Sample records for okeru denkai kyodo

  1. Measurement of electric intensity distribution inside a human cadaver cochlea for multichannel cochlear implants; Multichannel jinko naiji no tame no hito no tekishutsu kagyunai ni okeru denkai kyodo bunpu no sokutei

    Miyoshi, S.; Ifukube, T.; Matsushima, J. [Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan)


    We have proposed a Tripolar Electrode Stimulation Method (TESM) which may succeed in narrowing the stimulation region and continuously moving the stimulation site for cochlear implants. The TESM stimulates the auditory nerve array through lymph liquid using the 3 adjacent electrodes which are selected among the electrodes of an electrode array. The currents from the two electrodes on both sides are emitted and a central electrode receives them. The current received by the central electrode is made equal to the sum of the currents emitted from the electrodes on both sides. In this paper, the electric intensity profiles produced by the TESM and the monopolar stimulation were measured in a human cadaver cochlea and in a saline solution. As a result, in the TESM, the electric intensity profile produced in the human cadaver cochlea was about the same as that in the saline solution In monopolar stimulation, the electric intensity profile was broader than that of TESM in a human cadaver cochlea. 9 refs., 14 figs.

  2. Drop behavior in acoustic standing waves; Teizaihachu ni okeru ekiteki no kyodo

    Kamimura, H. [National Aerospace Laboratory, Tokyo (Japan); Yamanaka, T. [Yokohama National University, Yokohama (Japan)


    When new materials, such as those for space shuttles, are developed, it is necessary to hold then in a non-contacting manner. Described herein is behavior of drops in a holding device which utilizes acoustic radiation pressure. When an object sufficiently small as compared with wavelength of a sound wave is placed in acoustic standing waves, it is subjected to acoustic radiation pressure. Chandrasekahr developed the theory on the stability of a rotating drop by equating the entire mechanical energy of a drop with its surface energy. This theory, based on the assumption of symmetric surface energy, is incapable of theoretically dealing with multi-lobed waves evolved by surface tension. In this study, multi-lobed waves excited by sound waves in a rotating drop are analytically found without assuming symmetry of drop surface energy. The multi-lobe waves are first found on the assumption that the acoustic radiation pressure around a drop is constant. Then, the effects of the deformed drop on the radiation pressure around the drop are considered. In addition, the equation for the relationship between the radiation pressure and a drop that becomes oblate due to the radiation pressure is obtained. The theoretically derived results by this equation are in good agreement with the observed results by the ground and flight tests. 17 refs., 18 figs.

  3. Survey of Joint Implementation activities in China; Chugoku ni okeru kyodo jisshi katsudo kanren chosa



    It is a large task for Japan to positively promote the Joint Implementation activities related to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Rapid increase in the emission of greenhouse-effect gases, especially CO2, is predicted in China with remarkable economic growth and population of 1.2 billion. It is essential to promote the Joint Implementation activities in China. In this survey, framework, organization, problems and tasks were investigated to effectively promote the Joint Implementation activities in China. Construction of framework for the real Joint Implementation activities has been proposed. Current problems for promoting the Joint Implementation activities in China are that the distinct guideline for the Joint Implementation is not established in the government, that the receiving system including receiving, planning and arranging sections is not established, and that the burden problems for the costs of project evaluation, data acquisition, monitoring, and verification are not solved. 5 refs., 21 figs., 6 tabs.

  4. Report on the joint research on the technology development of energy use reduction gas diffusion electrode salt electrolysis; Kyodo kenkyu energy shiyo gorika gas kakusan denkyoku shokuen denkai gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho



    For the purpose of energy conservation in the 'soda industry' which is an energy multi-consumption industry, study was made of the commercialization applying 'gas diffusion electrode' which is used for fuel cells, and the FY 2000 results were summed up. As to the development of production technology of gas diffusion electrode, conditional studies were conducted of the material production process, grinding process, mixing machine, filling, coating process, hot press process, etc. Concerning the evaluation of durability of the gas diffusion electrode, analysis of long-term operation electrode was conducted, and a lot of information on the degradation mechanism was obtained. In the degraded electrode, wetting of gas diffusion layer is going on, which is thought to directly cause the degradation. It is supposed that between the stable electrode and the degraded electrode, there are no changes in diameter of carbon powder and there is no carbon consumption. As to the verification test using the practical scale electrolytic cell, a trial operation started in February 2001. About the electrolytic performance, the electrolytic voltage is appropriately 2.2V, keeping the stable numerical value. The comparatively favorable performance is being maintained. (NEDO)

  5. Studies on the mechanical behavior of rock anchors. ; Results of in-situ pull-out tests. Rock anchor no rikigaku kyodo ni kansuru kenkyu. ; Gen prime ichi shiken ni okeru anchor no kyodo

    Arimoto, K.; Ebisu, S.; Nakagawa, M.; Usui, M.; Someya, T.; Machida, N. (Okumura Corp., Tokyo (Japan))


    The rock anchor method is planned to apply to some permanent structures but since this method was developed for temporary structures, the clarification of the transferring mechanism of force from an anchor to a rockmass, the fracture mechanism and the development of the dynamic model have not been established. This paper arranged the data obtained by a full-scale, in-situ pulling out test of a rock anchor as the first step to understand the dynamic behavior and analyzed by paying attetion to the modulus of deformation of the rockmass where the anchor was embedded to elucidate the affecting degree of rockmass modulus of deformation, the embedded length and the tendon diameter on the dynamic behavior of the anchor. The rock anchor behavior could be expressed accurately by applying a theoretical solution derived by the balancing condition of forces at the boundary face. Especially, when the rockmass is uniform and the fracture occurrs at the interface between the tendon and grout, this approach can express the fracture with the accuracy similar to that made by the finite element method. 6 refs., 11 figs.,1 tab.

  6. Preliminary research on the activities implemented jointly (AIJ) workshop. Present AIJ in China; Kyodo jisshi katsudo workshop ni kansuru jizen chosa. Chugoku ni okeru kyodo jisshi katsudo no genjo



    In order to positively promote the activities implemented jointly (AIJ) of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, the AIJ workshop acting in contact with Asia/Pacific countries, in particular, Chine having large effect on global environmental pollution was researched preliminarily. AIJ approved in the convention is the effective means to promote measures against global warming cost-effectively by optimally combining every developed country`s technology, know-how and fund. Distribution of the credit for greenhouse gas emission reduction by AIJ is unsolved because of the disagreement of views between developed and developing countries. The pilot phase of AIJ projects is carried out by voluntary workers jointly with developing countries until establishment of international rules. In fiscal 1995, the following were studied: the framework necessary for AIJ between Japan and China, the organization for promoting concrete AIJ projects, and the means to create the reliance of China for AIJ projects. 6 refs., 10 figs.

  7. Temperature effect on corrosion fatigue strength of coated ship structural steel; Zosen`yoko tosozai no fushoku hiro kyodo ni okeru ondo no eikyo

    Takanashi, M.; Fuji, A.; Kojima, M.; Kitagawa, M. [Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Kobayashi, Y. [Ship Research Inst., Tokyo (Japan); Kumakura, Y.


    The corrosion fatigue life was obtained using uncoated and tar epoxy resin specimens to clarify the temperature effect. The life curve for corrosion fatigue of machined and uncoated steel in the air and sea was obtained. The fatigue strength of uncoated steel largely decreases in the sea and breaks even in the nominal stress range of less than 1/2 of the fatigue limit in the air. The effect of temperature on the coated steel is represented by a corrosion coefficient. The steel coated at 25{degree}C is 1/1.03 to 1/1.13 at 40 to 60{degree}C. This showed that the fatigue strength decreases when the temperature exceeds 25{degree}C. However, it has not such tendency and significance that are represented quantitatively. There is a slight difference in the short-life area between the crack generation life and breaking life. However, the long-life area has no significance that influences the whole evaluation. In the long-life corrosion fatigue, the crack occurs from the corrosion pit due to the exposure below the coated film and progresses in the base material before the coated film is destroyed. The effect of the corrosion pit remarkably appears at a low-stress level. 14 refs., 14 figs., 4 tabs.

  8. Research report for fiscal 1998. Promotion of activities implemented jointly etc. in China; 1998 nendo Chugoku ni okeru kyodo jisshi katsudo nado suishin chosa



    The Kyoto Protocol allows some flexibility in the implementation of methods for achieving the goal, such as emission trading, activities implemented jointly (AIJ) among advanced countries, construction of clean development mechanisms (CDM) with developing countries, etc., and Japan intends to positively make use of them for the achievement of the goal. For China, who holds second place in the list of greenhouse gas emitting countries in the world, the promotion of CDM is quite important. With the situation taken into consideration, interaction was effected with Chinese officers and scientists of government agencies and academic institutes involved in environmental matters, and researches were conducted. Views and information were exchanged regarding environmental problems and, after on-site investigations, researches were conducted and suggestions were presented as to how AIJ and CDM should be. The suggestions covered Chinese policies toward AIJ and CDM, current state of AIJ projects in China and systems for their promotion, means for enhancing such projects, and discovery of candidates for AIJ and CDM project application. (NEDO)

  9. Study on the behavior of reaction disk in the vacuum brake booster; Shinkushiki bairyoku sochi ni okeru reaction disk no kyodo kaiseki jikken

    Kuroda, M; Sawada, T; Kato, Y [Tokyo Univ. of Agriculture and Technology, Tokyo (Japan); Ogawa, E; Nakamura, S [Jidosha Kiki Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    Vacuum brake booster has been widely applied in automobiles, and it needs much time for experiments in order to design a new type model and so on. In this report concentrating on the behavior of a reaction disc, it was simulated by ARAQUS FEM program where coefficients of rubber disc are Mooney-Rivlin constants. It was shown that the numerical results represent good agreement with experiments, and in addition that values of jumping force which shows the starting point of the brake increases with the increment of the hardness of the disc, clearance and so on. 2 refs., 10 figs.

  10. Analysis of combustion behavior in DI diesel engine at low temperature; DI diesel engine ni okeru teionji no nensho kyodo kaiseki

    Kuzuya, Y; Shibata, H [Nippon Soken, Inc., Tokyo (Japan); Aoki, S; Itatsu, T [Toyota Motor Corp., Aichi (Japan)


    For NOx reduction of a DI diesel engine, the retard of fuel injection timing is effective. However, it causes the white smoke at low temperature and low load. To analyze the mechanism of white smoke generation, a new visualizing system of fuel spray and flame behavior has been developed. This system can be also applied to a 4-valves per cylinder production engine by integrating two optical systems for image and lighting. From the visualization of the fuel spray and the flame behavior in the combustion chamber at low temperature, it has been proved that prompt fuel evaporation before reaching the wall surface of combustion chamber is required to reduce the white smoke. 6 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. Report on survey of promotion of activities implemented jointly in China in FY 1997; 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho (Chugoku ni okeru kyodo jisshi katsudo no suishin chosa)



    Rapid economy growth has been observed in Asia including Japan. On the other hand, problems of population and environment grew even worse with the economic growth. Especially, China is the second CO2 emission country in the world. Large energy demand is still forecasted with its economic growth in the future. It is well-known that the energy consumption per unit GDP is very large. Therefore, it is very significant to promote the activities implemented jointly with China for mitigating the emission of greenhouse gases including CO2, which provides a significant meaning for solving global environmental issues as well as for improving regional environmental issues. It is necessary for the above to recognize the appropriate current situations and to promote the activities implemented jointly suitable for the country. Based on the discussions and information exchanges about environmental issues with staffs concerning environmental policies and scientists as well as the field surveys, methods for the activities implemented jointly were investigated to provide some proposals. 4 figs., 8 tabs.

  12. Fatigue behavior of boxing welded joint under biaxial cyclic loads; 2juku kurikaeshi kajuka ni okeru kakumawashi yosetsu keishu no hiro kyodo

    Takahashi, I.; Takada, A.; Akiyama, S.; Ushijima, M.; Maenaka, H. [Ministry of Transportation, Tokyo (Japan)


    Various forces such as gravity, wave induced force, inertial force etc. compositely act on a ship body from various directions. Therefore, while discussing strength or life of structural elements of ship body, it is necessary to understand the effects of the composite force condition. In this study, fatigue tests of boxing welded joint under rectangular biaxial cyclic loads are performed, the following results are obtained. Even under he biaxial cyclic loads, it is the same as the uniaxial test, the cracks occurred at the boxing weld toes propagate almost in the straight y-direction, but no oblique propagation of the cracks caused by the lad in the y-direction occurs. That the crack at initial stage of the crack progress is improved in y-direction can be illustrated by the facts that the residual stress in x-direction near the toes reaches to the yield stress, and the stress concentration in the welded toes is bigger in x-direction than that in y-direction. But as for prediction of the progress route, a further study including amplitude ratio of the biaxial loads, effects of width of test specimen is necessary. 4 refs., 12 figs., 4 tabs.

  13. Basic investigation on promotion of joint implementation in fiscal 2000. Survey on energy saving and CO2 emission reduction in Cilacap Refinery; 2000 nendo kyodo jisshi nado suishin kiso chosa hokokusho. Cilacap seiyusho ni okeru shoene CO2 sakugen chosa



    With an objective of saving energy and reducing greenhouse gas emission, a basic survey has been performed on the atmospheric crude oil distillation units and the high vacuum distillation units at Cilacap Refinery in Indonesia. The first site survey in September 2000 has carried out a survey on the situation of the facilities and operation upon obtaining the facility data and operation information from Pertamina. As a result, it was revealed that there is a room of improvement in the heat recovery, whereas a modification design was executed on the improvement proposals on the heat exchanger system. However, the second site survey in November 2000 has revealed that Pertamina had executed in 1998 through 1999 the de-bottlenecking project on the crude oil atmospheric distillation units (two units) and the high vacuum distillation units (two units), by which the capability has been expanded, and the heat recovery rate has been increased. It is not possible to look for extremely large enhancement of the heat recovery rate beyond that point, and the reduction of CO2 emission would also be small. As a result of discussions, the present project was found capable of reducing annually the CO2 emission by 36,500 tons. (NEDO)

  14. Metabolism of sulfate-reducing bacteria and corrosion behavior of carbon steel in the continuous culturing medium; Renzoku baiyo baichichu ni okeru ryusan`en kangen no taisha to tansoko no fushoku kyodo

    Baba, F.; Suzuki, T. [Ajinomoto Co. Inc., Tokyo (Japan); Seo, M. [Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan)


    Investigations were made on metabolism of sulfate-reducing bacteria and corrosion behavior of carbon steel in the continuous culturing medium. Sulfate-reducing bacteria were cultured for 50 days by supplying the culturing medium prepared to a prescribed chemical composition (containing Fe {sup 2+} at 0.01 mol/kg) at a rate of 10 cm {sup 3}/h, and drawing them out at the same rate. Test carbon steel pieces were immersed into this culturing medium. As a result, the following matters were clarified: the number of bacteria is maintained at more than 10 {sup 10}/cm{sup 3} after several days since inauguration of the immersion, with the bacteria stably producing H2S and FeS until the culturing is finished; comma-shaped bacteria which move actively and rod-shaped bacteria which do not move very actively exist in the culturing medium; a black film has been produced on surface of the test pieces throughout the culturing period, and satin-like corrosion was found underneath the surface; and weight increase of this film and weight decrease of the lower layer progress as the time lapses (the weight decrease of the lower layer has reached 40 mg/cm{sup 2} in 50 days). 28 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Fiscal 1997 report on a feasibility survey of cooperation in relation to the joint implementation activities in Southeast Asian countries (6 nations); 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho (Tonan Asia chiikikoku (rokkakoku) ni okeru kyodo jisshi katsudo kanren no kyoryoku kanosei chosa)



    In the COP3 Conference on Global Warming held in Kyoto in December 1997, the framework on greenhouse gases was agreed in discussions comprehensively made among Japan, the U.S. and the E.U. As a result, it is for 6 gases including CO2 and methane, and total emissions in developed countries are to be reduced 5% at least during 2008-2012 from the 1990 level. Target of each country is determined by gaps, and Japan`s reduction target is 6%. Therefore, to pass the numerical target agreed, it is necessary to take measures such as rationalization of the energy use by energy saving, etc. in the country and also measures such as promotion of the greenhouse gas emission control in developing countries. Accordingly, for the future development of NEDO`s AIJ project, a possibility of cooperation in the joint implementation was surveyed such as the state of greenhouse gas emissions of countries which are objects of GAP in Southeast Asian countries and neighboring countries, policies of the countries after the COP3 agreement, technological transfer for the emission control, etc. Countries for survey are Thailand, Indonesia, the Philippines, Malaysia, Vietnam and Myanmar. 21 figs., 15 tabs.

  16. FY 1997 report of survey on the intellectual property in international collaboration research project; 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho (kokusai kyodo kenkyu ni okeru chiteki zaisanken ni tsuite no chosa hokokusho)



    In promoting international collaboration research project, coordination of the patent system of each country which participants to the project belong to has broad implications in concluding the contract for the project. For example, in Japan, 100% of the patent belongs to the government for contrast or collaboration project with the government. While, in the USA, the patent developed by the private company belongs to the private company even for the contrast project. In Japan, the shared patent can not be transferred to the third party or implemented without agreement with the partner. While, in the USA, the shared patent can be transferred to the third party or implemented without agreement with the partner. Due to such a difference, some projects can not be established by ill coordination of intellectual property even when the meaning of the projects is well understood. In this survey, was investigated the outline of patent systems of major countries to study about what should well balanced treatment of intellectual property in international collaboration research project be in the future. 4 figs., 8 tabs.

  17. Report for fiscal 2000 investigations on Activities Implemented Jointly in China and promotion of transfer to CDM; 2000 nendo Chugoku ni okeru kyodo jisshi katsudo oyobi CDM eno iko suishin chosa hokokusho



    It is purposed to promote the Activities Implemented Jointly (AIJ) and the clean development mechanism (CDM) intended of reducing carbon dioxide emission amount in China. Investigations have been performed on China's environment and energy problems, CDM assignments and transfer means, and project candidates. China emits a great amount of CO2 due to coal combustion, and the CO2 emission is anticipated to increase from the coal burning thermal power generation that may continue into the future. Countermeasures for the thermal power department as the object are required. Since 1997, China has been performing the AIJ project with Norway, Japan, and America, wherein such projects have been implemented with Japan as the dry coke fire extinguishing facility model project, the energy saving model project using alloy iron electric furnaces, and the model project to utilize effectively the refuse combustion waste heat. China is one of the countries in which the greenhouse effect gas emission reducing project can be performed at a minimum cost, who will be the important party in the CDM performed by the developed countries to achieve their obligation to reduce the greenhouse effect gas emission. (NEDO)

  18. Study on strategies in joint implementation and its improvement to reduce CO2 emissions; CO2 sakugen no tame no kyodo jisshi ni okeru senryaku oyobi sono kaizen hosaku no kenkyu

    Matsuhashi, R.; Ishitani, H. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)


    In order to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, we have to introduce measures to suppress economic differences between developed countries (DC) and less developed countries (LDC) as well as accelerate technology improvement. In this sense, Joint Implementation (JI) is a promising measure not only to economically reduce greenhouse gas emissions, but also to facilitate technology transfer from DC to LDC. In this article, we first investigated JI strategies, in which LDC can improve industrial energy efficiency under financial support of DC. Strategies of countries involved in JI was represented with Stackelberg game. Analytical results revealed that JI activities may considerably be diminished in Stackelberg equilibrium, depending on shapes of the marginal cost functions of reducing CO2. Therefore we proposed measures to prevent the suppression of JI and quantitatively evaluated the potential of this improved JI system. As far as actual data on economy and industry are concerned, we used the ones of Japan and China, since China has been rapidly increasing its economic scale and greenhouse gas emissions. However implications from these analyses are useful also for other countries. 8 refs., 7 figs.

  19. FY 1998 basic survey to promote the joint execution, etc. Overall repair plan of thermal power plants in Maritime Province of Russia; 1998 nendo kyodo jisshi nado suishin kiso chosa. Roshia Enkaishu ni okeru karyoku hatsudensho sogo kaishu keikaku



    For thermal power plants in Maritime Province of Russia, a repair plan for effective reduction of emission of greenhouse effect gas was worked out as a draft plan for the joint execution. The project is to be implemented for the additional installation/replacement of boilers at Vladivostok No. 2 power plant, construction of a power plant as a substitute for Partizansk power plant, and new construction of Ussuriisk power plant. The draft plan includes the new installation of two gas-fired boilers/replacement of existing boilers at Vladivostok No. 2 power plant, construction of 200MW cogeneration facility at Partizansk power plant, construction of 180MW cogeneration facility at Ussuriisk power plant, abolition of small-sized boiler station, etc. The reduction amount of the greenhouse effect gas emission based on this repair plan totaled 338 million tons in project. The effect against cost is US$ 4.75 per 1 CO2 ton at Vladivostok. (NEDO)

  20. Fiscal 1997 research report. Research on the possibility of the joint implementation activity among 6 Southeast Asia countries; 1997 nendo Tonan Asia chiikikoku (6 kakoku) ni okeru kyodo jisshi katsudo kanren no kyoryoku kanosei chosa hokokusho



    COP3 agreed on greenhouse effect gases and their regulation framework through the comprehensive discussion mainly by Japan, U.S.A. and EU in Dec. 1997. As a result, it was decided that greenhouse effect gases include such 6 gases as CO{sub 2} and methane, and such gases emission should be reduced by at least 5% during 2008-2012 in developed countries as compared with that in 1990, including reduction by 6% for Japan. Promotion of countermeasures for rationalization of energy use by energy saving in Japan, and those for emission control of greenhouse effect gases in developing countries are thus necessary to achieve the decided numerical target. For promotion of the future joint implementation activity of NEDO, survey was made on emission situations of greenhouse effect gases, and policies for COP3 in GAP countries such as Thailand and Indonesia, and neighboring countries in Southeast Asia area. Survey was also made on the possibility of the joint implementation activity such as technology transfer for emission control of greenhouse effect gases. (NEDO)

  1. Basic survey project for joint implementation. Feasibility study for the diffusion of fluidized bed cement kiln system in China; 1998 nendo kyodo jisshi nado suishin kiso chosa. Chugoku ni okeru ryudosho cement kirun fukyu chosa



    Discussions were given on conversion of shaft kilns mainly used at Tianjin Cement and Huaxin Cement to the fluidized bed cement kiln of the most advanced type. Possibility of energy conservation in China, that is reduction of carbon dioxide emission, was evaluated. This system has been developed by the Center for Coal Utilization, Japan. The system is characterized by reduction of greenhouse effect gas emission, elimination of the problem of dust scattering from sintering facilities, stabilized production of high-quality clinker, capability of using low-grade coal and anthracite, and reduction of cement production cost. As a result of the discussions, the reduction rate of greenhouse effect gases was found about 17 to 33%. The cost effect may be calculated as 2 to 5 thousand yen per ton of CO2 reduction amount assuming the system life of 20 years. If this process has been diffused into China, the quantity of CO2 to be reduced will reach about four million tons annually assuming a diffusion rate of 10%. This project shows as high profitability as about 20% at IRR, and the system is more advantageous economically than the shaft kiln. (NEDO)

  2. FY 2000 report on the basic survey to promote Joint Implementation, etc. Upgrading of energy utilization in the cement production process; 2000 nendo kyodo jisshi nado suishin kiso chosa hokokusho. Cement seizo kotei ni okeru energy kodoka



    An investigational study was conducted of a project for energy conservation and greenhouse effect gas reduction by introducing the steam injection gas turbine generator to production facilities of the Siam Cement Industry Corporation (SCI) in Thailand. In the project, studies were made on the following: no purchases of electric power by introduction of the steam injection gas turbine generator; additional heating by gas turbine exhaust gas by introduction of the kiln combustion air heater; remodeling of the preheater of raw materials, and the partial calcination before kiln sintering by introduction of the calcination furnace. As a result of the study, the energy conservation amount was 1,200 toe/y, and the greenhouse effect gas reduction amount was approximately 8,000 t-CO2/y, which led to the reserve power for increased production of clinker by about 18%. The size of investment was 314.5 million Baht in total. As to the evaluation of economical efficiency of the investment, the actual period of ROI was a little less than 5 years, and the internal earning rate was 17.7%, which substantially met with SCI's standards for equipment investment. However, there are problems on the gas supply infrastructure, recovery of the white cement demand, etc. (NEDO)

  3. Reduction reaction of chlorine gas in an Al-Cl2 chemical cell composed of molten chloride salts; Enkabutsu yoyuenkei Al-Cl2 kagaku denchi ni okeru enso gas no kangen hanno kyodo

    Konda, S.; Sasaki, T.; Ishikawa, T. [Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan)


    The molten salt system electrochemical cycle was proposed to reproduce pure Al from scrap Al. The cycle is composed of production of rough AlCl3 by chlorination of scrap Al, refining of rough AlCl3 mainly by sublimation, and electrolytic reproduction of pure Al from refined AlCl3. In production of AlCl3, the Al-Cl2 molten salt system cell composed of anode dissolution reaction of Al and cathode reduction reaction of chlorine gas can generate electric power for the electrolytic reproduction. Chlorine gas can be recycled as anode product. Various experiments were carried out to improve molten salt system cells. In analysis of cell output, voltage drop from open circuit voltage was divided into that due to electrolytic bath resistance, and that due to reaction resistance. The electrolytic bath resistance could be determined from transient characteristics of voltage change just after cutoff of output current. The product of the obtained reaction resistance and a meniscus length was constant regardless of a meniscus length, and useful to predict scale-up cell performance. Output characteristics dependent on meniscus position were also obtained. 16 refs., 11 figs.

  4. Report of fiscal 1998 results. Feasibility study of overseas technological development (feasibility study for joint research on photovoltaic power generation in Myanmar); 1998 nendo kaigai gijutsu kaihatsu kanosei chosa hokokusho. Myanmar ni okeru taiyoko hatsuden system kyodo kenkyu kanosei chosa



    Feasibility was studied of a demonstrative research concerning effective operation of a hybrid system consisting of photovoltaic, wind and diesel power generations in Myanmar. Upon confirmation of Myanmar's request and assistance, Myanmar electric Power Enterprise was selected as the counterpart, with Kantangyi village determined as the candidate site from the viewpoint of the quantity of solar radiation, wind conditions, and convenience in transportation service. Meteorological observation instruments were installed at Nyaung U observatory, with the observation implemented. It was grasped that the demand spreading pattern and the demand for electric power was 40 kWh/month per household. It was also judged that the system structure should be constituted of photovoltaic power, wind power, and diesel generator/battery/adjustable load. The problems are stable supply technology, technology for effective use of renewable energy, technology for complementary effects of photovoltaic power generation and wind power generation, and demonstration of a 100 kW class wind power generation system. Particularly important is consistency between the capacity of power storage equipment and that of diesel power generation. The study results applicable to Japan is the verification of a small-sized independent system for remote islands or the like. The total research expenses were estimated to be 600 million yen. (NEDO)

  5. Basic research on energy conservation in developing countries. Basic research on promotion of activities implemented jointly (AIJ) (research on possibility of AIJ in developing countries); Hatten tojokoku energy shohi koritsuka kiso chosanado jigyo kyodo jisshi suishin kiso chosa. Hatten tojokoku ni okeru kyodo jisshi katsudo no kanosei chosa hokokusho



    The activities implemented jointly (AIJ) is expected as global measures to reduce greenhouse gas (such as CO2) emission. In this report, the possibility of AIJ projects in developing countries was researched. The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change was signed by 155 countries in 1992. This convention parties approved AIJ projects for measures against global warming. The 1st Conference of the Parties (COPI) held in 1995 approved the pilot phase of AIJ by voluntary workers jointly with developing countries until the end of this century. The trend, level and future plan of energy conservation technologies were researched and analyzed for steelmaking, cement and electric power supply industries in both the Philippine and Thailand. The possibility of AIJ projects was studied by selecting several Japanese energy conservation technologies transferable to both countries. The same research was also carried out for forest as carbon absorption source. 5 refs., 23 figs., 58 tabs.

  6. Achievement report for fiscal 1998 on joint research business (1/2). Photovoltaic power generation field test for public facilities; 1998 nendo kokyo shisetsu nadoyo taiyoko hatsuden field test jigyo (1/2). Kyodo kenkyu seika hokokusho



    Photovoltaic power generation systems are experimentally installed at public facilities at various locations, and subjected to field tests in which they experience long-term operation under real loads. At Livelihood Cooperative Association Co-Op Kanagawa, a photovoltaic cell system is installed on the roof, facing true south, of its Yokohama eastern district joint purchase center, and the power generated by the system is utilized as interconnected with the commercial distribution line connecting to its power facilities. It is called a '10kW Photovoltaic Power Generation Model System,' and is subjected to a verification test, carried over from the previous fiscal year, centering about its usability and safety. Similar systems are also installed at many locations, such as the Kadosawa Bridge district of Ebina City, Kanagawa Prefectural Industrial Technology Research Center, Shiga Prefectural University, Suntory Museum, Fukui Institute of Technology, Saigo Police Station, Higashi-Murayama Water Purification Plant, Kanagawa Prefectural Disaster Prevention Center, Toyosato-cho Health Center, Kyodo Gakusha School, Sakuragi Nursery School, Yagi Junior High School, Shizuoka Prefectural Environmental Radiation Monitoring Center, Tanabe City Health Center. (NEDO)

  7. Fiscal 1997 survey report on the jointly executed/promoted basic survey project (the jointly executed activity Japan Program). Feasibility survey for CO2 reduction by deregulating heavy traffic at specified crossings in Bangkok, Thailand; 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho (kyodo jisshi suishin kiso chosa jigyo (kyodo jisshi katsudo Japan program)). Taikoku Bangkok no tokutei kosaten ni okeru kotsu jutai kanwa ni yoru CO2 sakugen kanosei chosa



    The monetary crisis in Thailand with the baht drop in July 1997 as a beginning rapidly worsened the Thai economy. With it, the number of automobiles sold sharply declined, and automobile manufacturers were also heavily damaged as seen in the temporary discontinued production, etc. Under such economic situation, a discussion was made on execution of the project with the Thai Automotive Industry Association (TAIA), a partner at the Thai side. As a result, agreement was made on the positioning of the project, role sharing, and selection of measures against heavy traffic as follows: Japan Automobile Manufacturers Association (JAMA) conducts a feasibility study, proposal of a construction plan and confirmation of effects, and bears the costs. TAIA bears the execution and cost of construction (Due to the worsened Thai economy, JAMA paid almost all the construction expenses). In the light of the economic situation in Thailand, `improvement of the signal control system` was selected as an execution candidate, which has the highest cost effect among the measures against heavy traffic. In the future, the application, registration and execution are done for joint activities for the project. 49 figs., 59 tabs.

  8. Achievement report for fiscal 1999. Joint verification research on use for power generation of Omani superhigh-viscosity crude oil remaining unexploited; 1999 nendo Oman koku ni okeru miriyo chokonensei gen'yu no denryoku riyo ni kansuru kyodo jissho kenkyu seika hokokusho



    A Mukhaizna oil field remains to be exploited in Oman, with an estimated reserve of 2.4-billion barrels of very heavy oil with an API (American Petroleum Institute) specific gravity of 15.3. The viscosity of the oil is so high as to be over 100-thousand cP (at 15 degrees C). The extremely high viscosity causes its exploitable rate to be so low as 3%, and makes shipment by pipeline quite difficult. In this survey, a method using water emulsion is proposed for viscosity reduction, which aims to reduce the Mukhaizna crude oil viscosity to 200mm2/s or less. In an experiment using the water emulsion method, oil is mixed with water at a rate of 72 to 28 in a shearing mixer for the production of a water emulsion of crude oil. It is found that a certain degree of stability is acquired using a surface active agent available on the market. Using this emulsion method, the crude oil is converted into a power generator fuel with a heating value of 6,775kcal/kg. The crude oil-turned product is a fine fuel superior to Orimulsion which is a fuel of the same type in terms of viscosity, amount of ash, and vanadium concentration. (NEDO)

  9. Achievement report for fiscal 1999. Joint verification research on use for power generation of Omani superhigh-viscosity crude oil remaining unexploited; 1999 nendo Oman koku ni okeru miriyo chokonensei gen'yu no denryoku riyo ni kansuru kyodo jissho kenkyu seika hokokusho



    A Mukhaizna oil field remains to be exploited in Oman, with an estimated reserve of 2.4-billion barrels of very heavy oil with an API (American Petroleum Institute) specific gravity of 15.3. The viscosity of the oil is so high as to be over 100-thousand cP (at 15 degrees C). The extremely high viscosity causes its exploitable rate to be so low as 3%, and makes shipment by pipeline quite difficult. In this survey, a method using water emulsion is proposed for viscosity reduction, which aims to reduce the Mukhaizna crude oil viscosity to 200mm2/s or less. In an experiment using the water emulsion method, oil is mixed with water at a rate of 72 to 28 in a shearing mixer for the production of a water emulsion of crude oil. It is found that a certain degree of stability is acquired using a surface active agent available on the market. Using this emulsion method, the crude oil is converted into a power generator fuel with a heating value of 6,775kcal/kg. The crude oil-turned product is a fine fuel superior to Orimulsion which is a fuel of the same type in terms of viscosity, amount of ash, and vanadium concentration. (NEDO)

  10. FY 2000 report on the basic survey to promote Joint Implementation, etc. Survey of the effective use of wastes at palm oil refineries; 2000 nendo kyodo jisshi nado suishin kiso chosa hokokusho. Palm oil seisei kojo ni okeru haikibutsu yuko riyo chosa



    As to empty fruit bunches (EFB) which are wasted at the Lahad Datu plant of Felda Vegetable Oil Products Co. in Malaysia, a project was studied for energy substitution and greenhouse effect gas reduction by fluidized bed cogeneration facilities using this as fuel. In the project, studied was the introduction of on-site cogenerator of 7,800kW in generating-end output, and that of IPP cogenerator of 16,000kW as reference. As a result of the study, the energy substitution amount in toe in 20 years was approximately 376 k tons in case of on-site power generation/fluidized bed boiler and approximately 695 k tons in case of IPP and fluidized bed boiler. The amount of greenhouse effect gas emission in toe in 20 years was approximately 5,757 k tons and 11,654 k tons, respectively. Concerning the profitability, the internal earning rate was 3.32-8.47% in case of on-site power generation/fluidized bed boiler and 9.13-14.65% in case of IPP/fluidized bed boiler. It indicated the materialization of the project. (NEDO)

  11. Basic investigation on promotion of joint implementation in fiscal 2000. Energy saving projects at two steel making companies in Fushun City in China; 2000 nendo kyodo jisshi nado suishin kiso chosa hokokusho. Chugoku Fushun shi ni okeru tekko gaisha 2 sha no shoene project chosa hokokusho



    With an objective of saving energy and reducing greenhouse gas emission, investigations and discussions were given on two steel making companies in China. Discussions were given for Fushun Special Steel Co., Ltd. on abolishment and unification of four electric furnaces into two new electric furnaces, and for Fushun New Steel Co., Ltd. on installation of a granulation reinforcing facility, a segregation reinforcing device, and cooler waste heat recovery boilers for the sintering machine, installation of sensors including the waste gas oxygen concentration meter, adoption of a process computer, and optimization of the furnace temperature patterns for the heating furnace. As a result of the discussions, it was revealed that the unit requirement for electric power used at Fushun Special Steel can be reduced largely, and so can the fuel used at Fushun New Steel. The annual energy saving effect would be about 500 million yen relative to the investment amount of 2.8 billion yen at Fushun Special Steel, and about 400 million yen relative to the investment amount of about 400 million yen at Fushun New Steel. The greenhouse gas emission would be reduced annually by 40,000 t-CO2 and 60,000 t-CO2 respectively. Fushun Special Steel will execute an international bid in May this year. (NEDO)

  12. FY 2000 report on the basic survey to promote the joint implementation. Feasibility study for new installation of the Ashuganj NGL rectification plant in Bangladesh; 2000 nendo kyodo jisshi nado suishin kiso chosa hokokusho. Bangladesh koku ni okeru Ashuganj NGL seiryu plant shinsetsu no tame no FS chosa



    For the purpose of effectively using natural gas and controlling the decrease in forests having ability to absorb/store greenhouse effect gas, a project was worked out for construction of the NGL rectification plant to produce LPG, MS and HSD at Ashuganj in Bangladesh, and the feasibility study was conducted. A total of 467t/d of NGL as raw material is transported from the Sylhet section to the plant site by pipeline with 175km distance and 6 inch diameter. In this project, this NGL is rectified to produce LPG of 123t/d, MS of 262t/d and HSD of 82t/d. As a result of the study, the substitution energy effect in this project is approximately 45,000 toe/y. The greenhouse effect gas emission is reduced by 861,000 t-CO2/y by converting the residential/commercial use fuel from firewood as biomass fuel to LPG. The ROI before tax is 19.24% in 20 years, which predicts a high earning rate. (NEDO)

  13. FY 1999 report on the results of the investigation of feasibility of joint implementation promotion through plant-related technology transfer to Central/Eastern European countries; 1999 nendo Chu Too nado chiiki ni okeru plant yushutsugata gijutsu iten wo tsujita kyodo jisshi nado suishin kanosei ni kansuru chosa hokokusho



    Feasibility of joint implementation promotion through plant-related technology transfer is investigated for 15 Central and Eastern European countries. Emissions of the greenhouse effect gases can be relatively easily abated in these countries by improving energy utilization efficiency, because they have more advanced infrastructures than developing countries, and are behind the developed countries in modernization of the facilities. Therefore, European and North American countries have been positively promoting the AIJ programs in these countries, and there are fierce competitions for promising projects. It will be necessary for Japan to provide public loans, e.g., environmental yen loans, to promote the plant-related JI/CDM projects in these countries. Many of these countries have not drawn plans for reducing emissions of the greenhouse effect gases, and expect establishment of the international cooperation systems for exchanging information related to global warming problems, and introducing the Japanese technologies and policies. (NEDO)

  14. FY 2000 report on the basic survey to promote Joint Implementation, etc. Environmental improvement and energy conservation measures in Pakistan Steel, a state-run enterprise in Pakistan; 2000 nendo kyodo jisshi nado suishin kiso chosa hokokusho. Pakistan koku kokuei Pakistan Steel ni okeru kankyo kaizen sho energy taisaku



    For the state-run plant of Pakistan Steel in Pakistan, an investigational study was conducted on energy conservation and reduction in greenhouse effect gas emission. In the project, energy conservation technology on the following was tried to be introduced: coke oven coal moisture control (CMC) equipment, sintering cooler waste heat recovery equipment, blast furnace hot stove waste heat recovery equipment, blast furnace pulverized coal injection (PCI) equipment, blast furnace top pressure recovery turbine (TRT) equipment, and hot strip mill heating furnace regenerative type burner equipment. Further, in the project on environmental improvement, studies were made on coke oven environmental improvement and blast furnace cast house dust collection. The results of the study indicated that economical effects of the energy conservation project were considered as low because the unit price of energy of Pakistan Steel is low. However, substitution of the low-priced domestic coal for the imported coal has a good effect, and energy conservation in the TRT power generation and by the regenerative type burner produces a highly economical effect. Therefore, Pakistan Steel also agrees to positively promote the project. Moreover, concerning the environmental improvement project, it was considered that the necessity of the project is high in the relation of the coke oven aimed at reducing emissions of toxic substances. (NEDO)

  15. FY 1998 survey report on the potential study of cooperation related to the activity implementation joint in the Southeast Asian region (4 countries); 1998 nendo Tonan Asia chiikikoku (4 kakoku) ni okeru kyodo jisshi katsudo kanren no kyoryoku kanosei chosa hokokusho



    A potential study was made of cooperation related to the activity implementation joint (COP3 relation) in Southeast Asia. Thailand took up effectiveness and fuel substitution as the most important strategy for greenhouse effect gas (GHG) reduction in the energy field, and set up technology development, demand-side management, fuel substitution, reusable energy, recycling, etc. as choices. In the non-energy field, rationalization of the land use and forest protection are the important subjects. Manpower training is also indispensable. In Indonesia, the use of non-fossil fuel is No. 1 target. Other targets are the reduction in methane and N2O (emitted by nitrogen fertilizer), that is, the modernization of rice growing and stock raising. The forest protection is also important. In the Philippines, the pillars are the introduction of reusable energy technology, heightening of power generation efficiency, strong promotion of demand-side management, and introduction of the quantity transportation system which is efficient and environmentally friendly. In Vietnam, the GHG emission/person is the lowest in the world. They are promoting the reduction in GHG emission and the absorption as an important part of the policy. (NEDO)

  16. FY 1974 report on the results of the Sunshine Project. Study on a system to refine/transport/store hydrogen and the safety technology (Investigational study of behavior of trace impurities in the liquefaction process); 1974 nendo suiso no seisei, yuso, chozo system oyobi hoan gijutsu ni kansuru kenkyu seika hokokusho. Ekika katei ni okeru biryo fujunbutsu no kyodo ni kansuru chosa kenkyu



    Hydrogen gas as material is produced mostly by steam reforming of hydrocarbons, and includes a considerable amount of impurities such as carbon dioxide, nitrogen and oxygen. The concentration of impurities in the refined gas is approximately 1ppm. In the liquefaction process of hydrogen liquefaction plant, the gases entering the low temperature portion near the free expansion valve (J-T valve) are mostly oxygen and nitrogen. When oxygen is solidified, attached, accumulated near J-T valve, it incurs a possibility of exploding for reason of impact force, etc. by contact with the valve portion. A mixture of hydrogen and oxygen ignites at the minimum value of approximately 0.02 milli-joule, and therefore it has great danger of explosion. As viewed from a point of danger prevention, there is a possibility of explosion when the hydrogen-oxidizing agent mixture is formed. Accordingly, it is necessary to conduct an experiment for confirming the explosion at J-T valve portion. From viewpoints of prevention of explosion accident and running operation, it is necessary to experimentally grasp the definite allowable oxygen concentration. Further, it is necessary to establish a technology to continuously and accurately measure the concentration of trace impurities in hydrogen gas. (NEDO)

  17. FY 2000 report on the basic survey to promote the joint implementation. Potential survey of the greenhouse effect gas reduction by high-efficient utilization of the oil residue in Bataan Refinery in the Philippines; 2000 nendo kyodo jisshi nado suishin kiso chosa hokokusho. Philippines koku Bataan seiyusho ni okeru sekiyu zansa kokoritsu riyo ni yoru onshitsu koka gas sakugen kanosei chosa



    For the purpose of reducing the CO2 emitted from electricity/vapor supply facilities of Bataan Refinery in the Philippines, study was conducted of optimum energy supply facilities considering the effective use of the oil residue and future reinforcement of the refinery. Concerning the high-pressure/high-temperature condensing extraction boiler/turbine cogeneration, gas turbine cogeneration and low speed diesel engine cogeneration, comparative study was carried out in terms of thermal efficiency, reliability/preservation, environmental acceptability, effectiveness of measures for the future excessive oil residue, etc. As a result, the study was concluded as follows: the electric power consumption will markedly increase in the future; however, in the light of the situation of the refinery where the vapor demand will not increase, it is the most suitable to use low speed diesel engine cogeneration facilities as on-site power generation facilities which can burn the excessively increasing oil residue as direct fuel. The CO2 reduction effect estimated from the project on the present scale was 132,880 t-CO2/y, and the energy conservation effect estimated was 50,861 toe/y. (NEDO)

  18. Report on investigations in fiscal 2000 on the basic investigation on promotion of joint implementation. Introduction of central load dispatching center in Oman; 2000 nendo kyodo jisshi nado suishin kiso chosa hokokusho. Oman koku ni okeru chuo kyuden shireijo no donyu



    In Oman, electric power supply is made by operating a large number of gas turbine generators. However, the operation is inefficient as a whole as a result of operating the generators provided with large reserves to minimize effects of unit failures in each power plant as one unit. Therefore, the present investigative study has begun from discussing the achievement of energy conservation and reduction of greenhouse gas emission by managing the demand and supply in an economical manner upon introducing a central load dispatching center (CLDC). Given the introduction of CLDC, the effects of introducing the equi-{lambda} method with still higher economy and of introducing the control system of reserve operation power may be summarized as follows: the energy saving effects (converted to crude oil quantity) are 22,400 toe/year for the former case and 35,800 toe/year for the latter case; and the greenhouse gas reduction effects are 52,000 t-CO2/year for the former case and 84,000 t-CO2/year for the latter case. This is an effective project with a considerable amount of effect as a result of introducing the equi-{lambda} and of introducing the control system of reserve operation power, while the investment amount is relatively small. The investment recovery period is 2.5 years and 2 years, respectively, making the project considerably promising as a CDM project. (NEDO)

  19. FY 1998 survey report on the potential study of cooperation related to the activity implementation joint in 6 countries of Southeast Asia (Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia, Myanmar, Thailand and Malaysia); 1998 nendo Indoshina 6 kakkoku (Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia, Myanmar, Tai oyobi Malaysia) ni okeru energy kankyo kanren kyodo kenkyu jisshi kanosei chosa hokokusho



    A potential study in FY 1998 was made of the energy/environment related activity implementation joint (COP3 related AIJ) in 6 Southeast Asian countries. Vietnam is a country which is the lowest in greenhouse effect gas (GHG) emission in the world, but they want the international assistance for their continued development and contribution to the global environment. Laos has to continue their economic development for extermination of poverty and improvement of life level. Accordingly, AIJ has to be the one that supports those and is helpful for both industrial development and environmental improvement. The same in Cambodia as in Laos, AIJ has to be the one that is helpful for both industrial development and promotion of environmental improvement. In Myanmar, GHG emits (CO2 conversion) 94.5% in the agricultural sector where methane is emitted from livestock and rice growing. There, the forest protection plays a big role. In Thailand, the use of land and forest protection are subjects mainly with the heightening of energy efficiency and fuel substitution. Malaysia, of course, promotes the economic development, has the leading GHG policy (traffic management in urban area, etc.), and wants the international technology transfer. (NEDO)

  20. Electrochemical treatment of organic wastewater with high salt content. Ko enbun yuki haisui no denkai shori

    Wada, Hideo; Kitamura, Takao; Kato, Shunsaku; Oyashiki, Satoru (Goverment Industrial Research Inst. Shikoku, Takamatsu, (Japan) Toyo Engineering Work Ltd., Tokyo, (Japan))


    Wastewater containing organic pollutants is generally treated by the biological methods like the activated sludge process, etc. But these biological methods are not necessarily applied to the wastewater with high salt content generated at pickles making plants, etc.. In this report, with the objective of application of the electrolytic oxidation treatment to the organic wastewater with high salt content of pickles making plants, the effects of such conditions as pH, temperature and current, etc. on the treatment rate and treatment efficiency were examined, furthermore, the treatment process was simulated on the basis of a simple reaction model, and its simulation results were compared for study with the experimental results. The results are shown below: No effect of pH was observed, hence no pH control is required; The higher temperature of the wastewater accelerates the treatment rate; It was considered that in high temperature, a loss due to autolysis of hypochlorous acid increases, but the current efficiency of generating hypochlorous acid increases too and since the latter effect is bigger, the above phenomenon occurs. The current has a small effect on the treatment efficiency. With the simple reaction model, the change of residual chlorine concentration, etc. with time can be reproduced semiquantitatively. 7 refs., 6 figs.

  1. Archaeological prospecting by DEF method; Denkai zansaho ni yoru iseki tansa

    Kishikawa, H; Aono, T; Tanaka, T; Mizunaga, H [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering


    A study is made of a newly-developed differential electric field (DEF) method, wherein potentials between potential electrodes equidistant from a current electrode is measured for directly detecting the secondary potential attributable to an anomalous-resistivity body. In this method, a current is fed into the ground from a point source C1, and four potential electrodes, two each on the X-axis and Y-axis, are provided equidistant from the point source C1 for the measurement of the potentials in the directions of X and Y. Numerical experiments and field experiments in a playground were conducted for this DEF method, and it was found that this method is effective in detecting an anomalous-resistivity bodies (ruins, etc.) situated in a homogeneous medium or in a horizontal multi-layer structure, is capable of displaying anomalous vectors enabling the estimation of the direction from the observation point of the anomalous-resistivity body, improves on work efficiency over the conventional mapping method, enables the estimation of the boundary of the anomalous-resistivity body on the basis of the peak of the anomalous electric field residue on the display, and that the obtained data can be easily processed by use of a personal computer on the site. 3 refs., 9 figs.

  2. Synthesis of calcium-deficient by hydroxyapatite-collage composite by the electrolytic deposition method; Denkai sekishutsu ho ni yoru karushiumu kesson hidorokishiapataito-coragen fukugotai no gosei

    Okamura, H. [Niigata University, Niigata (Japan). Graduate School Of Science and Technology; Yasuda, M.; Oota, M. [Niigata University, Niigata (Japan)


    Hydroxyapatite is known as that it has a good joining property with teeth and bone, and a study on the application to the living body was conducted by using this property. Its application examples were given as the cement used in dentistry, the artificial tooth root, the artificial bone, the bone cement and the artificial joint. However, they were a sinter heated at more than 1000degC, and were put into use by means of reinforcement using a titanium alloy since their mechanical strength was low. In this study, synthesis of calcium-deficient hydroxyapatite (DAp) and collagen composite by the electrolytic deposition method was attempted in order to develop bionic materials, and the correlation of various physical properties of the obtained composite and the electrolytic deposition conditions were investigated. When the electrolytic voltage is more than 22.0V, a single phase of DAp could be obtained. It was clarified that a DAp and collagen composite was synthesized from results of IR and ESR. 16 refs., 5 figs.

  3. Electrostatic settling of catalyst particles in hydrogenation of methyl benzoate. Denkai chinkoho ni yoru ansokukosan mechiru suisoka hannoeki kara no shokubai ryushi bunri

    Kato, K. (Japan Energy Corp., Tokyo (Japan). Central Research Lab.)


    As benzyl alcohol (BA), which is one of the simplest alcohol having aromatic ring, has been used widely for the fields related to soap, perfume and chemicals industry, its usage has not always been so much because of its expensiveness. Authors developed previously a new process technique to produce cheaper and higher purity BA not through chlorination process using toluene as its raw materials. The BA can be obtained by hydrogenating methyl benzoate (MB) at a dispersion babble tower using cupper-chromium type powder catalyst in mixed solvent of methanol and toluene. The catalyst becomes much fine particles after the reaction. In this study, it is examined to separate MB hydrogenation reaction solution obtained by electrostatic settling into solid and liquid phases as an aim to improve the BA production process. Rate of electrostatic settling does not depend upon solid concentration, slurry forming conditions, electrode materials, specific resistance of slurry layer and others, but is in proportion to electric field intensity. Furthermore, process of the electrostatic settling is expressed by an equation. 9 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. Globalization, Polanyi, and the Chinese Yuan


    Archive/2004/Sep/23-184387.html (accessed June 12, 2007). 99 ŖND LD: APEC Finance Chiefs Paper over Forex Flexibility Issue," Kyodo News...2006). ŖND LD: APEC Finance Chiefs Paper Over Forex Flexibility Issue." Kyodo News International, Inc. and The Gale Group.

  5. Photovoltaic power generation field test at Kyodo Newspaper Co. Ltd. (Kakegawa city, Shizuoka prefecture); Kyodo shinbunsha taiyoko hatsuden field test jigyo (Shizuokaken Kakegawashi)

    Totsuka, T.


    Contents are reported of the fiscal 1996 field test of a photovoltaic power generation system installed on the roof surfaces of the parking lot of the above-named newspaper company. The system is used to supply power to the lights in the company office and to a light sign tower for local activities promotion (erected jointly by cities and towns in the neighborhood). It is a 10kW plant operating on system interconnection, provided with an array of 9-series/11-parallel configuration facing due south and inclined at an elevation angle of 15deg. It is so designed that solar cell mounts are installed on two roof surfaces so that space will be secured for the parking lot. The above-mentioned LED-aided light sign tower serves the purpose of informing people of photovoltaic power generation technology and the culture, history, and industry of the local communities involved. Basic data have been collected usable for standardizing the design for example of the mount for the establishment of guidelines for reduction in the system construction cost. Data have been also obtained that will help make propositions about the effective utilization of dead space outdoors. Since the system is installed making use of roof surfaces without affecting parking lot capacity, people`s understanding of the technology has been deepened and data of long-term operation following the experimental introduction and troubles have been collected, all these helping encourage the introduction of photovoltaic power generation

  6. Basic investigation on deflection wave propagation and strength of very large floating structures; Choogata futai kozo no tawami hado denpa kyodo to kyodo ni kansuru kisoteki kosatsu

    Tsubogo, T.; Okada, H. [University of Osaka Prefecture, Osaka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering


    The response strength in which deflection waves propagating in the elastic body of a large floating structure with an order of km in length and width was investigated. Attention was paid to the waves propagating the place fully away from the boundary of a very large floating body so as to obtain the dispersion relation of waves and the relation between incident waves and deflection waves. Next, the frequency response was checked from the aspect of the displacement amplitude and strength for beams and plates. The dispersion relation of waves propagating the place fully away from the boundary of a very large floating body and the relation between the waves and infinite-point incident waves were represented by an expression. Similarly, the waves propagates more than the infinite-point incident waves in frequency, wavelength, and speed. A lower-limit value exists in the propagation speed. The displacement and stress amplitudes are represented by a relational expression. For plates, the displacement amplitude increases when the wave direction coincides with the small-rigidity direction. The stress amplitude is maximized when the waves corresponding to the ``wave below a floating body = size of a characteristic wave number`` reach the large-rigidity direction. 10 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Ultimate strength analysis of long-span cable-stayed bridges; Chodai chachokyo no shukyoku kyodo kaiseki to kyodo ni kansuru ichikosatsu

    Xie, X.; Yamaguchi, H. [Saitama Univ., Urawa (Japan)] Nagai, M. [Nagaoka Technical Coll., Niigata (Japan)


    Recently, span of cable-stayed bridges has been getting loner and longer, present situation is that cable-stayed bridges with span 600 to 800m class have been built inside and outside the country, and accurate determination of its ultimate strength has been an important problem statistically. However, concrete design method for evaluating load bearing stress of long-span cable-stayed bridge. Particularly of the main beam whose axial stress is dominating, has not been established so far. As for cable-stayed bridge, even for long-span, effect of plasticization of cross section on ultimate strength is severe because there is little effect of geometric nonlinearity and it is thought that accurate evaluation of ultimate strength only by elastic finite potential analysis is difficult. Accordingly, it is necessary to study the behavior by using combined nonlinear analysis considering the nonlinearity of the material in order to evaluate the safety and economy to long-span cable-stayed bridge. In this report, 3 dimensional analysis method was formularized taking into account the combine nonlinearity of multi-box girder and analysis program of ultimate strength behavior of long-span cable-stayed bridge was developed. 19 refs., 17 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Progress in photometry. Sokko ni okeru saikinno shinpo

    Krochmann, J


    A recent progress in photometry was summarized. As to photometric error, photometric head, luminous intensity, luminous flux, and lighting system, a present situation was introduced. Was described the error in photometry using a silicon photodiode, which became in a level of 0.1% by the self-calibration. Also were illustrated the photometric heads for evaluating spatial luminous intensities, the detector for ratio temperature measurement needed for calibration of a normal standard light source, the filter-type monochromator for measuring a difference of spectral response, and the solar battery for reference which can correct the photometer used for the long period in the field. A measurement of high-speed photocurrent was shown, in which the resolving power of 10{sup {minus}14}ampere (10{sup {minus}6}lux) can be achieved. A goniophotometer for luminous flux measurement was also introduced. Furthermore, the stimulation direct-reading colorimeter, the reflectance and transmission measuring apparatus, the illumination meter with a remote control transmitter, the diffuse reflectance measuring apparatus, and the daylight factor measuring apparatus were illustrated. 14 refs., 11 figs.

  9. Development of ELID mirror surface grinding by cast iron bond grinding wheel. Ohkochi memorial technology prize; Chutetsu bond toishi ni yoru denkai inpurosesu doresshingu (ELID) kyomen kensakuho no kaihatsu. Okochi kinen gijutsusho jusho ni yosete

    Omori, H.; Takahashi, I. [Institute of Physical and Chemical Research, Tokyo (Japan); Nakagawa, T. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Institute of Industrial Science; Hagiuda, Y.; Karikome, K. [Tokyo Metropolitan College of Aeronautical Engineering, Tokyo (Japan)


    Development was accomplished on the electrolytic in-process dressing (ELID) mirror surface grinding process using a cast iron bonded grinding wheel. This paper describes the history of the development, which may be summarized as follows: a study was begun on powder forging of cutting chips in 1970; a research was started on powder forging of decarburized cast iron powder; developments were made on powder metallurgy of cast irons and cast iron bonded lapping tools in 1980, and cast iron bonded diamond grinding wheels were put on the market; a high-efficiency grinding process using MC and cast iron fiber-bonded grinding wheels were developed in 1985 and the grinding wheels made therefrom were put on the market; and a study was begun on the ELID grinding in 1987, and marketing was started on power supply, grinding liquid and tools for the ELID grinding process in 1990. Discussions on converting raw materials for the powder forging into cutting chips have triggered developing the cast iron bonded grinding wheel. The cast iron bonded diamond grinding wheel improves dressability and sharpness of conventional grinding wheels. The grinding wheel is fabricated by mixing carbonyl iron powder, diamond grinding grains and cast iron powder, pressing the mixture in a die, sintering it at 1140 degC, and assembling and dressing the sinter. The grinding stone can grind high-tech materials. 4 figs.

  10. Density distribution of currents induced inside the brain in the heat part of the human model exposed to power frequency electric field; Denryoku shuhasu no denkai ni yori jintai model tobu nonai ni yudosareru denryu mitsudo bunpu

    Chiba, A. [Yonago National College of Technology, Tottori (Japan); Isaka, K. [The University of Tokushima, Tokushima (Japan); Kaune, W.


    The health effect of the weak current induced in the human body as a result of the interaction between human body and power frequency electric fields has been investigated. However, the current density inside the head part tissues of the human body exposed to the electric fields has little been discussed. In this paper, the finite element method is applied to the analysis of the current density distributions of the head part composed of scalp, skull, cerebrospinal liquid and brain tissues. The basic characteristics of the current density distributions of the brain in the bead part of the axisymmetrical human model have been made clear. 13 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Thermal stability of carboxylic acid functionality in coal; Sekitanchu ni sonzaisuru karubokishiruki no netsubunkai kyodo

    Tsutsumi, Y.; Aida, T. [Kinki University, Osaka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering


    Carboxyl in coal was focused in discussing its pyrolytic behavior while tracking change of its absolute amount relative to the heating temperatures. A total of four kinds of coals, consisting of two kinds brown coals, sub-bituminous coal and bituminous coal were used. Change in the absolute amount of carboxyl due to heating varies with coalification degree. Decomposition starts in the bituminous coal from around 300{degree}C, and is rapidly accelerated when 400{degree}C is exceeded. Carboxyls in brown coals exist two to three times as much as those in bituminous and sub-bituminous coals, of which 40% is decomposed at a temperature as low as about 300{degree}C. Their pyrolytic behavior at temperatures higher than 400{degree}C resembles that of the bituminous coal. Carboxyls consist of those easy to decompose and difficult to decompose. Aromatic and aliphatic carboxylic acids with simple structure are stable at temperatures lower than 300{degree}C, and decompose abruptly from about 400{degree}C, hence their behavior resembles that of carboxyls in bituminous and sub-bituminous coals. Structure of low-temperature decomposing carboxyls in brown coals is not known, but it is assumed that humic acid originated from natural materials remains in the structure. 4 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Fatigue strength of laser welded joint sheet; Laser yosetsu tsugite no hiro kyodo

    Fujii, A; Yoshimura, T; Tsuboi, M; Takasago, T; Nishio, T [Toyota Motor Corp., Aichi (Japan)


    In this paper, fatigue strength of laser welded butt joint has been investigated. In order to obtain the influence of underfill and pitting, fatigue test was conducted with different sheet thickness and mechanical properties. Fatigue crack initiated at underfill and pitting in the weld metal. Stress concentration factor and hardness of the weld metal were considered to estimate fatigue limit. However, hardness of the weld metal has no significant effect on fatigue strength. As a result, fatigue strength was well estimated by hardness of base metal and stress concentration factor calculated from the shape of underflll and pitting. 7 refs., 9 figs., 5 tabs.

  13. Bubbling jet characteristics in an aeration tank; Aeration sonai kiho funryu no ryudo kyodo

    Kaji, M; Iguchi, M; Okita, K [Osaka University, Osaka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Nakatani, T [Kobe University, Kobe (Japan). Faculty of Engineering


    Laser Doppler velocimeter measurements were made to investigate bubbling jet characteristics in an aeration tank at a pressure of 200 kPa. The data were compared with previous measurements at atmospheric and reduced pressures. Bubble frequencies at the nozzle outlet were correlated with the mass flow rate of gas rather than the volumetric flow rate. In the far field where the buoyancy force of bubbles prevails, the axial and radial distributions of the mean velocity components, the r. m. s. values of turbulence components, the Reynolds shear stress and the skewness and flatness factors of the turbulence components obtained at an elevated pressure agreed well with those obtained at the atmospheric pressure for the same volumetric gas flow rate. Consequently, the liquid flow characteristics including the turbulence structure in the far field are not influenced by an increase in surface pressure as long as the volumetric gas flow rate is the same. 13 refs., 14 figs.

  14. International joint research of medical and walfare appliances; Iryo fukushi kiki kokusai kyodo kenkyu jigyo



    To further elevate the medical level and to actively enhance Japan`s contribution to the world in its effort to properly meet the task of advancing longevity of men common to all the advanced countries, investigations were made to study how international joint research should be conducted in the field of medical and welfare appliances. Candidate projects in international joint research and investigations up to fiscal 1993 were arranged, and explanation was made about the strategic and long-term research and development projects (started in fiscal 1995) about medical and welfare appliances undertaken by the Ministry of Trade and Industry of Japan. The two are quite similar to each other, the Ministry of Trade and Industry program comprising six projects that are micropores collection of blood/microdose analysis, high precision three dimensional image assisted diagnosis, less invasive surgery, artificial organs, care assisting intelligent equipment, and welfare equipment for care at home, centering about which international joint research should be propelled. Visits were made to the scenes of research and development of advanced medical and welfare appliances in the U.S. and Canada and their actual state was studied in search for possible joint researches. Further, research and development institutions in Europe were visited and information was exchanged. 25 figs., 15 tabs.

  15. Survey to promote an action implemented jointly project; Kyodo jisshi katsudo project suishin chosa



    In the 1st (1995) conference of the nations which concluded the Framework Convention on Climate Change, decided on was a trial implementation of an action implemented jointly (AIJ) project with developing countries on the voluntary basis. In the Asia region, emission of greenhouse effect gas is remarkably increasing in accordance with rapid development of economy, and it is important to appropriately support through this project both economic development and energy demand in Asia. Taking the circumstance into consideration, the survey was conducted to contribute to activating the AIJ Japan Program. As the AIJ of leading developed countries, recognized were 25 (U.S.), 6 (Holland), 8 (Germany), 2 (Norway) projects. As to the AIJ in Southeast Asia, China and India, Indonesia is actively participating in the project, but others less actively. Concerning the project needs in every country, heightening of power plant efficiency, enhancement of efficiency in the transportation sector, new energy utilization, recovery of methane gas, etc. acquire a priority. 21 figs., 31 tabs.

  16. Study of street-blockades caused by a large earthquake; Daishinsaiji ni okeru doro heisoku ni knsuru kenkyu (Hanshin Awaji daishinsai ni okeru jittai bunseki)

    Imaizumi, K. [Kajima Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Asami, Y. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)


    The Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake caused great damage to roads. Not only on highways, but even in regional communities, a considerable number of streets became unusable because of falls of buildings, etc. to roads and occurrence of bumps. It provided obstacles in refuge and rescue activities. In building cities preparing for earthquake in future, it is important to re-evaluate how to make the road network including narrow streets. Therefore, paying attention to the physical distance of the roads in earthquake and the number of the points which people cannot reach, clarified was the relation between those phenomena and the characteristics of towns/roads which the region has. As an example of Higashinada-ward, Kobe-city, this report analyzed the data on the actual state from the aspects written below which become especially important in actions taken immediately after earthquake, and described the information/knowledge obtained therefrom: (1) difference in arrival distance between usually and in earthquake in case of walking from residence place to refuge place; (2) state of occurrence of the points where people cannot reach in going to hospitals by ambulance. (NEDO)

  17. Detection of vehicle crossing path at intersection; Mitoshi no yoi kosaten ni okeru deaigashira jiko ni tsuite (Ibarakiken ni okeru jiko tahatsu zone no tokucho)

    Fujita, K; Uchida, N; Katayama, T [Japan Automobile Research Institute Inc., Tsukuba (Japan)


    An investigation was excuted to understand the actual state of accidents happened at intersections where there were no constructive obstacles in field of view. First, the aspects of fatal accidents are described under the basis of the data published by the police of Ibaraki prefecture. Then it is shown that there are at least 336 intersections where the accidents happened in the last two years. It is also clarified that many dangerous zones were located in line along rivers. The authors stress that it is urgent to inform the existence of dangerous zones to prevent the accidents. 2 refs., 5 figs.

  18. Joint verification project on environmentally friendly coal utilization systems. Joint verification project on the water-saving coal preparation system; Kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system kyodo jissho jigyo. Shosuigata sentan system kyodo jissho jigyo



    In this verification project, clean technology which should be spread in China was verified and the base structure for its spread was prepared for the purpose of controlling emissions of environmental pollutants associated with the coal utilization in China and of contributing to secure energy acquisition of Japan. As joint verification projects, a general rehabilitation type coal preparation system was installed in the Wangfenggang coal preparation plant, and a central control coal preparation system was installed in the Qingtan coal preparation plant. In the former, a system is verified in which optimum operation, water-saving, high quality, and heightening of efficiency can be obtained by introducing two computing systems for operation control and quality control, various measuring instruments, and analyzers to coal preparation plants where analog operation is conducted helped by Russia and Porland and have problems about quality control. In the latter, a central control system achieving water saving is verified by introducing rapid ash meters, scales, desitometers and computers to coal preparation plants having zigzag or heavy-fluid cyclon and connecting various kinds of information through network. For fiscal 1994, investigation and study were conducted. 51 figs., 9 tabs.

  19. Fiscal 1995 survey report on the environmentally friendly type coal utilization system joint demonstration project. Water-saving coal preparation system joint demonstration project; Kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system kyodo jissho jigyo. Shosuigata sentan system kyodo jissho jigyo



    This project makes demonstration of clean coal technology (CCT) in China and preparation for the base of its spread, controlled environmental pollution due to the coal use by the countries concerned, and contributes to stably secure energy of Japan. The paper made analog operation in the 1960s-1970s, supported by Russia and Poland, introduced two computer systems for operational control and quality control, densimeter, level meter, flow meter and analyzer to coal preparation plants having problems on productivity and quality control, made the optimum operational diagnosis for the plants, and at the same time, demonstrated the comprehensive rehabilitation type system by which water saving, high quality and high effectiveness are obtained. Various types of sensors such as rapid ash meter, scale and densitometer and computers are introduced to coal preparation plants which were recently constructed in China, have jig or heavy liquid cyclone as main preparation equipment and conducts operational control. There, the central control system was demonstrated in which various information collected in the central operation room and in-site equipment is combined by network for high-grade data processing and water saving is achieved. 50 figs., 11 tabs.

  20. Basic research on promotion of joint implementation. Research on the overseas trend of activities implemented jointly; Kyodo jisshi suishin kiso chosa jigyo. Kyodo jisshi katsudo ni kakawaru kaigai doko chosa



    The pilot phase of the activities implemented jointly (AIJ) was approved in 1995 in the 1st Conference of the Parties (COPI) of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change to reduce greenhouse gas emission. In order to promote the AIJ Japan program smoothly, some practical examples in every preceding country and the situations and demands of Asian countries were researched. It was confirmed that since larger cost-effectiveness is achieved just in countries lower in emission control cost, AIJ can enhance the cost-effectiveness and promote environmental technology transfer. Japanese government had studied establishment of the framework for AIJ, and decided the basic framework of the AIJ Japan program in 1995. The government also approved the evaluation guidelines of this program which include confirmed and considered matters necessary for government offices related to this program to evaluate and approve each project.

  1. Report on the project on the researcher dispatch type international joint research survey. International joint research for creation of new industries; Kenkyusha hakengata kokusai kyodo kenkyu chosa jigyo. Shinki sangyo soshutsu kokusai kyodo kenkyu hokokusho



    For the purpose of digging up themes of the joint research which develop the R and D in the industrial field in Japan to a new stage, researchers were dispatched to the world representing research institutes to make the research study. As to the survey of the trend of bio-informatics research, visits for survey were paid by 8 researchers to 19 research institutes in the U.S., Australia, France and Germany, and survey was made of the state of new researches such as the genetic network analysis by DNA chip data. Relating to the survey of the trend of the plan for ape genomic DNA sequence, visits for survey were paid by 6 researchers to 12 research institutes in Japan, Germany, France and the U.K. Concerning the research survey with aim of developing the selective reversible expression technology of target genes, researchers were dispatched to St. Jude Children's Research Hospital in the U.S. to conduct the following: construction of basic expression vectors, functional evaluation using cultured cells, making of the transgenic mice to which medicine dependent and cell peculiar expression control genes were introduced, analytical study of the situation of expression control, etc. (NEDO)

  2. Fiscal 1998 report on Japan-Asia international cooperation project; 1998 nendo Nichi Asia kokusai kyodo kenkyu jigyo hokokusho



    For the development of talent, industrial infrastructures, and new industries in countries that received Japanese cooperation, Japanese researchers were sent to universities and research organizations in Asian countries, where they were engaged in joint research and development, which involved (1) micro device technology, (2) technology for manufacturing industrial silica material by chaff incineration, (3) technology for forming and machining of alloys difficult to machine, light in weight, and high in strength, (4) technology for rare metal isolation and refining, (5) cascade-wise utilization and practical application of biomass in Asia, (6) exploration and utilization of microbial resources in Tropical Asia, (7) evaluation of biological resources existing in Southeast Asia and construction of information network, (8) development and evaluation of cultured articular cartilage, (9) technology for utilizing wastewater for production of valuable substances, and (10) studies for utilizing biological resources through utilization of diversity of symbiotic microbes and their adaptability to surroundings. Under item (1), it was planned that ultrasonic micro transducers and micro fluid devices be developed for use in the medical field. (NEDO)

  3. Behavior of catalyst and mineral matter in coal liquefaction; Sekitan ekika hannochu no kobusshitsu to shokubai no kyodo

    Iwasaki, K.; Wang, J.; Tomita, A. [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan). Institute for Chemical Reaction Science


    Mineral matter in coals is important in various senses for coal liquefaction. It is possible that the catalytic activity is affected by the interaction between catalyst and mineral matter. Iron-based catalyst forms pyrrhotite in the process of liquefaction, but the interaction between it and mineral matter is not known in detail. In this study, the interaction between mineral matter and catalyst and the selective reaction between them were investigated. Tanito Harum coal was used for this study. This coal contains a slight amount of siderite and jarosite besides pyrite as iron compounds. Liquefaction samples were obtained from the 1 t/d NEDOL process PSU. The solid deposits in the reactor mainly contained pyrrhotite and quartz. A slight amount of kaolinite was observed, and pyrite was little remained. It was found that the catalyst (pyrrhotite) often coexisted with quartz, clay and calcite. 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Study on the cutting behavior of plasma sprayed ceramic coatings. Plasma yosha ceramics himaku no sessaku kyodo ni kansuru kenkyu

    Inui, Y; Kubohori, T; Ikuta, T [Kinki Univ., Higashi-Osaka, Osaka (Japan). Faculty of Science and Technology


    Fracture behavior of Al2O3-TiO2 sprayed ceramic coating was investigated at low cutting speeds when using two dimensional cutting. Scanning electron microscope was used to observe the generation, development and propagation of cracks during cutting. Small cracks and fracture have been developed in the cutting groove along the cutting direction, and there has been many fractures in spray particles unit. In the initial stage of cutting, radiant cracks have developed on the sprayed coating, however, linear big cracks starting from the cutting edge towards the cutting direction, have developed. The cracks have developed along the grain boundary of coating component, and cracks progressed along the portion with weak bonding force. When the depth of the cut was under 5[mu]m, the cutting face has formed many microfractures, and the cutting has been very stable. It has been necessary to select the cutting conditions that do not cause big fracture, microcutting and so on, in order to achieve favorable surface condition with minor fractures. 8 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Research on elaboration of the evaluation guidelines for activities implemented jointly; Kyodo jisshi katsudo hyoka guide line sakutei chosa



    Elaboration of the evaluation guidelines for activities implemented jointly (AIJ) was researched to prevent the earth from warming. AIJ is the means to globally promote countermeasures against global warming cost-effectively by optimally combining every country`s technology, know-how and fund. AIJ was established in the 1st Conference of the Parties (COPI) of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change in March, 1995. The pilot phase of AIJ is first carried out by voluntary workers jointly with developing countries under the agreement of the parties. The current situation of activities is reported in COPI as materials for evaluation of AIJ. To promote AIJ, elaboration of the evaluation guidelines for AIJ Japan program is also necessary for Japan. This research arranged the contents of the evaluation guidelines and the method of classifying projects for AIJ Japan program, and carried out some case studies of promising projects to reduce greenhouse gas emission for future proposal. 3 figs., 31 tabs.

  6. Japan-EU joint research project on petroleum substituting energy; Nichi EU sekiyu daitai energy kanren kyodo kenkyu jigyo



    Four EU research workers were invited from Portugal, Italy and France for promoting R & D of petroleum substituting energies in Japan. The joint research on the wide area energy use network system (advanced district cooling and heating) includes the experimental technology for measuring heat transfer acceleration and drag reduction, evaluation of rheological characteristics of fluid, and development and selection of an adequate composition equation of fluid. The joint research on MCFC includes the test method and procedure of components and cells in relation to corrosion by molten carbonate, elution of NiO cathodes, electrode modeling and alternative materials for cathodes. The joint research on geothermal gases includes the research method of fumarolic gases such as volcanic gas and geothermal gas, applications in Italian geothermal fields and the relation of geothermal gases with the origin of fluid, deep conditions and volcanic activity. In addition, the joint research on light energy conversion (energy transfer system between binuclear metal complexes) and the performance and use of metal complexes as catalyst for polymer electrolyte fuel cells was also performed. 52 refs., 20 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. Analysis of axial behavior of three piece oil control ring; Kumiawase oil ring no jikuhoko kyodo no kaiseki

    Tateishi, Y; Fujimura, K; Hitosugi, H [Nippon Piston Ring Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    It is considered that the reduction of oil control ring tension is a major problem in reducing the friction-loss of internal combustion engines. The authors have successfully developed a calculating method for the axial behavior prediction of a three piece type oil control ring as a method used in reduction of lube-oil consumption when lower tension ring is used. By means of the method, the authors found that the effect in reduction of lube-oil consumption was able to be expected by optimizing design parameters of the oil ring, the tension and the seating tab angle of expander-spacer, and the gas pressure on the 3rd land. 3 refs., 14 figs.

  8. Crankshaft strength and rigidity analysis and application to shape optimization; Crank jiku kyodo gosei kaisekiho to keijo saitekika eno tekiyo

    Numajiri, S [Mitsubishi Motor Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Tamura, Y [Mitsubishi Automotive Engineering Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    A crankshaft bending stress analysis method using an elastically supported continuous beam model has been established based on the exact evaluation of the stress concentration at fillet R sections and the crankshaft rigidity. Through various examinations, it was revealed that the calculation results of the bending stress well agreed with the actual measurements. This allowed the reliability analysis and the rigidity analysis to be used to determine optimized crankshaft specifications and web shape, which in turn made it possible to apply this method to the weight reduction of a crankshaft (material removal from web). 1 ref., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Some considerations about improvement for fatigue strength of structures; Shatai kozobutsu no hiro kyodo kojo ni kansuru ichikosatsu

    Kimoto, H; Toyama, K; Maruyama, H; Magara, S [Press Kogyo Co. Ltd., Kanagawa (Japan)


    To reduce weight, higher tensile strength and/or thinner plate are used or considered in vehicle structures. In general, welded or notch sections, fatigue strength decreases because of increasing concentrated stress or effect of notch sensitivity and so on. In this paper, some methods are studied to improve fatigue strength and obtain a long life. 2 refs., 11 figs., 5 tabs.

  10. Committee for international collaborative research of medical and welfare apparatus; Iryo fukushi kiki kokusai kyodo kenkyu jigyo



    The paper summarized activities for an investigational study on the international collaborative research project on the medical and welfare apparatus implemented in fiscal 1995. As investigation activities, the second meeting of information exchanges with E.U. and three north European countries was held following the meeting in fiscal 1994, and at the same time, information exchanges were made with organizations/institutions of industry/government/university in Germany, France and Canada. The study made it clear that Europe is also taking a direction of low-degree action diagnosis/care as Japan is. Further, concrete exchanges of information advanced and an awareness of the common issues was made clear such as the necessity of developing apparatus which meets the apparatus market and users` needs. As international collaborative activities, new methods of information exchanges were adopted such as the satellite meeting of the International MR Society, meetings with researchers who visited Japan. The satellite meeting of the International MR Society was favorably accepted by participants, and it was pointed out that it is important to continue the meeting in view of the materialization of themes, etc. 4 refs., 32 figs., 5 tabs.

  11. On the method for fracture strength assessment. Part 2; Kozobutsu no hakai kyodo hyoka no jissai. 2

    Onozuka, M. [Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    In order to reduce the economic cost of the generating set etc. the damages to the materials and structures of the structure to last the original design life were observed and it was considered that if damages were fewer the life would be longer. One of the important items in assessing, amending and renewing the rationality of the established structure is the assessment of the defects and flaws existing in the welded joints. In Japan, WES 2805 which is named as the Method for Assessing the Defects for the Brittle Fracture Occurring Properties of Welded Joint was formulated in 1980 as the standard of the Japan Welding Society. Although it has been applied as the criterion in wide range, the part on brittle fracture is now under revision to reflect the research results on fracture mechanics thereafter and to perfect the fracture relationship because many years have passed since its first formulation. In this paper, the contents in the final stage of the revision of WES 2805 standard, including concrete examples, were introduced. 2 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Study on fuel particle motion of a diesel spray; Diesel funmu ryushi no kyodo ni kansuru kenkyu

    Ishikawa, N. [Isuzu Motors Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Tsujimura, K.


    This study was performed to clarify the mechanism of mixture formation at peripheral area of diesel spray with PIV technique. Two dimensional cross-sectional photographs of diesel spray were taken with double pulse laser sheet. Local fuel spray particles were analyzed with an auto-correlation method and velocity vector and vorticity of the fuel spray particle were obtained. The vortex number increased and vorticity scale became smaller and its value grew higher with both smaller injection nozzle diameter and higher fuel injection velocity. With this injection condition, the mixing of fuel spray with ambient gas seems to be improved and the turbulence is expected to increase in the regions of higher vortex number, higher vorticity and smaller vorticity scale. Based on above results, the branch-like structure of diesel fuel spray was considered to be caused by vortices which formed in the shear layer between the spray and the ambient gas. 14 refs., 18 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Static behaviors of long-span cable-stayed bridge; Chodai shachokyo no seiteki kyodo ni kansuru kosatsu

    Xie, Xu [Saitama Univ., Saitama (Japan). Graduate School; Yamaguchi, H.; Ito, M. [Saitama Univ., Urawa (Japan). Faculty of Engineering


    In this study, incremental equation of cable-stayed bridge is formulated by finite element method taking the geometrical nonlinear analysis into account. Then, as an example of designing a bridge with 1500m span, setting up the initial tension, analysis of in-plane behavior caused by live loads as well as analysis of the behavior against wind caused by out-of-plane wind load that are necessary for designing a bridge with 1500m span are carried out. The main results obtained through the study are as follows. As for the cable stayed bridge with 1500m center super long-span having supplementary supporting points between the side arms, the geometrical non-linearity caused by the in-plane design live loads is not remarkable. The effects of wind which acts on girders on analysis of the behaviors against wind are different depending on the aerodynamic performance of the girder and in the case of high wind speed, strong effects on the behavior against wind of the in-plane and screws generate. As the changing of tension of the cable makes influences on the force of in-plane cross section and on displacement of the girder, if the wind speed is very high, the analysis results of the behaviors against wind of in-plane and screws of the cable-stayed bridge may be different depending on in what manner the wind load on the cable to be treated. 16 refs., 16 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Annual energy review-1996; 1996 nen ni okeru juyona energy kankei jiko



    This paper reviews the important items concerned with energy in 1996. Primary energy supply sums to 529times10{sup 13}kcal increasing by 2.4% over last year. The growth rates of demand over last year are 2.5% in industry use, 3.7% in transport use, 3.7% in home use, and 1.3% in business use. On R & D trend of use technologies of energy resources, the following are described: (1) Petroleum: resource exploitation, transport, stock, refining, and petrochemistry, (2) Coal: resource exploitation, coal structure and property, processing, transport, liquefaction, gasification, carbonization, tar industry, carbon industry, and coal ash utilization, (3) Natural gas: resource exploitation, transport, storage, and conversion technology, (4) Natural energy: hydraulic, solar, geothermal, wind power, oceanic and biomass energies, and (5) Others: waste resources, hydrogen and alcohol. On R & D trend of energy conversion technology, combustion theory, boiler, engine, thermal energy system, and high-efficiency power generation technology are described. Environmental problems and their protective technologies are also described

  15. Human physiology and psychology in space flight; Uchu hiko ni okeru ningen no seiri to shinri

    Murai, T. [National Space Development Agency of Japan, Tokyo (Japan)


    Human beings' adaptation to space and the effects on them of a prolonged stay in space are discussed. Some effects may be detrimental to crewmen even when they are medically judged as 'normal' and 'adaptable.' Bone deliming, muscular atrophy, and hypodynamia may be physiologically 'normal' and 'adaptable' in the zero-gravity environment where no strength is required to hold a position or attitude, and they will not cause any serious problems if crewmen are to stay in the zero-gravity environment permanently. Astronauts work on conditions that they return to the earth, however, and they have to stand on their own legs when back on the ground. Such being the case, they in the space vehicle are forced to make efforts at having their bone density and muscular strength sustained. It is inevitable for a space station to be a closed, isolated system, and the crewmen have to live in multinational, multicultural, and multilingual circumstances in case the flight is an international project. They will be exposed to great social and psychological stresses, and their adaptability to such stresses presents an important task. (NEDO)

  16. Refraction experiment in the Kobe-Hanshin area; Kobe Hanshin kan ni okeru kussetsuho tansa

    Koketsu, K [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Earthquake Research Institute


    The refraction experiments were conducted to investigate the underground structures reaching the basement by analyzing the results of the artificial earthquakes the explosion earthquake research group produced in City of Kobe and the Hanshin District on December 12 to 15, 1995. Considering that noise level can exceed 1 mkine in an urban area even in the mid-night, the courses of traverse were drawn focusing on Points S2 through S4 and U1. The earthquake waves from Points S2 through S4 are generally low in amplitude. However, the major components of the signals have a dominant frequency exceeding 10Hz, which makes them distinguishable from urban noise having a lower frequency, contrary to the previous indication that such a low-amplitude wave might not be distinguishable. On the other hand, the signals from the explosion at Point 4 in Awaji Island cannot be distinguished in the urban area, even on the nearby course of traverse D. At present, the analytical group is organized to read various phases running and analyze the P-velocity structures. 2 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Rear impact whiplash neck injury reduction technology; Jidosha komen shototsu ni okeru muchiuchisho teigen gijutsu

    Watanabe, Y.; Ichikawa, H.; Kayama, O. [Nissan Motor Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    Even though whiplash neck injuries suffered in low-speed rear impacts are one of the major concern in traffic accidents, the mechanism of the injuries is not fully understood at present. Hence, the countermeasures have not been clear, yet. The bio-mechanical research was done to understand the injuries and three different modes of occupant's motion related to the mechanism were found. Based on this research, Nissan Active Head Restraint has been developed to reduce whiplash neck injuries in low-speed rear impacts. (author)

  18. Volatiles production from the coking of coal; Sekitan no netsubunkai ni okeru kihatsubun seisei

    Yamashita, Y.; Saito, H.; Inaba, A. [National Institute for Resources and Environment, Tsukuba (Japan)


    In order to simplify the coke manufacturing process, a coke production mechanism in coal pyrolysis was discussed. Australian bituminous coal which can produce good coke was used for the discussion. At a temperature raising rate of 50{degree}C per minute, coal weight loss increases monotonously. However, in the case of 3{degree}C, the weight loss reaches a peak at a maximum ultimate temperature of about 550{degree}C. The reaction mechanism varies with the temperature raising rates, and in the case of 50{degree}C per minute, volatiles other than CO2 and propane increased. Weight loss of coal at 3{degree}C per minute was caused mainly by methane production at 550{degree}C or lower. When the temperature is raised to 600{degree}C, tar and CO2 increased, and so did the weight loss. Anisotropy was discerned in almost of all coke particles at 450{degree}C, and the anisotropy became remarkable with increase in the maximum ultimate temperature. Coke and volatiles were produced continuously at a temperature raising rate of 50{degree}C per minute, and at 3{degree}C per minute, the production of the coke and volatiles progressed stepwise as the temperature has risen. 7 refs., 6 figs.

  19. Autosolvent effect of bitumen in thermal cracking; Netsubunkai hanno ni okeru bitumen no jiko yobai koka

    Mikuni, M.; Sato, M.; Hattori, H. [Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan). Center for Advanced Research of Energy Technology; Nagaishi, H.; Sasaki, M.; Yoshida, T. [Hokkaido National Industrial Research Institute, Sapporo (Japan)


    Tar sand bitumen is petroleum-based ultra-heavy oil, and has a great amount of reserve like coal. However, there are still a lot of problems for its highly effective utilization. This paper discusses whether the light components in bitumen show independent behavior during the thermal cracking of heavy components, or not. Solvent effect and reaction mechanism during the thermal cracking are also derived from the change of their chemical structures. Athabasca tar sand bitumen was separated into light and heavy fractions by vacuum distillation based on D-1660 of ASTM. Mixtures of the both fractions at various ratios were used as samples. Negative effect of the light fraction on cracking of the heavy fraction was observed with dealkylation and paraffin formation Polymerization of the dealkylated light fraction to the heavy fraction was suggested due to lack of hydrogen in the thermal cracking under nitrogen atmosphere, which resulted in the formation of polymer. 3 refs., 6 figs.

  20. Dissipative structure of mechanically stimulated reaction; Kikaiteki reiki hanno ni okeru san`itsu kozo

    Hida, M. [Okayama Univ., Okayama (Japan). Faculty of Engineering


    Recently various studies have been conducted concerning the state changes of materials obtained through mechanical alloying (MA) or mechano-chemical (MC) processing. What is noticeable is the quasi-steady state of almost all the materials obtained through various processes including MA and MC, and that the super cooling, supersaturating and high residue distortion realized under unbalanced conditions have not been clarified. In other words, the tracing capability to the external binding conditions is low. In this report, the appearance of the high temperature phase and high pressure phase obtained through MA or MC processing, the forming of amorphous, the mesomerism of the amorphous materials, the interesting phenomena generated by combination between the mechanical disturbance and chemical reactions were discussed with concrete examples, and a steady dissipative organization theory was approached from the viewpoint of dissipative structure development which is equal to the forming process of the quasi-steady phase. 34 refs., 2 figs.

  1. Development of a platoon driving AHS; AHS jikkensha ni okeru gunsoko seigyo no kaihatsu

    Seto, Y; Inoue, H [Nissan Motor Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    Nissan and the Public Work Research Institute of the Ministry of Construction are developing an Automated Highway System. We are investigating a longitudinal control system in AHS. In this paper, a vehicle control method using two actuators an engine and a brake, is described. Experimental and simulated results are shown. A Platoon driving control method using road-to-vehicle and vehicle-to-vehicle communication is described. And the influence of the communication on the control performance is shown by experiments and simulation. The effects of the communication device and control device mentioned above are verified by experimental results in an AHS field test conducted in September 1996 on a dosed highway. 5 refs., 8 figs.

  2. Revised design calculations of lift systems; Elevator no setsubi keikaku ni okeru kotsu keisan

    Maeda, T.; Komaya, K. [Mitsubishi Electric Corp., Tokyo (Japan)


    For sufficient transportation capacity and passengers comfort and convenience, it is very important to design the suitable lift systems (e.g., the appropriate number of cages, velocity, capacity etc.) using a model which describes real elevator movements. The procedure used in conventional design calculations for office buildings is to determine the transportation capacity for the up-peak traffic situation using a simple passengers arrival model. This paper presents a new design calculations using balanced traffic model, which can deal with the elevator movements considering passengers arrival rate. As some performance indexes to evaluate the quality of service can be calculated by using this model, lift system designers can determine the appropriate lift facilities as to satisfy their goals. The validity of the proposed model is also shown by comparing with the measured data in real lift systems. 6 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Prospect of concrete technology; Kenchiku ni okeru korekarano konkurito gijutsu no tenbo

    Suzuki, Tadahiko [Shimizu Corp., Tokyo (Japan)


    The privatization of state-owned companies, the abolition of the protectionism to domestic industries and the market liberalization, deregulation to the economic activities or movement to abolition of regulation were concretely made a start. Moreover, the reform of the social life was also requested with an increasing of international global environmental preservation. These reform influences in the construction industry have been affected and could not ignored in consideration of the development in the 21st century. In this paper, the summary of reform in development, construction industry; especially the correspondence in the construction industry and the relation to concrete technology from now were described. Especially, concerning establishment of concrete technology, it was given as the construction of the safe and comfortable space, highly production technical development, countermeasures to resource-saving and environmental preservation, search of new concrete materials, development of the renewal technology and correspondence to large project. (NEDO)

  4. Advanced technology trend survey of micromachines in Europe; Oshu ni okeru micromachine sentan gijutsu doko chosa



    In this research survey, the development trend of micromachine technology in Europe was surveyed, development level of micromachine technology of European companies was grasped, and practical application fields of their target were investigated. Technology development level of private companies in Japan`s national projects and practical application fields of Japan`s target were arranged. Trends of micromachine technology development are compared between Japanese companies and European companies. Among micromachine technology development projects in Europe, ``8520 MUST`` is a part of the ESPRIT Project. About 40,000 companies among about 170,000 companies in whole Europe are relating to the MUST Project. The main fields include the manufacturing technology, process control of machines, technology of safety, sensor technology in environmental fields, and automotive technology. The marketing fields of application include the automobile, military technology, home automation, industrial process, medical technology, environmental technology, and games. The results can be compared with the direction of research and development in Japan. 22 figs., 8 tabs.

  5. Freezing process in unsaturated packed beds; Fuhowa ryushi sonai ni okeru suibun toketsu

    Akahori, M; Aoki, K; Hattori, M [Nagaoka University of Technology, Niigata (Japan); Tani, T [Oji Paper Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    The freezing process in unsaturated packed beds has been investigated experimentally and theoretically. Water transport to the frozen front plays an important part on freezing. The rate of the absorption of water into frozen layer depended on the freezing heat flux and the water saturation at the freezing front. As a result, ice content in the frozen layer was related to the rate of the absorption of water and the freezing heat flux. A one-dimensional freezing model in unsaturated packed beds has been presented, accounting for the water transport. The predicted water saturation and temperature distributions in the body and the thickness of frozen layer were compared with the experimental results using a porous bed composed of glass beads. 12 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  6. High resolution CSMT method for shallow structure; Senjo ochi ni okeru kobunkaino denjiho tansa

    Yamane, K; Takasugi, S [GERD Geothermal Energy Research and Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Inazaki, S [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan); Sasaki, Y


    Electromagnetic exploration methods and seismic reflection methods are conducted for the study of applicability of geophysical exploration to shallow layer geological survey. In the study, four north-south traverse lines are set in 400mtimes200m grassland. Tensor type CSMT methods are employed, a CSMT method using 96kHz-1kHz artificial magnetic fields and an MT method using 1kHz-10kHz natural magnetic fields, for the determination of resistivity distribution in the ground. Distributed in the site are a surface layer composed of gravel-containing sand and silt, andesitic fractured lava, and massive andesite, and the exploration reaches several tens of meters below the surface. The results of CSMT measurements are found to be in agreement with reflection profiles acquired simultaneously with these CSMT measurements. It is found, furthermore, that CSMT profiles help identify reflection waveforms in a domain where reflection is obscure. It is also found that electromagnetic methods are effective in fault logging because they are very sensitive to porosity, or the amount of pore water, which is higher in a domain with subsurface cracks than in the neighborhood without cracks. 1 ref., 4 figs.

  7. Earthquake ground motion research in Sapporo city; Sapporoshi ni okeru jishindo no kenkyu

    Sasatani, T [Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan)


    The Research Group on Earthquake Ground Motion in Sapporo City established in May 1996 has inaugurated collection of information on ground structures and observations of strong earthquakes in Sapporo City. The Research Group on Earthquake Ground Motion in Sapporo City has carried out geological investigations, electric logging and PS logging to date in three boring holes each with a depth of about 100 m, 200 m and 600 m. According to the result of the logging in the new Ishikari Bay port (600-m deep hole), the S-wave velocity has increased slowly as it starts from the ground surface to greater depths, but showed no noticeable velocity boundaries in this range of the depth. The Sapporo municipal office has drilled three observation wells (500-m deep) for the purpose of determining focal points of microtremors directly under the city area. Hole-bottom observation has been inaugurated since the beginning of this year. According to comparison of the results of loggings at great depths, a depth at which the S-wave velocity reaches about 700 m/s becomes greater toward the sea area. The result of calculations on amplification characteristics of the SH wave on rock beds revealed that a seismic wave of about 0.5 Hz is amplified by a little more than two times. 1 ref., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Effect of fluid-filled boreholes on resistivity tomography; Hiteiko tomography ni okeru konaisui no eikyo

    Sugimoto, Y [DIA Consultants Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    Theoretical discussions were given on the effect of fluid-filled boreholes on resistivity tomography. The discussions performed incorporation of earth resistance as a method to consider borehole diameters in an FEM calculation using wire elements. The numerical experiment conducted a simulation on the following two objects: resistivity tomography in a horizontal multi-layer structure consisted of layers with resistivity ranging from 10 to 10000 ohm-m, and a model with a slanted low resistivity band existing in a background of 5000 ohm-m. As a result of the discussions, it was made clear that the effect of the boreholes can be corrected by giving earth resistance between the wire elements and natural ground. An improved potential calculating program indicated that the effect of the fluid-filled boreholes in the resistivity tomography generates false images with high resistivity along the bores if the resistivity has high contrast. Incorporating the wire elements into an inverse analysis model reduces the false images and improves the accuracy. 1 ref., 12 figs.

  9. Gravitational observation in central Hokkaido; Hokkaido chuobu ni okeru juryoku sokutei ni tsuite

    Murata, Y; Makino, M [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan)


    To compile a base map of gravity in Hokkaido, gravity was measured in central Hokkaido where gravity data are absent. Gravity anomaly was made clear in this region. Survey area was 87 km in the east-west and 224 km in the north-south. A topographic map with a scale of 25,000:1 was initially used for determining location and altitude of gravity measuring points. Since the GPS survey was found to be very useful for gravitational observation in the region of Hyogo-ken Nanbu Earthquake in 1995, the GPS has been used in this survey from 1996. Based on new measurements at 2,148 points in addition to existing points, Bouguer anomaly map was made, and density distribution of surface layer of the crust was estimated. As a result, the gravity anomaly pattern in the north-south direction and gravity anomaly in basins and volcanoes were made clear. Quantitative analysis is to be conducted using these gravity data. Using these gravity data, the density distribution of surface layer of the crust was estimated. This distribution agreed well with the geological map in this region. 4 refs., 6 figs.

  10. Source inversion in the full-wave tomography; Full wave tomography ni okeru source inversion

    Tsuchiya, T [DIA Consultants Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    In order to consider effects of characteristics of a vibration source in the full-wave tomography (FWT), a study has been performed on a method to invert vibration source parameters together with V(p)/V(s) distribution. The study has expanded an analysis method which uses as the basic the gradient method invented by Tarantola and the partial space method invented by Sambridge, and conducted numerical experiments. The experiment No. 1 has performed inversion of only the vibration source parameters, and the experiment No. 2 has executed simultaneous inversion of the V(p)/V(s) distribution and the vibration source parameters. The result of the discussions revealed that and effective analytical procedure would be as follows: in order to predict maximum stress, the average vibration source parameters and the property parameters are first inverted simultaneously; in order to estimate each vibration source parameter at a high accuracy, the property parameters are fixed, and each vibration source parameter is inverted individually; and the derived vibration source parameters are fixed, and the property parameters are again inverted from the initial values. 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Materials and joining technologies of commercial jet plane. Jet ryokyakuki ni okeru zairyo to setsugo

    Hira, H; Yoshino, Y [Kawasaki Heavy Industries,Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    The present report explained light weight and high strength materials which are strong against the corrosion and fatigue, and economical. Also explained were their joining technologies for the commercial jet plane production. Resin composites are acceleratedly used as light weight and high strength materials. Fiber to be used is heightened in strength by replacing the glassfiber by the hybrid and carbon fiber. As measures against the drop in both strength around the drilled holes, and compressive strength due to the separation between layers and dehumidification, which drop is a defect generated in the composite, improving measures are taken such as enlargement of allowable strain by carbon fiber of a medium elastic modulus, use of resin base hardly degraded by the dehumidification and diffusion of high toughness resin. Metallic materials are also heightened in characteristics. For the joining technologies, measures are progressively taken against the strength damage around the drilled holes and electric corrosion by fasteners in the composite. Also for the tightening of metallic materials, the fatigue strength is designed to be heightened by the introduction of compressive residual stress. Both thermal degradation and stress in the hardening process must be taken into consideration for the structure use adhesives which are mainly of an epoxy system. The corrosion control is indispensable at the time of etching for the metallic adhesion. The welding was also explained. 16 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Subjects of the energy industry under yen appreciation; Endakaka ni okeru energy sangyo no kadai



    This paper studied effects of yen appreciation on the Japanese economy and changes in energy demand when assuming the medium-term yen appreciation trend, and subjects in the energy industry. The paper also refers to the trend of the Asian material industry largely influencing the energy supply/demand, the risk hedge problem of the exchange, and international cooperation and business development of the energy industry. The energy industry is extremely high in public interest and is rice of the industry. Therefore, the development of the business has focused on the domestic market. However, such a recognition is forced to be changed by waves of the worldwide deregulation. Discussions on foreign/domestic price differences caused by high yen and a series of deregulation policy in the energy industry affected thereby may be concrete signs. The subject in the energy industry under the yen appreciation is that the energy industry will be close to common sense in general industrial circles and change to an industry which is strong and internationally competitive enough to brave the exchange variation. 101 refs., 104 figs., 31 tabs.

  13. Effect of fall wind on wind power generation; Furyoku hatsuden ni okeru dashikaze no koka

    Nagai, H [Nihon University, Tokyo (Japan)


    Wind conditions in Arakawa Town, Niigata Prefecture, were surveyed by anemometers and anemoscopes installed at 3 different points, and the data are analyzed to develop the prediction model for investigating possibility of introduction of wind mills there. Outlined herein is power generated by fall wind by comparing predicted power availability with the actual results. In order to investigate possibility of power generation by fall wind, the wind conditions and power availability are simulated using the observed wind condition data. Predicted wind velocity involves a large error at a point where frequency of prevailing wind direction is high, and direction in which average wind velocity is high coincides with direction in which land is slanted at a high slope. Fall wind occurs locally for geographical reasons. Location of the wind mill must be carefully considered, because it is complex, although potentially gives a larger quantity of power. A wind mill of 400kW can produce power of around 600MWh annually, when it is located at the suited site confirmed by the wind condition analysis results. 6 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs.

  14. Preventive measures of water pollution in China; Chugoku ni okeru suishitsu odaku boshi taisaku

    Qian, Y.; Huang, X.


    This paper describes the progress and the major results of research and development on technologies and measures to prevent water pollution in China. Tests and researches have been performed on an upward anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB), a vertical baffled anaerobic sludge blanket, two-phase anaerobic digestion, and an anaerobic fluidized bed. When anaerobically digested sludge and aerobic active sludge are inoculated in the UASB, particle-shaped sludge was formed well in both sludges. This technology has begun to be used in breweries and citric acid factories. With anaerobic treatment of waste water containing sulfate, the sulfate was recovered as sulfur by using the first and second phases. Research and development is being progressed on the oxidation ditch technology as an improved version of the active sludge method. In a pilot test of a soil treatment system and a stabilization pond treatment system as alternative technology for the active sludge method, the BOD in the treated water was found 2.5 mg{times}1/l. Attentions are drawn on primary treatment, a living organism contact oxidation method, and a continuous filtration treatment process as technologies to turn polluted water into resources. 6 refs., 1 tab.

  15. Automobile industry and globalization in Asian market; Asia ni okeru jidosha sangyo to globalization



    Asian countries are now attracting attention of automobile manufacturers of the world for their capabilities of buying, producing, and assembling of automobiles, and producing and supplying of parts, which means that the Asian market is now exposed to globalization. As for the automobile and part manufacturers of Japan, in the presence of economic depression lingering in Asia affecting motorization and rapid changes in the circumstances Japan`s automobile industry finds itself under, are pressed to work out new strategies as a member of the Asian community. A panel discussion of the same name as the subject held in 1997 won favor as a fine initiative to suitably cope with the difficult situation. Useful suggestions and proposals were made concerning the panel discussion, calling the event a new type of round-table talks well responding to the rapid changes in the world economy since 1997, by learned and experienced people, the government offices concerned, staffers of manufacturers in charge of overseas marketing, and international information analysts. They related to the current state and tasks of automobile manufacturing in Asia, trends of regulations and standardization, rolls of technical assistance and the Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan, Ltd., expressed from a wide angle covering various problems relative to environmental protection, safety, etc. (NEDO)

  16. Characteristics of microtremors in Hanshin area; Hanshin chiiki ni okeru bido no kihon tokusei nitsuite

    Suzuki, H; Suzuki, K; Yamanaka, H; Seo, K [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)


    To increase general understandings of fundamental characteristics of microtremors in Hanshin area, microtremors have been observed at Sumiyoshi River-side, Rokko Island, and Nishinomiya. Relations were discussed among the stability of predominant period, successive fluctuation and meteorological conditions. For the analysis, cosine-type taper was conducted before and after 10% of the observed records, and Fourier spectrum was calculated by smoothing using Parzen window with a band width 0.3 Hz. Geometrical mean of two components was used as a horizontal component. At the observation points except Sumiyoshi River-side, predominance in the short period side was not distinct, and was not stable due to the successive fluctuation of predominant period. However, there was less successive fluctuation of spectrum ratio between different two points in the band with period more than 1 sec. Since there was a close correlation between the successive fluctuation in this band and the wind velocity or air pressure, the microtremors in this band was affected by a single vibration source. Ground characteristics could be illustrated by the averages of ratio against base points of moving observation. 14 refs.

  17. Magnetic prospecting in Kaibuki-yama ancient tomb; Kaibukiyama kofun ni okeru zenjiryoku sokutei

    Nishitani, T [Akita University, Akita (Japan). Mining College


    Kaibuki-yama ancient tomb located in Kumeda, Kishiwada City, Osaka has a square shape in the front and an orbicular shape in the rear, which was considered to be made in the 4th century. This ancient tomb has a total length about 135 m, a diameter of orbicular shape in the rear about 82 m, and a height about 9 m, which is a symbolical existence of the Kumeda ancient tombs. Stone chamber and stone casket made of Sanbagawa crystalline schist or rhyolitic-andesitic tuff are expected in this tomb. Magnetic prospecting in this study is accompanied with this survey. A differential type proton magnetometer was used for the measurements, which were conducted using meshes with 1 m edges. A pair of distinct positive and negative magnetic anomalies were observed in the center of orbicular shape in the rear. This coincides with a location of main body buried, which is archaeologically estimated. The magnetic anomaly might be caused by the article buried in the tomb, such as ironware, based on the measurement of magnetic intensity. From the calculated values of magnetic anomaly using a model, the buried article with magnetic anomaly was considered to have a size with length of 1 m, width of 0.1 m, and height of 0.2m. The negative magnetic anomaly could not be explained only by this. It is necessary to consider the other reasons. 8 refs., 8 figs.

  18. Detailed seismic intensity in Morioka area; Moriokashi ni okeru shosai shindo bunpu

    Saito, T; Yamamoto, H; Settai, H [Iwate University, Iwate (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Yamada, T [Obayashi Road Construction Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    To reveal a seismic intensity distribution in individual areas, a large-scale detailed seismic intensity survey was conducted in Morioka City through questionnaire, as to the Hokkaido Toho-oki (HE) earthquake occurred on October 4, 1994 with a record of seismic intensity 4 at Morioka, and the Sanriku Haruka-oki (SH) earthquake occurred on December 28, 1994 with a record of seismic intensity 5 at Morioka. A relationship was also examined between the seismic intensity distribution and the properties of shallow basement in Morioka City. The range of seismic intensity was from 2.9 to 4.6 and the difference was 1.7 in the case of HE earthquake, and the range was from 3.1 to 5.0 and the difference was 1.9 in the case of SH earthquake. There were large differences in the seismic intensity at individual points. Morioka City has different geological structures in individual areas. There were differences in the S-wave velocity in the surface layer ranging from 150 to 600 m/sec, which were measured using a plate hammering seismic source at 76 areas in Morioka City. These properties of surface layers were in harmony with the seismic intensity distribution obtained from the questionnaire. For the observation of short frequency microtremors at about 490 points in the city, areas with large amplitudes, mean maximum amplitudes of vertical motion components more than 0.1 mkine were distributed in north-western region and a part of southern region. 4 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Array TDEM survey at the Yufuin fault; Yufuin danso ni okeru array shiki TDEM tansa

    Mogi, T [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Tanaka, Y; Fukuda, Y [Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan). Faculty of Science; Jomori, N [Chiba Electric Research Institute Co., Chiba (Japan)


    The array arrangement of receivers was studied to improve the resolution of LOTEM (long offset transient electromagnetics) survey. To eliminate the effect of underground structure from a source to a receiving point, continuous array arrangement from a source site is desirable. The survey at the Yufuin fault was carried out by arranging TEM receivers at intervals of 100m from the source. Since the synchronization between transmitting and receiving points by high-precision clock is essential, an amplifier for a flux gate magnetometer capable of measuring at four points at the same time was used. In the south plateau of the Yufuin basin, a relatively high resistivity stratum more than several tens ohm m exists at depth less than several hundreds meter, and a low resistivity stratum less than 10 ohm m exists under that. Those boundary depth increases toward the north up to 950m, and the depth subsequently decreases toward the north until the low resistivity stratum disappears. In addition, the uniform stratum of 1000m deep continues toward the north. Such precise resistivity structure around the fault was obtained by dense arrangement of measuring points. 4 refs., 7 figs.

  20. Applications of thermal spraying for automotive parts. Jidosha ni okeru yosha no tekiyo

    Mori, K [Toyota Motor Co. Ltd., Aichi (Japan)


    Application of thermal spraying for automotive parts is described. Outlines of the spraying types that are materialized recently, like 'gel-double spraying of turbo-compressor housing part' and 'iron alloy spraying to outer portion of valve lifter made with Al alloy', are introduced. Gel-double spraying technology is widely used in the jet engine of aeroplane, however its use in automotive turbo was difficult from the reason like quality assurance relating to continuous production of automotives. As a result of the research and development based on the above reasons, a low speed torque is confirmed by the formation of gel-double spray layer. Spraying to the outer part of the valve lifter made from Al alloy is cited as the best example of thermal spraying. Relation between flying speed of spraying particles and degree of flattening, etc., relating to the conformity of adhesion power of coated layer, is explained. Further research topics are given as; improvement of spraying efficiency, improvement of resistance of spraying equipments, unification of equipments standards, quantification of spray coatings, design of spray materials, etc. 9 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Study on the time-domain electromagnetic responses; TDEM ho ni okeru denji oto ni tsuite

    Noguchi, K; Endo, M [Waseda University, Tokyo (Japan). School of Science and Engineering


    With an objective to perform three-dimensional analysis with high accuracy in using the electromagnetic exploration method, characteristics in electromagnetic response were analyzed, and conditions for acquiring necessary data were discussed. The discussion defined a parameter called `response anomaly` which uses response from media to standardize response only from substances with abnormal resistivity. The receivers were located uniformly on the same plane, and the response anomaly was derived from electromagnetic response from each of the three horizontal and vertical components at each receiving point, which was expressed as a contour map. The parameter for the abnormal body was consisted of location and resistivity contrast with media. Discussions using the contour map were given on the response when these factors for the parameter were varied. As a result, it was found that the response anomaly appears in the form that reflects the abnormal body, and the response anomaly of the horizontal component is superior in terms of being large. It was also referred that, as a requirement for the abnormal body which gives larger impact from the electromagnetic response, the abnormal body should have lower resistivity than that in the media, and resistivity contrast with the media should be greater. 2 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Industrialization, urbanization and demographic change in England; Igirisu ni okeru kogyoka toshika to jinko mondai

    Yasumoto, M. [Komazawa University, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Economics


    In order to study the effects of progress in industrialization and urbanization on societies and economy, analyses were performed on the northern England in the period of the Industrial Revolution. The rapid expansion of the city of Leeds in the 1780`s and on had brought about the increase in employment opportunities in the suburban farming villages, as well as drop in matrimonial age in agricultural and coal mine workers, and the rapid population increase. Housing conditions for those workers who had flown into the city from agricultural villages in a large number were of very poor quality, and their living standard was low. More than half of the patients visiting the charity hospital in Leeds City came from the urban area, with industrial accidents such as injuries in young workers noticed remarkably high. Many women were included in them, from which the progress in mechanization of the textile industry in Leeds and its surrounding areas can well be imagined. The attributes of households, families, and population were divided into diverse structures and hierarchies, according to the residential construction form and work income earner rates in family constituting members were also various. The development urbanization and industrialization had given diversified effects on households, families, population, and life cycles in city dwellers through changes in housing environments. 2 refs., 1 fig., 7 tabs.

  3. Load averaging system for co-generation plant; Jikayo hatsuden setsubi ni okeru fuka heijunka system

    Ueno, Y. [Fuji Electric Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    MAZDA Motor Corp. planed the construction of a 20.5MW co-generation plant in 1991 for responding to an increase in power demand due to expansion of the Hofu factory. On introduction of this co-generation plant, it was decided that the basic system would adopt the following. (1) A circulating fluidized bed boiler which can be operated by burning multiple kinds of fuels with minimum environmental pollution. (2) A heat accumulation system which can be operated through reception of a constant power from electric power company despite a sudden and wide range change in power demand. (3) A circulating-water exchange heat recovery system which recovers exhaust heat of the turbine plant as the hot water to be utilized for heating and air-conditioning of the factory mainly in winter. Power demand in MAZDA`s Hofu factory changes 15% per minute within a maximum range from 20MW to 8MW. This change is difficult to be followed even by an oil burning boiler excellent in load follow-up. The circulating Fluidized bed boiler employed this time is lower in the follow-up performance than the oil boiler. For the newly schemed plant, however, load averaging system named a heat accumulation system capable of responding fully to the above change has been developed. This co-generation plant satisfied the official inspection before commercial operation according the Ministerial Ordinance in 1993. Since then, with regard to the rapid load following, which was one of the initial targets, operation is now performed steadily. This paper introduces an outline of the system and operation conditions. 10 refs.

  4. Alternative disinfection technology for water purification systems; Josui shori ni okeru enso daitai shodoku gijutsu

    Aizawa, T. [The Institute of Public Health, Tokyo (Japan)


    This paper describes chlorination substituting disinfection technologies used in water purification systems. Chloramine treatment is regarded as effective in reducing trihalomethane (THM). Chlorine is injected in the initial stage in the form of free chlorine to disinfect pathogenic microorganisms in a short time, which is then added with ammonia to convert it into chloramine for further utilization. Chlorine dioxide has not been used in Japan, but introduced in Europe and America to treat THM. Ozone has the strongest oxidizing power, and is used for disinfection, virus inactivation, decomposition of THM precursors, and removal of fungus odor. The ozone treatment will produce aldehyde if an organic matter is present, but aldehyde can be removed by treatment using organismic activated carbon. Ultraviolet ray treatment has an advantage of being difficult of producing byproducts. This system was experimentally compared with free chlorine treatment on disinfection effect, mutagenicity, suppression of producing THM byproducts, and odor removal. In order to assure reliability of microorganismic and chemical safety in tap water supply systems, assurance by considering the entire system is important, not only by operating the disinfection units, but also combining such physical water purifying technologies as coagulation, sedimentation, filtration, and membrane treatment. The use of chlorine substituting disinfectants is also a part of the conception. 6 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs.

  5. Noise and vibration improvement technologies for engines; Engine ni okeru soon shindo kaizen gijutsu

    Kuzuoka, H.; Maeda, R. [Nissan Motor Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    This is an outline of recent measurement and simulation technology for reduction of engine noise and vibration. We can recognize correct phenomenon by visualization of noise and vibration phenomena using new measurement technology. And we can create optimum countermeasures using new simulation technology In this report, examples of application of these technology in the development of NEO-DI engines are provided. (author)

  6. Visualization techniques in diesel engine research. Diesel Engine kenkyu ni okeru kashika gijutsu

    Komori, M.; Tsujimura, K. (New ACE., Tsukuba (Japan))


    In order to grasp the phenomena actually occurring in the combustion chamber for improving the combustion and for reducing the exhaust gas emission of the diesel engines, the visualization techniques are becoming to be essential and indispensable. The authors have observed the spray and combustion, when proceeding the combustion improvement by the high pressure injection, and then have performed the image processing and simulation calculation based on them. The high pressure injection devices used for the experiment are the intensifier type and accumulator type which can generate the injection pressure more than 200MPa, and both of them are the electronic controlled hydraulic drive type, and are driven separately from the engine. Since it was found that the analysis of high pressure injection by the hologram is limited in the conditions, as for the spray, the spray analysis was performed by the transmitted light attenuation method and laser sheet method. As for the combustion, the engine for observing the combustion was trially made, and then the combustion state was observed by the high speed photograph. Furthermore, the flame temperature analysis by the image processing using the combustion photograph and the analysis of flow and turbulence of the flame were carried out. 9 refs., 16 figs.

  7. Reliability of soldered joints for automotive electronic devices; Denso buhin ni okeru handa setsugo no shinraisei

    Kita, T; Mukaibo, N; Ando, K; Moriyama, M [Honda R and D Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    Concerning the tin and lead eutectic solder, we have evaluated the reliability of three factors of intermetallic compound layer, creep and vibration which cause solder degradation. First, the stress factor was extracted from investigating the mechanism of degradation, and the best acceleration test method was fixed. Next, the acceleration test was executed to find the stress dependency and the tendency of solder degradation was modeled numerically. While the environmental stress frequency was obtained and they were put together by using a minor method, which enabled us to predict the life span of solder on the market with precision. 5 refs., 13 figs.

  8. Laser cutting system in bridge fabricating line; Kyoryo seisaku line ni okeru laser no setsudan system

    Kitaguchi, Y.; Yokotani, K. [Hitachi Zosen Corp., Osaka (Japan)


    This paper describes the laser cutting system established at a new advanced plant that was constructed by Hitachi Shipbuilding and Engineering Co., Ltd. in 1993. At the plant, the cutting line consists of four NC cutting lines: the plasma cutting machine, gas cutting machine, frame planer, and laser cutting machine. The laser cutting machine is used to cut complex shapes of relatively thin (6 - 16 mm) materials with high accuracy. The machine consists of a 3 kW CO2 laser oscillator mounted gantry type NC cutter and a slat conveyor of about 30 m long, with the maximum cutting width of 3.6 m. The NC cutting machine is provided with the automatic printing function using NC data, marking function, scheduled operation function, steel plate detector, and coordinate rotation function, etc. These functions enable unattended operation of the machine to cut multiple materials. This NC laser cutting line has the same performance data collection function for data during the operating time as other production lines. Therefore, the NC laser cutting line can be subjected to the realtime centralized control together with the other lines. All these technologies have provided high accuracy and efficiency for production as well as an environment in which many female operators can successfully work. 10 figs., 4 tabs.

  9. Mechatronization of rotating machines in plant; Plant ni okeru kaiten kikai no mechatronics ka

    Kikuchi, H. [Chiyoda Corp., Tokyo (Japan)


    This paper introduces mechatronization of rotating machines in a plant, with application examples of electronic governors as the main subject. For centrifugal compressors, design and fabrication of anti surging control system have become possible by using a programmable logic controller (PLC) and a distributed control system (DCS) with fine scanning time. An electronic governor for turbine control has been added with a function to control amount of power generated by a motive force recovery device in a flowing catalytic cracking equipment by means of an expander inlet valve. This has made possible to operate the motive force recovery device automatically even under a low load operation. With an electronic governor to control supply and receipt amount of steam to and from an existing plant, the governor valve opening angles were so controlled that actual steam header pressure matches the setting, whereas the steam has become possible to be utilized without waste under normal operation. Operation of a comprehensive compressor/turbine monitoring system on DCS, operation of centrifugal compressors of two casings by using electromagnetic bearings, and motor speed control with use of an inverter heve also become possible. 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Bio-desulfurization technology in Japan; Wagakuni ni okeru baio datsuryu gijutsu

    Maruhashi, K. [Petroleum Energy Center, Tokyo (Japan)


    A bio-reaction of microbes (catalytic reaction by an enzyme) is characterized in that the reaction is carried out at a normal temperature and under a normal pressure and has particularly high specificity with respect to substrate (reactant). It is considered that a low loading process of environment harmony type can be constructed by applying the bio-reaction in petroleum refinery process. CO{sub 2} exhaust and energy consumption in the bio-desulfurization (BDS) is estimated to be 70 to 80% lower than those in hydrodesulfurization (HDS). The bio-technologies that can be applied to the petroleum refinery process include, for example, desulfurization, demetallation, dewaxing, denitration, cracking and so on. In this paper, the present state of bio-desulphurization technology is introduced. Particularly, as the research results in Japan, acquirement of mesophile R.erythropolis KA2-5-1 strain, thermophile Paenibacillus sp. A11-2 strain whose optimum temperature is 50 degrees C, BT degradation fungus Rhodococcus sp. T09 and the like are introduced. (NEDO)

  11. Crew training on FMPT and IML-2 mission; FMPT/IML-2 ni okeru tojoin kunren

    Ishikawa, T.; Takahashi, S. [National Space Development Agency of Japan, Tokyo (Japan)


    This paper introduces a summary of astronaut trainings on FMPT (first material experiment)/IML-2 (second international micro gravity laboratory). The trainings are divided into a training to board on a space shuttle (MIT for mission independent training) and a training to bring the mission to success (MDT for mission dependent training). The paper describes devices used in the training conducted in the FMPT/IML-2. The training using devices equivalent to those used in the flight includes attachment and removal of cartridge for an electric oven, melting samples in an image furnace, affixing electrodes for detecting signals from living organisms, microscopic photographing of cell cultivation experiments, and hormone injection into newts. The training equipment that simulates functions consists mainly of a simulator that only simulates movements and indications. Simulations were also carried out on an electric migration device and an incubator. The training equipment that simulates shapes include an image oven, a refrigerator, and light sensitive plate for radiation measurement. The experiment operation procedure manual and the time line may be referred to as those that reflect results of the training. 2 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Present status of geothermal power development in Kyushu; Kyushu ni okeru chinetsu hatsuden no genjo

    Akiyoshi, M. [Kyushu Electric Power Co. Inc., Fukuoka (Japan)


    The present situation was introduced of the geothermal power generation in Kyushu. In Kyushu, where there are lots of volcanos and abundant geothermal resources, the geothermal exploration has been made since long ago. Three non-utility use units at three geothermal power generation points and six commercial use units at five points are now in operation in Kyushu. The total output is approximately 210 MW, about 40% of the domestic geothermal power generation. At Otake and Hacchobaru geothermal power plants, the Kyushu Electric Power Company made the geothermal resource exploration through the installation/operation of power generation facilities. At the Otake power plant, a geothermal water type single flashing system was adopted first in the country because of its steam mixed with geothermal water. At the Hacchobaru power plant, adopted were a two-phase flow transportation system and a double flashing system in which the geothermal water separated from primary steam by separator is more reduced in pressure to take out secondary steam. Yamakawa, Ogiri and Takigami power plants are all for the joint exploration. Geothermal developers drill steam wells and generate steam, and the Kyushu Electric Power Company buys the steam and uses it for power generation. 5 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Natural disasters in the Shikoku district. 1. ; Landslide. Shikoku ni okeru shizen saigai. 1. ; Chisuberi

    Yatabe, R [Ehime Univ., Ehime (Japan). Faculty of Engineering


    There are more than ten thousand places in Japan which are in danger of landsliding, and they are mostly distributed in Hokuriku and Shikoku districts. Shikoku is a district which suffers many typhoon disasters, and the rate of ground disasters among the typhoon disasters has been getting higher in recent years. Reports are made on the general characteristics and soil mechanical properties of fractured zone landslides, which are the majority of landslides occurred in the Shikoku district. Most of the landslides in the Shikoku district occurred in Sanbagawa zone, south of the central tectonic line, and little landslides occurred in the granite zone in the Inland Sea area. Although rocks in landslided areas are fractured, little progress is observed for clay formation. The scales of the landslides are from several tens of meters to over 1km, with the average of about 20m, in length and from 200 to 300m in width. Although some of them have the depth of more than 50m, the average is about 20m. Descriptions are made on the relationship between the movement of landslide and rainfall, strength constants of cohesive soil in the slid strata, and the variance in the dynamic constants of cohesive soil in the slid strata. 6 refs., 9 figs.

  14. Biomethylation in the natural environment: a review; Shizen kankyo ni okeru biomethylation

    Tao, H. [National Institute for Resources and Environment, Tsukuba (Japan); Fatoki, O. [University of Fort Hare, (South Africa)


    This paper explains mechanism of biomethylation of such elements important in environmental science as As, Hg, Sn and Pb, and its significance in the environmental science. Biomethylation is a process to bond methyl group directly to metals by actions of living organisms, which is occurring widely in the natural environment. Addition of methyl group onto metallic elements has a high possibility of changing their chemical and physical properties and increasing their movability, thus affecting the geochemical circulation. Particularly, such elements are important for the environmental science as As, Hg, Sn, Pb, Se, Te, Ge, Sb, P, S, and Cl. Deposits in water zones which have been regarded previously as final settling places for heavy metals are active media for anaerobic bacteria which can cause methylation. Important molecules involving in methylation are S-acenosylmethionine (SAM) and methylcobalamin which is a derivative of vitamin B12. The SAM is regarded as sulfonium salt, and the methyl group is transferred as a carbocationic intermediate. 106 refs.

  15. Global environmental problems in the electric industry. Denki jigyo ni okeru chikyu kankyo mondai ni tsuite

    Sugi, T [Tokyo Electric Power Co., Inc. (Japan)


    Since the electric industry has grappled with a prevention of the environmental pollution such as the air pollution and water contamination as a forerunner in case of construction and operation of the power facilities, and at the same time has conducted actively the environmental conservation countermeasures, it has consequently achieved the environmental conservation level as a top level in the world. On the other hand, as for the emission quantity of CO2 relating to the earth warming, the power field occupies about one fourth of total Japan. Therefore the electric industry should aim at the electric energy supply considering the influence on the environment, such as the power supply structure to restrain CO2 emission as less as possible, higher efficiency of equipments, higher efficiency of energy utilization by using the unused energy and so forth. In addition to it, the consumer side should aim at the social structure with a recycle type such as saving resources and saving energy, and aim at changeover of life style. It is hoped to conduct the overall measure including the items mentioned above. In this report, the recent trend of earth enviromental problems, grappling with the environmental problems as a forerunner such as the prevention measure of air pollution in the thermal power plant, etc., and the correspondence to the earth warming problems are outlined. 11 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. Education for hydraulics and pneumatics in Nihon University; Nihon Daigaku ni okeru yukuatsu kyoiku

    Ouchi, M. [Nihon Univ., Chiba (Japan). Coll. of Industrial Technology


    Described herein is education of hydraulics and pneumatics in Nihon University. Department of Mechanical Engineering of Faculty of Production Engineering has been holding up the educational aims of bringing up engineers and researchers who have ability and intelligence to cope with internationalization and contribute to society, and of bringing about creativity, among others. Control equipment is an optional subject for the sophomore class in the second semester, and is centered by mechatronics, including hydraulic and pneumatic control systems and equipment. The related subjects include fluid dynamics, control engineering, system controlling, hydraulic machines, robotics and automobile engineering. The drill course includes disassembling and assembling gear pumps, drills on pneumatic devices, system behavior and mechatronics, experiments on fan and hydraulic control circuits and on servo mechanisms, and machinery designs and drawings. Seminars are led by full-time or part-time lecturers for the themes related to hydraulic power. Many students are interested in hydraulic and pneumatic themes for their graduation theses, because of their relations with control, environments, energy saving and so on. We are now in the age of composite technologies, and hydraulic power basics are prerequisite for engineers, and important for education of students. (NEDO)

  17. Welding mechanization in shipyard CIM; Zosen ni okeru yosetsu no jidoka robot ka CIM ka

    Miyazaki, T. [Hitachi Zosen Corp., Osaka (Japan)


    This paper explains development and examples of application of automated welding devices from a viewpoint of an element technology constituting computer integrated manufacturing (CIM), based on the history of modernization of shipyards that has been achieved to date. In the first step of promoting the modernization, elevating cutting accuracy in the uppermost stream process was thought a starting point of rationalization. What have been achieved therefrom are adoption of the most advanced NC plasma cutting machine, and improvement in the computer aided system for the cutting machines. In addition, a twenty-electrode line welder has been developed, which does not create angle deformation in welding longerons, and can be operated even by unskilled workers. The welder has successfully realized a construction method in which robots can be applied more easily. Further developments have been made on a robot to weld cells, advanced CAD/CAM operation techniques which are linked with data from design, an automatic one-side welding device which can achieve a speed 2.5 times greater than by conventional devices, and an automation device for three-dimensionally bent blocks, whose automation has been regarded difficult. 11 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Mechanized and robotized welding in shipbuilding; Zosen ni okeru yosetsu no jidoka robot ka

    Kanda, Y. [Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    Large-scale ships such as VLCC are built at the Kure No.1 Works of IHI (Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industry). This paper introduces current status of mechanized and robotized welding at the works. For the sub-assembly with short weld length and horizontal fillet, simplified automatic welders are used in which mag-welding method using CO2 is adopted. The frequent wound welding of member ends can be automatically conducted using welders developed by IHI. In the large-scale assembly processes, remarkable rationalization and highly accurate assembly of flat plate welding have been promoted. Tankers, container ships, and bulk carriers can be treated at the same time. Teaching times of welding robots can be greatly reduced by a technique called parametric treatment. In the future, it is essential to enhance the accuracy of members by introducing the laser cutting during machining processes. Completely self-type mechanization is required as well as large-output laser welding and sensor technology. 3 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Refractories for steelmaking in Japan; Seikoyo taikabutsu no genjo (Nippon ni okeru seikoyo taikabutsu no hensen)

    Kataoka, S. [Kurosaki Refractories Co. Ltd., Fukuoka (Japan)


    This paper describes changes and the current state of refractories for steel making in Japan. Refractories used for torpedo cars have undergone material improvement and diagnostic technology progress in alumina-SiC-C brick that serve in extending life and reducing unit requirement in furnace materials. The improvement and progress have been achieved under diversification in the methods of preliminary treatment of molten pig iron. In refractories for converters, the MgO-C brick had epoch-making improvement in life because of its excellent spalling and corrosion resistance resulting in expansion of its use. Refractories for iron ladles have been changed largely keeping the pace with progress in steelmaking technologies. Attempts have been made from using acidic refractories including zircon brick material to applying neutral and basic bricks. On the other hand, application of monolithic materials has begun, which has led to realizing the totally monolithic lining together with the progress in the repairing technologies including spraying. Plate materials for sliding gate nozzle to control flow rate of molten steel from an iron ladle now use Al2O3-C as the mainstream after having gone through a number of improvements. Alumina graphite material is used as the mainstream for immersion nozzles and shrouds which are important for continuous casting. 57 refs., 37 figs., 19 tabs.

  20. Recent trend in construction materials field. Kenzai bun[prime]ya ni okeru saikin no doko

    Tominaga, M [Kawasaki Steel Corp., Tokyo (Japan)


    The Japanese construction industry, the construction market and the technical trend of construction materials made by Kawasaki Steel Group were described. The roles of the steel industry in the construction material market are to increase the ratio of steel used in construction, to manufacture steel products of high value added and to develop new applications. Appearance and good design are required to provide for the construction materials made of processed steel in addition to the necessary functions. In the construction material market, qualitative changes in needs are taking place, such as labor saving shortening of construction period and simplification of construction management. Kawasaki Steel Group intends to expand the integrated business such as system building, external wall materials for buildings made of metals, highly corrosion resistant stainless steel for metallic roof field, and roof materials of the heat insulation, good appearance and horizontally covering type based on the overall business strategy. In addition, Kawasaki Steel Group is expanding the Kawasaki Design Steel Plaza and its construction material research laboratory to cope with the trend of diversified functions and design of construction goods and of making kinds of construction material much more and to develop more rational construction techniques. 1 ref., 8 figs.

  1. Consideration on extradosed prestressed concrete road bridge; Dorokyo ni okeru daihenshin PC keburu kyo

    Ogawa, A.; Honma, A. [Japan Highway Public Corp., Tokyo (Japan)


    The details of the investigation on the Odawara Blue Way Bridge for which extradosed type is employed are provided, and a report is made about the situation of the study on the future construction of the 2nd Tomei-Meishin Expressway. The extradosed PC bridge is considered to have intermediate structural characteristics of those of the conventional beam bridge and PC cable stayed bridge, and is expected to be applied to bridges having approximately from 100 to 200m span. The features of the extradosed PC bridge is outlined. Approximately 1/35 beam height on the intermediate support and 1/10 main tower height against the center span are considered to be proper. PC steel products can be used efficiently because stress fluctuation of diagonals and the load sharing rate of the diagonal member are less than those of the PC cable stayed bridge and safety factor similar to that of general internal cable can be adopted. Construction works for the main tower and the diagonal member are easy due to low height of the main tower, and the bridge is advantageous also in the maintenance control because no beam is required. 5 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Modern techniques in prestressed concrete cable-stayed bridges. Puresutoresuto concrete shachokyo ni okeru atarashii gijutsu

    Miyamoto, A. (Kobe Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Engineering)


    Because the prestressed concrete (PC) cable-stayed bridges combine the distinctive features such as a rationality of the structure or a structural beauty, it will not stay on a development of the technologies to make them longer and larger, and a rationalization of the execution, an investigation from various aspects such as the scenery design, material selection, pursuit of new structure and so forth will become necessary. In a main meeting, 15 volumes of paper on the most advanced technologies of PC cable-stayed bridges were presented. The presentations from Japan were 11 volumes, and occupied about 70%, and therefore a high interest to the PC cable-stayed bridges in Japan was inferred. In the presentation from Japan, there were many relevancies of the important study themes which would become a foundation for a development of PC cable-stayed bridges in the future, like ones that an improvement effect of dynamic behavior such as the aseismatic property, wind endurance and so forth was made as an objective, ones that a safety evaluation at an ultimate state as the oblique member anchoring part, main tower or entire structure was related, ones that a construction of the various control systems when the cable-stayed bridges were executed was concerned and so forth. 23 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Hybrid structure in civil engineering construction.; Doboku bun`ya ni okeru fukugo kozo.

    Ikeda, S. [Yokohama National Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Engineering


    The structure of steel-concrete hybrid structure which is recently attracting attention is outlined quoting some examples. The effects of steel-concrete hybrid structure are classified according to the characteristics. The Normandie Bridge completed in January this year near the mouth of the Seine River in France is a cable stayed bridge with the world largest span, and it has a hybrid structure of ingeniously combined steel and concrete. The Dole Bridge in France is a hybrid bridge with 7 continuous spans having steel corrugated sheets in the web. Hybrid structure has come to be applied to many structures other than the superstructure works of bridges. The substructures of bridges are applied to immersed tunnels, and the usefulness has come to be recognized widely. The features of hybrid structure can contribute well to the reinforcement of existing structures. In addition, adoption of hybrid structure has been studied as the best method for repairing and reinforcing structures damaged by earthquakes. 8 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Methods for PCO2 measurement in coral reef. Sangosho ni okeru PCO2 no genba sokutei

    Kitano, H; Saito, H; Mito, A; Tamura, N; Takahashi, C [National Research Laboratory of Metrology, Tsukuba (Japan)


    This paper introduces an instrument to measure CO2 partial pressure in sea water being developed for coral reef site measurements. The instrument uses a method that sea water is contacted with a gaseous phase via a gaseous body permeating membrane, and CO2 partial pressure in the gaseous phase is measured when CO2s in the sea water and the gaseous phase have reached a dissolution equilibrium, using an adequate analyzer. The gaseous body permeating membrane uses a material with high CO2 permeation rates, such as porous polytetrafluoroethylene. The paper describes a system that applies a gaschromatograph process to analyzing CO2 in the gaseous phase, and an automatic measuring system that utilizes a non-discrete infrared densitometer. Basic experiments are being carried out that are intended to develop a CO2 partial pressure sensor using optic fibers. This is a device to measure CO2 concentration in sea water, in which fluorescent coloring aqueous solution is contacted with sea water via a gaseous body permeation membrane, and change in fluorescence intensity in the said solution as a result of CO2 melting into it from sea water is utilized. 3 refs., 4 figs.

  5. Natural gas distribution system for Peninsular Malaysia. Malaysia ni okeru toshi gas jigyo no sosetsu

    Ohashi, T [Tokyo Gas Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    Tokyo Gas Co., Ltd. established in 1992 Gas Malaysia Sdn. Bhd, a joint venture company with investments from the Malaysia side, and begun full-fledged activities for supplying natural gas in Peninsular Malaysia. This paper explains the summary of the project. With a background of affluent resources including natural gas reserve of 1.9 trillion m[sup 3] as of 1992, Malaysia is promoting various projects to diversify and refine local energy consumption patterns and improve petroleum exporting capacity. The said joint venture project is one of the international bids executed by the national petroleum company, Petronas, in which Tokyo Gas Co., Ltd. and Mitsui and Co., Ltd. were selected as their partner. The company business includes supply and sales of petroleum, as well as construction of pipelines to support the former activities. Engineers have been either stationed or sent to the country as technical cooperation including necessary technical transfer. This project is highly significant in terms of contributing to growth of economy in both countries and to solving global environmental problems. 6 figs.

  6. Micromotors making use of electric field conjugate fluid (ECF). Proposition for Re-type ECF micromotor and study of its miniaturized version performance by experiment; Denkai kyoeki ryutai (ECF) wo oyoshita micromotor. RE gata ECF micromotor no teian oyobi bishoka tokusei no jikkenteki kento

    Kondo, Y.; Yokota, S.; Nemoto, T. [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan); Otsubo, Y. [Chiba University, Tokyo (Japan); Edamura, K.


    A stator electrode (SE)-type ECF micromotor and a rotor electrode (RE)-type ECF micromotor are proposed, and have been tentatively constructed, both making use of ECF in which a jet flow is generated upon application of an electrostatic field across line electrodes. At the beginning, experiments are conducted to establish relationship between the impressed voltage and the number of revolutions in the RE-type micromotor that is expected to generate more torque than the SE-type micromotor. Next, the RE-type micromotor is miniaturized, and experiments are conducted to study the changes in power density and efficiency brought about by miniaturization. (translated by NEDO)

  7. Collective Security in Europe and Asia


    Minister Hisashi Owada carried by Kyodo, November 18, 1991, in Foreign Broadcast Information Service, (FBIS), Daily Report-East Asia, November 18, 1991...Report-Soviet Union, December 5, 1991, p. 54. For a Japanese view, see Hiroshi Kimura , "Gorbachev’s Japan Policy: The Northern Territories Issue

  8. FY 1999 report on the survey of the international joint research project on medical welfare equipment; 1999 nendo iryo fukushi kiki kokusai kyodo kenkyu jigyo chosa hokokusho



    For the purpose of internationally cooperating in the R and D of medical welfare equipment, visits were paid to Australia and the U.S. to survey the related administration/research institutes/medical welfare facilities. Australia is a world leader of heart (transplant) operation, organ transplant, artificial middle ear, apneic relaxation equipment, ophthalmological equipment, bio-materials, etc. The country wants to positively promote the international cooperation with Japan because both countries are complementary to each other. Starting about 1999, the U.S. entered the age of competition of the R and D with the use of genome, and the post-genome age is already beginning there. A number of ventures are running for creation of new industry. As to the U.S. government's measures taken for subsidy, regulation, etc. toward new industry, the information could be obtained from the persons concerned. The impression of a tour of welfare facilities in the U.S. was that hardware/software are systematically prepared there, and the aged live bright and positive lives and enjoy lives. (NEDO)

  9. Fiscal 1998 report on international joint research project for preventing global warming; 1998 nendo chikyu ondanka boshi kokusai kyodo kenkyu jigyo hokokusho



    Japanese researchers were dispatched to research institutes abroad for conducting joint studies on nine subjects for which such efforts would work effectively. The researchers were sent to various research institutes in the U.S., Britain, Germany, and others. The nine subjects were (1) the application of the most up-to-date welding and bonding technologies to liquid hydrogen storage/transportation containers, (2) development of low-temperature high-activity metal catalysts for energy conservation processes, (3) study of CO2 emission behavior using a large-scale simulator of deep sea circumstances, (4) study of condensation control for steam and chemical species in the global atmosphere, (5) numerical analysis of semiconductor crystal growth for ultralow loss power device, (6) development of sulfur-rich hydrocarbon gasification technology using a metal melting furnace, (7) assessment of techniques for evaluating origins of environmental pollution gas, geothermal gas, and soil gas using multiple isotopes, (8) analysis of behavior of the steam circulation type turbine system, and (9) the embodiment of a large premixed compression ignition engine. (NEDO)

  10. Synergistic extraction of gold from sulfuric acid solution containing thiourea. Ryusan sansei chio nyoso yoeki kara no kin no kyodo chushutsu

    Niinae, M.; Nakahiro, Y.; Wakamatsu, T. (Kyoto Univ., Kyoto (Japan). Faculty of Engineering); Oboso, A. (Kyoto Univ., Kyoto (Japan). Graduate School); Takenaka, Y. (Kyoto Univ., Kyoto (Japan))


    Solvent extraction was investigated as a method of recovering Au from sulfuric acid solution containing thiourea. With the objective of improving Au extraction by die-(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid (D2EHPA) and tri-n-octylamine (TOA), effects of D2EHPA, TOA, TBP (tri-n-butyl phosphate), and trioctyl phosphine oxide (TOPO) as extractants were investigated. When mixed extractant of D2EHPA with TBP or TOPO, or mixture of TOA with TBP or TOPO was used, synergistic effect was observed for the extraction of AU, and they were proved to be effective for the improvement of Au extraction. When D2EHPA/TBP and D2EHPA/TOPO mixtures were used, the extraction of Fe was suppressed on the contrary, and they were found to be effective for the separation of Au and Fe. Benzene used as diluent seemed to be favorable to both the extraction of Au and the separation of Au and Fe. The selection of sulfuric acid concentration seemed to be an important factor for the extraction efficiency of Au and the separation efficiency of Au and Fe, while little effect was observed with the concentration of thiourea. 4 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  11. On the prediction of hydroelastic behaviors of a huge floating structure in waves. 2nd Report; Choogata futai no harochu dansei kyodo no suiteiho ni tsuite

    Murai, M.; Kagemoto, H.; Fujino, M. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)


    On the hydroelastic behaviors of a huge floating structure, a mutual interaction theory based on the area division method is used for the analysis of a fluid problem and a mode analysis method is used for the analysis of deformation. On the continuous deformation of a floating structure, the structure is considered as a set of partial structures obtained when the plane shape was divided into squares and discretely handled as a series of rigid motions in the small partial structures obtained by dividing the partial structures more finely. The experimental result in a water tank and the distribution method at a singular point were compared on the deformation of the elastic floating structure estimated by calculation based on this formulation. The result showed that the estimation method on the hydroelastic problem proposed in this paper is valid. On the prediction of hydroelastic behaviors of a huge floating structure, various calculation examples indicate that the hydroelastic behavior is not only the relation between the structure length and wavelength, but also that the bending rigidity of a structure is a very important factor. For a huge floating structure in the 5,000 m class, up to shorter wavelength of about {lambda}/L = 1/100 must be investigated. 6 refs., 14 figs., 5 tabs.

  12. Mechanism of pyrrhotite formation from ferric oxyhydroxide catalyst; Kokoritsu sekitan ekika shokubai no kaihatsu (Okishi suisankatetsu shokubai karano pyrrhotite seisei kyodo)

    Tazawa, K.; Koyama, T.; Kaneko, T.; Shimasaki, K. [Nippon Brown Coal Liquefaction Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    It is thought that iron-based catalysts for coal liquefaction exercise their catalytic activity by forming pyrrhotite (Fe(1-x)S). However, there are still a lot of unknown problems remained concerning the formation and agglomeration behaviors of pyrrhotite. These make a difficulty for improving the activity of iron-based catalysts. In this study, sulfiding behaviors of {alpha}-iron oxyhydroxide ({alpha}-FeOOH) and {gamma}-iron oxyhydroxide ({gamma}-FeOOH) were investigated to reveal the formation and agglomeration behaviors of pyrrhotite. It was found that pyrrhotite was easily converted from ferric oxyhydroxide catalysts having large specific surface areas at the sulfiding temperature below 250{degree}C, and fine crystallites of pyrrhotite were formed at the initial stage of sulfiding. Crystal growth of pyrrhotite at the sulfiding temperature over 350{degree}C depended on the catalyst forms. It was also found that smaller crystallites of pyrrhotite were formed from {gamma}-FeOOH than from {alpha}-FeOOH and amorphous iron oxyhydroxide. 5 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Report for fiscal 1998 on the international joint research project of medical welfare equipment; Iryo fukushi kiki kokusai kyodo kenkyu jigyo 1998 nendo chosa hokokusho



    In connection with the international joint research project of medical welfare, a report was made on the results of the investigation conducted in 1998 concerning the technology of overseas medical welfare equipment. In the investigation of china, observation was made on the actual state of the representative medial institutions, with opinions exchanged. Obsolete equipment and old technology are the present state in China, which is strongly desirous of exchanging information with Japan. In Taiwan, being full of venture spirit, an ultrasonic thermal treatment apparatus and an ultrasonic echo device have been produced for example. In Europe, an observation tour was conducted on a German manipulator and process robot while an investigative visit and exchange of opinions were made on the living environment and facilities in Italian training center for physically handicapped persons. Japan's self-supporting and assisting system for excretion attracted many questions and comments. In the investigation in the U.S., views were exchanged concerning '{sup 13}C-MRS device for non-invasion brain metabolic measurement' in research institutions such as universities. A machine developed in Japan received a high evaluation in that {sup 13}C spectrum was obtained from a substantial depth. (NEDO)

  14. Study on heavy duty truck stability control by braking force control; Seidoryoku seigyo ni yoru truck no sharyo kyodo anteika ni taisuru ichikosatsu

    Matsuda, K; Shinjo, H; Harada, M; Ohata, K; Sakata, K [Mitsubishi Motors Corp., Tokyo (Japan)


    Now a days we are discussing about the vehicle stability control system which freely controls the braking force of each wheel to apply the yaw t and decelerate the vehicle. The system drastically improve the vehicle cornering performance and stabilize the vehicle behavior in its critical area. This paper discusses a point to notice in case of applying this technique for heavy duty trucks, and describes the possibility of the stabilization for vehicle cornering behavior about heavy duty truck. 3 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Emission behavior of OH radical in internal EGR using a 2-cycle engine; 2 cycle engine wo mochiita naibu EGR no OH radical no hakko kyodo

    Hashimoto, S; Amino, Y; Yoshida, K; Shoji, H; Saima, A [Nihon University, Tokyo (Japan)


    The purpose of this study was to examine and consider the influence, which the remained gas exercised on combustion. 2-cycle engine was Used as the test engine. Internal EGR was run. The means was that the test engine was fitted the back pressure control plate on the exhaust port. The conditions, which were run with internal EGR and without internal EGR, were compared. The OH radical, which plays important role in combustion of hydrocarbon fuels, was measured with emission spectroscopy. In internal EGR, the unburned end gas on exhaust port side was susceptible to the remained gas. 6 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Fiscal 1999 survey report. Fiscal 1998 basic survey for promotion of joint implementation, etc. (Analysis of results); 1998 nendo kyodo jisshi nado suishin kiso chosa kekka no bunseki



    The 40 'Surveys for promotion of joint implementation, etc.' conducted by NEDO (New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization) in fiscal 1998 aimed to pick out projects that would positively utilize the flexible measures (three Kyoto mechanisms) for the achievement of greenhouse gas reduction targets defined at COP3 (Third Session of the Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change). In this paper, concerning these 40 surveys, studies are conducted for reaching conclusions about setting baselines for the future, execution of similar feasibility studies in the future, application of flexible measures, and opinions towards project implementation. The 40 surveys were, concretely speaking, conducted not to work out policies for actualization of given projects but to consider philosophies of project actualization and baseline formation for the future. In this paper, project outlines, environmental impact assessment, and economic assessment (investment assessment) are put in order for each of the surveys, and relations between amounts of global warming gas reduced and project costs, and project profitability, are analyzed for each of the surveys. (NEDO)

  17. Preliminary reports on fiscal 2000 results of project for subsidizing international joint research; 2000 nendo kokusai kyodo kenkyu josei jigyo seika hokoku kai yokoshu



    This paper presents preliminary reports on fiscal 2000 results of project for subsidizing international joint research sponsored by NEDO. For international joint research teams doing excellent studies, their research expenses are subsidized, thereby promoting international research exchange, enhancing international level of industrial technology and contributing to the formation of basis for innovative industrial technology. The projects relating to the global environmental field are implemented jointly with RITE. The contents of the report to be published are, in the global environmental field (practicability study), development of oil substitute resources, reproducible resources, and technologies for producing polymeric and plastic materials benign to the earth by microorganism using carbon dioxide. In the substance/material field, the contents of the report are innovative production and device application of tunable photonic crystals using electronic penetration network; development of new synthesis process of innovative nitride, creation and theoretical calculation of electromagnetic function; studies on quantum transportation in superconductor and semiconductor bonding structures; and studies on quantum liquid and solid, and application to materials science and technology. (NEDO)

  18. Research report of fiscal 1997. Basic research on joint implementation for preventing global climate changes; 1998 nendo chosa hokokusho. Kyodo jisshi kiso chosa



    Research was made to promote Activities Implemented Jointly Japan Program. Joint Implementation (JI) is the methodology for preventing global climate changes by collaboration of countries. The countries take cooperative actions for reduction, absorption and fixation of greenhouse gases, and effectively distribute the reduction credits among relevant parties. This was decided in the first session of the Conference of Parties (COP) held in March, 1995. In COP3, Japan`s assigned reduction amount in 2008-2012 was determined as 6% of the emission level in 1990. The protocol defines JI between parties as dealings of emission reduction units, and JI between developing countries as clean development mechanism. The rules for a base line and credit distribution are necessary before full-scale implementation. Although JI is regarded as an important cost-effective project, it is important to decide where and how the JI projects should been promoted. The present state and issues of the primary approved project of Japan Program are arranged. In particular, various terms related to developing countries remain to be solved. 21 figs., 32 tabs.

  19. FY 2000 Report on the survey results. Survey on international cooperation for medical treatment/welfare equipment; 2000 nendo iryo fukushi kiki kokusai kyodo kenkyu jigyo chosa hokokusho



    The NEDO's representatives visited Europe and China with the objectives of, e.g., international cooperation and information exchanges for medical treatment/welfare equipment. For the welfare equipment technologies, they visited the research institutes and facilities in UK and Germany, among others, to find that the European countries place more emphasis on researches to meet the needs than on advancing the equipment itself. For the medical treatment equipment, they visited the bio-research institutes in Europe for exchanging information on post-genome and tissue engineering. The European countries are behind USA in research fund and manpower for bio-technology and bio-medical, although making great efforts with much expectation on these areas. The China's medical treatment/welfare technologies seem to be clearly still in the stage of needing aids rather than rendering cooperation. However, China has been producing a number of new products in the areas where her traditional arts of medicine are combined with advanced techniques of the West, e.g., those for examination, as felt from a number of the equipment types presented to the China Medical Treatment Equipment Exhibition. (NEDO)

  20. Report on the FY 1999 feasibility study for the international joint research in the Asian area. 6; 1999 nendo Asia chiiki kokusai kyodo kenkyu kanosei chosa hokokusho. 6



    The paper surveyed the situation of the recent economic crisis, social circumstances, trends of energy policies, etc. in Asian countries. The energy consumption in Asian countries mainly including ASEAN countries and China is expected to show a large growth hereinafter together with a rapid economic growth on a long-term basis. Further, the harmony with the environmental problem has been requested. This problem is important also to Japan from a viewpoint of the regional response to the stabilized energy supply/environmental problems. The response to global environmental problems in these countries and the promotion of development/spread of new energy/energy conservation are strongly desired. For the spread of these technologies, it is effective to actually construct/operate/maintain plants under the joint research with Japan from viewpoints of personnel training, technology improvement, PR effects, etc. It is helpful also for Japan from the aspect of technology development such as data acquisition. It is necessary to accurately grasp the needs and technical levels of the other country in the case of carrying out the joint research. The survey was made about 7 countries including Thailand, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, India, China and Vietnam. (NEDO)

  1. Sintering behavior of porous electrolyte supporting matrix for molten carbonate fuel cells; Yoyu tansan`en nenryo denchi denkaishitsu hojiso no shoketsu kyodo

    Sonai, A; Murata, K [Toshiba Research and Development Center, Kawasaki (Japan)


    Considerations were given on pore distribution in lithium aluminate that supports electrolyte in molten carbonate fuel cells under cell operating condition, and its sintering mechanism by measuring time-based change in the linear contraction. The following findings were obtained: Pore capacity in the lithium aluminate layer has decreased in 1000-hour operation, creating pores with diameters greater than 2 {mu}m in which no carbonates have been filled; the cross-leak in reaction gases and ion resistance in the electrolyte retaining layer have increased resulting in degraded cell performance; the lithium aluminate layer has generated initial quick densification as a result of melting of the carbonates, with the more the liquid phase, the larger the linear contraction; and pores with diameters greater than 2 {mu}m are thought to have been generated as the densification of the lithium aluminate due to dissolution and reprecipitation progresses. The densification can be explained well if this is regarded to consist of a slow densification process in association with sintering of lithium aluminate particles, and progress in a sintering mechanism where solid phase has solubility against liquid phase. 9 refs., 8 figs.

  2. Study on particle behavior in the expansion of fluidized bed using a simple optical probe. Kogaku probe wo mochiita ryudoso no bocho sonai ryushi kyodo ni kansuru kenkyu

    Kato, Y; Miyamoto, M [Yamaguchi University, Yamaguchi (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Chimura, T [Toyota Motor Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Idei, Y [Ube Industries, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    In order to clarify the relationship between the heat transfer rate and the expansion bed in a group of horizontal pipes in a freeboard region (an area of the heat-transfer pipe exposed above the height of static particle bed from the beginning) in a cold model of the fluidized bed, particle behavior was measured using an optical measuring method. The light axis position was set higher than the heat-transfer as X {sub p} in a direction perpendicular from the distributor, and the static bed height was set to L {sub c}. The frequency of particles and particle lumps coming to presence between the light axes is termed V {prime}{sub p}(time-averaged dimensionless amount of the optical probe output). The V {prime}{sub p} decreases with an increase in the flow velocity, and, when the difference between the probe tip and the static bed height, X {sub p}{minus} L {sub c} is small, it shows the minimum value at a certain flow velocity and then rises again. The root mean square value of the probe output, V {prime}{sub f} increased with an increase in the flow velocity, reached its maximum, then decreased to the minimum, and rose again. The flow velocity that takes the maximum heat transfer rate can be identified from the relationship among the dimensionless amount of the maximum expansion bed height and the average expansion bed height, the dimensionless height of X {sub p} when V {prime}{sub p} and V {prime}{sub f} obtained at each X {sub p} show the extreme values, and the dimensionless height of the heat-transfer pipes when the average transfer rate takes the maximum value. 6 refs., 5 figs.

  3. Lateral loading test of full-scaled pile foundation focused on ultimate behavior; Shukyoku kyodo ni chakumokushita jitsubutsudai kui kiso no suihei saika shiken

    Kosa, K. [Hanshin Expressway Public Corp., Osaka (Japan); Suzuki, N. [CTI Engineering Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Kimura, M. [Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Kimura, Y. [Public Works Research Institute, Tsukuba (Japan); Morita, Y. [Kiso-Jiban Consultants Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    Lateral loading test of full-scaled pile foundation was made up to the ultimate limit state to establish a limit state design method for pile foundations. A full-scaled 3-by-3 pile group driven as bridge foundation was used for the test. A surface reclaimed layer is nearly 13cm in thickness. The lateral unidirectional loading test was repeatedly carried out by using 6 hydraulic jacks at 30MN in maximum load capacity and 50cm in maximum allowable deformation. The test and analysis results are as follows. In a range of 0-40% in pile head displacement/pile diameter ratio, a load-carrying capacity increased gradually. The yield point of a load-displacement curve agreed with the point at which a reinforcing bar of a pile body reaches analytical yield stress. Bending moment of a pile body and shear stress of a pile head increased in the order of back, middle and front rows. It was confirmed that a framework analysis method considering the non-linearity of a pile body and bedrock is also applicable to full-scaled pile group foundations. 17 refs., 32 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. Investigational report on international joint research in medical/walfare appliances in fiscal 1993; 1993 nendo iryo fukushi kiki kokusai kyodo kenkyu ni kansuru chosa hokokusho



    The field of concrete cooperation, method of R and D, and business, environment to support the project, and system to promote the project were studied for the research under international cooperation through investigating the trend and organization of R and D of the medical/welfare appliances at home and abroad. Projects were then proposed. In the project for collecting/analyzing the trace quantity of blood, the anomaly is inspected at a molecular level from the collected trace quantity of blood to make the biochemical inspection painless for the patients suffering from infectious symptom or disease of adults. In the project for the high-accuracy and high-function measurement without invading the diseased part of living body, the configuration and metabolic function are measured by nuclear magnetic resonance to early detect the symptom of Alzheimer and other different obstinate diseases. In the operation support system project with three-dimensional images of living body, the three-dimensional information is obtained, by X-ray CT or MRI, about the diseased part of living tissue. Upon the exact determination of its location, the disease is cured. Besides, the monitoring systemproject was proposed for the old people`s safety against dementia. The human care robot project was also done. 56 refs., 11 figs., 15 tabs.

  5. Joint study on smelting reduction. ; Results of elementary study and future studies. Yoyu kangen kyodo kenkyu; Yoso kenkyu no seika to kongo no torikume


    The paper outlines results of elementary study on the coal direct-use iron-making process and how to tackle with it in future. In the process coal and iron ores are used directly without prior treatments like coking and briquetting. The process is composed of three elements: smelting reducing furnace, preliminary reduction fluidized bed, gas reforming furnace. Making mathematical models as a means of study of the process, material balance and heat balance are calculated. Operational unit requirements are estimated, changing them in the range of 20-60% of the post combustion based on three fundamental processes each of which is composed of one or a combination of the three elements. The total cost is also trially calculated, estimating fixed cost including installation cost, etc. With no big differences in the iron-melting cost excluding by-products in each process, the cost may be reduced by 5-10% of that in the blast furnace process. The elementary study has continued almost satisfactorily and attained the expected target, though there still remain some problems. In 1990 the study started of a pilot plant with a 500t/day capacity. 12 figs.

  6. Solubilization of lignite and behavior of oxygen containing functional groups in coal with superacid; Chokyosan wo mochiita kattan no kayoka oyobi sanso kannoki no kyodo

    Shimizu, K.; Saito, I. [National Institute for Resources and Environment, Tsukuba (Japan); Sasaki, S.; Suganuma, A. [Science University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Science and Technology


    Solubilization of lignite including a large amount of oxygen containing functional groups was attempted using HF/BF3, and the behavior of oxygen containing functional group, one of the important factors for coal liquefaction, was studied. In experiment, the cooled slurry of Yallourn coal specimen and solvent (toluene, isopentane) was filled into a vacuum autoclave together with HF/BF3. Reaction was performed under spontaneous pressure at 50, 100 or 150{degree}C for 3 hours. The distribution of oxygen containing functional groups in each coal specimen was determined by quantification of carboxyl group, hydroxyl group and carbonyl group. As the experimental result, the superacid mixture of HF and BF3 considerably improved the solubility of coal specimens into solvent as compared with individual HF and BF3. The solubility was 68wt% into benzene, 96% into THF and 99% (nearly 100%) into pyridine. It was suggested that production of Broensted acid with strong acidity causes strong catalysis. 6 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Study of fuel control strategy based on an fuel behavior model for starting conditions; Nenryo kyodo model ni motozuita shidoji no nenryo hosei hosho ni tsuite no kosatsu

    Nakajima, Y; Uchida, M; Iwano, H; Oba, H [Nissan Motor Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    We have applied a fuel behavior model to a fuel injection system which we call SOFIS (Sophisticated and Optimized Fuel Injection System) so that we get air/fuel ratio control accuracy and good driveability. However the fuel behavior under starting conditions is still not clear. To meet low emission rules and to get better driveability under starting conditions, better air/fuel ratio control is necessary. Now we have understood the ignition timing, injection timing, and injection pulse width required in such conditions. In former days, we analyzed the state of the air/fuel mixture under cold conditions and made a new fuel behavior model which considered fuel loss such as hydrocarbons and dissolution into oil and so on. Al this time, we have applied this idea to starting. We confirm this new model offers improved air/fuel ratio control. 6 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. 3-D volume rendering visualization for calculated distributions of diesel spray; Diesel funmu kyodo suchi keisan kekka no sanjigen volume rendering hyoji

    Yoshizaki, T; Imanishi, H; Nishida, K; Yamashita, H; Hiroyasu, H; Kaneda, K [Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan)


    Three dimensional visualization technique based on volume rendering method has been developed in order to translate calculated results of diesel combustion simulation into realistically spray and flame images. This paper presents an overview of diesel combustion model which has been developed at Hiroshima University, a description of the three dimensional visualization technique, and some examples of spray and flame image generated by this visualization technique. 8 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Fiscal 1999 report on international joint research project on global environmental technology; 1999 nendo chikyu kankyo gijutsu kokusai kyodo kenkyu jigyo hokokusho



    As part of the above-named effort, Japanese researchers were dispatched to overseas universities and laboratories for implementing joint researches into 11 subjects selected by the NEDO (New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization) screening committee. When the feedback of fruits of the researches to NEDO projects is taken into account, it may be said that the accomplishments, attained relative to the development of processes for the practical application of environmentally-friendly biomass energy and measures for promoting its adoption, will contribute to the completion of an environmentally-friendly energy production process, excellent in CO2 emissions reduction, in which biomass will be the raw material. In relation to the technology of installing pipes for CO2 discharge into the ocean, some of the dispatched researchers had an opportunity of studying technological problems not deal with under NEDO research and development projects. In the study of organized structures of low-purity CO2 bubble groups, a great contribution was made to the promotion of the NEDO-implemented project of evaluating the impact of CO2 storage in the ocean upon environments. The development of remedial technologies for Microcystis aeruginosa-invaded lakes by introducing environmental engineering assumes a very important position in the endeavors for environmental improvement in developing nations in the Asia-Pacific region. (NEDO)

  10. On the improvement of mechanical properties of monolithic silica aerogels (for transparent insulating material); Silica aerogel (tomei dannetsu zairyo) kyodo no kaizen ni tsuite

    Tajiri, K; Igarashi, K; Tanemura, S [National Industrial Research Institute of Nagoya, Nagoya (Japan)


    Study was made on improvement of the strength of silica aerogel as transparent insulating material. Silica aerogel is a low-density porous material with high heat insulation and transparency. To develop a insulating material with high transparency, monolithic silica aerogel was studied. For direct use of it for windows, its strength improvement was attempted. The aerogel was prepared by supercritical drying (alcohol or CO2) of silica wet gel obtained by hydrolysis and condensation of silicon alkoxide solution. To prepare the aerogel bonded on plate glass for strength improvement, the aerogel was bonded to alkoxide by exposing active silanol radical through F-etching of plate glass surface. However, to obtain the practical large-area bonded aerogel, shrinkage control of the aerogel in supercritical drying was necessary. Addition of Laponite into a silica network for strength improvement by polymer increased the bending strength by 50%. Although some reduction of its transparency was observed because of clouding, its heat insulation was stable. Further strength improvement is necessary for its practical use. 5 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Fiscal 1998 joint promotion basic research report. Energy saving project for Achinsk refinery in Russia; 1998 nendo kyodo jisshi nado suishin kiso chosa. Roshia Achinsuku seiyujo shoene project



    For prevention of global warming by greenhouse effect gas, study was made on energy saving measures for Achinsk refinery in Russia. Achinsk refinery is a relatively new plant put into operation in 1983, however, because of no various equipment for use combustion heat effectively, its average thermal efficiency is as low as 60%-70%, resulting in fuel consumption more than necessary one. Based on the study result, the following remodeling designs were made: Improvement of a heat exchange efficiency by relocation of heat exchangers to reduce fuel consumption of a heating furnace as much as possible, conversion of an existing heating furnace based on an old design concept to an advanced one, installation of a waste heat recovery system including a preheating convection unit and air preheater, reinforcement of heating furnace wall insulator, installation of an optimum control system for furnace operation, and improvement of a fuel supply system efficiency. This design showed possible reduction of heating furnace load, and possible furnace thermal efficiency of 90%. (NEDO)

  12. Study on collapse behavior of a square plate subjected to water pressure; Suiatsu wo ukeru kukeiban no atsukai kyodo ni kansuru kenkyu

    Yao, T; Fujikubo, M; Mizutani, K [Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan). Faculty of Engineering


    Bottom plates of a hull are subjected to laterally distributing force due to in-plane compression force and water pressure in the ship`s length direction as a result of longitudinal bending in a hogging condition. Because buckling collapse of the hull bottom plates leads directly to longitudinal bending collapse of the hull bottom cross section, the hull bottom plates must have sufficient strength. The present study performs a static elastic large deflection analysis and an elasto-plastic large deflection analysis. It elucidates buckling collapse behavior of a square plate subjected to water pressure and in-plane compression load, and considers limits in application of conventional approximation analysis methods. In the case of a water pressure action, deflection components growing in excess of the buckling load do not necessarily correspond to buckling modes of the case where no water pressure is acting upon. Conventional approximation analysis methods may not be able often to pursue actual buckling phenomena. According the result of an analysis on hull bottom panels of an actual ship, the ultimate strength decreases when the water pressure is large. Compression force in the lateral direction as a result of water pressure acting on ship`s sides affected very little the ultimate strength. 3 refs., 7 figs.

  13. Report on surveys and researches to excavate international joint researches related to industrial technologies; Sangyo gijutsu ni kansuru kokusai kyodo kenkyu hakkutsu no tame no chosa kenkyu hokokusho



    Five themes were taken up for a project of the 'surveys and researches to excavate international joint researches related to industrial technologies'. Investigation groups were organized and dispatched for each theme toperform domestic and overseas surveys. Discussions were given on eachtheme for the possibilities of structuring international joint researches. The five themes are as follows: 'wearable information network related technologies', wherein technologies to micronize information devices have been advanced rapidly, and the technologies are entering the age from personalizing and mobilizing the information into the wearable computing; this theme is intended to develop systems to unify these technologies by means of international joint researches: 'surveys on using unutilized animal oils and fats as chemical raw materials', which are intended to make clear possibilities and problems in utilizing animal oils and fats as raw materials for the chemical industry that can substitute fossil resources: 'international joint researches on new glasses' and 'processes to manufacture semiconductors using glassy carbon' to develop glassy carbon having excellent chemical resistance substituting quartz: and 'international joint researches on the Russian project which places environment and energy in its center'. (NEDO)

  14. Report on a feasibility study of making an international joint research on energy in the Asia region; Asia chiiki kokusai kyodo kenkyu kanosei chosa hokokusho. 2



    A survey was conducted on the energy situation in Thailand, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines and India, and a possibility of making an international joint research. Thailand has sharply increased investments from Europe and the U.S. since 1985, and has been making a rapid industrialization. As to the energy policy, it is important to secure the stable supply and stabilize the price. Indonesia has been rapidly increasing energy consumption in accordance with the recent economic growth, and is fear of becoming a net oil importing country in the near future. They are taking a policy for securing as much domestic oil and gas as possible. Malaysia has been keeping a high growth of over 8% per year for the past 8 years and rapidly increased energy demand. It is expected that they will maintain a high level of the development of energy resources. In the Philippines, the industrial energy is mostly coal, but electricity expected in future is from the oil-fueled power generation. The stable import of oil is a problem. 45 figs., 51 tabs.

  15. Thermo-mechanical treatment for improvement of superplasticity of SUS304; SUS304 no chososei kyodo kaizen no tame no kako netsu shori

    Kato, M.; Torisaka, Y. [Mechanical Engineering Lab., Tokyo (Japan)


    Thermo-mechanical treatment was given to improve further the superplastic behavior of SUS 304 stainless steel. In the SUS 304, martensite phase produced by the processing induced transformation may be reversely transformed to the primary austenite phase by high-temperature heating. Crystal grain size is micronized to 1 {mu} m by combining this reverse transformation and recrystallization of the austenite phase. However, the straining rate at that time is as extremely low as 1 times 10 {sup -4}/s or lower, which is insufficient for an industrial material. Therefore, the SUS 304 processed as described above was given again a series of thermo-mechanical treatment of the similar forced cold processing and annealing to ultra-micronize the crystalline particles. Majority of the crystalline particles have come to have a grain size of several hundred nm. This test piece showed a total elongation of 400% or more at a test temperature of 973 K and a straining rate of 1.8 times 10 {sup -3}/s or lower. In addition, the straining rate sensitivity index `m` at that time was 0.45 or higher. The superplastic deformation of the SUS 304 has a high possibility of being governed by dynamic recrystallization. 4 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Crystallization of cristobalite from glass phase in mullite ceramics with excess SiO{sub 2} compositions; Sirika kajo muraito seramikkusu chu no garasuso no kesshoka kyodo

    Sato, Takashi; Sugai, Mikio; Nakagawa, Zenbee [Akita University, Akita (Japan). Faculty of Engineering and Resource Science; Sawabe, Yoshinari [Sumitomo Chemical Corp., Ibaraki (Japan). Tsukuba Research Laboratory; Oya, Yutaka [Gifu University, Gifu (Japan). Faculty of Engineering


    Crystallization of glass phase to cristobalite was investigated in mullite-glass ceramics with excess SiO{sub 2} compositions (5.3-16.4 mass %), namely, higher than stoichiometric mullite. Starting powders were prepared by alkoxide hydrolysis method. Compact specimens were sintered at 1600 degree C above the eutectic temperature (1587 degree C) for 2 h. Crystallization treatment was carried out at 1500 degree C, below the eutectic temperature, for times from 4 h to 96 h. Crystallization of glass phase proceeded from the surface of the specimen toward its inner part, in linear dependence on the annealing time. At the polished surface of the specimen, crystallization started in large glass pockets and the crystallized area extended spherically toward the inner part. This phenomenon suggests that nucleation occurs at the minimum parts in the elastic energy generated by the volume change involved in the crystallization of glass phase to cristobalite. (author)

  17. Dynamic stability analysis of circular arch subjected to follower forces with small disturbances; Judo kaju wo ukeru enkei arch no yuran ni yoru doteki kyodo to anteisei kaiseki

    Fukuchi, N.; Okada, K. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Hirano, Y. [Sumitomo Heavy Industries, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    This paper describes the deformation and dynamic stability of circular arch subjected to follower forces in a submerged membrane type marine structure reinforced by arch frames. Governing equations for finite deformations of the circular arch subjected to follower forces are introduced using an embedded curve coordinate, which are formulated by applying Galerkin method. In addition, equations of motion due to small disturbances under given condition of loading are introduced. Based on these equations, dynamic stability of the arch is analyzed by means of Runnge-Kutta-Gill method, to clarify the relationship between disturbances and instability regions and the resulting phenomena. Near the boundary regions of stability, both amplitude and cycle of deformation are greatly affected by the amplitude of disturbances. The dynamic instability is governed by the inverse symmetry primary mode with minimum characteristic frequency which is specific for the circular arch. The dynamic stability has high parameter dependency, and the instability regions have a complicated shapes. Although flattened arch has a smaller static critical load, it provides the dynamic stability against the disturbance. 5 refs., 10 figs.

  18. Driver`s behavior and the motion of motorized wheelchair when driving over rough surfaces; Dansa nado fuseichi sokoji no dendo kurumaisu no undo to join no kyodo

    Enomoto, A; Yokomori, M; Yamaguchi, S [Meijo University, Aichi (Japan)


    We analyzed about the motion of motorized wheelchairs and the driver`s behavior when passing over the small obstacles in place of the rough surface road or the gateway of house and road by experiment. The tested two type wheelchairs are the front wheel drive and the rear wheel drive. The lean angle of head and the pulse rate of driver, the feeling for stability and the yaw angle and the roll angle of the wheelchair bodies, and the deflection angle of front wheels of rear drive. 4 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Report on an international joint research project for global environment technology in fiscal 1998; 1998 nendo chikyu kankyo gijutsu kokusai kyodo kenkyu jigyo hokokusho



    In order to serve for measures against global problems taken by Japan, joint research was carried out with overseas research organizations. The research project selected ten themes considering urgency, internationality and economic proliferation effect in areas to serve for solution of global environment problems. These themes include removal or emission control of greenhouse effect gases, measures against atmospheric environment problems such as acid rains and ozone layer destruction, prevention of ocean contamination, development and effective utilization of energies and resources. When the feedback of these themes to the NEDO projects is considered, the research achievements in relation with development of the acid rain monitoring system in particular support indirectly development of carbon dioxide fixation technologies. The research achievements in developing an environmentally friendly biomass energy manufacturing process and environmental effect evaluation thereon contribute as an effective process to carbon dioxide reduction using biomass as raw materials. The achievements in research of nonlinear interfacial properties and mixed phase turbulence of low-purity carbon dioxide bubbles contribute to a project related to storage of carbon dioxide in oceans. (NEDO)

  20. FY 1999 report on the survey of the international joint research project on medical welfare equipment; 1999 nendo iryo fukushi kiki kokusai kyodo kenkyu jigyo chosa hokokusho



    For the purpose of internationally cooperating in the R and D of medical welfare equipment, visits were paid to Australia and the U.S. to survey the related administration/research institutes/medical welfare facilities. Australia is a world leader of heart (transplant) operation, organ transplant, artificial middle ear, apneic relaxation equipment, ophthalmological equipment, bio-materials, etc. The country wants to positively promote the international cooperation with Japan because both countries are complementary to each other. Starting about 1999, the U.S. entered the age of competition of the R and D with the use of genome, and the post-genome age is already beginning there. A number of ventures are running for creation of new industry. As to the U.S. government's measures taken for subsidy, regulation, etc. toward new industry, the information could be obtained from the persons concerned. The impression of a tour of welfare facilities in the U.S. was that hardware/software are systematically prepared there, and the aged live bright and positive lives and enjoy lives. (NEDO)

  1. Fiscal 1997 report on a feasibility study of international joint researches in the Asian region; 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho (Asia chiiki kokusai kyodo kenkyu kanosei chosa (4)hokokusho)



    It is thought that the energy consumption in Asian countries with ASEAN and China as center will a marked growth also in future together with a rapid economic growth, but harmony with environmental problems and economic growth is being taken as a serious problem. This is an important issue also to Japan from viewpoints of secure energy supply and regional response to the environmental issue. Accordingly, strongly desired is positive response to global environmental issues and promotion in development/spread of new energy/energy conservation in these countries. For the spread of the technologies, actual construction/operation of plants by joint researches with Japan are effective from aspects of personnel raising, technical improvement, PR effects, etc. This is also helpful for Japan in terms of technological development because Japan can also get the unobtainable data from the operation under appropriate conditions. This is a report on the studies of the trends of global environmental problems in Thailand, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, India and China. 3 figs., 72 tabs.

  2. Fiscal 1996 report on the committee for international collaborative research of medical and welfare apparatus; 1996 nendo chosa hokokusho (iryo fukushi kiki kokusai kyodo kenkyu jigyo)



    From a viewpoint that cancer, cerebral hemorrhage, heart disease, etc. caused by the progress in aging are problems not only to Japan but to all developed countries, a possibility of Japan`s joint study with other countries was examined to promote efficiently and effectively research/development of the apparatus required. Moreover, from a viewpoint of being the same Asian countries, a possibility of the joint study was examined also with developing countries which are largely different in disease structure and environment of the use of apparatus from developed countries. In the examination on medical/welfare apparatus technology of China, before the site examination, a book of data was arranged on the actual state of population and disease structure and the R and D situation of medical/welfare apparatus in Japan, and at the same time, celebrated persons in China were introduced by the scientific society side as widely as possible. By this preliminary study, the original objective of the examination could be achieved. In the examination with the U.S. and Europe, Japan held meetings with engineers of the U.K., France and the U.S. Japan`s `load control type walking supporting apparatus,` of which the development was finished, was very highly evaluated by each organ of the countries

  3. Influence of hydrogen-ion concentration exponent on undrained shear behaviour of bentonites; Bentonaito no hihaisui sendan kyodo ni oyobosu suiso ion nodo shisu no eikyo

    Kamei, T [Kiso Jiban Consultants Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Tokida, M [Nagano National College of Technology, Nagano (Japan)


    Because there is a report example that the yield stress of a landslide clay increases along with a decrease of a hydrogen-ion concentration exponent, it is thought that a shear strength of the landslide clay depends on the hydrogen-ion concentration exponent. Furthermore, when the soil stabilization method by lime is applied to the soft ground and high organic earth, it is pointed out that the hydrogen-ion concentration exponent will become one of the harmful factors. Accordingly, it is understood that revealing an influence of a hydrogen-ion concentration exponent affects on the characteristics of an earth is one of the important factors, to evaluate a strength, deformation and so forth of the viscous ground. In this study, in order to examine an influence of a hydrogen-ion concentration exponent affecting on an undrained shear behavior of the bentonites, for the artificially adjusted bentonite specimens with 5 kinds of different pH, the isotropic consolidated undrained triaxial compression tests were performed, and consequently an influence of pH affecting on the engineering characteristics of the bentonites was made clear quantitatively. 28 refs., 16 figs., 5 tabs.

  4. On the variations of strength of the CO sub 2 -silicate mould. CO sub 2 igata no kyodo henka ni tsuite

    Takano, Kenzo; Natori, Yoshikatsu; Suganuma, Sadao (Koei Co., Ltd., Saitama, (Japan) Nippon Chemical Industrial Co., Ltd., Tokyo, (Japan))


    Moulds prepared by uniform hardening were stored in normal foundry atmosphere and in the humidity controlled chamber to investigate properties of mould. Then, the relationship between the reaction rate of CO {sub 2} and Na {sub 2} 0 contained in mould binder and mould strength was studied. Followings were found: Turning point between absorption and desorption of mould exsits between 81-83% relative humidity (RH). Under the hith RH of the turning point or more, more the water glass addition, more the absorbed amount. When moulds were stored in the humidity controlled chamber, close relation was found between RH%, desorption or absorption rate and mould strength, that is, higher the desorption rate, higher the strength. Further, the reversible relationship was found between the strength and absorpion or desorption rate. Although any deterioration of strength was not found for moulds stored in the humidity controlled chamber (RH of 44-81%), moulds stored in normal foundry stmosphere lost the strength or deteriorated gradually. 7 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Quantitative analysis of the relationship between driver`s behavior and vehicle motion; Sharyo unten ni taisuru untensha no kyodo no teiryoka bunseki ni tsuite

    Nakagawa, H; Matsuura, Y [Osaka Sangyo University, Osaka (Japan); Masuda, T


    In order to study the subject of driving safety about the human-vehicle interaction, driver`s maneuvering behavior was shot by CCD-cameras installed in a cabin and the motion of traveling vehicle was simultaneously taken by VTR-cameras set on the test course. These pictures were analyzed using the three-dimensional image processing system (Peak Motus system). Consequently, this system was effectively able to use for these measurements and analysis and introduced the correlation between the vehicle movement and the driver`s action. 4 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Experimental study on buckling and ultimate strength of thin-walled box stub columns; Usuniku hakogata danmen buzai no zakutsu / shukyoku kyodo tokusei ni kansuru jikkenteki kenkyu

    Nakai, H.; Kitada, T. [Osaka City Univ. (Japan); Oryu, T. [Kawasaki Heavy Industries Ltd., Kobe (Japan)


    Thin-walled box stub columns such as beams of cable-stayed bridge, suspension bridge tower, arch rib of arch bridge and steel piers and so forth can also bear torsion at the same time besides compression and bending. These thin-walled box stub columns may achieve ultimate condition before reaching to plastic condition due to the effect of local buckling and so forth. Accordingly, it is the important topic to study the properties regarding ultimate strength of thin-walled box members in order to evaluate correctly the effect on load bearing resistance of local buckling. In this report, validity of load bearing resistance curve and ultimate strength interaction curve proposed by authors was studied using load bearing capacity experiment results. As a result, all ultimate strengths obtained by the experiment were higher than the ultimate strengths estimated by load bearing capacity curve and ultimate strength interaction curve. Further, it was revealed that the specimens subjected to torsion or subjected to bending and torsion and so forth exceeded the plastic strength due to the effect of strain hardening. 12 refs., 14 figs., 4 tabs.

  7. FY 2000 survey report on possibilities of the international joint study in the Asian region; 2000 nendo Asia chiiki kokusai kyodo kenkyu kanosei chosa hokokusho



    Study was conducted of policies on energy spread, trends of energy development, etc. in energy conservation and substitution energy fields after the economic crisis in Asian countries, and the results were summed up. In Thailand, it is expected that the effective use of solar energy can be an effective means as a substitution energy. Further, the energy conservation by demand-side management, etc. is to be urgently taken. Indonesia is abundant in energy resources and does not take energy conservation measures very much. As to petroleum substituting energy, it is expected that the diversified use of coal, natural gas, hydroelectric power, geothermal energy, etc. will be advanced. In Malaysia, a policy in which energy is dispersed to natural gas, hydroelectric power and coal is being taken for reduction of the dependence upon petroleum. In India, joint projects with developed countries are proceeded with in the fields of electric power, energy conservation and renewable energy. In China, the policy for advancing new energy utilization is being taken that the thermal power generation is optimized, hydroelectric power generation is positively adopted, and nuclear power generation is moderately used, according to characteristics in the region. (NEDO)

  8. Achievement report for fiscal 1999. FS surveys to excavate international joint research seeds; 1999 nendo kokusai kyodo kenky seeds hakkutsu no tame no FS chosa seika hokokusho



    The FS surveys to excavate international joint research seeds are intended to promote international joint researches, whereas surveys have been carried out in fiscal 1999 on eight themes covering as wide scope as new energies, resource conservation, energy conservation, environment preservation, functional materials, information communication technologies, and bio-technologies. The eight themes are: researches on energy conservation in petroleum and petrochemical industries by using advanced distillation processes (to develop an internal heat exchange type distillation column, and realize energy conservation exceeding the minimum reflux status being the limitation of conventional energy saving means), researches on treatment of hard-to-decompose chemical substances by utilizing surface reformation by means of discharge, a new process monitoring technology (process tomography), establishment of human immortalization cells due to co-manifestation of mortalin and telomerase and elucidation of their structure, a remote maintenance technology using integrated type sensors, application of new heat resistant plastics to photo and electronic materials, preparation processes of petroleum catalysts utilizing in situ XAFS, elucidation and design of the structure of the ultra-micro metal activation point in the reaction process, and surveys on necessity of developing a continuous and massive separation system of high-level energy and resource saving type using liquid-liquid distribution. (NEDO)

  9. International joint research of reforestation techniques for tropical rain forests in Indonesia; Indonesia tono nettairin saisei gijutsu no kyodo kenkyu ni tsuite

    Watanabe, T. [Kansai Electric Power Co. Inc., Osaka (Japan)


    The purposes of this research are to establish large-scale reforestation techniques, and to transfer these techniques into Indonesia for contributing to the preservation of tropical rain forests and the protection of global warming. Lauan trees provide disease and drying resistance properties by inoculating their roots with mycorrhizal fungi, to promote their growth. This is due to the symbiotic relationship between them, in which mycelia of mycorrhizal fungi collect and bring water and nutritive substances in the soil to the roots of lauan trees and intake sugars from the roots as nutrition. Since lauan trees are local variety, they are suitable for the preservation of biosystem. Since their growth life is long, they are suitable for the fixation of CO2. However, the reforestation techniques have not yet been established. Between FY 1992 and 1997, a high survival rate about 60% was obtained through a method in which natural seedlings in mountains were implanted and a method in which seeds were planted in the nursery. About 34000 lauan trees have been planted for the reforestation tests. An inoculation method was established for the accelerated growth of seedlings with mycorrhizal fungi. Through the inoculation, the growth rate was increased up to three times of that without inoculation. The lauan trees grew up to 5 m, and the survival rate was also increased up to twice. 11 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. Fatigue strength of the joint between diaphragms and longitudinal ribs in box section girders; Hako danmen keta no diaphragm to shita flange tateribu no kosabu no hiro kyodo

    Miki, C.; Shiozaki, M.; Takeishi, K. [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Ohashi, H. [Honshu-Shikoku Bridge Authority, Tokyo (Japan)


    Discussions were given on crossing joints of diaphragms on hanger fixing sections and U-ribs on lower flanges in reinforcing box girders of a suspension bridge, as to their local stress generating behavior and effects of cope holes on fatigue strength. The test pieces have dimensions and shapes modeling the crossing joints, and the steel materials are SM490YA for upper and lower flanges and webs, and SS400 for U-ribs. The loading test was performed with four-point bending and at loading amplitudes of 30 to 45 tf. Furthermore, stress analysis was conducted by using the finite element method. The following conclusions were obtained as a result: local stress at cope hole tips decreases and fatigue strength increases with the smaller the cope hole diameter; when the cope holes are back-filled completely, deformation is concentrated on welds of the U-ribs and the flanges, generating high local stress; this reduces significantly the fatigue strength of details having no cope holes; and no particular differences are found on effects of boxing of the cope hole tips on the fatigue strength. 7 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. Formation of secondary products in water purification. ; Toxicological evaluation of mutagenic chlorination by-products during drinking water treatment. Josui shori ni okeru fukuseiseibutsu. ; Josui shori ni okeru hen'i genseibusshitsu no dokusei hyoka

    Nakamuro, K [Setsunan Univ., Osaka (Japan). Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences; Sayato, Y [Setsunan Univ., Osaka (Japan)


    The biological effects of acute toxicity, chronic toxicity, carcinogenicity, etc. of chlorination by-products detected in drinking water in Japan are discussed. The biological effects of representative chlorination by-products such as trihalomethane, haloacetic acid, haloaldehyde, haloacetonitrile, chlorophenol, chloropicrin, etc. as well as the evaluation of mutagenicity in drinking water purification process, for which Ames Salmonella/microsome assay is used for safety evaluation of drinking water, are discussed. The extent of the contribution of mutagenicity of chlorination disinfection by-products to the mutagenicity of drinking water is investigated. It must be admitted that biological evaluation of the safety of water quality is impossible currently by using only the known chemical substances contained in drinking water. The effects of chlorination and ozone treatment which are often applied to drinking water treatment are different each other. 58 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  12. 3D seismic survey in Honjo, Akita. Problems and struggles in acquisition and processing; Akitaken Honjo koku ni okeru sanjigen jishin tansa. Genba sagyo to data shori ni okeru mondaiten

    Imahori, S; Kotera, Y; Nakanishi, T [Japan Energy Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    Honjo mining area where investigations are conducted is hilly and has a complicated terrain with gas pipes buried in the ground just under the access road disabling the proper positioning of shock-generating large excavators or vibrators. Auger`s shallow hole shooting method is used in this survey to execute blastings at 639 points. In this method using charge depths of 4m, different from the conventional method using deeper charge depths (20-25m), surface waves prevail in the shot records giving rise to a new problem of removing them in the stage of data processing. The 2D filter that is a powerful tool in 2D data processing is not available in a 3D-survey where the tracing intervals are irregular in the shot records. In the effort of this time, a window length as a parameter in the direction of time is specified, and the F-X dip filtering method is employed in which any event that linearly continues beyond a certain number of traces in the said window is eliminated as a linear noise. It is recommended that the weighting function be changed in the direction of space since surface wave velocities are different at different locations. 1 fig., 1 tab.

  13. Catalytic technology in the energy/environment field. Utilization of catalyst in coal pyrolysis and gasification processes; Energy kankyo bun`ya ni okeru shokubai gijutsu. Sekitan no netsubunkai oyobi gas ka ni okeru shokubai no riyo

    Otsuka, Y. [Tohoku University, Institute for Chemical Reaction Science (Japan)


    This review article focuses on the utilization of several catalysts during coal pyrolysis and gasification. In situ or off line catalytic upgrading of volatile matters during pyrolysis of low rank coals is carried out in pressurized H2 with different reactors to produce BTX (benzene, toluene and xylene). When NiSO4 and Ni(OH)2 are used in the hydropyrolysis of Australian brown coal using an entrained bed reactor with two separated reaction zones, BTX yield reaches 18-23%. MS-13X zeolite and USY zeolite mixed with Al2O3 are effective for producing BTX with powder-particle fluidized bed and two-stage reactors, respectively. Catalytic gasification is described from a standpoint of direct production of SNG(CH4) from coal and steam. When K2CO3 and Ni are compared for this purpose, Ni catalyst is more suitable at low temperatures of 500-600degC, where CH4 formation is thermodynamically favorable. Fe and Ca catalysts can successfully be prepared from inexpensive raw materials and are rather active for steam gasification at {>=}700degC. The use of upgrading and gasification catalysts is discussed in terms of preparation, performance, life and recovery. 27 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Study on the optimal control of the ground thermal storage system in the greenhouse. Part 4; Onshitsu ni okeru taiyo energy dochu chikunetsu system ni okeru saiteki seigyo ni kansuru kenkyu

    Zheng, M [Sanko Air Conditioning Co. Ltd., Osaka (Japan); Nakahara, N [Kanagawa University, Yokohama (Japan)


    Three types of weight in both energy saving and optimum room temperature environment were changed to obtain the optimal control solution of the ground thermal storage system in a greenhouse. The relation diagram between the optimal solution of a performance function, and the state constraints and control function constraints was created in consideration of the energy term in a control function value area and the room temperature environment. As a result, the whole image of the performance function could be grasped in consideration of the energy term with inequality constraints and the room temperature environmental term in this study. The rate of a weighting factor in the performance function significantly influences the optimal solution. The influence on the optimal solution also changes when the optimal room temperature schedule differs. The influence that three types of rising algorithm exert on the convergence and converging speed was investigated. Superiority or inferiority occurs according to the space properties of a performance function. A zigzag method is most disadvantageous. The constraints can be converged to the optimal solution using an SUMT outer point method irrespective of the initial value. 6 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  15. Fault analysis in the very shallow seismic reflection method; Gokusenso jishin hanshaho ni okeru danso kaiseki. 1

    Nagumo, S; Muraoka, S; Kaida, Y; Takahashi, T [OYO Corp., Tokyo (Japan)


    To effectively use the very shallow seismic reflection for active fault survey, a method has been investigated by which fault structures can be appropriately reconstructed from the fault information detected in the original records. The first step of reconstructing the fault system from the travel time reflection curve was to grasp an outline of fault structure from the patterns of travel time curve observed in the original record. For the very shallow seismic reflection method, especially, the low velocity layers in a shallow part succeeding from the ground surface made the issue complicated. Then, the travel time reflection curves were calculated in the case of existing several horizontal reflection surfaces in the surface layer. The constant values, mean velocities to the depth at individual reflection surfaces were used for the approximation of velocities. The outline of fault structure was grasped from the observation of original record. Then, the structure was reconstructed from the travel time curves. When the mean velocity in the medium was known, reconstruction of the feature of reflection surfaces from the travel time curves could be determined by simple mapping. When the mean velocity was unknown, it was calculated using the reciprocal travel time from the common reflection surface for individual reflection surfaces. 7 figs.

  16. Transition of wind power utilization technology in the 20th century; 20 seiki ni okeru furyoku riyo gijutsu no hensen

    Ushiyama, I. [Ashikaga Inst. of Tech., Tochigi (Japan)


    Windmills are one of the oldest prime movers and have been used for more than 700 years in Europe. The transition from low speed windmills for grain grinding and water pumping to high speed wind turbines for electric power generation had occurred at the end of 19{sup th} century. This paper, at first, reviews the windmill technologies and the researchers before 20th century. Then describes the back ground of how the wind power generator has existed and how the four pioneers developed their wind power generator. The historical developments of windmills to wind turbines in this century are studied focusing mainly on Danish activities. Then, the effort of the development of large wind turbine such as Smith-Putnum's first MW machine in U.S.A. and other mammoth machine concept are introduced. The new concept machines such as Savonius and Darrieus wind turbines in 1920s to 1930s are also explained. Finally, the novel technologies of wind turbine covering larger machines, variable speed generators, special wing sections for wind turbines, theoretical analysis method of wind turbine performance, offshore wind turbines, and wind turbine control technologies are stated. (author)

  17. Phosphorus and nitrogen removal in waste water at small factory. Shokibo jigyosho ni okeru haisuichu no rin chisso shori gijutsu

    Hirai, M. (National Institute for Resources and Environment, Tsukuba (Japan))


    For the purpose of preventing closed waters from eutrophicating, COD regulations and nitrogen and phosphorus waste water regulations are executed in Japan, but practically applicable techniques for this purpose are a few. Concerning technology for removing nitrogen and phosphorus in waste water, this paper describes the actual situation of two industries, electroplating and alumite processing, and applicable techniques. Among various nitrogen removal methods, the biological treatment method has been used practically in many cases and is applicable to practical use. While there are many kinds of physical and chemical treatment methods, applicable methods are limited. In removing nitrogen, the coagulating sedimentation method with Ca salt, Al salt and Fe salt is effective generally for orthophosphate. At electroplating factories, various forms of phosphorus and nitrogen compounds are used as plating chemicals. In treating waste water containing phosphorus, the coagulating sedimentation method is used most frequently. The oxidation + coagulating sedimentation method, the autolysis + oxidation coagulation method, and the evaporation method are effected, though the examples of their implementation are small in number. 15 tabs.

  18. Fresh Vegetables in the food service Industry its purchasing system; Gaishoku sangyo ni okeru seisen seikabutsu no chotatsu shisutemu

    Oda, K. [Food Service Industry Survey and Research Center, Tokyo (Japan)


    The environment which surrounds production, distribution, consumption of vegetables changes. A demand for the business a household economy demand of vegetables stagnates by the increase of eating out and lunches demand in the food consumption as a long-term tendency, and the tendency as vigorousness continues. In addition, a demand for domestic organic and special cultivation vegetables from the increase of the healthy and safe orientation of the consumer heightens. In this paper, what kind of new movement occurs in environmental change which surrounds these vegetables is arranged. (NEDO)

  19. Roles of major organizations in EC for decision making. EC no ishi kettei ni okeru shuyo kikan no yakuwari

    Kodama, M.


    This paper considers authorization powers held by the major organizations in the EC, with the Maastricht Treaty kept in mind. One of the objectives of establishing the EC is to harmonize and develop the economic activities in the community on the whole, and promote making closer the relations among the member nations. The EC's supernationality has two aspects: finances (using financial sources from externally common tariffs as the EC's independent financial resources) and legislations (member nations delegating their own powers to the international organization). Organizations involving in the EC legislations are the European Assembly, the board of ministers, and the EC Committee. The Assembly has deciding powers at high levels on the EC budget decision, as well as vetoing power on the budget. The board of ministers is provided with deciding powers to assure achievement of the objectives defined in the official requirements. The Committee has a supernational character that each committee member can act independently free from being subjected to orders from his or her native country. Practically, however, the authorization relationship among the organizations has confrontations over the interests of the organizations and member nations. There have been such movements in this situation as the Luxemburg compromises, actions at the agricultural ministers meeting, and preparation of the unified European protocol. 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  20. Investigations on steel slag re-utilization in developing countries; Hatten tojokoku ni okeru tekko slag sairiyo ni kansuru chosa



    In order to promote steel slag re-utilization in developing countries, a possibility was presented for technical cooperation to India, Indonesia and Thailand upon putting the status of slag utilization in Japan into order. Blast furnace slag produced in Japan (having a re-utilization rate of 95%) is re-utilized and processed as cement aggregates and road beds, and converter slag as civil engineering materials and ores. Steel making slag (having a re-utilization rate of 80%) is re-utilized as road, processing and civil engineering materials. Since the steel making slag faces intensifying competition with ash made by incinerating construction and general wastes, it is important to improve its price competitiveness or mixed utilization with other materials. Re-utilization has not advanced to a recognizable level in developing countries because of having no difficulty for availability of lands for wastes. However, growth of full-scale steel industries and elevation in tendency of environment preservation now urge increase in the slag re-utilization rate. Required to achieve the goal would include wider use of re-utilization technologies, quality control on slag, joint use of facilities to produce re-utilization products, and governmental assistance on burdens of transportation cost. Assistance from Japan is expected to help meet these requirements. 25 figs., 31 tabs.

  1. On noise, traffic and factory vibrations in Akita city; Akitashi ni okeru soon oyobi kotsu kojo shindo ni tsuite

    Nogoshi, M; Kikuchi, T; Morino, T; Sannohe, M [Akita University, Akita (Japan). College of Education


    Noise and vibration were measured in Akita City. In 1994, noise and traffic-caused vibration were measured along the trunk lines and other roads across the entire Akita City area. In 1995, the effort centered on the Ibarashima manufacturing quarters, the important source of noise and vibration in Akita city. The general-purpose noise meter LA-220S was used to measure noise and the vibration level meter VR-5100 was used to measure vibration. The results of noise measurement carried out at 122 points in Akita City indicated that the noise level was high along Route 7, Route 13, and the southern line belonging to the newly built national highway, marking the highest of approximately 74dB. As compared with the measurement made in 1968, the value was higher by 3-13dB. A roughly similar trend was seen in vibration. The noise level measurement of 1995 accomplished at 100 points in the vicinity of Ibarashima district indicated that the factories were responsible for high levels of noise and vibration. It was found that the levels lowered in proportion to the increase in the distance from the factories. 11 figs., 1 tab.

  2. 1000m depth boring at Inagawa, Hyogo prefecture. 1. Overviews; Hyogoken Inagawamachi ni okeru 1000m boring chosa. 1. Gaiyo

    Sato, T; Kusunose, K; Cho, A; Tosha, T [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan); Kiyama, T; Yamada, F [Mitsui Construction Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Aizawa, T [Sancoh Consultants Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    Various field experiments were carried out using a 1000m deep borehole at Inagawa town, about 10km north of the focus of the Hanshin-Awaji Great Earthquake and directly above the area where shallow earthquake activities have intermittently occurred. These experiments included stress measurement by hydraulic fracturing, hydrophone-aided VSP, permeability tests and observation of various types of logging. The laboratory experiments were also carried out, including measurement of various properties and stresses of the core samples. The stress-depth relationship, determined by the hydraulic fracturing method, shows that the stress gradient well coincides with the Western Japan standard at a depth up to 700m, whereas it is approximately twice as high as the standard at a depth of 946m, at which core disking and borehole break-out are clearly observed, and hence stresses conceivably concentrate locally. Orientation of the maximum horizontal compressive stress is E-W at a depth of around 600m, but greatly changes to NNW-SSE at a deeper position. 4 refs., 5 figs.

  3. Magnetic constraints of basement structure offshore of western Kyushu, Japan; Kyushu seiho kaiiki ni okeru jiki ijo no kaiseki

    Okuma, S; Nakatsuka, T [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan); Ishihara, T [Japan National Oil Corp., Tokyo (Japan)


    This paper describes the results from the qualitative analysis of magnetic anomalies offshore of western Kyushu and from an analysis by a three-dimensional two-layer model inversion. The analysis ranged from Kyushu on the east to Jeju Island on the west and from the southern part of the Korean Peninsula on the north to Tanegashima and Yakushima Islands on the south, namely, the area of 580km from east to west and 580km from south to north. The analytical data used was Magnetic Anomaly Map of Asia (GSJ and CCOP, 1994). In the qualitative analysis, a pseudogravity anomaly map and a pole gravity anomaly map were prepared from the total magnetic force anomaly map by means of a frequency filter operation. As a result, it was noted that two distinctive magnetic high belts existed in the margin of the Tunghai Shelf, extending from the sea area to the west of the Nansei Islands continuously to NNE, and being distributed transversely through the Goto sedimentary basin. Additionally, in the inversion analysis, it was demonstrated that the magnetic basement became shallow at the margin of the Tunghai Shelf north of latitude 31 degrees north, extending nearly in the NNE direction through west of the Goto Islands, west of Tsushima Island, and continuing to the southern coast of the Korean Peninsula. 6 refs., 4 figs.

  4. Remote reference processing in MT survey using GPS clock; MT ho ni okeru GPS wo mochiita jikoku doki system

    Yamane, K; Inoue, J; Takasugi, S [Geothermal Energy Research and Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Kosuge, S [DRICO Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    A report is given about the application of a synchronizing system using clock signals from GPS satellites to a remote reference method which is a technique to reject noise from the MT method. This system uses the C/A code out of the L1 band waves from NAVSTAR/GPS satellites. The new system was operated in MT method-using investigations conducted at China Peninsula, Aichi Prefecture, and Izu Peninsula, Shizuoka Prefecture, with the reference points placed several 100km away in Iwate Prefecture on both occasions. It was found as the result that it is basically possible to catch signals from the GPS at any place, that the signals are accurate enough to be applied to time synchronization for the MT method, and that the signals assure a far remote reference method with a separation of several 100km between the sites involved. The referencing process at high frequencies whose feasibility had been doubted proved a success when highly correlated signals were exchanged between two stations over a distance of several 100km. 5 refs., 9 figs.

  5. MT2-D inversion analysis in Kakkonda geothermal field; Kakkonda chinetsu chiiki ni okeru MT ho nijigen kaiseki

    Yamane, K; Takasugi, S [Geothermal Energy Research and Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Miyazaki, S [Japan Metals and Chemicals Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Uchida, T [New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo, (Japan)


    Data, collected from an MT method-assisted survey conducted in the Kakkonda geothermal region in 1987, was re-examined, and a new structure was found. The review was carried out by use of a 2D analysis in the TM mode. According to the 1D analysis of 1987 and the geological data gathered then, it is estimated that the resistivity structure of this region runs in the northwest-southeast direction. A northeast-southwest traverse line was set for this analysis, orthogonal to the strike, and the impedance at each observation spot was caused to rotate to this direction across the whole range of frequency. Furthermore, in 1994-95, surveys were conducted using arrayed CSMT/MT methods. All these sum up to indicate that a high-resistivity region extends northwest in the southwestern part of the Kakkonda river but that there exists a low-resistivity region of several 10 Ohm m centering about the B traverse line. The high-resistivity region deep in the ground being the target of excavation in the Kakkonda region, to collect knowledge about this high-resistivity is important, and here the effectiveness of the 2d analysis has been verified. 5 refs., 11 figs.

  6. Results of cultivation experiment at clean farm (vegetable plant). 1. Clean farm (yasai kojo) ni okeru saibai jikken kekka. 1

    Miyaishi, T; Kawagishi, K; Matsuzaki, O; Nakahara, M [Kyushu Electric Power Co. Ltd., Fukuoka (Japan)


    This paper reports a summary of the facilities in an experimental plant constructed by the Kyushu Electric Power Company in 1988, and a result of experiments on cultivating salad and lettuce. The plant has environmentally controlled cultivating rooms of solar beam combined type and totally artificial light type, each having a floor area of 50 m {sup 2}, disposed with cultivating stages divided into three divisions of seedling culture, growth, and forced culture, nutritious liguid feeding devices of circulation type, and air conditioning equipment. The paper describes results of the tests aimed at realizing an increase in yield and profit, an optimum cultivating system, and economic facilities at the vegetable plant. Included in the tests are that (a) four kinds of salads and five kinds lettuce were selected for cultivation to decide most suitable kinds, based on literature survey and preliminary experiments; (b) varying the environmental conditions for the culture, such as temperature, radiating condition, concentration of the nutritious liquid, and concentration of carbon dioxide, conditions optimum or suitable for the plant growth were selected; (c) the plant was compared with glass green houses with respect to the required cultivating period of time, vitamin C content and color tones of the products; (d) the solar beam combined type room and the totally artificial light rooms were compared with respect to power consumption and heat capacity that passes through the cultivation room walls, and the latter was concluded being superior in economics and stability. 12 refs., 37 figs., 30 tabs.

  7. On-line sensor technology for food manufacturing industry. Shokuhin bun prime ya ni okeru on-line sensor gijutsu

    Komiya, K. (Ajinomoto Co. Inc., Tokyo (Japan))


    This paper introduced the sensor technology for food manufacturing industry. If sugar concentration in main raw material is too high in the amino acid fermentation, control of the concentration is required because fungi growth is inhibited. A controlling method for sugar concentration was developed by using the correlation between consumption of NH {sub 3} for pH adjustment and sugar consumption in place of conventional analyzing method and was introduced in the gulutamic acid fermantation. BOD sensor was developed to enable the selective measurement of organic substances which can be processed by organisms, and measuring time was shortened from previous five days to 30 minutes. Since many organics absorb infrared ray, near infrared analysis is suitable for food analysis and on-line analysis has high possibility. When this method is applied to measure moisture in fishes and meats, continuous measurement can be made nondestructively and without contacting, and further the precision is {plus minus} 0.1%. Simultaneous multi-composition analyses are carried out by continuous spectrum and near infrared method using higher rate scanning. Sensor development for taste and smell has started. 10 refs., 4 figs., 4 refs.

  8. Treatability evaluation of membrane technique by virus. Maku shori ni okeru shorisei hyoka to shite no virus

    Yano, K. (Tokyo Metropolitan Research Lab. of Public Health, Tokyo (Japan))


    Concerning a high level treating method of regeneration of sewage water, there are methods of coagulation/precipitation, sand filtering and ozone treatment in addition to the conventional active sludge method. However, none of these methods are perfect from the viewpoint of virus. A film treating method to remove micro-organisms in water is twofold, i.e., microfiltration and reverse osmosis. For such filter treatments, polio virus is most suited as an experimental index for conducting an assessment of the treating ability of viruses. The reasons are as follows: 1. It is the smallest virus among the viruses which are mixed in the water systems. 2. Polio virus is always detected in the study of actual conditions of the viruses contained in the sewage waters. 3. It involves less danger in handling because there are vaccines which are made less poisonous. 4. Separation and quantification of viruses is easily conducted by means of cultured cells. 8 refs., 1 fig., 7 tabs.

  9. Studies on energy system for an energy-saving society; Sho energy gata shakai ni okeru energy system kento



    The system to which new energy technology and energy saving technology were introduced was constructed for case studies of urban areas including core cities and the peripheral areas, and the quantitative analysis was conducted on environmental effects, etc. In the energy supply system model, the following element technologies were all considered: cogeneration system, sewage water heat, river water heat, the photovoltaic power generation, energy storage/heat storage/cold heat storage, adsorption type refrigerator, etc. Also considered were power interchange between clusters, system power buying/power selling, heat interchange or no heat interchange, etc. As a result, it was found that when constructing the energy system which synthetically takes into account thermoelectric ratios, rates of simultaneous loads, ratios of daytime/nighttime in the energy supply and demand in the urban area, the energy saving effect multiplicatively increases, and the energy system using cogeneration and unused energy such as refuse and sewage in the urban area and river water brings an energy saving effect of 32% especially in the concentrated cluster. 83 figs., 45 tabs.

  10. Studies on reactivity of coal surfaces at low temperature; Teion ni okeru sekitan hyomen no hannosei no kento

    Yasuda, H.; Kaiho, M.; Yamada, O.; Soneda, Y.; Kobayashi, M.; Makino, M. [National Institute for Resources and Environment, Tsukuba (Japan)


    With an objective to learn reactivity of coal at its surface, surfaces of oxidized coal samples were investigated. Miike coal was oxidized by using {sup 18}O2 in a closed loop system. As the reaction progresses, proportion of CO2 including isotopes increased rapidly as a result of oxidation of CO sites existing in the coal and the newly generated C{sup 18}O sites. The oxidizing reaction progressed via oxygen adsorbing sites generated near the surface, and oxygen containing groups. An FT-IR analysis estimated the depth of the oxidized layer to be 10{mu}m or less from particle surface. The oxidized coal was pulverized to see its surface condition. Functional groups introduced by the oxidation enter into the vicinity of the surface in a form to desorb as CO. CO2 is trapped in inner pores. The coal surface was observed by using an atomic force microscope. No observable openings in the pore structure were discerned on the surface before the oxidation, and the structure agrees with a closed pore model. Surface image oxidized in-situ by oxygen for one hour had slight roundness, which led to a supposition of structural change, and changes in the functional group and adsorption species. 7 refs., 5 figs.

  11. Change of unit skeletons during an artificial coalification; Jinko sekitanka katei ni okeru tan`i kokkaku kozo no henka

    Sugimoto, Y.; Miki, Y.; Hayamizu, K. [National Institute of Materials and Chemical Research, Tsukuba (Japan); Okada, K. [Coal Mining Research Center, Tokyo (Japan); Suzuki, Y. [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan)


    In order to obtain knowledge about formation and growth of condensed ring structure in a coalification process, discussions were given on product skeleton structure by using hydrogenation and hydrocracking of heated cellulose. In underwater heating of cellulose, reaction of dehydration has occurred at 200{degree}C or lower, that of decarbonation at 250{degree}C or higher, and that of demethanizing at 300{degree}C, resulting in production of a dark-brown coal-like substance. The substance has lower H/C value and higher O/C value than coal. As the underwater heating temperature rises, the hydrogenation reactivity of the heated substance decreases, and so does the ratio of conversion into toluene solubles. These phenomena are related to strength of cross-linking bond between unit skeleton structures. A substance heated at an underwater heating temperature of 200{degree}C turns toluene-soluble almost completely even during the hydrogenation reaction (350{degree}C for 2 hours), but the soluble product decreases at underwater heating temperatures of 250 and 300{degree}C. However, soluble product of more than 90% was obtained when hydrocracking (at 425{degree}C for one hour) was performed. The toluene-soluble product in the heated substance is only 50% when the underwater heating temperature reaches 350{degree}C even if the hydrocracking is carried out. 3 refs., 5 figs.

  12. R and D contract management systems in the USA; Beikoku ni okeru R and D contract kanri system



    Outlined herein are the US Government's R and D contract management, which is considered to have greatly contributed to promotion of innovation in the USA. The procedures for the R and D contracts are managed through the mechanisms of the (government procurement), following the FAR (Federal Acquisition Regulations) that govern the government procurement rules. The procedural flow includes planning, public announcement of inviting the application documents, examination of the applications, negotiations, granting the fund, project management, suspension of the project and completion of the project. The audition sometimes takes several years to complete. The staff managing the individual contract is fairly specialized, and a team consisting of several professionals is responsible for each project. The substantial lifetime training systems the contract officers can receive are established. The alternative contract system encourages the applications from consortiums, and private enterprises frequently tie up with academic organizations to apply for the funds. Granting the funds to consortiums have many advantages, e.g., cost sharing and technological transfer. (NEDO)

  13. Introduction of research and development in Image Information Science Laboratory; Image joho kagaku kenkyusho ni okeru kenkyu kaihatsu no shokai



    This paper introduces research and development at the Image Information Science Laboratory. This is a joint industry-university research institution for the purpose of making a computer recognize human non-language information, expressing and transmitting it, with the research conducted at two centers, Kanto and Kansai. The following studies are being made at the Kansai research center: man/machine interface making natural communication possible between a man and a machine, with emphasis placed on visual information; sensing technology for measuring human activity, technology for analyzing/forming human sensitivity, and technology of expression; technology by which a work is done by a computer in place of a man and reproduced on the computer, with the skill transferred to a man; and development of a spatial expression media system such as a three-dimensional display device. The Tokyo research center is participating in the following projects: committee for promoting joint industry-university research and development of virtual reality (VR); joint industry-university research, development and implementation project of advanced VR; survey on physiological psychological effect in VR system and the like; and research and development of human media. (NEDO)

  14. Improvement of vehicle stability in cornering on uneven road; Akuro senkaiji ni okeru sharyo no anzensei kojo

    Tobimatsu, K; Harada, M; Harada, H [National Defense Academy, Kanagawa (Japan)


    The active control of vehicle suspensions and rear wheel steering systems in turning on uneven roads is analyzed by means of LQR control theory, assuming that cornering forces depend on tire normal loads in addition to tire slip angles. The authors quantitatively investigated the effectiveness of the integrated control of the active suspension and the rear wheel steering, comparing the contributions of each individual system. Furthermore, in this paper, the role of the chassis control and driver control are studied in order to improve the stability of vehicle motion disturbed by the road surface. 4 refs., 9 figs.

  15. Simulation of speed control in acceleration mode of a heavy duty vehicle; Ogatasha no kasokuji ni okeru shasoku seigyo simulation

    Endo, S; Ukawa, H [Isuzu Advanced Engineering Center, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Sanada, K; Kitagawa, A [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)


    A control law of speed of a heavy duty vehicle in acceleration mode is presented, which is an extended version of a control law in deceleration mode proposed by the authors. The control law is based on constant acceleration strategy. Using the control law, target velocity and target distance can be performed. Both control laws for acceleration and deceleration mode can be represented by a unified mathematical formulae. Some simulation results are shown to demonstrate the control performance. 7 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Measurement improvements of heat flux probes for internal combustion engine; Nainen kikan ni okeru netsuryusokukei no kaihatsu to kento

    Tajima, H; Tasaka, H [Miyazaki University, Miyazaki (Japan)


    In heat flux measurement in engines, material properties of a heat flux probe and numerical prediction of those influence have been discussed rather than practical measurement accuracy. This study featured the process for the quantitative examination of heat flux probes. Although the process required direct comparison among all the probes and additional measurements in a constant volume bomb, precision of heat flux measurement was greatly improved so that the essential characteristics of heat transfer in engines can be detected. 9 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Elevator group control during morning rush-hours; Erebeta gun kanri ni okeru shukkinji unten ni tsuite

    Hikita, S. [Mitsubishi Electric Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Komaya, K. [Mitsubishi Electric Corp., Tokyo (Japan). Industrial Electronics and Systems Lab.


    In a high-rising building, a group control system is indispensable which controls elevators systematically in order to improve efficiency of transportation. The group control and supervision are divided into two kinds namely the allocated control and the operation control. The former is the control to determine the optimal elevator which is to respond to a call of an individual passenger and the latter is the control to determine the operational practice as an elevator group in response to changes of the macroscopic traffic flows which are repeated periodically like morning rush hours or a lunch time. In this article, the meaning of the operation during morning rush hours has been discussed, the effect of the operation during the rush hours has been verified through simulation, and as a result, it has been verified that the determination of number of elevator cages to be arranged by the number of passengers (in particular the number of passengers from the main floor) is not necessarily related to improvement of total transportation efficiency. Besides, after analyzing the behavior of the group of elevators under the morning rush hour operation, the new index for determination of the optimal number of elevator cages at the main floor has been established, a new practice for determining the number of cages to be arranged based on the above has been proposed, and its effect has been verified. 7 refs., 10 figs.

  18. Status of the superconductive Maglev program in the United States; Amerika ni okeru chodendo jiki fujo tetsudo keikaku no genjo

    Osaki, H [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Engineering


    In the United States, high speed transportation plan was approved in 1965, and research and development of the superconductive magnetically levitated system (Maglev) became active. Although research and development for design, construction, and test for 500km/h Maglev were started in 1974, the federal government ordered to stop in 1975 all the development projects of high speed transportation traffic systems, and the activity slowed down very much as compared with those in Japan, Germany, and other countries. In 1990, the National Maglev Initiative (NMI) project was established. The feature which is different from those of Japanese and German systems is 0.16g and larger acceleration, which allows to shorten the transit time between stations. Development plan for Maglev prototype was approved officially in November, 1991. Features of levitation, guidance, propulsion as well as the carriage lineup of the 4 systems conceptually designed in the NMI project are introduced. 22 refs., 4 figs., 57 tabs.

  19. Impedance frequency characteristics of the MAGLEV power feeding circuit; Jiki fujoshiki tetsudo ni okeru kidenkei no inpidansu shuhasu tokusei

    Ema, S [Numazu College of Technology, Shizuoka (Japan); Ajiki, K [Railway Technical Research Inst., Tokyo (Japan)


    In connection with the impedance frequency characteristics of the coils for propulsion and the power feeding circuit of the magnetically levitated train (MAGLEV), the inverted L circuit and T circuit as equivalent circuits for the coil for propulsion and for the power feeding, respectively, are proposed and analyzed. The simulated result and the result of measurement reported by now are in good agreement, the measured values and calculated values being almost equal in both the characteristics of the coils for propulsion and those of the power feeding circuit. The validity of the two equivalent circuits are clarified, and the frequency characteristics are verified theoretically. The impedance frequency characteristics of the coils for propulsion which are peculiar to MAGLEV are investigated with the power feeding circuit consisting of the power feeding line and propulsion coils. Lastly, simulation is carried out for the coils for propulsion with several hundred propulsion coils and for the power feeding system assuming the commercial line. As a result, it is found that the antiresonant frequencies are decreased to about one tenth in both of the characteristics. 11 refs., 18 figs.

  20. Technology for emission control in internal combustion engines; Kakushu nainen kikan ni okeru hai gas joka gijutsu

    Shioji, M. [Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan)


    Described herein are emission control technology and exhaust gas cleaning measures for internal combustion engines. Gas turbines burn relatively high-quality fuels, such as natural gas, kerosene, diesel oil and gas oil, where the major concerns are to reduce NOx and dust emissions. The NOx abatement techniques fall into two general categories; wet processes which inject water or steam, and dry processes which depend on improved combustion. Power generation and cogeneration which burn natural gas adopt lean, premixed combustion and two-stage combustion as the major approaches. Low-speed, large-size diesel engines, which realize very high thermal efficiency, discharge high concentrations of NOx. Delayed fuel injection timing is the most easy NOx abatement technique to meet the related regulations, but is accompanied by decreased fuel economy. Use of water-emulsified fuel, water layer injection and multi-port injection can reduce NOx emissions without decreasing fuel economy, depending on optimization methods adopted. Automobile gasoline engines are required to further clean exhaust gases by catalystic systems. 9 refs., 10 figs., 6 tabs.

  1. Trend of advanced technology of micromachines in the USA; Beikoku ni okeru micro machine sentan gijutsu doko chosa hokokusho



    In this research, the data of advanced technology of micromachines in the USA have been searched, collected, and arranged from the US patent information, technical journal information, and newspaper and general journal information. According to demand, the main undertaking information was interviewed from well-informed persons. The data were compiled as advanced technology trend of micromachines in the USA. Sensors are remarkably predominant in the elemental technology. There are also important topics in the fields of actuators, motors, lenses, devices, and structures. On the other hand, materials, etchings, packages, motive powers, and softwares are also important elemental technology in spite of their less information. From the viewpoint of usage, detection systems are remarkably predominant. Then, robots, processing systems, optics, analysis systems, motive power systems, medical systems, and acoustic systems are also important. From the viewpoint of industrial sector, the environmental items are predominant. Automobiles, medical treatments, and information communications follow the above. When new relationships to the secondary usage and tertiary usage are not found, it would be rather hard to express such a technology development trend more clearly.

  2. Earthquake resistant measures of existing structures by TRTA; Eidan chikatetsu ni okeru kisetsu doboku kozobutsu no taishin taisaku

    Miyata, N.


    Seismic countermeasures for the existing structures are introduced on the main item: reinforcement of open-cut tunnel RC center pillars as well as on reinforcement of rigid frame viaduct pillars and installation of a device for prevention of viaduct falling. First, for reinforcing open-cut tunnel center pillars, design was devised so as to be suitable to construction environment in the subway yard. Important reinforcement materials are steel and filling materials; SS and a self-leveling material for building construction were chosen. The following construction work procedures are explained based on the actual construction: removal of interior materials of existing pillars and measurement of the actual size, high pressure water washing, steel plate fabrication, plate delivery to the yard, installation of steel plates, filler filling, painting. Next, on reinforcement of viaduct pillars on the ground, the reinforcement design concept is basically same as in the open-cut tunnel. Points of difference in design and construction are explained. On the countermeasure for prevention of viaduct falling for girder bridges without the falling prevention, countermeasure investigation and design work or installation work are being carried out. Seismic resistance evaluation and design of existing bridges, and construction work are explained. 13 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Microbiological indicators for evaluating treatability on water purification process. Josui shori ni okeru shorisei hyoka kara mita biseibutsu shihyo

    Ichikawa, H [Kanagawa Prefectural Government Public Enterprise Egency Water Works Bureau, Kanagawa (Japan). Tanigahara Purification Plant


    This report describes the historical procedure of a bacterial test for a certain respective bacteria, and also describes the removal of micro-organisms by a water treatment and treatment with disinfectants. The disinfection is made mainly on basis of foreign literature. This is because there exist few literature published in Japan. In a good sense, this is because of the Japanese habit of drinking raw water which has contributed to high level of facilities and the maintenance. If seen from a different viewpoint, the prsent concern is concentrated to a contamination of the underground water by organic solvent and the counter measure against such minute quantity of organic chemicals as trihalomethane and the agricultural chemicals in the golf courses. From the consumers {prime} standpoint, these are of the level of problems that only one affected person increases per year for 100,000 inhabitants even if they continue to drink such drinking waters continuously through their life years. The reality is that it is remote from the realities in life. 37 refs., 9 tabs.

  4. Problems in green improvement projects in recent city planning. Kinnen no toshi keikaku ni okeru ryokuchi keikaku eno kadai

    Funabiki, T. (Ministry of Construction, Tokyo (Japan))


    The present city plans are questioned on the formation of a good city environment, improvement of mansion/building supply, due to the new city problems on the Tokyo concentration and re-increase of the land value recently. Based on the discussion of the central city planning council, various improvement of the system were made by government. As a structure plan of the city, the green area plan that the balance between the urban land use and the national land use is distributed, must be included. As the problem of the green area plan on the system of city plan, this paper explained the distinguish between city area and city adjustment area, the green master plan about the green area preservation in long time, the green area system corresponded to the policy for realizing the plan of preserving the green area mainly, and the park work and green area policy corresponded to the policy for realizing the plan of creating the green area.

  5. Performance of miniature electromagnetic pump at liquid nitrogen temperature; Kogata deji ponpu no ekitai chiso ondo ni okeru seino

    Nagashima, K.; Herai, T. [Railway Technical Research Inst., Tokyo (Japan)


    Though it cools the radiant heat shield board of superconducting magnet for levitation system railway by the liquid nitrogen, the piping on the shield board must be made to circulate the refrigerant in order to maintain the large area, which covers superconducting coil at the uniform temperature. Though as a circulating pump, it had developed thermal pumps using the heater and systems using natural circulation, etc. until now, it examined circulation performance of liquid nitrogen using the electromagnetic pump that here, it was small, and that to do the operation is sure. (NEDO)

  6. Ignition processes in the refuse bed of a refuse incineration plant. Gomi shokyakuro ni okeru gomi sonai no chakka katei

    Goromaru, T; Onishi, K; Iwakawa, N; Yoshikuni, N [Fukuoka Univ., Fukuoka, (Japan)


    The ignition process was studied in this paper, which was particularly connected with the drying process of refuse in the statical characteristics of refuse incinerators. Because of variety in refuse forms to be supplied to the incinerators, a physical model was composed, assuming that refuse was the layers of piled up refuse elements with uniform forms, and the ignition curves of the layers were drawn on the basis of the above model after a mathematical model was formed. The upper part of the curves was altered so that it suits to actual endothermic and heat velocity distribution on the assumption of temperature distribution in the incinerators at their inlet side. No particular alteration was made in their middle part, then the ignition curves were changed to almost straight lines inclined downward. Unburnt and refuse under firing were wrapped by ash and uncombustibles, so the lower part of the curves was only studied as a imaginary solid model by the two methods of finite element method and simple analytical one, and conversion was made into equivalent reduction in combustion temperature. 15 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Estimation of the thermal stress in the coke layer. Kanryu katei ni okeru kokusu sonai netsuoryoku no suisan

    Miura, Takatsoshi; Yoshino, Hiroyuki; Saito, Shozaburo; Otani, Shigemori [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Faculty of Engineering


    Fissures which are formed in coke ovens are an important factor which exerts influences not only on the quality of coke but also on consumed energy such as thermal transfer. An estimation method of thermal stress distribution in the coke layer which is important to determine these fissures was, therefore, proposed, and the propriety of the method was demonstrated in comparison with the experiment results by X-ray computerized tomography. In the analysis model, heat fluxes from the upper part of the carbonization room and from the heating wall were regarded the same, and the temperature field was obtained by formulating the non-steady heat conduction equation to the finite element method by Galerkin scheme. The stress field was presumed to be an elastic flat field, and it was formulated to the finite element method by the incremental theory. Following investigation results were obtained and thus the propriety of this method was demonstrated. The formation position of principal tensile stress calculated and the formation position of fissures observed by X-ray computerized tomography had a corresponding relation. According to the calculation, with the increase of heating rate, principal tensile stress was increased; and that accounted for experiment results. Estimated results of thermal stress in the layer varied depending on the coal's value of property of the matter. 8 refs., 15 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Subjects on geochemical technology for geothermal power plant. Chinetsu hatsudensho ni okeru kagaku kanri gijutsu ni kansuru shomondai. 1

    Hirowatari, K [Kyushu Electric Power Co. Ltd., Fukuoka (Japan)


    This paper introduces the following technologies and countermeasures found to be successful in solving geochemical problems relating to the maintenance and management of geothermal power plants belonging to Kyushu Electric Power Co., Ltd. In controlling condensate properties,curtailment of pH fluctuation range by changing the injection point of NaOH,inactivation of sulphur bacteria by using chloramphenicol and prevention of slime loading of the condenser strainer by running of the cooling tower without make-up water were achieved. In the environmental countermeasures,it was concluded that Fe-ion injection method was most effective to remove As out of waste hot waters which are all reinjected into the underground formation now. By understanding the characteristics of the well eruption fluids,the attenuation mechanism of steam producing wells could be estimated, which were interference,re-eruption and degradation of the reservoir temperature caused by the reinjected hot waters. And the problems associated with the attenuation of steam producing wells have been solved fundamentally by taking proper countermeasures to eliminate the influence of reinjected hot waters. The atteunuation of reinjection well was found to be caused dominantly by silica loading at the permeable zone of wellbore and to be effectively solved by high temperature reinjection of the waste hot waters, controlling of temp. degradation of hot waters to be reinjected and prevention of air mixing. After applying proper countermeasures, the attunuation rate of the reinjection well has been fairly improved. 13 refs., 21 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Consideration on characteristics of faults distributed at around Fujigawa river mouth; Fujigawa kako shuhen ni okeru danso kaiseki

    Iwashita, A; Misawa, Y [Tokai University, Tokyo (Japan)


    From the sonic prospecting on the ground, it was confirmed that faults distributed in the inner part of Suruga Bay extend near the Fujigawa river mouth. While, faults in the sea bottom were found by the sonic prospecting using a single air-gun. However, continuity of faults running from the land to the sea has not been reported. This paper describes the continuity of Fujigawa fault system running from the land to the sea around Fujigawa river mouth along the subduction zone of Philippine Sea Plate using single air-gun seismic reflection records. Locations of the faults can be expressed as fracture information of linearment obtained from the satellite remote sensing images, which agreed well with those found by the Active Fault Research Association. As a result of the image processing, they agreed distinctly with the topography of Fujigawa fault system. Thus, much more accurate analysis can be performed by comparing the regional information by the remote sensing with the sonic seismic reflection profiles. 3 refs., 2 figs.

  10. Subsurface displacement of the Tachikawa fault; Tachikawa danso no chika shinbu ni okeru danso hen`i

    Yamaguchi, K; Kano, N; Kiguchi, T; Tanaka, A [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan); Sato, H [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Earthquake Research Institute


    Seismic exploration using the reflection method was carried out at the central section of the Tachikawa fault located in the western part of the Musashino high plain spreading over Tokyo and Saitama Prefectures. The course of traverse was set on a road running in the east to west direction, which crosses the running direction of the Tachikawa fault in Sunagawa, Tachikawa City by about 65 degrees. The area near the course of traverse is a terraced alluvial fan, with the nature of its surface soil consisted of a gravelly bed of the Quaternary period. In order to identify the fault structure in detail, the focal point interval was set to 5 m, being half of the vibration receiving point interval of 10 m. The CMP was defined at a 2.5-m interval rather than a 5-m interval. The S/N ratio of the derived data was found not good. This is because of scattering of seismic energy into the gravelly bed with a thickness of about 100m in the shallow portion and because of noise from passing vehicles. The data processing was applied with correlation, geometry, static correction, velocity analysis and CMP polymerization to have prepared a preliminary CMP polymerization time cross section. As a result, it was elucidated that the Tachikawa fault forms a bend zone or a crush zone under the ground, and continues down to a great depth at a high angle. 9 refs., 3 figs.

  11. Fault analysis in the very shallow seismic reflection method. Part 3. Migration; Gokusenso hanshaho ni okeru danso kaiseki. 3. Migration

    Nagumo, S; Muraoka, S; Takahashi, T [OYO Corp., Tokyo (Japan)


    Concerning the analysis of data obtained by the seismic reflection method, migration in the very shallow layer is discussed. When the dip angle of the reflection plane involved is disclosed by DMO conversion, the amount of migration (travelling sideways) can be calculated by use of simple geometrical formulas though on the presumption that the sector velocity is constant. Categorized into this technique are such methods as DMO conversion migration, direct dip migration, F-K method, and finite difference method. This means that waveforms are not damaged by migration processing although elongation occurs due to time base conversion. When it is taken into account that waveform distortion is generally grave in the migration related methods widely in use, this feature has to be said valuable in holding information on faults. This is especially advantageous in the very shallow layer because the amount of migration is proportionally larger when the level is deeper and, in addition, migration processing is useful when it is necessary to know more accurately the character of the fault plane. 8 figs.

  12. Water monitoring and its information management system in China; Chugoku ni okeru suishitsu monitoring to joho kanri system

    Quan, H.


    This paper summarizes the water monitoring system (WMS) in China applied mainly to surface water and operated within the competence of the Environmental Protection Agency. The WMS consists of a national water monitoring network and a water information system that monitors surface water periodically. The WMS comprises water monitoring stations classified from class 1 to class 4, which are located in 2,222 locations. Stations from class 1 to class 3 are operated by using computers, but class 4 stations are still incapable to use floppy disks to perform information transmission. When an information management system is completed at the China-Japan Friendship Environmental Protection Center being constructed by gratis assistance from the Japanese Government, transmission of water quality data will become possible by means of the cable line system in addition to the table system and the floppy system. The water quality data are published to general people in the forms of Chinese gazette for the environmental conditions, the environment yearbook, and the reports on environmental quality. However, the more important is to publish more publications to make people aware of the actual state of water pollution and have them cooperate in environment preservation. 4 refs., 1 fig.

  13. Hydrogenolysis reactions characteristics of deashed coal under low temperature; Teionka ni okeru dakkai shoritan no suisoka bunkai hanno tokusei

    Owada, T.; Mashimo, K.; Wainai, T. [Nihon University, Tokyo (Japan). College of Science and Technology


    In relation to coal liquefaction, the effect of inorganic minerals on liquefaction reactivity and the effect of hydrofluoric acid (HF) treatment on organic molecular structure of coals were studied by demineralization of low-rank coals in HCl or HF solution. In experiment, Taiheiyo coal specimen was deashed in HCl solution at 25-70{degree}C for 6 hours while agitating, and in addition, deashed in HF solution. Hydrogenolysis of the deashed coal specimen was conducted using tetralin or methylnaphthalene as solvent under initial hydrogen pressure of 1.96MPa at reaction temperature of 693K for 60min. The experimental results are as follows. The ash content of Taiheiyo coal hardly offers catalysis in hydrogenolysis reaction. Carboxyl group increases in demineralization of coal because of breakage of bridged bonds. Organic structure of coal changes by demineralization in dense HF solution. Change in organic structure of coal by demineralization in dense HF solution is dependent on treatment temperature. 2 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Analysis of flame propagation phenomenon in simplified stratified charge conditions; Tanjunkasareta sojo kyukiba ni okeru kaen denpa gensho no kansatsu

    Moriyoshi, Y; Morikawa, H [Chiba University, Chiba (Japan); Kamimoto, T [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)


    Since the local inhomogeneity of mixture concentration inside the cylinder affects the combustion characteristics, a basic research on combustion phenomenon in stratified charge conditions is required. The authors have made experiments with a constant-volume chamber, which can simulate an idealized stratified charge field by using a removable partition, to obtain the combustion characteristics. Also, numerical calculations are made using some combustion models. As a result, the important feature that the combustion speed is faster in stratified condition than in homogeneous condition can be predicted by the two-step reaction model. 4 refs., 8 figs.

  15. Analysis of fuel spray characteristics for premixed lean diesel combustion; Kihaku yokongo diesel kikan ni okeru nenryo funmu kaiseki

    Sasaki, S; Harada, a; Miyamoto, T; Akagawa, H; Tsujimura, K


    Premixed lean diesel combustion (PREDIC) makes it possible to achieve low NOx emission. It is an important factor to make the homogeneous spray formation for PREDIC. In this paper presents I the effect of the spray dispersion on emission characteristic were analyzed with the spray observation and engine test. Pintle type nozzle, which has different feature from orifice type nozzle, are used to form the hollow cone spray. As a result, the pintle type nozzle having grooves to generate the swirl flow, makes the reduced penetration in comparison with the hole nozzle under low ambient gas pressure. And it could improve THC, CO emissions at low NOx emission condition. 7 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Utilization of dietary lipid in young and immature Japanese flounder; Hirame wakagyo, miwseigyo shiryoni okeru shibo no riyono

    Kikuchi, K.; Furuta, T.


    Effects of dietary protein and lipid levels on growth and body composition of Japanese flounder were examined. Young fish of about 55 g in initial body weight were fed six extruded diets with dietary protein levels of 45 and 55% and three lipid levels each to satiation twice daily. 6 days a week for 12 weeks at 20 degree C with triplicate groups per dietary treatment. Four diets with the same protein level (45 and 55 %) and two lipid levels each were supplied to immature fish of 240 g of initial body weight for 20 weeks with duplicate groups per treatment. The final body weight and weight gain of young fish fed the diets containing 55 %protein were higher than those of fish fed the 45 % protein diets, although both parameters were statistically identical among dietary treatments. The dietary lipid level did not affect these parameters regardless of the protein level. Protein efficiency ratio improved as the lipid level of the diet increased in the 55 % protein diets. The growth of immature fish fed the diet with 55 % protein and the lowest lipid level was higher than that in the other dietary treatment. However, protein efficiency ratio was the highest in the dietary group with 45 % protein and the highest lipid level. Both in two feeding trials, triglyceride content of the cultured fish increased depending on the dietary lipid level, while the other hematological and hematochemical parameters were not affected seriously by the dietary composition. Liver weight and hepato-somatic index of the cultured fish tended to increase in accordance with increasing dietary lipid level both in two trials. Crude lipid content of the li8ver and digestive tract appeared to depend on dietary lipid level. The diet containing 45 % protein and the highest lipid level resulted in significantly higher crude lipid content of the eye-side muscle as well as Engawa muscle of the cultured fish than those in the other dietary groups. (author)

  17. Power feeding to terminal devices in optical subscriber network; Hikari fuaiba tsushin ni okeru tanmatsu kiki eno kyuden

    Yamasaki, M


    This paper outlines present state of the feeding system in the light access system in consideration of backup in case of home power failure. In the optical communication, equipment with bilateral conversion function for light and electricity has to be installed both on communication service side and home side. Outline of the light access system and equipment requiring backup are shown. The following items are explained: main types of the light access system, such as FTTC (fiber to the curb), FTTP (fiber to the pole), FTTH (fiber to the home) and HFC (hybrid fiber coax), and the feeding system; problems on feeding system for the light access system. Key elements of ONU (optical network unit) for FTTH and construction of the ONU power source are illustrated. The ONU power source is composed of a backup power supply unit and main body supply unit. Backup power is indispensable to the ONU and analog telephones: output is supplied by the backup batteries in power failure. For miniaturization of the backup power source, power supply circuits and backup batteries have to be miniaturized simultaneously. History of miniaturization is explained on the experimental models. 6 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Possibility of EV with solar cells on the new traffic system; Shinkotsu system ni okeru solar car no kanosei

    Fujii, I; Kojima, S [Meiji University, Tokyo (Japan)


    A possibility of a new traffic system was studied for a solar car which is light in weight, small in size and low in speed (cruising speed: 20 km/h) and does not need so much power because of the use for short distance. In the new traffic system, people travel short distance in city by solar car, and use trains for travel between cities. By installing solar cells on roofs, etc. of houses and buildings such as garages around stations, power needed for solar car and incidentally required can be supplied. Assuming the short distance transportation, the car is for one person with a height of luggage space of 70cm, mean length of 165cm, and floor height of 50cm above the ground. In case that the power generation by solar cells (256.5W) is at maximum with no shading during travel on conditions of load weight of 10kg, personnel weight of 70kg, and total weight of 250kg, it was found that solar cells can supply 89% of the required output under test road travel at speed of 20 km/h. A viability of the solar car proposed here is great. A possibility at the time of mode road travel is also studied. 10 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Equalizing effect of the fluctuation in areal irradiance; Chiikinai ni okeru shugo nissha no hendo yokusei koka

    Minowa, J; Kurokawa, K [Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Tokyo (Japan); Otani, K; Tsuda, I; Sakuta, K [Electrotechnical Laboratory, Tsukuba (Japan)


    Aggravation in electric power quality is concerned because of irregular output power caused by a large number of photovoltaic power generation systems connected with the power grids. However, averaging of the irregularity may be expected in a wide area due to time-based shift in cloud movements. In order to identify this effect, insolation data were measured in terms of planes at multiple points in the city of Tsukuba to discuss the fluctuation equalizing effect. The system is composed of nine instruments to measure insolation plane characteristics, nine terminal station units, and a base station unit. The insolation data express the horizontal plane insolation intensity at a sampling interval of one minute. Insolation fluctuation (standard deviation of insolation fluctuation components) was defined as an index of the insolation fluctuation. Based on the index, an averaging effect when the photovoltaic systems are installed in a number of locations was considered by using statistic estimation. As a result, the averaging effect was obtained even in an area with a radius of several kilometers. In addition, the measurement data revealed that there is an upper limit in the effect depending on the number of system installation. It was also made clear that the data are affected by distances to connect the photovoltaic power generation systems with each other and by climatic conditions. 3 refs., 6 figs.

  20. Water quality and water pollution sources in Poyang lake, China; Poyang ko ni okeru suishitsu chosa to odakugen kaiseki

    Ito, M. [Shin-Nippon Meteorological and Oceanographical Consultant Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    This paper summarizes the current status of water quality and pollution sources in Poyang Lake in China. The lake is located in Chianghsi Province of China, and a largest fresh water lake in China that flows out into the Yangtze river. The basin is surrounded by mountains on three sides and faces the Yangtze on one side, whereas the plains formed by the lake and the rivers flowing in extends in the center of the basin. The plains around the lake has the city of Nanchang, the capital of the province, the city of Jiujiang (both cities have a population of about 4 million, respectively), and four other cities with a size of one million people including Jingdezhen. Water supply system in the basin is used in a 37% area of the urban areas, and no sewage facilities of whatsoever are available as of 1991. The lake has COD of about 3 mg{times}1/l. No severe pollution by organic matters is seen. While the T-P concentration is at a high level, PO4-P is low. Majority of phosphorus flowing into the basin exists in the form trapped in soil particles. In order to maintain the current water quality in the future, waste water treatment is required in the basin. Construction of an oxidation pond in the vast land exposed during the drought period is a measure that can be tackled relatively easily. 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  1. Study of evaluation for grouting effect in a borehole; Yakueki chunyu koka hyoka gijutsu ni okeru ichikosatsu

    Nakamura, H; Matsuo, T [Fukuoka Municipal Transportation Bureau, Fukuoka (Japan); Yamauchi, Y; Imanishi, H [Osaka Soil Test, Osaka (Japan)


    For the foundation improvement works by grouting in a borehole, evaluation of grouting effect is one of the most important management items. The grouting design and works are sometimes reconsidered depending on the evaluation of grouting effect during the test injection. The purpose of the evaluation of grouting effect is to grasp the range of improvement and consolidation after the injection, and to judge and estimate the strength and permeability of the consolidation part. This paper describes the judgment method of the strength using PS logging results and borehole televiewer (BHTV) logging results. The reflection intensity (Ir) by the BHTV logging increased after the grouting, which showed a same tendency as that using S-wave and P-wave velocities (Vs and Vp) before and after the grouting. This was considered to demonstrate the grouting effect. A relation was obtained between the Vs, Vp and Ir before and after the grouting, which was expressed by following equation. Ir=0.143{times}Vs-70=0.093{times}Vp-110. The relation with the dynamic elastic coefficient (Ed) was also obtained as follow; Ir=0.0013{times}Ed. 9 figs.

  2. Seismic reflection survey in Omama fan area, Gunma prefecture; Gunma Omama senjochi ni okeru hanshaho jishin tansa

    Yamaguchi, K; Kano, N; Yokokura, T; Kiguchi, T; Yokota, T; Matsushima, J [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan)


    Seismic reflection survey was performed for the Medial Tectonic Line, an important geological tectonic line in the Kanto plains, at Kushibiki district, Saitama prefecture in the north-western part of the Kanto plains. It was estimated that movements of the basement were different in the individual sides of the active fault. In this study, the seismic reflection survey was performed at the Omama fan area, Gunma prefecture, which is located at the north-eastern extension of the Kushibiki plateau, to grasp the structure of basement to the depth of about 1.0 s of return travel time, and the upper sediments. Two traverse lines passing Ota city, Kiryu city, and Nitta town were used. Southern part of the traverse line-1 was in the bottom land in the middle of Tone river, and northern part was in the Omama fan area. The ground surface along the traverse line was flat. Hachioji heights are the heights elongating in the NW-SE direction and having relative height of 100 to 200 m against the surrounding plain. Another traverse line-2 was set on the steep slope having relative height more than 100 m. The Brute stack time section of each traverse line was characterized by the gradient reflection surface AA of the traverse line-1. It was suggested that the AA or intermittent parts of reflection surfaces deeper than AA may relate to the tectonic lines in the more ancient geological ages. 2 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Accuracy of FEM 3-D modeling in the electromagnetic methods; Denjiho ni okeru FEM 3 jigen modeling no seido

    Sasaki, Y [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering


    Analytical methods considering 3-D resistivity distribution, in particular, finite element method (FEM) were studied to improve the reliability of electromagnetic exploration. Integral equation, difference calculus, FEM and hybrid method are generally used as computational 3-D modeling method. FEM is widely used in various fields because FEM can easily handle complicated shapes and boundaries. However, in electromagnetic method, the assumption of continuous electric field is pointed out as important problem. The normal (orthogonal) component of current density should be continuous at the boundary between media with different conductivities, while this means that the normal component of electric field is discontinuous. In FEM, this means that current channeling is not properly considered, resulting in poor accuracy. Unless this problem is solved, FEM modeling is not practical. As one of the solutions, it is promising to specifically incorporate interior boundary conditions into element equation. 4 refs., 11 figs.

  4. Relation between frequency of seismic wave and resolution of tomography; Danseiha tomography kaiseki ni okeru shuhasu to bunkaino no kankei

    Fujimoto, M; Watanabe, T; Ashida, Y; Sassa, K [Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan). Faculty of Engineering


    With regard to the elastic wave exploration, discussions have been given on the relationship between frequency and resolution in P-wave velocity tomography using the initial travel time. The discussions were carried out by using a new analysis method which incorporates the concept of Fresnel volume into tomography analysis. The following two arrangements were used in the calculation: a cross hole arrangement, in which seismic source and vibration receiving points were arranged so as to surround the three directions of a region extending 250 m in the horizontal direction and 500 m in the vertical direction, and observation is performed between two wells, and a permeation VSP arrangement in which the seismic source is installed on the ground surface and receiving points installed in wells. Restructuring was performed on the velocity structure by using a total of 819 observation travel times. This method has derived results of the restructuring according to frequencies of the seismic source used for the exploration. The resolution shown in the result of the restructuring has become higher as elastic waves with higher frequency are used, and the size of the structure identified from the restructuring result has decreased. This fact reveals that sufficient considerations must be given on frequencies of elastic waves used according to size of objects to be explored. 4 refs., 4 figs.

  5. Magnetic susceptibility measurements in Yellowstone National Park, USA; Beikoku Yellowstone kokuritsu koen ni okeru genchi jikaritsu sokutei

    Okuma, S [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan)


    For the purpose of interpreting data of the aeromagnetic anomalies in Yellowstone National Park in the U.S.A., in-situ magnetization intensity measurements have been carried out in 1994 and 1995 on geological outcrops of rocks in that area. Comparisons and discussions were given on the measurement results, and existing rock magnetic data and aeromagnetic anomaly data available for the area. Outside the Yellowstone caldera, part of granitic gneisses among the Precambrian granitic gneisses and crystalline schists distributed to the north has an abnormally high magnetization intensity of 1 {times} 10 {sup -2} SI. This could be a powerful anomaly source for the high magnetic anomaly in this area. Paleogene volcanic rocks distributed widely in the eastern part of the park also have magnetization intensity as high as 1 {times} 10 {sup -2} SI or higher, which are also thought a powerful anomaly source in this area. Part of Pleistocene basalts which are exposed partially in the western part of the park has also very high magnetization intensity at 1 {times} 10 {sup -2} SI or higher. This suggests correlation with the magnetic anomaly in the east-west direction distributed in this area. Quaternary rhyolites are more magnetic than Quaternary welded tuffs, which should give greater effects to the magnetic anomaly. 10 refs., 5 figs.

  6. Fault analysis in the very shallow seismic reflection method. 2; Gokusenso hanshaho ni okeru danso kaiseki. 2

    Nagumo, S; Muraoka, S; Takahashi, T [Oyo Corp., Tokyo (Japan)


    Fault analysis is required in addition to the ordinary process of structural analysis (CDP stacking) for the examination of discontinuity in the reflection horizon in question. The fault shape restoration principle is that the reflection point of a reflection wave observed at a certain receiving point is on an ellipse with the shock point and receiving point at its focal points and that the sum of the distances between the reflection point and the focal points is equal to the reflection wave propagation time. The DMO velocity is worked out by calculation using the positive travel time and inverse travel time from the common reflection surface. When the reflection surface is inclined by {theta}, the average interval velocity/cos{theta} is called the DMO velocity. When the reflection surface inclination and the average interval velocities are determined separately in this way, the position of the reflection point may be worked out, and this enables the calculation of the amount of migration (lateral movement). The reflection wave lineups carried by the original record are picked up one by one, and the average interval velocities are treated very prudently. After such a basic DMO conversion treatment, the actualities of the fault are described fairly correctly. 3 figs.

  7. Shallow seismic reflection prospecting in Hachiro-kata reclaimed land; Hachirogata kantakuchi ni okeru senbu hanshaho jishin tansa

    Kitsunezaki, C; Fukutome, T; Matsumoto, S; Noda, K; Sato, T [Akita University, Akita (Japan). Mining College; Hayashi, H; Ishii, E; Yamanaka, Y; Matsuno, K; Mikuni, S [Suncoh Consultant Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    Along the Japan Sea coast in Akita Prefecture and in the vicinity, there exist active fault groups, such as the Kitayuri thrust fault group in the south and Noshiro thrust fault group in the north. It is estimated that there is another fault, running from Akita City located between the above-said two thrust fault groups into the Hachiro-kata reclaimed land, roughly connecting the two thrust fault groups. This third fault is supposed to be related to the hypocenter of Tencho Earthquake of 830, but its location and structural configuration are not known, and it is not known whether it is an active fault, either. Investigations are conducted using S- and P-waves. The greatest problem in the use of P-waves is that there exists a layer in which signal attenuation is high and transmission is anomalously slow. This problem is ascribed to the layer pore water rendered unsaturated though slightly by the inclusion of air bubbles, and is explained for the most part by the White model. A survey using S-waves is advantageous in that it does not experience no difficulty of this kind. In the P-wave cross section, a structure supposed to be an inversion layer is observed at a level deeper than 200m. In the case of the S-wave method, more details of the shallow structure will be available when the degree of CMP stacking is augmented as usual. 2 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  8. 3D seismic experiment in difficult area in Japan; Kokunai nanchiiki ni okeru sanjigen jishin tansa jikken

    Minegishi, M; Nakagami, K; Tanaka, H [Japan National Oil Corp., Tokyo (Japan). Technology Research Center


    Difficult area in this context means an exploration-difficult area supposed to store oil/gas but retarded in exploration for the lack of knowledge about the geological structure due to poor quality of available seismic survey records. Discussed in this paper is a survey conducted into an area covering the southern part of Noshiro-shi, Akita-ken, and Yamamoto-cho, Yamamoto-gun, Akita-ken. An area size suitable for data collection at a target depth of 2500m is determined using an interpretation structure compiled on the basis of available well data and 2D seismic survey data. The plan for siting shock points and receiving points is modified case by case as restrictive factors come to the surface (resulting from the complicated hilly terrain, presence of pipes for agricultural water, etc.). The peculiarities of seismic waves in the terrain are studied through the interpretation of the available well data and 2D seismic survey data for the construction of a 3D velocity model for the confirmation of the appropriateness of the plan for siting shock points and receiving points. Efforts are exerted through enhanced coordination with the contractor to acquire data so that a technologically best design may be won within the limits of the budget. The quality of the data obtained from this experiment is in general better than those obtained from previous experiments, yet many problems remain to be settled in future studies about exploration-difficult areas. 4 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Deep sedimentary structure model beneath the Osaka plain; Osaka heiya ni okeru shinbu chika kozo no model ka

    Miyakoshi, K; Kagawa, T; Echigo, T [Osaka Soil Test, Osaka (Japan)


    Restructuring was carried out on a sedimentary basin structure model of the Osaka plain including Osaka Bay by using newly obtained underground structural data. After the Hygoken-nanbu Earthquake of 1995, a large number of underground structure investigations have been performed in Osaka Bay and urban areas of Kobe and Osaka. However, very few surveys have been done in areas peripheral to Osaka Prefecture, such as the Ikoma area. Therefore, an attempt has been made to increase the number of measuring points to acquire underground structural data of these areas. Estimation of basic rock depths has utilized the dominant cycles in H/V spectra obtained from micro vibration survey, and good correlation of the base rock depths derived by a refraction exploration and a deep-bed boring investigation. With regard to bed division and P- and S- wave velocities in sedimentary beds in the Osaka sedimentary basin, an underground structure model was prepared, which was divided into four beds according to the refraction exploration and the micro vibration investigation. Data obtained by using this model agreed well with depth data acquired from physical exploration and other types of investigations. However, no good agreement was recognized in the data for such areas where the basic depth changes abruptly as the Rokko fault and the Osaka bay fault. 6 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Cracking control in mass concrete for three gorges dam; Sankyo damu ni okeru masu konkurito no hibiware yokusei

    Chu, CHuanying


    The provisional cofferdam work of the mainstream of Three Gorges Dam project was successfully finished on November 8, 1997. Now, the work enters its second stage, and the placing of large-scale concrete was started. The total quantity of concrete used in this project reaches 15.00 million m{sup 3}. Inhibition of dam concrete cracking is an important subject. In order to manufacture concrete with good crack-resistance, cements, fly ashes, aggregates and blending agents are strictly selected; and hydration-generating heat is reduced by means of strict temperature control, precooling of aggregates, reduction of placing temperature and concrete temperature in mixers, and the like. As a consequence of maintaining the highest temperature value in concrete blocks to be lower than a predetermined value, harmful cracks can be prevented from occurring when the temperature in the dam lowers. (NEDO)

  11. Appearance of rapid carbon on hydrogasification of coal; Suiten gas ka ni okeru kokassei tanso no hatsugen

    Soneda, Y.; Makino, M. [National Institute for Resources and Environment, Tsukuba (Japan)9] Xu, W. [New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo, (Japan)


    The technology of hydrogasification of coal now under development under a State project aims to produce light oil as well as methane-rich high calorie gas through the direct reaction between coal and hydrogen, and is expected to deal with the difficult natural gas demand/supply relationship anticipated for the future. Although it is mandatory to fully understand the reaction between coal and hydrogen for the completion of this technology, yet there are many tasks to be fulfilled. One of the tasks is the elucidation of the behavior of what is named rapid carbon that appears upon the rapid heating of coal in a high-pressure hydrogen environment. In this paper, some interesting findings about the appearance of rapid carbon are reported. When coal is placed in such an environment, volatile components are lost first of all and then the active carbon reaction occurs. When the behavior of active carbon in the reaction is observed, it is found that active carbon is not so small in quantity, and the result of observation of its appearance and deactivation during the reaction justifies an inference that the reaction is regarded as one of the primary reactions in the process of hydrogasification. Accordingly, systematic studies of its physical and chemical features from various viewpoints are necessary. 5 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Cut down the peak daytime demand for electricity at the residence; Jutaku ni okeru denryoku fuka heijunka

    Ishihara, O. [Kumamoto University, Kumamoto (Japan). Faculty of Engineering


    For leveling of power load in small-scale buildings and houses, a test house with actual size was constructed in order to examine soil heat storage system using photovoltaic power generation system and nighttime power. A hundred of polycrystal silicone solar cells with about 5 kW and twenty of amorphous ones were fixed on the roof, to connect with commercial power source by the system interconnection having inverse power flow. For leveling of power load in the periods of heating and cooling, soil heat storage system was applied using nighttime power. Pipes for circulating cooling and heating water were embedded. Heat pump was operated only in the time zone of nighttime power, to obtain cooling and heating source for fan coil unit in the daytime. The sold power was larger than purchased power under continuous cooling condition for twelve hours in summer. Since cooling load was supplied from nighttime power with lower price, there was a large peak cut effect in the daytime. As a result of the tests using a house with actual size, the system was found to be applied practically both in summer and in winter. Effectiveness of peak cut of power load in summer was also provided. 7 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Noise and vibration reduction technology in hybrid vehicle development; Hybrid sha kaihatsu ni okeru shindo soon teigen gijutsu

    Yoshioa, T.; Sugita, H. [Toyota Motor Corp., Aichi (Japan)


    Accomplishing both environmental protection and good NVH performance has become a significant task in automotive development The first-in-the-world hybrid passenger car of mass production. 'Prius', has achieved superior NV performance compared with conventional vehicles with a 1.5-liter engine along with 50% reduction of fuel consumption and CO{sub 2} emissions. low HC, CO and NO{sub x} emissions. This paper describes NV reduction technology for solving problems peculiar to the hybrid vehicle such as engine start/stop vibration, drone noise at low engine speed and motor/generator noise and vibration. It also mentions application technology of low rolling resistance tires with light weight wheels and recycled material for sound proofing. (author)

  14. Issues on the energy industry under the yen appreciation; Endakaka ni okeru energy sangyo no kadai. Yoyakuban



    A tendency toward the rapid yen appreciation since spring 1995 has affected various fields of the economic society of Japan. From a broader view, it is discussed whether the Japanese economic system itself is right or wrong, and that the post-war economic system and regulation system should be largely reviewed. In a short term, the yen appreciation largely affects the export industry and is markedly influential to macro economy. At present, the yen is not as high as that in 1995, but a lot of economists assume a tendency toward medium- and long-term yen appreciation. Therefore, this paper analyzed what kinds of influences the exchange fluctuation brings to the Japanese economy and energy supply/demand. It was clarified what kinds of problems will appear in the energy industry, in particular, on the assumption that the yen will keep high in medium- and long-term. The report consists of parts 1 and 2. Described were `Simulational analysis of yen appreciation` in Part 1 and `Yen appreciation and international issues` in Part 2. 12 figs., 5 tabs.

  15. Future vision of advanced telecommunication networks for electric utilities; Denki jigyo ni okeru joho tsushin network no shorai vision

    Tonaru, S.; Ono, K.; Sakai, S.; Kawai, Y.; Tsuboi, A. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan); Manabe, S. [Shikoku Electric Power Co., Inc., Kagawa (Japan); Miki, Y. [Kansai Electric Power Co. Inc., Osaka (Japan)


    The vision of an advanced information system is proposed to cope with the future social demand and business environmental change in electric utilities. At the large turning point such as drastic reconsideration of Electricity Utilities Industry Law, further improvement of efficiency and cost reduction are requested as well as business innovation such as proposal of a new business policy. For that purpose utilization of information and its technology is indispensable, and use of multimedia and common information in organization are the future direction for improving information basis. Consequently, free information networks without any limitation due to person and media are necessary, and the following are important: high-speed, high-frequency band, digital, easily connectable and multimedia transmission lines, and cost reduction and high reliability of networks. Based on innovation of information networks and the clear principle on advanced information system, development of new applications by multimedia technologies, diffusion of communication terminals, and promotion of standardization are essential. 60 refs., 30 figs., 5 tabs.

  16. Performance of 3KW laser in cutting industry. Yodan gyokai ni okeru 3KW reza no koyo

    Kita, H.; Miyaji, T.


    Recently, as the CO2 laser oscillator requires bigger power output, steel plates to be cut with a laser cutting machine have become thick plates with thickness of 12mm or more and the size of the plate which can be cut has become from the standard size of 4 inch by 8 inch or 5 inch by 10 inch to a big size of more than several meters because of introduction of the gantry type. In this article, the CO2 laser cutting machine introduced to Komatsu Shearing Co. and its operating conditions are introduced and the trends of powerful laser cutting machines in the cutting industry in the future are predicted. Laser cutting makes high cutting quality, but its device and running costs becomes high. For adopting a laser cutting machine, such items have been individually examined that no bitter work is involved in cutting, no skill is needed, no strain is formed during the press work in the succeeding process and the yield is high (95%), and a Komatsu laser cutting machine has been introduced. As a result, it has been found that the machine can produce a product of higher quality than shearing. Hereafter, this machine will further be used for manufacturing parts of construction machines, etc. for which high accuracy and high quality are demanded. 7 figs., 8 tabs.

  17. Feasibility study on introducing new energy systems into Asian villages; Asia sonraku ni okeru shin energy donyu kanosei chosa



    For improvement of living standards in unelectrified areas of Asia, the feasibility of new energy power generation systems was surveyed. The degree of electrification of local areas is different every country, and Thailand is ahead of other countries, while Laos and Cambodia are most unelectrified. Power supply of 100W/house seems to be adequate for local areas because of weather condition, housing situation and life-style. Economic support and education on electricity are necessary for poor areas. Although needs for new energy is increasing, the priority is given to industrial and urbanized areas because of cost and investment effects, and remote areas are dependent on grant- in-aid. Resources of photovoltaic, wind power and micro- hydraulic energies are abundant, however, selection of energy and verification of its usability are important, and the local energy density maps were thus prepared. In introduction of new energy, after selection of energy suitable for an area concerned, such geographical and social conditions should be surveyed as road condition, water rights, land utilization, economic support system, policy and intention of inhabitants. 76 refs., 68 figs., 91 tabs.

  18. Measurement results of BHTV logging at the geothermal well. 1; Chinetsusei ni okeru BHTV kenso no sokutei kekka. 1

    Lin, S. [Geophysical Surveying and Consulting Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Nakanishi, S.; Shimizu, I. [Electric Power Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    In association with excavation of the No. 135 steam producing well in the Onikubi geothermal power plant in Miyagi Prefecture, shapes of production zones and drilling-induced fracture (DIF) were acquired from the borehole televiewer (BHTV) data. The BHTV logging shoots sound waves onto well walls of wells filled with fluid and detects the reflection waves to investigate the state of the well walls. Vertical fracture with opening lengths from 2 to 3 m were found at depths of about 1232 m and 1312 m. Water run-off has occurred at a depth of about 1312 m during the excavation, to which these vertical fractures might have contributed possibly. In depths of about 1232 m and 1312 m, fractures inclining toward north-east direction and south-west direction are predominant. Some fractures in the depth of about 1333 m incline toward east-south-east direction and west-north-west direction. Fracture inclination azimuth in all of the present logging sections is predominantly in north-east direction and south-west direction. When the DIF is considered to show the maximum compression azimuth, the earth`s crust stress azimuth is generally in east-west direction, which crosses slightly obliquely with the running direction of the predominant fracture in this well. 1 ref., 7 figs.

  19. Making of composite type energy introduction models in cities; Toshi ni okeru fukugogata energy donyu model no sakusei



    The paper made and studied simulation models in case of introducing new energy of composite type to cities. In the study, using a standard composition unit of city as a cluster, the compositional element was divided into 25 cells, which were divided into the residence superiority cell and the business superiority cell. The residence superiority cell was divided into highrise and lowrise. The calculation program is to simulate effects of introducing new energy such as the photovoltaic power generation, solar energy utilization, waste power generation, cogeneration, and unused energy like river water and waste water. Using the program, the analysis of sensitivity was conducted concerning how the outputs will change according to differences in energy consuming composition in the urban area. The calculation was conducted concerning local cities of the warm area, local cities of the cold area, local cities of the subtropical area, residence/working-place neighboring core cities in the warm area, central areas of large cities of the warm area, and new towns of the warm area. 28 figs., 27 tabs.

  20. Measurement of organic carbon quantity at chemoautorophic bacterium; Kagaku dokuritsu eiyo saikin ni okeru yuki tansoryo no sokutei ni tsuite

    Tsuda, I; Kato, K; Nozaki, K [Electrotechnical Laboratory, Tsukuba (Japan); Kurokawa, K [Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Tokyo (Japan)


    Described herein is the method for analyzing quantity of organic carbon synthesized by chemoautotrophic bacterium. It is based on the combustion-infrared spectroscopy, which is normally adopted for quantitative analysis of organic carbon. The problems involved in the measurement of organic compounds synthesized by iron-oxidizing bacteria are noise by culture medium components, aging of gas analyzer and contamination with organic compounds from a silicon plug. The measures taken in this study against these problems include comparison of the results with a medium containing iron-oxidizing bacteria with those with a medium free of these bacteria, calibration with the standard solution for each measurement, and replacement of a silicone plug by a silicon cap. Organic carbon is measured by a TOC-5000 analyzer equipped with an automatic sample feeder ASI-5000. Biomass density is determined by the MPN method. It is confirmed that organic carbon quantity is almost in proportion to biomass density, a phenomenon which can be used to determine organic carbon quantity. 7 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Natural disasters in the Shikoku district. 2. ; Slope failures and rockfalls. Shikoku ni okeru shizen saigai. 2. ; Dosha saigai

    Yamagami, T [Tokushima Univ., Tokushima (Japan). Faculty of Engineering


    Although landslide, slope failure, debris flow, rock fall, etc. are included in disasters caused by earth and sand, this report focuses only on slope failures. It is very difficult to discuss various soil engineering problems concerning earth and sand disasters in the Shikoku district from dynamic aspect. Therefore, this report is made focusing on perfunctory classification. As regards slope failures, there are natural and embankment (artificial) slope failures, but only natural slope failures are discussed in this report. The numbers of annually investigated areas in 4 prefectures in the Shikoku district and frequencies of failures for each geological group are tabulated for explanation. Transverse shape figure, longitudinal section, slope of ground level, land form where surface water and ground water tend to concentrate, etc. can be considered as factors for the occurrence of landslides. The relationship between those topographical factors and the frequency of failure occurrence is investigated. Failure of cut slope and the relation between rainfall and slope failure are outlined. Examples of rock fall disasters are introduced to point out the difficulty in predicting the occurrence of rock falls. 12 refs., 2 figs., 7 tabs.

  2. Unsteady performance of a cavitating hydrofoil in stall conditions. Shissoku jotai ni okeru yokukei no hiteijo tokusei

    Ogata, H. (Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan)); Ito, Y. (Hachinoe Institutea of Technology, Aomori (Japan)); Oba, R. (Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan). Institute of Fluid Science); Sunayama, Y.; Abe, J. (Suzuki Co. Ltd., Shizuoka (Japan))


    To elucidate the unsteady performance of cavitating hydrofoils in a stall condition, this paper describes a survey on unsteady conditions without cavitations and stall conditions as to their characteristics from a cavitation to a supercavitation, lift and drag. Flows with cavitations were also analyzed. As a result of comparing also data for the subcavitation regions, it was found that a large-scale vortex generation on the hydrofoil back-pressure plane in near stall condition has a close relation with the changes in lifts and drags or the cavitation breakdown. The experiment used a testing water tank of circulation flow type having a rectangular measuring cross section (70 mm in width and 190 mm in height), and the hydrofoil specimens of two-dimensional symmetric type with a chord length of 70 mm and an aspect ratio of 1.0. The test condition used a cavitation coefficient of 0.18-6.33 (from a supercavitation to non-cavitation). A numerical analysis proved that the power spectra around the hydrofoils having no cavitations agreed with the experimental results, and verified the reasonability of the application. 18 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Education for hydraulics and pneumatics in Nara National College of Technology; Nara Kogyo Koto Senmon Gakko ni okeru yukuatsu kyoiku

    Hayakawa, Y. [Nara Technical Coll., Nara (Japan)


    In the electronic control engineering course, basic knowledge is taught for mechanics, electronics/electricity, control, robotics, information processing, etc., with the purpose of bringing up practical mechatronics engineers, and then, training is conducted so that the students are able to deal with these subjects comprehensively. In the subject of hydraulics and pneumatics for the special course, a lecture on hydraulic and pneumatic control is given in the second year, where structures of hydraulic and pneumatic actuators are explained as well as the principle of operation and the control method. As the related experiment, measurement of liquid viscosity coefficient and flow measurement by a Venturi tube are carried out in the fourth year of the regular course. In addition, carried out in the fifth year are the measurement of stress by trailing velocity distribution of an object and the measurement of pressure distribution around a column. As a subject for graduation theses, a mobile carrier for welfare nursing is being developed using a pneumatic actuator. Development of a suitable actuator is also being developed simultaneously. In the education of electronic control engineering, it is essential to give the students understanding of hydraulic and pneumatic actuator control centering on the role of mechatronics. (NEDO)

  4. Treatment of waste water miscible cutting fluids in automobile manufacturing; Jidosha kogyo ni okeru suiyosei sessakuyuzai no haieki shori

    Ono, H. [Yushiro Chemical Industry Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    Water-soluble cutting fluids are able to be used for several months to several years if the proper periodical management is carried out. However, the used solution should be treated as waste water when the function-recovery thereof becomes remarkable difficult. On this occasion, the treated solution (drainage) ought to meet the environmental standards prescribed for the purpose of protecting globe environment. Many cases in Japan are that the strict rules are set by each urban and rural prefectures addition to the government ordinance. For carrying out the treatment of waste water efficiently, it is necessary to construct the treating system by mastering the characteristics of waste water and selecting the most suitable one from numerous treating methods. In this paper, after the description on the water-polluting substances and drainage standards, the general treating method of waste water miscible cutting fluids is described. Finally, the concrete cases with respect to the treatment of waste water treatment in automobile manufacturing factories are introduced. 5 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  5. Role of ventilation systems in the prevention of hospital infection; Innai kansen boshi ni okeru kanki system no yakuwari

    Ayliffe, G.


    This paper investigates and considers the actual state of hospital infection. The 80% or more of surgical wound infection is self-infection, for which the factor is the microorganisms that exist in a surgical wound at the completion of an operation. Airborne infection is generally due to staphylococcus aureus. There rarely is a bacteria carrier, and the germ is dispersed from him in some instances. Staphylococcus epidermis sticks to prosthesis, propagates and causes wound infection in rare occasions. Clostridium perfringens and escherichia coli also sometimes cause self-infection from wound. An ordinary plenum ventilation system is less effective for the prevention of wound infection. A remarkable example for reduction in infection is the employment of an ultra clean air system in joint replacement operations, showing reduction in joint septicemic infection from 1.5 to 0.3%. A vertical air flow system may be effectively employed in an operation room for the purpose of improving the air stream. No interrelation exists between the total number of indoor bacteria and infection without staphylococcus aureus. A person infected by methicillin-resistant staphylococcus has to be isolated into a unit. 13 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  6. Unit operation in food manufacturing and processing. Shokuhin seizo/kako ni okeru tan'i sosa

    Matsuno, R. (Kyoto Univ., Kyoto (Japan). Faculty of Aguriculture)


    Processed foods must be produced in mass, cheap and safe and should be suitable for the delicate taste of human being. Food tastes are effected by an outlook on human attitude, and the surrounding environment. And these factors are reflected to unit operation in food manufacturing and processing and it is clarified that there are many technical difficulties. The characteristics of unit operation for food manufacturing and processing are that the food materials are a multicomponent system, moreover, a very small amount of aroma components, taste components, vitamin, physiologically activation materials and so on are more important than the main components, and also inapplicable of the model centering to the most quantitative component. The purpose of unit operation in food manufacturing and processing is to produce the properties of matter matching to human sense, and therefore there are many problems left unsolved. The development of analytical technology also has an influence on manufacturing and processing technology. Consequently, food manufacturing and processing technology must be based on general science. It is necessary to develop unit operation with an understanding of mutual effect between food and human body.

  7. Buckling model of longitudinal reinforcing bars under reverse cyclic load; Koban kurikaeshi kajuka ni okeru chukin no zakutsu model

    Murayama, Y.; Suda, K.; Ichinomiya, T.; Shinbo, H. [Kajima Corp., Tokyo (Japan)


    For RC (reinforced concrete) columns such as towers of long-span cable-stayed bridges or high-rise piers, there is desired development of an analytical method including a method of arranging reinforcing bars for increasing their ductility against strong earthquake motion. For this, it is necessary to investigate their characteristics after their being rendered to maximum load and their final states, and hence there must be newly investigated the properties of a plastic hinge formed on the bottom of the column, particularly determination of the buckling point of reinforcing bars and a hysteresis model after the buckling. In this study, there is developed a direct method of measuring the stress of reinforcing bars embedded in a model specimen which is conventionally difficult to be measured, and there is investigated the stress-strain hysteresis of the bars before and after the buckling thereof. The principle of the method of measuring the stress is such that only a local minimum portion of objective reinforcing bars is rendered to rf quenching, and a distortion gauge is sticked to the center of the quenching. This is based upon a fact that that portion keeps a linear relationship between the stress and the strain even if a host material is yielded. On the basis of an experimental result, a mechanism of buckling of these bars is clarified and a buckling model of the reinforcing bars at the plastic hinge. 6 refs., 15 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Roles played by coral reef ecosystems in mitigating global warming. Ondanka taisaku ni okeru sangosho no igi

    Komiyama, H [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering


    This Paper describes briefly a question of whether growing coral reefs could be an effective means to fix CO2 in sea water in order to mitigate global warming: Growing coral reefs could be a promising method from the following three views: Photosynthesis performed by diverse ecosystems that constitute coral reefs is thought to excel calcification (accompanying CO2 discharge from sea to the atmosphere); corals all over the world would fix CO2 at an annual rate of several hundred million tons; and no much energies are consumed to fix CO2. However, these favorable views depend upon another condition that a time period for the CO2 fixation is not too short (a measure for the time being is 100 years or longer). Elucidating where organic matters generated by the photosynthesis would go is an important question to meet this requirement. The paper indicates that measuring nitrogen and phosphor balances in addition to carbon balance is effective for measuring ratio of a net photosynthesis rate to the calcification rate. 4 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  9. How to evaluate the carbon cycle in coral-reef ecosystems. Sangosho ni okeru sanso junkan kenkyu no kadai

    Yamamuro, M [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan)


    This paper describes problems concerning carbon balance and nutrient salt in coral reefs. Coral reefs fix CO2 in two forms of organic matters and calcium carbonates. It is reported that 10% of organic matters fixed by photosynthesis may either be buried in deposits on coral reefs or flow out into open seas. Quantification of the carbon balance in coral reefs has a problem of handling organic matters in calcium carbonate skeletons as products, and a problem related to evaluation of organic matters flown out from ecological systems. Corals provide, through building foundations at shallow depths, living organisms carrying out photosynthesis with locations abundant in quantity of light. Coral reefs are thought to accumulate nutrients in their skeletons or in the foundations for deposits. They would hold nitrogen in them through nitrogen fixation, and maintain phosphor production at high levels by retaining nitrogen-to-phosphor ratio which is relatively lower than in other ecological systems. Coral reefs provide foundations to transparent sea water with extremely small amount of phytoplankton, and favorable environment for large-size animals and algae. 21 refs., 2 figs.

  10. Report on achievements in proliferation project to assist introduction of environment harmonizing type coal utilization system in fiscal 1998. Joint demonstration project for CMG recovery and utilization system in fiscal 1998 (recovering facilities); Kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system donyu shien nado fukyu taisaku jigyo. 1998 nendo CMG kaishu riyo system kyodo system kyodo jissho jigyo (kaishu setsubi)



    This paper describes the achievements of the discussions in fiscal 1998 on the recovering system for coal bed methane gas to be supplied to the city of Tieling in China. The paper puts on record the associated documents, and figures and drawings. The associated documents appearing in the paper include the table for explosion-proof examination on the recovering devices, a parts list for the RK-3A type test drilling machine, and its operation manual. Specifications for the test drilling machine (including those for the sealing pumps), specifications for the mouth facilities, and device lists are shown. Test drilling device arrangement drawings and standard drilling record table are also described. Central blower specifications, a back-fire preventing device, a device to prevent well exterior from freezing, and a summarized drawing for drain remover for gas induction for the Daixing mine are explained. The schemes for induction and sealing, specifications and procedures for observation devices are shown. Specifications for sealing materials and the centralized monitoring facilities are also touched on. The safety measures, measures taken for power failure in the centralized monitoring facilities, and the control organization are described. Test drilling cost simulation and environment assessing methods are also described. The figures and drawings presented include the topographic map, Daixing mine cavity drawing, pipeline network, and chart for representative test drilling columns near the coal beds were also presented. (NEDO)

  11. Report on an investigation into heat pumps in China in fiscal 1995; 1995 nendo Chugoku ni okeru heat pump system ni kansuru chosa hokokusho



    The paper surveyed the present status, the status of spread, and the technical development of the technology of heat pumps for residential and industrial uses in China. Main examples of installation of heat pumps are cited below: steam drive absorption type refrigerators in Beijing; sea water heat source turbo heat pumps in Qingdao; hot water drive absorption type refrigerators in Beijing; oil-fueled absorption type water cooling and heating appliances in Beijing; ice latent heat storage airconditioning systems using electrically-driven screw chiller in Beijing; temperature rising systems using electrically-driven heat pump of the solar energy utilization warm water swimming pool in Guangdong Province; cooling water supply using waste heat utilization absorption type refrigerator of the alcohol plant in Shandong Province; timber drying systems using electrically-driven heat pump, and marine product cultivation systems in Quangdong Province; distillation systems using steam turbine heat pump in Jiangxi Province. The demand for heat pumps is expected to be 20 million units under the 9th 5-year plan, and the development of equipment is thought to go toward promotion of energy conservation, low noise, multi-type or multi-functional air conditioning equipment, and computer use. 137 figs., 40 tabs.

  12. Report on results of research. Basic studies on characteristics of coal char gasification under pressure; Sekitan char no kaatsuka ni okeru gas ka tokuseino kiso kenkyu seika hokokusho



    This paper explains basic studies on characteristics of coal char gasification under pressure. Hydro-gasification of coal needs as a gasifying agent a large amount of hydrogen, which is effectively produced by the water gasification of exhaust unreacted residual char. In fiscal 1975, gasification was tested on Taiheiyo coal carbonized char by an atmospheric fluidized gasifier of 28 mm bore. In fiscal 1976, experiment was conducted under pressure by fully improving the auxiliary safety equipment. The char and gas yield increased with higher pressure in pressurized carbonization by an autoclave. In fiscal 1977, clinker was successfully prevented by using quartz sand for a fluidized medium. In fiscal 1978, two-stage continuous gasification was examined. In fiscal 1979, correlation was determined between operation factors such as gasification pressure, temperature, etc., and clinker formation/char reactivity. An experiment was conducted for particle pop-out using a pressurized fluidized bed of 100 mm inner diameter, with the pop-out quantity found to be proportional to the 0.38th power of a pressure. A high pressure fluidized gasifier was built having a char processing capacity of 1 t/day, 20 atmospheric pressure, and an inner diameter of 100 mm. In fiscal 1980, this device was continuously operated, elucidating problems for the practicability. (NEDO)

  13. Pseudo-random data acquisition geometry in 3D seismic survey; Sanjigen jishin tansa ni okeru giji random data shutoku reiauto ni tsuite

    Minegishi, M; Tsuburaya, Y [Japan National Oil Corp., Tokyo (Japan). Technology Research Center


    Influence of pseudo-random geometry on the imaging for 3D seismic exploration data acquisition has been investigate using a simple model by comparing with the regular geometry. When constituting wave front by the interference of elemental waves, pseudo-random geometry data did not always provide good results. In the case of a point diffractor, the imaging operation, where the constituted wave front was returned to the point diffractor by the interference of elemental waves for the spatial alias records, did not always give clear images. In the case of multi point diffractor, good images were obtained with less noise generation in spite of alias records. There are a lot of diffractors in the actual geological structures, which corresponds to the case of multi point diffractors. Finally, better images could be obtained by inputting records acquired using the pseudo-random geometry rather than by inputting spatial alias records acquired using the regular geometry. 7 refs., 6 figs.

  14. Fiscal 1999 survey report. Survey of leading countries' approaches to biomass energy development; 1999 nendo shuyokoku ni okeru biomass energy kaihatsu eno torikumi ni kansuru chosa hokokusho



    The survey aims to help Japan deliberate its future biomass energy development strategy including the course Japan is to follow in its research and development of biomass energy by clarifying leading countries' approaches to the subject matter and trends of their research and development efforts in this connection. The states of biomass energy development in the U.S. and Europe are reported. In the U.S., President Clinton issued Executive Order 13134 on August 12, 1999, regarding bio-based products and bioenergy development. In this country, bioenergy and bio-based production technologies have developed to reach a stage where business pays, and commercial plants are in service. The U.S. Administration mentions as a strategy the efficient development of the bioenergy industry. In Europe, where resources are versatile and local, it is difficult to assess the economy of scale, and small-scale development efforts are being accumulated. Practical technologies under development mostly involve direct combustion. European measures are similar to U.S. measures in that such political goals as local development and employment promotion are firmly woven into them. (NEDO)

  15. Method to evaluate stress and deformation of small-sized buried pipe induced by wheel loads. Shokokei maisetsukan no rinkaju ni okeru oryoku henkei hyokaho

    Tanaka, Y.; Kataoka, T.; Kokusho, T.; Yoshida, Y. (Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan))


    In order to establish a practical method to evaluate safety of buried pipes, which were generally used as cable-protection pipes, at shallow depth and under vehicle loads, a series of experiments and analyses were performed. Based on the results, a simplified method to evaluate stress and deformation of the buried pipes in pavement were proposed. In the experiments, hard PVC pipes, light steel conduit pipes, and corrugated hard PE pipes in nominal diameters from 75 to 200 mm were applied as specimens for representative flexible pipes, and field load tests in actual size as well as laboratory load tests using soil vessels were carried out. The calculated results by the proposed method were compared to the experimental results, finding that the calculated values gave a satisfactory agreement with measured values which were obtained by the field tests. As a result, it was confirmed that the practical method to evaluate circumferential stresses at the top of pipes and flat-deflection ratios of small-sized buried Pipes induced by wheel loads under various conditions were presented. 20 refs., 17 figs., 6 tabs.

  16. Fiscal 2000 survey report. Survey of DSM status in Europe centering about thermal storage; 2000 nendo Oshu ni okeru chikunetsu wo chushin to shita DSM jokyo chosa hokokusho



    In search of measures for popularizing thermal storage technology in Japan, investigations were conducted into the conditions of electric power and the state of DSM (demand side management) in Italy, Spain, Portugal, and Greece whose climate is similar to Japan's. The results of the effort were edited and classified into six items, which are (1) power conditions, (2) DSM status, (3) popularity of thermal storage, (4) merits of thermal storage, (5) measures for thermal storage popularization, and (6) propositions to Japan. In all the countries, the power demand peak has shifted to the summer season or the difference in demand for power between summer and winter has decreased and, except in the case of Greece, the load factor has increased, these due to the increase in demand for power for cooling equipment. In Greece, the load factor has decreased since the peak shifted to summer. In every country, the rate schedule based on season of the year and time of the day is treated as a basic incentive for DSM. Except in Greece, there is no summer demand suppression type DSM menu and efforts are being exerted rather to have loads built in off-peak time zones. As for thermal storage systems in use, they are mostly of the ice-aided type. Those in the residential/commercial sector are on the increase, and it is estimated that 50% of ice thermal storage systems will be found in this sector in 2000. (NEDO)

  17. Wind power development field test project at Okkobe-cho. Close survey on wind conditions; Okkobecho ni okeru furyoku kaihatsu field test jigyo (fukyo seisa) hokokusho



    A survey was made on regional wind conditions on the assumption that a wind power generator was installed around Okkobe Rakuno-no-oka, Okkobe-cho, Monbetsu-gun, Hokkaido. The survey period was one year from Oct., 1998 to Sept., 1999. The observations were carried out on the average wind velocity, average wind direction, standard deviation of velocity, and the maximum instantaneous wind velocity. With a fixed point observation at 20 m above ground, and with the minimum observation time unit of 10 minutes, an average value during the 10 minutes was determined as the measurement of each category. However, the maximum instantaneous wind velocity was determined on the measurement with the minimum observation time unit of 2 seconds. The average wind velocity was 4.8 m/s, the maximum wind velocity during the period was 29.9 m/s, the prevailing wind direction was WSW (17.1%), the wind axis was WSW-ENE, and the total occurrence rate of wind direction was 51.1%. The intensity of turbulence was 0.19 at a wind velocity of 2.0 m/s or above and was 0.16 at 4.0 m/s or above. An estimated annual operation rate of a windmill was 59-77% using the rated value of a 150 kW, 300 kW and 750 kW class windmills. (NEDO)

  18. Wind power development field test project at Hirashima, Sakito-cho. Detailed wind characteristics survey; Sakitocho Hirashima ni okeru furyoku kaihatsu field test jigyo (fukyo seisa) hokokusho



    A detailed wind characteristics survey was conducted at Hirashima, Sakito-cho, Nishisonogi-gun, Nagasaki Prefecture, on the assumption that a wind power generation system would be constructed. The survey was a 1-year project from October 1998 through September 1999, and wind characteristics such as the average wind speed, average wind direction, standard deviation of wind velocity, and the maximum instantaneous wind speed were observed. The observation point was fixed at 20m above ground, the minimum time unit for observation was 10 minutes, and the 10-minute average value was defined as the measured value. For the maximum instantaneous wind speed, the minimum time unit for observation was set to be 2 seconds. The yearly average wind speed was 7.1m/s and the maximum wind speed in the period was 37m/s. Winds came prevalently from N (13.9%), and then from NNE (13.3%), NW (12.2%), and NE (10.7%). The total wind direction occurrence rate involving the 4 directions was 50.1%. Turbulence intensity was 0.14 at wind speed 2.0m/s or more and 0.12 at wind speed 4.0m/s or more. Estimated wind turbine yearly operating factors of 77-87% were obtained using rated values of a 150kW, 300kW, and 750kW-class wind turbines. (NEDO)

  19. Wind power development field test project at Maruyama-machi. Close survey on wind conditions; Maruyamamachi ni okeru furyoku kaihatsu field test jigyo (fukyo seisa) hokokusho



    A survey was made on wind conditions in Maruyama-machi, Awa-gun, Chiba prefecture, on the assumption that a wind power generation system was installed therein. The survey period was one year from Oct., 1998 to Sept., 1999. The observations were carried out on the average wind velocity, average wind direction, standard deviation of velocity, and the maximum instantaneous wind velocity. With a fixed point observation at 20 m above ground, and with the minimum observation time unit of 10 minutes, an average value during the 10 minutes was determined as the measurement of each category. However, the maximum instantaneous wind velocity was determined on the measurement with the minimum observation time unit of 2 seconds. The average annual wind velocity was 3.5 m/s, the maximum wind velocity during the period was 27 m/s, and the wind axis was WSW-ENE, with the total occurrence rate of the wind direction 44.1%. The intensity of turbulence was 0.23 at a wind velocity of 2.0 m/s or above and was 0.22 at 4.0 m/s or above. An estimated annual operation rate of a windmill was 40-60% using the rated value of a 150 kW, 300 kW and 750 kW class windmills. (NEDO)

  20. Wind power development field test project at Ashibe-cho. Detailed wind characteristics survey; Ashibecho ni okeru furyoku kaihatsu field test jigyo (fukyo seisa) hokokusho



    A detailed wind characteristics survey was conducted at Ashibe-cho, Iki-gun, Nagasaki Prefecture, on the assumption that a wind power generation system would be constructed. The survey was a 1-year project from October 1998 through September 1999, and wind characteristics such as the average wind speed, average wind direction, standard deviation of wind velocity, and the maximum instantaneous wind speed were observed. The observation point was fixed at 20m above ground, the minimum time unit for observation was 10 minutes, and the 10-minute average value was defined as the measured value. For the maximum instantaneous wind speed, the minimum time unit for observation was set to be 2 seconds. The yearly average wind speed was 5.8m/s and the maximum wind speed in the period was 35m/s. Winds came from the prevailing direction of NE (21.3%), and then from NNE (14.7%) and ENE (7.9%). The wind axis was in the NE-SW direction, and the total wind direction occurrence rate from the 6 directions was 60.2%. Turbulence intensity was 0.19 at wind speed 2.0m/s or more and 0.17 at wind speed 4.0m/s or more. Estimated wind turbine yearly operating factors of 66-84% were obtained using rated values of a 150kW, 300kW, and 750kW-class wind turbines. (NEDO)

  1. Wind energy technology : from the past to the future; 20 seiki ni okeru furyoku riyo gijutsu no henkan. Furyoku hatsuden : kako kara mirai e

    Ushiyama, I. [Ashikaga Institute of Technology, Tochigi (Japan)


    Windmills are one of the oldest prime movers and have been used for more than 700 years in Europe. The transition from low speed windmills for grain grinding and water pumping to high speed wind turbines for electric power generation had occurred at first, reviews the windmill technologies and the researchers before 20{sup th} century. Then describes the back ground of how the wind power generator has existed and how the four pioneers developed their wind power generator. The historical developments of windmills to wind turbines in this century are studied focusing mainly on Danish activities. Then, the effort of the development of large wind turbine such as Smith-Putnum's first MW machine in U.S.A. and other mammoth machine concept are introduced. The new concept machines such as Savonius and Darrieus wind turbines in 1920s to 1930s are also explained. Finally, the novel technologies of wind turbine covering larger machines, variable speed generators, special wing sections for wind turbines, theoretical analysis method of wind turbine performance, offshore wind turbines, and wind turbine control technologies are stated. (author)

  2. Visualization and image analysis of dynamic stall phenomenon for a Darrieus wind turbine; Darrieus fusha ni okeru doteki shissoku gensho no kashika to gazo kaisekini kansuru kenkyu

    Fujisawa, N.; Shibuya, S.; Takano, T. [Niigata University, Niigata (Japan)


    The flow field around a Darrieus wind turbine is studied by flow visualization and PIV measurement in a rotating frame of reference to understand the unsteady nature of dynamic stall appearing at low tip-speed ratios. The qualitative nature of the dynamic stall observed by the flow visualization using dye injection technique is quantitatively reproduced in the instantaneous velocity distributions around the blade measured by PIV technique. These results indicate that two pairs of stall vortices are generated in one cycle of the turbine rotation and they grow in size as the tip-speed ratio decreases. The mechanism of the dynamic stall is found to be due to the flow separation over the suction side of the blade followed by the generation of in-flow motion from the pressure side to the suction side of the blade through the trailing edge. (author)

  3. Prevention of condenser tubes corroson from polluted sea wtaer at Saijo thermal power station. Saijo hatsudensho ni okeru fukusuiki kan no boshoku taisaku

    Okada, T.; Sato, N.; Ito, M. (Shikoku Electric Power Co. Inc., Kagawa (Japan))


    After the oil shock, Saijou thermal power station converted its energy source into coal to diversify the power source. With rising operation rate at the plant after fuel conversion, leaky condenser tubes have increased. Such leakage concentrated especially in new 70/30 cupro-nickel tubes equipped in air cooling zones of the condenser. This report investigates the cause of this leakage and describes the study results on the corrosion prevention. Consequently, following two measures were taken: a measure to prevent local erosion of aluminum brass pipes by means of preventing inflow of foreign materials such as seashells; a measure to prevent corrosion of 70/30 cupro-nickel sulfide by strengthening the injection of ferrous sulfate and by test loading of coated tubes. As a result, no sea water was leaked. Moreover, it was found through the eddy current examination that sulfide corrosion of the new 70/30 cupro-nickel tubes was reduced by iron coat and the rate of losing its thickness decreased remarkably. 1 ref., 15 figs., 5 tabs.

  4. Basic studies on application of vegetable factory in Tohoku region; Tohoku chiho ni okeru yasai kojo no jitsuyoka ni kansuru kiso kento

    Okano, T; Terazoe, H; Shoji, K; Nakaya, K [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan); Tanaka, M; Miura, K [Tohoku Electric Power Co. Inc., Sendai (Japan)


    To construct vegetable factories in the Touhoku region, items of information have been collected with respect to items to be cultured and market conditions. Experimental discussions have also been given on new culture items and methods for utilizing snow. Using the results of investigations on the market conditions and weather environments, the following three kinds of spicy vegetables were selected: water cress which grows in about 46 culture days after seeding and in about 36 days by herbaceous cutting to a harvest of about 700 g/m{sup 2}, green perilla which grows in about 85 culture days to a number of salable leaves of 100 per stock, with an average leaf area of about 55 cm{sup 2}, and trefoil which grows in about 56 culture days to a harvest of about 5100 g/m{sup 2}. According to a storage experiment using snow, lettuce packed with snow in a box retained at a temperature of 5{degree}C and a humidity of 100%, pre-cooled for one day and then stored for six days in a refrigerator at 5{degree}C presented very little decrease in fresh weight and no decrease in freshness. The same result was obtained also for the Sunny Lettuce. 9 refs., 19 figs., 9 tabs.

  5. Research on adoption of graphic processing system into electric power facilities operation management. Denryoku setsubi kanri gyomu ni okeru zukei shori system no tekiyo ni kansuru kenkyu

    Jitsubuchi, Yoshiyasu; Uryu, Kenji; Terasaki, Naoaki (Kyushu Electric Power Co., Inc., Fukuoka (Japan))


    In the technical department of electric power companies, there are innumerable single line diagram, machinery arrangement plan and other facilities drawings. Based on those drawings, facilities planning, work design, construction plan, maintenance and management data, etc. are made, for which making heightening is desired in efficiency of drawing filing management. Therefore, research was made on the adoption of CAD technology through modeling power transmission line, and power generating and transforming station operation management. First for the application of power transmission facilities, the power transmission line plan and facilities information were planned to be unified in management. Ie., the power transmission line plan and profile being shown on the display, symbols of steel towers, cable lines, etc. were further picked by mouth to easily substantiate the facilities. While image input and CAD of drawing were made in combined treatment. Then for the application to the power generating and transforming facilities, the single line diagram and facilities information were unified in management, together with demonstration of data interchangeability among different kinds of CAD system. 13 figs., 9 tabs.

  6. Basic survey on the residence using hybrid energy in snowy cold regions; Sekisetsu kanreichi ni okeru hybrid energy katsuyogata jutaku nado ni kansuru kiso chosa



    The conceptual model and feasibility of the hybrid energy system for residences and public facilities in snowy cold regions were studied. Based on the existing data, the existing and available amounts of natural energy and unused energy in the target area, Sapporo were estimated. Based on the predicted energy demands of 4 kinds of building models, the energy systems for such models were studied. The use of the following energies was considered: photovoltaic power generation and solar heat for all the models, household sewage energy for the multiple-dwelling house model, and wind power generation for the public facility model. The annual energy balance was calculated to evaluate it. The use of additional commercial electricity was necessary, while surplus solar heat energy was found in summer which can push up the self-sufficiency rates of the residence and public facility models to 70% and 44%, respectively. The multiple- dwelling house model which can use a large amount of household sewage energy could utilize 80% of new energy, while the other 3 models utilized only 60-70% of that. 81 figs., 42 tabs.

  7. Study on recent research trends in the chemical fields; Kagaku bun`ya ni okeru saikin no kenkyu doko ni kansuru chosa



    This research is conducted to search study themes of chemistry expected towards the 21st century. The complex compound in the fundamental chemistry field and the bio-medical materials in the applied chemistry field are taken up. Bio-medical materials are used for the restoration, rehabilitation, and treatment of the organ and the improvement of its functions. For implants such as hearts, anti-thrombin and anti-calcium precipitation effects and high endurance are required. In this field, special copolymers and bio-membrane-emulating surfaces are studied. For artificial organs, hybrid type materials combining cells, and physiologically active and artificial materials are also studied. There are studies on the missile therapy of drugs and DDS (drug delivery system). The complex compounds contain metallic elements, such as Fe, Mn, Co and Cu, and groups known as ligands which combine these metal elements. They can have a variety of stereo-structures and physical properties. They also exhibit a diversity of functions including electron donor bonding, molecular recognition, chemical substitution, and pharmaceutical activity. These features open up a promising potential for their prospective use as physiologically active substances, cancerostats, new materials, artificial photosynthesis, memory elements, and complex catalysts. 88 refs., 35 figs., 6 tabs.

  8. Analysis of the membrane fouling on cross-flow ultrafiltration and microfiltration of soy sauce lees; Shoyuhiireden no kurosuforo roka ni okeru fauringu no kaiseki

    Furukakwa, T. [Kikkoman Corporation, Chiba (Japan); Kobayashi, H.; Kokubo, K.; Watanabe, A. [Niigata University, Niigata (Japan). Graduate School of Science and Technology


    Although since the 1980's Japanese soy sauce manufactures have developed cross-flow membrane filtration systems to recover soy sauce from its lees, the mechanisms by which the membrane fouls during filtration have not been theoretically discussed. Calculated flux declines using a theoretical equation developed for cross-flow cake filtration were compared against experimental results involving the filtration of soy sauce lees using polysulfone ultrafiltration and micro filtration membranes. Membrane fouling due to the deposition and intrusion of soy sauce lees was evaluated from the hydraulic resistances of the membrane and the cake layer. Calculated flux declines with time agree with the experimental results. Specific resistance of the cake layer which is an adjustable parameter of the equation, decreases with increasing cross-flow velocity. Hydraulic resistance exhibited by the membranes is independent of feed flow velocity. However, the resistance of the cake layers decreases with increasing cross-flow velocity. This corresponds to the steady-state flux increase. In conclusion, the main cause of fouling in the filtration of soy sauce lees is cake layer formation. By using the cake filtration model for cross-flow, the flux decline with time during the filtration is capable of being predicted. (author)

  9. Fiscal 1992 report. Overseas surveys out of surveys for coal hydrogasification technology development; 1992 nendo sekitan suiten gaska gijutsu kaihatsu chosa ni okeru kaigai chosa hokokusho



    As part of the coal hydrogasification technology development survey project, overseas surveys were carried out as in the preceding fiscal year. With an emphasis placed on the process materials and resources, and on product utilization technologies, surveys and studies were conducted about the trends of development of coal and natural gas resources, and information was collected on energy-related matters in Indonesia and Australia. The need of hydrogasification technology was investigated from the viewpoint of natural resources. Moreover, Japanese engineers were dispatched to APEC (Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation Conference) New Energy Seminar, Indonesia. Visits were made for information on the natural gas resources at an LNG base in East Kalimantan, Indonesia; coal gasification, energy, and others at CSIRO (Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization), Australia; coal bed and methane resources at Warren Center, University of Sydney, Australia; coal bed and methane resources at the Brisbane office, Mitsubishi Gas Chemical Company, Inc.; and coal resources at coal mines of Idemitsu South Queensland Coal Pty Ltd. (NEDO)

  10. Study on the impact assessment for the life cycle assessment (LCA); Kankyo fuka bunseki ni okeru impact assessment ni kansuru chosa



    This report describes the impact assessment which is an important step for LCA. For classification of the impact assessment, the existing literature was reviewed and a skeleton for the classification was proposed. The weighting factors for nine selected impact categories, which were used to calculate environmental load point (ELP) for the valuation, were obtained for two overseas groups, i.e., students of Amsterdam University and SETAC Europe members. It was found that the former provided the similar trends to general Japanese, however that the latter gave high weighting in the global warming and depletion of ozone layer. The ELP was proposed and applied to automatic washing machine, coffee maker, waste incineration power generation system, and co-generation system. As a result, its effectiveness was demonstrated. This report also describes problems for the LCA of thermal and material recycling of PS trays. 99 refs., 96 figs., 73 tabs.

  11. Cooperative measurements of microtremors in the north-eastern region of Nishinomiya city, Hyogo Pref.; Nishinomiyashi hokutobu ni okeru joji bido no godo kansoku

    Maiguma, T; Matsuzawa, H [Saitama University, Saitama (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Sawada, Y; Tazawa, Y [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan)


    For the purpose of generally grasping space distribution of ground vibration characteristics, cooperative measurements were conducted in a wide area, mainly in the area stricken by the M7 earthquake. Forty-five organs such as governmental institutes, universities, and private company institutes participated in the measurements which were conducted at 1967 measuring points. The area which the author is in charge is an area from the north of Nishinomiya City to the south of Takarazuka City. The area is relatively far from the hypocenter area, but the magnitude is 7 there and damage was concentrated. The measurements were made by each independent team from August 29 to September 1, 1995. As a result of spectral measurements of NS, EW and UD components, conspicuous peaks were seen in an extent of 1.5 sec. cycle in almost all measuring points and components. Further, in spectra of horizontal motion components of A measuring point group, conspicuous peaks were seen in an extent of 0.15-0.5 sec. cycle, and in those in B and C measuring point groups, in an extent of 0.35-0.5 sec. cycle. In upper/lower motion components, conspicuous peaks were seen in an extent of 0.3 sec. cycle in A measuring point group. 4 figs.

  12. Application of streaming potential method for detection of fractures in granitic rock; Kamaishi kozan ni okeru ryutai ryudo den`iho tekiyo shiken

    Negi, T; Yokoi, K; Yoneda, Y [Nittetsu Mining Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Senba, T [Power Reactor and Nuclear fuel Development Corporation, Tokyo (Japan)


    Measurements were made using the streaming potential method for the purpose of investigating the expansion of hydration cracks, direction of their propagation, and the chaining of cracked surfaces, in the granitic rock. Tests were conducted by use of a bore hole in the gallery wall. The bore hole yielded approximately 400 liters of water per minute, the bore hole was closed and then opened, and the change with the passage of time in the spontaneous potential (SP) on the gallery wall was measured. At a spot 31.2m from the mine entrance, the SP dropped by 15mV simultaneously with the opening of the bore hole, and rose by 14mV simultaneously with the closure of the same. The phenomenon was true for other locations, that is, for the section from the mine entrance to a spot 9.0m therefrom, and for a section beginning at 15.0m and ending at 19.2m therefrom. No change in the SP was observed in a group of cracks with water springing out of the gallery roof, beginning at a point 40m and ending at a point 54m from the mine entrance. The result suggests the possible application of the streaming potential method to the investigation of cracks. 1 ref., 10 figs.

  13. Questionnaire investigation for the earthquake in Honjo city and Yazawa city, Akita Prefecture; Jishin ni kansuru ishiki chosa (Akitaken Honjoshi oyobi Yuzawashi ni okeru anketo kara)

    Nogoshi, M [Akita University, Akita (Japan). College of Education; Kabutoya, S


    Consciousness for the earthquake was investigated by questionnaire surveys made in Honjo City and Yuzawa City, Akita Pref. in October 1995 twelve years after the Nihonkai Chubu Earthquake (M=7.7) in May 1983. The survey was conducted in terms of 27 items including personality, memory, knowledge/interest, psychology/action, mental attitude/preparations, wishes for researchers and administration, etc. Also included were the items on the Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake and the earthquake blank areas. The number of distributed questionnaires and the recovery rate of them are 1500 and 79.2% in Honjo City, and 1700 and 84.7% in Yuzawa City. From the survey, it was found that people have a lot of knowledge of and high interest in the earthquake and well remember it, and a lot of people know of tsunami, liquefaction phenomena, and the earthquake blank area. Further, they are afraid of earthquakes and think of their actions to be taken in case of earthquake. However, most people are little prepared for earthquakes. Important future subjects were suggested for the study of disaster prevention measures. 13 figs.

  14. 2D resistivity survey in complex geological structure area. Application to the volcanic area; Fukuzatsuna chishitsu kozo chiiki ni okeru hiteiko nijigen tansa. Kazangan chiiki deno tekiorei

    Asakawa, S; Ikuma, T; Tanifuji, R [DIA Consultants Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    Introduced herein is an application of 2D resistivity survey to a volcanic rock area where the survey result is difficult to interpret because of its complex geological structure. In a dam site survey, main problems involve the permeability of water through faults and weathered, altered zones. At this site, a 2D resistivity survey was conducted, a 2D geological structure was deduced from the resistivity section, and the result was examined. It was found that resistivity distribution was closely related to hydrographic factors, but no obvious correlation was detected between rock classes and R, Q, and D. In conducting investigations into a section planned for a highway tunnel, it was learned that the problem was a volcanic ash layer to collapse instantly upon absorbing water, and the distribution of the ash layer, not to be disclosed by boring, was subjected to a 2D resistivity survey. The survey was conducted into the structure above where the tunnel would run, and further into the face, and studies were made about what layer was reflected by the resistivity distribution obtained by analysis. The result of the analysis agreed with the details of the layer that was disclosed afterward. 4 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Application of geophysical methods to investigation of old castle, especially of the moat; Joshi no chosa ni okeru butsuri tansa no tekiyo (horiato no tansa)

    Tanaka, A; Karube, F; Kobayashi, M; Toge, M [OYO Corp., Tokyo (Japan)


    An explanation is made about the application of geophysical methods to the investigation of the ruins of old castles especially of their moats. Techniques currently in use for exploration of the ruins of castles are mainly underground radar exploration and electric exploration. The underground radar method sends electromagnetic waves through the ground and receives the reflection for a high-precision exploration of the layers shallow in the ground. Therefore, this method is suitable for probing the ruins of castles relatively shallow in the flat land, hills, and mountains. The electric method (resistivity image method) do the probing by use of the two-electrode arrangement, performs inverse analysis on the basis of the obtained data for the determination of the underground resistivity distribution, and displays the distribution in an image easy to read. This method, when there is a great separation between the two electrodes, explores relatively deep into the ground. Thanks to this feature, this method is effective in probing relatively wide and deep ruins of moats, that is, the ruins of moats of castles built in later years, especially of those then filled with water. 2 refs., 5 figs.

  16. Travel time and ray path computation in 2D-heterogeneous structures; Fukinshitsu kozo ni okeru jishinha soji oyobi hasen no atarashii keisan hoho

    Fujie, G; Kasahara, J; Sato, T; Mochizuki, K [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Earthquake Research Institute


    Methods were studied for determining the initial travel time and ray paths with stability when an non-linear travel time inversion is performed in an inhomogeneous structure. The travel time calculation was based on Faria and Stoffa`s method. First, the 2-dimension space was sectioned by grids, and `slowness` was assigned to all the lattice points. Starting from the vibration source, travel time at each lattice point is sequentially calculated. This method calculates travel time for any structure without breakup. In this study, an algorithm more sophisticated than the method of Faria, et al., was developed, and the improvement of travel time calculation accuracy led to the accurate determination of the direction of incidence into the lattice points during the initial motion. The calculation of ray paths was effected by tracing back from the receiving points the incidence into the lattice points or by following back the ray paths to the vibration source. This method performs stable calculation for a heavily inhomogeneous structure and, with the algorithm being simple, do the parallel programming as well. 1 ref., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Flow characteristic of Hijiori HDR reservoir from circulation test in 1991; Koon tantai Hijiori jikkenjo ni okeru senbu choryuso shiken (1991 nendo) kekka to ryudo kaiseki

    Shiga, T; Hyodo, M; Shinohara, N; Takasugi, S [Geothermal Energy Research and Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    This paper reports one example of flow analyses on a circulation test carried out in fiscal 1991 at the Hijiori hot dry rock experimental field (Yamagata Prefecture). A fluid circulation model was proposed to simulate an HDR circulation system for a shallow reservoir (at a depth of about 1800 m) demonstrated in the circulation test by using an electric circuit network (which expresses continuity impedance in resistance and fluid storage in capacitance). Storage capacity of the reservoir was estimated by deriving time constant of the system from data of time-based change in reservoir pressure associated with transition phenomena during the circulation test. The storage capacity was estimated separately by dividing change of storage in the reservoir by change in the reservoir pressure. To derive the storage in the reservoir, a method to calculate non-recovered flows in the circulation test was utilized. The results of evaluating the reservoir capacity in the shallow reservoir using the above two independent methods were found substantially consistent. 3 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Analysis of the pressure response of high angle multiple (HAM) fractures intersecting a welbore; Kokeisha multi fracture (HAM) kosei ni okeru atsuryoku oto kaiseki ni tsuite

    Ujo, S; Osato, K [Geothermal Energy Research and Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Arihara, N [Waseda University, Tokyo (Japan); Schroeder, R


    This paper reports pressure response analysis on wells piercing a high angle multi (HAM) fracture model. In this model which is defined on a three-dimensional space, a plurality of slanted fractures intersect with wells at high angles (however, intersection of fractures with each other is not considered). With respect to the pressure response analysis method using this model, the paper presents a basic differential equation on pressure drawdown and boundary conditions in the wells taking flows in the fractures pseudo-linear, as well as external boundary conditions in calculation regions (a reservoir spreads to an infinite distance, and its top and bottom are closed by non-water permeating beds). The paper also indicates that results of calculating a single vertical fracture model and a slanted fracture model by using a numerical computation program (MULFRAC) based on the above equations agree well respectively with the existing calculation results (calculations performed by Erlougher and Cinco et al). 5 refs., 6 figs.

  19. Flow characteristics of Hijiori HDR reservoir form circulation test in 1995; Koon tantai Hijiori jikkenjo ni okeru shinbu choryuso yobi junkan shiken (1995 nendo) kekka to ryudo kaiseki

    Fukushima, N; Hyodo, M; Shinohara, N; Takasugi, S [Geothermal Energy Research and Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    This paper reports the result of a preliminary circulation test conducted in fiscal 1995 on a deep reservoir (at a depth of about 2200 m) in the Hijiori hot dry rock experimental field. One water injection well and two production wells were drilled to constitute a circulation loop, to which the circulation test was performed to investigate the flow characteristics thereof. The result revealed the following matters: total amount of injected water of 51500 m{sup 3} resulted in a total fluid recovery rate of about 40%; as a result of well stimulation given twice during the initial stage of the water injection, the continuity impedance in the vicinity of the injection well decreased largely (however, the continuity improvement upon the second attempt was considerably inferior to that from the first attempt); and increase in the water injection amount does not necessarily lead to increase in the production amount. The paper describes additionally that it is extremely difficult to interpret non-linearity between the injection and production amounts by using a model prepared previously with a main objective to analyze the Hijiori HDR circulation system. 1 ref., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Magnetotelluric investigation in and around southern part of Hidaka metamorphic belt in Hokkaido, Japan; Hidaka henseitai nanbuiki ni okeru MT kansoku

    Sato, H; Utsugi, M; Hirano, K; Doi, T; Nishida, Y; Arita, K [Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan)


    An MT observation was conducted in the Hidaka district, Hokkaido, for the estimation of the 2D resistivity structure in the southern part of the metamorphic belt, when frequencies of the VLF, ELF, and ULF bands were used. An approximately 42km-long traverse line was set to cross the Hidaka metamorphic belt from east to west. As for the observation points, 48 VLF points, 16 ELF points, and 4 ULF points were provided. During the data processing, impedance tensor was calculated in the frequency domain for the determination of the apparent resistivity relative to frequency and the phase difference. As the result, it was found that there is a fairly large resistivity gap between observation spots MNS and KWR and that the boundary corresponds to the Hidaka metamorphic belt, that the metamorphic belt that is reflected as a conspicuous high-resistivity layer in the VLF-, ELF-MT slopes down toward the east and has a distribution as deep as 10km in the vicinity of observation point KWR, that this high-resistivity layer sandwiches a low-resistivity layer at a depth of 5-7km, and that on the east side of the metamorphic belt there is a medium-resistivity layer creeping under the belt from the east side toward the west side. 5 refs., 6 figs.

  1. Succession of benthos and nutrient removal rate in the hydroponic culture system; Shokubutsu suiko saibaikei ni okeru konken seibutsu no henka to eiyoen no jokyo

    Aizaki, M [National Inst. for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba (Japan); Nakazato, H [Biox Corp., Tokyo (Japan)


    Such nutrients as nitrogen and phosphorus discharged into lakes and rivers can cause organic contamination as a result of eutrophication in water areas if they are left as they are. However, they can be re-utilized as resources if they are utilized more effectively. This paper reports a hydroponic organism filtering method as a promising method of utilization thereof. It also explains transition in organism phase in rhizosphere and a water purification experiment. Such suspended matters as phytoplanktons in raw water are filtered and captured by roots of plants; such small animals as tendipedidae and physia live symbiotically in the rhizosphere; their excrements and nutrients are absorbed into and utilized by plants; and coexistence is made possible between diverse water-front environments including terrestrial systems and diverse living organisms. Cresson cultivation, observation on transition in the benthos composition, and a lake water purification experiment were carried out at the Kasumigaura Lake experimental facility. Various findings were acquired such that, in order to attain diverse coexistences including those with natural enemies and well-ventilated environments, a water channel of larger than a certain size is required. Results were also obtained that can be expected as an effective technique that may be used in public water areas. 3 refs., 4 figs.

  2. Relationship between herbicide's fate of the river flowing into lake Teganuma and its molecular structure. Teganuma ryunyu kasen ni okeru josozai no dotai to bunshi kozo no kankei

    Tamura, J [Nishi Tokyo University, Yamanashi (Japan). Faculty of Science and Engineering; Ogura, N [Tokyo University o Agriculture and Technology, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Agriculture


    Environmental profiles of agricultural chemicals in a river flowing into Lake Teganuma were surveyed. Their dissolution and adsorption were investigated by using indoor experiments, and their behaviors were discussed from a viewpoint of molecular structure in the compounds. The herbicides detected in the river contained CNP and Benthiocarb were at high concentration at the time of spraying, but decreased sharply thereafter. The CNP had lower concentration than Benthiocarb in the river, indicating little amount flowing out from paddy fields. These differences in the environmental profiles should be attributable to natures of the herbicides. An indoor experiment has revealed that Benthiocarb has lower solubility and higher absorption strength than CNP. It was found with respect to the chemical structures that polarity increases if hetero atoms and hydrophilic substituents exist in moleculars; the solubility of Benthiocarb grows higher than that of hydrocarbons; and adsorption power relates to the area of contact with absorbing media, and absorption rate relates to the solubility, absorption power, and three-dimensional structure. 23 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs.

  3. Heating and cooling performance of air-to-air heat pumps installed in the greenhouses with vegetables growth. Kuki netsugen hito ponpuno saibai jokenkani okeru onshitsuno danreibo seino

    Kozakai, Kazuyoshi; Uehara, Tsuyoshi; Okano, Toshiaki


    Two units of integral-type air-air heat pumps (rated capacity: 7.5 KW each) and a heat storage type air-air heat pump (rated capacity: 7.5 KW) equipped with a heat storage water tank were installed in the experimental greenhouses (315 m/sup 2/ and 126 m/sup 2/) to introduced the heat pump as part of the development of power demand for the greenhouse culture. The experiment of hydroponic culture of tomatos in both summer and winter and merons in summer was made controlling the temperature and humidity in the greenhouse. The coefficient of performance (COP) of the integral-type air-air heat pump was 2.2 to 2.3 in the cooling season and 2.3 to 2.6 in the heating season. The crop of tomato per 10 areas was 11.6 tons in summer and 14.2 tons in winter and both crops were more than the mean valve in the greenhouse culture. The COP of the heat storage type air-air heat pump was 2.2 in the cooling season and 2.6 in the heating season. The average weight of a melon was 1.7 kg and the sugar content was approximately 13%. The crop and quality of melon exceeded the levels in the greenhouse culture. (14 figs, 8 tabs, 7 refs)

  4. Effect of low oxygen partial pressure to the bumblebee respiration; Naruhanabachi ni okeru taikichu sanso bun'atsu henka no kokyu ni oyobosu eikyo

    Komai, Y. [Japan Science and Technology Corp., Tokyo (Japan)


    Insects augment oxygen supply using convective transport during flight in two ways: with deforming tracheae by surrounding muscles movement (muscle pumping) and with contracting air sacs by exoskeleton movement (abdominal or thoracic pumping). However, because induced flow inside tracheae is difficult to measure, it is not known how the convective transport actually contributes. By comparison between direct measurement of oxygen partial pressure in a flight muscle based on electrochemical method and flight/ventilation activities in a bumblebee, Bumbus hypocrita hypocruta, a method was developed for estimating gas transport efficiency. Oxygen partial pressure, P{sub 02}, in the bee periodically fluctuated with discontinuous abdominal movement in normal air. While the P{sub 02} strongly varied among individuals in normal air, the P{sub 02} took a unique value in oxygen poor air ({<=}8%). By enhancing ventilation, the bee could respire in an oxygen poor atmosphere up to 2%. Furthermore, the bee could fly in an atmosphere of 6%, in which the P{sub 02} decreased to 0.7%. Estimated efficiency of the gas transport increases with atmospheric oxygen concentration decreases. (author)

  5. Analysis of output characteristics of PV modules under natural sunlight; Shizen taiyokoka ni okeru taiyo denchi module shutsuryoku tokusei no kaiseki

    Murai, Y.; Igari, S. [Japan Quality Assurance of Organization, Tokyo (Japan)


    The paper measured current/voltage characteristics of various PV modules under natural light and analyzed various characteristics such as generated output and module power generation efficiency. In the experiment, installing various PV modules at the solar techno center located at north latitude 34.7deg and east longitude 137.6deg, measurement was made by I-V curve tracer, pyranometer, and thermocouple buried on the module back. As a result, the following were confirmed: As to the monthly mean power generation efficiency, the crystalline system is lowest in summer and highest in winter, and the amorphous system highest in summer and lowest in winter. Concerning the power generation efficiency and illuminance, the gap of power generation efficiency between at high illuminance and at low illuminance is large in the crystalline system and small in amorphous system. Relating to the azimuth angle of module installation and the generated output, the installation inclined 15deg angle west in summer and 15deg angle east in fall/winter generates more power in the crystalline system. On the contrary, the installation on the south face generates more power in the amorphous system. 4 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Study of installation of PV systems at campus; Campus ni okeru taiyoko hatsuden donyu ni kansuru kenkyu (taiyo denchi nomi wo secchishita baai no yobi kento)

    Tsuboi, N.; Tanaka, H.; Okumiya, M. [Nagoya University, Nagoya (Japan)


    In terms of energy consumption, environmentality and economical efficiency in the case of installing the photovoltaic power system on the rooftop of the university campus, a comparative study was conducted with other power generation systems. As objects to be comparatively studied, selected were the all-electric type centralized space heating/cooling system, cogeneration system, nighttime heat storage system and centralized system with solar cells installed. The panel area of the PV system is 10,000m{sup 2} on the rooftop and 7,000{sup 2} on the outer wall. About data on solar radiation, average values obtained in Nagoya were used. Assessment was made in terms of energy consumption amount at the time of operation, system COP, emission amounts of CO2, NOx and SOx at the time of manufacturing and operation, initial cost, running cost, etc. As a result of the study, an effect of reducing global warming gas was admitted in the PV system. However, the initial cost of the solar cell panel was high, and the life cycle cost of the PV system was lower than other systems. 1 ref., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. Starting and stopping control on power conditioner in photovoltaic power system; Taiyoko hatsuden system ni okeru power conditioner no kido teishi seigyo ni tsuite

    Hirose, M.; Ishihara, Y.; Todaka, T.; Harada, K. [Doshisha University, Kyoto (Japan); Oshiro, H.; Nakamura, H. [Japan Quality Assurance Organization, Tokyo (Japan)


    Studies are made about the control of the power conditioner over the maximum power point tracking (MPPT) function in a photovoltaic power generation system. The analysis is conducted by means of computer simulation into the effect of a start/stop function added to the control of MPPT and the effect on the generation of power of the setting of parameters in the start/stop function. The reduction in output power due to difference between the actual operation point and the optimum operation point is evaluated by use of a load matching correction factor. In this simulation, it is assumed that the solar cell array consists of 13 rows in 5 parallel columns, is capable of a normal output of 3.149kW, has a panel tilted at 30 degrees, and faces due south. The power conditioner is assumed to be a system rated at 3kVA, equipped with system interconnection and back flow features. As a result, it is learned that the stop voltage should be set at 180V or lower and the steady voltage near 185.5V for a good result and that there is not much need after all for the start/stop technique. 2 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Application of on-line near-infrared analyzer to process control in fermentation plant; Hakko plant no unten kanri ni okeru kinsekigai bunsekikei no tekiyo

    OKayasu, S.; Kitayama, M.; Miyashiro, S. [Ajinomoto Co. Inc. Tokyo (Japan)


    Aiming for stable operation and rationalization of a fermentation plant, a near-infrared analyzer was introduced into the on-line analyzing system of the fermentation process. An on-line sampling system with a deforming apparatus was applied to a fermenter in a commercial scale plant. A new efficient method for obtaining highly accurate calibration curves of the near-infrared analyzer was presented. The established method for on-line determination of the main components in the fermentation medium for amino acid production was applied to a real-time measurement system in a commercial fermentation plant. The pattern of sugar concentration change was successfully obtained on a real-time basis. The system was partially incorporated into operation control, even if there was room for improvement of analytical accuracy in response to raw material differences in each lot. 9 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. Corrosion characteristics of thermal sprayed coating of stainless alloys in chloride solution; Taishoku gokin yosha himaku no enkabutsu yoekichu ni okeru fushoku tokusei

    Suzuki, T. [Ajinomoto Co. Inc., Tokyo (Japan); Ishikawa, K. [Tokyo Metallikon Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Kitamura, Y. [Kitamura Technical Consultant Office, Kanagawa (Japan)


    With an objective to develop a thermal sprayed coating of environment interruption type that can be sprayed at sites, electrochemical discussions, SEM observation, and EPMA surface analysis were performed on corrosion characteristics in chloride solution of coatings of SUS 304, 316 and Hastelloy C thermally sprayed onto test pieces made of structural steel SS400, as well as the effect of improvement in corrosion resistance by means of a coating reforming treatment. The following conclusions were obtained: the degradation in corrosion resistance of the coatings is attributable to increase in anodic solubility due to appearance of innumerable crevices as a result of deposited particles forming porous structure and due to drop of Cr content in the matrix caused by generation of oxides on the surface of the crevices, by which the corrosion progresses in the form of crevice corrosion; and denseness of the passive coating is lost on the surface of the deposited particles, accelerating the cathodic reaction. A suitable means that could be used practically in chloride solution would be a method to use a material with less crevice susceptibility such as Hastelloy C as a base material, and seal the crevice structure with epoxy resin, etc. 7 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. Development of high field magnets at the National Research Institute for Metals. Kinzoku zairyo gijutsu kenkyusho ni okeru kojikai magnet gun no kaihatsu

    Kiyoshi, T.; Inoue, K.; Maeda, H. (National Research Inst. for Metals, Tsukuba (Japan))


    Sinece 1988, the Scince and Technology Agency has initiated the superconductor multicore project, which has a purpose of the versatile study on the high temperature superconducting materials of the oxide series. The National Research Institute for Metals is in charge of 5 cores out of them, and in the performance evaluation core which is one of them, the development of each kind of the high field magnets is being advanced for evaluating the characteristics under the high magnetic field. As the magnets, including the 40T class hybrid magnet which generates the steady state magnetic field of 40T, the superconducting magnet of 20T with a large diameter which generates the magnetic field over 20T with a superconductor, the condenser bank system for the pulse magnet to generate the pulse magnetic field up to 80T, and the ultra-precise magnet system which generates the magnetic field with a high uniformity will be consolidated. Keeping pace with a removal of the National Research Institute for Metals to Tsukuba, the construction of the strong magnetic field station is being advanced in the Sakura area. These several kinds of magnets are scheduled to be used in turn for the international joint study. 33 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  11. Report on field test project for wind power development at Nagashima-cho. Detailed wind characteristics survey; Nagashimacho ni okeru furyoku field test jigyo (fukyo seisa) hokokusho



    A detailed wind characteristics survey was conducted to study the feasibility of a wind power generation system for Nagashima-cho, Izumi-gun, Kagoshima Prefecture. Observation instruments were installed at the top of a hill approximately 80m above the sea level situated to the northwest of the Nagashima-cho town hall and, in the period October 1998 through September 1999, data were collected at a point 20m above ground, such as the average wind speed and direction, wind velocity standard deviation, and the maximum instantaneous wind velocity. The data were analyzed, and findings were obtained, as mentioned below. The annual average wind speed was 5.0m, strong in winter and weak in summer. The annual wind direction occurrence rate was 61.8%, turbulence intensity was 0.17 at wind speeds of 4m/s and more, these not presenting any particular problem. Wind energy density was 148W/m{sup 2}. Both wind speed conditions and energy density were slightly lower than the reference levels indicated for evaluation. Studies were made on the assumption that three classes of wind turbines (150, 300, and 750kW) would be introduced, and then it was found that both operating factors and facility availability rates exceeded the required levels. Since there were no detrimental factors in the surrounding conditions, it was concluded that possibilities were high that wind power generation at the site would be practical. (NEDO)

  12. Effect of total pressure on sulfur capture of Ca-ion exchanged coal; Kaatsu jokenka ni okeru Ca-tanjitan no datsuryu koka

    Lin, S.; Benjamin, G.; Abe, H.; Harano, A.; Takarada, T. [Gunma University, Gunma (Japan). Faculty of Engineering


    In relation to coal gasification and combustion under high pressure as highly efficient coal utilization, the effect of total pressure and sintering on the SO2 capture ability of Ca-ion exchanged coal and other desulfurizing agents were studied. In experiment, specimens were filled into a small pressurized reactor to heat them under high-pressure N2 atmosphere. After the completion of combustion reaction of char at 850{degree}C, SO2, CO2 and CO gases were measured at an outlet while flowing SO2/N2. As the experimental result, all of the S content in Ca-ion exchanged coal was not absorbed by Ca content in coal during pyrolysis and combustion, resulting in discharge of 36% of the S content. Since Ca-ion exchanged coal is fast in combustion reaction, most of the S content was desulfurized by coal ash. The ash content yielded from Ca-ion exchanged coal was more excellent in SO2 capture ability than limestone even under higher pressure. In the case of CO2 partial pressure lower than equilibrium CO2 pressure for CaCO3 decomposition, the capture ability decreased with an increase in total pressure, while in higher CO2 partial pressure, it was improved. 1 ref., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Change in surface characteristics of coal in upgrading of low-rank coals; Teihin`itan kaishitsu process ni okeru sekitan hyomen seijo no henka

    Oki, A.; Xie, X.; Nakajima, T.; Maeda, S. [Kagoshima University, Kagoshima (Japan). Faculty of Engineering


    With an objective to learn mechanisms in low-rank coal reformation processes, change of properties on coal surface was discussed. Difficulty in handling low-rank coal is attributed to large intrinsic water content. Since it contains highly volatile components, it has a danger of spontaneous ignition. The hot water drying (HWD) method was used for reformation. Coal which has been dry-pulverized to a grain size of 1 mm or smaller was mixed with water to make slurry, heated in an autoclave, cooled, filtered, and dried in vacuum. The HWD applied to Loy Yang and Yallourn coals resulted in rapid rise in pressure starting from about 250{degree}C. Water content (ANA value) absorbed into the coal has decreased largely, with the surface made hydrophobic effectively due to high temperature and pressure. Hydroxyl group and carbonyl group contents in the coal have decreased largely with rising reformation treatment temperature (according to FT-IR measurement). Specific surface area of the original coal of the Loy Yang coal was 138 m{sup 2}/g, while it has decreased largely to 73 m{sup 2}/g when the reformation temperature was raised to 350{degree}C. This is because of volatile components dissolving from the coal as tar and blocking the surface pores. 2 refs., 4 figs.

  14. Coal liquefaction in early stage of NEDOL process 1t/d PSU; 1t/d PSU ni okeru ekika shoki hanno ni kansuru kento

    Ikeda, K.; Kawabata, M.; Mochizuki, M.; Imada, K. [Nippon Steel Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Nogami, Y.; Inokuchi, K. [Mitsui SRC Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    To investigate the behavior of coal liquefaction reaction in early stage as a part of studies on the coal liquefaction characteristics using NEDOL process 1 t/d process supporting unit (PSU), coal slurry sample was taken from the outlet of slurry preheater located in the upflow of liquefaction reactors, and was tested. Tanito Harum coal was used for liquefaction. Preheater was operated under the condition of pressure of 170 kg/cm{sup 2}, gas flow rate of 64 Nm{sup 3}/hr, and at temperature up to 410{degree}C at the outlet, in response to the standard test condition. The slurry sample was discharged into a high temperature separator with temperature of 250{degree}C. Liquefaction was not proceeded at the outlet of preheater. Solid residue yielded around 80%, and liquid yielded around 15%. Gases, CO and CO2, and water yielded also small amount around 3%. The solid sample contained much IOM fraction (tetrahydrofuran-insoluble and ash), and the liquid contained much heavy oil fraction. Hydrogenation was not proceeded, and the hydrogen consumption was very low showing below one-tenth of that at the usual operation. Hydrogen sulfide gas was formed at early stage, which suggested that the change of iron sulfide catalyst occur at early stage of liquefaction. 1 ref., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Effects of solvent and catalysts on the hydrogenolysis of alkylnaphthalenes; Alkylnaphthalene no suisoka bunkai ni okeru yobai to shokubai no koka

    Futamura, S. [National Institute for Resources and Environment, Tsukuba (Japan)


    Catalytic effects of metal and carbon materials, which promote hydrogen transfer from hydrogen donor solvents, are investigated during hydrogenolysis of benzyl-1-methylnaphthalenes (BMN) selected as a hydrogen acceptor. For the isomer distribution of BMN after the reaction, almost the same molecular ratio before the reaction was obtained independent of the presence of catalysts. Selectivity of position during the addition of hydrogen atoms from tetralin was not found. For the reaction of BMN in tetralin, 1-methylnaphthalene and toluene were obtained as products, but the formation of benzylnaphthalene was not found. As for the nuclear hydride of BMN, the trace amount formation was confirmed by gas chromatography. For the hydrogen transfer from tetralin progressed catalytically, it was found that the nuclear of naphthalene can not be hydrogenated easily. This was considered to be due to the obstruction of hydrogen transfer from tetralin by the strong adsorption of BMN on the Ni surface. 1 ref., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  16. Formation of N2 in the fixed-bed pyrolysis of low rank coals and the mechanisms; Koteisho netsubunkai ni okeru teitankatan kara no N2 no sisei

    Wu, Z.; Otsuka, Y. [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan). Institute for Chemical Reaction Science


    In order to establish coal NOx preventive measures, discussions were given on formation of N2 in the fixed-bed pyrolysis of low rank coals and the mechanisms thereof. Chinese ZN coal and German RB coal were used for the discussions. Both coals do not produce N2 at 600{degree}C, and the main product is volatile nitrogen. Conversion into N2 does not depend on heating rates, but increases linearly with increasing temperature, and reaches 65% to 70% at 1200{degree}C. In contrast, char nitrogen decreases linearly with the temperature. More specifically, these phenomena suggest that the char nitrogen or its precursor is the major supply source of N2. When mineral substances are removed by using hydrochloric acid, their catalytic action is lost, and conversion into N2 decreases remarkably. Iron existing in ion-exchanged condition in low-rank coal is reduced and finely diffused into metallic iron particles. The particles react with heterocyclic nitrogen compounds and turn into iron nitride. A solid phase reaction mechanism may be conceived, in which N2 is produced due to decomposition of the iron nitride. 5 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Coal conversion rate in 1t/d PSU liquefaction reactor; 1t/d PSU ekika hannoto ni okeru sekitan tenka sokudo no kento

    Ikeda, K.; Imada, K. [Nippon Steel Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Nogami, Y.; Inokuchi, K. [Mitsui SRC Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    To investigate the coal liquefaction characteristics, coal slurry samples were taken from the outlets of the reactors and slurry preheater of NEDOL process 1 t/d process supporting unit (PSU), and were analyzed. Tanito Harum coal was used for liquefaction, and the slurry was prepared with recycle solvent. Liquefaction was performed using synthetic iron sulfide catalyst at reaction temperatures, 450 and 465{degree}C. Solubility of various solid samples was examined against n-hexane, toluene, and tetrahydrofuran (THF). When considering the decrease of IMO (THF-insoluble and ash) as a characteristic of coal conversion reaction, around 20% at the outlet of the slurry preheater, around 70% within the first reactor, and several percents within the successive second and third reactors were converted against supplied coal. Increase of reaction temperature led to the increase of evaporation of oil fraction, which resulted in the decrease of actual slurry flow rate and in the increase of residence time. Thus, the conversion of coal was accelerated by the synergetic effect of temperature and time. Reaction rate constant of the coal liquefaction was around 2{times}10{sup -1} [min{sup -1}], which increased slightly with increasing the reaction temperature from 450 to 465{degree}C. 3 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Effect of sulfur or hydrogen sulfide on initial stage of coal liquefaction in tetralin; Sekitan ekika shoki katei ni okeru io to ryuka suiso no hatasu yakuwari

    Nakada, M. [Government Industrial Research Institute, Kyushu, Saga (Japan)


    It is well known that the solubilization of coal can be accelerated by adding sulfur or hydrogen sulfide during direct liquefaction of difficult coals. From the studies of authors on the coal liquefaction under the conditions at rather low temperatures between 300 and 400{degree}C, liquefaction products with high quality can be obtained by suppressing the aromatization of naphthene rings, but it was a problem that the reaction rate is slow. For improving this point, results obtained by changing solvents have been reported. In this study, to accelerate the liquefaction reaction, Illinois No.6 coal was liquefied in tetralin at temperature range from 300 to 400{degree}C by adding a given amount of sulfur or hydrogen sulfide at the initial stage of liquefaction. The addition of sulfur or hydrogen sulfide provided an acceleration effect of liquefaction reaction at temperature range between 300 and 400{degree}C. The addition of sulfur or hydrogen sulfide at 400{degree}C increased the oil products. At 370 and 400{degree}C, the liquid yield by adding sulfur was slightly higher than that by adding hydrogen sulfide, unexpectedly. The effects of sulfur and hydrogen sulfide were reversed when increasing the hydrogen pressure. 5 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Investigation of the deposit formation in pipelines connecting liquefaction reactors; 1t/d PSU ni okeru ekika hanno tokan fuchakubutsu no seisei yoin ni kansuru ichikosatsu

    Okada, Y.; Nogami, Y.; Inokuchi, K. [Mitsui SRC Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Mochizuki, M.; Imada, K. [Nippon Steel Corp., Tokyo (Japan)


    The liquefaction reaction system of an NEDOL process coal liquefaction 1t/d PSU was opened and checked to investigate the cause of the rise of differential pressure between liquefaction reactors of the PSU. The liquefaction test at a coal concentration of 50 wt% using Tanito Harum coal was conducted, and it was found that the differential pressure between reactors was on the increase. By the two-phase flow pressure loss method, deposition thickness of deposit in pipelines was estimated at 4.4mm at the time of end operation, which agreed with a measuring value obtained from a {gamma} ray. The rise of differential pressure was caused by deposit formation in pipelines connecting reactors. The main component of the deposit is calcite (CaCO3 60-70%) and is the same as the usual one. It is also the same type as the deposit on the reactor wall. Ca in coal ash is concerned with this. To withdraw solid matters deposited in the reactor, there are installed pipelines for the withdrawal at the reactor bottom. The solid matters are regularly purged by reverse gas for prevention of clogging. As the frequency of purge increases, the deposit at the reactor bottom decreases, but the deposit attaches strongly to pipelines connecting reactors. It is presumed that this deposit is what Ca to be discharged out of the system as a form of deposition solid matter naturally in the Ca balance precipitated as calcite in the pipeline connecting the reactor. 3 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  20. Conversion of char nitrogen to N2 under incomplete combustion conditions; Fukanzen nensho jokenka ni okeru char chuchisso no N2 eno tenka

    Zhuang, Q.; Yamauchi, A.; Oshima, Y.; Wu, Z.; Otsuka, Y. [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan). Institute for Chemical Reaction Science


    The effect of combustion conditions on conversion of char nitrogen to N2 was studied in the combustion experiment of char obtained by pyrolysis of coal. Char specimen was prepared by holding ZN coal of Chinese lignite in Ar atmosphere at 1123K for one hour. A batch scale quartz-made fluidized bed reactor was used for combustion experiment. After the specimen was fluidized in reaction gas, it was rapidly heated to start combustion reaction. CO, CO2 and N2 in produced gases were online measured by gas chromatography (GC). As the experimental result, under the incomplete combustion condition where a large amount of CO was produced by consuming almost all of O2, no NOx and N2O produced from char were found, and almost all of N-containing gas was N2. At the final stage of combustion, pyridinic-N disappeared completely, and pyrrolic-N decreased, while O-containing nitrogen complexes became a main component. It was thus suggested that O-containing nitrogen complexes are playing the role of intermediate product in combustion reaction. 7 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Characterization of the various catalyst for solvent hydrogenation at 1t/d PSU; 1t/d PSU ni okeru kakushu yozai suisoka shokubai no seino hyoka

    Kakebayashi, H.; Nogami, Y.; Inokuchi, K. [Mitsui SRC Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Aihara, Y.; Imada, K. [Nippon Steel Corp., Tokyo (Japan)


    Performance of various catalysts for hydrogenation of recycle solvent was evaluated for the operation of NEDOL process 1 t/d process supporting unit (PSU). Distillate between 220 and 538{degree}C derived from the liquefaction of Tanito Harum coal was used as recycle solvent. Deactivation behaviors of catalysts were compared using a prediction equation of catalyst life, by which aromatic carbon index (fa) after hydrogenation can be determined from the fa of recycle oil before hydrogenation, reaction temperature, and total hydrogenation time. Total hydrogenation time satisfying the {Delta}fa, 0.05 before and after hydrogenation were 8,000, 4,000, and 2,000 hours for NiMo-based catalysts C, A, and B, respectively. Catalyst C showed the longest life. Used catalysts were also characterized. The catalyst C showed larger mean pore size than those of the others, which resulted in the longer life due to the delay of pore blockage. From measurements by XPS and EPMA, relative atomic concentration of carbon increased remarkably after the use for all of catalysts, which was considered to be due to the adhesion of hydrocarbons. Increase of metal atoms, such as Fe and Cr, was also observed due to the contamination of entrainment residues. Deactivation of catalysts was caused by the adhesion of hydrocarbons, and metallic compounds, such as Fe and Cr. 3 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  2. Photo-irradiation effects on GaAs atomic layer epitaxial growth. GaAs no genshiso epitaxial seicho ni okeru hikari reiki koka

    Mashita, M.; Kawakyu, Y.; Sasaki, M.; Ishikawa, H. (Toshiba Corp., Kawasaki (Japan). Research and Development Center)


    Single atomic layer epitaxy (ALE) aims at controlling a growing film at a precision of single molecular layer. In this article, it is reported that the growth temperature range of ALE was expanded by the vertical irradiation of KrF exima laser (248 nm) onto the substrate for the ALE growth of GaAs using the metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) method. Thanks for the results of the above experiment, it was demonstrated that the irradiation effect was not thermal, but photochemical. In addition, this article studies the possibility of adsorption layer irradiation and surface irradiation as the photo-irradiation mechanism, and points out that coexistence of both irradiation mechanisms can be considered and, in case of exima laser, strong possibility of direct irradiation of the adsorption layer because of its high power density. Hereinafter, by using both optical growth ALE and thermal growth ALE jointly, the degree of freedom of combination of hetero ALE increases and its application to various material systems becomes possible. 16 refs., 6 figs.

  3. Nonlinear process generating Tollmien-Schlichting waves in a reattached boundary layer; Hakuri saifuchaku nagare ni okeru T-S hado no hisenkei reiki katei

    Asai, M.; Aiba, K. [Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)


    Low-frequency Tollmien-Schlichting (T-S) waves may be thought generated as a result of high-frequency disturbance between two proximity frequency modes grown unstably in a separation shear layer causing secondary nonlinear interference to occur. This fact has been verified by a numerical simulation. A non-compression Navier-Stokes equation was used for the fundamental equation, a tertiary windward difference for the convection term, and a secondary central difference for other differential calculus. The Reynolds number was 200, and the disturbance was introduced by applying `v` variation continuously on the wall face. Non-introduction of the disturbance results in a steady flow. Disturbance frequencies of 0.15 and 0.20 were selected as disturbance frequencies from the relationship between the spatial amplification and the frequency dependency. The structure of the excited disturbance agreed with the intrinsic mode. The difference mode due to nonlinear interference grows as the basic mode was amplified. The basic mode decays sharply in the boundary layer after reattachment, while the difference mode decays slowly. Distribution of the difference mode is a distribution of viscous T-S waves, which may be converted into the intrinsic mode. 8 refs., 7 figs.

  4. Vortex-induced vibrations of circular cylinder in cross flow at supercritical Reynolds numbers; Chorinkai Reynolds su ryoiki ni okeru enchu no uzu reiki shindo

    Kawamura, T.; Nakao, T.; Takahashi, M.; Hayashi, M.; Goto, N. [Hitachi, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    Vortex-induced vibrations were measured for a circular cylinder subjected to a water cross flow at supercritical Reynolds numbers for a wide range of reduced velocities. Turbulence intensities were changed from 1% to 13% in order to investigate the effect of the Strouhal number on the region of synchronization by symmetrical and Karman vortex shedding. The reduced damping of the test cylinder was about 0.1 in water. The surface roughness of the cylinder was a mirror-polished surface. Strouhal number decreased from about 0.48 to 0.29 with increasing turbulence intensity. Synchronized vibrations were observed even at supercritical Reynolds numbers where fluctuating fluid force was small. Reduced velocities at which drag and lift direction lock-in by Karman vortex shedding were initiated decreased with increasing Strouhal number. When Strouhal number was about 0.29, the self-excited vibration in drag direction by symmetrical vortex shedding began at which the frequency ratio of Karman vortex shedding frequency to the natural frequency of cylinder was 0.32. (author)

  5. Investigation on the actual energy consumption by office automation devices used in offices; Office ni okeru OA kiki no energy shohi jittai chosa



    With an objective to further improve efficiency of power demand by office automation devices and suppress increase in the power demand, investigations were carried out on the actual power consumption by office automation devices, and discussions were given on energy saving effects in the office automation devices. In the investigations, measurements were conducted for small offices as the subject thereof with regard to electric power consumed by such presentation tools and their peripheral devices as personal computers, word processors, copying machines, facsimile machines, electronic whiteboards and overhead projectors. Power consumption particularly in a standby condition was also investigated. As a result of the investigations, the following characteristics were revealed: the number of office automation devices used to deal with the Energy Star is increasing rapidly; power consumption believed to have been reduced by the Energy Star transferring to lower power consumption is estimated to be 3% in average for personal computers, 26% for copying machines, and 68% for facsimile machines; and while facsimile machines are left in operating condition for 24 hours, their operation rate at night is very low, wherein there is a large room for saving energy in this time band. 65 figs., 21 tabs.

  6. Education for hydraulics and pnuematics in Department of Computer Science, Faculty of Information Sciences, Hiroshima City University; Hiroshima shiritsudaigaku ni okeru yukuatsu kyoiku

    Sano, M. [Hiroshima City University, Hiroshima (Japan)


    Described herein is education of hydraulics and pneumatics in Hiroshima City University. Department of Computer Science is responsible for the education, covering a wide educational range from basics of information processing methodology to application of mathematical procedures. This university provides no subject directly related to hydraulics and pneumatics, which, however, can be studied by the courses of control engineering or modern control theories. These themes are taken up for graduation theses for bachelors and masters; 2 for dynamic characteristics of pneumatic cylinders, and one for pneumatic circuit simulation. Images of the terms hydraulics and pneumatics are outdated for students of information-related departments. Hydraulics and pneumatics are being forced to rapidly change, like other branches of science, and it may be time to make a drastic change from hardware to software, because their developments have been excessively oriented to hardware. It is needless to say that they are based on hardware, but it may be worthy of drastically changing these branches of science by establishing virtual fluid power systems. It is also proposed to introduce the modern multi-media techniques into the education of hydraulics and pneumatics. (NEDO)

  7. Fiscal 1998 survey report. Survey on method of environmental-impact assessment in wind power development; 1998 nendo furyoku kaihatsu ni okeru kankyo eikyo hyoka shuho chosa hokokusho



    With the purpose of preparing the main points of 'environmental-impact assessment guidelines for wind power developments (draft)', examples of environmental-impact assessments, related laws and regulations in Japan and abroad were collected, and rearranged in respect to requirements in environmental-assessments, concrete procedures, survey/projection/assessment method, summarisation of results, etc. It was clarified, for example; in a large-scale wind power development, it can be dealt with by choosing items and contents on the assumption that a land area is developed; in a small-scale development, there is basically no need of considering the possible effect of the construction work; and, as far as noise, vibration and the ecosystem (plants/animals) are concerned, however, the characteristics of the site be taken into consideration. Objects for general assessment are noise, low-frequency air vibration, radio wave interference, the ecosystem (plants and animals) and the landscape. The guideline draft is constituted of (1) basic items, (2) overview of the area, (3) determination of items for environmental-impact assessment and (4) research, prediction, assessment, conservation measures and follow-up research; in the basic items, importance of preliminary consideration was emphasized, as were priority/simplification, implementation of environmental conservation measures, and implementation of follow-up research. (NEDO)

  8. Experimental study of exhaust noise generated by pulsating flow downstream of pipe end; Myakudoryu ni yori yukisareru kantanbu karyu ni okeru haiki soon no jikkenteki kenkyu

    Higashiyama, J; Iwamoto, J [Tokyo Denki University, Tokyo (Japan)


    A experimental study was carried out for the emissoin of the exhaust noise from an open end of the pipe generated by the pulsating flow in the pipe. The pressure histories along the pipe, the exhaust noise and visualized the flow field downstream of the pipe end were obtained. And a characteristic of frequency for the exhaust noise was examined, using Wigner distribution (WD). A relation between the pulsating flow in the pipe and the exhaust noise was important for understanding the mechanism of the exhaust noise generation. 4 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Surge analysis of the MAGLEV coil for propulsion and guidance; Jiki fujoshiki tetsudo ni okeru suitei annaiyo coil no surge kaiseki

    Ema, S [Numazu College of Technology, Shizuoka (Japan)


    The MAGLEV (magnetically levitated train) is now well along in development testing in Japan. MAGLEV is unlike conventional railways, so various problems lie in the technology of MAGLEV. One of them is surge analysis of the MAGLEV coil for propulsion and guidance (`coil for propulsion` for short). The coil for propulsion is installed on each side of the outdoor guideway. Thus, the power system of MAGLEV is always exposed to lightning and circuit switching. Accordingly, it is very important to do a rational insulation plan to prevent damage when surges enter the coils. In view of this situation I performed experiments using the mini model coils and clarified impulse voltage distribution at the end of each coil and simulated the surge characteristics by giving the inverted L equivalent circuit to the coil for propulsion. As a result, the measured values and calculated values were almost equal in the surge characteristics. Further, the surge characteristics of the Miyazaki test track and the future MAGLEV were examined. 10 refs., 17 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Countermeasure for the magnetic drag force in guideway structure of superconducting magnetic levitation Vehicle system (MAGLEV); Chodendo jiki fujoshiki tetsudo no kozobutsu ni okeru denjiki taisaku

    Ichikawa, A [JR Railway Technical Research Inst., Tokyo (Japan)


    As for the levitation vehicle system, the vehicle is equipped with superconducting magnets and is levitated about 10cm by the electromagnetic force that works between the push coil and levitation guide coil laid on the ground and it runs 500km an hour. But, the running resistance and energy loss called as magnetic resistance caused by the electromagnet phenomenon that generates between the superconducting magnets and structures (steel products) generate. In this paper, the magnet resistance generated in guideway structure of superconducting magnetic levitation vehicle system and its countermeasures therefor are introduced. The main countermeasures against the magnetic resistance are as follows. The steel products have to be as arranged as separated from the superconducting magnets as far as possible in the permissible design limit. Based on the analysis results the low magnetic steel would be used in an area within 1.5m from the strand of the superconducting magnet. The contact resistance of the joints part of loop-shaped components would be bigger so as to do not cause the loop current. And the big component would be divided into small parts when it is used near to the superconducting magnets. 5 refs., 10 figs.

  11. Technical comparison of communication equipment of high speed railways between Japan and Europe. Tsushin setsubi ni okeru Nichio no gijutsu hikaku (kosoku tetsudo)

    Sasaki, S [Railway Technology Research Institute, Tokyo (Japan)


    This paper compares and explains pieces of communication equipment in high-speed railways in Japan and Europe. The Shinkansen railways in Japan adopted a train wireless communication of the LCX system in 400-MHz band (partly a spatial wave system) that is used for orders, business operations, and public telephone lines, as well as data communications. Almost all of the European countries use the UIC system train wireless communication (the UIC Standard specifies the operation methods, criteria for communication quality assurance, frequency allocation plans, wireless line control systems, and control signals). This paper summarizes the systems adopted in Japan and Europe by the following items: order telephones, data communications, on-board public telephone service, measures against tunnel interference, track-side transmission cabling facilities, and seat reservation systems. The paper indicates that the communication facilities in the Shinkansen railways are distinguished from those for the conventional railway services to meet the requirement of high-speed and large-number conveyance, while the communication facilities in the European high-speed railways are interchangeable with those for the conventional railway lines. 7 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Characteristic analysis of turbulent heat diffusion in a multi-compartment structure; Takukakuka kukan kozo ni okeru ranryunetsu kakusan gensho no kaiseki

    Hu, C; Fukuchi, N [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering


    An analysis was made on turbulent heat diffusion in a multi-compartment structure necessary for designing calorific power and environment for functional systems used in marine vessels and off-shore structures. In a multi-compartment structure, the diffusion phenomenon is complex because of movement of air flow in turbulence and buoyancy resulted from non-isothermal condition. The phenomenon is largely affected by space shapes and walls, and the conditions in heat diffusion field is governed also by shapes of opening connecting the compartments. An analysis was made by using the SIMPLE method on turbulent heat diffusion in a multi-compartment space with high Raleigh number in which natural convection is dominant. If the opening is small, the Coanda effect appears, in which air flow passing through the opening rises along the wall, wherein a high-temperature layer is formed near the ceiling, making the heat diffusion inactive. If the opening is large, a jetting flow from the opening and a large circulating flow are created, which cause active advection mixture, making temperature gradient smaller in the upper layer. Heat transfer intensity in an opening on a partition wall decays in proportion with 1/4th power of the opening ratio. 7 refs., 11 figs.

  13. Calculation of wave resistance by using Kochin function in the Rankine source method; Rankinsosuho ni okeru kochin kansu wo mochiita zoha teiko keisan

    Yasukawa, H [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    In order to avoid negative wave resistance (which is physically incomprehensible) generated in calculating wave resistance by using the Rankine source method, a proposal was made on a wave resistance calculation method using the Kochin function which describes behavior of speed potential in regions far apart from a hull. The Baba`s condition was used as a free surface condition for the speed potential which expresses wave motions around a hull. This has allowed a new Kochin function which uses as unknown the speed potential on the hull surface and the free surface near the hull to be defined and combined with the Rankine source method. A comparison was made between the calculated values for wave resistance, hull subsidence and trim change of an ore transporting vessel (SR107 type of ship) in a fully loaded condition and the result of water tank tests. The wave resistance values derived from pressure integration have all become negative when the Froude number is from 0.1 to 0.2, while no negative resistance has appeared in the calculations by using the Kochin function, but the result has agreed with that of the water tank tests. Accuracy of the calculations at low speeds was improved. The trim change in the calculations was slightly smaller than that in the water tank tests. The subsidence showed a good agreement. 7 refs., 1 fig.

  14. Study on evolution of internal damage in CFRP in fatigue process; Hiro katei ni okeru CFRP no naibu sonsho no kento

    Tanaka, K. [Nagoya Univ. (Japan); Murakami, S. [Nagoya Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Engineering


    Development of internal damage evolution in plates and thin tubular speciments of CFRP laminates under static and dynamic loadings are discussed by means of Acoustic Emission measurements and micrographical observations. The mechanical behavior of three kinds of speciments, i.e. undamaged laminate plates [+45deg{sub 4}/-45deg{sub 4}]{sub s}, damaged plates [+45deg{sub 4}/-45deg{sub 4}]{sub s} subjected to drop-weight impact and undamaged tubular speciments [ 45deg]{sub 4}, under quasi-static and fatigue loadings is observed first. Then the mechanism of the resulting inelastic behavior and the change in the mechanical properties are discussed in relation to the evolution of internal damage. Finally the distribution and the evolution of matrix crecks and delamination in the sliced section of the speciments are measured quantitatively in several stages of fatigue process. The dependence of damage distribution on the loading condition is elucidated. Namely, in the case of the stress ratio R=-0.25, the growth of damage zone involving the main crack is localized, and the main crack forms large delamination. On the other hand, for the stress ratio R=0, small cracks are distributed sparsely, but the main crack is not observed until the final stage of the fatifue process. 8 refs., 12 figs.

  15. Effect of additives in the baking of electrolytic materials for SOFC; SOFC yo denkaishitsu zairyo no shoseiji ni okeru tenkabutsu no koka

    Yoshida, H. [Kansai Electric Power Co. Inc., Osaka (Japan)


    A technique is discovered for improving on the baking properties of cerium oxide which is one of the solid electrolytic materials for SOFC (solid oxide fuel cell). Cerium oxide, samarium oxide, and gallium oxide are weighed, each to the specified element ratio. The element ratio of cerium is fixed at 0.8 against the other elements except oxygen, and the element ratios of samarium or gallium are caused to change. Specimens containing gallium are designated as CSGa, those not containing as SDC. SDC baked at 1600degC and CSGa (1%) baked at 1450degC are similar to each other in terms of average grain diameter. Specimens with gallium added thereto can be baked at temperatures that are lower than these by approximately 150degC. The conductivity of CSGa (0.2%) baked at 1500degC is higher than that of SDC baked at the same temperature, and is similar to that of SDC baked at 1600degC. Baking is enhanced by the addition of 0.2% gallium. In the domain where more than 1% of gallium is in presence, conductivity lowers with an increase in the amount of gallium added. The conductivity of CSGa (1%) baked at 1450degC is similar to that of SDC baked at 1600degC. 4 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Present status of promotion of advanced safety vehicle in phase 2 (ASV2); Dai 2 ki senshin anzen jidosha (ASV) suishin keikaku ni okeru kenkyu jokyo



    For active safety enhancement, drivers will be provided with information and warning that will help them drive with safety. Studies are under way about functions to facilitate drivers' perception and to lighten the burdens imposed on them. As for accident avoidance techniques, onboard systems will perform controls involving vehicle maneuver for safety enhancement. This includes the improvement of vehicle maneuvering performance, in addition to brake control and steering control, for lightening drivers' burdens and for complementing their operating skill. Danger avoidance is based on the concept that the related system is to work in case warnings alone are not enough to avoid a collision. Full automation will be implemented by two ways, the autonomous way aided by the existing infrastructures such as GPS (Global Positioning System) or the way in which infrastructures to be newly built will be utilized. Passive safety technologies aim at minimizing damage upon collision, and involve structural improvement, air bags, etc. Disaster aggravation prevention means to prevent disaster from spreading after collision. Communication is one of safety-related elements on which studies will continue. Under the Phase 2 ASV program, research and development will be conducted for putting passenger cars to practical use, and the same will be conducted, in the case of large vehicles and motorcycles, for the construction of their prototypes. (NEDO)

  17. Report on the field test project for wind power development at Kamiyaku Town (wind characteristics investigation); Kamiyakucho ni okeru furyoku kaihatsu field test jigyo (fukyo seisa) hokokusho



    Wind characteristics are observed for a year at the above town located at the northern end of the Yakushima island, Kagoshima Prefecture. The exponential index of the wind speed distribution in the vertical direction is 6.06 with all the directions averaged, and is so high as 8.4/13.6 in the wind directions (W/E). Prudence should be exercised, when to estimate the wind speed at the wind turbine hub altitude, against disjunction from the simple exponential law due to geographical peculiarities of the observation location. Turbulence intensity is low and is 0.15 when the wind speed is 2m/s or more, not exerting an ill effect on wind power development. As for the total wind direction occurrence rate on the prevalent wind axis, 78.2% is recorded, which is much higher than the reference value (60%). The average wind speed on this wind axis is high, and this shows that the location is quite suitable for wind power development. The annual average wind speed of 6.3m/s is much higher than the reference value, this again promising a success. The wind energy density of 478W/m{sup 2} is sufficiently high, as compared with the reference value (215W/m{sup 2}). Since there are possibilities of a maximum instantaneous wind speed of over 60m/s, caution is to be used in determining wind endurance for the wind turbine design. The annual capacity ratios for the 150/300/750kW wind turbine models are 33.8/36.5/36.9%, respectively, higher than the NEDO-provided reference value (17% or higher) and predicting sufficient power generation. (NEDO)

  18. Surveys in Hokkaido on promotion of structuring models to be introduced to convert wastes into energy; Hokkaido ni okeru haikibutsu energy ka donyu model kochiku sokushin chosa


    With an objective of converting dairy farming wastes and fisheries wastes into resources to be used as energies, this paper discusses development trends and utilization possibilities thereof based on their utilization characteristics. The Tokachi, Abashiri and Nemuro regions produce more cattle wastes, and regions on the coast of the Sea of Okhotsk produce more hepatopancreas of scallop than other regions. The amount of energy from such wastes is subject to large seasonal variations. Methane gas production through methane fermentation is an effective treatment technology, although it is utilized less effectively in Hokkaido. Important is applying the processes depending on energy demand, supply characteristics and regional features. Taking waste utilization characteristics and regionally uneven distribution of resources into account, conceptions on six model systems that could be introduced were structured. The six systems include two types for fisheries wastes utilization, three types for agricultural and dairy farming wastes, and one type for combined utilization of agricultural and fishery wastes. Important factors to select suitable commercial operation sites and promote the operations are stable quantity assurance of waste resources, energy demand, and stable operation, such as could be available in fishery processing complexes and large dairy farming areas. 44 refs., 66 figs., 29 tabs.

  19. Fiscal 1994 survey report. Survey of recent trends in CFC phaseout measures overseas; 1994 nendo shogaikoku ni okeru freon taisaku saishin doko ni kansuru chosa hokokusho



    Technical literature is referred to for the survey of recent trends in CFC (chlorofluorocarbon) phaseout in various countries overseas. The European Union will totally abolish CFC by the end of 1994 while other developed countries will totally abolish the same by the end of 1995 in compliance with the Montreal protocol. Many of the developing countries are actively striving to reduce CFC use with the help of the Multilateral Fund of Montreal. China and India have production facilities in themselves, and have not announced a phaseout program. There is a proposition for accelerating the regulation of HCFCs (hydrochlorofluorocarbons), but reliable substitutes for them are not yet available and their ozone layer restoring capability if used will be slight. It is feared that such will on the contrary retard CFC phaseout in developing countries. Accordingly, any abrupt acceleration of CFC phaseout implementation is inappropriate. Introduced in this report as fluorine-containing greenhouse gas-related information are a summary of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and the history of Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change activities. According to an American survey, the aluminum industry emits 30,000 tons of CF{sub 4} and C{sub 2}F{sub 6}, and the semiconductor manufacturing industry 2,000-3,000 tons. As for SF{sub 6}, 5,000-8,000 tons are emitted mainly by the power industry. Measures for inhibiting them are being taken. (NEDO)

  20. Catalytic effects of various catalysts in hydroprocessing of Cold Lake vacuum bottom. Cold Lake zansayu no hydroprocessing ni okeru kakushu shokubai no koka

    Yokoyama, S.; Yamamoto, M.; Maekawa, Y.; Kotanigawa, T. (Government Industrial Development Laboratory, Hokkaido, Sapporo (Japan))


    The effects of various types of catalysts were studied on hydroprocessing of Cold Lake vacuum bottom (CLVB). FeS2 [Py] of an analytical reagent grade was used as sulfide catalyst, Fe2O3(SO4)[sup 2[minus

  1. On the VPP and current administrative strategies of US OSHA; Beikoku OSHA ni okeru jishuteki anzen eisei kanri program (VPP) oyobi saikin no seisaku doko ni tsuite

    Hanayasu, S [Research Inst. of Industrial Safety, Tokyo (Japan)


    This paper describes VPP (Voluntary Protection Programs) and current administrative strategies of US Department of Labor, OSHA (Occupational Safety and Health Administration). Although VPP is conducted by the Federal Government or the state governments with original VPP, it is properly a voluntary program in which entrepreneurs independently participate. OSHA inspects the content and execution condition of every program based on a VPP standard, and after certifying a business establishment satisfying the standard as excellent one, OSHA excludes it from inspection objects for a certain period. After such a period, reinspection and renewal are repeated. This system is derived from that a voluntary program proposed by constructor of Calif. in 1978 was markedly effective to protect workers from damages. Safety and health problem includes various keywords such as internationalization, new technology, risk assessment, process control, self responsibility, information opening, and diverse policies. Although uniform regal safety and health measures are important, promotion and establishment of activities by workers and entrepreneurs themselves in a field are also important. 8 refs., 2 figs.

  2. Basic survey on a potentiality of energy-related cooperation in Vietnam; Betonamu ni okeru energy kanren kyoryoku kanosei kiban chosa



    The paper reports trends of energy, economy, and the environmental field in Vietnam. The economy of Vietnam has indicated a powerful growth in all the sectors for the first nine months of fiscal 1994. The amount of industrial products showed a growth of 12.2%, and the agriculture is supported by a growth in cash crop, despite of the damage to rice growing caused by the flood. The government announced that they expected a GDP growth rate of 8.5% in fiscal 1994 over the target of 8%. However, a hope that the government wants the inflation rate not exceeding 10% was already given up in October. The government holds a financial deficit totaling 636 million dollars. The government planned to supplement the deficit partially by increasing revenue and partially by support from overseas, but in both cases the fund was short. The trend in the finance/bank sector since August indicates that the money market is appearing. Vietnam established the foreign currency interbank market. Moreover, the government decided on establishment of the stock market up to the beginning of 1995.

  3. Study of the influence of microgravity on the biological cells and molecular level; Seitai saibo bunshi level ni okeru bisho juryoku no eikyo ni kansuru kenkyu



    The shape of osteoblast, gene appearance, gene of rice blast, cellular fusion of plants, gravity acceptance mechanism of unicellular organisms, and physiological and immunity functions of mice were investigated under the microgravity condition. The influence of gravity on the vital reaction and the influence of microgravity on the crystallization of vital substances were also investigated. For the observation of osteoblast, the fluorescence dye reacted with Ca was well taken in the cells. The microgravity affected the stability of rice blast, but hardly affected the protoplast culture of mushroom. The reaction of ciliate against the gravity related to the specific gravity difference between cells and outer liquid. The level of adrenaline in blood of mice increased during the drop. The moving speed of trigger waves of chemical parallel slit formed at the BZ reaction under the microgravity became 60% to 80% of that on the ground. In the case of crystallization at the deposition agent concentration of 1% to 4%, the turbidity showing the degree of crystallization changed complicatedly. Nine processes of crystal growth were recognized. 21 refs., 55 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Results of photovoltaic power generation system operation in Tokyo Electric Power Company; Tokyo Denryoku ni okeru taiyoko hatsuden setsubi no unten jisseki ni tsuite

    Fukuda, H; Itokawa, K [Tokyo Electric Power Co. Inc., Tokyo (Japan)


    A report was made on the measurement of data and the results of the analysis at 14 sites of photovoltaic power generation facilities operated under system interconnection by Tokyo Electric Power Company. This type of system is provided in 40 sites as of the end of fiscal 1995, generating 479kw. The items measured were the generated electric energy at all 14 sites, and the quantity of solar radiation, outside air temperature, panel temperature, etc., at limited sites; and the capacity of each equipment, azimuth and inclination of the panel were also recorded simultaneously. Hourly values were used for the analysis. Five minute values were utilized, however, in the examination of the cause of lowered output and in the situation recognition of the influence of the shade or the change of weather. The utilization factor of the facilities was in the average 10.8% in fiscal 1994 and 10.7% in fiscal 1995. The factor decreased slightly unless the panel azimuth faced due south. The utilization factor at the panel inclination of 35 degrees and 45 degrees showed both 10.4% through the year making no difference. The system seemed to show no overwhelming possibilities in coping with electric power demand. The reason was that deviation existed for 2 hours or so in the peak and that reliability was low as basic power facilities. However, it was determined that the system be continuously examined in future. 9 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Detection of arcing ground fault location on a distribution network connected PV system; Hikarihatsuden renkei haidensen ni okeru koko chiryaku kukan no kenshutsuho

    Sato, M; Iwaya, K; Morooka, Y [Hachinohe Institute of Technology, Aomori (Japan)


    In the near future, it is supposed that a great number of small-scale distributed power sources, such as photovoltaic power generation for general houses, will be interconnected with the ungrounded neutral distribution system in Japan. When ground fault of commercial frequency once occurs, great damage is easily guessed. This paper discusses the effect of the ground fault on the ground phase current using a 6.6 kV high-voltage model system by considering the non-linear self-inductance in the line, and by considering the non-linear relation of arcing ground fault current frequency. In the present method, the remarkable difference of series resonance frequency determined by the inductance and earth capacity between the source side and load side is utilized for the detection of high-voltage arcing ground fault location. In this method, there are some cases in which the non-linear effect obtained by measuring the inductance of sound phase including the secondary winding of transformer can not be neglected. Especially, for the actual high-voltage system, it was shown that the frequency characteristics of transformer inductance for distribution should be theoretically derived in the frequency range between 2 kHz and 6 kHz. 2 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Report on the field test project for wind power development at Soyo Town (wind characteristics investigation); Soyomachi ni okeru furyoku kaihatsu field test jigyo (fukyo seisa) hokokusho



    Wind characteristics are observed for a year at Soyo Town, Aso-gun, Kumamoto Prefecture. The annual average wind speed is 5.9m/s and 5.6m/s at 20m and 10m above ground, respectively, satisfying the reference values of 5.6m/s and 5.0m/s. The prevalent wind direction is WNW (occurrence rate: 32.8%). The wind from the directions with WNW at their middle occupies 75%, stable and satisfying the reference value of 60%. Strong winds come frequently from the direction of high occurrence, which is advantageous in arranging plural wind turbine systems. The exponential index in the wind speed vertical distribution is 13.3, but wind distribution is not simple at a mountain top site like the observation station in this report. Wind characteristics are similar to those at places with mild inundations, and the maximum instantaneous wind speed of 40.8m/s will not pose a problem. The wind energy density is 205W/m{sup 2}, satisfying the reference value of 150. Wind power systems of 150kW, 300kW, and 750kW are assumed. When the exponential index is 13.3, their annual operation rates will be 70%, 71%, and 82%; and their capacity ratios are 22.6%, 23.9%, and 22.9%, all satisfying the reference values. They will collect 297MWh, 629MWh, and 1507MWh of wind energy per year. It is concluded that Soyo Town is fully qualified as a site for wind power development. (NEDO)

  7. Formation of secondary products in water purification. ; Charactarization of chlorination by-products. Josui shori ni okeru fukuseiseibutsu. ; Enso shori ni yoru shodoku fukuseiseibutsu no seisei tokusei

    Aizawa, T [The Inst. of Public Health, Tokyo (Japan)


    Chlorination of drinking water is an inevitable process for the purification of drinking water. It has been made clear that injected free chlorine reacts with organic matter in water to produce chlorinated by-products. Many of those compounds are toxic, and studies have been made on the international water quality standard. Water quality standard has been revised also in Japan. The sources of organic matter which is the cause for production of chlorinated by-products vary according to the kinds and conditions of the water source for drinking water. Removal of precursors in the original water, removal of by-products, and change in the disinfection system with alternate disinfectant for chlorine are among the measures for decreasing chlorinated by-products at water purification plants, but the first one is employed as the basis method. It is expected that more severe regulation may be imposed on the quality of the water source for drinking water, and more strict oxidation and disinfection systems is inevitable for water management based on the new water quality standard. 10 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Electrolyte loss mechanism of molten carbonate fuel cells. 1; Yoyu tansan`engata nenryo denchi ni okeru denkaishitsu loss kiko ni tsuite. 1

    Sonai, A; Murata, K [Toshiba Research and Development Center, Kawasaki (Japan)


    During a single-cell disassembly test of molten carbonate fuel cells having been operated for 90 hours to 5500 hours, correlativity was discovered between decrease in the retained amount of electrolyte due to decrease in pore capacity of electrodes and electrolyte plates and the electrolyte loss. The electrolyte loss amount cannot be explained with the conventional mechanisms, thereby a new model was proposed. The cathode has shown very little change in the capacity change in pores with diameters smaller than 2 {mu}m per unit area. The anode has remained almost constant after 1000 hours, but the electrolyte plates have shown remarkable decrease. Therefore, it is possible to estimate that the electrolyte plates should have been the major cause for the electrolyte loss. The result of measuring the electrolyte loss amount agreed well with that estimated using pore capacity curves. This fact suggests that the electrolyte loss can be explained by a new mechanism that hypothesizes the existence of a largest size of retaining pores that can support carbonates and defines that the electrolyte loss is generated from decrease in the pore capacity. 7 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Introduction of a method of constructing heat preventing panels in holds in freezing carrier. Reito unpansen ni okeru sonai bonetsu panel koho no shokai

    Kawaki, T; Fujita, H; Yamamoto, K


    A freezing carrier is a dedication ship to transport frozen and refrigerated cargoes such as foodstuffs loaded in holds. Ship's heat preventing devices must have the heat insulating structure formed according to complex shapes characteristic to an ocean vessel, and the most part of the work is done by skilled technicians working on the site. Therefore, discussions have been given on a heat preventing structure using a panel construction method aiming at simplifying cross sections to more efficient and uniform shapes, and hold shapes and work in them to more suitable for palletized packaging styles, and improving working environments. The results of the discussions have been applied to two ships for the first time, and the effects have been verified. This paper reports its specifications and construction. The heat preventing panel is a sandwiched composite of a surface material and a polyurethane foam, made to a panel size of about 1 m [times] 2 m. Joints are fixed by fasteners. The present ships have adopted such a form that the side walls are vertical, but the floor area and the clear height are the same as the conventional construction methods. Good heat insulation performance and workability have been verified, and results that are expected of further development have been obtained. 7 figs.

  10. Velocity profiles of acoustic streaming in resulting stokes layer by acoustic standing wave in a duct; Kannai kichi shindo ni okeru stokes sonai onkyoryu ryusoku bunpu no kaiseki

    Arakawa, M; Kawahashi, M [Saitama University, Saitama (Japan). Faculty of Engineering


    Acoustic streaming is generated by Reynolds stress in the sense of mean acoustic momentum flux in a sound field. In the case of an acoustic standing wave produced by an air column oscillation in a closed duct, the friction and the Reynolds stress in the resulting Stokes layer are the essentials of acoustic streaming generation in the vicinity of the duct wall. The thickness of the Stokes layer decreases with the oscillatory Reynolds number. The plane wave propagation in the duct is assumed for the case of high Reynolds number except for the thin Stokes layer adjacent to the duct wall. The velocity profiles of the streaming are estimated theoretically from the steady component of the second-order term of a perturbation expansion in which the first-order approximation is a sinusoidal oscillation of the air column with plane waves. The present paper describes theoretical analysis of the velocity profiles of the acoustic streaming in the Stokes layer by means of the matched asymptotic expansion method. The results obtained show the existence of reverse streaming in a very thin layer adjacent to the wall and the effects of thermal boundary conditions at the wall on the velocity profiles of acoustic streaming in the Stokes layer. 9 refs., 8 figs.

  11. Metal droplet holdup in the thick slag layer subjected to bottom gas injection; Gas sokofuki wo tomonau atsui slag sonai ni okeru metal teki no holdup

    Takashima, S; Iguchi, M [Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan)


    Model experiments were carried out to investigate the bubble and liquid flow characteristics in a bottom blowing bath covered with a thick slag layer typical of in-bath smelting reduction processes. An aqueous ZnCl{sub 2} solution and silicone oil were used as the models for molten metal and molten slag, respectively. The density ratio of the solution to the silicone oil was 1.7, being close to a steel/slag density ratio of 2.0 to 2.2 in practice. The diameter of a vessel containing the two liquids was changed over a wide range. The holdup of the solution carried up by bubbles into the upper silicone oil layer was measured with a suction tube. The volume of the solution, V{sub m}, was dependent mainly on the density difference. Empirical correlations of V{sub m} and the penetration height of the solution were derived. (author)

  12. Mean ascending velocity of powder entrained by gas in a packed bed; Juten sonai ni okeru kiryu ni dohansareru funtai no heikin josho sokudo

    Ariyama, T; Sato, M; Asakawa, Y [NKK Corp., Tokyo (Japan)


    For the purpose of clarifying the behavior of fine particles entrained by upward gas in the packed bed like in a blast furnace, the mean ascending velocity of powder in the packed bed was measured by the residence time distribution of the tracer powder. According the results, it was found that the measured velocity was lower than the values predicted by the successive collision model of fine particles. The difference is considered to be caused by the stagnant zone of fine particles on the packed materials, and this behavior was confirmed by the observation in the two dimensional experimental apparatus. Namely, the dynamic hold-up of powder in the packed bed was composed of the particles entrained by the upward gas and the stagnant particles on the packed material, and the latter part was successively renewed by the powder carried by gas. Then, on the basis of the above results, the relation between stagnant time and local ascending velocity were experimentally correlated with solid-gas loading ratio, and it was found that there exists a certain relation among them. The model proposed by these experiments enabled to calculate the mean ascending velocity of powder in the packed bed. 6 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Hydrogen cracking susceptibility evaluation of buried steel pipe under cathodic protection. Cathode boshokuka ni okeru maisetsu kokan no suisoware kanjusei hyoka

    Yamaguchi, Y.; Nonaka, H. (Osaka Gas Co. Ltd., Osaka (Japan)); Yamakawa, K. (University of Osaka Prefecture, Osaka (Japan). College of Engineering)


    An evaluation was given on effects of hydrogen on pipeline materials in order to determine a most base value in an optimal cathodic protection potential in cathodic protection of buried pipelines. Protection potentials were estimated from the relation between critical hydrogen amount and the potentials in marine clays and sodium acetate as electrolyte. The materials were evaluated using a strain rate tensile experiment method. The following results were obtained: The more base the potential, the elongation was somewhat less than the result in air, while the tensile strength increased slightly; difference in water content in soils varies the cross section contraction rate; the rate does not change in a marine clay containing water at 20%, but it decreases in a 30%-content soil; an SEM observation revealed pseudo cleavage faces; and the critical hydrogen amount that causes hydrogen cracking is 10 ppb, which corresponds to -1.4V in a marine clay containing water at 30%, and -1.2V at 14%. A loading experiment with actual loads verified that no fracture due to hydrogen cracking occurs even under an overprotection environment when a load imposed on an actual pipeline is kept constant. 16 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. Test work of sand compaction pile method on coal ash soil foundation. Sekitanbai jiban ni okeru sand compaction pile koho no shiken seko

    Goto, K.; Maeda, S.; Shibata, T. (The Kansai Electric Power Co. Inc., Osaka (Japan))


    As an electric power supply source after the 1990 {prime}s, Nos. 5 and 6 units are additionally being constructed by Kansai Electric Power in its Himeji Power Station No.1 which is an exclusively LNG burning power station. The additional construction site of those units is of soil foundation reclaimed with coal ash which was used residual product in the existing No.1 through No.4 units. As a result of soil foundation survey, the coal ash layer and sand layer were known to be of material to be possibly liquidized at the time of earthquake. As measures against the liquidization, application was basically made of a sand compaction pile (SCP) method which is economical and abundant in record. However, that method was so short of record in the coal ash layer that its evaluation was difficult in soil reforming effect. Therefore, its applicability was evaluated by a work test on the site, which resulted in a confirmation that the coal ash as well as the sand can be sufficiently reformed by the SCP method. Started in September, 1991, the additional construction of Nos. 5 and 6 units in Himeji Power Station No.1 uses a 1.5m pitch SCP method to reform the soil foundation. 3 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Studies on substitutional protein sources for fish meal in the diet of Japanese flounder; Hirame shiryo ni okeru miriyo shigen no riyo

    Kikuchi, K; Furuta, T; Sakaguchi, I [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan)


    Effectiveness of livestock industry wastes and vegetable protein added to fish meal in fish farming is tested by feeding the Japanese flounder. In the experiment, a part or the whole of the fish meal protein is replaced by the meat meal (MM), meat and bone meal (MBM), corngluten meal (CGM), or dried silkworm pupa meal (SPM), and fries of the Japanese flounder are fed on the new diets for eight weeks. On a diet containing 60% or less of MM, no change is detected in the fish in terms of increase in weight, protein efficiency ratio, and blood components, indicating that 60% at the highest of fish meal may be replaced by MM. In the case of MBM, it can occupy approximately 20%. As for CGM, the proper substitution rate is approximately 40%. Essential amino acids that the new diets may lack are added for an approximately 10% improvement on the result. The SPM substitution works up to 40%, when, however, the blood components are degraded. The proper substitution rate is therefore placed at approximately 20%. 38 refs., 2 figs., 17 tabs.

  16. Application of streaming potential method for detection of fractures in granitic rock. part 2; Kamaishi kozan ni okeru ryutai ryudo den`iho tekiyo shiken. 2

    Negi, T; Yoneda, Y [Nittetsu Mining Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Senba, T [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Tokyo (Japan)


    Streaming potential method has been applied in the Kamaishi Mine. In FY 1995, self-potential (SP) was monitored on the wall of gallery by varying the pressure in the well with open/close operation of the mouth of well having spring water, which was drilled from the gallery. It was confirmed that SP changes remarkably at the wall having a great number of fractures with spring water. It was considered that the change in SP is due to the streaming potential generated by the flowing underground water from the gallery side to the fractures in the well. In this paper, this continuity of the wall of gallery and the fractures in the well is estimated. In the present tests, SP changes were observed at walls of surrounding galleries by varying the pressure in the well with open/close operation of the mouth of borehole at various drilling depths during drilling of borehole. As a result, SP changes were observed at the wall of gallery when reaching to the depth with increased spring water. The results agreed well with the test results conducted at the same field in FY 1995. It was confirmed that the streaming potential method is a useful method for grasping the hydraulic continuity in the rocks. 2 refs., 9 figs.

  17. Application of resistivity-based high-density prospecting to embankments with underground structure; Chika kozobutsu wo yusuru moritsuchi ni okeru hiteiko komitsudo tansa no tekiyosei

    Matsui, T; Park, G [Osaka University, Osaka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Ueno, N [Dai Nippon Construction, Gifu (Japan); Park, K [Osaka University, Osaka (Japan)


    A structure was embedded in an embankment with homogeneous sandy soil. Resistivity was measured using three kinds of arrays, to investigate effects of the array on the underground structure. For a vertical structural model with high resistivity and a horizontal structural model with low resistivity, location of the underground structure could be grasped from the apparent resistivity profiles by individual arrays. For a transverse structural model with high resistivity, location of the underground structure could be grasped from the apparent resistivity profiles using Wenner array and pole-pole array. However, it could not be grasped from the apparent resistivity profile using dipole-dipole array. Based on the resistivity measurements for individual structural models, the dipole-dipole array was suitable for the vertical structural model, the pole-pole array was suitable for the transverse structural model, and the Wenner array was suitable for the horizontal structural model. Thus, the best apparent resistivity profiles and contrasts were obtained for individual structural models. 7 refs., 7 figs.

  18. Application of magnetotelluric method to hydrocarbon exploration in the Yurihara oil and gas field, northeast Japan; Akitaken Yurihara gasu den ni okeru MT ho jikken chosa. 2

    Mitsuhata, Y [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan); Matsuo, K; Minegishi, M [Japan National Oil Corp., Tokyo (Japan). Technology Research Center


    Experiment and investigation are conducted in the Yurihara District, Akita Prefecture, to verify that the magnetotelluric (MT) method can be effectively applied to oil and gas fields. In the Yurihara district there exist a number of pits dug for exploration or production, and records on seismic surveys conducted, and therefore the geological structure of this district can be explained fairly well. The oil and gas reservoirs belong in the Nishikurosawa stratum overlain by the Onagawa stratum and Funakawa stratum. The Nishikurosawa rocks, basaltic rocks for example, present a resistivity of approximately 5 ohm/m which is higher than that of the other two that is more or less 1 ohm/m. Under the circumstances, experiment and investigation are conducted so as to detect the Nishikurosawa basaltic rocks as a high-resistivity stratum located under low-resistivity strata by use of the MT method. As the result, a high-resistivity stratum corresponding to the Nishikurosawa basaltic stratum is detected under low-resistivity strata, and the three-dimensional structure of the basaltic stratum is disclosed. In this stratum, the resistivity value gradually increases from south toward north with occasional abrupt rises, and it is found that such abrupt rises result from oil and gas producing strata where exploitation is under way. 5 refs., 6 figs.

  19. Acoustic surveys of the southern extension of the Tomikawa fault off Kamiiso in Hakodate bay, southwest Hokkaido; Hakodatewan Kamiisooki ni okeru Tomikawa danso enchobu no onpa tansa

    Uchida, Y; Sagayama, T; Osawa, M; Hamada, S; Suga, [Hokkaido Geological Survey, Sapporo (Japan)


    With an objective to identify extension into sea area of the Tomikawa fault in southwest Hokkaido, an acoustic survey was carried out off Kamiiso in Hakodate Bay. Using a sound wave exploring machine transmitting frequencies from 5.5 to 8.5 kHz, the acoustic survey was conducted on a workboat cruising at speeds of 4 to 6 knots. The courses of traverse were set on the sea area off from Kamiiso Tomikawa Town to Moheji Town based on the sediment distribution map and the geological map. A total of 17 courses were set: 16 in the east to west direction so as to cross the extension of active faults on the land, and one in the south to north direction. The east-west courses had a length of about 2 km with the line interval of about 300 m, while the south-north course extended nearly parallel with the coast line over a distance of 4.8 km. As a result of the present investigation, verification was given on existence of boundary faces with different sediment structures and displacement falling eastward on several courses of traverse running from east to west. If the locations of these boundary faces are connected, its strike agrees well with the strike of the Tomikawa fault on the land. From the fact that its extension is linked to the end section of the fault, a possibility was shown that the land fault may be extending into the sea area. 8 refs., 4 figs.

  20. MT survey in the Minaminoshiro oil field; Minaminoshiro chiiki ni okeru MT ho ni yoru sekiyu tanko (sanjigen MT ho chosa no kento). 1

    Matsuo, K; Minegishi, M [Japan National Oil Corp., Tokyo (Japan). Technology Research Center


    Preliminary experiment, investigation, and study are conducted prior to an experimental 3-D MT (magnetotelluric) survey planned to be carried out in the Minaminoshiro district, Akita Prefecture. In the preliminary investigation, MT measurements were performed at nine locations. It was anticipated that national highways, waste treatment plants, high-voltage power lines, and railways in presence in the district would act as noise sources. Although the impact of such noise was detected in the single site treatment result, yet it was found that it would be mostly eliminated by use of the remote reference treatment. It was learned that the resistivity structure in this district was quite low in contrast or 1 ohm/m against 30 ohm/m, but the result of 3-D model calculation indicated that a sufficient analysis would be possible even in such a low contrast case. Furthermore, as the result of the study of the density of observation stations in the magnetic field, it was found that changes in the response of magnetic field to the resistivity structure would be approximately 2% at the maximum and that the ill effect on the result of measurement would be of the negligible magnitude even when a single magnetic field observation station is deployed against plural electric field observation stations. 6 refs., 7 figs.

  1. 3D seismic experiment in the Minaminoshiro area, Akita. Data processing; Akitaken Minaminoshiro chiiki ni okeru sanjigen jishin tansa jikken. Data shori

    Tanaka, H; Minegishi, M [Japan National Oil Corp., Tokyo (Japan). Technology Research Center; Nakagami, K [Japan Petroleum Exploration Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    A 3D seismic experiment was carried out in the Minaminoshiro area in Akita Prefecture, an area difficult of performing seismic exploration. This paper reports progresses during data processing and future problems. The data processing has executed static correction of 3D refraction, 3D DMO correction, and an F-X prediction filter processing on the data in time domain in the 3D seismic exploration as acquired in a spread of 4 km times 5 km in the subject area. The result of the data processing verified existence of a folding structure and the Noshiro thrust fault groups in the east to west direction, and locations of the Sakagawa fault associated therewith. Seen particularly noticeably was a structure having a slope falling north-ward at 15 to 35 degrees in shallow and deep portions on the east side of the Sakagawa fault in the south to north direction. In addition, the Dogiri fault was identified, which has been though to exist in a direction crossing perpendicularly the Noshiro thrust fault groups. It is scheduled that spatial velocity will be analyzed, and data processing will be conducted for deep regions. 7 figs.

  2. High-resolution S-wave reflection survey in a linear depression; Senjo kubochi ni okeru kobunkaino S ha hanshaho tansa

    Inazaki, T [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan); Sasaki, Y [Kyushu Regional Construction Bureau, Fukuoka (Japan)


    An attempt was made to apply a method combining the high-resolution S-wave reflection survey with boring to a fault survey at the Kuju town, Oita Prefecture. The investigation area has a linear depression area as small as about 600 m from east to west and about 100 m from north to south surround by mountain slopes. The boundary section with mountain peaks at the north ridge of the depression area is linear, and existence of a southward falling normal fault has been indicated. The seismic investigation has employed an artificial plank hammering method, and the derived data were processed by using the processing software, Vista for Windows. The Bin interval was 25 cm, the S-wave velocity ranged from 100 to 150 m/s, and the spatial resolution was estimated at several ten centimeters or less. The resolution is thought sufficient for assessing the fault location and displacement. The acquired depth cross sections presented distinct structural discontinuity, from which the fault locations were estimated. However, for displacements in the base bed and upper beds, the reflected waves fell into disorder at the faults, having made a detailed assessment difficult. 4 figs., 1 tab.

  3. High resolution aeromagnetic and radiometric survey in the Hokusatsu district, Japan; Hokusatsu Kushikino chiiki ni okeru kobunkaino kuchu jiki hoshano tansa kekka ni tsuite

    Hishida, H; Yoshioka, K [Metal Mining Agency of Japan, Tokyo (Japan)


    In FY 1996, aeromagnetic and radiometric survey was performed in the whole area of Hokusatsu district using a helicopter fixed with a stinger mount system with high density 200 m line spacing at low altitude of 80 m, which was the first in Japan. Based on the existing geological maps, Landsat TM data and radiometric data, lithologies and geological structures were extracted in response to individual magnetic characteristics in the whole magnetic map. Obtained geological characteristics are as follows. Straight magnetic anomalies suggested volcanic lava flows. Isolated ring-shaped magnetic anomalies suggested intrusive rocks. Ring-shaped weak magnetic anomalies suggested the centers of volcanoes. Wide range intense magnetic anomalies were caused by deep intrusive rocks. Wide range weak magnetic anomalies were caused by dissipation of magnetite due to hydrothermal alteration. Faults and fracture zones were recognized as linear configurations of magnetic anomaly and divided magnetic anomalies. Based on these results, local geological structures, hydrothermal alterations, and mineralization of known ore deposits were interpreted. 6 refs., 5 figs.

  4. Survey result of airborne electromagnetic survey in the Hachimantai Sumikawa landslide area; Hachimantai Sumikawa jisuberi ni okeru kuchu denjiho chosa kekka

    Konishi, N; Nakamura, N; Miyamoto, T [Nippon Engineering Consultant Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    For the study of a landslide that occurred at Hachimantai Sumikawa, Akita Prefecture, an airborne electromagnetic survey is conducted for the examination of the relationship between the spot of landslide and solfataric clay (bluish gray clay). The location is a cap block type structure with a Neogene green tuff overlain by accumulated lava flow, where hot water is very active. The system used in this study is capable of measurement across a very wide frequency range, and measurements are made simultaneously at five frequencies of 220Hz, 1100Hz, 5500Hz, 27,500Hz, and 137,500Hz, these frequencies meaning depth levels 5m-70m explored. It is found that the spot of landslide matches a region where resistivity is so low as to be not higher than 10ohm/m. It is also found, in the resistivity cross section analysis for the middle part of the spot of landslide, that the mass of soil that moved on the upper part of the spot is relatively high in resistivity while the part below the slide surface is low in resistivity. There is agreement between the results reported above and the results of on-site investigations. 4 refs., 6 figs.

  5. Remote sensing data analysis for assessment of sea level change in Asia; Asia ni okeru kaisuijun hendo eikyo hyoka no tame no remote sensing gazo kaiseki

    Okubo, Y; Tanaka, A [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan); Kaku, M [Bishimetal Exploration Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    Remote sensing images include information of coastal land division, sea level change such as sedimentary environment and vegetation, and distribution of artificial structures. Past sea level changes and their causes can be regionally obtained by analyzing these data and by integrating them with information obtained from geological survey. In this study, causes and history of past sea level changes, formation mechanism of coastal topography, and past sea level change survey in Thailand have been reviewed. This paper describes an extraction method of the sea level change information in coastal districts by analyzing several actual remote sensing images. For understanding the current sea level rise, it is required to clarify the causes quantitatively among three causes of sea level changes, i.e., volumetric change of total ocean water on the earth, relative sea level change due to the crustal deformation, and change of irregularity of sea surface with ocean current. It is also required to compile maps in Asian or global scales. 13 refs., 6 figs.

  6. Quantitative determination of flame color and its determining factor in hydrocarbon/air laminar diffusion flames; Soryu kakusan kaen ni okeru kaenshoku no teiryoka to sono kettei yoin

    Tatsuta, S. [Asahikawa National College of Technology, Hokkaido (Japan); Fujita, O.; Ito, K. [Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan)


    The color of laminar diffusion flames burning propane, methane and ethylene was determined by chromaticity coordinates (x, y) defined by the CIE 1931 standard colorimetric system. The differences in flame color attributed to burning condition and fuel types were examined with a colorimeter. Spectroscopic measurement and numerical analysis using a simplified radiation model were also carried out to discuss the determining factors of the flame color. The relation between x and y measured on the central axis of the flames was expressed in the experimental equations. The (x, y) in the luminous region plotted on a chromaticity diagram changed along Planckian locus with the burning conditions. The contribution of the thermal radiation of soot particles and the chemiluminescence to the flame color was successfully evaluated by introducing the concept of additive mixture of color stimuli. The (x, y) profiles from the numerical analysis agreed well with the experimental results. 17 refs., 14 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Output characteristics of 40 kW photovoltaic power generation system in ICT; Ibaraki kosen ni okeru 40 kW taiyoko hatsuden shisutemu no shutsuryoku tokusei

    Sekiguchi, N. [Ibaraki National College of Tech., Ibaraki (Japan); Tani, T. [Science University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)


    The photovoltaic power generation system consists of photovoltaic array and power conditioner of the utility connected system. The photovoltaic array parallelly constitutes 18 serial 30 of the modules of 540 sheets, and there is the generating capacity of largest 40 kW. The power conditioner uses 10 kW four units, and it is tracking with function of the maximum output point. This report examined the unconformable rate of photovoltaic array maximum output operating voltage, current and power in simulation and power conditioner input. (author)

  8. Study of the heat island phenomenon in large cities and the measures to prevent it; Daitoshi ni okeru heat island gensho to sono taisaku ni kansuru kenkyu

    Kawasaki, T.; Ishitani, H.; Matsuhashi, T. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering


    The paper made an analysis of the heat island phenomenon in the Kanto area using 3-D numerical analysis models and a study on the effectiveness of the measures to prevent it. The models are composed of advection/diffusion models of heat/steam in the wind-velocity field and atmospheric air, heat diffusion models in the underground and undersea, and heat balance models on the ground surface and sea surface. In the calculation, a simulation was conducted of the case of taking the following three measures: the case where the exhaust heat was reduced 30% in the assumed typical day of summer; the case where the heat volume of buildings/trunk roads was reduced; the case where the evaporation efficiency of buildings/trunk roads was raised. The result of the study was as follows: The reduction effect of the exhaust heat is totally large, but precisely observing, some meshes contrarily showed rises in temperature in the suburbs. Also in the case of reducing the heat volume, the same phenomenon occurred, but the effect was large in the center of a city. It was found that the effect was unexpectedly large in the case of increasing the evaporation efficiency. 7 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Status and outlook of CFD technology at Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Nagoya. Mitsubishi Meiko ni okeru CFD gijutsu no genjo to tenbo

    Tanioka, T [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    The present and future were reviewed of CFD (computational fluid dynamics) technology in Nagoya Works, Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., Japan. The progress of the role of CFD in aerodynamic design and progress of CFD technology were reviewed. The followings were illustrated as examples of CFD analysis: design of a main wing for transonic private aircrafts by backward analysis, analysis of an airframe shape for the MU300 jet airplane with a panel method, Navier-stokes (NS) analysis of a transonic wing section, NS analysis of pressure distributions on the surfaces of the YXX airplane and space shuttle HOPE, and NS analysis of an aerodynamic heating distribution for spaceplanes. CFD tools were outlined for every developmental item such as a main wing, and requirements and subjects in practical use were discussed of several CFD tools for a rough check, precise performance check and parametric study. Such computer performance as a main memory capacity and processing speed required for the future practical use of advanced CFD was also discussed. 20 figs.

  10. Oxidation characteristics of Ti-14Al-21Nb alloy at high temperature in purified oxygen; Ti-14Al?-21Nb gokin no sansochu ni okeru koon sanka tokusei

    Akai, M; Taniguchi, S; Shibata, T [Osaka University, Osaka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering


    The Ti-14Al-21Nb alloy called Super {alpha}{sub 2} is an alloy which has been improved of plastic transformation ability by adding Nb into Ti3Al with high specific strength, and is used for member materials in aircraft engines. In order to identify its oxidation characteristics, this paper discusses the oxidation characteristics under purified oxygen and atmospheric pressure in temperatures ranging from 1000 K to 1300 K. The experiment made a button-formed ingot with a diameter of 50 mm and a thickness of about 10 mm by melting and thermal refining, and used a thermobalance. Main conclusion thus obtained may be summarized as follows: the amount of increase due to oxidation after 100 ks oxidation at 1000 K is very small; oxidation between 1100 K and 1200 K follows nearly the parabolic rate laws; the scale consisted mainly of rutile, but a thin alumina concentration layer is formed; Nb is concentrated in the rutile-alumina mixed layer, and local fracture and regeneration are repeated at temperatures higher than 1300 K. 21 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Experimental study of high-speed counter-rotation propeller on low speed wind range; Dojiku hantengata kosoku propeller no teisokuiki ni okeru fudo jikken



    Collaborative research was conducted by National Aerospace Laboratory and Japan Aircraft Development Company in the period of fiscal 1988-1992 into methods for testing aircraft with advanced propeller in low-speed wind tunnel. The propulsion efficiency of the currently available high-bypass turbofan engine is approximately 60% in the vicinity of Mach number 0.85. Propeller-driven aircraft, whose propulsion efficiency is as high as 80% in the low Mach number domain, are scarcely in practical use in the domain of Mach number 0.75 or higher. There are studies reported abroad as well as in Japan for the propeller-driven aircraft to enjoy higher propeller propulsion efficiency even in the vicinity of Mach number 0.8 by modifying the propeller diameter, number of blades, and blade sections, etc. This paper describes the experimental research into the high-speed counter-rotation propeller. A counter-rotation propeller 0.3m in diameter and provided with coaxially arranged 8times2 SR-2 blades is evaluated for pitch angles during the takeoff and landing modes, for thrust characteristics at the pitch angle for the cruising mode, and for propeller backwash and noise. 15 refs., 72 figs., 9 tabs.

  12. Research and development of turbo engines in HYPR project. Choonsoku yusokiyo suishin system no kenkyu kaihatsu ni okeru turbo kei engine no shisaku

    Watanabe, Y; Itahara, H; Kohara, S [Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries, Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    The present paper outlined the project which aimed at developing a combined cycle engine by a combination of turbojet engine operable from the takeoff or landing to Mach 3 and ramjet engine operable from Mach 2.5 to 5. The outline included the test result report of a prototypical engine which was the main subject of project. Upon conceptual research on the engine to comply with the future supersonic passenger plane, a variable cycle engine jointly equipped with a mixer/ejector noise lowering device was applied as a turbojet engine to lower the noise. The prototypical turbojet engine which was a target engine subscaled to about 1/10 in thrust aimed at demonstrating the total system performance of the turbojet engine which structured a combined cycle engine. Prior to testing the above prototype, the core engine was singly tested (in Phase 1) with a confirmed good result in firing and startup characteristics. 4 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. Privatization of YPF and upstream activities in and out of Argentina after the privatization; YPF no min`eika to kokunaigai joryu bumon ni okeru katsudo jokyo

    Takahashi, E. [Japan National Oil Corp., Tokyo (Japan)


    Reported herein is the process of the privatization of the formerly state-run enterprise YPF, how it has won success, and its activities in and out of Argentina after the privatization. YPF was established in 1922 as the first Government-operated oil corporation in the world. Since inauguration, it had played a leading part in the domestic oil industry and contributed much to the acquisition of foreign currency. Economy aggravated in Argentina in the second half of the 1980s, however, and President Carlos Menem who assumed presidency in 1989 announced energy industry liberalization policies including the privatization of YPF. YPF chronically in the red those days was subjected to a thorough restructuring, which enabled the corporation to run stably in the black. In June, 1993, the corporation issued shares and privatization was achieved with success. Since then, YPF has been holding the position of a leading oil enterprise in Argentina where competition is in work. In 1995, furthermore, YPF acquisitioned Maxus Energy for a full-scale international deployment. 12 figs., 11 tabs.

  14. Fiscal 1990 report. Overseas surveys out of surveys for coal hydrogasification technology development; 1990 nendo sekitan suiten gaska gijutsu kaihatsu chosa ni okeru kaigai chosa hokokusho



    For the selection and evaluation of coal gasification processes suitable for substitute natural gas (SNG) production, visits were made to overseas business corporations, research institutes, etc., engaged in the development of coal gasification technology, surveys were conducted of the status of development abroad, and information was collected. Visited were Westfield Development Center, British Gas plc; Midlands Research Station, British Gas plc; IEA Coal Research; IFP (Institut Francais de Petrole); and DMT-FP (DMT-Gesellschaft fur Forschung und Prufung mbH). The Westfield Development Center uses coal from near-by open cut mines and supplies town gas to the Scottish region. The slagging Lurgi process, etc., were investigated. At Midlands Research Station, where a coal hydrogasification process is under development, the history of development and the cold model test were summarized, a test plan using a 5 tons/day pilot plant and the modification of test facilities were explained, and the 5 tons/day pilot plant was visited for study. (NEDO)

  15. Horn amplification at a tyre/road interface. Pt. 1. Experiment and computation; Tire/romenkan ni okeru horn koka. Jikken to keisan

    Fujikawa, T. [Japan Automobile Research Institute Inc., Tsukuba (Japan)


    Tyre/road interface noise can be amplified by a horn type space formed by the tread face of the tyre and the road. This paper is a report on studies on experiment and computation to elucidate the above phenomenon in detail. Measurement and computation were carried out on a tyre replaced with a single cylinder, whereas it was verified that the horn effect by each frequency can be calculated by BEM computation. Then, discussions were given on actual tyres combined with the BEM computation, and the following results were acquired: (1) the horn effect is small in zones of low frequencies; (2) the larger the tread width, the larger the horn effect increases; (3) the relationship between the tread width and the horn effect is governed by the ratio of the road contact width to noise wavelength; (4) the frequency characteristics of the horn effect vary largely according to whether the sound source exists in forward or rearward locations; (5) the relationship between the forward and rearward locations of the sound source with the horn effect is governed by the distance between the front and rear ends of the road contact face of the tyre; (6) the smaller the radius of the tread shoulder, the greater the horn effect; (7) tread deformation due to load applied on the tyre slightly changes the frequency characteristics of the horn effect; (8) with the sound source existing closer to the center of ground contacting width, the horn effect increases; and (9) the present study has verified the horn effect of 22 dB as the maximum. If the sound source is not present at the center of ground contacting width, the horn effect is reduced to about 10 dB, but the value cannot be ignored as the influence on traffic noise. (translated by NEDO)

  16. Effect of tack coat on bonding characteristics at interface between asphalt concrete layers; Asphalt concrete no sokan fuchaku ni okeru tack concrete no koka

    Hachiya, Y. [Port and Harbour Research Inst., Kanagawa (Japan); Umeno, S. [Ministry of Transport, Tokyo (Japan); Sato, K. [Nagaoka National College of Technology, Niigata (Japan)


    The effect of tack coat on bonding characteristics at the interface between surface and base layers was studied for airport asphalt pavement. In a fracture behavior, shear stress is first caused by horizontal loading at the interface between surface and base layers, resulting in peeling of the layers in the case of poor bonding. Further loading under the above condition results in fracture of asphalt concrete layers by bending or tensile actions. The bonding strength between layers decreases with an increase in interval of construction between surface and base layers, while the bonding strength between layers increases with sufficient curing of tack coat. Curing for 1 hour in the daytime and 6 hours or more in the nighttime is sufficient for evaporation of water content in asphalt emulsion. The use of conventional asphalt emulsion for the sandy interface as tack coat deduces the bonding strength in the case of poor curing. Asphalt emulsion containing high-penetration rubber can improve the bonding strength. 12 refs., 27 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Survey of the actual state of the coal related research and development in Japan. 11; Nippon ni okeru sekitan kanren kenkyu kaihatsu jittai chosa. 11



    NEDO is surveying the actual state of the coal related research/development in Japan to supply information on the coal related research/development in Japan to IEA`s coal research project database. This book of fiscal 1997 version includes 338 subjects. The details described are name of research institute, the section in charge, address, name of country, telephone No., name of joint researcher, research theme, classification, outline of research, project No., name of researcher, sponsor, the budget appropriated, term of research, remarks, etc. The books of data collected from each country in surveys of the actual state of the coal related R and D and IEA`s coal researches which have been made so far are submitted for general viewing at NEDO Information Center. Also, a part of those can be accessible from the energy database of which NEDO Information Center is performing on-line service for user members

  18. Technical development of cost-efficient installation of power distribution cables under pavements. Haiden chichuka ni okeru doboku kensetsu gorika gijutsu no kaihatsu

    Kokusho, Koji; Kataoka, Tetsuyuki; Tanaka, Yasuyuki; Yoshida, Yasuo; Ikemi, Motoyoshi; Suzuki, Koichi; Kitano, Koichi; Kobayashi, Seiichi; Kanazu, Tsutomu; Komada, Hiroya.


    Various latest technical developments were surveyed for the cost-effective installation of power distribution cables under pavements, and their applicabilities were demonstrated with the evaluation of their cost-reduction effects. Cables in conventional vinyl protection tubes could be buried only 30cm under pavements, and in such case, the cost was reduced to 51% of those of conventional methods. As the results of soil tests, excavated soil over 80% was reusable through coarse screening. Underground radar technique to explore buried pipes from the surface was detectable several pipes buried 1.5-2.0m underground, although some problems in precision were found. The improvement of reinforced concrete man-hole structures to minimize the volume of excavated soil indicated the cost reduction of nearly 20%. The application of these techniques to the installation of cables was expected to ultimately halve the total civil engineering cost. 21 refs., 130 figs., 46 tabs.

  19. Conductivity Measurements of Alkali Metal Thiocyanates in Water-Methanol Mixtures; Mizu-metanoru kongoyoubai ni okeru arukari kinzoku chioshiansan`en no denki dendodo sokutei

    Kubota, Eiji.; Horimoto, Sanaki. [Shinshu University, Nagano (Japan). Faculty of Science


    The counductivity of several alkali nmetal thiocyanates in water-methanol mixtures was measured at 25degreeC. the data were analyzed using Lee-Wheaton theory for symmetrical electroyers to cbtain ion association constant, K{sub A}, limiting molar sonductivity, {Lambda}{sub 0}, and limiting ionic molar conductivity, lamnda{sub 0}{+-}. In all the solvent systems, calculated{lambda}{sub 0}{sup +} values of the alkali metal ions increase in the order L{sub i}{sup +}

  20. Trends in coal gasification technology development in the U.S.A. (Volume 2); Beikoku ni okeru sekitan gas ka gijutsu kaihatsu no doko. 2



    Studies were carried out subsequently from fiscal 1986 on trends in coal gasification technology development in the U.S.A., as a voluntary study of the Coal Utilizing Hydrogen Manufacturing Technology Research Association. In the U.S.A., the governmental organizations and private sectors are working in a body on developing coal technologies. The present survey has seen activities at the Morgan Town Energy Technology Center (METC) being a national research organization, the Institute of Gas Technology Research (IGT) having a long history, and the Great Plains project, a commercialization project. The great accumulation of technologies as the advanced research nation is impressive. In the present study, site surveys were carried out in the U.S.A. in October last year in addition to the surveys made from the aspects of literatures available inside and outside Japan. Section 1 describes the development of the policies of the METC for comprehensive coal gasification research and development, and the development of advanced gasification technologies. Section 2 describes research activities of IGT covering a wide range, the U-Gas process, a plan for the commercial coal gasification plant using Utah coal, and the high-pressure agglomeration (U-gas process). Section 3 describes the summary of the Great Plains coal gasification project and the way to the commercialization thereof. (NEDO)

  1. R and D contract management systems in the USA (Attachment); Beikoku ni okeru R and D contract kanri system (tenpu shiryohen)



    Presented herein is the attachment for 'R and D contract management systems in the USA'. The major contents include regulations governing the R and D contracts, procedures for the R and D contracts, financial procedures for the R and D contracts, procedures for the alternative R and D contracts, financial management of the R and D contracts, and activities for the management of the contract processes by electronic systems. (NEDO)

  2. Identification of modal parameters and spatial matrix in frequency domain. Basic theory; Shuhasu ryoiki ni okeru mode tokusei to tokusei gyoretsu no dotei. Kiso riron no kento

    Iwahara, M [Isuzu Advanced Engineering Center, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Sugiura, T; Takaiwa, H; Nagamatsu, A [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)


    An approach is presented for the identification of spatial matrix with modal parameters in the frequency domain. Modal parameters are transformed to spatial matrix with constraints of modal vector orthogonality and characteristic equation. Adding the connecting conditions or unconnected conditions of measuring points, spatial matrix is determined by modal parameters whose number is smaller than that of dimension of spatial matrix. 9 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Bearing life in contaminated oil and oil passing into bearing for tapered roller bearing; Ensui koro jikuuke ni okeru ibutsu yuchu deno jumyo to kantsu yuryo

    Asai, Y; Oshima, H; Sakamoto, K [Koyo Seiko Co. Ltd., Osaka (Japan)


    In this paper a relationship between depth of dents, area of dents gathered and bearing life has been investigated for tapered roller bearings used in differential gear case. It is effective for the longer bearing life to reduce hard particles of Fe especially among several contaminations existing in the gear case. It is also effective to make oil level lower in the case from the view point for reduction of number of dents. 8 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  4. Effects of fuel and air mixing on WOT output in direct injection gasoline engine; Chokufun gasoline kikan ni okeru nenryo to kuki no kongo to shutsuryoku seino

    Noda, T; Iriya, Y; Naito, K; Mitsumoto, H; Iiyama, A [Nissan Motor Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    The effects of in-cylinder charge motion and the characteristics of the fuel spray and piston crown shape on WOT output in a direct injection gasoline engine are investigated. The fuel and air mixing process in a cylinder is analyzed by computer simulation and LIF method visualization. As a result, the technical factors to achieve enough mixing in a DI gasoline engine equipped with bowl in piston optimized for stratified combustion are clarified. 7 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Numerical simulation of fuel sprays and combustion in a premixed lean diesel engine; Kihaku yokongo diesel kikan ni okeru nenryo funmu to nensho no suchi simulation

    Miyamoto, T; Harada, A; Sasaki, S; Shimazaki, N; Hashizume, T; Akagawa, H; Tsujimura, K


    Fuel sprays and combustion in a direct injection Premixed lean Diesel Combustion (PREDIC) engine, which can make smokeless combustion with little NOx emission, is studied numerically. Numerical simulation was carried out by means of KIVA II based computer code with a combustion submodel. The combustion submodel describes the formation of combustible fuel vapor by turbulent mixing and four-step chemical reaction which includes low temperature oxidation. Comparison between computation and experiment shows qualitatively good agreement in terms of heat release rate and NO emission. Computational results indicate that the combustion is significantly influenced by fuel spray characteristics and injection timing to vary NO emission. 10 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Study of hydrocarbon emission in small direct injection engines; Kogata DI diesel kikan ni okeru teifukaji HC haishutsu ni kansuru kiso kenkyu

    Tsurushima, T; Zhang, L; Ueda, T; Fujino, R; Yokota, K [Isuzu Advanced Engineering Center, Tokyo (Japan)


    The cause of unburned hydrocarbon emission in small DI diesel engines at light load was studied. An optically accessible engine which was enabled to visualize the squish area was used to investigate the behavior of spray, mixture distribution and so on. Based on these observations and engine tests, the factors such as the direct impingement of liquid phase fuel spray to the combustion chamber wall the unevenness of fuel spray among holes and spreading of the fuel droplets, mixture and flame to the squish area were supposed to be the cause of forming HC emission. 18 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Study on soot particle formation and oxidation in DI diesel engine; Chokufunshiki diesel kikan ni okeru susu ryushi no seicho sanka ni kansuru kenkyu

    Kurata, K; Senda, J; Fujimoto, H [Doshisha University, Kyoto (Japan); Asai, G [Yanmar Diesel Engine Co. Ltd., Osaka (Japan)


    To clarify soot formation and oxidation process in diesel combustion, the natural emission of OH radical and the flame temperature were obtained in the combustion chamber of D.I. diesel engine. Further, soot were detected by LII (Laser Induced Incandescence) and LIS (Laser Induced Scattering) technique to assess the relative soot diameter and its number density. OH emission and flame temperature were compared with data of soot diameter and number- density. The results show that : (1) OH emission has relation to flame temperature. (2) OH emission arises latter than soot emission, because early soot at early combustion consume OH to oxidate. (3) As soon as it is ignited, soot particles are formed in the region of low temperature. 6 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Optimization of performance and energy efficiency for series hybrid commuter-car; Series hybrid hoshiki no commuter car ni okeru doryoku seino to energy koritsu ni kansuru kosatsu

    Hayashida, M; Narusawa, K [Traffic Safety and Nuisance Research Institute, Tokyo (Japan)


    The purpose of this study is to reveal a proper power system for a miniature vehicle called as `Commuter-car` for short trips in urban areas. Two types of simulated series hybrid commuter-cars were set on bench test systems. In order to have sufficient performance and energy saving, combination of electric motor and reduction gear. regenerative break efficiency and generator power supplying were considered by transient driving experiments. Further, estimation of primary energy consumption of the commuter-car was tried. 7 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Effect of separation and drainage of condensate on dehumidification in a refrigerated dryer; Reito joshitsuki ni okeru gyoshukusui bunri/haishutsu noryoku no joshitsu seino ni oyobosu eikyo

    Goto, H.; Ichinose, T. [SMC Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Tanzawa, Y.; Hashizume, T. [Waseda Univ., Tokyo (Japan). Science and Engineering Research Lab.


    The representative refrigerated dryer as the compressed air dryers is one in which air was cooled at rather low temperature by working medium of refrigerators, and the dew point was decreased with increase of pressure, and air with low relative humility called as the dried air was obtained again by heating. In this paper, for clarifying effect of separation and drainage of condensate on dehumidification in a refrigerated dryer in relation to shape of a main cooler and a precool-reheater and air temperature of each part, calculation and experimental investigation were conducted. In a refrigerated dryer, condensate happened in the precool part of a precool-reheater and a main cooler, and this would give rise to reduce of separation and drainage of condensate and increase of thermal loads of each heat exchange, and would made dehumidification low. For a fact that decrease of separation and drainage of condensate in a main cooler would bring out heat conduction with phase change in the reheating part of a precool-reheater, it has a profitable side, but it is not desirable for ability of dryers. 6 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Conduction and TSC properties of LB films adsorbing cyanine dyes; Cyanine shikiso kyuchaku LB maku ni okeru denki dendo oyobi netsushigeki denryu tokusei

    Shinbo, K.; Kato, K.; Kaneko, F.; Kobayashi, S. [Niigata University, Niigata (Japan)


    The electric properties were investigated for phosphatidic acid (PA) LB films adsorbing cyanide dyes (NK-3) with sandwich electrodes. PA LB adsorbing the dyes and the monolayers of Cd salt without the dyes are deposited using subphases, containing various concentrations of the dyes and containing CdCl2 instead of the dyes, respectively. Conduction currents are measured at room temperature for the PA LB film devices. Increases in the conduction currents are observed in the LB films containing the dyes. Furthermore, the conduction currents remarkably increase using the Au upper electrode. The current(I) vs. voltage (V) properties nearly follow the Poole conduction, log(I)-V. Therefore, the conduction currents are very complicated and are thought to be due to composite mechanisms in the film and at the interface. TSC measurements are used to examine the dipolar polarizations in the PA LB films, in the temperature region between 150 K and 300 K. Remarkable increase of TSCs are observed above 260 K for the devices containing the dyes. The TSCs are caused by the dipolar polarizations, and increase with the quantity of the dyes contained in the LB devices and/or aggregations of the dyes. The results are useful for applications of ultrathin film devices in the future. 16 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. Fiscal 2000 survey report. Survey of DSM status in Europe centering about thermal storage; 2000 nendo Oshu ni okeru chikunetsu wo chushin to shita DSM jokyo chosa hokokusho



    In search of measures for popularizing thermal storage technology in Japan, investigations were conducted into the conditions of electric power and the state of DSM (demand side management) in Italy, Spain, Portugal, and Greece whose climate is similar to Japan's. The results of the effort were edited and classified into six items, which are (1) power conditions, (2) DSM status, (3) popularity of thermal storage, (4) merits of thermal storage, (5) measures for thermal storage popularization, and (6) propositions to Japan. In all the countries, the power demand peak has shifted to the summer season or the difference in demand for power between summer and winter has decreased and, except in the case of Greece, the load factor has increased, these due to the increase in demand for power for cooling equipment. In Greece, the load factor has decreased since the peak shifted to summer. In every country, the rate schedule based on season of the year and time of the day is treated as a basic incentive for DSM. Except in Greece, there is no summer demand suppression type DSM menu and efforts are being exerted rather to have loads built in off-peak time zones. As for thermal storage systems in use, they are mostly of the ice-aided type. Those in the residential/commercial sector are on the increase, and it is estimated that 50% of ice thermal storage systems will be found in this sector in 2000. (NEDO)

  12. R and D contract management systems in the USA (Attachment); Beikoku ni okeru R and D contract kanri system (tenpu shiryohen)



    Presented herein is the attachment for 'R and D contract management systems in the USA'. The major contents include regulations governing the R and D contracts, procedures for the R and D contracts, financial procedures for the R and D contracts, procedures for the alternative R and D contracts, financial management of the R and D contracts, and activities for the management of the contract processes by electronic systems. (NEDO)

  13. Survey on university governance system in U.S.A. Case study in Stanford University; Beikoku ni okeru daigaku governance system no chosa. Stanford daigaku no case study



    In order to provide reference for the university reformation policy of Japan, the features and strength of the U.S. university management and operation systems were put into order and analyzed through a case study in Stamford University in the United States. In the U.S. research universities, it is not only how high the quality is in the faculties and researchers, but also how far the structuring has been advanced in the systems to manage and operate them efficiently, which supports the infrastructures of research activities. The 'research management and operation staff' is knowledgeable in the system to manage the inside of a university and the system to procure research funds from the government and foundations. The staff enhances the productivity of research activities by professionally handling various operations taking place in research laboratories. In association with increase of the size of research projects, those who have been experienced in industries, or those who have acquired the doctor's degree exist in a large number in the projects as the research management staff. In Japanese universities, management staff posts with high specialty to undertake the research management do not exist. This facts results in young researchers consuming a great amount of time for this work. (NEDO)

  14. Heat pump using dual heat sources of air and water. Performance in cooling mode; Mizu kuki ryonetsugen heat pump no kenkyu. Reibo unten ni okeru seino

    Ito, S; Miura, N [Kanagawa Institute of Technology, Kanagawa (Japan); Uchikawa, Y [Kubota Corp., Osaka (Japan)


    When a heat pump is used for cooling purpose, it is possible to utilize different kinds of waste water as high-heat sources. However, these heat sources would have their temperatures vary with seasons and time in a day. Therefore, a discussion was given on performance of a heat pump when water and air heat sources are used for condensers during cooling operation independently, in series and in parallel, respectively. The air condenser shows an equivalent COP as compared with the water condenser when air temperature is lower by about 8 degC than water temperature. At the same heat source temperature, the COP for the water condenser indicated a value higher by about 0.6 than the case of the air condenser. A method to use condensers in parallel experiences little contribution from the air heat source, and performance of the heat pump decreases below the case of using the water heat source independently when the air heat source temperature becomes higher than that of the water heat source. In the case of series use in which a water condenser is installed in front and an air condenser in rear, its effect is exhibited when temperature in the air heat source is lower than that in the water heat source. Better performance was shown than in operating the water heat source independently. 2 refs., 9 figs.

  15. Comparison of performance between a parallel and a series solar-heat pump system; Solar heat pump system ni okeru heiretsu setsuzoku no seino hikaku

    Kanayama, K; Zhao, J; Baba, H; Endo, N [Kitami Institute of Technology, Hokkaido (Japan)


    In a solar heat pump system, a single-tank system was fabricated, in which a heat pump is installed in series between a heat collecting tank and a heat storage tank. At the same time, a double-tank system was also fabricated, in which two tanks are assembled into one to which a solar system and a heat pump are connected in parallel. Performance of both systems was analyzed by using measured values and estimated values. Heat collecting efficiency in the double-tank system is higher by about 13 points than in the single-tank system. Nevertheless, the coefficient of performance for the single-tank system is 1.03 to 1.51 times greater than that of the double-tank system. Dependency of the single-tank system on natural energy is higher by 0.3 to 3 points than the double-tank system. Putting the above facts together, it may be said that the single-tank system connecting the solar system and the heat pump in parallel is superior in performance to the double-tank system of the series connection. 3 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Study on the simulation time increments for solar DHW heating systems; Taiyonetsu kyuto simulation ni okeru keisan jikan kankaku no kento

    Sato, M; Udagawa, M [Kogakuin University, Tokyo (Japan)


    Calculation time intervals effective in simulating solar DHW systems were discussed, taking into account water temperature in a heat storage tank and calorific power in supplied hot water. The discussion was given on a direct heat collecting system in which heat passes through a heat collector from the bottom of the heat storage tank and returns to the center of the tank, and an indirect heat collecting system which has a heat exchanger built inside the heat storage tank at its bottom. The calculation was performed with time intervals of one to sixty minutes and five to forty-five layer divisions. The following results were obtained: because the calorific power of the hot water supplied is underestimated in the calculation if the calorific power of one hot water supply is extremely large, the calculation time intervals must be reduced to 1 to 15 minutes; cumulative calorific power of the hot water supply was found to show little variation if the number of division is greater than fifteen; and the daily cumulative effective heat collection amount shows very little variation due to the calculation time intervals, but errors from the measured value have decreased as the smaller the number of layer division in the direct heat collecting system, and as the greater the number of division in the indirect heat collecting system. 4 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Prediction of velocity of the wind generation in Kobe City College of Technology; Kobe Kosen ni okeru furyoku hatsuden no yosoku

    Akamatsu, K; Kanemura, M; Amako, K


    Wind conditions, such as average wind velocity for 10 minutes, maximum instantaneous wind velocity and wind directions, are measured by the anemometer and anemoscope installed 3m above the roof of the Kobe City College of Technology`s Information Processing Center building, to collect the data necessary to validate possibility of wind power generation, if the wind system is installed in the college site. Monthly availability of power is estimated from the output power characteristics curve for a generator having a rated capacity of 200W and wind velocity data collected for 9 months. It will generate power of only 144kWh, even when operated to give the rated output, or approximately 8.5kWh at the highest in a month, because of availability of wind power limited to around 30% of the total as estimated from the relative frequency distribution. It is therefore desirable to install a number of units having a rated capacity of 200W or else a smaller number of larger units. Assuming that days that give the highest output for 24 hours last 1 month, a power of 54.3kWh will be generated. It is estimated, based on these results, that a hybrid unit, in which a wind power generator installed at a high place is combined with a solar unit, can provide power required for nighttime lighting, if a wind power unit having a rated capacity of 2kW is field-controlled under an optimum condition. 13 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. Study on indoor pollution by microbes grown in a solar house in Tokyo; Tokyo no solar house ni okeru kabi no jittai chosa

    Tanaka, T; Aihara, M; Nakanishi, R; Ito, H [Ochanomizu University, Tokyo (Japan)


    Indoor pollution by microbes grown in a solar house is studied. It is a reinforced concrete building, having a total floor area of 260m{sup 2}, equipped with a flat type solar collector on the roof and a lighting window on the north, the former having an area of 16m{sup 2} and slanted at 60deg and the latter slanted at 60deg. It is also provided with a semi-underground room, to utilize heat capacity of soil for coolness in summer and warmness in winter. It provides a residential space throughout the year, with no artificial heating or air-conditioning system, naturally ventilated with air taken into the underground room and released out of a triangular shape on the roof. The building is also passively conditioned, being totally insulated with expanded polystyrene. Energy saving is the most important consideration for the solar house, slightly forcing the residents to exercise patience. For this reason, the solar house often smells musty, and pollution with microbes is quantitatively investigated. Microbes evolve more in the underground room than in the space above groun, because of higher humidity in the former. Accelerated ventilation or slight artificial air-conditioning will solve the trouble. 1 refs., 7 figs.

  19. Shift of the circumstances in effluent pollutant loads and water pollution in the Seto Inland Sea; Setonaikai ni okeru odaku fukaryo to suishitsu no hensen

    Shimizu, T. [Hiroshima Prefectural Institute of Public Health and Environment, Hiroshima (Japan); Komai, Y. [Hyogo Prefectural Institute of Environmental Science, Kobe (Japan); Koyama, T. [Wakayama Prefectural Research Center of Environment and Public Health, Wakayama (Japan); Nagafuchi, O. [Fukuoka Institute of Health and Environment Science, Fukuoka (Japan); Hino, Y. [Kagawa Prefecture Environmental Research Center, Kagawa (Japan); Murakami, K. [Okayama Prefectural Institute for Environmental and Public Health, Okayama (Japan)


    The relationship between the shift of the amount of effluent pollutant loads and the quality of water in and after the 1970s is studied for the verification of the effect of wastewater control and pollution measures for the Seto Inland Sea. The pollution loads are analyzed using the population, sewerage system diffusion rate, industrial production amount, number of farm animals, etc., gathered from existing data, and the quality of water is analyzed using the surface layer data collected at 124 sites. Although population as the source of pollutant loads has enlarged, the enlargement does not bring about a significant change in the loads, this partly due to the diffusion of sewerage systems. The rates of reduction in the 1979-1994 period of COD (chemical oxygen demand), T-N (total nitrogen), and T-P (total phosphorus) are 25.2%, 5.3%, and 30.3%, respectively. COD has returned to the previous level, but transparency has turned poorer. T-N and T-P worsened in the 1985-1989 period, and have not yet returned to the levels of 1980-1984. Pollution is in progress in Osaka Bay, Hiroshima Bay, and some others. In some sea areas, transparency is improving, with COD and Chl.a on the increase. From the nutrient salt and Chl.a scatter diagrams, the potential of algal growth relative to the concentration of nutrient salts may be estimated. Organic pollution is affected by algal growth. The organic matters produced in the inland sea are approximately 20 times as much as the organic matters produced on land. 18 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Effect of applied synthetic auxin on root growth in plantlet propagation by cuttage and tissue culture; Sashiki to soshiki baiyo ni okeru gosei auxin rui no shiyo koka

    Shoji, K; Yoshihara, T [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan)


    The effect of synthetic plant hormone 4-C1-IAA and TFIBA on root growth in plantlet propagation was clarified by the cuttage and the issue culture of strawberry seedling production. A periwinkle, vine, and azalea are the effect of 4-C1-IAA on root growth, and a promotion effect was recognized for rooting and root elongation. The concentration of 4-C1-IAA in which the growth promotion effect of a root most appears varies depending on the species of a plant. The concentration of a periwinkle was 20 ppm, and that of an azalea was 2000 ppm. The growth promotion effect of a root in 4-C1-IAA and TFIBA was compared with IBA for an azalea. The result showed that 4-C1-IAA is the same in the effect as IBA and that TFIBA is higher than for IBA. The growth of a vine`s terminal bud was promoted by the effect of TFIBA on root growth, and the callus occurring when IBA was treated was not formed. The rooting of a strawberry was promoted by the effect of TFIBA on root growth. The combined use of TFIBA and BA promotes the growth of a side bud and forms a multi-bud plant. However, rooting was inhibited. The callus caused by the effect of BA on root growth could be suppressed through the combined use with TFIBA. 6 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Investigational study on the development, production and wide spread of welfare apparatus in north Europe; Hokuo ni okeru fukushi yogu no kaihatsu seisan fukyu ni kansuru chosa kenkyu



    For the purpose of grasping the present situation of the development/production/spread of welfare apparatus in north Europe, an investigation was conducted paying visits to Sweden and Denmark. Basically in the Swedish policy for handicapped persons, disablement is defined not only as features which belong to each individual, but as problems arising when the environment surrounding each individual touches one another. Moreover, characteristics of their policies on welfare apparatus are that major welfare apparatus can be provided for the disabled free of charge, and that the government and public organs play a major role in each step of the development, evaluation, distribution and provision of welfare apparatus. Features of the market of welfare apparatus are that users and buyers of the apparatus are different persons, that a public corporation called SUB participates in determining selling prices, etc., and that the market reflects needs and requests from users comparatively naturally. The needs for welfare apparatus at the Research Institute of Handicapped Persons are grasped through opinion exchanges with groups of handicapped persons or information exchanges with the technical aid center. 3 refs., 11 figs., 10 tabs.

  2. High-resolution aeromagnetic survey in the area of Arima-Takatsuki-Rokko active fault system; Arima Takatsuki Rokko katsudanso chiiki ni okeru komitsudo kuchu jiki tansa

    Nakatsuka, T; Okuma, S; Morijiri, R; Makino, M [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan)


    High-resolution aeromagnetic survey was conducted in December, 1995, over the area of Arima-Takatsuki-Rokko active fault system, where the 1995 Hyogo-South (Kobe) earthquake took place. Based on the surveyed data, the magnetic anomaly distribution in the Kei-Hanshin district was illustrated. Features of magnetic anomaly observed in it were discussed. Influence of artificial structures in the coastal zone of Kobe City was tried to be removed. Distinct magnetic anomaly observed in the center of Kyoto City was located at the southern part near Shijo-Karasuma. This was mainly affected by the artificial structure. A high magnetic anomaly with a long wave length was observed in the southern part of Kyoto. There was a high magnetic anomaly in an area surrounded by central cities of Nishinomiya-Toyonaka district. At the location where positive and negative magnetic anomalies were illustrated in NEDO`s map in the coastal zone of Kobe City, the anomaly pattern was clarified. The influence of artificial structure was approximated using a point dipole. The dipole was placed in each block having a magnetic anomaly. The parameter was determined by the inverse analysis, to remove the influence. Consequently, most of magnetic anomalies due to artificial structures could be removed. 6 figs.

  3. Fixed position holding control for self-propulsion barges under disturbance condition; Gairanka ni okeru jiko baji no teiten hoji seigyo ni tsuite

    Kijima, K; Murata, W; Furukawa, Y [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering


    In direct hoisting work in suspension bridge construction, since a cable crane directly hoists a bridge beam block put on a barge on the sea, precise fixed position holding function is required for a barge. The control system was then designed on the basis of an ILQ control theory, and the effect of change in time constant as design parameter on fixed position holding performance was studied. In addition, the critical disturbance for fixed position holding control was studied through numerical simulation under various disturbance conditions using the above designed control system. As a result, in the design of control systems on the basis of an ILQ control theory, the precise control system could be designed by diminishing, in particular, the time constant for state variable around a z axis among time constants according to the extent of disturbance. The control performance was largely affected by response delay period from sensing of disturbance to beginning of control. 3 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Change in surface SP caused by pressure buildup observed at the Nigorikawa geothermal area; Nigorikawa chiiki ni okeru atsuryoku buildup ji no shizen den`i henka

    Yasukawa, K; Yano, Y; Matsushima, N; Ishido, T [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan); Takahashi, M; Suzuki, I; Aoyama, K; Kuwano, T


    To examine the effect of change of subsurface flow system on the surface SP (self potential), SP measurements were carried out before and after the pressure buildup and drawdown during the periodic inspection at Nigorikawa area. Relation between the SP distribution and the observed data was also examined by 2-D numerical simulation. Tendency was found that the SP increased gradually with the production near the production well, decreased during the pressure buildup, and increased again during the drawdown. There were some points having the reverse tendency in the surrounding area. Behavior during the pressure buildup and drawdown was not clear. The resistivity near the ground surface was low ranging between 2 and 5 ohm/m within the Nigorikawa basin. The variation of SP was not so large when compared with the measuring error. The SP profiles on the secondary section passing in the center of caldera at the production stop and at one week after the production start were well corresponded with the profiles under natural conditions which were reproduces using the 2-D model. It was considered that the SP profile before the production stop was affected by the production. 12 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Comparison of {gamma}-ray profile across active normal and reverse faults; Seidansogata to gyakudansogata katsudanso ni okeru hoshano tansa kekka no hikaku

    Iwata, A; Wada, N; Sumi, H [Shimada Technical Consultants, Ltd., Shimane (Japan); Yamauchi, S; Iga, T [Shimane Univ., Shimane (Japan)


    Active faults confirmed at trench and outcrop were surveyed by the {gamma}-ray spectrometry. The active fault found at trench is a normal fault, and that found at outcrop is a reverse fault. The {gamma}-ray spectral characteristics of these two types of faults were compared to each other. The normal fault is named as Asagane fault located in Aimi-machi, Saihaku-gun, Tottori prefecture. The reverse fault is named as Yokota reverse fault located in Yokota-cho, Nita-gun, Shimane prefecture. Rises of radon gas indicating the existence of opening cracks were confirmed above the fault for the normal fault, and at the side of thrust block for the reverse fault. It was considered that such characteristics were caused by the difference of fault formation in the tensile stress field and in the compressive stress field. It was also reconfirmed that much more information as to faults can be obtained by the combined exploration method using the total counting method and the spectral method. 14 refs., 7 figs.

  6. Anodic oxidation of ammonia in alkaline solutions at Pt/Pt electrodes. Hakkin denkyokujo ni okeru enkisei ammonia yoeki no anodo sanka

    Takagi, Ryoichiro; Katsuta, Masahiro; Matsumoto, Tamotsu; Kobayashi, Yoshikazu; Asami, Yusaku; Hirano, Katsuhiko (Shibaura Inst. of Tech., Tokyo (Japan))


    Anodic oxidation of ammonia in alkaline solutions on Pt/Pt electrode, in which NH {sub 3} is oxidized producing N {sub 2}, is a promising reaction in application to a fuel cell and water treatment. In this study, the relations between electrode potential and adsorbed intermediates, reaction process were elucidated by potentiodynamic method and potential step method. In measurement, a transient memory device and a microprocessor were connected to an electrolysis device as a new method, then measurement of electric potential and current and integral calculation were perfromed at high speed. Active sites of electrode were covered by Pt NH {sub x}. Faradic current corresponds to the N {sub 2} evolution was shown markedly by anodic scanning. The relation between electrode potential and reaction process was revealed by potential step method. It is found that Pt-NH {sub 2} is the active intermediate for the N {sub 2} evolution, and when current shows maximum, its coverage is nearly 0.5. 15 refs., 7 figs.

  7. Study on superheat of TiAl melt during cold crucible levitation melting. TiAl no cold crucible levitation yokai ni okeru yoto kanetsudo no kenkyu

    Miwa, K.; Kobayashi, K.; Ninomiya, M. (Government Industrial Research Institute, Nagoya, Nagoya (Japan))


    Investigations were given on effects of test sample weights and sample positions in cold crucibles on superheat of melts when the intermetallic compound TiAl is melted using cold crucible levitation melting process, one of noncontaminated melting processes. The cold crucibles used in the experiment are a water-cooled copper crucible with an inner diameter of 42 mm and a length of 140 mm, into which a column-like ingot sample with an outer diameter of 32 mm (Al containing Ti at 33.5% by mass) was put and melted using the levitation melting. Comparisons and discussions were given on the relationship between sample weights and melt temperatures, the relationship between positions of the inserted samples and melt temperatures, and the state of contamination at melting of casts obtained from the melts resulted from the levitation melting and high-frequency melting poured into respective ceramic dies. Elevating the superheat temperature of the melts requires optimizing the sample weights and positions. Melt temperatures were measured using a radiation thermometer and a thermocouple, and the respective measured values were compared. 7 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Mechanization of refractory relining and disintegration work for ladle and RH-degassing vessel; Toribe, RH datsu gas ro ni okeru seko oyobi kaitai sagyo no kikaika

    Kuwayama, M; Yoshida, M [Kawasaki Steel Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Yamaguchi, T [Kawasaki Refractories Corp. Ltd., Hyogo (Japan)


    In iron and steel industry, automation and mechanization of furnace relining work are required as the measures of the environmental betterment therein which is extremely important for ensuring the factors in the future. In this paper, the inductions of the equipment for castable refractory relining at the bottom of the ladle, the equipment for handling slag line bricks of the ladle, the equipment for brick disintegration in the RH-degassing vessel which have been mechanized recently at the Mizushiminduction`s Kawasaki Steel Corporation as a part of the betterment of furnace relining work carried out hitherto are described. The main points of said betterment are indicated hereafter. The equipment for castable refractory relining at the bottom of the ladle is exploited and utilized. The hard works are lightened by the large scale of the bricks for the slag line of the ladle and the induction of the vacuum lifter. The equipment exclusive for disintegration in the RH-degassing vessel is exploited and utilized. Owing to the above-mentioned improvements, 27% and 60% of the operation time are reduced in the relining work for the ladle and disintegration work for the RH-degassing vessel respectively. 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Investigation into the analysis method of total ecobalance in chemical industry products. 3; Kagaku kogyo seihin ni okeru total eko balance no bunseki shuho ni kansuru chosa. 3



    For the purpose of establishing a total life-cycle ecobalance analysis (LCA) method, the paper studied making of a general computer program for chemical industry products. The study has been made on general-purpose plastics (PET/PSP (polystyrene paper)) since fiscal 1993 aiming at making the CO2 emission computing program covering the entire process of production from extraction of raw materials through waste disposal. In fiscal 1995, the following were conducted for enhancement of generalization of the method: expansion of environmental load items and increase in validity of the concept, and expansion of database. Notice was taken of not only CO2 but SOx, NOx and water quality load items. The survey was made on the recycling situation in Japan and abroad and the PET recycling plant , and environmental load item data are collected to expand database. The program was verified by analyzing an example of reusing PET bottle to carpet, and one-step development can be made toward the establishment of the method. Moreover, an analysis was made for the environmental assessment of the related programs abroad, and a tentative original plan can be proposed for the standardization of environmental load analysis and the integrated assessment method. 39 refs., 130 figs., 76 tabs.

  10. Efficient calculation of potential distribution in two-layer earth; Niso kozo daichikei ni okeru denki tansa no tame no koritsuteki den`i keisan shuho

    Kataoka, M; Okamoto, Y [Chiba Institute of Technology, Chiba (Japan); Endo, M; Noguchi, K [Waseda University, Tokyo (Japan); Teramachi, Y; Akabane, H [University of Industrial Technology, Kanagawa (Japan); Agu, M [Ibaraki University, Ibaraki (Japan)


    An efficient calculation method of potential distribution in the presence of an embedded body in multi-layer earth has been proposed by expanding the method of image with a consideration of multiple reflection between the ground surface and each underground boundary. For this method, when solving boundary integral equation with the potential of embedded body surface as only one unknown, i.e., when obtaining discretization equation, ordinary boundary element program developed for analyzing the finite closed region can be used. As an example, numerical calculation was conducted for the two-layer earth. The analysis expression of potential distribution in the case of the certain embedded body in two-layer earth has never published. Accordingly, the calculated results were compared with those by the integral equation method. As a result, it was concluded that the primary potential obtained from the present method agreed well with that obtained from the integral equation method. However, there was a disregarded difference in the secondary potential. For confirming the effectiveness, it was necessary to compare with another numerical calculation method, such as finite element method. 5 refs., 5 figs.

  11. Discussion on sensor location in circular array for spatial autocorrelation method; Kukan jiko sokanho no enkei array ni okeru jishinkei haichi no kento

    Yamamoto, H; Iwamoto, K; Saito, T; Yoshida, A [Iwate University, Iwate (Japan). Faculty of Engineering


    Methods to derive underground structures by utilizing the dispersion phenomenon of surface waves contained in microtremors include the frequency-wave number analysis method (the F-K method) and the spatial autocorrelation method (SAC method). The SAC method is said capable of estimating the structures to deeper depths than with the F-K method if the same seismometer is used. However, the F-K method is used more frequently. This is because the SAC method imposes a strict restriction that seismometers must be arranged evenly on the same circumference, while the F-K method allows seismometers to be arranged arbitrarily during an observation. Therefore, the present study has discussed whether the SAC method can be applied to observations with the seismometers arranged in the same way as in the F-K method, by using microtremor data acquired from actual observations. It was made clear that a seismometer arrangement for the SAC method may be sufficed with at least three meters arranged on the same circumference. These meters may not have to be arranged evenly, but because the acquired phase velocities may vary according to wave arriving directions and seismometer arrangement, it is desirable to perform observations with seismometers arranged as evenly as possible. 13 figs.

  12. Array measurements of long-period microtremors in southwestern Kanto plain, Japan; Kanto heiya nanseibu ni okeru yaya choshuki bido no array kansoku

    Yamanaka, H; Sato, H; Kurita, K; Seo, K [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)


    Array measurements of long-period microtremors were carried out in the southwestern part of Kanto Plain, Japan, to obtain S-wave velocity structures in sedimentary beds as fundamental data for estimating long-term strong ground motion in Kanto Plain. The major component in a long-term seismic motion observed in Kanto Plain is the surface wave. According to the result of observations on Love wave by Kinoshita et al, the wavelengths of the surface waves of a long-term cycle are 10 to 20 km. Therefore, if an array observation is to be performed at intervals of about two wavelengths, about 40 points will be required to cover the entire Kanto plain. The final phase velocity is decided by averaging phase velocities of each cycle obtained for each data set. The acquired phase velocities are analyzed inversely by using a genetic algorithm to derive the S-wave velocities at each observation point. The present microtremor array observation has used 13 points in the southwestern part of Kanto Plain to acquire S-wave velocity (Vs) distribution in sedimentary beds. It was made clear that beds with Vs of 1.0 km/s and Vs of 1.5 km/s exist in this area between the surface bed and the seismic foundation with Vs of about 3 km/s. 10 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Holdup of O/W emulsion in a packed column for liquid membrane separation of hydrocarbon; Tankasuiso no ekimaku bunri ni okeru jutento nai no emarushon horudo appu

    Egashira, R.; Sugimoto, T.; Kawasaki, J. [Tokyo Inst. of Technology, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering


    Liquid membrane separation of hydrocarbon is an energy saving separation method that is expected of practical use. If the method uses a packed column, the holdup of O/W emulsion affects the effective contact area and residence time of the emulsion. Therefore, this paper describes an attempt to correlate the dynamic emulsion holdup in a packed column in liquid membrane separation of hydrocarbon with property values of the emulsion and external oil phase, and operation variables. The experiment used a mixture of toluene + n - heptane + n - decane for oil phase in the O/W emulsion and saponin aqueous solution for liquid phase (liquid membrane phase). The packed column with an inner diameter of 37 mm used stainless steel McMahon packing. As a result of the experiment, the dynamic emulsion holdup showed a correlation according to the Reynolds number and Galilei number, regardless of whether the emulsion permeates the liquid membrane. The correlation made it possible to estimate in a simple manner the emulsion holdup in the packed column when this separation method is used. 5 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. Survey on a possibility of geothermal utilization in Tomakomai City; 1980 nendo Tomakomaishi ni okeru chinetsu riyo kanosei ni kansuru chosa



    This paper describes a possibility of geothermal utilization in Tomakomai City. The Tomakomai area has an extremely great amount of hot water existing in deep layers, leading to a consideration that it is very highly possible to develop the hot water. As seen from the underground structure and ground temperature gradient in the Tomakomai sedimentary basin, the development depth would be considerably great, being assumed to be about 2,000 meters. The acquisition amount per well is estimated 100 m{sup 3}/hour or more at 65 degrees C. Rise in petroleum price in the future is an unavoidable fate, hence geothermal water utilization has a fully bright future. The water has relatively low temperature, and is effective for use in room heating, hot water supply, and agricultural and livestock industries. It is worth considering utilization as a local energy system. It has also large secondary effects. According to the latest trial calculation, the unit price for hot water for room heating and hot water supply would be 10 to 20 yen per 1,000 kilo-calories. If the same amount of hot water should be supplied from a boiler, fossil fuel of 20,470 kl/year would be required. If converted by using a kerosene price of 75 yen per liter, the cost would be 1.3 billion 35 million yen, comparatively higher than the geothermal water utilization. (NEDO)

  15. Human interface for personal information systems. On-line handwriting recognition; Pasonaru joho kiki ni okeru human interface. On-line tegaki ninshiki

    Morita, T. [Sharp Corp., Osaka (Japan)


    Most of information devices used in the business field use keyboards for the inputting measure, but keyboards are rather awkward for personal use. In contrast to this, the pen input method which everybody can use easily is a product of the latest development. In this articles, on-line handwritten letter recognition is roughly explained which is the basic technique of pen input. Pen input has a demerit that its letter inputting speed is slow, but has much more merits that Chinese ideographs can be directly input, figures, handwritten memoranda, etc. are treated likewise, the device itself can be made compact and no noise is made. The on-line letter recognition methods now used practically can be roughly divided into the pattern matching method and the basic stroke method. Each of them has its own merits and demerits. For the current on-line handwritten letter recognition, the condition is necessary to handwritten a letter in the square style (kaisho) and carefully within the framework for letter entry upon writing, and for this arrangement, input is performed through the work processes of pretreatment/feature extraction, stroke recognition, letter comparison, detail discrimination, and after-treatment. 3 refs., 7 figs.

  16. Investigational study of the CO2 balance in high temperature CO2 separation technology; Nisanka tanso koon bunri gijutsu ni okeru CO2 balance ni kansuru chosa kenkyu



    An investigational study was conducted to clarify the adaptable environment and effectivity of technologies of high temperature separation/recovery/reutilization of CO2. In the study, data collection, arrangement and comparison were made of various separation technologies such as the membrane method, absorption method, adsorption method, and cryogenic separation method. With the LNG-fired power generation as an example, the adaptable environment and effectivity were made clear by making models by a process simulator, ASPEN PLUS. Moreover, using this simulator, effects of replacing the conventional steam reforming of hydrocarbon with the CO2 reforming were made clear with the methanol synthesis as an example. As to the rock fixation treatment of high temperature CO2, collection/arrangement were made of the data on the fixation treatment of the CO2 separated at high temperature into basic rocks such as peridotite and serpentinite in order to clarify the adaptable environment and effectivity of the treatment. Besides, a potentiality of the fixation to concrete waste was made clear. 57 refs., 57 figs., 93 tabs.

  17. Improvement of magnetic properties of Fe-50mass%Ni in MIM process; MIM process ni okeru Fe-50mass%Ni no jiki tokusei kaizen

    Miura, H. [Kumamoto University, Kumamoto (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Fujita, S. [Kumamoto University, Kumamoto (Japan); Fujita, M.; Ninomiya, R. [Mitsuikinzoku Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    Metal injection molding (MIM) process is hoped to be one of processing for required to more complicated parts of magnetic components. In this study, the effect of different types of powders (prealloyed and mixed elemental powders) on the magnetic properties of permalloy (Fe-50mass%Ni) through the MIM technique was investigated. Approximately 94% of theoretical density was obtained by using the prealloyed powder, and the retained carbon and oxygen contents were controlled to be low. On the other hand, 96% of theoretical density was obtained by using the mixed elemental powder, but the magnetic properties were inferior to that of prealloyed powder's because of high retained oxygen content. By using the carbonyl Fe powder with high carbon, the retained oxygen and carbon content could be controlled to be low, resulting in the improved magnetic properties. (author)

  18. Wind power development field test project at Kodomari-mura 'Marinetopia'. Close survey on wind conditions; Kodomarimura Marinetopia ni okeru furyoku kaihatsu field test jigyo (fukyo seisa) hokokusho



    A survey was made on wind conditions in Imabetsu-machi, Higashi Tsugaru-gun, Aomori prefecture, on the assumption that a wind power generation system was installed therein. The survey period was one year from Oct., 1998 to Sept., 1999. The observations were carried out on the average wind velocity, average wind direction, standard deviation of velocity, and the maximum instantaneous wind velocity. With a fixed point observation at 20 m above ground, and with the minimum observation time unit of 10 minutes, an average value during the 10 minutes was determined as the measurement of each category. However, the maximum instantaneous wind velocity was determined on the measurement with the minimum observation time unit of 2 seconds. The annual average wind velocity was 4.8 m/s, the maximum wind velocity during the period was 35 m/s, the prevailing wind direction was NW-WNW and ESE-SEW, and the occurrence rate of wind direction at the wind axis of NW-SE was 88.1%. The intensity of turbulence was 0.24 at a wind velocity of 2.0 m/s or above and was 0.20 at 4.0 m/s or above. An estimated annual operation rate of a windmill was 46-64% using the rated value of a 150 kW, 300 kW and 750 kW class windmills. (NEDO)

  19. Report on a feasibility survey of the cold accumulated heat use energy system in Hokkaido; Hokkaido ni okeru reichikunetsu riyo energy system no kanosei chosa hokokusho



    A survey was conducted of various systems which use in summer cold heat from the snow stored in winter. A model of the cold accumulated heat system of the type which has a high possibility of the introduction was built to study a possibility of the realization. Types of the model system were selected assuming the utilization of cold heat energy of snow in Sapporo, a typical large city in the cold heavy-snow area. Studies were made on each model of urban type commercial facilities, urban type offices, suburban type shopping center, and suburban type hospitals. For each model, more than one systems were studied according to types and forms of the storage tank, and heat recovery methods. As a result, it was found that cold heat energy of snow can be utilized almost effectively by making an appropriate study of the energy balance like the possible supply of cold heat exceeded the demand in two models of an urban type office building and an suburban type hospital. Further, operating expenses of typical models were roughly calculated. 51 figs., 20 figs.

  20. Report on the field test project for wind power development at Yugawara Town (wind characteristics investigation); Yugawaramachi ni okeru furyoku kaihatsu field test jigyo (fukyo seisa) hokokusho



    Wind characteristics are observed in the period November 1997 through October 1998 at Yugawara Town, Kanagawa Prefecture. The average wind speed is 5.1m/s and 5.0m/s at 20m and 10m above ground, respectively, suggesting that the difference in altitude causes but a very small difference in wind speed and that a large wind speed component exists in the vertical direction. Under the 16 compass point system, the wind direction occurrence rate is the highest in the NE direction and the second highest in the W direction. The two directions are prevalent, and their occurrence rates on the wind axes total 62.6%. The occurrence rate of wind speeds of not less than 5m/s is 40%. Turbulence intensity is 0.23 and 0.17 for the average wind speed of not less than 2m/s and for the average wind speed of not less than 4m/s, respectively, suggesting but a little impact of air current turbulence. The amounts of energy to be acquired by wind turbine systems of 150kW, 300kW, and 750kW are estimated at 301,363kWh, 651,593kWh, and 1,668,825kWh, respectively. Their annual capacity ratios are 22.9%, 24.8%, and 25.4%, respectively. Since difference in wind speed due to difference in altitude is small, it is supposed that the wind speed at the hub altitude is not so high. It is inferred consequently that service operation will be quite difficult to realize. Difficulties will be also encountered in relation to the route of turbine system transportation, power distribution line, and the distance to a transformation station. (NEDO)

  1. 1998 Annual Study Report. Standardization of image processing for digital home equipment; 1998 nendo seika hokokusho. Kateiyo digital denshi kiki ni okeru digital gazo shori no hyojunka



    The electronic industry should invariably correspond to MPEG-4, when considering the essential conditions for home information equipment of the next generation to be used massively. This project is aimed at formulation of the standard platform for MPEG-4, and identification of the necessary examples and corresponding the necessary tools/functions thereto, to give an impetus for the future development, and to positively provide the additional aids to the tools which strengthen MPEG-4 in the arena of promoting the international standardization. The efforts in this year began with investigations on the assumption of the concrete application examples, considered from the standards' structures, and were concentrated on investigations on characteristic problems involved in each of the system, server and client blocks which constitute the system, and then on identification of the products application, based on the analysis of the MPEG-4 profiles and levels. These have led to selection of an MPEG-4 receiver as the case study item for extracting problems possibly involved in assembling works. (NEDO)

  2. Elucidation of functions of micro-organisms and animals in forest biosystem. Shinrin seitaikei ni okeru biseibutsu oyobi dobutsu no kino no kaimei


    This paper describes a report on elucidating functions of micro-organisms and animals in a forest biosystem. Classification of forest micro-organisms and elucidation of their physiology, ecology, and roles in the biosystem: Characteristics of tree root putterfaction bacteria, which cause withering of windbreaks in the Ishigaki Island, Japan were elucidated, and identifying the culture hyphae has become possible. Chemicals effective for their control were discovered, which enable their extermination. Investigations on soil molds using artificial acid rains clarified that the exterminating agents display their effects when sprinkled repeatedly over an extended period even in low concentrations. Classification of forest animals and elucidation of their physiology, ecology, and interactions among animals: A method was developed to photograph three-dimensionally the shapes of perforations made by earthworms using a soft X-ray and analyze them using a computer, which is being used for investigation. The perforation pattern is complex, and the hole diameters are in proportion with sizes of earthworms. Taxonomic studies on the Japanese lesser grain borers are close to completion. Damping-off of certain kinds of plantr exhibited parasitism of a kind of grain borerr and mycobionts without exceptions. An artificial burrow was devised for ecological investigation on field mice. 1 tab.

  3. Sulfide flux formed by the anaerobic slime on the surface of the gravity sewer pipe wall. Shizen ryuka no gesuikan ni okeru kenki slime kara no ryukabutsu flux

    Yoshimoto, K. (Japan Sewage Works Agency, Tokyo (Japan)); Mori, T. (Shimane Univ., Shimane (Japan). Faculty of Agriculture)


    A part of sulfide dissolved in the sewage is oxidized by oxygen dissolved in the sewage from the gas phase inside by the re-aeration. In addition, a part of type of the dissolvable sulfides is diffused in the gas phase as a hydrogen sulfide gas by the turbulence and so on in the sewage. When hydrogen sulfide diffused in the gas phase is oxidized to sulfuric acid by the sulfur oxidation bacteria, the corrosion and deterioration of concrete by that sulfuric acid are concerned even in the gravity sewer pipe as same as in the sewer pipe downstream from the discharge opening of the pressurized transport pipe for a long distance. When the gravity sewer pipe is planned and designed, it is required for establishing the necessary countermeasure at the places where the generation of sulfide is predicted, by estimating the sulfide concentration in the sewage accurately. In this report, making the slime adhered on the gravity sewer pipe wall and the slime grown in the laboratory as the objects, some knowledges on the sulfide flux from the anaerobic slime were obtained by measuring the sulfide flux and so forth. 16 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. Disinfectants used in medal field and problems caused from their use. Igaku ryoiki ni okeru sakkinzai to sorera shiyo ni yoru mondaiten

    Okuda, K; Watabe, S [Yokohama City University, Yokohama (Japan). School of Medicine


    This paper describes typical anti-microorganism chemicals used in hospitals, and touches on measures against intra-hospital infection. Killing microorganisms reliably by using a high-pressure steam sterilization method is the best means for medical devices and apparatuses. However, there are high-priced medical devices that cannot withstand such a method and require other processes according to the situations, such as gas sterilization and alcohol disinfection. In addition to such sterilization methods as using heat, alcohols, and gases, methods that have been developed recently may include the following: use of Bronopol (an antiseptic) and anti-mold agents that have electronphilic functional groups, disinfectants using metal ions from silver, zinc and copper, and other materials. The problem of intra-hospital infection is caused typically by MRSA, hepatitis virus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Preventive measures require good knowledge about their infection courses and disinfecting technologies, as well as an attention not to cause change in the ecology as a result of using excessively strong chemicals. 18 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  5. Analysis of flow and turbulence in high pressure spray by image processing technique. Gazo shori ni yoru koatsu funmunai ni okeru ryudo to midare no kaiseki

    Yamaguchi, I. (Japan Automobile Research Institute, Inc., Tsukuba (Japan)); Nishida, M.; Nakahira, T.; Komori, M.; Tsujimura, K.


    The image processing technique (reported previously) developed for analyzing combustion in a diesel engine was applied to measuring flow and turbulent intensity in a high pressure spray. Copper vapor laser beam in a sheet form with a thickness of 0.2 mm was injected into the cross section of a spray center in a container. Photographs of the scattered lights of the beam is converted into digital values and analyzed using an image processing equipment. With the laser light emitting frequency set to 20 KHz at a maximum, the flow velocity is measured from changes in photographic image density in two subsequent photographs, and the turbulence intensity from changes in brightness intensity. As a result, it was clarified that the flow velocity and the turbulence intensity in the spray cross section increase with raising the spray pressure. Further discussions are being made on the measuring method, including changes in the image brightness associated with entrance and exit of spray particulates into the laser beam sheet, and effects of the laser beam sheet thickness on the measurements of the turbulence intensity. 6 refs., 6 figs.

  6. Study of fuel spray characteristics for premixed lean diesel combustion; Kihaku yokongo diesel kikan ni okeru nenryo funmu keisei ni kansuru kenkyu

    Sasaki, S.; Miyamoto, T.; Harada, A.; Akagawa, H.; Tsujimura, K. [New ACE Institute Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    A study is being made on premixed lean diesel combustion (PREDIC) by means of early fuel injection in diesel engines. The PREDIC makes it possible to largely reduce NOx emission, but has such problems as ignition control and increase in THC and CO generation. In order to clarify the relationship between fuel spray characteristics in the PREDIC and properties of gas mixture and exhausts, the present study has investigated spread and internal structure of the spray by means of spray observation experiment using a pintle swirl nozzle. Based on the result therefrom, simulations were used to investigate effects of spatial dispersion characteristics of the spray on properties of the gas mixture and exhausts before ignition. The pintle swirl nozzle forms conical spray having an air layer inside the spray, where penetration is suppressed even under low atmospheric pressure. By forming hollow spray or solid spray in the conical spray, a possibility was indicated that equivalent ratio distribution of the gas mixture can be controlled and NO emission may be reduced. 8 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Vapor-liquid equilibrium ratio of trace furfural in water+1-butanol system; Mizu+1-butanorukei ni okeru biryo no furufuraru no kieki heikohi

    Ikari, A.; Hatate, Y.; Aikou, R. [Kagoshima Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Engineering


    Vapor-liquid equilibria of a water + 1-butanol system containing a trace amount of furfural were measured at atmospheric pressure by use of a Iino-type still for systems of limited miscibility. Vapor-liquid compositions for the major components (water and 1-butanol) are shown to be nearly coincident with those of the binary system. In the partially miscible region, the vapor-liquid equilibrium ratios of the trace component (furfural) at bubble point were found to be 2.5 and 0.46. Consequently, the partition coefficient of the trace component between the two liquid phases is 5.4. The equilibrium ratio curve of the trace component is presented, in which the calculated curve within the partially miscible region is shown to be coincident with the experimental data. 5 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Adoption of CO2 laser cutting system for bridge factory. Kyoryo kojo ni okeru CO2 laser setsudan system no tekiyo

    Hata, A.; Ogaya, S.; Tamaoki, N. (NKK Corp., Tokyo (Japan))


    This paper describes a cutting process structured for an objective of accuracy improvement and high-speed automation of cutting processes for thin sheet steels used for bridge building. Objects of the cutting process are such thin sheet steels as lateral ribs (with a thickness of about 9 mm to 14 mm) with complex shapes and a large number of edges to be cut. The process lines consist of two lines for large member and small member cutting. The paper details the numerical controls including the chart system, 'BRISTLAN' that has been developed previously, a CAM information preparing system, and a CAM system. The process is capable of a scheduled treatment of up to eight steel sheets at one time by instructing two corners of steel sheets arranged on a slat conveyor. Cutting lengths of 800 m to 900 m per day have been recorded currently. Cutting speed for a S 400 shot-blast steel sheet with a thickness of 12 mm is 750 m/min with a laser output of 2000 W. In a treatment with a common cutting system to make outlines of each member uniform, the cutting length was decreased by 6.7% to 35%, and the yield was improved by 1.9% to 2.9%. 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. Correlation between the structural relaxation and the functionality of optically functional glasses; Kokinosei glass ni okeru kozo kanwa to kinosei no sokan

    Nishida, T [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering


    A discussion was given to elucidate the correlation between the crystallization of infrared ray permeating glass and the infrared ray permeability. The elucidation used infrared ray permeation spectrum, infrared ray absorption spectrum, and the Mosbauer effect. Reduction in permeability due to heat treatment of aluminate glass was discussed from the crystallization mechanism. Ultrafine crystals of mayenite phase having a composition ratio of CaO/Al2O3 = 1.7 diffuse and grow from the glass surface into interior as a result of heat treatment. The crystal growth is triggered by severance of Al-O tetrahedron. Gallate glass has CaGa2O4 and small amount of CaFe2O4 phase deposited when it is heat-treated in the vicinity of Tg. Although the infrared ray permeability decreases in association with the crystallization, the decrease is limited to crystallization on the glass surface, hence the permeability will not fall to zero. Laser irradiation on the gallate glass causes crystallization, resulting in reduced infrared ray permeability. Semi-stable Ca3Ga4O7 phase remains, however, because the heat energy amount is not large. Tellurite glass has {alpha}-TeO2 and a small amount of telluric acid iron deposit when heat-treated. 29 refs., 10 figs.

  10. Survey on the scrap iron and steel recycling in Thailand and Indonesia; Hatten tojokoku (Tai Indonesia) ni okeru tetsu scrap saiseiyo ni kansuru chosa



    This report describes the survey results of the scrap iron and steel recycling industries in Thailand and Indonesia. The purpose of this survey is to extract problems obstructing the scrap iron and steel recycling, to recognize the present situation and predict the future situation, and to examine the possibility of international cooperation. As a result of the survey, it was found that the quality of scrap collected in the domestic market is poor as it contains too many impurities for it to be utilized for the manufacture of many higher quality iron and steel products. The actual quantity of domestically collected scrap is too low to support the expected growth in demand in each nation. Current environmental management practices are largely concerned with the construction of wastewater treatment facilities and the extraction of furnace dust. However, the lack of enforcement of environmental regulations does not encourage companies to implement sound environmental practices. Neither government actively promotes and investigates iron and steel recycling in the domestic, commercial or industrial sectors. Collaboration with overseas nations having more advanced iron and steel industries could be helpful to the scrap recycling industry in both nations. 6 figs., 21 tabs.

  11. FY 1998 annual report on power generation by waste heat from cement production in China; Chugoku ni okeru cement hainetsu hatsuden 1998 nendo chosa hokokusho



    This project is to implement a feasibility study for applying waste heat power generation, which have been already commercialized in Japan and producing remarkable results, to China's cement plants producing 3,500 t/d or more of clinker, and thereby to try to establish a link with the Japan's clean development mechanism. It is expected that introduction of these systems improves energy use efficiency and environments in China. The study results indicate that the project for a Tongling Conch plant could generate power of 15,000 kW, reducing CO2 emissions by 89,178 t/y and cumulatively 1,783,560 tons in the 20-year period. The results also indicate that the project will be highly profitable, with an estimated internal return rate of as high as 33.78%. The project for a Huaxin plant could generate power of 8,400 kW, reducing CO2 emissions by 48,412 t/y and cumulatively 968,240 tons in the 20-year period, annually saving power charges by 325 million yen and bringing an internal return rate of 10.72%. (NEDO)

  12. Fiscal 1998 survey report. Survey on method of environmental-impact assessment in wind power development; 1998 nendo furyoku kaihatsu ni okeru kankyo eikyo hyoka shuho chosa hokokusho



    With the purpose of preparing the main points of 'environmental-impact assessment guidelines for wind power developments (draft)', examples of environmental-impact assessments, related laws and regulations in Japan and abroad were collected, and rearranged in respect to requirements in environmental-assessments, concrete procedures, survey/projection/assessment method, summarisation of results, etc. It was clarified, for example; in a large-scale wind power development, it can be dealt with by choosing items and contents on the assumption that a land area is developed; in a small-scale development, there is basically no need of considering the possible effect of the construction work; and, as far as noise, vibration and the ecosystem (plants/animals) are concerned, however, the characteristics of the site be taken into consideration. Objects for general assessment are noise, low-frequency air vibration, radio wave interference, the ecosystem (plants and animals) and the landscape. The guideline draft is constituted of (1) basic items, (2) overview of the area, (3) determination of items for environmental-impact assessment and (4) research, prediction, assessment, conservation measures and follow-up research; in the basic items, importance of preliminary consideration was emphasized, as were priority/simplification, implementation of environmental conservation measures, and implementation of follow-up research. (NEDO)

  13. Actual situation and future tendency of relaxation of petroleum restrictions in Western Europe. Seio ni okeru sekiyu kisei kanwa no jittai to kongo no doko


    An oversea investigation was made in 1988 to study the present situation of the relaxation trends of petroleum resrictions in the countries of Western Europe. Among petroleum markets of West European countries, in those of West Germany and UK both quantity and price have had no restrictions. And in France they were liberalized quite recently. On the other hand, in South European countries such as Italy, Spain and Greece the prices of petroleum products are controlled by the governments. EC is going to integrate petroleum markets by the end of 1992 so that petroleum products may flow beyond the borders freely. In France, relaxation of restrictions on the petroleum industry was carried out in 1985 employing the petroleum business law of 1928 with elasticity and four years have passed since then. In Italy petroleum companies cannot decide the prices of major petroleum products freely. In Spain, the petroleum market is going to be completely liberalized in 1993 in accordance with the engagement with EC. Greece is at strife with EC on the adjustment of policies. 26 figs., 86 tabs.

  14. Fiscal 1998 research report. Feasibility survey on offshore wind power generation in Japan; 1998 nendo chosa hokokusho. Nippon ni okeru yojo furyoku hatsuden no donyu kanosei chosa



    This survey studied the feasibility of large-scale offshore wind power generation in Japan. Attempt was also made on preparation of outline maps of offshore wind around Japan. The cost of future offshore wind power generation systems is roughly dependent on technical issues and environmental issues. As technical issues, 'installation site,' 'foundation,' 'system interconnection' and 'maintenance/management' were summarized based on applications in Europe. As a result, it was clarified that technical issues can be solved with existing technologies to a certain extent, however, those relate to economical problems closely. The previous environment impact assessments say that wind power generation has no problems on the environmental issues. As relatively strong wind coastal areas, the outline maps of offshore wind point out Western Hokkaido area, Japan Sea area of Tohoku district, Pacific ocean area of the central part of Honshu, Genkai Nada area, Western Kyushu area and Southwest islands area, and suggest that these areas are promising for offshore wind power generation. (NEDO)

  15. Results of geophysical survey on Hanaore-fault in the Kyoto urban area; Butsuri tansa ni yoru Kyoto shigaichi ni okeru Hanaore danso chosa

    Yoshioka, T. [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan); Echigo, T. [Osaka Soil Test, Osaka (Japan); Toshioka, T.; Matsubara, Y. [Oyo Corp., Tokyo (Japan)


    This paper reports results of gravity survey and seismic survey using the shallow bed reflection method to identify distribution of the Hanaore fault in the Kyoto urban area. In the gravity survey, level differential structure caused by the fault was identified as an abrupt change in Bouger anomalous values. The continuity therefrom made the estimation possible on existence and positions of such faults as the Hanaore fault belonging to the Hanaore fault system, the Shishigaya fault, the Kaguraoka fault, and the Okazaki fault. The estimation as a result of the gravity survey include the following findings: the Hanaore fault runs from south of the Yoshidayama in the south-north direction; the distribution of the Okazaki fault has a level differential structure falling on the east side; the structure shows low Bouger anomaly distribution; and this area forms a rift valley belt. In the seismic survey using the shallow bed reflection method, no distinct reflection plane considered as the basement was verified because of influence from urban area noise. However, it was possible to estimate such an underground structure as a monoclinal fold from shapes of the reflection plane and the distribution depths. 7 refs., 5 figs.

  16. Airborne gamma-ray survey around the Negoro fault. 1; Negoro danso shuhen chiiki ni okeru kuchu {gamma} sen tansa. 1

    Nakayama, E.; Kasuya, Y.; Hasegawa, H. [Aero Asahi Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Tsukuda, E. [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan)


    An airborne gamma-ray survey was carried out to investigate the active fault system in the central structure line in the peripheral area of the city of Wakayama. At the same time, with an objective to enhance applicability of the airborne gamma-ray survey to active fault investigation, fundamental data were acquired and discussed. The measurement data were processed according to the standard method specified by IAEA. An ID-FFT filter and a nonlinear filter were employed to extract anomalous gamma-ray intensity values. The gamma-ray intensity distribution chart shows a noticeable positive anomalous area extending from the central part of the western edge to the north-east direction. This area agrees nearly well with the Negoro fault, but its peak portion is positioned slightly more to south than the position of the Negoro fault shown in existing data. The Sakuraike fault and the vicinity of the central structure line also show positive anomaly as a whole, particularly remarkably in the vicinity of their converging portion. However, differing from the vicinity of the Negoro fault, the areas are not extracted as an anomalous area which has directionality and extends in a line form. One of the factors for this would be that it is a fault in unsolidified deposits with low opening trend, differing from the one in solidified rocks. 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  17. Study on the effect of measurement points upon reduced added mass matrix; Shukusho fuka shitsuryo matrix ni okeru kansokuten no eikyo ni kansuru kenkyu

    Funaki, T.; Hayashi, S. [Osaka University, Osaka (Japan). Faculty of engineering


    It is known in estimating vibration characteristics of a ship that fluid range affects largely a structure. A parameter calculation was performed on node vibration in the vertical direction of a rotating elliptic body such as a ship to investigate the effect of an arranging method of the measurement points upon the result of the analysis. As a result, it is thought that equivalent interval arrangement of 21 measurement points would be sufficient in a lower order side mode of vibrations with less than four nodes. An analysis of calculations performed by arranging measurement points in experimental measurement points revealed that analysis accuracy would not increase even if the number of measurement points is increased if it is done so without considering rotation vector. An experiment was carried out with the number of measurement points increased to verify the above fact, with which the analysis was verified correct. Therefore, as has been forecasted in the previous report, the cause for the analysis accuracy deterioration in a high order mode may be estimated as the effect of the rotation vector. However, since it is not the situation that an analysis considering the rotation vector has been conducted, it cannot be concluded yet that the effect of the rotation vector is the sole cause. 4 refs., 14 figs., 7 tabs.

  18. New style of competition. Application of concurrent engineering to automotive development; Atarashii kyoso no sutairu. Jidosha kaihatsu ni okeru konkarento engineering

    Miura, N. [Nissan Motor Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    The global marketing competition has started since 1980, shorten of lead time in product development and studies on process of product development in accordance with customers` needs were conducted in Europe and America. In European and American businesses, cross functional team action in Japanese business that engineers in different departments carried out cooperative work and solved problems has been given an attention, this would be constructed systematically as an engineering method of Concurrent Engineering (CE). In this system, a method of quality design process for carrying out safety design replaced with correct design in according to requirement of customers; shorten of the developing period and tools supporting team action such as CAD, CAM and CAE as communication tools were introduced in process of product development. In this paper, role and importance of CE in parallel simultaneously and developed in accordance with customers` needs were explained. 8 refs., 2 figs.

  19. Survey report for fiscal 1999. Project of diffusing gas driven cooling systems in Oman; 1999 nendo Oman koku ni okeru gas reibo fukyu jigyo chosa hokokusho



    With the clean development mechanism (CDM) borne in mind, a study is made about the diffusion of gas driven cooling systems in Oman. The project under study aims to replace the motor driven turbo cooling systems, now in use at the Royal Hospital and other buildings in various areas, with gas driven cooling systems. It is then found that, when the Royal Hotel is equipped with such systems, energy will be saved by 1,855 tons/year in terms of oil, and greenhouse gas reduced by 5,129 tons/year in terms of CO2. When the Royal Hospital and other large buildings with heavy cooling loads, situated at or near the center of Muscat City and in the vicinity of the existing natural gas pipelines, are taken into account, energy will be saved by 13,049 tons/year in terms of oil and greenhouse gas will be reduced by 31,636 tons/year in terms of CO2, thanks to the presence of universities, hotels, and a sector occupied by government offices. As for the time necessary for investment recovery, it will be 4.7-5.3 years in case the investment does not cover a gas decompression station construction cost and 6.2-6.8 years in case it covers such. The new system will cost 7% less than the existing system. When a comparison is made in terms of electricity charges, the new system will be 30% lower than the existing system. The Omani Government is critical of a plan for allowing Japan to establish there an energy supply company (financed by Japan). (NEDO)

  20. Utilization of coal fired power plant by-products. Utilization of coal ash; Sekitan karyoku ni okeru fukusanbutsu no yuko riyo gijutsu. Sekitanbai no yuko riyo

    Kishimoto, K. [The Federation of Electric Power Companies, Tokyo (Japan); Watanabe, M. [Electric Power Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    The paper introduced the present situation and future task of the tackling with effective use of coal ash discharged from coal thermal power plants. Making the use of the characteristics, coal ash is mostly used in the fields of cement/concrete, civil engineering/construction, and agriculture/forestry/fisheries. In the case of using fly ash to concrete, the effects are the heightening of long-term strength, increase in workability, decrease in hydration heat, control of alkali aggregate reaction, etc. In the civil engineering/construction field, coal ash is allowed to be used for road bed material and mixed civil engineering material as road materials, for revetment back-filling material, soft ground surface layer treatment, soft ground/soil improvement materials, FGC deep layer mixing treatment process, SPC (sand compaction pile) material, etc. as earth work materials. Besides, it is used for light coarse aggregate, light sand, etc., as construction materials, for material substituting ceramics products, etc. as building materials, and for agricultural material, potassium silicate fertilizer and ocean structure in the agriculture/forestry/fisheries field. 4 refs., 2 tabs.

  1. Chemical term correspondence between Japanese and American chemistry textbooks. II. Nippon to America no kagaku kyokasho ni okeru kagaku yogo no taio. II

    Kakihara, S. (Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan))


    This is a study on how chemical terms used in Japanese chemistry textbooks correspond to those in American textbooks. Examples in which English and Japanese chemical terms do not correspond are divided into 4 groups, and points to be noticed are described. As references, two kinds of most popular textbooks in the U.S. and three kinds of Japanese textbooks are mainly used. When chemical terms in either of American or Japanese textbooks do not correspond to or were not found in the other textbooks, several kinds of other dictionaries and textbooks are also investigated. As a result, it is found that there are some English terms which are apt to be mistranslated into Japanese. Some of English translations established in dictionaries and textbooks in Japan are not found in American textbooks. In the same way, some English terms often used in American textbooks do not appear in Japanese textbooks and dictionaries. These examples and notes seem to be useful for reading American textbooks or writing English abstracts of papers on chemistry. 16 refs.

  2. Criterion for matrix cracking in glass fiber reinforced cross-ply laminates. GFRP chokko sekisoban ni okeru matrix kiretsu no hattatsu kijun

    Motoki, S.; Fukuda, T. (Osaka City Univ., Osaka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering); Tanaka, M. (Kobe City College of Technology, Kobe (Japan))


    In this research, with regard to GFRP cross-ply laminates, which were the most basic lamination composition, the factors governing the progress of matrix cracks at the 90{degree} layer were studied, in particular the criterion for not depending on the thickness of the 90{degree} layer was examined. For the experiment concerning the above, GFRP prepreg was laminated and three kinds of cross-ply laminates were made for use. A quasistatic tensile load was applied to these specimens and a load-displacement curve was measured, and at the same time, the matrix crack numbers generated in the 90{degree} layer were counted. As a result, it was found that the maximum value of the vertical stress in the loading direction of 90{degree} layer did not depend on the lamination composition, hence could become the criterion for the crack progress. Also it was found that in case when this stress surpassed a certain threshold value, cracks were formed, but in case when it was smaller than the threshold value, no crack was formed. 12 refs., 14 figs.

  3. Survey of the trend of technical development and industrial policies in Asian countries; Asia shokoku ni okeru gijutsu kaihatsu no doko to sangyo gijutsu seisaku ni kansuru chosa



    A sharp rise in industrial productivity in Asia countries indicates a rising level of R and D technology. Since Japan has not clearly grasped the R and D ability in these countries, it has not given appropriate personnel/material R and D support to them. Therefore, for the purpose of exactly grasping the R and D ability of Asian countries (Korea, Taiwan, the Philippines, Indonesia and India) and studying an effective and appropriate method for R and D cooperation, a survey was conducted of R and D potentials in Asia and R and D support policies of the countries. As a result of the survey, the following are taken up as items to be considered: promotion of exchanges between Tsukuba, etc. in Japan and research/university towns and science parks being constructed in lots of countries, participation of private companies in high-tech joint work in cooperation with Japan, sending information from Japan using internet, etc. and exact grasp of needs at partner side, cooperation given to new comers without asking for research results (use of OB researchers, etc.) 25 refs., 39 figs., 59 tabs.

  4. Recycling technologies for sewarage systems. Reuse of water, heat, and sludge in Tokyo; Gesuido wo meguru risaikuru gijutsu. Tokyoto ni okeru mizu/netsu/odei no sairiyo

    Mino, T. [Tokyo Univ. (Japan)


    The recycling technology employed in Tokyo were reported. It will be useful for developing and introducing the recycling technology for water, heat, and sludge in the sewage treatment. Among various kinds of recycling technology, one of the most peculiar technology is the district heating and cooling system using the heat of sewage. The Japan`s first practical plant which uses the untreated sewage as the heat source was installed and is now operating in Korakuen pump station. In the station, the energy contained in the sewage is recovered by a heat exchanger. The heat pump produces warm water of 45{degree}C and cold water of 7{degree}C as well. Both are supplied to the area near by through the heat source supply pipeline. The Nanbu sludge plant has a sludge-resourcing plant, in which the sludge is converted into fuel, metro-bricks, and light-weight granules, as well as a conventional sludge treatment plant carrying out the concentration, dehydration, and incineration of sludge. The Ochiai sewage treatment plant reuses water after cleaning. The clean water is used as for the service water in addition to being discharged into the river stream. 7 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Pitting corrosion of copper in aqueous solutions containing phosphonic acid as an inhibitor. Hosuhon san wo inhibita toshite fukumu suiyoekichu ni okeru do no koshiku ni tsuite

    Yamada, Y. (Muroran Univ., Hokkaido (Japan). Graduate School); Seri, O.; Tagashira, K. (Muroran Univ., Hokkaido (Japan)); Nagata, K. (Sumitomo Light Metal Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan). Technical Research Lab.)


    Phosphonic acid-based inhibitors that are poured into cooling water for copper-tube circulation systems for open heat-accumulators were studied on their influence on pitting corrosion of copper. Amino trimethylene phosphonic acid (ATMP) dissolved into distilled water to 50 ppm was used for the immersion corrosion test. The corrosion-proof effect of additives such as ZnSO4, benzotriazole (BTA) was tested too. 0.5 mm thick phosphate-treated copper plates with a hole of 5 mm in diameter were used as test specimens. Pitting corrosion on the copper plate occurred when ATMP, BTA and ZnSO4 coexisted. It was proved that SO4 [sup 2-] is essential since Na2SO4 in stead of ZnSO4 induced also corrosion. The pitting took place when 0.6 ppm or more of SO4 [sup 2-] was present in a BTA-added ATMP solution. It was observed that the pitting is prone to occur with increase of SO4 [sup 2-] and the number of pitting increases. The following relationship is established when pitting corrosion occurs; E[sub b] [le] E[sub corr], where the former is a potential value at which current density shows a steep increase and the latter is an average value of spontaneous electrode potential showing a plateau. 8 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Experimental results of acetone hydrogenation on a heat exchanger type reactor for solar chemical heat pump; Solar chemical heat pump ni okeru acetone suisoka hanno netsu kaishu jikken

    Takashima, T; Doi, T; Tanaka, T; Ando, Y [Electrotechnical Laboratory, Tsukuba (Japan); Miyahara, R; Kamoshida, J [Shibaura Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)


    With the purpose of converting solar heat energy to industrial heat energy, an experiment of acetone hydrogenation was carried out using a heat exchanger type reactor that recovers heat generated by acetone hydrogenation, an exothermic reaction, and supplies it to an outside load. In the experiment, a pellet-like activated carbon-supported ruthenium catalyst was used for the acetone hydrogenation with hydrogen and acetone supplied to the catalyst layer at a space velocity of 400-1,200 or so. In the external pipe of the double-pipe type reactor, a heating medium oil was circulated in parallel with the flow of the reactant, with the heat of reaction recovered that was generated from the acetone hydrogenation. In this experiment, an 1wt%Ru/C catalyst and a 5wt%Ru/C catalyst were used so as to examine the effects of variation in the space velocity. As a result, from the viewpoint of recovering the heat of reaction, it was found desirable to increase the reaction speed by raising catalytic density and also to supply the reactant downstream inside the reaction pipe by increasing the space velocity. 1 ref., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Analysis method on the factors of slope disaster occurring place with its application. Shamen saigai hassei chiten ni okeru soin bunseki no ichishuho to oyosei ni tsuite

    Setojima, M [Kokusai Kogyo Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Shiraishi, K [Public works Research Institute, Tokyo (Japan)


    A proposal is made on a method to analyze a slope disaster in detail from a viewpoint of ''where the disaster occurred'' (to analyze in a line pattern the apertures of a collapse and main scarps in a land slide). Methodological emphasis was placed on superimposing aerial photograph images taken before and after a disaster over imaged information on factors based on land conditions including topographical characteristics. Applicability of this method was discussed using a landslide location in Niigata Prefecture as an example. This paper describes the result of tb discussion by the following items: Imaging the aerial photographs and correcting their geometrical distortion; extracting items of line-pattern information from the aerial photographs and classifying the land coverage; and analyzing factors of causing the landslide using an image superimposing process. The papers also mentioned a view that this method may be applied effectively on disasters occurring on ground surface. 11 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Selecting, engineering and constructing drilling sites at the Geysers geothermal field. Geysers chinetsu ryoiki ni okeru kussaku shikichi no sentei engineering kochiku


    This paper describes some examples of selection, engineering and construction of drilling sites at the Geysers geothermal field in the northern district of California State. Steep landform, thin-layered soil and violent rainfall create unstable conditions bringing about numerous landslide in the field. Selection of a well drilling site appropriate in such conditions is started by analyzing the aerial photographs by technical staff. After site selection, prospecting and soil test are conducted and a working plan in the well site is decided to prepare engineering drawings. In the construction, land preparation, the open-cutting of base-line trench, etc. are carried out. The base-line trench is a large and sufficiently deep one which is open-cut to the front end or the middle of the bottom part of the well plateau. The final construction work is to build a leading casing for interpolating cementing. The well site construction in the Geysers geothermal field is done in consideration of protecting human life, health and properties. 1 fig.

  9. Design and construction of landslide preventive construction at Yamasubara hydroelectric power plant site. Yamasubata hatsudensho chiten ni okeru jisuberi taisaku koji no sekkei seko ni tsuite

    Takase, H; Ito, M; Sakata, M [The Kyushu Electric Power Co. Inc., Fukuoka (Japan)


    This paper reports the design and construction of landslide preventive construction at the site of the Yamasubara hydroelectric power plant (with a maximum output of 40,700 kW) and the result of slope stability verification after completion of the construction. The moderate slope on top of the primary slide has sands presumed to be colluvial deposit distributed with a depth of 10 m or more, where occurrence of a secondary slip was feared as triggered by the primary slide. The power plant protective constructions consisted of concrete walls to protect the entire power plant including buildings, and falling stone protective fences installed around the surge tanks. The temporary measures were so set that groundwater levels are lowered to a level that can assure the slide safety factor of 1.0 or more by means of drain boring using the down-the-hole hammer type. The permanent protective construction used rock anchors that are superior in constructability and economy. The stability of sliding slope faces was verified to confirm effects of the protective constructions. The verification included observations of groundwater level behavior, water well-up from drain holes, and movements in the slopes. The result showed that the protective constructions have give sufficient effects. Continued slope stability control is important. 16 figs., 7 tabs.

  10. Fiscal 1991 report. Overseas surveys out of surveys for coal hydrogasification technology development; 1991 nendo sekitan suiten gaska gijutsu kaihatsu chosa ni okeru kaigai chosa hokokusho



    For the selection and evaluation of coal gasification processes suitable for substitute natural gas (SNG) production, visits were made to business corporations, research institutes, etc., engaged in the development of coal gasification technology abroad, and surveys were conducted of the development status overseas and information was collected. Visits were made and information was collected on the Lurgi process, a commercial SNG plant, and others at Dakota Gasification Company, U.S.; U-gas process and others at Institute of Gas Technology; energy-related matters at U.S. Department of Energy; coal hydrogasification process and others at Midlands Station, British Gas plc; Shell coal gasification process and others at Amsterdam Research Institute, Royal Dutch Shell; coal gasification, high-temperature desulfurization, and others at KEMA, Holland; and IGCC (integrated gasification combined cycle) verification plant with the Shell coal gasification process incorporated thereinto, now under construction at Demkolec. (NEDO)

  11. Current status and prospect on photo-catalyst application in environmental problems; Kankyo mondai ni okeru hikari shokubai oyo no ganjo to tenbo

    Watanabe, T. [Toto Ltd., Kitakyushu (Japan)


    This paper summarizes application of photo-catalysts in environmental problems. The paper lists examples of the application in residential environments. Photo-catalytic decomposition is possible by using ultraviolet rays contained in room illumination if the bacterial presence is sparse. The examples thereof may be cited as follows: if colon bacilli are suspended on a tile with TiO2 photo-catalyst sintered in it and exposed to room illumination, the bacteria are disinfected; using photo-catalysts in a bathroom suppresses deposition of Pseudomonas aeruginosa; a photo-catalyst tile (TiO2 loaded with Cu) and light irradiation reduce intensity of tobacco smoke odor; and adsorbents may be used simultaneously if intermediate products are odor generating substances. The examples of applying photo-catalysts to regional environments may be quoted as follows: growth of algae in a Petri dish is suppressed by presence of Cu loaded TiO2 under room illumination; this leads to an expectation on its effect in a relatively clean water environment; glass beads loaded with a TiO2 photo-catalyst placed in a gold fish breeding tank reduces turbidity, the number of colon bacilluses, and COD value; and the mortality in gold fish shows no change. With an objective of application to exterior building materials, photo-catalyst applied tiles were left outdoors for 160 days. Nitric acid ions were detected that are thought to have been generated by decomposition of microorganisms that have deposited on the tiles. 6 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. Report on construction of thermal power plants for industrial use in China in FY 1997; 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho (Chugoku ni okeru kogyoyo karyoku hatsuden setsubi secchi)



    Steam supply and power generating plants in China can be classified into systems for district heating and power generation and systems for steam supply and power generation for industrial use. Steam supply and power generating plants for district heating in winter season are diffused due to the introduction of Russian technology. There are steam supply and power generating plants for supplying steam to manufacturing equipment in works and generating power for industrial use. Both of these are called heat and power stations. This survey was conducted for the latter thermal power generation plants for industrial use. China has heat and power stations with a total capacity of 22,000 MW, and a half of them are used for district heating. Although the thermal efficiency of usual thermal power generation plants is between 30 and 40%, that of heat and power stations is between 60 and 70%. Latent demand of such power generation plants for industrial use is large. Problems for the diffusion were extracted. It was considered that steam supply and combined power generating plants using natural gas are effective when constructed in large cities, in the vicinity of large cities, or in technological universities. 22 figs., 15 tabs.

  13. On the muscle activity control in the hierarchy motor systems. Hierarchy undo system ni okeru kin no kassei seigyo ni tsuite

    Akiba, M.; Miyamoto, Y. (Osaka Industrial University, Osaka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering)


    Excitory impulses for motor systems are controlled by the psychophysiological nervous systems in the body either autonomically or voluntarily. Involved in the voluntary control loop are motor cortex, basal gangalia, thalamus, cerebellum, etc. The purpose of this study is to confirm whether it is possible to reduce or emphasize the muscle contraction voluntarily through electromyogram (EMG) feedback training. EMG can indicate the excitory impulses of motor units. In the experiments, electrodes were placed on the skin above muscles. A significant reduction effect was observed for subjects trained in relaxation of the forehead musculature through EMG feedback. Results of the experiments suggested that biofeedback training for relaxation of the forehead tensional muscle might be effective in eliminating muscle contraction, and that feedback training for activation of damaged muscles might be effective in emphasizing muscle contraction. 4 refs., 9 figs.

  14. Energy conservation progress in building equipment. Energy conservation on the sports facilities; Kenchiku setsubi ni okeru sho energy no shiten. Supotsu reja shisetsu no sho energy

    Sakura, I.; Kayo, M. [Kajima Corp., Tokyo (Japan)


    There are various kinds of sports and leisure facilities. Due to their classes, aims, operation styles and so forth, the grades of aimed environments and facilities change. For example, like a baseball, swimming and skating, quantity of motion and grade of sportswear are different due to their classes and a target environment is also differs. On the other hand, public facility for citizen use is required its cheaper fee, but private facility on commercial base is required its user-collecting capability with added-value. In order to content individual needs of each facility, it is important to combine properly its target environment and its equipment system. The sports and leisure facilities have often large space on their characteristics, and are necessary to maintain their target environments as well as to treat their thermal emission in closed space and to supply their required air. Therefore, it is an extremely meaningful to conduct the energy saving in the facility apt to consume a lot of energy, which is described in this paper mainly on in-door large space facilities. 17 refs., 1 tab.

  15. Report on the field test project for wind power development at Yaku Town (wind characteristics investigation); Yakumachi ni okeru furyoku kaihatsu field test jigyo (fukyo seisa) hokokusho



    Wind characteristics are observed for a year at Yakushima Young Travellers' Village of the above-named town, Kagoshima Prefecture. The exponential index of the wind speed distribution in the vertical direction is between 1.6 and 4.7, or 3.5 on the average, relatively small due probably to the peculiar terrain and causing no trouble in the development. Turbulence intensity is 0.16 at when the wind speed is 2m/s or more, low enough to meet the reference value (0.30 or less). The total occurrence rate on the prevalent wind axis (SSE-NNW) is 48%, falling short of the reference value (60% or more). The average wind speed in the prevalent wind direction is high and the wind energy density concentrates on the prevalent wind axis, this showing that the site is good for wind power development. The annual average wind speed is 5.6m/s, slightly lower than the reference value (5.8m/s or more). Since there are possibilities of a maximum instantaneous wind speed of over 60m/s, caution is to be used in determining the wind endurance level for the wind turbine design. The annual wind energy density is 325W/m{sup 2}, fully meeting the reference value (215W/m{sup 2} or more). The annual operation rates of the 150/300/750kW wind turbine models are 61/65/80%, and these meet the reference value (45% or more). Their annual capacity ratios are 24.5/26.6/27.7%, and these again meet the reference value (17% or more). (NEDO)

  16. Studies on the friction and wear properties of synchronizer rings and gear cones; Shinkuro kiko ni okeru masatsu mamo tokusei ni kansuru kenkyu

    Hayashi, K; Kunoki, T [COSMO Research Institute, Tokyo (Japan)


    The influence of materials of synchronizer rings, automotive gear oils and sulfur-phosphorus EP additives on the friction and wear properties of synchromesh system was studied by using a synchromesh friction tester. As a result, the durability was decreased by using the synchronizer ring made of copper alloys. The initial friction performance estimated by using the synchronizer ring made of resin have influence on EP additives, in particular some kinds of phosphorus type additives. 3 refs., 12 figs.

  17. Effects of 4WD and ABS of safe driving on slippery roads; Tei {mu} ji ni okeru 4WD to ABS no koka to unten sosa hoho

    Kojima, Y [National Research Inst. of Police Science, Tokyo (Japan); Takigami, K; Asano, K [Japan Safe Driving Center, Tokyo (Japan); Nagai, M [Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Tokyo (Japan)


    Effects of 4WD and ABS on safe driving were examined by brake, obstacle avoidance, acceleration, cornering and lane-changing tests on slippery road. The braking operations, used in these tests, are full, intermitted and modulated brakings. As the results of discussion, the major findings are (1) ABS is effective to shorten the stopping distance and to increase the ability of obstacle avoidance in many cases, (2) `Modulated Braking (without wheel locks)` has the same function as ABS, and (3) 4WD is effective to increase the stability while accelerating, cornering and lane-changing. 5 refs., 6 figs.

  18. Role of O radical on the formation of O{sub 2} gas plasma; O{sub 2} purazuma ni okeru O rajikaru no yakuwari

    Matsui, I. [Toshiba Reasearch and Development Ceter, Tokyo (Japan). Mechanical Systems Laboratory


    The effect of plasma formed gas on the plasma structure is investigated using a self consistent continuous fluid plasma model, which assumes that the local field approximation was attained in the RF plasma. The swarm parameter was obtained by Boltzmann analysis for O{sub 2} gas which contains various amounts of O radicals. Positive ion density, negative ion density, and electron density in the O{sub 2} RF plasma including O radical generation were calculated by self-consistent one dimensional continuous fluid plasma model. The calculation results show the dominant positive charged particle became O{sup +} from O{sub 2}{sup +} with increasing amount of O radical in O{sub 2}. The plasma positive densities are not greatly affected if O radical content did not exceed 1 % of O{sub 2}. It was concluded that O{sub 2} plasma structure can be evaluated by source gas plasma calculation neglecting radical formation, since O radical formation in the O{sub 2} plasma is estimated as less than 0.2 % of O{sub 2}. (author)

  19. Heat recovery properties from fuel cell system for telecommunications use; Tsushin`yo nenryo denchi system ni okeru hainetsu kaishu tokusei

    Ishizawa, M.; Iida, S.; Abe, I.; Yamamoto, M. [NTT Integrated Information and Energy Systems Laboratories, Tokyo (Japan)


    NTT is developing a phosphoric-acid fuel-cell energy system for telecommunication co-generation systems to reduce energy costs and help preserve the environment. Fuel cells are used to provide electrical power to telecommunication equipment and the heat energy that is generated is used by the absorption refrigerators to cool the telecommunication rooms throughout the year. We field-tested this fuel-cell energy system in a telephone office. Two heat recovery methods were applied in the test: one uses direct steam heat recovery from fuel-cell stack coolant to keep the heat recovery temperature high and to avoid requiring a heat exchanger for the recovery; the other uses heat recovery from the reformer exhaust gas that is directly in contact with the heat recovery water to recover heat more economically. Our field tests confirmed that the average efficiency of heat recovery from fuel-cell stack coolant is 16%, and from the reformer exhaust gas is 9% under 80-kW continuous operation. Maximum total efficiency including electrical power efficiency was confirmed to be about 73% under the condition of 100-kW and an S/C ratio of 2.5 in the winter period: heat recovery from the fuel-cell stack coolant was 23%, from the reformer exhaust gas was 10%, and from electrical conversion was about 40%. 9 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Hear recovery properties from fuel cell system for telecommunications use; Tsushin`yo nenryo denchi system no fuirudotesuto ni okeru hainetsu kaishu tokusei

    Ishizawa, M.; Iida, S.; Abe, I.; Amanuma, H. [NTT Integrated Information and Energy Systems Laboratories Tokyo (Japan); Uekusa, T.; Waragai, S. [NTT Power and Building Eacilities Inc., Tokyo (Japan)


    NTT is developing a phosphoric acid fuel cell energy system for telecommunication co-generation systems to reduce energy costs and help preserve the environment. Fuel cells are used to provide electrical power to telecommunication equipment and the heat energy that is generated is used by the absorption refrigerator to cool the telecommunication rooms throughout the year. We fieldtested this fuel cell energy system in a telephone office for three years. Heat recovered water from fuel cell stack coolant was supplied to the absorption refrigerator and further extra-heat was recovered by a heat exchanger. The toral heat recovery amount was about 86000 kca/h (the heat recovery efficiency was 20%) under 200kW operation. The absorption refrigerator was supplied about 49000kcal/h of heat and operated with 0.7 of coefficient of performance throughtout the year. The electrical efficiency was maintained more than 38% after 13000h operation. 12 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. Breakdown characteristics of electro-negative gases under needle-plane gap. Hari-hiraita gap ni okeru denkiteki fusei gas no zetsuen hakai tokusei

    Nakayama, H.; Onoda, M.; Amakawa, K. (Himeji Institute of Technology, Hyogo (Japan)); Kuroda, S. (Nitto Denko Corp., Tokyo (Japan))


    The voltage-time (V-t) characteristics of corona onset and breakdown were examined in electro-negative gases as SF {sub 6} and CCl {sub 2} F {sub 2}, using a needle-plane electrode with small gap and {mu} s square pulse voltage with various wave fronts. The V-t characteristics in electro-neutral gas as N {sub 2} ordinarily descended rightwards, but those in SF {sub 6} descended rightwards only in smaller gaps and lower gas pressures. In the pulse voltage with shorter wave fronts, those in SF {sub 6} also offered a particular shape descending leftwards. The particular shape was dependent on the steepness of the pulse wave front, being strongly affected by shorter wave fronts, and also strongly related to the onset and development length of corona. The particular phenomenon of V-t characteristics was observed more obviously at a positive needle than negative one without any extremely long corona lengths at negative one, indicating a polarity effect. The phenomenon was also observed in CCl {sub 2} F {sub 2} as particular one in electro-negative gases. 21 refs., 12 figs.

  2. Hybrid structure in civil engineering construction. Composite types of steel and concrete; Doboku bun`ya ni okeru fukugo kozo. Kozai to concrete no ittai keishiki

    Sato, T. [JR Railway Technical Research Inst. Tokyo (Japan)


    In connection with hybrid structures in civil engineering construction, classification and application of composite types of steel and concrete are discussed. H steel embedded beam is a composite beam in which the H shape steel of the main beam is connected to rolled or welded H shape steel using cross beams. Composite structure columns are grouped into the composite column and the steel pipe concrete column. SRC piers are often adopted from the viewpoints of constraints for execution of works and vibration proof. Steel and concrete hybrid structure is a kind of structural system in which various kinds of materials such as steel, RC, or PC members are connected. The cable stayed bridge utilizes characteristics of steel and concrete effectively. For the piers of municipal expressway viaducts, there are executed cases of mixed structures which have RC, SRC columns for T shape piers and S structure for the bridges. SRC structure and composite columns are adopted often for structures of subway stations. 7 refs., 7 figs.

  3. FY1995 study on objective measurement of mental stress caused by operation; 1995 nendo kiki sosa ni okeru seishinteki fuka no kyakkanteki keisoku gijutsu ni kansuru kenkyu



    The task with operating highly functional and intelligent machines, is supposed to cause the mental stress such as tension, anxiety or fear, owing to the operation itself and movement of the machines. The purpose of the project is to establish the physiological sensing technique in objective measurement of the various mental stress caused by the operation or the movement of machines, aiming at designing the optimal interfaces in man-machine system. Subjective quantities and physiological responses are measured, under the stresser of five different conditions, such as a monotonous task, a task which causes tension, and a motion of a robot which causes fear. BP, ECG, and are measured as Physiological items. More precisely, the variation in systolic pressure, RRI of heartbeat or LF/HF value obtained by its spectrum analysis, and the power spectrum of a wave or CNV area derived from spectrum analysis of EGG, are obtained for each item. The results of the experiment show that subjective responses such as irritation, tension and concentration due to the increase of the task load, and fear caused by the movement of machines, are able to be measured by physiological responses such as BP, ECG and EEG. (NEDO)

  4. Prospect of French industrial technology research and development under President Chirac`s political power; Shiraku seikenka ni okeru Futsu sangyo gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu seisaku no mitoshi



    This paper describes a prospect of French industrial technology research and development under President Chirac`s political power. The research and development in France is characterized by the national leadership. It depends greatly on the system and organization as well as the economical factors. The policy concentrates on the reformation of development organization rather than the research and development itself. It is required to provide the cultural and social tradition and environment that can bring up people bearing it, the system that can supply the methods of research and development, and the force of technology and market development that can industrialize and commercialize its results. The national leadership in France basically relates to all of these three factors. The actors of framework for the financing and enforcement of research and development are illustrated in a scheme by dividing them into government and companies. The actors for the enforcement of research and development are also divided into governmental public organizations and companies. This paper also provides the defense development in the private companies having a large finance of research and development from the government. The finance of research and development for public welfare from the government is roughly divided into the large-scale projects with determined usage by the government, and the supports for proposals by the companies. 13 refs., 4 figs., 40 tabs.

  5. Study on the effect of measurement points upon reduced added mass matrix; Shukusho fuka shitsuryo matrix ni okeru kansokuten no eikyo ni kansuru kenkyu

    Funaki, T; Hayashi, S [Osaka University, Osaka (Japan). Faculty of engineering


    It is known in estimating vibration characteristics of a ship that fluid range affects largely a structure. A parameter calculation was performed on node vibration in the vertical direction of a rotating elliptic body such as a ship to investigate the effect of an arranging method of the measurement points upon the result of the analysis. As a result, it is thought that equivalent interval arrangement of 21 measurement points would be sufficient in a lower order side mode of vibrations with less than four nodes. An analysis of calculations performed by arranging measurement points in experimental measurement points revealed that analysis accuracy would not increase even if the number of measurement points is increased if it is done so without considering rotation vector. An experiment was carried out with the number of measurement points increased to verify the above fact, with which the analysis was verified correct. Therefore, as has been forecasted in the previous report, the cause for the analysis accuracy deterioration in a high order mode may be estimated as the effect of the rotation vector. However, since it is not the situation that an analysis considering the rotation vector has been conducted, it cannot be concluded yet that the effect of the rotation vector is the sole cause. 4 refs., 14 figs., 7 tabs.

  6. Function of coral reef for glbal scale circulation of carbon dioxide. Chikyu kobo no CO sub 2 junkan ni okeru sangosho no yakuwari

    Kayane, H [Geological Survey of Japan, Tokyo (Japan)


    Together with the global warming problem, it becomes important to elucidate the carbon dioxide circulation in global scale mechanism. Within a part of that elucidation, explanation of function and ecology was made of coral reef, fixing carbon dioxide through two passages, ie., formation of potassium carbonate skeleton and formation of organic matter. The coral reef is judged to become effective sink of carbon dioxide by the photosynthesis by symbiotic seaweed in coral body and coral formation of potassium carbonate skeleton. The coral reef is higher than the tropical rain forest in diversity and productivity of biological matter. In addition, the formation of potassium carbonate also fixes carbon dioxide. Its producing rate of organic matter is 2.5kgC/m {sup 2}/year, which is 20 times as high as that of offshore region. Also, its sedimentary rate is more than several hundreds of times as high as that by Foraminifera in the offshore region. Therefore, its effective control is important, though it still has unknown points. 22 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Depositional models of the shallow marine carbonates in the geochemical cycle. Busshitsu junkan ni okeru asaumi tansan'engan no taiseki model

    Nakamori, T [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan). Institute of Geology and Paleontology


    This paper summarizes depositional models of carbonates related to carbon circulation on the earth surface. The paper lists the following examples of modelling the Recent coral reefs: A model that divides coral reefs into several boxes corresponding to geographies, and estimates organic and inorganic carbon production in each box; and a model that discusses seawater flows to estimate fluxes of organic and inorganic carbons between the boxes and between the reefs and open seas. Carbon circulation in a time scale of the Quaternary may be described appropriately by the box model corresponding to the condition of deposition and dissolution of the carbonate rocks. Several examples of modelling oceans and coral reefs are described briefly. The paper lists a model by Berner et al. that notes migration of carbon, Ca, and Mg among five boxes of Ca-Mg silicate, ocean, atmosphere, calcite, and dolomite regarding the geochemical cycle during about 600 million years in the Phanerozoic era. It also explains a model developed from the former model. 39 refs., 1 fig.

  8. Fiscal 1998 research report. Feasibility survey on offshore wind power generation in Japan; 1998 nendo chosa hokokusho. Nippon ni okeru yojo furyoku hatsuden no donyu kanosei chosa



    This survey studied the feasibility of large-scale offshore wind power generation in Japan. Attempt was also made on preparation of outline maps of offshore wind around Japan. The cost of future offshore wind power generation systems is roughly dependent on technical issues and environmental issues. As technical issues, 'installation site,' 'foundation,' 'system interconnection' and 'maintenance/management' were summarized based on applications in Europe. As a result, it was clarified that technical issues can be solved with existing technologies to a certain extent, however, those relate to economical problems closely. The previous environment impact assessments say that wind power generation has no problems on the environmental issues. As relatively strong wind coastal areas, the outline maps of offshore wind point out Western Hokkaido area, Japan Sea area of Tohoku district, Pacific ocean area of the central part of Honshu, Genkai Nada area, Western Kyushu area and Southwest islands area, and suggest that these areas are promising for offshore wind power generation. (NEDO)

  9. FY 1999 report on the survey of the overseas geological structure, etc. Japan-Indonesia joint Tanjung Enim coal exploration project; 1999 nendo kaigai chishitsu kozo nado chosa hokokusho. Nippon Indonesia sekitan kyodo tansa Tanjung Enim project



    The paper summed up the FY 1999 results of the survey conducted based on the agreement on the Tanjung Enim IV coal exploration project which was concluded between NEDO and Indonesia's Ministry of Mining Energy. The survey was made for an area of approximately 40km{sup 2} which is a north block of the south Arahan region, Tanjung Enim, South Sumatra, Indonesia. To grasp the succession of strata/rock facies/geological structure and the state of existence of the coal seams to be drilled, surveys were conducted on ground surface and boreholes. A total of 10 holes was test-drilled, and all the boreholes were physically logged. As a result of the survey, each of A1, A2, B, C and E coal seams was confirmed as main seams. A1, A2 and B seams are low in ash and sulfur contents with heating values of approximately 4,800 kcal/kg, C seam is high in sulfur content, and E seam is high in heating value, 6,000 kcal/kg. As coal seams for open pit mining, existence of A, B and C seams is expected which lay in the shallow part from ground surface to sea level of 0m and in the range of depth of approximately 100m. The proved coal reserves of these coals were estimated at 189 million tons. (NEDO)

  10. Achievement report for fiscal 1998 on joint research business (2/2). Photovoltaic power generation field test for public facilities; 1998 nendo kokyo shisetsu nadoyo taiyoko hatsuden field test jigyo (2/2). Kyodo kenkyu seika hokokusho



    Photovoltaic power generation systems are experimentally installed at public facilities at various locations, and subjected to field tests in which they experience long-term operation under real loads. Mie Prefectural Iidaka Senior/Junior High School has a 10kW solar cell system installed on the south-side roof of the school house. The system is linked to an in-house transformation station and the power generated by the system is supplied to the lighting and air-conditioning facilities in the building, and surplus if any is transmitted to the Chubu Electric Power Co., Inc., system. A field test is being conducted to determine if there are usability and safety in the 10kW system. A number of like systems are undergoing field tests, installed at a comprehensive technological training center of Kyushu Electric Power Safety Association, Kongo Gakuen Senior High School, Sakata Nursery School, Taiyo Daiichi Nursery School, Minami Kindergarten, Neyagawa Ishizu Old People's Home, Co-Op Living Konan, Factory Hishimeki, Tochigi Fuji Industries, Gamo-cho Hirabayashi Public Hall, Fukuoka Prefectural Culture Complex, Yatsusugi Forest Schooling Center, Osaka Prefectural Murano Water Purification Plant, Yamanashi Institute of Environmental Sciences, Utatsu-cho Town Office, Ginga Gakuen Junior High School, etc. (NEDO)

  11. Subsidized project for development of technology in putting photovoltaic power generation system into practice. Report of international joint demonstrative R and D on photovoltaic power generation system; Taiyoko hatsuden system kokusai kyodo jissho kaihatsu hokokusho



    The following joint researches are in progress utilizing natural conditions and social systems in Nepal, Mongolia, Thailand, Malaysia and Vietnam for the purpose of enhancing environmental adaptability, reliability, etc., of technologies. (1) Nepal; accelerated demonstrative research utilizing highland conditions, (2) Mongolia; demonstrative research of movable type photovoltaic power generation system, (3) Thailand; demonstrative research of photovoltaic generation system for battery-charging stations, (4) Malaysia; accelerated demonstrative research utilizing tropical conditions, and (5) Vietnam; demonstrative research of hybrid system on photovoltaic power generation and micro hydro power generation. The research assets of (1) and (3) whose researches have been finished were provided gratis for the co-researcher countries. In (5), on the basis of the geographical conditions such as annual average quantity of solar radiation, conduit for water-turbine, energy complementing relation, load demand, and degree of installation difficulty, Trang Village in Vietnam was selected, with a system decided on PV:100 kW/MH:25 kW/control system. The MH is an induction generator. The primary pieces of equipment are a generator, a storage battery, an inverter and a system control panel. (NEDO)

  12. Joint research achievement report on field test project for photovoltaic power generation of industrial use in fiscal 2000 (5/5); 2000 nendo sangyo tou you taiyokohatsuden field test jigyo kyodo kenkyu seika hokokusho 5/5



    This paper summarizes the achievements in fiscal 2000 on the field tests for photovoltaic power generation of industrial use. This report describes the details of the achievements on the following organizations: the Hiroshima Riverside Hotel; the Saraya Corporation; the Nanshin Subaru Corporation; the Ricoh Uni-techno Corporation; Toyota Motors Kyushu Corporation (Eco-center); Hitachi Electric Wires; Yuasa Corporation, Furukawa City in Ibaraki Prefecture; the Takasaki Branch Office of East Japan Passenger Railways; the World Trade Center Building, the Minami Trading Company, Onga Township in Fukuoka Prefecture; the Keio Electric Railways (Wakabadai Station); the Business Enterprise Bureau of Kyoto Prefectural Government; Okinawa Electric Power (Kita-Daito Island), Kawagoe Township in Mie Prefecture, the Keio Electric Railways (Meidai-mae Station); Kitakata Township in Gifu Prefecture; the Yamaguchi Prefectural Government; the MSK Corporation; the Fuji Pream Corporation; Kumano Township in Hiroshima Prefecture; Fukuroi City in Shizuoka Prefecture; the Water Supply Bureau of Yokohama Municipality in Kanagawa Prefecture; Ashiya City in Hyogo Prefecture; Shinoyama City in Hyogo Prefecture; the Gantan Beauty Industry; the Toyokuni Industry; and Minoo City in Osaka Prefecture. (NEDO)

  13. FY 1999 report on the results of the joint study - project on the public facility use photovoltaic power generation field test; 1999 nendo kokyo shisetsunadoyo taiyoko hatsuden field test jigyo kyodo kenkyu seika hokokusho



    In the field test, solar cell panels were installed on rooftop, and inverters were installed indoors. The electric power generated was connected at high pressure with electric installation of facilities and was also supplied to power equipment, lighting, air conditioning, etc. in facilities. The FY 1999 results were summarized. The installation of photovoltaic power generation facilities at 137 places and the results of the study were summarized in this report including a new university co-op building, Tokyo Metropolitan Advanced Technology Education Center, Suwano Center House of Fukushima prefecture, Environment Center of Saga prefecture, Educational Foundation Utsukushino Kindergarten, Hikarigaoka Park of Yamagata prefecture, Koiwai factory of Koiwai Dairy Products Co., Social Welfare Corporation Kameyama Ayumi Nursery School, etc. (NEDO)

  14. Achievement reports on joint research of solar energy power generation field test project in fiscal 1997. Part 2 of 3; 1997 nendo taiyoko hatsuden field test jigyo kyodo kenkyu seika hokokusho 2/3



    This report is a collection of 26 achievement reports on joint research of a solar energy power generation field test project. The major contents of the achievement reports relate to the solar energy power generation field test project (summarized as manufacture and installation of solar energy power generation systems, summary of solar energy power generation facilities, peripheral devices, and daily schedule of the construction). The reports describe achievements of the joint research (names and achievements of the joint research, study presentation, lectures, literatures, status of patents, similar research in and cooperation with other research institutions), generalization of the research, and future problems. Locations of the joint research carried out are libraries, kindergartens, health and welfare centers, children's culture centers, general traffic centers, primary and middle schools, river water purifying facilities, credit banks, manufactories, retail shops at car parking areas, office buildings, hospitals, joint prefectural office buildings, municipal health centers, and prefectural general power generation control stations. (NEDO)

  15. Basic investigation on promotion of joint implementation in fiscal 2000. Efficiency improvement and energy conservation at Uong Bi power plant; 2000 nendo kyodo jisshi nado suishin kiso chosa hokokusho. Uong Bi hatsudensho no koritsuka to sho energy



    Discussions have been given on energy conservation, and reduction in greenhouse gas emission through efficiency improvement at the Uong Bi coal burning power plant in Vietnam. The Uong Bi power plant, which has become using coal of lower quality than the design value, has had incomplete combustion, resulting in increase of unburned components in ash, and decrease of the boiler efficiency to 65 to 70%. Clinker hopper troubles have been occurring frequently, causing plant shutdown at a number of times. The turbine efficiency also shows as very low value as 26 to 27%. The plan has envisaged replacement of combustion parts of the boilers, withdrawal and replacement of the turbine generation systems, new installation of electric dust collectors, modification of the ash treatment system, additional installation of the re-circulation system, new installation of waste water treatment facilities, and modification of the waste water treatment equipment in the plant premises. As a result of the discussions, the annual energy saving quantity was found to be 62,936 tons of crude oil equivalent for the case where only one turbine is renewed, and 93,298 tons for the case where both of the two turbines are renewed. The annual reduction quantity of the greenhouse gas emission was found to be 251,215 tons and 372,402 t-CO2, respectively. (NEDO)

  16. FY 2000 survey of the geological structure overseas, etc. Japan-China joint coal exploration - Yu Xian project; 2000 nendo kaigai chishitsu kozo nado chosa - futai shiryoshu. Nippon Chugoku sekitan kyodo tansa Yu Xian project



    This data book summarized the proceedings and the technical report of the management committee on the Japan-China geological structure survey based on the consultation concluded between NEDO and China's bureau of coal field geology and a report meeting on the Yu Xian project. In the exploration, conducted were the boring survey of 10 boreholes, seismic survey of 2D (71 traverse lines, 180.105km) and 3D (1.5km{sup 2}), VSP (6 holes (345 shots)) and the low velocity band survey (2,072 shots). The geological structure of the area presented the syncline structure with a gentle line associated with foldings and a number of faults and was classified into the medium class or the class of a little complication in the Chinese standard. The number of the faults confirmed in this exploration totaled 57. Coal reserves by coal seam were 157.22 million tons at No. 5 seam and 102.57 million tons at No. 1 seam. The total amount of the two seams was 79.1% of the total coal amount in all area. The coal quality of Nos. 1 and 5 was brown coal - flame coal in the Chinese classification, and subbituminous coal B - subbituminous coal C in the ASTM classification. The coal, however, cannot be used for process raw coal. There is a technical potentiality of the fixed bed pressurized gasification. (NEDO)

  17. Corrosion behavior of carbon steel exposed for long time to an inoculation medium of sulfate-reducing bacteria; Ryusan`en kangenkin ga seisokusuru baichi ni chokikan shinshinshita tansoko no fushoku kyodo

    Baba, F.; Suzuki, T. [Ajinomoto Co. Inc., Kawasaki (Japan). Technology and Engineering Lab.; Seo, M. [Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan). Graduate School of Engineering


    In this paper, carbon steel was exposed more than six weeks to an inoculation medium of the sulfate-reducing bacteria in which the Fe{sup 2+} concentration was adjusted to a fixed value, the corrosion behavior of carbon steel was investigated by measuring the weight change and surface analysis using EPMA. As a result, the conclusions were obtained as follows: in the case of the medium with high Fe{sup 2+} concentration, the corrosion rate reached a maximum. In this case, the corrosion rate was suppressed to be low during the exposure for up to three weeks, and was increased above four weeks. The corrosion rate became 0.06 mm year{sup -1} by extrapolating the weight loss during the exposure up to six weeks. This value was higher than the average corrosion rate of carbon steel in a neutral solution with deaeration. It was shown from the analysis results using the EPMA that the FeS scale area covered on the surface of carbon steel would act as a cathode, and the other area would act as an anode. The formation of a scale effectively acting as a cathode depended on the exposure time and the formation of FeS in the medium. 15 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Research report for fiscal 1998. Basic research for the promotion of joint implementation etc. (Ryazanskaya thermal power station modification program); 1998 nendo kyodo jisshi nado suishin kiso chosa Ryazanskaya karyoku hatsudensho kaishu keikaku chosa hokokusho



    Under study is the modification of the four antiquated 300MW brown coal-fired power plants of the Ryanzanskaya thermal power station. Under the modification program, the plants will be burning a mixture of 60% coal and 40% natural gas for an increase in efficiency and for a great decrease in greenhouse gas emission. The amount of greenhouse gas emission of 6,858,592 tons/year before the modification will be reduced by 19.4% to 5,532,198 ton/year. The budget for the modification will call for 719,731,700 US dollars. EIRR (economical internal rate of return) is calculated based on the figures provided by the Russian office concerned about the current fuel cost and the current rates for the supply of electricity and heat. It is found that EIRR fluctuates depending on the ruble/dollar exchange rate. Although it does not pay at the current exchange rate, yet, when a US dollar is worth 13.0 rubles, an EIRR of 15% will realize at an availability factor of 70%. The same result is obtained when the availability factor is 80% and a US dollar is worth 14.8 rubles. There is a plan to fire the plants with 100% natural gas in the future. If the plan is implemented, a modification to incorporate gas turbine combined cycle will become feasible. (NEDO)

  19. Basic investigation on promotion of joint implementation in fiscal 2000. Energy conservation and modernization plan for Chhatak Cement Co., Ltd.; 2000 nendo kyodo jisshi nado suishin kiso chosa hokokusho. Chhatak Cement sha shoene, kindaika keikaku



    With an objective of saving energies and reducing greenhouse gas emission, discussions were given on a modernization plan for the Chhatak cement factory in The People's Republic of Bangladesh. The Chhatak cement factory having a nominal production capability of 267,000 tons a year uses mainly wet-type long kilns of old type, consuming a great amount of natural gas. The present plan has discussed adoption of the Japanese energy saving technologies. The technologies use a vertical roller mill for raw material pulverization, a suspension preheater and a short kiln for clinker sintering, a grate cooler for clinker cooling, and the pre-crushing system. The result of the discussions provided the prospects of reduction in the natural gas consumption at 50%, and reduction of electric power consumption at 16%. This will mean the annual reduction of about 22,000 tons as converted to crude oil. The CO2 reduction amount would reach 51,800 tons a year. The total investment amount would be US$37,327,000. The result of the financial analysis according to the case studies appears severe, wherein reduction of the various expenses is desired possibly by the finance from Japan with generous conditions.(NEDO)

  20. Report on investigations in fiscal 2000 on the basic investigation on promotion of joint implementation. Effective utilization of associated gas as CNG; 2000 nendo kyodo jisshi nado kiso chosa hokokusho. Zuihan gas no CNG to shite no yuko riyo



    The Back Ho oilfield is the largest oilfield in Vietnam and at the same time is producing the largest amount of natural gas (associated gas) in Vietnam. Although the majority of the associated gas has been used in the power generation plant, a large amount of surplus gas is not effectively used because of shortage of fund and technologies. Accordingly, a feasibility study has been executed for a project to compress 20% of the associated gas into CNG, and use it effectively as automobile and factory fuel. As a result of the site survey, it was found that, although Vietnam consumes less amount of energy and emits less amount of CO2, the nation has a strong interest and a large amount of knowledge about global warming and CDM because the country is subjected to large effect of warming. Furthermore, it has been reconfirmed that introducing CNG into this territory is highly effective. Discussions have been made on places of installing the facilities, effective surplus gas utilization systems, facility specifications, utilities, and number of workers. Calculations were made on approximate cost of the facilities and the running cost. As a result of the surveys and discussions, it was determined that technological support from Japan and the Yen loan for environment with low interest rate are necessary. (NEDO)

  1. Studies of initial stage in coal liquefaction. Effect of decomposition of oxygen-functional groups on coal liquefaction; Ekika hanno no shoki katei ni kansuru kenkyu. 3. Gansanso kannoki no bunkai kyodo to ekika hanno eno eikyo

    Komeiji, A.; Kaneko, T.; Shimazaki, K. [Nippon Brown Coal Liquefaction Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    Pretreatment of brown coal in oil was conducted using 1-methyl naphthalene or mixture of tetralin and 1-methyl naphthalene as solvent at temperatures ranging from 300 to 430{degree}C under nitrogen atmosphere. Effects of the solvent properties on the structural change of oxygen-functional groups (OFG) and coal liquefaction were investigated by means of quantitative analysis of OFG and solid state {sup 13}C-NMR measurement. When hydrogen transfer from solvent was insufficient, it was suggested that brown coal molecules loose their hydrogen to be aromatized. While, at lower temperatures ranging from 300 to 350{degree}C, hydrogen contained in brown coal molecules was consumed for the stabilization of pyrolytic radicals, and the deterioration of liquefaction was not observed. When hydrogen transfer from solvent was insufficient at higher temperatures above 400{degree}C in nitrogen atmosphere during pretreatment in oil, crosslinking like benzofuran type was formed by dehydration condensation of hydroxyl group in brown coal, to deteriorate the liquefaction, remarkably. The addition of donor solvent like tetralin decreased the formation of crosslinking like benzofuran type, which suppressed the deterioration of liquefaction. 8 refs., 5 figs.

  2. Quantitative analysis of sulfur forms of coal and the pyrolysis behavior of sulfur compounds; Sekitanchu no io kagobutsu no keitaibetsu gan`yuryo no teiryo to sono netsubunkai kyodo

    Mae, K.; Miura, K.; Shimada, M. [Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan). Faculty of Engineering


    As part of the studies on coal utilization basics, considerations were given on quantification of sulfur forms of coal and the pyrolysis behavior of sulfur compounds. With the temperature raising oxidation method, a thermo-balance was connected directly to a mass analyzer, and the coal temperature was raised at a rate of 5{degree}C per minute and gasified. Peak division was performed on SO2 and COS production to derive sulfur forms of coal. Using the slow-speed pyrolysis method, production rates of H2S, COS, SO2 and mercaptans were measured at a temperature raising rate of 20{degree}C per minute. Sulfur content in char was also measured. With the quick pyrolysis method, a Curie point pyrolyzer was connected directly to a gas chromatograph, by which secondary reaction is suppressed, and initial pyrolytic behavior can be tracked. All kinds of coals produce a considerable amount of SO2 in the slow-speed pyrolysis, but very little in the quick pyrolysis. Instead, H2S and mercaptans are produced. Sulfur compound producing mechanisms vary depending on the temperature raising rates. By using a parallel primary reaction model, analysis was made on reactions of H2S production based on different activation energies, such as those generated from pyrite decomposition and organic sulfur decomposition. The analytic result agreed also with that from the temperature raising oxidation method. 4 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  3. FY 1999 report on the results of the joint study - project on the industry use photovoltaic power generation field test. 2/3; 1999 nendo sangyonadoyo taiyoko hatsuden field test jigyo kyodo kenkyu seika hokokusho. 2/3



    In the field test, solar cell panels were installed on rooftop, and inverters were installed indoors. The electric power generated was connected at high pressure with electric installation of facilities and was also supplied to power equipment, lighting, air conditioning, etc. in facilities. The FY 1999 results were summarized. The installation of photovoltaic power generation facilities at 38 places and the results of the study were summarized in this report including a new public office building of Nio town, Kagawa prefecture, General Welfare Center of Matsumae town, Ehime prefecture, General Culture Center of Nakajima town, Ehime prefecture, Educational Foundation Sugao School, Training Center of Japan Railway Co., etc. (NEDO)

  4. FY 2000 report on the basic survey to promote the joint implementation. Conversion of raw materials in fertilizer plants and energy conservation in India; 2000 nendo kyodo jisshi nado suishin kiso chosa hokokusho. Indo hiryo plant genryo tenkan to shoene



    As a project contributing to reduction in greenhouse effect gas emissions by introducing energy conservation technology of Japan to India and to sustainable economic development in India, study of 'conversion of raw materials in fertilizer plants in India' was made, and the results were reported. The Indian government has been controlling the retail price of fertilizer by the subsidy policy for the protection of the domestic fertilizer production. Therefore, plants, which use coal/heavy oil/naphtha with much greenhouse gas emission as raw materials, have been behind improvement and now have no competitive force in the international market. In this project, concerning ZIL's fertilizer plant, the ammonia production capacity was set at 750 t/d and the urea production capacity at 1,300 t/d, and the energy conservation technology and the conversion of raw materials from naphtha to natural gas were studied. As a result, the amount of energy conservation was 55,705 toe/y, and the amount of CO2 reduction was 245,139 t-CO2/y. Further, this project indicated that profits were expected to increase and the cash flow would change for the better. (NEDO)

  5. Measurement of excited oxygen (O2:[sup 1][Delta]g) concentration by spontaneous emission. Hakko kyodo ni yoru reiki sanso ([sup 1][Delta]g) nodo no sokutei

    Takahashi, S.; Hasegawa, Y.; Yamashita, I. (Mechanical Engineering Laboratory, Tsukuba (Japan))


    The concentration of excited oxygen ([sup 1][Delta]g), which was generated by microwave discharge in a pure oxygen flow, was measured from the intensity of spontaneous emission. The conversion factor to density was determined by spectroscopic analysis of the rotational structure and calibration of the emission intensity using a black-body furnace as light source. Consequently, a good agreement was found between the observed profiles and those calculated from spectroscopic data, and it was illustrated that the absolute concentration can be obtained by coupling band analysis and the calibration method. In addition, even when the concentration was low, it was shown that the excited oxygen concentration can be measured by considering the reflection at the cell wall. The excited oxygen concentration at the microwave discharge cavity was estimated to be around 1% under the pressure ranging from 0.5 torr to 2 torr. Furthermore, the comparison of the profiles calculated at different temperature provided that the band profile can be a good indicator of gas temperature when the signal-to-noise ratio is high. 9 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. FY 2000 report on the basic survey to promote Joint Implementation, etc. Survey on the energy conservation of the Lianyuan Iron and Steel Group Complex, China; 2000 nendo kyodo jisshi nado suishin kiso chosa hokokusho. Lianyuan tekko sho energy chosa



    For the purpose of conserving energy and reducing greenhouse effect gas emission, a feasibility study was carried out of the installation of energy conservation facilities at the steelworks of Lianyuan Iron and Steel Group Complex, Loudi City, Hunan Province, China. The installation of the following facilities was studied: coke dry quenching (CDQ) equipment, coal moisture control (CMC) equipment, sintering ignition furnace equipment, cooler exhaust heat recovery equipment, top pressure recovery turbine (TRT), and hot stove exhaust heat recovery equipment. As a result of the study, the energy conservation amount was 20,000 toe/y by CDQ, 2,530 toe/y by CMC, 900 toe/y by improvement of ignition furnace in the sintering process, 12,300 toe/y by sintering cooler, 13,200 toe/y by TRT, and 10,300 toe/y by hot stove exhaust heat recovery equipment. Further, the amount of greenhouse effect gas reduction was 61,022 t-CO2/y, 7,843 t-CO2/y, 2,896 t-CO2/y, 38,060 t-CO2/y, 55,295 t-CO2/y, and 40,621 t-CO2/y, respectively. In the estimation of effects vs. expenses, the sintering ignition furnace, sintering cooler exhaust heat recovery, and hot stove exhaust heat recovery indicated the comparatively favorable values. (NEDO)

  7. Fiscal 2000 survey report. Basic survey of promotion of joint implementation, etc. Rehabilitation of KESC gas turbine power plant; 2000 nendo kyodo jisshi nado suishin kiso chosa hokokusho. KESC/gas turbine hatsudensho rihabiri



    KESC (Karachi Electric Power Supply Corporation) facilities supplying electricity to Karachi, Pakistan, were examined for rehabilitation aiming at energy conservation and greenhouse gas reduction. The rehabilitation program covered power generation facilities, fuel supply facilities, instrument control systems, and their layout. Discussed were a schedule for the production, transportation, and installation of facilities, sharing of burdens between KESC and Japan, and the economic and environmental merits expected to ensue from energy conservation and greenhouse gas reduction. The results are mentioned below. Project implementation will take approximately 18 months, and Japan will be responsible only for dispatching specialists to elaborate on CDM (clean development mechanism) and engineers. In Case 1, the amount of initial investment is estimated at 84-million US dollars, the economical efficiency of energy conservation at 107t/year/million yen, and the economical efficiency of greenhouse gas reduction at 330t-CO2/year/million yen. It is found in the study of profitability that the loan will be collected in 10 years after project implementation and the initial investment in 22 years. (NEDO)

  8. Three-dimensional computer simulation at vehicle collision using dynamic model. Application to various collision types; Rikigaku model ni yoru jidosha shototsuji no sanjigen kyodo simulation. Shushu no shototsu keitai eno tekiyo

    Abe, M; Morisawa, M [Musashi Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan); Sato, T [Keio University, Tokyo (Japan); Kobayashi, K [Molex-Japan Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    The past study of safety at vehicle collision pays attention to phenomena within the short time from starting collision, and the behavior of rollover is studied separating from that at collision. Most simulations of traffic accident are two-dimensional simulations. Therefore, it is indispensable for vehicle design to the analyze three-dimensional and continuous behavior from crash till stopping. Accordingly, in this study, the three-dimensional behavior of two vehicles at collision was simulated by computer using dynamic models. Then, by comparison of the calculated results with real vehicles` collision test data, it was confirmed that dynamic model of this study was reliable. 10 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. FY 1999 report on the results of the joint study - project on the industry use photovoltaic power generation field test. 1/3; 1999 nendo sangyonadoyo taiyoko hatsuden field test jigyo kyodo kenkyu seika hokokusho. 1/3



    In the field test, solar cell panels were installed on rooftop, and inverters were installed indoors. The electric power generated was connected at high pressure with electric installation of facilities and was also supplied to power equipment, lighting, air conditioning, etc. in facilities. The FY 1999 results were summarized. The installation of photovoltaic power generation facilities at 88 places and the results of the study were summarized in this report including Social Welfare Corporation Seishoen, Maruto Co., Saga Sanyo Industries Co., Koyama Cranial Nerve Surgery/Internal Medicine Hospital, Tsuchiura Urban Development Co., Osaka Alloy Works, Suntory Limited, etc. (NEDO)

  10. Basic investigation on promotion of joint implementation in fiscal 2000. Modernization project for North Bangkok Thermal Power Plant in Thailand; 2000 nendo kyodo jisshi nado suishin kiso chosa hokokusho. Tai North Bangkok karyoku hatsusensho kindaika jigyo



    With an objective of saving energy and reducing greenhouse gas emission, a modernization project has been discussed on the North Bangkok heavy oil burning thermal power plant owned by Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand (EGAT). The present project plans to withdraw the existing units No. 1, 2 and 3, and install two new generating facilities with the rated output of 358.3 MW using natural gas as fuel. The present feasibility survey has performed detailed comparative discussions on four cases, whereas a proposal was selected to withdraw all of the boilers, steam turbines, and generators, and install two single axis combined cycle systems whose output has been increased by using the existing fuel tank area. The energy saving effect by this project can reduce fuel consumption annually by 514 kt of crude oil equivalent. The greenhouse gas can be reduced annually by 2,680 kt-CO2. The project will require a total fund of about 57 billion yen. The profitability assessment calls for the internal profitability of 8.413% and the investment fund efficiency of 1.69%. The economic investment payback effect of this project is determined sufficient. (NEDO)

  11. Study on practical application of a longitudinal hull strength theory considering camber in cross section; Yokodanmen no sori wo koryoshita sentai tate kyodo riron no jitsuyoka ni kansuru kenkyu. 2

    Nose, M; Suzuki, K; Furuno, H [Nagasaki Institute of Applied Science, Nagasaki (Japan); Suzuki, K


    Discussions were given on practical application of a stress analyzing method for thin-wall deformed cross-sectional beam considering cross section camber in longitudinal bending. The non-static calculation method described in the previous report can be applied to a box-type cross section having multi-connected cells, bulk cargo transport vessels and container ships with dual hull structure, and oil tankers with dual hull structure of medium size. The calculation method was capable of achieving remarkable enhancement in efficiency over that of conventional calculation methods. The present study is intended to make the method applicable also to multi-connected cross section shapes having more than one longitudinal partitions as used in dual hull VLCC and ULCC. As a result, an expanded non-static calculation system was developed, which has introduced into the conception described in the previous report a new conception of triple point and independent start point members. As a result of applying the method to dual hull bulk cargo transport vessels, container ships, dual hull oil tankers of medium size, VLCC and ULCC, it was verified that the system operated properly. Remarkable efficiency improvement has been made possible as compared with conventional analysis methods applied to individual ships. The system is capable of automatic calculation, and makes possible the practical application of the hull strength theory considering cross section camber. 3 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  12. FY 1999 report on the study of the future course, etc. of 'the basic survey for promotion of Joint Implementation, etc.'; 1999 nendo 'kyodo jisshi nado suishin kiso chosa' no kongo no hokosei nado ni kansuru kento chosa hokokusho



    The paper conducted the demonstration of the multiplier effect of 'the model project for heightening of the international energy consumption efficiency, etc.' carried out by NEDO and its subsidiary project, 'the project on the basic survey for promotion of Joint Implementation (JI),' and the comparative study between these projects and the JI/CDM projects proposed in the world. In the quantitative evaluation of the multiplier effect, in the case of making the demonstration of the same technology in the same area both in the model project and the basic survey for promotion of JI, it becomes possible to grasp the CO2 reduction effect with high accuracy, but the CO2 reducible amount is small. Inversely, as to the technology for which the basic survey for promotion of JI is studied, but the model project is not carried out, it becomes possible to grasp the CO2 reduction effect with low accuracy, the CO2 reducible amount is large. In the comparison with the JI/CDM projects proposed in the world, the CO2 reduction amount was approximately $2.7 billion, 250 million tons, in the UNFCCC project, and approximately $5.0 billion, 500 million tons, in the IJ project. There was no very big difference in the cost effect. (NEDO)

  13. FY 1998 annual report on the survey report on possibility of international joint researches for Asian countries. 5; 1998 nendo Asia chiiki kokusai kyodo kenkyu kanosei chosa hokokusho. 5



    Described herein are results of surveys on dissemination policies for, and development trends in, energy saving and new energy areas in 6 Asian countries, Thailand, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, India and China. Possible joint research themes for Indonesia include effective utilization of palm oil residue, modernization of distribution systems, high-efficiency coal-fired thermal power generation techniques, and promotion of dissemination of solar cells. For Malaysia, renewable energies, e.g., photovoltaic power, will be developed to promote electrification for those areas not well electrified. The Philippines is positively receiving technical and financial aids for new energy and energy-saving areas from the advanced countries. India is considering to introduce a number of projects for, e.g., technological optimization of power supply area, decentralized power generation, oil exploitation and extraction techniques, and photovoltaic power generation. China is still in the preliminary stage in its energy research and development, and will need further joint researches in the energy sector. (NEDO)

  14. FY 2000 report on the basic survey to promote Joint Implementation, etc. Project for the modernization of the Tashkent cogeneration plant; 2000 nendo kyodo jisshi nado suishin kiso chosa hokokusho. Tashkent netsuheikyu hatsudensho kindaika keikaku



    An investigational study was carried out of the project for energy conservation and greenhouse effect gas emission reduction by introducing the newest and most powerful gas turbine cogeneration facilities to the Tashkent cogeneration plant in Uzbekistan. At the Tashkent cogeneration plant, each of the facilities is being superannuated, which leads to lowering of operational reliability and increase in cost of repairs. In the project, studied was the introduction of the newest and most powerful gas turbine cogeneration facilities with heat output of 100 Gcal/h equivalent to that of one can of the existing hot water boiler and with generated output of 80MW. As a result of the study, obtained were the energy conservation amount of 83.9 ktoe/y and the greenhouse effect gas reduction amount of 179.7 kt-CO2/y. The initial investment amount was 10.003 billion yen. Expenses vs. effects were 8.39 toe/y-million yen in energy conservation amount and 18.0 t-CO2/y-million yen in greenhouse effect gas reduction amount. In the study of profitability, the internal earning rate was 9.24% after tax, the return yield of capital was 41.26%, and the period of ROI was 16.9 years. (NEDO)

  15. Development of superhigh-strength mortars with compressive strength of 3000kgf/cm sup 2 or higher. 3000kgf/cm sup 2 ijo no asshuku kyodo wo motsu mortar no kaihatsu

    Ohama, Y; Izumura, K [Nihon University, Tokyo (Japan). Collete of Engineering; Hayashi, S [Onoda Cement Co. Ltd., Yamaguchi (Japan)


    This paper discusses the preparation factors and curing conditions of superhigh-strength mortar, and explains a method of manufacturing superhigh-strength mortar having still higher strength and its superhigh strength generating mechanism. A recommended cement material for the superhigh-strength mortar is a Portland cement mixed with a high-purity silica at 20% and silica fume at 20%. This was made to a water-cement material ratio of 15% and fine aggregate cement material ratio of 1.06, cured in an autoclave, and further heat-cured at 200{degree}C for one day to obtain a superhigh-strength mortar. The compression and bending strengths reach 2,200 kgf/cm{sup 2} and 180 kgf/cm{sup 2} respectively when used with silica sand, and 3000 kgf/cm{sup 2} and 220 kgf/cm{sup 2} or more when used with stainless steel grits. The heat curing at 200{degree}C for a day increases remarkably the compression strength of the superhigh-strength mortar regardless of the curing conditions before the heat curing. 7 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  16. FY 1999 Report on overseas geological structure surveys. Joint Japan-China Yu Xian exploitation project (Attachments); 1999 nendo kaigai chishitsu kozo nado chosa futai shiryo. Nippon Chugoku sekitan kyodo tansa Yu Xian project



    This reports provides the attachments for the report JN0041264. The contents include (1) minutes of the fourth steering committee, (2) technical reports presented to the fourth steering committee (I: report on FY 1998 joint exploitation works, and II: report on FY 1999 joint exploitation works), (3) minutes of the fifth steering committee, and (4) technical reports presented to the fifth steering committee (I: report on FY 1999 joint exploitation works, and II: report on planned FY 2000 joint exploitation works). The item (1) includes approval of the reports on FY 1998 and 1999 joint exploitation works. The item (2)-I report includes seismic exploitation test works, observation work results and quality evaluation thereof; drilling exploitation work results, quality evaluation thereof, exploitation results and evaluation thereof; exploitation results and evaluation thereof; and proposals. The item (2)-II report includes seismic exploitation, drilling exploitation, and man-hours of the workers from the both countries. The item (3) includes approval of the reports on FY 1999 joint exploitation works and planned FY 2000 joint exploitation works. The (4)-I report includes seismic exploitation work results and evaluation thereof, seismic exploitation test works, drilling exploitation work results, quality evaluation thereof, exploitation results and evaluation thereof, and proposals for the future works. The (4)-II report includes seismic and drilling exploitation plans, and numbers and periods of the workers from the both countries. (NEDO)

  17. Research report of fiscal 1997. Joint research project on petroleum substituting energy between Japan and the EU; 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho. Nichi EU sekiyu daitai energy kanren kyodo kenkyu jigyo



    Four researchers were invited from EU countries to promote R & D of petroleum substituting energy in Japan, and the joint research was made in institutes of Agency of Industrial Science and Technology related to each theme for 50 days. On the research on deep geothermal prospecting based on volcanic halocarbon group, it was showed that halocarbon discharged from volcanic or hydrothermal system is an important window to survey activities within the earth. On the research on catalyst for hydrogenation of coal-derived liquid, XPS data was reported, and some preliminary conclusions were obtained. On the research on oxide system anode material for Li secondary cells, a method for improving the state of host to ion moving in 1-D to 3-D networks by diffraction method was showed. In particular, the method was effective to offer electronically sensitive environment to moving ion system. On the research on hydro-dechlorination of hydrocarbon halide, the theme related to environmental measures against waste hydrocarbon halide (depletion of the ozone layer) was studied. 83 refs., 32 figs., 20 tabs.

  18. Fiscal 1998 international research cooperation project. Feasibility study report on excavation of international joint research seeds; 1998 nendo kokusai kyoryoku jigyo seika hokokusho. Kokusai kyodo kenkyu seeds hakkutsu no tame no FS chosa



    Feasibility study (FS) was made on excavation of international joint research seeds for developed countries. As FS themes, 6 themes were selected among applied 11 ones. China was interested in the joint research on improvement of a cetane number by ring-opening of LCO from fluid catalytic crackers through hydrogenation for Arabian crude oil, although China has an experience for domestic one. Since France and the USA are in the early developmental stage of practical atmospheric temperature and pressure conversion technology of lower hydrocarbon after the basic research stage, study was made on the possibility of a joint research. The other themes are as follows: Oil resource and energy conservation technology by recycling general plastics and industrial synthetic resins, advanced solid catalyst regulating technology by physicochemical technique and its application to next-generation oil refining processes, structure analysis of asphaltene and reaction mechanism analysis of heavy oil by computer simulation, and production technology of ultra-precisely controlled catalytic materials. (NEDO)

  19. Achievement reports on joint research of solar energy power generation field test project in fiscal 1997. Part 1 of 3; 1997 nendo taiyoko hatsuden field test jigyo kyodo kenkyu seika hokokusho 1/3



    This report is a collection of 101 achievement reports on joint research of solar energy power generation field test project. The contents of the achievement reports are the results and generalization of the joint research with respect to the solar energy power generation field test project. As regards the locations of executing the joint research, the locations by areas and applications are stated. By areas, the joint research was carried out on gymnasiums, parks, recreation centers in the standard areas, universities, sports facilities, public halls, agricultural associations, aged persons' homes, primary, middle and high schools, prefectural office buildings and industrial technology centers in cold districts; prefectural office buildings, agricultural associations, universities, museums, industrial technology centers in good insolation districts; museums, primary, middle and high schools, parks in strong wind and salt polluted districts; and universities and police stations in snowy districts. By applications, the joint research was performed on life cooperative halls, factories, nursery schools, hospitals, clinics, local newspaper companies, indoor warm-water swimming pools, and mushroom fields. (NEDO)

  20. Research and development of utilization technology of solar thermal energy system for industrial and other use. International joint technology development for solar energy utilization systems; Sangyoyo nado solar system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu. Taiyo energy riyo system kokusai kyodo gijutsu kaihatsu

    Takita, M [New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo (Japan)


    Described herein are the results of the FY1994 research program for international joint technology development for solar energy utilization systems. The joint study with an Indonesian research institute takes a model of lumber drying plant for the design and feasibility study. All the parts it needs are technically available in Indonesia, except carbon fiber sheets and electronic devices for controlling purposes. The drying cost is higher than that of a plant which procures charge-free wood fuel, but lower than that of a plant which procures fuel at 30$/t. A cacao drying plant model is also studied. The feasibility study shows that the initial investment for the blowing-up model is much higher by 60% to 100% than that for the conventional plant. Its fuel cost is lower by 11% than that of residual oil but 27% higher than that of wood. 4 figs.

  1. Effects of sand compaction pile (SCP) driving on the strength of clay outside the improved area; Sand compaction pile no dasetsu ga jiban kairyo ikigai no nendo jiban no kyodo ni oyobosu eikyo

    Matsuda, H. [Yamaguchi University, Yamaguchi (Japan); Takahashi, S. [Ministry of Transport, Tokyo (Japan); Fujiwara, K. [Penta-Ocean Construction Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Kitayama, N. [Fukken Co. Ltd., Hiroshima (Japan)


    This paper describes effects of the disturbance by the sand compaction pile (SCP) driving operations on the shear strength of clay outside the improved area and the border of region affected by the SCP driving. About 1,400 soil specimens were taken before and after the SCP driving inside and outside the improved area during the foundation improvement at Tokuyama-Shimomatsu Port in Yamaguchi Prefecture. Soil test data of the specimens and strength characteristics of disturbed clay specimens were investigated through the laboratory experiments. The results obtained are as follows. According to the multi-directional simple shear test results, the shear strength immediately after the cyclic shear decreased in 10 to 30% compared with that before the cyclic shear. When recompaction was conducted before the cyclic shear, however, it increased in 50% compared with that before the cyclic shear. The strength of clay decreased by the SCP driving even outside the improved area. When the internal frictional angle of clay, friction coefficient of the improved boundary and driving depth of SCP were determined, it was possible to estimate an area affected by the SCP driving using a combined sliding plane. 21 refs., 18 figs.

  2. Survey report for fiscal 1998. Joint research project with researchers related to petroleum substituting energies in the EU countries; 1998 nendo EU shokoku no sekiyu daitai energy kanren kenkyusha tono kyodo kenkyu jigyo chosa hokokusho



    It was intended to invite researchers related to petroleum substituting energies from the EU countries to perform joint researches at research organizations under the auspices of the Agency of Industrial Science and Technology having deep relations with research themes of the invited researchers, to deepen the mutual understanding, and to form efficient cooperative relationship. The intention is also to contribute to research and development of petroleum substituting energies to be used in Japan in the future. The research themes, researchers, their research organizations, and the receiving research organizations are as follows: (1) evaluation of reservoir impedance in high-temperature rock experimental fields by Mr. Ralph Weidler (Germany) at Ruhr University received by the Resource and Environmental Technology Research Institute; (2) changing the particle boundary structure of ceramics by using the alkoxide process by Dr. Ramon Torrecillas (Spain) at Institute Nacional del Carbon received by the Nagoya Industrial Technology Research Institute; (3) research on corrosion in metallic materials for molten carbonate type fuel cells by Dr. Giuseppe Calogero (Italy) at Institute for Transformation and Storage of Energy received by the Osaka Industrial Technology Research Institute; and (4) estimation of behavior of deep geothermal reservoirs with high enthalpy by Dr. Enrico Maranini at Universita' Di Ferrara received by the Geology Survey Center. (NEDO)

  3. Investigation on the dynamic response and strength of very long floating structures by beam modeling on an elastic foundation; Dansei shishojo no hari model ni yoru chodai futai kozo no doteki tawami kyodo tokusei ni kansuru kosatsu

    Tsubogo, T.; Okada, H. [University of Osaka Prefecture, Osaka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering


    A very large floating structure was replaced with the beam on an elastic foundation to examine the response characteristics in waves. Another evidence was regularly and numerically given for the basic characteristics of a very large floating body Suzuki found. New information was also obtained. The frequency response is mainly classified into a wave number control area and proper frequency control area when buoyancy elasticity exists. When the buoyancy structure is long and flexible, the proper frequency becomes continuous and the frequency control area becomes a resonance area. In the wave number control area, the Suzuki`s characteristic wave number becomes a control parameter, and various characteristic values are indicated by characteristic wave numbers. The response in the wave number control area becomes quasi-static when the distribution mass of buoyancy is fully small. The design in which the distribution mass of buoyancy is fully large must be avoided. In the displacement amplitude, the mass on the free end is severest. The proper frequency of vertical vibration relatively moves to the high-frequency side when buoyancy is considered as an elastic foundation. Attention must be thus paid to the proper frequency of vibration on the horizontal surface. 9 refs., 12 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. Estimation of the crack growth mechanism in the coking process. ; Behavior of fracture mechanics parameter. Cokes sonai kiretsu shinten ni kansuru ichikosatsu. ; Hakai rikigaku parameter no kyodo ni tsuite

    Yoshino, H; Sato, H; Nogami, H; Miura, T [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan). Faculty of Engineering


    Cracks generated in coke layers during a coking furnace operation are an important factor not only to decide quality of the product, but also govern the energy consumption affecting the heat transfer and material transfer. This paper describes estimations of thermal stress and observations to fracture mechanics parameters, applying the incremental theory to surface cracks seen in the initial stage of carbonization. As a result of calculations using the crack tip opening displacement (CTOD) as a parameter to evaluate displacement in the vicinity of crack tips, the values increased with the increasing heating rate, and agreed qualitatively with the trend found in the experiments. The CTOD relates closely to the temperature dependence of the contraction coefficient, and varies largely at the transition point from the first maximum point to the second maximum point, from which the surface cracks are predicted to have been generated in this temperature region. Also, an estimation was made on the stress expansion coefficient from the stress distribution, and a result that can explain the experimental resultswas obtained. 10 refs., 11 figs.

  5. Analysis of transient thermal behaviors during the charging process in stratified heat storage tanks. 2nd Report. Effects of characteristic parameters; Seiso chikunetsu sonai deno juten katei no kato netsuteki kyodo ni kansuru kaiseki. 2. Tokusei inshi no eikyo

    Yoo, H; Hong, H; Pak, E


    The mixing effect deteriorates performance in a stratified heat storage tank. In the present study, the effect of characteristic factors during the charging process was analyzed, based on the analytical solution in the previous study in which a strict boundary condition was applied and a mixing effect was included. Also, the usefulness of the solution was verified and the method of application to a real system was examined by comparing it to other experimental results. It was concluded that the depth of the perfectly mixed region is dominant unless the Peclet number is very small. 10 refs., 8 figs.

  6. Report for fiscal 1999 on the fundamental survey on promotion of joint implementation. Modernization of Bakabad Cement Factory; 1999 nendo kyodo jisshi nado suishin kiso chosa Bekbad cement kojo kindaika chosa hokokusho



    This paper describes the result in fiscal 1999 of the feasibility study applied with the COP3 clean development mechanism for Bekabad Cement Factory in the Republic of Uzbekistan. One of the existing three old type kilns were diverted and converted into a dry NSP type kiln (having the same production capacity as the present of 726,000 tons a year). This arrangement was intended to enhance the productivity, save the energy, and reduce emission of greenhouse gases and different pollutants by renewing the upper and lower stream facilities and installing such environmental devices as electric dust collectors and bag filters. The total construction cost is US$84,432,000. Reducible energy consumption and reduction quantity of greenhouse gases would be 73,232 toe/year and 176,528 toe/year, respectively, in the single fiscal 2006. The cumulative quantity over twenty-year period until 2025 would be 1,464,640 toe and 3,530,560 toe, respectively. The energy saving effect per US$1,000 would be 17.87 toe, and the greenhouse gas reduction effect would be 43.08 t. In the case of using a soft loan such as the special yen loan for environment application, the internal profit rate after tax would be 7.63%, which is not high as the business enterprise profitability. However, the profit and loss statement indicates creation of profit after two years of operation, hence there is a relative realization possibility. (NEDO)

  7. Fiscal 1998 overseas geological structure survey. Japan-China joint coal survey Mei-Xian project; 1998 nendo kaigai chishitsu kozo nado chosa hokokusho. Nippon Chugoku sekitan kyodo tansa Mei-Xian project



    Japan-China joint coal survey was made through seismic prospecting by Japanese group and drilling prospecting by Chinese group. Mei-Xian mine property includes coal seams of the Jurassic period, and is covered with the quaternary period stratum without any coal seam. The base of the quaternary period stratum exists at depth of 50-400m, while the coal seams at depth of 300-700m. Among 11 existing seams, the 1st and 5th seams are main objects for prospecting. The 5th seam of 0.2-8.96m (2.95m in average) thick is the most expected important one, distributing all over the mine property. The 5th seam also has branch seams spreading over 2.5km from east to west and 1.2km from south to north in the center part of the mine property. The 1st seam of 0-8.62m (2.90m in average) thick is most thick in the south part of the mine property. The theoretical amount of coal deposits in the whole coal seam is estimated to be nearly 290,000,000t by Chinese group (nearly 50% of it in the 5th seam). That is also estimated to be nearly 346,000,000t by Japanese group (155,000,000t in the 5th seam). Both 1st and 5th seams are composed of sub-bituminous coal. (NEDO)

  8. Research report for fiscal 1988. Basic research for the promotion of joint implementation etc. (plan for using combined cycle at Konakovo Power Station, Russia); 1998 nendo kyodo jisshi nado suishin kiso chosa. Roshia renpo KONAKOVO hatsudensho combined cycle ka keikaku



    On the basis of Kyoto Protocol-provided flexible measures such as joint implementation and clean development mechanisms, a study is conducted for introducing combined cycle into Konakovo Power Plant of Russia currently equipped with antiquated eight 300MW power plants constructed in the 1960's for which early renovation is necessary. The power station is an important power source connecting to the Moscow-Petersburg main. The gas turbine combined facilities to be newly installed will comprise 250MW-class state-of-the-art gas turbines arranged in four blocks, capable of a total output of 1600MW at a thermal efficiency of 58% (with simultaneous supply of heat). Four units capable of 1200MW out of the existing units will stay in operation for load adjusting. Since the price of power is set low under government control, the accounting capital/internal return rate is as low as 2.3%. The rate recalculated under the financing conditions of special yen credit for environmental protection, however, is as high as 19%, so high as to make the renovation an economically feasible project. It is expected that there will be an annual CO2 reduction of 2.3-million tons or a reduction of 57.50-million tons in 25 years (the life span of the new facilities). The renovation may be a joint implementation project to which both Japan and Russia will attach the highest priority. (NEDO)

  9. 'Nikkei Global Environment Technology Prize' awarded to the joint research group on regeneration of tropical forest; Nettairin saisei kyodo kenkyu ga 'Nikkei chikyu kankyo gijutsusho' wo jusho

    Watanabe, T. [Kansai Electric Power Co. Inc., Osaka (Japan)


    The tropical forest regeneration technology research group of Kansai Electric Power Company and Kansai Environment Center has been performing the research and development of tropical forest regeneration technology jointly with Indonesia since fiscal 1992. The group was awarded with the Global Environment Technology Prize from Nihon Keizai Shimbun, Inc. As a result of stringent examination on 97 applications, being two times as many as in usual years, the group received high evaluation on the originality, reality and possibility of proliferation of its research, and impacts given to the societies. Two other groups were also selected. The achievements were reported by the representative of the group in the award commemoration lecture at the global environment economist summit held by the Nikkei press the same day. Conventionally, afforestation done with considerable efforts has often been lost by forest fires and slash-and-burn farming, whereas the present research aims at establishing a comprehensive afforestation technology considering social and economic aspects, and CO2 fixation. As one of the choices of flexible measures as a result of the effect of forests having been recognized in COP3, frameworks for utilizing the mechanisms of joint implementation and clean resource development were introduced. Ever increasing expectations are placed on the achievements of the present research works. (NEDO)

  10. FY 2000 report on the basic survey to promote Joint Implementation, etc. Survey of gas-fired cogeneration in Samarkand City; 2000 nendo kyodo jisshii nado suishin kiso chosa hokokusho. Samarkand shi gas daki cogeneration chosa



    In the existing heat supply plant in Samarkand City in Uzbekistan, feasibility study was conducted of the project aimed at energy conservation and reduction in greenhouse effect gas emission by introducing the repair/cogeneration system of the regional pipes superannuated. In the project, the following were planned: introduction of two units of 6MW class gas turbine cogeneration, introduction of boiler which can realize 90% of the thermal efficiency, replacement of the existing regional pipes with pre-insulated pipes with less water leak/heat loss, etc. As a result of the study, the energy conservation amount was 21,006 toe, and the amount of greenhouse effect gas reduction was 64,998 t-CO2/y. As to the effects vs. expenses, the energy conservation was 2.80 toe/million yen, and the greenhouse effect gas reduction was 8.66 t-CO2-y/million yen. The initial investment amount was 7.51 billion yen, the business profit was 468 million yen/y, and the internal earning rate was 1.133%. It was judged that great profitability was not expected for the project, but the profit was returnable on investment. (NEDO)

  11. Basic investigation on promotion of joint implementation in fiscal 2000. Project for modification of Pridneprovskaya power plant in Ukraine; 2000 nendo kyodo jisshi nado kiso chosa hokokusho. Ukraine Pridneprovskaya hatsudensho kaishu jigyo keikaku



    With objectives of saving energy and reducing greenhouse gas emission at the Pridneprovskaya power plant in Ukraine, a scrap and build project has been discussed. This project will abolish the unit No.12 among the eight units in the existing coal burning power generation facilities, and install a natural gas burning combined cycle plant comprising of three units each with an output of 100 MW. The new plant facilities will consist of gas turbines, steam turbines, HRSG and auxiliary devices, and an air-cooled synchronous power generator with a capacity of 119 MVA. Use of natural gas as fuel reduces generation of soot, sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides, and CO. In addition, the hot effluent and waste liquor effluent will decrease from those at the present plant. The required fund will be 30,107 million yen. The energy saving effect of this project is reduction of about 7.5 million tons of crude oil equivalent as a total in 40 years. The greenhouse effect gas will decrease by about 39 million tons as a total in 40 years. The profitability estimation calls for the number of investment recovery year of 16 years, and internal profit rate of 7.32%, wherein the implementation of the project cannot be expected as a project to be carried out by private funds. (NEDO)

  12. Studies of initial stage in coal liquefaction. 4. Radical formation and structural change with thermal decomposition of coal; Ekika hanno no shoki katei ni kansuru kenkyu. 4. Netsubunkai ni tomonau radical seisei kyodo to kozo henka

    Kanaji, M.; Kaneko, T.; Shimasaki, K. [Nippon Brown Coal Liquefaction Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Kumagai, H.; Chiba, T. [Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan). Center for Advanced Research of Energy Technology


    In relation to coal liquefaction reaction, the effect of the coexistence of transferable hydrogen (TH) from process solvent on reduction of radical concentration and the effect of pre-heat treatment on average structure of coals were studied. In experiment, change in radical concentration with temperature rise was measured using the system composed of Yallourn coal and process solvent. The results are as follows. Process solvent with a wide boiling point range of 180-420{degree}C is effective in suppressing an increase in radical concentration even at higher temperature. The effect of hydrogen-donating solvent increases with TH. It was also suggested that high-boiling point constituents in solvent stabilize radicals even over 400{degree}C by vapor phase hydrogenation. The experimental results of pre-heat treatment are as follows. Although the conversion improvement effect of TH is equivalent to that of the model solvent, TH tends to produce soluble products with smaller ring numbers. It was thus suggested that pre-heat treatment in process solvent is effective to inhibit retrogressive reactions. 6 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Strain measurement of wheel by a super-small size strain history recorder and its application to fatigue design; Chokogata jitsudo hizumi keisoku sochi ni yoru wheel no hizumi keisoku to hiro kyodo sekkei eno oyo

    Murakami, Y [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Mineki, K; Wakamatsu, K [Central Motor Wheel, Tokyo (Japan); Morita, T


    A very small strain history recorder based on the rainflow method has been developed and applied to strain measurement of car wheels under several road tests. Various strain amplitude histogram data under mountain road, city road and high-way were acquired by the recorder for various types of wheels. The data were studied from the viewpoint of random fatigue and the fatigue damages were evaluated by Miner`s rule. The results of the damage evaluation were used for the improvement of shapes of wheels. 2 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  14. FY1998 report on a survey related to joint utilization of welfare device development data using an international network; 1998 nendo kokusai network ni yoru fukushi kiki kaihatsu data no kyodo riyo ni kansuru chosa hokokusho



    A survey was made in relation with joint utilization of welfare device development data using an international network. Developing welfare devices requires data from ergonomic and medical systems, while the cope of the objects is wide, and the kinds are various. For proliferation of welfare devices, system compatibility evaluation including that on using environment is important, including living environments that are different by countries. The present survey has identified how data for aged, handicapped and help-needing persons are accumulated and utilized in research organizations in America and Europe for both of the ergonomic and medical areas. The survey also investigated major academic societies in overseas countries, and collected database and academic network information that support the advanced research and development. At the same time, investigations were also made on organizations and corporations who are moving forward the efficient data utilization. Welfare device and service information providing systems in Japan were investigated to compare them with the trends in other countries. Conceptions and methods were compiled to utilize data internationally and jointly. Database models for device development were considered, and a proposal was made on structuring a research and development supporting database, and the operation method thereof. (NEDO)

  15. Joint research achievement report on field test project for photovoltaic power generation of industrial use in fiscal 2000; 1999 nendo sangyo tou you taiyokohatsuden field test jigyo kyodo kenkyu seika hokokusho



    This paper summarizes the achievements in fiscal 2000 on the field tests for photovoltaic power generation of industrial use. This report describes the details of the achievements of the field tests in 36 locations including the following organizations: the Japan Industrial University, a school juristic person; the Harukawa Gakusha, a school juristic person; the Snow Brand Dairy; the Sony Chemicals; the West Japan Passenger Railways; the Hokushin Welfare Society, a social welfare juristic person; the Seikyou Gakuen, a school juristic person; the Miko Corporation; the Akashi Apparel Corporation; Shigenobu Township in Ehime Prefecture; the Japan Ham; the Seiko Epson; Henri Charpantier Corporation; the Joyo Gakuen, a school juristic person; Matsushita Electric Industry; Nio Township in Kagawa Prefecture; Matsumae Township in Ehime Prefecture; Nakajima Township in Ehime Prefecture; Sugo Gakuen, a school juristic person; the East Japan East Japan Passenger Railways (General Training Center); Shizuoka Automobile Gakuen, a school juristic person; Tomiyama Village in Aichi Prefecture; Futamura Grinding Industry; Toba City in Mie Prefecture; Higashi-ura Township in Hyogo Prefecture, Taisho Township in Kochi Prefecture; the Nagasaki Branch Office of the West Japan Telegraph and Telephone Company; Ashikita Township in Kumamoto Prefecture; the Miyazaki Branch Office of the West Japan Telegraph and Telephone Company; Oi Township in Fukui Prefecture; the Keishin Society, a social welfare juristic person; the Azabu Veterinarian School, a school juristic person, Omiya Township in Ibaraki Prefecture; and the Showa Electric Machinery. (NEDO)

  16. FY 2000 report on the survey of the overseas geological structure. Japan-China joint coal exploration - Yu Xian project; 2000 nendo kaigai chishitsu kozo nado chosa hokokusho. Nippon Chugoku sekitan kyodo tansa Yu Xian project



    The geological survey was carried out which is needed for coal mine design in the Yu Xian coal mine area, Yu Xian coal field, Hebei province, China. The term of survey was 5 years from 1996 to 2000. Activities are mainly for seismic survey and boring survey. Japan was in charge of the seismic survey, and China in charge of the boring survey. Both attained the goal. The results of the activities were summed up in the following 7 items: 1) outline of the survey; 2) general investigation; 3) state of the exploration related materials/machinery; 4) field survey; 5) items of survey; 6) results of the survey; 7) conclusion. In 6), the geological analysis, coal quality survey and coal amount survey were conducted. In the geological analysis, analyzed were the succession of strata, geological structure, and the situation of existence of coal seams. In 7), the following were made clear: geological structure of the survey area, coal seam, coal quality, hydrological geology, other conditions of drilling technology, and coal amount. The coal amount was 328.34 million tons in a total of A/B/C class coals. The total coal amount of Nos. 1 and 5 coal seams was 259.79 million tons, which was 79.1% of the total coal amount in all area. The average thickness of Nos. 1 and 5 coal seams, which are the main minable coal seams, was 3.10m and 2.66m, respectively. (NEDO)

  17. Report on investigations in fiscal 2000 on the basic investigation on promotion of joint implementation. Rehabilitation of ICE/SAN ANTONIO power plant; 2000 nendo kyodo jisshi nado suishin kiso chosa hokokusho. ICE/SAN ANTONIO hatsudensho rihabiri



    Costa Rica takes a power generation system using hydro power generation as the main source, and possesses medium-capacity gas turbines to supplement needs in the dry season and the peak load. However, a problem has come up that, in addition to the cost rise in gas turbine fuel, the power generation efficiency has been aggravating due to aged deterioration of the generators being used. In association therewith, the problem is now a factor to increase CO2 emission, which is a worldwide problem. Keeping in mind to link it to the clean development mechanism (CDM), the present project is, taking up the SAN ANTONIO power plant as the investigation object, intended to perform a comprehensive discussion on the CO2 emission reducing effect, profitability, and proliferation effect, by executing the conceptual plant design. The up-grading plan for thermal power generation systems in Costa Rica consists of replacement of the gas turbines, handling of phase modifiers, and achievement of the combined cycle. The plan agrees with the present feasibility study intended of CO2 emission reduction, consisting of the modification plan of the SAN ANTONIO power plant, that is the plan to replace the over-aged gas turbines at the power plant. Its necessity has been identified. It was disclosed that the project has the effects of reducing CO2 of 82,000 tons annually, and the investment can be recovered in nine years. (NEDO)

  18. Study on buckling and plastic collapse behavior of a continuous stiffened plate subjected to in-plane compression loads; Mennai asshuku kaju wo ukeru renzoku bodo panel no zakutsu sosei hokai kyodo ni kansuru kenkyu

    Yao, T; Fujikubo, M; Yanagihara, D [Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan). Faculty of Engineering


    A hull structure is constituted by thin panels, and reinforced longitudinally and laterally by stiffened members to increase the effectiveness of the structure. In order to attain findings on buckling and plastic collapse behavior of stiffened plates, this paper describes analysis of elasto-plastic large deflection by using the finite element method on thin stiffened plates having flat-bars and angle-bars. The analysis includes the case of an aspect ratio being 5.0 and the case to consider welding residual stress. Considerations were given on cross sectional shape, panel aspect ratio and effects of initial welding imperfections against the buckling and plastic collapse behavior of the stiffened plates. The angle-bars tend to cause secondary buckling more easily because it has greater bending and twisting rigidity, and stronger constraint against deflection than the flat-bars. When the aspect ratio is larger and the span is longer, the ultimate strength declines, and the withstand power after the ultimate strength decreases rapidly. Existence of the residual stress tends to make the secondary buckling occur more easily. The secondary buckling affects little the withstand power after the ultimate strength. 3 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Report on research achievements in fiscal 1999 on development of simulation technology related to behavior of LSI circuit (re-commissioned portion); 1999 nendo LSI kairo no kyodo ni kansuru simulation gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho (saiitakubun)



    Development has been advanced on a new circuit design technology, in which the present digital circuit design performed according to the intensive circuit theory that regards reception and transmission of signals as migration of electrons is carried out by a new circuit theory centering on the intensive system (Quasi static closed circuit, QSCC) that regards reception and transmission of signals as propagation of wave motions. Studies required for structuring the QSCC theory were performed, such as verification of the reliability and effectiveness of the QSCC theory by means of the electro-magnetic field-circuit simulation and experiments and improvement of their completeness, development of the electro-magnetic field simulation technology required for the QSCC theory structuring, and development of a simple type design system based on the QSCC theory and a simple simulator for design verification. Specifically, the research and development on the eight items were carried out, including: 1) analysis of the generation and propagation mechanisms of electro-magnetic waves including those from LSI to circuit substrates, 2) analysis of electro-magnetic details of signals and power supply circuits including those from LSI to circuit substrates, 3) preparation of a library including the items from LSI to circuit substrates, and 4) development of a simulation technology including those from LSI to circuit substrates (QSCC designer). (NEDO)

  20. Achievement reports on joint research of solar energy power generation field test project in fiscal 1997. Part 1 of 3; 1997 nendo taiyoko hatsuden field test jigyo kyodo kenkyu seika hokokusho 1/3



    This report is a collection of 101 achievement reports on joint research of solar energy power generation field test project. The contents of the achievement reports are the results and generalization of the joint research with respect to the solar energy power generation field test project. As regards the locations of executing the joint research, the locations by areas and applications are stated. By areas, the joint research was carried out on gymnasiums, parks, recreation centers in the standard areas, universities, sports facilities, public halls, agricultural associations, aged persons' homes, primary, middle and high schools, prefectural office buildings and industrial technology centers in cold districts; prefectural office buildings, agricultural associations, universities, museums, industrial technology centers in good insolation districts; museums, primary, middle and high schools, parks in strong wind and salt polluted districts; and universities and police stations in snowy districts. By applications, the joint research was performed on life cooperative halls, factories, nursery schools, hospitals, clinics, local newspaper companies, indoor warm-water swimming pools, and mushroom fields. (NEDO)