frictional strengths were estimated to have changed with time due to fluid diffusion. We first estimated the source spectra for 1,800 earthquakes with 2.0 ≤ MJMA < 3.0, by correcting the site-amplification and attenuation effects determined using both S waves and coda waves. We then determined corner frequency assuming the omega-square model and estimated stress drop for 1,693 earthquakes. We found that the estimated stress drops tended to have values of 1-4 MPa and that stress drops significantly changed with time. In particular, the estimated stress drops were very small at the beginning, and increased with time for 50 days. Similar temporal changes were obtained for b-value; the b-value was very high (b 2) at the beginning, and decreased with time, becoming approximately constant (b 1) after 50 days. Patterns of temporal changes in stress drop and b-value were similar to the patterns for frictional strength and earthquake occurrence rate, suggesting that the change in frictional strength due to migrating fluid not only triggered the swarm activity but also affected earthquake and seismicity characteristics. The estimated high Q-1 value, as well as the hypocenter migration, supports the presence of fluid, and its role in the generation and physical characteristics of the swarm.

  7. Valoración del entorno formativo universitario DIPRO 2.0

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Cabero Almenara

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El auge de la incorporación a la dinámica diaria de los centros de enseñanza superior de las tecnologías de la información y la comunicación, es una realidad hoy incuestionable. Fruto de esa nueva forma de ver, sentir, diseñar e impulsar la vida universitaria surgen nuevos entornos donde poder implementar el proceso de enseñanza-aprendizaje. Desde comunidades virtuales de aprendizaje, pasando por blogs cooperativos, hasta wikis, etc. todas ellas creadas con la intención de mejorar la calidad de la enseñanza. Dentro del ámbito de la formación del docente universitario el diseño de espacios de trabajo centralizado y colaborativo ha cobrado una gran importancia, dado que se convierten en una gran ayuda a la hora de tratar de innovar en las aulas que la implantación de los nuevos títulos está planteando. En el presente artículo presentamos el resultado de la creación y evaluación de un entorno personal de aprendizaje (PLE para la formación del profesorado universitario. Para su generación se optó por una estructura en código abierto combinando OKI y Moodle, las cuales permiten un fácil acceso a todos los internautas. En lo que se refiere a la evaluación del entorno se realizó un juicio de expertos a través de un cuestionario diseñado para tal efecto empleando la técnica Delphy. Los evaluadores, principalmente, concluyeron que era una herramienta útil para el desarrollo profesional de los profesores universitarios.

  8. Mode cross coupling observations with a rotation sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nader-Nieto, M. F.; Igel, H.; Ferreira, A. M.; Al-Attar, D.

    2013-12-01

    The Earth's free oscillations induced by large earthquakes have been one of the most important ways to measure the Earth's internal structure and processes. They provide important large scale constraints on a variety of elastic parameters, attenuation and density of the Earth's deep interior. The potential of rotational seismic records for long period seismology was proven useful as a complement to traditional measurements in the study of the Earth's free oscillations. Thanks to the high resolution of the G-ring laser located at Geodetic Observatory Wettzell, Germany, we are now able to study the spectral energy generated by rotations in the low frequency range. On a SNREI Earth, a vertical component rotational sensor is primarily excited by horizontally polarised shear motions (SH waves, Love waves) with theoretically no sensitivity to compressional waves and conversions (P-SV) and Rayleigh waves. Consequently, in the context of the Earth's normal modes, this instrument detects mostly toroidal modes. Here, we present observations of spectral energy of both toroidal and spheroidal normal modes in the G-ring Laser records of one of the largest magnitude events recently recorded: Tohoku-Oki, Japan, 2011. In an attempt to determine the mechanisms responsible for spheroidal energy in the vertical axes rotational spectra, we first rule out instrumental effects as well as the effect of local heterogeneity. Second, we carry out a simulation of an ideal rotational sensor taking into account the effects of the Earth's daily rotation, its hydrostatic ellipticity and structural heterogeneity, finding a good fit to the data. Simulations considering each effect separately are performed in order to evaluate the sensitivity of rotational motions to global effects with respect to traditional translation measurements.

  9. Quantitative estimation of massive gas hydrate in gas chimney structures, the eastern margin of Japan Sea, from the physical property anomalies obtained by LWD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanahashi, M.; Morita, S.; Matsumoto, R.

    2017-12-01

    Two dedicated LWD (Logging While Drilling) cruises, GR14 and HR15, were conducted in summers of 2014 and 2015, respectively, by Meiji University and Geological Survey of Japan, AIST to explore the gas chimney structures, which are characterized by the columnar acoustic blanking below the topographic mound and/or pockmarks in eastern margin of Japan Sea. Shallow (33 to 172m-bsf, average 136m-bsf) 33 LWD drillings were carried out generally in and around gas chimney structures which are in Oki Trough, Off-Joetsu, and Mogami Trough areas, eastern margin of Japan Sea, during two cruises. Schlumberger LWD tools, GeoVISION (resistivity), TeleScope, ProVISION (NMR) and SonicVISION (sonic) were applied during GR14. NeoScope (neutron) was added and SonicScope was replaced for SonicVISION during HR15. The presence of thick highly-anomalous intervals within the LWD data at site J24L suggests the development of massive gas hydrate within Off-Joetsu, by very high resistivity ( 10,000 Ωm), high Vp ( 3,700 m/s) and Vs (370-1,839 m/s), high neutron porosity ( 1.2), low natural gamma ray intensity ( 0 API), low neutron gamma density ( 0.8 g/cm3), low NMR porosity ( 0.0), low permeability (10-2-10-4 mD), low formation neutron sigma (26-28). The extreme physical properties intervals suggest the development of the almost pure hydrate. Because of the clear contrast between pure hydrate and seawater saturated fine sediments, the hydrate amount can be estimated quantitatively based on the assumptions as the two component system of pure hydrate and the monotonous seawater saturated fine sediments. This study was conducted as a part of the methane hydrate research project funded by METI (the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry, Japan).

  10. Natural time analysis and Tsallis non-additive entropy statistical mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarlis, N. V.; Skordas, E. S.; Varotsos, P.

    2016-12-01

    Upon analyzing the seismic data in natural time and employing a sliding natural time window comprising a number of events that would occur in a few months, it has been recently uncovered[1] that a precursory Seismic Electric Signals activity[2] initiates almost simultaneously with the appearance of a minimum in the fluctuations of the order parameter of seismicity [3]. Such minima have been ascertained [4] during periods of the magnitude time series exhibiting long range correlations [5] a few months before all earthquakes of magnitude 7.6 or larger that occurred in the entire Japanese area from 1 January 1984 to 11 March 2011 (the day of the M9 Tohoku-Oki earthquake). Before and after these minima, characteristic changes of the temporal correlations between earthquake magnitudes are observed which cannot be captured by Tsallis non-additive entropy statistical mechanics in the frame of which it has been suggested that kappa distributions arise [6]. Here, we extend the study concerning the existence of such minima in a large area that includes Aegean Sea and its surrounding area which exhibits in general seismo-tectonics [7] different than that of the entire Japanese area. References P. A. Varotsos et al., Tectonophysics, 589 (2013) 116. P. Varotsos and M. Lazaridou, Tectonophysics 188 (1991) 321. P.A. Varotsos et al., Phys Rev E 72 (2005) 041103. N. V. Sarlis et al., Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 110 (2013) 13734. P. A. Varotsos, N. V. Sarlis, and E. S. Skordas, J Geophys Res Space Physics 119 (2014), 9192, doi: 10.1002/2014JA0205800. G. Livadiotis, and D. J. McComas, J Geophys Res 114 (2009) A11105, doi:10.1029/2009JA014352. S. Uyeda et al., Tectonophysics, 304 (1999) 41.

  11. Performance of coastal sea-defense infrastructure at El Jadida (Morocco against tsunami threat: lessons learned from the Japanese 11 March 2011 tsunami

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Omira

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to investigate the effectiveness of sea-defense structures in preventing/reducing the tsunami overtopping as well as evaluating the resulting tsunami impact at El Jadida, Morocco. Different tsunami wave conditions are generated by considering various earthquake scenarios of magnitudes ranging from Mw = 8.0 to Mw = 8.6. These scenarios represent the main active earthquake faults in the SW Iberia margin and are consistent with two past events that generated tsunamis along the Atlantic coast of Morocco. The behaviour of incident tsunami waves when interacting with coastal infrastructures is analysed on the basis of numerical simulations of near-shore tsunami waves' propagation. Tsunami impact at the affected site is assessed through computing inundation and current velocity using a high-resolution digital terrain model that incorporates bathymetric, topographic and coastal structures data. Results, in terms of near-shore tsunami propagation snapshots, waves' interaction with coastal barriers, and spatial distributions of flow depths and speeds, are presented and discussed in light of what was observed during the 2011 Tohoku-oki tsunami. Predicted results show different levels of impact that different tsunami wave conditions could generate in the region. Existing coastal barriers around the El Jadida harbour succeeded in reflecting relatively small waves generated by some scenarios, but failed in preventing the overtopping caused by waves from others. Considering the scenario highly impacting the El Jadida coast, significant inundations are computed at the sandy beach and unprotected areas. The modelled dramatic tsunami impact in the region shows the need for additional tsunami standards not only for sea-defense structures but also for the coastal dwellings and houses to provide potential in-place evacuation.

  12. Experimental and analytical studies of a deeply embedded reactor building model considering soil-building interaction. Pt. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, H.

    1983-01-01

    The paper describes the dynamic charachteristics of a deeply embedded reactor building model obtained from the forced vibration tests, earthquake observations and simulation analysis. The earthquake records of the structure and the surrounding soil were examined by using soil-building interaction model as used in the analyses of the forced vibration tests. It is considered that the response of the structure will be influenced by the seismic behaviour of the soil layer as the seismic wave is input to the bedrock of the soil-structure interaction model in the earthquake response analysis. Therefore, dynamic properties of the soil layer during earthquakes were investigated in detail, and applied to the seismic simulation analysis using soil-structure interaction model. Many earthquake records have been obtained since June, 1976 when the earthquake observation system was first established. From these, eight of them which had comparatively large acceleration values were used to investigate the transfer properties of soil layer. Besides, transfer functions computed using in-situ measurement shearing wave velocity showed good agreement with those of the earthquake records. The records of the Miyagiken-oki earthquake of February 20, 1978 (magnitude 6.7) was selected as an example for performing simulation analysis. The simulation analysis are as follows: (1) In the seismic simulation analysis using soil-structure interaction modal, computed results will be in good agreement with the observed ones, when the transfer function of soil layer is properly estimated. (2) Judging from the transfer function of soil layer with the characteristics that the modal damping value decreases gradually at a higher modal frequency, it is found that ddamping of soil-layer can be simulated more adequately by introducing external damping system together with structural damping. (orig./HP)

  13. Paleo-tsunami history along the northern Japan Trench: evidence from Noda Village, northern Sanriku coast, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Taiga; Goto, Kazuhisa; Nishimura, Yuichi; Watanabe, Masashi; Iijima, Yasutaka; Sugawara, Daisuke

    2017-12-01

    Throughout history, large tsunamis have frequently affected the Sanriku area of the Pacific coast of the Tohoku region, Japan, which faces the Japan Trench. Although a few studies have examined paleo-tsunami deposits along the Sanriku coast, additional studies of paleo-earthquakes and tsunamis are needed to improve our knowledge of the timing, recurrence interval, and size of historical and pre-historic tsunamis. At Noda Village, in Iwate Prefecture on the northern Sanriku coast, we found at least four distinct gravelly sand layers based on correlation and chronological data. Sedimentary features such as grain size and thickness suggest that extreme waves from the sea formed these layers. Numerical modeling of storm waves further confirmed that even extremely large storm waves cannot account for the distribution of the gravelly sand layers, suggesting that these deposits are highly likely to have formed by tsunami waves. The numerical method of storm waves can be useful to identify sand layers as tsunami deposits if the deposits are observed far inland or at high elevations. The depositional age of the youngest tsunami deposit is consistent with the AD 869 Jogan earthquake tsunami, a possible predecessor of the AD 2011 Tohoku-oki tsunami. If this is the case, then the study site currently defines the possible northern extent of the AD 869 Jogan tsunami deposit, which is an important step in improving the tsunami source model of the AD 869 Jogan tsunami. Our results suggest that four large tsunamis struck the Noda site between 1100 and 2700 cal BP. The local tsunami sizes are comparable to the AD 2011 and AD 1896 Meiji Sanriku tsunamis, considering the landward extent of each tsunami deposit.

  14. Effects of Huge Earthquakes on Earth Rotation and the length of Day

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changyi Xu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We calculated the co-seismic Earth rotation changes for several typical great earthquakes since 1960 based on Dahlen¡¦s analytical expression of Earth inertia moment change, the excitation functions of polar motion and, variation in the length of a day (ΔLOD. Then, we derived a mathematical relation between polar motion and earthquake parameters, to prove that the amplitude of polar motion is independent of longitude. Because the analytical expression of Dahlen¡¦s theory is useful to theoretically estimate rotation changes by earthquakes having different seismic parameters, we show results for polar motion and ΔLOD for various types of earthquakes in a comprehensive manner. The modeled results show that the seismic effect on the Earth¡¦s rotation decreases gradually with increased latitude if other parameters are unchanged. The Earth¡¦s rotational change is symmetrical for a 45° dip angle and the maximum changes appear at the equator and poles. Earthquakes at a medium dip angle and low latitudes produce large rotation changes. As an example, we calculate the polar motion and ΔLOD caused by the 2011 Tohoku-Oki Earthquake using two different fault models. Results show that a fine slip fault model is useful to compute co-seismic Earth rotation change. The obtained results indicate Dahlen¡¦s method gives good approximations for computation of co-seismic rotation changes, but there are some differences if one considers detailed fault slip distributions. Finally we analyze and discuss the co-seismic Earth rotation change signal using GRACE data, showing that such a signal is hard to be detected at present, but it might be detected under some conditions. Numerical results of this study will serve as a good indicator to check if satellite observations such as GRACE can detect a seismic rotation change when a great earthquake occur.

  15. Fuel performance update at Japanese BWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otsuka, Yasuyuki; Abe, Moriyasu

    2008-01-01

    Fuel Performance of Japanese BWRs has shown excellency with a very low fuel failure rate over the past couple of decades. In order to eliminate debris-fretting failures, which is considered as a dominant cause, efforts have been made to work out strict FME program and introduce lower tie plate with debris filters. Regarding a measure to detect failures without delay, an online off-gas monitor is installed, and there occurred no significant secondary failures leading to unnecessary plant shutdowns thanks to the monitor. Current standard fuel designs are 9x9 lattice configuration with the design maximum burnup set at 55 GWd/t and the bundle average discharge burnup at 45 GWd/t. Satisfactory performance of many fuels has gained so far to the burnup level. However recent data show an increase in hydrogen pickup of fuel claddings and spacers in the region of high burnup or high irradiation period, and this is one of the issues that should be addressed to maintain and improve fuel reliability for the reasons that hydrogen concentration may affect ductility of zirconium alloy. Furthermore, a recent study showed abnormally high hydrogen concentration in fuel cladding. Comprehensive root cause analyses were made, which include a poolside measurement for a number of high burnup fuels and development of new technique for tenacious crud removal, with the result that it is confirmed that a unique combination of cladding material, irradiation period and environment caused the phenomenon and it is not expected to occur again. New iron enhanced zirconium alloys, which have been investigated in for a long time, are expected to have greater resistance to hydrogen pickup, and introduction of the alloys is considered as the future materials. Regarding extensive inspections of fuel assemblies and channel boxes at Kashiwazaki-Kariwa NPS, no abnormality due to Niigata-ken Chuetsu-oki earthquake was observed for all plants. This paper deals with the current fuel performance at Japanese

  16. Source Parameter Inversion for Recent Great Earthquakes from a Decade-long Observation of Global Gravity Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Shin-Chan; Riva, Ricccardo; Sauber, Jeanne; Okal, Emile

    2013-01-01

    We quantify gravity changes after great earthquakes present within the 10 year long time series of monthly Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) gravity fields. Using spherical harmonic normal-mode formulation, the respective source parameters of moment tensor and double-couple were estimated. For the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake, the gravity data indicate a composite moment of 1.2x10(exp 23)Nm with a dip of 10deg, in agreement with the estimate obtained at ultralong seismic periods. For the 2010 Maule earthquake, the GRACE solutions range from 2.0 to 2.7x10(exp 22)Nm for dips of 12deg-24deg and centroid depths within the lower crust. For the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake, the estimated scalar moments range from 4.1 to 6.1x10(exp 22)Nm, with dips of 9deg-19deg and centroid depths within the lower crust. For the 2012 Indian Ocean strike-slip earthquakes, the gravity data delineate a composite moment of 1.9x10(exp 22)Nm regardless of the centroid depth, comparing favorably with the total moment of the main ruptures and aftershocks. The smallest event we successfully analyzed with GRACE was the 2007 Bengkulu earthquake with M(sub 0) approx. 5.0x10(exp 21)Nm. We found that the gravity data constrain the focal mechanism with the centroid only within the upper and lower crustal layers for thrust events. Deeper sources (i.e., in the upper mantle) could not reproduce the gravity observation as the larger rigidity and bulk modulus at mantle depths inhibit the interior from changing its volume, thus reducing the negative gravity component. Focal mechanisms and seismic moments obtained in this study represent the behavior of the sources on temporal and spatial scales exceeding the seismic and geodetic spectrum.

  17. Real-time Inversion of Tsunami Source from GNSS Ground Deformation Observations and Tide Gauges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcas, D.; Wei, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Over the last decade, the NOAA Center for Tsunami Research (NCTR) has developed an inversion technique to constrain tsunami sources based on the use of Green's functions in combination with data reported by NOAA's Deep-ocean Assessment and Reporting of Tsunamis (DART®) systems. The system has consistently proven effective in providing highly accurate tsunami forecasts of wave amplitude throughout an entire basin. However, improvement is necessary in two critical areas: reduction of data latency for near-field tsunami predictions and reduction of maintenance cost of the network. Two types of sensors have been proposed as supplementary to the existing network of DART®systems: Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) stations and coastal tide gauges. The use GNSS stations to provide autonomous geo-spatial positioning at specific sites during an earthquake has been proposed in recent years to supplement the DART® array in tsunami source inversion. GNSS technology has the potential to provide substantial contributions in the two critical areas of DART® technology where improvement is most necessary. The present study uses GNSS ground displacement observations of the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake in combination with NCTR operational database of Green's functions, to produce a rapid estimate of tsunami source based on GNSS observations alone. The solution is then compared with that obtained via DART® data inversion and the difficulties in obtaining an accurate GNSS-based solution are underlined. The study also identifies the set of conditions required for source inversion from coastal tide-gauges using the degree of nonlinearity of the signal as a primary criteria. We then proceed to identify the conditions and scenarios under which a particular gage could be used to invert a tsunami source.

  18. Eurasian continental background and regionally polluted levels of ozone and CO observed in northeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pochanart, Pakpong; Kato, Shungo; Katsuno, Takao; Akimoto, Hajime

    The roles of Eurasian/Siberian continental air masses transport and the impact of large-scale East Asian anthropogenic emissions on tropospheric ozone and carbon monoxide levels in northeast Asia were investigated. Seasonal behaviors of O 3 and CO mixing ratios in background continental (BC) air masses and regionally polluted continental (RPC) air masses were identified using trajectory analyses of Eurasian continental air masses and multi-year O 3 and CO data observed at Happo, a mountain site in Japan. RPC air masses show significantly higher O 3 and CO mixing ratios (annual average of 53.9±6.0 and 200±41 ppb, respectively) than BC air masses (44.4±3.6 and 167±17 ppb, respectively). Large scale anthropogenic emissions in East Asia are suggested to contribute about 10 ppb of photochemical O 3 and 32 ppb of CO at Happo. A comparative study of O 3 and CO observed at other sites, i.e., Oki Islands and Mondy in northeast Asia, showed similarities suggesting that O 3 mixing ratios in BC air masses at Happo could be representative for remote northeast Asia. However, CO mixing ratios in BC air masses at Happo are higher than the background level in Siberia. The overestimate is probably related to an increase in the CO baseline gradient between Siberia and the East Asia Pacific rim, and perturbations by sub-grid scale pollution transport and regional-scale boreal forest fires in Siberia when the background continental air masses are transported to Japan.

  19. Remotely Triggered Earthquakes Recorded by EarthScope's Transportable Array and Regional Seismic Networks: A Case Study Of Four Large Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco, A. A.; Cerda, I.; Linville, L.; Kilb, D. L.; Pankow, K. L.

    2013-05-01

    Changes in field stress required to trigger earthquakes have been classified in two basic ways: static and dynamic triggering. Static triggering occurs when an earthquake that releases accumulated strain along a fault stress loads a nearby fault. Dynamic triggering occurs when an earthquake is induced by the passing of seismic waves from a large mainshock located at least two or more fault lengths from the epicenter of the main shock. We investigate details of dynamic triggering using data collected from EarthScope's USArray and regional seismic networks located in the United States. Triggered events are identified using an optimized automated detector based on the ratio of short term to long term average (Antelope software). Following the automated processing, the flagged waveforms are individually analyzed, in both the time and frequency domains, to determine if the increased detection rates correspond to local earthquakes (i.e., potentially remotely triggered aftershocks). Here, we show results using this automated schema applied to data from four large, but characteristically different, earthquakes -- Chile (Mw 8.8 2010), Tokoku-Oki (Mw 9.0 2011), Baja California (Mw 7.2 2010) and Wells Nevada (Mw 6.0 2008). For each of our four mainshocks, the number of detections within the 10 hour time windows span a large range (1 to over 200) and statistically >20% of the waveforms show evidence of anomalous signals following the mainshock. The results will help provide for a better understanding of the physical mechanisms involved in dynamic earthquake triggering and will help identify zones in the continental U.S. that may be more susceptible to dynamic earthquake triggering.

  20. Safety study of fire protection for nuclear fuel cycle facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    Insufficiencies in the fire protection system of the nuclear reactor facilities were pointed out when the fire occurred due to the Niigata prefecture-Chuetsu-oki Earthquake in July, 2007. This prompted the revision of the fire protection safety examination guideline for nuclear reactors as well as commercial guidelines. The commercial guidelines have been endorsed by the regulatory body. Now commercial fire protection standards for nuclear facilities such as the design guideline and the management guideline for protecting fire in the Light Water Reactors (LWRs) are available, however, those to apply to the nuclear fuel cycle facilities such as mixed oxide fuel fabrication facility (MFFF) have not been established. For the improvement of fire protection system of the nuclear fuel cycle facilities, the development of a standard for the fire protection, corresponding to the commercial standard for LWRs were required. Thus, Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organization (JNES) formulated a fire protection guidelines for nuclear fuel cycle facilities as a standard relevant to the fire protection of the nuclear fuel cycle facilities considering functions specific to the nuclear fuel cycle facilities. In formulating the guidelines, investigation has been conduced on the commercial guidelines for nuclear reactors in Japan and the standards relevant to the fire protection of nuclear facilities in USA and other countries as well as non-nuclear industrial fire protection standards. The guideline consists of two parts; Equipments and Management, as the commercial guidances of the nuclear reactor. In addition, the acquisition of fire evaluation data for a components (an electric cabinet, cable, oil etc.) targeted for spread of fire and the evaluation model of fire source were continued for the fire hazard analysis (FHA). (author)

  1. Estimation of the spatiotemporal evolution of slow slip events in the Tokai region, central Japan, during 1994 - 2016 using GNSS data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaue, H.; Nishimura, T.; Fukuda, J.; Kato, T.

    2017-12-01

    In the Tokai region, central Japan, the long-term slow slip events (L-SSEs) observed on the subducting Philippine Sea Plate (PSP) from 2000 to 2005 and since 2013. Moreover, many short-term slow slip events (S-SSEs) have been observed in the Tokai region since 1996. Sakaue et al. (2017) reported that the spatiotemporal evolution of an L-SSE and S-SSEs on the PSP beneath the Tokai region from 2013 to 2015. This study is probably the first case that migration of slip for S-SSE (Mw GPS Research) in the Tokai region. It is well known that GNSS time series have many systematic signals that do not result from SSEs. These systematic signals include, for example, seasonal variations, cosiesmic and post-seismic deformation of the 2004 off Southeast Kii Peninsula eqrthquake and the 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake (Mw. 9.0), crustal deformation of volcanic activity on Miyake-jima island and so on. After removing these systematic signals, we applied a modified Network Inversion Filter (NIF) [Fukuda et al., 2008]. The original NIF [Segall & Matthews, 1997] assumes a constant hyperparameter for the temporal smoothing of slip rates and thus often results in oversmoothing of slip rates. The modified NIF assumes a time-variable hyperparameter, so that changes in slip rates are effectively extracted from GNSS time series.The results indicate that not only the spatiotemporal evolutions of the 2000 Tokai L-SSE and the 2013 L-SSE but also the spatiotemporal evolution of S-SSEs are estimated. We will present a comparison of the spatiotemporal evolutions between the 2000 Tokai L-SSE and the 2013 L-SSE and possible dependence of the occurrence style of S-SSEs on the occurrence of the L-SSEs.

  2. Navigating Earthquake Physics with High-Resolution Array Back-Projection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Lingsen

    Understanding earthquake source dynamics is a fundamental goal of geophysics. Progress toward this goal has been slow due to the gap between state-of-art earthquake simulations and the limited source imaging techniques based on conventional low-frequency finite fault inversions. Seismic array processing is an alternative source imaging technique that employs the higher frequency content of the earthquakes and provides finer detail of the source process with few prior assumptions. While the back-projection provides key observations of previous large earthquakes, the standard beamforming back-projection suffers from low resolution and severe artifacts. This thesis introduces the MUSIC technique, a high-resolution array processing method that aims to narrow the gap between the seismic observations and earthquake simulations. The MUSIC is a high-resolution method taking advantage of the higher order signal statistics. The method has not been widely used in seismology yet because of the nonstationary and incoherent nature of the seismic signal. We adapt MUSIC to transient seismic signal by incorporating the Multitaper cross-spectrum estimates. We also adopt a "reference window" strategy that mitigates the "swimming artifact," a systematic drift effect in back projection. The improved MUSIC back projections allow the imaging of recent large earthquakes in finer details which give rise to new perspectives on dynamic simulations. In the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake, we observe frequency-dependent rupture behaviors which relate to the material variation along the dip of the subduction interface. In the 2012 off-Sumatra earthquake, we image the complicated ruptures involving orthogonal fault system and an usual branching direction. This result along with our complementary dynamic simulations probes the pressure-insensitive strength of the deep oceanic lithosphere. In another example, back projection is applied to the 2010 M7 Haiti earthquake recorded at regional distance. The

  3. Importance of weak minerals on earthquake mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneki, S.; Hirono, T.

    2017-12-01

    The role of weak minerals such as smectite and talc on earthquake mechanics is one of the important issues, and has been debated for recent several decades. Traditionally weak minerals in fault have been reported to weaken fault strength causing from its low frictional resistance. Furthermore, velocity-strengthening behavior of such weak mineral (talc) is considered to responsible for fault creep (aseismic slip) in the San Andreas fault. In contrast, recent studies reported that large amount of weak smectite in the Japan Trench could facilitate gigantic seismic slip during the 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake. To investigate the role of weak minerals on rupture propagation process and magnitude of slip, we focus on the frictional properties of carbonaceous materials (CMs), which is the representative weak materials widely distributed in and around the convergent boundaries. Field observation and geochemical analyses revealed that graphitized CMs-layer is distributed along the slip surface of a fossil plate-subduction fault. Laboratory friction experiments demonstrated that pure quartz, bulk mixtures with bituminous coal (1 wt.%), and quartz with layered coal samples exhibited almost similar frictional properties (initial, yield, and dynamic friction). However, mixtures of quartz (99 wt.%) and layered graphite (1 wt.%) showed significantly lower initial and yield friction coefficient (0.31 and 0.50, respectively). Furthermore, the stress ratio S, defined as (yield stress-initial stress)/(initial stress-dynamic stress), increased in layered graphite samples (1.97) compared to quartz samples (0.14). Similar trend was observed in smectite-rich fault gouge. By referring the reported results of dynamic rupture propagation simulation using S ratio of 1.4 (typical value for the Japan Trench) and 2.0 (this study), we confirmed that higher S ratio results in smaller slip distance by approximately 20 %. On the basis of these results, we could conclude that weak minerals have lower

  4. Quantifying collective attention from tweet stream.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazutoshi Sasahara

    Full Text Available Online social media are increasingly facilitating our social interactions, thereby making available a massive "digital fossil" of human behavior. Discovering and quantifying distinct patterns using these data is important for studying social behavior, although the rapid time-variant nature and large volumes of these data make this task difficult and challenging. In this study, we focused on the emergence of "collective attention" on Twitter, a popular social networking service. We propose a simple method for detecting and measuring the collective attention evoked by various types of events. This method exploits the fact that tweeting activity exhibits a burst-like increase and an irregular oscillation when a particular real-world event occurs; otherwise, it follows regular circadian rhythms. The difference between regular and irregular states in the tweet stream was measured using the Jensen-Shannon divergence, which corresponds to the intensity of collective attention. We then associated irregular incidents with their corresponding events that attracted the attention and elicited responses from large numbers of people, based on the popularity and the enhancement of key terms in posted messages or "tweets." Next, we demonstrate the effectiveness of this method using a large dataset that contained approximately 490 million Japanese tweets by over 400,000 users, in which we identified 60 cases of collective attentions, including one related to the Tohoku-oki earthquake. "Retweet" networks were also investigated to understand collective attention in terms of social interactions. This simple method provides a retrospective summary of collective attention, thereby contributing to the fundamental understanding of social behavior in the digital era.

  5. Crustal anisotropy across northern Japan from receiver functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, I; Bokelmann, G; Shiomi, K

    2015-07-01

    Northern Japan is a tectonically active area, with the presence of several volcanoes, and with frequent earthquakes among which the destructive M w  = 8.9-9.0 Tohoku-oki occurred on 11 March 2011. Tectonic activity leaves an imprint on the crustal structures, on both the upper and the lower layers. To investigate the crust in northern Japan, we construct a receiver function data set using teleseismic events recorded at 58 seismic stations belonging to the Japanese National (Hi-net) network. We isolate the signals, in the receiver function wavelet, that witness the presence of anisotropic structures at depth, with the aim of mapping the variation of anisotropy across the northern part of the island. This study focuses on the relation among anisotropy detected in the crust, stresses induced by plate convergence across the subduction zone, and the intrinsic characteristics of the rocks. Our results show how a simple velocity model with two anisotropic layers reproduces the observed data at the stations. We observe a negligible or small amount of signal related to anisotropy in the eastern part of the study area (i.e., the outer arc) for both upper and lower crust. Distinct anisotropic features are observed at the stations on the western part of the study area (i.e., the inner arc) for both upper and lower crust. The symmetry axes are mostly E-W oriented. Deviation from the E-W orientation is observed close to the volcanic areas, where the higher geothermal gradient might influence the deformation processes.

  6. Incidence of dizziness and vertigo in Japanese primary care clinic patients with lifestyle-related diseases: an observational study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Masaoki; Takeshima, Taro; Nakamura, Yosikazu; Nagasaka, Shoichiro; Kamesaki, Toyomi; Oki, Hiroshi; Kajii, Eiji

    2015-01-01

    Objective Dizziness and vertigo are highly prevalent symptoms among patients presenting at primary care clinics, and peripheral vestibular disorder (PVD) is their most frequent cause. However, the incidence of PVD has not been well documented. This study aimed to investigate the incidence of dizziness, vertigo, and PVD among patients presenting at a primary care clinic. Design This was an observational study. Setting and participants Between November 2011 and March 2013, we observed 393 patients, all at least 20 years old, who had been treated for chronic diseases such as hypertension, dyslipidemia, and diabetes mellitus for at least 6 months at a primary clinic (Oki Clinic) in Japan. Outcome The main outcome of interest was new incidence of dizziness, vertigo, and PVD events. During the 1-year follow-up period, the otorhinolaryngologist diagnosed and reported new PVD events. Results The mean age of the 393 participants at entry was 65.5 years. Of the study participants, 12.7%, 82.4%, and 92.6% had diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and dyslipidemia, respectively. We followed up all the participants (100%). During the 662.5 person-years of follow-up, 121 cases of dizziness or vertigo (dizziness/vertigo) and 76 cases of PVD were observed. The incidence of dizziness/vertigo and PVD was 194.7 (95% confidence interval: 161.6–232.6) per 1,000 person-years and 115.7 (95% confidence interval: 92.2–142.6) per 1,000 person-years, respectively. There were 61 cases of acute peripheral vestibulopathy, 12 of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo, and three of Meniere’s disease among the 76 PVD patients. Conclusion We reported the incidence of dizziness/vertigo among Japanese primary care clinic patients, which was higher than that usually observed in the general population. Furthermore, we described the incidence of PVD and found that it was a major cause of dizziness/vertigo. PMID:25931828

  7. A Hybrid Tsunami Risk Model for Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haseemkunju, A. V.; Smith, D. F.; Khater, M.; Khemici, O.; Betov, B.; Scott, J.

    2014-12-01

    Around the margins of the Pacific Ocean, denser oceanic plates slipping under continental plates cause subduction earthquakes generating large tsunami waves. The subducting Pacific and Philippine Sea plates create damaging interplate earthquakes followed by huge tsunami waves. It was a rupture of the Japan Trench subduction zone (JTSZ) and the resultant M9.0 Tohoku-Oki earthquake that caused the unprecedented tsunami along the Pacific coast of Japan on March 11, 2011. EQECAT's Japan Earthquake model is a fully probabilistic model which includes a seismo-tectonic model describing the geometries, magnitudes, and frequencies of all potential earthquake events; a ground motion model; and a tsunami model. Within the much larger set of all modeled earthquake events, fault rupture parameters for about 24000 stochastic and 25 historical tsunamigenic earthquake events are defined to simulate tsunami footprints using the numerical tsunami model COMCOT. A hybrid approach using COMCOT simulated tsunami waves is used to generate inundation footprints, including the impact of tides and flood defenses. Modeled tsunami waves of major historical events are validated against observed data. Modeled tsunami flood depths on 30 m grids together with tsunami vulnerability and financial models are then used to estimate insured loss in Japan from the 2011 tsunami. The primary direct report of damage from the 2011 tsunami is in terms of the number of buildings damaged by municipality in the tsunami affected area. Modeled loss in Japan from the 2011 tsunami is proportional to the number of buildings damaged. A 1000-year return period map of tsunami waves shows high hazard along the west coast of southern Honshu, on the Pacific coast of Shikoku, and on the east coast of Kyushu, primarily associated with major earthquake events on the Nankai Trough subduction zone (NTSZ). The highest tsunami hazard of more than 20m is seen on the Sanriku coast in northern Honshu, associated with the JTSZ.

  8. A high resolution 3D velocity model beneath the Tokyo Metropolitan area by MeSO-net

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, S.; Sakai, S.; Honda, R.; Kimura, H.; Hirata, N.

    2015-12-01

    Beneath the Tokyo metropolitan area, the Philippine Sea Plate (PSP) subducts and causes devastating mega-thrust earthquakes, such as the 1703 Genroku earthquake (M8.0) and the 1923 Kanto earthquake (M7.9). An M7 or greater (M7+) earthquake in this area at present has high potential to produce devastating serious loss of life and property with even greater global economic repercussions. The Central Disaster Management Council of Japan estimates that an M7+ earthquake will cause 23,000 fatalities and 95 trillion yen (about 1 trillion US$) economic loss. We have launched the Special Project for Reducing Vulnerability for Urban Mega Earthquake Disasters in collaboration with scientists, engineers, and social-scientists in nationwide institutions since 2012. We analyze data from the dense seismic array called Metropolitan Seismic Observation network (MeSO-net), which has 296 seismic stations with spacing of 5 km (Sakai and Hirata, 2009; Kasahara et al., 2009). We applied the double-difference tomography method (Zhang and Thurber, 2003) and estimated the velocity structure and the upper boundary of PSP (Nakagawa et al., 2010). The 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake (M9.0) has activated seismicity also in Kanto region, providing better coverage of ray paths for tomographic analysis. We obtain much higher resolution velocity models from whole dataset observed by MeSO-net between 2008 and 2015. A detailed image of tomograms shows that PSP contacts Pacific plate at a depth of 50 km beneath northern Tokyo bay. A variation of velocity along the oceanic crust suggests dehydration reaction to produce seismicity in a slab, which may related to the M7+ earthquake. Acknowledgement: This study was supported by the Special Project for Reducing Vulnerability for Urban Mega Earthquake Disasters of MEXT, Japan and the Earthquake Research Institute cooperative research program.

  9. Survey on lower urinary tract symptoms and sleep disorders in patients treated at urology departments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimizu N

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nobutaka Shimizu,1 Yasuharu Nagai,1 Yutaka Yamamoto,1 Takafumi Minami,1 Taiji Hayashi,1 Hidenori Tsuji,1 Masahiro Nozawa,1 Kazuhiro Yoshimura,1 Tokumi Ishii,1 Hirotsugu Uemura,1 Takashi Oki,2 Koichi Sugimoto,2 Kazuhiro Nose,2 Tsukasa Nishioka21Department of Urology, Kinki University Faculty of Medicine, Osaka, Japan; 2Department of Urology, Sakai Hospital, Kinki University Faculty of Medicine, Osaka, JapanObjectives: This study examined the association between sleep disorders and lower urinary tract symptoms in patients who had visited urology departments.Methods: This was an independent cross-sectional, observational study. Outpatients who had visited the urology departments at the Kinki University School of Medicine or the Sakai Hospital, Kinki University School of Medicine, between August 2011 and January 2012 were assessed using the Athens Insomnia Scale and the International Prostate Symptom Score.Results: In total, 1174 patients (mean age, 65.7 ± 13.7 years, with 895 men (67.1 ± 13.2 years old and 279 women (61.4 ± 14.6 years old, were included in the study. Approximately half of these patients were suspected of having a sleep disorder. With regard to the International Prostate Symptom Score subscores, a significant increase in the risk for suspected sleep disorders was observed among patients with a post-micturition symptom (the feeling of incomplete emptying subscore of ≥1 (a 2.3-fold increase, a storage symptom (daytime frequency + urgency + nocturia subscore of ≥5 (a 2.7-fold increase, a voiding symptom (intermittency + slow stream + hesitancy subscore of ≥2 (a 2.6-fold increase, and a nocturia subscore of ≥2 (a 1.9-fold increase.Conclusion: The results demonstrated that the risk factors for sleep disorders could also include voiding, post-micturition, and storage symptoms, in addition to nocturia.Keywords: lower urinary tract symptoms, sleep disturbance, urological disease

  10. Anthropogenic disruption to the seismic driving of beach ridge formation: The Sendai coast, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goff, James; Knight, Jasper; Sugawara, Daisuke; Terry, James P

    2016-02-15

    The expected geomorphic after-effects of the Mw 9.0 Tōhoku-oki earthquake of 11 March 2011 (eastern Japan) are summarized by a schematic model of seismic driving, which details seismogenic disturbances to sediment systems that affect the rate or timing of sediment delivery to coastlines over timescales of 10(2)-10(4)years. The immediate physical environmental responses to this high-magnitude earthquake included a large tsunami and extensive region-wide slope failures. Normally, slope failures within mountain catchments would have significant impacts on Japan's river and coastal geomorphology in the coming decades with, for example, a new beach ridge expected to form within 20-100 years on the Sendai Plain. However, human activity has significantly modified the rate and timing of geomorphic processes of the region, which will have impacts on likely geomorphic responses to seismic driving. For example, the rivers draining into Sendai Bay have been dammed, providing sediment traps that will efficiently capture bedload and much suspended sediment in transit through the river system. Instead of the expected ~1 km of coastal progradation and formation of a ~3m high beach ridge prior to the next large tsunami, it is likely that progradation of the Sendai Plain will continue to slow or even cease as a result of damming of river systems and capture of river sediments behind dams. The resulting reduction of fluvial sediment delivery to the coast due to modification of rivers inadvertently makes seawalls and other engineered coastal structures even more necessary than they would be otherwise. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Electromagnetic exploration in high-salinity groundwater zones: case studies from volcanic and soft sedimentary sites in coastal Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Koichi; Kusano, Yukiko; Ochi, Ryota; Nishiyama, Nariaki; Tokunaga, Tomochika; Tanaka, Kazuhiro

    2017-01-01

    Estimating the spatial distribution of groundwater salinity in coastal plain regions is becoming increasingly important for site characterisation and the prediction of hydrogeological environmental conditions resulting from radioactive waste disposal and underground CO2 storage. In previous studies of the freshwater-saltwater interface, electromagnetic methods were used for sites characterised by unconsolidated deposits or Neocene soft sedimentary rocks. However, investigating the freshwater-saltwater interface in hard rock sites (e.g. igneous areas) is more complex, with the permeability of the rocks greatly influenced by fractures. In this study, we investigated the distribution of high-salinity groundwater at two volcanic rock sites and one sedimentary rock site, each characterised by different hydrogeological features. Our investigations included (1) applying the controlled source audio-frequency magnetotelluric (CSAMT) method and (2) conducting laboratory tests to measure the electrical properties of rock core samples. We interpreted the 2D resistivity sections by referring to previous data on geology and geochemistry of groundwater. At the Tokusa site, an area of inland volcanic rocks, low resistivity zones were detected along a fault running through volcanic rocks and shallow sediments. The results suggest that fluids rise through the Tokusa-Jifuku Fault to penetrate shallow sediments in a direction parallel to the river, and some fluids are diluted by rainwater. At the Oki site, a volcanic island on a continental shelf, four resistivity zones (in upward succession: low, high, low and high) were detected. The results suggest that these four zones were formed during a transgression-regression cycle caused by the last glacial period. At the Saijo site, located on a coastal plain composed of thick sediments, we observed a deep low resistivity zone, indicative of fossil seawater remnant from a transgression after the last glacial period. The current coastal

  12. Working material. IAEA seismic safety of nuclear power plants. International workshop on lessons learned from strong earthquake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-08-01

    The International Workshop on Lessons Learned from Strong Earthquake was held at Kashiwazaki civic plaza, Kashiwazaki, Niigata-prefecture, Japan, for three days in June 2008. Kashiwazaki-Kariwa NPP (KK-NPP) is located in the city of Kashiwazaki and the village of Kariwa, and owned and operated by Tokyo Electric Power Company Ltd. (TEPCO). After it experienced the Niigata-ken Chuetsu-oki earthquake in July 2007, IAEA dispatched experts' missions twice and held technical discussions with TEPCO. Through such activities, the IAEA secretariat and experts obtained up-dated information of plant integrity, geological and seismological evaluation and developments of the consultation in the regulatory framework of Japan. Some of the information has been shared with the member states through the reports on findings and lessons learned from the missions to Japan. The international workshop was held to discuss and share the information of lessons learned from strong earthquakes in member states' nuclear installations. It provided the opportunity for participants from abroad to share the information of the recent earthquake and experience in Japan and to visit KK-NPP. And for experts in Japan, the workshop provided the opportunity to share the international approach on seismic-safety-related measures and experiences. The workshop was organised by the IAEA as a part of an extra budgetary project, in cooperation with OECD/NEA, hosted by Japanese organisations including Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency (NISA), Nuclear Safety Commission (NSC), and Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organization (JNES). The number of the workshop participants was 70 experts from outside Japan, 27 countries and 2 international organisations, 154 Japanese experts and 81 audience and media personnel, totalling to 305 participants. The three-day workshop was open to the media including the site visit, and covered by NHK (the nation's public broadcasting corporation) and nation-wide and local television

  13. Determination Methodology of the Fiduciary Law and Critic Towards Sharia Fiduciary Institutional Dualism and its Legislation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwan Setiawan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The Qur’an’s verse, Al-Baqarah: 283, explains rahn in a trip condition, however, the fact that the enforcement of rahn also occurs in muqim condition. Syar’ah fiduciary needs to be included into law as Muslims in Indonesia are the majority and based on the decision of OKI (Islamic Conference Organization, Indonesia is as an Islamic country. Therefore, by being supported by Pancasila, it generates God Sovereignty theory. The research method used is normative juridical method: that is the law research method done by researching literature. The research shows that: 1 the fiduciary truth (rahn in Islamic law is (syara’ making a thing having value of property in the view of Syara’ as a debt guarantee, which enables to take the whole or part of the debt of the thing. Method of istinbath al-hukmi is related to the fiduciary done by the fiduciary institution using qiyas (metaphor, 2 the emergence of dualism of sharia fiduciary institution and sharia banking was caused by the existence of fatwa of National Sharia Board MUI (Indonesian Council of Religious Scholars No: 25/DSN-MUI/lII/2002, and Fatwa of National Sharia Board MUI No: 26/DSN-MUI/II1/2002, in which sharia financial institution is allowed to produce the product which accords with syarih principles, 3 critic towards law No. 21, 2008 and governmental regulations No. 51, 2011 are not directly clarified, but has similarities and explanations concerning a product that must accord with sharia principles.

  14. Feasibility study of short-term earthquake prediction using ionospheric anomalies immediately before large earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heki, K.; He, L.

    2017-12-01

    We showed that positive and negative electron density anomalies emerge above the fault immediately before they rupture, 40/20/10 minutes before Mw9/8/7 earthquakes (Heki, 2011 GRL; Heki and Enomoto, 2013 JGR; He and Heki 2017 JGR). These signals are stronger for earthquake with larger Mw and under higher background vertical TEC (total electron conetent) (Heki and Enomoto, 2015 JGR). The epicenter, the positive and the negative anomalies align along the local geomagnetic field (He and Heki, 2016 GRL), suggesting electric fields within ionosphere are responsible for making the anomalies (Kuo et al., 2014 JGR; Kelley et al., 2017 JGR). Here we suppose the next Nankai Trough earthquake that may occur within a few tens of years in Southwest Japan, and will discuss if we can recognize its preseismic signatures in TEC by real-time observations with GNSS.During high geomagnetic activities, large-scale traveling ionospheric disturbances (LSTID) often propagate from auroral ovals toward mid-latitude regions, and leave similar signatures to preseismic anomalies. This is a main obstacle to use preseismic TEC changes for practical short-term earthquake prediction. In this presentation, we show that the same anomalies appeared 40 minutes before the mainshock above northern Australia, the geomagnetically conjugate point of the 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake epicenter. This not only demonstrates that electric fields play a role in making the preseismic TEC anomalies, but also offers a possibility to discriminate preseismic anomalies from those caused by LSTID. By monitoring TEC in the conjugate areas in the two hemisphere, we can recognize anomalies with simultaneous onset as those caused by within-ionosphere electric fields (e.g. preseismic anomalies, night-time MSTID) and anomalies without simultaneous onset as gravity-wave origin disturbances (e.g. LSTID, daytime MSTID).

  15. Dynamic strains for earthquake source characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbour, Andrew J.; Crowell, Brendan W

    2017-01-01

    Strainmeters measure elastodynamic deformation associated with earthquakes over a broad frequency band, with detection characteristics that complement traditional instrumentation, but they are commonly used to study slow transient deformation along active faults and at subduction zones, for example. Here, we analyze dynamic strains at Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) borehole strainmeters (BSM) associated with 146 local and regional earthquakes from 2004–2014, with magnitudes from M 4.5 to 7.2. We find that peak values in seismic strain can be predicted from a general regression against distance and magnitude, with improvements in accuracy gained by accounting for biases associated with site–station effects and source–path effects, the latter exhibiting the strongest influence on the regression coefficients. To account for the influence of these biases in a general way, we include crustal‐type classifications from the CRUST1.0 global velocity model, which demonstrates that high‐frequency strain data from the PBO BSM network carry information on crustal structure and fault mechanics: earthquakes nucleating offshore on the Blanco fracture zone, for example, generate consistently lower dynamic strains than earthquakes around the Sierra Nevada microplate and in the Salton trough. Finally, we test our dynamic strain prediction equations on the 2011 M 9 Tohoku‐Oki earthquake, specifically continuous strain records derived from triangulation of 137 high‐rate Global Navigation Satellite System Earth Observation Network stations in Japan. Moment magnitudes inferred from these data and the strain model are in agreement when Global Positioning System subnetworks are unaffected by spatial aliasing.

  16. Earthquake Source Spectral Study beyond the Omega-Square Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchide, T.; Imanishi, K.

    2017-12-01

    Earthquake source spectra have been used for characterizing earthquake source processes quantitatively and, at the same time, simply, so that we can analyze the source spectra for many earthquakes, especially for small earthquakes, at once and compare them each other. A standard model for the source spectra is the omega-square model, which has the flat spectrum and the falloff inversely proportional to the square of frequencies at low and high frequencies, respectively, which are bordered by a corner frequency. The corner frequency has often been converted to the stress drop under the assumption of circular crack models. However, recent studies claimed the existence of another corner frequency [Denolle and Shearer, 2016; Uchide and Imanishi, 2016] thanks to the recent development of seismic networks. We have found that many earthquakes in areas other than the area studied by Uchide and Imanishi [2016] also have source spectra deviating from the omega-square model. Another part of the earthquake spectra we now focus on is the falloff rate at high frequencies, which will affect the seismic energy estimation [e.g., Hirano and Yagi, 2017]. In June, 2016, we deployed seven velocity seismometers in the northern Ibaraki prefecture, where the shallow crustal seismicity mainly with normal-faulting events was activated by the 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake. We have recorded seismograms at 1000 samples per second and at a short distance from the source, so that we can investigate the high-frequency components of the earthquake source spectra. Although we are still in the stage of discovery and confirmation of the deviation from the standard omega-square model, the update of the earthquake source spectrum model will help us systematically extract more information on the earthquake source process.

  17. The great East Japan earthquake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fluke, R.

    2011-06-15

    'Full text:' More formally called the Tohoku-Chihou-Taiheiyo-Oki Earthquake of March 11, 2011, it was the ensuing tsunami that caused the most death and destruction to the north-east coastal region of Japan. It is also what caused the multiple meltdowns at Fukushima Dai-ichi. Reactor Unit 1, ironically, was scheduled to be permanently shut down for decommissioning just two weeks later. The Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant has a tsunami protection barrier designed for the worst recorded tsunami in that area since 1896 - to a height of 5.7 m. The plant itself is on an elevated grade of about 10 m. The tsunami, reported to be 14-15 m, caused inundation of the entire site with at least four metres of seawater. The seawater flooded the turbine building and damaged electrical equipment including the emergency diesel generators, leaving the entire six-unit nuclear power plan without any source of AC power, known as the 'station blackout scenario'. There are numerous reports available on-line at various sites. The Japanese Government report is frank and forthcoming on the causes and the lessons learned, and the lAEA Mission report is in-depth and well presented, not only as a factual account of the events but as a unified source of the conclusions and lessons learned. Photos of the catastrophe are available at the TEPCO web site: http://www.tepco.co.jp/en/index-e.html. In this edition of the Bulletin there is a 'layman's' description of CANDU and BWR design in terms of the fundamental safety principles - Control, Cool and Contain as well as a description of how these principles were met, or not met at Fukushima Dai-ichi. Also, an excerpt from the IAEA Expert Mission is included. We 'technocrats' sometimes forget about the human aspects of a nuclear disaster. An essay by Dr. Michael Edwards is included entitled 'Psychology, Philosophy and Nuclear Science'. Other references to the events appear throughout this

  18. Continuous Fine-Fault Estimation with Real-Time GNSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norford, B. B.; Melbourne, T. I.; Szeliga, W. M.; Santillan, V. M.; Scrivner, C.; Senko, J.; Larsen, D.

    2017-12-01

    Thousands of real-time telemetered GNSS stations operate throughout the circum-Pacific that may be used for rapid earthquake characterization and estimation of local tsunami excitation. We report on the development of a GNSS-based finite-fault inversion system that continuously estimates slip using real-time GNSS position streams from the Cascadia subduction zone and which is being expanded throughout the circum-Pacific. The system uses 1 Hz precise point position streams computed in the ITRF14 reference frame using clock and satellite orbit corrections from the IGS. The software is implemented as seven independent modules that filter time series using Kalman filters, trigger and estimate coseismic offsets, invert for slip using a non-negative least squares method developed by Lawson and Hanson (1974) and elastic half-space Green's Functions developed by Okada (1985), smooth the results temporally and spatially, and write the resulting streams of time-dependent slip to a RabbitMQ messaging server for use by downstream modules such as tsunami excitation modules. Additional fault models can be easily added to the system for other circum-Pacific subduction zones as additional real-time GNSS data become available. The system is currently being tested using data from well-recorded earthquakes including the 2011 Tohoku earthquake, the 2010 Maule earthquake, the 2015 Illapel earthquake, the 2003 Tokachi-oki earthquake, the 2014 Iquique earthquake, the 2010 Mentawai earthquake, the 2016 Kaikoura earthquake, the 2016 Ecuador earthquake, the 2015 Gorkha earthquake, and others. Test data will be fed to the system and the resultant earthquake characterizations will be compared with published earthquake parameters. Seismic events will be assumed to occur on major faults, so, for example, only the San Andreas fault will be considered in Southern California, while the hundreds of other faults in the region will be ignored. Rake will be constrained along each subfault to be

  19. Real-time Tsunami Inundation Prediction Using High Performance Computers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oishi, Y.; Imamura, F.; Sugawara, D.

    2014-12-01

    Recently off-shore tsunami observation stations based on cabled ocean bottom pressure gauges are actively being deployed especially in Japan. These cabled systems are designed to provide real-time tsunami data before tsunamis reach coastlines for disaster mitigation purposes. To receive real benefits of these observations, real-time analysis techniques to make an effective use of these data are necessary. A representative study was made by Tsushima et al. (2009) that proposed a method to provide instant tsunami source prediction based on achieving tsunami waveform data. As time passes, the prediction is improved by using updated waveform data. After a tsunami source is predicted, tsunami waveforms are synthesized from pre-computed tsunami Green functions of linear long wave equations. Tsushima et al. (2014) updated the method by combining the tsunami waveform inversion with an instant inversion of coseismic crustal deformation and improved the prediction accuracy and speed in the early stages. For disaster mitigation purposes, real-time predictions of tsunami inundation are also important. In this study, we discuss the possibility of real-time tsunami inundation predictions, which require faster-than-real-time tsunami inundation simulation in addition to instant tsunami source analysis. Although the computational amount is large to solve non-linear shallow water equations for inundation predictions, it has become executable through the recent developments of high performance computing technologies. We conducted parallel computations of tsunami inundation and achieved 6.0 TFLOPS by using 19,000 CPU cores. We employed a leap-frog finite difference method with nested staggered grids of which resolution range from 405 m to 5 m. The resolution ratio of each nested domain was 1/3. Total number of grid points were 13 million, and the time step was 0.1 seconds. Tsunami sources of 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake were tested. The inundation prediction up to 2 hours after the

  20. Petrologic perspectives on tectonic evolution of a nascent basin (Okinawa Trough) behind Ryukyu Arc:A review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Quanshu; SHI Xuefa

    2014-01-01

    Okinawa Trough is a back-arc, initial marginal sea basin, located behind the Ryukyu Arc-Trench System. The formation and evolution of the Okinawa Trough is intimately related to the subduction process of the Philippine Sea Plate beneath the Eurasian Plate since the late Miocene. The tectonic evolution of the trough is similar to other active back-arcs, such as the Mariana Trough and southern Lau Basin, all of which are experiencing the initial rifting and subsequent spreading process. This study reviews all petrologic and geochemical data of mafic volcanic lavas from the Okinawa Trough, Ryukyu Arc, and Philippine Sea Plate, combined with geophysical data to indicate the relationship between the subduction sources (input) and arc or back-arc magmas (output) in the Philippine Sea Plate-Ryukyu Arc-Okinawa Trough system (PROS). The results obtained showed that several components were variably involved in the petrogenesis of the Oki-nawa Trough lavas:sub-continental lithospheric mantle underlying the Eurasian Plate, Indian mid-oceanic ridge basalt (MORB)-type mantle, and Pacific MORB-type mantle. The addition of shallow aqueous fluids and deep hydrous melts from subducted components with the characteristics of Indian MORB-type mantle into the mantle source of lavas variably modifies the primitive mantle wedge beneath the Ryukyu and sub-continental lithospheric mantle (SCLM) beneath the Okinawa Trough. In the northeastern end of the trough and arc, instead of Indian MORB-type mantle, Pacific MORB-type mantle dominates the magma source. Along the strike of the Ryukyu Arc and Okinawa Trough, the systematic variations in trace element ratios and isotopic compositions reflect the first-order effect of variable subduction input on the magma source. In general, petrologic data, combined with geophysical data, imply that the Okinawa Trough is experiencing the“seafloor spreading”process in the southwest segment,“rift propagation”process in the middle seg-ment, and

  1. ASTARTE: Assessment Strategy and Risk Reduction for Tsunamis in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptista, M. A.; Yalciner, A. C.; Canals, M.

    2014-12-01

    Tsunamis are low frequency but high impact natural disasters. In 2004, the Boxing Day tsunami killed hundreds of thousands of people from many nations along the coastlines of the Indian Ocean. Tsunami run-up exceeded 35 m. Seven years later, and in spite of some of the best warning technologies and levels of preparedness in the world, the Tohoku-Oki tsunami in Japan dramatically showed the limitations of scientific knowledge on tsunami sources, coastal impacts and mitigation measures. The experience from Japan raised serious questions on how to improve the resilience of coastal communities, to upgrade the performance of coastal defenses, to adopt a better risk management, and also on the strategies and priorities for the reconstruction of damaged coastal areas. Societal resilience requires the reinforcement of capabilities to manage and reduce risk at national and local scales.ASTARTE (Assessment STrategy And Risk for Tsunami in Europe), a 36-month FP7 project, aims to develop a comprehensive strategy to mitigate tsunami impact in this region. To achieve this goal, an interdisciplinary consortium has been assembled. It includes all CTWPs of NEAM and expert institutions across Europe and worldwide. ASTARTE will improve i) basic knowledge of tsunami generation and recurrence going beyond simple catalogues, with novel empirical data and new statistical analyses for assessing long-term recurrence and hazards of large events in sensitive areas of NEAM, ii) numerical techniques for tsunami simulation, with focus on real-time codes and novel statistical emulation approaches, and iii) methods for assessment of hazard, vulnerability, and risk. ASTARTE will also provide i) guidelines for tsunami Eurocodes, ii) better tools for forecast and warning for CTWPs and NTWCs, and iii) guidelines for decision makers to increase sustainability and resilience of coastal communities. In summary, ASTARTE will develop basic scientific and technical elements allowing for a significant

  2. Tephrostratigraphy of Changbaishan volcano, northeast China, since the mid-Holocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Chunqing; Liu, Jiaqi; You, Haitao; Nemeth, Karoly

    2017-12-01

    A detailed tephrostratigraphy of an active volcano is essential for evaluating its eruptive history, forecasting future eruptions and correlation with distal tephra records. Changbaishan volcano is known for its Millennium eruption (ME, AD 940s; VEI 7) and the ME tephra has been detected in Greenland ice cores ∼9000 km from the vent. However, the pre-Millennium (pre-ME) and post-Millennium (post-ME) eruptions are still poorly characterized. In this study, we present a detailed late Holocene eruptive sequence of Changbaishan volcano based on single glass shard compositions from tephra samples collected from around the caldera rim and flanks. Tephra ages are constrained by optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) and AMS 14C dates. Tephra from the mid-Holocene pre-ME eruption can be divided into two pyroclastic fall subunits, and it cannot be correlated with any known Changbaishan-sourced tephra recorded in the Japan Sea based on major element composition of glass shards, such as the B-J (Baegdusan-Japan Basin) and B-V (Baegdusan-Vladivostok-oki) tephras. ME pyroclastic fall deposits from the caldera rims and volcanic flanks can be correlated to the juvenile pumice lapilli or blocks within the pyroclastic density current (PDC) deposits deposited in the valleys around the volcano based on glass shard compositions. Our results indicate that the glass shard compositions of proximal ME tephra are more varied than previously thought and can be correlated with distal ME tephra. In addition, widely-dispersed mafic scoria was ejected by the ME Plinian column and deposited on the western and southern summits and the eastern flank of the volcano. Data for glass from post-ME eruptions, such as the historically-documented AD 1403, AD 1668 and AD 1702 eruptions, are reported here for the first time. Except for the ME, other Holocene eruptions, including pre-ME and post-ME eruptions, had the potential to form widely-distributed tephra layers around northeast Asia, and our dataset

  3. Stress coupling in the seismic cycle indicated from geodetic measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L.; Hainzl, S.; Zoeller, G.; Holschneider, M.

    2012-12-01

    The seismic cycle includes several phases, the interseismic, coseismic and postseismic phase. In the interseismic phase, strain gradually builds up around the overall locked fault in tens to thousands of years, while it is coseismically released in seconds. In the postseismic interval, stress relaxation lasts months to years, indicated by evident aseismic deformations which have been indicated to release comparable or even higher strain energy than the main shocks themselves. Benefiting from the development of geodetic observatory, e.g., Global Positioning System (GPS) and Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) in the last two decades, the measurements of surface deformation have been significantly improved and become valuable information for understanding the stress evolution on the large fault plane. In this study, we utilize the GPS/InSAR data to investigate the slip deficit during the interseismic phase, the coseismic slip and the early postseismic creep on the fault plane. However, it is already well-known that slip inversions based only on the surface measurements are typically non-unique and subject to large uncertainties. To reduce the ambiguity, we utilize the assumption of stress coupling between interseismic and coseismic phases, and between coseismic and postseismic phases. We use a stress constrained joint inversion in Bayesian approach (Wang et al., 2012) to invert simultaneously for (1) interseismic slip deficit and coseismic slip, and (2) coseismic slip and postseismic creep. As case studies, we analyze earthquakes occurred in well-instrumented regions such as the 2004 M6.0 Parkfield earthquake, the 2010 M8.7 earthquake and the 2011 M9.1 Tohoku-Oki earthquake. We show that the inversion with the stress-coupling constraint leads to better constrained slip distributions. Meanwhile, the results also indicate that the assumed stress coupling is reasonable and can be well reflected from the available geodetic measurements. Reference: Lifeng

  4. Widespread seismicity excitation following the 2011 M=9.0 Tohoku, Japan, earthquake and its implications for seismic hazard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toda, S.; Stein, R. S.; Lin, J.

    2011-12-01

    The 11 March 2011 Tohoku-chiho Taiheiyo-oki earthquake (Tohoku earthquake) was followed by massive offshore aftershocks including 6 M≧7 and 94 M≧6 shocks during the 4.5 months (until July 26). It is also unprecedented that a broad increase in seismicity was observed over inland Japan at distances of up to 425 km from the locus of high seismic slip on the megathrust. Such an increase was not seen for the 2004 M=9.1 Sumatra or 2010 M=8.8 Chile earthquakes, but they lacked the seismic networks necessary to detect such small events. Here we explore the possibility that the rate changes are the product of static Coulomb stress transfer to small faults. We use the nodal planes of M≧3.5 earthquakes as proxies for such small active faults, and find that of fifteen regions averaging ˜80 by 80 km in size, 11 show a positive association between calculated stress changes and the observed seismicity rate change, 3 show a negative correlation, and for one the changes are too small to assess. This work demonstrates that seismicity can turn on in the nominal stress shadow of a mainshock as long as small geometrically diverse active faults exist there, which is likely quite common in areas having complex geologic background like Tohoku. In Central Japan, however, there are several regions where the usual tectonic stress has been enhanced by the Tohoku earthquake, and the moderate and large faults have been brought closer to failure, producing M˜5 to 6 shocks, including Nagano, near Mt. Fuji, Tokyo metropolitan area and its offshore. We confirmed that at least 5 of the seven large, exotic, or remote aftershocks were brought ≧0.3 bars closer to failure. Validated by such correlations, we evaluate the effects of the Tohoku event on the other subduction zones nearby and major active faults inland. The majorities of thrust faults inland Tohoku are brought farther from failure by the M9 event. However, we found that the large sections of the Japan trench megathrust, the outer

  5. Broadband Ground Motion Reconstruction for the Kanto Basin during the 1923 Kanto Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekiguchi, Haruko; Yoshimi, Masayuki

    2011-03-01

    southeastern corner of the fault plane and further east are largely due to this effect. Waveforms above the fault plane contain both short- and long-period components, but the short-period components are not observed further afield. Away from the fault, long-period waves (>2 s) dominate the ground motion, and in areas where the base of the third layer is relatively deep, the predominant period is >5 s. Levels of long-period ground motion in the southern part of the study area, around Sagami Bay and the southern parts of Boso Peninsula and Tokyo Bay, exceed that recorded at Tomakomai during the 2003 Tokachi-oki earthquake, when large oil storage tanks collapsed in response to sloshing generated by strong long-period motions.

  6. Philippine Sea Plate inception, evolution, and consumption with special emphasis on the early stages of Izu-Bonin-Mariana subduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lallemand, Serge

    2016-12-01

    We compiled the most relevant data acquired throughout the Philippine Sea Plate (PSP) from the early expeditions to the most recent. We also analyzed the various explanatory models in light of this updated dataset. The following main conclusions are discussed in this study. (1) The Izanagi slab detachment beneath the East Asia margin around 60-55 Ma likely triggered the Oki-Daito plume occurrence, Mesozoic proto-PSP splitting, shortening and then failure across the paleo-transform boundary between the proto-PSP and the Pacific Plate, Izu-Bonin-Mariana subduction initiation and ultimately PSP inception. (2) The initial splitting phase of the composite proto-PSP under the plume influence at ˜54-48 Ma led to the formation of the long-lived West Philippine Basin and short-lived oceanic basins, part of whose crust has been ambiguously called "fore-arc basalts" (FABs). (3) Shortening across the paleo-transform boundary evolved into thrusting within the Pacific Plate at ˜52-50 Ma, allowing it to subduct beneath the newly formed PSP, which was composed of an alternance of thick Mesozoic terranes and thin oceanic lithosphere. (4) The first magmas rising from the shallow mantle corner, after being hydrated by the subducting Pacific crust beneath the young oceanic crust near the upper plate spreading centers at ˜49-48 Ma were boninites. Both the so-called FABs and the boninites formed at a significant distance from the incipient trench, not in a fore-arc position as previously claimed. The magmas erupted for 15 m.y. in some places, probably near the intersections between back-arc spreading centers and the arc. (5) As the Pacific crust reached greater depths and the oceanic basins cooled and thickened at ˜44-45 Ma, the composition of the lavas evolved into high-Mg andesites and then arc tholeiites and calc-alkaline andesites. (6) Tectonic erosion processes removed about 150-200 km of frontal margin during the Neogene, consuming most or all of the Pacific ophiolite

  7. Activity of Small Repeating Earthquakes along Izu-Bonin and Ryukyu Trenches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibino, K.; Matsuzawa, T.; Uchida, N.; Nakamura, W.; Matsushima, T.

    2014-12-01

    There are several subduction systems near the Japanese islands. The 2011 Mw9.0 Tohoku-oki megathrust earthquake occurred at the NE Japan (Tohoku) subduction zone. We have revealed a complementary relation between the slip areas for huge earthquakes and small repeating earthquakes (REs) in Tohoku. Investigations of REs in these subduction zones and the comparison with Tohoku area are important for revealing generation mechanism of megathrust earthquakes. Our target areas are Izu-Bonin and Ryukyu subduction zones, which appear to generate no large interplate earthquake. To investigate coupling of plate boundary in these regions, we estimated spatial distribution of slip rate by using REs. We use seismograms from the High Sensitivity Seismograph Network (Hi-net), Full Range Seismograph Network of Japan (F-net), and permanent seismic stations of Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), Tohoku University, University of Tokyo, and Kagoshima University from 8 May 2003 (Izu-Bonin) and 14 July 2005 (Ryukyu) to 31 December 2012 to detect REs along the two trenches, by using similarity of seismograms. We mainly follow the procedure adopted in Uchida and Matsuzawa (2013) that studied REs in Tohoku area to compare our results with the REs in Tohoku. We find that the RE distribution along the Ryukyu trench shows two bands parallel to the trench axis. This feature is similar to the pattern in Tohoku where relatively large earthquakes occur between the bands. Along the Izu-Bonin trench, on the other hand, we find much fewer REs than in Tohoku or Ryukyu subduction zones and only one along-trench RE band, which corresponds to the area where the subducting Pacific plate contacts with the crust of the Philippine Sea plate. We also estimate average slip rate and coupling coefficient by using an empirical relationship between seismic moment and slip for REs (Nadeau and Johnson, 1998) and relative plate motion model. As a result, we find interplate slip rate in the deeper band is higher than

  8. Thick massive gas hydrate deposits were revealed by LWD in Off-Joetsu area, eastern margin of Japan Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanahashi, M.; Morita, S.; Matsumoto, R.

    2016-12-01

    GR14 and HR15 survey cruises, which were dedicated to the LWD (Logging While Drilling), were carried out in summers of 2014 and 2015, respectively, by Meiji University and Geological Survey of Japan, AIST to explore the "gas chimney" structures in eastern margin of Japan Sea. Shallow (33 to 172m-bsf, average 136m-bsf) 33 LWD drilling were performed in Oki Trough, Off-Joetsu, and Mogami Trough areas along eastern margin of Japan Sea during two cruises. Schlumberger LWD tools, GeoVISION (resistivity), TeleScope, ProVISION (NMR) and SonicVISION were used during GR14. NeoScope (neutron) was added and SonicScope was replaced for SonicVISION during HR14. The data quality was generally good. "Gas chimney" structures with acoustic blanking columns on the high frequency seismic sections with mound and pockmark morphologic features on the sea bottom, are well developed within survey areas. Every LWD records taken from gas chimney structures during the cruises show high resistivity and acoustic velocity anomalies which suggest the development of gas hydrate. Characteristic development of massive gas hydrate was interpreted at the Umitaka CW mound structure, Off-Joetsu. The mound lies at 890-910m in water depth and has very rough bottom surface, regional high resistivity, regional high heat flow, several natural seep sites, 200m x 300m area, and 10-20m height. 8 LWD holes, J18L to J21L and J23L to J26L, were drilled on and around the mound. There are highly anomalous intervals which suggest the development of massive gas hydrate at J24L, with high resistivity, high Vp and Vs, high neutron porosity, low natural gamma ray intensity, low neutron gamma density, low NMR porosity, low NMR permeability, low formation sigma, from 10 to 110m-bsf with intercalating some thin less hydrate layers. It is interpreted that there is several tens of meter thick massive gas hydrate in the gas chimney mound. It is partly confirmed by the later nearby coring result which showed the repetition of

  9. Future change of water vaiables from HadGEM2-AO simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Moon-Hyun; Kang, Hyun-Suk; Lee, Johan; Baek, Hee-Jeong; Cho, Chunho

    2013-04-01

    hydrology-atmosphere for water resource planning. Arora et al. (1999) and Oki and Sud (1998) developed a method for routing river flows through GCM grid cells. Accordingly, reliable forecasts are expected to help water managers and users with long lead time decisions, leading to greater water use efficiency and better risk management (Wang, 2012). SO, we analysed hydrological cycle and drought index from precipitation, evaporation, runoff, soil moisture, river outflow, and so on using atmosphere-ocean coupled model which called by HadGEM2-AO. Details and added information by this climate projection system about the future water cycle's change will be presented at the workshop. Acknowledgments: This research has been supported by project NIMR-2013-B-2 of the National Institute of Meteorological Research in Korea Meteorological Administration.

  10. Characterisation of Liquefaction Effects for Beyond-Design Basis Safety Assessment of Nuclear Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bán, Zoltán; Győri, Erzsébet; János Katona, Tamás; Tóth, László

    2015-04-01

    Preparedness of nuclear power plants to beyond design base external effects became high importance after 11th of March 2011 Great Tohoku Earthquakes. In case of some nuclear power plants constructed at the soft soil sites, liquefaction should be considered as a beyond design basis hazard. The consequences of liquefaction have to be analysed with the aim of definition of post-event plant condition, identification of plant vulnerabilities and planning the necessary measures for accident management. In the paper, the methodology of the analysis of liquefaction effects for nuclear power plants is outlined. The case of Nuclear Power Plant at Paks, Hungary is used as an example for demonstration of practical importance of the presented results and considerations. Contrary to the design, conservatism of the methodology for the evaluation of beyond design basis liquefaction effects for an operating plant has to be limited to a reasonable level. Consequently, applicability of all existing methods has to be considered for the best estimation. The adequacy and conclusiveness of the results is mainly limited by the epistemic uncertainty of the methods used for liquefaction hazard definition and definition of engineering parameters characterizing the consequences of liquefaction. The methods have to comply with controversial requirements. They have to be consistent and widely accepted and used in the practice. They have to be based on the comprehensive database. They have to provide basis for the evaluation of dominating engineering parameters that control the post-liquefaction response of the plant structures. Experience of Kashiwazaki-Kariwa plant hit by Niigata-ken Chuetsu-oki earthquake of 16 July 2007 and analysis of site conditions and plant layout at Paks plant have shown that the differential settlement is found to be the dominating effect in case considered. They have to be based on the probabilistic seismic hazard assessment and allow the integration into logic

  11. Tsunami geology in paleoseismology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuichi Nishimura,; Jaffe, Bruce E.

    2015-01-01

    The 2004 Indian Ocean and 2011 Tohoku-oki disasters dramatically demonstrated the destructiveness and deadliness of tsunamis. For the assessment of future risk posed by tsunamis it is necessary to understand past tsunami events. Recent work on tsunami deposits has provided new information on paleotsunami events, including their recurrence interval and the size of the tsunamis (e.g. [187–189]). Tsunamis are observed not only on the margin of oceans but also in lakes. The majority of tsunamis are generated by earthquakes, but other events that displace water such as landslides and volcanic eruptions can also generate tsunamis. These non-earthquake tsunamis occur less frequently than earthquake tsunamis; it is, therefore, very important to find and study geologic evidence for past eruption and submarine landslide triggered tsunami events, as their rare occurrence may lead to risks being underestimated. Geologic investigations of tsunamis have historically relied on earthquake geology. Geophysicists estimate the parameters of vertical coseismic displacement that tsunami modelers use as a tsunami's initial condition. The modelers then let the simulated tsunami run ashore. This approach suffers from the relationship between the earthquake and seafloor displacement, the pertinent parameter in tsunami generation, being equivocal. In recent years, geologic investigations of tsunamis have added sedimentology and micropaleontology, which focus on identifying and interpreting depositional and erosional features of tsunamis. For example, coastal sediment may contain deposits that provide important information on past tsunami events [190, 191]. In some cases, a tsunami is recorded by a single sand layer. Elsewhere, tsunami deposits can consist of complex layers of mud, sand, and boulders, containing abundant stratigraphic evidence for sediment reworking and redeposition. These onshore sediments are geologic evidence for tsunamis and are called ‘tsunami deposits’ (Figs. 26

  12. COMPARISON OF COSEISMIC IONOSPHERIC DISTURBANCE WAVEFORMS REVISITED: STRIKE-SLIP, NORMAL, AND REVERSE FAULT EARTHQUAKE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mokhamad Nur Cahyadi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Using Total Electron Content (TEC measurements with Global Positioning System we studied ionospheric responses to three large earthquakes with difference focal mechanism that occurred in the Sumatra Andaman 26 December 2004, North off Sumatra 11 April 2012, and North Japan 7 December 2012. These earthquakes have different focal mechanisms, i.e. high-angle reverse, strike-slip, and normal faulting, respectively. TEC responses to the Sumatra Andaman 2004 and north Japan 2012 events initiated with positive changes. On the other hand, the initial TEC changes in the Sumatra 2012 earthquake showed both positive and negative polarities depending on the azimuth around the focal area. Such a variety may reflect differences in coseismic vertical crustal displacements, which are dominated by uplift and subsidence in the Sumatra 2012 event. This phenomena has same characteristic with 1994 Kuril Arch earthquake. There are three different propagation velocity in the Sumatra 2012 earthquake, within the first 300 km until 430 km, the CID propagation velocity was ~3 km/s, which is equal to the secod sound speed at the height of the ionospheric F-layer. Starting from 380 km until 750 km out from the epicenter, the disturbance seems to divide into two separate perturbations, with each propagating at a different velocity, about 1 km/s for the one and about 0.4 m/s for the other. The apparent velocity in the Sumatra Andaman 2004 and Japan 2012 propagated ~ 1 km/s and ~ 0.3 km/s, consistent with the sound speed at the ionospheric F layer height and internal gravity wave respectively. Resonant oscillation of TEC with a frequency of ~ 3.7 mHZ and ~4.4 mHz have been found in the Sumatra 2012 and Sumatra Andaman 2004 events. Those earthquakes, which occurred during a period of quiet geomagnetic activity, also showed clear preseismic TEC anomalies similar to those before the 2011 Tohoku-Oki and 2007 Bengkulu earthquake.   The positive anomalies started 30-60 minutes

  13. New approaches in geological studies of tsunami deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczucinski, Witold

    2017-04-01

    During the last dozen of years tsunamis have appeared to be the most disastrous natural process worldwide. The dramatic, large tsunamis on Boxing Day, 2004 in the Indian Ocean and on March 11, 2011 offshore Japan caused catastrophes listed as the worst in terms of the number of victims and the economic losses, respectively. In the aftermath, they have become a topic of high public and scientific interest. The record of past tsunamis, mainly in form of tsunami deposits, is often the only way to identify tsunami risk at a particular coast due to relatively low frequency of their occurrence. The identification of paleotsunami deposits is often difficult mainly because the tsunami deposits are represented by various sediment types, may be similar to storm deposits or altered by post-depositional processes. There is no simple universal diagnostic set of criteria that can be applied to interpret tsunami deposits with certainty. Thus, there is a need to develop new methods, which would enhance 'classical', mainly sedimentological and stratigraphic approach. The objective of the present contribution is to show recent progress and application of new approaches including geochemistry (Chagué-Goff et al. 2017) and paleogenetics (Szczuciński et al. 2016) in studies of geological impacts of recent tsunamis from various geographical regions, namely in monsoonal-tropical, temperate and polar zones. It is mainly based on own studies of coastal zones affected by 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami in Thailand, 2011 Tohoku-oki tsunami and older paleotsunamis in Japan, catastrophic saltwater inundations at the coasts of Baltic Sea and 2000 landslide-generated tsunami in Vaigat Strait (west Greenland). The study was partly funded by Polish National Science Centre grant No. 2011/01/B/ST10/01553. Chagué-Goff C., Szczuciński W., Shinozaki T., 2017. Applications of geochemistry in tsunami research: A review. Earth-Science Reviews 165: 203-244. Szczuciński W., Pawłowska J., Lejzerowicz F

  14. Tectonic structure of Dokdo and adjacent area in the northeastern part of the Ulleung Basin of the East Sea using geophysical data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, C.; Jeong, E.; Park, C.; Kwon, B.; Park, G.; Park, J.

    2008-12-01

    The northeastern part of the Ulleung Basin in the East Sea is composed of volcanic islands (Ulleungdo and Dokdo), seamounts (the Anyongbok Seamount, the Simheungtaek and the Isabu Tablemounts), and a deep pathway (Korea Gap). To understand tectonic structure and geophysical characteristics of Dokdo and adjacent area, We analysed geophysical potential data of KORDI(Korea Ocean Research and Development Institute), KIGAM(Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources), and NORI(National Oceanographic Research Institute of Korea) around the Dokdo volcanic body except Ulleung Do because of empty data of its large island. Also, we eliminate the effect of water and sediments from the free-air gravity data to process 3D Moho depth inversion. 3D tectonic structure modelling of the study area was developed using Moho depth inversion result and sediment thickness data of NGDC(National Geophysical Data Center). The free-air gravity anomalies of the study area generally reflect bathymetric effects. Although the Dokdo seamounts have a similar topographic size, the decrease of free-air anomaly toward Isabu suggest that Isabu is oldest among the seaounts and have high degree of isostatic compensation. High Bouguer anomalies in the central part of the Ulleung Basin gradually decreases toward the Oki Bank. This feature suggests that the crust/mantle boundary is shallow in the central part of the Ulleung Basin. The complex magnetic pattern of Dokdo suggests that it might have erupted several times during its formation. The magnetic anomaly amplitude of Isabu is much smaller than that of Dokdo. Such low magnetic anomalies are attributed to a secondary change caused by the metamorphism or weathering of ferromagnetic minerals of the seamount during a long period of time after its formation. Analytic signals show high anomalous zones over volcanoes. Also, there are high analytic signal values in Korea Gap indicating magmatic intrusion in thick sediments. The power spectrum analysis

  15. Changes in ground-level PM mass concentration and column aerosol optical depth over East Asia during 2004-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, J.; Kim, S. W.; Park, R.; Yoon, S. C.; Sugimoto, N.; Park, J. S.; Hong, J.

    2015-12-01

    Multi-year records of moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS), ground-level particulate matter (PM) mass concentration, cloud-aerosol lidar with orthogonal polarization (CALIOP), and ground-level lidar were analyzed to investigate seasonal and annual changes of aerosol optical depth (AOD) and PM mass concentration over East Asia. Least mean square fit method is applied to detect the trends and their magnitudes for each selected regions and stations. Eleven-year MODIS measurements show generally increasing trends in both AOD (1.18 % yr-1) and Ångström exponent (0.98 % yr-1), especially over the east coastal industrialized region in China. Monthly variation of AOD show maximum value at April-July, which were related to the progress of summer monsoon rain band and stationary continental air mass on the northeast of Asia. Increasing trends of AOD were found for eight cites in China (0.80 % yr-1) and Seoul site, Korea (0.40 % yr-1), whereas no significant change were shown in Gosan background site (0.04 % yr-1) and decreasing trend at five background sites in Japan (-0.42 % yr-1). Contrasting to AOD trend, all fifteen sites in China (-1.28 % yr-1), Korea (-2.77 % yr-1), and Japan (-2.03 % yr-1) showed decreasing trend of PM10 mass concentration. Also, PM2.5 mass concentration at Beijing, Seoul, Rishiri, and Oki show significant decreasing trend of -1.16 % yr-1. To further discuss the opposite trend of surface PM mass concentration and column AOD, we investigate vertical aerosol profile from lidar measurements. AOD estimated for planetary boundary layer (surface~1.5 km altitude; AODPBL) from CALIOP measurements over East China show decreasing trend of -1.71 % yr-1 over the period of 2007-2014, wherever AOD estimated for free troposphere (1.5 km~5 km altitude; AODFT) show increasing trend of 2.92 % yr-1. In addition, ground-level lidar measurements in Seoul show decreasing AODPBL trend of -2.57 % yr-1, whereas, AODFT show no significant change (-0.44 % yr

  16. Cross Validation of Rain Drop Size Distribution between GPM and Ground Based Polarmetric radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, C. V.; Biswas, S.; Le, M.; Chen, H.

    2017-12-01

    Dual-frequency precipitation radar (DPR) on board the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) core satellite has reflectivity measurements at two independent frequencies, Ku- and Ka- band. Dual-frequency retrieval algorithms have been developed traditionally through forward, backward, and recursive approaches. However, these algorithms suffer from "dual-value" problem when they retrieve medium volume diameter from dual-frequency ratio (DFR) in rain region. To this end, a hybrid method has been proposed to perform raindrop size distribution (DSD) retrieval for GPM using a linear constraint of DSD along rain profile to avoid "dual-value" problem (Le and Chandrasekar, 2015). In the current GPM level 2 algorithm (Iguchi et al. 2017- Algorithm Theoretical Basis Document) the Solver module retrieves a vertical profile of drop size distributionn from dual-frequency observations and path integrated attenuations. The algorithm details can be found in Seto et al. (2013) . On the other hand, ground based polarimetric radars have been used for a long time to estimate drop size distributions (e.g., Gorgucci et al. 2002 ). In addition, coincident GPM and ground based observations have been cross validated using careful overpass analysis. In this paper, we perform cross validation on raindrop size distribution retrieval from three sources, namely the hybrid method, the standard products from the solver module and DSD retrievals from ground polarimetric radars. The results are presented from two NEXRAD radars located in Dallas -Fort Worth, Texas (i.e., KFWS radar) and Melbourne, Florida (i.e., KMLB radar). The results demonstrate the ability of DPR observations to produce DSD estimates, which can be used subsequently to generate global DSD maps. References: Seto, S., T. Iguchi, T. Oki, 2013: The basic performance of a precipitation retrieval algorithm for the Global Precipitation Measurement mission's single/dual-frequency radar measurements. IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and

  17. Geothermal properties and groundwater flow estimated with a three-dimensional geological model in a late Pleistocene terrace area, central Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funabiki, A.; Takemura, T.; Hamamoto, S.; Komatsu, T.

    2012-12-01

    1. Introduction The ground source heat pump (GSHP) is a highly efficient and renewable energy technology for space heating and cooling, with benefits that include energy conservation and reductions in greenhouse gas emissions. One result of the huge Tohoku-oki earthquake and tsunami and the subsequent nuclear disasters is that GSHPs are receiving more attention from the media and they are being introduced by some local governments. Heat generated by underground GSHP installation, however, can pollute the geothermal environment or change groundwater flow patterns . In this study, we estimated possible effects from the use of GSHPs in the Tokyo area with a three-dimensional (3D) geological model. 2. Geological model The Tokyo Metropolitan Area is surrounded by the Late Pleistocene terraces called the Musashino uplands. The terrace surfaces are densely populated residential areas. One of these surfaces, the Shimosueyohi surface, formed along the Tama River during the last deglacial period. The CRE-NUCHS-1 core (Funabiki et al., 2011) was obtained from this surface, and the lithology, heat transfer coefficients, and chemical characteristics of the sediments were analyzed. In this study, we used borehole log data from a 5 km2 area surrounding the CRE-NUCHS-1 core site to create a 3D geological model. In this area, the Pleistocene Kazusa Group is overlain by terrace gravels and a volcanic ash layer called the Kanto Loam. The terrace gravels occur mainly beneath the Kanda, Kitazawa, and Karasuyama rivers , which flow parallel to the Tama River, whereas away from the rivers , the Kanto Loam directly overlies the Kazusa Group sediments. 3. Geothermal disturbance and groundwater flow Using the geological model, we calculated the heat transfer coefficients and groundwater flow velocities in the sediments. Within the thick terrace gravels, which are at relatively shallow depth (8-20 m), heat transfer coefficients were high and groundwater flow was relatively fast. The amount

  18. How can geological datasets help us to choose between rheological behaviours suggested by experimental measurements? Examples from the Alpine Fault and the Japan Trench.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toy, V.; Boulton, C. J.; Coffey, G.; Denys, P. H.; McCaffrey, R.

    2015-12-01

    Laboratory measurements of fault rock rheology are commonly performed on individual components of complex natural systems. Textural and structural inferences from outcrop observations provide one means to constrain the co-operative behaviour of multi-component natural fault systems. For example, the principal slip zone (PSZ) of New Zealand's central Alpine Fault comprises a 1-10 cm thick sandwich of impermeable smectite-bearing ultracataclasite/gouge layers between higher permeability hanging wall cataclasite and footwall gravel (Boulton et al., 2012, doi: 10.1029/2011GC003872). Based solely on measured mechanical properties we expect earthquake ruptures to nucleate and propagate in the cataclasites rather than the PSZ. However, the PSZ gouge was preferentially comminuted so it must localise slip, and injection veins penetrate from it into the surrounding formation. This suggests that the gouge experiences coseismic pressurization and weakening, possible if slip is confined to one layer within the impermeable (thus undrained) gouge. On the southern Alpine Fault a clear PSZ is not well-developed; instead a wide shear zone crops out (Barth et al., 2013, doi: 10.1002/tect.20041). Mechanical data again demonstrate frictionally weak, velocity strengthening, low permeability materials, compatible with a creeping shear zone, but PSZ materials display velocity weakening behaviour at high slip rates if undrained, from which we infer seismic slip is possible in nature. Extensive paleoseismic records suggest the structure has accommodated regularly repeating earthquakes for the last 17 kyr (Berryman et al., 2013, doi: 10.1126/science.1218959). Our newly gathered geodetic datasets may resolve this apparent slip rate paradox. In situ measurements from active fault systems can also help interpret experimental data. For example, in material recovered from around the active slip zone of the 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake, experiments suggest lower frictional strength for undrained

  19. Seismic slip on clay nano-foliation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aretusini, S.; Pluemper, O.; Passelègue, F. X.; Spagnuolo, E.; Di Toro, G.

    2017-12-01

    Deformation processes active at seismic slip rates (ca. 1 m/s) on smectite-rich slipping zones are not well understood, although they likely control the mechanical behaviour of: i) subduction zone faults affected by tsunamigenic earthquakes (e.g. Japan Trench affected by Tohoku-Oki 2011 earthquake), ii) plate-boundary faults (e.g. San Andreas Fault), and iii) landslide decollements (e.g. 1963 Vajont landslide). Here we present a set of rotary experiments performed on water-dampened 2 mm thick clay-rich (70% wt. smectite and 30% wt. opal) gouge layers sheared at slip rates V ranging from 0.01 to 1.3 m/s, for 3 m of displacement under 5 MPa normal stress. Microstructural analyses were conducted on pre- and post-sheared gouges using focused ion beam scanning electron and transmission electron microscopy. All sheared gouges were slip weakening in the first 0.1 m of displacement, with friction coefficient decreasing from 0.3-0.45 to 0.5-0.15. Then, with progressive slip, gouges evolved to slip-strengthening (final friction coefficient of 0.35-0.48) at V ≤0.1 m/s and slip-neutral (final friction of 0.05) at V=1.3 m/s. Despite the large difference in the imposed slip rate and frictional behaviour, the slipping zone always consisted of a nano-foliation defined by sub-micrometric smectite crystals wrapping opal grains. The nano-foliated layer thickness decreased from 1.5 mm at V≤0.1 m/s to 0.15 mm at V=1.3 m/s. The presence of a similar nano-foliation in all the smectite-rich wet gouges suggests the activation of similar deformation processes, dominated by frictional slip on grain boundary and basal planes. The variation of deformed thickness with slip rate shows that dynamic weakening, occurring only at seismic slip rates, is controlled by strain localization.

  20. Characterization factors for water footprint considering the scarcity of green and blue water sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oki, T.; Kondo, T.; Pokhrel, Y. N.; Hanasaki, N.

    2011-12-01

    The original concept of virtual water trade was invented to illustrate how much water demand can be reduced by importing food products (Allan 1996), and expanded for meat products and industrial products (Oki and Kanae, 2004). However, there was a confusion between "virtual trade of water" (original) and "trade of virtual water" (misinterpretation but widely accepted), and "virtual water" has been recognized as how much water was used to produce the commodity. Then, the concept has some analogy to carbon footprint (CFP) which is an indicator of total emission of greenhouse gases, and nowadays called water footprint (WFP, Hoekstra, 2004). However, WFP itself is just an inventory of water usages under the framework of life cycle assessment (LCA), and the volume of WFP does not necessary reflect the environmental impacts of water usages because consumptive water use of 100 liter from ground water in arid regions just before rainy season would have more environmental impacts than consumptive water use of 100 liter from rain water in humid regions during snow melt season. In the case of CFP, the emissions of five greenhouse gases except for CO2 were converted into CO2 equivalent volumes by considering the sensitivity for the global warming potential, and summed up into CFP. Here, we propose a new idea objectively determining the weights (characterization factors) for blue water usages, such as from river and ground water, to be converted into green water equivalent in each region and time. The weights are inversely proportional to the area required to obtain the same amount of green water, and water balance model can provide the basic information. The new concept was applied to the WFP of Japan through the imports of major crops. As an inventory, WFP was 15.5 km3/y of rain water, 2.2 km3/y of river water, and 2.0 km3/y of non-renewable and non-local water (NRNL water) for year 2000, however, considering the proposed characterization factors in each region (0.5 x 0

  1. Long-period Ground Motion Simulation in the Osaka Basin during the 2011 Great Tohoku Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, T.; Kubo, H.; Asano, K.; Sato, K.; Aoi, S.

    2014-12-01

    Large amplitude long-period ground motions (1-10s) with long duration were observed in the Osaka sedimentary basin during the 2011 Tohoku earthquake (Mw9.0) and its aftershock (Ibaraki-Oki, Mw7.7), which is about 600 km away from the source regions. Sato et al. (2013) analyzed strong ground motion records from the source region to the Osaka basin and showed the following characteristics. (1) In the period range of 1 to 10s, the amplitude of horizontal components of the ground motion at the site-specific period is amplified in the Osaka basin sites. The predominant period is about 7s in the bay area where the largest pSv were observed. (2) The velocity Fourier amplitude spectra with their predominant period of around 7s are observed at the bedrock sites surrounding the Osaka basin. Those characteristics were observed during both of the mainshock and the largest aftershock. Therefore, large long-period ground motions in the Osaka basin are generated by the combination of propagation-path and basin effects. They simulated ground motions due to the largest aftershock as a simple point source model using three-dimensional FDM (GMS; Aoi and Fujiwara, 1999). They used a three-dimensional velocity structure based on the Japan Integrated Velocity Structure Model (JIVSM, Koketsu et al., 2012), with the minimum effective period of the computation of 3s. Their simulation result reproduced the observation characteristics well and it validates the applicability of the JIVSM for the long period ground motion simulation. In this study, we try to simulate long-period ground motions during the mainshock. The source model we used for the simulation is based on the SMGA model obtained by Asano and Iwata (2012). We succeed to simulate long-period ground motion propagation from Kanto area to the Osaka basin fairly well. The long-period ground motion simulations with the several Osaka basin velocity structure models are done for improving the model applicability. We used strong motion

  2. Usefulness of the 6-minute walk test as a screening test for pulmonary arterial enlargement in COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oki Y

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Yutaro Oki,1,2 Masahiro Kaneko,3 Yukari Fujimoto,1 Hideki Sakai,2 Shogo Misu,1,2 Yuji Mitani,1,4 Takumi Yamaguchi,1,2 Hisafumi Yasuda,1 Akira Ishikawa1 1Department of Community Health Sciences, Kobe University Graduate School of Health Sciences, 2Department of Rehabilitation, 3Department of Respiratory Medicine, Kobe City Medical Center West Hospital, Kobe, 4Department of Rehabilitation, Sapporo Nishimaruyama Hospital, Sapporo, Japan Purpose: Pulmonary hypertension and exercise-induced oxygen desaturation (EID influence acute exacerbation of COPD. Computed tomography (CT-detected pulmonary artery (PA enlargement is independently associated with acute COPD exacerbations. Associations between PA to aorta (PA:A ratio and EID in patients with COPD have not been reported. We hypothesized that the PA:A ratio correlated with EID and that results of the 6-minute walk test (6MWT would be useful for predicting the risk associated with PA:A >1.Patients and methods: We retrospectively measured lung function, 6MWT, emphysema area, and PA enlargement on CT in 64 patients with COPD. The patients were classified into groups with PA:A ≤1 and >1. Receiver-operating characteristic curves were used to determine the threshold values with the best cutoff points to predict patients with PA:A >1.Results: The PA:A >1 group had lower forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1, forced vital capacity (FVC, FEV1:FVC ratio, diffusion capacity of lung carbon monoxide, 6MW distance, and baseline peripheral oxygen saturation (SpO2, lowest SpO2, highest modified Borg scale results, percentage low-attenuation area, and history of acute COPD exacerbations ≤1 year, and worse BODE (Body mass index, airflow Obstruction, Dyspnea, and Exercise index results (P<0.05. Predicted PA:A >1 was determined for SpO2 during 6MWT (best cutoff point 89%, area under the curve 0.94, 95% confidence interval 0.88–1. SpO2 <90% during 6MWT showed a sensitivity of 93.1, specificity of 94

  3. Ionospheric detection of tsunami earthquakes: observation, modeling and ideas for future early warning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Occhipinti, G.; Manta, F.; Rolland, L.; Watada, S.; Makela, J. J.; Hill, E.; Astafieva, E.; Lognonne, P. H.

    2017-12-01

    Detection of ionospheric anomalies following the Sumatra and Tohoku earthquakes (e.g., Occhipinti 2015) demonstrated that ionosphere is sensitive to earthquake and tsunami propagation: ground and oceanic vertical displacement induces acoustic-gravity waves propagating within the neutral atmosphere and detectable in the ionosphere. Observations supported by modelling proved that ionospheric anomalies related to tsunamis are deterministic and reproducible by numerical modeling via the ocean/neutral-atmosphere/ionosphere coupling mechanism (Occhipinti et al., 2008). To prove that the tsunami signature in the ionosphere is routinely detected we show here perturbations of total electron content (TEC) measured by GPS and following tsunamigenic earthquakes from 2004 to 2011 (Rolland et al. 2010, Occhipinti et al., 2013), nominally, Sumatra (26 December, 2004 and 12 September, 2007), Chile (14 November, 2007), Samoa (29 September, 2009) and the recent Tohoku-Oki (11 Mars, 2011). Based on the observations close to the epicenter, mainly performed by GPS networks located in Sumatra, Chile and Japan, we highlight the TEC perturbation observed within the first 8 min after the seismic rupture. This perturbation contains information about the ground displacement, as well as the consequent sea surface displacement resulting in the tsunami. In addition to GNSS-TEC observations close to the epicenter, new exciting measurements in the far-field were performed by airglow measurement in Hawaii show the propagation of the internal gravity waves induced by the Tohoku tsunami (Occhipinti et al., 2011). This revolutionary imaging technique is today supported by two new observations of moderate tsunamis: Queen Charlotte (M: 7.7, 27 October, 2013) and Chile (M: 8.2, 16 September 2015). We finally detail here our recent work (Manta et al., 2017) on the case of tsunami alert failure following the Mw7.8 Mentawai event (25 October, 2010), and its twin tsunami alert response following the Mw7

  4. Educational Approach to Seismic Risk Mitigation in Indian Himalayas -Hazard Map Making Workshops at High Schools-

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koketsu, K.; Oki, S.; Kimura, M.; Chadha, R. K.; Davuluri, S.

    2014-12-01

    How can we encourage people to take preventive measures against damage risks and empower them to take the right actions in emergencies to save their lives? The conventional approach taken by scientists had been disseminating intelligible information on up-to-date seismological knowledge. However, it has been proven that knowledge alone does not have enough impact to modify people's behaviors in emergencies (Oki and Nakayachi, 2012). On the other hand, the conventional approach taken by practitioners had been to conduct emergency drills at schools or workplaces. The loss of many lives from the 2011 Tohoku earthquake has proven that these emergency drills were not enough to save people's lives, unless they were empowered to assess the given situation on their own and react flexibly. Our challenge is to bridge the gap between knowledge and practice. With reference to best practices observed in Tohoku, such as The Miracles of Kamaishi, our endeavor is to design an effective Disaster Preparedness Education Program that is applicable to other disaster-prone regions in the world, even with different geological, socio-economical and cultural backgrounds. The key concepts for this new approach are 1) empowering individuals to take preventive actions to save their lives, 2) granting community-based understanding of disaster risks and 3) building a sense of reality and relevancy to disasters. With these in mind, we held workshops at some high schools in the Lesser Himalayan Region, combining lectures with an activity called "Hazard Map Making" where students proactively identify and assess the hazards around their living areas and learn practical strategies on how to manage risks. We observed the change of awareness of the students by conducting a preliminary questionnaire survey and interviews after each session. Results strongly implied that the significant change of students' attitudes towards disaster preparedness occurred not by the lectures of scientific knowledge, but

  5. Organic Geochemistry of the Tohoku Tsunami Deposits of 2011 (Japan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reicherter, K. R.; Schwarzbauer, J.; Szczucinski, W.; Jaffe, B. E.

    2014-12-01

    Geochemical investigations on paleotsunami deposits have mainly focused on inorganic proxies. Organic geochemistry has been used to distinguish between terrestrial and marine matter within the sediments, reflecting the mixture and transport of marine and terrestrial matter. The approach using organic substances with indicative properties (anthropogenic and xenobiotic compounds) for recent tsunami deposits is novel, but the approach of using specific bio- and anthropogenic markers indicators to determine (pre)historic and recent processes and impacts already exists. The Tohoku-oki tsunami in March 2011 showed the huge threat that tsunamis pose to society and landscape, including flooding of coastal lowlands and erosion/deposition of sediments. The mainly sandy tsunamites reach more than 4.5 km inland as there were run-up heights of ca. 10 m in the Sendai plain near the Sendai airport. The destruction of infrastructure by wave action and flooding was accompanied by the release of environmental pollutants (e.g. fuels, fats, tarmac, plastics, heavy metals, etc.) contaminating the coastal areas and ocean over large areas. To detect and characterize this process, we analyzed several sedimentary archives from the Bay of Sendai area (by using the same sample material as Szczucinski et al., 2012 from rice paddies of the Sendai Plain, Japan). The layers representing the tsunami deposits have been compared with pre-tsunami samples (supposedly to be unaffected) by means of organic-geochemical analyses based on GC/MS. Natural compounds and their diagenetic transformation products have been tested as marker compounds and proxies. The relative composition of fatty acids, n-alkanes, sesquiterpenes and further substances pointed to significant variations before and after the tsunami event. Additionally, anthropogenic marker compounds (such as soil derived pesticides, source specific PAHs, halogenated aromatics from industrial sources) have been detected and quantified

  6. 日本外大陆架划界申请案内涵与中国的立场%The Contents of Japan's Submission on the Extended Continental Shelf and China's Position

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金永明; ZHANG Chao

    2009-01-01

    日本经过连续五年的大陆架调查工作,终于向大陆架界限委员会提交了外大陆架划界申请案,其申请面积极其广袤,约为日本国土面积的2倍.为提交外大陆架申请案,日本在组织机构配置、调查任务分工、财政上均予以了大力协助和支持,提早完成了调查任务.应注意的是,在日本外大陆架划界申请案中,冲之鸟礁是作为日本申请外大陆架的基点.这种主张是不符合《联合国海洋法公约》关于岛屿的规定的,相关部分必不能通过审议.%After five consecutive years of surveying the continental shelf,Japan finally made the submission to establish the limits of its continental shelf to the Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf (CLCS).The submission covers an extremely vast area that is about twice the size of Japan's land area.To prepare its submission,Japan committed itself to providing robust support and collaborative efforts to configure the organizational structure,divide the survey's tasks,and guarantee the finances,completing the survey ahead of schedule.It should be noted that in Japan's submission on the limits of the continental shelf,Oki-no-Tori acts as the base point.This claim does not comply with the provisions on islands in the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea,and the relevant content in the submission definitely will not be approved in the CLCS's considerations.

  7. Rupture process of the 2013 Okhotsk deep mega earthquake from iterative backprojection and compress sensing methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, W.; Yin, J.; Yao, H.

    2013-12-01

    the 2011 Tohoku Mw 9.0 earthquake. Geophysical Journal International, 2012, 190(2): 1152-1168. [2]Yao H, Gerstoft P, Shearer P M, et al. Compressive sensing of the Tohoku-Oki Mw 9.0 earthquake: Frequency-dependent rupture modes. Geophysical Research Letters, 2011, 38(20).

  8. Twenty Years after the Nakhodka Oil Spill Accident in the Sea of Japan, How Has Contamination Changed?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazue Tazaki

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The Nakhodka, a Russian tanker loaded with 19,000 kL of C-type heavy oil, was broken up into sections and submerged off Oki Island, Shimane Prefecture, Japan on 2 January 1997. The bow, after drifting for four days, was wrecked off Anto, Sakai City (Mikuni, Fukui Prefecture, threatening the environment throughout the various shores of Ishikawa Prefecture. The accident, caused by a heavy oil spill of 6200 kL, created serious environmental problems along the shores of Hokuriku District. We report the characterization of C-type heavy oil 20 years after the accident at the Atake seashore, Wajima City, Ishikawa Prefecture, in the Sea of Japan, based on observations in the field on 18 January 2017. We studied the microstructure, mineralogy, chemical composition, and radioactivity associated with microorganisms in the soils, and buried fishing nets and ropes that were contaminated with C-type heavy oil from this spill. The analyses used a combination of micro techniques, analytical data based on a CHN analyzer, X-ray powder diffraction (XRD, and two kinds of scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS. Hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria, paraffin wax, cristobalite, graphite, calcite, halite, and biotite from the Nakhodka oil spill were recognized on the surface of ropes and in the soil of the polluted seashores after 20 years. The chemical compositions indicated that high concentrations of C, O, Na, Al, Si, P, S, Ca, Fe, Cl, Sr, and Pb were predominantly indigenous to the Nakhodka oil spill. In the XRD analysis of the oil-contaminated soils on the rope at the Atake seashore indicated paraffin wax, graphite, sulfate, calcite and halite refractions with clay minerals, after 20 years. To date, no report has described the results of electron microscopy observations, such as Micrococcus bacillus and filamentous fungi, found in oil-contaminated soils after 20 years. In this research, such observations are introduced as

  9. Comparison of Different Approach of Back Projection Method in Retrieving the Rupture Process of Large Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, F.; Wang, G.; Chen, C.; Ge, Z.

    2016-12-01

    Back-projection of teleseismic P waves [Ishii et al., 2005] has been widely used to image the rupture of earthquakes. Besides the conventional narrowband beamforming in time domain, approaches in frequency domain such as MUSIC back projection (Meng 2011) and compressive sensing (Yao et al, 2011), are proposed to improve the resolution. Each method has its advantages and disadvantages and should be properly used in different cases. Therefore, a thorough research to compare and test these methods is needed. We write a GUI program, which puts the three methods together so that people can conveniently use different methods to process the same data and compare the results. Then we use all the methods to process several earthquake data, including 2008 Wenchuan Mw7.9 earthquake and 2011 Tohoku-Oki Mw9.0 earthquake, and theoretical seismograms of both simple sources and complex ruptures. Our results show differences in efficiency, accuracy and stability among the methods. Quantitative and qualitative analysis are applied to measure their dependence on data and parameters, such as station number, station distribution, grid size, calculate window length and so on. In general, back projection makes it possible to get a good result in a very short time using less than 20 lines of high-quality data with proper station distribution, but the swimming artifact can be significant. Some ways, for instance, combining global seismic data, could help ameliorate this method. Music back projection needs relatively more data to obtain a better and more stable result, which means it needs a lot more time since its runtime accumulates obviously faster than back projection with the increase of station number. Compressive sensing deals more effectively with multiple sources in a same time window, however, costs the longest time due to repeatedly solving matrix. Resolution of all the methods is complicated and depends on many factors. An important one is the grid size, which in turn influences

  10. On the effect of the 3-D regional geology on the seismic design of critical structures: the case of the Kashiwazaki-Kariwa Nuclear Power Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatti, F.; Lopez-Caballero, F.; Clouteau, D.; Paolucci, R.

    2018-05-01

    In this study, numerical investigation is performed on a realistic source-to-site earthquake scenario, with the aim to assess the role of complex 3-D geological structures on the predicted wavefield. With this respect, the paper pointedly targets the seismic response of nuclear power plants in near-field conditions and the verification of some simplified assumptions commonly adopted for earthquake ground motion prediction and site effects analysis. To this purpose, the Kashiwazaki-Kariwa Nuclear Power Plant (Japan) is assumed as reference case-study. In 2007, the nuclear site and its surroundings were struck by the Niigata-Ken Chūetsu-Oki seismic sequence, which caused some of the peak ground motion design limits to be largely overpassed. The dense observation network deployed at the site recorded a highly incoherent and impulsive earthquake ground motion. Many studies argued that the intricate syncline-anticline geology lying underneath the nuclear facility was highly responsible of the observed seismic response. Therefore, a physics-based numerical model of the epicentral area is built-up (≈60 km wide) and tested for small aftershocks, so to discount the effect of extended source on the synthetic site-response. The numerical model (based on the Spectral Element Method) reproduces the source-to-site wave propagation by embracing the effects of the surface topography along with the presence of the Japan Sea (i.e. the bathymetry, the coastline and the fluid-solid interaction). Broad-band (0-5 Hz) synthetic waveforms are obtained for two different aftershocks, located at the two opposite sides of the nuclear facility, aiming to assess the influence of the incidence angle the radiated wave field impinges the foldings beneath it. The effect of the folding presence is assessed by comparing it to a subhorizontally layered geology, in terms of numerical outcome, and by highlighting the differences with respect to the observations. The presence of an intricate geology

  11. The great East Japan earthquake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fluke, R.

    2011-01-01

    'Full text:' More formally called the Tohoku-Chihou-Taiheiyo-Oki Earthquake of March 11, 2011, it was the ensuing tsunami that caused the most death and destruction to the north-east coastal region of Japan. It is also what caused the multiple meltdowns at Fukushima Dai-ichi. Reactor Unit 1, ironically, was scheduled to be permanently shut down for decommissioning just two weeks later. The Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant has a tsunami protection barrier designed for the worst recorded tsunami in that area since 1896 - to a height of 5.7 m. The plant itself is on an elevated grade of about 10 m. The tsunami, reported to be 14-15 m, caused inundation of the entire site with at least four metres of seawater. The seawater flooded the turbine building and damaged electrical equipment including the emergency diesel generators, leaving the entire six-unit nuclear power plan without any source of AC power, known as the 'station blackout scenario'. There are numerous reports available on-line at various sites. The Japanese Government report is frank and forthcoming on the causes and the lessons learned, and the lAEA Mission report is in-depth and well presented, not only as a factual account of the events but as a unified source of the conclusions and lessons learned. Photos of the catastrophe are available at the TEPCO web site: http://www.tepco.co.jp/en/index-e.html. In this edition of the Bulletin there is a 'layman's' description of CANDU and BWR design in terms of the fundamental safety principles - Control, Cool and Contain as well as a description of how these principles were met, or not met at Fukushima Dai-ichi. Also, an excerpt from the IAEA Expert Mission is included. We 'technocrats' sometimes forget about the human aspects of a nuclear disaster. An essay by Dr. Michael Edwards is included entitled 'Psychology, Philosophy and Nuclear Science'. Other references to the events appear throughout this edition.(author)

  12. The Prediction of Surface Temperature in Drilling of Ti6Al4V

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Işik B.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Tytan i jego stopy to atrakcyjne materiały ze względu na ich unikalnie wysoki stosunek wytrzymałości do ciężaru właściwego, utrzymywany w podwyższonej temperaturze i ich wyjątkową odporność na korozję. Głównym zastosowaniem tytanu jest przemysł lotniczy. Jednak zmiana trendów na rynku z wojskowego na cywilny i z przemysłu lotniczego na inne gałęzie przemysłu jest również obserwowana. Z drugiej strony tytan i jego stopy są znane z ich słabych właściwości termicznych i są klasyfikowane jako materiały trudne w obróbce. Właściwości te ograniczają wykorzystywanie tych materiałów zwłaszcza na rynkach, na których koszt jest znacznie większym czynnikiem niż w przemyśle lotniczym. Obróbka mechaniczna jest ważnym procesem wytwarzania, ponieważ prawie zawsze ma miejsce, jeżeli wymagana jest precyzja i jest to najbardziej skuteczny sposób wytwarzania małych objętości. Ze względu na niską obrabialność stopów badanych, dobór warunków obróbki i parametrów jest krytyczny. Zakres posuwów i prędkości skrawania, które zapewniają zadowalającą trwałość narzędzia, jest bardzo ograniczony. Z drugiej strony, należy stosować odpowiedni materiał narzędzia, powłoki, geometrię, w przeciwnym razie wysokie zużycie narzędzia i ewentualne błędy tolerancji wprowadzą niedopuszczalne błędy w częściach które wymagają wysokiego stopnia precyzji.

  13. Model simulations of line-of-sight effects in airglow imaging of acoustic and fast gravity waves from ground and space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar Guerrero, J.; Snively, J. B.

    2017-12-01

    Acoustic waves (AWs) have been predicted to be detectable by imaging systems for the OH airglow layer [Snively, GRL, 40, 2013], and have been identified in spectrometer data [Pilger et al., JASP, 104, 2013]. AWs are weak in the mesopause region, but can attain large amplitudes in the F region [Garcia et al., GRL, 40, 2013] and have local impacts on the thermosphere and ionosphere. Similarly, fast GWs, with phase speeds over 100 m/s, may propagate to the thermosphere and impart significant local body forcing [Vadas and Fritts, JASTP, 66, 2004]. Both have been clearly identified in ionospheric total electron content (TEC), such as following the 2013 Moore, OK, EF5 tornado [Nishioka et al., GRL, 40, 2013] and following the 2011 Tohoku-Oki tsunami [e.g., Galvan et al., RS, 47, 2012, and references therein], but AWs have yet to be unambiguously imaged in MLT data and fast GWs have low amplitudes near the threshold of detection; nevertheless, recent imaging systems have sufficient spatial and temporal resolution and sensitivity to detect both AWs and fast GWs with short periods [e.g., Pautet et al., AO, 53, 2014]. The associated detectability challenges are related to the transient nature of their signatures and to systematic challenges due to line-of-sight (LOS) effects such as enhancements and cancelations due to integration along aligned or oblique wavefronts and geometric intensity enhancements. We employ a simulated airglow imager framework that incorporates 2D and 3D emission rate data and performs the necessary LOS integrations for synthetic imaging from ground- and space-based platforms to assess relative intensity and temperature perturbations. We simulate acoustic and fast gravity wave perturbations to the hydroxyl layer from a nonlinear, compressible model [e.g., Snively, 2013] for different idealized and realistic test cases. The results show clear signal enhancements when acoustic waves are imaged off-zenith or off-nadir and the temporal evolution of these

  14. Jakość tłumaczenia polskiego i adaptacji kulturowej kwestionariusza PRTEE (Patient–Rated Tennis Elbow Evaluation = Quality of polish translation and cultural adaptation of PRTEE (Patient–Rated Tennis Elbow Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Goguł

    2016-06-01

    3Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, Medical University of Lublin       Słowa kluczowe: łokieć tenisisty, terapia tkanek miękkich, tłumaczenie. Key words: tennis elbow, soft tissue therapy, translation.     Streszczenie Wprowadzenie i cel pracy:  Łokieć tenisisty jest częstym schorzeniem, dla którego nie opracowano w języku polskim zwalidowanych kwestionariuszy oceny stopnia zaawansowania. Pierwszym kwestionariuszem stworzonym do oceny łokcia tenisisty jest PRTEE (Patient–Rated Tennis Elbow Evaluation. Narzędzie to jest dostępne w języku angielskim, nie ma oficjalnej polskiej wersji tego kwestionariusza. Celem tego badania była ocena tłumaczenia i adaptacji kulturowej polskiej wersji kwestionariusza PRTEE. Materiał i metody: Jakość tłumaczenia PRTEE na język polski została oceniona za pomocą anonimowej ankiety, przygotowanej na potrzeby badania. Kwestionariusz ankiety liczył 11 pytań i krótką metryczkę. Kwestionariusze zostały wypełnione przez losowo wybrane osoby związane z fizjoterapią. Do analizy zakwalifikowano 67 prawidłowo wypełnionych ankiet.  Wyniki:  62 z 67 ankietowanych (92% stwierdziło iż polska wersja kwestionariusza jest dla nich zrozumiała. Większość ankietowanych (76% oceniła celująco (6 i bardzo dobrze (5 zgodność polskiego kwestionariusza z wersją angielską, a wraz ze wzrostem poziomu znajomości języka angielskiego rosła ocena zgodności tłumaczenia kwestionariusza (rho=0,267; p=0,029. Zdaniem 92% ankietowanych polskie tłumaczenie kwestionariusza PRTEE nie zawiera błędów językowych (p=0,000, χ2=48,493. Wnioski: 1. Polskie tłumaczenie kwestionariusza PRTEE jest wiarygodnym językowo narzędziem do oceny funkcjonowania pacjentów z zespołem „łokcia tenisisty”. 2. Adaptacja kulturowa i polskie tłumaczenie kwestionariusza PRTEE nie zmieniają charakteru treści zawartych w angielskiej wersji kwestionariusza PRTEE. 3. Istnieje konieczność wykorzystania dokonanego t

  15. The Separation of Hydrogen Tritium and Tritium Hydride by Gas Chromatography; Separation de l'hydrogene, du tritium et de l'hydrure de tritium par chromatographic en phase gazeuse; Razdelenie vodoroda, tritiya i gidrida tritiya posredstvom gazovoj khromatografii; Separacion del hidrogeno, tritio e hidruro de tritio por cromatografia de gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, H A; Carter, Jr, E H [University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1962-01-15

    gas portador, la columna de silice permitio obtener una separacion satisfactoria, pero no fue posible eluir los isotopos con ayuda de helio. Las columnas de oxido de aluminio recubierto de oxido de cromo o de oxido ferrico, parcialmente desactivado, dieron buenos resultados cuando se empleo helio o neon como gas portador, pero la mejor separacion se obtuvo mediante alumina activada sin recubrimiento. Para determinar cuantitativamente el tritio y el hidruro de tritio, es preciso calibrar el dispositivo con mezclas de helio y tritio de actividad conocida y, ademas, con mezclas de hidrogeno y tritio en equilibrio, de actividad tambien conocida. (author) [Russian] V nastoyashchee vremya, kogda uzhe dostignuty znachitel'nye uspekhi v razdelenii vodoroda, dejteriya i vodorodnogo dejterida pri pomoshchi gazovoj khromatografii, provoditsya analogichnoe izuchenie smesi vodoroda, tritiya i gidrida tritiya. Poskol'ku tritij primenyaetsya v kachestve indikatora v nichtozhno malykh kolichestvakh, ispol'zovanie obychnogo katatermometra dlya ego obnaruzheniya ne predstavlyaetsya vozmozhnym. Vykhod iz ehtogo zatrudneniya byl najden pri pomoshchi togo, chto neposredstvenno za katatermometrom ustanavlivaets ya vibratsionnyj ehlektrometr, snabzhennyj otvodom utechki vysokogo soprotivleniya, chto pozvolyaet nepreryvno sledit' pri pomoshchi sinkhronizovannykh zapisyvayushchikh mekhanizmov za aktivnost'yu tritiya i gidrida tritiya pri vykhode ikh khz kolonny. Razdelenie takikh smesej proveryalos' na kolonnakh, zapolnennykh palladiem na kremnezeme, kremnezemom, glinozemom i glinozemom, pokrytym okis'yu khroma ili okis'yu zheleza. Na kolonne, zapolnennoj palladiem na kremnezeme, ne bylo dostignuto ehffektivnogo razdeleniya. KHoroshee razdelenie bylo dostignuto na prostoj kremnezemnoj kolonne, kogda vodorod ispol'zovals ya v kachestve gaza-nositelya, no gelij ne smog ehlyuirovat' izotopy. Udovletvoritel'nye rezul'taty byli polucheny na kolonne, zapolnennoj pokrytym i chastichno

  16. Jüri Talvet Juhan Liivi radadel / Jüri Talvet on the Trails of Juhan Liiv

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanar Kirs

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Teesid: Käesolev uurimus põhineb Jüri Talveti juubeliüritusel peetud ettekandel ning keskendub professori Liivi-alase tegevuse käsitlemisele. Artiklis tutvustan Talveti Liivi-tõlgenduse uudseid ja vähemärgatud detaile, mis kajastuvad tema koostatud Liivi luule väljaannetes ja nendega ühenduses olevates kriitilistes käsitlustes. Siinjuures tahan näidata, et Talvet avaldab Liivi luulet teistsuguses võtmes ja teisendab oluliselt seda normi, mille vahendusel Liivi luulet tänapäeval tuntakse.   The article addresses Jüri Talvet’s interpretation of poetry by Juhan Liiv (1864–1913. Its focus lies on a collection of Liiv’s poetry Snow Drifts, I Sing: Selected Poems (Lumi tuiskab, mina laulan: Valik luulet, 2013 compiled by Talvet. I shall compare this book with the most extensive volume of Liiv’s poetry of the previous century With and Without You (Sinuga ja sinuta, 1989 edited by Aarne Vinkel, which has had a major role in the shaping of the norms that serve as a basis for understanding Liiv’s work in recent times. The article observes how these volumes mediate Liiv’s poetry and the way Talvet transposes its earlier publishing standards. More particularly, I will analyse the poetry collection edited by Talvet from five perspectives: I will map the new texts and text fragments included in the work, discuss Talvet’s corrections and highlight the omitted fragments and full texts. Such specific treatment can be narrowed down to three broader topics: what new additions Talvet makes to the known textual body of Liiv’s poems (new texts; what changes he makes to previously published poems (textual additions, corrections and omissions; what he has left out (omitted texts. Talvet adds a great number of texts to the known body of Liiv’s poems. The poetry book Snow Drifts, I Sing contains over 20 poems that are not included in With and Without You; furthermore, Talvet publishes a number of new pieces of poetry. These texts have

  17. Jüri Talveti filoloogiline teekond: hispaaniakeelsest maailmast Eestisse ja tagasi / Jüri Talvet’s Philological Journey: from the Spanish-speaking World to Estonia and Back

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rein Veidemann

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Teesid: Artikkel esitab bio-bibliograafilise ülevaate luuletaja, esseisti, kirjandusteadlase, tõlkija ning õppejõu Jüri Talveti (s 1945 loomingulisest teest. Talveti kui erakordselt laiahaardelise loomingulise isiksuse panus hispaaniakeelse kirjandusruumi vahendamisel ja uurimisel Eestis on jätnud püsiva jälje. Tema viljeldava komparativismi keskmeks olev võrdlus ei piirdu üksnes võrreldavate objektidega, vaid viib põimumiste ja mõjutuste väljaselgitamisele ning uue sünteesini. Niisugune lähenemine võimaldab Talvetil esitada mitmeid eesti kirjanduskultuuri keskseid autoreid ja teoseid maailmakirjanduslikus kontekstis. Luuletajana esindab Talvet hingestatud intellektuaalsust, milles intertekstuaalsed osutused toimivad kultuuridevahelise sillana.   The article presents a bio- and bibliographical overview of the creative work of Jüri Talvet (born in 1945 – a poet, essayist, literary scholar, translator and university professor. The creative scope of Talvet is exceptionally wide and his decades-long contribution to the mediation and exploration of the Spanish-speaking literary space in Estonia has left permanent traces. The comparative method cultivated by Talvet does not border merely on the literary texts considered but lead to the establishment of reciprocal impact and a new level of synthesis. Terms such as “symbiosis”, “symbiotic unity” and “synthesis” play an important role in Talvet’s contemplations of life, literature and culture; they are not only part of his epistemological ’toolkit’ but also represent a relation of value. In the semiotic approach such discourse may be viewed as the replacement of binary structure with a ternal one, a change elaborated already by Talvet’s most famous colleague Juri Lotman in 1992 when his intellectual testament Culture and Explosion was published: “Ternal structures retain certain values of the previous period by shifting them from the periphery into the centre

  18. Crustal architecture of the eastern margin of Japan Sea: back-arc basin opening and contraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    No, T.; Sato, T.; Takahashi, N.; Kodaira, S.; Kaneda, Y.; Ishiyama, T.; Sato, H.

    2012-12-01

    Although large earthquakes such as the 1964 Niigata earthquake (M 7.5), 1983 Nihonkai-Chubu earthquake (M 7.8), and 1993 Hokkaido Nansei-Oki earthquake (M 7.8) have caused large amounts of damage to the eastern margin of the Japan Sea, a substantial number of seismic studies have been conducted for the seismogenic zone on the Pacific Ocean side of Japan. In addition, the detail of the source fault model for the eastern margin of the Japan Sea is not well defined for all cases. This highlights the need for further studies to investigate seismic imaging. Therefore, we have collaborated with other Japanese research institutions for a project titled "Priority Investigations of Strain Concentration Areas" (which is funded by Special Coordination Funds for Promoting Science and Technology, Japan). This project has conducted seismic surveys from 2009 to 2012 using the deep-sea research vessel, Kairei, from the Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology. There is a strain concentration area in the eastern part of the survey area (Okamura et al., 1995). The western part of the survey area includes the Yamato Basin and Japan Basin. It is very important to study the crustal structure in the seismotectonic studies of the eastern margin of the Japan Sea. We conducted a marine seismic survey by using a multichannel seismic (MCS) system and ocean bottom seismographs (OBSs) along the eastern margin of the Japan Sea. Seismic data were acquired along 42 lines with a total length of approximately 9,000 km. The following results were obtained from seismic imaging. On the basis of the results of the MCS imaging, active reverse faults and folds were observed in the margin of the Toyama Trough; however, the sedimentary layers in the trough were flat. In the sedimentary layers and crusts of the Sado Ridge, Mogami Trough, and source area of the 1964 Niigata earthquake located north of the Sado Island, greater deformation was observed. The deformation weakened toward the Yamato

  19. Large-scale ground motion simulation using GPGPU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoi, S.; Maeda, T.; Nishizawa, N.; Aoki, T.

    2012-12-01

    of cores. Finally, we applied GPU calculation to the simulation of the 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake. The model was constructed using a slip model from inversion of strong motion data (Suzuki et al., 2012), and a geological- and geophysical-based velocity structure model comprising all the Tohoku and Kanto regions as well as the large source area, which consists of about 1.9 billion grids. The overall characteristics of observed velocity seismograms for a longer period than range of 8 s were successfully reproduced (Maeda et al., 2012 AGU meeting). The turn around time for 50 thousand-step calculation (which correspond to 416 s in seismograph) using 100 GPUs was 52 minutes which is fairly short, especially considering this is the performance for the realistic and complex model.

  20. Tightly-coupled real-time analysis of GPS and accelerometer data for translational and rotational ground motions and application to earthquake and tsunami early warning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, J.; Bock, Y.; Melgar, D.; Hasse, J.; Crowell, B. W.

    2013-12-01

    data analysis, and has a resolution of about 0.01 degrees. At present, there are few collocations of GPS and accelerometers in western North America (the exception being the BARD network in northern California) so we have developed a cost-effective way to upgrade existing real-time GPS stations with low-cost MEMS accelerometers; fifteen PBO and SCIGN stations in southern California have already been upgraded. We demonstrate our method of recovering broadband displacement and tilt waveforms using 13 experiments from the single-axis George E. Brown Jr. Network for Earthquake Engineering Simulation Large High-Performance Outdoor Shake Table at the University of California San Diego. Then we apply the method to data from the 2010 Mw 7.2 El Mayor-Cucapah earthquake and the 2011 Mw 9.0 Tohoku-oki earthquake to illustrate the improvement over standard base-line correction acceleration techniques and to demonstrate the order of magnitude of tilt errors present in typical observations.