WorldWideScience

Sample records for okeru kankyo chowagata

  1. Feasibility survey of the environmentally-friendly coal utilization system. Feasibility survey of the environmentally-friendly coal utilization system in the Philippines; Kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system kanosei chosa. Philippines ni okeru kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system kanosei chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    With relation to the coal of the Philippines, where the expansion of the use of coal as a substitute for petroleum/plant fuel is aimed at, the paper grasped the situation of coal production/development, the trend of coal import and domestic distribution, the coal utilization trend, and environmental problems, and analyzed the situation of coal utilization/spread by industry including the commercial/residential use. The purpose of the survey is to draw up a master plan for the introduction of the environmentally-friendly coal utilization system. As to the use of environmentally-friendly coal technology which should be adopted to the coal mining industry and commercial/residential sector, cited are the introduction of coal preparation technology and power transmission technology, and the development/spread of briquette as a firewood substituting fuel. In the electric power sector, the problem is the treatment of ash after combustion and the effective use. Relating to the treatment of flue gas, there is no installation at all of desulfurization facilities and denitrification facilities. In the cement industry sector, they wish to return fuel from heavy oil to coal. For it, it is necessary to study dust preventive measures. In the other sectors, coal hasn`t been used very much. An increase in coal demand is not expected also in the future, and big problems concerning coal haven`t occurred. 42 figs., 64 tabs.

  2. Fiscal 1996 survey report on the environmentally friendly type coal utilization system feasibility study. Feasibility study of the environmentally friendly type coal utilization system in Thailand; Kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system kanosei chosa. Tai ni okeru kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system kanosei chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The paper investigated and studied the present situation and future trend of coal utilization and distribution in Thailand, and the present situation of environmental effects and the measures taken for environmental protection. Around 2010, coal will probably be produced only at EGAT`s Mae Moh (MM) coal mine. Demand for overseas coal is expected to be 40-50 million tons in 2011, and preparation of the coal center becomes a subject. For general industry use coal, pretreatment such as coal preparation, coal blending and briquetting is needed, considering coal quality, usage, transport distance and environmental effects. Brown coal of MM coal mine is a lignite with high sulfur, high ash content and low heating value. Wide spread of its use can be expected if upgrading is possible such as desulfurization, deashing, increasing heating value. In the electric power generation field, the absorber was installed at the existing boiler of the mine-mouth generating plant to conduct a verification test on high grade desulfurization of ultra-high sulfur lignite. In the industry field, the circulating fluidized bed boiler was adopted. In the residential/commercial field, introduction of briquette was proposed. 80 refs., 84 tabs.

  3. Fiscal 1995 survey report on the feasibility study of the environmentally friendly type coal utilization system. Feasibility study of the environmentally friendly type coal utilization system in Thailand; Kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system kanosei chosa. Tai ni okeru kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system kanosei chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-06-01

    The paper surveyed the present situation and future trend of economy, energy supply/demand, coal production/distribution/utilization and the environmental effects in Thailand. The survey on the coal utilization and its environmental effects was partially requested of the environmental research institute in Thailand. The amount of coal utilization in Thailand rapidly increased to nearly four times as large as that ten years ago mainly in terms of domestic lignite under the government`s policy on expansion of the domestic energy use. However, most of this domestic lignite is low-grade coal with low calories and high sulfur content, and the use of it was rapidly increased mostly in power generation sector without no adequate environmental measures taken. This caused an environmental problem on air pollution due to sulfur oxides at Mae Moh power plant in the north several years ago, and the damages to the regional residents, etc. were given much publicity by journalism and developed the social problem. Accordingly, Thai people are now critical of the coal resource exploration and the coal use expansion. Under the circumstances, the Ministry of Industry and the energy related ministries/offices are obliged to review their development/promotion plans. 84 figs., 99 tabs.

  4. Fiscal 1995 survey report on the feasibility study of the environmentally friendly type coal utilization system. Survey on the environmentally friendly type coal utilization system in the coal preparation sector in China; Kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system kanosei chosa. Chugoku no sentan bumon ni okeru kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system ni kansuru chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-06-01

    Specifying the coal preparation technology among clean coal technologies (CCT) in China, the paper investigated governmental policies, plans, standards of coal preparation technology, subjects, etc. toward the introduction/spread of coal preparation technology, and studied decision, introduction and spread of the coal preparation system suitable for the coal utilization status in China. The survey was conducted in Shanxi and Henan Provinces which are main provinces of coal production, and field survey was made at some selected coal preparation plants having different operational conditions. In the field survey, problems on the operation were extracted, and points of improvement were studied at the same time. Further, to grasp the positioning of coal preparation in CCT in China, survey was carried out on laws and regulation on coal preparation in terms of energy and environmental policies. Finally, the result of the field survey was analyzed, a coal preparation system of which the introduction/spread in medium- and long-term are enabled was proposed considering the coal utilization status and economic situation in China, and how to introduce/spread it was studied. 35 figs., 42 tabs.

  5. Fiscal 1996 survey report on the environmentally friendly type coal utilization system feasibility study. Feasibility study of the environmentally friendly type coal utilization system in Thailand; Kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system kanosei chosa. Tai ni okeru kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system kanosei chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The paper investigated and studied the present situation and future trend of coal utilization and distribution in Thailand, and the present situation of environmental effects and the measures taken for environmental protection. Around 2010, coal will probably be produced only at EGAT`s Mae Moh (MM) coal mine. Demand for overseas coal is expected to be 40-50 million tons in 2011, and preparation of the coal center becomes a subject. For general industry use coal, pretreatment such as coal preparation, coal blending and briquetting is needed, considering coal quality, usage, transport distance and environmental effects. Brown coal of MM coal mine is a lignite with high sulfur, high ash content and low heating value. Wide spread of its use can be expected if upgrading is possible such as desulfurization, deashing, increasing heating value. In the electric power generation field, the absorber was installed at the existing boiler of the mine-mouth generating plant to conduct a verification test on high grade desulfurization of ultra-high sulfur lignite. In the industry field, the circulating fluidized bed boiler was adopted. In the residential/commercial field, introduction of briquette was proposed. 80 refs., 84 tabs.

  6. Fiscal 1997 feasibility survey of an environment friendly type coal utilization system. Feasibility survey of the environment friendly type coal utilization system in Malaysia and Vietnam (case of Vietnam); 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho. Kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system kanosei chosa (Malaysia oyobi Vietnam ni okeru kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system kanosei chosa (Vietnam ban))

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The paper grasped the state of coal utilization by coal consumption field, the state of coal physical flow in Vietnam, etc., surveyed/studied a possibility of introducing the environment friendly type coal utilization system, and assessed the possibility. As to energy resources, the north is abundant in hydroelectric and coal (mainly anthracite) resources, and the south in oil and natural gas resources. Coal production in fiscal 1997 is planned to be 10 million tons. Coal preparation technique presently available is only grain size sieving. Accordingly, it is necessary to study for heightening efficiency of facilities and modernizing facilities in accordance with the introduction of the environment friendly type coal utilization technology. During the study, it is possible to propose improvement on coal processing technology (coal preparation technology). Assessment and study are made especially of the coal selection system, fine coal recovery system and waste water treatment system. For the plan on new coal-fired power plants (300MWtimes4), there is left much necessity of proposing studying models considered of the anthracite combustion technology and environmental improvement and of assessing/studying them. 60 figs., 117 tabs.

  7. Fiscal 1996 survey report on the environmentally friendly type coal utilization system feasibility study. Feasibility study of the environmentally friendly type coal utilization system in the Philippines; Kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system kanosei chosa. Philippines ni okeru kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system kanosei chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    Grasping the present situation of coal utilization technology in the Philippines, the paper proposed a feasibility study of introduction of the environmentally friendly type coal utilization system which seems to be needed in the future. (1) Introduction of the environmentally friendly type coal utilization system in the electric power generation sector: there are only four full-scale running coal thermal power plants in the Philippines. In the future, several coal thermal plants are planned to be constructed by 2005, but for the new installation, it is desirable to adopt fluidized bed boilers with wide application to coal kinds. In case of 0.3-1.0 million MW class plants, it is planned to adopt high grade import coals, and it will be natural to fire pulverized coal. For the processing of flue gas, it is a must to install desulfurization facilities and smoke/soot removal devices. (2) Utilization/development of domestic low grade coals: at the mine-mouth generating plant, it is necessary to investigate the economically minable amount of coal, confirm productivity, survey coal quality, etc., and select boiler. As to coal briquetting technology, it is necessary to examine coal quality for tests and make a thorough study of what technology is most suitable. 50 figs., 78 tabs.

  8. Fiscal 1997 survey report. Feasibility study of the environmentally friendly type coal utilization system (feasibility study of the environmentally friendly type coal utilization system in India); 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho. Kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system kanosei chosa (Indo ni okeru kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system kanosei chosa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The survey was conducted of the present situation of coal utilization and the present coal situation such as the environmental state of India which is a coal producing/consuming country next to China in Asia. The paper studied a feasibility of the introduction of the environmental friendly type coal utilization system` to be planned in India. The items for survey are the present situation of economy and energy and the future trend, environmental problems on coal utilization, the present status of the coal distribution system and study subjects, the present status of coal utilization by field and study subjects, a possibility of briquette use, a possibility of coal fluidization, electric power development plans and coal combustion technology in each industry, etc. The subjects are the obligation of coal preparation to coal thermal power plants 1000 km away from coal mines starting 2001, measures taken for effective ash use, measures taken for superannuated gas furnaces, etc. Based on the results of these site surveys and reports of the investigation under consignment from CMPDI, the paper studied/analyzed possibilities of introducing the coal utilization system having actual introduction results in Japan to India, and made an investigational report. 39 refs., 12 figs., 56 tabs.

  9. Research report of FY 1997 on the environmentally acceptable coal utilization system feasibility survey. Environmentally acceptable coal utilization system feasibility survey in Malaysia and Vietnam (Malaysia); 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho. Kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system kanosei chosa (Malaysia oyobi Vietnam ni okeru kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system kanosei chosa (Malaysia ban))

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    In this survey, the coal utilization status in individual consumption sectors and coal distribution status in Malaysia are summarized as basic data for the introduction of environmentally acceptable coal utilization systems. In this fiscal year, the status of existing coal utilization technology and environmental issues in Malaysia are summarized as basic data for the introduction of above-mentioned systems on the basis of data and information collected by basic research and site survey in FY 1996. Malaysia is one of the rich countries producing the primary resources with crude petroleum, natural gas, hydro-power, and coal. The coal demand will be realized after saturating LNG development since 2000. The major coal consumption industries are power generation sector and cement industry sector. As expected increase in the future coal consumption, efficiency of coal utilization and environmental issues are problems in the future. Based on the FS results of this survey, the survey will be continued for planning and conducting the model project required from Malaysia. 8 figs., 34 tabs.

  10. Fiscal 1996 survey report on the environmentally friendly type coal utilization system feasibility study. Feasibility study of the environmentally friendly type coal utilization system in Malaysia and Vietnam; Kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system kanosei chosa. Malaysia Vietnam ni okeru kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system kanosei chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    This survey arranged the status of coal utilization technology and the status of coal production, supply, etc. in Malaysia and Vietnam, examined/studied coal utilization systems in both countries, and finally assessed feasibility of introducing the environmentally friendly type coal utilization system. As a country of primary energy source which is abundant in crude oil, natural gas, hydroelectric power, coal, etc., Malaysia now depends on crude oil and natural gas for 80% of its energy, and places emphasis on exploration of natural gas and oil refining. In electric power and cement industries where coal is consumed, effectiveness and environmental issues in association with coal utilization are future subjects. In Vietnam, the north is abundant in hydroelectric power and anthracite, and the south in oil and gas resource, but the north and central districts are in a state of undevelopment. Coal is used for coal thermal power generation, cement industry, and residential/commercial fuel. In the future, effective coal utilization and environmental issues will be subjects. 16 refs., 38 figs., 75 tabs.

  11. Fiscal 1996 survey report on the environmentally friendly type coal utilization system feasibility study. Survey by region/industry in India; Kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system kanosei chosa. Indo ni okeru sekitan riyo gaikyo chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    A survey was made in India which is a coal producing/consuming country following China in Asia and where coal is used for about 60% of the primary commercial energy. The survey was conducted on coal production/distribution/utilization and environmental issues, aiming at studying feasibility of introducing the environmentally friendly coal utilization system into every industry including the residential/commercial one, and at implementing a comprehensive master plan including Japan`s international cooperation. Total power source facilities in fiscal 1995 are 83.3 million kW, 64% of which are coal thermal power facilities and generated 260 TWh, 69% of the total output energy. Main commercial energy sources are coal, oil and natural gas, and oil is self-sufficient. The survey this time did not examine very well the actual state of the environmental pollution problem caused by the coal utilization. Indian coal is high in ash content but low in sulfur content, and therefore, SOx polluting air has not been a very important problem so far, but soot/smoke is almost the problem. Further, ash treatment after combustion at boilers, etc. is expected to be a big problem in the future. 49 figs., 88 tabs.

  12. Fiscal 1997 survey report. Feasibility study of the environmentally friendly type coal utilization system (survey of the coal utilization in Pakistan); 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho. Kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system kanosei chosa (Pakistan ni okeru sekitan riyo gaikyo chosa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    This paper made a literature survey, hearing survey, site survey/study on the coal in Pakistan such as the coal utilization system and the environmental situation, etc., and aimed at pre-examination for the survey of the introduction of the environmentally friendly type coal utilization system to be planned in Pakistan in the future. The examination, data collection and preparation were conducted in terms of the following items: the structure of coal consumption in energy supply, structure of coal consumption, mainly of domestic brown coal consumption, the situation of coal utilization by industry and by region, environmental problems caused by coal utilization such as air pollution, the trend of policies of environmental regulation, etc. The literature on the following was obtained and surveyed: the situation of economy/energy in Pakistan, coal utilization technology by industrial field, and environmental protection technology. The hearing survey was made to institutions concerned, corporation groups and men of learning and experience. Site surveys were conducted for the typically selected coal utilization equipment and existing environmental protection equipment. 66 figs., 56 tabs.

  13. Research report of FY 1997 on the environmentally acceptable coal utilization system feasibility survey. Clean coal technology model project seminar held in Thailand; 1997 nendo seika hokokusho. Kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system kanosei chosa (Tai ni okeru clean coal technology model jigyo seminar no kaisai)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    To reduce SOx with coal utilization, the desulfurization seminar diffusing the demonstration project of simplified desulfurizer introduction was held at the site in Thailand. The purpose is to reduce the environmental pollutants and contribute to the effective utilization of energy with coal utilization in Thailand. Invitation letters were sent to users of coal and heavy oil boilers through the Department of Factories, Ministry of Industry, Thailand, to call participation in the seminar. Inspection of the desulfurizer introduced in the factory of Thai Union Paper Public was included in the seminar for diffusing the project. The inspection site is in the demonstration project site of simplified desulfurizer introduction. There were a lot of participants from Thai users and from Japan. The seminar included the presentations from NEDO, JETRO, FTI, and MOSTE, introduction of general technology for processes of ENAA desulfurizer, introduction of demonstration unit plan by IHI, and introduction of operation of demonstration unit by TUP. 31 figs., 6 tabs.

  14. Report on a project to support promotion of forming an environmentally friendly energy community. Survey on business feasibility of electric power generation utilizing combustible wastes solidified fuel in the Kishu and Kumano living area; Kankyo chowagata energy community keisei sokushin hojo jigyo chosa hokokusho. Kishu Kumano seikatsuken'iki ni okeru kanensei haikibutsu kokeika nenryo riyo hatsuden jigyo no jigyoka kanosei chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Surveys and discussions were given on business feasibility of a wide area RDF power generation system in the Kishu and Kumano living area. The discussions dealt with as wide area as transcending prefectural borders and including the southern parts of Mie and Nara Prefectures with the city of Shingu as the central part. Wastes generation amount is estimated to be about 70,000 tons at the present as wastes that can be turned into RDF, and to be decreased to 67,000 tons in 2018. The manufactured RDF has calorific power of 3500 to 4500 kcal/kg, two to three times greater than that of wastes. The RDF manufacturing facilities installed in cities, towns and villages have capacity of 30 to 50 tons a day, with that in the city of Shingu being the largest at about 78 tons a day. Transportation can be implemented most efficiently when road transportation is used. The RDF power generation system will consist of a fluid bed furnace, a plasma type ash melting furnace, and a bag filter plus activated carbon absorbing tower. The RDF manufacturing cost will be 27,900 yen per ton of wastes in the case of the city of Shingu. In terms of business profitability, the RDF power generation must find sources to pay 21,400 yen per ton of RDF even if the power sale revenue is considered. (NEDO)

  15. Project to support promotion of forming an environmentally friendly energy community. Survey report on 'a survey on business feasibility of power generation using dechlorinated RPF in the Muroran area'; Kankyo chowagata energy community keisei sokushin hojo jigyo. Muroran chiku ni okeru datsuenso RPF ni yoru hatsuden jigyo no kanosei chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Investigations and discussions were given on business feasibility of 'combustion power generation business based on wide area collection of dechlorinated RPF' as one measure for effective utilization of waste plastics, environmental performance as the effect therefrom, and district business promotion. The result of the discussions may be summarized as follows: in the case one, a 100-liter per hour boiler will supply the Muroran Steel Mill with steam of 19 tons per hour and electric power of 17.7 MW; in the case two, a 100-liter per hour boiler will supply the Hokkaido Electric Power Company with power of 21 MW; a 50-liter per hour boiler will supply the Muroran Steel Mill with power of 9.8 MW; fuel will be transported by trucks from inside Hokkaido, by bulk loaded vessels from the Tokyo Metropolitan area, and by trucks from the piers; the turbine will be multi-stage bleeding type; scattered ash will be filtered by a bag filter; an activated carbon facility will be installed to remove dioxins; ash will be treated by a dissolution preventive solidifying system; and the business profitability is better in the case two than in the case 1, but assurance of subsidy is still an indispensable condition. (NEDO)

  16. Synthesis of new erodable polymers response to environmental stimuli; Atarashii kankyo chowagata bunkaisei plastic no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, M.; Nagasaki, Y. [Science University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Industrial Science and Technology

    1997-02-01

    This report relates to the designing of functional materials that decompose in response to various signals. A derivative of {alpha}-bromomethylstyrene is caused to act on the living anions of {alpha}-methylstyrene for the synthesis of a pyrolytic polymer having unsaturated groups at its terminals. The terminal double combinations of this polymer split under the influence of heat, acid, or base for depolymerization which is quantative, and the decomposition temperature may be controlled by replacing terminal phenylallylic groups with methyl groups or phloro-groups. Furthermore, a novel polythyramine polymer is synthesized with its principal chain constituted of NCH2CH2Si, the principal chain easy to disintegrate when exposed to an electron beam. The polymer is signal-responsive and may be patterned by use of an electron beam. As a temperature-responsive polymer with the hydrolytic feature controlled, poly(thyroxy ethylene glycol) is obtained from a derivative of diaminosiloxane and oligo-oxyethylene. This is a high-mobility, temperature-responsive material whose hydrolysis may be controlled. 3 refs., 2 figs.

  17. Project to support promotion of forming an environmentally friendly energy community. Survey report on 'a survey on feasibility of business to perform continually from RDF manufacturing mainly using industrial wastes to high-efficiency electric power generation in Fukui Prefecture'; Kankyo chowagata energy community keisei sokushin hojo jigyo. 'Fukuiken ni okeru sangyo haikibutsu wo chushin to shita RDF seizo kara kokoritsu hatsuden made wo ikkanshite okonau jigyo no kanosei chosa' chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Investigations and discussions were given on electric power generation business using as fuel the industrial wastes RDF composed of waste plastics having been manufactured in four blocks in Fukui Prefecture and sewage sludge. The investigations were carried out on estimation of quantity of the industrial wastes available in Fukui Prefecture and quantity of the industrial waste RDF supply, an optimal system for industrial waste RDF power generation, evaluation on economic effects, and environment improving effects. The result of the investigations revealed that the industrial waste RDF can be assured at 80 tons a day, which can make the power generation capacity 5000 kW. The industrial waste RDF manufacturing system adopts a chain type striking, crushing and drying equipment and a fluid bed combustion system. The ash melting system is a multi-phase alternating current system. This system is expected of enhancing the energy saving effect and the CO2 emission reducing effect. Economic effects were discussed on the industrial waste RDF manufacturing business and power generation business both on independent basis and continuous basis. Either case would require industrial waste RDF receiving fee. However, it was confirmed that the business can be realized on the continuous basis. (NEDO)

  18. Survey on bio-chemical complex harmonized with global environment. 3; Kankyo chowagata seibutsu kagaku konbinato ni kansuru chosa. 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    A survey was conducted of bio-chemical complex harmonized with the global environment for the purpose of constructing the material production process harmonized with the environment by the process fusion between biological conversion and chemical reaction. Palm oil was taken up as renewable raw material plant resource. The process utilizing bio-chemical reaction advances at normal temperature and pressure and is high in reaction specificity and selectivity. This is a recycling, circulation and environmental harmony type production technology which brings high yield, energy conservation, resource conservation, and low environmental loads. Waste water treatment and production of useful substances from sludge were thought as elementary technology. A possibility was studied of enzyme production by culturing solid waste, and the enzyme was applied to the hydrolysis process. The paper indicated trace components in the palm oil and the extraction method and proposed the production process of new derivatives for adding value to hydrolysate. A study was also made of the overall process flow which integrated these new processes and the material balance. The comprehensive evaluation of this new process was made from the aspect of the product structure, the market, construction cost, economical efficiency, and the environment. 133 refs., 65 figs., 56 tabs.

  19. Geophysical exploration in environmental engineering; Kankyo engineering ni okeru butsuri tansa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shima, H. [OYO Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-12-01

    This paper describes underground environmental issues to which geophysical exploration can be applied. Especially, ground pollution, waste treatment and unexploded ordnance (mine) detection are discussed by considering worldwide technology trends through examples in Japan and the USA. Since environmental surveys are generally conducted for regional and rather shallow ground, rapidity, economy and high resolution are required for geophysical exploration. In response to these demands, a mapping system using capacitor electrodes and a complex resistivity method for detecting organic compounds are promising for the electrical prospecting. A shallow electromagnetic method is being standardized for the electromagnetic prospecting. A cesium magnetic gradient meter is also being standardized for the magnetic prospecting. An underground radar, seismic prospecting, and gravitational prospecting are also applied to some grounds. Prospecting of pollution sources, high- and low-concentration ground pollution, monitoring of pollutant removal, soundness survey of water barrier in management-type waste treatment place, and detection of unexploded ordnance are illustrated for the examples. 15 refs., 10 figs., 4 tabs.

  20. Environmentally friendly type coal utilization technology transfer project. Downstream field; Kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo gijutsu iten jigyo. Karyu bun`ya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The paper arranged the result of the clean coal technology transfer project carried out during October to December, 1996. For the purpose of supporting introduction/spread of clean coal technology (CCT) in Asian and Pacific countries, the project invited engineers of the countries to Japan, aiming at fermentation of the understanding of CCT and improvement in ability. The project was held by NEDO and managed by Center for Coal Utilization, Japan. The manager course is for policy decision makers, management and senior management (plant manager class). By taking up CCT assessment and a menu of economical efficiency, prepared was the environment to which CCT is introduced in case of working out policy and planning plant/equipment investment. Moreover, the engineer course is for policy planners, medium-class management (section chief class), senior engineers (planners), and takes up materials for judgment in case of planning CCT facilities and proposing measures to reduce environmental loads by management and improvement of facilities at the same time. Fifteen engineers were invited: 6 from China, 3 from Indonesia, 3 from the Philippines, and 3 from Thailand

  1. Study on the application of plasma technology to advanced global environmental harmony type technology; Kankyo chowagata gijutsu no kodoka eno plasma no oyo ni kansuru chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    Plasma application technology is systematically investigated. Fundamental feature of plasma, method of plasma generation, special features of plasma, and its application area are arranged. The present application area of plasma chemical reaction in industry has been arranged for each utilization and process according to the patents research and scientific journals. For the global environmental harmony type technology, functions required for the membrane separators are investigated by assuming the recovery of environmental load substances, and possible manufacturing process of the membrane by using plasma technology is also investigated. For the improvement of catalysis by the plasma process, the requirement for the catalyst, a fine particle effect for catalyst, production of catalyst, plasma technology applicable to the improvement of catalyst, thermal plasma, and low-temperature plasma are described. For the application of plasma to enhance the catalysis reaction, synthesis of ammonia and methanol are described. 177 refs., 67 figs., 18 tabs.

  2. Survey on synthesis and reaction of environmentally benign water-soluble metal complex catalysts; Kankyo chowagata suiyosei sakutai shokubai no gosei hanno no chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    This report describes the research trend survey results on the synthesis and reaction of water-soluble metal complexes which are regarded as environmentally benign catalysts. For the synthesis and catalysis of water-soluble complexes, synthetic methods of water-soluble phosphines, such as sulfonated TPPMS and TPPTS, are described in detail. Synthesis and reactivity of hydroxymethylphosphines are introduced, and the application of electrospray mass spectroscopy is elucidated as a tool for the analysis of them. Changes of the application of transition metal complexes with water-soluble phosphines to catalysis are described. Dual catalysts which have both functions of phase transfer catalysts and homogeneous catalysts are introduced. Concept of counter phase transfer catalysts is also introduced, and some catalytic reactions are described. In addition, this report introduces catalysis of water-soluble polymer-supported metal complexes, immobilization of metal colloids with water-soluble ligands and their analysis, and water-soluble complexes as hybrid catalysts. 144 refs., 94 figs., 10 tabs.

  3. Survey report on an environmental harmony type production system of chemical products; Kankyo chowagata kagaku seihin seizo system ni kansuru chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    As part of establishing an environmental harmony type production system of chemical products, study and survey were made on PET bottles. Using the life cycle analysis method (LCA), a study was made for proposing a material recycle (MR) method which is environmentally and economically excellent in the stage of recycling waste PET bottles. The total cost of recycling can be reduced by 34% supported by a decrease in equipment cost and improvement in yield if there is no mixture of foreign substances such as aluminum caps and PVC bottles. However, the ratio of the amount obtained from the reduction to the total production cost is small, and it is necessary to take measures from a viewpoint of the cost in a total production process and environmental loads. In a survey in Kawaguchi city, PET bottles discharged from the business sector occupied 41% of all the discharge amount. In a survey in Yokohama city, very important data were obtained on PET bottles appointed as the second type under the recycle law. The quality of PET bottles to be brought to the recycling plant is important for effectively processing PET bottles in MR method. For achievement of MR which is low in cost and small in environmental load, needed were cooperation by citizens, the shipping management system in autonomous government, and changes in design and material quality to be made by the industrial circle. 8 refs., 64 figs., 68 tabs.

  4. Ebara`s environmental management system and ISO14001; Ebara ni okeru kankyo management system to ISO14001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Umeda, M. [Ebara Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-04-20

    Situations encompassing environmental problems are recently undergoing drastic changes on a worldwide scale. The number of business locations which have been certified as ISO14001 sites in Japan has exceeded 1,392 by the end of November 1998, a surge which is expected to outrun that experienced regarding ISO9000 sites. In December 1997, the United Nations Frame Work Convention on Climate Change (COP3) was held in Kyoto, Japan to discuss the prevention of the global warming effect. The following discusses how Ebara`s environmental management system is related to problems and solutions discussed in this symposium. Discussion is also made on the impact of environmental management on enthusiastically carried out environment-related businesses. Finally, discussion is made on Ebara`s future environmental management system, i.e. as an outcome of past and current efforts in Ebara`s continuous improvement on environmental management, including Ebara`s 5 areas which have attained the ISO14001 standard. (author)

  5. Global Environment, human activity, and recycling of resources. Chikyu kankyo to ningen katsudo ni okeru shigen recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakahiro, Y.; Wakamatsu, T. (Kyoto Univ., Kyoto (Japan). Faculty of Engineering)

    1991-04-18

    Discussion is made on the recycling of resources which is one the very important problems for the global environment and human activity. In consideration of the limited natural resources and utilization by the human race of the resources for long, recycling of resources'' for saving resources is extremely important. The scale of the waste treatment industry in Japan is estimated to be between 4 to 5 trillion yen which exceeds 1% of the GNP with the trend of increase year by year, and the industrial waste treatment industry is taking root in Japan. Recycling'' can be grouped in three methods, i.e. recovery of materials, conversion of materials, and conversion of energy. The primary object of recycling is to spare resources and save energy. Recycling is of deep significance from the viewpoint of energy saving. There is a big merit in the conservation of dumping sites. Making best use of the useful secondary resources in the wastes is directly connected with the solution to the problems of prolongation of resources'' and conservation of global environment'' with which the human race is now confronted. 7 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Manufacturing facilities of pharmaceutical products and measures for purification of its environment. Qualitative guarantee of productive enviroment in medicinal factory; Iyakuhin no seizo shisetsu to kankyo seijoka taisaku. Iyakuhin kojo ni okeru seizo kankyo no hinshitsu hosho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujinaga, H. [Kajima Construction Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-07-31

    Medicines have its peculiarity which is concerned in health and life of a human being, hence it is important to secure its validity, safety and high quality, and it is demanded to establish firmly the quality control system from research and development throughout production, logistics, up to usage. Accordingly, in order to export medicines overseas, it is required to validate that the medicines are manufactured in accordance with GMP (good manufacturing practice) of the country of destination. When Kajima Construction Co. designed and constructed a pharmaceutical plant to manufacture injections to be exported to the U.S.A., it planned and executed the validation technique from the viewpoint of quality assurance of the manufacturing environment as the GMP qualified plant, hence in this article, the outline of the above is reported. With regard to application of GMP, differences between Japan and the U.S.A. are pointed out. Also systematization of quality validation of the manufacturing environment is commented upon. Furthermore, examples are shown concerning execution of validation, and the monitor facility corresponding to daily validation is described. 4 refs., 2 figs., 9 tabs.

  7. Fiscal 1996 report on the environmentally friendly type coal utilization technology transfer project. Upstream field; 1996 nendo kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo gijutsu iten jigyo. Joryu bun`ya hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The paper reported training activities conducted in fiscal 1996 as an environmentally friendly type coal utilization technology transfer project (upstream field). For the purpose of supporting the introduction/spread of clean coal technology (CCT) in Asian and Pacific countries, the project invited engineers there to Japan, aiming at fermentation of the understanding of CCT and heightening in quality. In the manager training conducted in fiscal 1996 for managers from Indonesia, Thailand, the Philippines and China who are in charge of management of coal mines, management of coal preparation plants, and policy decision, the project had them deepen the understanding of CCT (coal preparation field). The engineers participated in the project were 6 from Indonesia, 2 from Thailand, 2 from the Philippines, and 10 from China. The training of about two weeks was conducted at Kyushu University, Wakamatsu coal utilization technology testing field of Electric Power Development Co., Mitsui Mining Co., Ikeshima Mining Works, Matsushima Thermal Power Plant, Mitsui Engineering and Shipbuilding Co., Idemitsu Kosan Co., NEDO Training Center, etc. 12 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Fiscal 1997 international cooperation project. Report on the results of the research on environmental harmony type combustion technology; 1997 nendo kokusai kenkyu kyoryoku jigyo. Kankyo chowagata nensho gijutsu ni kansuru kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    Out of the R and D on the environmental harmony type combustion technology, the results of the project carried out in fiscal 1997 were summed up. In the site survey, etc., visits were paid to France, Spain, Greek, Germany, the U.K. and the U.S. to have discussions and examine the trend of research on the NOx removal catalyst and catalyst combustion. In the actual R and D, the R and D were conducted on zeolite base NOx removal catalyst, oxide composite base NOx removal catalyst, alumina base NOx removal catalyst, direct decomposition type NOx removal catalyst, catalyst combustion, etc. In the R and D of the catalyst combustion, durability under high gas flow flux was examined of PdO-Pt/Ba-Al203 catalyst developed for low temperature use, which indicated that durability and low temperature activity were heightened. As high temperature use catalyst, high temperature durability was examined of the developed Pd0-La/Gd-ZrO2 catalyst, which showed that the durability was favorable. 322 refs., 261 figs., 55 tabs.

  9. Fiscal 1997 report on the environment friendly type coal utilization technology transfer project. Downstream field; 1997 nendo gyomu hokokusho. Kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo gijutsu iten jigyo (karyu bun`ya)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    For the purpose of supporting the introduction/spread of clean coal technology (CCT) in countries in Asia and the Pacific, engineers of the countries concerned were invited to Japan aiming to ferment the understanding of CCT and improve abilities of them. The project was carried out by NEDO, and managed by CCUJ. It has two courses. The manager course is for policy makers, management and senior managers. By assessing CCT and presenting a menu for economical efficiency, environmental arrangement for CCT introduction is made in working out policies and planning plant/equipment investment in the future. The engineer course is for policy planners, mid-class managers and senior engineers. It proposes data on which to base a decision in working out/planning CCT facilities, and at the same time ideas by which to reduce environmental loads by management of facilities, simple improvements, etc. The number of the persons invited are 21, that is, 8 from China, 5 from Indonesia, 4 from the Philippines and 4 from Thailand. After the training, future subjects were summed up

  10. Design of environment-friendly and next generation-type conversion system for unused carbon resources by developing highly functional materials; Kokino zairyo kaihatsu ni yoru kankyo chowagata jisedai miriyo tanso shigen tenkan system no kochiku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wakabayashi, K.; Morooka, S.; Arai, Y. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Sakanishi, K. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Institute of Advanced Material Study

    1997-02-01

    Studies are conducted for the development of now-unused kinds of fossil carbon resources, such as low rank coal and heavy gravity crude oil, into higher-value liquid fuel. In the preliminary treatment process, the fossil carbon resources are dried by use of supercritical carbon dioxide, when it is found that the resources are disintegrated and water is desorbed. In a low rank coal liquefaction process using the NiMo/KB (Kefjen Black) catalyst, more than 60% is converted into oil, which rate is improved by use of the dual-temperature liquefaction process. This catalyst may be recovered by separation utilizing specific gravity difference. As a low temperature gasification catalyst, the alkaline carbonate-carried carbon catalyst is very quick at the initial stage of reaction. The perovskite-carried alkaline carbonate catalyst is high in carbon oxidizing/activating efficiency at low temperatures. The silica film deposited on an alumina-coated support tube is excellent in selectivity and speed as a hydrogen separating film, and a carbonized polyimide film as a carbon dioxide separating film. For the supercritical phase adsorption/separation of chemicals not to be distilled easily, the NaY-type zeolite functions effectively. Pd/ZrO2 serving as a carbon monoxide conversion catalyst enables the recovery of more MeOH when Pd grains are smaller in diameter.

  11. Survey report of FY 1997 on the application of plasma to advanced environmentally acceptable technologies. 2; 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho (kankyo chowagata gijutsu no kodoka eno plasma no oyo ni kansuru chosa). 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    This report describes the latest technological trend of plasma which will be useful for a better global environment. Novel application field of plasma technology has been studied in detail. A definite research plan for a better global environment has been proposed. At first, current global environmental issues are reviewed, and the background and the purpose of present investigation are described. Then, are described the plasma generation, measurement and control technology, and the application of plasma technology for a chemical reaction, especially, the promising chemical reaction with highly sensitive and/or highly selective process. In addition, is reviewed the development of a multi-functional membrane using energy control technology of plasma particles, and an advanced catalyst made by plasma-based technology. Is also described the application of plasma to the fixation of CO2 and reuse of greenhouse gases such as CO2 and CH4. Are described the results of the study on capture and reuse of environmental pollutants. The contribution of plasma technology to the production process with low environmental load is provided. Finally, a research plan for plasma technology aiming at a better global environment is proposed on the basis of present investigation. 138 refs., 113 figs., 15 tabs.

  12. Environment-friendly type energy and coordinated community development project. Feasibility study for industrialization of the high efficiency waste-fired power generation system using CSD; Kankyo chowagata energy community keisei sokushin. Kokoritsu haikibutsu hatsuden (CSD riyo) jigyoka FS chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    For the current treatment of disused cars, valuable materials are recovered after scrapping them, and residual car shredder dust (CSD) is reclaimed. The load of land reclamation can be reduced by decreasing its volume and weight through incineration of combustibles in the CSD. Thermal energy obtained during the incineration can be converted into electric power. CSD-fired power generation plant has been planned, by which the obtained power is sold to electric power companies. It was assumed that the power generation plant is constructed at a certain city of Ibaraki Prefecture. Two cases of plant scales, i.e., 200 t/d and 400 t/d, were investigated by considering the collecting quantity of CSD fuel and the area of sites. The CSD fuel with 4,500 kcal/kg of lower calorific value contains rather high contents of chlorine and sulfur, which are around 3% and 1.6%, respectively. Therefore, the system should have measures, such as the exhaust gas treatment, dioxin treatment, and prevention of corrosion for high efficiency. It was concluded that about 300 t/d scale plant provides a feasibility. 27 refs., 21 tabs.

  13. Research program for environmentally-friendly coal utilization system. Follow-up project for briquette production plants (Tanjun Enim); Kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system donyu shien jigyo. Briquette seizo setsubi ni kakawaru follow up jigyo (Tanjun Enim)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    To suppress the emission of environmental pollutants from coal utilization in Indonesia and to contribute to stable security of Japan`s energy, demonstration of clean coal technology and consolidation of diffusion base to be introduced into Indonesia have been promoted. Briquette production plant installed in the Tanjun Enim Coal Mine was examined and guided. Two kinds of high-volatile subbituminous coals are used as raw materials. Semi-cokes with volatile matter of 20% are prepared through fluidized carbonization at 480 degC. Hydrated lime or clay and binder are added to the semi-cokes, to manufacture ball briquettes by molding at room temperature. These are forcedly dried in the continuous drying furnace. In the design, 5 ton ball briquettes can be produced for an hour. Operation time is between 8 and 15 hours in a single shift. Products completely without smoke and smell can be obtained. Combustion performance of the products is remarkably superior to that of conventional products. The operation techniques of carbonization and molding processes were actively guided. To produce briquettes with further high quality, it was suggested that blending ratios and coal properties should be investigated. Inspection method for each apparatus was also guided. There was no abrasion. 13 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Study on the impact assessment for the life cycle assessment (LCA); Kankyo fuka bunseki ni okeru impact assessment ni kansuru chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    This report describes the impact assessment which is an important step for LCA. For classification of the impact assessment, the existing literature was reviewed and a skeleton for the classification was proposed. The weighting factors for nine selected impact categories, which were used to calculate environmental load point (ELP) for the valuation, were obtained for two overseas groups, i.e., students of Amsterdam University and SETAC Europe members. It was found that the former provided the similar trends to general Japanese, however that the latter gave high weighting in the global warming and depletion of ozone layer. The ELP was proposed and applied to automatic washing machine, coffee maker, waste incineration power generation system, and co-generation system. As a result, its effectiveness was demonstrated. This report also describes problems for the LCA of thermal and material recycling of PS trays. 99 refs., 96 figs., 73 tabs.

  15. Fiscal 1996 report on the results of the R and D under a consignment from NEDO of the environment friendly type production technology. High-functional chemical synthesis bioreactor (for public); 1996 nendo chikyu kankyo sangyo gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu jigyo Shin Energy Sangyo Gijutsu Sogo Kaihatsu Kiko itaku. Kankyo chowagata seisan gijutsu (kokino kagaku gosei bioreactor) kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho (kokaiyo)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    For the purpose of developing production technology of chemical substances which are resource conservative, energy saving and less in environmental loads, a R and D was conducted of a high-functional chemical synthesis bioreactor. The paper reported the results of fiscal 1996. As for proliferation control breeding technology, relating to the switch control technology of proliferation related genes by regulatory factors, the effectiveness on an incubator level was demonstrated, and at the same time improvement of reactor performance in using this technology was studied on paper. As to the manifestation control breeding technology, the actual design of the development of manifestation promotion technology by bent DNA, etc. was proceeded with, and at the same time the following were commenced: selection of bent DNA, confirmation of bent characteristics, and work of vector construction using candidate bent DNA. Further, the simple assessment system of manifestation vectors was constructed. In the development of bioreactor system technology, the actual design was started of the two-stage culture continuance system which separated proliferation and enzyme production. 48 refs., 41 figs., 6 tabs.

  16. Fiscal 1998 R and D project on global environmental industrial technology. R and D result report on environment- friendly production technology (advanced chemical synthesis reactor); 1998 nendo chikyu kankyo sangyo gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu jigyo. Kankyo chowagata seisan gijutsu (kokino kagaku gosei bio reactor) kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    For high-efficiency production of substances by bioreactor, study was made on a bio-control mechanism as its elementary technology. On the study of breeding technology by expression control, the structure design of a control region and development of new expression vectors had been finished, and study was made on breeding of high-efficiency recombinant production cells by using candidate expression vectors. On the study of breeding technology by multi-stage enzyme reaction control, the enzyme gene of a system synthesizing cysteine from glycerol was searched, and hydroxypyruvaldehyde hydrogenase gene was isolated as substance production model. Cysteine production Escherichia coli combined with serineacetyl transferase gene was also prepared. In addition, study started on cloning of hydroxyacetone oxidase gene. On development of reactor system technology, for conversion of serine to cysteine, study was made on optimization of a reaction condition by theory of enzyme reaction rate. (NEDO)

  17. Fiscal 1996 report on the results of the R and D under a consignment from NEDO of the environment friendly type production technology. High-functional chemical synthesis bioreactor (for public); 1996 nendo chikyu kankyo sangyo gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu jigyo Shin Energy Sangyo Gijutsu Sogo Kaihatsu Kiko itaku. Kankyo chowagata seisan gijutsu (kokino kagaku gosei bioreactor) kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho (kokaiyo)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    For the purpose of developing production technology of chemical substances which are resource conservative, energy saving and less in environmental loads, a R and D was conducted of a high-functional chemical synthesis bioreactor. The paper reported the results of fiscal 1996. As for proliferation control breeding technology, relating to the switch control technology of proliferation related genes by regulatory factors, the effectiveness on an incubator level was demonstrated, and at the same time improvement of reactor performance in using this technology was studied on paper. As to the manifestation control breeding technology, the actual design of the development of manifestation promotion technology by bent DNA, etc. was proceeded with, and at the same time the following were commenced: selection of bent DNA, confirmation of bent characteristics, and work of vector construction using candidate bent DNA. Further, the simple assessment system of manifestation vectors was constructed. In the development of bioreactor system technology, the actual design was started of the two-stage culture continuance system which separated proliferation and enzyme production. 48 refs., 41 figs., 6 tabs.

  18. Fiscal 1993 international research cooperation project. Feasibility study of finding out the seeds of international joint research (technology for environmental preservation using biotechnology, technology for effective use of unused hydrocarbon resource, technology for development of environmental harmony type catalyst); 1995 nendo kokusai kyoryoku jigyo. Kokusai kyodo kenkyu seeds hakkutsu no tame no FS chosa (biotechnology ni yoru kankyo taisaku gijutsu, miriyo tanka suiso shigen no yuko riyo gijutsu, kankyo chowagata shokubai kaihatsu gijutsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    This project is aimed at internationally cooperating in the R and D of industrial technology and improving industrial technology of Japan. For it, the following three technologies were investigated: 1) environmental preservation technology using biotechnology, 2) technology for effective use of unused hydrocarbon resource, 3) technology for development of environmental harmony type catalyst. In 1), a survey was conducted of applicability of biological surfactant to prevention measures of pollution by heavy distillate. It showed that part of the biological surfactants is reaching a stage of its being industrially produced by gene recombination bacteria, but as a whole, biosynthetic genes have hardly been elucidated. In 2), a survey of high-grade treatment technology of petroleum coke was made. It pointed out that it is necessary to develop a technology which makes the most of features of petroleum coke and allows defects. In 3), scientists and engineers of Japan and Europe searched for themes on which they can jointly study in the fields of NOx removal catalyst, up-grading of fuel, and development of catalyst combustion of fuel. 287 refs., 136 figs., 128 tabs.

  19. Fiscal 1997 report on the feasibility survey of Japan`s cooperation into energy/environment related fields in Asian countries; 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho (Asia shokoku ni okeru energy kankyo kanren bun`ya eno kyoryoku kanosei chosa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    A survey was made to study possibilities of Japan`s cooperation in tackling energy/environment problems in Asian countries. In 1995 the GNP growth rate was 2.6% in the world, while it was 7.9% in Asia showing a rapid growth. With the accelerating industrialization and urbanization, energy demand is now over three times as much as that in the 1980s. This means increases in waste and environmental pollution. Especially, the use of firewood in non-electrified areas is a serious problem the same as the slash-and-burn farming and deforestation. Also relating to the production of electric power, it is inevitable to choose hydroelectric power and renewable energy in addition to fossil fuels. Therefore, the necessity is heightening of various technologies for it and environmental protection technologies such as coal cleaning. Local areas, where the population density is extremely low and the electrification cost is high, became victims of elecrification. There the power system should be shifted from the central supply system to the local distributed one. For it, it is necessary to recognize an importance of the distributed type renewable energy which is friendly to the environment. The paper outlined the state of each country and energy by policy and environment. 10 figs., 83 tabs.

  20. Case building for the global environment era. Part 1. Introduction of household cogeneration system into HUD building; Chikyu kankyo jidai e mukete no tatemonorei. 1. Kodan jutaku ni okeru jutaku cogeneration donyu no kokoromi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Negishi, T. [Housing and Urban Development Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-01-05

    A household cogeneration system is described, to be introduced into an HUD (Housing and Urban Development Corporation) skyscraper, a leading-edge environmental coexistence type of the corporation with 40 stories above ground and one below, total floorage 55,681{sup 2}m, accommodating 462 residences. The energy consumption under the maximum load is approximately 6723MJ/h for cooling, 5379MJ/h for heating, 4613MJ/h for hot water supply, or 1009kW in wattage. The cogeneration system is to have two 100kW city gas engine generators, whose output will be supplied only to common use facilities and heat source rooms in the high-rise building, for corridor lighting, elevators, and pumping. Heat in the gas engine exhaust and waste cooling water is recovered and utilized for hot water supply and heating for the individual residences. Simulation results show that there is an approximately 7.2% saving on energy and, relative to environmental protection, a reduction in CO2 emission of approximately 9% a year. 2 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Study of promotion of CO2 fixation by the environmental improvement in the coral reef area; Kansho chitai ni okeru kankyo kaizen ni yoru CO2 kotei sokushin no kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maruoka, T.; Ishitani, H.; Matsuhashi, R.; Yamada, K.; Komiyama, H.; Kraines, S. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-01-30

    A study was conducted on how to fix CO2 in the ocean using coral reefs. Coral reefs have extremely high primary productivity ( production quantity of organic matters by photosynthesis) and are expected to be resources to fix CO2 when the quantity of photosynthesis exceeds the quantity of CO2 emitted in association with formation of calcium carbonate skeleton. If organic substances produced in coral reefs are well carried into the open sea, those are settled down on deep beds, which enables the storage into the ocean. At the coral reef floating in the ocean, it is not very deep inside and the seawater stays there, but it has a steep depth outside. By the numerical calculation, an examination was made on how the waterflow changes when making the flow path of seawater between the inland sea and open sea. From the actual calculation of an atoll, it was found that seawater comes in and out from the open sea to the inland sea near the opening of the atoll in accordance with the high tide and ebb tide, but the water stays at the deep bottom of the atoll. When installing a channel with a 10m depth at the portion where the water flows softly, the seawater was actively exchanged. 6 refs., 4 figs.

  2. Study on management of resource and environment in poverty areas. Examples of agriculture and water use in bangladesh; Hinkon chiiki ni okeru shigen to kankyo no kanri ni kansuru kenkyu. Banguradeshu no nogyo to mizu riyo wo rei to shite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishimura, Hiroyuki [Kinki University, Osaka (Japan). Faculty of Agriculture

    1998-12-16

    This paper describes the main features of flood plains and fish production related to agriculture in the vast inland water areas of Bangladesh. The inland fisheries have been an important source of animal protein and provided employment opportunities for rural Bangladeshies. Generally the fishermen's economic conditions are below the poverty line in this country. Fishi production in the inland water areas are not met to the basic needs of the people on a sustainable basis. While inland fishery is important for business as well as for people's livelihood, it is not usually managed appropriately for resource conservation and environment. Fishery policies and planning have to be undertaken for comprehensive long-term perspective in order that agricultural and other sectors would not contaminate the environment. (author)

  3. Environment-friendly type energy and coordinated community development project. Feasibility study for industrialization of high efficiency waste-fired power generation system using CSD and other wastes; Kankyo chowagata energy community keisei sokushin. Kokoritsu haikibutsu hatsuden (CSD nado haikibutsu riyo) jigyoka FS chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    This report presents the feasibility of enterprise on power generation by thermal recycle and selling power together with volume reduction, de-harming (de-toxification) and stabilization of the shredder dust. Contents of the study include the investigation of generation amount of car shredder dust (CSD) and its properties, trial design of high efficiency power generation facilities, selection of boiler tube materials, incineration test with a melting kiln test plant, disposal and effective use of melted slag and fly ash, and environmental impact assessment. The capacity of waste disposal in the trial design contains 1,140 ton/day of shredder dust, 60 ton/day of waste plastics, sludge and waste paper, and 130 ton/day of waste oil. Melting kiln with secondary combustion chamber was adopted as the incineration type. The high temperature and high pressure waste heat boiler with an extraction condensing turbine was adopted as the waste heat recovery and power generation type. Stable combustion was confirmed from the results using a test plant. According to the consideration of cost and unit cost results for wholesale power supply, if it is postulated that income for waste disposal is 12,000 yen/ton, power generation costs in excess power selling and wholesales are 6.4 yen/kWh and 9.1 yen/kWh, respectively. 67 figs., 48 tabs.

  4. Fiscal 1998 result report on the support and diffusion projects on introduction of environment-friendly coal utilization systems. Fiscal 1998 joint demonstration project for the CMG recovery/utilization system; 1998 nendo kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system donyu shien nado fukyu taisaku jigyo seika hokokusho. 1998 nendo CMG kaishu riyo system kyodo jissho jigyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    This report is the summary of the basic plan for the demonstration project for the CMG (coal mine gas) recovery/utilization system conducted by Tiefa Coal Mining Administration in 1998-2002. The project site is Tiefa mining property, and the plan includes the introduction program of Japanese technology for the CMG recovery/utilization system. The gas recovery plan was prepared for both Daxing and Daming One mines. The technology and facility introduced from Japan are as follows: 300m middle- class horizontal gas drainage drilling technology and facility, gas transfer technology and facility from gas drainage holes, fly ash sealing and sealed gas drainage technology and facility, measurement for gas transfer pipes, automatic sealed gas drainage technology and centralized monitoring, and automatic gas drainage facility. Recovered gas is supplied to Tiefa city and Tieling city as city gas, and this plan includes the gas supply facility to Tieling city. Gas is recovered from all coal mines in Tiefa mining property. A gas utilization rate of 32%, reduction of gas emission of 0.1% at mining faces, and reduction of gas drainage drilling lengths are estimated. (NEDO)

  5. Research report of FY 1997 on the environmentally acceptable coal utilization system introduction support project. Demonstration project on simplified desulfurizers; 1997 nendo seika hokokusho. Kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system donyu shien jigyo (kan`i datsuryu setsubi ni kakawaru jissho jigyo)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    To reduce SOx with coal utilization, a desulfurizer is introduced in Thailand as diffusion activities in the demonstration program. The purpose is to reduce the environmental pollutants. For this desulfurizer, lime mud mainly composed of lime stone is used as an absorber. SO2 in the flue gas is absorbed by the slurry of lime mud, to form calcium sulfite. The calcium sulfite blown in the bottom of recycling tank is oxidized by oxygen in the air, to form gypsum. The gypsum is recovered as a by-product. In this fiscal year, a feeder of lime stone, spray nozzles, and various analysis apparatuses were supplied. Supervisors for electric instrumentation/control were also dispatched as well as for main body construction, to carry out the instrumentation setting works, check of sequences, and adjustment of apparatuses. After the test operation, supervisors for the demonstration operation were dispatched up to March 1998, to conduct the cooperation works between Japan and Thailand sides. Thus, successful and successive demonstration operation was confirmed. 21 figs., 6 tabs.

  6. FY 1999 report on the results of the project for support of introduction of the environmentally friendly type coal utilization system. Demonstrative project on the circulating fluidized bed boiler equipment (Zaozhuang mining department, Chaili coal mine); 1999 nendo kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system donyu shien jigyo. Junkan ryudo yuka boira setsubi ni kakawaru jissho jigyo (Soso komukyoku Sairi tanko)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    For the purpose of contributing to the control of emissions of the environmental pollutants associated with the coal utilization and the effective use of energy in China, the demonstrative project was carried out for installation of the circulating fluidized bed boiler, activities for the spread, etc., and the FY 1999 results were reported. As to the trial operation of the boiler partial load zone (40-50%) conducted from October 16 to November 20, 1999, the operation was obliged to be discontinued by the biting of the equipment by foreign substances mixed into the fuel, mixture of low grade oil into the light oil tank for start-up, fixing inside the furnace caused by burning of low grade oil, fluctuations in the water content of fuel sludge, etc. Concerning the trial operation that started on March 2, 2000, operational maintenance of boiler and auxiliary equipment was conducted during the trial operation by China-side persons to confirm the results of the training. Relating to the test to confirm boiler performance made on March 9, by the sampling/analysis of fuel, combustion ash, etc., it was confirmed that specifications for boiler performance were satisfactory. After finishing the trial operation, through the inspection of each part of the plant, it was confirmed that there were no anomalies. (NEDO)

  7. Report on investigations in fiscal 2000 on the projects to support introduction of environment friendly coal utilization system. Green helmet project for briquette production plant - Mae Moh coal mine, Thailand; 2000 nendo kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system donyu shien jigyo chosa hokokusho. Briquette seizo setsubi ni kakawaru green helmet jigyo (Thai koku Mae Moh tanko)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-06-01

    This Green Helmet Project is intended to suppress generation of environment polluting substances in association with coal utilization in Thailand by demonstrating and improving the proliferation infrastructure for the clean coal technology to be used widely in Thailand. The project is also intended to serve for stabilized assurance of energies for Japan. The demonstration project related to briquette manufacturing facilities executed as one of the 'Projects to support introduction of environment friendly coal utilization system' is intended to manufacture at low cost a briquette which is low in odor, free of smoke, and suppressed largely of sulfur oxide generation. The briquette is made by adding clayish minerals, sulfur, a fixing agent and a binder into brown coal being a low grade coal. The project implements proliferation of the technology to reduce environmental load associated with coal utilization in developing countries according to the situation and needs of the counterpart countries. The present project has performed the site surveys and guidance of operation and maintenance techniques as follow-up works of the demonstration project having been completed by cooperation between Japan and Thailand. It is considered that what had been intended in the beginning has been achieved sufficiently. (NEDO)

  8. Research cooperation promoting project in fiscal 1998. Research cooperation related to developing mine resources extraction and treatment technologies of environment harmonizing and high efficiency type; 1998 nendo kenkyu kyoryoku suishin jigyo. Kankyo chowagata kokoritsu kobutsu shigen chushutsu shori gijutsu no kaihatsu ni kansuru kenkyu kyoryoku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    In order to realize more effective utilization of non-ferrous metal resources, joint research cooperation is made with the Republic of Kazakhstan. It is intended that valuable metals (gold, silver, copper, rare metals, and others) contained at large quantity in ore scraps generated in association with mine operation be extracted and recovered efficiently paying considerations to the environment. The treatment process consists of the following conception: raw materials such as ore scraps are leached by sulfuric acid and microorganisms to separate and recover gold and silver; the leach liquor containing valuable metals is extracted by using solvent and recovered of copper and rare metals via an electrolytic process; and the waste water is treated and discharged. Fiscal 1998 has performed studies on the wet treatment system at the site and in Japan, the gold and silver treatment, and the waste water treatment by using samples collected from the site in fiscal 1996. Based on the results of these fundamental studies, a pilot plant was built, and all of the facility fabrication was completed in fiscal 1998. Part of the facilities has been transported to the site. To drive the project forward effectively, materials and items of equipment required for the joint research were procured and transported to the country, and at the same time Kazakhstanian researchers were received in Japan for training. (NEDO)

  9. Report on achievements in proliferation project to introduce environment harmonizing type coal utilization system in fiscal 1998. Joint demonstration project for CMG recovery and utilization system in fiscal 1998; Kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system donyu shien nado fukyu taisaku jigyo. 1998 nendo CMG kaishu riyo system kyodo jissho jigyo seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-09-01

    This paper describes the discussion report for fiscal 1998 on the CMG (coal methane gas) recovery and utilization project to be implemented from fiscal 1998 through fiscal 2002 at Tiefa Mining Bureau of Liaoning Province in China. The Daixing mine was selected as the survey object. The introduced technologies and facilities include test drilling for degassing (medium measure horizontal degassing of 300-m class), induction from degassing holes, fly ash sealing, sealed gas degassing, surveillance and control technologies and facilities. The recovered gas is to be supplied to the cities of Tiefa and Tieling as town gas, for which compressed gas feeding and controlling technologies and facilities will be introduced. This paper lists the gush-out quantity (1,000 Nm{sup 3}), the recovery quantity (1,000 Nm{sup 3}), the recovered gas concentration (%), the utilization quantity (1,000 Nm{sup 3}), and the utilization rate (%). The figures for the respective items before and after the implementation are 128366, 32949, 44.5, 7000, 5, 123500, 43890, 49.1, 39826, and 32. The quantity of gas gushing out at facings decreases in association with increase in the recovered gas quantity, whereas the gas concentration at facings in the Daixing mine in 2003 is estimated to decrease to 0.1%, contributing to safe mining operation. The test drilling for medium measure horizontal degassing expands the degassing assured scope per one test drilling seat, and can reduce the total test drilling length and construction amount. (NEDO)

  10. Research report of FY 1997 on the environmentally acceptable coal utilization system introduction support project. Follow-up project on simplified desulfurizer introduction (Weifang Chemical Industry Works); 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho. Kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system donyu shien jigyo (kan`i datsuryu setsubi ni kakawaru follow up jigyo (Weifang kakohei))

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    To reduce SOx with coal utilization, demonstration projects including diffusion activities of desulfurizers have been conducted. To promote the results of projects, experts for simplified desulfurizers were dispatched, to guide and advise for the operation of facilities introduced in these projects. The purpose of these projects is to diffuse the clean coal technologies, and to support the promotion of environmental measures. The operation conditions of facilities introduced in these projects were surveyed, to provide some guidance and advice for the operation and maintenance. Through the guidance and advice for operation and maintenance, methods of inspection and repair of resin linings at absorbing tower and flue were guided, methods of disassembly/inspection and used part replacement of rotary machines were guided, and screening surveys of absorber, mist eliminator and piping tower were carried out. For the operation techniques, application operation at emergency was not skilled. For the maintenance techniques, understandings were not enough for the equipment configuration and machineries. Nevertheless, these projects are successfully conducted, and the conditions of demonstration operations are satisfied. 33 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Environment-friendly type energy and coordinated community development project. Feasibility study for industrialization of high efficiency waste-fired power generation system (industrial refuse derived fuel and gas turbine combined type); Kankyo chowagata energy community keisei sokushin. Kokoritsu haikibutsu hatsuden (sangyo RDF GT fukugogata) jigyoka FS chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    High efficiency power generation, which is useful for promoting the environment-friendly type energy and coordinated community, is investigated by combining a steam turbine power generation system using the PS-RDF (paper sludge-refuse derived fuel) and a gas turbine (GT) combined cycle. Industrialization plan for processing PS in low cost has been made to ensure the profitability by participating the wholesale power supply under the law of electric power industry. This combined system is similar to the so-called super power generation using municipal garbage, but the lower temperature of steam from GT waste heat boilers (WHB) is super-heated by the flue gas from RDF boiler, which is called advanced power generation system (A.S.S.). The total power generation capacity is 149,000 kW, which consists of three 35,000 kW units of GT and one 44,000 kW unit of steam turbine. When comparing the combined system (A.S.S.) and usual one with the independent installation of the RDF steam power generation system and a GT combined cycle, the A.S.S. provides the repowering efficiency of 7,600 kW output with exactly the same quantity of fuel input as usual one. 71 figs., 31 tabs.

  12. Research report of FY 1997 on the environmentally acceptable coal utilization system introduction support project. Demonstration project of circulating fluidized bed boiler (Jinzhou Coal-Thermal Power Corporation); 1997 nendo seika hokokusho (kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system donyu shien jigyo). Junkan ryudosho boiler ni kakawaru jissho jigyo (Jinzhou netsuden sokoji)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    To verify the clean coal technology to be diffused in China and consolidate its diffusion basis, demonstration project of circulating fluidized bed boiler was conducted through the cooperation with China which is positive in its introduction. This report describes its characteristics. Coal and limestone are supplied in a lower part of combustion chamber, and are mixed with circulating ash by fluidized air for combustion. Densely fluidized bed the same as the bubbling fluidized bed is formed in the lower part of combustion chamber, which provides excellent stability in ignition and combustion. Particles including ash, char and limestone formed during the combustion are discharged into the cyclone through the convection heat transfer part at the outlet of combustion chamber with the combustion gas flow. Since the gas temperature is lowered to 400 to 500degC at the convection heat transfer part, troubles of the ash circulating system can be prevented. The combustion gas separated from ash at the cyclone is discharged through the heat exchanger and precipitator, and the collected ash is returned to the lower part of combustion chamber. In FY 1997, design, fabrication, procurement/inspection, field survey/meeting, survey of visitors/meeting, and education were carried out. 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  13. Environment-friendly type energy and coordinated community development project. Feasibility study for industrialization of high efficiency waste-fired power generation system using general RDF; Kankyo chowagata energy community keisei sokushin. Kokoritsu haikibutsu hatsuden (ippainado RDF riyo) jigyoka FS chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    The refuse-derived fuel (RDF) has been holding public attention not only as the energy resource of stable high calorific value for local energy development, but also as the effective method for waste treatment. As one of the effective utilization methods for waste treatment, this investigation was conducted to industrialize and establish the RDF power generation system, in which power generation and ash treatment are integrated in Tochigi Prefecture which is located inland. The base supply type was adopted as a way of operation from the menu of the electricity wholesale project of Tokyo Electric Power Co. and its rate of operation is 80 percent a year. Then, the fluidized bed combustion method, a dry exhaust gas treatment method, and continuous electric melting furnaces were decided as the RDF power generation system. According to this system, it is possible to obtain 26 percent gross thermal efficiency by conventional generation facilities. It was estimated that the expenses reduction for 15 years will be 17.6 billion yen compared with the ordinary combustion system. Also, the following effects can be expected; the reduction of CO2 emission, improvement of energy efficiency, and the extension of life of landfills capacity. 36 figs., 51 tabs.

  14. Research report of FY 1997 on the environmentally acceptable coal utilization system introduction support project. Follow-up project on circulating fluidized bed boiler introduction (Calaca Batangas Thermal Power Station); 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho. Kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system donyu shien jigyo (junkan ryudosho boiler ni kakawaru follow up jigyo (Calaca Batangas karyoku hatsudensho))

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    For the follow-up project, to promote the diffusion of results of the clean coal technology (CCT) model projects, experts of circulating fluidized bed boilers were dispatched, to guide and advise for the operation of facilities introduced in these projects. The purpose of these projects is to diffuse the CCTs, and to support the promotion of environmental measures. Some guidance and advice about operation processes, data processing, operation regulation, maintenance, and boiler maintenance works were provided to the Ministry of Energy and Electric Power Corporation of the Philippines. Semirara, Malangas, and Samar coals in the Philippines were used for the tests. The boiler facilities could be operated by Philippine operators themselves. Based on the guidance and advice about operation processes, combustion tests using various Philippine coals were also planned and conducted by themselves. The maintenance techniques were transferred to Philippine operators through the inspection, repair and advice. The Philippine side understood the technologies well, and the circulating fluidized bed boiler technology was independently educated in the Philippines. 23 figs., 16 tabs.

  15. Report of the results of the fiscal 1997 regional consortium R and D project. Regional consortium energy field / Development of an environmentally friendly industrial cleaning system using near-critical and supercritical carbon dioxide (first fiscal year); 1997 nendo chiiki consortium kenkyu kaihatsu jigyo. Chiiki consortium energy bun`ya / chorinkai ryutai wo mochiita kankyo chowagata kogyo senjo sochi no kaihatsu (daiichi nendo) seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    In the manufacturing process of semiconductors and in the high tech industry, cleaning is indispensable. At present, when regulation of the use of CFC which used to be much used has been decided on, the conversion to the use of substitutes for CFC cleaning is urgently needed. Transfer to cleaning by water/alcohol/hydrocarbon has been proceeded with, but there are a lot of problems. Out of the development of the cleaning method using supercritical fluid, the paper described the fiscal 1997 result. As to enhancement of efficiency and decrease in size of equipment, a cleaning experiment by high pressure CO2 around the critical point was conducted by integrating nozzle, ultrasonic generator and cavitation generator and adding solvent circulating system. Multi-purpose and energy saving of the equipment were also studied. To establish an analysis method for the cleaning degree, the contaminated component film of trace organic matter with a specified thickness was formed on the silicon wafer, and using the Fourier transform ultrared spectroscopy, a method to determine the film thickness was studied. For the function evaluation for precision machine parts and determination of optimum cleaning conditions, the cleaning/degreasing process of valves were compared with the conventional method. For the product manufacturing, the paper investigated and prepared the data in Japan and from abroad. 55 refs., 79 figs., 18 tabs.

  16. Roles of farmland in and around dwelling places according to the consciousness of inhabitants. Structure of urbanization and environmental planning in the marginal area of town and country; Jumin ishiki ni miru kyojuchi shuhen no nochi no yakuwari. Toshi noson no marginal area n okeru toshika no kozo to kankyo keikaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, H.; Maeyama, T.; Koga, T.; Yayoshi, M.; Terao, T. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-01-30

    A survey was conducted about what consciousness city inhabitants entertain toward farmland in their living quarters or in the vicinity thereof and what evaluation they have of such farmland as compared with the green zones or open spaces. The survey was conducted by soliciting answers to queries from the non-farming urban population in the city-planned area, where there is co-existence of urban living quarters and farmland, and in the out-of-city-plan area, where such co-existence is realizing, in the eastern part of Fukuoka City. As the result of the survey, it was learned that the most important role they expect of the farmland in the vicinity of the urbanized living quarters is that of a pastoral landscape or a green open space, that the farmland has come to occupy a place in the inhabitants` residential environments, that, concerning the utilization of the farmland, they eagerly want to directly purchase produce of agriculture from it or to enjoy it as a citizens` farm usable for recreation, that inhabitants with longer stay therein want more earnestly the buildup of living environments including the farmland. When the answers to queries are broken down by the purpose of land utilization, it is learned that the inhabitants love farmland next to a tree-covered zone, with city parks left to enjoy the third place. 5 refs., 18 figs., 5 tabs.

  17. FY 2000 report on the basic survey to promote Joint Implementation, etc. Environmental improvement and energy conservation measures in Pakistan Steel, a state-run enterprise in Pakistan; 2000 nendo kyodo jisshi nado suishin kiso chosa hokokusho. Pakistan koku kokuei Pakistan Steel ni okeru kankyo kaizen sho energy taisaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    For the state-run plant of Pakistan Steel in Pakistan, an investigational study was conducted on energy conservation and reduction in greenhouse effect gas emission. In the project, energy conservation technology on the following was tried to be introduced: coke oven coal moisture control (CMC) equipment, sintering cooler waste heat recovery equipment, blast furnace hot stove waste heat recovery equipment, blast furnace pulverized coal injection (PCI) equipment, blast furnace top pressure recovery turbine (TRT) equipment, and hot strip mill heating furnace regenerative type burner equipment. Further, in the project on environmental improvement, studies were made on coke oven environmental improvement and blast furnace cast house dust collection. The results of the study indicated that economical effects of the energy conservation project were considered as low because the unit price of energy of Pakistan Steel is low. However, substitution of the low-priced domestic coal for the imported coal has a good effect, and energy conservation in the TRT power generation and by the regenerative type burner produces a highly economical effect. Therefore, Pakistan Steel also agrees to positively promote the project. Moreover, concerning the environmental improvement project, it was considered that the necessity of the project is high in the relation of the coke oven aimed at reducing emissions of toxic substances. (NEDO)

  18. Fiscal 1997 survey report. Survey of the actual state and trend of the environmental regulation in China (area for survey: Hunan Province, Sichuan Province and Chongquing City); 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho. Chugoku ni okeru kankyo kisei no jittai to doko chosa (Chosa taisho chiiki: Hunan sho, Sichuan sho, Chongquing shi)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    In China where approximately 3/4 of the primary energy depends on coal, the survey focused especially on the area around the Yangtze River and the South area which suffer from the serious acid rain caused by combustion of the coal with much sulfur content. The paper surveyed the air pollution in terms of the actual state and trend of the environmental regulation and aimed at collecting the basic data useful in planning the international cooperation of Japan which supports the promotion of CCT introduction/spread to China. The survey was conducted in Yunnan Province, Guangxi Zhaungze, and Guizhou Province in fiscal 1996, and Hunan Province, Sichuan Province, and Chongquing where the problem is the SOx emission in fiscal 1997. The items for survey are economy and industry, energy supply/demand, the actual state of coal production/consumption and coal flow among provinces, etc., SOx emitted from coal combustion facilities, data on dust emission and the state of damages, emission standards, air environmental standards and the present status and subjects of the execution of air environmental regulation/surcharge system, administrative systems and policies on industry/environment, etc. 16 refs., 17 figs., 75 tabs.

  19. Environmental liability on the risk of hazardous meterials. (2). ; Problems and trends in the international companies, especially with regards to the techniques and law of insurances (from the lst international congress on safety science). Kikenbusshitsu risk ni taisuru kankyo sekinin. (2). ; Kokusai hikaku ni okeru mondaiten to keiko, oyobi koreyori shozuru hoken gijutsu to hokenhojo no mondaiten (daiikkai anzen kogaku kokusai kaigi kara shoyaku)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimizu, H. (Yokohama National University, Yokohama (Japan). Faculty of Engineering)

    1991-10-15

    An environmental liability act was promulgated in the European Community where the regulation on air, water, soils and foods, and the liability provisions are increasingly tightened. This paper introduces the Conditions in Germany'' for the circumstances thereabout as seen from the insurance company point of view, using an extract from the presentations at the lst International Safety Engineerings Conference. In Germany, the consciousness to the problem of Altlasten'' (inadequate disposition areas) has been heightened since about 1983. This has made the problems of soil and ground water contamination handled in more advanced ways, whereas the criterion values are not fixed but incessantly revised downwards, causing a situation embarrassing for insurance companies in how to handle liabilities of unspecified number og parties on the pollutions accumulated over many years. The new environmental act is unified under one common concept from the water quality control act to the gene technologies act. For instance in the gene technologies act enforced in July 1990, all the related operations must follow the intentions of the law makers, and are subject to statutory regulations. Liabilities must be fulfilled on any damage that even operators and scientists were not able to be aware of.

  20. FY 1998 survey report on the potential study of cooperation related to the activity implementation joint in 6 countries of Southeast Asia (Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia, Myanmar, Thailand and Malaysia); 1998 nendo Indoshina 6 kakkoku (Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia, Myanmar, Tai oyobi Malaysia) ni okeru energy kankyo kanren kyodo kenkyu jisshi kanosei chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    A potential study in FY 1998 was made of the energy/environment related activity implementation joint (COP3 related AIJ) in 6 Southeast Asian countries. Vietnam is a country which is the lowest in greenhouse effect gas (GHG) emission in the world, but they want the international assistance for their continued development and contribution to the global environment. Laos has to continue their economic development for extermination of poverty and improvement of life level. Accordingly, AIJ has to be the one that supports those and is helpful for both industrial development and environmental improvement. The same in Cambodia as in Laos, AIJ has to be the one that is helpful for both industrial development and promotion of environmental improvement. In Myanmar, GHG emits (CO2 conversion) 94.5% in the agricultural sector where methane is emitted from livestock and rice growing. There, the forest protection plays a big role. In Thailand, the use of land and forest protection are subjects mainly with the heightening of energy efficiency and fuel substitution. Malaysia, of course, promotes the economic development, has the leading GHG policy (traffic management in urban area, etc.), and wants the international technology transfer. (NEDO)

  1. Fiscal 1997 report on the model project for the effective energy consumption in developing countries. Survey of changes of energy conservation technology and environmental protection technology in the oil refining industry in Japan; 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho. Hatten tojokoku energy shohi koritsuka model jigyo (Nippon sekiyu seiseigyo ni okeru sho energy gijutsu to kankyo taisaku gijutsu no hensen chosa hokokusho)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    For global scale measures to be taken for environmental protection, it becomes more and more important in the future to positively transfer and spread energy conservation technologies of Japan to overseas countries. Especially, it is effective for both economic growth in the Asian region and global environmental protection to transfer technologies which the oil refining industry has been developing and accumulating. Energy conservation in the oil refining industry means the energy conservation by strengthening the operational control at the first and second oil crises in the first stage, the energy conservation in the second stage which was accompanied by small and medium scale plant/equipment investments during several years after the first stage, and the energy conservation in the third stage which was accompanied by large scale investments from the first half of the 1980s to the present, resulting in improvement of 40% over before the first oil crisis. As to environmental protection measures, measures to reduce waste from oil refinery against air pollution and water pollution were prepared by the first half of the 1970s, and technologies were established of waste water treatment, flue gas desulfurization and denitrification. A lot of facilities for improvement of product quality and for low pollution were installed. In addition to environmental technologies, also in other industries, there were seen the heightening of thermal efficiency of kiln and thermal efficiency of cooling technique of clinker cooler in the cement industry and the improvement of productivity in the paper/pulp industry. 360 figs., 62 tabs.

  2. Paint indusry and environmental problem. Toryo kogyo to kankyo mondai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osawa, A. (Nippon Oil and Fats Co., Tokyo (Japan))

    1991-10-11

    Relating to the paint industry, introduction was made of environmental problem, particularly trend of the hydrocarbonexhaust regulation, and problem against the global warming gas and acid rain. Environmental pollution matter produced by the paint industry and painting industry being mainly hybrocarbon (organic solvent), the worldwide quantity of hydrocabon exhausted in the atmosphere is estimated to be annually 20 million tons, of which 18%, i.e., an annual quantity of 3.5 million tons is exhausted from the field of paint industry. The role to be played by the paint industry is important for the lowering in pollution by the hydrocarbon. Useful paints for the environmental maintenance comprise high solid paint, aqueous paint, slurry paint, powder paint and UV-hardened paint. The automobile coating is being also changed from the metallic coating to the aqueous coating. Low temperature hardening paint is used for the countermeasures against the global warming gas. For those against the acid rain, urethane hardening, hardening by the acid-epoxy group reaction, hardening by the alkoxyl froup reaction and other hardenings are developed to replace the conventional hardening by the melamine resin for heightening in acidproofness of paint film. 5 ref., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  3. Introduction of environmental endocrine disrupters; Kankyo horumon ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakai, S. [Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, Tokyo (Japan); Hosomi, M. [Tokyo Univ. of Agriculture and Technology, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Technology

    1998-11-05

    This paper describes environmental hormones. Hormones are directly secreted from endocrine gland into blood flow, and play an important role of the differentiation of textures of organisms, reproductive function, metabolism, and adjustment of nervous/immunity system. There are some substances with hormone and anti-hormone reactions within the body of organisms, which are discharged as chemical substances in the natural environment by the artificial production activities. These are extrinsic endocrine disrupters, i.e., environmental hormones. There are 67 kinds of doubtful substances. When the environmental hormones work on the certain reaction stage of hormones, the normal action of hormones is disturbed. Various anomalies of wild animals have been reported in the world, which are suggested to be caused by the environmental hormones. Effects are known on the health of Homo sapiens, such as malignant tumor. In the current stage, test methods are under development, by which the presence of endocrine disruption can be screened. The effects depend on the growing stages of organisms, and it is necessary to consider the effects on various generations. 20 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  4. Arkitektur

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kural, René

    2006-01-01

    Hanamadori Bunka Center , "Kulturcentret for blomster og grønt". Designet af Toyo Ito i samarbejde med bla. Kuwahara, Kanebako, Kankyo Engineering og Atelier Bow-Wow.......Hanamadori Bunka Center , "Kulturcentret for blomster og grønt". Designet af Toyo Ito i samarbejde med bla. Kuwahara, Kanebako, Kankyo Engineering og Atelier Bow-Wow....

  5. nihon no iryo jujisha ni okeru shokugyosei sutoresu

    OpenAIRE

    伊藤, 慎也

    2014-01-01

    主査 : 水野雅文 /タイトル : Occupational stress among healthcare workers in Japan /著者 : Shinya Ito, Shigeru Fujita, Kanako Seto, Takefumi Kitazawa, Kunichika Matsumoto, Tomonori Hasegawa /掲載誌 : Work: A Journal of Prevention, Assessment and Rehabilitation /巻号・発行年等 : 49(2):225-234, 2014 /本文ファイル : 出版者版

  6. Bonded structure application for aircraft. Kokuki ni okeru secchaku gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, O. (Japan Airlines Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))

    1991-01-05

    Adhesives play an important role in a technology of the aircraft structure for which lightness and strength are required. The paper explains the present situation of bonding technology employed for aircraft, the honeycomb structure, production of composite materials and the related problems. Advantages and purposes of employing adhesives as substitutes for fasteners like screws, rivets, etc. are as follows: decreases in stress concentration, weight reduction, smoothing of surfaces, improvement of acoustic fatigue by adhesives flexibility, prevention of gas-liquid leakage. Epoxide adhesives are mainly used for aircraft. Together with tear straps, which are metal-metal bonded to the rear fuselage plate of aircraft, and waffle doublers, an aluminium honeycomb sandwich structure, whose weight is 1/7 of an aluminium plate same in rigidity, is used in such parts of aircraft as spoilers, outer plates of flaps, etc. The problem of the bonded structure is detachment. Therefore, how to prevent, discover and repair it is most important. 3 figs.

  7. Trend survey of the global environment adaptation type industrial technology. Chikyu kankyo tekiogata sangyo gijutsu doko chosa. ; Chikyu kankyo kanren kenkyu doko no chosa (nisanka tanso no kankyo fuka teigensaku ni kansuru chosa kenkyu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-03-01

    The paper studies the measures for reduction of environmental load of CO2 from the standpoint of chemical technology. As for methanol synthesis from CO2, accelerating of the reaction using Cu base compound catalyst is reported. Also, CO2 is methanated at high speed by low temperature waste heat using Ni-La2O3-Ru catalyst. Discussions are given on the subject for development of catalyst reaction relating to hydrogen production technology by methane reforming reaction using steam or CO2. Synthesis of polymetric materials by use of CO2 is also described. The paper mentions that it is indispensable to design high-function electrode and elucidate the reaction mechanism of electrochemical CO2 reduction for electrochemical and photochemical CO2 reduction measures. Moreover, in case of using solar energy, it is required to study photovoltaic excitation process in semiconductor electrode/ electrolyte solution interface. For production of hydrogen from CO2 by photosynthetic organisms and solar energy, the problem is control of inhibiting effect of oxygen combinedly produced. Described are production of polyhydroxy butyric acid and biodegradable polymer from CO2 and hydrogen by bacteria, and CO2 fixation imitating the enzyme reaction. 267 refs., 79 figs., 32 tabs.

  8. Research cooperation in the development of laser radar for environmental measurements. Environmental network; Kankyo keisokuyo laser radar no kaihatsu ni kansuru kenkyu kyoryoku. Kankyo network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    Among the research cooperation in the development of laser radar for environmental measurements with Indonesia between FY 1993 and FY 1996, results of the research and development of the environmental network are summarized. For the environmental information network, the Tokyo NOC is linked as an Internet connection point in Japan with the Jakarta NOC using an international dedicated line with a capacity of 64 Kbps. The Tokyo NOC is linked with domestic environmental information researchers using Internet. Thus, data stored in the data processing system of laser radar can be exchanged, information in both countries can be exchanged using E-mail, and data can be accumulated. For the research cooperation with Indonesia, research of path control and information relay server, research of effective transmission of data on the network, and research of multimedia communication have been conducted. The multimedia communication, distributed processing, and extension of dedicated line network using PPTP have been also conducted. 39 figs., 4 tabs.

  9. Research and development cooperation project on environmental measurement using laser radar in fiscal 1995 (environmental network); Kankyo keisokuyo laser radar no kaihatsu ni kansuru kenkyu kyoryoku (kankyo network)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    As a part of the cooperative work with Indonesia of R and D of a laser radar for environmental measurement, the paper described the development of an environmental network. The field survey was conducted in April, July and December 1995 and in March 1996. For the investigational research, five meetings of the committee and four times of group work were held. The Asian environmental network was studied in terms of its arrangement, operation and management, and the overall network/path control design were being prepared. To make the persons concerned abroad and in Japan understood the APEC Osaka Conference held in November 1995, a homepage APEC `95 Kansai was opened using WWW (World Wide Web, a decentralized hyper media system which can dispatch information to the whole world by network using hyper text). Moreover, in connection with this, a homepage was opened of CICC (Center of the International Cooperation for Computerization, a center controlling the whole Asian environmental information network system where E-mail and data are exchangeable with Indonesia via Tokyo NOC (Network Operation Center)). 49 figs., 8 tabs.

  10. Goal of ISO14001(Environmental management systems). Centering around environmental impact assessment; ISO14001 ( kankyo management system ) no mezashiteirumono. Kankyo eikyo hyoka wo chushin to shite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukushima, T. [Japan Audit and Certification Organization for Environment, Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-11-20

    ISO14001 (Environmental management systems) came into effect internationally on September 1, 1997. The objective is continued improvement of environment to harmonize with continuous development of economy, expecting enterprises to tackle the system voluntarily. The point of ISO14001 and environmental impact assessment, which is the most difficult subject to understand, are described. ISO14001 becomes the subject of inspection and authentication, and sufficient study and preparation are required for the part of enterprises. Enterprises are required to clearly publicize the system as a top management system. `Environmental aspects` and `environmental impact` are analyzed and evaluated, and the process of connecting with the `environment objectives` and `environmental targets` is explained. To grasp environmental aspects, activities and processes by the operation of the enterprise itself must be extracted for the `input` and `output.` The process of `environmental impact assessment` is put in order and shown. 7 figs.

  11. Research and development cooperation project on environmental measurement using laser radar (environmental network) in fiscal 1993; Kankyo keisokuyo laser radar no kaihatsu ni kansuru kenkyu kyoryoku (kankyo network)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-03-01

    For the purpose of contributing to the research cooperation project on the development of a laser radar for environmental measurement, the paper surveyed the present and future trend of the environment related information network in Indonesia. The survey was conducted in terms of a name of the network, the main administration body, the number of users, the utilization status, the use protocol, details of service, domestic mode installation sites and the main administration body, accounting system, types of the network used, reliability and stability of network, limitations on the use and details of the limitation, etc. The plan for expanding telecommunication equipment is being advanced in a very quick tempo. However, there are many problems in digitalization, and it is feared that the plan will be delayed. As to telecommunication quality and connection quality, the telecommunication completion rate, SCR, is very low, approximately 24% on average, which is equal to that around 1990 in Japan. The business service for users is all bureaucratic since they have a lot of applications for the installation piling up with no exception to the rule of developing countries. 23 figs., 10 tabs.

  12. Environmental endocrine disruptors and developmental abnormalities in wildlife; Kankyo horumon (gaiinsei naibunpi kakuran kagaku busshitsu) no kankyo seibutsu ni taisuru eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iguchi, T. [Yokohama City Univ., Yokohama (Japan)

    1998-04-15

    The environmental endocrine disruptor, or the so-called environmental hormone, is outlined. Hormones are secreted from endocrine glands in trace amounts, transported by blood, and exert influence on the target organs and distal cells, this to sustain constancy in living organisms. There are two types: peptide hormones which are rows of amino acids and steroid hormones which are composed of cholesterol. Endocrine disruptors are chemical substances discharged into the environment which, once taken into human organisms, disrupt endocrine systems, some acting like female sex hormones and others resisting male sex hormones. Many a wild animal are found affected by them. They are accumulating in human organisms too. Synthesized chemical substances such as DDT, PCB, dioxins, and alkylphenols present in the water system affect a fish by disrupting its endocrine, immunity, nerve, growth, and regeneration. Embryos and larvae are quite susceptible, easy to turn abnormal. Voices are high across the world for the study of environmental endocrine disruptors. Introduced in this report are some animal experiments, typical cases of impact on the ecosystem, and systems for detecting environmental endocrine disruptors. 36 refs., 1 tab.

  13. For diffusion of environment-friendly products. Environment-friendly shopping campaign; Kankyo ni yasashii shohin no fukyu wo mezashite. Kankyo ni yasashii kaimono undo ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitano, M.

    1996-05-05

    This paper presents the activity of a consumers` organization in Hyogo-ken for diffusion of environment-friendly products. The product evaluation committee lists the concept of such products as follows: less consumption of resources and energy, possible cyclic reuses, reasonable and appropriate package, and less refuse and possible reuse as resource. This committee determines the products to be recommended, based on selection of products and producers, questionnaire answers, and survey results by consumer monitors and specialist group. The current number of recommended products is 24 in group or 312 in brand, and a half of such products are composed of recycled paper, aluminum and plastic products. The recommended products are renewed every two years. Although the recommended products have steadily increased during the activity for 5 years, the kinds of products are insufficient because of high price, less kinds of products, and insufficient PR. Education, wide information supply (symbol mark), and promotion activity for purchase (joint purchase, model shop) are important in the future. 1 fig., 1 tab.

  14. Research result information for agriculture and environment. No.12; Nogyo kankyo kenkyu seika joho. 12

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-26

    Essential purposes of productivity improvement, which human being have desires in agriculture for a long time, can not be discussed without considering relations with the environment, nowadays. In these situations, significant investigations have been created among the researches in the agriculture and environment field in response to the requirements of the time. In this report, results of 41 main researches submitted to the agriculture and environment research promotion conference in FY 1995 are compiled. This field covers the environment and resource characterization, the agrioecology, and the environment assessment and control. The environment and resource characterization field includes studies on the micro-meteorological mechanism of desert expansion due to excess pasturage, the salt removal function of clays, and the protection of ground water quality by grassland. The agrioecology field includes studies on the antimicrobial substance contained in Glycyrrhiza glabra against the soil decease of potatoes caused by Streptomyces scabies and the new plant growth obstruction substance contained in Sphenoclea zeylanica. The environment assessment and control field includes studies on the producing district change prediction of main grains accompanied with global environmental change and the carbon balance in the ecosystem of farm lands and rice fields. This report includes a lot of noticeable papers. 103 figs., 24 tabs.

  15. Idea of environmental catalyst and its application; Kankyo shokubai no hasso to sono riyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inumaru, K. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-20

    The catalyst creating environmental conservation and comfortable environment is generally named an `environmental catalyst (EC).` EC is roughly classified into direct and indirect type ECs. Purification catalysts for automobile exhaust gas, and catalysts for chemical production process are under investigation as direct and indirect type ECs, respectively. The catalyst was found which can remove NOx under the coexistence of oxygen by using hydrocarbon as reductant. In addition, the practical exhaust gas purification catalyst was also developed for lean-burn engines by combining noble metal catalysts with NOx absorbing materials or zeolite superior in reductant adsorbing power. {epsilon}-caprolactam as raw material of nylon 6 is synthesized from cyclohexanoneoxime through Beckmann` rearrangement reaction. Zeolite system solid catalysts using no ammonia are under investigation. An environment-friendly synthesis method using not phosgene but catalyst was proposed for production of dimethyl carbonate. How to utilize catalysts for global material circulation remains unsolved for the future study. 5 refs.

  16. Production technology for actual fields in severe corrosive environments; Fushoku kankyo jitsu fuirudo jisshoka gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takai, T.; Kaneda, E.; Shoda, S.; Tochikawa, T. [Japan National Oil Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-10-30

    Joc has been developing the hardware and software, in corrosion and protection research project which has tree subthema as follows with collaborators. 1. From 1985 JNOC and JRCM have been developing the Coated TBG. Last year, we selected a gas well for the evaluation in Astrakhan Gas Field in Russia where production gas contains 25 % H{sub 2}S, and started the verification test of the corrosion resistance of the Coated TBG. 2. Two new coating technologies (Plasma sintering and YAG-laser cladding technology) are tried to apply for coating of well equipment. The former technology aims at improving erosion-resistance of drilling tools, for instance, blade stabilizer. The later aims to improve erosion-resistance and corrosion-resistance of production equipment which have complex curved surface or narrow sections. 3. JNOC and Nippon Steel have been developing the Material Selection Program for Tubing Strings. The prototype program has been produced, which includes some new items, galvanic corrosion effect in combination strings, corrosion properties of new material (modified 13Cr), reflection on the environments in actual well, and including the material cost. The influence of fluid velocity, WOR and dew point upon the corrosion-rate will be estimated. (author)

  17. Production technology for actual fields in severe corrosive environments; Fushoku kankyo jitsu field jisshoka gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaneda, H.; Ihara, K.; Wasada, N. [Tech. Research Center, Japan National Oil Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-11-10

    Tests and studies were started for the verification of the coated tubing developed using the element technology introduced in the special study `Production Technology in High-Temperature Corrosive Environments`, for the development of oil exploring equipment serviceable in corrosive environments, and for the development of programs for selecting materials for use in corrosive environments. In connection with verification tests, investigations were conducted into the operating fields of domestic oil exploring corporations and into technical literature relating to the deterioration of basic materials in their resistance to SSC, and basic data were accumulated. In the efforts to develop equipment, it was decided that drilling stabilizer blades be developed by plasma sintering, that information be collected concerning technologies relating to functionally gradient materials, and that technologies be developed for YAG-laser cladding of flange seal surfaces and elbow inner surfaces. As for the development of material selecting programs, various tests were conducted into the 13Cr steel and super 13Cr steel for their SSC, total corrosion, and local corrosion, their performance was evaluated, and the limit of their serviceability was determined by mathematical treatment. 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. Chemistry of environmental materials. 3. Substitutive materials of asbestos; Kankyo zairyo no kagaku. Asbesto daitai zairyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujiki, Y. [Kubota Corp., Osaka (Japan)

    1996-03-01

    This paper outlines the synthesis and characteristics of substitutive materials of asbestos. Oxide system fibers are used as substitutes and classified into natural and synthetic fibers. As natural substitute, wollastonite fiber is used, while as synthetic substitute, silicate system, alumina system, zirconia system and potassium titanate system fibers are used. Wollastonite distributes in regional metamorphic rock and contact metamorphic zone between limestone and plutonic rock, and is used as heat insulator and adiabator. Silicate system fiber includes glass fiber, quartz fiber and silica fiber, while alumina system fiber includes alumina/silica fiber and alumina fiber. Glass fiber is composed of non-alkaline boro-silicate glass and classified into lint and staple. As fibers similar to glass staple, rock wool and slag wool are used. Only slag wool is produced in Japan because of its lower cost and higher qualitative stability than those of glass wool. Potassium titanate system fiber offers excellent heat resistance, thermal insulation and frictional resistance. 18 refs., 13 figs., 9 tabs.

  19. Development of an airborne asbestos monitoring system. Taiki kankyo no asbesto monitoring ni kansuru kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takatsuki, H.; Sakai, S.; terazono, A. (Kyoto Univ., Kyoto (Japan). Environment Preservation Center)

    1991-07-10

    In order to develop an airborne asbestos monitoring system, the efficiency of FAM (fibrous aerosol monitor) was evaluated in which the scattered light due to vibration of fibrous particles is detected by applying He-Ne laser to the particles after vibration was induced in them by high voltage quadrupole electrodes. As compared with the data concurrently obtained by phase contrast microscope (PCM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM), no correlation of an asbestos concentration was observed between FAM and PCM in low concentration environment, however, FAM offered comparatively reliable results in high concentration environment. As an asbestos concentration was measured with time by FAM around a duct outlet during removal of sprayed-on asbestos, FAM responded instantaneously to emergent emission of a large amount of asbestos in the event of dust collector failure for example. FAM was thus useful for monitoring asbestos leakage. 8 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. It aims at the environment management ISO acquisition; Kankyo manejimento ISO shutoku mezasu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    Tokyo Metropolis Japanese industry standard investigation meeting Tokyo Metropolis turned the subway to the authentication acquisition of the international standard ISO14001 of the environment management for the public traffic business within the 2000th and it was decided that it grappled. Building of the environment management system intended for Oshima place, which it goes to the inspection of the subway vehicles and the repair. EMS, office work, a train, a car, vehicles electricity and 6 sectional meeting of the construction engineering works were held inside recently, and it decided to proceed with the concrete examination in each sectional meeting to grapple toward the international standard ISO authentication acquisition of the environment management system. The traffic office environment ideology, environment policy of the jurisdiction is settled on in 1999. (translated by NEDO)

  1. Problem on environmental hormone (endocrine disturbing chemicals); Kankyo horumon (naibunpi kakuran kagaku busshitsu) mondai ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tawarada, T. [Kansai Electric Power Co. Inc., Osaka (Japan)

    2000-02-10

    This paper describes a problem on environmental hormone. Various chemicals discharged into environment act as hormone- like or anti-hormone-like substance. Since many such chemicals act as female hormone-like substance, those are called '(exogenous) endocrine disturbing chemicals' or 'environmental hormone'. Such chemicals include already regulated toxic PCB and dioxin, and a large amount of plastic raw materials, plasticizer and surfactant with no acute toxicity. The action mechanism of endocrine disturbing chemicals is as follows. Those bond with acceptors in place of hormone, and give incorrect directions to genes. Those may cause various disorders such as reproduction anomaly, development anomaly, immune toxicity and neuro-toxicity over several ages. For wild animals, some conceivable effects are being revealed. Since living organisms have various specificities and various experiments possible for animals are impossible for mankind, many obscure points remain unsolved. This paper presents various approaches in Japan. (NEDO)

  2. Challenge to issues on global environment. Chikyu kankyo mondai eno torikumi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishida, K.; Nishibori, F. (Kansai Environmental Engineering Center Co. Ltd., Osaka (Japan))

    1994-02-25

    This paper summarizes themes on issues on global environment that Kansai Environmental Engineering Center Co., Ltd. has been commissioned for study. The themes may be listed as follows: transportation, fixation, and deposition of CO2 in the north-west Pacific sea area; development of carbon circulation model; effects of oceans on atmospheric CO2 increase; measurement of chemical substances dissolved in sea water; CO2 photosynthesis with algae; proliferation conditions for Haptophyceae algae and calcification capability of CO2; carbon fixing mechanisms and calcification capability of shellfish; and growth acceleration of trees by utilizing mushroom hyphae, and afforestation techniques. The investigation on the mechanism of circulating carbons in ocean has provided the following results: a low-salt sea area exists as a water mass distribution that has 34.2 psu or lower in a depth of 500 m from 45 degrees to 15 degrees north latitude; the CO2 partial pressure in air on sea surface and in sea water is lower in the sea water (CO2 absorption region) than in the air from 45 degrees to 40 degrees north latitude and 8 degrees and lower in south latitude; total carbon distribution is lower in the surface layer, and the higher the deeper; phytoplanktons are distributed densely in areas with nutrient salt at somewhat lower levels; and planktons with sizes of 10 micrometer or smaller and 300 micrometer or larger are prevalent in the equatorial regions. 4 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Comprehensive research cooperation in environmental technology in fiscal 1995; 1995 nendo kankyo gijutsu sogo kenkyu kyoryoku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    Cooperative study was conducted on research subjects concerning water pollution preventive technologies in China and Thailand. In China, straw pulp mills were studied which were in the Institute of Light Industry Environmental Protection and the Environmental Engineering Course of Jinghua University. The following studies were jointly conducted: survey of the water quality pollution caused by waste water, investigational study on production technology and waste water treatment technology, extraction of technologies effective to preserve water quality, study/evaluation of economical efficiency of the said technologies, etc. In Thailand, cooperative research was conducted on automatic measuring technology for factory waste water in a model industrial estate of the Thai National Industrial Estate Corporation. Items for the study were a study on measuring technology for water quality environment, an investigation on the status of water quality environment in the model industrial estate, a study on automatic measuring technology for plant waste water, a study on how to use measuring data in the model industrial estate, etc. Every study enabled technical data accumulation at every research institute through field research exchanges. 24 refs., 91 figs., 45 tabs.

  4. Habitability issues for long-term habitation in space ship; Uchusen no kankyo to choki kyoju

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mori, S. [Nagoya University, Nagoya (Japan). Research Institute of Environmental Medicine

    1999-04-05

    The International Space Station which will start its actual operation in 2004, provides a big step for human beings to expand their habitation territory into space, since it should play a role as a junction port for future shuttle missions between our Earth and the lunar base and also for manned exploration toward Mars. In the present paper, cuurent status of environmental conditions of the space ship and some risks and difficulty which onboard crews may face during their long stay are viewed from biomedical points. (author)

  5. International Symposium for the Promotion of APEC Environmental Technology Exchange; APEC kankyo gijutsu koryu sokushin symposium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-11

    The International Symposium for the Promotion of APEC Environmental Technology Exchange was held under the theme `The function and role expected of the APEC Virtual Center,` with the objectives of clarifying the need for future intra-regional environmental technological exchange, defining the types of information and personnel exchange, and promoting the use of interactive character of the APEC Virtual Center for Environmental Technology Exchange by encouraging access to and participation in the Virtual Center project. It was held in the period of 11th and 12th, November in 1996, at the venue of Rinku International Convention Center in Osaka. The symposium was attended by 477 persons from nine countries, i.e., Australia, Canada, China, Indonesia, Korea, Philippines, Thailand, the US, and Japan, comprising staff members of intra-regional environment-related organizations. After the keynote speech, `Current status and tasks of environmental technology exchange`, and `Expected roles of the Virtual Center for Environmental Technology Exchange` were discussed. During the plenary session, the chairman summarized the symposium. This summary was carried on the Virtual Center homepage of the Internet

  6. Image diagnosis of plant function under environmental pollution. Shokubutsu de kankyo osen wo shindansuru

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omasa, K. (National Inst. for Environmental studies, Tsukuba (Japan))

    1993-12-20

    Various physiological reaction of plants would be obstructed and troubles of their growth would be met under environmental pollution. There are also cases that the polluted materials as nutritious components are absorbed by plants. Consequently, if plant's reaction on this environmental pollution would be used, indexes of environmental pollution and environment can be improved. For examples, Ipomoea Nil and Petunia having high reaction on photochemical oxidate are widely used as index plant of air pollution. Zelkova trees and poplars planted as street trees can also greatly absorbed the polluted gas and have a function to clear air. In this paper, a diagnosis method by visualizing plant's reaction on environmental pollution by using technique of image measurement was explained. As devices of usable image measurement, a thermal camera, a solid measuring cameras, an ultrasonic camera, a multi-spectral camera and an X-ray TV camera were given. 6 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Survey on the information network for environmental technology transfer; Kankyo gijutsu iten joho network chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    In order to promote the interchange of environmental technologies mainly with developing countries (APEC countries), the concrete survey on construction of the information network for technology transfer was carried out. The useful information about environmental technologies for developing countries are not the latest Japanese information but actual field information in practical use which have been developed on the basis of constant improvements. Developing countries want clean technologies with less environmental burden, and difficult-to-obtain information for small and medium-sized businesses. Data were thus collected mainly in the Chubu district, and the information system was composed of an Internet server and in-house LAN. The system featured by easy retrieval and maintenance of the database was adopted. In addition, Internet connection environment and information needs in developing countries were surveyed. Expansion of the database and information supply, and constant addition of fresh information by continuous maintenance are essential in the future. 6 figs.

  8. Plastic packaging materials and environmental problems. Plastic hosozai to kankyo mondai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uemura, T. (Sekisui Plastics Co. Ltd., Osaka (Japan))

    1992-05-01

    This paper describes the recent trends in the environmental problems created from used plastic packaging materials. The 23 wards of the city of Tokyo produce refuses daily of 12,000 tons (1990), with plastics accounting for 15% by volume. Discussions to deal with plastic refuses that are bulky and standing out began as early as in 1971 when the disposal study meeting was inaugurated. As a result, wastes from polyvinyl chloride sheet for agricultural green houses had 40% recovered and recycled out of 100,000 tons generated annually, and styrofoam wastes at 10% of 150,000 tons. The wastes disposal law and the recycling law were established in 1991 aiming at reducing volume of wastes, promoting re-utilization, and assuring appropriate disposal methods and facilities. The Wastes Re-utilization Association was organized to handle styrofoam wastes that are attracting strong attention recently, the association having begun its activities with a good start. It is expected that styrofoam wastes will be molten thermally and regenerated into the same styrofoam products. Styrofoam could be more energy saving and resource saving material than paper cups. 6 refs., 10 figs., 5 tabs.

  9. Environmental problem and geochemistry of rabon. Radon to kankyo mondai (chikyu kagaku ni tsuite)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanai, Y. (Geological Survey of Japan, Tokyo (Japan))

    1991-10-01

    With Effects of radon (Rn) on human body'' installed as a central theme, a summary is explained on the dealings of Rn with human being, method for measuring Rn, origin of Rn, method for treationg Rn in residential housings, Rn and hot spring, and geochemistry of Rn. The U.S. Environmont Protection Agency announced that Rn has a high possibility of causing lung cancers in the living environment, and that among about 130,000 fatalities annually due to lung cancer, about 5,000 to 20,000 are for Rn. If an effective dose equivalent by Rn is assumed 1, that by the Rn daughter nucleus amount to 50, showing how large the latter {prime}s effect is. The life-time risk increment Rn of a lung cancer due to chronic indoor exposure to {sup 222} Rn daughter nuclei at a constant level of 10{sup 5}Bg.h.m{sup {minus}3} annually is 0.26%, the frequency increment is 36 cases, the life expectancy loss {Delta}L, due to this is 14 days. Rn is, however, not simply hazardous, it can present a benefit as in a radioactive hot spring containing Rn at 51-4909 nC,l. 31 refs., 15 figs., 5 tabs.

  10. Restoration of dragonfly habitat; Tonbo no seisoku kankyo to sono saisei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yobu, S. [Kagoshima University, Kagoshima (Japan). Faculty of Agriculture

    1994-08-10

    Activities to build environments where familiar living creatures live have become active among citizen`s communities and local governments. This paper describes the ways to restore waterside ecological environment using dragonfly as a parameter, and examples of the restoration in urban areas, suburban areas and mountain valleys. The importance that comes first is to establish the future image, for which ecological design must be worked on based on surveys of diverse vegetation blocks. Vegetation transition rate is very high in Japan, where grasslands of low height change to high grasslands in two or three years causing change in living creatures that live therein. This condition requires such controls as mowing, felling, and mud dredging. Building an environment where dragonflies can live needs the water quality to have BOD at 10 mg per liter or lower. The egg-laying methods of dragonflies are divided into the water surface striking and egg-laying in plant tissues. It is necessary to prepare environments that suit species, such as stalks of Zizania protruding at watersides that facilitate dragonflies to emerge, grasslands where they find the places easy to live, and adequate degrees of sunlight irradiation. Very small modification of an environment often results in a great effect. 8 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Development and environment of new electric automobile, `Ecovehicle`; Shingata denki jidosha eko vehicle kaihatsu to kankyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimizu, H. [National Inst. for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    This paper introduces history of the development of an electric automobile, `Ecovehicle`. It is provided with a high overall energy efficiency compared with an engine vehicle. The Ecovihicle is 1.2m in width, 3.3m in length, 2 seating capacities and 910kg in overall weight with serially connected 56 batteries of each 4V, 40Ah and having the total weight of 269kg. Its travel distance per charging is 130km at a speed of 80 k.p.h. This vehicle is capable of running with an energy of approximately one third as much as that of a light car. In addition, the vehicle is provided with polycrystal solar batteries placed on 0.6m{sup 2} area on the roof and spoiler generating 60W maximum. Assuming the annual duration of sunshine is 1,800 hours, charging is possible for 63kWh annually. Assuming the charging efficiency is 83%, charging is possible about seven times, which is an equivalent of travelling about 1,000km annually. The characteristics for example are the employment of brushless DC motor, use of energy saving switching element IGBT in order to realize a low level of loss in the inverter, in-wheel motor system, and storage of storage batteries in a hollow aluminum frame installed under the floor. 2 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Report on the invitation program for developing countries concerning technology promotion project of global environmental industry in FY 1997; 1997 nendo chikyu kankyo sangyo gijutsu suishin jigyo ni kakawaru chikyu kankyo kanren gijutsu kaigai kenkyusha shohei jigyo hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    In an effort to help preserve the global environment, International Center for Environmental Technology Transfer (ICETT) contributes to the solution of global environmental problems by promoting research exchanges with developing countries. As a part of this effort, ICETT hosted an environmental development researcher who visited Japan from the Institute of Environmental Research of Chulalongkorn University in Bangkok, Thailand. The invitation was extended at the request of NEDO. During the period of this investigation between September 16 and December 14, 1997, a photocatalyst was prepared and its performance was evaluated under the theme ``Application of photocatalysis to purification of atmospheric environment.`` At the same time, roadside test spots were inspected to study the practical application of optical photocatalysis. The visiting researcher also visited the National Institute for Resources and Environment to discuss with the staff of institute. This helped to deepen understandings of the state of air pollution problems confronting Japan, Europe, and North America, as well as issues related to the technologies that have been developed to solve these problems. The visiting researcher toured the RITE and examined Japan`s progress in the development of environmental control technology through joint research involving government, industry, and academia. At ICETT, the visiting researcher received training in Japan`s approaches to environmental problems in developing countries

  13. Report on Asian Environment Information Network; 'Asia kankyo joho network' ni kansuru hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    The goal is the construction of Asian Environment Information Network (AEInet) in accordance with a contract signed between Indonesia's LIPI (Indonesian Institute of Science) and NEDO under NEDO's Research Cooperation Project Concerning the Development of Environment Measuring Laser Radar (LR). The network is so designed and constituted as to operate on a private line between Indonesia and Japan via IP (Internet protocol) and to enable the exchange on the Internet network of the data collected/analyzed by the Indonesian LR system and of articles of e-mail between scientists of the two countries. The AEInet will be utilized for the collection/analysis of LR-collected data; exchange of observed data and the result of processing; provision of support to environment information scientists in exchanging e-mail and information; and the search of databases for the implementation of the project. In this paper, the outline and functions of the system, network system design, WWW server construction, network operating status, joint researches with Indonesia, etc., are described. (NEDO)

  14. Relationship between depositional environment and potential of lacustrine source rock; Koshosei kongengan no taiseki kankyo to kongengan potensharu no kankei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuga, I.; Hatako, K.; Yokoyama, Y. [Japan National Oil Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-10-30

    In order to clarity the relationship potential of lacustrine source rock and depositional environment, cutting samples of the well drilled offshore Tenasserim, Myanmer were investigated for geochemical analysis. This basin is half-graven type basin formed in Tertiary and consist of terrestrial {approx} shallow marine sediments. According to palaenvironmental analysis, freshwater {approx} brackishwater lacustrine environment was spread during Miocene. Generally, source rock of this lacustrine sediments have high potential that TOC contents are 0.58 {approx} 3.61 % (Fair {approx} Very Good) and HI value area 136 {approx} 686 mg/g (Good {approx} Very Good). It are especially high that source rock potential of lacustrine sediments were influenced by brackishwater. As a results of maceral analysis, it indicated that source rock potential correlate closely with maceral compassion. High potential samples were characterized high amorphinite content. This result suggest that brackishwater influence develop anoxic environment and prevent organic matter from oxidizing. (author)

  15. Research and development of laser radar for environmental measurement. 2; Kankyo keisokuyo laser radar no kenkyu kaihatsu. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    This project was received by Optoelectronic Industry and Technology Development Association from NEDO, and aims to contribute to the improvement of Indonesia's environmental administration through the development of an air pollution observing laser radar (LR) and of an environmental information network system fit for use in the country in cooperation with Indonesian engineers. LRs will be installed at several sites in an urban area where environmental problems are increasingly serious, and a observation network system will be constructed to link the laser radar sites. The observed data will be collected, analyzed, and processed by an observation data processing center for the investigation of the three-dimensional spatial distribution of air pollution to determine the actual state of air pollution over an urban area. The laser radars and the network will be placed in the city of Djakarta. The Indonesian authority responsible for the project is Indonesian Institute of Sciences. In fiscal 1994, part of the equipment (difference absorbing LR) was designed and manufactured, the design of the environmental information network system was developed, and various researches required in this connection were conducted. (NEDO)

  16. Fuji Electric's environmental preservation and energy conservation; Fuji Denki no kankyo hozen to sho energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, M. [Fuji Electric Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    2000-07-10

    Fuji Electric built systems in accordance with the international standard for environmental management ISO14001 to cope well with various environmental problems generated from business activities. Suzuka Factory received recognition in 1995, and all the factories had received recognition by June 1998. After that, the company has systematically improved the system. This paper outlines Fuji Electric's status of global warming prevention and energy conservation as well as activities for reducing environmental load caused by products, chemical substances, and industrial waste, and for environmental preservation. (author)

  17. Environment preservation and energy saving. Local government`s approach (Shiroi town); Kankyo hozen sho energy jichitai no torikumi. Shiroimachi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    Shiroi town, Chiba pref., acquired the certification of the international standard `ISO14001` for global environment preservation first in Japan on Jan 30, 1998. The basic approach is composed of planning of a practicable plan by staff himself (herself), and continuous improvement for fixing it through self-awareness. The degree of achievement of 4 numerical targets planned is as follows. Use of office paper was reduced by nearly 19% against a target of 10%, summing up to nearly 350,000 sheets or nearly 350,000 yen in reduction. Power consumption was reduced by nearly 2% against a target of 1%, nearly 370,000kWh or nearly 540,000 yen in reduction. Use of herbicide was reduced by nearly 98% against a target of 10%, 140,000m{sup 2} or nearly 2,260,000 yen in reduction. Eight low-pollution vehicles were purchased against a target of 7 vehicles. Carbon dioxide emission was reduced by nearly 7,000kg through reduction of power consumption, introduction of a garbage treatment machine, and severe use control of official vehicles. (NEDO)

  18. For certification-registration to ISO14001 `environmental management system`; ISO14001 `kankyo management system` shinsa toroku eno torikumi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terada, H. [Japan Standards Association, Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-04-05

    This paper describes the `Environmental management system` of ISO. This standard was made as a part of the contribution of industries to Rio Summit. It was initially an sustaining standard, and was unified by ISO. Some items to be adapted are required for certification-registration. However, the conditions are judged by the completion and adaptation of system and its effectiveness on the basis of three promises, i.e., continuous improvement, observance of laws, and prevention of pollution, in which the current level is not directly considered. It is significant for the system to define the responsibility, authority, and route of report. It is necessary to identify parameters for monitoring and measuring the operation and activity which provide remarkable environmental impact. Principle of the system introduction is top-down. The decision-making is a premise. The certification-registration recognizes that the environmental management system constructed by company or organization satisfies the required standard, but it does not guarantee the environmental performance. It depends on how to achieve the plan and purpose by using the system. 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Support strengthening of the environment ISO acquisition of the smaller enterprises; Chushokigyo no kankyo ISO shutoku no shien kyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    Tokyo Metropolis Tokyo Metropolis strengthens the support business of the environment load decrease activities for the smaller enterprises. It is because the degree of recognition that it faces in the environment ISO of the smaller enterprises rises the number of applications for 99 is 12 cases of the former year of 2 times by the authentication acquisition aid of the international environment control, inspection standard `ISO14001` begun in 1998. Furthermore, `a simple edition 14001 business` was introduced from April, and what acquired authentication individually on the cost side started support to the smaller enterprises, which it is difficult for, too. A part of the acquisition cost is granted by the authentication acquisition aid. (translated by NEDO)

  20. Project to promote exchange of international information on environmental technologies; Kankyo gijutsu kokusai joho koryu sokushin jigyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Mutual information exchange at international levels is important for practical application of global environment preservation technologies, whereas the APEC Virtual Center was established in fiscal 1997. Fiscal 1998 has discussed the future functions of the Virtual Center, and carried out the following matters to improve the functions and achieve its stable operation. Discussions were given on common use with the centers of other countries and regions of the specifications of classification systems for information areas and provided information that are provided by the Virtual Center. Visits were made to sub-managing countries and regions for smooth operation of the study groups, and opinions were exchanged. Visits were made to coordinators and contact points established in each country and region when the Center was founded in fiscal 1997. A visit was made to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to exchange opinions on coordination measures with the Cleaner Production Strategy of the U.S.A. being a project similar to the subject project. In order to strengthen the Japan's Center, attempts were made to expand the linking information to wider scope. Special pages publishing concentratedly the items of information that the users are interested were prepared as part of the information provision. (NEDO)

  1. New city model with environmental symbiosis and energy conservation; Kankyo kyosei sho energy wo mezashita shintoshi koso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    New city concept is studied from the viewpoints of city economy, environmental symbiosis, energy and resources, transportation, urban disaster prevention, information dissemination, etc. As the result, twelve cluster cities equipped with capabilities of state capital function and administrative business, commerce, interchange of people and goods, and recreational activities are dispersed and distributed to form a double ring, populated by 0.6 million and occupying 7000ha. In a simulation of the heat island phenomenon, the temperature is lowered by 0.2-0.3degC by the dispersion of city functions, and by 0.1-0.15degC by environmental symbiosis-related measures. Primary energy consumption is reduced by 17% by reduced demand for power and heat and energy saving of 15% is attained by recyclable energy utilization and enhanced-efficiency energy supply, all thanks to passive solar systems and higher-efficiency electric machines, photovoltaic power generation, heat pump-aided utilization of waste heat and environmental heat, electrothermal energy supply from the MCFC (molten carbonate fuel cell), etc. 64 refs., 56 figs., 25 tabs.

  2. Advanced high temperature fluid technology development using microgravity environment; Bisho juryoku kankyo riyo kodo koon ryutai gijutsu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    Behavior of gas/liquid two-phase flow in tubes and behavior of air bubbles in liquid were investigated under the microgravity environment without convection by using the drop test facilities of the Japan Microgravity Center. To remove bubbles in the liquid under gravity, the strength of surface tension acting on the gas/liquid interface was made inhomogeneous. In this case, the moving velocity of bubbles on the gas/liquid interface was able to be raised up to the maximum of 2.4 mm/s. For the movement of bubbles in the horizontal direction under the condition of low relative velocity independent of the size of air bubbles in the duct, bubbles moving in the horizontal direction under 1g flowed almost linearly accompanying with the liquid flow. For the air bubble distribution in the bubble flow, where small bubbles flow in the vertical tubes, the fluid pattern of air bubble flow under 1g and {mu}g depended greatly on the initial condition of mixed bubbles. Fundamental data were obtained, as for the transportation and control of multicomponent bubbles, bubbles in the sound field, and bubbles in the liquid phase by magnetic force, and the fluid phenomena of bubbles in the subcool boiling region, a single bubble in the gradient electrical field, and bubbles in the tubes with small diameter. 47 refs., 97 figs., 8 tabs.

  3. Fiscal 1995 geothermal development promotion survey. Natural environment survey report; 1995 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa. Shizen kankyo chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    In Candidate C area for the geothermal development survey, the natural environment was surveyed and `the secondary landscape assessment` was summed up in which places proposed for drilling of large-size wells and for construction of power generation facilities are extracted and a simulation of the landscape is conducted. The area for survey is the Shiramizu-gawa region in the south of Lake Akan, Akan-cho, Akan-gun, Hokkaido. The field survey was carried out about three items of landscape, plants and animals during the June-November period, 1995. As to the flora, diverse florae including vegetation unique to alpine areas, wetlands, and fumarole surrounding areas were found in the region, which is covered with summer-green broad-leaved forests or mixed forests of coniferous and broad-leaved trees. As to the fauna, faunae inhabitant of the highly natural forests were found including black woodpeckers and mountain hawk eagles. As a result of studying the places proposed for geothermal development from the above-mentioned survey, two places were picked up in the west of the survey area, where geothermal development is comparatively less influential in the natural environment and landscape and there is a high locational adaptability. 19 refs., 56 figs., 49 tabs.

  4. Environmental control by biotechnology and ecotechnology, construction of ecopolis. Seibutsu kogaku-seitai kogaku to kankyo joka, Ecopolis no soshutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mori, T. (Shimane Univ., Shimane (Japan). Faculty of Agriculture)

    1992-09-01

    The relationship between environmental control and biotechnology is discussed, and purification of moats and lakes is taken up as a concrete example of introducing biological waste water treatment technology to ecotechnology. In addition, an overall waste disposal system connecting cities and agricultural districts is investigated. After the purification of water and waste problem solution, etc. are discussed, the importance of creating ecopolis and ecotown is described. The 3 concepts of microbial ecotechnology (high densification of organism, field control, interaction between organisms) are used to explain biological treatment technology. Attempts for direct purification and ecotechnology are described quoting a few examples. If waste produced in cities and ligneous materials or charcoal obtained from forests are mixed for treatment, effective waste treatment or new resources production may be possible. It seems to be possible to create ideal ecopolis and ecotown by applying the doctrine of irrigation, drainage and reclamation engineering and the technology established by now. 35 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  5. Plumbing systems to cope with the global environmental age; Chikyu kankyo jidai ni mukete no kyuhaisui eisei system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogawa, M.

    1998-01-05

    Tasks to be fulfilled in relation to the plumbing system for reduction in environmental loads are discussed. They are the effective use of water (saving), extension of equipment life, and the adoption of materials imposing less load on the environment (ecomaterial). In the case of a hot-spring hotel M of Tottori Prefecture, water saving efforts are exerted by guiding the hot-spring water through a radiation coil placed in a fall-provided pond for temperature reduction. In the case of a hot-spring hotel S of Iwate Prefecture, for the effective utilization of hot-spring water gushing out in abundance, a heat exchanger is installed for exchanging heat between the hot spring water and city water. The thus-warmed city water is fed to room baths and to taps in the public bath, and the hot water overflowing the public bath is utilized as the heat source for a wastewater heat recovery heat pump before being discharged into the river. As for equipment life extension, there is for instance the case of vinyl chloride pipe which has been in use for the purpose of cost reduction. Since it is expected that the life of plastic pipes will be more than 10-20 years longer than that of metal pipes, it has become necessary to consider the issue of ecomaterials. 5 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  6. Realization of an accelerator for environmental refreshment in case of soil; Fukyugata kasokuki ni yoru kankyo sosei eno koka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isogai, H. [Electrotechnical Laboratory, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1997-11-25

    Learning from a history of the earth of ancient times, the paper studies effects of refreshing environment and soil or making them natural and harmless mostly using primitive bacteria, and develops element technology which is industrially accelerating. The spread type accelerator working only by solar energy was installed and operated for experiment. As indices of refreshment effects, a study was comparatively made between a sugar degree of sweet potato and a yield shown in the number of potatotimesunit weight. An EM propagation garbage layer is formed, and the two sections were installed of a site of the actual installation of the spread type accelerator and a site naturally left alone. Other effects of weather, temperature and humidity which are external factors and general fertilization are offset as common modes, and a consideration was so made that only refreshment effects of primitive bacteria can be relatively compared. Acceleration effects in using accelerator for growing sweet potato could be quantitatively confirmed. As to sugar degree, because the last study was made in the beginning of summer, the underground temperature was high enough. Even only EM effects were fully effective. This time, the weather was much colder, and it was found to be a must to use accelerator. 2 figs.

  7. Annual energy review-1996; 1996 nen ni okeru juyona energy kankei jiko

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-20

    This paper reviews the important items concerned with energy in 1996. Primary energy supply sums to 529times10{sup 13}kcal increasing by 2.4% over last year. The growth rates of demand over last year are 2.5% in industry use, 3.7% in transport use, 3.7% in home use, and 1.3% in business use. On R & D trend of use technologies of energy resources, the following are described: (1) Petroleum: resource exploitation, transport, stock, refining, and petrochemistry, (2) Coal: resource exploitation, coal structure and property, processing, transport, liquefaction, gasification, carbonization, tar industry, carbon industry, and coal ash utilization, (3) Natural gas: resource exploitation, transport, storage, and conversion technology, (4) Natural energy: hydraulic, solar, geothermal, wind power, oceanic and biomass energies, and (5) Others: waste resources, hydrogen and alcohol. On R & D trend of energy conversion technology, combustion theory, boiler, engine, thermal energy system, and high-efficiency power generation technology are described. Environmental problems and their protective technologies are also described

  8. Technology of latent-heat recovery for boiler system; Boira ni okeru sennetsu kaishu gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moriyama, T. [Tokyo Gas Co. Ltd. (Japan)

    1996-08-01

    The boiler has reached the highest degree of completion among combustion equipment and is highly efficient. In order to enhance its efficiency further, it is ordinary to recover the retention heat of the combustion exhaust gas, but due to the problem of low temperature corrosion caused by the sulfur content in fuel resulted from a temperature drop of the exhaust gas, heat recovery has been done not sufficiently. In this article, an example is introduced to plan the betterment of efficiency by application of a latent heat recovering economizer to a sugar manufactory and a report is made on the energy saving effect by recovering the latent heat and a study on the quality of the material for the latent heat reclaimer. The above latent heat reclaimer is a system which takes advantage of the feature of the natural gas reportedly having no sulfur content, brings down the temperature at the outlet of a heat exchanger of the boiler exhaust gas to below the dew point, thereby recovers the condensed latent heat of the vapor in the exhaust gas and utilizes it for heating up the boiler feed water. In this example, the line of an already installed boiler has been partially modified and only a latent heat reclaimer has been installed newly. The increase of efficiency has been as high as 5.28%. 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  9. Survey of Joint Implementation activities in China; Chugoku ni okeru kyodo jisshi katsudo kanren chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    It is a large task for Japan to positively promote the Joint Implementation activities related to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Rapid increase in the emission of greenhouse-effect gases, especially CO2, is predicted in China with remarkable economic growth and population of 1.2 billion. It is essential to promote the Joint Implementation activities in China. In this survey, framework, organization, problems and tasks were investigated to effectively promote the Joint Implementation activities in China. Construction of framework for the real Joint Implementation activities has been proposed. Current problems for promoting the Joint Implementation activities in China are that the distinct guideline for the Joint Implementation is not established in the government, that the receiving system including receiving, planning and arranging sections is not established, and that the burden problems for the costs of project evaluation, data acquisition, monitoring, and verification are not solved. 5 refs., 21 figs., 6 tabs.

  10. Present status of geothermal power development in Kyushu; Kyushu ni okeru chinetsu hatsuden no genjo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akiyoshi, M. [Kyushu Electric Power Co. Inc., Fukuoka (Japan)

    1997-10-20

    The present situation was introduced of the geothermal power generation in Kyushu. In Kyushu, where there are lots of volcanos and abundant geothermal resources, the geothermal exploration has been made since long ago. Three non-utility use units at three geothermal power generation points and six commercial use units at five points are now in operation in Kyushu. The total output is approximately 210 MW, about 40% of the domestic geothermal power generation. At Otake and Hacchobaru geothermal power plants, the Kyushu Electric Power Company made the geothermal resource exploration through the installation/operation of power generation facilities. At the Otake power plant, a geothermal water type single flashing system was adopted first in the country because of its steam mixed with geothermal water. At the Hacchobaru power plant, adopted were a two-phase flow transportation system and a double flashing system in which the geothermal water separated from primary steam by separator is more reduced in pressure to take out secondary steam. Yamakawa, Ogiri and Takigami power plants are all for the joint exploration. Geothermal developers drill steam wells and generate steam, and the Kyushu Electric Power Company buys the steam and uses it for power generation. 5 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Dissipative structure of mechanically stimulated reaction; Kikaiteki reiki hanno ni okeru san`itsu kozo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hida, M. [Okayama Univ., Okayama (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1994-12-20

    Recently various studies have been conducted concerning the state changes of materials obtained through mechanical alloying (MA) or mechano-chemical (MC) processing. What is noticeable is the quasi-steady state of almost all the materials obtained through various processes including MA and MC, and that the super cooling, supersaturating and high residue distortion realized under unbalanced conditions have not been clarified. In other words, the tracing capability to the external binding conditions is low. In this report, the appearance of the high temperature phase and high pressure phase obtained through MA or MC processing, the forming of amorphous, the mesomerism of the amorphous materials, the interesting phenomena generated by combination between the mechanical disturbance and chemical reactions were discussed with concrete examples, and a steady dissipative organization theory was approached from the viewpoint of dissipative structure development which is equal to the forming process of the quasi-steady phase. 34 refs., 2 figs.

  12. Radio communication for motor sports; Motor sports ni okeru musen tsushin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ota, K. [Kenwood Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    2000-02-01

    This paper describes general radio communication, and radio telephone and data communication for motor sports. The radio communication for racing cars is largely disturbed by car noises and peripheral noises. The adverse effect of noises caused by on-board computer on communication, and that of radio waves on a computer are unavoidable. The radio communication is also disturbed by various radio devices in a racing circuit. As disturbance measures, change of radio frequency and filtering are necessary. For the radio telephone communication between a driver and a manager or a manager and team staffs, a close-talking microphone or a microphone with a noise canceler are used to pick up proper voices from strong roaring. However, although the frequency band of engine noises is nearly equal to that of human voices, separation of voices is extremely difficult. The car data during racing are transmitted rapidly to a pit by microwave communication, and used for the planning of a race strategy in a pit. (NEDO)

  13. Study on the time-domain electromagnetic responses; TDEM ho ni okeru denji oto ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noguchi, K.; Endo, M. [Waseda University, Tokyo (Japan). School of Science and Engineering

    1997-05-27

    With an objective to perform three-dimensional analysis with high accuracy in using the electromagnetic exploration method, characteristics in electromagnetic response were analyzed, and conditions for acquiring necessary data were discussed. The discussion defined a parameter called `response anomaly` which uses response from media to standardize response only from substances with abnormal resistivity. The receivers were located uniformly on the same plane, and the response anomaly was derived from electromagnetic response from each of the three horizontal and vertical components at each receiving point, which was expressed as a contour map. The parameter for the abnormal body was consisted of location and resistivity contrast with media. Discussions using the contour map were given on the response when these factors for the parameter were varied. As a result, it was found that the response anomaly appears in the form that reflects the abnormal body, and the response anomaly of the horizontal component is superior in terms of being large. It was also referred that, as a requirement for the abnormal body which gives larger impact from the electromagnetic response, the abnormal body should have lower resistivity than that in the media, and resistivity contrast with the media should be greater. 2 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Volatiles production from the coking of coal; Sekitan no netsubunkai ni okeru kihatsubun seisei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamashita, Y.; Saito, H.; Inaba, A. [National Institute for Resources and Environment, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    In order to simplify the coke manufacturing process, a coke production mechanism in coal pyrolysis was discussed. Australian bituminous coal which can produce good coke was used for the discussion. At a temperature raising rate of 50{degree}C per minute, coal weight loss increases monotonously. However, in the case of 3{degree}C, the weight loss reaches a peak at a maximum ultimate temperature of about 550{degree}C. The reaction mechanism varies with the temperature raising rates, and in the case of 50{degree}C per minute, volatiles other than CO2 and propane increased. Weight loss of coal at 3{degree}C per minute was caused mainly by methane production at 550{degree}C or lower. When the temperature is raised to 600{degree}C, tar and CO2 increased, and so did the weight loss. Anisotropy was discerned in almost of all coke particles at 450{degree}C, and the anisotropy became remarkable with increase in the maximum ultimate temperature. Coke and volatiles were produced continuously at a temperature raising rate of 50{degree}C per minute, and at 3{degree}C per minute, the production of the coke and volatiles progressed stepwise as the temperature has risen. 7 refs., 6 figs.

  15. Autosolvent effect of bitumen in thermal cracking; Netsubunkai hanno ni okeru bitumen no jiko yobai koka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikuni, M.; Sato, M.; Hattori, H. [Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan). Center for Advanced Research of Energy Technology; Nagaishi, H.; Sasaki, M.; Yoshida, T. [Hokkaido National Industrial Research Institute, Sapporo (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    Tar sand bitumen is petroleum-based ultra-heavy oil, and has a great amount of reserve like coal. However, there are still a lot of problems for its highly effective utilization. This paper discusses whether the light components in bitumen show independent behavior during the thermal cracking of heavy components, or not. Solvent effect and reaction mechanism during the thermal cracking are also derived from the change of their chemical structures. Athabasca tar sand bitumen was separated into light and heavy fractions by vacuum distillation based on D-1660 of ASTM. Mixtures of the both fractions at various ratios were used as samples. Negative effect of the light fraction on cracking of the heavy fraction was observed with dealkylation and paraffin formation Polymerization of the dealkylated light fraction to the heavy fraction was suggested due to lack of hydrogen in the thermal cracking under nitrogen atmosphere, which resulted in the formation of polymer. 3 refs., 6 figs.

  16. Role of advanced technology in mechanical engineering. Kikai kogaku ni okeru cho no yakuwari

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koda, T. (Mechanical Engineering Lab., Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan))

    1992-10-05

    Since technology prefixed with 'super' is ultra-technology in another word, two kinds of work are introduced, that are on-going in the ultra-technology section in Mechanical Engineering Lab., the Ministry of International Trade and Industry. It is noted therewith that in order to realize 'super', introduction of knowledge of unfamiliar fields to mechanical engineering is one of ways. The first is a research on ion-injection onto solid surfaces by introducing quantum mechanics to mechanical engineering. Possibility of rotating new materials and physical properties is under investigation using MeV ion injection equipment. The second is a research on named 'cozy machine'. This is an example of introduction of physiological knowledge and is based on the concept that an operator can handle his machine pleasantly if it is controlled with his proper biorhythm. The possibility to form 1/f sway related to being cozy is shown using electrocardiographic signals upon which the interval of an R wave showing the largest amplitude is determined. Rotating machines are controlled in proportion to the potential. 13 refs., 3 figs.

  17. Improvement works of water quality in the enclosed area. Heisasei kaiiki ni okeru suishitsu kaizen jigyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sega, Y. (Ministry of Transport, Tokyo (Japan))

    1993-08-10

    This paper introduces specific examples of measures to preserve and improve water quality as adopted in the harbor environment administration to prevent pollution and create comfortable environments. In the investigation of ocean bottom purification, a test construction has been carried out using a sand covering method at Mikawa Bay. The sand covering method uses good quality sand to cover sludge on the ocean bottom to suppress dissolution of nutrients that have been revolving from the ocean bottom sludge into sea water. The method also reduces dissolved oxygen consumption in sea water by the ocean bottom sludge and improves the water quality in the area and the ecosystems. In the change of ocean bottom sludge quality in vertical distribution in the sand covered area, the COD content decreased more largely than in the current ocean bottom, but it increased more largely with lapse of time during which floating mud has precipitated. The 'sea blue' technology development project intends to implement the following activities compositely: advancement of environment improving technologies that utilize natural purification ability; environmental improvement including sludge dredging, and improving water quality and ocean bottom quality; improvement of green areas that are highly friendly with water; and application of measures to form amenity spaces. 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. Wood bioindustry in the 21st century. 21 seki ni okeru mokuzai bio kogyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haraguchi, T. (Research Association for systematic Utilization of Wood Components, Tokyo (Japan))

    1991-09-01

    For these about ten tears, technology has remarkably made progress to convert chemical contents of wood, i.e., cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin into effective materials. As for the fractionation of wood contents, a mutual bonding is noted to be physically or chemically made respectively among all cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin which are structural contents of wood cell wall. Therefore, each of those contents must be fractionated and separated to be converted and utilized, which methods comprise, among others, digestion and explosive crushing method, acetic acid digestion method, and fine powder saccharification method. For the chemical and biochemical conversion of fractionated contents, it was introduced that the hemicellulose is thoroughly hydrolyzed, converted into monosaccharide xylose, further reduced to xylitol and finally converted into xylooligosaccharide and reduced xylooligosaccharide. Also, butanediol can be biologically produced by conversion. As for the chemical and biochemical conversion and utilization of cellulose, the cellulose can be hydrolyzed to glucose with enzyme to derive sorbitol, acetone and acetic acid by fermentation, and many other kinds of material. 7 refs., 10 figs., 8 tabs.

  19. Wind turbine power generation projects supported by NEDO; NEDO ni okeru furyoku hatsuden shien jigyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higashino, M. [New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo, (Japan)

    1998-09-01

    The long-term energy supply/demand balance prospects, reviewed in 1998, revise the wind turbine power generation target greatly upward to 300,000kW by 2010. Outlined herein are the national wind turbine power generation projects promoted by NEDO. The wind power development field test projects investigated wind conditions in detail at 94 sites, designed systems for 31 sites and installed/operated the systems at 13 sites during the FY1995 - 1998 period. The new energy enterpriser support projects tend to be concentrated in the coastal areas facing the Sea of Japan, from Hokkaido to Tohoku/Hokuriku districts, having an annual average wind velocity in a range from 5.3 to 6.2m/s at a height of 20m from the ground. The wind turbine capacity ranges from 800kW as the minimum eligible level for the national project to 20,000kW. It is expected that the project produces relatively good results at each site. The local new energy introduction promotion projects, supported by local autonomies, have been spreading throughout Japan since FY1997. The locally supported projects are expected to be more profitable than the national projects. 4 figs., 6 tabs.

  20. Exploration under pavement by electromagnetic subsurface profiling. Hosoka ni okeru roban rosho heno haaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaneko, C.; Miyatsu, Y.; Seki, M. (Construction Project Consultant Co. Ltd., Osaka (Japan))

    1994-05-01

    This paper reports explorations on change in roadbeds and subgrades under pavement by means of an electromagnetic wave method (underground radar method). The paper summarizes the measurement principle of this exploration method, the measurement equipment (consisting of a control unit, an antenna unit, and an image output unit), and data analysis and processing. It is indicated that the quality of the exploration result is governed by the antenna used, whereas a reference is shown for selecting antennas according to the exploration objects (embedded pipes, underground cavities, and pavement thickness) and depths of the explorations. The paper then lists examples of explorations conducted by using antennas with a frequency of 500 MHz. The explorations include the following cases: cavities directly below concrete seals (with a thickness of 10 cm), hume pipes (with a diameter of 10 cm) embedded in a depth of 1.1 m under asphalt pavement, clearances existing in subgrades, loosened ground bed believed to have been caused by immersion, and clearances (depth of 70 cm) existing in ground beds behind bridge piers. 5 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Education for hydraulics and pneumatics in Nihon University; Nihon Daigaku ni okeru yukuatsu kyoiku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ouchi, M. [Nihon Univ., Chiba (Japan). Coll. of Industrial Technology

    2000-03-15

    Described herein is education of hydraulics and pneumatics in Nihon University. Department of Mechanical Engineering of Faculty of Production Engineering has been holding up the educational aims of bringing up engineers and researchers who have ability and intelligence to cope with internationalization and contribute to society, and of bringing about creativity, among others. Control equipment is an optional subject for the sophomore class in the second semester, and is centered by mechatronics, including hydraulic and pneumatic control systems and equipment. The related subjects include fluid dynamics, control engineering, system controlling, hydraulic machines, robotics and automobile engineering. The drill course includes disassembling and assembling gear pumps, drills on pneumatic devices, system behavior and mechatronics, experiments on fan and hydraulic control circuits and on servo mechanisms, and machinery designs and drawings. Seminars are led by full-time or part-time lecturers for the themes related to hydraulic power. Many students are interested in hydraulic and pneumatic themes for their graduation theses, because of their relations with control, environments, energy saving and so on. We are now in the age of composite technologies, and hydraulic power basics are prerequisite for engineers, and important for education of students. (NEDO)

  2. Development of a platoon driving AHS; AHS jikkensha ni okeru gunsoko seigyo no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seto, Y.; Inoue, H. [Nissan Motor Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    Nissan and the Public Work Research Institute of the Ministry of Construction are developing an Automated Highway System. We are investigating a longitudinal control system in AHS. In this paper, a vehicle control method using two actuators an engine and a brake, is described. Experimental and simulated results are shown. A Platoon driving control method using road-to-vehicle and vehicle-to-vehicle communication is described. And the influence of the communication on the control performance is shown by experiments and simulation. The effects of the communication device and control device mentioned above are verified by experimental results in an AHS field test conducted in September 1996 on a dosed highway. 5 refs., 8 figs.

  3. Magnetic prospecting in Kaibuki-yama ancient tomb; Kaibukiyama kofun ni okeru zenjiryoku sokutei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishitani, T. [Akita University, Akita (Japan). Mining College

    1996-10-01

    Kaibuki-yama ancient tomb located in Kumeda, Kishiwada City, Osaka has a square shape in the front and an orbicular shape in the rear, which was considered to be made in the 4th century. This ancient tomb has a total length about 135 m, a diameter of orbicular shape in the rear about 82 m, and a height about 9 m, which is a symbolical existence of the Kumeda ancient tombs. Stone chamber and stone casket made of Sanbagawa crystalline schist or rhyolitic-andesitic tuff are expected in this tomb. Magnetic prospecting in this study is accompanied with this survey. A differential type proton magnetometer was used for the measurements, which were conducted using meshes with 1 m edges. A pair of distinct positive and negative magnetic anomalies were observed in the center of orbicular shape in the rear. This coincides with a location of main body buried, which is archaeologically estimated. The magnetic anomaly might be caused by the article buried in the tomb, such as ironware, based on the measurement of magnetic intensity. From the calculated values of magnetic anomaly using a model, the buried article with magnetic anomaly was considered to have a size with length of 1 m, width of 0.1 m, and height of 0.2m. The negative magnetic anomaly could not be explained only by this. It is necessary to consider the other reasons. 8 refs., 8 figs.

  4. Characteristics of microtremors in Hanshin area; Hanshin chiiki ni okeru bido no kihon tokusei nitsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, H.; Suzuki, K.; Yamanaka, H.; Seo, K. [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-01

    To increase general understandings of fundamental characteristics of microtremors in Hanshin area, microtremors have been observed at Sumiyoshi River-side, Rokko Island, and Nishinomiya. Relations were discussed among the stability of predominant period, successive fluctuation and meteorological conditions. For the analysis, cosine-type taper was conducted before and after 10% of the observed records, and Fourier spectrum was calculated by smoothing using Parzen window with a band width 0.3 Hz. Geometrical mean of two components was used as a horizontal component. At the observation points except Sumiyoshi River-side, predominance in the short period side was not distinct, and was not stable due to the successive fluctuation of predominant period. However, there was less successive fluctuation of spectrum ratio between different two points in the band with period more than 1 sec. Since there was a close correlation between the successive fluctuation in this band and the wind velocity or air pressure, the microtremors in this band was affected by a single vibration source. Ground characteristics could be illustrated by the averages of ratio against base points of moving observation. 14 refs.

  5. Detailed seismic intensity in Morioka area; Moriokashi ni okeru shosai shindo bunpu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, T.; Yamamoto, H.; Settai, H. [Iwate University, Iwate (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Yamada, T. [Obayashi Road Construction Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-01

    To reveal a seismic intensity distribution in individual areas, a large-scale detailed seismic intensity survey was conducted in Morioka City through questionnaire, as to the Hokkaido Toho-oki (HE) earthquake occurred on October 4, 1994 with a record of seismic intensity 4 at Morioka, and the Sanriku Haruka-oki (SH) earthquake occurred on December 28, 1994 with a record of seismic intensity 5 at Morioka. A relationship was also examined between the seismic intensity distribution and the properties of shallow basement in Morioka City. The range of seismic intensity was from 2.9 to 4.6 and the difference was 1.7 in the case of HE earthquake, and the range was from 3.1 to 5.0 and the difference was 1.9 in the case of SH earthquake. There were large differences in the seismic intensity at individual points. Morioka City has different geological structures in individual areas. There were differences in the S-wave velocity in the surface layer ranging from 150 to 600 m/sec, which were measured using a plate hammering seismic source at 76 areas in Morioka City. These properties of surface layers were in harmony with the seismic intensity distribution obtained from the questionnaire. For the observation of short frequency microtremors at about 490 points in the city, areas with large amplitudes, mean maximum amplitudes of vertical motion components more than 0.1 mkine were distributed in north-western region and a part of southern region. 4 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Mechatronization of rotating machines in plant; Plant ni okeru kaiten kikai no mechatronics ka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kikuchi, H. [Chiyoda Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1993-10-01

    This paper introduces mechatronization of rotating machines in a plant, with application examples of electronic governors as the main subject. For centrifugal compressors, design and fabrication of anti surging control system have become possible by using a programmable logic controller (PLC) and a distributed control system (DCS) with fine scanning time. An electronic governor for turbine control has been added with a function to control amount of power generated by a motive force recovery device in a flowing catalytic cracking equipment by means of an expander inlet valve. This has made possible to operate the motive force recovery device automatically even under a low load operation. With an electronic governor to control supply and receipt amount of steam to and from an existing plant, the governor valve opening angles were so controlled that actual steam header pressure matches the setting, whereas the steam has become possible to be utilized without waste under normal operation. Operation of a comprehensive compressor/turbine monitoring system on DCS, operation of centrifugal compressors of two casings by using electromagnetic bearings, and motor speed control with use of an inverter heve also become possible. 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Cogeneration system at the Showa Shell Sagamihara shopping center. Sagamihara shopping center ni okeru sekiyu cogeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kameda, H. (Showa Shell Sekiyu K.K., Tokyo (Japan))

    1994-03-31

    This paper introduces a cogeneration system at the Showa Shell Sagamihara Shopping Center. The Center assumes a peak power demand of 4000 kW, thereby using utility power (not connected to the cogeneration system) at 2000 kW, and generating power by using three 1000-kW diesel engine generators. The waste heat utilizing facility consists of three steam waste heat boilers with a capacity of 614 kg/h and a pressure of 9 kg/cm[sup 2]. The steam is used as a heat source for absorption type freezers, and to recover hot water through plate-type heat exchangers. Two after-burning boilers of 2.5 tons/hour are also used to supplement shortage of steam at power peaks for room cooling with the number of boilers adjusted. The absorption-type freezer consists of two steam double-effect 500RTs which perform air conditioning by circulating cold water. A 150 RT motor-driven turbo freezer has also been installed to cover peak power demand in the summer season. All the facilities have been installed in the basement to minimize influence of vibration and noise to the surrounding districts. NOx emission has been suppressed to 400 ppm or lower by means of ammonia reducing denitrification. Low-sulfur heavy oil A is used to reduce SOx emission. The Center has obtained a specific supply permission to supply excess power of 2850 kW after in-house consumption of the power generated in the cogeneration system to the tenant shops in the Center. 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Challenge of the global warming-JAMA. Chikyu ondanka mondai to jidosha sangyo ni okeru torikumi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Y. (Japan Automobile Manufactures Association Inc., Tokyo (Japan))

    1993-04-01

    This paper summarizes the global warming problem challenged by the Japan Automobile Manufacturers Association. An investigative analysis was carried out on CO2 related data. Its gists are described as follows: The rate of contribution to CO2 emission in the automotive sector is about 17%; fuel consumption improvement has long been discussed, but is in a trend of hitting the ceiling because of the needs of mounting gears for safety improvement and of vehicle upsizing; amount of fuels used is increasing year after year; the rate of the increase correlates with the economy growth; the growth of CO2 emission from automobiles would be smaller than the values given in several reports as a result of the Japanese economic growth lower than the anticipation; effects of the fuel consumption improvement are assumed to reduce CO2 emission by several percentage points in 2000; electric vehicles could reduce CO2 emission by 40% per car if nuclear power generation is partly used; fluorocarbon used in the automobile industry is for foaming, rinsing and air conditioners, with its use in the former two applications being planned to be totally abolished; and the problem thereof exists in air conditioners, for which recovery, leakage measures, and conversion to new coolants are being discussed. 12 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Study of active noise control in ducts. Kanrokei ni okeru nodoteki soon seigyo hoho no kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakao, Yoshiatsu

    1988-08-01

    On an active control to reduce noise in ducts, the theoretical and experimental studies of the energies ratio of the noise and the cancelling sound which should be produced by a speaker, were carried out. In case the cancelling sound was produced by the speaker which was set in the branch duct, the energies ratio varied with the setting position, the length and the cross section of the branch duct and the frequency of the noise. As the non-dimensional length of the branch duct was drawing near 0.5, the energies ratio became small. But when the non-dimensional length was 0, the ratio did not become smaller than 1. The experimental test confirmed that it was possible to reduce the noise by the cancelling sound which energies ratio was as small as about one hundredth of the noise. In case the noise was the pure sound, and the wave-length was over one fourth of the duct diameter, it was possible to reduce the noise more than 40 dB. And in case the wave-length was one eighth the reduction quantity was about 20 dB. Therefore, in case the noise is the pure sound or close to the pure sound, it is possible to apply the active noise control. 5 references, 23 figures.

  10. Refraction experiment in the Kobe-Hanshin area; Kobe Hanshin kan ni okeru kussetsuho tansa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koketsu, K. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Earthquake Research Institute

    1996-05-01

    The refraction experiments were conducted to investigate the underground structures reaching the basement by analyzing the results of the artificial earthquakes the explosion earthquake research group produced in City of Kobe and the Hanshin District on December 12 to 15, 1995. Considering that noise level can exceed 1 mkine in an urban area even in the mid-night, the courses of traverse were drawn focusing on Points S2 through S4 and U1. The earthquake waves from Points S2 through S4 are generally low in amplitude. However, the major components of the signals have a dominant frequency exceeding 10Hz, which makes them distinguishable from urban noise having a lower frequency, contrary to the previous indication that such a low-amplitude wave might not be distinguishable. On the other hand, the signals from the explosion at Point 4 in Awaji Island cannot be distinguished in the urban area, even on the nearby course of traverse D. At present, the analytical group is organized to read various phases running and analyze the P-velocity structures. 2 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Load averaging system for co-generation plant; Jikayo hatsuden setsubi ni okeru fuka heijunka system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueno, Y. [Fuji Electric Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-07-30

    MAZDA Motor Corp. planed the construction of a 20.5MW co-generation plant in 1991 for responding to an increase in power demand due to expansion of the Hofu factory. On introduction of this co-generation plant, it was decided that the basic system would adopt the following. (1) A circulating fluidized bed boiler which can be operated by burning multiple kinds of fuels with minimum environmental pollution. (2) A heat accumulation system which can be operated through reception of a constant power from electric power company despite a sudden and wide range change in power demand. (3) A circulating-water exchange heat recovery system which recovers exhaust heat of the turbine plant as the hot water to be utilized for heating and air-conditioning of the factory mainly in winter. Power demand in MAZDA`s Hofu factory changes 15% per minute within a maximum range from 20MW to 8MW. This change is difficult to be followed even by an oil burning boiler excellent in load follow-up. The circulating Fluidized bed boiler employed this time is lower in the follow-up performance than the oil boiler. For the newly schemed plant, however, load averaging system named a heat accumulation system capable of responding fully to the above change has been developed. This co-generation plant satisfied the official inspection before commercial operation according the Ministerial Ordinance in 1993. Since then, with regard to the rapid load following, which was one of the initial targets, operation is now performed steadily. This paper introduces an outline of the system and operation conditions. 10 refs.

  12. Guarantee of property right in opean access systems; Open access ni okeru zaisanken no hosho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maruyama, M. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-12-25

    This paper describes discussions in California of the USA and in Germany concerning the separation of transmission department and forced liberation of transmission network in private electric power companies and the guarantee of property right. In California, the state public utility committee does not have an authority to order the separation of transmission department against electric power companies. It is only the legislature that can conduct the separation of transmission department and the third party access of transmission network based on the expropriation provisions of the constitution. In Germany, the order of separation of transmission department by the readjusting authority contradicts the guarantee of property right in the constitution. The order of third party access also exceeds the range of duty accompanied with the property right, and the procedure of expropriation is necessary for its enforcement. Problems are pointed out in the case when these discussions are applied to the separation of transmission department, third party access, and distribution system in Japan. 3 refs.

  13. Role of geophysical exploration for civil engineering; Doboku chosa ni okeru butsuri tansa no yakuwari

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, S.; Sato, S. [OYO Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-12-01

    This paper describes the current status of applying geophysical exploration to civil engineering works, application examples of latest geophysical exploration technologies in typical civil engineering fields (dams, tunnels, banks, and civil engineering works in urban areas), and of geophysical exploration technologies specially devised at civil engineering work sites. The applications include utilization in rock classification and weathering division, estimation of grouting effect and its injection scope, determination of loosening as a result of tunnel excavation, utilization of the relationship between S-wave velocity and N-value revealed by the standard penetration test, and tunnel front exploration. A well logging technique utilizing boring holes is available as a latest technology. Tomography technology using elastic waves, specific resistance and radar has its application increased as it is used in dams, tunnels, and foundations of other important structures. Attempts are made on application of explorations using the shallow bed reflection method and three-dimensional exploration method. Frequently used technologies include seismic exploration using the refraction method for dams, high-density electric exploration for tunnels, electric exploration for banking, and PS logging using the suspension method for structure foundations. 30 refs., 13 figs., 5 tabs.

  14. Petroleum exploration and production in Japan; Nihon kokunai ni okeru sekiyu tanko to seisan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamon, M.

    2000-02-01

    The production of crude oil was started even in Japan from the nineteenth century to the twentieth century beginning in Niigata Prefecture, and the real petroleum industry was produced. The production has been started even in Akita Prefecture in the age in Taisho and Showa. The petroleum industry in Japan developed from the comparatively old like this. However, it is not very much known generally. Because of the oil of output is fewer than an amount of import from foreign countries. This paper describes oil gas rice pad in Japan and the production situation. (NEDO)

  15. SWD experiment at Southwest Andrews oil field; Nansei Andrews yuden ni okeru SWD jikken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozawa, T.; Tsuru, T. [Japan National Oil Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-04-01

    Seismic while drilling (SWD) is an accurate drilling method by which time-to-depth (T-D) information for determining the accurate bit location and information of bedding boundaries below the bit can be obtained. However, the signal level is rather low compared with the noise generated from the rig during drilling. It is required for improving the S/N ratio to calculate a correlation using reference signals simultaneously acquired using a pilot sensor which is a geophone attached to the rig. Some experiments were conducted in the Southwest Andrews Oil Field. Deterioration of data quality due to the noise particular to the SWD in this oil field could be reduced by proper data acquisition geometry including the minimum offset distance using a geophone array. In order to correct the time, a velocity of P-wave propagating the drill pipe was estimated using auto-correlation of the pilot traces. The S/N ratio was improved by the VSP deconvolution and the stacking effect during VSP-CDP conversion. Thus, could be obtained the accurate T-D information and reflection wave information below the bit. 12 refs., 19 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Noise characterization in SWD survey; SWD ni okeru noise ni kansuru kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuru, T.; Ozawa, T. [Japan National Oil Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-02-01

    SWD (Seismic While Drilling) is located as one kind of the reverse VSP (Vertical Seismic Profiling) technology, and a working drill-bit is used as its energy-source. The SWD is carried out for a check-shot survey as well as a prediction ahead of the bit. The largest advantage of the SWD technology may be a prediction, while drilling, of a drilling hazard such as an abnormal pressure zone. On the other hand, a serious disadvantage exists in the data quality due to a contamination by large noises generated from a working rig, because the SWD survey is done `while drilling`. Regarding the characteristics of these noises, especially the noise received by surface geophones has not been clarified quantitatively yet. Through several field experiments, the authors have evaluated the characteristics. In this paper, the dominant frequency range of the surface geophone noise is discussed. Furthermore, the noise from the mud motor is also discussed. 9 refs., 13 figs.

  17. Steps of radioisotope separation in Japan; Nihon ni okeru doitai bunri no ayumi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakane, Ryohei [Institute of Physical and Chemical Research, Wako, Saitama (Japan); Kitamoto, Asashi; Shimizu, Masami [eds.

    1998-03-01

    The Extraordinary Specialist Committee on Radioisotope Separation of the Atomic Energy Society of Japan has supported various actions on foundation, application and industrialization of the radioisotope separation over past 30 years to continue wide range of actions at a standpoint of specialist, since established in Showa 44 (1969). On June 1993 (Heisei 5), a memorial lecture meeting, as the 100th committee was held at the Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (RIKEN) of Wako-city in Saitama prefecture. At that time, a planning to publish an impressive memorial issue, to prepare orbits and episodes of actions, painful stories and fault examples of developments, and so forth like novels and to use for a future foundation, was determined. For its writing principle, it was settled to the base not to use mathematical equation as possible, to collect the essence like a tale, to collect actual and historical reports, and so on. And, for its writing content, it was determined to report on actual, painful and fault experiences in research and development, on data, topics and human relation, and on what to be remained for references. This book can be used not only for data collected on traces from fundamental to applied studies, technical development for industrialization, and so forth on radioisotope concentration, but also for a knowledge bag to give some hints to a man aiming to overcome a new problem. (G.K.)

  18. Robotics in port construction. Kowan kensetsu ni okeru roboto ka gijutsu ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakai, Hiroshi (Ministry of Transport, Tokyo (Japan))

    1990-02-15

    To cope positively with the problems of securing labor, improving work environment, etc., mechanization and robotics in port and marine development are the urgent subjects. Technologies for robotics of various levels are being developed, coverning data acquisition, processing, display, recording simple automation, and high inteligent fuction which can automatically make such judgement as having been done by man. Some representative cases of technological development in the fields of robotics and mechnization being carried on by the Ports and Harbors Bureau in the Ministry of Transportaion are introduced. Technological develpment required for the mechanization of rubble mound foundation construction work has been carried on. A demonstration test was carried out at Kamaishi Port, proving the practicability of the technology. Robots are developed which can walk on the sea bottom to perform underwater investigation and unmanned operation. Underwater visual device and underwater position measurement device are provided as the supporing systems. Several tests were already performed in actual sea areas and the success of the development was verified. 3 figs.

  19. Moored observation of the Indonesia throughflow; Indonesia tsuka ryuiki ni okeru keiryu kansoku kekka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kashino, Y. [Japan Marine Science and Technology Center, Kanagawa (Japan); Watanabe, H.; Yamaguchi, H. [Sanyo Techno Marine Inc., Tokyo (Japan); Aoyama, M. [Meteorological Research Inst., Tsukuba (Japan); Herunadi, B.; Hartoyo, D.

    1998-10-16

    This paper partially reports the observation in the southern part of the Philippine Sea of the Indonesian throughflow that JAMSTEC performed jointly with the Applied Agency of Indonesian Engineering Evaluation. From February 1994 to June 1995, two mooring systems were established between the Talaud Island and Morotai Islands to examine the ocean variability of the Indonesian throughflow. As a result, a strong northwestward flow (that carries the mixed sea water of intermediate water in the North Pacific and high salt water in the South Pacific) of which the maximum flow velocity reaches 60 m/s in the southern mooring system with the water depth of 300 to 700 m was observed in each winter of 1994 and 1995. A westward flow that carries the South Pacific water toward the Maluku Sea in summer was observed in the southern mooring system. In both mooring systems, oscillation was detected at intervals of approximately 50 days. 36 refs., 15 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Report of radioactivity survey in Kanagawa Prefecture, in 1996; Kanagawaken ni okeru hoshanochosa hokokusho, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    This report summarizes the results of 1-year survey on the radioactivities in foods and environments in Kanagawa Prefecture and the uranium level in the surroundings of Japan Nuclear Fuel Co., Ltd. (JNF), a nuclear fuel processing plant. The survey of radioactivity or radiation level was made in environments and foods including rain water, tap water, agricultural and livestock products, marine products, etc. For these subjects, analysis of nuclides and determination of spatial radiation dose rate were performed using {gamma}-ray spectrometer. Only for rain water, the general {beta} level was also determined. The uranium levels was monitored in river water and bottom materials, soil, Undaria pinnatifida, a seagrass in river mouths, etc. The present results show that there was no problem for all subjects tested in respect of radioactivity. And the uranium level around JNF was also within the normal range. The mean intake of {sup 137}Cs was 0.085 Bq/Kg/day for the residents in the district of Hiratsuka Health Center and 0.077 Bq/Kg/day for those in the Yokohama city. Both levels were slightly higher than the previous ones. The survey results before and after the returns of nuclear powered ship were also within the normal range. (M.N.)

  1. Array TDEM survey at the Yufuin fault; Yufuin danso ni okeru array shiki TDEM tansa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mogi, T. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Tanaka, Y.; Fukuda, Y. [Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan). Faculty of Science; Jomori, N. [Chiba Electric Research Institute Co., Chiba (Japan)

    1996-10-01

    The array arrangement of receivers was studied to improve the resolution of LOTEM (long offset transient electromagnetics) survey. To eliminate the effect of underground structure from a source to a receiving point, continuous array arrangement from a source site is desirable. The survey at the Yufuin fault was carried out by arranging TEM receivers at intervals of 100m from the source. Since the synchronization between transmitting and receiving points by high-precision clock is essential, an amplifier for a flux gate magnetometer capable of measuring at four points at the same time was used. In the south plateau of the Yufuin basin, a relatively high resistivity stratum more than several tens ohm m exists at depth less than several hundreds meter, and a low resistivity stratum less than 10 ohm m exists under that. Those boundary depth increases toward the north up to 950m, and the depth subsequently decreases toward the north until the low resistivity stratum disappears. In addition, the uniform stratum of 1000m deep continues toward the north. Such precise resistivity structure around the fault was obtained by dense arrangement of measuring points. 4 refs., 7 figs.

  2. Fate of dioxins in aquatic environment; Mizukankyo ni okeru dioxin rui no dotai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakurai, T. [National Inst. for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1998-07-10

    Described herein is fate of dioxins in aquatic environments, from their estimated origins to behavior in the food chains. It is considered that dioxins and their congeners generally follow principle of superposition in aquatic environments, although reflecting changed environments they have underwent, in consideration of varying sources from which they originate, and their stability and transport-related properties. Therefore, the multivariable analysis is applied to correspondence of the four major dioxin compounds, which can explain the major concentration changes of the dioxins found in the sediments and soil in Lake Kasumi-ga-ura and the Bay of Tokyo and their peripheries, to their origins. Different dioxins behave differently in the food chains, as revealed by isotope ratios in the ecology. Mathematical models have been developed to estimate concentrations of the various media, and are expected to clarify their behavior in the environments. 32 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Evaluation technology of lead-free solders; Namari free handa zairyo ni okeru hyoka gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamashita, M.; Shiokawa, K. [Fuji Electric Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Ueda, A. [Fuji Electric Corporate Research and Development,Ltd., Kanagawa (Japan)

    2000-09-10

    Solders mainly composed of tin and lead are currently in widespread use in semiconductor devices. However, in view of lead influences on the human body and environmental problems, lead-free solders have been in urgent demand. In this study, aiming to improve the solderability and reliability of a tin-silver solder, one of most promising lead-free solder materials, we have investigated elements to be added. Focusing on typical lead-free tin-silver solders and tin-lead eutectic solders, this paper describes the result of investigations into the mechanical properties solderability, micro structures of the solder materials and gas analysis in soldering. (author)

  4. Problems of adhering organisms in power stations. Hatsudensho ni okeru fuchaku seibutsu no mondai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakaguchi, Isamu (Central Research Inst. of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan))

    1989-01-05

    Much seawater is used in thermal power station in Japan to cool condensers but organisms adhered on the water channel system result many troubles such as increase of flowing resistance, reduction of thermal transfer efficiendy, corrosion or erosion-corrosion of condenser pipes, and cleaning difficulty for periodic inspection. Living organisms range from micro bacteria of 2 mum to oysters and others of about 10cm size. For these reasons, the intake open channel is previously designed to larger size and this margin is called the shellfish allowance. Mussels which adhere most on circulating water channels, are one of Bivalvia, grow to 3-6cm and in maximum case to 9cm in a year. These adhere on the surface base by secreting adhesive disc consisting of byssus. Barnacles are one of Crustacea and their larvas search preferable places as to light, roughness and water flow and can adhere on a place in considerably rapid water flow. Other organisms are bacteria and Hydrozoa. Many problems are caused by these organisms even now. 8 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Measures taken for recycling at beer breweries; Beer kojo ni okeru saishigenka eno torikumi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamazaki, M. [Kirin Breweri Company, Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-08-05

    Full recycling of waste was achieved in our all breweries in 1998. This paper introduces the history to solve the problems relating to waste in our beer brewerise, our basic consideration for recycling, the status of waste generation and recycling activities, our measures taken for recycling and its relating cost, and in addition, the general measures taken by our industry as a whole. (author)

  6. Human physiology and psychology in space flight; Uchu hiko ni okeru ningen no seiri to shinri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murai, T. [National Space Development Agency of Japan, Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-10-05

    Human beings' adaptation to space and the effects on them of a prolonged stay in space are discussed. Some effects may be detrimental to crewmen even when they are medically judged as 'normal' and 'adaptable.' Bone deliming, muscular atrophy, and hypodynamia may be physiologically 'normal' and 'adaptable' in the zero-gravity environment where no strength is required to hold a position or attitude, and they will not cause any serious problems if crewmen are to stay in the zero-gravity environment permanently. Astronauts work on conditions that they return to the earth, however, and they have to stand on their own legs when back on the ground. Such being the case, they in the space vehicle are forced to make efforts at having their bone density and muscular strength sustained. It is inevitable for a space station to be a closed, isolated system, and the crewmen have to live in multinational, multicultural, and multilingual circumstances in case the flight is an international project. They will be exposed to great social and psychological stresses, and their adaptability to such stresses presents an important task. (NEDO)

  7. Use of natural energy in hyper-skyscrapers. Chocho koso kenchiku ni okeru shizen energy riyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unno, K. (Takenaka Komuten Co. Ltd., Osaka (Japan))

    1992-05-30

    Construction of large scale hyper-skyscrapers( more than 500 m high ) by next century is coming to inevitable stage, and the problems regarding supply and consumption of energy/resources together with the use of natural energy in such construction are described. Transport of water at high direction, conformity of supply and save energy are pointed out as problems for supplying water energy. Calculated amount of required electrical energy used by electrical appliances of sky-city ( 1000 m high ) has been about 440,000 KVA, and necessity of autonomous supply network system for electric power and heat supply is stressed. For sky-city, 1000 m, use of new energy( supply of 20% of total electric power is possible with optical generation, wind power generation) and the use of unused energy ( draft generations, generation from refuse incineration, pumped storage generation ) are emphasized. Effective supply of water resource like refuse of waste water is cited. 3 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Port construction projects in Sabah, Malaysia; Malaysia Sabah shu ni okeru kowan koji

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuwaka, M.; Ichinose, Y. [Kawasaki Steel Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-04-15

    This paper introduces civil engineering circumstances in Sabah, Malaysia through harbor constructions in the past decade. The state of Sabah has a large number of good natural harbors with coast lines formed complexly, and these harbors are managed and operated by the Sabah Harbor Department since 1968. The first two-decade long-term plan (1976 to date) has developed major harbors, and the second two-decade plan (1992 to 2012) has selected important harbors and is moving new improvements forward. Export of woods and imports of general consumer goods and industrial products had been the major activities of the ports before the 1980`s, while wood export has changed from logs to lumbers, and palm oil export and fertilizer import have increased after the 1990`s. The paper describes renewal and expansion constructions of harbor facilities at Kota Kinabalu Port, and constructions at the harbor for rationalization in containerization, and for building a movable pier for ferry use. At Lahad Datu Port, constructions for building container yards and new piers are in progress as the expansion constructions as of 1996. Because the construction sites are located in maritime tropical rain forest climate with high temperature and much rainfall, attentions are paid on concrete placement temperatures and quality control. 7 figs.

  9. Advanced technology trend survey of micromachines in Europe; Oshu ni okeru micromachine sentan gijutsu doko chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    In this research survey, the development trend of micromachine technology in Europe was surveyed, development level of micromachine technology of European companies was grasped, and practical application fields of their target were investigated. Technology development level of private companies in Japan`s national projects and practical application fields of Japan`s target were arranged. Trends of micromachine technology development are compared between Japanese companies and European companies. Among micromachine technology development projects in Europe, ``8520 MUST`` is a part of the ESPRIT Project. About 40,000 companies among about 170,000 companies in whole Europe are relating to the MUST Project. The main fields include the manufacturing technology, process control of machines, technology of safety, sensor technology in environmental fields, and automotive technology. The marketing fields of application include the automobile, military technology, home automation, industrial process, medical technology, environmental technology, and games. The results can be compared with the direction of research and development in Japan. 22 figs., 8 tabs.

  10. Solar energy drying for agricultural products. Nosanbutsu kanso ni okeru taiyonetsu riyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Jun' ichi (National Grassland Research Inst., Tochigi, (Japan))

    1989-09-30

    Natural drying was previously used to dry agricultral products but artificial drying is widely used today with the diffusion of agricultural machines. Therefore, solar energy utilization to dry agricultural products depends on how effective solar energy is utilized in addition to the mechanized artificial drying. Further, drying of agricaltural products varies in respective countries and local areas because water content in products varies on weather conditions. Wheats harvested in U.S. contain fewer water content and can be dried for 3 months in a large storing bin by natural ventilation and cn be shortened to 1 month by placing a solar collector before the blower. Many Japanese farmers utilize vinyl houses and drying is made by combining vinyl house, and flat floor type dryer, circulating dryer or rotary stirring dryer. Moreover, 100% utilization of solar enegy results higher cost, so that in many cases, combined utilization with oil firing is made. Moderate heat such as solar energy is suitable for drying of agricultural products to maintain the quality and it is desirable to develop any reasonal technique. 14 refs., 12 fig.

  11. Trend survey of the global environment adaptation type industrial technology. Trend survey of global environment related studies (researches on measureds for reduction of environmental load of CO2); Chikyu kankyo tekiogata sangyo gijutsu doko chosa. Chikyu kankyo kanren kenkyu doko no chosa (nisanka tanso no kankyo fuka teigensaku ni kansuru chosa kenkyu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-03-01

    The paper studies the measures for reduction of environmental load of CO2 from the standpoint of chemical technology. As for methanol synthesis from CO2, accelerating of the reaction using Cu base compound catalyst is reported. Also, CO2 is methanated at high speed by low temperature waste heat using Ni-La2O3-Ru catalyst. Discussions are given on the subject for development of catalyst reaction relating to hydrogen production technology by methane reforming reaction using steam or CO2. Synthesis of polymetric materials by use of CO2 is also described. The paper mentions that it is indispensable to design high-function electrode and elucidate the reaction mechanism of electrochemical CO2 reduction for electrochemical and photochemical CO2 reduction measures. Moreover, in case of using solar energy, it is required to study photovoltaic excitation process in semiconductor electrode/ electrolyte solution interface. For production of hydrogen from CO2 by photosynthetic organisms and solar energy, the problem is control of inhibiting effect of oxygen combinedly produced. Described are production of polyhydroxy butyric acid and biodegradable polymer from CO2 and hydrogen by bacteria, and CO2 fixation imitating the enzyme reaction. 267 refs., 79 figs., 32 tabs.

  12. Fiscal 2000 project for promoting international cooperation for global environment. International information network project for global environment (Survey on information network for environmental technology transfer); 2000 nendo chikyu kankyo kokusai kyoryoku jigyo hokokusho. Chikyu kankyo kokusai joho network jigyo (kankyo gijutsu iten joho network chosa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Environmental technology information database has been shown on Internet for the purpose of transferring environmental technologies; in order to reinforce it this year, a viewpoint was directed to developing countries, with research carried out on the environmental preservation information of the Philippines and Thailand. In the research, in view of promoting cleaner production in developing countries, UNEP regional offices, which are active in the operation, and Asian Development Bank were examined, with their methods, plans and strategies of disseminating the cleaner production surveyed. Also, the database was added with the activities by the organizations concerned in Philippines and Thailand. As for the environmental management system ISO14001, some local governments in Philippines and Thailand will presumably acquire ISO14001 in the future to deal with their environmental management; under the circumstances, Miyama Town was chosen that was first in Mie Prefecture to obtain ISO14001, with the details investigated concerning its environmental policy and the acquisition of ISO14001; and, on the basis of the investigation, a database was prepared so that guidelines for environmental management were provided for the local governments. (NEDO)

  13. FY 1999 survey report on the global environment international cooperation promotion project/global environment international information network project. Survey of the environmental technology transfer information network; 1999 nendo chikyu kankyo kokusai kyoryoku suishin jigyo / chikyu kankyo kokusai joho network jigyo. Kankyo gijutsu inten joho network chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    At International Center for Environmental Technology Transfer, the following were conducted for enrichment of the environmental technology information: surveys of the state of activities in international organizations and developed countries, cleaner production (CP), ISO, etc. and construction of database. As to the reinforcement of environmental preservation technology information database, enrichment of the data on environmental preservation was attempted mainly about ways of thinking of environmental preservation which brought fruitful results to international organizations overseas. The hierarchization/supplementation were conducted of CP databases which attract much attention especially among developing countries. In the survey of models for environmental preservation, autonomous bodies in Mie prefecture and the certified consultant were taken up to study the process up to the acquisition of ISO14001. The database was so made that it can be a guide for the environmental management in autonomous bodies in developing countries. In the CP survey, as to the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), definition/thought were examined in terms of CP, eco-efficiency, pollution prevention, green productivity, etc. (NEDO)

  14. Guarantee of property right in open access systems. Legal study of property right of electric utilities and expropriation; Open access ni okeru zaisanken no hosho. Denki jigyo ni okeru zaisanken to shuyo ni kansuru kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maruyama, M. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-03-01

    A study has been made about the relationship between open access, which has now become an important element of the electric utilities renovation efforts in the U.S. and Europe, and property right. The meaning of open access is to guarantee free access to suppliers by securing fair competition between them through separation of the vertical integration in power transmission and opening the transmission network to final customers. In case of Japan, the U.S., and Germany where private sector suppliers run electric utilities, however, a need arises to consider the property right that such suppliers enjoy as guaranteed by their Constitutions. The outcomes of discussions made in Germany and the State of California were complied, and some conclusions were reached. It constitutes an infringement of their property right for the authorities to order them to allow open access without compensation. In case the authorities use expropriation for the same purpose, they have to make it known clearly that the separation and opening is to the benefit of the public and must compensate fully for their action. There is no problem in giving the authorities the power to force the electric utilities to sign a wheeling contract in case the latter unlawfully rejects to sign one proposed by a wheeling-requesting party. 24 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  15. Looking for mine of the petroleum in China, especially, looking for mine activities in the foreign enterprise; Chukajinminkyowokoku ni okeru sekiyu no tanko. Tokuni gaikokukigyo ni okeru tanko katsudo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirai, Makoto

    1999-01-01

    Modern petroleum industry after the Chinese establishment (1950) rose mainly by the Russian cooperation, and main discovery such as oil field 1959 was made as to the discovery in 1955 oil field. After that, that activities range was limited to middle Kunisaki department land stage by a master though looking for mine which is characteristic of China, development were made by Russian withdrawal and there was discovery such as a task hill oil field in the victory oil field and 1964 big port oil field for 1962 and for 1976. (NEDO)

  16. Study on the optimal control of the ground thermal storage system in the greenhouse. Part 4; Onshitsu ni okeru taiyo energy dochu chikunetsu system ni okeru saiteki seigyo ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, M. [Sanko Air Conditioning Co. Ltd., Osaka (Japan); Nakahara, N. [Kanagawa University, Yokohama (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    Three types of weight in both energy saving and optimum room temperature environment were changed to obtain the optimal control solution of the ground thermal storage system in a greenhouse. The relation diagram between the optimal solution of a performance function, and the state constraints and control function constraints was created in consideration of the energy term in a control function value area and the room temperature environment. As a result, the whole image of the performance function could be grasped in consideration of the energy term with inequality constraints and the room temperature environmental term in this study. The rate of a weighting factor in the performance function significantly influences the optimal solution. The influence on the optimal solution also changes when the optimal room temperature schedule differs. The influence that three types of rising algorithm exert on the convergence and converging speed was investigated. Superiority or inferiority occurs according to the space properties of a performance function. A zigzag method is most disadvantageous. The constraints can be converged to the optimal solution using an SUMT outer point method irrespective of the initial value. 6 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  17. 3D seismic survey in Honjo, Akita. Problems and struggles in acquisition and processing; Akitaken Honjo koku ni okeru sanjigen jishin tansa. Genba sagyo to data shori ni okeru mondaiten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imahori, S.; Kotera, Y.; Nakanishi, T. [Japan Energy Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-05-27

    Honjo mining area where investigations are conducted is hilly and has a complicated terrain with gas pipes buried in the ground just under the access road disabling the proper positioning of shock-generating large excavators or vibrators. Auger`s shallow hole shooting method is used in this survey to execute blastings at 639 points. In this method using charge depths of 4m, different from the conventional method using deeper charge depths (20-25m), surface waves prevail in the shot records giving rise to a new problem of removing them in the stage of data processing. The 2D filter that is a powerful tool in 2D data processing is not available in a 3D-survey where the tracing intervals are irregular in the shot records. In the effort of this time, a window length as a parameter in the direction of time is specified, and the F-X dip filtering method is employed in which any event that linearly continues beyond a certain number of traces in the said window is eliminated as a linear noise. It is recommended that the weighting function be changed in the direction of space since surface wave velocities are different at different locations. 1 fig., 1 tab.

  18. Waste gas treatment technology at steelmaking plants. Seitetsu setsubi ni okeru hai gas shori gijutsu ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, M.; Shimizu, K.; Deshimaru, K.; Watari, S. (Nihon Univ., Narashino, Chiba (Japan). Coll. of Industrial Technology)

    1992-11-30

    A variety of furnaces are employed for steelmaking. The waste gases from these furnaces are used as fuel gases or flared to the atmosphere. For the enhancement of energy efficiency at these plants and the improvement of environment, it is essential to remove the impurities contained in the waste gases, such as soot, dust, NOx and SOx with high efficiency at the lowest possible cost. In coke oven and sintering furnace, soot and dust consisting of sulphuric element, cyanogenic element and fume of alkali metals as main constituents are the subject of treatment, because these elements were contained in the raw materials. And, in blast furnace and LD converter, soot and dust are the subject of treatment because the materials have already been treated under high-temperature and the waste gases contain little chemical impurities consequently. On the other hand, in various combustion furnaces, purified by-product gases, such as the above mentioned BFG (blast furnace gas), LDG (LD converter gas) and COG (coke oven gas), etc., are used frequently and NOx generated by the high-temperature combustion is often the subject of treatment. In this report, the waste gas treatment technology developed by Nippon Steel Corporation for these various furnaces was described. 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Prevention countermeasure for breeding of iron bacteria in ion-exchanged water. Junsui ni okeru tetsu bakuteria hassei boshi taisaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshimura, S. (Nippon Steel Corp., Tokyo (Japan))

    1994-06-01

    The wear troubles of the water-supplying pump as well as water-supplying control valve due to the blocking-up of the strainer caused by the abnormal breeding of iron bacteria in ion-exchanged water have been occurring frequently since several years before in Oita Manufactory of Nippon Steel Corporation. The strainer provided in front of the pumps for supplying the water to each users are blocked up by the iron bacteria bred abnormally in the tanks of ion-exchanged water. Consequently, the cavitation phenomenon of water-supplying pump happens and the inside wear occurs. It is revealed by the results of the examination on the prevention countermeasure for breeding of iron bacteria carried out by the present authors that the destruction and the extinction of the cells are brought about by the concentrated electrification of the iron bacteria due to the electrification in the ion-exchanged water. In this paper, the principles, progress of study and development, the results of the practical tests in respect of prevention countermeasure for breeding of iron bacteria in ion-exchanged water by turning on electricity are described. The conventional means of frequency transformation are used in the experiment, and the betterment such as the increase of capacity of condenser is added because of the high electricity-resistance of ion-exchanged water. 13 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Deep sedimentary structure model beneath the Osaka plain; Osaka heiya ni okeru shinbu chika kozo no model ka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyakoshi, K.; Kagawa, T.; Echigo, T. [Osaka Soil Test, Osaka (Japan)

    1997-05-27

    Restructuring was carried out on a sedimentary basin structure model of the Osaka plain including Osaka Bay by using newly obtained underground structural data. After the Hygoken-nanbu Earthquake of 1995, a large number of underground structure investigations have been performed in Osaka Bay and urban areas of Kobe and Osaka. However, very few surveys have been done in areas peripheral to Osaka Prefecture, such as the Ikoma area. Therefore, an attempt has been made to increase the number of measuring points to acquire underground structural data of these areas. Estimation of basic rock depths has utilized the dominant cycles in H/V spectra obtained from micro vibration survey, and good correlation of the base rock depths derived by a refraction exploration and a deep-bed boring investigation. With regard to bed division and P- and S- wave velocities in sedimentary beds in the Osaka sedimentary basin, an underground structure model was prepared, which was divided into four beds according to the refraction exploration and the micro vibration investigation. Data obtained by using this model agreed well with depth data acquired from physical exploration and other types of investigations. However, no good agreement was recognized in the data for such areas where the basic depth changes abruptly as the Rokko fault and the Osaka bay fault. 6 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Magnetic susceptibility measurements in Yellowstone National Park, USA; Beikoku Yellowstone kokuritsu koen ni okeru genchi jikaritsu sokutei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okuma, S. [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1997-05-27

    For the purpose of interpreting data of the aeromagnetic anomalies in Yellowstone National Park in the U.S.A., in-situ magnetization intensity measurements have been carried out in 1994 and 1995 on geological outcrops of rocks in that area. Comparisons and discussions were given on the measurement results, and existing rock magnetic data and aeromagnetic anomaly data available for the area. Outside the Yellowstone caldera, part of granitic gneisses among the Precambrian granitic gneisses and crystalline schists distributed to the north has an abnormally high magnetization intensity of 1 {times} 10 {sup -2} SI. This could be a powerful anomaly source for the high magnetic anomaly in this area. Paleogene volcanic rocks distributed widely in the eastern part of the park also have magnetization intensity as high as 1 {times} 10 {sup -2} SI or higher, which are also thought a powerful anomaly source in this area. Part of Pleistocene basalts which are exposed partially in the western part of the park has also very high magnetization intensity at 1 {times} 10 {sup -2} SI or higher. This suggests correlation with the magnetic anomaly in the east-west direction distributed in this area. Quaternary rhyolites are more magnetic than Quaternary welded tuffs, which should give greater effects to the magnetic anomaly. 10 refs., 5 figs.

  2. Examination of poisonous gas in Matsumoto city, Nagano Pref.; Matsumotoshi ni okeru yudoku gas chudoku jiko eno taio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furuhata, A. [Nagano Research Inst. for Health and Pollution, Nagano (Japan)

    1996-02-10

    This report explains how the Sanitation and Pollution Laboratory of Nagano Prefecture came to isolate sarin and describes some examples of information gathering efforts which played a very important role in the sarin isolating process. The Matsumoto sarin incident took place late at night of June 27, 1994. The laboratory acting upon a request of the prefectural pollution control section completed its specimen collecting in the afternoon of June 28. In its efforts to search for the casualty-causing substance, the laboratory gathered information from the National Institute of Hygienic Sciences, Japan Poison Information Center, JICST, Matsumoto Health Center, and Professor Naito of the Tsukuba University. Next, the analysis/retrieval team started collecting data from the GC-FPD and GC-MS. The peak in the curve pointed to sarin, and this also made it clear that the substance was neither soman nor tabun. A question remained unanswered as to why sarin, a nerve gas which is a weapon of war, existed in a peaceful castle town of Matsumoto. The greatest difficulty in the sarin isolating process came from the lack of the standard substance to which sarin was to be referred to. Sarin was determined to be the responsible substance only after a general judgement based on the results of comparison with the retention indexes, analysis using the GC-MS (EI) and then GC-MS (CI), and experiments using Japanese cyprinodont. 8 refs., 1 tab.

  3. Studies on reactivity of coal surfaces at low temperature; Teion ni okeru sekitan hyomen no hannosei no kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasuda, H.; Kaiho, M.; Yamada, O.; Soneda, Y.; Kobayashi, M.; Makino, M. [National Institute for Resources and Environment, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    With an objective to learn reactivity of coal at its surface, surfaces of oxidized coal samples were investigated. Miike coal was oxidized by using {sup 18}O2 in a closed loop system. As the reaction progresses, proportion of CO2 including isotopes increased rapidly as a result of oxidation of CO sites existing in the coal and the newly generated C{sup 18}O sites. The oxidizing reaction progressed via oxygen adsorbing sites generated near the surface, and oxygen containing groups. An FT-IR analysis estimated the depth of the oxidized layer to be 10{mu}m or less from particle surface. The oxidized coal was pulverized to see its surface condition. Functional groups introduced by the oxidation enter into the vicinity of the surface in a form to desorb as CO. CO2 is trapped in inner pores. The coal surface was observed by using an atomic force microscope. No observable openings in the pore structure were discerned on the surface before the oxidation, and the structure agrees with a closed pore model. Surface image oxidized in-situ by oxygen for one hour had slight roundness, which led to a supposition of structural change, and changes in the functional group and adsorption species. 7 refs., 5 figs.

  4. Change of unit skeletons during an artificial coalification; Jinko sekitanka katei ni okeru tan`i kokkaku kozo no henka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugimoto, Y.; Miki, Y.; Hayamizu, K. [National Institute of Materials and Chemical Research, Tsukuba (Japan); Okada, K. [Coal Mining Research Center, Tokyo (Japan); Suzuki, Y. [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    In order to obtain knowledge about formation and growth of condensed ring structure in a coalification process, discussions were given on product skeleton structure by using hydrogenation and hydrocracking of heated cellulose. In underwater heating of cellulose, reaction of dehydration has occurred at 200{degree}C or lower, that of decarbonation at 250{degree}C or higher, and that of demethanizing at 300{degree}C, resulting in production of a dark-brown coal-like substance. The substance has lower H/C value and higher O/C value than coal. As the underwater heating temperature rises, the hydrogenation reactivity of the heated substance decreases, and so does the ratio of conversion into toluene solubles. These phenomena are related to strength of cross-linking bond between unit skeleton structures. A substance heated at an underwater heating temperature of 200{degree}C turns toluene-soluble almost completely even during the hydrogenation reaction (350{degree}C for 2 hours), but the soluble product decreases at underwater heating temperatures of 250 and 300{degree}C. However, soluble product of more than 90% was obtained when hydrocracking (at 425{degree}C for one hour) was performed. The toluene-soluble product in the heated substance is only 50% when the underwater heating temperature reaches 350{degree}C even if the hydrocracking is carried out. 3 refs., 5 figs.

  5. Hydrogenolysis reactions characteristics of deashed coal under low temperature; Teionka ni okeru dakkai shoritan no suisoka bunkai hanno tokusei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owada, T.; Mashimo, K.; Wainai, T. [Nihon University, Tokyo (Japan). College of Science and Technology

    1996-10-28

    In relation to coal liquefaction, the effect of inorganic minerals on liquefaction reactivity and the effect of hydrofluoric acid (HF) treatment on organic molecular structure of coals were studied by demineralization of low-rank coals in HCl or HF solution. In experiment, Taiheiyo coal specimen was deashed in HCl solution at 25-70{degree}C for 6 hours while agitating, and in addition, deashed in HF solution. Hydrogenolysis of the deashed coal specimen was conducted using tetralin or methylnaphthalene as solvent under initial hydrogen pressure of 1.96MPa at reaction temperature of 693K for 60min. The experimental results are as follows. The ash content of Taiheiyo coal hardly offers catalysis in hydrogenolysis reaction. Carboxyl group increases in demineralization of coal because of breakage of bridged bonds. Organic structure of coal changes by demineralization in dense HF solution. Change in organic structure of coal by demineralization in dense HF solution is dependent on treatment temperature. 2 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Decay of weak pressure waves in a low pressure tube; Teiatsu kannai ni okeru bisho atsuryokuha no gensui

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takiya, T.; Terada, Y.; Komura, A. [Hitachi Zosen Corp., Osaka (Japan); Higashino, F.; Abe, H. [Tokyo Univ. of Agriculture and Technology, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Technology; Abe, M. [National Lab. for High Energy Physics, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1996-04-25

    The characteristics of pressure wave propagation in a vacuum tube have been investigated experimentally from the viewpoint of vacuum protection in the beam lines of a synchrotrons radiation facility. Baffle plates having a single orifice of 5, 10 or 15 mm in diameter were installed in shock tubes 5 m in length, and 36.6 or 68.8 mm in diameter, in order to show the pressure wave or shock wave propagation as a model for the beam line. To evaluate the decay of pressure waves pressure changes with time at several locations along the side wall as well as at the end wall of the tube were measured. The results show that the effect of the orifices on pressure wave propagation and its decay is significant. The present investigation may contribute to the design and construction of high energy synchrotrons radiation facilities with long beam lines. 11 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Feasibility study of various geophysical methods at the Nojima fault; Nojima danso ni okeru kakushu butsuri tansaho no tekiyo jikken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, T.; Nozaki, K.; Shima, H.; Yamane, M.; Igarashi, T. [OYO Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-05-01

    This paper reports a feasibility study of various geophysical methods at the Nojima fault. A shallow bed investigation (to a depth of several ten meters) was performed at the Nojima-Hirabayashi area, a very shallow bed investigation (to a depth of several meters), a shallow bed investigation and a medium depth bed investigation (to a depth of several hundred meters) at the Kokura area, and a very shallow bed investigation at the Nashimoto area. Combinations of two to four investigation methods were used according to the objectives and depths of the investigations at each area. The combinations were selected from the following methods: seismic investigations (P-wave reflection and N-wave reflection methods), electric investigation using the IP image method, electromagnetic investigation using the VLF method, underground radar investigation, micro-gravity investigation, and gravity investigation. The result may be summarized as follows: in places where a fault forms a boundary between base rocks and a sedimentation bed, it was possible to identify clearly position of the fault, and estimate inclination angles and vertical shift; and during the medium depth investigation at the Kokura area, identification was made on a geological structure (deformation of a sedimentation bed above the base bed) which is important in verifying the nature of an active fault. 2 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Using of the geophysical methods to an investigation in city; Toshi ni okeru butsuri tansaho no tekiyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, S. [Oyo Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-02-10

    Some of the exploration methods are taken up out of the geophysical methods, which have made drastic change by technological advancement, to discuss their technological development and application in cities. The elastic wave exploration is classified into the refraction method which uses refracted waves and the reflection method which utilizes reflected waves. Shallow reflection method allows visual observation of the complex underground structure, and is an excellent exploration method which provides highly accurate data. There are many types in the electrical exploration. New exploration methods have been developed as a result of improvement in the computer performance, advancement in the technology of numerical analysis, and improvement in the performance of exploration equipment, and they are being applied to the electrical exploration in many fields including tunnel and dam construction works. Geotomography is an application of the technology of medical tomography to ground exploration. Underground radar method is a method of investigating the ground structure by radiating electromagnetic waves from the ground surface in similar way to that of the reflection method and capturing the reflected waves from underground. 8 refs., 7 figs.

  9. Education for hydraulics and pneumatics in Nara National College of Technology; Nara Kogyo Koto Senmon Gakko ni okeru yukuatsu kyoiku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayakawa, Y. [Nara Technical Coll., Nara (Japan)

    2000-03-15

    In the electronic control engineering course, basic knowledge is taught for mechanics, electronics/electricity, control, robotics, information processing, etc., with the purpose of bringing up practical mechatronics engineers, and then, training is conducted so that the students are able to deal with these subjects comprehensively. In the subject of hydraulics and pneumatics for the special course, a lecture on hydraulic and pneumatic control is given in the second year, where structures of hydraulic and pneumatic actuators are explained as well as the principle of operation and the control method. As the related experiment, measurement of liquid viscosity coefficient and flow measurement by a Venturi tube are carried out in the fourth year of the regular course. In addition, carried out in the fifth year are the measurement of stress by trailing velocity distribution of an object and the measurement of pressure distribution around a column. As a subject for graduation theses, a mobile carrier for welfare nursing is being developed using a pneumatic actuator. Development of a suitable actuator is also being developed simultaneously. In the education of electronic control engineering, it is essential to give the students understanding of hydraulic and pneumatic actuator control centering on the role of mechatronics. (NEDO)

  10. Water quality and water pollution sources in Poyang lake, China; Poyang ko ni okeru suishitsu chosa to odakugen kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, M. [Shin-Nippon Meteorological and Oceanographical Consultant Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-01-10

    This paper summarizes the current status of water quality and pollution sources in Poyang Lake in China. The lake is located in Chianghsi Province of China, and a largest fresh water lake in China that flows out into the Yangtze river. The basin is surrounded by mountains on three sides and faces the Yangtze on one side, whereas the plains formed by the lake and the rivers flowing in extends in the center of the basin. The plains around the lake has the city of Nanchang, the capital of the province, the city of Jiujiang (both cities have a population of about 4 million, respectively), and four other cities with a size of one million people including Jingdezhen. Water supply system in the basin is used in a 37% area of the urban areas, and no sewage facilities of whatsoever are available as of 1991. The lake has COD of about 3 mg{times}1/l. No severe pollution by organic matters is seen. While the T-P concentration is at a high level, PO4-P is low. Majority of phosphorus flowing into the basin exists in the form trapped in soil particles. In order to maintain the current water quality in the future, waste water treatment is required in the basin. Construction of an oxidation pond in the vast land exposed during the drought period is a measure that can be tackled relatively easily. 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  11. Measurement improvements of heat flux probes for internal combustion engine; Nainen kikan ni okeru netsuryusokukei no kaihatsu to kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tajima, H.; Tasaka, H. [Miyazaki University, Miyazaki (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    In heat flux measurement in engines, material properties of a heat flux probe and numerical prediction of those influence have been discussed rather than practical measurement accuracy. This study featured the process for the quantitative examination of heat flux probes. Although the process required direct comparison among all the probes and additional measurements in a constant volume bomb, precision of heat flux measurement was greatly improved so that the essential characteristics of heat transfer in engines can be detected. 9 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Simulation of speed control in acceleration mode of a heavy duty vehicle; Ogatasha no kasokuji ni okeru shasoku seigyo simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Endo, S.; Ukawa, H. [Isuzu Advanced Engineering Center, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Sanada, K.; Kitagawa, A. [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    A control law of speed of a heavy duty vehicle in acceleration mode is presented, which is an extended version of a control law in deceleration mode proposed by the authors. The control law is based on constant acceleration strategy. Using the control law, target velocity and target distance can be performed. Both control laws for acceleration and deceleration mode can be represented by a unified mathematical formulae. Some simulation results are shown to demonstrate the control performance. 7 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Improvement of vehicle stability in cornering on uneven road; Akuro senkaiji ni okeru sharyo no anzensei kojo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tobimatsu, K.; Harada, M.; Harada, H. [National Defense Academy, Kanagawa (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    The active control of vehicle suspensions and rear wheel steering systems in turning on uneven roads is analyzed by means of LQR control theory, assuming that cornering forces depend on tire normal loads in addition to tire slip angles. The authors quantitatively investigated the effectiveness of the integrated control of the active suspension and the rear wheel steering, comparing the contributions of each individual system. Furthermore, in this paper, the role of the chassis control and driver control are studied in order to improve the stability of vehicle motion disturbed by the road surface. 4 refs., 9 figs.

  14. Seismic reflection survey in Omama fan area, Gunma prefecture; Gunma Omama senjochi ni okeru hanshaho jishin tansa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaguchi, K.; Kano, N.; Yokokura, T.; Kiguchi, T.; Yokota, T.; Matsushima, J. [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1996-10-01

    Seismic reflection survey was performed for the Medial Tectonic Line, an important geological tectonic line in the Kanto plains, at Kushibiki district, Saitama prefecture in the north-western part of the Kanto plains. It was estimated that movements of the basement were different in the individual sides of the active fault. In this study, the seismic reflection survey was performed at the Omama fan area, Gunma prefecture, which is located at the north-eastern extension of the Kushibiki plateau, to grasp the structure of basement to the depth of about 1.0 s of return travel time, and the upper sediments. Two traverse lines passing Ota city, Kiryu city, and Nitta town were used. Southern part of the traverse line-1 was in the bottom land in the middle of Tone river, and northern part was in the Omama fan area. The ground surface along the traverse line was flat. Hachioji heights are the heights elongating in the NW-SE direction and having relative height of 100 to 200 m against the surrounding plain. Another traverse line-2 was set on the steep slope having relative height more than 100 m. The Brute stack time section of each traverse line was characterized by the gradient reflection surface AA of the traverse line-1. It was suggested that the AA or intermittent parts of reflection surfaces deeper than AA may relate to the tectonic lines in the more ancient geological ages. 2 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Fault analysis in the very shallow seismic reflection method; Gokusenso jishin hanshaho ni okeru danso kaiseki. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagumo, S.; Muraoka, S.; Kaida, Y.; Takahashi, T. [OYO Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-01

    To effectively use the very shallow seismic reflection for active fault survey, a method has been investigated by which fault structures can be appropriately reconstructed from the fault information detected in the original records. The first step of reconstructing the fault system from the travel time reflection curve was to grasp an outline of fault structure from the patterns of travel time curve observed in the original record. For the very shallow seismic reflection method, especially, the low velocity layers in a shallow part succeeding from the ground surface made the issue complicated. Then, the travel time reflection curves were calculated in the case of existing several horizontal reflection surfaces in the surface layer. The constant values, mean velocities to the depth at individual reflection surfaces were used for the approximation of velocities. The outline of fault structure was grasped from the observation of original record. Then, the structure was reconstructed from the travel time curves. When the mean velocity in the medium was known, reconstruction of the feature of reflection surfaces from the travel time curves could be determined by simple mapping. When the mean velocity was unknown, it was calculated using the reciprocal travel time from the common reflection surface for individual reflection surfaces. 7 figs.

  16. Study of evaluation for grouting effect in a borehole; Yakueki chunyu koka hyoka gijutsu ni okeru ichikosatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, H.; Matsuo, T. [Fukuoka Municipal Transportation Bureau, Fukuoka (Japan); Yamauchi, Y.; Imanishi, H. [Osaka Soil Test, Osaka (Japan)

    1996-10-01

    For the foundation improvement works by grouting in a borehole, evaluation of grouting effect is one of the most important management items. The grouting design and works are sometimes reconsidered depending on the evaluation of grouting effect during the test injection. The purpose of the evaluation of grouting effect is to grasp the range of improvement and consolidation after the injection, and to judge and estimate the strength and permeability of the consolidation part. This paper describes the judgment method of the strength using PS logging results and borehole televiewer (BHTV) logging results. The reflection intensity (Ir) by the BHTV logging increased after the grouting, which showed a same tendency as that using S-wave and P-wave velocities (Vs and Vp) before and after the grouting. This was considered to demonstrate the grouting effect. A relation was obtained between the Vs, Vp and Ir before and after the grouting, which was expressed by following equation. Ir=0.143{times}Vs-70=0.093{times}Vp-110. The relation with the dynamic elastic coefficient (Ed) was also obtained as follow; Ir=0.0013{times}Ed. 9 figs.

  17. Interaction effects on combustion of alcohol droplet pairs; Alcohol kei nenryo niekiteki no nensho ni okeru kansho koka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okai, K.; Ono, Y.; Moriue, O.; Shiba, S.; Araki, M.; Tsue, M.; Kono, M. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Nomura, H. [Nihon Univ., Chiba (Japan). Coll. of Industrial Technology; Shiga, S. [Gunma University, Gunma (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    2000-02-25

    Experimental investigation was conducted on two droplet-array combustion of methanol and methanol/dodecanol mixture fuels in microgravity. For methanol, effects of ambient pressure and droplet spacing were examined. Results show that the droplet lifetime decreases with increasing spacing at relatively low pressure and the droplet lifetime becomes independent of spacing at higher-subcritical and supercritical pressures. For methanol/dodecanol mixture, effects of pressure, fuel composition were investigated in terms of occurrence of disruption. Disruption of droplet during combustion was demonstrated both for single droplet and droplet pairs. (author)

  18. 1000m depth boring at Inagawa, Hyogo prefecture. 1. Overviews; Hyogoken Inagawamachi ni okeru 1000m boring chosa. 1. Gaiyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, T.; Kusunose, K.; Cho, A.; Tosha, T. [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan); Kiyama, T.; Yamada, F. [Mitsui Construction Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Aizawa, T. [Sancoh Consultants Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-05-01

    Various field experiments were carried out using a 1000m deep borehole at Inagawa town, about 10km north of the focus of the Hanshin-Awaji Great Earthquake and directly above the area where shallow earthquake activities have intermittently occurred. These experiments included stress measurement by hydraulic fracturing, hydrophone-aided VSP, permeability tests and observation of various types of logging. The laboratory experiments were also carried out, including measurement of various properties and stresses of the core samples. The stress-depth relationship, determined by the hydraulic fracturing method, shows that the stress gradient well coincides with the Western Japan standard at a depth up to 700m, whereas it is approximately twice as high as the standard at a depth of 946m, at which core disking and borehole break-out are clearly observed, and hence stresses conceivably concentrate locally. Orientation of the maximum horizontal compressive stress is E-W at a depth of around 600m, but greatly changes to NNW-SSE at a deeper position. 4 refs., 5 figs.

  19. Cut down the peak daytime demand for electricity at the residence; Jutaku ni okeru denryoku fuka heijunka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishihara, O. [Kumamoto University, Kumamoto (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-09-05

    For leveling of power load in small-scale buildings and houses, a test house with actual size was constructed in order to examine soil heat storage system using photovoltaic power generation system and nighttime power. A hundred of polycrystal silicone solar cells with about 5 kW and twenty of amorphous ones were fixed on the roof, to connect with commercial power source by the system interconnection having inverse power flow. For leveling of power load in the periods of heating and cooling, soil heat storage system was applied using nighttime power. Pipes for circulating cooling and heating water were embedded. Heat pump was operated only in the time zone of nighttime power, to obtain cooling and heating source for fan coil unit in the daytime. The sold power was larger than purchased power under continuous cooling condition for twelve hours in summer. Since cooling load was supplied from nighttime power with lower price, there was a large peak cut effect in the daytime. As a result of the tests using a house with actual size, the system was found to be applied practically both in summer and in winter. Effectiveness of peak cut of power load in summer was also provided. 7 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Future vision of advanced telecommunication networks for electric utilities; Denki jigyo ni okeru joho tsushin network no shorai vision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonaru, S.; Ono, K.; Sakai, S.; Kawai, Y.; Tsuboi, A. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan); Manabe, S. [Shikoku Electric Power Co., Inc., Kagawa (Japan); Miki, Y. [Kansai Electric Power Co. Inc., Osaka (Japan)

    1995-06-01

    The vision of an advanced information system is proposed to cope with the future social demand and business environmental change in electric utilities. At the large turning point such as drastic reconsideration of Electricity Utilities Industry Law, further improvement of efficiency and cost reduction are requested as well as business innovation such as proposal of a new business policy. For that purpose utilization of information and its technology is indispensable, and use of multimedia and common information in organization are the future direction for improving information basis. Consequently, free information networks without any limitation due to person and media are necessary, and the following are important: high-speed, high-frequency band, digital, easily connectable and multimedia transmission lines, and cost reduction and high reliability of networks. Based on innovation of information networks and the clear principle on advanced information system, development of new applications by multimedia technologies, diffusion of communication terminals, and promotion of standardization are essential. 60 refs., 30 figs., 5 tabs.

  1. Future petroleum geophysicists and SEGJ; Sekiyu gyokai ni okeru butsuri tansa gijutsusha no shoraizo to Butsuri Tansa Gakkai eno kitai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, A. [Japan Petroleum Exploration Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-08-01

    This paper describes future petroleum geophysicists and an anticipation to SEGJ (The Society of Exploration Geophysicists of Japan). Among various elemental technologies, it is undoubted that three-dimensional seismic exploration would be a main technology for prospecting petroleum gas. In the early stage of three-dimensional exploration, an improvement of accuracy for geological evaluation was a major purpose based on the successful exploratory drilling. In the 1990`s, some companies have a policy in which three-dimensional exploration is initially employed especially for the marine seismic prospecting as a major exploration technology. Since simple structures have been already prospected, it is required to prospect more complicated traps with higher accuracy. It is also required to shorten the turnaround time from the initial prospecting to the start of production. Furthermore, the three-dimensional exploration is used as a control technology for advancing the recovery by improving the accuracy of reservoir management. It is required for the geophysicists to have wide knowledge with keeping original exploration technologies. 2 refs.

  2. Feasibility study on introducing new energy systems into Asian villages; Asia sonraku ni okeru shin energy donyu kanosei chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    For improvement of living standards in unelectrified areas of Asia, the feasibility of new energy power generation systems was surveyed. The degree of electrification of local areas is different every country, and Thailand is ahead of other countries, while Laos and Cambodia are most unelectrified. Power supply of 100W/house seems to be adequate for local areas because of weather condition, housing situation and life-style. Economic support and education on electricity are necessary for poor areas. Although needs for new energy is increasing, the priority is given to industrial and urbanized areas because of cost and investment effects, and remote areas are dependent on grant- in-aid. Resources of photovoltaic, wind power and micro- hydraulic energies are abundant, however, selection of energy and verification of its usability are important, and the local energy density maps were thus prepared. In introduction of new energy, after selection of energy suitable for an area concerned, such geographical and social conditions should be surveyed as road condition, water rights, land utilization, economic support system, policy and intention of inhabitants. 76 refs., 68 figs., 91 tabs.

  3. Rejection of salts in nanofiltration of skim milk; Dasshinyu no nano roka ni okeru enrui no soshiritsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, I.; Kikuchi, M.; Sakurai, K. [Morinaga Milk Industry Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    2000-11-10

    The authors carried out nanofiltration of skim milk and analyzed the salt rejection data using the extended Nernst-Planck equation. The following observed rejections of major constituents in salts were obtained. Na and K: 50 to 60 %, Cl: -5 to 15 %, Ca, Mg and P: > 97 %. It is considered that since Ca and Mg are mostly combined with phosphate and citrate in milk, they were rejected by a sieving effect, thus producing high rejections. Electroneutrality in permeate, and no-electric-current condition in solute flux are observed, respectively. In the subsequent analysis, the authors used a set of proposed assumptions, (1) a complete rejection of solute except Na, K and Cl by the membrane, (2) existence of a fixed charge in skim milk due to impermeable ions of proteins, etc. Rejection of Na, K and Cl calculated from the analysis are in good agreement with those of the experimental data. (author)

  4. Interphase boundary structure and transformation mechanism in diffusional phase transformations; Kakusan hentai ni okeru iso kaimen kozo to hentai kiko

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furuhara, T.; Maki, T. [Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan)

    1997-05-20

    This paper discusses a lattice changing mechanism in diffusional phase transformations (atom diffusion rate determination) based on observations through a high-resolution electron microscope. If a parent phase and a generated phase have different crystal structures, change in lamination occurs as a result of a step generated on a terrace with good consistency moving in the horizontal direction. In addition, it has been thought that removal of atoms occurs due to random diffusion jump in a riser or a kink which has a locally inconsistent structure, and no surface undulations will occur. On the other hand, growth interfaces are consistent in martensite transformation, and atomic correspondence is univocal in the parent phase and the generated phase. Also in diffusion transformation accompanying distribution of displacement type elements, the surface undulations will appear as in the case of the martensite transformation. This fact suggests that, also in the diffusional transformation, not only the terrace interface, but also the riser or kink interface having been thought inconsistent conventionally are all consistent or semi-consistent as in the martensite transformation. It also suggests that lattice correspondence exists between the parent phase and the generated phase. 30 refs., 16 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Superplasticity of low carbon HSLA steel during bainite transformation. Teitanso teigokinko no beinaito hentai ni okeru chososei kyodo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakajima, H.; Yamamoto, S.; Miyaji, H.; Furubayashi, E. (National Research Inst. for Metals, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan))

    1993-12-01

    Recently, the development of high strength low alloy steel (HSLA steel) of untempered type is advanced by using the comparatively high strength and excellent tenacity of the bainite or martensite of carbon remained being transformed. In the present researches, the superplasticity during the bainite transformation due to the continuous cooling and changes of the structure as well as the mechanical properties due to the superplastic deformation are examined with the samples of Mn-Cr-Mo system HSLA steel. The results obtained therefrom are shown as follows. The temperatre range of B[sub S] and bainite transformation is moving to the higher temperature side along with the increasing of the applied stress when it is over 60 MPa. The bainitic structure is composed of the mixture lath-like bainitic ferrite and granular bainitic ferrite in the use of having no applied stress, while the percentage of the latter increases simultaneously with the increasing of the applied stress. Transformation superplastic strain is increasing together with the increasing of the applied stress, and its increasing is over the linear function when the applied stress is above about 50 MPa. 22 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Numerical simulation of coal combustion in circulating fluidized beds; Junkan ryudoso ni okeru sekitan nensho no suchi simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoenfelder, H. [Technical University Hamburg, Hamburg (Germany); Suzuki, Y.; Hatano, H. [National Institute for Resources and Environment, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1997-09-25

    A numerical simulator has been developed, using a one-dimensional heterogeneous reaction model, for circulating fluidized bed combustors. The model is based on the Johnson`s method for modeling circulating fluidized bed combustors operating at low gas velocity, and involves kinetic models of combustion process and fluidization mechanisms in circulating fluidized bed risers. In order to determine rate parameters for coal combustion, Chinese coal is combusted by a circulating fluidized bed combustor of quartz, installed at the National Institute for Resources and Environment. The simulation after parameter-fitting indicates that char produced from coal shows a medium activity for NO reduction and very low activity for N2O reduction. It is also found that reduction of No by CO is very important. The simulator satisfactorily gives gas concentration at the combustor outlet and axial distributions of the vapor component concentrations. 19 refs., 11 figs., 5 tabs.

  7. Education for hydraulics and pneumatics in Nippon Institute of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering; Nippon Kogyo Daigaku ni okeru yukuatsukyoiku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terashima, Y. [Nippon Institute of Technology, Saitama (Japan)

    2000-03-15

    Described herein is education of hydraulics and pneumatics in Nippon Institute of Technology. Department of Mechanical Engineering has fluid dynamics, mechatronics II, air conditioning, heat transfer engineering, and facility and equipment engineering as the themes related to hydraulics and pneumatics. The control engineering courses have the pneumatics-related themes of supply of pneumatic pressure for a short time and methods for cutting off pneumatic pressure when the piston reaches the dead center, as the energy-saving type driving methods for pneumatic cylinders; measurement of frictional force by the experiments on low-friction cylinders; and researches on improvement of stiffness of pneumatic cylinder type actuators for control valves, among others. Students are directly involved in equipment designs, fabrication and experiments. Many machines and facilities are now easily handled, and operated according to manuals. To prepare graduation theses only by the aid of personal computers is not adequate for education of students in this age, when they have less chances for education through experiences in affluent environments. The mechanical engineering students are given chances for practical education through experiments and graduation thesis preparation. However, it is necessary for general engineering students to be more exposed to technical practices. (NEDO)

  8. Non-linear mechanical simulations in space structures engineering; Uchu kozobutsu kogaku ni okeru hisenkei kikai rikigaku simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, K. [Kinki Univ Osaka (Japan)

    1997-08-05

    Space structure engineering comes under the combination of different engineering fields. Role of numerical analysis and simulation is large in space structure engineering. Considering space structure engineering as an application of non-linear mechanical simulation, constrains with simulation technology and analysis examples are explained in this paper. Following important points are confirmed by simulating the motion of membrane under external force acting on inner and outer surfaces at a particular point of square satellite model which rotates in tension membrane. When the external force is removed, each material point and membrane centre move with vibration, however centre of gravity of satellite moves very rapidly along the vertical direction of membrane centre. Further external disturbance (which develops on material points) propagates at all material points and membrane centre as a twisted wave. Maximum relative displacement between inner surface and outer surface decreases with the increment of initial angular velocity but not on the points of upper membrane. Fluctuation of position motion of satellite resulted from external disturbance is become small as initial rotation angular velocity increases. 10 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Education for fluid power in department of mechanical engineering of Sophia University; Jochi Daigaku Kikai kogakuka ni okeru yukuatsu kyooiku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsukiji, T. [Sophia University, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Faculty of Science and Technology

    2000-03-15

    Curricular guidelines are that importance be attached in the educating policy to the primary subjects of study and that compulsory subjects are to be acquired through practice. Out of primary subjects, those which should better be learned by all the students are set as compulsory subjects. Related subjects are divided into fluid-related subjects and control-related subjects. Experiments are conducted of the 'inspection of orifice flowmeter and Bourdon tube pressure gage,' 'fluid friction in round tube,' and 'servo-mechanism.' In a lesson on drafting, hydraulic equipment provided by business corporations is used. It is hoped that educating units be provided. Subjects of research for graduation and master's theses are the turbine-driven pump, constant pressure source system, hydraulic drive system, application of control theory to an injection molding machine, highly intelligent fluid, noise reduction for an automotive compressor, state of fluid in a hydraulic control valve, analysis of flow in pneumatic equipment elements, and cavitation in a vane pump. More than half of these subjects are pursued in collaboration with industrial or Government circles. It is expected that the Society will be an organization to benefit the students. (NEDO)

  10. Optimal control of reflux ratio for batch distillation; Bacchi joryu ni okeru kanryuhi no saiteki kido to seigyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morimoto, Jun [Sankyo Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Suzuki, Mutsumi [Tohoku University, Miyagi (Japan). Department of Chemical Engineering

    1999-03-10

    To obtain maximum production under minimum utility-cost, the optimal operation of reflux ratio is considered for a batch distillation process. Pontryagin's maximum principle is one of the solutions to calculate such an optimal operation, but it requires extensive trial and error. In this paper, a faster algorithm is proposed to modify the initial values of Hamilton's multiplier. With the rapid growth of computer power, this algorithm will provide a way to realize the real-time optimization and control of the reflux ratio. To reduce the on-line calculation, a control table for the optimal operation can by calculated off-line as a function of state variables. These control methods provide the real optimal operation for a given evaluation function. (author)

  11. Analysis of fuel spray characteristics for premixed lean diesel combustion; Kihaku yokongo diesel kikan ni okeru nenryo funmu kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, S.; Harada, a.; Miyamoto, T.; Akagawa, H.; Tsujimura, K.

    1997-10-01

    Premixed lean diesel combustion (PREDIC) makes it possible to achieve low NOx emission. It is an important factor to make the homogeneous spray formation for PREDIC. In this paper presents I the effect of the spray dispersion on emission characteristic were analyzed with the spray observation and engine test. Pintle type nozzle, which has different feature from orifice type nozzle, are used to form the hollow cone spray. As a result, the pintle type nozzle having grooves to generate the swirl flow, makes the reduced penetration in comparison with the hole nozzle under low ambient gas pressure. And it could improve THC, CO emissions at low NOx emission condition. 7 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Analysis of flame propagation phenomenon in simplified stratified charge conditions; Tanjunkasareta sojo kyukiba ni okeru kaen denpa gensho no kansatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moriyoshi, Y.; Morikawa, H. [Chiba University, Chiba (Japan); Kamimoto, T. [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    Since the local inhomogeneity of mixture concentration inside the cylinder affects the combustion characteristics, a basic research on combustion phenomenon in stratified charge conditions is required. The authors have made experiments with a constant-volume chamber, which can simulate an idealized stratified charge field by using a removable partition, to obtain the combustion characteristics. Also, numerical calculations are made using some combustion models. As a result, the important feature that the combustion speed is faster in stratified condition than in homogeneous condition can be predicted by the two-step reaction model. 4 refs., 8 figs.

  13. Water monitoring and its information management system in China; Chugoku ni okeru suishitsu monitoring to joho kanri system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quan, H.

    1996-01-10

    This paper summarizes the water monitoring system (WMS) in China applied mainly to surface water and operated within the competence of the Environmental Protection Agency. The WMS consists of a national water monitoring network and a water information system that monitors surface water periodically. The WMS comprises water monitoring stations classified from class 1 to class 4, which are located in 2,222 locations. Stations from class 1 to class 3 are operated by using computers, but class 4 stations are still incapable to use floppy disks to perform information transmission. When an information management system is completed at the China-Japan Friendship Environmental Protection Center being constructed by gratis assistance from the Japanese Government, transmission of water quality data will become possible by means of the cable line system in addition to the table system and the floppy system. The water quality data are published to general people in the forms of Chinese gazette for the environmental conditions, the environment yearbook, and the reports on environmental quality. However, the more important is to publish more publications to make people aware of the actual state of water pollution and have them cooperate in environment preservation. 4 refs., 1 fig.

  14. Trends in developing alternative energies in Sweden. Sweden ni okeru daitai energy kaihatsu no doko ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maruyama, S. (The Kansai Electric Power Co. Inc., Osaka (Japan))

    1992-07-10

    This paper introduces a summary of the survey made on the Swedish policies on alternative energies. The country has a characteristic that the alternative energy policies have a great importance for each political party as its reigning strategy. The largest weight for the alternative energies is placed on bioenergies. Sweden has been already depending on bioenergies at 15% of the country[prime]s total energy supply. Nearly half amount of the budget in the new five-year alternative energy plan approved in 1991 is bioenergy related. The budget of 3.76 billion kronor can be broken down into 1 billion kronor for effective energy utilization, 1.92 billion kronor for bio-fuel utilization, and 800 million kronor for bio-fuel utilizing plants. The bio-fuel utilizing plants include improved CFB utilizing steam cycle power generation, gasified compound cycle power generation, a bio-fuel/natural gas compounding plan, and a bio-fuel/caustics recovery boiler compounding plan, each having merits and demerits. Thirty-five wind power generating plants are in operation producing a total power of about 10,000 MWh in 1990. 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  15. Needs for intelligent field sensors in petrochemical plants. Sekiyu kagaku plant ni okeru intelligentter dot fieldter dot sensor eno needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsukahara, T. (Idemitsu Kosan Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))

    1990-08-05

    This report explains the process sensors used in petrochemical plants. To establish a safety and accident preventing systems, the function of a sensor to substitute the five senses of an operator is demanded. A man inspects using the senses of seeing, hearing, touch and smell, and takes measures judging from all factors, not from the state of one point. For a wide-range monitoring function, there is a need for a robot which is loaded with sensors of various intelligences and which moves freely at the field. When many sensors are configurated for the wide-range monitoring, the maintenance of system comes into question. The sensor with intelligent functions recently developed can contribute to the maintenance because it is highly accurate and it has the function of self-diagnosis. If it becomes possible to process data with the sensor at the field utilizing the intelligent function, the central control room will be miniaturized and automatization will be pushed forward remarkably. 3 refs., 2 figs.

  16. Polymer-based matrix composites in general industries. Ippan sangyo bun'ya ni okeru kobunshiki fukugo zairyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenmochi, K. (National Institute of Materials and Chemical Research, Tsukuba (Japan))

    1994-02-15

    This paper summarizes the course of development of polymer-based matrix composites (PMC) begun in the 1950's, their future problems, and prospects. Because of PMC being a petroleum product, the changing period before and after the first and second oil crises (1974-1983) has seen even a negative growth from the declined product price out of increased material cost. However, the materials have been continuing expansion in such applications year after year for two decades since then as plant, marine vessel, and housing materials. The course of their development to date has included such proliferation impeding factors as unproved reliability, high production cost, and legal regulations because of being new materials. However, the ardent technical development efforts having produced a number of products including hybrid FRP, particularly the fundamental technology development studies sponsored by the Ministry of International Trade and Industry, have improved properties and reliability and contributed largely to expanding practical applications. Sought in different functions expected in PMC in the future would be application of bionic designs, transfer from functional quality to sensitive quality, and development of material recycling techniques. 8 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Review on departure time choice theory for highway traffic; Doro kotsu ni okeru shuppatsu jikoku sentaku ni kansuru kenkyu kaisetsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuwahara, M. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Institute of Industrial Science

    1998-04-01

    This paper explains theoretical results achieved to date on the fundamental theory for time smoothing which is drawing attention as a measure to mitigate traffic congestion, that is departure time choice theory for highway traffic. If a trip having a definite restriction on arrival time is used as an object of the discussion, the travel expense for a traveler consists of an expense for travel time when a car was driven at free speeds, an expense for waiting time at bottlenecks, and an expense incurred by schedule delay (s). Under an assumption that the traveler selects departure time to minimize the expense, a time-based equilibrium condition can be introduced. If a schedule expense function (f(s)) to convert `s` into an expense is convex with regard to the `s`, the first in first work (FIFW) principle can be established, that the bottleneck is reached in the order of earlier departure time that is desired. Thus, starting from handling numerically the relationship between queuing expense function in the bottleneck and the f(s), the theory developed to the multiple bottleneck and random effect theory. 19 refs., 8 figs.

  18. Engineering technologies for steel structure applied to Trans-Tokyo bay highway project; Tokyowan odan doro ni okeru kokozo gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furumuro, K.; Kobayashi, T.; Kanda, K. [Kawasaki Steel Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-03-01

    The Trans-Tokyo Bay Highway is a 15.1 km toll road that spans the Tokyo Bay from Kawasaki City in Kanagawa Prefecture to Kisarazu City in Chiba Prefecture by a bridge, an undersea shield tunnel, and two man-made islands. Many new technologies and methods were introduced to construct a large-scale structure safely, rationally, and in a short time on the weak ground under the depth of water in a seismic region such as Tokyo Bay. Kawasaki Steel participated in this project in: (1) development and construction of a revetment structure to which the technology of an oil drilling jacket was applied, (2) design and construction of a large-sized bridge with long-span and multi-span continuous girders on the sea, and (3) design and installation of a mud water treatment module for the shield tunnel constructed on the sea. As a result, the bearing-capacity measurement technology based on the dynamic method of a large diameter steel pipe pile was developed in item (1). The long-term corrosion-proof method using titanium clad steel was developed in item (2), and the way to construct the treatment facilities of approximately 5100 tons in item (3). 3 refs., 12 figs.

  19. Steel structure (bridge and building); Doboku/kenchiku bun`ya ni okeru yosetsu gijutsu no tenkai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukazawa, M. [Yokogawa Bridge Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-01-05

    In this article, the trends of welding engineering are discussed in two groups, namely bridges and steel frames. First of all, in the field of bridges, as the themes of technical innovation of steel bridges, the challenge to build long span bridges, coping with new structural forms, and rationalization of general bridges are selected. Concerning very long bridges, considerable elongation of its spans and technological development for materials, design, construction and erection relating to improvement of profitability become inevitable. Besides, in addition to the functions of bridges, the bridges playing the roles of environmental and/or artistic structures become many, thereby the cases of using welding for the site joints increase. As the measure for rationalize bridge construction, it is to reduce steel weight and working costs for increasing profitability, and the progress of welding technology therefor has been observed. With regard to the manufacture of bridge portions in a factory, labor saving, automatization and robotization of in-house welding have been made, and bridge maintenance as well as pursuance of attaining the state of maintenance free are also important. The trend that the bridge load is becoming larger and enhancement of earthquake resistance are also important. Regarding steel frames, functionalization of steel, making steel very thick, various automatization of manufacturing, and pursuance of earthquake resistant safety are being made. 14 refs., 7 figs.

  20. NEDO`s solar energy program in developing countries; Hatten tojokoku ni okeru NEDO no taiyo energy project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honda, T. [New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo, (Japan)

    1998-05-31

    This paper describes the solar energy program promoted in developing countries by NEDO. Research of photovoltaic power generation systems for middle-scale villages has been conducted in Indonesia between FY 1984 and FY 1989. International cooperative demonstration development for photovoltaic power generation systems has been conducted in Nepal, Mongolia, Thailand and Malaysia for five to six years since FY 1994. For the research of solar heat, air heat collection type drying systems using solar heat has been promoted between FY 1993 and FY 1998. Employment of solar micro hydraulic power hybrid systems is planned in regions with rainy and dry seasons. In FY 1997, photovoltaic power generation systems were constructed in Gansu, Sinkiang Uighur, and Hopeh in China for operation researches. Durability tests have been conducted in Oman. A plan of construction of photovoltaic power generation systems with a capacity from a few MW to 1 GW at maximum in deserts is to be promoted as international cooperative activities with PVPS of IEA and CTI. Japan will play a major role on the activities as a proposal country based on the achievement of PVTEC. 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Possibility of EV with solar cells on the new traffic system; Shinkotsu system ni okeru solar car no kanosei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujii, I.; Kojima, S. [Meiji University, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-11-25

    A possibility of a new traffic system was studied for a solar car which is light in weight, small in size and low in speed (cruising speed: 20 km/h) and does not need so much power because of the use for short distance. In the new traffic system, people travel short distance in city by solar car, and use trains for travel between cities. By installing solar cells on roofs, etc. of houses and buildings such as garages around stations, power needed for solar car and incidentally required can be supplied. Assuming the short distance transportation, the car is for one person with a height of luggage space of 70cm, mean length of 165cm, and floor height of 50cm above the ground. In case that the power generation by solar cells (256.5W) is at maximum with no shading during travel on conditions of load weight of 10kg, personnel weight of 70kg, and total weight of 250kg, it was found that solar cells can supply 89% of the required output under test road travel at speed of 20 km/h. A viability of the solar car proposed here is great. A possibility at the time of mode road travel is also studied. 10 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Desiliconization process of hot metal at blast furnance casthouse. Koro chusho ni okeru yosen no tatsukei shori

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uchiyama, T.; Takeda, K.; Taguchi, S.; Shinohara, K.; Kato, H.; Matsumoto, T. (Kawasaki Steel Corp., Tokyo (Japan))

    1990-09-01

    The Kawasaki Steel has developed several types of desiliconization facilities at blast furnace runner and applied to blast furnaces according to their individual local conditions. In response to the restriction in the maximum feed rate and mass velocity of desiliconization reagent by the slag foaming and splash formations for the desiliconization method without slag removal at the casthouse, three methods, i.e., a top feed method, a blasting by one stage, and a blasting by two stages were developed, according to increases in the required feeding rate of the desiliconization reagent. In the case that the desiliconization slag is removed at the blast furnace runner, it was demonstrated that the injection method by use of an immersion lance was effective because of its high oxygen efficiency in desiliconization. An simulation model of desiliconization was also developed, and the effect of the lance shape on oxygen efficiency in desiliconization was evaluated. On the basis of the simulation results, the oxygen efficiency in desiliconization was able to be increased to 60% by the improvement of the injection conditions. 8 refs., 18 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. Present status and amendable subjects of brewery CIM. Beer kojo ni okeru CIM no genjo to kadai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eguchi, T.; Kimura, T. (Asahi Breweries, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))

    1991-12-10

    Though the beer consumption is being smoothly increased, there has been a considerable change in consumers prime taste of beer for these several years. The present report exhibits the computer integrated manufacturing system introduced in Ibaraki Brewery, Asahi Beer to be operated as per the target. The introduction of that system aimed at an execution of integrated administration, high particularly in quality control, to integrate the information and control of total production activities from the production planning to the product delivery. Together with the structuring of information system for the integrated production, aim was taken also at the heightening in quality control, heightening in administration level, labor saving and newly conceived distribution system. As for the structuring of hardware, the system was functionally classified into production planning level, administration level for the manufacturing and distribution, and control level for the processing and distribution. Each of those levels was accommodated with the most suitable machinery thereon. The future problems are about the quality control data measurement and widened application of database. 5 figs.

  4. Application of membrane technology to food industry; Shokuhin kogyo bun'ya ni okeru maku riyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamata, T.; Nakajima, M. [Univ. of Tsukuba, Tsukuba (Japan)

    2000-08-05

    In the food industry, the membrane technologies are used practically for concentration of fruit juice and milk, etc. as reverse osmosis, for decolorization and desalination of liquid seasoning as nanofiltration, for bacteria elimination, etc. as micro-filtration, for recovery and purification of the protein as ultra-filtration, and for kitchen salt manufacturing and desalination as electrodialysis. In this paper, the state of utilization of membranes and the trend of recent research and development in the food industry are described. At first, a utilization of membranes in the dairy industry field, the fruit juice processing field, the alcoholic beverage field, the seasoning field, the honey purification field, the protein field and the fats and oils processing field are described. Next, as a film emulsification technology, a preparing process of W/O emulsion in which the pressurized water phase is penetrated through a hydrophobic membrane into the oil phase of the opposite side, and a preparing process of W/O emulsion in which the pressurized oil phase is penetrated through a hydrophilic film are described. The emulsification technology using the micro-channel made of the silicon chip, which is developed by the author is introduced. (NEDO)

  5. Dream of future on human-machine cooperative system; Ningen robot system ni okeru fluid power gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Y. [Hosei University, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    2000-01-15

    This paper describes the human-machine cooperative system and fluid power technology. Most of Japanese robot R and D activities shifted from early R and D on hydraulic or pneumatic driving to that on simple electric driving, and development of fluid power technology as actuator and control technology is retarded. For creating an artificial work environment with a presence by virtual reality formation technology, an equipment (actuator) directly acting such five senses (sensor) of operators as visual, auditory, pressure and contact senses is essential. Pneumatic actuator is extremely suitable for such one because of its small size, light weight, safety and high power density. Robocup has been held as the soccer game of many autonomous robots. For the soccer game of human beings and robots, development of such technologies for advanced autonomous robots is necessary as realtime processing, advanced intelligence, human friendliness, safety, high-efficiency high-power actuator equivalent to human muscle, and energy source. (NEDO)

  6. Magnetic constraints of basement structure offshore of western Kyushu, Japan; Kyushu seiho kaiiki ni okeru jiki ijo no kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okuma, S.; Nakatsuka, T. [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan); Ishihara, T. [Japan National Oil Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-05-01

    This paper describes the results from the qualitative analysis of magnetic anomalies offshore of western Kyushu and from an analysis by a three-dimensional two-layer model inversion. The analysis ranged from Kyushu on the east to Jeju Island on the west and from the southern part of the Korean Peninsula on the north to Tanegashima and Yakushima Islands on the south, namely, the area of 580km from east to west and 580km from south to north. The analytical data used was Magnetic Anomaly Map of Asia (GSJ and CCOP, 1994). In the qualitative analysis, a pseudogravity anomaly map and a pole gravity anomaly map were prepared from the total magnetic force anomaly map by means of a frequency filter operation. As a result, it was noted that two distinctive magnetic high belts existed in the margin of the Tunghai Shelf, extending from the sea area to the west of the Nansei Islands continuously to NNE, and being distributed transversely through the Goto sedimentary basin. Additionally, in the inversion analysis, it was demonstrated that the magnetic basement became shallow at the margin of the Tunghai Shelf north of latitude 31 degrees north, extending nearly in the NNE direction through west of the Goto Islands, west of Tsushima Island, and continuing to the southern coast of the Korean Peninsula. 6 refs., 4 figs.

  7. MT2-D inversion analysis in Kakkonda geothermal field; Kakkonda chinetsu chiiki ni okeru MT ho nijigen kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamane, K.; Takasugi, S. [Geothermal Energy Research and Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Miyazaki, S. [Japan Metals and Chemicals Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Uchida, T. [New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo, (Japan)

    1996-05-01

    Data, collected from an MT method-assisted survey conducted in the Kakkonda geothermal region in 1987, was re-examined, and a new structure was found. The review was carried out by use of a 2D analysis in the TM mode. According to the 1D analysis of 1987 and the geological data gathered then, it is estimated that the resistivity structure of this region runs in the northwest-southeast direction. A northeast-southwest traverse line was set for this analysis, orthogonal to the strike, and the impedance at each observation spot was caused to rotate to this direction across the whole range of frequency. Furthermore, in 1994-95, surveys were conducted using arrayed CSMT/MT methods. All these sum up to indicate that a high-resistivity region extends northwest in the southwestern part of the Kakkonda river but that there exists a low-resistivity region of several 10 Ohm m centering about the B traverse line. The high-resistivity region deep in the ground being the target of excavation in the Kakkonda region, to collect knowledge about this high-resistivity is important, and here the effectiveness of the 2d analysis has been verified. 5 refs., 11 figs.

  8. On noise, traffic and factory vibrations in Akita city; Akitashi ni okeru soon oyobi kotsu kojo shindo ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nogoshi, M.; Kikuchi, T.; Morino, T.; Sannohe, M. [Akita University, Akita (Japan). College of Education

    1996-05-01

    Noise and vibration were measured in Akita City. In 1994, noise and traffic-caused vibration were measured along the trunk lines and other roads across the entire Akita City area. In 1995, the effort centered on the Ibarashima manufacturing quarters, the important source of noise and vibration in Akita city. The general-purpose noise meter LA-220S was used to measure noise and the vibration level meter VR-5100 was used to measure vibration. The results of noise measurement carried out at 122 points in Akita City indicated that the noise level was high along Route 7, Route 13, and the southern line belonging to the newly built national highway, marking the highest of approximately 74dB. As compared with the measurement made in 1968, the value was higher by 3-13dB. A roughly similar trend was seen in vibration. The noise level measurement of 1995 accomplished at 100 points in the vicinity of Ibarashima district indicated that the factories were responsible for high levels of noise and vibration. It was found that the levels lowered in proportion to the increase in the distance from the factories. 11 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Remote reference processing in MT survey using GPS clock; MT ho ni okeru GPS wo mochiita jikoku doki system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamane, K.; Inoue, J.; Takasugi, S. [Geothermal Energy Research and Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Kosuge, S. [DRICO Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-05-01

    A report is given about the application of a synchronizing system using clock signals from GPS satellites to a remote reference method which is a technique to reject noise from the MT method. This system uses the C/A code out of the L1 band waves from NAVSTAR/GPS satellites. The new system was operated in MT method-using investigations conducted at China Peninsula, Aichi Prefecture, and Izu Peninsula, Shizuoka Prefecture, with the reference points placed several 100km away in Iwate Prefecture on both occasions. It was found as the result that it is basically possible to catch signals from the GPS at any place, that the signals are accurate enough to be applied to time synchronization for the MT method, and that the signals assure a far remote reference method with a separation of several 100km between the sites involved. The referencing process at high frequencies whose feasibility had been doubted proved a success when highly correlated signals were exchanged between two stations over a distance of several 100km. 5 refs., 9 figs.

  10. Noise and vibration reduction technology in hybrid vehicle development; Hybrid sha kaihatsu ni okeru shindo soon teigen gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshioa, T.; Sugita, H. [Toyota Motor Corp., Aichi (Japan)

    2000-03-01

    Accomplishing both environmental protection and good NVH performance has become a significant task in automotive development The first-in-the-world hybrid passenger car of mass production. 'Prius', has achieved superior NV performance compared with conventional vehicles with a 1.5-liter engine along with 50% reduction of fuel consumption and CO{sub 2} emissions. low HC, CO and NO{sub x} emissions. This paper describes NV reduction technology for solving problems peculiar to the hybrid vehicle such as engine start/stop vibration, drone noise at low engine speed and motor/generator noise and vibration. It also mentions application technology of low rolling resistance tires with light weight wheels and recycled material for sound proofing. (author)

  11. Function of Regenerator in the multi staged regenerative refrigerator; Tadan chikureigata reitoki ni okeru chokureiki no kino

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, T.; Nogawa, M.; Zhu, S. [Aisin Seiki Co., Ltd., Aichi (Japan)

    1999-11-10

    On the function of regeneration vessel, which is the base element of regeneration type refrigerating machine, there is two of viewpoint as a heat exchanger greatly separate and viewpoint as an energy converter. Here, to begin with, the function of regeneration vessel as energy converter is arranged, and especially, both expression is compared on the expression of the regeneration vessel efficiency. In addition, the essence of multistage used in the cooling of the regeneration type refrigerating machine is examined from the viewpoint of the function of the regeneration vessel. (NEDO)

  12. Design method for heat exchanger of stirling cycle machines; Sutaringu saikuru kikan ni okeru netsu kokanki no sekkei shuho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sekiya, H. [Sanyo Electric Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-11-10

    Recently, the Stirling cycle organization attracts the attention as 1 of the countermeasure to the global environmental problem, and the tendency of various application equipment developments heightens. The main factor is in constructing CFC elimination refrigeration air conditioner, and the development example as an engine for power source of refrigerating machine used in the ultra-low-temperature region and equipment variously is reported. In this paper, practical design tool and design examination case are introduced, while design technique of heat exchanger, which is the most important in design development of these, ST refrigerating machine and ST engines is described. (NEDO)

  13. Estimation of course stability at initial design stage; Shoki sekkeiji ni okeru shinro anteisei no suitei ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yukawa, K. [Ministry of Transportation, Tokyo (Japan)] Kijima, K. [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan)

    1998-12-31

    The theoretical prediction method for the hydrodynamic forces acting on the ship hull in maneuvering motion in consideration of effect of frame line configuration is proposed, selecting six types of model ships as the calculation objects. The prediction results show that the hydrodynamic forces can be predicted with reasonable accuracy in the ordinary maneuvering motion range, though the large drift angle and high dimensionless rotation angular speed give some errors. Using the linear differential coefficient obtained from the prediction of hydrodynamic force acting on ship hull, the decrease in the course instability is investigated. It is found that the method is able to be used for predicting the course stability of ships with relatively good accuracy. This method will be useful to decrease the course instability due to the difference in change in local shape of ships. Study will be continued on estimation calculation of hydrodynamic force on ship hull having various kinds of types. 13 refs., 15 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Power feeding to terminal devices in optical subscriber network; Hikari fuaiba tsushin ni okeru tanmatsu kiki eno kyuden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamasaki, M

    1998-09-01

    This paper outlines present state of the feeding system in the light access system in consideration of backup in case of home power failure. In the optical communication, equipment with bilateral conversion function for light and electricity has to be installed both on communication service side and home side. Outline of the light access system and equipment requiring backup are shown. The following items are explained: main types of the light access system, such as FTTC (fiber to the curb), FTTP (fiber to the pole), FTTH (fiber to the home) and HFC (hybrid fiber coax), and the feeding system; problems on feeding system for the light access system. Key elements of ONU (optical network unit) for FTTH and construction of the ONU power source are illustrated. The ONU power source is composed of a backup power supply unit and main body supply unit. Backup power is indispensable to the ONU and analog telephones: output is supplied by the backup batteries in power failure. For miniaturization of the backup power source, power supply circuits and backup batteries have to be miniaturized simultaneously. History of miniaturization is explained on the experimental models. 6 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Measurement of organic carbon quantity at chemoautorophic bacterium; Kagaku dokuritsu eiyo saikin ni okeru yuki tansoryo no sokutei ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuda, I.; Kato, K.; Nozaki, K. [Electrotechnical Laboratory, Tsukuba (Japan); Kurokawa, K. [Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    Described herein is the method for analyzing quantity of organic carbon synthesized by chemoautotrophic bacterium. It is based on the combustion-infrared spectroscopy, which is normally adopted for quantitative analysis of organic carbon. The problems involved in the measurement of organic compounds synthesized by iron-oxidizing bacteria are noise by culture medium components, aging of gas analyzer and contamination with organic compounds from a silicon plug. The measures taken in this study against these problems include comparison of the results with a medium containing iron-oxidizing bacteria with those with a medium free of these bacteria, calibration with the standard solution for each measurement, and replacement of a silicone plug by a silicon cap. Organic carbon is measured by a TOC-5000 analyzer equipped with an automatic sample feeder ASI-5000. Biomass density is determined by the MPN method. It is confirmed that organic carbon quantity is almost in proportion to biomass density, a phenomenon which can be used to determine organic carbon quantity. 7 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Reinstatement of material research in the 21st century; 21 seiki ni okeru zairyo kenkyu no fukken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinbara, K. [Osaka Univercity, Osaka (Japan). Institute of Scientific and Industrial Research

    2000-03-10

    Just before the 21st century, Japan is demanded most importantly of reforming the industrial structures, breeding new industries, and working on global environment and energy problems. To solve these problems, emergence of material technologies based on original ideas is indispensable. However, Japan lacks a temperament to value original ideas and support them in positive manners. Structuring unique ideas and concepts with high originality is one of the most important intellectual production activities for human being. Understanding that these activities require incessant challenging spirit and accumulation of exhaustive efforts, a system should be structured to give the highest honor to researchers and groups who have made successes in this respect. It should be understood that development of the material technologies requires huge amount of fund, human resources and time, and national strategies should be established as required. Habitat segregation is to be moved forward in research and development, and a system will be built that links effectively the seed oriented research by universities and national research institutes with the need oriented research by business enterprises. The 21st century will be an age that many people can dream of their own success. (NEDO)

  17. Measurement results of BHTV logging at the geothermal well. 1; Chinetsusei ni okeru BHTV kenso no sokutei kekka. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, S. [Geophysical Surveying and Consulting Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Nakanishi, S.; Shimizu, I. [Electric Power Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-05-27

    In association with excavation of the No. 135 steam producing well in the Onikubi geothermal power plant in Miyagi Prefecture, shapes of production zones and drilling-induced fracture (DIF) were acquired from the borehole televiewer (BHTV) data. The BHTV logging shoots sound waves onto well walls of wells filled with fluid and detects the reflection waves to investigate the state of the well walls. Vertical fracture with opening lengths from 2 to 3 m were found at depths of about 1232 m and 1312 m. Water run-off has occurred at a depth of about 1312 m during the excavation, to which these vertical fractures might have contributed possibly. In depths of about 1232 m and 1312 m, fractures inclining toward north-east direction and south-west direction are predominant. Some fractures in the depth of about 1333 m incline toward east-south-east direction and west-north-west direction. Fracture inclination azimuth in all of the present logging sections is predominantly in north-east direction and south-west direction. When the DIF is considered to show the maximum compression azimuth, the earth`s crust stress azimuth is generally in east-west direction, which crosses slightly obliquely with the running direction of the predominant fracture in this well. 1 ref., 7 figs.

  18. Shallow seismic reflection prospecting in Hachiro-kata reclaimed land; Hachirogata kantakuchi ni okeru senbu hanshaho jishin tansa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitsunezaki, C.; Fukutome, T.; Matsumoto, S.; Noda, K.; Sato, T. [Akita University, Akita (Japan). Mining College; Hayashi, H.; Ishii, E.; Yamanaka, Y.; Matsuno, K.; Mikuni, S. [Suncoh Consultant Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-05-27

    Along the Japan Sea coast in Akita Prefecture and in the vicinity, there exist active fault groups, such as the Kitayuri thrust fault group in the south and Noshiro thrust fault group in the north. It is estimated that there is another fault, running from Akita City located between the above-said two thrust fault groups into the Hachiro-kata reclaimed land, roughly connecting the two thrust fault groups. This third fault is supposed to be related to the hypocenter of Tencho Earthquake of 830, but its location and structural configuration are not known, and it is not known whether it is an active fault, either. Investigations are conducted using S- and P-waves. The greatest problem in the use of P-waves is that there exists a layer in which signal attenuation is high and transmission is anomalously slow. This problem is ascribed to the layer pore water rendered unsaturated though slightly by the inclusion of air bubbles, and is explained for the most part by the White model. A survey using S-waves is advantageous in that it does not experience no difficulty of this kind. In the P-wave cross section, a structure supposed to be an inversion layer is observed at a level deeper than 200m. In the case of the S-wave method, more details of the shallow structure will be available when the degree of CMP stacking is augmented as usual. 2 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  19. 3D seismic experiment in difficult area in Japan; Kokunai nanchiiki ni okeru sanjigen jishin tansa jikken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minegishi, M.; Nakagami, K.; Tanaka, H. [Japan National Oil Corp., Tokyo (Japan). Technology Research Center

    1997-05-27

    Difficult area in this context means an exploration-difficult area supposed to store oil/gas but retarded in exploration for the lack of knowledge about the geological structure due to poor quality of available seismic survey records. Discussed in this paper is a survey conducted into an area covering the southern part of Noshiro-shi, Akita-ken, and Yamamoto-cho, Yamamoto-gun, Akita-ken. An area size suitable for data collection at a target depth of 2500m is determined using an interpretation structure compiled on the basis of available well data and 2D seismic survey data. The plan for siting shock points and receiving points is modified case by case as restrictive factors come to the surface (resulting from the complicated hilly terrain, presence of pipes for agricultural water, etc.). The peculiarities of seismic waves in the terrain are studied through the interpretation of the available well data and 2D seismic survey data for the construction of a 3D velocity model for the confirmation of the appropriateness of the plan for siting shock points and receiving points. Efforts are exerted through enhanced coordination with the contractor to acquire data so that a technologically best design may be won within the limits of the budget. The quality of the data obtained from this experiment is in general better than those obtained from previous experiments, yet many problems remain to be settled in future studies about exploration-difficult areas. 4 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Relation between frequency of seismic wave and resolution of tomography; Danseiha tomography kaiseki ni okeru shuhasu to bunkaino no kankei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujimoto, M.; Watanabe, T.; Ashida, Y.; Sassa, K. [Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-05-27

    With regard to the elastic wave exploration, discussions have been given on the relationship between frequency and resolution in P-wave velocity tomography using the initial travel time. The discussions were carried out by using a new analysis method which incorporates the concept of Fresnel volume into tomography analysis. The following two arrangements were used in the calculation: a cross hole arrangement, in which seismic source and vibration receiving points were arranged so as to surround the three directions of a region extending 250 m in the horizontal direction and 500 m in the vertical direction, and observation is performed between two wells, and a permeation VSP arrangement in which the seismic source is installed on the ground surface and receiving points installed in wells. Restructuring was performed on the velocity structure by using a total of 819 observation travel times. This method has derived results of the restructuring according to frequencies of the seismic source used for the exploration. The resolution shown in the result of the restructuring has become higher as elastic waves with higher frequency are used, and the size of the structure identified from the restructuring result has decreased. This fact reveals that sufficient considerations must be given on frequencies of elastic waves used according to size of objects to be explored. 4 refs., 4 figs.

  1. Fault analysis in the very shallow seismic reflection method. 2; Gokusenso hanshaho ni okeru danso kaiseki. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagumo, S.; Muraoka, S.; Takahashi, T. [Oyo Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-05-27

    Fault analysis is required in addition to the ordinary process of structural analysis (CDP stacking) for the examination of discontinuity in the reflection horizon in question. The fault shape restoration principle is that the reflection point of a reflection wave observed at a certain receiving point is on an ellipse with the shock point and receiving point at its focal points and that the sum of the distances between the reflection point and the focal points is equal to the reflection wave propagation time. The DMO velocity is worked out by calculation using the positive travel time and inverse travel time from the common reflection surface. When the reflection surface is inclined by {theta}, the average interval velocity/cos{theta} is called the DMO velocity. When the reflection surface inclination and the average interval velocities are determined separately in this way, the position of the reflection point may be worked out, and this enables the calculation of the amount of migration (lateral movement). The reflection wave lineups carried by the original record are picked up one by one, and the average interval velocities are treated very prudently. After such a basic DMO conversion treatment, the actualities of the fault are described fairly correctly. 3 figs.

  2. Transition of wind power utilization technology in the 20th century; 20 seiki ni okeru furyoku riyo gijutsu no hensen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ushiyama, I. [Ashikaga Inst. of Tech., Tochigi (Japan)

    2000-04-01

    Windmills are one of the oldest prime movers and have been used for more than 700 years in Europe. The transition from low speed windmills for grain grinding and water pumping to high speed wind turbines for electric power generation had occurred at the end of 19{sup th} century. This paper, at first, reviews the windmill technologies and the researchers before 20th century. Then describes the back ground of how the wind power generator has existed and how the four pioneers developed their wind power generator. The historical developments of windmills to wind turbines in this century are studied focusing mainly on Danish activities. Then, the effort of the development of large wind turbine such as Smith-Putnum's first MW machine in U.S.A. and other mammoth machine concept are introduced. The new concept machines such as Savonius and Darrieus wind turbines in 1920s to 1930s are also explained. Finally, the novel technologies of wind turbine covering larger machines, variable speed generators, special wing sections for wind turbines, theoretical analysis method of wind turbine performance, offshore wind turbines, and wind turbine control technologies are stated. (author)

  3. Prime Contract Awards Alphabetically by Contractor, by State or Country, and Place, Fiscal Year 1987. Part 14. Okinawa Kankyo-Pultrusions Corporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    r--21 Z % o-.-r-t-r-V(0C (IZ 4 ( A 0O 4 C) CD4 a-t z- 4 l ’ -in Z 0 0 0 0 1.1 -oO tic oo1( a I o oO 0 0 0 0~I& 0 0 0 C) (:)4 (0 04 mz CD 0r2 0r...Cd 0 00 ),.蓐 40 -. 4- 400 go -aci (naOA (a 4ajI a-C a-4460o Al 1 W4 0 44 4 00 0o 0 4 3 1a0 0 4 S N𔃻 00 E O O a 00 001-0C4 ODD- 0. ( AulA ~O a

  4. Feasibility design of a floating airport and estimation of environmental forces on it; Futaishiki kuko no sekkei to kankyo gairyoku no suitei ni kansuru kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, Y.; Tabeta, S.; Takei, Y. [Yokohama National University, Yokohama (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-12-31

    A rough design was performed on a floating airport. On this floating structure, environmental external force was estimated, mooring design was carried out, and discussions was given on the position retaining performance important for airport functions and behavior of the floating structure. The discussion was given on cases that the airport is surrounded and not surrounded by floating breakwaters. A floating structure which becomes super-large in size requires considerations on force due to sea level gradient as a result of a tide. Deriving flow condition changes and force acting on the floating structure simultaneously by using numerical calculations makes it possible to estimate current force given with considerations on influence of the flow conditions created by installing the floating airport. Estimation was carried out by using a zone dividing method on wave drifting force acting upon the floating airport. As a result, it was found that installing floating and permeating type breakwaters can reduce the wave drifting force acting on the floating airport. The wave drifting force working on the floating airport can be reduced by installing the floating and permeating type breakwaters to lower levels than when no such breakwaters are installed. The airport may be moored with less number of fenders when the fenders of the same type are used. 18 refs., 10 figs., 5 tabs.

  5. Development of an observation robot `Flying Fish` for comprehensive measurements of ocean environment; Kaiyo kankyo sogo kansoku robot `flying fish` no kaihatsu kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koterayama, W.; Yamaguchi, S.; Nakamura, M. [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Research Inst. for Applied Mechanics; Akamatsu, T. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    With an objective for spatial continuous measurement of physical, chemical and biological amounts in ocean, development has been made on a wing controlled towed vehicle, `Flying Fish` which is capable of controlling depth, pitch and roll. Numerical simulations and two-year sea experiments have been carried out for the development. Flying Fish consists of a sub-system comprising a towing vehicle, towing cables, and on-board controllers. In a steady state, Flying Fish can be controlled at accuracy for depth of {plus_minus} 0.05m, pitch of {plus_minus} one degree, and roll of {plus_minus} 0.5 degree. This accuracy is sufficient for operating a chemical analyzer, the dissolved carbonic acid analyzer. Even in a non-steady state such as in changing the depth, the pitch can be controlled at {plus_minus} 3 degrees and the roll at {plus_minus} 0.5 degree. This extent of attitude change is within a range rendering no problems in maintaining accuracy of the measurement devices. The result of sea experiments for movements of Flying Fish agreed with that of the numerical simulation at practically usable accuracy. Flying Fish is verified as an effective system in investigating spatial variations in ocean data. 10 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Completion of a large environmental application facility for testing composite materials. Fukugozai kozo shiken[prime]yo ogata kankyo fuyo sochi kansei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-06-01

    This paper reports a summary of the large enviromntal application facility to perform strength tests on composite materials under varying temperature environments. The facility features the capability of providing uniform temperature and humidity distributions in an environmental space of 9[times] 5[times]3 m, and covering a wide temperature range from[minus]70[degree]C to 200[degree]C. Since the environmental room temperature of 200[degree] C is not sufficiently high to meet high-temperature structural testing requirement for HOPE, an auxiliary ceramic heater was brought into the environmental room to heat only the required area up to 350[degree] C. A hydraulic actuator including the already introduced high-load loading equipment was installed in a space under the environmental room rack, and loads are induced to an extension rod attached to the load terminal in the actuator. Tests scheduled include a fatigue test on CF/thermoplastic composite filament winding beams for high-altitude unmanned spacecraft under a use temperature of [minus]60[degree]C, which is under preparation at normal temperatures, and a high-temperature strength test on polyimide CFPP structure for HOPE to follow the former test. 5 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Project to promote the technical development of global environmental industries. International research exchange project; Chikyu kankyo sangyo gijutsu kaihatsu suishin jigyo. Kokusai kenkyu koryu jigyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    Exchanges with researchers/research institutes in overseas countries have an important meaning in promoting the research and development toward the creation of new research fields where the solution to the environmental problem is aimed at and toward the construction of new technological systems. Therefore, under the cooperation of Research Institute of Innovative Technology for the Earth (RITE), and RITE related researchers and societies, given were invitation and dispatch of researchers to international conferences and symposia involved in the global environment related technology, and exchanges with major overseas research institutes/universities. At the same time, based on the short-term invitation and dispatch so far given, a system was established for medium- and long-term dispatch/invitation of researchers who are thought to hold an important position in the future research activities. From the results obtained, domestic and foreign exchanges relating to the latest research could be promoted. In addition, researches in the basic domain related to the global environmental technology were advanced in a variety of fields overseas. The numbers of invitation and dispatch given in fiscal 1995 were 12 and 13, respectively, the results of which were included in this paper. 121 refs., 74 figs., 11 tabs.

  8. Research and development cooperation project on environmental measurement using laser radar in fiscal 1994; Kankyo keisokuyo laser radar no kaihatsu ni kansuru kenkyu kyoryoku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    The paper outlined activities in fiscal 1994 in the R and D cooperation project on a laser radar for environmental measurement. In the activities in fiscal 1994 of `the ODA laser radar development committee,` the committee held four meetings, two field surveys were carried out, and two researchers were invited from Indonesia. In the field survey, the environment in Jakarta city was investigated in terms of changes in population and number of the cars registered. Further, from data collected during 1994-1998 in the central Jakarta city, the following were made clear: the trend of a decrease in SO2, the trend of a rapid increase and an excess of NO2 content over the environmental standard, the status of pollution of which the level is close to the upper limit of the environmental standard of dust, etc. In the meeting of the policy study for the field survey at LIPI headquarters, Japan proposed a system which is constituted of a difference absorption laser radar, two Mie scattering laser radars, and a central processing unit. The sites proposed were studied in cooperation with Indonesia. 40 refs., 65 figs., 9 tabs.

  9. Photovoltaic array capacity determined by considering the environmental factors for load patterns; Fuka pattern ni taisuru kankyo inshi wo koryoshita taiyo denchi array yoryo no kettei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kameyama, N.; Higuchi, T.; Yamagami, Y.; Tani, T. [Science University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-01-30

    Effectiveness of the spectral method was confirmed for system interconnection type photovoltaic (PV) power generation systems, and PV array capacity determined in harmony with the power load was investigated. In this study, system interconnection type PV power generation systems with polycrystalline Si and amorphous Si PV cell modules were discussed. The output electric energy evaluated by the spectral method was compared with that evaluated by the conventional method only considering the cell temperature. Obtained results are as follows. For the polycrystalline Si, the differences between solar supply rates in summer evaluated by the both methods and measured value were less than 2%, which resulted in the accurate determination. For the amorphous Si, however, the difference less than 3% was obtained by the spectral method and that less than 11% was obtained by the conventional method. The spectral method provided higher accuracy. When constructing a system with large array capacity, it was found that the optimum design of PV power generation system can be performed using the spectral method with less array capacity than using the conventional method. 4 refs., 9 figs., 4 tabs.

  10. FY 1998 annual report on the fourth international forum on environmental catalysis (IFEC 99); Dai 4 kai kankyo shokubai kokusai forum (IFEC '99) 1998 nendo hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    The 4th international forum on environmental catalysis, held in January 1999 in Chemical Society of Japan's Hall, had a total attendees exceeding 170, including 10 foreign attendees invited. A total of 20 papers (including 10 by foreign attendees) were presented, discussing diversified problems; 3 keynote addresses regarding (to what extent environmental catalyst can contribute); and 5 for the session of catalysts for clean processes, 6 for the session of eco-friendly chemistry, and 8 for the session of environmental catalysts for air pollution. The lectures included (global environmental problems and environmental catalysts) by Prof. Segawa of Sophia University as the opening address; solid base catalysts by Prof. Ono of Tokyo Institute of Technology in the session of (catalysts for clean processes); activation of dioxygen by transition metal complexes-new approach to highly selective catalytic oxidation with molecular oxygen by Prof. Moro-oka of Tokyo Institute of Technology in the session of (Eco-friendly chemistry; and environmental catalysts-present and future as the comprehensive review by Prof. Misono of University of Tokyo in the session of (environmental catalysts for air pollution). (NEDO)

  11. Report of the researcher exchange promotion project on the environmental issues in the Asia-Pacific region; Asia/Taiheiyo chiiki kankyo mondai kenkyusha koryu sokushin jigyo hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    Proposals have been made for the establishment of a network (ETERNET-APR) linking those involved in the research and development of environmental technology in the Asia-Pacific region in order to limit the environmental impact of industrial activity. By pursuing active exchanges of information and personnel, researchers in environmental technology in the Asia-Pacific region have been making serious efforts to establish such a network. This fiscal year, the Internet Web site of the ETERNET-APR has been created using the data collected to date. This database includes information on some 350 researchers and 200 research projects from seven countries. The first international symposium was successfully held at Environmental Research Institute of Chulalongkorn University in Thailand (ERIC), hosting 200 environmental researchers from 10 countries in the Asia-Pacific region. Tripartite sister laboratories ties among the National Institute for Resources and Environment (NIRE) and three Korean laboratories were forged. The sister laboratory project between ICETT and ERIC is also proving effective. These successes prove that intraregional joint research, the objective of ETERNET-APR, has begun to take shape in this year

  12. Research report of fiscal 1997. Survey on strategies of export of environment technology in overseas countries; 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho. Shogaikoku no kankyo gijutsu yushutsu senryaku chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    For active environment technology export to OECD countries, needs for environmental measures in developing countries were surveyed. Both collection of environment technology needs in developing countries and preparation of technology seeds information of Japanese enterprises, and promotion of environmental projects by adding an information dispatch function are important. Active preparation and exchange of experiences and know-how of concerned enterprises, local governments and national organizations are also necessary. For development and possible export of small- and medium-sized ventures with excellent technologies and know-how, a suitable consulting system is essential for risks. For smooth promotion of warming prevention by international cooperation, active development of monitoring technology is also important. To support developing countries, OJT of persons in charge in technology transfer sites, and preparation of information infrastructure are necessary. Japan with much know-how on environmental preservation should positively participate in international standardization activities such as ISO. 10 refs., 14 figs., 56 tabs.

  13. International symposium on environmental impacts of advanced alternative to CFC; CFC shinki daitai busshitsu no kankyo eikyo ni kansuru kokusai symposium hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-07

    The international symposium on environmental effects of new CFC substitutes was held in Tsukuba City, Ibaraki Pref. on February 7-9, 1996, and 19 papers were made public. In Session 1 (Plenary lecture), reports were made on Global warming and climate change: a review of recent studies; Stratospheric ozone, CFCs, and CFC-substitutes: an update, etc. In Session 2, Measurements of OH rate constants for advanced refrigerants as well as HCFCs and HFCs; The reaction rate of CFC alternatives with OH radical; Experimental and estimated rate constants: reactions of hydroxyl radicals with several halocarbons, etc. In Session 3, Measurement of uptake coefficients of some acetyl halides and fluorinated ethers into water; Mass transfer at the air/water interface: removal processes of halocarbonyl compounds; Heterogeneous reactions of fluorinated ethers on allophane or titanium dioxide, etc. In Session 4, papers were reported on model calculations relating to the global warming.

  14. Evaluation of building envelopes from the viewpoint of capability of controlling thermal environment; Onnetsu kankyo chosei noryoku ni yoru kenchiku gaihi no hyoka no kokoromi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Umeda, K.; Ono, S. [Taisei Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Shukuya, M. [Musashi Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    The ability that architectural space improves the thermal environment in comparison with outdoor environment is called the `capability of controlling thermal environment.` As the value becomes higher, the indoor thermal environment is more improved. In this paper, the controlling capability of six building envelopes with different window systems was compared. The heat transfer in the wall and window system is approximated using a lumped mass model of heat capacity to obtain a heat balance equation and combined with the heat balance equation in indoor air for backward difference. The wall surface temperature and indoor air temperature in a calculation model are then calculated. A radiation absorption coefficient is used for mutual radiation on each wall. In the model, the adjoining room or first- and second-floor rooms were made the same in conditions as the model on the assumption that the one-side lighted office in an RC reference floor is in the non-illumination and non-airconditioning state. In summer, the controlling capability remarkably varies depending on the window system. For the window facing the south, the annual capability is more advanced than in other directions and the indoor thermal environment is improved on the average. 7 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Report on the survey in fiscal 1998. Survey on an environment technology transfer information network; 1998 nendo hokokusho. Kankyo gijutsu iten joho network chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    This paper describes a survey on an environment technology transfer information network. Based on the achievements obtained by the surveys in fiscal 1995 and 1996, the ICETT has participated as one organization constituting the APEC environment technology exchange virtual center, and begun providing information since April 1997. As the environment technology information, those items actually employed by factories and operation sites in Japan are put into a data base, and into a home page including training information centering around those contained in the data base, and examples of works done by local governments for prevention of pollution. Furthermore in fiscal 1997, a simulation software for a model process has been developed. Fiscal 1998 strengthened the data base for environment preservation technology information, investigated environment preserving model companies and summarized them including even their management aspect. Investigations were carried out in developing countries on application of cleaner technologies. Gaps far exceeding anticipation exist in every field between these developing countries and Japan. Environment protection measures applied and succeeded in the developing countries as the means to narrow the gaps were collected, and compiled as the specific examples. (NEDO)

  16. Development of fuel cells using biogas and effects for environmental protection; Bio gas ni yoru nenryo denchi no kaihatsu to kankyo hozen no torikumi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, K. [Sapporo Breweries Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-12-01

    The Chiba plant of Sapporo Breweries Ltd. has introduced a biogas-using fuel cell system as one of its efforts for environmental protection, and the system generated power in June, 1998, for the first time in the world. This paper discusses the efforts for environmental protection, power generating system, and future tasks. The biogas-using fuel cell system makes use of fermentation gas (biogas), produced when wastewater from the plant is subjected to anaerobic treatment, as fuel for the generation of electricity (200kW), steam (160 degrees C, 5.3kg/cm{sup 2}), and higher-temperature water (80-120 degrees C). The biogas is a low-calorie gas consisting of approximately 70% methane gas and approximately 30% CO2 gas. Since the gas contains trace quantities of approximately 1,000-1,500ppm sulfur compounds, and salts and ammonia not higher than several dozens in ppm, a pre-treatment device is installed upstream the fuel cell power generation unit for their removal. The merits brought about by the adoption of the system include the lowered electricity rate, reduced CO2 emission, damped noise, and enhanced maintainability. It is believed that the system introduced here will work advantageously in satisfying the ISO14001 requirements. (NEDO)

  17. Recent trends surrounding global environmental problems (June to September 1994); Chikyu kankyo mondai wo meguru saikin no doko (1994 nen 6 gatsu - 9 gatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higashida, R. [The Institute of Energy Economics, Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-11-01

    This article describes the trends of negotiation for the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, trends surrounding carbon tax or environment tax, and trends of global environmental problems in Japan. Tenth Intergovernmental Negotiating Committee for the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change was held in August, 1994. In EU, an action for introducing the carbon/energy tax has been activated for the First Session of the Conference of the Parties. Cooperation of the USA and Russia on the environmental problems has been also activated. Japan has communicated the action plan of individual countries to UN, which is based on the long-term prediction of energy demand and supply. In the Tenth Intergovernmental Negotiating Committee, the enhancement of CO2 emission control and the standard of joint implementation were mainly discussed. The total CO2 emission of Japan in 2000 is estimated to be 330 million ton, which is larger than the result in 1990 by 10 million ton. However, the amount of emission per person is estimated to about 2.6 ton, which is almost same as in 1990. In Japan, the environment tax has not been discussed, yet. 1 fig., 1 tab.

  18. Model for the evaluation of the energy and environemntal security in Japan. Nippon no energy to kankyo no security hyoka model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mori, S. (Science University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)); Arakawa, F. (Electric Power Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))

    1992-12-20

    This paper introduces an energy security model intended to achieve consistency in demand and supply of energies in Japan and assure stability as a system. The model divides an energy system into segments from supply to consumption and expresses each segment in demand functions. A cross impact method is used to analyze the function. The considered structural equations involve final energy demand functions, logit share function models for fuel substitution, electric power supply blocks, interrelations among prices for fossil fuels, economic activity blocks, and cogeneration systems. Examples of evaluating the future uncertainties include interruption of oil supply, implementation of a fossil fuel consumption tax system, strengthening of regulations on nuclear power generation, and introduction of cogeneration systems. These cases were applied to the above structural equations to perform a simulation. Suggestions were given on contribution of oil substituting energies to the security, and large effect of CO2 emission tax. 18 refs., 9 figs., 7 tabs.

  19. Fluidized-bed incineration system and materials recovery facility. In use at Kosai City Environmental Center; Ryudoshoshiki gomi shokyaku shisetsu oyobi recycle plaza. Kosaishi kankyo center nonyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asao, S.; Nishiyama, K.; Ishikawa, Y.; Takada, J.; Onishi, M.; Takahashi, S.; Kumisawa, G.; Shiba, T.; Tsuchiya, A.; Inaba, N.; Iio, M. [Ebara Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-01-20

    Ebara`s fluidized-bed incineration system and materials recovery facility are being used at Kosa City Environmental Center, a municipal waste incineration plant, since July 1998. The incineration system includes two incinerators, each with an incineration capacity of 60 tons per day. It is also the first such plant in Japan to include a counterflow absorber tower in which activated coke is used to absorb dioxins. The most advanced technology is used in all aspects of this system. The materials recovery facility is capable of recovering 30 tons of materials (metals, plastics, and glass) per day and includes various equipment for recycling and incombustibles treatment, as well as a stock yard for storing recovered materials. Both the incineration system and the materials recovery facility are designed to cause minimal impaction the environment. (author)

  20. Survey of effects of enhancement of the energy supply/demand structure on the global environment. 3; Energy jukyu kozo kodoka chikyu kankyo eikyo chosa. 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    For the purpose of studying how the energy supply/demand structure in Japan should be, a report on the secondary IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) evaluation was analyzed. Possibilities of reducing the world CO2 emissions in association with the energy consumption were studied in the five assumed cases. Every case says that CO2 can be reduced to 1/3 of the 1990 level by 2100. In a case of the use of biomass as main fuel (1), the use of primary energy is suppressed to two times the 1990 level, and photovoltaic/wind/biomass power generation is introduced in a large quantity. Synthetic methanol and hydrogen are used for transportation and commercial/residential use fuels. There are four more assumed cases: the use of nuclear power as a substitute for renewable energy in the power generation in (1), the use of natural gas of 1.5 times that used in (1), the substitution of coal for biomass used in (1), and the assumption that the demand for primary energy in 2100 will be twice that used in (1). In Japan it is assumed that basically the nuclear power generation will be expanded, that the photovoltaic and waste power generation will be introduced in a large quantity, and that synthetic methanol and hydrogen are mainly used as transportation and commercial/residential use fuels. It is necessary, therefore, to analyze conditions under which the quantity introduction of such non-fossil energy is made possible. 11 figs., 31 tabs.

  1. Study on thermal environment and energy consumption in underground shopping centers. Chikagai no netsu kankyo to energy shohi ni kansuru chosa kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miura, H. (Waseda Univ., Tokyo (Japan). Graduate School); Ojima, T. (Waseda Univ., Tokyo (Japan))

    1991-12-30

    In this study, the actual condition of the energy consumption has been surveyed to compare the environmental loads in underground shopping centers with those in buildings on the ground, aiming at clarifying the actual thermal environment in underground shopping centers located in the Kanto area and the features of the thermal environment therein. The energy consumption was calculated by primary energy conversion on the basis of the average data obtained for the past three years. The survey of energy consumption in 32 underground shopping centers in Japan shows that all such places, commonly from Hokkaido to Kyushu, were the spaces consuming a large amount of energy. In the underground shopping centers, total energy was consumed four times as large as that in ordinary offices, energy for cooling energy consumption larger by 4 times, by 6 times for air cooling and six times, and energy for heating more than four times. They required energy twice to three times as large as that in department stores. The reason for it is considered that in underground, not only the 24-hour ventilation and air condition are required because of the public environment but external and internal heat loads are dealt with. 4 refs., 16 figs., 9 tabs.

  2. Chemistry for preserving the global environment. Part 5. Offensive odor; its present condition and control technique; Kankyo sozai no kagaku. 5. Akushu no genjo to taisaku gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saiki, Y.

    1996-07-01

    Offensive odor substances belongs to a quite different field from the perfume inspire of the same sense of smell, and is a substance forming a lot of troubles which is formed in intimate resident environments such as manufacturing factories of the chemicals, incineration and decomposition treatment process of living body relating substances, stock raising facilities, restaurants and others. A material called the offensive odor substance is generally in very low concentration in the atmosphere, most of which is ppm order in its detection limit. And, the offensive odor intensity is proportional to logarithm of its concentration. For example, even removing 99.9% of the offensive odor substance from its forming source, there is remained its difficult countermeasuring problem of no removing as its offensive odor. At present, the offensive odor is severely regulated by means of laws and acts, research on its relating field is active, and its relating publications have become plenty. In this paper, outline on recent state of the offensive odor and its measuring technique was summarized. 14 refs., 6 figs., 8 tabs.

  3. Report of 'Survey on Asian environmental information networks'; 'Asia kankyo joho network chosa' ni kansuru hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    Information systems, mainly aided by computers, are becoming increasingly important, contributing to development of wide areas of societies and economics, to begin with. However, few developing countries have established sufficient information systems, in spite of their strong desires to do so, which will further widen the gap between them and advanced countries, where these systems are acceleratedly advancing. Given these situations, Center of International Cooperation for Computerization (CICC) has been implementing various projects for providing assistance to and cooperation with oversea countries which are trying to develop information systems. This report summarizes the project, which CICC has been commissioned by Optoelectronic Industry and Technology Development Association as part of the cooperation programs, for establishing the Asian environmental information networks. It outlines the research cooperation project for the environmental networks, results of the 4 on-the-spot surveys, 2 occasions for inviting researchers to Japan, and construction of the internet and Asian environmental information network systems. (NEDO)

  4. Research and development cooperation project on environmental measurement using laser radar in fiscal 1993; Kankyo keisokuyo laser radar no kaihatsu ni kansuru kenkyu kyoryoku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-03-01

    As one of the international research cooperation projects, the research cooperation in developing laser radar for environment measurement started between Japan and Indonesia. The project is scheduled to be carried out in a 4-year plan starting fiscal 1993. In fiscal 1993, conducted were negotiations with Indonesia on its implementation and a field survey. Between January 6 and 15, 1994, the first field survey was made in terms of topography, climate, road network and traffic situation of Jakarta city, and the proposed sites for installation were reported. The paper also introduced the reception system on the Indonesian side and a request for technical learning through stay in Japan. The second field survey was conducted between February 27 and March 6, 1994. Indonesia requested that they want to make laser radar observation not only for the local area, but the one that covers industrial areas, central urban areas and residential areas. Incidentally, there was an opinion that it is important to elucidate the pollution mechanism. 19 refs., 43 figs., 6 tabs.

  5. Energy and environmental issues on building services engineering in the life-style of twenty-first century; 21 seiki no kankyo energy to life style no arikata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakahara, N.

    2001-01-05

    The author discussed building services technologies that characterize twenty-first century in view of the energy, environment and life-style. Natural energy systems shall take a principal roll in this century from the energy and environmental point of view. Among building engineering issues, IT technologies such as BEMS and BOFD connected to the internet and backed by simulation technologies will become most important together with establishment of commissioning process. Home office will become the new life-style of the century and home environmental conditioning systems shall be further developed. As important social system issues, international relations and language matters, the education system of environmental system engineering and the licensing of professional engineers were discussed. Maintaining philosophy to seek for truth hidden behind the shadow was concluded as most important for environmental engineers. (author)

  6. Investigations on an environment friendly chemical reaction process (eco-chemistry). 2; Kankyo ni yasashii kagaku hanno process (eko chemistry) ni kansuru chosa. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    In order to structure a chemical reaction process that does not discharge a large amount of waste by-products or harmful chemical substances, or so-called environment friendly process, investigations and discussions were given based on the results derived in the previous fiscal year. A proposal was made to reduce environmental load on development of oxidized and dehydrogenated catalysts that can produce selectively ethylene, propylene and isobutylene in an oxidation process. In liquid phase oxidation, redox-based oxidation and solid catalyzation of automatic oxidation reaction were enumerated. In acid base catalyst reaction, development of ultra strong solid acid was described to structure no pollution discharging process. In the fine chemical and pharmaceutical fields, the optical active substance method and the position-selective aromatics displacement reaction were evaluated to reduce environmental load. A questionnaire survey performed on major chemical corporations inside and outside the country revealed the following processes as the ones that can cause hidden environmental problems: processes discharging large amount of wastes, processes treating dangerous materials, and processes consuming large amount of energy. Development of catalysts is important that can realize high yield, high selectivity and reactions under mild conditions as a future environment harmonizing chemical process. 117 refs., 23 figs., 22 tabs.

  7. Analysis of the pollutant in the environment using supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC); Chorinkai ryutai kuromatogurafui (SFC) wo mochiita kankyo chu no osen busshitsu no bunseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kakuchi, T.; Miura, Y. [Hokkaido Univ., Hokkaido (Japan)

    2000-02-05

    The analysis of the organic pollutant in the environment is carried out as the following procedure; the organic substance is extracted by using the organic solvent from a collected sample, an instrument analysis such as gas chromatography (GC) or high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) are done after the clean up the sample by column chromatography. The analysis using supercritical fluid instead of the organic solvent in each stage is supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) or supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC). The supercritical fluid has a density and viscosity coefficient between gas and liquid, and the control of the dissolving power is possible by the change of temperature and pressure. Therefore, it has the advantage as follows: The material mobile speed is high and separation and extraction are rapid; It is easy to adjust the dissolving power and possible to carry out selective separation and extraction; The removal of solvent can be easily carried out since supercritical CO{sub 2} used is a gas in the normal pressure. In this paper, the analytical instrument in which the extraction is carried out in organic solvent and clean up was done in SFC was introduced. (NEDO)

  8. To the fusion of age - economy and ecology of the ring industry revolution; Kankyo kakumei no jidai {approx}ekonomi to ekoroji no yugo he

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akaike, Manabu

    1999-05-31

    What has suddenly been noticed as a keyword of the durable industry creation in which the ecology is made to be compatible with the economy is a philosophy of {sup t}he bio region (the life regionalism){sup .} As the concepts of region management desired at present, the philosophy of bio region which is the thought of the next generation development which I notice at present most roots in the place where selves live, and it aims at uniting with the region. In the reason, it is required that natural resources such as climate, land form, basin, soil, microorganism, flora and fauna, resources that the region has are utilized maximally. (NEDO)

  9. FY1995 study of design methodology and environment of high-performance processor architectures; 1995 nendo koseino processor architecture sekkeiho to sekkei kankyo no kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The aim of our project is to develop high-performance processor architectures for both general purpose and application-specific purpose. We also plan to develop basic softwares, such as compliers, and various design aid tools for those architectures. We are particularly interested in performance evaluation at architecture design phase, design optimization, automatic generation of compliers from processor designs, and architecture design methodologies combined with circuit layout. We have investigated both microprocessor architectures and design methodologies / environments for the processors. Our goal is to establish design technologies for high-performance, low-power, low-cost and highly-reliable systems in system-on-silicon era. We have proposed PPRAM architecture for high-performance system using DRAM and logic mixture technology, Softcore processor architecture for special purpose processors in embedded systems, and Power-Pro architecture for low power systems. We also developed design methodologies and design environments for the above architectures as well as a new method for design verification of microprocessors. (NEDO)

  10. Global environment assessment survey by advancing the energy demand and supply structure. 4; Energy jukyu kozo kodoka chikyu kankyo eikyo chosa. 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    To investigate the energy demand and supply structure in Japan, the international trend of approaches to global warming problems and the mitigation options to global warming in the energy related sectors have been surveyed. For the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, an Ad-hoc Group has discussed relevant topics after the 1st conference of the Parties. Meetings of the Group primarily focused on what objectives to set for the reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in and in and after 2000. IPCC completed their Technical Paper in November 1996 in which technologies and measures to reduce GHG emissions and to enhance GHG sinks were analyzed and evaluated in various aspects. This Paper discusses about each sector of institutional buildings sector, transport sector, industrial sector, and energy supply sector. Especially, in the energy supply sector, promising approaches to reduce future emission include more efficient conversion of fossil fuels, switching to low-carbon fossil fuels, decarbonization of flue gas and fuels, CO2 storage, switching to nuclear energy, and switching to renewable sources of energy. 5 refs., 2 figs., 14 tabs.

  11. Research information network survey of innovative technology for the earth. 2; Chikyu kankyo taisaku gijutsu no kenkyu joho network chosa. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    In order to construct the information network system for a research of innovative technology for the earth, a prototype has been made. To draw necessary functions for the information network system, an information flow in a general research work is analyzed to classify it based on the functions. The information collecting function, information accumulating and sharing function, special information system for research, information providing function, and communication function of the net work correspond to the collecting information, accumulating information, being engaged in research, providing information, and communication of researcher`s actions, respectively. The services on network system supposed from these functions are the homepage search mailing list, intranet service, special information system for research, WWW Internet broadcasting, and BBS/news/conference tool, respectively. It was found that latest Internet technology enabled to construct easily controlled system environment for users and WWW would develop as a standard communication tool. 2 refs., 26 figs., 27 tabs.

  12. Research report of fiscal 1997. Survey on information networks for environment technology transfer; 1997 nendo hokokusho. Kankyo gijutsu iten joho network chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    ICETT is one of the member organizations of APEC environment technology virtual center which established in Osaka in 1996 for active environment technology exchange between APEC countries based on a survey result obtained in fiscal 1995. ICETT began its information service in April, 1997, and completed useful prototype home pages which include the database composed of practical useful information on environment preservation technology of domestic factories and offices, and training information and local governments` approach cases to pollution control. In fiscal 1997, further survey was made, and the simulation software of a model process was also developed for training. Clean technology and energy saving technology strongly demanded by developing countries were surveyed to prepare a database including useful information for developing countries. A basic design software for bio-treatment of waste water was also prepared. The total number of home page accesses exceeded a predicted number for the first half year. 5 refs., 25 figs.

  13. Survey for impacts of global environmental issues on utilization of alternative energies for oil; Sekiyu daitai energy riyo chikyu kankyo eikyo chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-03-01

    This paper makes analyses of what policy and technological option each advanced industrial country thinks to take as measures for the global warming problem, at the same time clarifying the trends in international meetings. Analyses are also made of attitudes of developing countries and the international cooperation problem. Among the problems on global warming, an emphasis is placed on introduction of energy saving and what role the development of new energy plays. A positive group consisting mostly of West European countries is advocating a `Go Quickly` approach, while the US representing a prudent group is developing a `Go Slowly` approach. The US is considering afforestation which is useful to absorb CO{sub 2} and methane recovery as technological options. West European countries regard CO{sub 2} fixation as an important option. USSR, East European and developing countries consider that the most feasible and successful CO{sub 2} measures are energy saving/improvement of energy efficiency and forest administration/afforestation. 43 figs., 78 tabs.

  14. Survey for impacts of global environmental issues on utilizations of alternative energies for oil. Sekiyu daitai energy riyo chikyu kankyo eikyo chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-03-01

    An analysis on the factors related to carbon dioxide (CO {sub 2} ) emissions in the past, was conducted. Then, an option menu of measures to prevent global warming including alternative energy-related ones, was discussed. In the industrial world, great contribution to increasing CO {sub 2} emissions made by the economic growth factor has been offset by CO {sub 2} reductions resulting from energy conservation and fuel switching. The Soviet/East European and the developing worlds register increasing CO {sub 2} emissions. Different countries have different views of the key option to be taken in limiting CO {sub 2} emissions. Each of currently available CO {sub 2} reduction measures has its own difficulties, and none of them is able to provide a powerful means to solve global warming problems single-handedly. To begin with, it is essential to produce time to find truly effective limiting and/or adapting measures by slowing global warming as much as possible through comprehensive strategies which call for every possible effort in all the sectors. 83 figs., 92 tabs.

  15. Research cooperation of the development of laser radar for environmental measurements; Kankyo keisokuyo laser radar no kaihatsu ni kansuru kenkyu kyoryoku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    Research and development of the laser radar for measuring the air pollution in urban areas and the environmental information network have been conducted through the cooperation with Indonesian researchers. A measurement system suitable to actual situation of Indonesia has been constructed. In FY 1996, some works have been conducted as in the final fiscal year. To set the laser radar for environmental measurements and to make a plan of measurement research, conditions of air pollution in Indonesia and setting places of systems have been investigated. Opinions for the cooperation research have been exchanged with Indonesian researchers. Actual trends of the environmental measurements technology using laser radar have been surveyed. Indonesian researchers have been invited to learn operation and data processing of the system. One unit of MIE diffusion laser radar system has been designed and fabricated, and an additional data processing program has been made. The system has been delivered to Jakarta and installed. After the adjustment, performance tests have been conducted to complete the construction of the system. 3 refs., 72 figs., 10 tabs.

  16. Effects of ultra-violet ray and aqueous environment on deformation behavior of spider threads; Kumoito no henkei kyodo ni oyobosu hikari oyobi mizu kankyo no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitagawa, M.; Katsumi, S. [Kanazawa University, Ishikawa (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Wako, Y. [Hachinohe Institute of Technology, Aomori (Japan). Laboratory of Food Technology

    1998-01-15

    As a series of the studies on the mechanical properties of spider threads, the effects of ultra- violet rays (UV) and water was investigated using drag lines of Nephila clavata (Jorougumo) and capture threads of Argiope amoena (Koganegumo). It was shown for the effect of water that (1) the drag line was contracted as soon as immersed in water (super contraction), while the capture thread was not so contracted and the viscid droplets attached to it were dissolved in water, and (2) the super contracted drag fine behaved like a capture thread with a j shaped load-draw ratio curve. For the effect of UV, it was found that (1) the degradation due to UV irradiation with short wave length was accelerated more than that with long one and (2) the degree of degradation for each wave length was governed by the integrated irradiation energy of UV. 9 refs., 8 figs.

  17. Assessment of global environmental impacts by utilizing methodology of LCA on solar water heater for dwellings; LCA shuho ni yoru taiyonetsu onsuiki no kankyo fuka hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamoshida, J. [Shibaura Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan); Asai, S. [Yazaki Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-11-25

    CO2 emission was quantified through the life cycle of a solar water heater to assess its environment impact. Although LCA (life cycle assessment) originally sums up I/O of all materials and energy through the whole life cycle of a product to examine environment impact, this assessment was carried out for only CO2. Calculation of CO2 emission assumed a natural circulating solar water heater of 200 l in effective hot water capacity, 2.78m{sup 2} in effective collecting area, and 0.5 in average annual collecting efficiency of total solar radiation, and an auxiliary city gas heat source for compensating insufficient heat quantity. The total CO2 emission in the life cycle of a solar water heater was obtained from an industrial association table assuming the life cycles of 10 and 20 years. CO2 emission was estimated to be 5407.1kg-CO2 and 10665.2kg-CO2 for 10 and 20 years, respectively. CO2 emission due to city gas was largest in the total CO2 emission in the life cycle. As a result, for reduction of CO2 emission due to a solar water heater, improvement of equipment efficiency was most important. 6 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. Logic and method of environmental refreshment and its effect measurement in soil; Kankyo sosei kasoku no riron to dojo deno koka no keisoku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isogai, H.; Kawakami, T. [Electrotechnical Laboratory, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1997-05-31

    Primordial microbes that can function as photosynthetic catalysts are utilized in establishing a safe method for treating liquid or solid pollutant oxide wastes and household wastes and in activating vegetables` assimilation of gaseous wastes. A method for industrially accelerating their environment refreshing function and another method (the subject method) for measuring the effect are discussed. The technique of putting such methods to practical use is introduced, and the effectiveness of the said measuring is confirmed using empirically accepted rules. This method is based on the mycobiont/companion group method (EM method) that is advocated by Professor Higa of University of the Ryukyus. The group members form colonies with their symbiotic yeasts, lactic acid bacteria, actinomyces, leguminous bacteria, and nitrifying bacteria. Using this method, energy is industrially injected for acceleration and, simultaneously, the resultant effect is measured. The result of the measurement is next fed back so that the acceleration will be reflected. In this way, the effect of the primordial microbes that function as photosynthetic catalysts is confirmed and, secondarily, the basis is prepared on which element technologies will be developed to contribute to the enhancement of the multiplication of vegetables. 11 refs., 7 figs.

  19. Population dynamics in biological treatment process. ; Population dynamics of bacteria for biological phosphorus removal. Population dynamics to kankyo joka. ; Datsurin kin gun no population dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okada, M. (Hiroshima Univ., Hiroshima (Japan). Faculty of Engineering)

    1992-09-10

    The microbial industry can easily cultivate only the specific microorganism by introducing the closed reaction system and the sterile operation. When the superior bacteria is selected or it is created by the gene manipulation, therefore, it is not so much difficult that it is utilized for production. Since the water treatment is an open reaction system many microorganisms can join, however, it becomes to be important that how the necessary microorganisms, for example, the dephosphorylation bacteria etc. out of them are let fixed in the reaction system, and win in a competition with the other microorganisms, and in addition, are let display their functions stably for a long period. In this regard, in this paper, concerning to the issues that whether the dephosphorylation bacteria exists or not, how the behavior of dephosphorylation bacteria in the activated sludge should be clarified, what kind of behavior the dephosphorylation bacteria shows in the dephosphorylation activated sludge and so forth, grasping the population dynamics of microorganism, and furthermore, including the methodology to control it, is outlined. 31 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Photovoltaic array capacity determined by considering the environmental factors for load patterns; Fuka pattern ni taisuru kankyo inshi wo koryoshita taiyo denchi array yoryo no kettei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kameyama, N.; Higuchi, T.; Yamagami, Y.; Tani, T. [Science University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-01-30

    Effectiveness of the spectral method was confirmed for system interconnection type photovoltaic (PV) power generation systems, and PV array capacity determined in harmony with the power load was investigated. In this study, system interconnection type PV power generation systems with polycrystalline Si and amorphous Si PV cell modules were discussed. The output electric energy evaluated by the spectral method was compared with that evaluated by the conventional method only considering the cell temperature. Obtained results are as follows. For the polycrystalline Si, the differences between solar supply rates in summer evaluated by the both methods and measured value were less than 2%, which resulted in the accurate determination. For the amorphous Si, however, the difference less than 3% was obtained by the spectral method and that less than 11% was obtained by the conventional method. The spectral method provided higher accuracy. When constructing a system with large array capacity, it was found that the optimum design of PV power generation system can be performed using the spectral method with less array capacity than using the conventional method. 4 refs., 9 figs., 4 tabs.

  1. Fiscal 1999 research report. Survey on geothermal development sites (Survey on natural environment); 1999 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa. Shizen kankyo chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    This report summarizes the result on selecting sites for large-caliber production wells, and landscape characteristic evaluation for simulation, based on the landscape survey on C candidate site for geothermal development. Field survey was made on landscape, plants and animals in the Kirishima Eboshidake area. It was clarified that this area has diverse flora including some rare species such as rein orchid and monkshood which are listed as endangered species. In addition, not a few epiphytes were identified. The zoological survey result showed that planted forests of evergreen coniferous trees which cover a wide range of the surveyed area, and peripheral grassland, scrub and natural forests provide good habitats for mammals such as sika deer and wild boars. On the other hand, no animal species in need of special protection were found. Geologically some traces of landslide occurrence in the past were detected in the northern part of the surveyed area relatively. As the survey result, some promising sites suitable for geothermal development were selected, which are judged to have a relatively small impact on natural environment and landscape. (NEDO)

  2. Effects rearing conditions on the ambicoloration by young Japanese flounder; Hirame chigyo no mugen sokukokuka ni taisuru shiiku kankyo no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwata, N.; Kikuchi, K.; Furuta, T. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-06-01

    Investigations were carried out on effects of rearing environments such as light and bottom conditions on the ambicoloration of Japanese flounder. Young flounders were reared for 4 to 16 weeks in a water tank whose lid and bottom are made of colorless transparent plastic plates. Intensities of fluorescent lamps installed above and below the water tank were controlled. Sand and black resin plates were laid on the bottom of the rearing tank to discuss effects from change in the bottom properties. When the bottom of the rearing tank is made of a transparent plastic plate, ambicoloration has occurred to the flounders even if lights were irradiated from below at intensities of 1100 Lux and 7 Lux or even if the lights were cut off by a black resin plate. Even under a condition that a sandpaper is laid on the bottom to give fish feeling like contacting sand, the ambicoloration has progressed. When sandy transparent glass powder is scattered on the bottom, generation factor of individuals with ambicoloration has reduced to about a quarter. These results revealed that existence of a sandy material into which flounders can hide themselves is important for the effect on the ambicoloration of flounder, rather than existence of light irradiation or stimulation given something like sand. 18 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  3. Project to promote the development of global environmental industry technology. Feasibility study of research exchanges; Chikyu kankyo sangyo gijutsu kaihatsu suishin jigyo. Kenkyu koryu kanosei chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    In fiscal 1995, three teams were organized to study the following subjects: plant genetic and cellular engineering in relation to drought stress; simulation models of global environment for accurate assessment and prediction; the APEC Virtual Center for environmental technology exchange. The team studying plant genetic and cellular engineering in relation to drought stress visited the Department of Botany, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel, the Jacob Blaustein Institute for Desert Research, Ben-Grunion University, Israel, the Department of Biochemistry and the Office of Arid Lands Studies, Arizona University, the U.S. to survey the present and future trend of the study and feasibility of research exchanges. The team studying simulation models of global environment for accurate assessment and prediction visited Yale University, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Electric Power Research Institute, and Battle Research Institute in the U.S. to survey feasibility of research exchanges. The team studying the APEC Virtual Center for environmental technology exchange visited institutes in ASEAN countries to survey needs for the Virtual Center. 312 refs., 74 figs., 17 tabs.

  4. Research of environmental bioecosensing technology using ecological information. Part 2; Seitaikei joho ni yoru kankyo bio ecosencing gijutsu ni kansuru chosa. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    Basic considerations of exploring and cultivating environmental reporter organisms are summarized. Mechanism of genetic engineering amplification and molecular biological amplification, and approach to combining them to a hardware as a bioindicator system are investigated. For the current status of molecular biological measurement technology for measuring ecological environment and its application, environmental diagnosis from a phyropathological viewpoint, environmental diagnosis using microorganisms, test fabrication of genetic sensor, and overseas examples of environmental monitoring network are described. For the application of ecological information and functions for developing innovative environmental remediation technology, issues and potential areas for research and development regarding the bioremediation technology in which the US has achieved a progress for the benefit of soil environment remediation are summarized. For the phytoremediation, an area of bioremediation, the metabolism of microorganisms which live in the rhizosphere, and the technology for controlling the microorganisms in the soil through plants are investigated. 66 refs., 50 figs., 17 tabs.

  5. Environments of ocean and primary productivity during the late Quaternary. Experimental paleotology: an effective approach for screening and establishing biological proxies of paleoceanography (review and perspective); Daiyonki koki no kaiyo kankyo to seibutsu seisan. Jikken koseibutsugakuteki shuho ni yoru kokaiyo kankyo shihyo no kakuritsu (sokatsu to tenbo)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitazato, H. [Shizuoka University, Shizuoka (Japan). Faculty of Science

    1998-04-25

    The foraminifera, which is a biological species often used for the study of paleoenvironments, is taken up to discuss problems often encountered in the treatment of biological species in the study of paleoenvironments and methods to solve them. Changes appear in the chemical constitution of the shell of a foraminifer or the like for various physiological or ecological reasons. What is called the vital effect is the phenomenon of the systematic deviation of the shell chemical constitution from the environmental water chemical constitution due to metabolic reaction, and is supposed to reflect the integrated life cycle, growth rate, food preferences, microhabitat segregation, and the taphonomic process. In an experiment for establishing reliability for environmental proxies, it is found that a positive correlation exists between the Mg/Ca ratio in the shell of planktonic foraminifers and the culturing temperature/salinity. It is also learned that the Mg/Ca ratio is different among their species. Researches are now under way into elements that are in presence only in trace, such as Sr, Cd, Ba, Ge/Si, and into various organic substances. It is noted here that screening is required before some can service as environmental proxies. For this process, culture with specified environmental factors placed under control will be useful. 85 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Environment basic law and environment charter with idea of economic activities harmonizing with nature. ; Points are self-efforts by business corporations and setting target values. Shizen tono chowaaru keizai katsudo ga rinen no 'kankyo kihonho' to 'kankyo kensho'. ; Kigyo no jishu doryoku to mokuhyo suchi settei ga point

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-05-01

    This paper describes target value setting as called for by the environment charter for the paper and pulp industry. An earth summit was held in Brazil, which adopted the Rio de Janeiro Declaration on environmental developments, the action plan Agenda 21, and the joint statement that demands development of forests in sustainable fashions and their preservation. The world's paper and pulp industries have set forth their attitude toward preserving the environment in this age of globalism of environment preservation. In particular, the environment charter announced by the leading Japanese paper companies has set various target values. In the area of establishing forest resources, the charter calls for planting trees over an area of 30,000 ha in foreign countries, and ensuring the import of broad leaf tree materials at 50% from the afforestation in foreign countries. In the area of environmental protection, the charter incorporates suppression of loads on the environment and total abolition of specific substances including chlorofluorocarbon. With regard to promoting energy conservation and utilizing unused energies effectively, the charter calls for 7% improvement per product over in 1991. For waste paper utilization, it is targeted that the rate of mixing de-inking pulps into newsprints be raised to 60%. Wastes reduction shall be achieved by reducing final disposition quantity by 40% from that in 1991. 1 tab.

  7. FY 1999 report on the results of the introductory study on the global environmental industry technology. Investigational study on the environmental creation technology by the application of ecosystem information functions; 1999 nendo chikyu kankyo sangyo gijutsu ni kakawaru sendo kenkyu seika hokokusho. Seitaikei joho kino oyo ni yoru kankyo sozo gijutsu ni kansuru chosa kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    To know the state of environmental pollution before it clearly exists, an investigational study was made on the technology to measure environmental stress at high sensitivity, in wide range and at high speed using functions to respond chemical substances, etc. which living organisms have. The FY 1999 results were outlined. As to the application of ecosystem information functions, survey was conduced paying attention to the environmental stress response of each of the bacteria, algae, plants and animals, responses viewed from the manifestation of immunity antibodies which occurs inside living organisms and changes at genetic level, and responses of algae and plants in case of specifying environmental pollutants. In relation to the application of the biological amplification mechanism, survey was carried out on environmental stress signals sent from plants, selection of environmental stress index plants, detection of environmental pollutants using bacteria, high sensitivity detection using animal (nematode), etc. Concerning the standardization of the environmental measuring technology by the application of ecosystem information functions, survey was conducted on artificial molecular recognition sensor, antibody device sensor, biochips, system construction, etc. (NEDO)

  8. Study to take environmental symbiosis into consideration on housing construction. No.2. Experimental study on the thermal performance of K house in winter season; Kankyo kyosei ni hairyoshita sumai zukuri ni kansuru kenkyu. 2. Amagishi ni tatsu K tei no toki no onnetsu kankyo keisoku kekka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishikawa, K.; Ishihara, O. [Kumamoto University, Kumamoto (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    For the construction of houses that effectively utilize natural energy and impose less load on environments, an example of house building respecting environmental symbiosis is described. Reported herein are a heating system and the measurements of thermal environment in winter. In winter, the floor is heated by warm water from solar heat collectors circulating in pipes buried in downstair underfloor RC foundation. For the verification of the heating effect, comparison was made between the heater-provided southeast (SE) room and heater-unprovided northeast (NE) room, both downstairs. Warm water circulated in the underfloor pipes only in the daytime, the pipe surface recording the maximum of 32{degree}C in the daytime and the minimum of 17{degree}C early in the morning. At midnight, the SE room was warmer than the NE room by 2{degree}C. The slab surface in the SE room recorded 28{degree}C at the maximum and 17{degree}C at the minimum, but the temperature remained constant at 10{degree}C in the NE room. The rubble temperature was 17.5-20{degree}C in the SE room and approximately 11{degree}C in the NE room. It was noted that the SE room floor slab was capable of heat accumulation. The resident is a devotee of environmental symbiosis with mindset for enhancing natural energy utilization, burning an oil heater and a fireplace but intermittently. 1 ref., 12 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Burning-off characteristics of carbon fibers by joule heating in air; Tanso sen`i no taikichu ni okeru tsuden shodan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Endo, M.; Takeuchi, K.; Nishimura, Y.; Kasai, T. [Shinshu University, Nagano (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-02-26

    This paper evaluates the burning-off performance of mesophase pitch-based carbon fibers (MPCFs) by joule heating in air. The MPCFs have higher current capacity up to burning-off by joule heating than copper wires, and can be proof against large current. Especially, the current performance of MPCFs is roughly divided into two groups based on the degree of graphitization, which reflects difference in the crystal structure. While, the pitch-based activated carbon fiber (ACF) having very fine pores and huge specific surface is very weak against the electrical applications. For the observation of burned-off fibers by FE-SEM, inherently emphasized current applied structures reflecting original structures, such as the layered structure of MPCF and the pore structure of ACF were observed. Consequently, it was suggested that the carbon fibers themselves can be proof against severe conditions for their electrical applications. It was also concluded that the fiber structure formed by burning-off is one of useful methods for characterizing various structures of carbon fibers. 21 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Energy consumption and human factors. Residents` style of living and consciousness of the residential houses; Energy shohi to human factor. Jutaku ni okeru kyojusha no ishiki sumaikata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsubara, N. [Kyoto Prefectural Univ., Kyoto (Japan). Faculty of Living Science

    1996-09-05

    Energy consumption and human factors, which mean residents` style of living and consciousness of the residential houses, are considered on the basis of the survey results for residents living in residential houses with the same specifications in the Kansai district in 1994. The outside climate condition is loosened through the shelter performance of building, solar radiation, and clothes, to form the climate under clothes. Additionally, as a result of physiological control of body heat, the warm, cool, and comfortable sensations are formed. Various factors affect this process. Conception of satisfaction was considered as upper criteria. There are residents satisfying the non-use of air-conditioner, even though it is not comfortable. The concept of satisfaction determines dissatisfaction, patience, and otherwise satisfaction of environment modification action and escape action from environment. Concrete examples of the life style are illustrated based on the survey. Dispersion of room temperature and the various consciousness and styles of living are also illustrated, qualitatively, on the basis of the field survey. For the investigation of domestic energy consumption items, it is not avoidable to illustrate the common actual conditions of living. 12 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Cyanide formation by the cyanide distillation of nitrate. Zen shian joryuji ni okeru shosan ion ga kanyosuru shian kagobutsu ion no seisei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogura, H. (The Chiba Prefectural Lab. of Water Pollution, Chiba (Japan))

    1994-06-10

    Cyanide ion is formed by reacting disodium ethylenediamine-tetra-acetate (EDTA) with a sample containing nitrous ion. Further, it is known that cyanide ions are also generated from the reaction between EDTA and the product of the reaction of oxide and the substance like hydroxyl ammonium chloride which is added to reduce the oxide contained in the sample. In the present researches, the possibility of the formation of cyanide ions from the nitric acid used popularly in the manufactory of plating and surface-treatment is examined. It is expected that if nitric ion takes a part in the formation of cyanide ion, the reaction reducing the nitric ion into nitrous ion would happen as the former step thereof. Therefore, the cyanide distillation of nitric ions co-existing with the reducing agent is carried out, and it is confirmed that cyanide ion is formed with the participation of EDTA. 14 refs., 1 fig., 7 tabs.

  12. Calculation of wave resistance by using Kochin function in the Rankine source method; Rankinsosuho ni okeru kochin kansu wo mochiita zoha teiko keisan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasukawa, H. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    In order to avoid negative wave resistance (which is physically incomprehensible) generated in calculating wave resistance by using the Rankine source method, a proposal was made on a wave resistance calculation method using the Kochin function which describes behavior of speed potential in regions far apart from a hull. The Baba`s condition was used as a free surface condition for the speed potential which expresses wave motions around a hull. This has allowed a new Kochin function which uses as unknown the speed potential on the hull surface and the free surface near the hull to be defined and combined with the Rankine source method. A comparison was made between the calculated values for wave resistance, hull subsidence and trim change of an ore transporting vessel (SR107 type of ship) in a fully loaded condition and the result of water tank tests. The wave resistance values derived from pressure integration have all become negative when the Froude number is from 0.1 to 0.2, while no negative resistance has appeared in the calculations by using the Kochin function, but the result has agreed with that of the water tank tests. Accuracy of the calculations at low speeds was improved. The trim change in the calculations was slightly smaller than that in the water tank tests. The subsidence showed a good agreement. 7 refs., 1 fig.

  13. Characteristic analysis of turbulent heat diffusion in a multi-compartment structure; Takukakuka kukan kozo ni okeru ranryunetsu kakusan gensho no kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, C.; Fukuchi, N. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-10-01

    An analysis was made on turbulent heat diffusion in a multi-compartment structure necessary for designing calorific power and environment for functional systems used in marine vessels and off-shore structures. In a multi-compartment structure, the diffusion phenomenon is complex because of movement of air flow in turbulence and buoyancy resulted from non-isothermal condition. The phenomenon is largely affected by space shapes and walls, and the conditions in heat diffusion field is governed also by shapes of opening connecting the compartments. An analysis was made by using the SIMPLE method on turbulent heat diffusion in a multi-compartment space with high Raleigh number in which natural convection is dominant. If the opening is small, the Coanda effect appears, in which air flow passing through the opening rises along the wall, wherein a high-temperature layer is formed near the ceiling, making the heat diffusion inactive. If the opening is large, a jetting flow from the opening and a large circulating flow are created, which cause active advection mixture, making temperature gradient smaller in the upper layer. Heat transfer intensity in an opening on a partition wall decays in proportion with 1/4th power of the opening ratio. 7 refs., 11 figs.

  14. Nonlinear process generating Tollmien-Schlichting waves in a reattached boundary layer; Hakuri saifuchaku nagare ni okeru T-S hado no hisenkei reiki katei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asai, M.; Aiba, K. [Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-09-01

    Low-frequency Tollmien-Schlichting (T-S) waves may be thought generated as a result of high-frequency disturbance between two proximity frequency modes grown unstably in a separation shear layer causing secondary nonlinear interference to occur. This fact has been verified by a numerical simulation. A non-compression Navier-Stokes equation was used for the fundamental equation, a tertiary windward difference for the convection term, and a secondary central difference for other differential calculus. The Reynolds number was 200, and the disturbance was introduced by applying `v` variation continuously on the wall face. Non-introduction of the disturbance results in a steady flow. Disturbance frequencies of 0.15 and 0.20 were selected as disturbance frequencies from the relationship between the spatial amplification and the frequency dependency. The structure of the excited disturbance agreed with the intrinsic mode. The difference mode due to nonlinear interference grows as the basic mode was amplified. The basic mode decays sharply in the boundary layer after reattachment, while the difference mode decays slowly. Distribution of the difference mode is a distribution of viscous T-S waves, which may be converted into the intrinsic mode. 8 refs., 7 figs.

  15. Photo-irradiation effects on GaAs atomic layer epitaxial growth. GaAs no genshiso epitaxial seicho ni okeru hikari reiki koka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mashita, M.; Kawakyu, Y.; Sasaki, M.; Ishikawa, H. (Toshiba Corp., Kawasaki (Japan). Research and Development Center)

    1990-08-10

    Single atomic layer epitaxy (ALE) aims at controlling a growing film at a precision of single molecular layer. In this article, it is reported that the growth temperature range of ALE was expanded by the vertical irradiation of KrF exima laser (248 nm) onto the substrate for the ALE growth of GaAs using the metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) method. Thanks for the results of the above experiment, it was demonstrated that the irradiation effect was not thermal, but photochemical. In addition, this article studies the possibility of adsorption layer irradiation and surface irradiation as the photo-irradiation mechanism, and points out that coexistence of both irradiation mechanisms can be considered and, in case of exima laser, strong possibility of direct irradiation of the adsorption layer because of its high power density. Hereinafter, by using both optical growth ALE and thermal growth ALE jointly, the degree of freedom of combination of hetero ALE increases and its application to various material systems becomes possible. 16 refs., 6 figs.

  16. Vortex-induced vibrations of circular cylinder in cross flow at supercritical Reynolds numbers; Chorinkai Reynolds su ryoiki ni okeru enchu no uzu reiki shindo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawamura, T.; Nakao, T.; Takahashi, M.; Hayashi, M.; Goto, N. [Hitachi, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-07-25

    Vortex-induced vibrations were measured for a circular cylinder subjected to a water cross flow at supercritical Reynolds numbers for a wide range of reduced velocities. Turbulence intensities were changed from 1% to 13% in order to investigate the effect of the Strouhal number on the region of synchronization by symmetrical and Karman vortex shedding. The reduced damping of the test cylinder was about 0.1 in water. The surface roughness of the cylinder was a mirror-polished surface. Strouhal number decreased from about 0.48 to 0.29 with increasing turbulence intensity. Synchronized vibrations were observed even at supercritical Reynolds numbers where fluctuating fluid force was small. Reduced velocities at which drag and lift direction lock-in by Karman vortex shedding were initiated decreased with increasing Strouhal number. When Strouhal number was about 0.29, the self-excited vibration in drag direction by symmetrical vortex shedding began at which the frequency ratio of Karman vortex shedding frequency to the natural frequency of cylinder was 0.32. (author)

  17. Energy conservation progress in building equipment. Energy conservation on the sports facilities; Kenchiku setsubi ni okeru sho energy no shiten. Supotsu reja shisetsu no sho energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakura, I.; Kayo, M. [Kajima Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-06-05

    There are various kinds of sports and leisure facilities. Due to their classes, aims, operation styles and so forth, the grades of aimed environments and facilities change. For example, like a baseball, swimming and skating, quantity of motion and grade of sportswear are different due to their classes and a target environment is also differs. On the other hand, public facility for citizen use is required its cheaper fee, but private facility on commercial base is required its user-collecting capability with added-value. In order to content individual needs of each facility, it is important to combine properly its target environment and its equipment system. The sports and leisure facilities have often large space on their characteristics, and are necessary to maintain their target environments as well as to treat their thermal emission in closed space and to supply their required air. Therefore, it is an extremely meaningful to conduct the energy saving in the facility apt to consume a lot of energy, which is described in this paper mainly on in-door large space facilities. 17 refs., 1 tab.

  18. Numerical study of the mechanism of wavy interface generation in explosive welding; Bakuhatsu yosetsu ni okeru hajo kaimen keisei kiko ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abe, A. [Kobe University of Mercantile Marine, Kobe (Japan)

    1996-07-21

    Wavy interface generation is an interesting characteristic of explosive welding. There have been many theoretical and experimental discussions of the mechanism of wavy interface generation but there is no consensus of opinion as yet. We report a numerical approach to the analysis of the mechanism of interface wave generation in explosive welding. The phenomena of the interface wave generation are calculated using a two-dimensional finite difference scheme for elastic-plastic materials. In this simulation the equations for a symmetric collision between copper plates are solved. The concept behind this study is that the wavy interface and vortex streets are caused by the velocity distribution of shear flow and periodic disturbances at the interface. The calculation results show the deformation process of the wavy interface and we obtain qualitative agreements between numerical and experimental results. 13 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Heat transfer in an acoustic-resonance tube model and its visualization; Onkyo kyomeikan ni okeru netsuyuso gensho to sono kashika

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozawa, M.; Kataoka, M. [Kansei Gakuin University, Osaka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Kawamoto, A. [Toshiba Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Takifuji, T. [Hitachi, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-12-25

    Acoustic-resonance freezing was devised recently by Wheatley et al that could be called wave freezing that may be applied to chillers used in from small home air conditioners and refrigerators to those for industrial use. With an objective of using these chillers in practical applications, the present study has experimented and discussed the temperature distribution in tubes, transient dynamic movements, and correlation with acoustic fields by using a fundamental resonance model from among the basic design data. The experimental device consists of a speaker for the acoustic vibrator, resonance tubes, and stacking members. Heat transfer in the acoustic resonance tube was experimented, and the temperature distribution in the stacking plates was observed visually by using a temperature sensing liquid quartz sheet. Heat transfer from joints to flank in the pressure amplitude was recognized, and a special temperature distribution was found to be formed by the resonance system. Qualitative elucidation is also possible on the frequency involved in the heat transportation by means of a short stack model and the correlation with kinds of the fluids. Modeling the system as a whole requires further studies. The tested gases include nitrogen, air, R-22 fluorocarbon gas, and helium. 15 refs., 10 figs.

  20. Tape transport control and estimation of reel inertia for magnetic tape drives; Jiki tape kudokei ni okeru reel kansei moment suitei to tape soko seigyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanagihara, N.; Terayama, T.; Sakai, K.; Owada, N. [Hitachi, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-04-01

    The moment of inertia of the tape reel of VTR varies depending on the reel size and the volume of the tape winding around the reel. Due to the variation, the tension control of the tape in the reel-to-reel drive is difficult. To overcome this problem, the paper presents a new method to identify the tape reel without using additional sensors. Based on this identification scheme, the tape transport control is also presented to achieve the precise tension/speed control. This real-time identification approaches are presented for spinning and running. When the tape reels start spinning up, the tape speed is changed stepwise, by which the inertia of the reel can be estimated using the variation of the tape tension at each reel. The process is repeated to improve the accuracy of identification. Under running condition, the changing inertia can be calculated from the tape radii of two reels. The changing tape radius can be detectable with the speed of capstan. The validity of the proposed method has been approved by experiments using VTR. 6 refs., 14 figs., 4 tabs.

  1. Report on survey of promotion of activities implemented jointly in China in FY 1997; 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho (Chugoku ni okeru kyodo jisshi katsudo no suishin chosa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    Rapid economy growth has been observed in Asia including Japan. On the other hand, problems of population and environment grew even worse with the economic growth. Especially, China is the second CO2 emission country in the world. Large energy demand is still forecasted with its economic growth in the future. It is well-known that the energy consumption per unit GDP is very large. Therefore, it is very significant to promote the activities implemented jointly with China for mitigating the emission of greenhouse gases including CO2, which provides a significant meaning for solving global environmental issues as well as for improving regional environmental issues. It is necessary for the above to recognize the appropriate current situations and to promote the activities implemented jointly suitable for the country. Based on the discussions and information exchanges about environmental issues with staffs concerning environmental policies and scientists as well as the field surveys, methods for the activities implemented jointly were investigated to provide some proposals. 4 figs., 8 tabs.

  2. Sessile animals` distribution and their water quality purification function in Tokyo inner bay; Tokyoto naiwan ni okeru fuchaku dobutsu no bunpu to suishitsu joka kino

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimura, K.; Tsuchiya, T. [Tokyo Metropolitan Research Inst. for Environmental Protection, Tokyo (Japan); Inamori, Y. [National Inst. for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba (Japan); Okutomi, S. [Saitama University, Saitama (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Nishimura, O.; Sudo, R. [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan)

    1998-01-10

    With sea banks in the Tokyo Inner Bay as the object, discussions were given on identification of actual living conditions for sessile animals and purification function of their dominant species. In the investigation, submerged visual observations and identification on existing quantities were performed in July, September and November, 1995 and February 1996. The following matters were made clear as a result of the investigation: the number of species ranges from 43 to 46 and is stabilized throughout a year; a phenomenon is repeated that the number of individuals decreases in summer and winter, and increases in spring and fall as breeding seasons as a result of the addition of larva; the existing quantity is accounted for 90% or more by four dominant species of M. e. galloprovincialis, L. f. kikuchii, C. gigas and Balanus spp in that order; sessile animals weighing 9,110 tons are living annually in average in the sea banks extending over a distance of 192 km; amount of COD purification based on the annual average deposition quantity is calculated 19 tons as a daily average, which corresponds to 23% of the total COD quantity flowing in from the Tokyo urban area; and on the other hand, COD, N and P produced by sessile animals become new loads to environment over the life of these sessile animals. 26 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Efficient calculation of potential distribution in two-layer earth; Niso kozo daichikei ni okeru denki tansa no tame no koritsuteki den`i keisan shuho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kataoka, M.; Okamoto, Y. [Chiba Institute of Technology, Chiba (Japan); Endo, M.; Noguchi, K. [Waseda University, Tokyo (Japan); Teramachi, Y.; Akabane, H. [University of Industrial Technology, Kanagawa (Japan); Agu, M. [Ibaraki University, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1997-05-27

    An efficient calculation method of potential distribution in the presence of an embedded body in multi-layer earth has been proposed by expanding the method of image with a consideration of multiple reflection between the ground surface and each underground boundary. For this method, when solving boundary integral equation with the potential of embedded body surface as only one unknown, i.e., when obtaining discretization equation, ordinary boundary element program developed for analyzing the finite closed region can be used. As an example, numerical calculation was conducted for the two-layer earth. The analysis expression of potential distribution in the case of the certain embedded body in two-layer earth has never published. Accordingly, the calculated results were compared with those by the integral equation method. As a result, it was concluded that the primary potential obtained from the present method agreed well with that obtained from the integral equation method. However, there was a disregarded difference in the secondary potential. For confirming the effectiveness, it was necessary to compare with another numerical calculation method, such as finite element method. 5 refs., 5 figs.

  4. Interfacial area between gases and liquid in a valve plate column and a bubble cap tray; Barubu danto oyobi hosho danto ni okeru kieki sesshoku menseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakoua, M.; Dribika, M.; Besher, E

    1999-03-05

    A mathematical model has been developed for absorption accompanied by chemical reaction of H{sub 2}S and CO{sub 2} in alkanolamine solutions encountered in plants for natural gas sweetening in Libya. The model has been used to calculate actual number of plates in industrial columns. The model results errors in number of trays predictions due to the lack of procedures for estimating interfacial area for the in between flow regime that prevailed in two industrial plants. The developed correlation for interfacial area estimation for the in between flow regime gives zero error in number of trays prediction. (author)

  5. Experimental studies on performance of tandem hydrofoils in high speed regions; Kosokuiki ni okeru tandem suichuyoku no seino ni kansuru jikkenteki kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakatake, K.; Oda, K.; Kataoka, K. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Okada, S. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Mizuno, S. [Hitachi Zosen Corp., Osaka (Japan)

    1996-10-01

    With an objective to clarify basic performance of hydrofoils, a towing experiment was carried out on single hydrofoil and tandem hydrofoils, whose results are reported in this paper. In the experiment, the tandem hydrofoils are supported on two stays on the left and right sides, and the whole lifting power and the whole drag including those of the stays were measured by using strain gauges placed on four plate springs. Results of the experiment may be summarized as follows: in the case of the single hydrofoil, the lifting power constant varied as a result of strong impact on free surface as the shallower the hydrofoil, but corresponds to the size of the lifting power coefficient in high speed regions; in the case of the tandem hydrofoils, the smaller the submersion depth, the effects grew larger on the lifting power coefficient and the drag coefficient, similarly to the case of the single hydrofoil; and the lifting power coefficient for the leading hydrofoils changes very little as a result of change in horizontal distance between the tandem hydrofoils, but the lifting power coefficient of the rear hydrofoils vibrates due to influence from the leading hydrofoils, with the peak of the value thereof transferring to the higher speed side as the horizontal distance increases. 3 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Research report for fiscal 1998. Promotion of activities implemented jointly etc. in China; 1998 nendo Chugoku ni okeru kyodo jisshi katsudo nado suishin chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    The Kyoto Protocol allows some flexibility in the implementation of methods for achieving the goal, such as emission trading, activities implemented jointly (AIJ) among advanced countries, construction of clean development mechanisms (CDM) with developing countries, etc., and Japan intends to positively make use of them for the achievement of the goal. For China, who holds second place in the list of greenhouse gas emitting countries in the world, the promotion of CDM is quite important. With the situation taken into consideration, interaction was effected with Chinese officers and scientists of government agencies and academic institutes involved in environmental matters, and researches were conducted. Views and information were exchanged regarding environmental problems and, after on-site investigations, researches were conducted and suggestions were presented as to how AIJ and CDM should be. The suggestions covered Chinese policies toward AIJ and CDM, current state of AIJ projects in China and systems for their promotion, means for enhancing such projects, and discovery of candidates for AIJ and CDM project application. (NEDO)

  7. Change in surface characteristics of coal in upgrading of low-rank coals; Teihin`itan kaishitsu process ni okeru sekitan hyomen seijo no henka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oki, A.; Xie, X.; Nakajima, T.; Maeda, S. [Kagoshima University, Kagoshima (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-10-28

    With an objective to learn mechanisms in low-rank coal reformation processes, change of properties on coal surface was discussed. Difficulty in handling low-rank coal is attributed to large intrinsic water content. Since it contains highly volatile components, it has a danger of spontaneous ignition. The hot water drying (HWD) method was used for reformation. Coal which has been dry-pulverized to a grain size of 1 mm or smaller was mixed with water to make slurry, heated in an autoclave, cooled, filtered, and dried in vacuum. The HWD applied to Loy Yang and Yallourn coals resulted in rapid rise in pressure starting from about 250{degree}C. Water content (ANA value) absorbed into the coal has decreased largely, with the surface made hydrophobic effectively due to high temperature and pressure. Hydroxyl group and carbonyl group contents in the coal have decreased largely with rising reformation treatment temperature (according to FT-IR measurement). Specific surface area of the original coal of the Loy Yang coal was 138 m{sup 2}/g, while it has decreased largely to 73 m{sup 2}/g when the reformation temperature was raised to 350{degree}C. This is because of volatile components dissolving from the coal as tar and blocking the surface pores. 2 refs., 4 figs.

  8. Effect of sulfur or hydrogen sulfide on initial stage of coal liquefaction in tetralin; Sekitan ekika shoki katei ni okeru io to ryuka suiso no hatasu yakuwari

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakada, M. [Government Industrial Research Institute, Kyushu, Saga (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    It is well known that the solubilization of coal can be accelerated by adding sulfur or hydrogen sulfide during direct liquefaction of difficult coals. From the studies of authors on the coal liquefaction under the conditions at rather low temperatures between 300 and 400{degree}C, liquefaction products with high quality can be obtained by suppressing the aromatization of naphthene rings, but it was a problem that the reaction rate is slow. For improving this point, results obtained by changing solvents have been reported. In this study, to accelerate the liquefaction reaction, Illinois No.6 coal was liquefied in tetralin at temperature range from 300 to 400{degree}C by adding a given amount of sulfur or hydrogen sulfide at the initial stage of liquefaction. The addition of sulfur or hydrogen sulfide provided an acceleration effect of liquefaction reaction at temperature range between 300 and 400{degree}C. The addition of sulfur or hydrogen sulfide at 400{degree}C increased the oil products. At 370 and 400{degree}C, the liquid yield by adding sulfur was slightly higher than that by adding hydrogen sulfide, unexpectedly. The effects of sulfur and hydrogen sulfide were reversed when increasing the hydrogen pressure. 5 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Coal conversion rate in 1t/d PSU liquefaction reactor; 1t/d PSU ekika hannoto ni okeru sekitan tenka sokudo no kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikeda, K.; Imada, K. [Nippon Steel Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Nogami, Y.; Inokuchi, K. [Mitsui SRC Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    To investigate the coal liquefaction characteristics, coal slurry samples were taken from the outlets of the reactors and slurry preheater of NEDOL process 1 t/d process supporting unit (PSU), and were analyzed. Tanito Harum coal was used for liquefaction, and the slurry was prepared with recycle solvent. Liquefaction was performed using synthetic iron sulfide catalyst at reaction temperatures, 450 and 465{degree}C. Solubility of various solid samples was examined against n-hexane, toluene, and tetrahydrofuran (THF). When considering the decrease of IMO (THF-insoluble and ash) as a characteristic of coal conversion reaction, around 20% at the outlet of the slurry preheater, around 70% within the first reactor, and several percents within the successive second and third reactors were converted against supplied coal. Increase of reaction temperature led to the increase of evaporation of oil fraction, which resulted in the decrease of actual slurry flow rate and in the increase of residence time. Thus, the conversion of coal was accelerated by the synergetic effect of temperature and time. Reaction rate constant of the coal liquefaction was around 2{times}10{sup -1} [min{sup -1}], which increased slightly with increasing the reaction temperature from 450 to 465{degree}C. 3 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Effect of total pressure on sulfur capture of Ca-ion exchanged coal; Kaatsu jokenka ni okeru Ca-tanjitan no datsuryu koka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, S.; Benjamin, G.; Abe, H.; Harano, A.; Takarada, T. [Gunma University, Gunma (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-10-28

    In relation to coal gasification and combustion under high pressure as highly efficient coal utilization, the effect of total pressure and sintering on the SO2 capture ability of Ca-ion exchanged coal and other desulfurizing agents were studied. In experiment, specimens were filled into a small pressurized reactor to heat them under high-pressure N2 atmosphere. After the completion of combustion reaction of char at 850{degree}C, SO2, CO2 and CO gases were measured at an outlet while flowing SO2/N2. As the experimental result, all of the S content in Ca-ion exchanged coal was not absorbed by Ca content in coal during pyrolysis and combustion, resulting in discharge of 36% of the S content. Since Ca-ion exchanged coal is fast in combustion reaction, most of the S content was desulfurized by coal ash. The ash content yielded from Ca-ion exchanged coal was more excellent in SO2 capture ability than limestone even under higher pressure. In the case of CO2 partial pressure lower than equilibrium CO2 pressure for CaCO3 decomposition, the capture ability decreased with an increase in total pressure, while in higher CO2 partial pressure, it was improved. 1 ref., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Formation of N2 in the fixed-bed pyrolysis of low rank coals and the mechanisms; Koteisho netsubunkai ni okeru teitankatan kara no N2 no sisei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Z.; Otsuka, Y. [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan). Institute for Chemical Reaction Science

    1996-10-28

    In order to establish coal NOx preventive measures, discussions were given on formation of N2 in the fixed-bed pyrolysis of low rank coals and the mechanisms thereof. Chinese ZN coal and German RB coal were used for the discussions. Both coals do not produce N2 at 600{degree}C, and the main product is volatile nitrogen. Conversion into N2 does not depend on heating rates, but increases linearly with increasing temperature, and reaches 65% to 70% at 1200{degree}C. In contrast, char nitrogen decreases linearly with the temperature. More specifically, these phenomena suggest that the char nitrogen or its precursor is the major supply source of N2. When mineral substances are removed by using hydrochloric acid, their catalytic action is lost, and conversion into N2 decreases remarkably. Iron existing in ion-exchanged condition in low-rank coal is reduced and finely diffused into metallic iron particles. The particles react with heterocyclic nitrogen compounds and turn into iron nitride. A solid phase reaction mechanism may be conceived, in which N2 is produced due to decomposition of the iron nitride. 5 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Effects of solvent and catalysts on the hydrogenolysis of alkylnaphthalenes; Alkylnaphthalene no suisoka bunkai ni okeru yobai to shokubai no koka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Futamura, S. [National Institute for Resources and Environment, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    Catalytic effects of metal and carbon materials, which promote hydrogen transfer from hydrogen donor solvents, are investigated during hydrogenolysis of benzyl-1-methylnaphthalenes (BMN) selected as a hydrogen acceptor. For the isomer distribution of BMN after the reaction, almost the same molecular ratio before the reaction was obtained independent of the presence of catalysts. Selectivity of position during the addition of hydrogen atoms from tetralin was not found. For the reaction of BMN in tetralin, 1-methylnaphthalene and toluene were obtained as products, but the formation of benzylnaphthalene was not found. As for the nuclear hydride of BMN, the trace amount formation was confirmed by gas chromatography. For the hydrogen transfer from tetralin progressed catalytically, it was found that the nuclear of naphthalene can not be hydrogenated easily. This was considered to be due to the obstruction of hydrogen transfer from tetralin by the strong adsorption of BMN on the Ni surface. 1 ref., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  13. Investigation of the deposit formation in pipelines connecting liquefaction reactors; 1t/d PSU ni okeru ekika hanno tokan fuchakubutsu no seisei yoin ni kansuru ichikosatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okada, Y.; Nogami, Y.; Inokuchi, K. [Mitsui SRC Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Mochizuki, M.; Imada, K. [Nippon Steel Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    The liquefaction reaction system of an NEDOL process coal liquefaction 1t/d PSU was opened and checked to investigate the cause of the rise of differential pressure between liquefaction reactors of the PSU. The liquefaction test at a coal concentration of 50 wt% using Tanito Harum coal was conducted, and it was found that the differential pressure between reactors was on the increase. By the two-phase flow pressure loss method, deposition thickness of deposit in pipelines was estimated at 4.4mm at the time of end operation, which agreed with a measuring value obtained from a {gamma} ray. The rise of differential pressure was caused by deposit formation in pipelines connecting reactors. The main component of the deposit is calcite (CaCO3 60-70%) and is the same as the usual one. It is also the same type as the deposit on the reactor wall. Ca in coal ash is concerned with this. To withdraw solid matters deposited in the reactor, there are installed pipelines for the withdrawal at the reactor bottom. The solid matters are regularly purged by reverse gas for prevention of clogging. As the frequency of purge increases, the deposit at the reactor bottom decreases, but the deposit attaches strongly to pipelines connecting reactors. It is presumed that this deposit is what Ca to be discharged out of the system as a form of deposition solid matter naturally in the Ca balance precipitated as calcite in the pipeline connecting the reactor. 3 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  14. Conversion of char nitrogen to N2 under incomplete combustion conditions; Fukanzen nensho jokenka ni okeru char chuchisso no N2 eno tenka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhuang, Q.; Yamauchi, A.; Oshima, Y.; Wu, Z.; Otsuka, Y. [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan). Institute for Chemical Reaction Science

    1996-10-28

    The effect of combustion conditions on conversion of char nitrogen to N2 was studied in the combustion experiment of char obtained by pyrolysis of coal. Char specimen was prepared by holding ZN coal of Chinese lignite in Ar atmosphere at 1123K for one hour. A batch scale quartz-made fluidized bed reactor was used for combustion experiment. After the specimen was fluidized in reaction gas, it was rapidly heated to start combustion reaction. CO, CO2 and N2 in produced gases were online measured by gas chromatography (GC). As the experimental result, under the incomplete combustion condition where a large amount of CO was produced by consuming almost all of O2, no NOx and N2O produced from char were found, and almost all of N-containing gas was N2. At the final stage of combustion, pyridinic-N disappeared completely, and pyrrolic-N decreased, while O-containing nitrogen complexes became a main component. It was thus suggested that O-containing nitrogen complexes are playing the role of intermediate product in combustion reaction. 7 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Characterization of the various catalyst for solvent hydrogenation at 1t/d PSU; 1t/d PSU ni okeru kakushu yozai suisoka shokubai no seino hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kakebayashi, H.; Nogami, Y.; Inokuchi, K. [Mitsui SRC Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Aihara, Y.; Imada, K. [Nippon Steel Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    Performance of various catalysts for hydrogenation of recycle solvent was evaluated for the operation of NEDOL process 1 t/d process supporting unit (PSU). Distillate between 220 and 538{degree}C derived from the liquefaction of Tanito Harum coal was used as recycle solvent. Deactivation behaviors of catalysts were compared using a prediction equation of catalyst life, by which aromatic carbon index (fa) after hydrogenation can be determined from the fa of recycle oil before hydrogenation, reaction temperature, and total hydrogenation time. Total hydrogenation time satisfying the {Delta}fa, 0.05 before and after hydrogenation were 8,000, 4,000, and 2,000 hours for NiMo-based catalysts C, A, and B, respectively. Catalyst C showed the longest life. Used catalysts were also characterized. The catalyst C showed larger mean pore size than those of the others, which resulted in the longer life due to the delay of pore blockage. From measurements by XPS and EPMA, relative atomic concentration of carbon increased remarkably after the use for all of catalysts, which was considered to be due to the adhesion of hydrocarbons. Increase of metal atoms, such as Fe and Cr, was also observed due to the contamination of entrainment residues. Deactivation of catalysts was caused by the adhesion of hydrocarbons, and metallic compounds, such as Fe and Cr. 3 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  16. Coal liquefaction in early stage of NEDOL process 1t/d PSU; 1t/d PSU ni okeru ekika shoki hanno ni kansuru kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikeda, K.; Kawabata, M.; Mochizuki, M.; Imada, K. [Nippon Steel Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Nogami, Y.; Inokuchi, K. [Mitsui SRC Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    To investigate the behavior of coal liquefaction reaction in early stage as a part of studies on the coal liquefaction characteristics using NEDOL process 1 t/d process supporting unit (PSU), coal slurry sample was taken from the outlet of slurry preheater located in the upflow of liquefaction reactors, and was tested. Tanito Harum coal was used for liquefaction. Preheater was operated under the condition of pressure of 170 kg/cm{sup 2}, gas flow rate of 64 Nm{sup 3}/hr, and at temperature up to 410{degree}C at the outlet, in response to the standard test condition. The slurry sample was discharged into a high temperature separator with temperature of 250{degree}C. Liquefaction was not proceeded at the outlet of preheater. Solid residue yielded around 80%, and liquid yielded around 15%. Gases, CO and CO2, and water yielded also small amount around 3%. The solid sample contained much IOM fraction (tetrahydrofuran-insoluble and ash), and the liquid contained much heavy oil fraction. Hydrogenation was not proceeded, and the hydrogen consumption was very low showing below one-tenth of that at the usual operation. Hydrogen sulfide gas was formed at early stage, which suggested that the change of iron sulfide catalyst occur at early stage of liquefaction. 1 ref., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Operation history of hydraulic jet pump on teh Chengbei oil field, China. Chengbei yuden ni okeru haidororikku jet pump no shiyo jisseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terao, Yoshihiro; Takagi, Sunao

    1989-11-01

    Changbei oil field in China uses hydraulic jet pump(HJP) to cope with the increase of oil production and increase of water content in the oil field. This paper described the practical result. This pump makes high speed jet by driving fluid, and converts the dynamic energy to pressure energy by decelerating with a diffuser to push up oil. Wellheads damaged by sand friction or near the gas cap were removed. The production from March, 1988 to October increased at the rate of 114kl/day at total 8 wellheads. Heavy oil of API specific gravity of 16 degree could be proved. Since the separation of oil and water was inferior, so that the countermeasures were studied but the cause was not known. Troubles or failures of main body, nozzle and throat of HJP were not occurred. Any effect could not be found at a wellhead of water content exceeding 50 to 60% because only water production increased. Consequently, this process could result the increase of oil production with lower cost and without mechanical failures. 2 refs., 7 figs., 7 tabs.

  18. Application of polymeric solid materials for electrical insulation system in superconducting apparatuses; Chodendo kiki no denki zetsuen kosei ni okeru kobunshi kotai zetsuen no tekiyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagao, M. [Toyohashi Univ. of Tech., Aichi (Japan); Minoda, A. [Matsue National College of Tech., Shimane (Japan); Kosaki, M. [Gifu National College of Tech., Gifu (Japan)

    1999-06-07

    We send the electric insulation to one of the technological problem to be solved in order to realize high reliability of the superconductive electric power equipment. This paper must also sufficiently consider not only dielectric characteristic and insulation characteristic but also material mechanical property in which they are excellent at very low temperature in the selection of insulating material. The representative insulating material of XLPE, LDPE mainly used in the region over room temperature the crack may arise by causing mechanical stress by cooling contracture of giant molecule, and the problem occurs as cryogenic insulating material in mechanical property. We propose the ethylene propylene rubber as cryogenic insulating material, and we carry out research and development of superconducting cable of the solid insulation system. We examined dielectric breakdown property and mechanical property of EPR at very low temperature this time. (NEDO)

  19. Numerical simulation of emissions and depositions of acidic air pollutants in East Asia; Higashi ajia chiiki ni okeru taikiosen busshitsu no haishutsu to yuso simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higashino, H. [Agency of Industrial Science and Technology, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-12-01

    In order to consider how to cope with problems of great-sphere air pollution in the East Asia such as acid rain, etc., it is required to investigate the real conditions of emitted air pollutants and to develop a transfer model which clarify the relation between emissions and depositions. This paper describes the present state of studies on the amount of estimated air pollutive emissions in the East Asia and estimated depositions by transfer models. Typical studies on estimated grid-by-grid distribution of emissions in the East Asia are explained first and other estimated examples, i.e. data announced by the Chinese Government and etc., air also referred. The models developed for estimating acidic pollutants falling down in the East Asia are insufficient, however, acidic pollutant transfer models applied at present are introduced. The results of the author`s study are described and the subjects for a future study are referred. 27 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  20. Historical consideration on the overseas development of concrete faced rockfill dams; Kaigai ni okeru concrete hyomen shasuiheki gata rokkufiru-damu hatten no rekishiteki kosatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamura, T.

    1995-09-05

    It is preferable that height deference between two reservoirs for pumped storage generation is as large as possible, when allowance enough to meet sustained peak of power need is taken into account. Consequently, dam heights are often designed to exceed 100 m. Concrete faced rockfill dams (CFRDs) have been constructed as such high dams because of reducing construction cost and of absence of previous examples, in the world, for constructing dams higher than 100 m with asphalt faced wall. Features, construction achievement, endurance, construction period and economic efficiency are discussed from a viewpoint of historical development of CFRD. CFRDs have advantages over dams of clay-core rockfill type in regards to being economic, short in construction period, heavily endurable, safe against flooding and so on. The number of CFRDs whose height exceeds 50 m had reached 89 by 1993, since Morena dam was constructed first in California state, USA in 1895. Twenty one of them are higher than 100 m. CFRDs have been enduring without disruption nearly for 100 years, although some dams experienced water leak. 15 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. Detection of bit location by acoustic emission technique in horizontal directional drilling. Kojo sakushin koho ni okeru bit ichi no AE ho ni yoru hyotei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abe, M.; Niitsuma, H. (Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Faculty of Engineering); Sugimori, S. (Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Grauduate School); Nakajima, T. (NKK Corp., Tokyo (Japan))

    1991-09-20

    The accuracy of the bit location in the excavation of pilot holes with horizontal drilling technique must be kept less than several tens of centimeters. Such an accuracy is hard to be achieved by the existing controlling technology. The depth of the bit tip can be measured comparatively accurately using a clinometer and the like. The azimuth meter, gyroscope, underground radar, locator, etc. are used for the detection of azimuth of the bit, but every one of them has its own problem. Therefore, new measuring methods to be used in combination with the conventional methods are required which can cover up the shortcomings of the conventional methods. Acoustic emission (AE) technique is employed for the detection of the bit location, and the accompanying problems as well as detecting performance are investigated. It is used for the measurement in the drilling test performed at the reclaimed land on the premises of Keihin ironworks of NKK Corp. In connection with the detection of the bit location in horizontal pilot drilling, a study is made on the zone detection technique for AE signals generated by the bit when striking ground and those generated during drilling. 7 refs., 17 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Technical development of cost-efficient installation of power distribution cables under pavements. Haiden chichuka ni okeru doboku kensetsu gorika gijutsu no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kokusho, Koji; Kataoka, Tetsuyuki; Tanaka, Yasuyuki; Yoshida, Yasuo; Ikemi, Motoyoshi; Suzuki, Koichi; Kitano, Koichi; Kobayashi, Seiichi; Kanazu, Tsutomu; Komada, Hiroya.

    1987-12-01

    Various latest technical developments were surveyed for the cost-effective installation of power distribution cables under pavements, and their applicabilities were demonstrated with the evaluation of their cost-reduction effects. Cables in conventional vinyl protection tubes could be buried only 30cm under pavements, and in such case, the cost was reduced to 51% of those of conventional methods. As the results of soil tests, excavated soil over 80% was reusable through coarse screening. Underground radar technique to explore buried pipes from the surface was detectable several pipes buried 1.5-2.0m underground, although some problems in precision were found. The improvement of reinforced concrete man-hole structures to minimize the volume of excavated soil indicated the cost reduction of nearly 20%. The application of these techniques to the installation of cables was expected to ultimately halve the total civil engineering cost. 21 refs., 130 figs., 46 tabs.

  3. Application of geophysical methods to investigation of old castle, especially of the moat; Joshi no chosa ni okeru butsuri tansa no tekiyo (horiato no tansa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, A.; Karube, F.; Kobayashi, M.; Toge, M. [OYO Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-05-01

    An explanation is made about the application of geophysical methods to the investigation of the ruins of old castles especially of their moats. Techniques currently in use for exploration of the ruins of castles are mainly underground radar exploration and electric exploration. The underground radar method sends electromagnetic waves through the ground and receives the reflection for a high-precision exploration of the layers shallow in the ground. Therefore, this method is suitable for probing the ruins of castles relatively shallow in the flat land, hills, and mountains. The electric method (resistivity image method) do the probing by use of the two-electrode arrangement, performs inverse analysis on the basis of the obtained data for the determination of the underground resistivity distribution, and displays the distribution in an image easy to read. This method, when there is a great separation between the two electrodes, explores relatively deep into the ground. Thanks to this feature, this method is effective in probing relatively wide and deep ruins of moats, that is, the ruins of moats of castles built in later years, especially of those then filled with water. 2 refs., 5 figs.

  4. Effects of heat release rate on NOx time history in diesel combustion; Diesel nensho ni okeru netsu hasseiritsu keika ga NOx nodo rireki ni oyobosu eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishiyama, T.; Miwa, K.; Higashida, M. [Tokushima Univ., Tokushima (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Watanabe, S. [Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Ltd., Kobe (Japan)

    1996-06-25

    For determining the optimum combination of combustion control techniques to reduce NOx emission from diesel engines, it is important to clarify the effects of each technique not only on the NOx emission but also on its time history during combustion. In this paper, NOx concentration in the combustion chamber of a rapid compression machine has been measured by using a total gas sampling method. In order to elucidate the relation between NOx history and heat release rate, air temperatures nozzle hole size and air motion are varied to control the heat release process. The results show that NOx emission is not solely dependent upon initial combustion. Air utilization in the main diffusive combustion phase has great influence on NOx formation and its decay. NOx formation is accelerated by activation of the initial stage of the main combustion when using a nozzle with small holes. 9 refs., 13 figs.

  5. Anodic Behavior of Semiconducting Diamond Thin-film Electrodes in the Electrolyte for Electrochemical Fluorination; Handotai daiamondo denkyoku no denkai fussokayokuchu ni okeru youkyoku kyodo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shibata, Hirotake.; Kawasaki, Shinji. [Shinshu University, Nagano (Japan). Faculty of Textile Science and Technology; Momota, Kunitake. [Morita Chemical Industries, Osaka (Japan). Department of Research and Development; Okino, Fujio.; Touhara, Hidekazu. [Shinshu University, Nagano (Japan). Faculty of Technology]|[Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology, Tokyo (Japan). Jaoan Science and Technology Corporation; Gamonishitani, Mika.; Sakaguchi, Isao.; Ando, Toshihiro. [National Institute for Research in Inorganic Materials, Ibaraki (Japan)]|[Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology, Tokyo (Japan). Japan Science and Technology Corporation

    1998-12-31

    Electrochemical behavior of semiconducting diamond thin-film electrodes has been studied by measuring cyclic voltammograms for the anodic oxidation of 1,4-difluorobenzene in the electrolyte, neat Et{sub 4}NF{center_dot}4HF. A comparative study using a Pt-electrode establishes that the electrochemical fluorination of 1,4-difluorobenzene using the diamond electrode yields 3, 3, 6, 6-tetrafluoro-1, 4-cyclohexadiene. Furthermore no peaks corresponding to the redox reaction of Pt-electrode, i.e., the formation and reduction of PtO{sub 2}, are observed in the CVs obtained using the diamond electrode, suggesting that the diamond electrode is more stable than the Pt-electrode. The results suggests that electrochemical fluorination and the electrolytic production of elemental fluorine are possible at the dimensionally stable diamond electrode. (author)

  6. Improvement of magnetic properties of Fe-50mass%Ni in MIM process; MIM process ni okeru Fe-50mass%Ni no jiki tokusei kaizen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miura, H. [Kumamoto University, Kumamoto (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Fujita, S. [Kumamoto University, Kumamoto (Japan); Fujita, M.; Ninomiya, R. [Mitsuikinzoku Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    2000-12-15

    Metal injection molding (MIM) process is hoped to be one of processing for required to more complicated parts of magnetic components. In this study, the effect of different types of powders (prealloyed and mixed elemental powders) on the magnetic properties of permalloy (Fe-50mass%Ni) through the MIM technique was investigated. Approximately 94% of theoretical density was obtained by using the prealloyed powder, and the retained carbon and oxygen contents were controlled to be low. On the other hand, 96% of theoretical density was obtained by using the mixed elemental powder, but the magnetic properties were inferior to that of prealloyed powder's because of high retained oxygen content. By using the carbonyl Fe powder with high carbon, the retained oxygen and carbon content could be controlled to be low, resulting in the improved magnetic properties. (author)

  7. Temperature effect on corrosion fatigue strength of coated ship structural steel; Zosen`yoko tosozai no fushoku hiro kyodo ni okeru ondo no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takanashi, M.; Fuji, A.; Kojima, M.; Kitagawa, M. [Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Kobayashi, Y. [Ship Research Inst., Tokyo (Japan); Kumakura, Y.

    1997-08-01

    The corrosion fatigue life was obtained using uncoated and tar epoxy resin specimens to clarify the temperature effect. The life curve for corrosion fatigue of machined and uncoated steel in the air and sea was obtained. The fatigue strength of uncoated steel largely decreases in the sea and breaks even in the nominal stress range of less than 1/2 of the fatigue limit in the air. The effect of temperature on the coated steel is represented by a corrosion coefficient. The steel coated at 25{degree}C is 1/1.03 to 1/1.13 at 40 to 60{degree}C. This showed that the fatigue strength decreases when the temperature exceeds 25{degree}C. However, it has not such tendency and significance that are represented quantitatively. There is a slight difference in the short-life area between the crack generation life and breaking life. However, the long-life area has no significance that influences the whole evaluation. In the long-life corrosion fatigue, the crack occurs from the corrosion pit due to the exposure below the coated film and progresses in the base material before the coated film is destroyed. The effect of the corrosion pit remarkably appears at a low-stress level. 14 refs., 14 figs., 4 tabs.

  8. Stabilizing control of crystal size distribution in continuous crystallization processes; Renzoku shoseki purosesu ni okeru kessho ryukei bunpu no anteika seigyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naito, K.; Sotowa, K.; Kano, M.; Hasebe, S.; Hashimoto, I. [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1998-03-01

    The sustained oscillation of the crystal size distribution (CSD) in continuous crystallization process is analyzed by simulation using a detailed model. CSD can not be used as a controlled variable because of its distributed nature. Therefore, the method of selecting representability indices for CSD and the stabilizing control of CSD based on those indices are investigated. A multi-loop scheme is proposed, wherein a system with the third moment of large crystal and the rate of product flow from the continuous crystallizer used as the controlled variable and the operating variable, respectively, is added to the SISO control system which employs microcrystal population density as the controlled variable and the microcrystal flow rate as the operating variable. The controlling performances of the newly proposed multi-loop scheme and the SISO control scheme are compared. It is confirmed that the proposed controlling method is effective when the constrain from the microcrystal flow rate is strict. 6 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Aiming at information sharing. Standardization trend of data exchange in construction equipment; Joho kyoyuka ni mukete. Kenchiku setsubi ni okeru data kokan no hyojunka doko

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terai, T. [Chiba Inst. of Tech., Narashino (Japan)

    1998-09-05

    In a construction project, various information concerning the whole life cycle of construction production from plan, design to maintenance, preservation, abandonment etc. are involved. In this paper, standardization trend of data exchange in construction equipment and actions aiming at realizing information sharing conducted by each relating groups, are explained. At first, in connection to the needs and seeds of the information sharing, progress of information technology such as computer network and personal computer, and globalism of the information system including transformation of CALDS environment are pointed out. Then, in connection to the conditions and questions for the information sharing, the most suitability of communication, integration of the construction production and standardization of common rules are described. As for the actions conducted by each groups, the actions conducted by ISO, IAI, the Construction and Housing International Organization, the Japan Construction Society and CI-NET conducted by the Construction Promotion Foundation are described. 1 fig.

  10. Education for hydraulics and pnuematics in Department of Computer Science, Faculty of Information Sciences, Hiroshima City University; Hiroshima shiritsudaigaku ni okeru yukuatsu kyoiku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sano, M. [Hiroshima City University, Hiroshima (Japan)

    2000-03-15

    Described herein is education of hydraulics and pneumatics in Hiroshima City University. Department of Computer Science is responsible for the education, covering a wide educational range from basics of information processing methodology to application of mathematical procedures. This university provides no subject directly related to hydraulics and pneumatics, which, however, can be studied by the courses of control engineering or modern control theories. These themes are taken up for graduation theses for bachelors and masters; 2 for dynamic characteristics of pneumatic cylinders, and one for pneumatic circuit simulation. Images of the terms hydraulics and pneumatics are outdated for students of information-related departments. Hydraulics and pneumatics are being forced to rapidly change, like other branches of science, and it may be time to make a drastic change from hardware to software, because their developments have been excessively oriented to hardware. It is needless to say that they are based on hardware, but it may be worthy of drastically changing these branches of science by establishing virtual fluid power systems. It is also proposed to introduce the modern multi-media techniques into the education of hydraulics and pneumatics. (NEDO)

  11. High-resolution aeromagnetic survey in the area of Arima-Takatsuki-Rokko active fault system; Arima Takatsuki Rokko katsudanso chiiki ni okeru komitsudo kuchu jiki tansa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakatsuka, T.; Okuma, S.; Morijiri, R.; Makino, M. [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1996-10-01

    High-resolution aeromagnetic survey was conducted in December, 1995, over the area of Arima-Takatsuki-Rokko active fault system, where the 1995 Hyogo-South (Kobe) earthquake took place. Based on the surveyed data, the magnetic anomaly distribution in the Kei-Hanshin district was illustrated. Features of magnetic anomaly observed in it were discussed. Influence of artificial structures in the coastal zone of Kobe City was tried to be removed. Distinct magnetic anomaly observed in the center of Kyoto City was located at the southern part near Shijo-Karasuma. This was mainly affected by the artificial structure. A high magnetic anomaly with a long wave length was observed in the southern part of Kyoto. There was a high magnetic anomaly in an area surrounded by central cities of Nishinomiya-Toyonaka district. At the location where positive and negative magnetic anomalies were illustrated in NEDO`s map in the coastal zone of Kobe City, the anomaly pattern was clarified. The influence of artificial structure was approximated using a point dipole. The dipole was placed in each block having a magnetic anomaly. The parameter was determined by the inverse analysis, to remove the influence. Consequently, most of magnetic anomalies due to artificial structures could be removed. 6 figs.

  12. Change in surface SP caused by pressure buildup observed at the Nigorikawa geothermal area; Nigorikawa chiiki ni okeru atsuryoku buildup ji no shizen den`i henka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasukawa, K.; Yano, Y.; Matsushima, N.; Ishido, T. [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan); Takahashi, M.; Suzuki, I.; Aoyama, K.; Kuwano, T.

    1996-10-01

    To examine the effect of change of subsurface flow system on the surface SP (self potential), SP measurements were carried out before and after the pressure buildup and drawdown during the periodic inspection at Nigorikawa area. Relation between the SP distribution and the observed data was also examined by 2-D numerical simulation. Tendency was found that the SP increased gradually with the production near the production well, decreased during the pressure buildup, and increased again during the drawdown. There were some points having the reverse tendency in the surrounding area. Behavior during the pressure buildup and drawdown was not clear. The resistivity near the ground surface was low ranging between 2 and 5 ohm/m within the Nigorikawa basin. The variation of SP was not so large when compared with the measuring error. The SP profiles on the secondary section passing in the center of caldera at the production stop and at one week after the production start were well corresponded with the profiles under natural conditions which were reproduces using the 2-D model. It was considered that the SP profile before the production stop was affected by the production. 12 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Comparison of {gamma}-ray profile across active normal and reverse faults; Seidansogata to gyakudansogata katsudanso ni okeru hoshano tansa kekka no hikaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwata, A.; Wada, N.; Sumi, H. [Shimada Technical Consultants, Ltd., Shimane (Japan); Yamauchi, S.; Iga, T. [Shimane Univ., Shimane (Japan)

    1996-10-01

    Active faults confirmed at trench and outcrop were surveyed by the {gamma}-ray spectrometry. The active fault found at trench is a normal fault, and that found at outcrop is a reverse fault. The {gamma}-ray spectral characteristics of these two types of faults were compared to each other. The normal fault is named as Asagane fault located in Aimi-machi, Saihaku-gun, Tottori prefecture. The reverse fault is named as Yokota reverse fault located in Yokota-cho, Nita-gun, Shimane prefecture. Rises of radon gas indicating the existence of opening cracks were confirmed above the fault for the normal fault, and at the side of thrust block for the reverse fault. It was considered that such characteristics were caused by the difference of fault formation in the tensile stress field and in the compressive stress field. It was also reconfirmed that much more information as to faults can be obtained by the combined exploration method using the total counting method and the spectral method. 14 refs., 7 figs.

  14. Pseudo-random data acquisition geometry in 3D seismic survey; Sanjigen jishin tansa ni okeru giji random data shutoku reiauto ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minegishi, M.; Tsuburaya, Y. [Japan National Oil Corp., Tokyo (Japan). Technology Research Center

    1996-10-01

    Influence of pseudo-random geometry on the imaging for 3D seismic exploration data acquisition has been investigate using a simple model by comparing with the regular geometry. When constituting wave front by the interference of elemental waves, pseudo-random geometry data did not always provide good results. In the case of a point diffractor, the imaging operation, where the constituted wave front was returned to the point diffractor by the interference of elemental waves for the spatial alias records, did not always give clear images. In the case of multi point diffractor, good images were obtained with less noise generation in spite of alias records. There are a lot of diffractors in the actual geological structures, which corresponds to the case of multi point diffractors. Finally, better images could be obtained by inputting records acquired using the pseudo-random geometry rather than by inputting spatial alias records acquired using the regular geometry. 7 refs., 6 figs.

  15. Bacterial cultivation in high magnetic fields by 7-tesla superconducting magnet; 7T chodendo magnet ni yori hasseishita kojiba ni okeru biseibutsu no baiyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okuda, M.; Saito, I.; Kamikado, T.; Ito, S. [Kobe Steel, Ltd., Kobe (Japan); Matsumoto, K. [Japan Magnet Technology Inc., Kobe (Japan); Liuno, K.; Tsuchiya, K.; Ano, T.; Shoda, M. [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan). Research Laboratory of Resources Utilization

    1994-12-20

    Although a large number of studies on effects of magnetic fields on living organisms was reported, no definite results were obtained in many cases because the related conditions are non-uniform and uncertain, such that the uniform magnetic space is smaller than test samples, and temperature control is insufficient. Therefore, the present study developed a microorganism cultivation system that is applied with a 7-T superconducting magnet. This system has the following features: it generates homogeneous magnetic fields of 0.5 to 7 T {plus_minus} 0.5% in the space with a diameter of 100 mm and a length of 200 mm in a normal temperature bore (with a diameter of 160 mm); it can cultivate microorganisms aerobically at temperatures of 10 to 70{degree}C {plus_minus} 0.1{degree}C; it can perform the cultivation simultaneously with a control cultivation in a small magnetic field weaker than the geomagnetism; and a gradient magnetic field and a variable magnetic field can also be applied. As a result of cultivating colibacillus by using the system, a proliferation effect greater by 40% to 80% than the control was obtained in a uniform magnetic field of 7 T, and a proliferation effect greater by several times in variable magnetic fields of 5.2 to 6.1 T was attained with good reproducibility. 22 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Numerical simulation of nematic liquid crystalline flow in two-dimensional L-shaped channels; Nijigen L gata ryuro ni okeru nematic ekisho no nagare no suchi simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chono, S.; Tsuji, T. [Fukui University, Fukui (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1995-05-25

    Finite difference solutions to the Leslie-Ericksen equations were obtained for flows in two-dimensional L-shaped channels with various contraction ratios of the upstream to downstream channel width. A streamline shift toward the outer wall occurs upstream of the reentrant corner. Such behavior is similar to that of viscoelastic fluids. With increasing contraction ratio, the streamline shift occurs further upstream. The effect of the wall anchoring angle for the director is remarkable; for example, when the anchoring angle along the downstream walls is set to be opposite to the main flow direction, a distortion of streamlines is produced in the corner region and the director moves to the downstream region upside down. At small Ericksen numbers, the orientation angle for the director is varied over a wide area so as to suppress its local deformation. In contrast, when the Ericksen number is large, the director profile in the upstream region is retained close to the corner region where the director turns rapidly to the downstream direction. 7 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Numerical analysis of polymeric liquid crystalline flows between parallel plates. Heiko heibankan ni okeru kobunshi ekisho no nagare no suchi kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chono, S.; Iemoto, Y. (Fukui Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Engineering); Taniguchi, A.; Tsuji, T. (Fukui Univ., Fukui (Japan). Graduate School)

    1992-11-25

    Liquid crystal is an anisotropic fluid having both fluidity possessed by liquid and optical anisotropy inherent in crystals. Heretofore, Doi theory, which was established in 1981, is the only theory that can describe the rheology behavior of polymeric liquid crystal. Conventionally, there have been studies carried out based on the Doi theory for clarifying the rheology characteristics of polymeric liquid crystal, but there have been very few in which the Doi theory is applied to the flow in a tube. In this paper, the simple shearing flows of polymeric liquid crystal are first described by employing the Doi theory, and then the results of analysis of flows between parallel plates are stated. The main results obtained are as follows. The orientation of polymeric liquid crystal is determined by relative magnitudes of the terms of average field potential and of velocity gradient. In the flows between parallel plates, the propotion of increase of flow rate increases with the pressure gradient, and polymeric liquid crystal possesses a shear-thinning viscosity like normal polymeric fluid. 14 refs., 7 figs.

  18. Tumbling behavior of a nematic liquid crystal in inlet flow between parallel plates; Heiko heibankan iriguchi nagare ni okeru nematic ekisho no tumbling kyodo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuji, T.; Chono, S. [Fukui University, Fukui (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1995-07-25

    Two-dimensional tumbling behavior is investigated numerically by calculating inlet flows of a tumbling-type nematic liquid crystal between parallel plates. Calculations are performed for various Ericksen numbers. At the comparatively small Ericksen number of Er=10, the director in the upper half space of the channel rotates counter-clockwise before reaching the fully developed value. At Er=50, the director shows an abrupt rotation just after the inlet section. The rotation is not only convected to the downstream area but propagated from the region near the channel wall where shear rate is large to the center region. When Er is increased further to 100, the director profile does not indicate a monotonic development but a two-step one. In this case, the velocity profile in the main flow direction is wavelike. It is found that the effect of director orientation is strongly reflected on the velocity field, while the reverse effect is weak. 26 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Conditions of existence of fuzzy explanations and approximate solutions in fuzzy abduction; Fuzzy abduction ni okeru setsumei no sonzai joken to kinji kaiho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, K. [Nagaoka Technical Coll., Niigata (Japan)] Mukaidono, M. [Meiji Univ., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-09-30

    Abduction is a procedure to derive a set of hypotheses which explains a set of observed events under given knowledge. The obtained set of hypotheses is called explanation. Previously, the authors proposed fuzzy abduction that was an extension of the abduction with the fuzzy theory and showed the way to derive fuzzy explanation. In this theory, observed events and hypotheses are expressed and the given knowledge is expressed by a set of implications with a truth value between zero and one. However, there is no guarantee that fuzzy explanations always exist. This paper clarifies the necessary and sufficient conditions of the existence of fuzzy explanations and proposes a method to obtain approximate solutions when fuzzy explanations do not exist. Fuzzy abduction is a procedure similar to the inverse operation of fuzzy relational equations, however, the proposed method does not require iterative calculation whose number of times cannot be obtain beforehand. 10 refs., 1 fig.

  20. Numerical analysis of combustion mechanism in iron bath type smelting reduction furnace. Tetsuyokugata yoyu kangenro ni okeru nensho kiko no kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinotake, A.; Takamoto, Y. (Nippon Steel Corp., Tokyo (Japan))

    1992-07-01

    Introduction and numerical analysis based on mathematical model has been made on the combustion phenomena, and the obtained results are used to analyze material and heat balance in the smelting reduction furnace. Distribution of gas flow, temperature and concentration into the furnace has been possible to estimate for the case where coke or coal is taken as raw material. Variation of dual combustion rate while changing supplied amount of coal species in smelting reduction experiment with 5t capacity, is explained. Under constant oxygen injection, one of the material and heat balance point which operates material and temperature at constant state by coal species and heat loss amount, has been determined, and dual combustion rate and heat efficiency at this point are determined simultaneously. Dual combustion rate and heat efficiency, the source unit of coal and oxygen have increased with the increase of amount of heat loss where as the production of molten iron decreased. Material and heat balance point is shifted to the point with less supply of coal and oxygen when prereduction degree of the ore is increased, and dual combustion rate and heat efficiency has increased. 11 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs.

  1. On the muscle activity control in the hierarchy motor systems. Hierarchy undo system ni okeru kin no kassei seigyo ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akiba, M.; Miyamoto, Y. (Osaka Industrial University, Osaka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering)

    1991-10-31

    Excitory impulses for motor systems are controlled by the psychophysiological nervous systems in the body either autonomically or voluntarily. Involved in the voluntary control loop are motor cortex, basal gangalia, thalamus, cerebellum, etc. The purpose of this study is to confirm whether it is possible to reduce or emphasize the muscle contraction voluntarily through electromyogram (EMG) feedback training. EMG can indicate the excitory impulses of motor units. In the experiments, electrodes were placed on the skin above muscles. A significant reduction effect was observed for subjects trained in relaxation of the forehead musculature through EMG feedback. Results of the experiments suggested that biofeedback training for relaxation of the forehead tensional muscle might be effective in eliminating muscle contraction, and that feedback training for activation of damaged muscles might be effective in emphasizing muscle contraction. 4 refs., 9 figs.

  2. Research activities at thermo-fluid engineering laboratories in Takushoku University; Takushoku Daigaku kogakubu kikai system kogakuka ni okeru ryutai kogaku oyobi netsukogaku kankei no kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujimoto, I.; Hori, M.; Matsunaga, N. [Takushoku University, Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-01-20

    This paper introduces general conditions of studies at the Machine System Engineering Department of the Faculty of Engineering at the Takushoku University. Studies related to transonic cascade flutters in fluid engineering include behavioral analysis of impact waves around vibrating blades. Behavior of impact waves making twisting vibration at high vibration frequency is elucidated by means of schlieren photography. In addition, the single blade vibration method is used to analyze aerodynamic decay properties of cascades. Elucidation is made on non-steady stalling properties of vibrating single blades (particularly, the hysteresis phenomenon of stalling elevation angles with restoring elevation angles). In the field of thermal engineering, studies are being made on effects of unburned components on NO-NO{sub 2} conversion using a fluidity reactor. Similar reactions are being studied by means of chemical dynamics calculations using the CHEMKIN-II/SENKIN program. A coaxial jet flow experimenting equipment is used to study NO{sub 2} generating mechanism in the field closer to real combustors. Data are accumulated to verify numerical computation by experiments and measurements of spraying flames produced by a model spray combustor. Measurements and experiments are also performed on absorption of NO{sub 2} into water, and on coefficient of diffusion between two kinds of gases. (NEDO)

  3. Switching surge overvoltages on a feeding system of a MAGLEV train; Jiki fujoshiki tetsudo no kidenkei ni okeru kaihei surge kaden`atsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muragishi, H. [Nippon Yusoki Co. Ltd., Kyoto (Japan); Nakamura, Y.; Muraoka, N.; Ametani, A. [Doshisha Univ., Kyoto (Japan)

    1997-04-20

    Discussions using simulations were given on surge overvoltages and earth fault surge overvoltage associated with operation of a section switchgear in a feeding system of a MAGLEV train. Results of the discussions may be summarized as follows: throw-in surge overvoltage caused by the section switchgear is about 25 kV at maximum on the coil and about 15 kV on the cable sheath. The coil overvoltage increases as the closer to 90 degrees the throw-in phase approaches, and the greater the power supply frequency increases. The cable sheath overvoltage, however, is not affected by these environments. Breaking surge overvoltage caused by the section switchgear reaches 115 kV on the coil and about the same value on the cable sheath when the breaking current is 50 A. Earth fault surge overvoltage due to cable fault is 24 kV at maximum on the coil, while it reaches 32 kV on the cable sheath. The cable sheath overvoltage depends largely on sheath installing conditions. These overvoltages can be suppressed sufficiently lower than insulation levels of each device by installing arresters. 17 refs., 18 figs.

  4. Novel control strategies of HVDC system with self-commutated converter. Jireishiki henkanki wo tekiyoshita HVDC sytem ni okeru tanshi seigyo to kyocho seigyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tokiwa, Y.; Ichikawa, F.; Suzuki, K. (Tokyo Electric Power Co. Inc., Tokyo (Japan)); Inokuchi, H.; Hirose, S.; Kimura, K. (Toshiba Corp., Tokyo (Japan))

    1992-01-20

    This report describes new control strategies of a self -commutated converter applied to the HVDC systems; that is, the cooperative control for a two-terminal transmission system and the terminal control which is applicable to a multi-terminal system. The DC voltage control with an upper and lower power-limiter showed excellent characteristics when applied to the two- terminal transmission system. A voltage margin method was also introduced as a power flow reversal method. These terminal control methods, if required, are able to change interchange power at the receiving end in the case of fault in the communication system. Moreover, the DC voltage control with two-stage voltage control characteristics was proposed for the multi-terminal HVDC system. with this mehtod, the DC transmission system can be operated continuously and stably cooperating electric power at each terminal even when one terminal is collapsed. The terminal control performance in the above two-terminal HVDC system was tested with a simulator. The result showed favorable performance characteristics at the time of power flow reversal and one terminal start-up during other terminal operation. 5 refs., 16 figs.

  5. Pitting corrosion of copper in aqueous solutions containing phosphonic acid as an inhibitor. Hosuhon san wo inhibita toshite fukumu suiyoekichu ni okeru do no koshiku ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, Y. (Muroran Univ., Hokkaido (Japan). Graduate School); Seri, O.; Tagashira, K. (Muroran Univ., Hokkaido (Japan)); Nagata, K. (Sumitomo Light Metal Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan). Technical Research Lab.)

    1993-09-15

    Phosphonic acid-based inhibitors that are poured into cooling water for copper-tube circulation systems for open heat-accumulators were studied on their influence on pitting corrosion of copper. Amino trimethylene phosphonic acid (ATMP) dissolved into distilled water to 50 ppm was used for the immersion corrosion test. The corrosion-proof effect of additives such as ZnSO4, benzotriazole (BTA) was tested too. 0.5 mm thick phosphate-treated copper plates with a hole of 5 mm in diameter were used as test specimens. Pitting corrosion on the copper plate occurred when ATMP, BTA and ZnSO4 coexisted. It was proved that SO4 [sup 2-] is essential since Na2SO4 in stead of ZnSO4 induced also corrosion. The pitting took place when 0.6 ppm or more of SO4 [sup 2-] was present in a BTA-added ATMP solution. It was observed that the pitting is prone to occur with increase of SO4 [sup 2-] and the number of pitting increases. The following relationship is established when pitting corrosion occurs; E[sub b] [le] E[sub corr], where the former is a potential value at which current density shows a steep increase and the latter is an average value of spontaneous electrode potential showing a plateau. 8 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Investigational study on the development, production and wide spread of welfare apparatus in north Europe; Hokuo ni okeru fukushi yogu no kaihatsu seisan fukyu ni kansuru chosa kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    For the purpose of grasping the present situation of the development/production/spread of welfare apparatus in north Europe, an investigation was conducted paying visits to Sweden and Denmark. Basically in the Swedish policy for handicapped persons, disablement is defined not only as features which belong to each individual, but as problems arising when the environment surrounding each individual touches one another. Moreover, characteristics of their policies on welfare apparatus are that major welfare apparatus can be provided for the disabled free of charge, and that the government and public organs play a major role in each step of the development, evaluation, distribution and provision of welfare apparatus. Features of the market of welfare apparatus are that users and buyers of the apparatus are different persons, that a public corporation called SUB participates in determining selling prices, etc., and that the market reflects needs and requests from users comparatively naturally. The needs for welfare apparatus at the Research Institute of Handicapped Persons are grasped through opinion exchanges with groups of handicapped persons or information exchanges with the technical aid center. 3 refs., 11 figs., 10 tabs.

  7. Results of geophysical survey on Hanaore-fault in the Kyoto urban area; Butsuri tansa ni yoru Kyoto shigaichi ni okeru Hanaore danso chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshioka, T. [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan); Echigo, T. [Osaka Soil Test, Osaka (Japan); Toshioka, T.; Matsubara, Y. [Oyo Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-05-27

    This paper reports results of gravity survey and seismic survey using the shallow bed reflection method to identify distribution of the Hanaore fault in the Kyoto urban area. In the gravity survey, level differential structure caused by the fault was identified as an abrupt change in Bouger anomalous values. The continuity therefrom made the estimation possible on existence and positions of such faults as the Hanaore fault belonging to the Hanaore fault system, the Shishigaya fault, the Kaguraoka fault, and the Okazaki fault. The estimation as a result of the gravity survey include the following findings: the Hanaore fault runs from south of the Yoshidayama in the south-north direction; the distribution of the Okazaki fault has a level differential structure falling on the east side; the structure shows low Bouger anomaly distribution; and this area forms a rift valley belt. In the seismic survey using the shallow bed reflection method, no distinct reflection plane considered as the basement was verified because of influence from urban area noise. However, it was possible to estimate such an underground structure as a monoclinal fold from shapes of the reflection plane and the distribution depths. 7 refs., 5 figs.

  8. Discussion on sensor location in circular array for spatial autocorrelation method; Kukan jiko sokanho no enkei array ni okeru jishinkei haichi no kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, H.; Iwamoto, K.; Saito, T.; Yoshida, A. [Iwate University, Iwate (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-05-27

    Methods to derive underground structures by utilizing the dispersion phenomenon of surface waves contained in microtremors include the frequency-wave number analysis method (the F-K method) and the spatial autocorrelation method (SAC method). The SAC method is said capable of estimating the structures to deeper depths than with the F-K method if the same seismometer is used. However, the F-K method is used more frequently. This is because the SAC method imposes a strict restriction that seismometers must be arranged evenly on the same circumference, while the F-K method allows seismometers to be arranged arbitrarily during an observation. Therefore, the present study has discussed whether the SAC method can be applied to observations with the seismometers arranged in the same way as in the F-K method, by using microtremor data acquired from actual observations. It was made clear that a seismometer arrangement for the SAC method may be sufficed with at least three meters arranged on the same circumference. These meters may not have to be arranged evenly, but because the acquired phase velocities may vary according to wave arriving directions and seismometer arrangement, it is desirable to perform observations with seismometers arranged as evenly as possible. 13 figs.

  9. Array measurements of long-period microtremors in southwestern Kanto plain, Japan; Kanto heiya nanseibu ni okeru yaya choshuki bido no array kansoku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamanaka, H.; Sato, H.; Kurita, K.; Seo, K. [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-05-27

    Array measurements of long-period microtremors were carried out in the southwestern part of Kanto Plain, Japan, to obtain S-wave velocity structures in sedimentary beds as fundamental data for estimating long-term strong ground motion in Kanto Plain. The major component in a long-term seismic motion observed in Kanto Plain is the surface wave. According to the result of observations on Love wave by Kinoshita et al, the wavelengths of the surface waves of a long-term cycle are 10 to 20 km. Therefore, if an array observation is to be performed at intervals of about two wavelengths, about 40 points will be required to cover the entire Kanto plain. The final phase velocity is decided by averaging phase velocities of each cycle obtained for each data set. The acquired phase velocities are analyzed inversely by using a genetic algorithm to derive the S-wave velocities at each observation point. The present microtremor array observation has used 13 points in the southwestern part of Kanto Plain to acquire S-wave velocity (Vs) distribution in sedimentary beds. It was made clear that beds with Vs of 1.0 km/s and Vs of 1.5 km/s exist in this area between the surface bed and the seismic foundation with Vs of about 3 km/s. 10 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Airborne gamma-ray survey around the Negoro fault. 1; Negoro danso shuhen chiiki ni okeru kuchu {gamma} sen tansa. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakayama, E.; Kasuya, Y.; Hasegawa, H. [Aero Asahi Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Tsukuda, E. [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1997-05-27

    An airborne gamma-ray survey was carried out to investigate the active fault system in the central structure line in the peripheral area of the city of Wakayama. At the same time, with an objective to enhance applicability of the airborne gamma-ray survey to active fault investigation, fundamental data were acquired and discussed. The measurement data were processed according to the standard method specified by IAEA. An ID-FFT filter and a nonlinear filter were employed to extract anomalous gamma-ray intensity values. The gamma-ray intensity distribution chart shows a noticeable positive anomalous area extending from the central part of the western edge to the north-east direction. This area agrees nearly well with the Negoro fault, but its peak portion is positioned slightly more to south than the position of the Negoro fault shown in existing data. The Sakuraike fault and the vicinity of the central structure line also show positive anomaly as a whole, particularly remarkably in the vicinity of their converging portion. However, differing from the vicinity of the Negoro fault, the areas are not extracted as an anomalous area which has directionality and extends in a line form. One of the factors for this would be that it is a fault in unsolidified deposits with low opening trend, differing from the one in solidified rocks. 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  11. FY 1998 annual report on power generation by waste heat from cement production in China; Chugoku ni okeru cement hainetsu hatsuden 1998 nendo chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    This project is to implement a feasibility study for applying waste heat power generation, which have been already commercialized in Japan and producing remarkable results, to China's cement plants producing 3,500 t/d or more of clinker, and thereby to try to establish a link with the Japan's clean development mechanism. It is expected that introduction of these systems improves energy use efficiency and environments in China. The study results indicate that the project for a Tongling Conch plant could generate power of 15,000 kW, reducing CO2 emissions by 89,178 t/y and cumulatively 1,783,560 tons in the 20-year period. The results also indicate that the project will be highly profitable, with an estimated internal return rate of as high as 33.78%. The project for a Huaxin plant could generate power of 8,400 kW, reducing CO2 emissions by 48,412 t/y and cumulatively 968,240 tons in the 20-year period, annually saving power charges by 325 million yen and bringing an internal return rate of 10.72%. (NEDO)

  12. Development of high field magnets at the National Research Institute for Metals. Kinzoku zairyo gijutsu kenkyusho ni okeru kojikai magnet gun no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiyoshi, T.; Inoue, K.; Maeda, H. (National Research Inst. for Metals, Tsukuba (Japan))

    1993-06-20

    Sinece 1988, the Scince and Technology Agency has initiated the superconductor multicore project, which has a purpose of the versatile study on the high temperature superconducting materials of the oxide series. The National Research Institute for Metals is in charge of 5 cores out of them, and in the performance evaluation core which is one of them, the development of each kind of the high field magnets is being advanced for evaluating the characteristics under the high magnetic field. As the magnets, including the 40T class hybrid magnet which generates the steady state magnetic field of 40T, the superconducting magnet of 20T with a large diameter which generates the magnetic field over 20T with a superconductor, the condenser bank system for the pulse magnet to generate the pulse magnetic field up to 80T, and the ultra-precise magnet system which generates the magnetic field with a high uniformity will be consolidated. Keeping pace with a removal of the National Research Institute for Metals to Tsukuba, the construction of the strong magnetic field station is being advanced in the Sakura area. These several kinds of magnets are scheduled to be used in turn for the international joint study. 33 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  13. Temperature control of a heat exchanger for the photosensitive materials coating and drying process; Kanko zairyo tofu kanso purosesu ni okeru kucho system no ondo seigyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kido, K.; Sato, N.; Shimoji, M. [Konica Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan). Production Engineering Center; Nakanishi, E. [Kansai Univ., Suita, Osaka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-11-01

    A feedforward/feedback control system was developed to maintain the temperature profile of air in an air conditioning system for photosensitive material coating and drying. The feedforward control was attained based on a heat exchanger dynamic model using the flow rate of hot water as the manipulated variable and the air temperature as the controlled variable, while feedback control was performed by means of optimum control theory based on a linearized heat exchanger dynamic model. To evaluate the performance of the control system developed in this study, simulation and experimental studies were carried out where a stepwise change of set values is performed in order to maintain uniform production quality for each product grade. It is shown that the control system under consideration successfully controls air temperature in an air conditioning system for photosensitive material coating and drying. 4 refs., 7 figs.

  14. Temperature dynamic models of heat exchanger for photosensitive material coating and drying processes; Kanko zairyo tofu kanso process ni okeru kucho system no ondo doteki model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kido, K.; Sato, N.; Shimoji, M. [Konica Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Nakanishi, E. [Kobe University, Kobe (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-01-20

    Nonlinear and linear temperature dynamic models of a heat exchanger were investigated for air conditioning control of coating and drying processes for photosensitive materials. The nonlinear model was derived from heat balance based on the assumption of lumped parameter system that the heat exchanger is divided into small parts in the direction of flow (divided cell model). In each part, the temperature of the heating fluid, heated fluid and heat transfer tube with fin are assumed to be uniform. Parameters involved in this model were estimated from experimental data of the step response characteristics of temperature. The linear model is obtained by linearizing this nonlinear model. It was confirmed that the dynamic behavior of temperature can be successfully expressed by both nonlinear and linear models. Both models are considered to be utilizable for process analysis and control system design of the air conditioning system under consideration. 1 ref., 13 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Fatigue properties of austempered ductile cast iron at room and elevated temperatures; Austemper kyujo kokuen chutetsu no chukoon ni okeru hiro tokusei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuyama, K.; Hasegawa, N.; Inaga, K. [Gifu University, Gifu (Japan)

    1995-06-15

    Austempered ductile cast iron (ADI) is used widely as a structural material with high strength and toughness. However, since few studies have been made on investigation of fatigue properties at medium to high temperatures, this paper describes rotating bending tests carried out in temperature range between room temperature and 400{degree}C to investigate the fatigue properties and the fatigue crack generating behavior. The following results were obtained: the fatigue limit (fatigue strength after 10{sup 7} bendings) showed a remarkable maximizing phenomenon at temperatures around 300{degree}C; micronization of the base structure caused by transformation of residual austenite was recognized above 300{degree}C, and so was rise in the hardness; heating to this temperature led to rise in the Ms point, making the transformation occur more easily; the effect of repetitive stress causes a processing induced transformation; the temperature at which the transformation and the micronization are completed declines by about 50{degree}C lower than in the non-transformed region; and the fatigue fracture at middle to high temperatures is caused more frequently by internally existing graphite and development of cracks from very small casting cavities. 31 refs., 10 figs., 7 tabs.

  16. Cooperative measurements of microtremors in the north-eastern region of Nishinomiya city, Hyogo Pref.; Nishinomiyashi hokutobu ni okeru joji bido no godo kansoku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maiguma, T.; Matsuzawa, H. [Saitama University, Saitama (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Sawada, Y.; Tazawa, Y. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-05-01

    For the purpose of generally grasping space distribution of ground vibration characteristics, cooperative measurements were conducted in a wide area, mainly in the area stricken by the M7 earthquake. Forty-five organs such as governmental institutes, universities, and private company institutes participated in the measurements which were conducted at 1967 measuring points. The area which the author is in charge is an area from the north of Nishinomiya City to the south of Takarazuka City. The area is relatively far from the hypocenter area, but the magnitude is 7 there and damage was concentrated. The measurements were made by each independent team from August 29 to September 1, 1995. As a result of spectral measurements of NS, EW and UD components, conspicuous peaks were seen in an extent of 1.5 sec. cycle in almost all measuring points and components. Further, in spectra of horizontal motion components of A measuring point group, conspicuous peaks were seen in an extent of 0.15-0.5 sec. cycle, and in those in B and C measuring point groups, in an extent of 0.35-0.5 sec. cycle. In upper/lower motion components, conspicuous peaks were seen in an extent of 0.3 sec. cycle in A measuring point group. 4 figs.

  17. Questionnaire investigation for the earthquake in Honjo city and Yazawa city, Akita Prefecture; Jishin ni kansuru ishiki chosa (Akitaken Honjoshi oyobi Yuzawashi ni okeru anketo kara)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nogoshi, M. [Akita University, Akita (Japan). College of Education; Kabutoya, S.

    1996-05-01

    Consciousness for the earthquake was investigated by questionnaire surveys made in Honjo City and Yuzawa City, Akita Pref. in October 1995 twelve years after the Nihonkai Chubu Earthquake (M=7.7) in May 1983. The survey was conducted in terms of 27 items including personality, memory, knowledge/interest, psychology/action, mental attitude/preparations, wishes for researchers and administration, etc. Also included were the items on the Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake and the earthquake blank areas. The number of distributed questionnaires and the recovery rate of them are 1500 and 79.2% in Honjo City, and 1700 and 84.7% in Yuzawa City. From the survey, it was found that people have a lot of knowledge of and high interest in the earthquake and well remember it, and a lot of people know of tsunami, liquefaction phenomena, and the earthquake blank area. Further, they are afraid of earthquakes and think of their actions to be taken in case of earthquake. However, most people are little prepared for earthquakes. Important future subjects were suggested for the study of disaster prevention measures. 13 figs.

  18. Report of the 14th IFAC symposium on automatic control in aerospace; Dai 14 kai IFAC `koku uchu ni okeru jido seigyo symposium` shusseki hokoku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakasuka, S. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-04-05

    This is the report of the 14th International Federation of Automatic Control (IFAC) symposium on automatic control in aerospace, held on August 24 to 28 1998 at National Seoul University, ROK, by the author who participated in the symposium. This symposium is held by the IFAC`s Aerospace Technical Committee once in every 3 years for automatic control mainly for aerospace, in particular navigation, guidance and control of aircraft, satellites, rockets and the like. A total of 65 papers were presented to 25 sessions, with a total of 106 attendees. There were a number of attendees from Japan, and Russia sent an unusually large number of attendees. The general lectures covered the topics of, e.g., attitude and orbit control of satellites and the like, control of aircraft, guidance and control of missiles, navigation of aircraft and space aircraft, space robotics, failure diagnosis, basic theories on control, and system development. Reports on development and results of actual projects accounted for the majority in the sessions for control of satellites, rockets and the like. (NEDO)

  19. Optimization of man-machine roll allocation in automatic systems; Jidoka system ni okeru hito to kikai no yakuwari buntan no saitekika

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamasaki, H. [Yokokawa Electric Corp., Tokyo (Japan). Research and Development Lab.

    1996-08-10

    Bearing reliability and safety of automatic systems in mind, man-machine roll allocation in the operation of facilities is examined, and the optimal roll allocation is proposed. The outline of the method for man-machine roll allocation is given in process instrumentation system, robotized assembly plant, railroad operation control system, and passenger airplane operation control system. The types of man-machine roll allocation in automatic system is divided into normal and emergency cases. Improvement in the total reliability of man-machine system can be expected by man-machine mutual complementary roll allocation. The core of the intelligent support system for emergency is the growing knowledge base, and the system performs intelligent support automatically or with the support of human in an emergency. For smooth man-machine information interchange at man`s own will, logical difference between man and machine must be adjusted in the man-machine interface. 8 refs., 2 tabs.

  20. Regulations concerning open access to transmission grid in U.S.. Analysis of order No.888; Beikoku ni okeru open access no hokisei. Order No.888 no kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maruyama, M.

    1999-02-01

    Recently, countries aiming at deregulation of the electricity supply industry tend to choose `open access models` that allow final customers the freedom to select suppliers. For example, in 1996, U.S. Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) issued Order No. 888, which requires electric utilities to open their transmission grid for third parties. However, there are a lot of issues to be addressed before we adopt such models in our country. In this paper, we discuss open access of the transmission grid from the view points of utility regulation, taking account of the debates over regulations on grid access, especially concerning Order No.888 and previous laws and regulations in the United States. The results are: 1. At the end of 1980s, laws and regulations were established to require electric utilities to open their transmission grid for third parties. However, propriety of the wheeling order was decided on a case-by-case basis before the enactment of Order No.888. 2. Under tile provisions of Order No. 888 issued in 1996, electric utilities are required to open their transmission grid any time by request. Nevertheless, that obligation is limitative because (1) the electric utilities have a preferential access to the grid, (2) eligible customers can access to the grid only if there is available transmission capacity. Hence, one of the critical issues to be addressed is how to calculate their available transmission capacity. (author)

  1. Practical risk estimation method and applications of aerial photographs for preventing slope disasters in railways; Tetsudo ni okeru shamen saigai to sono taiosaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugiyama, T.; Noguchi, T. [Railway Technical Research Institute, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-12-01

    This paper, upon describing the actual states of slope disasters in railways, indicates the current status of measures taken to prevent these disasters. It also describes the measures to prevent slope disasters occurring currently and the future prospect thereof, focusing on the following two points: (1) a recently developed method for evaluating risks in banking and excavation slopes, and (2) an information control technology to prevent disasters of slope collapses by using remote sensing system and attempts on a method to estimate locations with risks of collapse occurrence by using the former information control technology. Development has been made of a method to evaluate rain disaster risks, which can identify quantitatively rain resisting strength of slopes, reflect the rain resisting strength on the operation rules, and estimate disasters on the real time basis. The method has been developed by using a statistic method to estimate the collapse critical rain amount as an exciting cause from predisposing cause of banking and excavation slopes, based on the record of nationwide disasters. Discussions were given on application of latest remote sensing technologies to slopes along railroads. Furthermore, an attempt was implemented on estimating collapse risks along railroad lines, utilizing slope information extracted from the above application of the remote sensing technologies. 13 refs., 12 figs., 7 tabs.

  2. Integrated practical technology for rationalization of production system in Miike coal mine; Seisan kozo kaikaku no tame no sogo shien gijutsu (Miike tanko ni okeru gijutsu kaikaku)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furukawa, H. [Mitsui Mining Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-25

    This paper describes the improvement of production structure and the reduction since the latter half of FY 1990 in the Miike Coal Mine. The annual production was reduced from 4.5 to 2.35 million tons. The rationalization strategy is composed of the increase in productivity with intensive faces by introducing high performance mining facilities (MHP) and by modifying mining method, the mechanization of driving works, the simplification of underground structures, the reduction of indirect costs, and the rationalization of surface management departments. Faces were reduced to one or two by the MHP, and high operation rate and energy saving are achieved using self-advancing frames. Face moving period was reduced by rotating the MHP within the underground. Labor-saving of belt conveyors was achieved using built-up frames. For the gallery driving, a base gallery was excavated before production, and level driving was expanded through the base gallery. High-speed and systematic face driving was realized through in-seam driving by operating road header without using blasting. To avoid the decrease in operation rate due to unexpected faults or spring waters, early grasping system of face conditions was established, and environmental arrangement was enriched. The efficiency was improved from 96 in FY 1988 to 159 t/person{center_dot}month in FY 1995. 4 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Historical overview of geophysical exploration for hydrocarbon prospecting in Japan; Nippon no sekiyu kogyo ni okeru butsuri tanko gijutsu no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamura, Y. [Japan Petroleum Exploration Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-08-01

    This paper describes a historical overview of geophysical exploration for hydrocarbon prospecting in Japan. In general, history is divided into eras by the qualitative change. In the case of geophysical exploration, the history is desired to be divided by considering the both of qualitative change in the technology and that in the practical application. In the early time of geophysical prospecting, gravitational exploration, magnetic exploration, seismic refraction method and seismic reflection method were elementarily and successfully tried. In the era of classical geophysical exploration, seismic reflection method and gravitational/magnetic methods were basically completed, and accumulation structures of potential petroleum were discovered around existing oil fields. In the era of systematic geophysical exploration, techniques of underground geological reflection profiles were completed with digitalization, and systematic petroleum exploration was conducted. In the era of modern geophysical exploration, 3D seismic was put into practice, and the inversion accuracy was improved, in which the geophysical exploration could be contributed jointly with the geological techniques. New development era of geophysics is expected. 31 refs., 10 figs., 5 tabs.

  4. Role of simulation model in petroleum exploration. Have we developed new ideas for exploration; Sekiyu tanko ni okeru simulation no yakuwari. Hatashite wareware no shikoho wa kawattanoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakayama, K. [Japex Jeoscience Institute, Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes a role of simulation model in petroleum exploration based on geology. Geology is based on inductive method in which a scientific fact can be extracted and estimated from the pile of descriptive records. Such an inductive method is called a backward model. While, geophysics is based on a deductive method in which a physical or mathematical model is developed assuming a uniformitarialism in the past before extracting a scientific fact through the model calibration. Such a deductive method is called forward model. Introduction of simulation model has been useful for petroleum exploration due to its deductive property. However, some conceptualization and simplification are introduced in such a method. Therefore, its accuracy is still far from the fact. However, objective concept can be obtained to certain degree. Simulation modeling is one of a significant methods by which petroleum exploration can be activated and new ideas can be created in the field of petroleum geology. It is required to apply the simulation modeling by checking it using conventional inductive method. 12 refs., 7 figs.

  5. Regional unification of energy in North America. ; NAFTA and its related matters. Hokubei ni okeru energy no chiiki togo. ; NAFTA to sono kanren ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-01

    The present paper reported energy-related items in the NAFTA. Being discussed among the US, Canada and Mexico, the NAFTA aims at withdrawing the trade barrier, relaxing the investment limitation and protecting the right of intellectual ownership. The foreign enterprises are influenced in both import tax cutdown and original home regulation. Main points which are related to the energy in Mexico are as follows: Mexico reserves the property rights of natural gas and pipelines while the PEMEX maintains the oil export/import and transport rights. In the power generation field, the CFE (Committee for Federal Electricity) owns the power generation and selling rights while the NAFTA approves the foreign investment in the power generation facilities. As per performance contract which forms a special field, incentive is given to the foreign enterprises when succeeding in oil exploration. In the petrochemical field, there exist basic petrochemical products in which the foreign investment is prohibited. A 100% participation of foreign capital is allowed in all other products than the above ones. How the foregoing changes influence the foreign investment is uncertain.

  6. Local corrosion of magnesia-chrome refractory at slag-metal interface; Yoyu slag metal kaimen ni okeru magnesia / chrom shitsu taikabutsu no kyokubu sonsho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tao, Z.; Mukai, K.; Ogata, M. [Kyushu Inst. of Tech., Kitakyushu, Fukuoka (Japan)

    1998-09-01

    The corrosion mode of refractory depending on the chemical dissolution of molten slag-metal, a component of refractory is classified mainly into the corrosion of inner slag phase body and inner metal phase body, and local corrosion at slag surface and slag-metal interface, and local corrosion at the interface of different type of refractories. Among them, local corrosion occurring at the slag-metal interface is a serious problem that effects the life of refractory, and these recent years research regarding the prevention of this type of local corrosion has been closed up. So far, number of researches regarding the local corrosion of solid oxides at slag-metal interface has been carried out. However, these are all based on close single component and research regarding the practical oxides with multiple components and multiporous characteristic has not been carried out. In this research, practical magnesia-chrome refractory (CaO-SiO2-Al203-FetO) slag-metal system is described and revelation of local corrosion phenomena at slag-metal interface was studied. 17 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Fiscal 1998 research report. Feasibility survey on offshore wind power generation in Japan; 1998 nendo chosa hokokusho. Nippon ni okeru yojo furyoku hatsuden no donyu kanosei chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    This survey studied the feasibility of large-scale offshore wind power generation in Japan. Attempt was also made on preparation of outline maps of offshore wind around Japan. The cost of future offshore wind power generation systems is roughly dependent on technical issues and environmental issues. As technical issues, 'installation site,' 'foundation,' 'system interconnection' and 'maintenance/management' were summarized based on applications in Europe. As a result, it was clarified that technical issues can be solved with existing technologies to a certain extent, however, those relate to economical problems closely. The previous environment impact assessments say that wind power generation has no problems on the environmental issues. As relatively strong wind coastal areas, the outline maps of offshore wind point out Western Hokkaido area, Japan Sea area of Tohoku district, Pacific ocean area of the central part of Honshu, Genkai Nada area, Western Kyushu area and Southwest islands area, and suggest that these areas are promising for offshore wind power generation. (NEDO)

  8. Composition dependence of the rate of bainitic transformation in Cu-Zn-Al alloys; Cu-Zn-Al gokin ni okeru bainite hentai sokudo no gokin sosei izonsei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tabuchi, M.; Marukawa, K. [Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1998-04-20

    The bainitic transformation is known to have an intermediate nature between the martensitic transformation and the diffusional transformation, while its transformation mechanism has not yet been clarified precisely. If this transformation involves lattice shearing like the martensitic transformation, it should take place more easily in those alloys which have a higher tendency to transform martensitically. On this expectation, the composition dependence of bainitic transformation kinetics has been studied in Cu-Zn-Al alloys. Especially, the relation between the martensitic transformation temperature (Ms) and the bainitic transformation rate was examined. The transformation process was traced by measuring the electrical resistivity of specimens during aging. It was found that the transformation rate is higher in those alloys having a higher Ms temperature. The activation energy for the process, obtained from its temperature dependence, is independent of the alloy composition and roughly equal to that for solute diffusion in the parent alloy. This indicates that the transformation is controlled by diffusion of solute atoms. The composition dependence of the bainitic transformation rate is discussed in terms of a diffusion controlled growth theory. 15 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. Continuous cooling transformation behavior for heat treatment of spheroidal graphite cast iron. Kyujo kokuen chutetsu no netsushoriji ni okeru renzoku reikyaku hentai kyodo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakata, T.; Matsumoto, H. (Shibaura Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)); Kasugai, T. (National Research Institute for Metals, Tsukuba (Japan)); Koyama, M. (Automobile Foundry Co. Ltd., Yokohama (Japan))

    1992-08-25

    In order to study basic heat treatment properties of spheroidal graphite cast iron, the continuous cooling transformation(CCT) diagrams for the material equivallent to FCD700 under various austenitized conditions were obtained. There were 4 kinds of austenitized conditions varying from 1123K and 420s to 1323K and 1,800s. Eight kinds of cooling time from the austenitized temperature to 773K ranged from 6s to 4,000s. The transformation temperature was measured by a thermal expansion method. When the austenitized temperature was increased from 1123K to 1323K, ferrite and pearlite transformation regions moved a little in the CCT diagrams and the martensite transformation temperature decreased from 493K to 458K. The bainite region in the CCT diagrams disappeared at the austenite temperatures above 1223K. The nucleation sites of ferrite and pearlite in the spheroidal graphite cast iron were generated at grain boundary between austenite and graphite but not at grain boundary between austenites. The reason of such phenomena was also studied. 10 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Isothermal transformation behavior in 12%Cr-0.3%C steel; 12%Cr-0.3%C ko ni okeru koon hentai kyodo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikami, M. [Japan Casting and Forging Corp., Kitakyushu (Japan); Tsuchiyama, T.; Takaki, S. [Kyushu Univearsity, Fukuoka (Japan)

    2001-01-01

    In order to get fine grain of large martensitic stainless steels products, it is available to use the isothermal transformation before the austenitizing. When 12%Cr-0.3%C steel is subjected to the full solution treatment and following isothermal transformation at 900-1,020K, it is observed that the microstructures are affected by the isothermal ageing temperature. The microstructure transformed isothermally at 1,020K is the full eutectoid structure where carbides precipitate homogeneously. On the other hand, the microstructure transformed at 900K is the mixed heterogeneous structure: the eutectoid structure where carbides precipitate densely around the edge of prior austenite grains and the ferrite structure where carbides hardly precipitate in the center of prior austenite grains. These phenomena are concerned with the decreasing in carbon content in the untransformed austenite as the eutectoid transformation progresses. The amount of decreasing in carbon at 900K is larger than at 1,020K, which causes the shortage of carbon in austenite in the last period of isothermal transformation. In the case of the isothermal transformation at 900K, the reason of why there are the ferrite structures with no carbide in the center of prior austenite grains is that the massive transformation is induced by the shortage of carbon in untransformed austenite. (author)

  11. Effective range of electrical stimulation in brain silica preparation; No slice hyohon ni okeru denki shigeki koka han`i no kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takimori, T.; Ogawa, T.; Nishida, M. [Akita University, Akita (Japan)

    1997-08-20

    In order to examine the confines of electrical stimulation in layer 2/3 of visual cortex in the brain slice preparation, we estimated the effective range of the stimulation based on the excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP) evoked in layer V neuron which receives input from layer 2/3. For this purpose, we recorded and compared EPSPs amplitudes evoked by stimulations at directly over site of recording electrode and lateral site in layer 2/3. Since the EPSP increased linearly with stimulus intensity before the saturation, it was considered that the EPSP correlates with the number of projecting neurons in area directly excited with the stimulation. Then we formed the region model by which we can get the ratios between the neuron numbers in areas excited by different sites stimulations against the stimulus effective ranges. And in the stimulus intensity for action potential threshold of layer 5 neuron, we evaluated the effective range for the relative values of EPSPs to be produced with the stimulations of 250{mu}m lateral site and directory over site. In the model, the ratio increased monotonically with the effective range and in the case of 250{mu}m for the effective range, the ratio between those EPSPs was less than the value in the model. These results led the conclusion that the effective range of the intensity for layer 5 neuron to generate the output is confined within 250{mu}m from directly over site, that is, within layer 2/3. 7 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Survey of the trend of technical development and industrial policies in Asian countries; Asia shokoku ni okeru gijutsu kaihatsu no doko to sangyo gijutsu seisaku ni kansuru chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    A sharp rise in industrial productivity in Asia countries indicates a rising level of R and D technology. Since Japan has not clearly grasped the R and D ability in these countries, it has not given appropriate personnel/material R and D support to them. Therefore, for the purpose of exactly grasping the R and D ability of Asian countries (Korea, Taiwan, the Philippines, Indonesia and India) and studying an effective and appropriate method for R and D cooperation, a survey was conducted of R and D potentials in Asia and R and D support policies of the countries. As a result of the survey, the following are taken up as items to be considered: promotion of exchanges between Tsukuba, etc. in Japan and research/university towns and science parks being constructed in lots of countries, participation of private companies in high-tech joint work in cooperation with Japan, sending information from Japan using internet, etc. and exact grasp of needs at partner side, cooperation given to new comers without asking for research results (use of OB researchers, etc.) 25 refs., 39 figs., 59 tabs.

  13. Preventive design review as quality assurance and further task at Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Ltd.; Kawasaki Juko ni okeru jizen kensho no torikumi to kongo no tenkai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minakata, S.; Okazaki, S.; Nishimoto, T.; Saeki, H.; Niguma, Y. [Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Ltd., Kobe (Japan)

    1999-12-01

    At Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Ltd. (KHI), to reduce the risk in manufacturing and contribute to our company management, the most useful method of our Quality Assurance (QA) activities is preventive verification by design reviews (DR). During a design review, we effectively use the abundant experience of our company in the technologies of design, manufacturing and management to prevent failures resulting from the upper processes, such as design. As a direct result of this activity (GRP-50 and 75), failure costs have been greatly reduced. In the future we will continue to evolve our QA activities backed by preventive verification, aiming at linking Total Quality Management (TQM) to management in order to progress our company management and business process. (author)

  14. Origin of the latest miocene alkaline rocks from Oki-dogo island, SW-Japan; Oki togo ni okeru makkichushinsei oki arukari kazanganrui no seiin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, S. [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan)] Sawada, Y. [Shimane Univ., Matsue (Japan)

    1998-05-05

    Volcanic rocks, which erupted in later stage Cenozoic, are distributed widely in Oki-Dogo located at 60 km off Simane peninsular in the sea of Japan. In advanced stage Miocene, alkaline volcanic group rocks such as shoshonite, trachybasalt and rhyolite had erupted. These rocks are classified into Oki-trachyte, rhyolite, Hei-tracyte and quartz rhyolite from the bottom of the stratum. Rhyolite group rocks are classified into two groups on geological features, rock`s descriptions and chemical compositions. It was clarified that the rhyolite group had a unique composition change that the components such as Fe, Y, Ce, Pb, Ba, Nb, Rb, Zr, Th, changed from 1.1 times to several times in spite of the Si content almost without changing. On the basis of these results, the author of this paper proposed the models for partial melting and magma mixing of the earth`s crust materials at the lowest co-melting point to solve the origin of two groups of rhyolite. 34 refs., 11 figs., 8 tabs.

  15. Survey on the feasibility of simple waste energy systems in medium or small cities; Chusho toshi ni okeru kan`igata haikibutsu riyo energy system no kanosei chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    For effective use of wastes, the concept of a waste utilization system suitable for local characteristics of the Kyushu district was surveyed. The amount, features and processing method of wastes were surveyed for every kind of wastes and every region. Characteristics of wastes themselves and their use technologies were surveyed to study the energy system concept, and the concept was selected mainly for simple middle or small-scale systems. Main wastes available as heat source showed distinctive distributions every region. The following seven concepts were thus selected: RDF (refuse derived fuel) energy system mainly using general wastes, RDF system using wood chips and agricultural plastic wastes, co-generation system by premixed combustion of chicken manure and combustion improver, premixed combustion of livestock manure and combustion improver, methane fermentation using livestock, distillery and starch wastes, and pyrolytic oil system or gas system using agricultural plastic wastes. Establishment of any systems is difficult only in single region because of their economic scale. The collection and storage methods of raw materials should be studied. 36 figs., 40 tabs.

  16. Horizontal wells in the Daleel field 2nd development campaign; Dariru yuden no niji kaihatsu ni okeru suihei koi ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanagisawa, K. [Japex Oman Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-11-01

    The horizontal wells excavated at various places in the world have been carried out at an increasing tempo during recent some years. In particular, Oman has a number of small scale petroleum wells and a task on what means their oil production should be increased, therefore the horizontal excavation is judged to be much optimum. In this Daleed field 2nd development mainly consisting the prolonged region development ranged from north to south, all developing oil wells were determined to excavate with the horizontal excavation method and 10 wells were planned to excavate from the judgement of the possibility of low cost, in addition to the advance of the horizontal excavation technique. The excavating operation was conducted from July 1st, 1994 to March 22nd, 1995, and was finished without any failures. Test results of all oil wells are good, and the mean value of the initial production indices of the horizontal wells were about 3 times to that of vertical wells. And, it made possible to produce petroleum from the areas impossible in the vertical wells, because of presence of gas gap. Adoption of the horizontal well increased early oil production rate, which brought a lot of contribution to economics of the project. 3 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Study on the swirling flow field in a rotating cylinder. 3rd Report. Experiment; Kaiten kannai ni okeru senkai nagareba ni kansuru kenkyu. 3. Jikken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kishibe, T. [Hitachi, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Kaji, S. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    2000-02-25

    In the previous papers, the swirling flow field in a rotating hollow turbine shaft was solved using computational fluid dynamics. It was observed that a large-scale spiral vortex existed at a place where the swirling flow turned radially outward. In this report, the pressure fluctuations in the swirling flow field are measured. The main part of the internal cooling air system of a gas turbine is used as the experimental apparatus. A specially devised liner in inserted inside the hollow turbine shaft and ten pressure sensors are embedded axially and circumferentially in the liner to measure the unsteady wall pressures. The pressure fluctuations which have the same characteristics as the rotating spiral vortex predicted in the numerical results are captured. The amplitude is great at the sensors near the place where the vortex was predicted in the numerical results and the precession frequency of the rotating spiral vortex is in close agreement with the calculated frequency. (author)

  18. Investigation into the analysis method of total ecobalance in chemical industry products. 3; Kagaku kogyo seihin ni okeru total eko balance no bunseki shuho ni kansuru chosa. 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    For the purpose of establishing a total life-cycle ecobalance analysis (LCA) method, the paper studied making of a general computer program for chemical industry products. The study has been made on general-purpose plastics (PET/PSP (polystyrene paper)) since fiscal 1993 aiming at making the CO2 emission computing program covering the entire process of production from extraction of raw materials through waste disposal. In fiscal 1995, the following were conducted for enhancement of generalization of the method: expansion of environmental load items and increase in validity of the concept, and expansion of database. Notice was taken of not only CO2 but SOx, NOx and water quality load items. The survey was made on the recycling situation in Japan and abroad and the PET recycling plant , and environmental load item data are collected to expand database. The program was verified by analyzing an example of reusing PET bottle to carpet, and one-step development can be made toward the establishment of the method. Moreover, an analysis was made for the environmental assessment of the related programs abroad, and a tentative original plan can be proposed for the standardization of environmental load analysis and the integrated assessment method. 39 refs., 130 figs., 76 tabs.

  19. Investigational study of the CO2 balance in high temperature CO2 separation technology; Nisanka tanso koon bunri gijutsu ni okeru CO2 balance ni kansuru chosa kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    An investigational study was conducted to clarify the adaptable environment and effectivity of technologies of high temperature separation/recovery/reutilization of CO2. In the study, data collection, arrangement and comparison were made of various separation technologies such as the membrane method, absorption method, adsorption method, and cryogenic separation method. With the LNG-fired power generation as an example, the adaptable environment and effectivity were made clear by making models by a process simulator, ASPEN PLUS. Moreover, using this simulator, effects of replacing the conventional steam reforming of hydrocarbon with the CO2 reforming were made clear with the methanol synthesis as an example. As to the rock fixation treatment of high temperature CO2, collection/arrangement were made of the data on the fixation treatment of the CO2 separated at high temperature into basic rocks such as peridotite and serpentinite in order to clarify the adaptable environment and effectivity of the treatment. Besides, a potentiality of the fixation to concrete waste was made clear. 57 refs., 57 figs., 93 tabs.

  20. Numerical analysis of viscoelastic start-up flow in abrupt contraction channel; Kyushukusho ryuro ni okeru nendansei ryutai no start up nagare no suchi keisan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, T.; Nakamura, K. [Osaka University, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1998-10-25

    Start-up flows of viscoelastic fluids in a two-dimensional 4 to 1 abrupt contraction channel is numerically studied and the transient behavior of viscoelastic fluids is discussed. The multi mode Leonov model is applied to describe the rheological properties of the viscoelastic fluid. The numerical simulation has been carried out for two Weissenberg numbers. The following results are obtained from the present analysis: The corner vortices develop with time and restrict the velocity gradient to relax the growth of the stress field. The circular secondary flow works as a stress relief mechanism. The overshoot of the stress growth is observed at the high Weissenberg number and is not done at the low Weissenberg number. This phenomenon is caused by the unsteady elongational property of the fluid. 15 refs., 9 figs.

  1. Numerical calculation of viscoelastic flows through eccentric abrupt contraction; Henshin kyushuku shoryuro ni okeru nendansei ryutai no nagare no suchi kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, K.; Mori, N.; Matsumura, K. [Osaka University, Osaka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-04-25

    Numerical simulations of viscoelastic flows through an eccentric four-to-one abrupt contraction are carried out using the Giesekus model. The SMAC (Simplified-Marker-and-Cell) method is used to analyze the three-dimensional flows. The velocity profiles along the path line passing through the center of the exit exhibit an overshoot near the entry section, and at high Weissenberg numbers an undershoot follows the overshoot. The magnitude of the stress along the same path line has a peak near the entry, section, and its slow relaxation process indicates that a large downstream length is necessary for fully developed stress conditions to exist. The peak is lower than that for the flow through the concentric four-to-one abrupt contraction ; the decrease in the peak amplitude is understood to be due to the distortion of the path line in the eccentric geometry. A corner vortex, the height of which is a maximum at the widest corner, grows as the Weissenberg number increases. Furthermore, the tangential flow toward the widest section inside the vortex is determined. 19 refs., 10 figs.

  2. Education for hydraulics and pneumatics in Kanazawa University, Department of Human and Mechanical System Engineering; Kanazawa Daigaku Ningen Kikai Kogakuka ni okeru yukuatsu kyoiku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsui, Y. [Kanazawa University, Ishikawa (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    2000-03-15

    The above-named department was established in 1996. It advocates, standing on the basis of mechanical engineering, 'adaptation with man,' 'symbiosis with society,' and 'harmony with nature,' and, under these mottos, aims to bring up engineers who are able to create technologies in the field of mechanical engineering. There is no independent subject for fluid power. Relative subjects are the science of flows, thermodynamics and exercise, energy and environmental engineering, and nature and flow. Lectures are given using textbooks mainly. There is no subject that requires experiment on fluid power. It is hoped that teaching materials will be provided. Studies for graduation and master's theses are the 'suction performance of toroidal pumps' and the 'fluid force in, and flow coefficients of, spool valves.' Collaborative researches with industrial circles conducted so far involve the 'study of automotive vane pumps' and the 'suction performance of toroidal pumps.' It is difficult for subjects related to hydraulics and pneumatics to interest students greatly. To interest and attract students, it is felt, the concept like 'hydraulics and pneumatics signify power sources' which gives a tough and mighty impression should be replaced by a softer-tone expression like 'hydraulics/pneumatics and mechatronics and control.' (NEDO)

  3. Education for hydraulics and pneumatics in Yokohama University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Sciences; Yokohama Kokuritsu Daigaku ni okeru yukuatsu kyoiku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Y. [Yokohama National University, Yokohama (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    2000-03-15

    Described herein is education for hydraulics and pneumatics in Yokohama University. Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science pursues to most efficiently produce high-quality products useful for human living and compatible with the environments, based on scientific and technological knowledge man has learned. This department has four professional education courses, materials designs, mechanical processes, hot fluid dynamics, and mechanical systems. An independent subject of hydraulic and pneumatic systems is provided for hydraulics and pneumatics. The lectures on mechatronics include those for digitally-, electronically/hydraulically- and electronically/pneumatically-controlled devices, and their characteristics. The related subjects include fluid dynamics, basic fluid analysis, applied fluid analysis, turbo machines, and automatic control. The postgraduate courses provide hydraulic and pneumatic engineering for, e.g., cavitation and unsteady flow through conduits, hydraulic/pneumatic driving and controlling, modeling and robust control of mechanical systems, and designs of fluid-controlling devices and actuators. The experimental courses include tests of centrifugal pump performance, measurement of pressure distributions on journal bearings, and tests of fluid flow through conduits. (NEDO)

  4. Application of information theory to the sensitivity analysis of cogeneration system performance; Johoryo no gainen ni yoru kojenereshon system ni okeru fuka deta eikyo bunseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, K.; Ishizaka, T.; Honnma, I. [Tokyo Electric Power Co., Inc. (Japan)

    1996-01-05

    Cogeneration system (CGS) is anticipated by department of energy to play an important role in environment preservation. Cogeneration system`s estimation is depended on the preconditions, heat and electricity load data. Since the recognition of heat and electricity load is difficult, efficiency in load data is demanded repeatedly for the evaluation of cogeneration system. Necessary load factors for the estimation of cogeneration system from the energy department`s point of view as well as what measure may become good while recognizing load factors are investigated in this paper. Based on this, a proposal is made by considering load factors of buildings as a standard for estimation of the system. Further fixed quantity assessment is made with the results of computer simulation. From the obtained results, following observations are noted. Recognization of total load capacity is become very important when base load is introduced considerable amount for houses. Load factor`s information is very important for hotel when heat and electricity are used in balance. It is concluded that irrespective of motor capacity, whole day load factor information is necessary for office buildings. 6 refs., 15 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Optimum orbit and control of reflux ratio in the batch distillation; Bacchi joryu ni okeru kanryuhi no saiteki kido to seigyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morimoto, Jun; Susuzki, Mutsumi [Tohoku University, Miyagi (Japan)

    1999-06-05

    In the batch distillation, optimum orbit of reflux ratio exists under evaluation function of utility cost minimum and product quantity maximum. Enormous repeat calculation was necessary in order to calculate such optimum orbit by maximum principle. In this paper, calculation method which corrects initial value of the Hamilton accompanying function is proposed. Optimum orbit is calculated by this calculation method and advance on recent computer in the real time, and there is it, and it would be able to control the reflux ratio. And, it is also possible reflux ratio optimum state variable control table beforehand. These control method become an operation which is truly optimum for evaluation function. (translated by NEDO)

  6. Application of numerical analysis method to jet engine combustion design. Jet engine yo nenshoki no sekkei ni okeru suchi kaiseki no tekiyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Negoro, T.; Arai, M.; Kuyama, T.; Nakahata, T.; Hirokawa, M. (Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))

    1993-01-20

    This paper describes features and applications of numerical analysis for jet engine combustor design. The numerical analysis for flow fields in a combustor has set a limitation on objects to be analyzed for each component element in the combustor or each design element, and carried out the analysis upon selecting basic formulas and models. The numerical analysis is effective to predict qualitatively the effects on flow patterns in the whole combustor liner interior or temperature distributions in the combustor liner interior, but is not sufficiently effective for use as quantitative evaluation. An application suggested that a parallel shape is more preferable that does not squeeze a flow outlet on the outer side that can be expected of providing sufficiently large recirculation flow region, as a result of analyzing the flow patterns around fuel injection valves. Dump diffuser analysis revealed that the above shape is preferable in supplying air stably from the annulus part into the liner interior through air holes. It was verified that the analysis of flows in the combustor liner has identified features of the flows qualitatively. 4 refs., 13 figs.

  7. Effects of fuel and air mixing on WOT output in direct injection gasoline engine; Chokufun gasoline kikan ni okeru nenryo to kuki no kongo to shutsuryoku seino

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noda, T.; Iriya, Y.; Naito, K.; Mitsumoto, H.; Iiyama, A. [Nissan Motor Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    The effects of in-cylinder charge motion and the characteristics of the fuel spray and piston crown shape on WOT output in a direct injection gasoline engine are investigated. The fuel and air mixing process in a cylinder is analyzed by computer simulation and LIF method visualization. As a result, the technical factors to achieve enough mixing in a DI gasoline engine equipped with bowl in piston optimized for stratified combustion are clarified. 7 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Numerical simulation of fuel sprays and combustion in a premixed lean diesel engine; Kihaku yokongo diesel kikan ni okeru nenryo funmu to nensho no suchi simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyamoto, T.; Harada, A.; Sasaki, S.; Shimazaki, N.; Hashizume, T.; Akagawa, H.; Tsujimura, K.

    1997-10-01

    Fuel sprays and combustion in a direct injection Premixed lean Diesel Combustion (PREDIC) engine, which can make smokeless combustion with little NOx emission, is studied numerically. Numerical simulation was carried out by means of KIVA II based computer code with a combustion submodel. The combustion submodel describes the formation of combustible fuel vapor by turbulent mixing and four-step chemical reaction which includes low temperature oxidation. Comparison between computation and experiment shows qualitatively good agreement in terms of heat release rate and NO emission. Computational results indicate that the combustion is significantly influenced by fuel spray characteristics and injection timing to vary NO emission. 10 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Development of natural gas in the South American region and internationalization of a market thereof; Nanbei chiiki ni okeru tennen gasu kaihatsu to shijo no kokusaika

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niwa, N. [Japan Petroleum Development Association, Tokyo (Japan); Terada, S. [Mitsubishi Research Institute, Inc., Tokyo (Japan)

    2000-09-01

    Recently, natural gas development in the South American region is actively advanced. Especially, southern countries have formed the customs union 'Mercosur' (the South America south cooperation market), and an energy supply network such as the natural gas pipeline has been formed with the integration of the market. In this paper, a present state of development project, an installment balance situation, a production situation, a relation infrastructure and a trend of the market of natural gas in South America especially each country of the southern district are described. And, the introduction of foreign capital is also advancing with the restructuring related to the natural gas business in these countries. Therefore, those trends are also described. In the South American countries, Argentina has abundant natural gas reserves which is the next quantity to Venezuela, and has coped with the development of natural gas since early times. According to the prediction of future demand trend of natural gas, Argentina, Bolivia and Trinidad Tobago are mentioned as an exporter of natural gas, and Brazil and Chile are mentioned as an importer of natural gas. (NEDO)

  10. Motion analysis of human cervical vertebrae and injury mechanisms during low speed rear impacts; Teisokudo tsuitotsu ni okeru ningen no keitsui kyodo kaiseki to shogai mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ono, K. [Japan Automobile Research Institute Inc., Tsukuba (Japan); Kaneoka, K.; Inami, S.; Hayashi, K. [University of Tsukuba. Tsukuba (Japan)

    1998-05-01

    It is said that, as long as a head rest is used in an automobile, dilation of the cervical vertebrae will not extend the physiological range. However, neck injuries are still occurring frequently as a result of the rear collision accidents. This paper describes an experiment simulating low speed rear impacts by using ten volunteers for the purpose of clarifying the neck injury mechanism. Data taken by using a continuous X-ray photographing device were analyzed. The following points were made clear on features of collisions from comparison with normal cervical vertebral behavior: at a rear impact, the cervical vertebrae are subjected to action of axial compression force due to inertia of the neck, in addition to push-up of the body resulting in upward movement, and the force remains affecting the cervical vertebral behavior thereafter; the effect appears as a bending condition in the cervical vertebrae in the initial stage around 50 to 100 ms after the impact, and then transfers into dilation behavior; and this condition exceeds the normal physiologically movable range, particularly the movement of the winding center being abnormal, which is thought to involve in the mechanism of generating injuries in vertebral joints. 8 refs., 11 figs.

  11. New utilization and recall of carbon dioxide in domestic and foreign countries; Saikin no naigai ni okeru tansan gas no riyo to kaishu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanada, M.

    1994-09-01

    This paper summarizes the utilization technologies and recovery of carbon dioxide. Carbon dioxide is manufactured from such inorganic materials as carbonates and cokes, and such organic materials as hydrocarbons and alcohols. Carbon dioxide used in refreshing beverages is manufactured by sulfuric acid decomposition of sodium bicarbonate or limestone, pyrolysis of carbonates, natural gushing, and alcohol fermentation. Sodium carbonate is obtained by using the Solvay process that uses NaCl, NH3 and CaCO3 as the raw materials, but CO2 from hydrocarbons is utilized recently. The sugar industry uses slaked lime and CO2 in cleaning raw sugar concentrates. Grain size, shape, and grain size distribution of the precipitated calcium carbonate light obtained from reaction of slaked lime and CO2 are affected by reaction temperatures and concentrations. This precipitated calcium carbonate light is used in rubber filling, paper manufacturing, and plastics. South Africa and other countries manufacture gypsum for cement by using limestone and sulfuric acid as the raw materials. The annual dispersion of CO2 from fossil fuel consumption amounts to 5.2 billion tons. Discussed as its reducing measures include fixation by sea algae, adsorption, absorption and clathration by zeolite and monoethanol amine. 8 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs.

  12. Improvement of performance of non-equilibrium MHD disk generator by means of segmented loads; Hiheiko disk gata MHD hatsudenki ni okeru bunkatsu fuka ni yoru seino kaizen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, H.; Okuno, Y.; Kabashima, S. [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-08-20

    The performance of non-equilibrium MHD disk generator with segmented loads is examined with {gamma}-{theta} two dimensional numerical simulations. The use of segmented loads is found to improve the generator performance when a low electron temperature plasma is introduced to the channel. The simulation results reveal the desired values of load resistances connected in upstream and downstream regions, respectively. The concept of the segmented loads is considered to be superior to rearranging seed fractions and load resistances. 10 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Comparison of ER and MR actuators in terms of performance in ERMC high-precision positioning; ERMC koseido ichigime ni okeru ER/MR actuator no seino hikaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, T.; Watanabe, H. [Tokyo Engineering Univ., Tokyo (Japan); Sugimoto, A. [Research Inst. of Industrial Safety, Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-01-15

    Although the characters of a (magnetorheological (ER) fluid are quite like those of a dispersed electrorheological (ER) fluid, MR differs from ER in that the change in shear stress that MR shows upon magnetic field application is scores of times greater than that ER shows and that MR can be used even when the voltage is low. In this lecture, antagonistic rotation type actuators working on ER or MR are caused to incline with the angle of inclination controlled by the ERMC system, and the two are compared in terms of the frequency of stoppage achieved. The ERMC system is a high-precision positioning system making full use of the variable flow characteristics of the Bingham plastic that is a functional fluid. (translated by NEDO)

  14. Pressure response of electrorheological suspension in a model ER damper; ER damper model ni okeru bunsanke ER ryutai no atsuryoku oto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakano, M.; Yonekawa, T. [Yamagata University, Yamagata (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1995-01-25

    This paper reports the examination result of the pressure response of an electrorheological suspension fluid (obtained when the particles of a strong acid ion-exchange resin are dispersed on silicon oil and whose rheological characteristics vary with the action in the external electric field) in an electrorheological (ER) damper model (experimental equipment consisting of an ER valve with plane parallel electrode and a piston cylinder). A rectangular wave voltage is applied to the ER valve to obtain the pressure fall components based on the steady ER effect of an ER fluid flowing between the plane parallel electrodes. The intensity of the electric field and the dependence on the flow velocity were formulated by an approximate function. The flow velocity dependency of this ER effect does not coincide with the theoretical analysis result based on a Bingham fluid model. The pressure in a cylinder presents the transient response of a first-order lag to the rectangular wave voltage input to the ER valve. The time constant value in this case can be explained by considering the compressibility of the residual air in the ER fluid. 11 refs., 11 figs.

  15. Study of the influence of microgravity on the biological cells and molecular level; Seitai saibo bunshi level ni okeru bisho juryoku no eikyo ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    The shape of osteoblast, gene appearance, gene of rice blast, cellular fusion of plants, gravity acceptance mechanism of unicellular organisms, and physiological and immunity functions of mice were investigated under the microgravity condition. The influence of gravity on the vital reaction and the influence of microgravity on the crystallization of vital substances were also investigated. For the observation of osteoblast, the fluorescence dye reacted with Ca was well taken in the cells. The microgravity affected the stability of rice blast, but hardly affected the protoplast culture of mushroom. The reaction of ciliate against the gravity related to the specific gravity difference between cells and outer liquid. The level of adrenaline in blood of mice increased during the drop. The moving speed of trigger waves of chemical parallel slit formed at the BZ reaction under the microgravity became 60% to 80% of that on the ground. In the case of crystallization at the deposition agent concentration of 1% to 4%, the turbidity showing the degree of crystallization changed complicatedly. Nine processes of crystal growth were recognized. 21 refs., 55 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Traffic flow characteristics and analysis on weaving sections of the Hanshin Expressway. Hanshin kosokudoro ni okeru orikomi kukan no kotsu jittai to kotsuryu kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makigami, Y. (Ritsumeikan Univ., Kyoto (Japan). Faculty of Engineering); Toyota, (Japan Highway Public Corp., Tokyo (Japan)); Matsuo, T. (Hanshin Expressway Public Corp., Osaka (Japan))

    1992-01-20

    The report is aimed at giving an idea about design of the weaving section or traffic plan, which describes the outline and the results of a series of traffic survay and capacity analysis on weaving section on the Central Loop and its neighboring section of the Hanshin Expressway in 1985 to 1990 by making use of both areal photographs taken from a helicopter and video recordings and which makes an effort to clear which area does the traffic jam caused by the narrow road affect on and how does the mechanism show while making search the characteristics of the traffic flow in a weaving section. Using these traffic data, the applicability of HCM-85 Weaving Capacity Analysis Method to the Japanese expressway is evaluated. It also makes a touch to the problems and study about analysis method of weaving section. 11 refs., 21 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. Combined process of pyrolyzer/combuster for gas production and power generation; Chugoku ni okeru chukibo hatsuden to toshi gas seizo no tame no fukugo process no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ooka, I. [The University of Tokushima, Tokushima (Japan); Ma, T.

    1997-10-30

    In China, they are using a lot of coal by direct firing for domestic cooking, space heating and industrial use. Therefore air pollution is the big problem in every cities in winter season. And at moment, they do not have enough infrastructure for supplying energy such as gas and electric power. There is a great need for facilities for supplying gas and electric power from coal in big cities with much less pollution. This paper d a combined process of medium size plant of gas production and power generation by using fluidized circulation bed pyrolizer and combuster, to contribute to the energy supply which greatly reduces air and water polution and coal consumption. 1 ref., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  18. Design and construction of precast PC-slab for the `Tokai Obu viaduct`; Tokai Obu kokakyo ni okeru precast PC yukaban no sekkei to seko

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizuguchi, K.; Murayama, A. [Japan Highway Public Corporation, Tokyo (Japan); Kitayama, K.; Yamashita, S. [P.S. Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-03-31

    This paper describes the construction of Toukai Obu viaduct completed in 1997. This viaduct is specified by use of PC slabs, length of 974.5m and design speed of 100km/h, and was constructed aiming at cost reduction and new rational structure. Precast PC (PCa) slabs prestressed in a direction of slab span were produced under severe quality control in a factory. The PCa slabs stocked in a factory were transported by trailer and specific frame to the construction site, and laid on steel bridge girders by crane. An RC loop joint method for PCa slabs was newly adopted as one of the lap splice methods of reinforcing bars which is superior in cost and maintenance to conventional slab connecting methods in a longitudinal direction of bridges with PC steel material. Because of less domestic applications, a cyclic loading fatigue test at fixed points was carried out using a small model to obtain fatigue proof stress and fracture morphology. A moving loading test was also carried out at an actual loading level using full-scale slab specimens to obtain fatigue proof stress and long-span slab behavior. 7 refs., 24 figs., 8 tabs.

  19. Perpendicular construction of bridge girder for long span suspension bridge under a rapid stream; Kyuchoryuka ni okeru chodai tsuribashi no hokoketa chokka tsuri koho no kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirayama, J.; Sakamoto, M.; Nakao, T.; Koga, N. [Honshu-Shikoku Bridge Authority, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-06-20

    Perpendicular construction of bridge girder for a long span suspension bridge, which is to be constructed over the Kurushima Channel, an international route, has been investigated. For the construction of suspension bridge over channels, the overhang construction is generally employed. Bridge girder perpendicular construction, in which unit girder block is lifted from a carrier barge and directly constructed by means of lifting beams located at main cable, is a superb method in terms of cost, time, and safety. It is necessary to stay the carrier barge during the anchoring of girder block and lifting beams. Mooring of the carrier barge is required under a rapid stream, which results in the trouble of under way ships. A propulsion positioning system has been developed for the bridge girder carrier barge, by which the position/propulsion of four thrusters equipped at each corner of the barge can be automatically controlled. Thus, the perpendicular construction of bridge girder has been developed, in which mooring is not required even under the rapid stream. The position of barge can be maintained within a range of {plus_minus}2.5 m even under a rapid stream with a speed of 3 kn. The quick joint can be certainly connected for about one minute in the horizontal movement within {plus_minus}2.5 m and vertical movement within 0.5 m. For this perpendicular construction, the construction time can be shortened to around 16 to 17 minutes, which has been usually taken for three hours. 2 refs., 17 figs., 4 tabs.

  20. Suppression of cell metabolism y structuring water under hydrophobic-gas pressure; Sosuisei gasu atsuryokuka ni okeru mizu no kozoka wo riyo shita saibo no taisha yokusei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashimoto, Atsushi; Kameoka, Takaharu [Mie University, Mie (Japan). Dept. of Bioinformation Scicence; Shiinoki, Yasuhiko; Ito, Kensuke [Snow Brand Milk Products Corp., Tokyo (Japan). Technical Research Institute

    1999-03-10

    We propose a new method to suppress cell metabolism by dissolving hydrophobic gas into intracellular water, and structuring it under hydrophobic-gas pressure. Xenon, krypton, argon, and helium gases show death inhibitory effects on all test bacteria (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus salivarius) suspended in physiological saline with no nutrient component during storage under the conditions. In addition, different death inhibitory effects are observed among the five test bacteria, and this proposed method is more effective for gram-negative bacteria with thin cell walls than for gram-positive bacteria with thick cell walls. Further, xenon gas exhibit more significant effects for death inhibition than any other test gases, and the optimum initial partial pressure to inhibit the death is observed only for xenon gas in the present experimental conditions. Consequently, it is experimentally suggested that the cell metabolism can be suppressed almost perfectly by making the optimum water structure. (author)

  1. Production planning support system using. Phi. NET in FA. FA bun prime ya ni okeru. Phi. NET oyo seisan keikau shien system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Igawa, Y.; Hibino, K. (Fuji Electric Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))

    1991-08-10

    In response to a wide use of the production simulation for production scheduling in the domain of factory automation (FA), a system of a machining flexible manufacturing system (FMS) production line using a general-purpose distribution control system building tool {Phi}NET was developed by Fuji Electric. In this report, an outline of this system was introduced as to its constitution and performance. This FMS production line has functions of the production scheduling, the production simulation, and the production instruction. Among them, the {Phi}NET model, in which the network model called petri-net and the production rule were combined, was applied to the production simulation. Consequently, was provided a prospect that the {Phi}NET would be developed to an FA simulator with which a production engineer can build a model with his own field language and conduct a simulation. 4 figs.

  2. Studies on substitutional protein sources for fish meal in the diet of Japanese flounder; Hirame shiryo ni okeru miriyo shigen no riyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kikuchi, K.; Furuta, T.; Sakaguchi, I. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-08-01

    Effectiveness of livestock industry wastes and vegetable protein added to fish meal in fish farming is tested by feeding the Japanese flounder. In the experiment, a part or the whole of the fish meal protein is replaced by the meat meal (MM), meat and bone meal (MBM), corngluten meal (CGM), or dried silkworm pupa meal (SPM), and fries of the Japanese flounder are fed on the new diets for eight weeks. On a diet containing 60% or less of MM, no change is detected in the fish in terms of increase in weight, protein efficiency ratio, and blood components, indicating that 60% at the highest of fish meal may be replaced by MM. In the case of MBM, it can occupy approximately 20%. As for CGM, the proper substitution rate is approximately 40%. Essential amino acids that the new diets may lack are added for an approximately 10% improvement on the result. The SPM substitution works up to 40%, when, however, the blood components are degraded. The proper substitution rate is therefore placed at approximately 20%. 38 refs., 2 figs., 17 tabs.

  3. Survey of the actual state of the coal related research and development in Japan. 11; Nippon ni okeru sekitan kanren kenkyu kaihatsu jittai chosa. 11

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    NEDO is surveying the actual state of the coal related research/development in Japan to supply information on the coal related research/development in Japan to IEA`s coal research project database. This book of fiscal 1997 version includes 338 subjects. The details described are name of research institute, the section in charge, address, name of country, telephone No., name of joint researcher, research theme, classification, outline of research, project No., name of researcher, sponsor, the budget appropriated, term of research, remarks, etc. The books of data collected from each country in surveys of the actual state of the coal related R and D and IEA`s coal researches which have been made so far are submitted for general viewing at NEDO Information Center. Also, a part of those can be accessible from the energy database of which NEDO Information Center is performing on-line service for user members

  4. Microscopic damage of quasi-isotropic carbon/epoxy laminates at various temperatures; Kakuondo kankyoka ni okeru carbon/epoxy giji tohosei sekisoban no bishiteki sonsho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, H. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Ogi, K.; Matsubara, T.; Wang, W.; Takao, Y. [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Research Inst. for Applied Mechanics

    1998-06-15

    Quasi-isotropic Carbon/Epoxy laminates under tensile loading are investigated to understand the effects of temperature on stress-strain response and damage progress including the interlaminar delamination growth behavior. The material system used is T800H/3631 and the stacking sequence is quasi-isotropic [0deg/45deg/-45deg/90deg]s. The transverse crack behavior is microscopically observed and its density is quantitatively measured by using an optical microscope under various loads at different temperatures, i.e., low (-100deg), room (25deg) and high (150deg) temperatures. The interlaminar delamination growth behavior is non-destructively examined by a scanning acoustic microscope (SAM). It is found that nonlinearity observed in the stress-strain response is caused by the large scale interlaminar delamination throughout the length of the specimen. The transverse crack propagation and interlaminar delamination growth behavior are obviously affected by the temperature environments. Characteristic transverse crack formation at the edge of -45deg layer under -100deg is pointed out and its mechanism is discussed with the use of shear coupling of an off -axis lamina. 10 refs., 16 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Study of installation of PV systems at campus; Campus ni okeru taiyoko hatsuden donyu ni kansuru kenkyu (taiyo denchi nomi wo secchishita baai no yobi kento)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuboi, N.; Tanaka, H.; Okumiya, M. [Nagoya University, Nagoya (Japan)

    1997-11-25

    In terms of energy consumption, environmentality and economical efficiency in the case of installing the photovoltaic power system on the rooftop of the university campus, a comparative study was conducted with other power generation systems. As objects to be comparatively studied, selected were the all-electric type centralized space heating/cooling system, cogeneration system, nighttime heat storage system and centralized system with solar cells installed. The panel area of the PV system is 10,000m{sup 2} on the rooftop and 7,000{sup 2} on the outer wall. About data on solar radiation, average values obtained in Nagoya were used. Assessment was made in terms of energy consumption amount at the time of operation, system COP, emission amounts of CO2, NOx and SOx at the time of manufacturing and operation, initial cost, running cost, etc. As a result of the study, an effect of reducing global warming gas was admitted in the PV system. However, the initial cost of the solar cell panel was high, and the life cycle cost of the PV system was lower than other systems. 1 ref., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Heat pump using dual heat sources of air and water. Performance in cooling mode; Mizu kuki ryonetsugen heat pump no kenkyu. Reibo unten ni okeru seino

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, S.; Miura, N. [Kanagawa Institute of Technology, Kanagawa (Japan); Uchikawa, Y. [Kubota Corp., Osaka (Japan)

    1997-11-25

    When a heat pump is used for cooling purpose, it is possible to utilize different kinds of waste water as high-heat sources. However, these heat sources would have their temperatures vary with seasons and time in a day. Therefore, a discussion was given on performance of a heat pump when water and air heat sources are used for condensers during cooling operation independently, in series and in parallel, respectively. The air condenser shows an equivalent COP as compared with the water condenser when air temperature is lower by about 8 degC than water temperature. At the same heat source temperature, the COP for the water condenser indicated a value higher by about 0.6 than the case of the air condenser. A method to use condensers in parallel experiences little contribution from the air heat source, and performance of the heat pump decreases below the case of using the water heat source independently when the air heat source temperature becomes higher than that of the water heat source. In the case of series use in which a water condenser is installed in front and an air condenser in rear, its effect is exhibited when temperature in the air heat source is lower than that in the water heat source. Better performance was shown than in operating the water heat source independently. 2 refs., 9 figs.

  7. Comparison of performance between a parallel and a series solar-heat pump system; Solar heat pump system ni okeru heiretsu setsuzoku no seino hikaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanayama, K.; Zhao, J.; Baba, H.; Endo, N. [Kitami Institute of Technology, Hokkaido (Japan)

    1997-11-25

    In a solar heat pump system, a single-tank system was fabricated, in which a heat pump is installed in series between a heat collecting tank and a heat storage tank. At the same time, a double-tank system was also fabricated, in which two tanks are assembled into one to which a solar system and a heat pump are connected in parallel. Performance of both systems was analyzed by using measured values and estimated values. Heat collecting efficiency in the double-tank system is higher by about 13 points than in the single-tank system. Nevertheless, the coefficient of performance for the single-tank system is 1.03 to 1.51 times greater than that of the double-tank system. Dependency of the single-tank system on natural energy is higher by 0.3 to 3 points than the double-tank system. Putting the above facts together, it may be said that the single-tank system connecting the solar system and the heat pump in parallel is superior in performance to the double-tank system of the series connection. 3 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Starting and stopping control on power conditioner in photovoltaic power system; Taiyoko hatsuden system ni okeru power conditioner no kido teishi seigyo ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirose, M.; Ishihara, Y.; Todaka, T.; Harada, K. [Doshisha University, Kyoto (Japan); Oshiro, H.; Nakamura, H. [Japan Quality Assurance Organization, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-11-25

    Studies are made about the control of the power conditioner over the maximum power point tracking (MPPT) function in a photovoltaic power generation system. The analysis is conducted by means of computer simulation into the effect of a start/stop function added to the control of MPPT and the effect on the generation of power of the setting of parameters in the start/stop function. The reduction in output power due to difference between the actual operation point and the optimum operation point is evaluated by use of a load matching correction factor. In this simulation, it is assumed that the solar cell array consists of 13 rows in 5 parallel columns, is capable of a normal output of 3.149kW, has a panel tilted at 30 degrees, and faces due south. The power conditioner is assumed to be a system rated at 3kVA, equipped with system interconnection and back flow features. As a result, it is learned that the stop voltage should be set at 180V or lower and the steady voltage near 185.5V for a good result and that there is not much need after all for the start/stop technique. 2 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Study on the simulation time increments for solar DHW heating systems; Taiyonetsu kyuto simulation ni okeru keisan jikan kankaku no kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, M.; Udagawa, M. [Kogakuin University, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-11-25

    Calculation time intervals effective in simulating solar DHW systems were discussed, taking into account water temperature in a heat storage tank and calorific power in supplied hot water. The discussion was given on a direct heat collecting system in which heat passes through a heat collector from the bottom of the heat storage tank and returns to the center of the tank, and an indirect heat collecting system which has a heat exchanger built inside the heat storage tank at its bottom. The calculation was performed with time intervals of one to sixty minutes and five to forty-five layer divisions. The following results were obtained: because the calorific power of the hot water supplied is underestimated in the calculation if the calorific power of one hot water supply is extremely large, the calculation time intervals must be reduced to 1 to 15 minutes; cumulative calorific power of the hot water supply was found to show little variation if the number of division is greater than fifteen; and the daily cumulative effective heat collection amount shows very little variation due to the calculation time intervals, but errors from the measured value have decreased as the smaller the number of layer division in the direct heat collecting system, and as the greater the number of division in the indirect heat collecting system. 4 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Necessity of irrigation for revegetation on reclaimed land with fly ash. Sekitanbai umetatechi ni okeru ryokuka no tameno kangai no hitsuyosei ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sekiyama, Tetsuo; Kozakai, Kazuki; Okabe, Katsumi.

    1989-02-01

    In view of the growing importance of revegetation measures of a reclaimed land with fly ash discharged from a coal burning thermal power plant, a study was made on necessity of irrigation in case of the positive execution of the above revegetation. This is a report of the above study. The conclusions of the study are as follows: (1) Comparing the available moisture amounts in terms of volume percentage of moisture, about 36% is for fly ash and about 34% for volcanic ash soil, but when fly ash is solidified, the above figure for fly ash becomes about 90% of that for volcanic ash soil. (2) The maximum water infiltration capacity of fly ash is 1/10-1/50 of that of volcanic ash soil and the surface run-off is much. The furrow or drip irrigation system is suitable. (3) The evaporation in fly ash is almost same as that in volcanic ash soil and the designed duty of water irrigation is considered to be 7-8mm/day (in case of cultivation of tangerine and pasture). (4) In case when the above reclaimed land is covered with volcanic ash soil, an aquifer is observed at the boundary layer between the surface soil coverage and the land. Hence draining measures such as underdrainage systems are desirable from the viewpoint of the growth of plants. 8 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Land subsidence in the Saga plane due to water shortage in 1994; Saga heiya ni okeru 1994 nen ijo kassui to jiban chinka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hachiya, Y.; Kitajima, J. [Saga Prefectural Government Office, Saga (Japan); Jinno, K. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-08-21

    This paper reports land subsidence in Saga Plane during the abnormal drought in 1994. Saga Plane is arranged with a table land with a height of 20 m or lower above sea level, an alluvial fan, an inundation plane, and a delta in that order, with a reclaimed land spreading in front thereof. Groundwater is utilized mainly for industrial use in the Saga district, with consumption of 12 million m{sup 3} per year in around 1975 and 3.5 million m{sup 3} per year in recent years. The Shiraishi district uses groundwater mainly for tap water supply and agriculture, with normal consumption of 600 to 900 m{sup 3} per year having risen to 2000 m{sup 3} per year in 1994 when the abnormal drought has been experienced. The Saga prefectural government has been conducting groundwater collection amount survey, groundwater level measurement and level survey every year. As a result of observations, annual maximum subsidence has stopped at 3.3 cm and subsidence volume of 1280 m{sup 3} as a result of reduced groundwater collection in the Saga area. The Shiraishi area had ground water collection greatly increased due to drought, with the annual maximum subsidence having reached 16.0 cm and the subsidence volume of 5.9 million m{sup 3}. 7 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Population dynamics of bacteria for phosphorus removal in sequencing batch reactor (SBR) activated sludge processes. Kaibunshiki kassei odeiho ni okeru datsu rin tokusei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okada, M.; Ueno, Y.; Lin, C.; Murakami, A. (Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Tokyo (Japan))

    1990-01-10

    As the phosphorus removal processes, chemical methods and biological methods are considered. This paper discussed a biological phosphorus removal method. Laboratory experiments of phosphorus removal in sequencing batch reactor (SBR) activated sludge processes were operated using synthetic waste water to clarify the effects of solid retention time (SRT) and organic substrates on the accumulation of bacteria having phosphorus removal ability (bio-P-bacteria). The accumulation of bio-P-bacteria was enhanced by large fluctuation in concentration of organic substances in the reactor fed in a short period of time under anaerobic condition. However, the accumulation did not be enhanced in the reactor operated with SRT less than 25 d. The specific growth rates of bio-P-bacteria were estimated to a range from 0.033/d to 0.035/d in the SBR activated sludge processes fed with glucose and polypeptone as substrates. Therefore, large SRT is necessary for the accumulation of bio-P-bacteria. 18 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Effect of applied synthetic auxin on root growth in plantlet propagation by cuttage and tissue culture; Sashiki to soshiki baiyo ni okeru gosei auxin rui no shiyo koka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shoji, K.; Yoshihara, T. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-12-01

    The effect of synthetic plant hormone 4-C1-IAA and TFIBA on root growth in plantlet propagation was clarified by the cuttage and the issue culture of strawberry seedling production. A periwinkle, vine, and azalea are the effect of 4-C1-IAA on root growth, and a promotion effect was recognized for rooting and root elongation. The concentration of 4-C1-IAA in which the growth promotion effect of a root most appears varies depending on the species of a plant. The concentration of a periwinkle was 20 ppm, and that of an azalea was 2000 ppm. The growth promotion effect of a root in 4-C1-IAA and TFIBA was compared with IBA for an azalea. The result showed that 4-C1-IAA is the same in the effect as IBA and that TFIBA is higher than for IBA. The growth of a vine`s terminal bud was promoted by the effect of TFIBA on root growth, and the callus occurring when IBA was treated was not formed. The rooting of a strawberry was promoted by the effect of TFIBA on root growth. The combined use of TFIBA and BA promotes the growth of a side bud and forms a multi-bud plant. However, rooting was inhibited. The callus caused by the effect of BA on root growth could be suppressed through the combined use with TFIBA. 6 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Fixed position holding control for self-propulsion barges under disturbance condition; Gairanka ni okeru jiko baji no teiten hoji seigyo ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kijima, K.; Murata, W.; Furukawa, Y. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-04-10

    In direct hoisting work in suspension bridge construction, since a cable crane directly hoists a bridge beam block put on a barge on the sea, precise fixed position holding function is required for a barge. The control system was then designed on the basis of an ILQ control theory, and the effect of change in time constant as design parameter on fixed position holding performance was studied. In addition, the critical disturbance for fixed position holding control was studied through numerical simulation under various disturbance conditions using the above designed control system. As a result, in the design of control systems on the basis of an ILQ control theory, the precise control system could be designed by diminishing, in particular, the time constant for state variable around a z axis among time constants according to the extent of disturbance. The control performance was largely affected by response delay period from sensing of disturbance to beginning of control. 3 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Flow characteristics of Hijiori HDR reservoir form circulation test in 1995; Koon tantai Hijiori jikkenjo ni okeru shinbu choryuso yobi junkan shiken (1995 nendo) kekka to ryudo kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukushima, N.; Hyodo, M.; Shinohara, N.; Takasugi, S. [Geothermal Energy Research and Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-05-01

    This paper reports the result of a preliminary circulation test conducted in fiscal 1995 on a deep reservoir (at a depth of about 2200 m) in the Hijiori hot dry rock experimental field. One water injection well and two production wells were drilled to constitute a circulation loop, to which the circulation test was performed to investigate the flow characteristics thereof. The result revealed the following matters: total amount of injected water of 51500 m{sup 3} resulted in a total fluid recovery rate of about 40%; as a result of well stimulation given twice during the initial stage of the water injection, the continuity impedance in the vicinity of the injection well decreased largely (however, the continuity improvement upon the second attempt was considerably inferior to that from the first attempt); and increase in the water injection amount does not necessarily lead to increase in the production amount. The paper describes additionally that it is extremely difficult to interpret non-linearity between the injection and production amounts by using a model prepared previously with a main objective to analyze the Hijiori HDR circulation system. 1 ref., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Analysis of the pressure response of high angle multiple (HAM) fractures intersecting a welbore; Kokeisha multi fracture (HAM) kosei ni okeru atsuryoku oto kaiseki ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ujo, S.; Osato, K. [Geothermal Energy Research and Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Arihara, N. [Waseda University, Tokyo (Japan); Schroeder, R.

    1996-05-01

    This paper reports pressure response analysis on wells piercing a high angle multi (HAM) fracture model. In this model which is defined on a three-dimensional space, a plurality of slanted fractures intersect with wells at high angles (however, intersection of fractures with each other is not considered). With respect to the pressure response analysis method using this model, the paper presents a basic differential equation on pressure drawdown and boundary conditions in the wells taking flows in the fractures pseudo-linear, as well as external boundary conditions in calculation regions (a reservoir spreads to an infinite distance, and its top and bottom are closed by non-water permeating beds). The paper also indicates that results of calculating a single vertical fracture model and a slanted fracture model by using a numerical computation program (MULFRAC) based on the above equations agree well respectively with the existing calculation results (calculations performed by Erlougher and Cinco et al). 5 refs., 6 figs.

  17. Application of streaming potential method for detection of fractures in granitic rock; Kamaishi kozan ni okeru ryutai ryudo den`iho tekiyo shiken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Negi, T.; Yokoi, K.; Yoneda, Y. [Nittetsu Mining Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Senba, T. [Power Reactor and Nuclear fuel Development Corporation, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-05-01

    Measurements were made using the streaming potential method for the purpose of investigating the expansion of hydration cracks, direction of their propagation, and the chaining of cracked surfaces, in the granitic rock. Tests were conducted by use of a bore hole in the gallery wall. The bore hole yielded approximately 400 liters of water per minute, the bore hole was closed and then opened, and the change with the passage of time in the spontaneous potential (SP) on the gallery wall was measured. At a spot 31.2m from the mine entrance, the SP dropped by 15mV simultaneously with the opening of the bore hole, and rose by 14mV simultaneously with the closure of the same. The phenomenon was true for other locations, that is, for the section from the mine entrance to a spot 9.0m therefrom, and for a section beginning at 15.0m and ending at 19.2m therefrom. No change in the SP was observed in a group of cracks with water springing out of the gallery roof, beginning at a point 40m and ending at a point 54m from the mine entrance. The result suggests the possible application of the streaming potential method to the investigation of cracks. 1 ref., 10 figs.

  18. 2D resistivity survey in complex geological structure area. Application to the volcanic area; Fukuzatsuna chishitsu kozo chiiki ni okeru hiteiko nijigen tansa. Kazangan chiiki deno tekiorei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asakawa, S.; Ikuma, T.; Tanifuji, R. [DIA Consultants Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-05-01

    Introduced herein is an application of 2D resistivity survey to a volcanic rock area where the survey result is difficult to interpret because of its complex geological structure. In a dam site survey, main problems involve the permeability of water through faults and weathered, altered zones. At this site, a 2D resistivity survey was conducted, a 2D geological structure was deduced from the resistivity section, and the result was examined. It was found that resistivity distribution was closely related to hydrographic factors, but no obvious correlation was detected between rock classes and R, Q, and D. In conducting investigations into a section planned for a highway tunnel, it was learned that the problem was a volcanic ash layer to collapse instantly upon absorbing water, and the distribution of the ash layer, not to be disclosed by boring, was subjected to a 2D resistivity survey. The survey was conducted into the structure above where the tunnel would run, and further into the face, and studies were made about what layer was reflected by the resistivity distribution obtained by analysis. The result of the analysis agreed with the details of the layer that was disclosed afterward. 4 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Travel time and ray path computation in 2D-heterogeneous structures; Fukinshitsu kozo ni okeru jishinha soji oyobi hasen no atarashii keisan hoho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujie, G.; Kasahara, J.; Sato, T.; Mochizuki, K. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Earthquake Research Institute

    1996-05-01

    Methods were studied for determining the initial travel time and ray paths with stability when an non-linear travel time inversion is performed in an inhomogeneous structure. The travel time calculation was based on Faria and Stoffa`s method. First, the 2-dimension space was sectioned by grids, and `slowness` was assigned to all the lattice points. Starting from the vibration source, travel time at each lattice point is sequentially calculated. This method calculates travel time for any structure without breakup. In this study, an algorithm more sophisticated than the method of Faria, et al., was developed, and the improvement of travel time calculation accuracy led to the accurate determination of the direction of incidence into the lattice points during the initial motion. The calculation of ray paths was effected by tracing back from the receiving points the incidence into the lattice points or by following back the ray paths to the vibration source. This method performs stable calculation for a heavily inhomogeneous structure and, with the algorithm being simple, do the parallel programming as well. 1 ref., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Magnetotelluric investigation in and around southern part of Hidaka metamorphic belt in Hokkaido, Japan; Hidaka henseitai nanbuiki ni okeru MT kansoku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, H.; Utsugi, M.; Hirano, K.; Doi, T.; Nishida, Y.; Arita, K. [Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan)

    1996-05-01

    An MT observation was conducted in the Hidaka district, Hokkaido, for the estimation of the 2D resistivity structure in the southern part of the metamorphic belt, when frequencies of the VLF, ELF, and ULF bands were used. An approximately 42km-long traverse line was set to cross the Hidaka metamorphic belt from east to west. As for the observation points, 48 VLF points, 16 ELF points, and 4 ULF points were provided. During the data processing, impedance tensor was calculated in the frequency domain for the determination of the apparent resistivity relative to frequency and the phase difference. As the result, it was found that there is a fairly large resistivity gap between observation spots MNS and KWR and that the boundary corresponds to the Hidaka metamorphic belt, that the metamorphic belt that is reflected as a conspicuous high-resistivity layer in the VLF-, ELF-MT slopes down toward the east and has a distribution as deep as 10km in the vicinity of observation point KWR, that this high-resistivity layer sandwiches a low-resistivity layer at a depth of 5-7km, and that on the east side of the metamorphic belt there is a medium-resistivity layer creeping under the belt from the east side toward the west side. 5 refs., 6 figs.

  1. Flow characteristic of Hijiori HDR reservoir from circulation test in 1991; Koon tantai Hijiori jikkenjo ni okeru senbu choryuso shiken (1991 nendo) kekka to ryudo kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiga, T.; Hyodo, M.; Shinohara, N.; Takasugi, S. [Geothermal Energy Research and Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-05-01

    This paper reports one example of flow analyses on a circulation test carried out in fiscal 1991 at the Hijiori hot dry rock experimental field (Yamagata Prefecture). A fluid circulation model was proposed to simulate an HDR circulation system for a shallow reservoir (at a depth of about 1800 m) demonstrated in the circulation test by using an electric circuit network (which expresses continuity impedance in resistance and fluid storage in capacitance). Storage capacity of the reservoir was estimated by deriving time constant of the system from data of time-based change in reservoir pressure associated with transition phenomena during the circulation test. The storage capacity was estimated separately by dividing change of storage in the reservoir by change in the reservoir pressure. To derive the storage in the reservoir, a method to calculate non-recovered flows in the circulation test was utilized. The results of evaluating the reservoir capacity in the shallow reservoir using the above two independent methods were found substantially consistent. 3 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Succession of benthos and nutrient removal rate in the hydroponic culture system; Shokubutsu suiko saibaikei ni okeru konken seibutsu no henka to eiyoen no jokyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aizaki, M. [National Inst. for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba (Japan); Nakazato, H. [Biox Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-08-10

    Such nutrients as nitrogen and phosphorus discharged into lakes and rivers can cause organic contamination as a result of eutrophication in water areas if they are left as they are. However, they can be re-utilized as resources if they are utilized more effectively. This paper reports a hydroponic organism filtering method as a promising method of utilization thereof. It also explains transition in organism phase in rhizosphere and a water purification experiment. Such suspended matters as phytoplanktons in raw water are filtered and captured by roots of plants; such small animals as tendipedidae and physia live symbiotically in the rhizosphere; their excrements and nutrients are absorbed into and utilized by plants; and coexistence is made possible between diverse water-front environments including terrestrial systems and diverse living organisms. Cresson cultivation, observation on transition in the benthos composition, and a lake water purification experiment were carried out at the Kasumigaura Lake experimental facility. Various findings were acquired such that, in order to attain diverse coexistences including those with natural enemies and well-ventilated environments, a water channel of larger than a certain size is required. Results were also obtained that can be expected as an effective technique that may be used in public water areas. 3 refs., 4 figs.

  3. Study on the effect of measurement points upon reduced added mass matrix; Shukusho fuka shitsuryo matrix ni okeru kansokuten no eikyo ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Funaki, T.; Hayashi, S. [Osaka University, Osaka (Japan). Faculty of engineering

    1996-12-31

    It is known in estimating vibration characteristics of a ship that fluid range affects largely a structure. A parameter calculation was performed on node vibration in the vertical direction of a rotating elliptic body such as a ship to investigate the effect of an arranging method of the measurement points upon the result of the analysis. As a result, it is thought that equivalent interval arrangement of 21 measurement points would be sufficient in a lower order side mode of vibrations with less than four nodes. An analysis of calculations performed by arranging measurement points in experimental measurement points revealed that analysis accuracy would not increase even if the number of measurement points is increased if it is done so without considering rotation vector. An experiment was carried out with the number of measurement points increased to verify the above fact, with which the analysis was verified correct. Therefore, as has been forecasted in the previous report, the cause for the analysis accuracy deterioration in a high order mode may be estimated as the effect of the rotation vector. However, since it is not the situation that an analysis considering the rotation vector has been conducted, it cannot be concluded yet that the effect of the rotation vector is the sole cause. 4 refs., 14 figs., 7 tabs.

  4. Maneuvering response of slender ship with sinusoidal steering in shallow waters; Sensuiiki ni okeru saichosen no seigen soda ni yoru soju oto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasukawa, H. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-09-04

    In order to grasp memory effect of wake vortices on the maneuvering hydrodynamic characteristics and motions in shallow waters, this paper discusses maneuvering performance of ship advancing with sinusoidal steering. The unsteady slender body theory is used for analyzing the hydrodynamic characteristics acting the hull obliquely advancing or turning around, and hinge-flap model is employed for analyzing the rudder force characteristics. A method has been proposed by which variable components of bearing and transverse displacement of ship advancing with sinusoidal steering in shallow waters can be calculated. Differential coefficient of hull and rudder was calculated by varying the frequency. It was confirmed that the differential coefficient of hull agreed with the test results using cistern. Using this method, maneuvering response using hydrodynamic coefficient in the actual motion frequency was compared with that near the zero frequency. As a result, it was found that memory effect of wake vortices on the maneuvering response of ship can not be ignored in very shallow waters. 12 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Detection of arcing ground fault location on a distribution network connected PV system; Hikarihatsuden renkei haidensen ni okeru koko chiryaku kukan no kenshutsuho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, M.; Iwaya, K.; Morooka, Y. [Hachinohe Institute of Technology, Aomori (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    In the near future, it is supposed that a great number of small-scale distributed power sources, such as photovoltaic power generation for general houses, will be interconnected with the ungrounded neutral distribution system in Japan. When ground fault of commercial frequency once occurs, great damage is easily guessed. This paper discusses the effect of the ground fault on the ground phase current using a 6.6 kV high-voltage model system by considering the non-linear self-inductance in the line, and by considering the non-linear relation of arcing ground fault current frequency. In the present method, the remarkable difference of series resonance frequency determined by the inductance and earth capacity between the source side and load side is utilized for the detection of high-voltage arcing ground fault location. In this method, there are some cases in which the non-linear effect obtained by measuring the inductance of sound phase including the secondary winding of transformer can not be neglected. Especially, for the actual high-voltage system, it was shown that the frequency characteristics of transformer inductance for distribution should be theoretically derived in the frequency range between 2 kHz and 6 kHz. 2 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Experimental results of acetone hydrogenation on a heat exchanger type reactor for solar chemical heat pump; Solar chemical heat pump ni okeru acetone suisoka hanno netsu kaishu jikken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takashima, T.; Doi, T.; Tanaka, T.; Ando, Y. [Electrotechnical Laboratory, Tsukuba (Japan); Miyahara, R.; Kamoshida, J. [Shibaura Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    With the purpose of converting solar heat energy to industrial heat energy, an experiment of acetone hydrogenation was carried out using a heat exchanger type reactor that recovers heat generated by acetone hydrogenation, an exothermic reaction, and supplies it to an outside load. In the experiment, a pellet-like activated carbon-supported ruthenium catalyst was used for the acetone hydrogenation with hydrogen and acetone supplied to the catalyst layer at a space velocity of 400-1,200 or so. In the external pipe of the double-pipe type reactor, a heating medium oil was circulated in parallel with the flow of the reactant, with the heat of reaction recovered that was generated from the acetone hydrogenation. In this experiment, an 1wt%Ru/C catalyst and a 5wt%Ru/C catalyst were used so as to examine the effects of variation in the space velocity. As a result, from the viewpoint of recovering the heat of reaction, it was found desirable to increase the reaction speed by raising catalytic density and also to supply the reactant downstream inside the reaction pipe by increasing the space velocity. 1 ref., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Results of photovoltaic power generation system operation in Tokyo Electric Power Company; Tokyo Denryoku ni okeru taiyoko hatsuden setsubi no unten jisseki ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuda, H.; Itokawa, K. [Tokyo Electric Power Co. Inc., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    A report was made on the measurement of data and the results of the analysis at 14 sites of photovoltaic power generation facilities operated under system interconnection by Tokyo Electric Power Company. This type of system is provided in 40 sites as of the end of fiscal 1995, generating 479kw. The items measured were the generated electric energy at all 14 sites, and the quantity of solar radiation, outside air temperature, panel temperature, etc., at limited sites; and the capacity of each equipment, azimuth and inclination of the panel were also recorded simultaneously. Hourly values were used for the analysis. Five minute values were utilized, however, in the examination of the cause of lowered output and in the situation recognition of the influence of the shade or the change of weather. The utilization factor of the facilities was in the average 10.8% in fiscal 1994 and 10.7% in fiscal 1995. The factor decreased slightly unless the panel azimuth faced due south. The utilization factor at the panel inclination of 35 degrees and 45 degrees showed both 10.4% through the year making no difference. The system seemed to show no overwhelming possibilities in coping with electric power demand. The reason was that deviation existed for 2 hours or so in the peak and that reliability was low as basic power facilities. However, it was determined that the system be continuously examined in future. 9 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Technical trend and prospect for wafer cleaning on LSI manufacturing process; LSI seizo kotei ni okeru weha senjo gijutsu no saikin no doko totenbo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiratsuka, Y. [Dan Science Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-01-31

    Presently used cleaning process of silicone wafer is based on the modification of so called RCA method from the knowhow point of view, presented by W.Kern and others 25 years ago. On the other hand, with the progress of development of element for next generation, it was already clarified to be required on the process, demanded for high degree control of silicone surface. When considered the practical measure for this, there is a movement towards the establishment of new silicone wafer cleaning concept for new generation instead of making difficult process by precise RCA cleaning. One of the new proposed method is IMEC cleaning. Further, in Tohoku University, new cleaning process, alternative to RCA method is proposed, in which treatment of all chemicals is carried out at room temperature, types of chemicals used for cleaning are limited to minimum and also, concentration of these chemicals is kept as minimum as possible, amount of used superpure wafer is saved by effective recycling and reutilization of spent chemicals. With these tecnologies, there has appeared the sign for new development for cleaning technology. 36 refs., 28 figs., 6 tabs.

  9. Wind energy technology : from the past to the future; 20 seiki ni okeru furyoku riyo gijutsu no henkan. Furyoku hatsuden : kako kara mirai e

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ushiyama, I. [Ashikaga Institute of Technology, Tochigi (Japan)

    2000-01-20

    Windmills are one of the oldest prime movers and have been used for more than 700 years in Europe. The transition from low speed windmills for grain grinding and water pumping to high speed wind turbines for electric power generation had occurred at first, reviews the windmill technologies and the researchers before 20{sup th} century. Then describes the back ground of how the wind power generator has existed and how the four pioneers developed their wind power generator. The historical developments of windmills to wind turbines in this century are studied focusing mainly on Danish activities. Then, the effort of the development of large wind turbine such as Smith-Putnum's first MW machine in U.S.A. and other mammoth machine concept are introduced. The new concept machines such as Savonius and Darrieus wind turbines in 1920s to 1930s are also explained. Finally, the novel technologies of wind turbine covering larger machines, variable speed generators, special wing sections for wind turbines, theoretical analysis method of wind turbine performance, offshore wind turbines, and wind turbine control technologies are stated. (author)

  10. Process of microbial degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in the downstream of the Tamagawa river. Tamagawa karyuiki ni okeru sekiyukei tanka suiso no biseibutsu bunkai katei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morito, M. (Sumitomo 3M Co., Kanagawa (Japan)); Okada, M.; Murakami, A. (Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering)

    1990-12-10

    The process of biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons was investigated in the downstream of the Tamagawa river. Petroleum hydrocarbons, such as hexadecane, octylbenzene, and 1-methylnaphtalene were observed to be rapidly degraded by microorganisms in the water sampled from the surface of the river after a period of lag time. The longer lag time was observed in order of hexadecane

  11. Fiscal 1997 report on the survey of effects of enhancement of energy consumption efficiency on the global environment; 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho (energy shohi koritsuka chikyu kankyo eikyo chosa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The paper surveyed the state of studying the measures against global warming in the third assessment report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and made analyses of the trends of preventive measures for global warming in other countries, aiming at presenting data for studying the future enhancement of energy consumption efficiency in the Asia Pacific region. In the U.S., a report was taken up from Executive Office of the President which is entitled `the federal government R and D of energy for solution to problems in the 21st century.` The report made analyses of the federal government R and D of energy and at the same time recommended an increase in R and D budget and reinforcement of the organization of the Department of Energy. In Europe, the carbon tax, CO2 tax, energy tax, etc. are introduced or studied for reduction of CO2 emissions. OECD made public a report approved in May 1997 which is entitled `the environmental tax and green tax reform.` Also studied were the introduction and effects of the carbon tax aiming at reducing CO2 emissions in developing countries. More attention is being paid to economic effects predicted in case developed countries reinforce various kinds of measures for targeted reduction of greenhouse gases. 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  12. Law for maintenance of sanitation in buildings and sick-building syndrome. Control of indoor air environment in the 21st century; Biru kanriho to sick building syndrome. 21 seiki no shitsunai kuki kankyo kanri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adachi, A. [Environment Agency, Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-07-31

    Interest has arisen for the sanitation and comfort of daily life. This paper explains a direction and other matters toward the 21st century, in retrospect of the history of housing sanitation from prewar days in the Ministry of Welfare and Education. Both urban and rural communities were in unsanitary dwellings and lives in prewar times. Various laws were established as measures against epidemics; and in 1927, the law for improving inferior housing land was enacted. In 1947, the Health Center Law was enacted, placing the sanitation for sewerage, wastes, etc. as its projects. In 1970, the `law for maintenance of sanitation in buildings` was enacted in the move beginning with the 1966 report by the Antipollution Council; the law resulting in extremely few problems such as the sick-building syndrome compared with the advanced nations today. Nowadays, changes being great in a mode of living, the Welfare Ministry is preparing various guidelines. Problems to deal with from now are numerous including a review on the law for maintenance of sanitation in buildings, the preparation of environmental air standard, and so on.

  13. 'Nikkei Global Environment Technology Prize' awarded to the joint research group on regeneration of tropical forest; Nettairin saisei kyodo kenkyu ga 'Nikkei chikyu kankyo gijutsusho' wo jusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, T. [Kansai Electric Power Co. Inc., Osaka (Japan)

    1998-11-10

    The tropical forest regeneration technology research group of Kansai Electric Power Company and Kansai Environment Center has been performing the research and development of tropical forest regeneration technology jointly with Indonesia since fiscal 1992. The group was awarded with the Global Environment Technology Prize from Nihon Keizai Shimbun, Inc. As a result of stringent examination on 97 applications, being two times as many as in usual years, the group received high evaluation on the originality, reality and possibility of proliferation of its research, and impacts given to the societies. Two other groups were also selected. The achievements were reported by the representative of the group in the award commemoration lecture at the global environment economist summit held by the Nikkei press the same day. Conventionally, afforestation done with considerable efforts has often been lost by forest fires and slash-and-burn farming, whereas the present research aims at establishing a comprehensive afforestation technology considering social and economic aspects, and CO2 fixation. As one of the choices of flexible measures as a result of the effect of forests having been recognized in COP3, frameworks for utilizing the mechanisms of joint implementation and clean resource development were introduced. Ever increasing expectations are placed on the achievements of the present research works. (NEDO)

  14. USW[center dot]33M-VS wind power turbine winning a 1993 environmental department prize of Discover Magazine. 1993 nendo DISCOVER kankyo bumonsho ni USW/33M-VS furyoku turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ushiyama, M. (Waseda University, Tokyo (Japan))

    1993-12-01

    This paper introduces a variable speed wind power turbine developed jointly by EPRI and US Wind Power Corporation. This wind power turbine has a wind velocity responsive construction in which generated alternating current power has the frequency vary with change in the shaft rotation speed. The specified performance calls for a cut-in of 4 m/s and cut-out of 29 m/s, wind velocity variable. The blades are made of laminated fiberglass, and the rotor has a diameter of 33 m, rotation variable. The tower height is classified to 24 m, 30 m, and 42 m. The blade pitch is controlled by a linear hydraulic cylinder, and the turbine is controlled by a microprocessor. The wind turbine has a system interconnecting control and data collecting system. Two induction three-phase generators are used. EPRI has calculated its power generation cost at 5 cents/kWh if wind blows at an annual average velocity of 16 miles per hour. This is nearly equivalent to the cost at new power plants. US Wind Power Corporation has disassembled 22 experimental models that have been in operation to investigate wear in the machines. Its economy is evaluated comparable with that for fossil fuel technologies. 1 fig.

  15. Assessment of environment in the rural-urban fringe using Landsat Thematic Mapper Data and a personal computer. Jinko eisei deta no pasokon ni yoru toshi kinko noson no kankyo haaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, K. (Miyazaki Univ., Miyazaki (Japan). Graduate School); Kunitake, M. (Miyazaki Univ., Miyazaki (Japan). Faculty of Agriculture)

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the progress of development in the vicinity of Kibana district which was formerly surrounded by forests on the mountain and agricultural fields, but is currently a village in the rural-urban fringe transfigured by a large-scale educational city project after the removal of Miyazaki University. It was conducted by making a comparison with the relation between the development and the rise in land surface temperature. Changes in the environment were investigated using remote sensing technologies through preparation of a land classification map and a land surface temperature map by a utilization of a personal computer together with the obtained Landsat Thematic Mapper Data for the years of 1989 and 1990. As a result, it was found out that though the result of temperature comparison between 1989 and 1990 was 1.4[degree]C and 2.8[degree]C higher in 1990 at the lowest temperature and the average daytime temperature respectively, more difference was observed at land surface temperature in the land surface temperature map; and also, although evolution of mountainous areas to populated areas, overpopulation in residential quarters and expansion of populated areas, etc. were observed in the land classification map, agricultural and grass field areas augmented their image element number due to the unusual warm winter in 1990 and the inevitable rapid growth of grasses and flowers. 4 refs., 3 figs., 7 tabs.

  16. Fiscal 1998 research report. Study on the feasibility of microorganism biotechnology for effective use of environmental pollutants. Pt. 2; 1998 nendochosa hokokusho. Kankyo osen busshitsu no shigenka no tame no biseibutsu bio technology riyo kanosei ni kansuru chosa. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    Study was made on the feasibility of microorganism biotechnology for effective use of environmental pollutants and unused resources. Microorganisms and microorganism enzymes for decomposing lignocellulose were viewed, and uses of hydrolysis products were summarized. Production of microorganisms applicable to fodder, composting, and production of energy sources (methane, hydrogen, ethanol) were studied. Use of vegetable fiber residues such as beer lees as fungus cultivation medium and conversion to valuable substances were also studied. Microorganisms treatment (MT) of wastes in fats and oils industry was summarized. Effective use of MT of protein waste from marine products was studied. MT of manures with the greatest impact on environment as livestock waste was summarized. The necessity of separate collection of domestic wastes, and composting and methane fermentation of kitchen garbage were reported. The feasibility of MT of plastic wastes, and decomposition of halogenated methane with high toxicity were also studied. (NEDO)

  17. Energy and power source mix in East Asia. Restrictions on resource, fund and environment and the future prospect; Higashi Asia no energy dengen mix. Shigen shikin kankyo no seiyaku to kongo no tenbo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    In Asian countries, the economic growth rate is extremely higher as compared with the world average, and accordingly a large growth in energy supply/demand and electric power supply/demand is paid attention to. Besides, at users` side, a fear is the worsening of the environmental problem which is brought about by a rapid increase in energy consumption. At suppliers` side, introduction/expansion of a large amount of foreign funds for rapid promotion of power source development become necessary so that supplying facilities catch up with the growth in demand. Moreover, dependence of the supply upon outside the area is becoming higher, and problems in safety guarantee are also becoming prominent. As for energy/power source mix in East Asian countries, the stable supply is basically considered as most important, and economical efficiency is also important including competition conditions among energies and potential raising of investment in supplying facilities. It is no exaggeration to say that the increase in the rate of coal which occupies most of the primary energy supply/power source in East Asian countries depends upon the progress of environmental harmony technology such as clean coal technology. 39 figs., 132 tabs.

  18. Trend survey of the global environment adaptation type industry technology. Chikyu kankyo tekiogata sangyo gijutsu doko chosa. ; Shizen energy ni yoru CO2 global recycle system no kanosei-chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-03-01

    The paper studies a global CO2 recycling system which combines utilization of natural energy and CO2 recovered from combustion of fossil fuel. In the model, CO2 recovered at the place of energy demand is transported to the place where energy is produced, and from the CO2 fuels are synthesized by use of solar energy and transported to the place of energy demand. Facilities worth a large amount of money are required to transmit electric power generated by the photovoltaic power generation in the desert to the fuel synthesizing plant. Therefore, production of electrolytic hydrogen by the on-site power generation and transport by pipe may be considered. As a synthetic fuel being sent back by ocean transport, methanol is considered, and synthetic methane (LNG) can also be a candidate. CO2 is recovered as liquid carbon dioxide. Possibility of CO2 recycling is dependent on development of the desert solar base, as well as depletion of fossil fuel and price increase, CO2 penalty. It has still been difficult to say which of the fuel synthesis, CO2 tanker or securing of the solar base becomes a bottleneck. Entry of recycling fuels to the market will be possible in proportion to restrictions on fossil fuels, and evaluation of the system depends almost on the rate of energy arriving from the energy-producing region. 112 refs., 70 figs. 36 tabs.

  19. FY1998 Report of surveys on network possibility involved with proliferation and transfer of environmental technologies (Europe, Australia and New Zealand); 1998 nendo kankyo gijutsu no fukyu iten ni kakawaru network kanosei chosa hokokusho . Oshu Goshu New Zealand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    At the third Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention for Climate Change (COP3) held in December 1997, the industrialized nations have agreed on development and proliferation of innovative technologies under international cooperation and transfer of environmental technologies to developing countries by expanding and strengthening CTI being the framework to be progressed spontaneously. Under the international strategic research project for global environment, NEDO has been promoting positively the research and development, whose support is urged to be expanded further in the future upon receiving the present agreement. Therefore, NEDO has performed the present survey in order to propose frameworks and measures for strengthening and expanding CTI. From among the policies and measures to be taken by the related countries based on the COP3 protocol, fiscal 1997 has performed review and new establishment of plans involved with execution of the items related to technology development, and surveys on action movements such as review and expansion of the measures, as the first stage. Fiscal 1998 has executed surveys focusing on the network for technology proliferation and transfer to developing countries as the second stage. (NEDO)

  20. Measures for global environmental issues using information communication. Results of trial calculation of CO2 reduction reported by the Telecommunication Council; Joho tsushin wo katsuyoshita chikyu kankyo mondai eno taio. Denki tsushin shingikai toshin no CO2 sakugen shisan kekka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujiwara, T. [Ministry of Posts and Telecommunications, Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-11-01

    Telework is an effective work style using information communication without commutation, and ITS is an integrated traffic system such as advanced navigation. Effects of the CO2 emission reduction by these information communication systems were calculated as a trial. Reduction of CO2 4.06 million ton was obtained, which is equivalent to about 7% of the reduction target 56.5 million ton in Japan by 2010. For the items, were obtained 1.29 million ton (MT) by telework, 1.1 MT by ITS, 0.53 MT by the reduction of paper consumption/rejection using LAN, and 0.5 MT by the alternation of movements for international business using Internet (reduction of overseas official trips). In addition, were obtained 0.36 MT by the energy saving with enhanced efficiency of office environment using advanced information communication such as building management information systems, 0.25 MT by the electronic publication and newspaper for the reduction of paper consumption/rejection using electronic media such as CD-ROM, and 0.03 MT by the remote education and at-home education systems. The trial calculations were conducted only for these seven systems, and only for the direct effects using these systems. Accordingly, the result is only a part of the whole. These systems promote to realize a society with reduced environmental loads. 2 tabs.

  1. FY 1997 report on the research for construction of NEDO`s vision. Regional environment and international collaboration; 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho (NEDO vision sakutei ni muketa chosa kenkyu). Chiiki kankyo to kokusai kyoryoku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    It is necessary for NEDO to transfer the energy technology to developing countries and conduct collaborations with them efficiently. First of all, environments of the community were analyzed from a viewpoint of natural environment, social and cultural environment, and industrial and economic environment. Then, this report outlines the organizations of domestic and international aid agencies which have potentials to conduct alliance and collaboration with NEDO, and also illustrates their activities including financing and technology exchange, regional activities, and progress of activities. Alliances and collaborations with NGOs of each international organization were analyzed on the aspect of the fields and know-how of alliance with NGOs, selection standards of NGOs and necessary systems and organizations to make effective alliance and collaboration with NGOs, and some case studies were taken. Organization, purposes and activities of NGOs in Asian countries are introduced, and their current situations are illustrated. Finally, some proposals were offered to make alliances and collaborations with aid agencies and NGOs. They are concerned about the fields and know-how of alliance with NGOs, selection standards of NGOs and necessary systems and organizations to make effective alliance and collaboration with NGOs. 44 figs., 8 tabs.

  2. FY 1998 geothermal development promotion survey. Report on the environmental effect survey (No. A-4 Kunbetsu-dake area); 1998 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa. Kankyo eikyo chosa hokokusho (No.A-4 Kunbetsudake chiiki)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-09-30

    Of the FY 1998 geothermal development promotion survey, the primary environmental effect survey in the Kunbetsu-dake area was conducted, and the results were arranged. In the well drilling survey, etc., the survey was made aiming at extracting areas to be preserved from an environmental aspect. The results of the survey were summarized as follows: As to the mammalia, 12 families 46 species were confirmed in the area surveyed and the periphery by literature survey. Out of them, the noticeable species which are considered important from an academic viewpoint are 10 families 19 species. As to the aves, 55 families 340 species were confirmed, of which 29 families 79 species are noticeable species. About the amphibia/reptilia, 3 families 3 species in the amphibia and 4 families 6 species in the reptilia were confirmed by literature and hearing survey. The noticeable species is 1 family 1 species in the amphilia. Concerning the terrestrial insecta, 135 families 873 species were confirmed, and the noticeable species is 11 families 20 species. As to the flora, 115 families 1055 species were confirmed, and the noticeable species is 46 families 126 species. Relating to the living vegetation, the one higher than 9 in nature reserves shows a substantial rate, and the periphery of Kaibetsu-dake is designated as the specified flora colony. (NEDO)

  3. Achievement report for fiscal 1998 on the research and development of environmental technologies such as recycling. 2. Technology for reducing automobile running noise; 1998 nendo recycle nado kankyo gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. 2. Jidosha sokoon teigen gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Experiments and studies are conducted for reducing along-the-road automobile running noise. In the study of noise generation due to tire vibration, it is found that the main mechanism of noise generation on a well-drained pavement is the vibration of tires. A calculation model is built for estimating the vibration of the tire belt from the characteristics of the road surface and the tire. In the study of air column resonance in the tread groove, a method is studied of measuring fluctuations in the sound pressure in the tread groove. Measurement is conducted, and it is found that the generally accepted explanation, in which air column resonance is attributed to tread vibration generated upon collision of the tire with the road surface, needs further study for substantiation. In a model experiment, it is found that air column resonance hardly occurs on a well-drained pavement. In the study of hydroplaning, it is found that, even when the total volume of the tread longitudinal grooves is the same, the hydroplaning performance tends to improve when the groove arrangement and crown curvature are proper. (NEDO)

  4. Fiscal 1998 geothermal development promotion research report on the environmental impact in Akinomiya district. Hot spring, water level, spring water fluctuation; 1998 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa Akinomiya chiiki chosa kankyo eikyo chosa hokokusho. Onsen, suii, yusui hendo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    This research was made for investigating the impact of geothermal development on hot spring, ground water level and spring water by drilling 3 investigation wells N9-AY-3, N9- AY-4 and N9-AY-5 in Akinomiya district. Some research items for hot spring showed slight fluctuation until 1997, however, those showed no fluctuation due to drilling of the 3 investigation wells in fiscal 1998. These results suggest that drilling of the investigation wells has no effect on the spring and quality of hot water in Akinomiya district. Drilling of N9-AY-4 well is carrying out continuously after Sept. 1998. Fluctuation of ground water levels was dependent on precipitations, however, drilling of the 3 investigation wells has no effect on the ground water level. These results suggest that drilling of the investigation wells has no effect on the spring of hot water in Akinomiya district. Every research item for spring water showed relatively slight fluctuation stably. These results suggest that drilling of the investigation wells has no effect on spring water in Akinomiya district. (NEDO)

  5. Relationship of responsible Care and Environmental Management Systems Standard ISO 14001. Example of Sumitomo Chemical; Resuponshiburu{center_dot}kea to kankyo manejimento sisutemu kikaku ISO14001. Sumitomo kagaku no jirei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimura, Kazuo. [Sumitomo Chemical Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-01-15

    In the chemical sector, Responsible Care is propelled by the International Council of Chemical Associations (ICCA). The objective of Responsible Care is to improve the performance and reputation of the Chemical Industry in areas that impact on people and environment. Sumitomo Chemical is committed to supporting a continuing effort to improve the chemical industry`s responsible management of chemicals through the Japan Responsible Vare Vouncil program. One the other hand, ISO 14001 had been published on Aug.1996 and have adopted the ISO 14001 as national standards on Oct. 1996. Already 973 companies in Japan, 74 of them in the chemical sector, have been certified to ISO 14001. In this paper, I provides concise commentaries on how Responsible Care and Environmental management systems work in the chemical sector. (author)

  6. Relationship of responsible Care and Environmental Management Systems Standard ISO 14001. Example of Sumitomo Chemical. Resuponshiburu[center dot]kea to kankyo manejimento sisutemu kikaku ISO14001. Sumitomo kagaku no jirei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimura, Kazuo. (Sumitomo Chemical Corp., Tokyo (Japan))

    1999-01-15

    In the chemical sector, Responsible Care is propelled by the International Council of Chemical Associations (ICCA). The objective of Responsible Care is to improve the performance and reputation of the Chemical Industry in areas that impact on people and environment. Sumitomo Chemical is committed to supporting a continuing effort to improve the chemical industry's responsible management of chemicals through the Japan Responsible Vare Vouncil program. One the other hand, ISO 14001 had been published on Aug.1996 and have adopted the ISO 14001 as national standards on Oct. 1996. Already 973 companies in Japan, 74 of them in the chemical sector, have been certified to ISO 14001. In this paper, I provides concise commentaries on how Responsible Care and Environmental management systems work in the chemical sector. (author)

  7. Research cooperation report for fiscal 1997 on the environment-friendly system for effectively utilizing water resources; 1997 nendo kankyo taiogata mizushigen yuko riyo system ni kansuru kenkyu kyoryoku itaku gyomu hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    This effort exerted in cooperation with the Philippines aims to solve problems related to water resources such as stable supply and pollution of water through developing a waste water treatment/water reuse system which is easy to operate and maintain, and low in price. The ultimate goal includes (1) the construction of a waste water treatment/water reuse system comprising an anaerobic reaction tank and activated charcoal absorption tower, easy to operate and maintain, and low in price, (2) the employment of goods procurable in the Philippines, the goods including carriers for use in the anaerobic reaction tank, microbes for use in both aerobic and anaerobic reaction tanks, and activated charcoal for use in waste water reutilization, and (3) the establishment of optimum operating conditions for the waste water treatment/water reuse system by use of a pilot plant and the transfer of operating and managing techniques to the Filipino counterpart. In this fiscal year, investigations are conducted to disclose the actualities of waste water treatment and water consumption by primary industries in the vicinity of Laguna de Bay, and the waste water to be the object of study and the place of pilot plant installation have been selected. Also conducted are investigations into the carrier, microbe, activated charcoal, etc., for use in the anaerobic reaction tank. (NEDO)

  8. Development of environmental assessment by tree ring (1). Characteristics of tree ring width in pine tree. Jumoku nenrin ni yoru kankyo eikyo hyoka shuho no kaihatsu (1). Matsu no nenrin haba no jittai to kiso tokusei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinada, Yasushi; Nashimoto, Makoto; Kobayashi, Toshimitsu.

    1988-12-01

    In order to investigate the causal relation of change in vegetation status with the power station after starting the operation, pine trees in the surrounding area were studied in tree ring characteristics. The sampling was made at six stands ranged from the Tohhoku district to the Chugoku district. Pinus densiflora and P. Thunbergii were 0.1 to 16.2mm and 0.05 to 9.05mm, respectively, in tree ring width. They were, in frequency distribution, both a logarithmic normal distribution with 1.05 to 1.50mm in mode. Their frequency distribution being a logarithmic normal distribution, along with advance in years thereafter it transfers to a normal distribution, then to a logarithmic normal distribution, then to an L-shaped distribution. Pinus densiflora and P. Thunbergii were 6.5+-3.5mm and 6.5+-2.5mm, respectively, in maximum tree ring width, of which the appearance ratio was high in trees, 4 to 12 years old. While the minimum tree ring width appears, when the tree is very young in age and in specific calendar years during its second half of life. As for the time series of tree ring width, it, small when one year old, continues to enlarge along with advance in years until about ten years old, attains the maximum and, after then, diminishes along with advance in years. 6 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. Survey report of FY 1997 on the feasibility of microbial biotechnology for reuse of environmental pollutants; 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho (kankyo osen busshitsu no shigenka no tame no biseibutsu bio technology no riyo kanosei chi kansuru chosa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    An investigation was conducted with the aim of elucidating the foundations for effective utilization of environmental pollutants or unused resources which are likely to be causal substances of environmental pollutants, as resources, using biotechnology. Composting of agricultural waste, production of microbial mycelium proteins and microbial fermentation materials were suggested as main examples of effective utilization of unused resources by microorganisms. Selection of active microorganisms in the livestock waste, clarification of the mechanism of action and the establishment of treatment conditions are essential to new developments in this field. In the field of marine products industry, it was pointed out that the recycling of waste using microorganisms and enzyme treatment is the most promising approach to the effective utilization of resources. In the field of food industry, applications as the culture media for mushrooms, for enzyme production and for the production of physiologically active materials as well as fuel were clarified. Was also pointed out the significance of studies on the microorganisms and enzymes in resources containing cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin, and the waste from these resources, lignocellulose. Were also proposed the composting of household waste, methane fermentation, and fermentative production of organic acid and hydrogen from waste. Possibility and significance of fermentative production of organic acid from sewage sludge were suggested. 314 refs., 46 figs., 33 tabs.

  10. Report for fiscal 1998. Joint research of environment-friendly system for effectively utilizing water resources; 1998 nendo hokokusho. Kankyo taiogata mizushigen yuko riyo system ni kansuru kenkyu kyoryoku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    The research is conducted in cooperation with Industrial Technology Development Institute of the Philippines, and aims to solve water related problems such as unstable water supply and water quality pollution though developing a waste water treatment and recycling system which is easy to operate and maintain, low in cost, and usable in the Philippines. Fiscal 1998 is the second year of the project. Statistics are studied about the load that each industrial branch imposes on water for its pollution, and it is found that food manufacturers, paper pulp mills, and fiber dyeing plants are heavily responsible for water pollution. A method consisting of single-tower UASB anaerobic treatment and activated sludge treatment is applied as a water treatment process to Ram Food Products Corporation, and its optimization is studied. A removal rate 60% is achieved after a 12-hour treatment period at a COD (chemical oxygen demand) rate of 8g/liter/day. A method consisting of coagulating sedimentation and activated sludge treatment is applied to the waste water from a Solid Mill Corporation dyeing plant, when it is found that the water after ultimate treatment is almost colorless and that COD is 76mg/liter and BOD (biological oxygen demand) 13mg/liter, and these suggest that the waste water is recyclable. Since it is low in COD removing rate, the application of anaerobic treatment to high-concentration water after washing is not appropriate. (NEDO)

  11. 1998 research cooperation project. Research cooperation on environment-compatible type water resource effective-utilization system; 1998 nendo kankyo taiogata mizushigen yuko riyo system ni kansuru kenkyu kyoryoku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    For the purpose of securing water stably and preventing water pollution in the Philippines, R and D were carried out on a wastewater treatment and water reclamation and reuse system which is easy to operate and maintain and low in cost through the research cooperation between the Philippine Industrial Technology Development Institute and Japan. According to the survey result of statistical data concerning water pollution load structure by industrial wastewater classified by the industry in the Philippines, enumerated are the food manufacturing industry, paper pulp manufacturing industry, and the textile dyeing industry as those greatly affecting water pollution in BOD exhaust and wastewater, etc. Consequently, with Ram Food Product Co. of vegetable processing and Solid Mill Co., of textile dyeing as plants to be studied, a wastewater treatment test was performed in a laboratory scale. From the result of the test, the pilot plant was basically designed to have 'anaerobic + aerobic treatment + tertiary treatment' for the treatment process, with an one-tank type UASB method used as the anaerobic treatment, with a sand filtration + activated charcoal treatment as the tertiary treatment, and with the cost effectiveness for water reuse set to be examined. (NEDO)

  12. Report on fiscal 1995 project to promote an exchange of researchers on environmental problems in the Asia-Pacific region; 1995 nendo itakujigyo (Asia/Taiheiyo chiiki kankyo mondai kenkyusha koryu sokushin jigyo hokokusho)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    For the purpose of solving environmental problems caused in association with the increasing industrial activities in the Asia-Pacific region, the construction of a research network is being advanced aiming at promoting exchanges with researchers of other countries and activating information exchanges. Investigators were sent overseas to grasp the present situation, and researchers participated in a symposium on the APEC environmental technology cooperation for mutual understanding and personal interchange. In the overseas survey, visits were paid mainly to national research institutes and universities in India and Thailand. Positive approval was obtained on the construction of the ETERNET APR (Environmental Technology Research Network in the Asia-Pacific Region). In the symposium on the APEC environmental technology cooperation held in Nagoya, researchers participated mostly in the second session and made earnest discussions with researchers from other countries. The necessity and importance of the network was emphasized. Countries which participated the symposium have problems common to each, and it was greatly significant to meet together and discuss together. The environmental problem is on a global scale, and it is necessary to make close exchange/interchange of information/opinion on a long term basis and to tackle it in the whole Asia-Pacific region. 3 tabs.

  13. Politics of water resources and environmental problem. US-Japan comparative policy history on the public district; Mizushigen kaihatsu to kankyo mondai. Public district no Nichibei hikaku seisakushi kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikuriya, T. [Tokyo Metropolitan University, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1994-12-15

    With an objective to give some suggestion to the water resources policies for the future Japan, a comparative study was made on the water resources development policies in Japan and the water resources policies in the state of California, U.S.A. The study on Japan has been proceeded empirically based on specific data with regard to the development of electric power policies from the prewar to postwar times when the governmental electric power control was changed to incorporation of the nine electric power companies. The change may be identified from viewpoints of both profit and ideology. Noticing the `public corporations` established one after another for social capitals before and after the establishment of the Liberal Democratic Party, their relation with the water resources development policies was pursued in terms of actual proof and political science. The identity of the public corporations established in and after 1955 stands on the premise of free economy, rather than the controlled economy. This paper positions the water resources development policies in a broader context as the national land plan, and considers the problems that are expanding from flood damages, dam construction, industrial complex construction to environmental problems around the water. Comparative discussions on the Tone river system and the Colorado river system were left as the future assignment.

  14. Research on the general analytical method of fossil fuel cycle from a viewpoint of the global environment. 3; Chikyu kankyo kara mita sogoteki kaseki nenryo cycle bunseki hyoka shuho no chosa. 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    The general analysis/assessment method of a fossil fuel cycle was studied. Seven kinds of power generation plants such as LNG cycle and coal cycle ones, and four kinds of transport and treatment systems of recovered CO2 such as ocean and underground systems were studied as case studies on life cycle analysis. As data necessary for life cycle analysis, the database was constructed which stores the facilities and operational energy required for a total energy system from mining of fossil fuel to treatment of recovered CO2, and the quantity of environmental waste such as CO2 emission. As a result, the decrease rate of energy balance defined as ratio of input energy to power plant output was estimated to be 14-43% and 20-60% in LNG cycle and coal cycle, respectively. Even if the recovery rate of CO2 in power plants reached 80-90%, reduction of total CO2 emission was limited to only 20-40% because of CO2 emission during mining, liquefaction and transport of fuel. 168 refs., 48 figs., 102 tabs.

  15. FY 1998 geothermal development promotion survey. Report on the environmental effect survey (animals/plants, No. B-7 Kuwanosawa area); 1998 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa. Kankyo eikyo chosa hokokusho (doshokubutsu, No.B-7 Kuwanosawa chiiki)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    This survey was conducted to estimate effects of drilling of geothermal exploration well on the environment, aiming at grasping the present state of environmental elements before the survey/development. As a result of the literature survey, the following distribution were confirmed in the fauna: 5 orders 10 families 19 species in the mammalia, 10 orders 25 families 73 species in the aves, 1 order 3 families 6 species in the reptilia, 2 orders 6 families 9 species in the amphibia, and 17 orders 179 families 719 species in the insecta. In the flora, a distribution of 132 families 670 species was confirmed. The results of studying the above indicated that in the fauna, there were 10 species such as antelope as valuable animal in the area surveyed and that it is necessary to pay much attention to the environmental preservation of the habitat for those animals in the well drilling associated with geothermal survey. In the flora, the 13 valuable animals selected as animal having a fear of extinction in the 'plant-version red list' were confirmed in the area surveyed and the periphery. Further, as to the plant colony, there are no important colonies in terms of preservation. In well drilling, important things are efforts exerted to restore to the original state of the area altered, prevention of the washed-away of mud water, etc., and efforts exerted to preserve the environment of vegetation. (NEDO)

  16. Survey on acceleration of geothermal development in fiscal 1998. Report on survey for influence on environment (No. B-7, Kuwanosawa district); 1998 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa.Kankyo eikyo chosa hokokusho (No. B-7 Kuwanosawa chiiki)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-09-01

    A survey was performed on the current situation in the Kuwanosawa district in Akita Prefecture to identify influence on the surrounding environment due to drilling of geothermal structure testing wells. The survey on animals covered mammals of five divisions, 10 families and 19 species, Aves of ten divisions, 25 families and 73 species, reptiles of one division, 3 families and 6 species, Amphibia of two divisions, 6 families, 9 species, and Insects of 17 divisions, 179 families and 719 species. Precious animals of a several species including black salamander were identified. In the plant survey, 132 families and 670 species were identified, with several species listed as the precious plants. In the survey of hot springs, those at three locations were all high-temperature hot springs at as high as 53.8 to 96.9 degrees C. Amount of discharge, pH and electrical conductivity differ largely by the hot springs. The hot spring in Takamatsu did not show large variation throughout the survey period. The Ogura Inn at Doroyu Spa has small variation in pH and hot spring temperature, but large variation in the amount of discharge and Al{sup 3+} concentration. Correlation was recognized between hot spring temperature and amount of discharge, between hot spring temperature and anion, between amount of discharge and electric conductivity, and between amount of discharge and anion. (NEDO)

  17. FY 1999 geothermal development promotion study. Report on results of the study on the environmental effects (hot spring) in Kuwanosawa area; 1999 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa. Kankyo eikyo chosa hokokusho (onsen) No.B-7 Kuwanosawa chiiki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-08-01

    In order to evaluate presence or absence and extent, if present, of the effects of drilling a geothermal well, changes in flowing-out rate of hot spring and others were surveyed at the hot spring resorts in the Kuwanosawa area and its peripheries, extending around 18 km{sup 2} area in the mountains approximately 20 km to the south of City of Yuzawa, Akita Pref. Three sites were selected; the hot spring resort of Takamatu, a hot spring resort at the foot of mountain, and another hot spring resort near the dry riverbed of the Takamatu River, where hot spring spontaneously flows out in all of these sites, from the 1,500 m deep boring at the first site, and in the area where steam is gushing out in the second site. The surveyed items were rate of flowing-out, temperature, electroconductivity, pH and various ion concentrations of the hot spring, and precipitation. The survey was conducted 19 times from August 9, 1999 to July 12, 2000. For the effects of drilling the geothermal test well and drawing-up the hot water, some surveyed items changed significantly in these 3 resorts. These changes, however, largely result from seasonal reasons as well as conditions within each hot spring well, and not from the drilling of the geothermal test well N11-KN-1 and drawing-up of the hot water. (NEDO)

  18. Fiscal 1998 survey for geothermal energy development promotion. Environmental impact survey report (No. B-7 Kuwanosawa region); 1998 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa. Kankyo eikyo chosa hokokusho (No.B-7 Kuwanosawa chiiki)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-09-01

    This survey aims to learn the current states of environmental factors required for the comprehension of the impacts on surroundings of a structural boring for geothermal energy exploration. The target site is an approximately 10km{sup 2}-large area located among the mountains 20km south-south-east of Yuzawa City, Akita Prefecture. It is found that numerous animals and vegetables inhabit the Kuwanosawa region and its vicinity. They are 19 species of mammals in 10 families under 5 orders; 73 species of birds in 25 families under 10 orders; 6 species of reptiles in 13 families; 9 species of amphibians in 6 families under 2 orders; and 719 species of insects in 179 families under 17 orders. Valuable animals include flying squirrels, mandarin ducks, black salamanders, and small Gifu butterflies. There are 670 species of vegetables in 132 families. Valuable vegetables are Iinuma bulblets, wild rhubarb roots, and Amur adonises. Floras found in existence are a natural flora in the beech class area, compensatory flora in the beech class area, afforested area, and a flora in the crop land. No remarkable fluctuation was observed in the Takamatsu spa throughout the survey period. Fluctuations were observed in all the survey items at the Doroyu-Okuyama inn. (NEDO)

  19. Survey of impacts of global environmental issues on the utilizations of alternative energies for oil. Chikyu kankyo mondai to kokusaitekina taio no doko. ; Chikyu ondanka mondai wo chushin to shite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-31

    This is a report on the global warming issue made by the Institute of Energy Economics entrusted with the survey by NEDO. Written below are titles of the chapters in the report: 1. Outline of global warming problems and developments of international conferences. 2. Factor analysis of past CO{sub 2} emissions. 3. Measures to limit global warming. 4. Limitation measures for global warming and prospects for CO{sub 2} emissions. Analyses are made by country, by region or globally. For example, in order to establish measures to solve the global warming problem as an international issue, it is most important to establish the target criteria to control emission of greenhouse gases like CO{sub 2}. Namely, most important is to determine the criteria and partial charge of each country. These will exert a large effect on each economic activity. There are big differences among countries in the gas emission up to the present from the past. Effects of the gas emission are also different among countries. Moreover, countries are different in their development stages. All these differences are an important subject in judging international fairness. 91 refs., 91 tabs.

  20. Studies on legal systems and public decision-making process of the environmental protection and natural conservation; Kankyo{center{underscore}dot}shizenhogo no mirai no tameno koukyoteki kettei to sisutemu ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashida, Seimei [Hokkaido University, Hokkaido (Japan). Faculty of Law

    1998-12-16

    This study have dealt with the issues of how the policies of environmental and natural protection should be shaped in a democratic society, and what the optimal legal systems should be for realizing the policies. We have analyzed these issues from the following three points of view ; the first one is the legal philosophical issues of justice and moral values among individuals and organizations. Secondly, we analyzed the optimal deterrence system of organizations for pollution controls, etc. We studied crimes and illegal conducts by organizations and corporations themselves, and their employees under the principal-agency model. Third, we looked at the legal system itself and the foundations of environmental issues from the legal-philosophical aspect. Fourth, we analyzed how the social decision-makings on the environmental protection were produced, using the public choice theory. (author)

  1. FY 2000 report on the results of the development of technology of a human behavior adaptable life environment creation system; 2000 nendo ningen kodo tekigogata seikatsu kankyo soshutsu system gijutsu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    The R and D were conducted of the on-site measuring technology for human behavior and physiological condition in driving behavior and manufacturing behavior, technology of comprehension/storage of the details of behavior, behavior assisting technology, etc., and the FY 2000 results were summed up. As to the development of driving behavior measuring technology, driving simulator, eye glancing object detecting system, driving stimulation system, etc. were developed, and characteristics of driving behavior in using these were analyzed. The structure of driving behavior database was also studied. In relation to the development of the manufacturing behavior adaptation technology, a system for measuring movements of the upper half of the body and hands/fingers in sewing work was developed, and a comparative study was made between skilled workers and unskilled workers by behavior decomposition. Further, about the manipulator work, skills were examined, and patterns of the revolution speed of shovel were analyzed. As to the NC machine work, points of skills and how to convey skills were surveyed at plant site. (NEDO)

  2. Environmental evaluation of global impacts caused by industrial activities. LCA of returnable beer bottle; Sangyo katsudo ni yotte shojiru chikyu kankyo impact no teiryoteki hyokaho. Reitoshite, beer bin no LCA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakamura, H.; Utsuno, F.; Yasui, I. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Institute of Industrial Science

    1995-04-01

    An application is reported of the LCA (Life Cycle Assessment) concerning reusable beer bottles (volume: 633cc). Data were collected for examination covering the four stages of natural resource acquisition, bottle production, beer filling and packaging, and distribution and consumption (with the stage of waste management being excluded because of inadequate data). Examination was made of changes brought about in the total energy consumption by varying the five parameters, that is, the number of usage of bottles, transportation distance for empty bottles, cullet ratio in glass manufacturing, transportation distance for cullet, and the bottle weight. It was found that the total energy consumption decreases with an increase in the number of usage of bottles, that an increase in the cullet ratio and a decrease in the bottle weight are effective in decreasing the total energy consumption, and that there is an energy-wise disadvantage when empty bottles are transported over a longer distance without an increase in the number of usage of bottles. 4 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Investigations on a global environment improving technology utilizing biological functions. 2. Structuring a ligno-bioprocess; Seibutsu kino wo riyoshita chikyu kankyo kaizen gijutsu ni kansuru chosa. 2. Riguno bio process no kochiku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    Discussions were given to reserve global environments on reducing dependence on fossil resources and more effectively utilizing wood resources. Economically utilizable amount of wastes from lumbering factories reaches about five million tons annually. Discussions were made on a ligno-bioprocess that uses these wastes. The current quantitative production efficiency of cellulase by means of bacterial breeding is very high. A problem is production of ligninolytic enzymes, to which application of the recombinant DNA method is indispensable. Combination of steam explosion with biological decomposition or the organosolv process is an effective method for lignin decomposition. Decomposition of cellulose by using the ultra critical water method is worth noticing. With respect to hemicellulose utilization, production of cellulose derivatives, biodegradable polymers and oligosaccharides would be conceivable by means of esterification and etherification. Vanillinic acid, adhesives, resins and lignin-based polymer materials could be manufactured from lignin. Material cost for these products accounts for about 35% of the product price, thus making the lignochemicals promising commercial products. 301 refs., 71 figs., 39 tabs.

  4. Survey report of FY 1997 on the global environmental industry technology development promotion project. International research exchange project; 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho. Chikyu kankyo sangyo gijutsu kaihatsu suishin jigyo (kokusai kenkyu koryu jigyo)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    Exchange of personnel among foreign research organizations is significant for promoting research and development to create new research fields and to build new technological systems for the purpose of solving global environmental problems. For this purpose, researchers were sent/invited to/from international conferences and international symposiums related to global environmental technology and exchange of personnel with major foreign research organizations and universities was conducted under the cooperation of RITE and RITE-related researchers and related academic societies. Based on short-term invitation and sending of researchers as well as the feasibility study of researcher exchange, researchers were sent/invited on long- and mid-terms. As a result, exchange of personnel engaged in the latest research in Japan and overseas could be promoted. It was found that various researches are being conducted abroad in basic areas of global environmental technology. Since they are closely related to the research and development of industrial technology contributing to global environmental preservation promoted by RITE, it is important to establish a more efficient exchange system of researchers in the future. 91 refs., 38 figs., 14 tabs.

  5. Structuring model for world energy, economy and environment in view of food supply/demand and their evaluation; Shokuryo jukyu wo koryoshita sekai energy keizai kankyo model no kochiku to hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, M.; Mori, S. [Science University of Tokyo, Chiba (Japan)

    1996-02-01

    In the subject model, a system was structured in which reproducible energy was classified into five kinds and in which recovery of CO2 from fossil fuel, processing technique and types of land utilization were generally handled together with the supply/demand of food. As a result of the analysis, it was pointed out that, although the supply of biomass energy by fuels based on agricultural waste and forestry management was hardly dependent on the structure of food supply/demand and CO2 control, the energy supply was extremely low in economical efficiency and unreliable in the future; that the CO2 recovery and its processing techniques, if the emission control was provided, would not be effective until the latter half of the next century, and accordingly, the stability of these techniques and their effects on ecosystem, for example, were necessarily investigated fully; also that, as dependency on coal is going to be high from the latter half of the next century, the techniques derived from there will be expected, and so on. The detailed preparation of energy flow was considered necessary from now on. 12 refs., 16 figs., 7 tabs.

  6. New energy visions for the Town of Naie district. Human-friendly Town of Naie City by environment-friendly energies; Naiemachi chiiki shin energy vision. Kankyo ni yasashii energy ga tsukuru hito ni yasashii machi Naie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    The new energy visions are drawn for Town of Naie, Sorachi-gun in Hokkaido, where the industrial sector (manufacturing industries) consumes more than 60% of the total energy consumption. By energy type, oil and others account for 80%. When arranged in the order of expected recoverable quantity, the new energies for the town include utilization of solar energy, photovoltaic power generation, wind power generation, and utilization of wastes, biomass energy (agricultural products) and snow energy. The basic guidelines for introduction of new energies are for health and welfare, clearing and utilization of snow, environmental education and bringing up talented persons, supporting the related entrepreneurs, and integration of new energy with promotion of energy-saving movement. The priority projects the town plans to promote include utilization of biogas and temperature-differential energy for the town's water purification center; foundation of the Naie eco-school; and drawing conceptions for utilization of underground heat, utilization of low-temperature and snow/ice energy, co-energy around the spa of Naie, and mega-solar and eco-park at the Sorachi housing complex. (NEDO)

  7. Research report for fiscal 1998. Research into the feasibility of exchange of studies for the development and promotion of global environment-related industrial technologies; 1998 nendo chikyu kankyo sangyo gijutsu kaihatsu suishin jigyo. Kenkyu koryu kanosei chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    The above was conducted by Research Institute of Innovative Technology for the Earth (RITE). Worldwide collaboration is mandatory for the settlement of environmental problems for the earth, and RITE is positively promoting its interaction with research institutes abroad. In fiscal 1998, it sent research teams to government organizations and research institutes in Europe and America for studies there. A study in Europe involved the preparation of chemicals from CO2 by virtue of novel biotic reactions, and RITE's microbial molecular function laboratory plans to start a leading study in fiscal 1999. In relation with environmental impact reducing technologies using sunlight-aided photocatalysts, visits were paid to three research institutes in America. RITE itself has developed a powdered semiconductor catalyst and is engaged in the study of producing hydrogen by decomposition of water using solar energy. Concerning the production of saccharides out of farm wastes remaining unused, researches were made into the feasibility of joint studies with some advanced research institutes in America. Discussions were made about the performance- and stability-related improvement of enzymes usable for the decomposition of biomass, the analysis of biological environmental circumstances that substance yielding microbes find themselves in under anaerobic conditions, etc. (NEDO)

  8. Numerical method to calculate flow-induced vibration in turbulent flow. 3rd Report. Analysis of vortex-induced vibration in an array of elastically supported tubes; Ranryuba ni okeru ryutai kozotai rensei shindo kaiseki shuho no kaihatsu. 3. Kangun ni okeru uzu reiki shindo kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadaoka, N.; Umegaki, K. [Hitachi, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-01-25

    A vortex-induced vibration of an array of elastically supported tubes is simulated in two-dimension by using a flow-induced vibration analysis program, which was developed in order to evaluate flow-induced vibration in various components such as heat exchangers. From a comparison of calculated results and experimental data, the following points are observed. (1) For the calculated results in a 5 {times} 5 square array, the flow pattern surrounding the first-row tubes is markedly different from that observed in the second-row or third-row tubes. This flow pattern is the same as that obtained from the experiment. (2) All tubes begin to oscillate due to unsteady fluid force and the oscillating mode is different for each row of tubes. These oscillation patterns show the same tendency in the experiments and it is concluded that the developed method can simulate vortex-induced vibration in an array of elastically supported tubes. 19 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Study of solute incorporation into ice-layer on freeze concentration with ice-lining; Ice lining toketsu noshukuho ni okeru hyosho sochu eno yoshitsu torikomi ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamazaki, Y.; Shinozaki, K. [Fujisawa Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd., Osaka (Japan); Hirata, Y. [Osaka University, Osaka (Japan)

    1997-07-10

    The mechanism of solute incorporation into an ice-layer in freeze concentration with ice-lining was studied by changing the impeller speed N and the difference between the brine temperature and the freezing point of the feed solution {Delta}T in 10 kg/m{sup 3} CCNa solution. The effect of N on the apparent partition coefficient of the solute K, is more serious than that of {Delta}T. The growth rate of the ice layer is 10{sup -7} - 10{sup -6}m/s under the condition of {Delta}T=2.8 - 7.9degC and N = 20-400 min{sup -1}. The growth rate had a little effect on solute incorporation into the ice-layer. K values depended on the surface condition of the ice layer, which is effected by the mixing speed of the impeller. The ice layer formed at low mixing speed has a complex rough shape, and has much solute because of adhesion to a large surface area. Therefore, it is recommended that freeze concentration is performed by making an ice layer with smooth surface at high mixing speed. 9 refs., 6 figs.

  10. Relationships between oxygen content, modulation period and superconducting property of Bi-based superconducting oxides. Bi kei sankabtsu chodendotai ni okeru sanso ganryo, hencho kozo oyobi chodendo tokusei no sokan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deshimaru, Y.; Shimizu, Y.; Miura, N.; Yamazoe, N. (Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Graduate School of Engineering Sciences); Hiroi, Z.; Bando, Y. (Kyoto Univ., Kyoto (Japan). Inst. for Chemical Research)

    1992-09-10

    Two (2223 and 2212) of three superconducting phases in the Pb-doped Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O (BSCCO) oxide superconductor were examined for their changes of crystal structures and superconducting properties with changing oxygen content. Their oxygen sorption behavior examined by the temperature-programmed-desorption method showed that both samples desorb trace amounts of oxygen in a temperature range of 350-600 centigrade and the behavior examined by the temperature-programmed oxidation method showed that they absorb (absorb) reversibly oxygen desorbed above in a range of 100-350 centigrade. The critical temperature to bear diamagnetism (Tc) of the 2223 sample fell from 111 K to 96 K as oxygen was desorbed up to 600 centigrade. However, Tc recovers reversibly to the initial value when oxygen was re-absorbed. Contrary to the 2223, the 2212 sample showed the opposite Tc change. Both samples increased in their c-axes lengths and their modulation periods and the changes were reversible respectively. It was pointed out that the Tc behaviors of both sample systems were dependent on the concentration of holes on the CuO2 surfaces. 33 refs., 9 figs.

  11. Technologies adopted in the lean-burn GA15DE engine for improving combustion and controlling the air-fuel ratio; Kogata 4 kito lean burn engine (GA15DE) ni okeru nensho kaizen oyobi seigyo gijutsu ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, K.; Matsumura, M. [Nissan Motor Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-10-07

    This paper summarizes an automotive engine with improved fuel consumption, having realized lean combustion. The lean-burn engine is such an engine that can be operated in an air-fuel ratio compatible in the combustion stability limit and the NOx emission limit by means of combustion improvement, and achieved improvement in fuel consumption as the result. The engine can be expected of higher fuel consumption improving effect than the EGR of the conventional engines because of the lean-burn mechanism. The newly developed lean-burn engine is characterized by less change in its specifications from the basic specifications. Lean fuel burning requires creating a gas mixture condition that is easy to ignite and acquiring a gas flowing field which spreads quickly upon ignition. To achieve these goals, swirl control valves and phase difference cams were disposed. Further, long-discharge coils are used to improve the ignitability. In order to operate the tertiary catalyst more effectively, an A/F sensor that operates in the catalytic area was adopted for the air-fuel ratio feedback control in place of an O2 sensor. The mileage of a vehicle equipped with the lean-burn engine was increased by 17.8% to 20.5 km/l. 2 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Data acquisition and evaluation analysis on advanced high-efficiency energy system field test project (fiscal 2000); 2000 nendo sendoteki kokoritsu energy system field test jigyo ni okeru data shuyaku oyobi hyoka kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Field tests have been performed on the next generation phosphoric acid fuel cell power generation systems to collect and analyze the long-term operation data and trouble cases by introducing the final proliferation pattern into the actual demand on a trial basis. This paper reports the achievements in fiscal 2000. The locations of executing the field tests in fiscal 2000 are the 15 sites, including the NTT Central Training Center, and the Environment and Energy Exploratirium. Measurements were carried out at each test site on fuel gas consumption, fuel cell output power amount, utilized quantity of heat at low temperatures, utilized quantity of heat at elevated temperatures, and discarded quantity of heat. In addition, the total demand power amount and the shutdown information were also put into order. As a result of the evaluation analysis, the second factory of Senhoku Manufactory recorded the longest operation time of 23,777 hours, whose operation factor has reached 92%. Five systems had the continuous operation time exceeded 5,000 hours. The power generation efficiency was about 40% in a system using the town gas 13A fuel, wherein the total efficiency was 90% or greater. The largest number of failures in fiscal 2000 was seven at Tochigi Factory of Kirin Brewery, whose average number of failure was 1.6 a year. (NEDO)

  13. Considerations on FEM modeling in analyzing buckling and plastic collapse of a detection control; Boto panel no zakutsu sosei hokai kaiseki ni okeru FEM model ka ni kansuru kosatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao, T.; Fujikubo, M.; Yanagihara, D.; Irisawa, M. [Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-10-01

    Buckling and plastic collapse of upper decks and bottom outer plates of a hull results directly in longitudinal bending collapse of the hull. Therefore, discussions were given on analysis for pressure destruction strength of a detection control panel which assumes an upper deck and a bottom outer plate. Pressure destruction behavior of the panting panel is a complex phenomenon accompanying non-linearity and geometrical non-linearity of the materials. Its whole phenomenon may be analyzed by using the finite element method (FEM) as a principle, but the analysis is not efficient. Therefore, considerations were given in relation to modeling when using the FEM. The considerations were given on a panel attached with flat steel panting members with respect to the modeling scope which considers the buckling mode according to the aspect ratio of the panel partitioned by the deflection control members. If the local buckling mode of the panel is an even number wave mode in the longitudinal direction, a triple span model is required. A modeling scope for a case of being subjected to water pressure and in-plane compression was considered on a panel attached with angle-type steel members having non-symmetric cross section. In this case, a triple bay model is more preferable to reproduce the behavior under water pressure loading. 1 ref., 6 figs.

  14. Internal friction and microplasticity of carbon-fiber-reinforced SiC ceramics; Tanso sen`i kyoka SiC ceramics no hakai zenku katei ni okeru naibu masatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogawa, H.; Nishino, Y.; Asano, S. [Nagoya Institute of Technology, Nagoya (Japan)

    1995-08-20

    Mechanical responses of carbon-fiber-reinforced SiC ceramics before fracture were measured in the strain range below 2 {times} 10{sup {minus}3} by two experimental methods: mechanical hysteresis and internal friction. Load-deflection curves were obtained by the three-point bending deformation in loading-unloading cycles. A little permanent strain was found after the first cycle even in the range where fracture never occurred. A closed hysteresis loop was observed after several cycles and stabilized with a symmetrical shape after more than twenty cycles. Such a stabilized hysteresis loop is attributed to the steady-state microplastic deformation and may cause the amplitude-dependent internal friction. Internal friction was measured in the fundamental mode of free-free resonant vibration as a function of strain amplitude. With increasing the amount of prestrain in the bending deformation, internal friction increased and became sensitive to the strain amplitude. The amplitude-dependent internal friction in the composites is considered to originate from fiber pull-out or microcrack propagation. The internal friction data were analyzed on the basis of the microplasticity theory and converted into the plastic strain expressed as a function of stress. Therefore, it becomes possible to non-destructively study the forerunning process of fracture of the fiber-reinforced ceramics. 23 refs., 6 figs.

  15. 55th electric science promotion prize (progress prize). Demonstration of optical soliton transmission on OPGW first in the world; Dai 55 kai denki gakujutsu shinkosho (shinposho) jusho. Seiaihatsu no OPGW ni okeru hikari soriton denso no jissho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-06-10

    Electric science promotion prize (progress prize) is given to `Person who newly proposed a new concept, theory, material, device, system and method on electrical science and technology, or demonstrated these proposals` by the commendation committee of Institute of Electrical Engineers of Japan every year. Eight promotion prizes including that for Kansai Electric Power`s `Demonstration of optical soliton transmission on OPGW first in the world` were given. This research succeeded in development of the transmission/ receiving device suitable for optical soliton transmission, and the prediction method of an optimum transmission condition by computer simulation. In addition, this research succeeded in 10Gbit transmission of 784km and 40Gbit transmission (4-wave multiplex) of 392km by applying the above research result to Okurobe trunk line OPGW (98.2km). This demonstration of optical soliton transmission on OPGW is first in the world. (NEDO)

  16. Detection of the oscillation mode of measured waveforms in power systems by Prony analysis; Puroni kaisekiho ni yoru denryoku keito ni okeru jissoku hakei no doyo mode kenshutsu ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shibata, K. [Kansai Electaric Power Co. Inc., Osaka (Japan)

    2000-04-01

    This paper describes the detection method of the oscillation modes by Prony analysis from measured data on power systems. A Prony analysis method can obtain the oscillation frequency and logarithmic damping rate corresponding to eigenvalue directly, and is suitable for detecting the oscillation modes. The analysis result showed that longer sampling intervals of 0.2-0.4s allows detection of the long-period oscillation modes from less data, and the index corresponding to waveform areas allows evaluation of the significance of each mode. It was also confirmed that a low-pass filter with a time constant of nearly 0.2s is effective for poor data including various noises, and correction of amplitude and phase shifts is possible by filter. In addition, the study result on application of a Prony analysis method to instantaneous value waveforms showed that analysis of harmonic characteristics is possible by selecting proper analytical parameters, and a Prony analysis method is applicable to analysis of measured data enough. (NEDO)

  17. Research activities of hybrid ceramic ball bearings for turbochargers in research and development center, Koyo Seiko; Koyo seiko sogo kenkyusho ni okeru turbocharger yo ceramic tamajikuuke no kenkyu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanimoto, K. [Koyo Seiko Co. Ltd., Osaka (Japan)

    2000-05-20

    Silicon nitride ceramics developed at Hikari Seiko's General Technology Research Institute was applied for the first time in the world in 1998 to balls used in bearing for turbo chargers for commercially available passenger cars. This paper reports the summary thereof. Silicon nitride used in the ceramic ball bearing is a high quality ceramic material that uses yttrium oxide and aluminum oxide as sintering auxiliaries, and is treated with hot static water pressure and made denser. Characteristics of low density as compared to that of high-carbon chrome bearing steel used as the general bearing steel are as follows: bearing weight, and ball's centrifugal force under high speed rotation are reduced; its heat resistance makes use of bearing possible under elevated temperatures; and shared bondage reduces seizing due to running out of oil film when the bearing is rotated at high speeds. Thus, the material is well suitable for turbo chargers. Its rolling fatigue life exceeds that of the bearing steel, and it is made clear that the damage pattern is exfoliation similar to that in the bearing steel. A life test for the ceramic ball bearing showed a result exceeding the calculated life time. (NEDO)

  18. Quantum analysis in the transition process to excited state of an oxygen molecule induced by electron collisions; Denshi shototsu ni tomonau sanso bunshi ni okeru reiki jotai sen`i no ryoshironteki kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishimaru, K. [Gifu National College of Technology, Gifu (Japan); Okazaki, K. [Tokyo Inst. of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-06-25

    For understanding of fundamental chemical reactions under a highly non equilibrium condition which is quite often used in plasma processing, the relevant atomic and molecular processes must be clarified. In this study, an analysis of the transition process to the excited state of an oxygen molecule induced by electron collisions in the oxygen plasma has been carried out. First, the electron density distribution in an oxygen molecule has been calculated using the extended Huckel molecular orbital method. Then, the electron potential energy distribution in the transition process to the excited state has been estimated. The electron behavior has been calculated using the estimated unidimensional electron potential energy distribution and unsteady quantum mechanics. As a result, the transition process to the excited state of an oxygen molecule induced by electron collisions and its conditions have been clarified qualitatively. 9 refs., 9 figs.

  19. Generation of metallic arc spectrum of pumping discharge of XeCl laser; XeCl ekishima laser reiki hoden ni okeru arc iko to kinzoku supekutoru no hassei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koike, H.; Yukimura, K. [Doshisha University, Kyoto (Japan)

    1997-12-20

    An arc generation of a long-pulse spiker-sustainer excimer laser with about 250ns of pulse width , is discussed by using time-varying spectroscopic method. First arcing occurs during a main discharge for laser excitation and shows XeII spectrum, while a glow-like discharge represents only XeI spectrum, the metallic spectrum such as Nil caused by vaporization of electrode material begins to appear just after the termination of the main discharge. Second arcing occurs after about 2{mu}s, which brings strong intensity of Nil spectrum. It means that the reignition arc might be produced in a metallic vapor that appears during the main discharge. Accordingly, it is concluded that the reignition arc is inherently metallic, which is different from the main arc with rare gas plasma. 9 refs., 9 figs.

  20. Ionization current in N2 gas. Part 7. ; Diffusion and reflection of metastable particles. N2 gas chu ni okeru denri denryu. 7. ; Jun antei reiki ryushi no kakusan to hansha

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, S.; Ito, H.; Sekizawa, H. (Chiba Inst. of Technology, Chiba (Japan)); Ikuta, N. (Tokushima Univ., Tokushima (Japan))

    1993-06-20

    The energy loss process in quenching of excited particles by collision to other ones and solid surfaces was investigated with metastable excited particles formed in weakly ionized gases. The measured lifetime of N2 metastable particles in N2, N2/CO, N2/CH3 gases during Townsent discharge did not agree with the Molnar's theoretical value which was obtained by solving diffusion equations using the boundary condition that assumes the density of excited particles to be zero at electrodes and tube walls. Strange behavior was observed too, that is, coefficients of diffusion and reaction rate determined by the theoretical lifetime change systematically with the distance between electrodes. Then, the novel boundary condition that takes reflection coefficient into account was applied to solve diffusion equations. The results obtained could account for experimental results without any discrepancy. The analysis of results clarified the dependence of various parameters of metastable excited particles on the reflection coefficient. The increase of reflection coefficient decreases the surface quenching of excited particles at electrodes and elongs effectively excited lifetime and increases the number of collisional quenching in gas phases. 16 refs., 8 figs.

  1. Determination of electron impact ionization and excitation coefficients in He-Xe gas mixtures. He-Xe kongo gas ni okeru denshi shototsu denri keisu oyobi reiki keisu no sokutei to kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, K.; Tachibana, K. (Kyoto Inst. of Technology, Kyoto (Japan))

    1991-03-20

    The rare gas discharge gives a stable discharge and light emission characteristics at low temperature in comparison with the discharge of the vapor of such a metal as Hg. The present barrier for the commercialization of the color PDP lies in the lower level of its emission intensity and efficiency in comparison with that of CRT. In this report, an electron impact ionization coefficient in a gas mixture and an electron impact excitation coefficient for a XeIs {sub 4} level were analyzed using a Boltzmann equation by means of a steady state Townsend method using a drift tube. By comparing both, the elementary process in the gas mixture is investiagted to discuss the respective contributions for the effective ionization coefficient and the excitation coefficient. As a result, it was found that the ionization process in the He-Xe gas mixture could be described by the processes of direct ionization of Xe and He, and an indirect ionization (Penning effect) by an active helium. 37 refs., 12 figs.

  2. Pressure dependence of emission intensity of rare-gas excimer light produced by silent discharge; Teikiatsu ryoiki ni okeru musei hoden reiki ki gas excimer hikari shutsuryoku no atsuryoku izonsei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, Y.; Tanaka, M.; Yukimura, K. [Doshisha University, Kyoto (Japan)

    1996-09-20

    To establish the pressure dependence of silent discharge excited rare gas excimer light emission, a vacua ultraviolet light was subjected to spectroscopic analysis at a pressure lower than 20kPa. Researches are under way to apply the discharge excited rare gas excimer lamp as a vacuum ultraviolet light source for the development of new materials and for the conservation of environments. When the pressure is as low as 1.8kPa or 4.4kPa, the emission has peaks at wavelengths centering on 147nm and 149nm, both of which are the resonance lines of the xenon atom. Excimer generation becomes prominent as the pressure increases, with the second continuum of light growing dominant at 35kPa to weaken relatively the resonance lines and the first continuum of light. In the first continuum, emission increases only at a suppressed rate, as compared with emission in the second continuum, due for instance to a collision caused relaxation process in which excimers are lost. In the case of xenon in the vicinity of 10-11kPa, the first continuum of light and the second continuum of light are approximately equal in emission intensity, producing a vacuum ultraviolet light source with a bandwidth relatively large for a single gas spectrum. 14 refs., 11 figs.

  3. Evaluation of the autonomic neuropathy function immediately after a change to upright posture using the impulse response function; Impulse oto kansu wo mochiita shisei henkan katoki ni okeru jiritsu shinkei kino hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokoyama, K. [Nagoya City University, Nagoya (Japan); Moyoshi, M.; Takata, K. [Daido Institute of Technology, Nagoya (Japan); Watanabe, Y. [Toyota College of Technology, Aichi (Japan)

    1997-05-20

    Autonomic neuropathy function immediately after a change to upright posture has been evaluated by applying transient response function of the system to the blood regulation system. The impulse response function was determined from the change in heart rate before postural change to the upright posture, and was compared with the transient change immediately after a change to the upright posture. The time series of R-R interval of electrocardiogram was used as the time series of the change in heart rate. To determine the impulse response function, an autoregressive model was applied to the R-R interval time series. The impulse response function at the steady state is a transient reaction at the impulse stimulation added to the blood regulation system. The R-R interval decreases rapidly by the autonomic neuropathy reaction in which the blood is rapidly transferred into the legs immediately after a change to upright posture. There is a close correlation between the initial temporary decrease in R-R interval and the impulse response function derived from the change in heart rate immediately after a change to the upright posture. Accordingly, the blood regulation and autonomic neuropathy functions can be evaluated by the impulse response function without actual standing test and load of tested persons. 9 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Trend of recent motor sports related technology. From engine point of view; Saikin no motor sports ni okeru saishin gijutsu no doko. Engine no shiten kara mita gijutsu doko

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okamoto, T. [Toyota Motor Corp., Aichi (Japan)

    2000-02-01

    This paper presents the trend of the motorsports related technology focusing on F1, Champ Car and Le Man using high technology and high fundamental technology. Indeed each category of these three has its own regulation. Therefore the difference in the regulations which depends on the restriction level for usable technology requires different technological development. One is using real high technology while another is using high fundamental technology. Taking these affairs into account, characteristic of the each technology for each motor sports category is described from engine point of view. (author)

  5. Report on the field test project for wind power development at Shinwa-no-Sato Park (wind characteristics investigation); Shinwa no sato koen ni okeru furyoku kaihatsu field test jigyo (fukyo seisa) hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    Wind characteristics are observed for a year at Shinwa-no-Sato Park, Kirishima Town, Aira-gun, Kagoshima Prefecture. The average wind speeds at 20m and 10m above ground are 3.9m/s and 3.3m/s, but they are a little higher in the prevalent directions of east and east-north-east, and are 4.7m/s and 5.5m/s. The annual operation rates of the 150kW, 300kW, and 750kW wind turbine models are 36.0%, 39.1%, and 55.5%. Their annual capacitor ratios are 12.4%, 14.9%, and 15.0%. The annual wind direction occurrence rate on the wind axis is as high as 70.6% in the direction of west, and it should be highly evaluated that turbulence intensity is 0.3 or less in all the directions. As for the surroundings, the observation station is situated in a park which contains no residential zone that may cause noise-related troubles, and possibilities are quite low of difficulties entailing electromagnetic wave emission. Accordingly, wind power development at Kirishima Town is not impossible. But, before a wind power system is actually introduced into the park, it is necessary to select a wind turbine which can operate on low wind speeds of 1-3m/s and can easily connect to the commercial line in the interconnection scheme. (NEDO)

  6. Film condensation of HCFC-123 on in-line bundles of horizontal finned tubes. Effect of fin geometry. Suihei fin tsuki kan no gobanme kangun ni okeru HCFC-123 no gyoshuku. Fin keijo no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honda, H.; Takamatsu, H.; Takada, N. (Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Institute of Advanced Material Study); Kim, K. (Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan)); Ishikawa, Y. (Otsuka Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))

    1994-06-25

    Theoretical analysis and experiments were carried out in regard to the condensation of HCFC-123 vapor on a horizontal finned tube. The previous paper described the theoretical analysis on the film condensation in a tube nest with low-fins. In this study, approximate expressions of heat transfer coefficient for a newly proposed high-performance finned tubes are suggested and compared with the experimental results. In the test, HCFC-123 vapor was flowed from the upper part of the tube nest arranged in squares of 3 rows and 15 layers (tube pitch: 22mm), and was condensed on the tube surface. The liquid film formation was observed, and the heat transfer properties were measured. Two kinds of conventional low-fin tubes and two kinds of finned tubes of which shape is similar to the newly proposed ones were tested. One of the new finned tubes showed the highest heat transfer performance, which was about 85% higher than that of the conventional low-fin (26 fpi) tube. The theoretical model for condensation in the previous paper was correspondent with the experimental data at low vapor speed and low condensate inundation rate. 14 refs., 14 figs., 4 tabs.

  7. Film condensation of HCFC-123 on staggered bundles of horizontal finned tubes. Effect of fin geometry; Suihei fintsukikan no chidori kanbun ni okeru HCFC-123 no gyoshuku. Fin keijo no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honda, H.; Takamatsu, H.; Takada, N. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Institute of Advanced Material Study; Makishi, O. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Sejimo, H. [NKK Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-03-25

    Experiments were conducted to obtain row-by-row heat transfer data during condensation of downward flowing HCFC-123 vapor in staggered bundles of horizontal two-dimensional fin tubes. Two conventional low fin tubes and two finned tubes with fin shapes close to that of a new high-performance fin proposed by Zhu and Honda were tested. The latter tubes had fin dimensions that were optimized by theoretical analysis. The heat transfer characteristics were compared with previous results for in-line bundles of the same test tubes and with theoretical predictions for stagnant vapor. The decrease in heat transfer due to condensate inundation was less significant for the staggered tube bundle. The highest heat transfer coefficient was provided by the staggered bundle of one of the new finned tubes. The theoretical predictions compared well with experimental data at a low vapor velocity and a low to medium condensate inundation rate. 15 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. On the relation between free volume and powder pressure with the gas stream in the powder moving-bed; Gasu nagare wo tomonau kotai idoso ni okeru kukanritsu to ryutaiatsu no kankei ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomoyasu, Suminao; Yoshino, Akio; Iwata, Hiroshi; Kawazoe, Hiromitsu

    1999-04-05

    On the stand pipe with gas stream equipped the bottom in fluidized bed from powder and equation of continuity of the gas, equation of momentum balance considering frictional force of wall surface and equation of pressure loss of the gas by relative speed and test data on the axial gas pressure distribution besides with stand pipe axial direction powder pressure {sigma}{sub z} relational expression of free volume {epsilon} it asks ask. According to this result, (1) d{sigma}{sub z}/d{epsilon} is increased in free volume or big part in the stand pipe entrance, and it once lowers in the middle, and in addition, it increases in the downward again. That is to say, the inflection point of the powder pressure does the right and presence in the. intermediate. (2) There is mainly the high possibility by the effect of the frictional force of stand pipe wall surface on d{sigma}{sub z}/d{epsilon} increasing in the stand pipe inlet vicinity. (3) The powder pressure is not only free volume but also function of the powder particle diameter too. And, this powder ratio and free volume also showed that the distribution of amount of gas which flow and axial gas pressure, powder pressure, free volume, etc. was obtained the stand pipe from relational expression of particle size and other theoretical formula. (translated by NEDO)

  9. Correlation of voidage and stress of granular materials in a packed moving bed accompanied with gas flow; Gasu nagare wo tomonau funtai idoso ni okeru kugekiritsu to funtaiatsu no kankei ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomoyasu, Yoshitada. [Sanzou Energy Engineering Corp., Okayama (Japan); Yoshino, Fumio.; Iwata, Hiroshi.; Kawazoe, Hiromitsu. [Tottori University, Tottori (Japan). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1999-03-10

    The flow characteristics of granular materials and gas in a vertical packed moving bed, called a [stand pipe], furnished at the bottom of the fluidized bed are investigated theoretically and experimentally. A correlation equation of axial stress {sigma}{sub z} and voidage {epsilon} of granular materials in the stand pipe is proposed through investigations of the continuity equation, the momentum balance equation, Ergun's equation for gas pressure loss and the gas pressure distribution data measured experimentally in the axial direction. Regarding the relation of the axial stress and the voidage, it was recogniged that : 1. The absolute value of d{sigma}{sub z}/d{epsilon} is large at the voidage near the minimum fluidizing condition, and at the voidage in the dense packed condition, and an inflection point of {sigma}{sub z} exists in range between the both conditions ; 2. It seems to be the wall-friction-effect of stand pipe that the absolute value of d{sigma}{sub z}/d{epsilon} is larger at the inlet of stand pipe, and ; 3. The stress is also a function of the particle diameter. The gas flow rate, axial stress distribution of granular materials, gas pressure distribution and voidage distribution in the axial direction of the stand pipe can be calculated from relating equations. (author)

  10. Modified spatial autocorrelation method using autoregressive model for estimating underground velocity structure from microtremor array observation; Bido array tansa ni okeru kukan jiko sokanho no jiko kaiki model wo mochiita kairyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, H.; Saito, T. [Iwate University, Iwate (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Obuchi, T. [Kawasaki Geological Engineering Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-02-01

    Spatial autocorrelation method (SAC) is an effective analysis for estimating underground S-wave velocity structure from microtremor phase velocity dispersion relation because it has larger detectable range of microtremor wavelength than frequency-wavenumber analysis. However, phase velocities estimated by conventional SAC methods such as band-pass filtered method or Fast Fourier Transform method were not precise if suitable band width was not selected for analysis. We proposed a new technique for SAC using autoregressive model which estimated spectra with high resolution because the best fitting model can be selected using AIC. We apply the new method to calculate phase velocities of microtremors which were observed at a ground of Morioka Technical High School with arrays. As a result, phase velocities calculated by the new method were continuous with frequency although those calculated by the conventional methods were scattered. This indicates that SAC functions calculated by the new method are estimated better than those by conventional SAC methods. 13 refs., 7 figs.

  11. Case of electro-magnetic shielding building. Pt. 2. Reduction method of magnetic noise due to microtremor in magnetically shielded room; Kenchiku setsubi ni okeru denji shield no jitsurei. 2. Shield room no bishindo ni kiinsuru jiki noise taisaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamazaki, K.; Abe, T.; Kamei, Y. [Takenaka Corp., Osaka (Japan)

    2000-01-05

    Magnetic sensitivity can be limited by microtremor of magnetically shielded room (MSR) used for the measurements of extremely magnetic fields such as biomagnetic measurements as well as environmental magnetic noise at low frequencies caused by trains, motorcars traffics and elevators but each of which can be reduced by MSR. The relation between the vibration of MSR and magnetic noise, and the reduction method of the magnetic noise due to microtremor of MSR are discussed experimentally. The correlations were high between acceleration in horizontal direction of ceiling panel and magnetic signal in horizontal and vertical directions. The magnetic noises were almost proportional to the displacement on the ceiling panel of MSR. Further an active isolation system was installed as a base of MSR to reduce the microtremor of the MSR. We also measured reduction effect of vibration and magnetic noise in an MSR actually mounted on TACMI by experiment when artificial vibrations were applied to the MSR by means of heal impacts and by a truck which run over a wood panel (height is 50 mm) on the road nearby at a speed of 20km per hour. (author)

  12. Reduction of artificial source effect in the high-resolution aeromagnetic survey in the Hanshin region; Hanshin chiiki no komitsudo kuchu jiki tansa ni okeru jinko noise source no eikyo no jokyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakatsuka, T.; Makino, M.; Morijiri, R.; Okuma, S. [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1997-05-27

    A high-resolution aeromagnetic survey was carried out in December 1995 on areas from Kobe City to Kyoto City in relation to the Hyogoken-nanbu Earthquake in 1995. It was found in the survey that effects of electric trains driven by direct current and man-made structures cannot be avoided, working as a large noise factor in extraction and analysis of geological information. This paper describes a quantitative analysis on magnetic anomaly suspected to have been caused from artificial sources seen in the magnetic map of the Hanshin area obtained from the above exploration data. The paper also gives considerations on methods to remove the effects therefrom. It then describes a quantitative analysis and the result of attempts on removal of the anomaly, taking up the following factors: (1) distribution of specific and remarkable magnetic anomalies which correspond to railroad positions of the Hanshin Railways running through the Nishinomiya-Toyonaka area, (2) the magnetic anomaly trend in positive and negative pair seen in the seafront area of Kobe City, and (3) typical bipolar isolated type magnetic anomaly in the north-west part of Kobe City. The cause for (1) was loop current flown for the railway operation, that for (2) was man-made structures in the improved seafront area, and that for (3) was a provisionally built metal waste storage yard. 9 figs.

  13. 2D inversion results and interpretation of CSAMT data in the Itaya prospect, Northern Honshu, Japan; Tohoku nanbu chiiki Itaya chiku ni okeru CSAMT ho nijigen kaiseki kekka to sono kaishaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshioka, K.; Hishida, H.; Katayama, H. [Metal Mining Agency of Japan, Tokyo (Japan); Takakura, S. [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1997-05-27

    A two-dimensional analysis was carried out on electric exploration data obtained by using the CSAMT method in the Itaya prospect in the southern part of the Tohoku region in Japan. Considerations were given on mine exploration targets. Gold produced in this area is contained in stockwork or vein deposited quartz in silicified hydrothermal breccia. Therefore, the exploration targets are silicified rocks that show high resistivity. The field investigation using the CSAMT method was conducted by installing a dipole source of about 1.9 km as a transmission source at a location about 6 km apart from the investigation area, and by measuring transmission currents from 8 to 10A and ten frequencies from 4 to 2048 Hz. The two-dimensional analysis was performed by using programs of a forward calculation that used a finite element method and of an inversion calculation that used a least-squares method. Analysis utilizing resistivity of the boring cores made minimizing RMS misfit possible. As a result, estimations were made on distribution of silicification and claying alteration from the detailed resistivity distribution around the Itaya mine. 5 ref., 8 figs.

  14. Three-dimensional modeling in the electromagnetic/magnetotelluric methods. Accuracy of various finite-element and finite difference methods; Denjiho MT ho ni okeru sanjigen modeling. Shushu no yugen yosoho to sabunho no seido

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, Y. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-05-27

    To enhance the reliability of electromagnetic/magnetotelluric (MT) survey, calculation results of finite-element methods (FEMs) and finite difference methods (FDMs) were compared. Accuracy of individual methods and convergence of repitition solution were examined. As a result of the investigation, it was found that appropriate accuracy can be obtained from the edge FEM and FDM for the example of vertical magnetic dipole, and that the best accuracy can be obtained from the FDM among four methods for the example of MT survey. It was revealed that the ICBCG (incomplete Cholesky bi-conjugate gradient) method is an excellent method as a solution method of simultaneous equations from the viewpoint of accuracy and calculation time. For the joint FEM, solutions of SOR method converged for both the examples. It was concluded that the cause of error is not due to the error of numerical calculation, but due to the consideration without discontinuity of electric field. The conditions of coefficient matrix increased with decreasing the frequency, which resulted in the unstable numerical calculation. It would be required to incorporate the constraint in a certain form. 4 refs., 12 figs.

  15. Study on passive earth pressure acting on the embedment of an earth retaining wall for braced excavation work in cohesive soil; Nenseido jiban ni okeru kussaku dodomeheki neirebu no judo doatsu ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, H. [Pacific Consultants K.K., Tokyo (Japan); Hirashima, K. [Yamanashi University, Yamanashi (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1995-12-15

    Passive earth pressure exerts a great influence on the stress and deformation of earth retaining walls in braced excavation. To calculate this pressure, conventional ultimate earth pressure equation, or Rankine-Resals and Coulomb`s equation, are currently applied respectively to cohesive and sandy soil. However, these intentional equation to determine passive earth pressure do not adequately take into account the excavation width during work and the shearing resistance on the earth retaining wall surface. This paper deals with cohesive soil only, deriving a calculation equation for passive earth pressure, which takes into account excavation width and the shearing resistance of the earth retaining wall surface. Then, constants in this equation are determined using the calculation results obtained from the finite element method with blasts-plastic elements. The calculation results are also compared with measured values in the model test in order to check the applicability of the calculation equation for passive earth pressure thus obtained. Finally, this paper proposes a practicable calculation equation for passive earth pressure. 13 refs., 10 figs., 10 tabs.

  16. Countermeasures for exhaust prevention of organic solvents at print shop. 3. Removal of organic solvents by catalytic oxidation method; Insatsu kojo ni okeru yuki yozai haishutsu boshi taisaku. 3. Shokubai sankaho ni yoru yuki yozai no jokyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yano, H. [Shimizu Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Shoda, M. [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan). Research Laboratory of Resources Utilization

    1997-05-10

    This paper summarizes circumstances of a catalytic oxidation type deodorizing experiment and a demonstration test on exhaust gas discharged actually from a print shop. The catalytic oxidation method is a method to burn the odor constituents, which are ethyl acetate, isopropyl alcohol and toluene, at temperatures of 200 to 300 degC. Space velocity was used as a parameter, and two kinds of platinum systems and two kinds of manganese + copper systems were used as catalysts. Elucidation was made on the space velocity and removal efficiency, removal efficiency of each catalyst, unreacted decomposition originated constituents at low temperatures (150 to 180 degC), and efficiency of each catalyst to remove each constituent. The result revealed that nearly 100% removal is possible at a space velocity of 33000 hr {sup -1} when the platinum-based catalyst and the manganese + copper based catalyst (both in pellet form) are combined. It was also found that the combination is advantageous in terms of cost. A demonstration test was performed at a new factory. Under a condition of combination of the above catalysts at 1:1 ratio, the space velocity of 30000 hr {sup -1}, and gas temperature at catalyst layer inlet of 200 degC, the removal efficiency was 97.9% to 98.7%, which clears the exhaust regulation value specified by the Tokyo Metropolitan Government. Average concentration in the working environment was 120.9 ppm, which cleared the maximum permissible concentration. 7 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. Countermeasures for exhaust prevention of organic solvents at print shop. 1. Removal of organic solvents by activated carbon adsorption method; Insatsu kojo ni okeru yuki yozai haishutsu boshi taisaku. 1. Kasseitan kyuchakuho ni yoru yuki yozai no jokyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yano, H. [Shimizu Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Shoda, M. [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan). Research Laboratory of Resources Utilization

    1997-05-10

    This paper describes the state of discharge of organic solvents from a print shop and a deodorizing experiment using a deodorizing equipment of activated carbon adsorption type of a bench test scale. The subject existing print shop has a working space volume of 2000 m{sup 3} and total air exhaust volume of 32000 m{sup 3} per hour. The identified main solvents are ethyl acetate, isopropyl alcohol and toluene. Solvent exhaust concentration at a duct was more than two times greater than the exhaust regulation value. The experiment was performed by using an equipment having an adsorption tower filled with activated carbons of particle form and pellet form made from coconut shell respectively. The gas concentration at an inlet to the deodorizing equipment was 394 ppm as the total concentration, exceeding the exhaust regulation value of 200 ppm. It was verified that the activated adsorption process has high removal effect. The break-through time which expresses life of activated carbon was 38 hours for the particle-formed carbon and 29 hours for the pellet-formed carbon when the total outlet gas concentration was set to 10 ppm. If the adsorption continues after the break-through time has been reached, a displacement phenomenon (displacement among constituents due to selective adsorption) can occur. The required length of the adsorption belt was derived. It was verified that the activated carbons can be regenerated and re-used. 10 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Countermeasures for exhaust prevention of organic solvents at print shop. 2. Diffusion prevention of organic solvents evaporating from printing process; Insatsu kojo ni okeru yuki yozai haishutsu boshi taisaku. 2. Insatsuki kara hasseisuru yuki yozai no kakusan boshi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yano, H.; Suzuki, Y. [Shimizu Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Shoda, M. [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan). Research Laboratory of Resources Utilization

    1997-05-10

    With an objective to preserve the environment and reduce load on a deodorizing device, discussions were given on a high-efficiency hood for printing machines in a print shop. Solvents discharged from this factory consist of ethyl acetate, isopropyl alcohol and toluene, whose maximum total permissible concentration is 147 ppm. Two kinds of hoods with different opening areas were fabricated on a trial basis as hoods for monochromic gravure printing machines. Elucidation was made on the relationship of concentrations in a laboratory and ducts with discharged air amount. Collection effect is greater in a hood with higher face air velocity at the opening portion. It was made clear that the minimum air discharge amount that can clear the permissible concentration is 1000 m{sup 3} per hour inclusive of the safety factor. This value is derived under a condition that the secondary drying blower is stopped during printing work and the drying portion is shut off. For the similar purpose a hood for two-color gravure printing machine (with the first and second printing portions provided with hoods and installed with resistance plates to equalize face air velocity between both hoods) was fabricated on a trial basis for discussion. The minimum required air discharge amount was estimated to be 1100 m{sup 3} per hour. Total air discharge amount when all the printing machines are operating would be 10400 m{sup 3} per hour, and the concentration would be 690 ppm. 5 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Fiscal 1998 research report on the development trends of natural gas conversion technologies into liquefied fuel in Russia; 1998 nendo Roshia ni okeru tennen gas no ekitai nenryoka gijutsu no kaihatsu doko nado ni kansuru chosa kenkyu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Russia having natural gas resources largest in the world is actively promoting the basic research on liquefaction technology of natural gas such as Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthetic catalyst, and its research potential is extremely high. This 3-year research project surveys the R and D trends of catalyst technology for liquefaction of natural gas, and fabricates the prototype FT synthetic catalyst based on the idea of Russian researchers to evaluate its feasibility experimentally. This report summarizes the following to clarify the research background: (1) The technology system for liquefaction of natural gas, and its future R and D trend, (2) The R and D trends of liquefaction technology of natural gas in the world, (3) The R and D trends of liquefaction technology of natural gas in Russia, (4) The research system of catalyses in Russia, (5) The activities of Russian catalysis research institutes, (6) The fuel liquefaction technologies of Russian major research institutes, and (7) The proposals from Russian research institutes. (NEDO)

  20. Ethanol production by high cell-density culture with periodic reversion of circulating flow in cross-flow filtration. Ryudo hoko henkan cross flow rokaho wo mochiita komitsudo baiyoho ni okeru ethanol seisan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asakura, T.; Toda, K. (The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Institute of Applied Microbiology)

    1991-07-25

    For the purpose of effective production of ethanol, high cell-density culture was examined using a bioreactor with a flat-membrane filtlation module for three kinds of ethanol production microorganism, and the productivity of ethanol fermentation was investigated. The flow direction of the culture broth circulating along a flat membrane in the filtration module was changed periodically, at intervals of 4 minutes and 1 minute, as a result of which, the filtration flux was stabilized to some degree and increased five-fold over that of the control experiment. When the cell concentration in the reactor was maintained at a constant by draining broth at a proper rate, the filtration flux was stabilized further and increased twenty-fold over that of the control experiment. The productivity and exit concentration of ethanol in this cell recycle culture when the cell concentration was 200 gl{sup {minus}1} of Bakers yeast, were 83.7 gl{sup {minus}1}h{sup {minus}1} and 30.2 gl{sup {minus}1}, respectively. For the other two kinds of yeast, high ethanol concentration and productivity were confirmed, concluding that this production method was effective. 25 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Effect of intermolecular cohesion on coal liquefaction. 3. Reactivity of oxygen methylated coal; Sekitan teibunshika hanno ni okeru bunshikan gyoshuryoku no koka. 3. O-methyl ka tan no hanno tokusei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, M.; Nagaishi, H.; Yoshida, T. [Hokkaido National Industrial Research Institute, Sapporo (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    The reactivity of oxygen methylated coal was studied to control hydrogen bond in bituminous coal liquefaction and intermolecular cohesion such as van der Waals force. In experiment, crushed and dried Illinois coal of 100mesh or less was used as specimen, and oxygen methylated coal was prepared by Liotta`s method using tetrabutylammonium halide. Coal liquefaction was conducted in an electromagnetic agitation autoclave using tetralin solvent under initial hydrogen pressure of 100kg/cm{sup 2} while heating. The molecular weight distribution of the products obtained was measured by gel permeation chromatography (GPC) analysis. The experimental results are as follows. The effect of intermolecular cohesion in bituminous coal on the reactivity is mainly derived from decomposing reaction from preasphaltene to oil. Yields of oil fraction by methylation increase corresponding to release of intermolecular cohesion. Since the thermal release is promoted with temperature rise, the difference in yield due to different treatments decreases. 5 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Coliquefaction of coal, tar sand bitumen and plastic (interaction among coal, bitumen and plastic); Sekitan/tar sand bitumen/plastic no kyoekika ni okeru kyozon busshitsu no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaguchi, H.; Okuyama, Y.; Matsubara, K. [NKK Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Kamo, T.; Sato, Y. [National Institute for Resources and Environment, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    For the improvement of economy, coliquefaction of coal, tar sand bitumen and plastic was performed under low hydrogen pressure, to investigate the influence of interaction among these on the liquefaction characteristics. For comparison, coliquefaction was also performed under the hydrogen pressure same as the NEDOL process. In addition, for clarifying its reaction mechanism, coliquefaction of dibenzyl and plastic was performed as a model experiment, to illustrate the distribution of products and composition of oil, and to discuss the interaction between dibenzyl and various plastics, and between various plastics. Under direct coal liquefaction conditions, coprocessing of Tanito Harum coal, Athabasca tar sand and plastic was carried out under low hydrogen pressure with an autoclave. The observed value of oil yield was higher than the calculated value based on the values from separate liquefaction of coal and plastic, which suggested the interaction between coal and the mixed plastic. The results of coliquefaction of coal, tar sand bitumen and plastic could be explained from the obtained oil yield and its composition by the coliquefaction of dibenzyl and plastic. 2 refs., 3 tabs.

  3. Tholeiitic and calc-alkaline magma series at Adatara volcano, northesast Japan. ; Evolution mechanisms and genetic relationship. Tohoku Nippon, Adatara kazan ni okeru soreaito, karuku alkaline magma keiretsu. ; Sono shinka mechanism to seiin kankei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujinawa, A. (Ibaraki University, Ibaraki (Japan). Faculty of Science)

    1991-07-15

    In this report, the generation and evolution processes of coexisting low-alkali tholeiitic and calc-alkaline magmas at Adatara volcano is discussed on the basis of petrological data, and a reasonable petrological model is proposed. For the tholeiitic suite, variations of major-, trace- and rare earth-elements and Sr isotopic compositions are explained with the fractional crystallization hypothesis. These are mineralogical observations supporting this hypothesis. In contrast, for calc-alkaline suite, compositional variations of considerable numbers of major-elements and trace-elements are explained with the fractional crystallization model, but wide variations of Ni and Cr, and light REE heavy-REE ratios are inconsistent with this model. It is considered that other processes, such as mixing of magmas, assimilation and gaseous transfer, may have operated as additional processes. Also, mineralogical data are compatible with this view. 62 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Fate models for chemical substances in exposure and risk assessment. Focused on estimation of atmospheric concentration; Bakuro{center_dot}risuku hyoka ni okeru kagaku busshitsu unmei yosoku moderu. Taikichu nodo suitei wo chushin toshite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higashino, H. [National Inst. for Resources and Environment, Tsukuba (Japan)

    2000-09-20

    A fate model is one of the most effective tools in exposure and risk assessment of chemical substances. Two different type models are available for estimating the atmospheric concentration. One is unit box and multi compartment type model, the other is atmospheric dispersion model. These models should be used in different suitable situations because each model has both advantage and disadvantage. Estimation of the long-term average concentration in a comparatively wide region into which substances are continuously discharged should be required in the environmental assessment of chemical substances. We developed the model with which to estimate long-term average atmospheric concentrations of chemicals. The model validation was conducted for trichloroethylene and tetrachloroethylene concentrations in the atmosphere by comparing calculated values and observed values. Good agreement with the measured values was obtained for the monthly average concentration. The model is capable of estimating the long-term (such as monthly) average distribution of concentration of chemicals in a wide flat area such as the Kanto plain. (author)

  5. Characteristics of natural gas lean combustion through the compression of quiescent charge in a rapid compression combustor; Kyusoku asshuku nensho sochinai seishi yokongoki asshuku ni okeru tennen gas no kihaku nensho tokusei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kataoka, K. [Okayama University of Science, Okayama (Japan); Segawa, D.; Kadota, T.; Hirooka, S. [University of Osaka Prefecture, Osaka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Higashino, K. [Osaka Gas Co. Ltd., Osaka (Japan)

    1997-04-25

    In order to develop a natural gas fueled spark ignition engine with high thermal efficiency and clean exhaust gases, combustion characteristics of natural gas and air mixtures were examined using a rapid compression combustor. We concentrated on lean mixtures because of their potential for high efficiency and low pollutant emissions. To elucidate the effect of compression-induced physical aspects on the combustion process, the charge was kept quiescent before the start of the compression process. The results showed that an increased charge pressure increased the time required for combustion. A high compression ratio or piston speed tended to shorten the combustion time, but their effects were rather weak. An increased humidity in mixtures measurably increased the combustion time. The stratified charge, which was examined using the soap bubble method, markedly improved the combustion process of lean mixtures. 7 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Propagation of shock waves in dilute bubbly liquids. 4th Report. Comparison between theory and experiment for a uniform bubbly mixture; Kihoryuchu ni okeru shogekiha no denpa. 4. Kin`itsu kiho bunpuji no jikken to riron tono hikaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kameda, M.; Shimaura, N.; Higashino, F. [Tokyo Univ. of Agriculture and Technology, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Technology; Matsumoto, Y. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-07-25

    Transient shock wave phenomena in a liquid containing non-condensable gas bubbles are studied experimentally and numerically. In order to obtain a uniform spatial distribution of bubbles experimentally, an upwardly directed bubbly flow, whose initial gas volume fraction is 0.2%, is generated in a shock tube. The liquid used is silicone oil. Nitrogen, argon, and SF6 gas bubbles are tested to show the thermal effects of the bubble interior. The transient pressure profiles determined in the experiments for the upwardly bubbly flow agree well quantitatively with those obtained by numerical calculation using a uniform spatial distribution of bubbles. Since the thermal diffusivity of SF6 is much lower than that of nitrogen and argon, the damping on the radial oscillation of the SF6 bubble is mainly due to the compressibility of the liquid. Thus, the radial motion of the bubble should be estimated by solving an equation in which the liquid compressibility is taken into account. 12 refs., 10 figs.

  7. Emission inventory of air pollutants in East Asia. Anthropogenic emissions of sulfur dioxide in China; Higashi Asia chiiki wo taishotoshita taiki osen busshitsu no haishutsuryo suikei. Chugoku ni okeru io sankabutsu no jin`i kigen haishutsuryo suikei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higashino, H.; Tonooka, Y.; Yanagisawa, Y. [Research Institute of Innovative Technology for the Earth, Kyoto (Japan); Ikeda, Y. [University of Osaka Prefecture, Osaka (Japan). College of Engineering

    1995-11-10

    Anthropogenic emission of sulfur dioxide (SO2) in China was investigated to establish an emission inventory on air pollutants in East Asia. Major objectives of the study were to establish the emission inventory having the most detailed emission categories and regional resolution comparing with previous works, and being expandable to other air pollutants. Under popularization of desulfurization, conventional methodologies face to limitation of data quality, but in this work the contribution of SO2 removal by recent installation of desulfurization units was also taken into account. China was selected as the first subjective country because China has the largest emission sources of SO2 in East Asia, which contribute a significant portion of acid deposition in Japan. By our estimation total amounts of 21 Tg of SO2 were emitted in China in 1990. About 90% of the SO2 came from coal combustion, and power and heat generation part was responsible for over 30% of the total discharge. The total amounts of the SO2 emission were classified by provinces, major cities, and two grid systems such as 80{times}80 km square and 1{degree}{times}1{degree} resolution. Emissions in Sichian, Shandong and Jiangus provinces were ranked as the top three. Chongqing, Shanghai and Chengdu were selected to be major cities for the SO2 emission. 30 refs., 8 figs., 9 tabs.

  8. Study on heat collector of the solar system utilizing outdoor air. Experimental results in cases of cold and warm regions; Gaiki donyushiki solar system no shunetsubu ni kansuru kenkyu. Kanreichi to ondanchi ni okeru shunetsu jikken to kosatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komano, S.; Ebara, Y. [OM Solar Association, Shizuoka (Japan); Wada, H. [Wada Building Constructors Co. Ltd., Hokkaido (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    An experiment on heat collection was made in the heat collector of a solar system utilizing outdoor air in cold and warm regions. In this system, outdoor air is heated by the air circulation layer on the roof exposed to solar radiation. The heated air is supplied to the object space for heating and ventilation. In the experiment in a cold region, the heat collection characteristics can be adjusted by putting a baffle plate in the air duct according to the experiment of a glass heat collector. The heat collecting air layer on only the iron roof may leak or freeze in the region subject to coldness or heavy snowfall. Therefore, preheat forms the space of a garret, and the preheat temperature comparatively becomes low. The data in which the heat collection characteristics can be adjusted using only a glass heat collector is required corresponding to the regional situation. In the experiment in a warm region, an experiment was made inclusive of the preheat for which outdoor air is absorbed at the eaves. As a result, the heat collection characteristics of preheat were improved. Moreover, a heat collection temperature of about 60{degree}C was obtained on the heat collection surface including the preheat. 1 ref., 12 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. Stratigraphy and eruption ages of deposits at the southeast side of Nishiyama volcano, Hachijo island during the last 2,500 years; Hachijojima, Nishiyama kazan nantoroku ni okeru saikin 2,500 nenkan no funshutsubutsu no sojo to funka nendai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugihara, S.; Shimada, S. [Meiji University, Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-10-25

    The Nishiyama volcano of the Hachijo island is a stratovolcano whose volcanic activity started approximately 10,000 years ago. Among the lateral volcanos surrounding the cone-shaped mountain, there is a Kandoyama tuff cone formed by a phreatomagmatic eruption at the southeastern base of the Nishiyama volcano. It is known that Kandoyama`s latest eruption is not older than 4,000 years. In this report, the stratigraphy of eruptive deposits and the types of eruptions involving Nishiyama after Kandoyama formation are clarified. Also, the history of Nishiyama` eruption is discussed, for which a study is made about the stratigraphic relationship between its eruption and the results of {sup 14}C dating or the eruption remainders, corresponding terrestrial episodes recorded in ancient literature usable for eruption dating, etc. The conclusion is summarized below. The eruptive deposits are to be supposedly dated at a period after the completion of caldera aggradation. At the southeastern base of Nishiyama, the eruption of 1605 is to immediately follow the eruption of approximately 1,100 years ago, and no eruption so active as to cause the outflow of lava is noticed therebetween. It is inferred that the Nishiyama volcano erupts once in a period of 300-700 years. 44 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. General report on investigations of fault, earthquake motion and damage due to the 1995 Hyogoken-nanbu Earthquake; 1995 nen Hyogoken nanbu jishin ni okeru danso, jishindo, higai ni kansuru chosa kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    Compiled herein are the results of various investigations and examinations conducted concerning the 1995 Hyogoken-nambu earthquake. Along the boundary surface between the granite and Osaka group, and in the Osaka group, accumulated displacements and flexural structures are found, supposedly attributable to faulting, by high-density electric prospecting and underground radar prospecting near the Nojima earthquake fault. Displaced structures in the unconsolidated covering layer are detected to the depth of 10-odd meters. Displacement of ground water due to earthquake is different between the shallow and deep layers, which can be explained by a simplified model. The dynamic stress drop in the main shock is equal to the maximum ({Delta}{gamma}) value of each of the aftershocks, and there exists a certain ceiling over the {Delta}{gamma}dependence on the earthquake moment. The maximum acceleration of the earthquake motion estimated from waveforms in the rock is approximately 300 gals, which probably results from the concentration in one direction of the inputted energy wherein long period components are dominant. The newly developed nonlinear analysis technique simulates the attenuation and amplification of acceleration accompanied by liquefaction, and the buckling behavior of bridge columns may be explained by this technique. 72 refs., 84 figs., 6 tabs.

  11. Solute element distribution and carbide formation in Ni-base superalloys fabricated by rheocasting. Kaiten kakuhan gyokoshita Ni ki chogokin ni okeru yoshitsu genso no bunpu to tankabutsu seisei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okazaki, Y.; Ichikawa, K. (Mechanical Engineering Laboratory, Tsukuba (Japan)); Matsuo, M. (Nippon Steel Corp., Tokyo (Japan))

    1991-07-20

    An attention has begun being given on a method for manufacturing highly ductile metallic materials by means of mechanically stirring the materials in solid-liquid coexisting region and uniformly micronizing the structure. This study discussed effects of the rotation stirring on the microstructures, distribution of solute elements, carbide formation, phosphorous segregation and solid-liquid distribution coefficients in the Ni-base superalloy TMP-3. The results obtained may be summarized as: In the agitated structural material stirred at 70 rev/s in the solid-liquid coexisting region, the dendrite structure was broken up and equiaxed grain structure with the primary solid particle size of 65{plus minus}15{mu}m was formed; the element distribution of Ni, Cr, Co, Al, Ti, Mo, Nb, and W showed no noticeable difference by positions in the structure; the size of{gamma}{prime} phase precipitated on crystal boundaries decreases when cast by rheocasting than when cast stationarily; and the carbides of Nb, Ti and Mo precipitate uniformly along grain boundaries, different from that they precipitate in a plate form in stationary casting. 19 refs., 13 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. Roles of calcareous nannofossil in petroleum exploration. Its usefulness for biostratigraphy, sequence stratigraphy and paleoceanography; Sekiyu tanko ni okeru sekitanshitsu nanno kaseki no yakuwari. Sono seiso jogaku, sequence so jogaku oyobi kokaiyogakuteki yukosei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiramatsu, C. [Japan Petroleum Exploration Corp., Musashino, Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-05-01

    Conventionally, stratigraphy of oil field area of East-northern Japan Sea side was decided and used by foraminifer fossils. Foraminifer fossils analysis has various types of benefits not only from the aspect of rich in data, easy available of data at the exploration site, promptness, formation sequence decision but also from the point of view of wider application area such as estimation of paleo-environment using bottom species and so forth, and even at present, it covers the most important position in the fine fossil analysis of well samples. Research of calcareous nannofossil of East-northern coast region of the Japan Sea has been promoted rapidly since the beginning of 1980`s, and its effectiveness for the detail determination of stratigraphy age has been stressed. According to this research findings, quaternary section will be possible with contrast of about 10,000 order by using calcareous nannofossil base. In this report, simple introduction of the application of calcareous nannofossil stratigraphy to oil exploration in the same region together with the role of calcareous nannofossil in the oil exploration, are described. 29 refs., 8 figs.

  13. Study on the performances of handling and stability influenced by the differential terms in the state variables; Soansei ni okeru jotai hensunai no bibun yoso ga seino ni oyobosu eikyo no kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugasawa, F. [Tamagawa University, Tokyo (Japan); Mori, H. [Nissan Motor Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    The analysis method using the system matrix for state variables can not be applied to the analysis for the system has Complex Cornering Stiffness. The reason is there are differential terms in the state variables. It is found that the differential terms m the state variables can be changed to the constant terms in another state variables. 4 refs., 9 figs.

  14. Combustion characteristics of spark ignition and pilot flame ignition systems in a stratified charge Wankel type rotary engine; Sojo kyuki bankerugata rotary kikan ni okeru spark plug tenka to pilot kaen tenka ni yoru nensho tokusei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Y.; Moriyoshi, Y.; Wada, Y. [Chiba University, Chiba (Japan); Muroki, T. [Kanagawa Institute of Technology, Kanagawa (Japan)

    1998-05-25

    A pilot flame ignition system, which has superior characteristics in the high ignition energy and the large flame contact area to a conventional spark ignition system, is experimentally examined by the indicated pressure analysis and the high speed direct photography. A model combustion chamber, which simulates a Wankel-type direct injection stratified charge rotary engine, was employed to test the ignition performance of both the pilot flame ignition and spark ignition systems. As a result, it was found that the pilot flame system successfully ignites the very lean charge stratified mixture which the spark system fails to ignite and that the combustion characteristic difference using different ignition systems becomes small as the overall equivalence ratio is increased. 6 refs., 15 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Stabilizing control of continuous DTB crystallizer. Influence of undissolved fine crystals in external heater; DTB gata renzoku shosekiki no anteika seigyo. Gaibu kanetsuki ni okeru bisho kessho tokenokori no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naito, Kiyoshi; Sotowa, Ken' ichi; Kano, Manabu; Hasebe, Shinji; Hashimoto, Iori [Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1999-01-10

    In the study of modeling and control of continuous DTB crystallizers, it has been common practice to assume complete dissolution of fine crystals in an external heater (fines dissolver). However, complete dissolution of fine crystals is not always guaranteed because the dissolution rate is finite. In this work, a model of an external heater is developed by taking account of the finite dissolution rate of the crystals. The model is used to study the influence of incomplete dissolution of fine crystals on the stabilizing control of the crystal size distribution (CSD). It is found to be difficult to suppress the sustained oscillation of CSD by using the conventional SISO controllers, which regulate the amount of fines crystals by manipulating the fines flow rate. This is because when the fines flow rate is very large, an increase in the fines flow rate can reduce the amount of crystal dissolution in the external heater. It is demonstrated that instability can be avoided by imposing an upper limit on the fines flow rate. Furthermore, it is shown that the upper limit can be predicted by using the results of open-loop simulation. (author)

  16. Relationship between the electric resistivity and the rain fall in discontinuity zone of rock slope by the continuous measurement; Renzoku tokei ni yoru ganban shamen no furenzokutaibu ni okeru mikake hiteiko henka to kou tono kankei ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kusumi, H.; Nishida, K. [Kansai University, Osaka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Nakamura, M. [Newjec Inc., Osaka (Japan)

    1996-10-01

    The relationship between change in resistivity and rainfall was studied by continuously measuring resistivities of fracture zone and stratum boundary along the measuring line of 95m long from the top to bottom of rock slope. The measurement field was located on a hill of 150-200m high at the northern part of Arima-Takatsuki tectonic line. Electrodes of 30m in maximum measuring depth were arranged at 289 points by dipole-dipole method. Resistivity was continuously measured at time intervals of 6 hours. Apparent resistivity was hardly affected by rainfall at points with less infiltration of stormwater from the ground surface, while it decreased by rainfall at points on fracture zone, stratum boundary or bleeding channel. The change rate of apparent resistivity could be approximated with the exponential function of rainfall. In such case, the apparent resistivity under most dried condition at the concerned point should be used as reference maximum apparent resistivity. The change rate of apparent resistivity due to rainfall in fracture zone reflects infiltration of stormwater, suggesting to be useful for disaster prevention of slopes. 5 refs., 6 figs.

  17. Utilization of two-way multicore cables and comparison of various electrode configurations in electrical prospecting; Denki tansa ni okeru sohokogata tashin cable no riyo to kakushu dekyoku haichi no hikaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takakura, S. [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan); Matsushima, J. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-10-01

    For more precise electrical prospecting, the new multicore cable was developed to allow high-density measurement by conventional equipment. Since conventional multicore cables are inferior in cost, length and weight, the new cable is composed of an n-conductor cable, two n-conductor male connectors and n lead wires. For connection of the multi-conductor cable and lead wires, cable sheath is peeled at n points at specific intervals. Sheath of the k-th conductor is peeled at k-th point from the terminal, and restored for insulation after connection of the conductor and lead wire. The male connectors are attached to the both ends of the multi-conductor cable. Since this two-way type cable can be used at every end, the measuring equipment can measure at one divisional point after another of a long measuring line while shifting the equipment from one point to another. All measurements are perfected only with two short cables. Resistivities were successfully measured along the long measuring line of 480m long with 97 electrodes arranged at intervals of 5m. Various electrode configurations were also compared. 1 ref., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Baseline experiment of interferometric PGS at the EDM network in the south Kanto area, Japan. GPS kansho sokuiho ni yoru kisen sokuryo no kiso jikken (Minamikanto koha sokuryomo ni okeru hikaku kansoku)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, T.; Murata, I.; Matsumoto, S.; Hirata, Y.; Takahashi, T. (The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Earthquake Research Institute); Tsuchiya, A. (National Space Development Agency of Japan, Tokyo (Japan)); Watada, S. (California Institute of Technology, California (USA)); Iga, A. (Sony Corp., Tokyo (Japan))

    1991-11-25

    The first field baseline observation using SONY GTT-4000, a GPS (Global Positioning System) interferometer was conducted at the EDM (Electromagnetic Distance Measurements) network of the Earthquake Research Institute in the southern Kanto Area, Japan. For the experiments, three GTT-4000 receivers of single frequency version were deployed at three sites which compose a triangle with side distances of about 8km, 12km, and 14km. The present paper introduces the receiver briefly, and the distances obtained by this receiver are compared with those obtained by the EDM observations. Consequently, it was shown that the results by GTT-4000 coincided well with those by EDM with less than 2ppm of accuracy. It was also shown that misclosures of the triangle which was obtained by the relative coordinate estimates were smaller than 1ppm. Furthermore, it was revealed that due to introduction of upgraded dual frequency capability, the receiver can reduce the effect of the ionospheric path delays. 5 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Measurements of fiber orientation in two-dimensional fiber suspension flow using image-processing method; Gazo shoriho ni yoru sen`i gan`yutai no nijigen nagare ni okeru sen`i haiko no sokutei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chono, S.; Tanoue, S.; Iemoto, Y. [Fukui University, Fukui (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1998-10-25

    Orientation profiles of fibers in fiber suspension flow between two parallel plates with a square cylinder on the center axis was studied by using the computer image analysis. The orientational order parameter S decreases near the square cylinder because the flow changes its direction and also a wake is developed, while it is large near the channel wall owing to high shear deformation. The preferred angle and S decrease in the downstream vicinity of the square cylinder, and reach fully-developed values at a farther area. S along the channel center axis increases with increasing a fiber concentration and the Reynolds number. The size of a square cylinder has an effect on the fiber orientation near the cylinder. Since a stagnation region and a large wake are developed before and after a cylinder for a viscoelastic fluid, a lower value of S near the cylinder is obtained for the viscoelastic fluid compared to that for a Newtonian fluid. At a downstream area, however, the viscoelastic fluid gives a higher values of S. 21 refs., 14 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Effect of surface active compounds on growth and adhesion of anchorage-dependent animal cells at liquid/liquid interface; Eki/ekikaimen ni okeru fuchaku izonsei dobutsu saibo no zoshoku oyobi fuchaku ni taisuru kaimen kassei busshitsu no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiba, Y.; Oshima, T.; Sato, M. [Gunma Univ., Kiryu (Japan). Faculty of Technology

    1998-03-01

    A cell cultivation using a liquid/liquid (culture medium/fluorocarbon) interface has been practiced as a novel culturing method for anchorage-dependent animal cells, and it is known that cell adhesion at the interface is dependent on the contaminants contained in the hydrophobic liquid. Substances effective for the adhesion and growth of cells are investigated using various surfactants. As a result of comparison of ionic and nonionic surfactants, cell adhesion is observed when ionic surfactant is used, indicating the importance of the electric charge of surfactant. Cell growth is better when ionic surfactant is added to fluorocarbon than when surfactant is added to the culture medium. The cell growth using fluorocarbon added with pentafluorobenzoyl chloride and perfluorooctanoyl chloride is similar to that of culturing using polystyrene, and the importance of surfactant addition to fluorocarbon is indicated. 7 refs., 4 figs.