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Sample records for okeru busshitsu ido

  1. International seminar in fiscal 1998 on the development and promotion of global environment-related industrial technologies. Report on International Workshops on CO{sub 2} Cycling and Metabolism in Coral Reef; 1998 nendo chikyu sangyo gijutsu kaihatsu suishin jigyo. 'Sangosho ni okeru busshitsu ido to tanso junkan' kokusai workshop hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    For the study of CO{sub 2} absorption and fixation in the marine ecosystem, studies of coral reefs by RITE (Research Institute of Innovative Technology for the Earth) were subjected to discussion at the above-named workshops. It is after the elapse of a long geological time on the earth that CO2 in the atmosphere has arrived at the current level of concentration thanks to fixation and calcification by living organisms and to dissolution into the seawater. In the formation of CaCO{sub 3} that constitutes the coral skeleton, 1 mol Ca combines with 2 mol bicarbonates for the production of 1 mol CaCO{sub 3} and 1 mol CO{sub 2}. The reaction may suggests a consequential increase of CO2 in the atmosphere but such CO{sub 2} is in reality consumed by being converted into organic substances in a photosynthetic process performed by symbiotic algae. Calculation was made for the whole of Bora Bay, Miyakojima Island, and the result was that 700kg-C/day comes to be stored in the form of organic matters in the community of coral reef organisms. In a coral reef, even when it emits CO2 into the atmosphere, there is organic matter production which exceeds the lost CO{sub 2}. Coral reefs fix carbon out of the seawater at the rate of 0.42Gt-C/year, which is the aggregate of 0.3Gt organic matters and 0.12Gt CaCO{sub 3}. (NEDO)

  2. IDO2 in immunomodulation and autoimmunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George ePrendergast

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available IDO2 is a relative of IDO1 implicated in tryptophan catabolism and immune modulation but its specific contributions to normal physiology and pathophysiology are not known. Evolutionary genetic studies suggest that IDO2 has a unique function ancestral to IDO1. In mice, IDO2 gene deletion does not appreciably affect embryonic development or hematopoiesis, but it leads to defects in allergic or autoimmune responses and in the ability of IDO1 to influence the generation of T regulatory cells. Gene expression studies indicate that IDO2 is a basally and more narrowly expressed gene than IDO1 and that IDO2 is uniquely regulated by AhR, which serves as a physiological receptor for the tryptophan catabolite kynurenine. In the established KRN transgenic mouse model of rheumatoid arthritis, where IDO1 gene deletion has no effect, IDO2 deletion selectively blunts responses to autoantigen but has no effect on responses to neoantigen challenge. In human populations, natural variations in IDO2 gene sequence that attenuate enzymatic activity have been reported to influence brain cancer control and adaptive immune responses to the IDO2 protein itself, consistent with the concept that IDO2 is involved in shaping immune tolerance in humans. Biochemical and pharmacological studies provide further evidence of differences in IDO2 enzymology and function relative to IDO1. We suggest that IDO2 may act in a distinct manner from IDO1 as a set-point for tolerance to ‘altered-self’ antigens along the self-nonself continuum where immune challenges from cancer and autoimmunity may arise.

  3. Low efficiency IDO2 enzymes are conserved in lower vertebrates, whereas higher efficiency IDO1 enzymes are dispensable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuasa, Hajime J; Mizuno, Keiko; Ball, Helen J

    2015-07-01

    Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) is a Trp-degrading enzyme that catalyzes the first step in the kynurenine pathway. Two IDO genes, IDO1 and IDO2, are found in vertebrates and the timing of the gene duplication giving rise to the genes has been controversial. In the present study, we report that several fishes and two turtles also have both IDO1 and IDO2. This represents definitive evidence for the gene duplication occurring before the divergence of vertebrates, with IDO1 having been lost in a number of lower vertebrate lineages. IDO2 enzymes have a relatively low affinity for l-Trp; however, Anolis carolinensis (lizard) IDO2 has an affinity for l-Trp comparable to mammalian IDO1 enzymes. We identified a Ser residue located in the distal heme pocket of IDO1 (distal-Ser) (corresponding to Ser167 of human IDO1) that is conserved in all IDO1 enzymes and the lizard IDO2. This residue is conserved as Thr (distal-Thr) in other IDO2 enzymes. Biochemical analyses, using IDO variants with either Ser or Thr substitutions, suggest that the distal-Ser change was crucial for the improvement in affinity for l-Trp in ancient IDO1. The ancestral IDO1 likely had a 'moderate' enzymatic efficiency for l-Trp, clearly higher than IDO2 but lower than mammalian IDO1. The distal-Ser of lizard IDO2 bestows a high affinity for l-Trp, however, this unique IDO2 has a low enzymatic efficiency because of its very low catalytic velocity. Thus, low efficiency IDO2 enzymes have been conserved throughout vertebrate evolution, whereas higher efficiency IDO1 enzymes are dispensable in many lower vertebrate lineages.

  4. Breast Cancer Suppression by IDO Inhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-05-01

    pharmacodynamic assay for assessing in vivo potency, and to explore formulation of IDO inhibitors in 13- cyclodextrin , used commonly to increase drug...exposure in animals. Preliminary experiments suggest that 13- cyclodextrin can greatly enhance exposure of brassinin derivatives. Aim 3. Determine whether... encapsulating the IMT compound in a polymer matrix. The pellets (as prepared by Innovative Research, Inc.) are claimed to provide a steady state release

  5. Numerical simulation of emissions and depositions of acidic air pollutants in East Asia; Higashi ajia chiiki ni okeru taikiosen busshitsu no haishutsu to yuso simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higashino, H. [Agency of Industrial Science and Technology, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-12-01

    In order to consider how to cope with problems of great-sphere air pollution in the East Asia such as acid rain, etc., it is required to investigate the real conditions of emitted air pollutants and to develop a transfer model which clarify the relation between emissions and depositions. This paper describes the present state of studies on the amount of estimated air pollutive emissions in the East Asia and estimated depositions by transfer models. Typical studies on estimated grid-by-grid distribution of emissions in the East Asia are explained first and other estimated examples, i.e. data announced by the Chinese Government and etc., air also referred. The models developed for estimating acidic pollutants falling down in the East Asia are insufficient, however, acidic pollutant transfer models applied at present are introduced. The results of the author`s study are described and the subjects for a future study are referred. 27 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  6. INDOLEAMINE 2,3-DIOXYGENASE (IDO AND IMMUNE TOLERANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coma-del-Corral MJ

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY: Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO is an intracellular and extrahepatic enzyme predominantly found in many cells, especially macrophages. Tryptophan degradation generates kynurenine, and this pathway of tryptophan metabolism is an effective mechanism for modulating the immune response. The IDO facilitates immune tolerance and is one of the main actors involved in the inhibition of cell proliferation, including activated T cells. IDO induces production of reactive oxygen species (ROS and nitric oxide (NO radicals. Several pathways involved in the regulation of immune response are regulated by redox mechanisms. Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS-RNS and other redox active molecules play key roles in immunity.

  7. IDO expression in brain tumors increases the recruitment of regulatory T cells and negatively impacts survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wainwright, Derek A; Balyasnikova, Irina V; Chang, Alan L; Ahmed, Atique U; Moon, Kyung-Sub; Auffinger, Brenda; Tobias, Alex L; Han, Yu; Lesniak, Maciej S

    2012-11-15

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is an aggressive adult brain tumor with a poor prognosis. One hallmark of GBM is the accumulation of immunosuppressive and tumor-promoting CD4(+)FoxP3(+)GITR(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs). Here, we investigated the role of indoleamine 2,3 dioxygenase (IDO) in brain tumors and the impact on Treg recruitment. To determine the clinical relevance of IDO expression in brain tumors, we first correlated patient survival to the level of IDO expression from resected glioma specimens. We also used novel orthotopic and transgenic models of glioma to study how IDO affects Tregs. The impact of tumor-derived and peripheral IDO expression on Treg recruitment, GITR expression, and long-term survival was determined. Downregulated IDO expression in glioma predicted a significantly better prognosis in patients. Coincidently, both IDO-competent and deficient mice showed a survival advantage bearing IDO-deficient brain tumors, when compared with IDO-competent brain tumors. Moreover, IDO deficiency was associated with a significant decrease in brain-resident Tregs, both in orthotopic and transgenic mouse glioma models. IDO deficiency was also associated with lower GITR expression levels on Tregs. Interestingly, the long-term survival advantage conferred by IDO deficiency was lost in T-cell-deficient mice. These clinical and preclinical data confirm that IDO expression increases the recruitment of immunosuppressive Tregs that lead to tumor outgrowth. In contrast, IDO deficiency decreases Treg recruitment and enhances T-cell-mediated tumor rejection. Thus, the data suggest a critical role for IDO-mediated immunosuppression in glioma and support the continued investigation of IDO-Treg interactions in the context of brain tumors. ©2012 AACR.

  8. Indoleamine 2,3 Dioxygenase (IDO Expression and Activity in Relapsing-Remitting Multiple Sclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Mancuso

    Full Text Available Interferon gamma (IFN-γ production induces the transcription of indoleamine 2,3 dioxygenase (IDO resulting in the reduction of T-cell activation and proliferation through the depletion of tryptophan and the elicitation of Treg lymphocytes. IDO was shown to be involved in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases; we investigated whether changes in IDO gene expression and activity could be indicative of onset of relapse in multiple sclerosis (MS patients.IDO and interferon-γ (IFN-γ gene expression, serum IDO activity (Kynurenine/Tryptophan ratio and serum neopterin concentration--a protein released by macrophages upon IFN-γ stimulation--were measured in 51 individuals: 36 relapsing remitting (RR-MS patients (21 in acute phase--AMS, 15 in stable phase--SMS and 15 healthy controls (HC. PBMCs samples in AMS patients were collected before (BT-AMS and during glucocorticoids-based therapy (DT-AMS.IDO expression was increased and IFN-γ was decreased (p<0.001 in BT-AMS compared to SMS patients. Glucocorticoids-induced disease remission resulted in a significant reduction of IDO and IFN-γ gene expression, IDO catalytic activity (p<0.001. Serum neopterin concentration followed the same trend as IDO expression and activity.Measurement of IDO gene expression and activity in blood could be a useful marker to monitor the clinical course of RR-MS. Therapeutic interventions modulating IDO activity may be beneficial in MS.

  9. IDO2 Modulates T Cell-Dependent Autoimmune Responses through a B Cell-Intrinsic Mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlo, Lauren M F; DuHadaway, James B; Grabler, Samantha; Prendergast, George C; Muller, Alexander J; Mandik-Nayak, Laura

    2016-06-01

    Mechanistic insight into how adaptive immune responses are modified along the self-nonself continuum may offer more effective opportunities to treat autoimmune disease, cancer, and other sterile inflammatory disorders. Recent genetic studies in the KRN mouse model of rheumatoid arthritis demonstrate that the immunomodulatory molecule IDO2 modifies responses to self-antigens; however, the mechanisms involved are obscure. In this study, we show that IDO2 exerts a critical function in B cells to support the generation of autoimmunity. In experiments with IDO2-deficient mice, adoptive transplant experiments demonstrated that IDO2 expression in B cells was both necessary and sufficient to support robust arthritis development. IDO2 function in B cells was contingent on a cognate, Ag-specific interaction to exert its immunomodulatory effects on arthritis development. We confirmed a similar requirement in an established model of contact hypersensitivity, in which IDO2-expressing B cells are required for a robust inflammatory response. Mechanistic investigations showed that IDO2-deficient B cells lacked the ability to upregulate the costimulatory marker CD40, suggesting IDO2 acts at the T-B cell interface to modulate the potency of T cell help needed to promote autoantibody production. Overall, our findings revealed that IDO2 expression by B cells modulates autoimmune responses by supporting the cross talk between autoreactive T and B cells.

  10. IDO2 is a critical mediator of autoantibody production and inflammatory pathogenesis in a mouse model of autoimmune arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlo, Lauren M F; Pigott, Elizabeth; DuHadaway, James B; Grabler, Samantha; Metz, Richard; Prendergast, George C; Mandik-Nayak, Laura

    2014-03-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis and other autoimmune disorders are associated with altered activity of the immunomodulatory enzyme IDO. However, the precise contributions of IDO function to autoimmunity remain unclear. In this article, we examine the effect of two different IDO enzymes, IDO1 and IDO2, on the development of autoimmune arthritis in the KRN preclinical model of rheumatoid arthritis. We find that IDO2, not IDO1, is critical for arthritis development, providing direct evidence of separate in vivo functions for IDO1 and IDO2. Mice null for Ido2 display decreased joint inflammation relative to wild-type mice owing to a reduction in pathogenic autoantibodies and Ab-secreting cells. Notably, IDO2 appears to specifically mediate autoreactive responses, but not normal B cell responses, as total serum Ig levels are not altered and IDO2 knockout mice are able to mount productive Ab responses to model Ags in vitro and in vivo. Reciprocal adoptive transfer studies confirm that autoantibody production and arthritis are modulated by IDO2 expression in a cell type extrinsic to the T cell. Taken together, our results, provide important insights into IDO2 function by defining its pathogenic contributions to autoantibody-mediated autoimmunity.

  11. Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenases with very low catalytic activity are well conserved across kingdoms: IDOs of Basidiomycota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuasa, Hajime J; Ball, Helen J

    2013-07-01

    Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) is a tryptophan-degrading enzyme and is found in animals, fungi and bacteria. In fungi, its primary role is to supply nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) via the kynurenine pathway. A number of organisms possess more than one IDO gene, for example, mammals have IDO1 and IDO2 genes. We previously reported that the Pezizomycotina fungi commonly possess three types of IDO genes, IDOα, IDOβ and IDOγ. In this study, we surveyed the nature of IDO genes from Basidiomycota fungi, which are categorized into three subphyla (Agaricomycotina, Pucciniomycotina and Ustilaginomycotina). The Agaricomycotina fungi generally have three types of IDO genes (IDOa, IDOb and IDOc), which are distinct from Pezizomycotina three isozymes. Pucciniomycotina and Ustilaginomycotina species possess two types of IDO; one forms a monophyletic clade with Agaricomycotina IDOs in the phylogenetic tree, these IDOs are referred to as "typical Basidiomycota IDOs". The other is IDOγ, which showed more than 40% identity with Pezizomycotina and ciliate IDOγ. We previously demonstrated that IDO2 in mammals and IDOγ in Perzizomycotina fungi have much lower catalytic efficiencies in an in vitro assay, compared with the other IDO isoforms found in the respective species. We have developed a functional assay to determine whether particular IDO enzymes have sufficient enzymatic activity to rescue a yeast strain where IDO-deletion has rendered it auxotrophic for nicotinic acid. IDOα and IDOβ showed comparable catalytic efficiency, both of them could function in the Pezizomycotina fungal L-Trp metabolism. The catalytic efficiency and functional capacity of the Basidiomycota IDOa and IDOb were similar to Pezizomycotina IDOα/IDOβ. We found that Basidiomycota IDOc could not rescue the nicotinic acid auxotroph, similar to other IDO enzymes with low catalytic efficiency (mammalian IDO2 and most fungal IDOγ). Our study suggests that some fungal IDO enzymes function in

  12. EL ENZIMA INDOLEAMINA 2,3 DIOXIGENASA (IDO Y LA TOLERANCIA INMUNE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coma-del-Corral MJ

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO is an intracellular and extrahepatic enzyme predominantly found in many cells, especially macrophages. Tryptophan degradation generates kynurenine, and this pathway of tryptophan metabolism is an effective mechanism for modulating the immune response. The IDO facilitates immune tolerance and is one of the main actors involved in the inhibition of cell proliferation, including activated T cells. IDO induces production of reactive oxygen species (ROS and nitric oxide (NO radicals. Several pathways involved in the regulation of immune response are regulated by redox mechanisms. Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS-RNS and other redox active molecules play key roles in immunity.

  13. Coliquefaction of coal, tar sand bitumen and plastic (interaction among coal, bitumen and plastic); Sekitan/tar sand bitumen/plastic no kyoekika ni okeru kyozon busshitsu no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaguchi, H.; Okuyama, Y.; Matsubara, K. [NKK Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Kamo, T.; Sato, Y. [National Institute for Resources and Environment, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    For the improvement of economy, coliquefaction of coal, tar sand bitumen and plastic was performed under low hydrogen pressure, to investigate the influence of interaction among these on the liquefaction characteristics. For comparison, coliquefaction was also performed under the hydrogen pressure same as the NEDOL process. In addition, for clarifying its reaction mechanism, coliquefaction of dibenzyl and plastic was performed as a model experiment, to illustrate the distribution of products and composition of oil, and to discuss the interaction between dibenzyl and various plastics, and between various plastics. Under direct coal liquefaction conditions, coprocessing of Tanito Harum coal, Athabasca tar sand and plastic was carried out under low hydrogen pressure with an autoclave. The observed value of oil yield was higher than the calculated value based on the values from separate liquefaction of coal and plastic, which suggested the interaction between coal and the mixed plastic. The results of coliquefaction of coal, tar sand bitumen and plastic could be explained from the obtained oil yield and its composition by the coliquefaction of dibenzyl and plastic. 2 refs., 3 tabs.

  14. Fate models for chemical substances in exposure and risk assessment. Focused on estimation of atmospheric concentration; Bakuro{center_dot}risuku hyoka ni okeru kagaku busshitsu unmei yosoku moderu. Taikichu nodo suitei wo chushin toshite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higashino, H. [National Inst. for Resources and Environment, Tsukuba (Japan)

    2000-09-20

    A fate model is one of the most effective tools in exposure and risk assessment of chemical substances. Two different type models are available for estimating the atmospheric concentration. One is unit box and multi compartment type model, the other is atmospheric dispersion model. These models should be used in different suitable situations because each model has both advantage and disadvantage. Estimation of the long-term average concentration in a comparatively wide region into which substances are continuously discharged should be required in the environmental assessment of chemical substances. We developed the model with which to estimate long-term average atmospheric concentrations of chemicals. The model validation was conducted for trichloroethylene and tetrachloroethylene concentrations in the atmosphere by comparing calculated values and observed values. Good agreement with the measured values was obtained for the monthly average concentration. The model is capable of estimating the long-term (such as monthly) average distribution of concentration of chemicals in a wide flat area such as the Kanto plain. (author)

  15. Emission inventory of air pollutants in East Asia. Anthropogenic emissions of sulfur dioxide in China; Higashi Asia chiiki wo taishotoshita taiki osen busshitsu no haishutsuryo suikei. Chugoku ni okeru io sankabutsu no jin`i kigen haishutsuryo suikei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higashino, H.; Tonooka, Y.; Yanagisawa, Y. [Research Institute of Innovative Technology for the Earth, Kyoto (Japan); Ikeda, Y. [University of Osaka Prefecture, Osaka (Japan). College of Engineering

    1995-11-10

    Anthropogenic emission of sulfur dioxide (SO2) in China was investigated to establish an emission inventory on air pollutants in East Asia. Major objectives of the study were to establish the emission inventory having the most detailed emission categories and regional resolution comparing with previous works, and being expandable to other air pollutants. Under popularization of desulfurization, conventional methodologies face to limitation of data quality, but in this work the contribution of SO2 removal by recent installation of desulfurization units was also taken into account. China was selected as the first subjective country because China has the largest emission sources of SO2 in East Asia, which contribute a significant portion of acid deposition in Japan. By our estimation total amounts of 21 Tg of SO2 were emitted in China in 1990. About 90% of the SO2 came from coal combustion, and power and heat generation part was responsible for over 30% of the total discharge. The total amounts of the SO2 emission were classified by provinces, major cities, and two grid systems such as 80{times}80 km square and 1{degree}{times}1{degree} resolution. Emissions in Sichian, Shandong and Jiangus provinces were ranked as the top three. Chongqing, Shanghai and Chengdu were selected to be major cities for the SO2 emission. 30 refs., 8 figs., 9 tabs.

  16. Effect of surface active compounds on growth and adhesion of anchorage-dependent animal cells at liquid/liquid interface; Eki/ekikaimen ni okeru fuchaku izonsei dobutsu saibo no zoshoku oyobi fuchaku ni taisuru kaimen kassei busshitsu no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiba, Y.; Oshima, T.; Sato, M. [Gunma Univ., Kiryu (Japan). Faculty of Technology

    1998-03-01

    A cell cultivation using a liquid/liquid (culture medium/fluorocarbon) interface has been practiced as a novel culturing method for anchorage-dependent animal cells, and it is known that cell adhesion at the interface is dependent on the contaminants contained in the hydrophobic liquid. Substances effective for the adhesion and growth of cells are investigated using various surfactants. As a result of comparison of ionic and nonionic surfactants, cell adhesion is observed when ionic surfactant is used, indicating the importance of the electric charge of surfactant. Cell growth is better when ionic surfactant is added to fluorocarbon than when surfactant is added to the culture medium. The cell growth using fluorocarbon added with pentafluorobenzoyl chloride and perfluorooctanoyl chloride is similar to that of culturing using polystyrene, and the importance of surfactant addition to fluorocarbon is indicated. 7 refs., 4 figs.

  17. Towards a genetic definition of cancer-associated inflammation: role of the IDO pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prendergast, George C; Metz, Richard; Muller, Alexander J

    2010-05-01

    Chronic inflammation drives the development of many cancers, but a genetic definition of what constitutes 'cancer-associated' inflammation has not been determined. Recently, a mouse genetic study revealed a critical role for the immune escape mediator indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) in supporting inflammatory skin carcinogenesis. IDO is generally regarded as being immunosuppressive; however, there was no discernable difference in generalized inflammatory processes in IDO-null mice under conditions where tumor development was significantly suppressed, implicating IDO as key to establishing the pathogenic state of 'cancer-associated' inflammation. Here we review recent findings and their potential implications to understanding the relationship between immune escape and inflammation in cancer. Briefly, we propose that genetic pathways of immune escape in cancer are synonymous with pathways that define 'cancer-associated' inflammation and that these processes may be identical rather than distinct, as generally presumed, in terms of their genetic definition.

  18. Analisis Pengaruh Retailing Mix Terhadap Kepuasan Pelanggan dan Loyalitas Pelanggan pada Ido Swalayan Medan

    OpenAIRE

    Ginting, Ruth Br

    2017-01-01

    This research aim are to examine effects of retailing mix which are location, merchandise, price, service, promotion, and atmosfer in costumer satisfaction and costumer loyalty based on visitors of ido Swalayan Medan. This research type is descriptive associative research. Population of this research is the visitors of Ido Swalayan Medan, with number of samples are 100 visitors, which are taken by Purposive Sampling method. Primary data collection are taken using questionnaires, and secondary...

  19. Indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenase (IDO) is essential for dendritic cell activation and chemotactic responsiveness to chemokines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shih Ling HWANG; Nancy Pei-Yee CHUNG; Jacqueline Kwai-Yi CHAN; Chen-Lung Steve LIN

    2005-01-01

    Indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenase (IDO) is a rate-limiting enzyme for the tryptophan catabolism. In human and murine cells, IDO inhibits antigen-specific T cell proliferation in vitro and suppresses T cell responses to fetal alloantigens during murine pregnancy. In mice, IDO expression is an inducible feature of specific subsets of dendritic cells (DCs),and is important for T cell regulatory properties. However, the effect of IDO and tryptophan deprivation on DC functions remains unknown. We report here that when tryptophan utilization was prevented by a pharmacological inhibitor of IDO, 1-methyl tryptophan (1MT), DC activation induced by pathogenic stimulus lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or inflammatory cytokine TNF-α was inhibited both phenotypically and functionally. Such an effect was less remarkable when DC was stimulated by a physiological stimulus, CD40 ligand. Tryptophan deprivation during DC activation also regulated the expression of CCR5 and CXCR4, as well as DC responsiveness to chemokines. These results suggest that tryptophan usage in the microenvironment is essential for DC maturation, and may also play a role in the regulation of DC migratory behaviors.

  20. Relationship of Abortion and the Expression of Indoleamine 2,3- dioxygenase (IDO) in Villus and Syncytiotrophoblasts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Objective To study the relationship of abortion and the expression of indoleamine 2,3- dioxygenase (IDO) in villus and syncytiotrophoblast in vitro.Methods RT-PCR was applied to analyze the mRNA transcription of IDO in villus of normal pregnancy and inevitable abortion and JAR cells as well. Immunohistochemistry was applied to analyze the expression of IDO protein in villus. Western blot was applied to determinate the expression of IDO protein on cultured syncytiotrophoblast. Highperformance liquid chromatography was applied to determinate whether there was kynurenine in cell culture medium of syncytiotrophoblast.Results The expression of IDO mRNA and protein in villus of inevitable abortion was lower than that of normal pregnancy; IDO mRNA did not express in JAR cells. IDO protein expressed on cultured syncytiotrophoblast, and there was kynurenine in cell culture medium of syncytiotrophoblast.Conclusion Appropriate expression of IDO in villus is necessary for maintenance of normal pregnancy and an active IDO protein expresses in syncytiotrophoblast.

  1. Cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor enhances the efficacy of a breast cancer vaccine: role of IDO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Gargi D; Tinder, Teresa L; Bradley, Judy M; Tu, Tony; Hattrup, Christine L; Pockaj, Barbara A; Mukherjee, Pinku

    2006-08-15

    We report that administration of celecoxib, a specific cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor, in combination with a dendritic cell-based cancer vaccine significantly augments vaccine efficacy in reducing primary tumor burden, preventing metastasis, and increasing survival. This combination treatment was tested in MMTV-PyV MT mice that develop spontaneous mammary gland tumors with metastasis to the lungs and bone marrow. Improved vaccine potency was associated with an increase in tumor-specific CTLs. Enhanced CTL activity was attributed to a significant decrease in levels of tumor-associated IDO, a negative regulator of T cell activity. We present data suggesting that inhibiting COX-2 activity in vivo regulates IDO expression within the tumor microenvironment; this is further corroborated in the MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cell line. Thus, a novel mechanism of COX-2-induced immunosuppression via regulation of IDO has emerged that may have implications in designing future cancer vaccines.

  2. Pharmacological targeting of IDO-mediated tolerance for treating autoimmune disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penberthy, W Todd

    2007-04-01

    Cells at the maternal-fetal interface express indoleamine 2,3 dioxygenase (IDO) to consume all local tryptophan for the express purpose of starving adjacent maternal T cells of this most limiting and essential amino acid. This stops local T cell proliferation to ultimately result in the most dramatic example of immune tolerance, acceptance of the fetus. By contrast, inhibition of IDO using 1-methyl-tryptophan causes a sudden catastrophic rejection of the mammalian fetus. Immunomodulatory factors including IFNgamma, TNFalpha, IL-1, and LPS use IDO induction in responsive antigen presenting cells (APCs) also to transmit tolerogenic signals to T cells. Thus it makes sense to consider IDO induction towards tolerance for autoimmune diseases in general. Approaches to cell specific therapeutic IDO induction with NAD precursor supplementation to prevent the collateral non-T cell pathogenesis due to chronic TNFalpha-IDO activated tryptophan depletion in autoimmune diseases are reviewed. Tryptophan is an essential amino acid most immediately because it is the only precursor for the endogenous biosynthesis of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD). Both autoimmune disease and the NAD deficiency disease pellagra occur in women at greater than twice the frequency of occurrence in men. The importance of IDO dysregulation manifest as autoimmune pellagric dementia is genetically illustrated for Nasu-Hakola Disease (or PLOSL), which is caused by a mutation in the IDO antagonizing genes TYROBP/DAP12 or TREM2. Loss of function leads to psychotic symptoms rapidly progressing to presenile dementia likely due to unchecked increases in microglial IDO expression, which depletes neurons of tryptophan causing neurodegeneration. Administration of NAD precursors rescued entire mental hospitals of dementia patients literally overnight in the 1930's and NAD precursors should help Nasu-Hakola patients as well. NAD depletion mediated by peroxynitrate PARP1 activation is one of the few

  3. Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) is expressed at feto-placental unit throughout mouse gestation: An immunohistochemical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmati, Shayda; Jeddi-Tehrani, Mahmood; Torkabadi, Ebrahim; Ghassemi, Jamileh; Kazemi sefat, Golnaz Ensieh; Danesh, Parivash; Barzegar Yarmohammadi, Leila; Akhondi, Mohammad Mehdi; Zarnani, Amir Hassan

    2009-01-01

    Introduction The cells expressing Indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenase (IDO) in feto-maternal interface mediate tryptophan catabolism, hence protect allogeneic fetus from lethal rejection by maternal immune responses. In this study, we report immuno-localization of IDO+ cells in murine reproductive tract and placenta throughout mouse pregnancy by immunohistochemistry. Materials and Methods Syngeneic pregnant mice were examined for vaginal plug to discover about their state of pregnancy. A total of three pregnant mice were examined at each stage.The examination was further confirmed by the detection of sperm in vaginal smear. On the gestational days of 2nd, 12th and 18th, the uterus and oviduct were removed and expression of IDO was investigated in the endometrium, placenta and oviduct by immunohistochemistry. Results Our results showed that IDO is expressed consistently in feto-maternal interface throughout pregnancy. In endometrium, expression of IDO was predominantly confined to luminal and glandular epithelial cells. Cells at junctional and labyrinth zones of placenta showed strong IDO immunoreactivity as well. Conclusion Expression of IDO at the protein level in reproductive tract of pregnant mice during entire periods of gestation points to its potential protective role in maintenance of pregnancy. In our knowledge this is the first report of expression of IDO in feto-maternal phase during murine pregnancy. PMID:23926466

  4. Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1 activity correlates with immune system abnormalities in multiple myeloma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonanno Giuseppina

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multiple myeloma (MM is a plasma cell malignancy with a multifaceted immune dysfunction. Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1 degrades tryptophan into kynurenine (KYN, which inhibits effector T cells and promote regulatory T-cell (Treg differentiation. It is presently unknown whether MM cells express IDO1 and whether IDO1 activity correlates with immune system impairment. Methods We investigated IDO1 expression in 25 consecutive patients with symptomatic MM and in 7 patients with either monoclonal gammopathy of unknown significance (MGUS; n=3 or smoldering MM (SMM; n=4. IDO1-driven tryptophan breakdown was correlated with the release of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF and with the frequency of Treg cells and NY-ESO-1-specific CD8+ T cells. Results KYN was increased in 75% of patients with symptomatic MM and correlated with the expansion of CD4+CD25+FoxP3+ Treg cells and the contraction of NY-ESO-1-specific CD8+ T cells. In vitro, primary MM cells promoted the differentiation of allogeneic CD4+ T cells into bona fide CD4+CD25hiFoxP3hi Treg cells and suppressed IFN-γ/IL-2 secretion, while preserving IL-4 and IL-10 production. Both Treg expansion and inhibition of Th1 differentiation by MM cells were reverted, at least in part, by d,l-1-methyl-tryptophan, a chemical inhibitor of IDO. Notably, HGF levels were higher within the BM microenvironment of patients with IDO+ myeloma disease compared with patients having IDO- MM. Mechanistically, the antagonism of MET receptor for HGF with SU11274, a MET inhibitor, prevented HGF-induced AKT phosphorylation in MM cells and translated into reduced IDO protein levels and functional activity. Conclusions These data suggest that IDO1 expression may contribute to immune suppression in patients with MM and possibly other HGF-producing cancers.

  5. Inhibition of Indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase (IDO in Glioblastoma Cells by Oncolytic Herpes Simplex Virus

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    Bonnie Reinhart

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Successful oncolytic virus treatment of malignant glioblastoma multiforme depends on widespread tumor-specific lytic virus replication and escape from mitigating innate immune responses to infection. Here we characterize a new HSV vector, JD0G, that is deleted for ICP0 and the joint sequences separating the unique long and short elements of the viral genome. We observed that JD0G replication was enhanced in certain glioblastoma cell lines compared to HEL cells, suggesting that a vector backbone deleted for ICP0 may be useful for treatment of glioblastoma. The innate immune response to virus infection can potentially impede oncolytic vector replication in human tumors. Indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase (IDO is expressed in response to interferon γ (IFNγ and has been linked to both antiviral functions and to the immune escape of tumor cells. We observed that IFNγ treatment of human glioblastoma cells induced the expression of IDO and that this expression was quelled by infection with both wild-type and JD0G viruses. The role of IDO in inhibiting virus replication and the connection of this protein to the escape of tumor cells from immune surveillance suggest that IDO downregulation by HSV infection may enhance the oncolytic activity of vectors such as JD0G.

  6. M. tuberculosis induces potent activation of IDO-1, but this is not essential for the immunological control of infection.

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    Antje Blumenthal

    Full Text Available Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenesae-1 (IDO-1 catalyses the initial, rate-limiting step in tryptophan metabolism, thereby regulating tryptophan availability and the formation of downstream metabolites, including picolinic and quinolinic acid. We found that Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection induced marked upregulation of IDO-1 expression in both human and murine macrophages in vitro and in the lungs of mice following aerosol challenge with M. tuberculosis. The absence of IDO-1 in dendritic cells enhanced the activation of mycobacteria-specific T cells in vitro. Interestingly, IDO-1-deficiency during M. tuberculosis infection in mice was not associated with altered mycobacteria-specific T cell responses in vivo. The bacterial burden of infected organs, pulmonary inflammatory responses, and survival were also comparable in M. tuberculosis-infected IDO-1 deficient and wild type animals. Tryptophan is metabolised into either picolinic acid or quinolinic acid, but only picolinic acid inhibited the growth of M. tuberculosis in vitro. By contrast macrophages infected with pathogenic mycobacteria, produced quinolinic, rather than picolinic acid, which did not reduce M. tuberculosis growth in vitro. Therefore, although M. tuberculosis induces robust expression of IDO-1 and activation of tryptophan metabolism, IDO-1-deficiency fails to impact on the immune control and the outcome of the infection in the mouse model of tuberculosis.

  7. Localization of the human indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) gene to the pericentromeric region of human chromosome 8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burkin, D.J.; Jones, C. (Eleanor Roosevelt Institute for Cancer Research, Denver, CO (United States)); Kimbro, K.S.; Taylor, M.W. (Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States)); Barr, B.L.; Gupta, S.L. (Hipple Cancer Research Center, Dayton, OH (United States))

    1993-07-01

    Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) is the first enzyme in the catabolic pathway for tryptophan. This extrahepatic enzyme differs from the hepatic enzyme, tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase (TDO), in molecular as well as enzymatic characteristics, although both enzymes catalyze the same reaction: cleavage of tryptophan into N-formylkynurenine. The induction of IDO by IFN-[gamma] plays a role in the antigrowth effect of IFN-[gamma] in cell cultures and in the inhibition of intracellular pathogens, e.g., Toxoplasma gondii and Chlamydia psittaci. Tryptophan is also the precursor for the synthesis of serotonin, and reduced levels of tryptophan and serotonin found in AIDS patients have been correlated with the presence of IFN-[gamma] and consequent elevation of IDO activity. The IDO enzyme has been purified and characterized, and its cDNA and genomic DNA clones have been isolated and analyzed. DNA from hybrid cells containing fragments of human chromosome 8 was used to determine the regional localization of the IDO gene on chromosome 8. The hybrids R30-5B and R30-2A contain 8p11 [yields] qter and 8q13 [yields] qter, respectively. Hybrid 229-3A contains the 8pter [yields] q11. The hybrid R30-2A was negative for the IDO gene, whereas R30-5B and 229-3A were positive as analyzed by PCR and verified by Southern blotting. Only the region close to the centromere is shared by R30-5B and 229-3A hybrids. The results indicate that the IDO gene is located on chromosome 8p11 [yields] q11.

  8. Integrated G and C Implementation within IDOS: A Simulink Based Reusable Launch Vehicle Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Joseph E.; Bevacqua, Tim; Lawrence, Douglas A.; Zhu, J. Jim; Mahoney, Michael

    2003-01-01

    The implementation of multiple Integrated Guidance and Control (IG&C) algorithms per flight phase within a vehicle simulation poses a daunting task to coordinate algorithm interactions with the other G&C components and with vehicle subsystems. Currently being developed by Universal Space Lines LLC (USL) under contract from NASA, the Integrated Development and Operations System (IDOS) contains a high fidelity Simulink vehicle simulation, which provides a means to test cutting edge G&C technologies. Combining the modularity of this vehicle simulation and Simulink s built-in primitive blocks provide a quick way to implement algorithms. To add discrete-event functionality to the unfinished IDOS simulation, Vehicle Event Manager (VEM) and Integrated Vehicle Health Monitoring (IVHM) subsystems were created to provide discrete-event and pseudo-health monitoring processing capabilities. Matlab's Stateflow is used to create the IVHM and Event Manager subsystems and to implement a supervisory logic controller referred to as the Auto-commander as part of the IG&C to coordinate the control system adaptation and reconfiguration and to select the control and guidance algorithms for a given flight phase. Manual creation of the Stateflow charts for all of these subsystems is a tedious and time-consuming process. The Stateflow Auto-builder was developed as a Matlab based software tool for the automatic generation of a Stateflow chart from information contained in a database. This paper describes the IG&C, VEM and IVHM implementations in IDOS. In addition, this paper describes the Stateflow Auto-builder.

  9. Tolerogenic IDO+ dendritic cells are induced by PD-1-expressing mast cells

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    Cecilia Pessoa Rodrigues

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mast cells (MC are tissue resident cells, rich in inflammatory mediators, involved in allergic reactions, and with an increasingly recognized role in immunomodulation. Dendritic cells (DCs, on the other hand, are central to the determination of immune response patterns, being highly efficient antigen-presenting cells that respond promptly to changes in their microenvironment. Here, we show that direct cell contact between immature monocyte-derived DCs (iDCs and MC bends DCs towards tolerance induction. DCs that had direct contact with MC (MC-iDC decreased HLA-DR but increased PD-L1 expression and stimulated regulatory T lymphocytes, which expresses FoxP3+, secrete TGF-β and IL-10, and suppress the proliferation of mitogen-stimulated naïve T lymphocytes. Furthermore, MC-iDC expressed higher levels of indoleamine-2,3-deoxigenase (IDO, a phenomenon that was blocked by treatment of MC with anti-PD-1 or by the treatment of DCs with anti-PD-L1 or anti-PD-L2, but not by blocking of H1 and H2 histamine receptors on DCs. Contact with MC also increased phosphorylated STAT-3 levels in iDCs. When a STAT-3 inhibitor, JSI-124, was added to the DCs before contact with MC, the MC-iDC recovered their ability to induce allogeneic T cell proliferation and did not increase their IDO expression.

  10. Severity of DSS-induced colitis is reduced in Ido1-deficient mice with down-regulation of TLR-MyD88-NF-kB transcriptional networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shon, Woo-Jeong; Lee, Young-Kwan; Shin, Ji Hee; Choi, Eun Young; Shin, Dong-Mi

    2015-11-27

    Indoleamine 2,3 -dioxygenase 1 (IDO1) catalyzes L-tryptophan to kynurenine in the first and rate-limiting step of tryptophan metabolism. IDO1 is expressed widely throughout the body, with especially high expression in colonic intestinal tissues. To examine the role of IDO1 in the colon, transcriptome analysis was performed in both Ido1(-/-) and Ido1(+/+) mice. Gene set enrichment analysis identified the Inflammatory Response as the most significant category modulated by the absence of IDO1. This observation prompted us to further investigate the function of IDO1 in the development of tissue inflammation. By using DSS-induced experimental colitis mice models, we found that the disease in Ido1(-/-) mice was less severe than in Ido1(+/+) mice. Pharmacological inhibition of IDO1 by L-1MT attenuated the severity of DSS-colitis as well. Transcriptome analyses revealed that pathways involving TLR and NF-kB signaling were significantly down-regulated by the absence of IDO1. Furthermore, dramatic changes in TLR and NF-kB signaling resulted in substantial changes in the expression of many inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. Numbers of inflammatory cells in colon and peripheral blood were reduced in IDO1 deficiency. These findings suggest that IDO1 plays important roles in producing inflammatory responses and modulating transcriptional networks during the development of colitis.

  11. 3D-QSAR Study of Indol-2-yl Ethanones Derivatives as Novel Indoleamine 2,3-Dioxygenase (IDO Inhibitors

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    Kamlendra S. Bhadoriya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available 3D-QSAR approach using kNN-MFA was applied to a series of Indol-2-yl ethanones derivatives as novel IDO inhibitors. For the purpose, 22 compounds were used to develop models. To elucidate the structural properties required for IDO inhibitory activity, we report here k-nearest neighbor molecular field analysis (kNN-MFA-based 3D-QSAR model for Indol-2-yl ethanones derivatives as novel IDO inhibitors. Overall model classification accuracy was 76.27% (q2 = 0.7627, representing internal validation in training set and 79.35% (pred_r2 = 0.7935, representing external validation in test set using sphere exclusion and forward as a method of data selection and variable selection, respectively. Contour maps using this approach showed that hydrophobic and steric effects dominantly determine binding affinities. The information rendered by 3D-QSAR model may lead to a better understanding of structural requirements of IDO inhibitors and can help in the design of novel potent molecules.

  12. High levels of IDO-expressing CD16+ peripheral cells, and Tregs in graft biopsies from kidney transplant recipients under belatacept treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuzawa-Carballeda, J; Lima, G; Uribe-Uribe, N; Avila-Casado, C; Mancilla, E; Morales-Buenrostro, L E; Pérez-Garrido, J; Pérez, M; Cárdenas, G; Llorente, L; Alberú, J

    2010-11-01

    Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) is a tryptophan-degrading enzyme that suppresses T-lymphocyte activity. Costimulation blockade through CTLA4lg increases IDO in antigen-presenting cells. The suppressive effect of IDO is thought to be mediated by Foxp3+CD4+CD25+ regulatory T-cells (Tregs). In this descriptive study, we evaluated the percentage of IDO-expressing peripheral cell subpopulations as well as Tregs in 27 stable kidney transplant recipients receiving either belatacept (LEA29Y), a daughter compound of abatacept (CTLA4lg; n = 19) or cyclosporine (n = 8). Blood samples were obtained at 24 ± 2 months (belatacept) and 23 ± 6 months (cyclosporine) of treatment. Intracellular IDO was analyzed by flow cytometry in CD14+, CD11c+, CD16+, CD56+, and CD8+ cell subpopulations. Tregs were assessed by intracellular Foxp3 detection in CD4+CD25+ cells. CD3+, CD4+, CD8+, CD20+, CD68+, IDO+, and Foxp3+ cells were evaluated by immunohistochemistry on graft biopsies obtained preimplantation, at 12 months posttransplant, and in subjects with dysfunction during the first 12 months. Only percentages of CD16+/IDO+-expressing peripheral monocytes were significantly increased among the group receiving belatacept. No differences were observed in peripheral Tregs between the groups. In contrast, higher percentages of Tregs, CD4+, CD8+, and CD68+ cells were noted in dysfunction and at 12 months vs baseline among graft biopsies in subjects receiving belatacept, and also among dysfunction cohorts of belatacept vs Cyclosporine treatment. Patients receiving belatacept showed greater amounts of peripheral blood CD16+/IDO+ cells and Tregs on graft biopsies than those under cyclosporine treatment. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. O líqüido cefalorraqueano inicial na meningite tuberculosa

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    João Baptista dos Reis

    1954-09-01

    Full Text Available O conhecimento do líqüido cefalorraqueano inicial na meningite tuberculosa tem particular interêsse porque dêle depende a precocidade do diagnóstico e a decisão para o comêço do tratamento específico. O material selecionado para o estudo constituiu-se de 143 casos, cuja comprovação foi feita, num primeiro grupo, pelo achado do bacilo de Koch ao exame direto ou pela inoculação em cobaia e, num segundo grupo, pelas alterações sugestivas do líquor, associadas ao quadro clínico e foco contagiante. Foi feito estudo detalhado dos diversos elementos do exame do liqüido cefalorraquidiano, isto é, pressão, índice de Ayala, aspecto, côr, presença de retículo fibrinoso, citologia global e específica, taxa de proteínas totais, reações das globulinas, taxas de cloretos e de glicose, reações do benjoim coloidal e de Takata-Ara, reação de Wassermann, reação de floculação de Eagle, reação de Steinfeld, reação de fixação do complemento para cisticercose e exame bacterioscópico direto. Em face da baixa freqüência do achado do bacilo ao exame direto, o estudo destas alterações do liquor assume grande importância para o diagnóstico da meningite tuberculosa. Verificou-se em nosso material o seguinte quadro médio, caracterizando a síndrome do líquor nessa moléstia: pressão, 37 cm de água, com o paciente em decúbito lateral ; liquor opalescente e incolor, com retículo fibrinoso presente; células, 242 por mm³ (linfócitos 77,85%; mononucleares 4% ; plasmócitos 2% ; granulócitos neutrófilos 16% ; granulócitos eosinófilos 0,1%; granulócitos basófilos 0,05%; proteínas totais 1,16 g/1; reação de Pandy +++; reação de Weichbrodt +; reação de Nonne ++; reação do benjoim coloidal 00000.22222.22200.0; reação de Takata-Ara positiva, tipo vermelho; taxa de cloretos 6,67 g/l; taxa de glicose 0,34 g/l; reação de Wassermann negativa; bacilo de Koch presente (exame direto ou inoculação. Foram feitas

  14. O líqüido cefalorraqueano na meningite parotidítica

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    César Timo Iaria

    1954-09-01

    Full Text Available Após rápida revisão da literatura, os autores apresentam os resultados dos exames do liqüido cefalorraquidiano em 12 casos de parotidite epidêmica complicada por meningite. As punções foram tôdas realizadas com finalidade diagnostica e terapêutica (descompressiva ; todos os pacientes apresentavam sintomas e sinais clínicos agudos de meningite. Da análise realizada concluiu-se o seguinte tipo médio de líquor: aspecto levemente opalescente; incolor; presença de retículo fibrinoso; pressão inicial média de 19 cm de água; 570 células por mm³, sendo 95% de linfomononucleares, 3% de neutrófilos e 2% de plasmócitos; 0,41 g/l de proteínas totais; reação de Pandy fortemente positiva; reação de Weichbrodt negativa; reação de Nonne positiva; reação do benjoim coloidal 00000.02222.00000.0; reação de Takata-Ara negativa; 7,05 g/l de cloretos; 0,62 g/l de glicose; reações sorológicas e provas bacteriológicas negativas. Os autores apresentam também considerações gerais sobre o diagnóstico diferencial, particularmente com a meningite tuberculosa.

  15. PEG-rIL-10 treatment decreases FoxP3(+) Tregs despite upregulation of intratumoral IDO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Ivan H; Wu, Victoria; Bilardello, Melissa; Jorgenson, Brett; Bal, Harminder; McCauley, Scott; Van Vlasselaer, Peter; Mumm, John B

    2016-07-01

    IL-10 has been classically defined as a broad-spectrum immunosuppressant and is thought to facilitate the development of regulatory CD4(+) T cells. IL-10 is believed to represent one of the major suppressive factors secreted by IDO(+)FoxP3(+)CD4(+) Tregs. Contrary to this view, we have previously reported that PEGylated recombinant IL-10 (PEG-rIL-10) treatment of mice induces potent IFNγ and CD8(+) T-cell-dependent antitumor immunity. This hypothesis is currently being tested in clinical trials and we have reported that treatment of cancer patients with PEG-rHuIL-10 results in inhibition and regression of tumor growth as well as increased serum IFNγ. We have continued to assess PEG-rIL-10's pleiotropic effects and report that treatment of tumor-bearing mice and humans with PEG-rIL-10 increases intratumoral indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenase (IDO) in an IFNγ-dependent manner. This should result in an increase in Tregs, but paradoxically our data illustrate that PEG-rIL-10 treatment of mice reduces intratumoral FoxP3(+)CD4(+) T cells in an IDO-independent manner. Additional investigation indicates that PEG-rIL-10 inhibits TGFβ/IL-2-dependent in vitro polarization of FoxP3(+)CD4(+) Tregs and potentiates IFNγ(+)T-bet(+)CD4(+) T cells. These data suggest that rather than acting as an immunosuppressant, PEG-rIL-10 may counteract the FoxP3(+)CD4(+) Treg suppressive milieu in tumor-bearing mice and humans, thereby further facilitating PEG-rIL-10's potent antitumor immunity.

  16. Systematic study of imidazoles inhibiting IDO1 via the integration of molecular mechanics and quantum mechanics calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yi; Wang, Fang; Wang, Yan; Guo, Wenjie; Zhang, Yihua; Xu, Qiang; Lai, Yisheng

    2017-03-14

    Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1) is regarded as an attractive target for cancer immunotherapy. To rationalize the detailed interactions between IDO1 and its inhibitors at the atomic level, an integrated computational approach by combining molecular mechanics and quantum mechanics methods was employed in this report. Specifically, the binding modes of 20 inhibitors was initially investigated using the induced fit docking (IFD) protocol, which outperformed other two docking protocols in terms of correctly predicting ligand conformations. Secondly, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and MM/PBSA free energy calculations were employed to determine the dynamic binding process and crucial residues were confirmed through close contact analysis, hydrogen-bond analysis and binding free energy decomposition calculations. Subsequent quantum mechanics and nonbonding interaction analysis were carried out to provide in-depth explanations on the critical role of those key residues, and Arg231 and 7-propionate of the heme group were major contributors to ligand binding, which lowed a great amount of interaction energy. We anticipate that these findings will be valuable for enzymatic studies and rational drug design.

  17. Interferon-γ regulates the proliferation and differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells via activation of indoleamine 2,3 dioxygenase (IDO.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Croitoru-Lamoury

    Full Text Available The kynurenine pathway (KP of tryptophan metabolism is linked to antimicrobial activity and modulation of immune responses but its role in stem cell biology is unknown. We show that human and mouse mesenchymal and neural stem cells (MSCs and NSCs express the complete KP, including indoleamine 2,3 dioxygenase 1 (IDO and IDO2, that it is highly regulated by type I (IFN-β and II interferons (IFN-γ, and that its transcriptional modulation depends on the type of interferon, cell type and species. IFN-γ inhibited proliferation and altered human and mouse MSC neural, adipocytic and osteocytic differentiation via the activation of IDO. A functional KP present in MSCs, NSCs and perhaps other stem cell types offers novel therapeutic opportunities for optimisation of stem cell proliferation and differentiation.

  18. O líqüido cefalorraqueano iso diagnóstico dos tumores intracranianos

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    Aloysio Mattos Pimenta

    1954-09-01

    Full Text Available Foi feito um estudo do líqüido cefalorraqueano num material de 180 casos de tumores intracranianos, histològicamente verificados, apreciando-se a possibilidade de sugestões diagnósticas, em relação à sede, natureza e aspectos cirúrgico e clínico. Foi utilizada a via cisternal para a obtenção do líquor, sendo que a punção negativa da cisterna constituiu um elemento de suspeita diagnostica nos tumores da fossa posterior e de indicação de cautela ao médico que a pratica. As vantagens da via cisternal para colheita do liquor foram assinaladas. A pressão inicial foi normal em 35% dos casos, diminuída em 7% e aumentada em 58%. A hipotensão apareceu em 5 hematomas, num total de 14 casos considerados. Não houve grande diferença de freqüência de hipertensão entre tumores infra e supratentoriais. Em relação à natureza do tumor, o glioblastoma e o abscesso - processos de crescimento rápido - tiveram maior tendência a apresentar hipertensão, em relativa oposição àqueles de crescimento lento (astrocitoma e meningeoma. Houve concordância absoluta entre os sinais clínicos de hipertensão - tríade hipertensiva completa - e a hipertensão do líquor. Entretanto, nos casos com tríade incompleta, foram verificadas, freqüentes vêzes, valores normais da pressão e mesmo hipotensão. O quociente raqueano de Ayala, nos casos de líquor hipertenso, evidenciou em grande maioria o tipo tumoral (menor que 5. 0 valor da fórmula QR menor que 5 e QRD maior que 3, não foi comprovado em nosso material. A xantocromia foi dominante nos casos de hematoma. O crescimento rápido pareceu influir mais que a natureza específica no aparecimento da xantocromia. O retículo fibrinoso foi notado em 20 casos, dos quais 2 sem taxa elevada de proteínas, aparecendo com maior freqüência nos casos de abscesso e glioblastoma. O líquor hemorrágico sòmente foi observado nos casos de hematoma. A citologia quantitativa não forneceu dados que

  19. Detailed analysis and follow-up studies of a high-throughput screening for indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1) inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röhrig, Ute F; Majjigapu, Somi Reddy; Chambon, Marc; Bron, Sylvian; Pilotte, Luc; Colau, Didier; Van den Eynde, Benoît J; Turcatti, Gerardo; Vogel, Pierre; Zoete, Vincent; Michielin, Olivier

    2014-09-12

    Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1) is a key regulator of immune responses and therefore an important therapeutic target for the treatment of diseases that involve pathological immune escape, such as cancer. Here, we describe a robust and sensitive high-throughput screen (HTS) for IDO1 inhibitors using the Prestwick Chemical Library of 1200 FDA-approved drugs and the Maybridge HitFinder Collection of 14,000 small molecules. Of the 60 hits selected for follow-up studies, 14 displayed IC50 values below 20 μM under the secondary assay conditions, and 4 showed an activity in cellular tests. In view of the high attrition rate we used both experimental and computational techniques to identify and to characterize compounds inhibiting IDO1 through unspecific inhibition mechanisms such as chemical reactivity, redox cycling, or aggregation. One specific IDO1 inhibitor scaffold, the imidazole antifungal agents, was chosen for rational structure-based lead optimization, which led to more soluble and smaller compounds with micromolar activity.

  20. Hepatic stellate cells increase the immunosuppressive function of natural Foxp3+ regulatory T cells via IDO-induced AhR activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sudhir; Wang, Jiang; Thomson, Angus W; Gandhi, Chandrashekhar R

    2017-02-01

    Immunosuppressive, naturally occurring CD4(+)CD25(+)forkhead box p3(+) (Foxp3(+)) regulatory T cells (nTregs) offer potential for the treatment of immune-mediated inflammatory disorders. However, potential instability of ex vivo-expanded nTregs following their adoptive transfer may be a significant limitation. LPS-stimulated hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) induce expansion and enhance the suppressive function and stability of allogeneic nTregs We aimed to delineate mechanisms underlying HSC-induced expansion and increased potency of nTregs HSCs and nTregs were isolated from mouse livers and spleens, respectively. Following coculture with LPS-pretreated allogeneic HSCs (LPS/HSCs), proliferation of nTregs was measured by CFSE dilution, and Foxp3 expression and acetylation were determined by immunoprecipitation (IP) and Western blotting analysis. Expression of various genes associated with immunologic tolerance was determined by quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR). LPS stimulation increased the expression and activity of the immunoregulatory enzyme IDO1 in HSCs, and LPS/HSCs stimulated aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) signaling in cocultured nTregs Reciprocally, Tregs increased IDO1 expression in HSCs. IDO1(-/-) LPS/HSCs were inferior to WT LPS/HSCs in stimulating nTreg expansion. Pharmacologic inhibition of IDO1 in HSCs by 1-methyltryptophan (1MT) inhibited LPS/HSC-induced AhR signaling in nTregs, which was responsible for their expansion, Foxp3 expression, and stabilization of Foxp3 by increasing acetylation of lysine residues. Finally, HSCs cryopreserved, following 2-3 passages, were as potent as primary-cultured HSCs in expanding nTregs In conclusion, LPS/HSCs expand allogeneic nTregs through an IDO-dependent, AhR-mediated mechanism and increase their stability through lysine-acetylation of Foxp3. nTregs expanded by cryopreserved HSCs may have potential for clinical use.

  1. Use of PD-1 Targeting, Macrophage Infiltration, and IDO Pathway Activation in Sarcomas: A Phase 2 Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toulmonde, Maud; Penel, Nicolas; Adam, Julien; Chevreau, Christine; Blay, Jean-Yves; Le Cesne, Axel; Bompas, Emmanuelle; Piperno-Neumann, Sophie; Cousin, Sophie; Grellety, Thomas; Ryckewaert, Thomas; Bessede, Alban; Ghiringhelli, François; Pulido, Marina; Italiano, Antoine

    2017-06-29

    There is a strong rationale for treating sarcomas with immunotherapy. To assess the efficacy and safety of programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) targeting in combination with metronomic chemotherapy in sarcomas. This was an open-label, multicenter, phase 2 study of 4 cohorts of patients with advanced soft-tissue sarcoma (STS), including leiomyosarcoma (LMS), undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma (UPS), other sarcomas (others), and gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST). All patients received 50 mg twice daily cyclophosphamide 1 week on and 1 week off and 200 mg of intravenous pembrolizumab every 3 weeks. Pembrolizumab in combination with metronomic cyclophosphamide. There was a dual primary end point, encompassing both the nonprogression and objective responses at 6 months per Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumours (RECIST) v1.1 for LMS, UPS, and others and 6-month nonprogression for GIST. An objective response rate of 20% and/or a 6-month nonprogression rate of 60% were determined as reasonable objectives for treatment with meaningful effect. Correlative studies of immune biomarkers were planned from patient tumor and plasma samples. Between June 2015 and July 2016, 57 patients were included (median [range] age, 59.5 [18.5-84.0] years; 24 women [42%]); 50 patients were assessable for the efficacy end point. Three patients experienced tumor shrinkage, resulting in a partial response in a single solitary fibrous tumor. The 6-month nonprogression rates were 0%, 0%, 14.3% (95% CI, 1.8%-42.8%) for LMS, UPS, and others, respectively, and 11.1% (95% CI, 2.8%-48.3%) for GIST. The most frequent adverse events were grade 1 or 2 fatigue, diarrhea, and anemia. The only patient who experienced partial response was the only one with strong programmed cell death 1 ligand 1-positive staining in immune cell. Strong infiltration by macrophage expressing the inhibitory enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1) was observed in the majority of cases. Moreover, a significant

  2. Checkpoint inhibitors in cancer immunotherapy: Cross reactivity of a CTLA-4 antibody and IDO-inhibitor L-1MT in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Shatrawi, Zina Adil; Frøsig, Thomas Mørch; Jungersen, Gregers

    a non-specific activation of porcine T cells. This will be further investigated to provide the basis for in vivo studies investigating checkpoint inhibitor blockade in combination with other cancer immunotherapies. Eventually our goal is to establish pigs as an alternative large animal model......Blockade of checkpoint inhibitors has recently shown very convincing results in the treatment of cancer. One key target is CTLA-4, which has been demonstrated to be a potent negative regulator of lymphocyte activation. The treatment with the FDA-approved fully human CTLA-4 monoclonal antibody...... Ipilimumab increases anticancer T-cell reactivity and overall survival of metastatic cancer patients. Indole-amine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) is another checkpoint inhibitor which suppresses T-cell immunity by the depletion of tryptophan in the T-cell microenvironment, and also inhibition of IDO by L-1...

  3. Elucidating the T-cell reactivity against porcine IDO and RhoC to establish the pig as an animal model for vaccine development against human cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Nana Haahr; Frøsig, Thomas Mørch; Welner, Simon;

    is a requirement for activation of CTLs. Previously, the development of therapeutic anti-cancer vaccines have largely been based on rodent models, in particular mice; however the majority of these fail to establish a therapeutic response once put into clinical trials. Pigs have the potential of serving as a model...... superior to rodents as they are more closely related to humans in terms of immunology and physiology. Here, we introduce pigs as a supplementary large animal model for human cancer vaccine development via the use of our unique technology for swine leukocyte antigen (SLA) production. IDO and RhoC, two tumor...... antigens previously identified as important players in human cancer development and progression, were used as vaccine targets. Using peptide-MHC-I binding predictors we identified IDO-derived and RhoC-derived candidate peptides potentially binding to five different broadly distributed SLA molecules. We...

  4. Human IDO-competent, long-lived immunoregulatory dendritic cells induced by intracellular pathogen, and their fate in humanized mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyagi, Rajeev K.; Miles, Brodie; Parmar, Rajesh; Garg, Neeraj K.; Dalai, Sarat K.; Baban, Babak; Cutler, Christopher W.

    2017-01-01

    Targeting of myeloid-dendritic cell receptor DC-SIGN by numerous chronic infectious agents, including Porphyromonas gingivalis, is shown to drive-differentiation of monocytes into dysfunctional mDCs. These mDCs exhibit alterations of their fine-tuned homeostatic function and contribute to dysregulated immune-responses. Here, we utilize P. gingivalis mutant strains to show that pathogen-differentiated mDCs from primary human-monocytes display anti-apoptotic profile, exhibited by elevated phosphorylated-Foxo1, phosphorylated-Akt1, and decreased Bim-expression. This results in an overall inhibition of DC-apoptosis. Direct stimulation of complex component CD40 on DCs leads to activation of Akt1, suggesting CD40 involvement in anti-apoptotic effects observed. Further, these DCs drove dampened CD8+ T-cell and Th1/Th17 effector-responses while inducing CD25+Foxp3+CD127− Tregs. In vitro Treg induction was mediated by DC expression of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase, and was confirmed in IDO-KO mouse model. Pathogen-infected & CMFDA-labeled MoDCs long-lasting survival was confirmed in a huMoDC reconstituted humanized mice. In conclusion, our data implicate PDDCs as an important target for resolution of chronic infection. PMID:28198424

  5. Imunofenotipagem dos linfócitos positivos para indoleamina 2,3 dioxigenase (IDO em cultura de células de placenta bovina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Catoia

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Resumo A gestação é um estado fisiológico que exige adaptações imunológicas para que transcorra normalmente. Nesse período a mãe e o feto apresentam uma relação imunológica, ou seja, a interface materno fetal. A enzima indoleamina 2,3 dioxigenase (IDO desempenha um papel importante na tolerância materno fetal, por ser responsável pela metabolização do triptofano, impedindo por diversas vias a proliferação principalmente de linfócitos TCD8. Diversos tipos celulares estão presentes na interface materno fetal e vários deles podem expressar a IDO. Os leucócitos com perfil Th1 produzem uma citocina conhecida: o interferon γ que estimula a expressão da IDO em vários tipos celulares. Os linfócitos são divididos em subpopulações de acordo com sua função e fenótipo. Seus tipos incluem linfócitos T, linfócitos B e as células natural killer (NK. Hormônios também atuam nesse processo a progesterona que exerce função determinante sobre a resposta imunológica materna podendo alterar o prognóstico gestacional e o estrógeno essencial para a tolerância materno fetal e manutenção da prenhez. Dessa maneira este trabalho tem por objetivo principal identificar os linfócitos presentes na placenta bovina em cultivo que expressam IDO (linfócitos T, linfócitos B e células NK, frente a estimulação por progesterona, estrógeno e interferon γ nas diversas fases gestacionais utilizando a citometria de fluxo. Segundo os resultados no período de 67,5 a 77, 5 dias com a adição de interferon γ a expressão da enzima IDO aumentou discretamente nos linfócitos TCD3, TCD4, e diferente dos linfócitos T CD8 apresentaram uma elevada expressão da enzima (4,48 ± 2,12 - 8,65± 4,91. No período de 92,5 a 172, 5 dias os linfócitos TCD4, TCD8 e TCD25 apresentaram uma diminuição da IDO. No período final de 195 a 222,5 dias, os linfócitos TCD3, TCD4 e os BCD25 aumentaram a expressão da IDO quando submetidos ao interferon

  6. Sôbre as causas de insucesso na obtenção do líqüido cefalorraqueano cisternal e lombar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Baptista dos Reis

    1950-06-01

    Full Text Available Os autores, depois de rápidas considerações gerais, analisam as diversas circunstâncias que podem prejudicar a livre obtenção do líqüido cefalorraqueano. Mostraram que, mesmo em condições técnicas satisfatórias, a colheita do líqüido cefalorraqueano por punção lombar ou suboccipital pode ser difícil ou mesmo impossível, em virtude de alterações anatômicas ou patológicas nesses níveis. Citam, em seguida, as alterações patológicas consistentes era: calcificação do ligamento amarelo, desvios da coluna vertebral, bloqueios acima do nível de punção, hipotensão grave do líqüido cefalorraqueano, grande aumento da densidade do líquor, tumores ao nível do local de punção ou de outros níveis, agindo indiretamente por deslocamentos da massa nervosa, edema agudo do encéfalo, hidrocefalia, processos reacionais meníngeos pós-inflamatórios, abscessos espinhais epidurais e hematomas epidurais lombo-sacros nos recém-nascidos. Os autores sugerem que a punção branca pode constituir, não só um elemento positivo no diagnóstico clínico, como, também, um sinal de alerta para quem punciona no sentido de evitar riscos para o paciente.

  7. Bis[3-(pyrazin-2-yl-5-(pyridin-2-yl-κN-1,2,4-triazol-1-ido-κN1]copper(II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Liang Liu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In the mononuclear title complex, [Cu(C11H7N62], the CuII atom lies on a crystallographic inversion centre and is coordinated by four N atoms from two bidentate chelate monoanionic 3-(pyrazin-2-yl-5-(pyridin-2-yl-1,2,4-triazol-1-ido ligands, two from the triazolide rings [Cu—N = 1.969 (2 Å] and two from the pyridine rings [Cu—N = 2.027 (2 Å], giving a slightly distorted square-planar geometry.

  8. Aspectos biológicos da neurocisticercose: alterações do liqüido cefalorraquidiano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Spina-França

    1962-03-01

    Full Text Available Entre os aspectos biológicos da neurocisticercose, têm sido mais exploradas as alterações do líqüido cefalorraquidiano (LCR em vista do seu valor diagnóstico. Para analisar os conhecimentos quanto ao quadro liquórico da afecção são apresentados 03 achados referentes a 62 caco3 acompanhados na Clínica Neurológica da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo. Em todos êstes casos a infestação do sistema nervoso central (SNC e/ou de seus envoltórios pelo cisticerco foi comprovada pela necropsia ou durante intervenção cirúrgica (biopsia. A análise do material e da literatura sôbre o assunto permite as seguintes conclusões: 1 - Entre os exames complementares, o exame do LCR é aquêle que permite com maior freqüência o diagnóstico em vida da neurocisticercose. A demonstração da presença de anticorpos específicos é o elemento fundamental para o diagnóstico liquórico; a ecsinofilorraquia complementa esse dado e tem valor sugestivo. 2 - Na neurocisticercose, a eosinofilorraquia costuma ser tanto mais intensa quanto mais nítida a pleiocitose liquórica; entretanto, a presença de células eosinófilas no LCR pode decorrer' de outras causas e sua ausência não infirma o diagnóstico. A eosinofilorraquia permite avaliar a intensidade da reação hiperérgica desencadeada pelo parasito e possibilita orientar o diagnóstico em casos duvidosos. 3 - Na cisticercose há formação de anticorpos específicos, demonstráveis por meio de reações de precipitação e de fixação do complemento; esta última é a mais largamente utilizada. Os anticorpos são semelhantes aos que aparecem no parasitismo por outros cestóideos. Quando localizados no SNC e/ou em seus envoltórios, são os cisticercos os cestóideos que, com maior freqüência e em maior intensidade, desencadeiam reações imunitárias, determinando o aparecimento de anticorpos específicos no LCR. 4 - A evolução do quadro liquórico é variável e nem

  9. EFECTO DEL TRATAMIENTO CON OXALIPLATINO SOBRE LOS NIVELES DE TIORREDOXINA Y DE LA MOLÉCULA IDO (INDOLAMINA 2,3 DIOXIGENASA EN LINEAS CELULARES DE CÁNCER COLORRECTAL.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cavia Mónica

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Increases in indoleamine-2-3-dyoxigenase activity and changes in redox state have been reported in cancer. However, their relationship with chemoterapy remains unknown. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the oxaliplatin treatment in colorectal cancer cell lines (Caco-2 and SW480 on the immunosuppressive molecule IDO and its relationship with the Trx/TrxR system. Results of this study was a higher IDO enzyme activity in Caco-2 cells than in SW480 cells associated with lower levels of the thioredoxin.

  10. The pig as a model for therapeutic human anti-cancer vaccine development, elucidating the T-cell reactivity against IDO and RhoC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Nana Haahr; Frøsig, Thomas Mørch; Welner, Simon

    Immunotherapy against cancer has shown increased overall survival of metastatic cancer patients and is a promising new vaccine target. For this to succeed, appropriate tailoring of vaccine formulations to mount in vivo cytotoxic T cell (CTL) responses towards co-delivered cancer antigens...... is important. Previous development of therapeutic cancer vaccines has largely been based on studies in mice and the majority of these candidate vaccines failed to establish therapeutic responses in subsequent human clinical trials. Since the porcine immunome is more closely related to the human counterpart, we...... here introduce pigs as a superior large animal model for human cancer vaccine development via the use of our unique technology for swine leukocyte antigen (SLA) production. IDO and RhoC, both known to be important in human cancer development and progression, were used as vaccine targets. Pigs were...

  11. Expression and Significance of Treg Cells and IDO in a Spectrum of HPV-Induced Cervical Lesions%Treg细胞和IDO在HPV感染相关宫颈疾病组织中表达及意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋艳萍; 曹来英; 洛若愚

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study the clinical significance of the level of regulatory T ( Treg ) cells and indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase ( IDO ) in a Spectrum of HPV-Induced Cervical Lesions. Methods Human papillomavirus ( HPV ) testing, thinprep cytologic test ( TCT ) and cervical biopsy were performed in cervical mucosal from 194 women and then all patients were classified as normal cervices ( control subjects ), HPV-negative cervicitis, HPV-positive cervicitis, CIN I , CIN II , CINIH or cervical cancer. Flow cytometry was used to assess the percentages of Treg cells in CD4 + T cells in the cervical mucosal and quantitative PCR was used to analysis the cervical mRNA expression of IDO. Results Cervical cancer had higher numbers of Treg cells and expressed more IDO than other groups. The percentages of Treg cells in CD4 + T cells in the cervical mucosal were higher in CIN IH , CIN II , CIN I and HPV-positive cervicitis than what in HPV- negative cervicitis and control subjects. The expressions of IDO were significantly higher in CINIH and CIN II than what in CIN I , HPV-positive cervicitis, HPV-negative cervicitis and control subjects. Conclusion The development of HPV-induced cervical Lesions is assoiated with HPV persistenced infection and mucosal enrichment of Treg cells. IDO is over expressed in HPV-Induced CINIH ,CIN II and Cervical cancer. Treg cells and IDO may associated with cervical cancer immune escape mechanisms.%目的 探讨HPV感染相关宫颈疾病患者宫颈组织中Treg细胞和吲哚胺2,3-二氧酶(IDO)的表达及其临床意义.方法 对194例患者行HPV检测、宫颈TCT检查及宫颈病理学检查,然后按病变程度分为正常宫颈(对照组)、HPV阴性(HPV-)宫颈炎、HPV阳性(HPV+)宫颈炎、CINⅠ、CINⅡ、CINⅢ和宫颈癌6组实验组,应用Q-PCR、流式细胞术,检测各组宫颈组织中Treg细胞和吲哚胺2,3-二氧酶(IDO)的表达水平.结果 宫颈癌中Treg细胞占CD4+ T细胞的比例及IDO表达

  12. Energy value as a factor of agroforestry wood species selectivity in Akinyele and Ido local government areas of Oyo State, Nigeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erakhrumen, A.A. [Department of Forest Resources Management, University of Ibadan, Ibadan (Nigeria)

    2009-10-15

    Wood usage for cooking and heating is still very relevant in most developing countries especially those of sub-Saharan Africa and many parts of Asia. Therefore, sustainable means of generating it for this and other purposes are necessary bearing in mind the influence of indigenous knowledge/users' perspective on any production method regarding success and sustenance. In conformity with this view, questionnaires were administered on 240 respondents in 8 rural communities of Akinyele and Ido Local Government Areas (LGAs) of Oyo State, Nigeria, to elicit information on species that can be used as fuelwood, preferred by the respondents for incorporation into and/or retention in agroforestry plots, out of which 179 (i.e. 75% of the total number of questionnaires administered) were successfully retrieved for statistical analyses. Twelve woody species namely: Annona senegalensis, Anogeissus leiocarpus, Bridelia ferruginea, Daniellia oliveri, Detarium microcarpum, Gardenia ternifolia, Hymenocardia acida, Lophira lanceolata, Parkia biglobosa, Terminalia avicennioides, Triplochiton scleroxylon and Vitellaria paradoxa were prioritized on the basis of respondents' preference using a ranking pattern. Friedman chi-square analysis showed that there was no significant difference (p < 0.05) in the ranking pattern of the respondents from the two LGAs. The mean net calorific values (NCV) of the 12 species were found to be 17.71, 18.63, 18.04, 16.03, 17.67, 18.46, 19.00, 21.68, 19.63, 18.25, 14.65, and 19.47 MJ kg{sup -1} respectively. The result of a two-way analysis of variance indicated a significant variation (p < 0.05) in NCV data for all the species pooled together but not for each species except for D. oliveri with a follow-up test using Fisher's Least Significant Difference. The Pearson's moment correlation analysis gave positive coefficient values (r = 0.868 and 0.874, p < 0.05) between NCV and the cumulative ranking values in Akinyele and Ido LGAs

  13. Cinética de degradación del naftaleno por células inmovilizadas húmedas de Bacillus alcalophilus cepa IDO-225

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Rafael Núñez Moreira

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerosas han sido las investigaciones sobre el estudio de la biorremediación para su aplicación en la lucha para combatir la contaminación ambiental por hidrocarburos. El Instituto de Oceanología del Ministerio de Ciencia, Tecnología y Ambiente, ha trabajado desde 1988 en el aislamiento y conservaci ón de bacterias marinas que sean capaces de degradar el petróleo. Actualmente, cuenta con cuatro bioproductos degradadores de petróleo en medio marino denominados BIOIL, K-BIOIL, BIOIL-FC e IDO-225. En el presente trabajo, se demuestra por Espectroscopia Infrarroja de las muestras extraídas a los 3, 6, 9, 12 y 15 d de contacto de las células húmedas inmovilizadas de Bacillus alcalophilus cepa IDO-225 en el medio de degradación con el naftaleno, un hidrocarburo del petróleo, que estas son capaces de degradar el naflateno como única fuente de carbono y energía. La degradación de este hidrocarburo por las células inmovilizadas de esta cepa se lleva a cabo mediante un mecanismo que se basa en un modelo cinético de segundo orden correspondiente a un mecanismo de metil-oxidación y b-oxidación, al igual que las células libres de dicha cepa, pero con la diferencia de que en el caso de las células inmovilizadas, el término cuadrático (metil-oxidación es mayor y el término lineal (b-oxidación es menor que en las células libres. En este mecanismo se produce acetil-CoA, el cual se incorpora al ciclo de los acidos tricarboxílicos para formar dióxido de carbono, agua y coenzimas reducidas, las cuales se dirigen a la cadena de transporte electrónica para obtener energía en forma de ATP y garantizar la síntesis de compuestos esenciales y la obtención de energía.

  14. 抑郁症患者外周血 BDNF、IDO、CORT水平及 Treg细胞的研究%Study on BDNF,IDO,CORT and Treg Cell Levels in the Peripheral Blood among Patients with Depression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    喻云平; 余红岚; 费樱; 马莉; 郭晶晶; 马琼卉

    2015-01-01

    目的:通过检测抑郁症患者外周血脑源性神经营养因子( BDNF)、吲哚胺2,3-双加氧酶( IDO)、皮质醇( CORT)水平及计数调节性T细胞( Treg细胞),分析这些因子与抑郁症的相关性。方法:60例确诊抑郁症患者(根据HABD分为轻度、中度和重度抑郁症)和30例健康体检者(对照组),取空的静脉血,应用流式细胞仪计数Treg细胞,酶联免疫吸附试验( ELISA)检测BDNF、IDO、CORT水平,对比分析抑郁症患者和对照组的检测结果,分析不同抑郁程度患者检测结果及单因素差异及研究对象 Treg细胞、BDNF、IDO、CORT的相关性。结果:抑郁组患者BDNF浓度明显低于对照组,IDO浓度、CORT浓度及Treg细胞明显高于对照组,P﹤0.005,差异有统计学意义;抑郁症患者BDNF、IDO、CORT浓度及Treg细胞与病情轻重程度无关( P﹥0.05)。抑郁组患者BD-NF与IDO、BDNF与CORT、BDNF与Treg细胞、IDO与CORT、IDO与Treg细胞、CORT与Treg细胞均有相关性。结论:抑郁症的发病与IDO、BDNF、CORT水平及Treg细胞密切相关,其中IDO是枢纽性因素。%Objective:To detect the levels of BDNF,IDO,CORT and Treg cells in the peripheral blood among patients with depression and analyze correlation between these indexes and depression. Methods:The flow cytometry was adopted to detect Treg cell level,and ELISA to detect the levels of BDNF,IDO,and CORT. The detection results of 60 cases of depression and 30 cases of healthy vol-unteers were compared and analyzed. Results:The serum BDNF level of depression group was signifi-cantly lower that that of normal control group( P=0 . 000 ). The serum IDO level of depression group was significantly higher than that of normal control group( P=0 . 009 ). The serum CORT level of de-pression group was significantly higher than that of normal control group( P=0 . 000 ). The Treg cells ratio of depression group in PBMC was

  15. Human Gingiva-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Inhibit Xeno-Graft-versus-Host Disease via CD39–CD73–Adenosine and IDO Signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Feng; Chen, Maogen; Chen, Weiqian; Gu, Jian; Yuan, Jia; Xue, Yaoqiu; Dang, Junlong; Su, Wenru; Wang, Julie; Zadeh, Homayoun H.; He, Xiaoshun; Rong, Limin; Olsen, Nancy; Zheng, Song Guo

    2017-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells have the capacity to maintain immune homeostasis and prevent autoimmunity. We recently reported that human-derived gingival mesenchymal stem cells (GMSCs) have strong capacity to suppress immune responses and T cell-mediated collagen-induced arthritis in animals. However, it is unclear whether these cells can suppress human T cell-mediated diseases. Here, we used a xenogenic GVHD model in the NOD/SCID mouse, which is a useful preclinical construct for evaluating the therapeutic and translational potential of this approach for applications in human disease. We found that GMSCs potently suppressed the proliferation of PBMC and T cells in vitro. Co-transfer of GMSC with human PBMC significantly suppressed human cell engraftment and markedly prolonged the mouse survival. Moreover, we demonstrated that GMSCs inhibited human PBMC-initiated xenogenic responses via CD39/CD73/adenosine and IDO signals. These findings suggest the potential for GMSCs to suppress human immune responses in immune system-mediated diseases, offering a potential clinical option to be used for modulating GVHD and autoimmune diseases. PMID:28210258

  16. Implementación de un procedimiento metodológico para la elaboración de piezas por bruñido con rodillo simple.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Díaz Rojas,

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se exponen los fundamentos y los resultados de investigaciones realizadas sobre la operación secundaria de acabado superficial de piezas conocida como bruñido por rodillo simple.Se abordan teóricamente las cuestiones más importantes de los procesos de deformación plástica superficial empleados para el mejoramiento de las cualidades superficiales de las piezas.Se realiza una investigación experimental en piezas simétrico-rotativas de acero AISI 1045 en un torno paralelo convencional con una herramienta de bruñir mono rodillo construida al efecto, donde se toman en consideración las variables más influyentes en el bruñido por rodillo simple: fuerza compresiva, avance y número de pasadas de la herramienta bruñidora. Se obtienen los modelos empírico-matemáticos que describen los efectos de estas variables en el incremento de la dureza y la calidad superficial final de la pieza, así como en la disminución del diámetro exterior y en la profundidad de la capa endurecida. Como resultado más importante de este trabajo, se desarrolla un procedimiento metodológico para la elaboración de piezas mediante este tipo de tratamiento mecánico por deformación plástica superficial, que permitirá la creación y difusión de una disciplina tecnológica sobre un proceso de fabricación que posee ventajas y que está poco difundido en las empresas metalmecánicas.In the present work the foundations and the results of the investigation for the secondary operation of superficial finish (single roller burnishing are presented. The most important aspects of the superficial plastic deformation process for improving superficial finish are approachedAn experimental investigation in symmetrical-revolving pieces of steel AISI 1045 in a conventional parallel lathe with a burnishing tool of single roller built to the effect is carried out. The most influential variables were took in consideration: compressive force, feed and number

  17. Inhibition of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor prevents Western diet-induced obesity. Model for AHR activation by kynurenine via oxidized-LDL, TLR2/4, TGFβ, and IDO1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyer, Benjamin J; Rojas, Itzel Y; Kerley-Hamilton, Joanna S; Hazlett, Haley F; Nemani, Krishnamurthy V; Trask, Heidi W; West, Rachel J; Lupien, Leslie E; Collins, Alan J; Ringelberg, Carol S; Gimi, Barjor; Kinlaw, William B; Tomlinson, Craig R

    2016-06-01

    Obesity is an increasingly urgent global problem, yet, little is known about its causes and less is known how obesity can be effectively treated. We showed previously that the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) plays a role in the regulation of body mass in mice fed Western diet. The AHR is a ligand-activated nuclear receptor that regulates genes involved in a number of biological pathways, including xenobiotic metabolism and T cell polarization. This study was an investigation into whether inhibition of the AHR prevents Western diet-based obesity. Male C57Bl/6J mice were fed control and Western diets with and without the AHR antagonist α-naphthoflavone or CH-223191, and a mouse hepatocyte cell line was used to delineate relevant cellular pathways. Studies are presented showing that the AHR antagonists α-naphthoflavone and CH-223191 significantly reduce obesity and adiposity and ameliorates liver steatosis in male C57Bl/6J mice fed a Western diet. Mice deficient in the tryptophan metabolizing enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1) were also resistant to obesity. Using an AHR-directed, luciferase-expressing mouse hepatocyte cell line, we show that the transforming growth factor β1 (TGFβ1) signaling pathway via PI3K and NF-κB and the toll-like receptor 2/4 (TLR2/4) signaling pathway stimulated by oxidized low-density lipoproteins via NF-κB, each induce luciferase expression; however, TLR2/4 signaling was significantly reduced by inhibition of IDO1. At physiological levels, kynurenine but not kynurenic acid (both tryptophan metabolites and known AHR agonists) activated AHR-directed luciferase expression. We propose a hepatocyte-based model, in which kynurenine production is increased by enhanced IDO1 activity stimulated by TGFβ1 and TLR2/4 signaling, via PI3K and NF-κB, to perpetuate a cycle of AHR activation to cause obesity; and inhibition of the AHR, in turn, blocks the cycle's output to prevent obesity. The AHR with its broad ligand binding specificity

  18. Construction and identification of the recombination Lentiviral vector with human IDO gene%重组表达人IDO基因慢病毒载体的构建及鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李见; 王露; 李玉云

    2014-01-01

    目的:构建重组表达人吲哚胺2,3-过氧化酶(IDO)基因的慢病毒载体.方法:设计相应引物,从含有人IDO基因的cDNA文库中,利用聚合酶链反应(PCR)方法钓取人IDO基因的全长编码区片段.将目的基因与经酶切线性化的慢病毒载体pGC-FU进行定向的连接,将产物转化细菌感受态细胞.对长出的克隆进行菌落PCR鉴定,并对阳性的克隆进行测序及比对分析.重组慢病毒及辅助包装质粒共转染293T细胞,荧光显微镜下观察绿色荧光蛋白(GFP)的表达情况;采用Wester blot检测IDO-GFP融合蛋白的表达情况;实时荧光定量PCR检测慢病毒浓缩液的滴度.结果:成功获取人IDO基因编码区序列,人IDO基因慢病毒转染质粒连接正确;293T细胞中产生慢病毒颗粒;IDO基因在细胞内稳定表达;人IDO基因重组慢病毒载体的滴度为2×108 TU/ml.结论:成功构建并包装出高滴度的人IDO基因重组慢病毒表达载体,为下一步转染目的细胞奠定了实验基础.

  19. Implementación de un procedimiento metodológico para la elaboración de piezas por bruñido con rodillo simple // Implementation of a methodological procedure for parts elaboration by single roller burnishing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Díaz-Rojas

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se exponen los fundamentos y los resultados de investigaciones realizadas sobrela operación secundaria de acabado superficial de piezas conocida como bruñido por rodillo simple.Se realiza una investigación experimental en piezas simétrico-rotativas de acero AISI 1045 en un tornoparalelo convencional con una herramienta de bruñir mono rodillo construida al efecto, donde setoman en consideración las variables más influyentes en el bruñido por rodillo simple: fuerzacompresiva, avance y número de pasadas de la herramienta bruñidora. Se obtienen los modelosempírico-matemáticos que describen los efectos de estas variables en el incremento de la dureza y lacalidad superficial final de la pieza, así como en la disminución del diámetro exterior y en laprofundidad de la capa endurecida. Como resultado más importante de este trabajo, se desarrolla unprocedimiento metodológico para la elaboración de piezas mediante este tipo de tratamientomecánico por deformación plástica superficial, que permitirá la creación y difusión de una disciplinatecnológica sobre un proceso de fabricación que posee ventajas y que está poco difundido en lasempresas metalmecánicas.Palabras claves: bruñido por rodillo simple, deformación plástica superficial, dureza superficial, rugosidadsuperficial, acero AISI 1045.___________________________________________________________________________AbstractIn the present work the foundations and the results of the investigation for the secondary operation ofsuperficial finish (single roller burnishing are presented. The most important aspects of the superficialplastic deformation process for improving superficial finish are approachedAn experimental investigation in symmetrical-revolving pieces of steel AISI 1045 in a conventionalparallel lathe with a burnishing tool of single roller built to the effect is carried out. The mostinfluential variables were took in consideration: compressive

  20. Analysis of mRNA expression for genes associated with regulatory T lymphocytes (CD25, FoxP3, CTLA4, and IDO) after experimental infection with bovine viral diarrhea virus of low or high virulence in beef calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomares, Roberto A; Hurley, David J; Woolums, Amelia R; Parrish, Jacqueline E; Brock, Kenny V

    2014-12-01

    Immunosuppression caused by bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) has been associated with lymphocyte depletion, leukopenia and impairment of leukocyte function; however, no work has been done on the relationship between BVDV and regulatory T lymphocytes (Tregs). The objective of this study was to compare the mRNA expression of genes associated with Tregs (CD25, FoxP3, CTLA4, and IDO), after experimental infection of beef calves with low (LV) or high (HV) virulence BVDV. Thirty BVDV-naïve calves were randomly assigned to three groups. Calves were intra-nasally inoculated with LV (n=10, strain SD-1) or HV (n=10, strain 1373) BVDV or BVDV-free cell culture medium (control, n=10). Quantitative RT-PCR was used to determine the expression of target genes in tracheo-bronchial lymph nodes and spleen on day 5 post-infection. The mRNA expression of CD25 was up-regulated in tracheo-bronchial lymph nodes of LV (Pviral strains, or differences in viral infectivity of the host cells.

  1. The heparan sulfate motif (GlcNS6S-IdoA2S)3, common in heparin, has a strict topography and is involved in cell behavior and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smits, Nicole C; Kurup, Sindhulakshmi; Rops, Angelique L; ten Dam, Gerdy B; Massuger, Leon F; Hafmans, Theo; Turnbull, Jeremy E; Spillmann, Dorothe; Li, Jin-ping; Kennel, Stephen J; Wall, Jonathan S; Shworak, Nicholas W; Dekhuijzen, P N Richard; van der Vlag, Johan; van Kuppevelt, Toin H

    2010-12-24

    Heparan sulfate (HS) is a structurally complex polysaccharide that interacts with a broad spectrum of extracellular effector ligands and thereby is thought to regulate a diverse array of biologic processes. The specificity of HS-ligand interactions is determined by the arrangement of sulfate groups on HS, which creates distinct binding motifs. Biologically important HS motifs are expected to exhibit regulated expression, yet there is a profound lack of tools to identify such motifs; consequently, little is known of their structures and functions. We have identified a novel phage display-derived antibody (NS4F5) that recognizes a highly regulated HS motif (HS(NS4F5)), which we have rigorously identified as (GlcNS6S-IdoA2S)(3). HS(NS4F5) exhibits a restricted expression in healthy adult tissues. Blocking HS(NS4F5) on cells in culture resulted in reduced proliferation and enhanced sensitivity to apoptosis. HS(NS4F5) is up-regulated in tumor endothelial cells, consistent with a role in endothelial cell activation. Indeed, TNF-α stimulated endothelial expression of HS(NS4F5), which contributed to leukocyte adhesion. In a mouse model of severe systemic amyloid protein A amyloidosis, HS(NS4F5) was expressed within amyloid deposits, which were successfully detected by microSPECT imaging using NS4F5 as a molecularly targeted probe. Combined, our results demonstrate that NS4F5 is a powerful tool for elucidating the biological function of HS(NS4F5) and can be exploited as a probe to detect novel polysaccharide biomarkers of disease processes.

  2. The Heparan Sulfate Motif (GlcNS6S-IdoA2S)3, Common in Heparin, Has a Strict Topography and Is Involved in Cell Behavior and Disease*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smits, Nicole C.; Kurup, Sindhulakshmi; Rops, Angelique L.; ten Dam, Gerdy B.; Massuger, Leon F.; Hafmans, Theo; Turnbull, Jeremy E.; Spillmann, Dorothe; Li, Jin-ping; Kennel, Stephen J.; Wall, Jonathan S.; Shworak, Nicholas W.; Dekhuijzen, P. N. Richard; van der Vlag, Johan; van Kuppevelt, Toin H.

    2010-01-01

    Heparan sulfate (HS) is a structurally complex polysaccharide that interacts with a broad spectrum of extracellular effector ligands and thereby is thought to regulate a diverse array of biologic processes. The specificity of HS-ligand interactions is determined by the arrangement of sulfate groups on HS, which creates distinct binding motifs. Biologically important HS motifs are expected to exhibit regulated expression, yet there is a profound lack of tools to identify such motifs; consequently, little is known of their structures and functions. We have identified a novel phage display-derived antibody (NS4F5) that recognizes a highly regulated HS motif (HSNS4F5), which we have rigorously identified as (GlcNS6S-IdoA2S)3. HSNS4F5 exhibits a restricted expression in healthy adult tissues. Blocking HSNS4F5 on cells in culture resulted in reduced proliferation and enhanced sensitivity to apoptosis. HSNS4F5 is up-regulated in tumor endothelial cells, consistent with a role in endothelial cell activation. Indeed, TNF-α stimulated endothelial expression of HSNS4F5, which contributed to leukocyte adhesion. In a mouse model of severe systemic amyloid protein A amyloidosis, HSNS4F5 was expressed within amyloid deposits, which were successfully detected by microSPECT imaging using NS4F5 as a molecularly targeted probe. Combined, our results demonstrate that NS4F5 is a powerful tool for elucidating the biological function of HSNS4F5 and can be exploited as a probe to detect novel polysaccharide biomarkers of disease processes. PMID:20837479

  3. Breast Cancer Suppression by IDO Inhibitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-05-01

    D2 ’/ CC /1 21 -D/-; 2 /1 @ -3;D/HL3DM /1 @& - D3 @@ /1 @/ -DK-D-3/D /%2/’ /1 @2 -DK-D...acid chain in Hodgkin’s disease. Relative roles of tryptophan loading and vitamin supplementation on urinary excretion of metabolites. Haematol...8217 %’ < &- D2 %A’ /2%C/1’ HF K2@µE /1 < &- D2 & /CHF KCCµE < 2< < &- D2 &%,’ <%&&C’ /1 0 &-D/- D2

  4. SIO Ferromanganese Nodule Description file - IDOE Portion

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Scripps Institution of Oceanography compiled descriptions of sediment samples related to ferromanganese deposits, funded through the International Decade of...

  5. Correction: Dermatan sulfate in tunicate phylogeny: Order-specific sulfation pattern and the effect of [→4IdoA(2-Sulfateβ-1→3GalNAc(4-Sulfateβ-1→] motifs in dermatan sulfate on heparin cofactor II activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugahara Kazuyuki

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract After the publication of the work entitled "Dermatan sulfate in tunicate phylogeny: Order-specific sulfation pattern and the effect of [→4IdoA(2-Sulfateβ-1→3GalNAc(4-Sulfateβ-1→] motifs in dermatan sulfate on heparin cofactor II activity", by Kozlowski et al., BMC Biochemistry 2011, 12:29, we found that the legends to Figures 2 to 5 contain serious mistakes that compromise the comprehension of the work. This correction article contains the correct text of the legends to Figures 2 to 5.

  6. Sodium butyrate enhances the IDO expression in immature dendritic cells to induce T cells anergy in vitro%丁酸钠增强未成熟树突状细胞表达吲哚胺2,3双加氧酶抑制T细胞增殖

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闵军; 刘璐; 商昌珍; 王捷; 万云乐; 罗兴喜; 陈亚进; 陈积圣

    2009-01-01

    目的 观察丁酸钠诱导的不成熟树突状细胞(DCs)吲哚胺2,3双加氧酶(IDO)的表达及其在抑制T细胞免疫反应中的作用.方法 用重组人粒细胞-巨噬细胞集落刺激因子(GM-CSF)和白细胞介素(IL)-4诱导人单个核细胞来源的未成熟DCs,6 d后分别加入丁酸钠、脂多糖(LPS)和多细胞因子鸡尾酒组合[肿瘤坏死因子(TNF)-α、IL-6、IL-1β、前列腺腺素E2(PGE2)],24h后收集DCs;流式细胞仪检测Des表型,逆转录-聚合酶链反应(RT-PCR)和实时荧光定量PCR检测IDO mRNA的表达,酶联免疫吸附试验(ELISA)检测IL-12分泌;混合淋巴细胞培养(MLR)检测各组DCs对同种异体T淋巴细胞增殖的影响.结果 丁酸钠诱导的DCs呈现典型未成熟DCs的特征,低表达CD83、CD80和HLA-DR,分泌IL-12水平低.与对照组比较,丁酸钠组和LPS组DCs的IDO mRNA的表达分别升高了(32.03±4.02)倍和(1.01±0.43)倍,而鸡尾酒组则降低(3.31±1.07)倍,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01);丁酸钠诱导的未成熟DCs采用IDO抑制剂1-甲基色氨酸(1-MT)处理后,可以有效刺激T细胞增殖,但其能力仍低于LPS或鸡尾酒法诱导的成熟DCs.结论 丁酸钠可显著增强未成熟DCs的表达IDO,并且IDO过表达在其抑制T细胞增殖中起重要作用.%Objective To investigate the expression of IDO in immature dendritic cells (DCs) induced by sodium butyrate and its effects on T cells immune reaction in vitro. Methods Human mono-cyte-derived immature DCs were induced with GM-CSF and IL-4 for 6 days,then supplemented with sodi-um butyrate, LPS and cytokines cocktail (TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β, PGE2) respectively. DCs were harvested af-ter incubation for 24 h. The phenotype of DCs was detected by FCM, IDO mRNA expression by RT-PCR and quantitative real-time PCR,and IL-12 production by ELISA. Mixed lymphocyte reactions (MLR) be-tween DCs and allogeneic lymphocytes were performed to analyze the proliferative response of T cells. Re-suits The DCs induced by

  7. 曲古抑菌素A下调人肺腺癌细胞A549内IDO表达的分子机制%Molecular Mechanism of TSA-induced Down-regulation of IDO in Human Lung Adenocarcinoma Cell Line A549

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李玲玲; 江冠民; 杜军

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] To investigate the molecular mechanism of TSA-induced indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenase (IDO) down-regulation in human lung adenocarcinoma cell line A549. [Methods] The roles of TSA on the IFN-7 induced IDO expression in A549 cell, the phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) and the activation of interferon regulatory factor 1 (IRF-l)were examined by western blotting. Effect of TSA on STAT1 nuclear translocation was observed by a confocal laser-scanning microscope. The luciferase activity of the activation of 7-interferon activated sites (GAS) , interferon stimulated response element (ISRE) and nuclear factor-kB (NF-kB) was measured by dual luciferase reporter assay system. [Results] TSA concentration-dependently reduced IFN-7 induced IDO expression, inhibited STAT1 phosphorylation at Tyr-701 and nuclear translocation in A549 cell. Dual luciferase reporter assay and Western blotting results showed that TSA blocked IFN-"y -induced activation of GAS, ISRE, and IRF-1, but not NF-kB. [Conclusions] TSA can down-regulate IFN-7 induced IDO expression in A549 cell, which may be associated with the repression of phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of STAT1 and its binding to GAS.%[目的]研究曲古抑菌素A (TSA)抑制γ干扰素(IFN-γ)诱导的人A549细胞内吲哚胺2,3-双加氧酶(IDO)表达的分子机制.[方法]采用蛋白质免疫印迹技术检测TSA在IFN-γ诱导的A549细胞中IDO的表达、信号转导及转录激活子1 (STAT1)的磷酸化和干扰素调节因子1(IRF-1)的激活等过程中的作用,在激光共聚焦显微镜下观察TSA对STAT1核转位的影响,利用双荧光素酶报告基因系统检测TSA对γ-干扰素激活位点(GAS)、干扰素刺激应答元件(ISRE)和核因子-κB(NF-κB)的激活的影响.[结果]TSA以浓度依赖方式下调A549细胞中IFN-γ诱导的IDO表达,并能明显抑制STAT1第701位酪氨酸的磷酸化和STAT1的核转位.双荧光

  8. 细粒棘球蚴重组抗原B诱导小鼠骨髓源树突状细胞表达吲哚胺2,3-双加氧酶的研究%Echinococcus granulosus Recombinant Antigen B Induced IDO Expression in Mouse Bone Marrow-derived Dendritic Cells in Vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    单骄宇; 纪卫政; 吐尔洪江·吐逊; 李亮; 张传山; 林仁勇; 温浩

    2011-01-01

    目的 观察细粒棘球蚴重组抗原B (rAgB)体外诱导小鼠骨髓源树突状细胞表达吲哚胺2,3-双加氧酶(IDO)的情况.方法 从小鼠股骨中分离出骨髓细胞,进行小鼠重组巨噬细胞集落刺激因子(rmGM-CSF)的诱导,培养并获得CD11c+ 树突状细胞.应用倒置显微镜和扫描电镜观察树突状细胞形态,采用流式细胞术检测其表面标志物;用混合淋巴细胞反应(MLR)观察树突状细胞对T淋巴细胞的增殖能力.培养至第6天,收集未成熟树突状细胞进行流式细胞术检测;另向部分未成熟树突状细胞中加脂多糖(LPS)刺激24 h后,收集成熟树突状细胞,进行流式细胞术检测.在获得的未成熟树突状细胞中分别加入RPMI 1640完全培养液(为阴性对照组)、重组小鼠γ干扰素(rmIFN-γ,1 000 U/ml,为IFN-γ组)和rAgB(终浓度15 *9滋g/ml,为rAgB组),培养24 h后,通过细胞免疫组织化学和蛋白质印迹(Western blotting)检测各组树突状细胞IDO的表达情况.结果 获得纯度为80%的CD11c+ 树突状细胞,在倒置显微镜和扫描电镜下均观察到典型树突状细胞.经LPS刺激的成熟树突状细胞的CD40、CD80和主要组织相容性复合体(MHC)Ⅱ类分子I-A/I-E的阳性表达率与未成熟树突状细胞的相比,差异均有统计学意义(均P0.05).结论 细粒棘球蚴重组抗原B在体外具有诱导树突状细胞表达吲哚胺2,3-双加氧酶的功能.%Objective To observe the expression of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) in mouse bone marrowderived dendritic cells (DCs) after adding Echinococcus granulosus recombinant antigen B (rAgB) in vitro. Methods CD11c+ DCs generated from bone marrow precursor cells of C57BL/6 mice and cultured in the presence of recombinant mouse GM-CSF (rmGM-CSF). The morphology of DCs was observed by inverted microscope and scanning electronic microscope. The level of I-A/I-E, CD40, CD80, and CD86 on DCs were determined by flow cytometry. T cell proliferation induced by

  9. Dermatan sulfate in tunicate phylogeny: Order-specific sulfation pattern and the effect of [→4IdoA(2-Sulfateβ-1→3GalNAc(4-Sulfateβ-1→] motifs in dermatan sulfate on heparin cofactor II activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugahara Kazuyuki

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previously, we have reported the presence of highly sulfated dermatans in solitary ascidians from the orders Phlebobranchia (Phallusia nigra and Stolidobranchia (Halocynthia pyriformis and Styela plicata. Despite the identical disaccharide backbone, consisting of [→4IdoA(2Sβ-1→3GalNAcβ-1→], those polymers differ in the position of sulfation on the N-Acetyl galactosamine, which can occur at carbon 4 or 6. We have shown that position rather than degree of sulfation is important for heparin cofactor II activity. As a consequence, 2,4- and 2,6-sulfated dermatans have high and low heparin cofactor II activities, respectively. In the present study we extended the disaccharide analysis of ascidian dermatan sulfates to additional species of the orders Stolidobranchia (Herdmania pallida, Halocynthia roretzi and Phlebobranchia (Ciona intestinalis, aiming to investigate how sulfation evolved within Tunicata. In addition, we analysed how heparin cofactor II activity responds to dermatan sulfates containing different proportions of 2,6- or 2,4-disulfated units. Results Disaccharide analyses indicated a high content of disulfated disaccharide units in the dermatan sulfates from both orders. However, the degree of sulfation decreased from Stolidobranchia to Phlebobranchia. While 76% of the disaccharide units in dermatan sulfates from stolidobranch ascidians are disulfated, 53% of disulfated disaccharides are found in dermatan sulfates from phlebobranch ascidians. Besides this notable difference in the sulfation degree, dermatan sulfates from phlebobranch ascidians contain mainly 2,6-sulfated disaccharides whereas dermatan sulfate from the stolidobranch ascidians contain mostly 2,4-sulfated disaccharides, suggesting that the biosynthesis of dermatan sulfates might be differently regulated during tunicates evolution. Changes in the position of sulfation on N-acetylgalactosamine in the disaccharide [→4IdoA(2-Sulfateβ-1→3GalNAcβ-1

  10. TSA通过抑制STAT1磷酸化与核转位下调人肝癌细胞HepG2内IDO的表达%TSA Down-regulated Expression of IDO in HepG2 Human Liver Cells by Inhibiting STAT1 Phosphorylation and Nuclear Translocation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李玲玲; 江冠民; 张革; 衣艳梅; 张帆; 杜军

    2011-01-01

    目的:研究曲古抑菌素A(Trichostatin A,TSA)下调γ干扰素(interferon-gamma,IFN-γ)诱导的人肝癌细胞HepG2内吲哚胺2,3-双加氧酶(indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase,IDO)表达的分子机制.方法:Western blot检测TSA在IFN-γ诱导的HepG2细胞中IDO的表达、信号转导及转录激活子1( STATl)的磷酸化和干扰素调节因子1(IRF-1)的诱导表达情况.用免疫细胞化学法检测TSA处理HepG2细胞后对IDO表达的影响.流式细胞术分析TSA处理后IFN-γ受体2表达量的变化,进一步在激光共聚焦显微镜下观察TSA对STATI核转位的影响,利用双荧光素酶报告基因系统检测TSA对IFN-γ激活位点(γ-activated sites,GAS)、干扰素刺激应答元件(interferon stimulated response elements,ISRE)和核因子- κB (NF-κB)的激活的影响.结果:TSA以剂量依赖方式下调HepG2细胞内IFN-γ诱导的IDO表达、能明显抑制STATI第701位酪氨酸的磷酸化和STAT1的核转位,但是上调IFN-γ受体2受体的表达.双荧光素酶报告基因分析和Western blot结果表明:TSA能显著抑制GAS和IRF-1的激活却不能抑制NF-κB和ISRE的激活.结论:TSA能下调IFN-γ诱导的HepG2细胞中IDO的表达,其机制可能是与其抑制STAT1的磷酸化和核转位,以及抑制STAT1与GAS的结合有关,而不是通过下调IFN-γ受体的表达来实现的.%Objective: To study the molecular mechanism of TSA-induced indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenase (IDO) downregulation in human liver cancer cell line HepC2. Methods: The roles of TSA on the IFN-7 induced IDO expression in HepC2 cell, the phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 ( STAT1 ) and the activation of interferon regulatory factor 1 (IRF-1) were examined by western blotting. IDO expression in TSA-treated HepG2 cells was also detected by immunocytochemistry , and changes in the expression of IFN-γreceptor 2 was analyzed by Flow cytometry. Effect of TSA on STAT1 nuclear translocation was observed by a confocal

  11. Role of IL-6/IDO pathway in therapeutic effects of ketamine on comorbidity of pain and depression in rats%IL-6/IDO信号通路在氯胺酮治疗大鼠疼痛抑郁共病模型中的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭杰; 王菁; 谢泽敏; 唐小慧; 张广芬; 郑曼; 沈锦春

    2016-01-01

    目的 观察IL-6/吲哚胺2,3-二加氧酶(IDO)信号通路在氯胺酮治疗大鼠疼痛抑郁共病模型中的作用.方法 第一部分:32只SD雄性大鼠随机均分为四组:生理盐水1、24 h组(S1组、S24组)和氯胺酮1、24 h组(K1组、K24组).所有大鼠右踝关节腔内注射完全弗氏佐剂(CFA) 50μl建立疼痛抑郁共病模型.CFA注射后第14天,按照分组腹腔注射生理盐水和氯胺酮,给药后1、24 h测定机械性缩足反射阈值(MWT)和强迫游泳实验不动时间.行为学测试后,取海马检测IL-6和IDO水平.第二部分:32只SD雄性大鼠随机均分为四组:PBS+生理盐水组(PS组)、PBS+氯胺酮组(PK组)、IL-6+生理盐水组(IS组)和IL-6+氯胺酮组(IK组).大鼠行海马区置管,同时建立疼痛抑郁共病模型.CFA注射后第7天开始,按照分组分别海马区给予PBS 0.5μl或IL-6 0.1μg,连续7d.CFA注射后第14天,按照分组腹腔注射生理盐水或氯胺酮,给药后1h测定MWT和强迫游泳实验不动时间.行为学测试后,取海马检测IL-6水平.结果 第一部分:与S1组相比,K1组大鼠MWT增加,强迫游泳不动时间、海马IL-6和IDO水平均下降(P<0.05);与S24组相比,K24组大鼠MWT增加,不动时间、IL-6和IDO水平均下降(P<0.05).第二部分:与PS组相比,PK组MWT增加,不动时间和IL-6水平下降(P<0.05),IS组MWT下降,不动时间和IL-6水平增加(P<0.05).与IS组相比,IK组MWT和不动时间均无统计学差异(P>0.05),但IL-6水平下降(P<0.05).与PK组相比,IK组MWT下降,不动时间和IL-6水平增加(P<0.05).结论 氯胺酮可通过抑制海马IL-6/IDO信号通路对疼痛抑郁共病大鼠产生治疗作用.%Objective To investigate the role of interleukin-6 (IL-6)/indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase(IDO) pathway in the therapeutic effects of ketamine on the comorbidity of pain and depression in rats.Methods Part one:CFA 50μl was injected into the right tibiotarsal joint cavity for the establishment of the model of pain

  12. Indoor air pollution by particulate matter; Ryushijo busshitsu ni yoru osen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irie, T. [Shinshu Univ., Nagano (Japan). Faculty of Education

    1995-07-31

    This paper explains the standards and the purport of the law for maintenance of sanitation in buildings, the outbreak of sickness relating to the sick-building syndrome and its countermeasures, etc., in connection with particulate matters in the indoor environment. The law of 1970 specified 0.15mg/m{sup 3} as the standard of indoor maintenance control for suspended particulate matters. As a number of data were subsequently accumulated, however, it was revealed that tobacco smoke particles were the very cause of the indoor particulate pollution though it was unpredicted at the beginning. As a result, it led to the development of high level filters, improvement of air conditioning operation, measures for smoking, and so on, for which the regulation of 0.15mg/m{sup 3} has been believed to be correct after all. The most frequently disqualified item was particulate matters at the initial enforcement of the law, but the moisture standard has been ranked first in recent years. The problems of tobacco smoke, asbestos and allergens are particularly to be watched among many problems involved. 10 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. Removal of trihalomethane precursors in industrial wastewater; Sangyo haisui ni fukumareru trihalomethane zenku busshitsu no jokyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machida, K.; Tsuda, S. [Ebara Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Kiriyama, K.; Hidaka, T. [Ebara Research Co. Ltd., Kanagawa (Japan)

    1998-01-20

    As part of a study on `a technology to treat wastewater from tap water sources` commissioned from NEDO, operation research was carried out on a demonstration plant (50 m {sup 3}/d) built with an intention to remove trihalomethane precursors (abbreviated to THMFP) contained in wasterwater from a paper mill. As a result, the following findings were obtained: an activated sludge treatment can remove THMFP at a removal rate of 10%, succeeding precipitation treatment 37%, and a further activated charcoal treatment or a membrane (nano-filtration (NF)) treatment 84% to 93%, resulting in the remaining THMFP of 0.3 mg per liter or less. CHCl3 precursor materials can be removed well by any treatment process, but bromine-coordinated THMFP is removed well by the NF treatment. Because THMFP quantification of wastewater with high total organic carbon (TOC) concentration is largely affected by dilution rate, discussions were given on the dilution rate, whereas it was found adequate that test samples be diluted so that the TOC will be 1 to 3 mg per liter. 3 refs., 7 figs., 8 tabs.

  14. Problem on environmental hormone (endocrine disturbing chemicals); Kankyo horumon (naibunpi kakuran kagaku busshitsu) mondai ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tawarada, T. [Kansai Electric Power Co. Inc., Osaka (Japan)

    2000-02-10

    This paper describes a problem on environmental hormone. Various chemicals discharged into environment act as hormone- like or anti-hormone-like substance. Since many such chemicals act as female hormone-like substance, those are called '(exogenous) endocrine disturbing chemicals' or 'environmental hormone'. Such chemicals include already regulated toxic PCB and dioxin, and a large amount of plastic raw materials, plasticizer and surfactant with no acute toxicity. The action mechanism of endocrine disturbing chemicals is as follows. Those bond with acceptors in place of hormone, and give incorrect directions to genes. Those may cause various disorders such as reproduction anomaly, development anomaly, immune toxicity and neuro-toxicity over several ages. For wild animals, some conceivable effects are being revealed. Since living organisms have various specificities and various experiments possible for animals are impossible for mankind, many obscure points remain unsolved. This paper presents various approaches in Japan. (NEDO)

  15. Material cycling solar system modeled ecosystem; Seitaikei wo model to shita busshitsu junkangata solar system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, M. [Hachinohe Institute of Technology, Aomori (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    It is proposed to establish an integrated system close to a natural ecosystem for an industrial complex, taking that in Hachinohe City, Aomori Pref. as the conceptual site. It is a system in which materials are recycled by solar energy and industrial waste heat for a complex food industry. The conceptual site, although blessed with various marine products, are sometimes attacked by cold weather. Waste heat from a 250,000kW power plant, if transported by EHD heat pipes to the site, could provide roughly 400 times the heat required for production of agricultural and marine products, such as cabbages and fish meat. The waste heat, coupled with solar energy, should solve the problems resulting from hot waste water, if they could be utilized for the industrial purposes. The food industrial site that produces agricultural and marine products is considered to be suited as the center of the solar industrial complex incorporating farms. 5 refs., 3 figs.

  16. The Role of IDO in Muc1 Targeted Immunotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Besmer*, Teresa L. Tinder , Lopamudra Das Roy, Joseph Lustgarten, Sandra J. Gendler, Pinku Mukherjee Intratumoral Delivery of CpG-Conjugated Anti...3073-87. Epub 2012 Jan 11. PMID: 22238308 3. Mahnaz Sahraei , Lopamudra Das Roy , Jennifer Curry , Teresa Tinder , Sritama Nath , Dahlia M...10.1038/onc.2011.651 4. Dahlia M. Besmer , Dr. Jennifer M. Curry , Dr. Lopamudra D. Roy , Ms. Teresa L. Tinder , Ms. Mahnaz M. Sahraei , Dr

  17. The Role of IDO in Muc1 Targeted Immunotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    2006. 66(2): p. 605-12. 22. Serafini , P., I. Borrello, and V. Bronte, Myeloid suppressor cells in cancer: recruitment, phenotype, properties, and...678-89. 25. Serafini , P., et al., Derangement of immune responses by myeloid suppressor cells. Cancer Immunol Immunother, 2004. 53(2): p. 64-72. 26

  18. White dots <i>do matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soeken, Mathias; Thomsen, Michael Kirkedal

    2013-01-01

    that can be replaced by a cheaper realisation, many direct algorithms apply so-called moving rules; a simple form of rewrite rules that can only swap gate order. In this paper we first describe the few basic rules that are needed to perform rewriting directly on reversible logic circuits made from general......The increased effort in recent years towards methods for computer aided design of reversible logic circuits has also lead to research in algorithms for optimising the resulting circuits; both with higher-level data structures and directly on the reversible circuits. To obtain structural patterns...... as problems based on our rewrite rules. Finally, we outline a path to generalising the rewrite rules by showing their forms for reversible control-gates. This can be used to expand our method to other gates such as the controlled-swap gate or quantum gates....

  19. White dots <i>do matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soeken, Mathias; Thomsen, Michael Kirkedal

    2013-01-01

    that can be replaced by a cheaper realisation, many direct algorithms apply so-called moving rules; a simple form of rewrite rules that can only swap gate order. In this paper we first describe the few basic rules that are needed to perform rewriting directly on reversible logic circuits made from general...... Toffoli circuits. We also show how to use these rules to derive more complex formulas. The major difference compared to existing approaches is the use of negative controls (white dots), which significantly increases the algebraic strength. We show how existing optimisation approaches can be adapted...

  20. Scripps Institution of Oceanography Ferromanganese Nodule Analysis File - IDOE Portion

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Scripps Institution of Oceanography (SIO) compiled data on the geochemistry of marine ferromanganese nodules, funded by the U.S. National Science Foundation...

  1. Production of energy and chemical substances by microalgae. Bisai morui ni yoru energy oyobi kagaku busshitsu no seisan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyamoto, Kazuhisa; Miura, Yoshiharu (Osaka Univ., Osaka, (Japan). Faculty of Pharamaceutical Science)

    1989-11-01

    Microalgae can fix carbon dioxide by photosynthesis but the conversion rate is only 5 to 6%. Dried algae contain different lipids of 20 to 40%. Therfore, it is desirable to culture a large amount of an alga or algae having high photosynthetic and lipid producing abilities in order to effectively convert photoenergy to liquid fuel. It is reported that US established the target of 50g dry wt/m{sup 2}/day by greatly improving the productivity for 4 years since 1982 and the lipid amount exceeded 60% in 1986. A method to make photosysnthesis during daytime to avoid the interference with oxygen and to generate hydrogen by decomposing stored organic substances during night is studied and regarded as promising. In addition, the production of vitamines and other fine chemicals by microalgae is also paid attention. 15 refs., 5 tabs., 3 tabs.

  2. Microalgal biotechnologies for recycling of pollutants; Tayona sorui kino wo kiban to suru seibutsuken busshitsu junkangata sogo saishigenka gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyamoto, K.; Nasu, M.; Hashimoto, C.; Tanaka, K.; Hirata, M. [Osaka University, Osaka (Japan). Faculty of Pharmaceutial Science; Fujita, M.; Takagi, M. [Osaka University, Osaka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Hirata, Y.; Taya, M. [Osaka University, Osaka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering Science; Yamanishi, H. [Osaka University, Osaka (Japan). Faculty of Medicine

    1997-02-01

    This paper describes the technology development by which biomass is produced by treatment of pollutants using microalgae, and is recycled. A bioreactor system has been developed, in which microalgal biomass can be obtained through the effective treatment of CO2 and NOx using microalgae having ability of increase under the severe condition with simultaneous flow of CO2 and NOx. A new method has been also developed for separating and recovering the microalgae. Materials, such as glucose, glycerol, acetic acid, and lactic acid, were produced from the obtained biomass through physico-chemical and biological treatments. These materials can be converted into ethanol and hydrogen. For this treatment and recycling system, functions as a part of natural material recycling were considered to be most significant. Development of an analysis and evaluation method of an impact of this system on the natural environment is also tried. 1 fig.

  3. Preventive counterplan for chemical poisonings and the role of toxicology; Kagaku busshitsu chudoku jiko taisaku to dokubutsugaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, T. [Showa Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Pharmaceutical Sciences

    1996-02-10

    Some cases of poisoning by chemical substances are taken up, and counterplans are discussed. This report centers about the neurotoxic gas sarin incidents dealing with them as examples of acute poisoning caused by chemical substances. The important difference in terms of chemical structure between a neurotoxic gas and organo-phosphoric pesticide is that in the former phosphorus is directly bonded with carbon or halogen while, in the latter, bondage is represented by P-O-C, P-S-C, and the like, so bonded as to form the phosphoric acid, thiophosphoric acid, or dithiophosphoric acid. The result of the difference in chemical structure is that the neurotoxic gas easily gains access to the target enzyme and remains stable after bonding therewith while the organo-phosphoric pesticide is easily hydrolyzed by enzymes other than the target enzyme. Poisoning by neurotoxic gas or organo-phosphoric pesticide is clinically treated by the administration of atropine and 2-pyridine aldoxime methiodide which is an antidote. It is mandatory to let people clearly know beforehand the methods of analysis of chemical substances and their toxicity and to establish beforehand how to first-aid the victims and what emergency treatment can be executed. 11 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Living (stained calcareous benthic foraminifera from recent sediments off Concepción, central-southern Chile (~36° S Foraminíferos bentónicos calcáreos vivos (teñidos en sedimentos recientes de Concepción, Chile centro-sur (~36° S

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAÚL TAPIA

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This study examines onshore-offshore and vertical distribution of living (Rose Bengal stained benthic foraminifera (> 180 μm fraction from three sediment stations along a bathymetric transect off Concepción, Chile (station 18 = 88 m water depth, station 26 = 120 m, station 40 = 1,030 m, within and below the oxygen minimum zone. All cores were collected in austral winter. Calcareous foraminifera dominated the three stations. The species composition, living foraminifera density, and vertical distribution patterns within the sediment changed in accordance with bottom water dissolved oxygen concentration and food availability. Onshore-offshore pattern revealed overall highest living foraminiferal densities at shelf stations 18 and 26 where bottom water dissolved oxygen was lowest (~ 0.2 mL-1 and content in labile organic matter highest. Within the sediment, maximum relative abundances (50-60 % of living organisms were found in the 0-1 cm interval at the organic-rich and oxygen-poor shelf stations 18 and 26. In the well-oxygenated (2.7 mL-1 slope station 40, 70 % of living foraminifera were observed deeper than the first centimeter. The number of species and the contribution of the > 250 μm fraction to the total fauna larger than 180 μm increased offshore. Nonionella auris (d'Orbigny dominated at stations 18 and 26 while a more diverse foraminifera fauna was found at station 40. This study provides the first quantitative data on living benthic foraminifera in the area; seasonal and interannual changes are not addressed.Este estudio examina la distribución costa-océano y vertical de los foraminíferos bentónicos calcáreos (fracción > 180 im vivos (teñidos en tres estaciones a lo largo de un transecto batimétrico frente al área de Concepción, Chile (estación 18 = 88 m, estación 26 = 120 m, estación 40 = 1.030 m de profundidad, dentro y bajo la zona mínima de oxígeno. Todos los testigos de sedimento fueron recolectados durante el per

  5. nihon no iryo jujisha ni okeru shokugyosei sutoresu

    OpenAIRE

    伊藤, 慎也

    2014-01-01

    主査 : 水野雅文 /タイトル : Occupational stress among healthcare workers in Japan /著者 : Shinya Ito, Shigeru Fujita, Kanako Seto, Takefumi Kitazawa, Kunichika Matsumoto, Tomonori Hasegawa /掲載誌 : Work: A Journal of Prevention, Assessment and Rehabilitation /巻号・発行年等 : 49(2):225-234, 2014 /本文ファイル : 出版者版

  6. Bonded structure application for aircraft. Kokuki ni okeru secchaku gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, O. (Japan Airlines Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))

    1991-01-05

    Adhesives play an important role in a technology of the aircraft structure for which lightness and strength are required. The paper explains the present situation of bonding technology employed for aircraft, the honeycomb structure, production of composite materials and the related problems. Advantages and purposes of employing adhesives as substitutes for fasteners like screws, rivets, etc. are as follows: decreases in stress concentration, weight reduction, smoothing of surfaces, improvement of acoustic fatigue by adhesives flexibility, prevention of gas-liquid leakage. Epoxide adhesives are mainly used for aircraft. Together with tear straps, which are metal-metal bonded to the rear fuselage plate of aircraft, and waffle doublers, an aluminium honeycomb sandwich structure, whose weight is 1/7 of an aluminium plate same in rigidity, is used in such parts of aircraft as spoilers, outer plates of flaps, etc. The problem of the bonded structure is detachment. Therefore, how to prevent, discover and repair it is most important. 3 figs.

  7. Estimation for origin of coals on biomaker analysis; Jinko sekitan oyobi tennen sekitan no biomaker bunseki ni yoru sekitan kigen busshitsu no suitei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Y. [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan); Sugimoto, Y. [National Institute of Materials and Chemical Research, Tsukuba (Japan); Okada, K. [Coal Mining Research Center, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    In order to study coal production processes, an estimation study was carried out on coal originating materials by using biomaker analysis. Test samples are original coals collected directly from a mine in Hokkaido (not having been subjected cleaning). Mixing and solvent extraction were performed after pulverization, and then tests were given on saturated hydrocarbon components divided by using a silicagel column chromatograph for the present study. It can be known from n-alkane distribution in the coal that low molecular alkane increases with increasing degree of coalification. Artificial coal made by wet-heating Metasequoia leaves contains only little n-alkane. Diterpenoid compound exists in the Taiheiyo and Akabira coals. Tetra-cyclic diterpernoid is contained abundantly in subtropical coniferous trees, serving as a parameter for warm environment. The compound is contained also in the Fushun coal, but not in Indonesian coals. Hopanoid constitution shows very high similarity, but H/C atomic ratio may vary largely even if the coalification is at the same degree. This is likely to be caused from difference in originating materials. Hopanoids are bacteria attributed substances, whose activities are not affected by the originating materials. 2 figs., 1 tab.

  8. International symposium on environmental impacts of advanced alternative to CFC; CFC shinki daitai busshitsu no kankyo eikyo ni kansuru kokusai symposium hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-07

    The international symposium on environmental effects of new CFC substitutes was held in Tsukuba City, Ibaraki Pref. on February 7-9, 1996, and 19 papers were made public. In Session 1 (Plenary lecture), reports were made on Global warming and climate change: a review of recent studies; Stratospheric ozone, CFCs, and CFC-substitutes: an update, etc. In Session 2, Measurements of OH rate constants for advanced refrigerants as well as HCFCs and HFCs; The reaction rate of CFC alternatives with OH radical; Experimental and estimated rate constants: reactions of hydroxyl radicals with several halocarbons, etc. In Session 3, Measurement of uptake coefficients of some acetyl halides and fluorinated ethers into water; Mass transfer at the air/water interface: removal processes of halocarbonyl compounds; Heterogeneous reactions of fluorinated ethers on allophane or titanium dioxide, etc. In Session 4, papers were reported on model calculations relating to the global warming.

  9. Environmental endocrine disruptors and developmental abnormalities in wildlife; Kankyo horumon (gaiinsei naibunpi kakuran kagaku busshitsu) no kankyo seibutsu ni taisuru eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iguchi, T. [Yokohama City Univ., Yokohama (Japan)

    1998-04-15

    The environmental endocrine disruptor, or the so-called environmental hormone, is outlined. Hormones are secreted from endocrine glands in trace amounts, transported by blood, and exert influence on the target organs and distal cells, this to sustain constancy in living organisms. There are two types: peptide hormones which are rows of amino acids and steroid hormones which are composed of cholesterol. Endocrine disruptors are chemical substances discharged into the environment which, once taken into human organisms, disrupt endocrine systems, some acting like female sex hormones and others resisting male sex hormones. Many a wild animal are found affected by them. They are accumulating in human organisms too. Synthesized chemical substances such as DDT, PCB, dioxins, and alkylphenols present in the water system affect a fish by disrupting its endocrine, immunity, nerve, growth, and regeneration. Embryos and larvae are quite susceptible, easy to turn abnormal. Voices are high across the world for the study of environmental endocrine disruptors. Introduced in this report are some animal experiments, typical cases of impact on the ecosystem, and systems for detecting environmental endocrine disruptors. 36 refs., 1 tab.

  10. Survey of pollution-resistant plants and their cultivating techniques; Osen busshitsu taisei shokubutsu to sono shokusai gijutsu ni kansuru chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The reduction of forests due to environmental pollution has been surveyed, to investigate the pollution-resistant plants and solid microorganisms. In Japan, the blight of needle-leaf trees (pine and momi fir) and of Japanese oak has occurred, and blight of some other trees, such as wild cherry trees, Japanese apricot trees, birch, Japanese cedar, cypress and bamboo, has been reported from various regions. In this article, plants reported to be resistant to pollutants are listed, and the physiological features of these plants are described. Furthermore, to develop pollution-resistant plants, reports relating to clarification of the mechanism of resistance development and the genes involved are reviewed. Microorganisms which symbioses for roots support these root functions. They also suppress the activity of pathogenic microorganisms and improve the environment around the roots, thus helping plants to grow normally. The roles played by symbiotic microorganisms and how to utilize these organisms are discussed. Their functions in coping with acid rain and heavy metal pollution, and how to utilize such functions are also discussed. 707 refs., 13 figs., 13 tabs.

  11. Analysis of the pollutant in the environment using supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC); Chorinkai ryutai kuromatogurafui (SFC) wo mochiita kankyo chu no osen busshitsu no bunseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kakuchi, T.; Miura, Y. [Hokkaido Univ., Hokkaido (Japan)

    2000-02-05

    The analysis of the organic pollutant in the environment is carried out as the following procedure; the organic substance is extracted by using the organic solvent from a collected sample, an instrument analysis such as gas chromatography (GC) or high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) are done after the clean up the sample by column chromatography. The analysis using supercritical fluid instead of the organic solvent in each stage is supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) or supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC). The supercritical fluid has a density and viscosity coefficient between gas and liquid, and the control of the dissolving power is possible by the change of temperature and pressure. Therefore, it has the advantage as follows: The material mobile speed is high and separation and extraction are rapid; It is easy to adjust the dissolving power and possible to carry out selective separation and extraction; The removal of solvent can be easily carried out since supercritical CO{sub 2} used is a gas in the normal pressure. In this paper, the analytical instrument in which the extraction is carried out in organic solvent and clean up was done in SFC was introduced. (NEDO)

  12. Occurrence and purification on microcystis species. Toxicology of blue-green algae toxins; Aoko/sono hassei to joka taisaku. Aoko no yudoku busshitsu no dokusei ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaya, K. [National Inst. for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1994-09-10

    In recent years the blue-green algae has occurred tremendously in the lakes at every places in the world, and therefore it has become a social problem. Especially in Australia and New Zealand, the damages not only on the cattles and the wild animals, they have commenced to develop up to the health problems of the residents. By a progress of the study of the blue-green algae toxins, a structure and toxicity of many blue-green algae toxins have been made clear. The microcystin which it one of them, is a hepatic toxin produced by the microcystis, anabaena and oscillatoria. By the way, because it was made clear recently by a study done by the National Cancer Center that it had a carcinogenesis promotion action, its action has been paid attention over again. In the blue-green algae toxins, besides the microcystin it is made clear that there are the nervus toxins such as the anatoxin-a and anatoxin-a (s) produced by anabaena, the aphantoxin produced by aphanizomenon and so forth. In this paper, as for the toxicity manifestation mechanism of the microcystin which is thought to become a point at issue in Japan, an information up to date is introduced. 17 refs., 2 figs.

  13. Antibiotics produced by marine bacteria and the evaluation of their activity; Kaiyo saikin no seisansuru kosei busshitsu to sono kassei hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshikawa, K.

    1997-09-10

    Researches continue into physiologically active substances metabolized by marine bacteria and, in this report, some that exhibit antibacterial activity (antibiotics) are introduced. A detailed description is given of a new, peculiar antibiotic named Koromicin discovered in this project. Since a number of terrestrial bacteria have already been investigated, marine halophiles, especially those adhering to large seaweed in eutrophic environments, are taken up in this paper. This is because they are easy to culture. Many are collected in Japan and South-Sea islands, and some are selected for culture in view of their capability for producing active substances. Active compounds are extracted from them, refined, isolated, and their structures are determined. It is found that many of the thus-obtained compounds are those that have already been isolated from marine creatures in the past, but this verifies the effectiveness of selecting the marine bacteria as the source from which to collect physiologically active substances. Koromicin discovered in this process is unique in that it impedes the growth of marine Gram-negative bacteria only. 11 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Analysis and evaluation methods for chemical contaminants in clean room air; Kagaku osen no bunseki hyokaho clean room kukichu no kagaku osen busshitsu ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujimoto, T.

    1998-07-31

    As for, chemical contamination in a cleanroom air has taken up as a important problem. As the main source is building materials, after construction the execution of countermeasures is difficult. Out-gas evaluation and selection in building materials, chemical filters for removing specific organic matter and so on, are a large technical theme in the future and analytical techniques corresponding them become necessary. In this paper, analytical methods of airborne molecular contaminants (AMCs) are introduced. Main samples are AMCs in cleanroom atmosphere, on silicon wafer surface and out-gas from raw materials for cleanroom construction materials such as sealant, plastics and so on. Analytical methods consist of quantification of inorganic compounds, organic compounds and identification of abnormal spot with local/surface analysis. Various interesting findings with analytical data are obtained and investigated. 22 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs.

  15. Proteinograma do líqüido cefalorraquidiano na lepra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Spina-França

    1962-12-01

    Full Text Available Foi estudado o proteinograma do LCR de 25 pacientes portadores de lepra. Os resultados são registrados e analisados em relação ao proteinograma do sôro, ao tempo de evolução da doença, à forma clínica de lepra e ao resultado da reação de Mitsuda. O proteinograma do LCR estava alterado em 11 casos: em 6 havia aumento do teor de albumina, em 3 do teor de γ-globulina e em 2, do de β-globulina. Foram encontradas alterações das relações normalmente existentes entre as frações proteicas do LCR e do soro: havia tendência a ser maior que a normal a relação referente à albumina e β-globulinas; tendência contrária foi observada quanto às α-globulinas. O aumento do teor de albumina no LCR foi observado em pacientes portadores de formas inespecíficas de lepra, com maior freqüência nos casos de curta evolução. O aumento de β-globulina no LCR ocorreu em portadores de lepra tuberculóide. Havia correlação positiva entre o teor dessa fração e o grau de positividade da reação de Mitsuda. Tal correlação, porém, não se mostrou significativa. O aumento da γ-globulinorraquia foi discreto em todos os casos, podendo ser secundário ao aumento do teor dessa fração no sôro e foi observado em portadores de lepra lepromatosa. Havia correlação negativa entre o teor dessa globulina no LCR e o resultado da reação de Mitsuda; o valor dessa correlação mostrou-se estatisticamente significativo.

  16. Bis{2-[(phenyl-imino)-meth-yl]-1H-pyrrol-1-ido}palladium(II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imhof, Wolfgang

    2012-12-01

    In the title complex, [Pd(C11H9N2)2], the Pd(II) atom is located on an inversion centre and has a square-planar coordination geometry. The phenyl substituents at the imine N atoms make a dihedral angle of 75.0 (6)° with respect to the PdN4 plane.

  17. Bis{2-[(2,4,6-trimethylphenyliminomethyl]pyrrol-1-ido}palladium(II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Imhof

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, [Pd(C14H15N22], is a square-planar palladium complex composed of two deprotonated pyrrole-2-carbaldimine ligands coordinating a central PdII atom. In the crystal, three crystallographically independent complex molecules are observed, one of which is located in a general position, whereas the PdII atoms of the other molecules are situated on crystallographic inversion centers. The aromatic substituents at the imine N atoms in the three molecules show dihedral angles of 87.6 (7/83.64 (7, 74.3 (7 and 88.3 (7° with respect to the corresponding PdN4 plane.

  18. Bis{2-[(phenyliminomethyl]-1H-pyrrol-1-ido}palladium(II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Imhof

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In the title complex, [Pd(C11H9N22], the PdII atom is located on an inversion centre and has a square-planar coordination geometry. The phenyl substituents at the imine N atoms make a dihedral angle of 75.0 (6° with respect to the PdN4 plane.

  19. Investigating the Role of Indoleamine 2,3- dioxygenase (IDO) in Breast Cancer Metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    influencing immune cell maturation. Specifically, these cytokines regulate divergence into Th1, Th2 or Th17 cell lineages. It is generally...accepted that a Th1 environment suppresses tumor outgrowth while a Th2 environment promotes immune escape. The cytokine profile for Th1/Th2/ Th17 showed no...inflammation in the lung and included IL-6, IL-10, MCP-1, IFN-, TNF and IL-12p70. Samples were collected and analyzed similarly to the Th1/Th2/ Th17

  20. Circulating Antibodies to IDO/THO Pathway Metabolites in Alzheimer's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Duleu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In Alzheimer's disease, indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase and tryptophan hydroxylase are known to induce an overproduction of neurotoxic compounds, such as quinolinic acid and 3-hydroxykynurenine from the former, and 5-hydroxytryptophol and 5-methoxytryptophol from the latter. Other compounds, such as kynurenic acid, serotonin, and melatonin are produced via the same pathways. An improved ELISA method identified circulating antibodies directed against these compounds, linked to proteins, as previously described for other chronic diseases. This describes how only the A isotype of circulating immunoglobulins recognized a pattern of conjugated tryptophan metabolites in the sera of Alzheimer patients. These data indirectly confirmed the involvement of tryptophan derivatives in the pathogenic processes of Alzheimer's disease. Further studies are required to evaluate the relevance of these antibody patterns in monitoring this disease.

  1. Circulating Antibodies to IDO/THO Pathway Metabolites in Alzheimer's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duleu, S.; Mangas, A.; Sevin, F.; Veyret, B.; Bessede, A.; Geffard, M.

    2010-01-01

    In Alzheimer's disease, indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase and tryptophan hydroxylase are known to induce an overproduction of neurotoxic compounds, such as quinolinic acid and 3-hydroxykynurenine from the former, and 5-hydroxytryptophol and 5-methoxytryptophol from the latter. Other compounds, such as kynurenic acid, serotonin, and melatonin are produced via the same pathways. An improved ELISA method identified circulating antibodies directed against these compounds, linked to proteins, as previously described for other chronic diseases. This describes how only the A isotype of circulating immunoglobulins recognized a pattern of conjugated tryptophan metabolites in the sera of Alzheimer patients. These data indirectly confirmed the involvement of tryptophan derivatives in the pathogenic processes of Alzheimer's disease. Further studies are required to evaluate the relevance of these antibody patterns in monitoring this disease. PMID:20721333

  2. Annual energy review-1996; 1996 nen ni okeru juyona energy kankei jiko

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-20

    This paper reviews the important items concerned with energy in 1996. Primary energy supply sums to 529times10{sup 13}kcal increasing by 2.4% over last year. The growth rates of demand over last year are 2.5% in industry use, 3.7% in transport use, 3.7% in home use, and 1.3% in business use. On R & D trend of use technologies of energy resources, the following are described: (1) Petroleum: resource exploitation, transport, stock, refining, and petrochemistry, (2) Coal: resource exploitation, coal structure and property, processing, transport, liquefaction, gasification, carbonization, tar industry, carbon industry, and coal ash utilization, (3) Natural gas: resource exploitation, transport, storage, and conversion technology, (4) Natural energy: hydraulic, solar, geothermal, wind power, oceanic and biomass energies, and (5) Others: waste resources, hydrogen and alcohol. On R & D trend of energy conversion technology, combustion theory, boiler, engine, thermal energy system, and high-efficiency power generation technology are described. Environmental problems and their protective technologies are also described

  3. Technology of latent-heat recovery for boiler system; Boira ni okeru sennetsu kaishu gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moriyama, T. [Tokyo Gas Co. Ltd. (Japan)

    1996-08-01

    The boiler has reached the highest degree of completion among combustion equipment and is highly efficient. In order to enhance its efficiency further, it is ordinary to recover the retention heat of the combustion exhaust gas, but due to the problem of low temperature corrosion caused by the sulfur content in fuel resulted from a temperature drop of the exhaust gas, heat recovery has been done not sufficiently. In this article, an example is introduced to plan the betterment of efficiency by application of a latent heat recovering economizer to a sugar manufactory and a report is made on the energy saving effect by recovering the latent heat and a study on the quality of the material for the latent heat reclaimer. The above latent heat reclaimer is a system which takes advantage of the feature of the natural gas reportedly having no sulfur content, brings down the temperature at the outlet of a heat exchanger of the boiler exhaust gas to below the dew point, thereby recovers the condensed latent heat of the vapor in the exhaust gas and utilizes it for heating up the boiler feed water. In this example, the line of an already installed boiler has been partially modified and only a latent heat reclaimer has been installed newly. The increase of efficiency has been as high as 5.28%. 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  4. Survey of Joint Implementation activities in China; Chugoku ni okeru kyodo jisshi katsudo kanren chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    It is a large task for Japan to positively promote the Joint Implementation activities related to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Rapid increase in the emission of greenhouse-effect gases, especially CO2, is predicted in China with remarkable economic growth and population of 1.2 billion. It is essential to promote the Joint Implementation activities in China. In this survey, framework, organization, problems and tasks were investigated to effectively promote the Joint Implementation activities in China. Construction of framework for the real Joint Implementation activities has been proposed. Current problems for promoting the Joint Implementation activities in China are that the distinct guideline for the Joint Implementation is not established in the government, that the receiving system including receiving, planning and arranging sections is not established, and that the burden problems for the costs of project evaluation, data acquisition, monitoring, and verification are not solved. 5 refs., 21 figs., 6 tabs.

  5. Present status of geothermal power development in Kyushu; Kyushu ni okeru chinetsu hatsuden no genjo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akiyoshi, M. [Kyushu Electric Power Co. Inc., Fukuoka (Japan)

    1997-10-20

    The present situation was introduced of the geothermal power generation in Kyushu. In Kyushu, where there are lots of volcanos and abundant geothermal resources, the geothermal exploration has been made since long ago. Three non-utility use units at three geothermal power generation points and six commercial use units at five points are now in operation in Kyushu. The total output is approximately 210 MW, about 40% of the domestic geothermal power generation. At Otake and Hacchobaru geothermal power plants, the Kyushu Electric Power Company made the geothermal resource exploration through the installation/operation of power generation facilities. At the Otake power plant, a geothermal water type single flashing system was adopted first in the country because of its steam mixed with geothermal water. At the Hacchobaru power plant, adopted were a two-phase flow transportation system and a double flashing system in which the geothermal water separated from primary steam by separator is more reduced in pressure to take out secondary steam. Yamakawa, Ogiri and Takigami power plants are all for the joint exploration. Geothermal developers drill steam wells and generate steam, and the Kyushu Electric Power Company buys the steam and uses it for power generation. 5 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Dissipative structure of mechanically stimulated reaction; Kikaiteki reiki hanno ni okeru san`itsu kozo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hida, M. [Okayama Univ., Okayama (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1994-12-20

    Recently various studies have been conducted concerning the state changes of materials obtained through mechanical alloying (MA) or mechano-chemical (MC) processing. What is noticeable is the quasi-steady state of almost all the materials obtained through various processes including MA and MC, and that the super cooling, supersaturating and high residue distortion realized under unbalanced conditions have not been clarified. In other words, the tracing capability to the external binding conditions is low. In this report, the appearance of the high temperature phase and high pressure phase obtained through MA or MC processing, the forming of amorphous, the mesomerism of the amorphous materials, the interesting phenomena generated by combination between the mechanical disturbance and chemical reactions were discussed with concrete examples, and a steady dissipative organization theory was approached from the viewpoint of dissipative structure development which is equal to the forming process of the quasi-steady phase. 34 refs., 2 figs.

  7. Radio communication for motor sports; Motor sports ni okeru musen tsushin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ota, K. [Kenwood Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    2000-02-01

    This paper describes general radio communication, and radio telephone and data communication for motor sports. The radio communication for racing cars is largely disturbed by car noises and peripheral noises. The adverse effect of noises caused by on-board computer on communication, and that of radio waves on a computer are unavoidable. The radio communication is also disturbed by various radio devices in a racing circuit. As disturbance measures, change of radio frequency and filtering are necessary. For the radio telephone communication between a driver and a manager or a manager and team staffs, a close-talking microphone or a microphone with a noise canceler are used to pick up proper voices from strong roaring. However, although the frequency band of engine noises is nearly equal to that of human voices, separation of voices is extremely difficult. The car data during racing are transmitted rapidly to a pit by microwave communication, and used for the planning of a race strategy in a pit. (NEDO)

  8. Study on the time-domain electromagnetic responses; TDEM ho ni okeru denji oto ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noguchi, K.; Endo, M. [Waseda University, Tokyo (Japan). School of Science and Engineering

    1997-05-27

    With an objective to perform three-dimensional analysis with high accuracy in using the electromagnetic exploration method, characteristics in electromagnetic response were analyzed, and conditions for acquiring necessary data were discussed. The discussion defined a parameter called `response anomaly` which uses response from media to standardize response only from substances with abnormal resistivity. The receivers were located uniformly on the same plane, and the response anomaly was derived from electromagnetic response from each of the three horizontal and vertical components at each receiving point, which was expressed as a contour map. The parameter for the abnormal body was consisted of location and resistivity contrast with media. Discussions using the contour map were given on the response when these factors for the parameter were varied. As a result, it was found that the response anomaly appears in the form that reflects the abnormal body, and the response anomaly of the horizontal component is superior in terms of being large. It was also referred that, as a requirement for the abnormal body which gives larger impact from the electromagnetic response, the abnormal body should have lower resistivity than that in the media, and resistivity contrast with the media should be greater. 2 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Volatiles production from the coking of coal; Sekitan no netsubunkai ni okeru kihatsubun seisei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamashita, Y.; Saito, H.; Inaba, A. [National Institute for Resources and Environment, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    In order to simplify the coke manufacturing process, a coke production mechanism in coal pyrolysis was discussed. Australian bituminous coal which can produce good coke was used for the discussion. At a temperature raising rate of 50{degree}C per minute, coal weight loss increases monotonously. However, in the case of 3{degree}C, the weight loss reaches a peak at a maximum ultimate temperature of about 550{degree}C. The reaction mechanism varies with the temperature raising rates, and in the case of 50{degree}C per minute, volatiles other than CO2 and propane increased. Weight loss of coal at 3{degree}C per minute was caused mainly by methane production at 550{degree}C or lower. When the temperature is raised to 600{degree}C, tar and CO2 increased, and so did the weight loss. Anisotropy was discerned in almost of all coke particles at 450{degree}C, and the anisotropy became remarkable with increase in the maximum ultimate temperature. Coke and volatiles were produced continuously at a temperature raising rate of 50{degree}C per minute, and at 3{degree}C per minute, the production of the coke and volatiles progressed stepwise as the temperature has risen. 7 refs., 6 figs.

  10. Autosolvent effect of bitumen in thermal cracking; Netsubunkai hanno ni okeru bitumen no jiko yobai koka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikuni, M.; Sato, M.; Hattori, H. [Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan). Center for Advanced Research of Energy Technology; Nagaishi, H.; Sasaki, M.; Yoshida, T. [Hokkaido National Industrial Research Institute, Sapporo (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    Tar sand bitumen is petroleum-based ultra-heavy oil, and has a great amount of reserve like coal. However, there are still a lot of problems for its highly effective utilization. This paper discusses whether the light components in bitumen show independent behavior during the thermal cracking of heavy components, or not. Solvent effect and reaction mechanism during the thermal cracking are also derived from the change of their chemical structures. Athabasca tar sand bitumen was separated into light and heavy fractions by vacuum distillation based on D-1660 of ASTM. Mixtures of the both fractions at various ratios were used as samples. Negative effect of the light fraction on cracking of the heavy fraction was observed with dealkylation and paraffin formation Polymerization of the dealkylated light fraction to the heavy fraction was suggested due to lack of hydrogen in the thermal cracking under nitrogen atmosphere, which resulted in the formation of polymer. 3 refs., 6 figs.

  11. Role of advanced technology in mechanical engineering. Kikai kogaku ni okeru cho no yakuwari

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koda, T. (Mechanical Engineering Lab., Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan))

    1992-10-05

    Since technology prefixed with 'super' is ultra-technology in another word, two kinds of work are introduced, that are on-going in the ultra-technology section in Mechanical Engineering Lab., the Ministry of International Trade and Industry. It is noted therewith that in order to realize 'super', introduction of knowledge of unfamiliar fields to mechanical engineering is one of ways. The first is a research on ion-injection onto solid surfaces by introducing quantum mechanics to mechanical engineering. Possibility of rotating new materials and physical properties is under investigation using MeV ion injection equipment. The second is a research on named 'cozy machine'. This is an example of introduction of physiological knowledge and is based on the concept that an operator can handle his machine pleasantly if it is controlled with his proper biorhythm. The possibility to form 1/f sway related to being cozy is shown using electrocardiographic signals upon which the interval of an R wave showing the largest amplitude is determined. Rotating machines are controlled in proportion to the potential. 13 refs., 3 figs.

  12. Improvement works of water quality in the enclosed area. Heisasei kaiiki ni okeru suishitsu kaizen jigyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sega, Y. (Ministry of Transport, Tokyo (Japan))

    1993-08-10

    This paper introduces specific examples of measures to preserve and improve water quality as adopted in the harbor environment administration to prevent pollution and create comfortable environments. In the investigation of ocean bottom purification, a test construction has been carried out using a sand covering method at Mikawa Bay. The sand covering method uses good quality sand to cover sludge on the ocean bottom to suppress dissolution of nutrients that have been revolving from the ocean bottom sludge into sea water. The method also reduces dissolved oxygen consumption in sea water by the ocean bottom sludge and improves the water quality in the area and the ecosystems. In the change of ocean bottom sludge quality in vertical distribution in the sand covered area, the COD content decreased more largely than in the current ocean bottom, but it increased more largely with lapse of time during which floating mud has precipitated. The 'sea blue' technology development project intends to implement the following activities compositely: advancement of environment improving technologies that utilize natural purification ability; environmental improvement including sludge dredging, and improving water quality and ocean bottom quality; improvement of green areas that are highly friendly with water; and application of measures to form amenity spaces. 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. Wood bioindustry in the 21st century. 21 seki ni okeru mokuzai bio kogyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haraguchi, T. (Research Association for systematic Utilization of Wood Components, Tokyo (Japan))

    1991-09-01

    For these about ten tears, technology has remarkably made progress to convert chemical contents of wood, i.e., cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin into effective materials. As for the fractionation of wood contents, a mutual bonding is noted to be physically or chemically made respectively among all cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin which are structural contents of wood cell wall. Therefore, each of those contents must be fractionated and separated to be converted and utilized, which methods comprise, among others, digestion and explosive crushing method, acetic acid digestion method, and fine powder saccharification method. For the chemical and biochemical conversion of fractionated contents, it was introduced that the hemicellulose is thoroughly hydrolyzed, converted into monosaccharide xylose, further reduced to xylitol and finally converted into xylooligosaccharide and reduced xylooligosaccharide. Also, butanediol can be biologically produced by conversion. As for the chemical and biochemical conversion and utilization of cellulose, the cellulose can be hydrolyzed to glucose with enzyme to derive sorbitol, acetone and acetic acid by fermentation, and many other kinds of material. 7 refs., 10 figs., 8 tabs.

  14. Wind turbine power generation projects supported by NEDO; NEDO ni okeru furyoku hatsuden shien jigyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higashino, M. [New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo, (Japan)

    1998-09-01

    The long-term energy supply/demand balance prospects, reviewed in 1998, revise the wind turbine power generation target greatly upward to 300,000kW by 2010. Outlined herein are the national wind turbine power generation projects promoted by NEDO. The wind power development field test projects investigated wind conditions in detail at 94 sites, designed systems for 31 sites and installed/operated the systems at 13 sites during the FY1995 - 1998 period. The new energy enterpriser support projects tend to be concentrated in the coastal areas facing the Sea of Japan, from Hokkaido to Tohoku/Hokuriku districts, having an annual average wind velocity in a range from 5.3 to 6.2m/s at a height of 20m from the ground. The wind turbine capacity ranges from 800kW as the minimum eligible level for the national project to 20,000kW. It is expected that the project produces relatively good results at each site. The local new energy introduction promotion projects, supported by local autonomies, have been spreading throughout Japan since FY1997. The locally supported projects are expected to be more profitable than the national projects. 4 figs., 6 tabs.

  15. Exploration under pavement by electromagnetic subsurface profiling. Hosoka ni okeru roban rosho heno haaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaneko, C.; Miyatsu, Y.; Seki, M. (Construction Project Consultant Co. Ltd., Osaka (Japan))

    1994-05-01

    This paper reports explorations on change in roadbeds and subgrades under pavement by means of an electromagnetic wave method (underground radar method). The paper summarizes the measurement principle of this exploration method, the measurement equipment (consisting of a control unit, an antenna unit, and an image output unit), and data analysis and processing. It is indicated that the quality of the exploration result is governed by the antenna used, whereas a reference is shown for selecting antennas according to the exploration objects (embedded pipes, underground cavities, and pavement thickness) and depths of the explorations. The paper then lists examples of explorations conducted by using antennas with a frequency of 500 MHz. The explorations include the following cases: cavities directly below concrete seals (with a thickness of 10 cm), hume pipes (with a diameter of 10 cm) embedded in a depth of 1.1 m under asphalt pavement, clearances existing in subgrades, loosened ground bed believed to have been caused by immersion, and clearances (depth of 70 cm) existing in ground beds behind bridge piers. 5 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Geophysical exploration in environmental engineering; Kankyo engineering ni okeru butsuri tansa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shima, H. [OYO Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-12-01

    This paper describes underground environmental issues to which geophysical exploration can be applied. Especially, ground pollution, waste treatment and unexploded ordnance (mine) detection are discussed by considering worldwide technology trends through examples in Japan and the USA. Since environmental surveys are generally conducted for regional and rather shallow ground, rapidity, economy and high resolution are required for geophysical exploration. In response to these demands, a mapping system using capacitor electrodes and a complex resistivity method for detecting organic compounds are promising for the electrical prospecting. A shallow electromagnetic method is being standardized for the electromagnetic prospecting. A cesium magnetic gradient meter is also being standardized for the magnetic prospecting. An underground radar, seismic prospecting, and gravitational prospecting are also applied to some grounds. Prospecting of pollution sources, high- and low-concentration ground pollution, monitoring of pollutant removal, soundness survey of water barrier in management-type waste treatment place, and detection of unexploded ordnance are illustrated for the examples. 15 refs., 10 figs., 4 tabs.

  17. Education for hydraulics and pneumatics in Nihon University; Nihon Daigaku ni okeru yukuatsu kyoiku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ouchi, M. [Nihon Univ., Chiba (Japan). Coll. of Industrial Technology

    2000-03-15

    Described herein is education of hydraulics and pneumatics in Nihon University. Department of Mechanical Engineering of Faculty of Production Engineering has been holding up the educational aims of bringing up engineers and researchers who have ability and intelligence to cope with internationalization and contribute to society, and of bringing about creativity, among others. Control equipment is an optional subject for the sophomore class in the second semester, and is centered by mechatronics, including hydraulic and pneumatic control systems and equipment. The related subjects include fluid dynamics, control engineering, system controlling, hydraulic machines, robotics and automobile engineering. The drill course includes disassembling and assembling gear pumps, drills on pneumatic devices, system behavior and mechatronics, experiments on fan and hydraulic control circuits and on servo mechanisms, and machinery designs and drawings. Seminars are led by full-time or part-time lecturers for the themes related to hydraulic power. Many students are interested in hydraulic and pneumatic themes for their graduation theses, because of their relations with control, environments, energy saving and so on. We are now in the age of composite technologies, and hydraulic power basics are prerequisite for engineers, and important for education of students. (NEDO)

  18. Development of a platoon driving AHS; AHS jikkensha ni okeru gunsoko seigyo no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seto, Y.; Inoue, H. [Nissan Motor Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    Nissan and the Public Work Research Institute of the Ministry of Construction are developing an Automated Highway System. We are investigating a longitudinal control system in AHS. In this paper, a vehicle control method using two actuators an engine and a brake, is described. Experimental and simulated results are shown. A Platoon driving control method using road-to-vehicle and vehicle-to-vehicle communication is described. And the influence of the communication on the control performance is shown by experiments and simulation. The effects of the communication device and control device mentioned above are verified by experimental results in an AHS field test conducted in September 1996 on a dosed highway. 5 refs., 8 figs.

  19. Magnetic prospecting in Kaibuki-yama ancient tomb; Kaibukiyama kofun ni okeru zenjiryoku sokutei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishitani, T. [Akita University, Akita (Japan). Mining College

    1996-10-01

    Kaibuki-yama ancient tomb located in Kumeda, Kishiwada City, Osaka has a square shape in the front and an orbicular shape in the rear, which was considered to be made in the 4th century. This ancient tomb has a total length about 135 m, a diameter of orbicular shape in the rear about 82 m, and a height about 9 m, which is a symbolical existence of the Kumeda ancient tombs. Stone chamber and stone casket made of Sanbagawa crystalline schist or rhyolitic-andesitic tuff are expected in this tomb. Magnetic prospecting in this study is accompanied with this survey. A differential type proton magnetometer was used for the measurements, which were conducted using meshes with 1 m edges. A pair of distinct positive and negative magnetic anomalies were observed in the center of orbicular shape in the rear. This coincides with a location of main body buried, which is archaeologically estimated. The magnetic anomaly might be caused by the article buried in the tomb, such as ironware, based on the measurement of magnetic intensity. From the calculated values of magnetic anomaly using a model, the buried article with magnetic anomaly was considered to have a size with length of 1 m, width of 0.1 m, and height of 0.2m. The negative magnetic anomaly could not be explained only by this. It is necessary to consider the other reasons. 8 refs., 8 figs.

  20. Characteristics of microtremors in Hanshin area; Hanshin chiiki ni okeru bido no kihon tokusei nitsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, H.; Suzuki, K.; Yamanaka, H.; Seo, K. [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-01

    To increase general understandings of fundamental characteristics of microtremors in Hanshin area, microtremors have been observed at Sumiyoshi River-side, Rokko Island, and Nishinomiya. Relations were discussed among the stability of predominant period, successive fluctuation and meteorological conditions. For the analysis, cosine-type taper was conducted before and after 10% of the observed records, and Fourier spectrum was calculated by smoothing using Parzen window with a band width 0.3 Hz. Geometrical mean of two components was used as a horizontal component. At the observation points except Sumiyoshi River-side, predominance in the short period side was not distinct, and was not stable due to the successive fluctuation of predominant period. However, there was less successive fluctuation of spectrum ratio between different two points in the band with period more than 1 sec. Since there was a close correlation between the successive fluctuation in this band and the wind velocity or air pressure, the microtremors in this band was affected by a single vibration source. Ground characteristics could be illustrated by the averages of ratio against base points of moving observation. 14 refs.

  1. Detailed seismic intensity in Morioka area; Moriokashi ni okeru shosai shindo bunpu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, T.; Yamamoto, H.; Settai, H. [Iwate University, Iwate (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Yamada, T. [Obayashi Road Construction Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-01

    To reveal a seismic intensity distribution in individual areas, a large-scale detailed seismic intensity survey was conducted in Morioka City through questionnaire, as to the Hokkaido Toho-oki (HE) earthquake occurred on October 4, 1994 with a record of seismic intensity 4 at Morioka, and the Sanriku Haruka-oki (SH) earthquake occurred on December 28, 1994 with a record of seismic intensity 5 at Morioka. A relationship was also examined between the seismic intensity distribution and the properties of shallow basement in Morioka City. The range of seismic intensity was from 2.9 to 4.6 and the difference was 1.7 in the case of HE earthquake, and the range was from 3.1 to 5.0 and the difference was 1.9 in the case of SH earthquake. There were large differences in the seismic intensity at individual points. Morioka City has different geological structures in individual areas. There were differences in the S-wave velocity in the surface layer ranging from 150 to 600 m/sec, which were measured using a plate hammering seismic source at 76 areas in Morioka City. These properties of surface layers were in harmony with the seismic intensity distribution obtained from the questionnaire. For the observation of short frequency microtremors at about 490 points in the city, areas with large amplitudes, mean maximum amplitudes of vertical motion components more than 0.1 mkine were distributed in north-western region and a part of southern region. 4 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Mechatronization of rotating machines in plant; Plant ni okeru kaiten kikai no mechatronics ka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kikuchi, H. [Chiyoda Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1993-10-01

    This paper introduces mechatronization of rotating machines in a plant, with application examples of electronic governors as the main subject. For centrifugal compressors, design and fabrication of anti surging control system have become possible by using a programmable logic controller (PLC) and a distributed control system (DCS) with fine scanning time. An electronic governor for turbine control has been added with a function to control amount of power generated by a motive force recovery device in a flowing catalytic cracking equipment by means of an expander inlet valve. This has made possible to operate the motive force recovery device automatically even under a low load operation. With an electronic governor to control supply and receipt amount of steam to and from an existing plant, the governor valve opening angles were so controlled that actual steam header pressure matches the setting, whereas the steam has become possible to be utilized without waste under normal operation. Operation of a comprehensive compressor/turbine monitoring system on DCS, operation of centrifugal compressors of two casings by using electromagnetic bearings, and motor speed control with use of an inverter heve also become possible. 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Cogeneration system at the Showa Shell Sagamihara shopping center. Sagamihara shopping center ni okeru sekiyu cogeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kameda, H. (Showa Shell Sekiyu K.K., Tokyo (Japan))

    1994-03-31

    This paper introduces a cogeneration system at the Showa Shell Sagamihara Shopping Center. The Center assumes a peak power demand of 4000 kW, thereby using utility power (not connected to the cogeneration system) at 2000 kW, and generating power by using three 1000-kW diesel engine generators. The waste heat utilizing facility consists of three steam waste heat boilers with a capacity of 614 kg/h and a pressure of 9 kg/cm[sup 2]. The steam is used as a heat source for absorption type freezers, and to recover hot water through plate-type heat exchangers. Two after-burning boilers of 2.5 tons/hour are also used to supplement shortage of steam at power peaks for room cooling with the number of boilers adjusted. The absorption-type freezer consists of two steam double-effect 500RTs which perform air conditioning by circulating cold water. A 150 RT motor-driven turbo freezer has also been installed to cover peak power demand in the summer season. All the facilities have been installed in the basement to minimize influence of vibration and noise to the surrounding districts. NOx emission has been suppressed to 400 ppm or lower by means of ammonia reducing denitrification. Low-sulfur heavy oil A is used to reduce SOx emission. The Center has obtained a specific supply permission to supply excess power of 2850 kW after in-house consumption of the power generated in the cogeneration system to the tenant shops in the Center. 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Challenge of the global warming-JAMA. Chikyu ondanka mondai to jidosha sangyo ni okeru torikumi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Y. (Japan Automobile Manufactures Association Inc., Tokyo (Japan))

    1993-04-01

    This paper summarizes the global warming problem challenged by the Japan Automobile Manufacturers Association. An investigative analysis was carried out on CO2 related data. Its gists are described as follows: The rate of contribution to CO2 emission in the automotive sector is about 17%; fuel consumption improvement has long been discussed, but is in a trend of hitting the ceiling because of the needs of mounting gears for safety improvement and of vehicle upsizing; amount of fuels used is increasing year after year; the rate of the increase correlates with the economy growth; the growth of CO2 emission from automobiles would be smaller than the values given in several reports as a result of the Japanese economic growth lower than the anticipation; effects of the fuel consumption improvement are assumed to reduce CO2 emission by several percentage points in 2000; electric vehicles could reduce CO2 emission by 40% per car if nuclear power generation is partly used; fluorocarbon used in the automobile industry is for foaming, rinsing and air conditioners, with its use in the former two applications being planned to be totally abolished; and the problem thereof exists in air conditioners, for which recovery, leakage measures, and conversion to new coolants are being discussed. 12 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Study of active noise control in ducts. Kanrokei ni okeru nodoteki soon seigyo hoho no kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakao, Yoshiatsu

    1988-08-01

    On an active control to reduce noise in ducts, the theoretical and experimental studies of the energies ratio of the noise and the cancelling sound which should be produced by a speaker, were carried out. In case the cancelling sound was produced by the speaker which was set in the branch duct, the energies ratio varied with the setting position, the length and the cross section of the branch duct and the frequency of the noise. As the non-dimensional length of the branch duct was drawing near 0.5, the energies ratio became small. But when the non-dimensional length was 0, the ratio did not become smaller than 1. The experimental test confirmed that it was possible to reduce the noise by the cancelling sound which energies ratio was as small as about one hundredth of the noise. In case the noise was the pure sound, and the wave-length was over one fourth of the duct diameter, it was possible to reduce the noise more than 40 dB. And in case the wave-length was one eighth the reduction quantity was about 20 dB. Therefore, in case the noise is the pure sound or close to the pure sound, it is possible to apply the active noise control. 5 references, 23 figures.

  6. Refraction experiment in the Kobe-Hanshin area; Kobe Hanshin kan ni okeru kussetsuho tansa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koketsu, K. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Earthquake Research Institute

    1996-05-01

    The refraction experiments were conducted to investigate the underground structures reaching the basement by analyzing the results of the artificial earthquakes the explosion earthquake research group produced in City of Kobe and the Hanshin District on December 12 to 15, 1995. Considering that noise level can exceed 1 mkine in an urban area even in the mid-night, the courses of traverse were drawn focusing on Points S2 through S4 and U1. The earthquake waves from Points S2 through S4 are generally low in amplitude. However, the major components of the signals have a dominant frequency exceeding 10Hz, which makes them distinguishable from urban noise having a lower frequency, contrary to the previous indication that such a low-amplitude wave might not be distinguishable. On the other hand, the signals from the explosion at Point 4 in Awaji Island cannot be distinguished in the urban area, even on the nearby course of traverse D. At present, the analytical group is organized to read various phases running and analyze the P-velocity structures. 2 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Load averaging system for co-generation plant; Jikayo hatsuden setsubi ni okeru fuka heijunka system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueno, Y. [Fuji Electric Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-07-30

    MAZDA Motor Corp. planed the construction of a 20.5MW co-generation plant in 1991 for responding to an increase in power demand due to expansion of the Hofu factory. On introduction of this co-generation plant, it was decided that the basic system would adopt the following. (1) A circulating fluidized bed boiler which can be operated by burning multiple kinds of fuels with minimum environmental pollution. (2) A heat accumulation system which can be operated through reception of a constant power from electric power company despite a sudden and wide range change in power demand. (3) A circulating-water exchange heat recovery system which recovers exhaust heat of the turbine plant as the hot water to be utilized for heating and air-conditioning of the factory mainly in winter. Power demand in MAZDA`s Hofu factory changes 15% per minute within a maximum range from 20MW to 8MW. This change is difficult to be followed even by an oil burning boiler excellent in load follow-up. The circulating Fluidized bed boiler employed this time is lower in the follow-up performance than the oil boiler. For the newly schemed plant, however, load averaging system named a heat accumulation system capable of responding fully to the above change has been developed. This co-generation plant satisfied the official inspection before commercial operation according the Ministerial Ordinance in 1993. Since then, with regard to the rapid load following, which was one of the initial targets, operation is now performed steadily. This paper introduces an outline of the system and operation conditions. 10 refs.

  8. Guarantee of property right in opean access systems; Open access ni okeru zaisanken no hosho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maruyama, M. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-12-25

    This paper describes discussions in California of the USA and in Germany concerning the separation of transmission department and forced liberation of transmission network in private electric power companies and the guarantee of property right. In California, the state public utility committee does not have an authority to order the separation of transmission department against electric power companies. It is only the legislature that can conduct the separation of transmission department and the third party access of transmission network based on the expropriation provisions of the constitution. In Germany, the order of separation of transmission department by the readjusting authority contradicts the guarantee of property right in the constitution. The order of third party access also exceeds the range of duty accompanied with the property right, and the procedure of expropriation is necessary for its enforcement. Problems are pointed out in the case when these discussions are applied to the separation of transmission department, third party access, and distribution system in Japan. 3 refs.

  9. Role of geophysical exploration for civil engineering; Doboku chosa ni okeru butsuri tansa no yakuwari

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, S.; Sato, S. [OYO Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-12-01

    This paper describes the current status of applying geophysical exploration to civil engineering works, application examples of latest geophysical exploration technologies in typical civil engineering fields (dams, tunnels, banks, and civil engineering works in urban areas), and of geophysical exploration technologies specially devised at civil engineering work sites. The applications include utilization in rock classification and weathering division, estimation of grouting effect and its injection scope, determination of loosening as a result of tunnel excavation, utilization of the relationship between S-wave velocity and N-value revealed by the standard penetration test, and tunnel front exploration. A well logging technique utilizing boring holes is available as a latest technology. Tomography technology using elastic waves, specific resistance and radar has its application increased as it is used in dams, tunnels, and foundations of other important structures. Attempts are made on application of explorations using the shallow bed reflection method and three-dimensional exploration method. Frequently used technologies include seismic exploration using the refraction method for dams, high-density electric exploration for tunnels, electric exploration for banking, and PS logging using the suspension method for structure foundations. 30 refs., 13 figs., 5 tabs.

  10. Petroleum exploration and production in Japan; Nihon kokunai ni okeru sekiyu tanko to seisan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamon, M.

    2000-02-01

    The production of crude oil was started even in Japan from the nineteenth century to the twentieth century beginning in Niigata Prefecture, and the real petroleum industry was produced. The production has been started even in Akita Prefecture in the age in Taisho and Showa. The petroleum industry in Japan developed from the comparatively old like this. However, it is not very much known generally. Because of the oil of output is fewer than an amount of import from foreign countries. This paper describes oil gas rice pad in Japan and the production situation. (NEDO)

  11. SWD experiment at Southwest Andrews oil field; Nansei Andrews yuden ni okeru SWD jikken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozawa, T.; Tsuru, T. [Japan National Oil Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-04-01

    Seismic while drilling (SWD) is an accurate drilling method by which time-to-depth (T-D) information for determining the accurate bit location and information of bedding boundaries below the bit can be obtained. However, the signal level is rather low compared with the noise generated from the rig during drilling. It is required for improving the S/N ratio to calculate a correlation using reference signals simultaneously acquired using a pilot sensor which is a geophone attached to the rig. Some experiments were conducted in the Southwest Andrews Oil Field. Deterioration of data quality due to the noise particular to the SWD in this oil field could be reduced by proper data acquisition geometry including the minimum offset distance using a geophone array. In order to correct the time, a velocity of P-wave propagating the drill pipe was estimated using auto-correlation of the pilot traces. The S/N ratio was improved by the VSP deconvolution and the stacking effect during VSP-CDP conversion. Thus, could be obtained the accurate T-D information and reflection wave information below the bit. 12 refs., 19 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Noise characterization in SWD survey; SWD ni okeru noise ni kansuru kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuru, T.; Ozawa, T. [Japan National Oil Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-02-01

    SWD (Seismic While Drilling) is located as one kind of the reverse VSP (Vertical Seismic Profiling) technology, and a working drill-bit is used as its energy-source. The SWD is carried out for a check-shot survey as well as a prediction ahead of the bit. The largest advantage of the SWD technology may be a prediction, while drilling, of a drilling hazard such as an abnormal pressure zone. On the other hand, a serious disadvantage exists in the data quality due to a contamination by large noises generated from a working rig, because the SWD survey is done `while drilling`. Regarding the characteristics of these noises, especially the noise received by surface geophones has not been clarified quantitatively yet. Through several field experiments, the authors have evaluated the characteristics. In this paper, the dominant frequency range of the surface geophone noise is discussed. Furthermore, the noise from the mud motor is also discussed. 9 refs., 13 figs.

  13. Steps of radioisotope separation in Japan; Nihon ni okeru doitai bunri no ayumi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakane, Ryohei [Institute of Physical and Chemical Research, Wako, Saitama (Japan); Kitamoto, Asashi; Shimizu, Masami [eds.

    1998-03-01

    The Extraordinary Specialist Committee on Radioisotope Separation of the Atomic Energy Society of Japan has supported various actions on foundation, application and industrialization of the radioisotope separation over past 30 years to continue wide range of actions at a standpoint of specialist, since established in Showa 44 (1969). On June 1993 (Heisei 5), a memorial lecture meeting, as the 100th committee was held at the Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (RIKEN) of Wako-city in Saitama prefecture. At that time, a planning to publish an impressive memorial issue, to prepare orbits and episodes of actions, painful stories and fault examples of developments, and so forth like novels and to use for a future foundation, was determined. For its writing principle, it was settled to the base not to use mathematical equation as possible, to collect the essence like a tale, to collect actual and historical reports, and so on. And, for its writing content, it was determined to report on actual, painful and fault experiences in research and development, on data, topics and human relation, and on what to be remained for references. This book can be used not only for data collected on traces from fundamental to applied studies, technical development for industrialization, and so forth on radioisotope concentration, but also for a knowledge bag to give some hints to a man aiming to overcome a new problem. (G.K.)

  14. Robotics in port construction. Kowan kensetsu ni okeru roboto ka gijutsu ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakai, Hiroshi (Ministry of Transport, Tokyo (Japan))

    1990-02-15

    To cope positively with the problems of securing labor, improving work environment, etc., mechanization and robotics in port and marine development are the urgent subjects. Technologies for robotics of various levels are being developed, coverning data acquisition, processing, display, recording simple automation, and high inteligent fuction which can automatically make such judgement as having been done by man. Some representative cases of technological development in the fields of robotics and mechnization being carried on by the Ports and Harbors Bureau in the Ministry of Transportaion are introduced. Technological develpment required for the mechanization of rubble mound foundation construction work has been carried on. A demonstration test was carried out at Kamaishi Port, proving the practicability of the technology. Robots are developed which can walk on the sea bottom to perform underwater investigation and unmanned operation. Underwater visual device and underwater position measurement device are provided as the supporing systems. Several tests were already performed in actual sea areas and the success of the development was verified. 3 figs.

  15. Moored observation of the Indonesia throughflow; Indonesia tsuka ryuiki ni okeru keiryu kansoku kekka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kashino, Y. [Japan Marine Science and Technology Center, Kanagawa (Japan); Watanabe, H.; Yamaguchi, H. [Sanyo Techno Marine Inc., Tokyo (Japan); Aoyama, M. [Meteorological Research Inst., Tsukuba (Japan); Herunadi, B.; Hartoyo, D.

    1998-10-16

    This paper partially reports the observation in the southern part of the Philippine Sea of the Indonesian throughflow that JAMSTEC performed jointly with the Applied Agency of Indonesian Engineering Evaluation. From February 1994 to June 1995, two mooring systems were established between the Talaud Island and Morotai Islands to examine the ocean variability of the Indonesian throughflow. As a result, a strong northwestward flow (that carries the mixed sea water of intermediate water in the North Pacific and high salt water in the South Pacific) of which the maximum flow velocity reaches 60 m/s in the southern mooring system with the water depth of 300 to 700 m was observed in each winter of 1994 and 1995. A westward flow that carries the South Pacific water toward the Maluku Sea in summer was observed in the southern mooring system. In both mooring systems, oscillation was detected at intervals of approximately 50 days. 36 refs., 15 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Report of radioactivity survey in Kanagawa Prefecture, in 1996; Kanagawaken ni okeru hoshanochosa hokokusho, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    This report summarizes the results of 1-year survey on the radioactivities in foods and environments in Kanagawa Prefecture and the uranium level in the surroundings of Japan Nuclear Fuel Co., Ltd. (JNF), a nuclear fuel processing plant. The survey of radioactivity or radiation level was made in environments and foods including rain water, tap water, agricultural and livestock products, marine products, etc. For these subjects, analysis of nuclides and determination of spatial radiation dose rate were performed using {gamma}-ray spectrometer. Only for rain water, the general {beta} level was also determined. The uranium levels was monitored in river water and bottom materials, soil, Undaria pinnatifida, a seagrass in river mouths, etc. The present results show that there was no problem for all subjects tested in respect of radioactivity. And the uranium level around JNF was also within the normal range. The mean intake of {sup 137}Cs was 0.085 Bq/Kg/day for the residents in the district of Hiratsuka Health Center and 0.077 Bq/Kg/day for those in the Yokohama city. Both levels were slightly higher than the previous ones. The survey results before and after the returns of nuclear powered ship were also within the normal range. (M.N.)

  17. Array TDEM survey at the Yufuin fault; Yufuin danso ni okeru array shiki TDEM tansa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mogi, T. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Tanaka, Y.; Fukuda, Y. [Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan). Faculty of Science; Jomori, N. [Chiba Electric Research Institute Co., Chiba (Japan)

    1996-10-01

    The array arrangement of receivers was studied to improve the resolution of LOTEM (long offset transient electromagnetics) survey. To eliminate the effect of underground structure from a source to a receiving point, continuous array arrangement from a source site is desirable. The survey at the Yufuin fault was carried out by arranging TEM receivers at intervals of 100m from the source. Since the synchronization between transmitting and receiving points by high-precision clock is essential, an amplifier for a flux gate magnetometer capable of measuring at four points at the same time was used. In the south plateau of the Yufuin basin, a relatively high resistivity stratum more than several tens ohm m exists at depth less than several hundreds meter, and a low resistivity stratum less than 10 ohm m exists under that. Those boundary depth increases toward the north up to 950m, and the depth subsequently decreases toward the north until the low resistivity stratum disappears. In addition, the uniform stratum of 1000m deep continues toward the north. Such precise resistivity structure around the fault was obtained by dense arrangement of measuring points. 4 refs., 7 figs.

  18. Fate of dioxins in aquatic environment; Mizukankyo ni okeru dioxin rui no dotai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakurai, T. [National Inst. for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1998-07-10

    Described herein is fate of dioxins in aquatic environments, from their estimated origins to behavior in the food chains. It is considered that dioxins and their congeners generally follow principle of superposition in aquatic environments, although reflecting changed environments they have underwent, in consideration of varying sources from which they originate, and their stability and transport-related properties. Therefore, the multivariable analysis is applied to correspondence of the four major dioxin compounds, which can explain the major concentration changes of the dioxins found in the sediments and soil in Lake Kasumi-ga-ura and the Bay of Tokyo and their peripheries, to their origins. Different dioxins behave differently in the food chains, as revealed by isotope ratios in the ecology. Mathematical models have been developed to estimate concentrations of the various media, and are expected to clarify their behavior in the environments. 32 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Evaluation technology of lead-free solders; Namari free handa zairyo ni okeru hyoka gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamashita, M.; Shiokawa, K. [Fuji Electric Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Ueda, A. [Fuji Electric Corporate Research and Development,Ltd., Kanagawa (Japan)

    2000-09-10

    Solders mainly composed of tin and lead are currently in widespread use in semiconductor devices. However, in view of lead influences on the human body and environmental problems, lead-free solders have been in urgent demand. In this study, aiming to improve the solderability and reliability of a tin-silver solder, one of most promising lead-free solder materials, we have investigated elements to be added. Focusing on typical lead-free tin-silver solders and tin-lead eutectic solders, this paper describes the result of investigations into the mechanical properties solderability, micro structures of the solder materials and gas analysis in soldering. (author)

  20. Problems of adhering organisms in power stations. Hatsudensho ni okeru fuchaku seibutsu no mondai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakaguchi, Isamu (Central Research Inst. of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan))

    1989-01-05

    Much seawater is used in thermal power station in Japan to cool condensers but organisms adhered on the water channel system result many troubles such as increase of flowing resistance, reduction of thermal transfer efficiendy, corrosion or erosion-corrosion of condenser pipes, and cleaning difficulty for periodic inspection. Living organisms range from micro bacteria of 2 mum to oysters and others of about 10cm size. For these reasons, the intake open channel is previously designed to larger size and this margin is called the shellfish allowance. Mussels which adhere most on circulating water channels, are one of Bivalvia, grow to 3-6cm and in maximum case to 9cm in a year. These adhere on the surface base by secreting adhesive disc consisting of byssus. Barnacles are one of Crustacea and their larvas search preferable places as to light, roughness and water flow and can adhere on a place in considerably rapid water flow. Other organisms are bacteria and Hydrozoa. Many problems are caused by these organisms even now. 8 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Measures taken for recycling at beer breweries; Beer kojo ni okeru saishigenka eno torikumi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamazaki, M. [Kirin Breweri Company, Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-08-05

    Full recycling of waste was achieved in our all breweries in 1998. This paper introduces the history to solve the problems relating to waste in our beer brewerise, our basic consideration for recycling, the status of waste generation and recycling activities, our measures taken for recycling and its relating cost, and in addition, the general measures taken by our industry as a whole. (author)

  2. Human physiology and psychology in space flight; Uchu hiko ni okeru ningen no seiri to shinri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murai, T. [National Space Development Agency of Japan, Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-10-05

    Human beings' adaptation to space and the effects on them of a prolonged stay in space are discussed. Some effects may be detrimental to crewmen even when they are medically judged as 'normal' and 'adaptable.' Bone deliming, muscular atrophy, and hypodynamia may be physiologically 'normal' and 'adaptable' in the zero-gravity environment where no strength is required to hold a position or attitude, and they will not cause any serious problems if crewmen are to stay in the zero-gravity environment permanently. Astronauts work on conditions that they return to the earth, however, and they have to stand on their own legs when back on the ground. Such being the case, they in the space vehicle are forced to make efforts at having their bone density and muscular strength sustained. It is inevitable for a space station to be a closed, isolated system, and the crewmen have to live in multinational, multicultural, and multilingual circumstances in case the flight is an international project. They will be exposed to great social and psychological stresses, and their adaptability to such stresses presents an important task. (NEDO)

  3. Use of natural energy in hyper-skyscrapers. Chocho koso kenchiku ni okeru shizen energy riyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unno, K. (Takenaka Komuten Co. Ltd., Osaka (Japan))

    1992-05-30

    Construction of large scale hyper-skyscrapers( more than 500 m high ) by next century is coming to inevitable stage, and the problems regarding supply and consumption of energy/resources together with the use of natural energy in such construction are described. Transport of water at high direction, conformity of supply and save energy are pointed out as problems for supplying water energy. Calculated amount of required electrical energy used by electrical appliances of sky-city ( 1000 m high ) has been about 440,000 KVA, and necessity of autonomous supply network system for electric power and heat supply is stressed. For sky-city, 1000 m, use of new energy( supply of 20% of total electric power is possible with optical generation, wind power generation) and the use of unused energy ( draft generations, generation from refuse incineration, pumped storage generation ) are emphasized. Effective supply of water resource like refuse of waste water is cited. 3 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Port construction projects in Sabah, Malaysia; Malaysia Sabah shu ni okeru kowan koji

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuwaka, M.; Ichinose, Y. [Kawasaki Steel Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-04-15

    This paper introduces civil engineering circumstances in Sabah, Malaysia through harbor constructions in the past decade. The state of Sabah has a large number of good natural harbors with coast lines formed complexly, and these harbors are managed and operated by the Sabah Harbor Department since 1968. The first two-decade long-term plan (1976 to date) has developed major harbors, and the second two-decade plan (1992 to 2012) has selected important harbors and is moving new improvements forward. Export of woods and imports of general consumer goods and industrial products had been the major activities of the ports before the 1980`s, while wood export has changed from logs to lumbers, and palm oil export and fertilizer import have increased after the 1990`s. The paper describes renewal and expansion constructions of harbor facilities at Kota Kinabalu Port, and constructions at the harbor for rationalization in containerization, and for building a movable pier for ferry use. At Lahad Datu Port, constructions for building container yards and new piers are in progress as the expansion constructions as of 1996. Because the construction sites are located in maritime tropical rain forest climate with high temperature and much rainfall, attentions are paid on concrete placement temperatures and quality control. 7 figs.

  5. Advanced technology trend survey of micromachines in Europe; Oshu ni okeru micromachine sentan gijutsu doko chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    In this research survey, the development trend of micromachine technology in Europe was surveyed, development level of micromachine technology of European companies was grasped, and practical application fields of their target were investigated. Technology development level of private companies in Japan`s national projects and practical application fields of Japan`s target were arranged. Trends of micromachine technology development are compared between Japanese companies and European companies. Among micromachine technology development projects in Europe, ``8520 MUST`` is a part of the ESPRIT Project. About 40,000 companies among about 170,000 companies in whole Europe are relating to the MUST Project. The main fields include the manufacturing technology, process control of machines, technology of safety, sensor technology in environmental fields, and automotive technology. The marketing fields of application include the automobile, military technology, home automation, industrial process, medical technology, environmental technology, and games. The results can be compared with the direction of research and development in Japan. 22 figs., 8 tabs.

  6. Solar energy drying for agricultural products. Nosanbutsu kanso ni okeru taiyonetsu riyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Jun' ichi (National Grassland Research Inst., Tochigi, (Japan))

    1989-09-30

    Natural drying was previously used to dry agricultral products but artificial drying is widely used today with the diffusion of agricultural machines. Therefore, solar energy utilization to dry agricultural products depends on how effective solar energy is utilized in addition to the mechanized artificial drying. Further, drying of agricaltural products varies in respective countries and local areas because water content in products varies on weather conditions. Wheats harvested in U.S. contain fewer water content and can be dried for 3 months in a large storing bin by natural ventilation and cn be shortened to 1 month by placing a solar collector before the blower. Many Japanese farmers utilize vinyl houses and drying is made by combining vinyl house, and flat floor type dryer, circulating dryer or rotary stirring dryer. Moreover, 100% utilization of solar enegy results higher cost, so that in many cases, combined utilization with oil firing is made. Moderate heat such as solar energy is suitable for drying of agricultural products to maintain the quality and it is desirable to develop any reasonal technique. 14 refs., 12 fig.

  7. Bis{2-[(2,4,6-trimethyl-phen-yl)imino-methyl]pyrrol-1-ido}palladium(II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imhof, Wolfgang

    2013-02-01

    The title compound, [Pd(C(14)H(15)N(2))(2)], is a square-planar palladium complex composed of two deprotonated pyrrole-2-carbaldimine ligands coordinating a central Pd(II) atom. In the crystal, three crystallographically independent complex mol-ecules are observed, one of which is located in a general position, whereas the Pd(II) atoms of the other mol-ecules are situated on crystallographic inversion centers. The aromatic substituents at the imine N atoms in the three mol-ecules show dihedral angles of 87.6 (7)/83.64 (7), 74.3 (7) and 88.3 (7)° with respect to the corresponding PdN(4) plane.

  8. Indoleamine 2,3 Dioxygenase (IDO) as a Mediator of Myeloid Derived Suppressor Cell Function in Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-31

    Ronca, R., Serafini , P ., Zam boni, P., Restifo, N. P., and Zanovello, P. Identification of a CD11b(+)/Gr-1(+)/CD31(+) myeloid progenitor capable...of activating or suppressing CD8(+) T cells. Blood, 96: 3838-3846, 2000. 6. Serafini , P., De Santo, C., Marigo, I. , Cingarlini, S., Dolcetti, L

  9. catena-Poly[[trimethyltin(IV]-μ-1,2,3-benzotriazol-1-ido-κ2N1:N3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanyuan Li

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In the title coordination polymer, [Sn(CH33(C6H4N3]n, the SnIV atom is five-coordinated in a distorted trigonal–bipyramidal geometry with the methyl groups in equatorial positions and two N atoms of two symmetry-related benzotriazolide anions in axial positions. The anion bridges adjacent metal atoms, forming zigzag polymeric chains parallel to [011] and [0-11].

  10. Exogenous Tryptophan Promotes Cutaneous Wound Healing of Chronically Stressed Mice through Inhibition of TNF-α and IDO Activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luana Graziella Bandeira

    Full Text Available Stress prolongs the inflammatory response compromising the dermal reconstruction and wound closure. Acute stress-induced inflammation increases indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenase-stimulated tryptophan catabolism. To investigate the role of indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenase expression and tryptophan administration in adverse effects of stress on cutaneous wound healing, mice were submitted to chronic restraint stress and treated with tryptophan daily until euthanasia. Excisional lesions were created on each mouse and 5 or 7 days later, the lesions were analyzed. In addition, murine skin fibroblasts were exposed to elevated epinephrine levels plus tryptophan, and fibroblast activity was evaluated. Tryptophan administration reversed the reduction of the plasma tryptophan levels and the increase in the plasma normetanephrine levels induced by stress 5 and 7 days after wounding. Five days after wounding, stress-induced increase in the protein levels of tumor necrosis factor-α and indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenase, and this was inhibited by tryptophan. Stress-induced increase in the lipid peroxidation and the amount of the neutrophils, macrophages and T cells number was reversed by tryptophan 5 days after wounding. Tryptophan administration inhibited the reduction of myofibroblast density, collagen deposition, re-epithelialization and wound contraction induced by stress 5 days after wounding. In dermal fibroblast culture, the tryptophan administration increased the cell migration and AKT phosphorylation in cells treated with high epinephrine levels. In conclusion, tryptophan-induced reduction of inflammatory response and indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenase expression may have accelerated cutaneous wound healing of chronically stressed mice.

  11. Eletroforese das proteínas do líqüido cefalorraquidiano na cisticercose do sistema nervoso central

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Spina-França

    1960-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to analyse the paper strip electrophoresis contribution to the knowledge of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF proteins in cysticercosis of the central nervous system (CNS 40 patients were studied (identification data in table 1; the clinical forms and diagnostic data of 30 of them, who had CNS cysticercosis (cases 1 to 30 are summarized in the table 2; cysticercosis of the CNS might play a role in the pathologic condition presented by the remaining 10 patients. CSF protein fractions were examined in all the cases (results in tables 4 and 7 and those of blood sera in cases from 1 to 15 (results in table 5 by paper strip electrophoresis under the specifications previously reported54. A second examination of CSF protein fractions was made some time later in 4 cases (results in table 6. CSF samples were analysed also in respect to cytology, total protein content, Pandy and colloidal benzoin reactions and complement fixation tests for syphillis and cysticercosis (results in table 3. The values obtained for CSF protein fractions were compared to norma values found in 30 control subjects; these normal values were detailed in a prior publication55 and are summarized in table 8. This comparison shows that CNS cysticercosis produces changes in the electrophoretic prophiJe of CSF proteins (table 9; an increased y-globulin fraction was the main change observed, commonly associated to a low j8-globulin relative concentration. An inversion of a1/a2 quocient was found in 4 cases. The contributions to the study of CNS cysticercosis resulting from the electrophoretic analysis of CSF proteins are discussed in three groups: 1 - Informations obtained by paper electrophoresis of CSF proteins are independent from those resulting from the other laboratory aspects studied. Thus, if the protein fractions of blood sera are considered, although the changes found have mean values similar to those found to the CSF protein fractions (table 10, it was observed that there are individual differences in the protein fraction relative concentrations in blood and CSF (table 11, no correlation being found between them. Considering CSF itself, changes in its protein fractions induced by CNS cysticercosis are similar in ventricular and subarachnoid samples (lumbal and cisternal (table 13; their intensity is related to the intensity of the whole of CSF changes (table 12. Informations obtained by electrophoretic analysis of CSF proteins, however, differ from those resulting from the other examinations conducted in the CSF sample as was shown in the analysis of cytology (tables 14 and 15, total protein content (table 16, colloidal benzoin reaction and positivity of complement fixation test for cysticercosis. 2 - The clinical value of data achieved by CSF proteins electrophoresis is discussed. Results may have an important role in diagnosis, in the knowledge of its clinical forms (table 17 and in the control of evolution if pathogenetic mechanisms involved in disease are considered. Cases 31 to 40 illustrate the clinical aspects of contributions given by CSF electrophoresis. 3 - The CSF protein fractions changes found in CNS cysticercosis justify their classification among those changes commonly observed in subchronic and chronic inflammatory diseases of the CNS and/or its leptomeningeal coverings. It is assumed in the literature that there occurs a local production of globulins, specially the y-globulin fraction, in such pathologic conditions. Concerning CNS cysticercosis, if CSF total protein content and electrophoretic data on its fractions are considered together (table IS and 19; graph. 1, it is possible to evidence that at least two mechanisms participate in the origin of protein changes (tables 20 and 21; graph. 2 : blood-CSF barrier disturbances are able to explain data concerning albumin, a and globulin changes, which are similar; the local production of y-globulin is the hypothesis most reliable to explain the peculiar changes of this fraction. This hypothesis agrees with literature data concerning other chronie inflammatory diseases of the CNS. The probable role of y-globulin in carrying specific antibodies is pointed out through correlative exploration of its concentration in the CSF sample and the corresponding positivity of complement fixation test for cysticercosis.

  12. Awareness and practice of self breast examination among female nurses at the Federal Teaching Hospital Ido-Ekiti, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olusegun Emmanuel Gabriel

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the most common female malignancy linked with high levels of morbidity and mortality in developing countries due to delayed diagnosis. This research assessed the knowledge of signs and risk factors of breast cancer and practice of self breast examination (SBE among female nurses in a rural tertiary Hospital. Eighty-five nurses ages 20 to 60 years were sampled by simple randomization over a period of eight weeks through a self-administered semi-structured questionnaire. The analysis was done using statistical package for social science version 17. Sixteen (15.3% nurses had adequate knowledge of breast cancer, having a relative with breast cancer (51.8% and a woman of any age (56.5% were recognized by majority as risk factors for breast cancer. Majority (68.2% were not practicing monthly SBE and not confident on how to do it. This study pointed out the gaps in the knowledge and awareness of breast cancer and practice of SBE among the nurses. Opportunity should therefore be sought in various health facilities to educate nurses who are supposed to be closer to the patients.

  13. Research of self-positioning measurement systems for mobile robots. Ido robot no jiko ichi keisoku hoho no kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Y. (Shinryo Corp., Tokyo (Japan)); Kajitani, M.; Kanamori, C.; Ito, H. (University of Electro-Communications, Tokyo (Japan))

    1994-05-25

    Self-positioning measurement systems on mobile robots used at construction sites were discussed. The present study has proposed a system to measure self-position of a robot using as reference the pillars installed at intervals of several meters to ten and several meters, of which absolute positions are known. The measurement system detects the edge of a pillar, measures inter-edge angle from the edge angle, and calculates a positional coordinate from the inter-edge angle. Distance measurement uses a reflected light distance meter on laser light. Discussions on errors were carried out, providing the following findings: in order to limit a positional error to 5 mm or less, the angular error must be maintained within 2 minutes and 50 seconds, for which the laser light diameter should be 8.2 mm or less for a distance of 10 meters for example; a lens focus shall preferably be focused at the farthest distance; and positional error of a pillar in construction work of 5 mm corresponds to an angular error of 1 minute and 15 seconds. The system consists of a laser reflection distance measuring instrument, an angle detector, and a data processor. Its measurable range is up to 15 meters. The positional coordinate accuracy is [plus minus] 0.7 mm, and other measurement errors are within [plus minus] 5 mm. This system can be used on robots. 6 refs., 16 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. Report on achievements in fiscal 1999 on the project for research and development of an intellectual base creating and utilizing technology. Research and development of standard substances related to internal secretion disturbing chemical substances (researches on preservation stability and the valuing methods related to pure substance standard substances, mixed standard substances and composition type standard substances); 1999 nendo chiteki kiban sosei riyo gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Naibunpi kakuran kagaku busshitsu kanren hyojun busshitsu no kenkyu kaihatsu (junbusshitsu hyojun, kongo hyojun oyobi soseigata hyojun busshitsu ni kakawaru hozon anteisei, nezuke hoho nado ni tsuite no kenkyu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    This paper describes the achievements in fiscal 1999 on researching and developing standard substances related to internal secretion disturbing chemical substances. Environmental contamination due to environmental hormones has a large number of scientifically unclear points. These points are related to the basic conditions for the existence of living organisms, whereas serious impacts transcending the generations are feared. In addition, the environmental hormones have been observed in water quality, water bottom quality, and living environments for aquatic animals. Standardization in technologies to measure them, and arrangement of standard substances are demanded strongly. Based on these circumstances, evaluations were given on the following matters: determination of purity of the reference substances with regard to the standard solutions of di-2-ethyl hexyl phthalate, di-n-butyl phthalate, and diethyl phthalate among the standard substances required for the measurement, establishment of methods for measuring impurities and preparing the standard solutions, establishment of the methods to measure concentrations of the standard solutions, and the preservation stability of the standard solutions. As a result, standard solutions with accurate concentrations and excellent stability were developed. In addition, development was performed on the composition type standard substance for which a certified value was given to PCB in soil. (NEDO)

  15. Characteristics of the fluorescent substances in the Yodo River system by three-dimensional excitation emission matrix spectroscopy; Sanjigen reiki/keiko kodoho ni yoru yodogawa suikeichu no keiko busshitsu no tokucho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Y.; Nakaguchi, Y.; Hiraki, K.; Kudo, M.; Kimura, M.; Nagao, S. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-08-01

    Organic substances in the river water in Yodo River system were analyzed by three-dimensional excitation emission matrix spectroscopy. Fluorescent substances were taken as an index of organic substances. The amount of fluorescent substances varied widely depending on the environment of river basin. It is suggested that the fluorescent substances are composed of organic substances which is not directly originated from biological activity. It is suggested that the fluorescent substances were produced by leaching of river bottom sediment. The fluorescent substances in Yodo River system consists of fulvic acid-like substances and protein. The analysis of fluorescent substances in river water by three-dimensional excitation emission matrix spectroscopy can be useful means for estimation of variation and origin of fluorescent substances. For better understanding of features of fluorescent substances in the surface water into which various kinds of substances enter, it is necessary to determine the exact sampling points based on the consideration of different sources and to make a database of peak positions for identification of fluorescent substances from fluorescence intensity peak. 29 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Application of resin lining system for countermeasures for preventing leakage from openings in low temperature materials storage; Teion busshitsu chozoji no ekimore oyobi reiki more taisaku toshite no kobunshikei zairyo no tekiyosei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inada, Y. [Ehime Univ., Ehime (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Seki, S.

    1996-12-21

    Recently, many of the low temperature materials such as LNG and LPG used as an energy substitution for petroleum were stored in the reclaimed land of the sea side district, however, it is necessary for those storage methods to enlarge sites. Therefore, it was considered to directly store the low temperature materials in openings excavated in the rock mountains. However, countermeasures for leakage of liquid and cold gas from cracks in openings would be an important subject. In this study, as a countermeasure for leakage of liquid and cold gas in the case in which low temperature materials were stored in openings in the rock mountains, the lining of resin materials on the surface of openings was proposed. Characteristics of strength and deformation and values of the thermal physical properties for the resin materials at the low temperature were obtained by experiments. This material was compared with granite supposed as a parent rock, and the thermal property of the resin materials was understood. Next, an analysis was conducted in the case of using the resin materials as a lining, the behavior of the surrounding rocks of the openings and the stability of the lining were investigated. 17 refs., 25 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Fiscal 1998 research report. Study on the feasibility of microorganism biotechnology for effective use of environmental pollutants. Pt. 2; 1998 nendochosa hokokusho. Kankyo osen busshitsu no shigenka no tame no biseibutsu bio technology riyo kanosei ni kansuru chosa. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    Study was made on the feasibility of microorganism biotechnology for effective use of environmental pollutants and unused resources. Microorganisms and microorganism enzymes for decomposing lignocellulose were viewed, and uses of hydrolysis products were summarized. Production of microorganisms applicable to fodder, composting, and production of energy sources (methane, hydrogen, ethanol) were studied. Use of vegetable fiber residues such as beer lees as fungus cultivation medium and conversion to valuable substances were also studied. Microorganisms treatment (MT) of wastes in fats and oils industry was summarized. Effective use of MT of protein waste from marine products was studied. MT of manures with the greatest impact on environment as livestock waste was summarized. The necessity of separate collection of domestic wastes, and composting and methane fermentation of kitchen garbage were reported. The feasibility of MT of plastic wastes, and decomposition of halogenated methane with high toxicity were also studied. (NEDO)

  18. New ion generation method with SF{sub 6} plasma. Direct ionization of refractory materials; SF{sub 6} purazuma wo mochiita atarashii ion seiseiho. koyuten busshitsu wo chokusetsu ion ka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okoshi, K.; Saito, Y.; Tajima, S. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-11-01

    For many refractory materials, vapor pressures rise due to fluoridation. For example, a vapor pressure of B is almost zero at room temperature, whereas a vapor pressure of BF{sub 3} is 10{sup 5}Pa or greater. A SF{sub 6} plasma method is capable of directly generating a solid fluoride in an ion source and obtaining its plasma. In order to ionize refractory materials such as niobium, boron, silicon and the like, the present authors have developed a new ion generation method using a stable solid sample and SF{sub 6} gas. Further, the present method was employed to successfully and greatly extending the filament life of the ion source. The plasma method can be used widely not only for a Freeman ion source but also for an ion source using plasma such as electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source. Since the refractory material ions can be stably supplied at a great intensity for a long time, they are expected to be used in corrosion-resistant materials or materials having new functions such as optical switching materials. (NEDO)

  19. Synthesis of (E)-9-Oxo-2-decenoic acid (the queen substance of honeybee) from methyl 3-formylpropionate; 3-horumiruporopion san mechiru wo mochiita (E)-9-okiso-2-desen san (Mitsubachi joo busshitsu) no gosei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsukasa, H. [Toyotama Koryo Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-05-20

    The queen substance, (E)-9-oxo-2-decenoic acid (1) is a pheromone secreted by queen honeybee (Apis mellifera) and inhibits reproductive ability of worker bees. Several synthesese have been reported. It was synthesized starting from methyl-3-formylpropionate this time. Methyl 7,7-ethylenedioxy-4-oxooctanoate was prepared by radical addition reaction from (2) and 2-methyl-2-vinyl-1,3-dioxolane and reduced to an ethyelenedioxy carboxylic acid with hydrazine and KOH. This compound was converted to an alcohol by reduction with sodium bis(2-methoxyethoxy)aluminum hydride, followed by oxidation with pyridinium chlorochromate to an acetal aldehyde, which was condensed with malonic acid and (1) was obtained after the hydrolysis with hydrochloric acid. 7 refs., 1 tab.

  20. Survey report of FY 1997 on the feasibility of microbial biotechnology for reuse of environmental pollutants; 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho (kankyo osen busshitsu no shigenka no tame no biseibutsu bio technology no riyo kanosei chi kansuru chosa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    An investigation was conducted with the aim of elucidating the foundations for effective utilization of environmental pollutants or unused resources which are likely to be causal substances of environmental pollutants, as resources, using biotechnology. Composting of agricultural waste, production of microbial mycelium proteins and microbial fermentation materials were suggested as main examples of effective utilization of unused resources by microorganisms. Selection of active microorganisms in the livestock waste, clarification of the mechanism of action and the establishment of treatment conditions are essential to new developments in this field. In the field of marine products industry, it was pointed out that the recycling of waste using microorganisms and enzyme treatment is the most promising approach to the effective utilization of resources. In the field of food industry, applications as the culture media for mushrooms, for enzyme production and for the production of physiologically active materials as well as fuel were clarified. Was also pointed out the significance of studies on the microorganisms and enzymes in resources containing cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin, and the waste from these resources, lignocellulose. Were also proposed the composting of household waste, methane fermentation, and fermentative production of organic acid and hydrogen from waste. Possibility and significance of fermentative production of organic acid from sewage sludge were suggested. 314 refs., 46 figs., 33 tabs.

  1. Effects of inhalation of and exposure to gaseous substances to genital organs, and sexual difference. (6). Gas jo busshitsu kyunyu bakuro ni yoru seishokuki eno eikyo oyobi seisa. (6)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, N.; Mori, K.; Fujishiro, K.; Hori, H. (Univ. of Occupational and Environmental Health, Kitakyushu (Japan). Institute of Industrial Ecological Science)

    1991-01-01

    Results of studies and knowledges therefrom are reported on intermediate materials used in the chemical industry and ethylene oxide used as a sterilizer for medical devices as to how their toxicity affects the different sexes and feminine genital organs. Male and female rats were subjected to inhalation of and exposure to ethylene oxide at a concentration of 250 ppm 6 hours a day, 5 days a week for 17 weeks (some of them for 10 weeks), and chronic toxicity of ethylene oxide was investigated on sexual difference and female genital organs. The female rats showed their estrous cycle extended, and an increase in ratio of the estrous periods accounting for in the entire cycles was idenfified. While no sexual difference was identified in the degree of disorders in peripheral nervous system, strong macrocytic normochromia anemia was observed in female rats. Activity of glutathione reductase in ovaries has decreased, and an increase in glutathione-S-transferase activity was observed. It was made clear from these facts that ethylene oxide affected also female genital organs. 15 refs., 7 figs., 10 tabs.

  2. FY 1998 annual report on the decomposition/removal of harmful compounds in the gaseous phase by porous membrane provided with a catalytic function; 1998 nendo shokubai kinotsuki fuyo takomaku ni yoru kisochu yugai busshitsu no bunkai jokyo chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Harmful compounds, e.g., dioxins and nitrogen oxides, released into the air are causing severer environmental problems on a global scale. In order to solve these problems, it is necessary to efficiently remove the released compounds in the vicinity of the living environments, while preventing, as far as possible, their formation at the sources. An attempt has been made to develop porous membranes impregnated with composites of a variety of metallic oxides showing activities as photocatalysts and for dark reactions by the ion engineering method, in order to drastically solve the above problems. Described herein are the FY 1998 results. Thin films of various titanium oxide crystals (anatase, rutile, and their combinations) are formed on Si substrates by the ion engineering method, as the photocatalysts for decomposition of aldehyde and water (for hydrogen production), to validate the optimum crystalline structures for the photocatalysis. Porous bodies of Ni and carbon are also impregnated with anatase TiO{sub 2} for decomposition of harmful gaseous compounds and water, to validate the effects of the porous membranes provided with catalytic functions. (NEDO)

  3. Development of stereoselective analytical methods of chiral drugs and biological substances and application of hepatic local drug disposition; Yakubutsu oyobi biryo seiri kassei busshitsu no rittai sentakuteki bunri bunsekiho no kaihatsu to kanzo kyokusho dotai kaiseki eno oyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakagawa, T. [Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1994-12-15

    With an objective to elucidate the structure recognizing ability possessed by living organisms, discussions were given on methods to analyze the bonds between optically active drugs and polymers, and methods to analyze drug disposition fluid-dynamically. Studies have been advanced on the following themes, and the results were obtained therefrom: development of an on-line system to quantify non-protein bonding type concentrations in drugs utilizing the high-performance fraction analysis (HPFA, using a restricted movement type HPLC column) that had been already developed, establishment of a method to analyze hepatic local drug disposition by using the MULTI (drug disposition analyzing) program, and studies on stereoselectivity by using NMR generated by interactions of local anesthetics and lipids. The following findings were obtained: using the above on-line system, a discussion was given on protein bonds between BOF-4272 (xanthine oxidase inhibitor) and serum albumins, and the discussion was found effective in analyzing the stereoselectivity in drugs with strong protein bond; and with the above analytic method, optical behavior of ketoprofen (KP) in rat liver perfusion was discussed, wherein the transfer of KP into liver tissues was estimated to have been caused by involvement of active transportation rather than physical diffusion. 7 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  4. Safety assessment of high-sensitive materials. Part 2; Underwater small gap test of high-sensitive materials. Ko kando busshitsu no anzen sei hyoka. sono 2; Ki bakuyaku no suichu kogata gap shiken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosoya, F.; Hatano, H. (Hosoya Kako Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)); Yabashi, H.; Wada, Y.; Tamura, M.; Yoshida, T. (Univ of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering); Matsuzawa, T. (Nippon Kayaku Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))

    1990-12-28

    Previously we reported the results of the ignitability, the drop ball and the SC-DSC tests on the high sensitive materials. When tetracene was tested with the drop ball tester, we were not able to evaluate the degree of hazardness because the substance was less sensitive to this test. Impact sensitivity of diazonitrophenol (DDNP), lead styphnate, lead azide, tetracene and potassium-diazonitro benzofuroxane (KDNBF) have been investigated using the underwater small gap test. This method indicates that tetrazene has the highest sensitivity order of the underwater small gap test is compared with that of the drop ball test. The sample container is a polyethylene tube with 7 mm inside diameter and 8.5 mm outside diameter. Gap plate is a polyethylene of 6.5 mm diameter and 1-2 mm thickness. 2 refs., 4 figs.

  5. Report on the FY 1999 research survey on the industrial utilization/development of the biofilm formation mechanism and antifouling substances; 1999 nendo bio film keisei kiko oyobi sogai busshitsu no sangyoteki riyo kaihatsu chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    The paper described the results of the FY 1999 research on the fouling by marine aufwuchs. The survey is aimed at searching the nature world for active substances for biological antifouling. The fouling mechanism in the ocean is as follows. The adsorption of organisms called the conditioning film first occurs on the surface, and next, bacteria and diatom around the surface form biofilm and cover. After that, biological fouling by large aufwuchs occurs. Therefore, the control of biofilm formation was regarded as most important, and with this as a guidepost, the search was conducted. Using biofilm anti-formation activity and periphytic bacteria anti-growth activity as guideposts, some compounds were searched for. Being aimed at Porifera, in particular, new compounds were isolated from it. Since few of other organisms attaches on the surface of sponge, there is a great possibility of Porifera's producing any anti-fouling substances. Further, it is thought that symbiotic microorganisms of sponge (40% of the total weight) produce various biologically active substances. Synthetic phenethyl amine derivatives were also studied. (NEDO)

  6. Entrapment of water soluble material into biodegradable microcapsule prepared by solvent evaporation; (W/O/W) fukugo emulsion no ekichu kansoho ni yoru seibunkaisei microcapsule eno suiyosei shin busshitsu no naiho tokusei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiyoyama, S. [Miyakonojo National University, Miyazaki (Japan); Shiomori, K.; Kawano, Y. [Miyazaki University, Miyazaki (Japan); Hatate, Y. [Kagoshima University, Kagoshima (Japan)

    1998-09-05

    Preparation of biodegradable microcapsule using a poly lactic acid as wall material was performed by (W/O/W) emulsion solvent evaporation method. Fractional entrapment of the core material and the average diameter of the microcapsule are independent of the composition of the inner aqueous phase, such as salt concentration, pH and viscosity. On the other hand, by changing the salt concentration of the outer aqueous phase and the hold up of dispersion phase in the (W/O) emulsion, it is possible to increase the fractional entrapment of the core material with the increase in (W/O/W) emulsion stability and amount of wall material. The entmpment effect is controlled by preparation conditions. 9 refs., 9 figs.

  7. Concurrently inhibitory and allelopathic effects of allelochemicals secreted by Myriophyllum spicatum on growth of blue-green algae; Hozakinofusamo ga hoshutsushita areropashi busshitsu no aisorui ni taisuru fukugo sayo oyobi areropashi koka no hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakai, S.; Inoue, Y.; Hosomi, M.; Murakami, A. [Tokyo Univ. of Agriculture and Technology, Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-10-10

    This paper describes effects of allelochemicals secreted by Myriophyllum spicatum on growth of blue-green algae. In order to propose an effective growth inhibitory method of blue-green algae with less impact on the ecosystem, biological interaction (allelopathy) between large aquatic plants and algae was investigated. Pyrogallic acid, gallic acid, catechin and ellagic acid secreted by M. spicatum provided growth inhibitory effects of blue-green algae (Microcyctis aeruginosa), individually. Complex interaction and allelopathic contribution of these four polyphenols were evaluated. By comparing the actual effects with the expected values, synergetic growth inhibitory effects were recognized by adding four polyphenols at the same time. Furthermore, growth inhibitory effects were evaluated for actual culture solution of M. spicatum and simulated culture solution made by four polyphenols. As a result, it was found that these four polyphenols relate to allelopathy of M. spicatum. 25 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  8. Guarantee of property right in open access systems. Legal study of property right of electric utilities and expropriation; Open access ni okeru zaisanken no hosho. Denki jigyo ni okeru zaisanken to shuyo ni kansuru kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maruyama, M. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-03-01

    A study has been made about the relationship between open access, which has now become an important element of the electric utilities renovation efforts in the U.S. and Europe, and property right. The meaning of open access is to guarantee free access to suppliers by securing fair competition between them through separation of the vertical integration in power transmission and opening the transmission network to final customers. In case of Japan, the U.S., and Germany where private sector suppliers run electric utilities, however, a need arises to consider the property right that such suppliers enjoy as guaranteed by their Constitutions. The outcomes of discussions made in Germany and the State of California were complied, and some conclusions were reached. It constitutes an infringement of their property right for the authorities to order them to allow open access without compensation. In case the authorities use expropriation for the same purpose, they have to make it known clearly that the separation and opening is to the benefit of the public and must compensate fully for their action. There is no problem in giving the authorities the power to force the electric utilities to sign a wheeling contract in case the latter unlawfully rejects to sign one proposed by a wheeling-requesting party. 24 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  9. Looking for mine of the petroleum in China, especially, looking for mine activities in the foreign enterprise; Chukajinminkyowokoku ni okeru sekiyu no tanko. Tokuni gaikokukigyo ni okeru tanko katsudo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirai, Makoto

    1999-01-01

    Modern petroleum industry after the Chinese establishment (1950) rose mainly by the Russian cooperation, and main discovery such as oil field 1959 was made as to the discovery in 1955 oil field. After that, that activities range was limited to middle Kunisaki department land stage by a master though looking for mine which is characteristic of China, development were made by Russian withdrawal and there was discovery such as a task hill oil field in the victory oil field and 1964 big port oil field for 1962 and for 1976. (NEDO)

  10. Study on the optimal control of the ground thermal storage system in the greenhouse. Part 4; Onshitsu ni okeru taiyo energy dochu chikunetsu system ni okeru saiteki seigyo ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, M. [Sanko Air Conditioning Co. Ltd., Osaka (Japan); Nakahara, N. [Kanagawa University, Yokohama (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    Three types of weight in both energy saving and optimum room temperature environment were changed to obtain the optimal control solution of the ground thermal storage system in a greenhouse. The relation diagram between the optimal solution of a performance function, and the state constraints and control function constraints was created in consideration of the energy term in a control function value area and the room temperature environment. As a result, the whole image of the performance function could be grasped in consideration of the energy term with inequality constraints and the room temperature environmental term in this study. The rate of a weighting factor in the performance function significantly influences the optimal solution. The influence on the optimal solution also changes when the optimal room temperature schedule differs. The influence that three types of rising algorithm exert on the convergence and converging speed was investigated. Superiority or inferiority occurs according to the space properties of a performance function. A zigzag method is most disadvantageous. The constraints can be converged to the optimal solution using an SUMT outer point method irrespective of the initial value. 6 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  11. 3D seismic survey in Honjo, Akita. Problems and struggles in acquisition and processing; Akitaken Honjo koku ni okeru sanjigen jishin tansa. Genba sagyo to data shori ni okeru mondaiten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imahori, S.; Kotera, Y.; Nakanishi, T. [Japan Energy Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-05-27

    Honjo mining area where investigations are conducted is hilly and has a complicated terrain with gas pipes buried in the ground just under the access road disabling the proper positioning of shock-generating large excavators or vibrators. Auger`s shallow hole shooting method is used in this survey to execute blastings at 639 points. In this method using charge depths of 4m, different from the conventional method using deeper charge depths (20-25m), surface waves prevail in the shot records giving rise to a new problem of removing them in the stage of data processing. The 2D filter that is a powerful tool in 2D data processing is not available in a 3D-survey where the tracing intervals are irregular in the shot records. In the effort of this time, a window length as a parameter in the direction of time is specified, and the F-X dip filtering method is employed in which any event that linearly continues beyond a certain number of traces in the said window is eliminated as a linear noise. It is recommended that the weighting function be changed in the direction of space since surface wave velocities are different at different locations. 1 fig., 1 tab.

  12. Waste gas treatment technology at steelmaking plants. Seitetsu setsubi ni okeru hai gas shori gijutsu ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, M.; Shimizu, K.; Deshimaru, K.; Watari, S. (Nihon Univ., Narashino, Chiba (Japan). Coll. of Industrial Technology)

    1992-11-30

    A variety of furnaces are employed for steelmaking. The waste gases from these furnaces are used as fuel gases or flared to the atmosphere. For the enhancement of energy efficiency at these plants and the improvement of environment, it is essential to remove the impurities contained in the waste gases, such as soot, dust, NOx and SOx with high efficiency at the lowest possible cost. In coke oven and sintering furnace, soot and dust consisting of sulphuric element, cyanogenic element and fume of alkali metals as main constituents are the subject of treatment, because these elements were contained in the raw materials. And, in blast furnace and LD converter, soot and dust are the subject of treatment because the materials have already been treated under high-temperature and the waste gases contain little chemical impurities consequently. On the other hand, in various combustion furnaces, purified by-product gases, such as the above mentioned BFG (blast furnace gas), LDG (LD converter gas) and COG (coke oven gas), etc., are used frequently and NOx generated by the high-temperature combustion is often the subject of treatment. In this report, the waste gas treatment technology developed by Nippon Steel Corporation for these various furnaces was described. 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Prevention countermeasure for breeding of iron bacteria in ion-exchanged water. Junsui ni okeru tetsu bakuteria hassei boshi taisaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshimura, S. (Nippon Steel Corp., Tokyo (Japan))

    1994-06-01

    The wear troubles of the water-supplying pump as well as water-supplying control valve due to the blocking-up of the strainer caused by the abnormal breeding of iron bacteria in ion-exchanged water have been occurring frequently since several years before in Oita Manufactory of Nippon Steel Corporation. The strainer provided in front of the pumps for supplying the water to each users are blocked up by the iron bacteria bred abnormally in the tanks of ion-exchanged water. Consequently, the cavitation phenomenon of water-supplying pump happens and the inside wear occurs. It is revealed by the results of the examination on the prevention countermeasure for breeding of iron bacteria carried out by the present authors that the destruction and the extinction of the cells are brought about by the concentrated electrification of the iron bacteria due to the electrification in the ion-exchanged water. In this paper, the principles, progress of study and development, the results of the practical tests in respect of prevention countermeasure for breeding of iron bacteria in ion-exchanged water by turning on electricity are described. The conventional means of frequency transformation are used in the experiment, and the betterment such as the increase of capacity of condenser is added because of the high electricity-resistance of ion-exchanged water. 13 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Deep sedimentary structure model beneath the Osaka plain; Osaka heiya ni okeru shinbu chika kozo no model ka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyakoshi, K.; Kagawa, T.; Echigo, T. [Osaka Soil Test, Osaka (Japan)

    1997-05-27

    Restructuring was carried out on a sedimentary basin structure model of the Osaka plain including Osaka Bay by using newly obtained underground structural data. After the Hygoken-nanbu Earthquake of 1995, a large number of underground structure investigations have been performed in Osaka Bay and urban areas of Kobe and Osaka. However, very few surveys have been done in areas peripheral to Osaka Prefecture, such as the Ikoma area. Therefore, an attempt has been made to increase the number of measuring points to acquire underground structural data of these areas. Estimation of basic rock depths has utilized the dominant cycles in H/V spectra obtained from micro vibration survey, and good correlation of the base rock depths derived by a refraction exploration and a deep-bed boring investigation. With regard to bed division and P- and S- wave velocities in sedimentary beds in the Osaka sedimentary basin, an underground structure model was prepared, which was divided into four beds according to the refraction exploration and the micro vibration investigation. Data obtained by using this model agreed well with depth data acquired from physical exploration and other types of investigations. However, no good agreement was recognized in the data for such areas where the basic depth changes abruptly as the Rokko fault and the Osaka bay fault. 6 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Magnetic susceptibility measurements in Yellowstone National Park, USA; Beikoku Yellowstone kokuritsu koen ni okeru genchi jikaritsu sokutei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okuma, S. [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1997-05-27

    For the purpose of interpreting data of the aeromagnetic anomalies in Yellowstone National Park in the U.S.A., in-situ magnetization intensity measurements have been carried out in 1994 and 1995 on geological outcrops of rocks in that area. Comparisons and discussions were given on the measurement results, and existing rock magnetic data and aeromagnetic anomaly data available for the area. Outside the Yellowstone caldera, part of granitic gneisses among the Precambrian granitic gneisses and crystalline schists distributed to the north has an abnormally high magnetization intensity of 1 {times} 10 {sup -2} SI. This could be a powerful anomaly source for the high magnetic anomaly in this area. Paleogene volcanic rocks distributed widely in the eastern part of the park also have magnetization intensity as high as 1 {times} 10 {sup -2} SI or higher, which are also thought a powerful anomaly source in this area. Part of Pleistocene basalts which are exposed partially in the western part of the park has also very high magnetization intensity at 1 {times} 10 {sup -2} SI or higher. This suggests correlation with the magnetic anomaly in the east-west direction distributed in this area. Quaternary rhyolites are more magnetic than Quaternary welded tuffs, which should give greater effects to the magnetic anomaly. 10 refs., 5 figs.

  16. Examination of poisonous gas in Matsumoto city, Nagano Pref.; Matsumotoshi ni okeru yudoku gas chudoku jiko eno taio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furuhata, A. [Nagano Research Inst. for Health and Pollution, Nagano (Japan)

    1996-02-10

    This report explains how the Sanitation and Pollution Laboratory of Nagano Prefecture came to isolate sarin and describes some examples of information gathering efforts which played a very important role in the sarin isolating process. The Matsumoto sarin incident took place late at night of June 27, 1994. The laboratory acting upon a request of the prefectural pollution control section completed its specimen collecting in the afternoon of June 28. In its efforts to search for the casualty-causing substance, the laboratory gathered information from the National Institute of Hygienic Sciences, Japan Poison Information Center, JICST, Matsumoto Health Center, and Professor Naito of the Tsukuba University. Next, the analysis/retrieval team started collecting data from the GC-FPD and GC-MS. The peak in the curve pointed to sarin, and this also made it clear that the substance was neither soman nor tabun. A question remained unanswered as to why sarin, a nerve gas which is a weapon of war, existed in a peaceful castle town of Matsumoto. The greatest difficulty in the sarin isolating process came from the lack of the standard substance to which sarin was to be referred to. Sarin was determined to be the responsible substance only after a general judgement based on the results of comparison with the retention indexes, analysis using the GC-MS (EI) and then GC-MS (CI), and experiments using Japanese cyprinodont. 8 refs., 1 tab.

  17. Studies on reactivity of coal surfaces at low temperature; Teion ni okeru sekitan hyomen no hannosei no kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasuda, H.; Kaiho, M.; Yamada, O.; Soneda, Y.; Kobayashi, M.; Makino, M. [National Institute for Resources and Environment, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    With an objective to learn reactivity of coal at its surface, surfaces of oxidized coal samples were investigated. Miike coal was oxidized by using {sup 18}O2 in a closed loop system. As the reaction progresses, proportion of CO2 including isotopes increased rapidly as a result of oxidation of CO sites existing in the coal and the newly generated C{sup 18}O sites. The oxidizing reaction progressed via oxygen adsorbing sites generated near the surface, and oxygen containing groups. An FT-IR analysis estimated the depth of the oxidized layer to be 10{mu}m or less from particle surface. The oxidized coal was pulverized to see its surface condition. Functional groups introduced by the oxidation enter into the vicinity of the surface in a form to desorb as CO. CO2 is trapped in inner pores. The coal surface was observed by using an atomic force microscope. No observable openings in the pore structure were discerned on the surface before the oxidation, and the structure agrees with a closed pore model. Surface image oxidized in-situ by oxygen for one hour had slight roundness, which led to a supposition of structural change, and changes in the functional group and adsorption species. 7 refs., 5 figs.

  18. Change of unit skeletons during an artificial coalification; Jinko sekitanka katei ni okeru tan`i kokkaku kozo no henka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugimoto, Y.; Miki, Y.; Hayamizu, K. [National Institute of Materials and Chemical Research, Tsukuba (Japan); Okada, K. [Coal Mining Research Center, Tokyo (Japan); Suzuki, Y. [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    In order to obtain knowledge about formation and growth of condensed ring structure in a coalification process, discussions were given on product skeleton structure by using hydrogenation and hydrocracking of heated cellulose. In underwater heating of cellulose, reaction of dehydration has occurred at 200{degree}C or lower, that of decarbonation at 250{degree}C or higher, and that of demethanizing at 300{degree}C, resulting in production of a dark-brown coal-like substance. The substance has lower H/C value and higher O/C value than coal. As the underwater heating temperature rises, the hydrogenation reactivity of the heated substance decreases, and so does the ratio of conversion into toluene solubles. These phenomena are related to strength of cross-linking bond between unit skeleton structures. A substance heated at an underwater heating temperature of 200{degree}C turns toluene-soluble almost completely even during the hydrogenation reaction (350{degree}C for 2 hours), but the soluble product decreases at underwater heating temperatures of 250 and 300{degree}C. However, soluble product of more than 90% was obtained when hydrocracking (at 425{degree}C for one hour) was performed. The toluene-soluble product in the heated substance is only 50% when the underwater heating temperature reaches 350{degree}C even if the hydrocracking is carried out. 3 refs., 5 figs.

  19. Hydrogenolysis reactions characteristics of deashed coal under low temperature; Teionka ni okeru dakkai shoritan no suisoka bunkai hanno tokusei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owada, T.; Mashimo, K.; Wainai, T. [Nihon University, Tokyo (Japan). College of Science and Technology

    1996-10-28

    In relation to coal liquefaction, the effect of inorganic minerals on liquefaction reactivity and the effect of hydrofluoric acid (HF) treatment on organic molecular structure of coals were studied by demineralization of low-rank coals in HCl or HF solution. In experiment, Taiheiyo coal specimen was deashed in HCl solution at 25-70{degree}C for 6 hours while agitating, and in addition, deashed in HF solution. Hydrogenolysis of the deashed coal specimen was conducted using tetralin or methylnaphthalene as solvent under initial hydrogen pressure of 1.96MPa at reaction temperature of 693K for 60min. The experimental results are as follows. The ash content of Taiheiyo coal hardly offers catalysis in hydrogenolysis reaction. Carboxyl group increases in demineralization of coal because of breakage of bridged bonds. Organic structure of coal changes by demineralization in dense HF solution. Change in organic structure of coal by demineralization in dense HF solution is dependent on treatment temperature. 2 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Decay of weak pressure waves in a low pressure tube; Teiatsu kannai ni okeru bisho atsuryokuha no gensui

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takiya, T.; Terada, Y.; Komura, A. [Hitachi Zosen Corp., Osaka (Japan); Higashino, F.; Abe, H. [Tokyo Univ. of Agriculture and Technology, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Technology; Abe, M. [National Lab. for High Energy Physics, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1996-04-25

    The characteristics of pressure wave propagation in a vacuum tube have been investigated experimentally from the viewpoint of vacuum protection in the beam lines of a synchrotrons radiation facility. Baffle plates having a single orifice of 5, 10 or 15 mm in diameter were installed in shock tubes 5 m in length, and 36.6 or 68.8 mm in diameter, in order to show the pressure wave or shock wave propagation as a model for the beam line. To evaluate the decay of pressure waves pressure changes with time at several locations along the side wall as well as at the end wall of the tube were measured. The results show that the effect of the orifices on pressure wave propagation and its decay is significant. The present investigation may contribute to the design and construction of high energy synchrotrons radiation facilities with long beam lines. 11 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Ebara`s environmental management system and ISO14001; Ebara ni okeru kankyo management system to ISO14001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Umeda, M. [Ebara Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-04-20

    Situations encompassing environmental problems are recently undergoing drastic changes on a worldwide scale. The number of business locations which have been certified as ISO14001 sites in Japan has exceeded 1,392 by the end of November 1998, a surge which is expected to outrun that experienced regarding ISO9000 sites. In December 1997, the United Nations Frame Work Convention on Climate Change (COP3) was held in Kyoto, Japan to discuss the prevention of the global warming effect. The following discusses how Ebara`s environmental management system is related to problems and solutions discussed in this symposium. Discussion is also made on the impact of environmental management on enthusiastically carried out environment-related businesses. Finally, discussion is made on Ebara`s future environmental management system, i.e. as an outcome of past and current efforts in Ebara`s continuous improvement on environmental management, including Ebara`s 5 areas which have attained the ISO14001 standard. (author)

  2. Feasibility study of various geophysical methods at the Nojima fault; Nojima danso ni okeru kakushu butsuri tansaho no tekiyo jikken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, T.; Nozaki, K.; Shima, H.; Yamane, M.; Igarashi, T. [OYO Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-05-01

    This paper reports a feasibility study of various geophysical methods at the Nojima fault. A shallow bed investigation (to a depth of several ten meters) was performed at the Nojima-Hirabayashi area, a very shallow bed investigation (to a depth of several meters), a shallow bed investigation and a medium depth bed investigation (to a depth of several hundred meters) at the Kokura area, and a very shallow bed investigation at the Nashimoto area. Combinations of two to four investigation methods were used according to the objectives and depths of the investigations at each area. The combinations were selected from the following methods: seismic investigations (P-wave reflection and N-wave reflection methods), electric investigation using the IP image method, electromagnetic investigation using the VLF method, underground radar investigation, micro-gravity investigation, and gravity investigation. The result may be summarized as follows: in places where a fault forms a boundary between base rocks and a sedimentation bed, it was possible to identify clearly position of the fault, and estimate inclination angles and vertical shift; and during the medium depth investigation at the Kokura area, identification was made on a geological structure (deformation of a sedimentation bed above the base bed) which is important in verifying the nature of an active fault. 2 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Using of the geophysical methods to an investigation in city; Toshi ni okeru butsuri tansaho no tekiyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, S. [Oyo Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-02-10

    Some of the exploration methods are taken up out of the geophysical methods, which have made drastic change by technological advancement, to discuss their technological development and application in cities. The elastic wave exploration is classified into the refraction method which uses refracted waves and the reflection method which utilizes reflected waves. Shallow reflection method allows visual observation of the complex underground structure, and is an excellent exploration method which provides highly accurate data. There are many types in the electrical exploration. New exploration methods have been developed as a result of improvement in the computer performance, advancement in the technology of numerical analysis, and improvement in the performance of exploration equipment, and they are being applied to the electrical exploration in many fields including tunnel and dam construction works. Geotomography is an application of the technology of medical tomography to ground exploration. Underground radar method is a method of investigating the ground structure by radiating electromagnetic waves from the ground surface in similar way to that of the reflection method and capturing the reflected waves from underground. 8 refs., 7 figs.

  4. Global Environment, human activity, and recycling of resources. Chikyu kankyo to ningen katsudo ni okeru shigen recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakahiro, Y.; Wakamatsu, T. (Kyoto Univ., Kyoto (Japan). Faculty of Engineering)

    1991-04-18

    Discussion is made on the recycling of resources which is one the very important problems for the global environment and human activity. In consideration of the limited natural resources and utilization by the human race of the resources for long, recycling of resources'' for saving resources is extremely important. The scale of the waste treatment industry in Japan is estimated to be between 4 to 5 trillion yen which exceeds 1% of the GNP with the trend of increase year by year, and the industrial waste treatment industry is taking root in Japan. Recycling'' can be grouped in three methods, i.e. recovery of materials, conversion of materials, and conversion of energy. The primary object of recycling is to spare resources and save energy. Recycling is of deep significance from the viewpoint of energy saving. There is a big merit in the conservation of dumping sites. Making best use of the useful secondary resources in the wastes is directly connected with the solution to the problems of prolongation of resources'' and conservation of global environment'' with which the human race is now confronted. 7 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Education for hydraulics and pneumatics in Nara National College of Technology; Nara Kogyo Koto Senmon Gakko ni okeru yukuatsu kyoiku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayakawa, Y. [Nara Technical Coll., Nara (Japan)

    2000-03-15

    In the electronic control engineering course, basic knowledge is taught for mechanics, electronics/electricity, control, robotics, information processing, etc., with the purpose of bringing up practical mechatronics engineers, and then, training is conducted so that the students are able to deal with these subjects comprehensively. In the subject of hydraulics and pneumatics for the special course, a lecture on hydraulic and pneumatic control is given in the second year, where structures of hydraulic and pneumatic actuators are explained as well as the principle of operation and the control method. As the related experiment, measurement of liquid viscosity coefficient and flow measurement by a Venturi tube are carried out in the fourth year of the regular course. In addition, carried out in the fifth year are the measurement of stress by trailing velocity distribution of an object and the measurement of pressure distribution around a column. As a subject for graduation theses, a mobile carrier for welfare nursing is being developed using a pneumatic actuator. Development of a suitable actuator is also being developed simultaneously. In the education of electronic control engineering, it is essential to give the students understanding of hydraulic and pneumatic actuator control centering on the role of mechatronics. (NEDO)

  6. Water quality and water pollution sources in Poyang lake, China; Poyang ko ni okeru suishitsu chosa to odakugen kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, M. [Shin-Nippon Meteorological and Oceanographical Consultant Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-01-10

    This paper summarizes the current status of water quality and pollution sources in Poyang Lake in China. The lake is located in Chianghsi Province of China, and a largest fresh water lake in China that flows out into the Yangtze river. The basin is surrounded by mountains on three sides and faces the Yangtze on one side, whereas the plains formed by the lake and the rivers flowing in extends in the center of the basin. The plains around the lake has the city of Nanchang, the capital of the province, the city of Jiujiang (both cities have a population of about 4 million, respectively), and four other cities with a size of one million people including Jingdezhen. Water supply system in the basin is used in a 37% area of the urban areas, and no sewage facilities of whatsoever are available as of 1991. The lake has COD of about 3 mg{times}1/l. No severe pollution by organic matters is seen. While the T-P concentration is at a high level, PO4-P is low. Majority of phosphorus flowing into the basin exists in the form trapped in soil particles. In order to maintain the current water quality in the future, waste water treatment is required in the basin. Construction of an oxidation pond in the vast land exposed during the drought period is a measure that can be tackled relatively easily. 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  7. Measurement improvements of heat flux probes for internal combustion engine; Nainen kikan ni okeru netsuryusokukei no kaihatsu to kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tajima, H.; Tasaka, H. [Miyazaki University, Miyazaki (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    In heat flux measurement in engines, material properties of a heat flux probe and numerical prediction of those influence have been discussed rather than practical measurement accuracy. This study featured the process for the quantitative examination of heat flux probes. Although the process required direct comparison among all the probes and additional measurements in a constant volume bomb, precision of heat flux measurement was greatly improved so that the essential characteristics of heat transfer in engines can be detected. 9 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Simulation of speed control in acceleration mode of a heavy duty vehicle; Ogatasha no kasokuji ni okeru shasoku seigyo simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Endo, S.; Ukawa, H. [Isuzu Advanced Engineering Center, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Sanada, K.; Kitagawa, A. [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    A control law of speed of a heavy duty vehicle in acceleration mode is presented, which is an extended version of a control law in deceleration mode proposed by the authors. The control law is based on constant acceleration strategy. Using the control law, target velocity and target distance can be performed. Both control laws for acceleration and deceleration mode can be represented by a unified mathematical formulae. Some simulation results are shown to demonstrate the control performance. 7 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Improvement of vehicle stability in cornering on uneven road; Akuro senkaiji ni okeru sharyo no anzensei kojo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tobimatsu, K.; Harada, M.; Harada, H. [National Defense Academy, Kanagawa (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    The active control of vehicle suspensions and rear wheel steering systems in turning on uneven roads is analyzed by means of LQR control theory, assuming that cornering forces depend on tire normal loads in addition to tire slip angles. The authors quantitatively investigated the effectiveness of the integrated control of the active suspension and the rear wheel steering, comparing the contributions of each individual system. Furthermore, in this paper, the role of the chassis control and driver control are studied in order to improve the stability of vehicle motion disturbed by the road surface. 4 refs., 9 figs.

  10. Seismic reflection survey in Omama fan area, Gunma prefecture; Gunma Omama senjochi ni okeru hanshaho jishin tansa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaguchi, K.; Kano, N.; Yokokura, T.; Kiguchi, T.; Yokota, T.; Matsushima, J. [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1996-10-01

    Seismic reflection survey was performed for the Medial Tectonic Line, an important geological tectonic line in the Kanto plains, at Kushibiki district, Saitama prefecture in the north-western part of the Kanto plains. It was estimated that movements of the basement were different in the individual sides of the active fault. In this study, the seismic reflection survey was performed at the Omama fan area, Gunma prefecture, which is located at the north-eastern extension of the Kushibiki plateau, to grasp the structure of basement to the depth of about 1.0 s of return travel time, and the upper sediments. Two traverse lines passing Ota city, Kiryu city, and Nitta town were used. Southern part of the traverse line-1 was in the bottom land in the middle of Tone river, and northern part was in the Omama fan area. The ground surface along the traverse line was flat. Hachioji heights are the heights elongating in the NW-SE direction and having relative height of 100 to 200 m against the surrounding plain. Another traverse line-2 was set on the steep slope having relative height more than 100 m. The Brute stack time section of each traverse line was characterized by the gradient reflection surface AA of the traverse line-1. It was suggested that the AA or intermittent parts of reflection surfaces deeper than AA may relate to the tectonic lines in the more ancient geological ages. 2 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Fault analysis in the very shallow seismic reflection method; Gokusenso jishin hanshaho ni okeru danso kaiseki. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagumo, S.; Muraoka, S.; Kaida, Y.; Takahashi, T. [OYO Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-01

    To effectively use the very shallow seismic reflection for active fault survey, a method has been investigated by which fault structures can be appropriately reconstructed from the fault information detected in the original records. The first step of reconstructing the fault system from the travel time reflection curve was to grasp an outline of fault structure from the patterns of travel time curve observed in the original record. For the very shallow seismic reflection method, especially, the low velocity layers in a shallow part succeeding from the ground surface made the issue complicated. Then, the travel time reflection curves were calculated in the case of existing several horizontal reflection surfaces in the surface layer. The constant values, mean velocities to the depth at individual reflection surfaces were used for the approximation of velocities. The outline of fault structure was grasped from the observation of original record. Then, the structure was reconstructed from the travel time curves. When the mean velocity in the medium was known, reconstruction of the feature of reflection surfaces from the travel time curves could be determined by simple mapping. When the mean velocity was unknown, it was calculated using the reciprocal travel time from the common reflection surface for individual reflection surfaces. 7 figs.

  12. Study of evaluation for grouting effect in a borehole; Yakueki chunyu koka hyoka gijutsu ni okeru ichikosatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, H.; Matsuo, T. [Fukuoka Municipal Transportation Bureau, Fukuoka (Japan); Yamauchi, Y.; Imanishi, H. [Osaka Soil Test, Osaka (Japan)

    1996-10-01

    For the foundation improvement works by grouting in a borehole, evaluation of grouting effect is one of the most important management items. The grouting design and works are sometimes reconsidered depending on the evaluation of grouting effect during the test injection. The purpose of the evaluation of grouting effect is to grasp the range of improvement and consolidation after the injection, and to judge and estimate the strength and permeability of the consolidation part. This paper describes the judgment method of the strength using PS logging results and borehole televiewer (BHTV) logging results. The reflection intensity (Ir) by the BHTV logging increased after the grouting, which showed a same tendency as that using S-wave and P-wave velocities (Vs and Vp) before and after the grouting. This was considered to demonstrate the grouting effect. A relation was obtained between the Vs, Vp and Ir before and after the grouting, which was expressed by following equation. Ir=0.143{times}Vs-70=0.093{times}Vp-110. The relation with the dynamic elastic coefficient (Ed) was also obtained as follow; Ir=0.0013{times}Ed. 9 figs.

  13. Interaction effects on combustion of alcohol droplet pairs; Alcohol kei nenryo niekiteki no nensho ni okeru kansho koka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okai, K.; Ono, Y.; Moriue, O.; Shiba, S.; Araki, M.; Tsue, M.; Kono, M. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Nomura, H. [Nihon Univ., Chiba (Japan). Coll. of Industrial Technology; Shiga, S. [Gunma University, Gunma (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    2000-02-25

    Experimental investigation was conducted on two droplet-array combustion of methanol and methanol/dodecanol mixture fuels in microgravity. For methanol, effects of ambient pressure and droplet spacing were examined. Results show that the droplet lifetime decreases with increasing spacing at relatively low pressure and the droplet lifetime becomes independent of spacing at higher-subcritical and supercritical pressures. For methanol/dodecanol mixture, effects of pressure, fuel composition were investigated in terms of occurrence of disruption. Disruption of droplet during combustion was demonstrated both for single droplet and droplet pairs. (author)

  14. 1000m depth boring at Inagawa, Hyogo prefecture. 1. Overviews; Hyogoken Inagawamachi ni okeru 1000m boring chosa. 1. Gaiyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, T.; Kusunose, K.; Cho, A.; Tosha, T. [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan); Kiyama, T.; Yamada, F. [Mitsui Construction Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Aizawa, T. [Sancoh Consultants Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-05-01

    Various field experiments were carried out using a 1000m deep borehole at Inagawa town, about 10km north of the focus of the Hanshin-Awaji Great Earthquake and directly above the area where shallow earthquake activities have intermittently occurred. These experiments included stress measurement by hydraulic fracturing, hydrophone-aided VSP, permeability tests and observation of various types of logging. The laboratory experiments were also carried out, including measurement of various properties and stresses of the core samples. The stress-depth relationship, determined by the hydraulic fracturing method, shows that the stress gradient well coincides with the Western Japan standard at a depth up to 700m, whereas it is approximately twice as high as the standard at a depth of 946m, at which core disking and borehole break-out are clearly observed, and hence stresses conceivably concentrate locally. Orientation of the maximum horizontal compressive stress is E-W at a depth of around 600m, but greatly changes to NNW-SSE at a deeper position. 4 refs., 5 figs.

  15. Cut down the peak daytime demand for electricity at the residence; Jutaku ni okeru denryoku fuka heijunka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishihara, O. [Kumamoto University, Kumamoto (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-09-05

    For leveling of power load in small-scale buildings and houses, a test house with actual size was constructed in order to examine soil heat storage system using photovoltaic power generation system and nighttime power. A hundred of polycrystal silicone solar cells with about 5 kW and twenty of amorphous ones were fixed on the roof, to connect with commercial power source by the system interconnection having inverse power flow. For leveling of power load in the periods of heating and cooling, soil heat storage system was applied using nighttime power. Pipes for circulating cooling and heating water were embedded. Heat pump was operated only in the time zone of nighttime power, to obtain cooling and heating source for fan coil unit in the daytime. The sold power was larger than purchased power under continuous cooling condition for twelve hours in summer. Since cooling load was supplied from nighttime power with lower price, there was a large peak cut effect in the daytime. As a result of the tests using a house with actual size, the system was found to be applied practically both in summer and in winter. Effectiveness of peak cut of power load in summer was also provided. 7 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Future vision of advanced telecommunication networks for electric utilities; Denki jigyo ni okeru joho tsushin network no shorai vision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonaru, S.; Ono, K.; Sakai, S.; Kawai, Y.; Tsuboi, A. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan); Manabe, S. [Shikoku Electric Power Co., Inc., Kagawa (Japan); Miki, Y. [Kansai Electric Power Co. Inc., Osaka (Japan)

    1995-06-01

    The vision of an advanced information system is proposed to cope with the future social demand and business environmental change in electric utilities. At the large turning point such as drastic reconsideration of Electricity Utilities Industry Law, further improvement of efficiency and cost reduction are requested as well as business innovation such as proposal of a new business policy. For that purpose utilization of information and its technology is indispensable, and use of multimedia and common information in organization are the future direction for improving information basis. Consequently, free information networks without any limitation due to person and media are necessary, and the following are important: high-speed, high-frequency band, digital, easily connectable and multimedia transmission lines, and cost reduction and high reliability of networks. Based on innovation of information networks and the clear principle on advanced information system, development of new applications by multimedia technologies, diffusion of communication terminals, and promotion of standardization are essential. 60 refs., 30 figs., 5 tabs.

  17. Future petroleum geophysicists and SEGJ; Sekiyu gyokai ni okeru butsuri tansa gijutsusha no shoraizo to Butsuri Tansa Gakkai eno kitai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, A. [Japan Petroleum Exploration Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-08-01

    This paper describes future petroleum geophysicists and an anticipation to SEGJ (The Society of Exploration Geophysicists of Japan). Among various elemental technologies, it is undoubted that three-dimensional seismic exploration would be a main technology for prospecting petroleum gas. In the early stage of three-dimensional exploration, an improvement of accuracy for geological evaluation was a major purpose based on the successful exploratory drilling. In the 1990`s, some companies have a policy in which three-dimensional exploration is initially employed especially for the marine seismic prospecting as a major exploration technology. Since simple structures have been already prospected, it is required to prospect more complicated traps with higher accuracy. It is also required to shorten the turnaround time from the initial prospecting to the start of production. Furthermore, the three-dimensional exploration is used as a control technology for advancing the recovery by improving the accuracy of reservoir management. It is required for the geophysicists to have wide knowledge with keeping original exploration technologies. 2 refs.

  18. Feasibility study on introducing new energy systems into Asian villages; Asia sonraku ni okeru shin energy donyu kanosei chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    For improvement of living standards in unelectrified areas of Asia, the feasibility of new energy power generation systems was surveyed. The degree of electrification of local areas is different every country, and Thailand is ahead of other countries, while Laos and Cambodia are most unelectrified. Power supply of 100W/house seems to be adequate for local areas because of weather condition, housing situation and life-style. Economic support and education on electricity are necessary for poor areas. Although needs for new energy is increasing, the priority is given to industrial and urbanized areas because of cost and investment effects, and remote areas are dependent on grant- in-aid. Resources of photovoltaic, wind power and micro- hydraulic energies are abundant, however, selection of energy and verification of its usability are important, and the local energy density maps were thus prepared. In introduction of new energy, after selection of energy suitable for an area concerned, such geographical and social conditions should be surveyed as road condition, water rights, land utilization, economic support system, policy and intention of inhabitants. 76 refs., 68 figs., 91 tabs.

  19. Rejection of salts in nanofiltration of skim milk; Dasshinyu no nano roka ni okeru enrui no soshiritsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, I.; Kikuchi, M.; Sakurai, K. [Morinaga Milk Industry Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    2000-11-10

    The authors carried out nanofiltration of skim milk and analyzed the salt rejection data using the extended Nernst-Planck equation. The following observed rejections of major constituents in salts were obtained. Na and K: 50 to 60 %, Cl: -5 to 15 %, Ca, Mg and P: > 97 %. It is considered that since Ca and Mg are mostly combined with phosphate and citrate in milk, they were rejected by a sieving effect, thus producing high rejections. Electroneutrality in permeate, and no-electric-current condition in solute flux are observed, respectively. In the subsequent analysis, the authors used a set of proposed assumptions, (1) a complete rejection of solute except Na, K and Cl by the membrane, (2) existence of a fixed charge in skim milk due to impermeable ions of proteins, etc. Rejection of Na, K and Cl calculated from the analysis are in good agreement with those of the experimental data. (author)

  20. Interphase boundary structure and transformation mechanism in diffusional phase transformations; Kakusan hentai ni okeru iso kaimen kozo to hentai kiko

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furuhara, T.; Maki, T. [Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan)

    1997-05-20

    This paper discusses a lattice changing mechanism in diffusional phase transformations (atom diffusion rate determination) based on observations through a high-resolution electron microscope. If a parent phase and a generated phase have different crystal structures, change in lamination occurs as a result of a step generated on a terrace with good consistency moving in the horizontal direction. In addition, it has been thought that removal of atoms occurs due to random diffusion jump in a riser or a kink which has a locally inconsistent structure, and no surface undulations will occur. On the other hand, growth interfaces are consistent in martensite transformation, and atomic correspondence is univocal in the parent phase and the generated phase. Also in diffusion transformation accompanying distribution of displacement type elements, the surface undulations will appear as in the case of the martensite transformation. This fact suggests that, also in the diffusional transformation, not only the terrace interface, but also the riser or kink interface having been thought inconsistent conventionally are all consistent or semi-consistent as in the martensite transformation. It also suggests that lattice correspondence exists between the parent phase and the generated phase. 30 refs., 16 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Superplasticity of low carbon HSLA steel during bainite transformation. Teitanso teigokinko no beinaito hentai ni okeru chososei kyodo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakajima, H.; Yamamoto, S.; Miyaji, H.; Furubayashi, E. (National Research Inst. for Metals, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan))

    1993-12-01

    Recently, the development of high strength low alloy steel (HSLA steel) of untempered type is advanced by using the comparatively high strength and excellent tenacity of the bainite or martensite of carbon remained being transformed. In the present researches, the superplasticity during the bainite transformation due to the continuous cooling and changes of the structure as well as the mechanical properties due to the superplastic deformation are examined with the samples of Mn-Cr-Mo system HSLA steel. The results obtained therefrom are shown as follows. The temperatre range of B[sub S] and bainite transformation is moving to the higher temperature side along with the increasing of the applied stress when it is over 60 MPa. The bainitic structure is composed of the mixture lath-like bainitic ferrite and granular bainitic ferrite in the use of having no applied stress, while the percentage of the latter increases simultaneously with the increasing of the applied stress. Transformation superplastic strain is increasing together with the increasing of the applied stress, and its increasing is over the linear function when the applied stress is above about 50 MPa. 22 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Numerical simulation of coal combustion in circulating fluidized beds; Junkan ryudoso ni okeru sekitan nensho no suchi simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoenfelder, H. [Technical University Hamburg, Hamburg (Germany); Suzuki, Y.; Hatano, H. [National Institute for Resources and Environment, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1997-09-25

    A numerical simulator has been developed, using a one-dimensional heterogeneous reaction model, for circulating fluidized bed combustors. The model is based on the Johnson`s method for modeling circulating fluidized bed combustors operating at low gas velocity, and involves kinetic models of combustion process and fluidization mechanisms in circulating fluidized bed risers. In order to determine rate parameters for coal combustion, Chinese coal is combusted by a circulating fluidized bed combustor of quartz, installed at the National Institute for Resources and Environment. The simulation after parameter-fitting indicates that char produced from coal shows a medium activity for NO reduction and very low activity for N2O reduction. It is also found that reduction of No by CO is very important. The simulator satisfactorily gives gas concentration at the combustor outlet and axial distributions of the vapor component concentrations. 19 refs., 11 figs., 5 tabs.

  3. Education for hydraulics and pneumatics in Nippon Institute of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering; Nippon Kogyo Daigaku ni okeru yukuatsukyoiku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terashima, Y. [Nippon Institute of Technology, Saitama (Japan)

    2000-03-15

    Described herein is education of hydraulics and pneumatics in Nippon Institute of Technology. Department of Mechanical Engineering has fluid dynamics, mechatronics II, air conditioning, heat transfer engineering, and facility and equipment engineering as the themes related to hydraulics and pneumatics. The control engineering courses have the pneumatics-related themes of supply of pneumatic pressure for a short time and methods for cutting off pneumatic pressure when the piston reaches the dead center, as the energy-saving type driving methods for pneumatic cylinders; measurement of frictional force by the experiments on low-friction cylinders; and researches on improvement of stiffness of pneumatic cylinder type actuators for control valves, among others. Students are directly involved in equipment designs, fabrication and experiments. Many machines and facilities are now easily handled, and operated according to manuals. To prepare graduation theses only by the aid of personal computers is not adequate for education of students in this age, when they have less chances for education through experiences in affluent environments. The mechanical engineering students are given chances for practical education through experiments and graduation thesis preparation. However, it is necessary for general engineering students to be more exposed to technical practices. (NEDO)

  4. Non-linear mechanical simulations in space structures engineering; Uchu kozobutsu kogaku ni okeru hisenkei kikai rikigaku simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, K. [Kinki Univ Osaka (Japan)

    1997-08-05

    Space structure engineering comes under the combination of different engineering fields. Role of numerical analysis and simulation is large in space structure engineering. Considering space structure engineering as an application of non-linear mechanical simulation, constrains with simulation technology and analysis examples are explained in this paper. Following important points are confirmed by simulating the motion of membrane under external force acting on inner and outer surfaces at a particular point of square satellite model which rotates in tension membrane. When the external force is removed, each material point and membrane centre move with vibration, however centre of gravity of satellite moves very rapidly along the vertical direction of membrane centre. Further external disturbance (which develops on material points) propagates at all material points and membrane centre as a twisted wave. Maximum relative displacement between inner surface and outer surface decreases with the increment of initial angular velocity but not on the points of upper membrane. Fluctuation of position motion of satellite resulted from external disturbance is become small as initial rotation angular velocity increases. 10 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Education for fluid power in department of mechanical engineering of Sophia University; Jochi Daigaku Kikai kogakuka ni okeru yukuatsu kyooiku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsukiji, T. [Sophia University, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Faculty of Science and Technology

    2000-03-15

    Curricular guidelines are that importance be attached in the educating policy to the primary subjects of study and that compulsory subjects are to be acquired through practice. Out of primary subjects, those which should better be learned by all the students are set as compulsory subjects. Related subjects are divided into fluid-related subjects and control-related subjects. Experiments are conducted of the 'inspection of orifice flowmeter and Bourdon tube pressure gage,' 'fluid friction in round tube,' and 'servo-mechanism.' In a lesson on drafting, hydraulic equipment provided by business corporations is used. It is hoped that educating units be provided. Subjects of research for graduation and master's theses are the turbine-driven pump, constant pressure source system, hydraulic drive system, application of control theory to an injection molding machine, highly intelligent fluid, noise reduction for an automotive compressor, state of fluid in a hydraulic control valve, analysis of flow in pneumatic equipment elements, and cavitation in a vane pump. More than half of these subjects are pursued in collaboration with industrial or Government circles. It is expected that the Society will be an organization to benefit the students. (NEDO)

  6. Optimal control of reflux ratio for batch distillation; Bacchi joryu ni okeru kanryuhi no saiteki kido to seigyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morimoto, Jun [Sankyo Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Suzuki, Mutsumi [Tohoku University, Miyagi (Japan). Department of Chemical Engineering

    1999-03-10

    To obtain maximum production under minimum utility-cost, the optimal operation of reflux ratio is considered for a batch distillation process. Pontryagin's maximum principle is one of the solutions to calculate such an optimal operation, but it requires extensive trial and error. In this paper, a faster algorithm is proposed to modify the initial values of Hamilton's multiplier. With the rapid growth of computer power, this algorithm will provide a way to realize the real-time optimization and control of the reflux ratio. To reduce the on-line calculation, a control table for the optimal operation can by calculated off-line as a function of state variables. These control methods provide the real optimal operation for a given evaluation function. (author)

  7. Analysis of fuel spray characteristics for premixed lean diesel combustion; Kihaku yokongo diesel kikan ni okeru nenryo funmu kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, S.; Harada, a.; Miyamoto, T.; Akagawa, H.; Tsujimura, K.

    1997-10-01

    Premixed lean diesel combustion (PREDIC) makes it possible to achieve low NOx emission. It is an important factor to make the homogeneous spray formation for PREDIC. In this paper presents I the effect of the spray dispersion on emission characteristic were analyzed with the spray observation and engine test. Pintle type nozzle, which has different feature from orifice type nozzle, are used to form the hollow cone spray. As a result, the pintle type nozzle having grooves to generate the swirl flow, makes the reduced penetration in comparison with the hole nozzle under low ambient gas pressure. And it could improve THC, CO emissions at low NOx emission condition. 7 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Analysis of flame propagation phenomenon in simplified stratified charge conditions; Tanjunkasareta sojo kyukiba ni okeru kaen denpa gensho no kansatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moriyoshi, Y.; Morikawa, H. [Chiba University, Chiba (Japan); Kamimoto, T. [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    Since the local inhomogeneity of mixture concentration inside the cylinder affects the combustion characteristics, a basic research on combustion phenomenon in stratified charge conditions is required. The authors have made experiments with a constant-volume chamber, which can simulate an idealized stratified charge field by using a removable partition, to obtain the combustion characteristics. Also, numerical calculations are made using some combustion models. As a result, the important feature that the combustion speed is faster in stratified condition than in homogeneous condition can be predicted by the two-step reaction model. 4 refs., 8 figs.

  9. Water monitoring and its information management system in China; Chugoku ni okeru suishitsu monitoring to joho kanri system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quan, H.

    1996-01-10

    This paper summarizes the water monitoring system (WMS) in China applied mainly to surface water and operated within the competence of the Environmental Protection Agency. The WMS consists of a national water monitoring network and a water information system that monitors surface water periodically. The WMS comprises water monitoring stations classified from class 1 to class 4, which are located in 2,222 locations. Stations from class 1 to class 3 are operated by using computers, but class 4 stations are still incapable to use floppy disks to perform information transmission. When an information management system is completed at the China-Japan Friendship Environmental Protection Center being constructed by gratis assistance from the Japanese Government, transmission of water quality data will become possible by means of the cable line system in addition to the table system and the floppy system. The water quality data are published to general people in the forms of Chinese gazette for the environmental conditions, the environment yearbook, and the reports on environmental quality. However, the more important is to publish more publications to make people aware of the actual state of water pollution and have them cooperate in environment preservation. 4 refs., 1 fig.

  10. Trends in developing alternative energies in Sweden. Sweden ni okeru daitai energy kaihatsu no doko ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maruyama, S. (The Kansai Electric Power Co. Inc., Osaka (Japan))

    1992-07-10

    This paper introduces a summary of the survey made on the Swedish policies on alternative energies. The country has a characteristic that the alternative energy policies have a great importance for each political party as its reigning strategy. The largest weight for the alternative energies is placed on bioenergies. Sweden has been already depending on bioenergies at 15% of the country[prime]s total energy supply. Nearly half amount of the budget in the new five-year alternative energy plan approved in 1991 is bioenergy related. The budget of 3.76 billion kronor can be broken down into 1 billion kronor for effective energy utilization, 1.92 billion kronor for bio-fuel utilization, and 800 million kronor for bio-fuel utilizing plants. The bio-fuel utilizing plants include improved CFB utilizing steam cycle power generation, gasified compound cycle power generation, a bio-fuel/natural gas compounding plan, and a bio-fuel/caustics recovery boiler compounding plan, each having merits and demerits. Thirty-five wind power generating plants are in operation producing a total power of about 10,000 MWh in 1990. 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  11. Needs for intelligent field sensors in petrochemical plants. Sekiyu kagaku plant ni okeru intelligentter dot fieldter dot sensor eno needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsukahara, T. (Idemitsu Kosan Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))

    1990-08-05

    This report explains the process sensors used in petrochemical plants. To establish a safety and accident preventing systems, the function of a sensor to substitute the five senses of an operator is demanded. A man inspects using the senses of seeing, hearing, touch and smell, and takes measures judging from all factors, not from the state of one point. For a wide-range monitoring function, there is a need for a robot which is loaded with sensors of various intelligences and which moves freely at the field. When many sensors are configurated for the wide-range monitoring, the maintenance of system comes into question. The sensor with intelligent functions recently developed can contribute to the maintenance because it is highly accurate and it has the function of self-diagnosis. If it becomes possible to process data with the sensor at the field utilizing the intelligent function, the central control room will be miniaturized and automatization will be pushed forward remarkably. 3 refs., 2 figs.

  12. Polymer-based matrix composites in general industries. Ippan sangyo bun'ya ni okeru kobunshiki fukugo zairyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenmochi, K. (National Institute of Materials and Chemical Research, Tsukuba (Japan))

    1994-02-15

    This paper summarizes the course of development of polymer-based matrix composites (PMC) begun in the 1950's, their future problems, and prospects. Because of PMC being a petroleum product, the changing period before and after the first and second oil crises (1974-1983) has seen even a negative growth from the declined product price out of increased material cost. However, the materials have been continuing expansion in such applications year after year for two decades since then as plant, marine vessel, and housing materials. The course of their development to date has included such proliferation impeding factors as unproved reliability, high production cost, and legal regulations because of being new materials. However, the ardent technical development efforts having produced a number of products including hybrid FRP, particularly the fundamental technology development studies sponsored by the Ministry of International Trade and Industry, have improved properties and reliability and contributed largely to expanding practical applications. Sought in different functions expected in PMC in the future would be application of bionic designs, transfer from functional quality to sensitive quality, and development of material recycling techniques. 8 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Review on departure time choice theory for highway traffic; Doro kotsu ni okeru shuppatsu jikoku sentaku ni kansuru kenkyu kaisetsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuwahara, M. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Institute of Industrial Science

    1998-04-01

    This paper explains theoretical results achieved to date on the fundamental theory for time smoothing which is drawing attention as a measure to mitigate traffic congestion, that is departure time choice theory for highway traffic. If a trip having a definite restriction on arrival time is used as an object of the discussion, the travel expense for a traveler consists of an expense for travel time when a car was driven at free speeds, an expense for waiting time at bottlenecks, and an expense incurred by schedule delay (s). Under an assumption that the traveler selects departure time to minimize the expense, a time-based equilibrium condition can be introduced. If a schedule expense function (f(s)) to convert `s` into an expense is convex with regard to the `s`, the first in first work (FIFW) principle can be established, that the bottleneck is reached in the order of earlier departure time that is desired. Thus, starting from handling numerically the relationship between queuing expense function in the bottleneck and the f(s), the theory developed to the multiple bottleneck and random effect theory. 19 refs., 8 figs.

  14. Engineering technologies for steel structure applied to Trans-Tokyo bay highway project; Tokyowan odan doro ni okeru kokozo gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furumuro, K.; Kobayashi, T.; Kanda, K. [Kawasaki Steel Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-03-01

    The Trans-Tokyo Bay Highway is a 15.1 km toll road that spans the Tokyo Bay from Kawasaki City in Kanagawa Prefecture to Kisarazu City in Chiba Prefecture by a bridge, an undersea shield tunnel, and two man-made islands. Many new technologies and methods were introduced to construct a large-scale structure safely, rationally, and in a short time on the weak ground under the depth of water in a seismic region such as Tokyo Bay. Kawasaki Steel participated in this project in: (1) development and construction of a revetment structure to which the technology of an oil drilling jacket was applied, (2) design and construction of a large-sized bridge with long-span and multi-span continuous girders on the sea, and (3) design and installation of a mud water treatment module for the shield tunnel constructed on the sea. As a result, the bearing-capacity measurement technology based on the dynamic method of a large diameter steel pipe pile was developed in item (1). The long-term corrosion-proof method using titanium clad steel was developed in item (2), and the way to construct the treatment facilities of approximately 5100 tons in item (3). 3 refs., 12 figs.

  15. Steel structure (bridge and building); Doboku/kenchiku bun`ya ni okeru yosetsu gijutsu no tenkai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukazawa, M. [Yokogawa Bridge Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-01-05

    In this article, the trends of welding engineering are discussed in two groups, namely bridges and steel frames. First of all, in the field of bridges, as the themes of technical innovation of steel bridges, the challenge to build long span bridges, coping with new structural forms, and rationalization of general bridges are selected. Concerning very long bridges, considerable elongation of its spans and technological development for materials, design, construction and erection relating to improvement of profitability become inevitable. Besides, in addition to the functions of bridges, the bridges playing the roles of environmental and/or artistic structures become many, thereby the cases of using welding for the site joints increase. As the measure for rationalize bridge construction, it is to reduce steel weight and working costs for increasing profitability, and the progress of welding technology therefor has been observed. With regard to the manufacture of bridge portions in a factory, labor saving, automatization and robotization of in-house welding have been made, and bridge maintenance as well as pursuance of attaining the state of maintenance free are also important. The trend that the bridge load is becoming larger and enhancement of earthquake resistance are also important. Regarding steel frames, functionalization of steel, making steel very thick, various automatization of manufacturing, and pursuance of earthquake resistant safety are being made. 14 refs., 7 figs.

  16. NEDO`s solar energy program in developing countries; Hatten tojokoku ni okeru NEDO no taiyo energy project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honda, T. [New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo, (Japan)

    1998-05-31

    This paper describes the solar energy program promoted in developing countries by NEDO. Research of photovoltaic power generation systems for middle-scale villages has been conducted in Indonesia between FY 1984 and FY 1989. International cooperative demonstration development for photovoltaic power generation systems has been conducted in Nepal, Mongolia, Thailand and Malaysia for five to six years since FY 1994. For the research of solar heat, air heat collection type drying systems using solar heat has been promoted between FY 1993 and FY 1998. Employment of solar micro hydraulic power hybrid systems is planned in regions with rainy and dry seasons. In FY 1997, photovoltaic power generation systems were constructed in Gansu, Sinkiang Uighur, and Hopeh in China for operation researches. Durability tests have been conducted in Oman. A plan of construction of photovoltaic power generation systems with a capacity from a few MW to 1 GW at maximum in deserts is to be promoted as international cooperative activities with PVPS of IEA and CTI. Japan will play a major role on the activities as a proposal country based on the achievement of PVTEC. 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Possibility of EV with solar cells on the new traffic system; Shinkotsu system ni okeru solar car no kanosei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujii, I.; Kojima, S. [Meiji University, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-11-25

    A possibility of a new traffic system was studied for a solar car which is light in weight, small in size and low in speed (cruising speed: 20 km/h) and does not need so much power because of the use for short distance. In the new traffic system, people travel short distance in city by solar car, and use trains for travel between cities. By installing solar cells on roofs, etc. of houses and buildings such as garages around stations, power needed for solar car and incidentally required can be supplied. Assuming the short distance transportation, the car is for one person with a height of luggage space of 70cm, mean length of 165cm, and floor height of 50cm above the ground. In case that the power generation by solar cells (256.5W) is at maximum with no shading during travel on conditions of load weight of 10kg, personnel weight of 70kg, and total weight of 250kg, it was found that solar cells can supply 89% of the required output under test road travel at speed of 20 km/h. A viability of the solar car proposed here is great. A possibility at the time of mode road travel is also studied. 10 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Desiliconization process of hot metal at blast furnance casthouse. Koro chusho ni okeru yosen no tatsukei shori

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uchiyama, T.; Takeda, K.; Taguchi, S.; Shinohara, K.; Kato, H.; Matsumoto, T. (Kawasaki Steel Corp., Tokyo (Japan))

    1990-09-01

    The Kawasaki Steel has developed several types of desiliconization facilities at blast furnace runner and applied to blast furnaces according to their individual local conditions. In response to the restriction in the maximum feed rate and mass velocity of desiliconization reagent by the slag foaming and splash formations for the desiliconization method without slag removal at the casthouse, three methods, i.e., a top feed method, a blasting by one stage, and a blasting by two stages were developed, according to increases in the required feeding rate of the desiliconization reagent. In the case that the desiliconization slag is removed at the blast furnace runner, it was demonstrated that the injection method by use of an immersion lance was effective because of its high oxygen efficiency in desiliconization. An simulation model of desiliconization was also developed, and the effect of the lance shape on oxygen efficiency in desiliconization was evaluated. On the basis of the simulation results, the oxygen efficiency in desiliconization was able to be increased to 60% by the improvement of the injection conditions. 8 refs., 18 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Present status and amendable subjects of brewery CIM. Beer kojo ni okeru CIM no genjo to kadai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eguchi, T.; Kimura, T. (Asahi Breweries, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))

    1991-12-10

    Though the beer consumption is being smoothly increased, there has been a considerable change in consumers prime taste of beer for these several years. The present report exhibits the computer integrated manufacturing system introduced in Ibaraki Brewery, Asahi Beer to be operated as per the target. The introduction of that system aimed at an execution of integrated administration, high particularly in quality control, to integrate the information and control of total production activities from the production planning to the product delivery. Together with the structuring of information system for the integrated production, aim was taken also at the heightening in quality control, heightening in administration level, labor saving and newly conceived distribution system. As for the structuring of hardware, the system was functionally classified into production planning level, administration level for the manufacturing and distribution, and control level for the processing and distribution. Each of those levels was accommodated with the most suitable machinery thereon. The future problems are about the quality control data measurement and widened application of database. 5 figs.

  20. Application of membrane technology to food industry; Shokuhin kogyo bun'ya ni okeru maku riyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamata, T.; Nakajima, M. [Univ. of Tsukuba, Tsukuba (Japan)

    2000-08-05

    In the food industry, the membrane technologies are used practically for concentration of fruit juice and milk, etc. as reverse osmosis, for decolorization and desalination of liquid seasoning as nanofiltration, for bacteria elimination, etc. as micro-filtration, for recovery and purification of the protein as ultra-filtration, and for kitchen salt manufacturing and desalination as electrodialysis. In this paper, the state of utilization of membranes and the trend of recent research and development in the food industry are described. At first, a utilization of membranes in the dairy industry field, the fruit juice processing field, the alcoholic beverage field, the seasoning field, the honey purification field, the protein field and the fats and oils processing field are described. Next, as a film emulsification technology, a preparing process of W/O emulsion in which the pressurized water phase is penetrated through a hydrophobic membrane into the oil phase of the opposite side, and a preparing process of W/O emulsion in which the pressurized oil phase is penetrated through a hydrophilic film are described. The emulsification technology using the micro-channel made of the silicon chip, which is developed by the author is introduced. (NEDO)

  1. Dream of future on human-machine cooperative system; Ningen robot system ni okeru fluid power gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Y. [Hosei University, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    2000-01-15

    This paper describes the human-machine cooperative system and fluid power technology. Most of Japanese robot R and D activities shifted from early R and D on hydraulic or pneumatic driving to that on simple electric driving, and development of fluid power technology as actuator and control technology is retarded. For creating an artificial work environment with a presence by virtual reality formation technology, an equipment (actuator) directly acting such five senses (sensor) of operators as visual, auditory, pressure and contact senses is essential. Pneumatic actuator is extremely suitable for such one because of its small size, light weight, safety and high power density. Robocup has been held as the soccer game of many autonomous robots. For the soccer game of human beings and robots, development of such technologies for advanced autonomous robots is necessary as realtime processing, advanced intelligence, human friendliness, safety, high-efficiency high-power actuator equivalent to human muscle, and energy source. (NEDO)

  2. Magnetic constraints of basement structure offshore of western Kyushu, Japan; Kyushu seiho kaiiki ni okeru jiki ijo no kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okuma, S.; Nakatsuka, T. [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan); Ishihara, T. [Japan National Oil Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-05-01

    This paper describes the results from the qualitative analysis of magnetic anomalies offshore of western Kyushu and from an analysis by a three-dimensional two-layer model inversion. The analysis ranged from Kyushu on the east to Jeju Island on the west and from the southern part of the Korean Peninsula on the north to Tanegashima and Yakushima Islands on the south, namely, the area of 580km from east to west and 580km from south to north. The analytical data used was Magnetic Anomaly Map of Asia (GSJ and CCOP, 1994). In the qualitative analysis, a pseudogravity anomaly map and a pole gravity anomaly map were prepared from the total magnetic force anomaly map by means of a frequency filter operation. As a result, it was noted that two distinctive magnetic high belts existed in the margin of the Tunghai Shelf, extending from the sea area to the west of the Nansei Islands continuously to NNE, and being distributed transversely through the Goto sedimentary basin. Additionally, in the inversion analysis, it was demonstrated that the magnetic basement became shallow at the margin of the Tunghai Shelf north of latitude 31 degrees north, extending nearly in the NNE direction through west of the Goto Islands, west of Tsushima Island, and continuing to the southern coast of the Korean Peninsula. 6 refs., 4 figs.

  3. MT2-D inversion analysis in Kakkonda geothermal field; Kakkonda chinetsu chiiki ni okeru MT ho nijigen kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamane, K.; Takasugi, S. [Geothermal Energy Research and Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Miyazaki, S. [Japan Metals and Chemicals Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Uchida, T. [New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo, (Japan)

    1996-05-01

    Data, collected from an MT method-assisted survey conducted in the Kakkonda geothermal region in 1987, was re-examined, and a new structure was found. The review was carried out by use of a 2D analysis in the TM mode. According to the 1D analysis of 1987 and the geological data gathered then, it is estimated that the resistivity structure of this region runs in the northwest-southeast direction. A northeast-southwest traverse line was set for this analysis, orthogonal to the strike, and the impedance at each observation spot was caused to rotate to this direction across the whole range of frequency. Furthermore, in 1994-95, surveys were conducted using arrayed CSMT/MT methods. All these sum up to indicate that a high-resistivity region extends northwest in the southwestern part of the Kakkonda river but that there exists a low-resistivity region of several 10 Ohm m centering about the B traverse line. The high-resistivity region deep in the ground being the target of excavation in the Kakkonda region, to collect knowledge about this high-resistivity is important, and here the effectiveness of the 2d analysis has been verified. 5 refs., 11 figs.

  4. On noise, traffic and factory vibrations in Akita city; Akitashi ni okeru soon oyobi kotsu kojo shindo ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nogoshi, M.; Kikuchi, T.; Morino, T.; Sannohe, M. [Akita University, Akita (Japan). College of Education

    1996-05-01

    Noise and vibration were measured in Akita City. In 1994, noise and traffic-caused vibration were measured along the trunk lines and other roads across the entire Akita City area. In 1995, the effort centered on the Ibarashima manufacturing quarters, the important source of noise and vibration in Akita city. The general-purpose noise meter LA-220S was used to measure noise and the vibration level meter VR-5100 was used to measure vibration. The results of noise measurement carried out at 122 points in Akita City indicated that the noise level was high along Route 7, Route 13, and the southern line belonging to the newly built national highway, marking the highest of approximately 74dB. As compared with the measurement made in 1968, the value was higher by 3-13dB. A roughly similar trend was seen in vibration. The noise level measurement of 1995 accomplished at 100 points in the vicinity of Ibarashima district indicated that the factories were responsible for high levels of noise and vibration. It was found that the levels lowered in proportion to the increase in the distance from the factories. 11 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Remote reference processing in MT survey using GPS clock; MT ho ni okeru GPS wo mochiita jikoku doki system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamane, K.; Inoue, J.; Takasugi, S. [Geothermal Energy Research and Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Kosuge, S. [DRICO Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-05-01

    A report is given about the application of a synchronizing system using clock signals from GPS satellites to a remote reference method which is a technique to reject noise from the MT method. This system uses the C/A code out of the L1 band waves from NAVSTAR/GPS satellites. The new system was operated in MT method-using investigations conducted at China Peninsula, Aichi Prefecture, and Izu Peninsula, Shizuoka Prefecture, with the reference points placed several 100km away in Iwate Prefecture on both occasions. It was found as the result that it is basically possible to catch signals from the GPS at any place, that the signals are accurate enough to be applied to time synchronization for the MT method, and that the signals assure a far remote reference method with a separation of several 100km between the sites involved. The referencing process at high frequencies whose feasibility had been doubted proved a success when highly correlated signals were exchanged between two stations over a distance of several 100km. 5 refs., 9 figs.

  6. Noise and vibration reduction technology in hybrid vehicle development; Hybrid sha kaihatsu ni okeru shindo soon teigen gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshioa, T.; Sugita, H. [Toyota Motor Corp., Aichi (Japan)

    2000-03-01

    Accomplishing both environmental protection and good NVH performance has become a significant task in automotive development The first-in-the-world hybrid passenger car of mass production. 'Prius', has achieved superior NV performance compared with conventional vehicles with a 1.5-liter engine along with 50% reduction of fuel consumption and CO{sub 2} emissions. low HC, CO and NO{sub x} emissions. This paper describes NV reduction technology for solving problems peculiar to the hybrid vehicle such as engine start/stop vibration, drone noise at low engine speed and motor/generator noise and vibration. It also mentions application technology of low rolling resistance tires with light weight wheels and recycled material for sound proofing. (author)

  7. Function of Regenerator in the multi staged regenerative refrigerator; Tadan chikureigata reitoki ni okeru chokureiki no kino

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, T.; Nogawa, M.; Zhu, S. [Aisin Seiki Co., Ltd., Aichi (Japan)

    1999-11-10

    On the function of regeneration vessel, which is the base element of regeneration type refrigerating machine, there is two of viewpoint as a heat exchanger greatly separate and viewpoint as an energy converter. Here, to begin with, the function of regeneration vessel as energy converter is arranged, and especially, both expression is compared on the expression of the regeneration vessel efficiency. In addition, the essence of multistage used in the cooling of the regeneration type refrigerating machine is examined from the viewpoint of the function of the regeneration vessel. (NEDO)

  8. Design method for heat exchanger of stirling cycle machines; Sutaringu saikuru kikan ni okeru netsu kokanki no sekkei shuho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sekiya, H. [Sanyo Electric Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-11-10

    Recently, the Stirling cycle organization attracts the attention as 1 of the countermeasure to the global environmental problem, and the tendency of various application equipment developments heightens. The main factor is in constructing CFC elimination refrigeration air conditioner, and the development example as an engine for power source of refrigerating machine used in the ultra-low-temperature region and equipment variously is reported. In this paper, practical design tool and design examination case are introduced, while design technique of heat exchanger, which is the most important in design development of these, ST refrigerating machine and ST engines is described. (NEDO)

  9. Estimation of course stability at initial design stage; Shoki sekkeiji ni okeru shinro anteisei no suitei ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yukawa, K. [Ministry of Transportation, Tokyo (Japan)] Kijima, K. [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan)

    1998-12-31

    The theoretical prediction method for the hydrodynamic forces acting on the ship hull in maneuvering motion in consideration of effect of frame line configuration is proposed, selecting six types of model ships as the calculation objects. The prediction results show that the hydrodynamic forces can be predicted with reasonable accuracy in the ordinary maneuvering motion range, though the large drift angle and high dimensionless rotation angular speed give some errors. Using the linear differential coefficient obtained from the prediction of hydrodynamic force acting on ship hull, the decrease in the course instability is investigated. It is found that the method is able to be used for predicting the course stability of ships with relatively good accuracy. This method will be useful to decrease the course instability due to the difference in change in local shape of ships. Study will be continued on estimation calculation of hydrodynamic force on ship hull having various kinds of types. 13 refs., 15 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Power feeding to terminal devices in optical subscriber network; Hikari fuaiba tsushin ni okeru tanmatsu kiki eno kyuden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamasaki, M

    1998-09-01

    This paper outlines present state of the feeding system in the light access system in consideration of backup in case of home power failure. In the optical communication, equipment with bilateral conversion function for light and electricity has to be installed both on communication service side and home side. Outline of the light access system and equipment requiring backup are shown. The following items are explained: main types of the light access system, such as FTTC (fiber to the curb), FTTP (fiber to the pole), FTTH (fiber to the home) and HFC (hybrid fiber coax), and the feeding system; problems on feeding system for the light access system. Key elements of ONU (optical network unit) for FTTH and construction of the ONU power source are illustrated. The ONU power source is composed of a backup power supply unit and main body supply unit. Backup power is indispensable to the ONU and analog telephones: output is supplied by the backup batteries in power failure. For miniaturization of the backup power source, power supply circuits and backup batteries have to be miniaturized simultaneously. History of miniaturization is explained on the experimental models. 6 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Measurement of organic carbon quantity at chemoautorophic bacterium; Kagaku dokuritsu eiyo saikin ni okeru yuki tansoryo no sokutei ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuda, I.; Kato, K.; Nozaki, K. [Electrotechnical Laboratory, Tsukuba (Japan); Kurokawa, K. [Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    Described herein is the method for analyzing quantity of organic carbon synthesized by chemoautotrophic bacterium. It is based on the combustion-infrared spectroscopy, which is normally adopted for quantitative analysis of organic carbon. The problems involved in the measurement of organic compounds synthesized by iron-oxidizing bacteria are noise by culture medium components, aging of gas analyzer and contamination with organic compounds from a silicon plug. The measures taken in this study against these problems include comparison of the results with a medium containing iron-oxidizing bacteria with those with a medium free of these bacteria, calibration with the standard solution for each measurement, and replacement of a silicone plug by a silicon cap. Organic carbon is measured by a TOC-5000 analyzer equipped with an automatic sample feeder ASI-5000. Biomass density is determined by the MPN method. It is confirmed that organic carbon quantity is almost in proportion to biomass density, a phenomenon which can be used to determine organic carbon quantity. 7 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Reinstatement of material research in the 21st century; 21 seiki ni okeru zairyo kenkyu no fukken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinbara, K. [Osaka Univercity, Osaka (Japan). Institute of Scientific and Industrial Research

    2000-03-10

    Just before the 21st century, Japan is demanded most importantly of reforming the industrial structures, breeding new industries, and working on global environment and energy problems. To solve these problems, emergence of material technologies based on original ideas is indispensable. However, Japan lacks a temperament to value original ideas and support them in positive manners. Structuring unique ideas and concepts with high originality is one of the most important intellectual production activities for human being. Understanding that these activities require incessant challenging spirit and accumulation of exhaustive efforts, a system should be structured to give the highest honor to researchers and groups who have made successes in this respect. It should be understood that development of the material technologies requires huge amount of fund, human resources and time, and national strategies should be established as required. Habitat segregation is to be moved forward in research and development, and a system will be built that links effectively the seed oriented research by universities and national research institutes with the need oriented research by business enterprises. The 21st century will be an age that many people can dream of their own success. (NEDO)

  13. Measurement results of BHTV logging at the geothermal well. 1; Chinetsusei ni okeru BHTV kenso no sokutei kekka. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, S. [Geophysical Surveying and Consulting Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Nakanishi, S.; Shimizu, I. [Electric Power Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-05-27

    In association with excavation of the No. 135 steam producing well in the Onikubi geothermal power plant in Miyagi Prefecture, shapes of production zones and drilling-induced fracture (DIF) were acquired from the borehole televiewer (BHTV) data. The BHTV logging shoots sound waves onto well walls of wells filled with fluid and detects the reflection waves to investigate the state of the well walls. Vertical fracture with opening lengths from 2 to 3 m were found at depths of about 1232 m and 1312 m. Water run-off has occurred at a depth of about 1312 m during the excavation, to which these vertical fractures might have contributed possibly. In depths of about 1232 m and 1312 m, fractures inclining toward north-east direction and south-west direction are predominant. Some fractures in the depth of about 1333 m incline toward east-south-east direction and west-north-west direction. Fracture inclination azimuth in all of the present logging sections is predominantly in north-east direction and south-west direction. When the DIF is considered to show the maximum compression azimuth, the earth`s crust stress azimuth is generally in east-west direction, which crosses slightly obliquely with the running direction of the predominant fracture in this well. 1 ref., 7 figs.

  14. Shallow seismic reflection prospecting in Hachiro-kata reclaimed land; Hachirogata kantakuchi ni okeru senbu hanshaho jishin tansa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitsunezaki, C.; Fukutome, T.; Matsumoto, S.; Noda, K.; Sato, T. [Akita University, Akita (Japan). Mining College; Hayashi, H.; Ishii, E.; Yamanaka, Y.; Matsuno, K.; Mikuni, S. [Suncoh Consultant Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-05-27

    Along the Japan Sea coast in Akita Prefecture and in the vicinity, there exist active fault groups, such as the Kitayuri thrust fault group in the south and Noshiro thrust fault group in the north. It is estimated that there is another fault, running from Akita City located between the above-said two thrust fault groups into the Hachiro-kata reclaimed land, roughly connecting the two thrust fault groups. This third fault is supposed to be related to the hypocenter of Tencho Earthquake of 830, but its location and structural configuration are not known, and it is not known whether it is an active fault, either. Investigations are conducted using S- and P-waves. The greatest problem in the use of P-waves is that there exists a layer in which signal attenuation is high and transmission is anomalously slow. This problem is ascribed to the layer pore water rendered unsaturated though slightly by the inclusion of air bubbles, and is explained for the most part by the White model. A survey using S-waves is advantageous in that it does not experience no difficulty of this kind. In the P-wave cross section, a structure supposed to be an inversion layer is observed at a level deeper than 200m. In the case of the S-wave method, more details of the shallow structure will be available when the degree of CMP stacking is augmented as usual. 2 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  15. 3D seismic experiment in difficult area in Japan; Kokunai nanchiiki ni okeru sanjigen jishin tansa jikken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minegishi, M.; Nakagami, K.; Tanaka, H. [Japan National Oil Corp., Tokyo (Japan). Technology Research Center

    1997-05-27

    Difficult area in this context means an exploration-difficult area supposed to store oil/gas but retarded in exploration for the lack of knowledge about the geological structure due to poor quality of available seismic survey records. Discussed in this paper is a survey conducted into an area covering the southern part of Noshiro-shi, Akita-ken, and Yamamoto-cho, Yamamoto-gun, Akita-ken. An area size suitable for data collection at a target depth of 2500m is determined using an interpretation structure compiled on the basis of available well data and 2D seismic survey data. The plan for siting shock points and receiving points is modified case by case as restrictive factors come to the surface (resulting from the complicated hilly terrain, presence of pipes for agricultural water, etc.). The peculiarities of seismic waves in the terrain are studied through the interpretation of the available well data and 2D seismic survey data for the construction of a 3D velocity model for the confirmation of the appropriateness of the plan for siting shock points and receiving points. Efforts are exerted through enhanced coordination with the contractor to acquire data so that a technologically best design may be won within the limits of the budget. The quality of the data obtained from this experiment is in general better than those obtained from previous experiments, yet many problems remain to be settled in future studies about exploration-difficult areas. 4 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Relation between frequency of seismic wave and resolution of tomography; Danseiha tomography kaiseki ni okeru shuhasu to bunkaino no kankei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujimoto, M.; Watanabe, T.; Ashida, Y.; Sassa, K. [Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-05-27

    With regard to the elastic wave exploration, discussions have been given on the relationship between frequency and resolution in P-wave velocity tomography using the initial travel time. The discussions were carried out by using a new analysis method which incorporates the concept of Fresnel volume into tomography analysis. The following two arrangements were used in the calculation: a cross hole arrangement, in which seismic source and vibration receiving points were arranged so as to surround the three directions of a region extending 250 m in the horizontal direction and 500 m in the vertical direction, and observation is performed between two wells, and a permeation VSP arrangement in which the seismic source is installed on the ground surface and receiving points installed in wells. Restructuring was performed on the velocity structure by using a total of 819 observation travel times. This method has derived results of the restructuring according to frequencies of the seismic source used for the exploration. The resolution shown in the result of the restructuring has become higher as elastic waves with higher frequency are used, and the size of the structure identified from the restructuring result has decreased. This fact reveals that sufficient considerations must be given on frequencies of elastic waves used according to size of objects to be explored. 4 refs., 4 figs.

  17. Fault analysis in the very shallow seismic reflection method. 2; Gokusenso hanshaho ni okeru danso kaiseki. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagumo, S.; Muraoka, S.; Takahashi, T. [Oyo Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-05-27

    Fault analysis is required in addition to the ordinary process of structural analysis (CDP stacking) for the examination of discontinuity in the reflection horizon in question. The fault shape restoration principle is that the reflection point of a reflection wave observed at a certain receiving point is on an ellipse with the shock point and receiving point at its focal points and that the sum of the distances between the reflection point and the focal points is equal to the reflection wave propagation time. The DMO velocity is worked out by calculation using the positive travel time and inverse travel time from the common reflection surface. When the reflection surface is inclined by {theta}, the average interval velocity/cos{theta} is called the DMO velocity. When the reflection surface inclination and the average interval velocities are determined separately in this way, the position of the reflection point may be worked out, and this enables the calculation of the amount of migration (lateral movement). The reflection wave lineups carried by the original record are picked up one by one, and the average interval velocities are treated very prudently. After such a basic DMO conversion treatment, the actualities of the fault are described fairly correctly. 3 figs.

  18. Transition of wind power utilization technology in the 20th century; 20 seiki ni okeru furyoku riyo gijutsu no hensen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ushiyama, I. [Ashikaga Inst. of Tech., Tochigi (Japan)

    2000-04-01

    Windmills are one of the oldest prime movers and have been used for more than 700 years in Europe. The transition from low speed windmills for grain grinding and water pumping to high speed wind turbines for electric power generation had occurred at the end of 19{sup th} century. This paper, at first, reviews the windmill technologies and the researchers before 20th century. Then describes the back ground of how the wind power generator has existed and how the four pioneers developed their wind power generator. The historical developments of windmills to wind turbines in this century are studied focusing mainly on Danish activities. Then, the effort of the development of large wind turbine such as Smith-Putnum's first MW machine in U.S.A. and other mammoth machine concept are introduced. The new concept machines such as Savonius and Darrieus wind turbines in 1920s to 1930s are also explained. Finally, the novel technologies of wind turbine covering larger machines, variable speed generators, special wing sections for wind turbines, theoretical analysis method of wind turbine performance, offshore wind turbines, and wind turbine control technologies are stated. (author)

  19. Study of impacts of north american free trade agreement over the international labor migration; Hokubei juyuboeki kyotei no kokusai rodoryoku ido ni ataeru eikyo ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koido, Akihiro [Sophia University, Tokyo (Japan). Institute of International Relations

    1998-12-16

    This project tried to analyze the effects of transnational economic integration on the immigration flow from developing countries, focusing the case of NAFTA and Mexico. Field interviews with 30 plants of Japanese and U.S. firms with regard to locational and labor market strategy made it possible to analyze concrete effects of investment on labor migration. The rapidly expanding export oriented in-bond industry is incorporating new source of labor by spatially shifting to interior states. On the other hand, new mode of global competition, centered around quality, product diversity, acceleration of product innovation, gave a special advantage to border location and gave rise to industrial agglomeration of specific sectors in specific cities. This industrial dynamics lead not to balance of labor market among regions, but to further labor migration to the north. In future, by utilizing the concept of industrial agglomeration in a more systematic manner, I would like to develop more specific understanding of migration within the context of transnational regional integration. (author)

  20. "¿CÓMO HA IDO LA FERIA?" ESTIMACIÓN DEL IMPACTO ECONÓMICO DE ACONTECIMIENTOS TURÍSTICOS: TRES ESTUDIOS DE CASO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A. Corral

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Los acontecimientos pueden contribuir al desarrollo turístico de una ciudad y beneficiar a sus habitantes y empresas. Sin embargo, para poder diseñar los acontecimientos correctamente, es necesario comprender qué características determinan su impacto económico. Esta investigación pretende contribuir a tal entendimiento mediante la estimación y comparación del impacto económico de tres acontecimientos. Para estimar el impacto económico adoptamos un modelo básico de tres factores: (1 número de visitantes por (2 gasto medio por turista por (3 multiplicador. Primero estimamos el número de visitantes particulares y profesionales mediante diversos sistemas de conteo, encuestas personales e información suministrada por el organizador de los eventos. En segundo lugar, obtuvimos los importes y componentes del gasto de los visitantes por medio de una encuesta; también contamos los gastos de organización de los eventos a partir de sus respectivos presupuestos. Y, tercero, utilizamos multiplicadores de tablas input-output para analizar el impacto de los gastos directos sobre la producción, el valor añadido y el empleo y su distribución entre sectores económicos. Además, calculamos y comparamos ratios de rentabilidad de los tres eventos y dimos recomendaciones para aumentar su impacto económico.

  1. Diaquabis[5-(pyrazin-2-yl-3-(pyridin-4-yl-1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-ido-κN1]zinc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Li

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The title mononuclear complex, [Zn(C11H7N62(H2O2], is composed of one ZnII ion, two deprotonated ppt ligands [Hppt = 5-(pyrazin-2-yl-3-(pyridin-4-yl-1H-1,2,4-triazole] and two coordinating water molecules. The asymmetric unit consists of one half-molecule that is completed by application of a centre of symmetry. The ZnII atom is six-coordinated in an octahedral environment, surrounded by two O atoms in the axial positions and four N atoms in the equatorial plane. Adjacent mononuclear units are further linked via O—H...N hydrogen-bonding interactions, forming a two-dimensional network along (100.

  2. trans-Diaquabis[5-carboxy-4-carboxylato-2-(4-pyridinio-1H-imidazol-1-ido-κ2N3,O4]iron(II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Li

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available In the title complex, [Fe(C10H6N3O42(H2O2], the FeII atom is located on a twofold rotation axis and is coordinated by two trans-positioned N,O-bidentate and zwitterionic 5-carboxy-2-(pyridinium-4-yl-1H-imidazol-1-ide-4-carboxylate H2PIDC− ligands and two water molecules in a distorted environment. In the crystal packing, a three-dimensional network is constructed via hydrogen-bonding involving the water molecules, uncoordinated imidazole N atom, protonated pyridine N and carboxylate O atoms.

  3. "A cultura é a inversão da vida". Velhice, juventude e política nos idos do “maio de 1968”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alarcon Agra do Ó

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available

    “Maio de 68”, em incontáveis séries enunciativas, passa por ser a explicitação de uma fratura no tempo e nas relações sociais – inclusive nas relações que os indivíduos mantêm consigo mesmos –, ela se condensando no gesto que ilumina e legitima os corpos jovens, ao mesmo tempo lançando para as sombras os corpos vincados pela idade. Procuro, neste artigo, pensar algumas nuances desse cenário, a partir de um ponto de vista interessado em explorar contornos da experiência histórica da velhice no Brasil contemporâneo. É o que tenho feito, aliás, nos últimos anos: pensar experiências históricas tentando encontrar nelas tensões que relaciono à mutação demográfica e cultural que marca o ocidente nos últimos cem anos, e que é geralmente descrita como a intensificação quantitativa e qualitativa da velhice.

  4. Bis{2-[(4-chlorophenyliminomethyl]pyrrol-1-ido-κ2N,N′}bis(dimethylamido-κNtitanium(IV toluene monosolvate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahong Li

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The mononuclear title compound, [Ti(C11H8ClN22(C2H6N2]·C7H8, was synthesized by the reaction of N-(4-chlorophenyl-2-pyrrolylcarbaldimine with Ti(C2H6N4. The TiIV ion is situated on a twofold rotation axis and displays a distorted octahedral geometry defined by four N atoms from two 2-[(4-chlorophenyliminomethyl]pyrrol-1-ide ligands and two N atoms from two dimethylamine ligands. The Ti—Npyrrole bond length [2.1041 (19 Å] is longer than the Ti—Ndimethylamine bond length [1.9013 (19 Å]; the imine N atom exhibits the longest Ti—N bond [2.3152 (17 Å]. The toluene solvent molecule is located on a twofold rotation axis running through the C atom of the methyl group. Consequently, the H atoms of the latter are rotationally disordered. The compound contains no markable hydrogen-bonding interactions.

  5. Burning-off characteristics of carbon fibers by joule heating in air; Tanso sen`i no taikichu ni okeru tsuden shodan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Endo, M.; Takeuchi, K.; Nishimura, Y.; Kasai, T. [Shinshu University, Nagano (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-02-26

    This paper evaluates the burning-off performance of mesophase pitch-based carbon fibers (MPCFs) by joule heating in air. The MPCFs have higher current capacity up to burning-off by joule heating than copper wires, and can be proof against large current. Especially, the current performance of MPCFs is roughly divided into two groups based on the degree of graphitization, which reflects difference in the crystal structure. While, the pitch-based activated carbon fiber (ACF) having very fine pores and huge specific surface is very weak against the electrical applications. For the observation of burned-off fibers by FE-SEM, inherently emphasized current applied structures reflecting original structures, such as the layered structure of MPCF and the pore structure of ACF were observed. Consequently, it was suggested that the carbon fibers themselves can be proof against severe conditions for their electrical applications. It was also concluded that the fiber structure formed by burning-off is one of useful methods for characterizing various structures of carbon fibers. 21 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Energy consumption and human factors. Residents` style of living and consciousness of the residential houses; Energy shohi to human factor. Jutaku ni okeru kyojusha no ishiki sumaikata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsubara, N. [Kyoto Prefectural Univ., Kyoto (Japan). Faculty of Living Science

    1996-09-05

    Energy consumption and human factors, which mean residents` style of living and consciousness of the residential houses, are considered on the basis of the survey results for residents living in residential houses with the same specifications in the Kansai district in 1994. The outside climate condition is loosened through the shelter performance of building, solar radiation, and clothes, to form the climate under clothes. Additionally, as a result of physiological control of body heat, the warm, cool, and comfortable sensations are formed. Various factors affect this process. Conception of satisfaction was considered as upper criteria. There are residents satisfying the non-use of air-conditioner, even though it is not comfortable. The concept of satisfaction determines dissatisfaction, patience, and otherwise satisfaction of environment modification action and escape action from environment. Concrete examples of the life style are illustrated based on the survey. Dispersion of room temperature and the various consciousness and styles of living are also illustrated, qualitatively, on the basis of the field survey. For the investigation of domestic energy consumption items, it is not avoidable to illustrate the common actual conditions of living. 12 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Cyanide formation by the cyanide distillation of nitrate. Zen shian joryuji ni okeru shosan ion ga kanyosuru shian kagobutsu ion no seisei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogura, H. (The Chiba Prefectural Lab. of Water Pollution, Chiba (Japan))

    1994-06-10

    Cyanide ion is formed by reacting disodium ethylenediamine-tetra-acetate (EDTA) with a sample containing nitrous ion. Further, it is known that cyanide ions are also generated from the reaction between EDTA and the product of the reaction of oxide and the substance like hydroxyl ammonium chloride which is added to reduce the oxide contained in the sample. In the present researches, the possibility of the formation of cyanide ions from the nitric acid used popularly in the manufactory of plating and surface-treatment is examined. It is expected that if nitric ion takes a part in the formation of cyanide ion, the reaction reducing the nitric ion into nitrous ion would happen as the former step thereof. Therefore, the cyanide distillation of nitric ions co-existing with the reducing agent is carried out, and it is confirmed that cyanide ion is formed with the participation of EDTA. 14 refs., 1 fig., 7 tabs.

  8. Calculation of wave resistance by using Kochin function in the Rankine source method; Rankinsosuho ni okeru kochin kansu wo mochiita zoha teiko keisan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasukawa, H. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    In order to avoid negative wave resistance (which is physically incomprehensible) generated in calculating wave resistance by using the Rankine source method, a proposal was made on a wave resistance calculation method using the Kochin function which describes behavior of speed potential in regions far apart from a hull. The Baba`s condition was used as a free surface condition for the speed potential which expresses wave motions around a hull. This has allowed a new Kochin function which uses as unknown the speed potential on the hull surface and the free surface near the hull to be defined and combined with the Rankine source method. A comparison was made between the calculated values for wave resistance, hull subsidence and trim change of an ore transporting vessel (SR107 type of ship) in a fully loaded condition and the result of water tank tests. The wave resistance values derived from pressure integration have all become negative when the Froude number is from 0.1 to 0.2, while no negative resistance has appeared in the calculations by using the Kochin function, but the result has agreed with that of the water tank tests. Accuracy of the calculations at low speeds was improved. The trim change in the calculations was slightly smaller than that in the water tank tests. The subsidence showed a good agreement. 7 refs., 1 fig.

  9. Characteristic analysis of turbulent heat diffusion in a multi-compartment structure; Takukakuka kukan kozo ni okeru ranryunetsu kakusan gensho no kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, C.; Fukuchi, N. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-10-01

    An analysis was made on turbulent heat diffusion in a multi-compartment structure necessary for designing calorific power and environment for functional systems used in marine vessels and off-shore structures. In a multi-compartment structure, the diffusion phenomenon is complex because of movement of air flow in turbulence and buoyancy resulted from non-isothermal condition. The phenomenon is largely affected by space shapes and walls, and the conditions in heat diffusion field is governed also by shapes of opening connecting the compartments. An analysis was made by using the SIMPLE method on turbulent heat diffusion in a multi-compartment space with high Raleigh number in which natural convection is dominant. If the opening is small, the Coanda effect appears, in which air flow passing through the opening rises along the wall, wherein a high-temperature layer is formed near the ceiling, making the heat diffusion inactive. If the opening is large, a jetting flow from the opening and a large circulating flow are created, which cause active advection mixture, making temperature gradient smaller in the upper layer. Heat transfer intensity in an opening on a partition wall decays in proportion with 1/4th power of the opening ratio. 7 refs., 11 figs.

  10. Nonlinear process generating Tollmien-Schlichting waves in a reattached boundary layer; Hakuri saifuchaku nagare ni okeru T-S hado no hisenkei reiki katei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asai, M.; Aiba, K. [Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-09-01

    Low-frequency Tollmien-Schlichting (T-S) waves may be thought generated as a result of high-frequency disturbance between two proximity frequency modes grown unstably in a separation shear layer causing secondary nonlinear interference to occur. This fact has been verified by a numerical simulation. A non-compression Navier-Stokes equation was used for the fundamental equation, a tertiary windward difference for the convection term, and a secondary central difference for other differential calculus. The Reynolds number was 200, and the disturbance was introduced by applying `v` variation continuously on the wall face. Non-introduction of the disturbance results in a steady flow. Disturbance frequencies of 0.15 and 0.20 were selected as disturbance frequencies from the relationship between the spatial amplification and the frequency dependency. The structure of the excited disturbance agreed with the intrinsic mode. The difference mode due to nonlinear interference grows as the basic mode was amplified. The basic mode decays sharply in the boundary layer after reattachment, while the difference mode decays slowly. Distribution of the difference mode is a distribution of viscous T-S waves, which may be converted into the intrinsic mode. 8 refs., 7 figs.

  11. Photo-irradiation effects on GaAs atomic layer epitaxial growth. GaAs no genshiso epitaxial seicho ni okeru hikari reiki koka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mashita, M.; Kawakyu, Y.; Sasaki, M.; Ishikawa, H. (Toshiba Corp., Kawasaki (Japan). Research and Development Center)

    1990-08-10

    Single atomic layer epitaxy (ALE) aims at controlling a growing film at a precision of single molecular layer. In this article, it is reported that the growth temperature range of ALE was expanded by the vertical irradiation of KrF exima laser (248 nm) onto the substrate for the ALE growth of GaAs using the metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) method. Thanks for the results of the above experiment, it was demonstrated that the irradiation effect was not thermal, but photochemical. In addition, this article studies the possibility of adsorption layer irradiation and surface irradiation as the photo-irradiation mechanism, and points out that coexistence of both irradiation mechanisms can be considered and, in case of exima laser, strong possibility of direct irradiation of the adsorption layer because of its high power density. Hereinafter, by using both optical growth ALE and thermal growth ALE jointly, the degree of freedom of combination of hetero ALE increases and its application to various material systems becomes possible. 16 refs., 6 figs.

  12. Vortex-induced vibrations of circular cylinder in cross flow at supercritical Reynolds numbers; Chorinkai Reynolds su ryoiki ni okeru enchu no uzu reiki shindo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawamura, T.; Nakao, T.; Takahashi, M.; Hayashi, M.; Goto, N. [Hitachi, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-07-25

    Vortex-induced vibrations were measured for a circular cylinder subjected to a water cross flow at supercritical Reynolds numbers for a wide range of reduced velocities. Turbulence intensities were changed from 1% to 13% in order to investigate the effect of the Strouhal number on the region of synchronization by symmetrical and Karman vortex shedding. The reduced damping of the test cylinder was about 0.1 in water. The surface roughness of the cylinder was a mirror-polished surface. Strouhal number decreased from about 0.48 to 0.29 with increasing turbulence intensity. Synchronized vibrations were observed even at supercritical Reynolds numbers where fluctuating fluid force was small. Reduced velocities at which drag and lift direction lock-in by Karman vortex shedding were initiated decreased with increasing Strouhal number. When Strouhal number was about 0.29, the self-excited vibration in drag direction by symmetrical vortex shedding began at which the frequency ratio of Karman vortex shedding frequency to the natural frequency of cylinder was 0.32. (author)

  13. Energy conservation progress in building equipment. Energy conservation on the sports facilities; Kenchiku setsubi ni okeru sho energy no shiten. Supotsu reja shisetsu no sho energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakura, I.; Kayo, M. [Kajima Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-06-05

    There are various kinds of sports and leisure facilities. Due to their classes, aims, operation styles and so forth, the grades of aimed environments and facilities change. For example, like a baseball, swimming and skating, quantity of motion and grade of sportswear are different due to their classes and a target environment is also differs. On the other hand, public facility for citizen use is required its cheaper fee, but private facility on commercial base is required its user-collecting capability with added-value. In order to content individual needs of each facility, it is important to combine properly its target environment and its equipment system. The sports and leisure facilities have often large space on their characteristics, and are necessary to maintain their target environments as well as to treat their thermal emission in closed space and to supply their required air. Therefore, it is an extremely meaningful to conduct the energy saving in the facility apt to consume a lot of energy, which is described in this paper mainly on in-door large space facilities. 17 refs., 1 tab.

  14. Numerical study of the mechanism of wavy interface generation in explosive welding; Bakuhatsu yosetsu ni okeru hajo kaimen keisei kiko ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abe, A. [Kobe University of Mercantile Marine, Kobe (Japan)

    1996-07-21

    Wavy interface generation is an interesting characteristic of explosive welding. There have been many theoretical and experimental discussions of the mechanism of wavy interface generation but there is no consensus of opinion as yet. We report a numerical approach to the analysis of the mechanism of interface wave generation in explosive welding. The phenomena of the interface wave generation are calculated using a two-dimensional finite difference scheme for elastic-plastic materials. In this simulation the equations for a symmetric collision between copper plates are solved. The concept behind this study is that the wavy interface and vortex streets are caused by the velocity distribution of shear flow and periodic disturbances at the interface. The calculation results show the deformation process of the wavy interface and we obtain qualitative agreements between numerical and experimental results. 13 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Heat transfer in an acoustic-resonance tube model and its visualization; Onkyo kyomeikan ni okeru netsuyuso gensho to sono kashika

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozawa, M.; Kataoka, M. [Kansei Gakuin University, Osaka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Kawamoto, A. [Toshiba Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Takifuji, T. [Hitachi, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-12-25

    Acoustic-resonance freezing was devised recently by Wheatley et al that could be called wave freezing that may be applied to chillers used in from small home air conditioners and refrigerators to those for industrial use. With an objective of using these chillers in practical applications, the present study has experimented and discussed the temperature distribution in tubes, transient dynamic movements, and correlation with acoustic fields by using a fundamental resonance model from among the basic design data. The experimental device consists of a speaker for the acoustic vibrator, resonance tubes, and stacking members. Heat transfer in the acoustic resonance tube was experimented, and the temperature distribution in the stacking plates was observed visually by using a temperature sensing liquid quartz sheet. Heat transfer from joints to flank in the pressure amplitude was recognized, and a special temperature distribution was found to be formed by the resonance system. Qualitative elucidation is also possible on the frequency involved in the heat transportation by means of a short stack model and the correlation with kinds of the fluids. Modeling the system as a whole requires further studies. The tested gases include nitrogen, air, R-22 fluorocarbon gas, and helium. 15 refs., 10 figs.

  16. Tape transport control and estimation of reel inertia for magnetic tape drives; Jiki tape kudokei ni okeru reel kansei moment suitei to tape soko seigyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanagihara, N.; Terayama, T.; Sakai, K.; Owada, N. [Hitachi, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-04-01

    The moment of inertia of the tape reel of VTR varies depending on the reel size and the volume of the tape winding around the reel. Due to the variation, the tension control of the tape in the reel-to-reel drive is difficult. To overcome this problem, the paper presents a new method to identify the tape reel without using additional sensors. Based on this identification scheme, the tape transport control is also presented to achieve the precise tension/speed control. This real-time identification approaches are presented for spinning and running. When the tape reels start spinning up, the tape speed is changed stepwise, by which the inertia of the reel can be estimated using the variation of the tape tension at each reel. The process is repeated to improve the accuracy of identification. Under running condition, the changing inertia can be calculated from the tape radii of two reels. The changing tape radius can be detectable with the speed of capstan. The validity of the proposed method has been approved by experiments using VTR. 6 refs., 14 figs., 4 tabs.

  17. Report on survey of promotion of activities implemented jointly in China in FY 1997; 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho (Chugoku ni okeru kyodo jisshi katsudo no suishin chosa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    Rapid economy growth has been observed in Asia including Japan. On the other hand, problems of population and environment grew even worse with the economic growth. Especially, China is the second CO2 emission country in the world. Large energy demand is still forecasted with its economic growth in the future. It is well-known that the energy consumption per unit GDP is very large. Therefore, it is very significant to promote the activities implemented jointly with China for mitigating the emission of greenhouse gases including CO2, which provides a significant meaning for solving global environmental issues as well as for improving regional environmental issues. It is necessary for the above to recognize the appropriate current situations and to promote the activities implemented jointly suitable for the country. Based on the discussions and information exchanges about environmental issues with staffs concerning environmental policies and scientists as well as the field surveys, methods for the activities implemented jointly were investigated to provide some proposals. 4 figs., 8 tabs.

  18. Sessile animals` distribution and their water quality purification function in Tokyo inner bay; Tokyoto naiwan ni okeru fuchaku dobutsu no bunpu to suishitsu joka kino

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimura, K.; Tsuchiya, T. [Tokyo Metropolitan Research Inst. for Environmental Protection, Tokyo (Japan); Inamori, Y. [National Inst. for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba (Japan); Okutomi, S. [Saitama University, Saitama (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Nishimura, O.; Sudo, R. [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan)

    1998-01-10

    With sea banks in the Tokyo Inner Bay as the object, discussions were given on identification of actual living conditions for sessile animals and purification function of their dominant species. In the investigation, submerged visual observations and identification on existing quantities were performed in July, September and November, 1995 and February 1996. The following matters were made clear as a result of the investigation: the number of species ranges from 43 to 46 and is stabilized throughout a year; a phenomenon is repeated that the number of individuals decreases in summer and winter, and increases in spring and fall as breeding seasons as a result of the addition of larva; the existing quantity is accounted for 90% or more by four dominant species of M. e. galloprovincialis, L. f. kikuchii, C. gigas and Balanus spp in that order; sessile animals weighing 9,110 tons are living annually in average in the sea banks extending over a distance of 192 km; amount of COD purification based on the annual average deposition quantity is calculated 19 tons as a daily average, which corresponds to 23% of the total COD quantity flowing in from the Tokyo urban area; and on the other hand, COD, N and P produced by sessile animals become new loads to environment over the life of these sessile animals. 26 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Efficient calculation of potential distribution in two-layer earth; Niso kozo daichikei ni okeru denki tansa no tame no koritsuteki den`i keisan shuho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kataoka, M.; Okamoto, Y. [Chiba Institute of Technology, Chiba (Japan); Endo, M.; Noguchi, K. [Waseda University, Tokyo (Japan); Teramachi, Y.; Akabane, H. [University of Industrial Technology, Kanagawa (Japan); Agu, M. [Ibaraki University, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1997-05-27

    An efficient calculation method of potential distribution in the presence of an embedded body in multi-layer earth has been proposed by expanding the method of image with a consideration of multiple reflection between the ground surface and each underground boundary. For this method, when solving boundary integral equation with the potential of embedded body surface as only one unknown, i.e., when obtaining discretization equation, ordinary boundary element program developed for analyzing the finite closed region can be used. As an example, numerical calculation was conducted for the two-layer earth. The analysis expression of potential distribution in the case of the certain embedded body in two-layer earth has never published. Accordingly, the calculated results were compared with those by the integral equation method. As a result, it was concluded that the primary potential obtained from the present method agreed well with that obtained from the integral equation method. However, there was a disregarded difference in the secondary potential. For confirming the effectiveness, it was necessary to compare with another numerical calculation method, such as finite element method. 5 refs., 5 figs.

  20. Interfacial area between gases and liquid in a valve plate column and a bubble cap tray; Barubu danto oyobi hosho danto ni okeru kieki sesshoku menseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakoua, M.; Dribika, M.; Besher, E

    1999-03-05

    A mathematical model has been developed for absorption accompanied by chemical reaction of H{sub 2}S and CO{sub 2} in alkanolamine solutions encountered in plants for natural gas sweetening in Libya. The model has been used to calculate actual number of plates in industrial columns. The model results errors in number of trays predictions due to the lack of procedures for estimating interfacial area for the in between flow regime that prevailed in two industrial plants. The developed correlation for interfacial area estimation for the in between flow regime gives zero error in number of trays prediction. (author)

  1. Experimental studies on performance of tandem hydrofoils in high speed regions; Kosokuiki ni okeru tandem suichuyoku no seino ni kansuru jikkenteki kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakatake, K.; Oda, K.; Kataoka, K. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Okada, S. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Mizuno, S. [Hitachi Zosen Corp., Osaka (Japan)

    1996-10-01

    With an objective to clarify basic performance of hydrofoils, a towing experiment was carried out on single hydrofoil and tandem hydrofoils, whose results are reported in this paper. In the experiment, the tandem hydrofoils are supported on two stays on the left and right sides, and the whole lifting power and the whole drag including those of the stays were measured by using strain gauges placed on four plate springs. Results of the experiment may be summarized as follows: in the case of the single hydrofoil, the lifting power constant varied as a result of strong impact on free surface as the shallower the hydrofoil, but corresponds to the size of the lifting power coefficient in high speed regions; in the case of the tandem hydrofoils, the smaller the submersion depth, the effects grew larger on the lifting power coefficient and the drag coefficient, similarly to the case of the single hydrofoil; and the lifting power coefficient for the leading hydrofoils changes very little as a result of change in horizontal distance between the tandem hydrofoils, but the lifting power coefficient of the rear hydrofoils vibrates due to influence from the leading hydrofoils, with the peak of the value thereof transferring to the higher speed side as the horizontal distance increases. 3 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Research report for fiscal 1998. Promotion of activities implemented jointly etc. in China; 1998 nendo Chugoku ni okeru kyodo jisshi katsudo nado suishin chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    The Kyoto Protocol allows some flexibility in the implementation of methods for achieving the goal, such as emission trading, activities implemented jointly (AIJ) among advanced countries, construction of clean development mechanisms (CDM) with developing countries, etc., and Japan intends to positively make use of them for the achievement of the goal. For China, who holds second place in the list of greenhouse gas emitting countries in the world, the promotion of CDM is quite important. With the situation taken into consideration, interaction was effected with Chinese officers and scientists of government agencies and academic institutes involved in environmental matters, and researches were conducted. Views and information were exchanged regarding environmental problems and, after on-site investigations, researches were conducted and suggestions were presented as to how AIJ and CDM should be. The suggestions covered Chinese policies toward AIJ and CDM, current state of AIJ projects in China and systems for their promotion, means for enhancing such projects, and discovery of candidates for AIJ and CDM project application. (NEDO)

  3. Change in surface characteristics of coal in upgrading of low-rank coals; Teihin`itan kaishitsu process ni okeru sekitan hyomen seijo no henka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oki, A.; Xie, X.; Nakajima, T.; Maeda, S. [Kagoshima University, Kagoshima (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-10-28

    With an objective to learn mechanisms in low-rank coal reformation processes, change of properties on coal surface was discussed. Difficulty in handling low-rank coal is attributed to large intrinsic water content. Since it contains highly volatile components, it has a danger of spontaneous ignition. The hot water drying (HWD) method was used for reformation. Coal which has been dry-pulverized to a grain size of 1 mm or smaller was mixed with water to make slurry, heated in an autoclave, cooled, filtered, and dried in vacuum. The HWD applied to Loy Yang and Yallourn coals resulted in rapid rise in pressure starting from about 250{degree}C. Water content (ANA value) absorbed into the coal has decreased largely, with the surface made hydrophobic effectively due to high temperature and pressure. Hydroxyl group and carbonyl group contents in the coal have decreased largely with rising reformation treatment temperature (according to FT-IR measurement). Specific surface area of the original coal of the Loy Yang coal was 138 m{sup 2}/g, while it has decreased largely to 73 m{sup 2}/g when the reformation temperature was raised to 350{degree}C. This is because of volatile components dissolving from the coal as tar and blocking the surface pores. 2 refs., 4 figs.

  4. Effect of sulfur or hydrogen sulfide on initial stage of coal liquefaction in tetralin; Sekitan ekika shoki katei ni okeru io to ryuka suiso no hatasu yakuwari

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakada, M. [Government Industrial Research Institute, Kyushu, Saga (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    It is well known that the solubilization of coal can be accelerated by adding sulfur or hydrogen sulfide during direct liquefaction of difficult coals. From the studies of authors on the coal liquefaction under the conditions at rather low temperatures between 300 and 400{degree}C, liquefaction products with high quality can be obtained by suppressing the aromatization of naphthene rings, but it was a problem that the reaction rate is slow. For improving this point, results obtained by changing solvents have been reported. In this study, to accelerate the liquefaction reaction, Illinois No.6 coal was liquefied in tetralin at temperature range from 300 to 400{degree}C by adding a given amount of sulfur or hydrogen sulfide at the initial stage of liquefaction. The addition of sulfur or hydrogen sulfide provided an acceleration effect of liquefaction reaction at temperature range between 300 and 400{degree}C. The addition of sulfur or hydrogen sulfide at 400{degree}C increased the oil products. At 370 and 400{degree}C, the liquid yield by adding sulfur was slightly higher than that by adding hydrogen sulfide, unexpectedly. The effects of sulfur and hydrogen sulfide were reversed when increasing the hydrogen pressure. 5 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Coal conversion rate in 1t/d PSU liquefaction reactor; 1t/d PSU ekika hannoto ni okeru sekitan tenka sokudo no kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikeda, K.; Imada, K. [Nippon Steel Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Nogami, Y.; Inokuchi, K. [Mitsui SRC Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    To investigate the coal liquefaction characteristics, coal slurry samples were taken from the outlets of the reactors and slurry preheater of NEDOL process 1 t/d process supporting unit (PSU), and were analyzed. Tanito Harum coal was used for liquefaction, and the slurry was prepared with recycle solvent. Liquefaction was performed using synthetic iron sulfide catalyst at reaction temperatures, 450 and 465{degree}C. Solubility of various solid samples was examined against n-hexane, toluene, and tetrahydrofuran (THF). When considering the decrease of IMO (THF-insoluble and ash) as a characteristic of coal conversion reaction, around 20% at the outlet of the slurry preheater, around 70% within the first reactor, and several percents within the successive second and third reactors were converted against supplied coal. Increase of reaction temperature led to the increase of evaporation of oil fraction, which resulted in the decrease of actual slurry flow rate and in the increase of residence time. Thus, the conversion of coal was accelerated by the synergetic effect of temperature and time. Reaction rate constant of the coal liquefaction was around 2{times}10{sup -1} [min{sup -1}], which increased slightly with increasing the reaction temperature from 450 to 465{degree}C. 3 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Effect of total pressure on sulfur capture of Ca-ion exchanged coal; Kaatsu jokenka ni okeru Ca-tanjitan no datsuryu koka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, S.; Benjamin, G.; Abe, H.; Harano, A.; Takarada, T. [Gunma University, Gunma (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-10-28

    In relation to coal gasification and combustion under high pressure as highly efficient coal utilization, the effect of total pressure and sintering on the SO2 capture ability of Ca-ion exchanged coal and other desulfurizing agents were studied. In experiment, specimens were filled into a small pressurized reactor to heat them under high-pressure N2 atmosphere. After the completion of combustion reaction of char at 850{degree}C, SO2, CO2 and CO gases were measured at an outlet while flowing SO2/N2. As the experimental result, all of the S content in Ca-ion exchanged coal was not absorbed by Ca content in coal during pyrolysis and combustion, resulting in discharge of 36% of the S content. Since Ca-ion exchanged coal is fast in combustion reaction, most of the S content was desulfurized by coal ash. The ash content yielded from Ca-ion exchanged coal was more excellent in SO2 capture ability than limestone even under higher pressure. In the case of CO2 partial pressure lower than equilibrium CO2 pressure for CaCO3 decomposition, the capture ability decreased with an increase in total pressure, while in higher CO2 partial pressure, it was improved. 1 ref., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Formation of N2 in the fixed-bed pyrolysis of low rank coals and the mechanisms; Koteisho netsubunkai ni okeru teitankatan kara no N2 no sisei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Z.; Otsuka, Y. [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan). Institute for Chemical Reaction Science

    1996-10-28

    In order to establish coal NOx preventive measures, discussions were given on formation of N2 in the fixed-bed pyrolysis of low rank coals and the mechanisms thereof. Chinese ZN coal and German RB coal were used for the discussions. Both coals do not produce N2 at 600{degree}C, and the main product is volatile nitrogen. Conversion into N2 does not depend on heating rates, but increases linearly with increasing temperature, and reaches 65% to 70% at 1200{degree}C. In contrast, char nitrogen decreases linearly with the temperature. More specifically, these phenomena suggest that the char nitrogen or its precursor is the major supply source of N2. When mineral substances are removed by using hydrochloric acid, their catalytic action is lost, and conversion into N2 decreases remarkably. Iron existing in ion-exchanged condition in low-rank coal is reduced and finely diffused into metallic iron particles. The particles react with heterocyclic nitrogen compounds and turn into iron nitride. A solid phase reaction mechanism may be conceived, in which N2 is produced due to decomposition of the iron nitride. 5 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Effects of solvent and catalysts on the hydrogenolysis of alkylnaphthalenes; Alkylnaphthalene no suisoka bunkai ni okeru yobai to shokubai no koka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Futamura, S. [National Institute for Resources and Environment, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    Catalytic effects of metal and carbon materials, which promote hydrogen transfer from hydrogen donor solvents, are investigated during hydrogenolysis of benzyl-1-methylnaphthalenes (BMN) selected as a hydrogen acceptor. For the isomer distribution of BMN after the reaction, almost the same molecular ratio before the reaction was obtained independent of the presence of catalysts. Selectivity of position during the addition of hydrogen atoms from tetralin was not found. For the reaction of BMN in tetralin, 1-methylnaphthalene and toluene were obtained as products, but the formation of benzylnaphthalene was not found. As for the nuclear hydride of BMN, the trace amount formation was confirmed by gas chromatography. For the hydrogen transfer from tetralin progressed catalytically, it was found that the nuclear of naphthalene can not be hydrogenated easily. This was considered to be due to the obstruction of hydrogen transfer from tetralin by the strong adsorption of BMN on the Ni surface. 1 ref., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  9. Investigation of the deposit formation in pipelines connecting liquefaction reactors; 1t/d PSU ni okeru ekika hanno tokan fuchakubutsu no seisei yoin ni kansuru ichikosatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okada, Y.; Nogami, Y.; Inokuchi, K. [Mitsui SRC Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Mochizuki, M.; Imada, K. [Nippon Steel Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    The liquefaction reaction system of an NEDOL process coal liquefaction 1t/d PSU was opened and checked to investigate the cause of the rise of differential pressure between liquefaction reactors of the PSU. The liquefaction test at a coal concentration of 50 wt% using Tanito Harum coal was conducted, and it was found that the differential pressure between reactors was on the increase. By the two-phase flow pressure loss method, deposition thickness of deposit in pipelines was estimated at 4.4mm at the time of end operation, which agreed with a measuring value obtained from a {gamma} ray. The rise of differential pressure was caused by deposit formation in pipelines connecting reactors. The main component of the deposit is calcite (CaCO3 60-70%) and is the same as the usual one. It is also the same type as the deposit on the reactor wall. Ca in coal ash is concerned with this. To withdraw solid matters deposited in the reactor, there are installed pipelines for the withdrawal at the reactor bottom. The solid matters are regularly purged by reverse gas for prevention of clogging. As the frequency of purge increases, the deposit at the reactor bottom decreases, but the deposit attaches strongly to pipelines connecting reactors. It is presumed that this deposit is what Ca to be discharged out of the system as a form of deposition solid matter naturally in the Ca balance precipitated as calcite in the pipeline connecting the reactor. 3 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  10. Conversion of char nitrogen to N2 under incomplete combustion conditions; Fukanzen nensho jokenka ni okeru char chuchisso no N2 eno tenka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhuang, Q.; Yamauchi, A.; Oshima, Y.; Wu, Z.; Otsuka, Y. [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan). Institute for Chemical Reaction Science

    1996-10-28

    The effect of combustion conditions on conversion of char nitrogen to N2 was studied in the combustion experiment of char obtained by pyrolysis of coal. Char specimen was prepared by holding ZN coal of Chinese lignite in Ar atmosphere at 1123K for one hour. A batch scale quartz-made fluidized bed reactor was used for combustion experiment. After the specimen was fluidized in reaction gas, it was rapidly heated to start combustion reaction. CO, CO2 and N2 in produced gases were online measured by gas chromatography (GC). As the experimental result, under the incomplete combustion condition where a large amount of CO was produced by consuming almost all of O2, no NOx and N2O produced from char were found, and almost all of N-containing gas was N2. At the final stage of combustion, pyridinic-N disappeared completely, and pyrrolic-N decreased, while O-containing nitrogen complexes became a main component. It was thus suggested that O-containing nitrogen complexes are playing the role of intermediate product in combustion reaction. 7 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Characterization of the various catalyst for solvent hydrogenation at 1t/d PSU; 1t/d PSU ni okeru kakushu yozai suisoka shokubai no seino hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kakebayashi, H.; Nogami, Y.; Inokuchi, K. [Mitsui SRC Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Aihara, Y.; Imada, K. [Nippon Steel Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    Performance of various catalysts for hydrogenation of recycle solvent was evaluated for the operation of NEDOL process 1 t/d process supporting unit (PSU). Distillate between 220 and 538{degree}C derived from the liquefaction of Tanito Harum coal was used as recycle solvent. Deactivation behaviors of catalysts were compared using a prediction equation of catalyst life, by which aromatic carbon index (fa) after hydrogenation can be determined from the fa of recycle oil before hydrogenation, reaction temperature, and total hydrogenation time. Total hydrogenation time satisfying the {Delta}fa, 0.05 before and after hydrogenation were 8,000, 4,000, and 2,000 hours for NiMo-based catalysts C, A, and B, respectively. Catalyst C showed the longest life. Used catalysts were also characterized. The catalyst C showed larger mean pore size than those of the others, which resulted in the longer life due to the delay of pore blockage. From measurements by XPS and EPMA, relative atomic concentration of carbon increased remarkably after the use for all of catalysts, which was considered to be due to the adhesion of hydrocarbons. Increase of metal atoms, such as Fe and Cr, was also observed due to the contamination of entrainment residues. Deactivation of catalysts was caused by the adhesion of hydrocarbons, and metallic compounds, such as Fe and Cr. 3 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  12. Coal liquefaction in early stage of NEDOL process 1t/d PSU; 1t/d PSU ni okeru ekika shoki hanno ni kansuru kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikeda, K.; Kawabata, M.; Mochizuki, M.; Imada, K. [Nippon Steel Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Nogami, Y.; Inokuchi, K. [Mitsui SRC Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    To investigate the behavior of coal liquefaction reaction in early stage as a part of studies on the coal liquefaction characteristics using NEDOL process 1 t/d process supporting unit (PSU), coal slurry sample was taken from the outlet of slurry preheater located in the upflow of liquefaction reactors, and was tested. Tanito Harum coal was used for liquefaction. Preheater was operated under the condition of pressure of 170 kg/cm{sup 2}, gas flow rate of 64 Nm{sup 3}/hr, and at temperature up to 410{degree}C at the outlet, in response to the standard test condition. The slurry sample was discharged into a high temperature separator with temperature of 250{degree}C. Liquefaction was not proceeded at the outlet of preheater. Solid residue yielded around 80%, and liquid yielded around 15%. Gases, CO and CO2, and water yielded also small amount around 3%. The solid sample contained much IOM fraction (tetrahydrofuran-insoluble and ash), and the liquid contained much heavy oil fraction. Hydrogenation was not proceeded, and the hydrogen consumption was very low showing below one-tenth of that at the usual operation. Hydrogen sulfide gas was formed at early stage, which suggested that the change of iron sulfide catalyst occur at early stage of liquefaction. 1 ref., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Operation history of hydraulic jet pump on teh Chengbei oil field, China. Chengbei yuden ni okeru haidororikku jet pump no shiyo jisseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terao, Yoshihiro; Takagi, Sunao

    1989-11-01

    Changbei oil field in China uses hydraulic jet pump(HJP) to cope with the increase of oil production and increase of water content in the oil field. This paper described the practical result. This pump makes high speed jet by driving fluid, and converts the dynamic energy to pressure energy by decelerating with a diffuser to push up oil. Wellheads damaged by sand friction or near the gas cap were removed. The production from March, 1988 to October increased at the rate of 114kl/day at total 8 wellheads. Heavy oil of API specific gravity of 16 degree could be proved. Since the separation of oil and water was inferior, so that the countermeasures were studied but the cause was not known. Troubles or failures of main body, nozzle and throat of HJP were not occurred. Any effect could not be found at a wellhead of water content exceeding 50 to 60% because only water production increased. Consequently, this process could result the increase of oil production with lower cost and without mechanical failures. 2 refs., 7 figs., 7 tabs.

  14. Application of polymeric solid materials for electrical insulation system in superconducting apparatuses; Chodendo kiki no denki zetsuen kosei ni okeru kobunshi kotai zetsuen no tekiyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagao, M. [Toyohashi Univ. of Tech., Aichi (Japan); Minoda, A. [Matsue National College of Tech., Shimane (Japan); Kosaki, M. [Gifu National College of Tech., Gifu (Japan)

    1999-06-07

    We send the electric insulation to one of the technological problem to be solved in order to realize high reliability of the superconductive electric power equipment. This paper must also sufficiently consider not only dielectric characteristic and insulation characteristic but also material mechanical property in which they are excellent at very low temperature in the selection of insulating material. The representative insulating material of XLPE, LDPE mainly used in the region over room temperature the crack may arise by causing mechanical stress by cooling contracture of giant molecule, and the problem occurs as cryogenic insulating material in mechanical property. We propose the ethylene propylene rubber as cryogenic insulating material, and we carry out research and development of superconducting cable of the solid insulation system. We examined dielectric breakdown property and mechanical property of EPR at very low temperature this time. (NEDO)

  15. Historical consideration on the overseas development of concrete faced rockfill dams; Kaigai ni okeru concrete hyomen shasuiheki gata rokkufiru-damu hatten no rekishiteki kosatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamura, T.

    1995-09-05

    It is preferable that height deference between two reservoirs for pumped storage generation is as large as possible, when allowance enough to meet sustained peak of power need is taken into account. Consequently, dam heights are often designed to exceed 100 m. Concrete faced rockfill dams (CFRDs) have been constructed as such high dams because of reducing construction cost and of absence of previous examples, in the world, for constructing dams higher than 100 m with asphalt faced wall. Features, construction achievement, endurance, construction period and economic efficiency are discussed from a viewpoint of historical development of CFRD. CFRDs have advantages over dams of clay-core rockfill type in regards to being economic, short in construction period, heavily endurable, safe against flooding and so on. The number of CFRDs whose height exceeds 50 m had reached 89 by 1993, since Morena dam was constructed first in California state, USA in 1895. Twenty one of them are higher than 100 m. CFRDs have been enduring without disruption nearly for 100 years, although some dams experienced water leak. 15 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. Detection of bit location by acoustic emission technique in horizontal directional drilling. Kojo sakushin koho ni okeru bit ichi no AE ho ni yoru hyotei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abe, M.; Niitsuma, H. (Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Faculty of Engineering); Sugimori, S. (Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Grauduate School); Nakajima, T. (NKK Corp., Tokyo (Japan))

    1991-09-20

    The accuracy of the bit location in the excavation of pilot holes with horizontal drilling technique must be kept less than several tens of centimeters. Such an accuracy is hard to be achieved by the existing controlling technology. The depth of the bit tip can be measured comparatively accurately using a clinometer and the like. The azimuth meter, gyroscope, underground radar, locator, etc. are used for the detection of azimuth of the bit, but every one of them has its own problem. Therefore, new measuring methods to be used in combination with the conventional methods are required which can cover up the shortcomings of the conventional methods. Acoustic emission (AE) technique is employed for the detection of the bit location, and the accompanying problems as well as detecting performance are investigated. It is used for the measurement in the drilling test performed at the reclaimed land on the premises of Keihin ironworks of NKK Corp. In connection with the detection of the bit location in horizontal pilot drilling, a study is made on the zone detection technique for AE signals generated by the bit when striking ground and those generated during drilling. 7 refs., 17 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Technical development of cost-efficient installation of power distribution cables under pavements. Haiden chichuka ni okeru doboku kensetsu gorika gijutsu no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kokusho, Koji; Kataoka, Tetsuyuki; Tanaka, Yasuyuki; Yoshida, Yasuo; Ikemi, Motoyoshi; Suzuki, Koichi; Kitano, Koichi; Kobayashi, Seiichi; Kanazu, Tsutomu; Komada, Hiroya.

    1987-12-01

    Various latest technical developments were surveyed for the cost-effective installation of power distribution cables under pavements, and their applicabilities were demonstrated with the evaluation of their cost-reduction effects. Cables in conventional vinyl protection tubes could be buried only 30cm under pavements, and in such case, the cost was reduced to 51% of those of conventional methods. As the results of soil tests, excavated soil over 80% was reusable through coarse screening. Underground radar technique to explore buried pipes from the surface was detectable several pipes buried 1.5-2.0m underground, although some problems in precision were found. The improvement of reinforced concrete man-hole structures to minimize the volume of excavated soil indicated the cost reduction of nearly 20%. The application of these techniques to the installation of cables was expected to ultimately halve the total civil engineering cost. 21 refs., 130 figs., 46 tabs.

  18. Application of geophysical methods to investigation of old castle, especially of the moat; Joshi no chosa ni okeru butsuri tansa no tekiyo (horiato no tansa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, A.; Karube, F.; Kobayashi, M.; Toge, M. [OYO Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-05-01

    An explanation is made about the application of geophysical methods to the investigation of the ruins of old castles especially of their moats. Techniques currently in use for exploration of the ruins of castles are mainly underground radar exploration and electric exploration. The underground radar method sends electromagnetic waves through the ground and receives the reflection for a high-precision exploration of the layers shallow in the ground. Therefore, this method is suitable for probing the ruins of castles relatively shallow in the flat land, hills, and mountains. The electric method (resistivity image method) do the probing by use of the two-electrode arrangement, performs inverse analysis on the basis of the obtained data for the determination of the underground resistivity distribution, and displays the distribution in an image easy to read. This method, when there is a great separation between the two electrodes, explores relatively deep into the ground. Thanks to this feature, this method is effective in probing relatively wide and deep ruins of moats, that is, the ruins of moats of castles built in later years, especially of those then filled with water. 2 refs., 5 figs.

  19. Effects of heat release rate on NOx time history in diesel combustion; Diesel nensho ni okeru netsu hasseiritsu keika ga NOx nodo rireki ni oyobosu eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishiyama, T.; Miwa, K.; Higashida, M. [Tokushima Univ., Tokushima (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Watanabe, S. [Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Ltd., Kobe (Japan)

    1996-06-25

    For determining the optimum combination of combustion control techniques to reduce NOx emission from diesel engines, it is important to clarify the effects of each technique not only on the NOx emission but also on its time history during combustion. In this paper, NOx concentration in the combustion chamber of a rapid compression machine has been measured by using a total gas sampling method. In order to elucidate the relation between NOx history and heat release rate, air temperatures nozzle hole size and air motion are varied to control the heat release process. The results show that NOx emission is not solely dependent upon initial combustion. Air utilization in the main diffusive combustion phase has great influence on NOx formation and its decay. NOx formation is accelerated by activation of the initial stage of the main combustion when using a nozzle with small holes. 9 refs., 13 figs.

  20. Anodic Behavior of Semiconducting Diamond Thin-film Electrodes in the Electrolyte for Electrochemical Fluorination; Handotai daiamondo denkyoku no denkai fussokayokuchu ni okeru youkyoku kyodo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shibata, Hirotake.; Kawasaki, Shinji. [Shinshu University, Nagano (Japan). Faculty of Textile Science and Technology; Momota, Kunitake. [Morita Chemical Industries, Osaka (Japan). Department of Research and Development; Okino, Fujio.; Touhara, Hidekazu. [Shinshu University, Nagano (Japan). Faculty of Technology]|[Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology, Tokyo (Japan). Jaoan Science and Technology Corporation; Gamonishitani, Mika.; Sakaguchi, Isao.; Ando, Toshihiro. [National Institute for Research in Inorganic Materials, Ibaraki (Japan)]|[Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology, Tokyo (Japan). Japan Science and Technology Corporation

    1998-12-31

    Electrochemical behavior of semiconducting diamond thin-film electrodes has been studied by measuring cyclic voltammograms for the anodic oxidation of 1,4-difluorobenzene in the electrolyte, neat Et{sub 4}NF{center_dot}4HF. A comparative study using a Pt-electrode establishes that the electrochemical fluorination of 1,4-difluorobenzene using the diamond electrode yields 3, 3, 6, 6-tetrafluoro-1, 4-cyclohexadiene. Furthermore no peaks corresponding to the redox reaction of Pt-electrode, i.e., the formation and reduction of PtO{sub 2}, are observed in the CVs obtained using the diamond electrode, suggesting that the diamond electrode is more stable than the Pt-electrode. The results suggests that electrochemical fluorination and the electrolytic production of elemental fluorine are possible at the dimensionally stable diamond electrode. (author)

  1. Improvement of magnetic properties of Fe-50mass%Ni in MIM process; MIM process ni okeru Fe-50mass%Ni no jiki tokusei kaizen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miura, H. [Kumamoto University, Kumamoto (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Fujita, S. [Kumamoto University, Kumamoto (Japan); Fujita, M.; Ninomiya, R. [Mitsuikinzoku Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    2000-12-15

    Metal injection molding (MIM) process is hoped to be one of processing for required to more complicated parts of magnetic components. In this study, the effect of different types of powders (prealloyed and mixed elemental powders) on the magnetic properties of permalloy (Fe-50mass%Ni) through the MIM technique was investigated. Approximately 94% of theoretical density was obtained by using the prealloyed powder, and the retained carbon and oxygen contents were controlled to be low. On the other hand, 96% of theoretical density was obtained by using the mixed elemental powder, but the magnetic properties were inferior to that of prealloyed powder's because of high retained oxygen content. By using the carbonyl Fe powder with high carbon, the retained oxygen and carbon content could be controlled to be low, resulting in the improved magnetic properties. (author)

  2. Temperature effect on corrosion fatigue strength of coated ship structural steel; Zosen`yoko tosozai no fushoku hiro kyodo ni okeru ondo no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takanashi, M.; Fuji, A.; Kojima, M.; Kitagawa, M. [Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Kobayashi, Y. [Ship Research Inst., Tokyo (Japan); Kumakura, Y.

    1997-08-01

    The corrosion fatigue life was obtained using uncoated and tar epoxy resin specimens to clarify the temperature effect. The life curve for corrosion fatigue of machined and uncoated steel in the air and sea was obtained. The fatigue strength of uncoated steel largely decreases in the sea and breaks even in the nominal stress range of less than 1/2 of the fatigue limit in the air. The effect of temperature on the coated steel is represented by a corrosion coefficient. The steel coated at 25{degree}C is 1/1.03 to 1/1.13 at 40 to 60{degree}C. This showed that the fatigue strength decreases when the temperature exceeds 25{degree}C. However, it has not such tendency and significance that are represented quantitatively. There is a slight difference in the short-life area between the crack generation life and breaking life. However, the long-life area has no significance that influences the whole evaluation. In the long-life corrosion fatigue, the crack occurs from the corrosion pit due to the exposure below the coated film and progresses in the base material before the coated film is destroyed. The effect of the corrosion pit remarkably appears at a low-stress level. 14 refs., 14 figs., 4 tabs.

  3. Stabilizing control of crystal size distribution in continuous crystallization processes; Renzoku shoseki purosesu ni okeru kessho ryukei bunpu no anteika seigyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naito, K.; Sotowa, K.; Kano, M.; Hasebe, S.; Hashimoto, I. [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1998-03-01

    The sustained oscillation of the crystal size distribution (CSD) in continuous crystallization process is analyzed by simulation using a detailed model. CSD can not be used as a controlled variable because of its distributed nature. Therefore, the method of selecting representability indices for CSD and the stabilizing control of CSD based on those indices are investigated. A multi-loop scheme is proposed, wherein a system with the third moment of large crystal and the rate of product flow from the continuous crystallizer used as the controlled variable and the operating variable, respectively, is added to the SISO control system which employs microcrystal population density as the controlled variable and the microcrystal flow rate as the operating variable. The controlling performances of the newly proposed multi-loop scheme and the SISO control scheme are compared. It is confirmed that the proposed controlling method is effective when the constrain from the microcrystal flow rate is strict. 6 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Aiming at information sharing. Standardization trend of data exchange in construction equipment; Joho kyoyuka ni mukete. Kenchiku setsubi ni okeru data kokan no hyojunka doko

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terai, T. [Chiba Inst. of Tech., Narashino (Japan)

    1998-09-05

    In a construction project, various information concerning the whole life cycle of construction production from plan, design to maintenance, preservation, abandonment etc. are involved. In this paper, standardization trend of data exchange in construction equipment and actions aiming at realizing information sharing conducted by each relating groups, are explained. At first, in connection to the needs and seeds of the information sharing, progress of information technology such as computer network and personal computer, and globalism of the information system including transformation of CALDS environment are pointed out. Then, in connection to the conditions and questions for the information sharing, the most suitability of communication, integration of the construction production and standardization of common rules are described. As for the actions conducted by each groups, the actions conducted by ISO, IAI, the Construction and Housing International Organization, the Japan Construction Society and CI-NET conducted by the Construction Promotion Foundation are described. 1 fig.

  5. Education for hydraulics and pnuematics in Department of Computer Science, Faculty of Information Sciences, Hiroshima City University; Hiroshima shiritsudaigaku ni okeru yukuatsu kyoiku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sano, M. [Hiroshima City University, Hiroshima (Japan)

    2000-03-15

    Described herein is education of hydraulics and pneumatics in Hiroshima City University. Department of Computer Science is responsible for the education, covering a wide educational range from basics of information processing methodology to application of mathematical procedures. This university provides no subject directly related to hydraulics and pneumatics, which, however, can be studied by the courses of control engineering or modern control theories. These themes are taken up for graduation theses for bachelors and masters; 2 for dynamic characteristics of pneumatic cylinders, and one for pneumatic circuit simulation. Images of the terms hydraulics and pneumatics are outdated for students of information-related departments. Hydraulics and pneumatics are being forced to rapidly change, like other branches of science, and it may be time to make a drastic change from hardware to software, because their developments have been excessively oriented to hardware. It is needless to say that they are based on hardware, but it may be worthy of drastically changing these branches of science by establishing virtual fluid power systems. It is also proposed to introduce the modern multi-media techniques into the education of hydraulics and pneumatics. (NEDO)

  6. High-resolution aeromagnetic survey in the area of Arima-Takatsuki-Rokko active fault system; Arima Takatsuki Rokko katsudanso chiiki ni okeru komitsudo kuchu jiki tansa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakatsuka, T.; Okuma, S.; Morijiri, R.; Makino, M. [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1996-10-01

    High-resolution aeromagnetic survey was conducted in December, 1995, over the area of Arima-Takatsuki-Rokko active fault system, where the 1995 Hyogo-South (Kobe) earthquake took place. Based on the surveyed data, the magnetic anomaly distribution in the Kei-Hanshin district was illustrated. Features of magnetic anomaly observed in it were discussed. Influence of artificial structures in the coastal zone of Kobe City was tried to be removed. Distinct magnetic anomaly observed in the center of Kyoto City was located at the southern part near Shijo-Karasuma. This was mainly affected by the artificial structure. A high magnetic anomaly with a long wave length was observed in the southern part of Kyoto. There was a high magnetic anomaly in an area surrounded by central cities of Nishinomiya-Toyonaka district. At the location where positive and negative magnetic anomalies were illustrated in NEDO`s map in the coastal zone of Kobe City, the anomaly pattern was clarified. The influence of artificial structure was approximated using a point dipole. The dipole was placed in each block having a magnetic anomaly. The parameter was determined by the inverse analysis, to remove the influence. Consequently, most of magnetic anomalies due to artificial structures could be removed. 6 figs.

  7. Change in surface SP caused by pressure buildup observed at the Nigorikawa geothermal area; Nigorikawa chiiki ni okeru atsuryoku buildup ji no shizen den`i henka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasukawa, K.; Yano, Y.; Matsushima, N.; Ishido, T. [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan); Takahashi, M.; Suzuki, I.; Aoyama, K.; Kuwano, T.

    1996-10-01

    To examine the effect of change of subsurface flow system on the surface SP (self potential), SP measurements were carried out before and after the pressure buildup and drawdown during the periodic inspection at Nigorikawa area. Relation between the SP distribution and the observed data was also examined by 2-D numerical simulation. Tendency was found that the SP increased gradually with the production near the production well, decreased during the pressure buildup, and increased again during the drawdown. There were some points having the reverse tendency in the surrounding area. Behavior during the pressure buildup and drawdown was not clear. The resistivity near the ground surface was low ranging between 2 and 5 ohm/m within the Nigorikawa basin. The variation of SP was not so large when compared with the measuring error. The SP profiles on the secondary section passing in the center of caldera at the production stop and at one week after the production start were well corresponded with the profiles under natural conditions which were reproduces using the 2-D model. It was considered that the SP profile before the production stop was affected by the production. 12 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Comparison of {gamma}-ray profile across active normal and reverse faults; Seidansogata to gyakudansogata katsudanso ni okeru hoshano tansa kekka no hikaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwata, A.; Wada, N.; Sumi, H. [Shimada Technical Consultants, Ltd., Shimane (Japan); Yamauchi, S.; Iga, T. [Shimane Univ., Shimane (Japan)

    1996-10-01

    Active faults confirmed at trench and outcrop were surveyed by the {gamma}-ray spectrometry. The active fault found at trench is a normal fault, and that found at outcrop is a reverse fault. The {gamma}-ray spectral characteristics of these two types of faults were compared to each other. The normal fault is named as Asagane fault located in Aimi-machi, Saihaku-gun, Tottori prefecture. The reverse fault is named as Yokota reverse fault located in Yokota-cho, Nita-gun, Shimane prefecture. Rises of radon gas indicating the existence of opening cracks were confirmed above the fault for the normal fault, and at the side of thrust block for the reverse fault. It was considered that such characteristics were caused by the difference of fault formation in the tensile stress field and in the compressive stress field. It was also reconfirmed that much more information as to faults can be obtained by the combined exploration method using the total counting method and the spectral method. 14 refs., 7 figs.

  9. Pseudo-random data acquisition geometry in 3D seismic survey; Sanjigen jishin tansa ni okeru giji random data shutoku reiauto ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minegishi, M.; Tsuburaya, Y. [Japan National Oil Corp., Tokyo (Japan). Technology Research Center

    1996-10-01

    Influence of pseudo-random geometry on the imaging for 3D seismic exploration data acquisition has been investigate using a simple model by comparing with the regular geometry. When constituting wave front by the interference of elemental waves, pseudo-random geometry data did not always provide good results. In the case of a point diffractor, the imaging operation, where the constituted wave front was returned to the point diffractor by the interference of elemental waves for the spatial alias records, did not always give clear images. In the case of multi point diffractor, good images were obtained with less noise generation in spite of alias records. There are a lot of diffractors in the actual geological structures, which corresponds to the case of multi point diffractors. Finally, better images could be obtained by inputting records acquired using the pseudo-random geometry rather than by inputting spatial alias records acquired using the regular geometry. 7 refs., 6 figs.

  10. Bacterial cultivation in high magnetic fields by 7-tesla superconducting magnet; 7T chodendo magnet ni yori hasseishita kojiba ni okeru biseibutsu no baiyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okuda, M.; Saito, I.; Kamikado, T.; Ito, S. [Kobe Steel, Ltd., Kobe (Japan); Matsumoto, K. [Japan Magnet Technology Inc., Kobe (Japan); Liuno, K.; Tsuchiya, K.; Ano, T.; Shoda, M. [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan). Research Laboratory of Resources Utilization

    1994-12-20

    Although a large number of studies on effects of magnetic fields on living organisms was reported, no definite results were obtained in many cases because the related conditions are non-uniform and uncertain, such that the uniform magnetic space is smaller than test samples, and temperature control is insufficient. Therefore, the present study developed a microorganism cultivation system that is applied with a 7-T superconducting magnet. This system has the following features: it generates homogeneous magnetic fields of 0.5 to 7 T {plus_minus} 0.5% in the space with a diameter of 100 mm and a length of 200 mm in a normal temperature bore (with a diameter of 160 mm); it can cultivate microorganisms aerobically at temperatures of 10 to 70{degree}C {plus_minus} 0.1{degree}C; it can perform the cultivation simultaneously with a control cultivation in a small magnetic field weaker than the geomagnetism; and a gradient magnetic field and a variable magnetic field can also be applied. As a result of cultivating colibacillus by using the system, a proliferation effect greater by 40% to 80% than the control was obtained in a uniform magnetic field of 7 T, and a proliferation effect greater by several times in variable magnetic fields of 5.2 to 6.1 T was attained with good reproducibility. 22 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Numerical simulation of nematic liquid crystalline flow in two-dimensional L-shaped channels; Nijigen L gata ryuro ni okeru nematic ekisho no nagare no suchi simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chono, S.; Tsuji, T. [Fukui University, Fukui (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1995-05-25

    Finite difference solutions to the Leslie-Ericksen equations were obtained for flows in two-dimensional L-shaped channels with various contraction ratios of the upstream to downstream channel width. A streamline shift toward the outer wall occurs upstream of the reentrant corner. Such behavior is similar to that of viscoelastic fluids. With increasing contraction ratio, the streamline shift occurs further upstream. The effect of the wall anchoring angle for the director is remarkable; for example, when the anchoring angle along the downstream walls is set to be opposite to the main flow direction, a distortion of streamlines is produced in the corner region and the director moves to the downstream region upside down. At small Ericksen numbers, the orientation angle for the director is varied over a wide area so as to suppress its local deformation. In contrast, when the Ericksen number is large, the director profile in the upstream region is retained close to the corner region where the director turns rapidly to the downstream direction. 7 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Numerical analysis of polymeric liquid crystalline flows between parallel plates. Heiko heibankan ni okeru kobunshi ekisho no nagare no suchi kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chono, S.; Iemoto, Y. (Fukui Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Engineering); Taniguchi, A.; Tsuji, T. (Fukui Univ., Fukui (Japan). Graduate School)

    1992-11-25

    Liquid crystal is an anisotropic fluid having both fluidity possessed by liquid and optical anisotropy inherent in crystals. Heretofore, Doi theory, which was established in 1981, is the only theory that can describe the rheology behavior of polymeric liquid crystal. Conventionally, there have been studies carried out based on the Doi theory for clarifying the rheology characteristics of polymeric liquid crystal, but there have been very few in which the Doi theory is applied to the flow in a tube. In this paper, the simple shearing flows of polymeric liquid crystal are first described by employing the Doi theory, and then the results of analysis of flows between parallel plates are stated. The main results obtained are as follows. The orientation of polymeric liquid crystal is determined by relative magnitudes of the terms of average field potential and of velocity gradient. In the flows between parallel plates, the propotion of increase of flow rate increases with the pressure gradient, and polymeric liquid crystal possesses a shear-thinning viscosity like normal polymeric fluid. 14 refs., 7 figs.

  13. Tumbling behavior of a nematic liquid crystal in inlet flow between parallel plates; Heiko heibankan iriguchi nagare ni okeru nematic ekisho no tumbling kyodo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuji, T.; Chono, S. [Fukui University, Fukui (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1995-07-25

    Two-dimensional tumbling behavior is investigated numerically by calculating inlet flows of a tumbling-type nematic liquid crystal between parallel plates. Calculations are performed for various Ericksen numbers. At the comparatively small Ericksen number of Er=10, the director in the upper half space of the channel rotates counter-clockwise before reaching the fully developed value. At Er=50, the director shows an abrupt rotation just after the inlet section. The rotation is not only convected to the downstream area but propagated from the region near the channel wall where shear rate is large to the center region. When Er is increased further to 100, the director profile does not indicate a monotonic development but a two-step one. In this case, the velocity profile in the main flow direction is wavelike. It is found that the effect of director orientation is strongly reflected on the velocity field, while the reverse effect is weak. 26 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Conditions of existence of fuzzy explanations and approximate solutions in fuzzy abduction; Fuzzy abduction ni okeru setsumei no sonzai joken to kinji kaiho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, K. [Nagaoka Technical Coll., Niigata (Japan)] Mukaidono, M. [Meiji Univ., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-09-30

    Abduction is a procedure to derive a set of hypotheses which explains a set of observed events under given knowledge. The obtained set of hypotheses is called explanation. Previously, the authors proposed fuzzy abduction that was an extension of the abduction with the fuzzy theory and showed the way to derive fuzzy explanation. In this theory, observed events and hypotheses are expressed and the given knowledge is expressed by a set of implications with a truth value between zero and one. However, there is no guarantee that fuzzy explanations always exist. This paper clarifies the necessary and sufficient conditions of the existence of fuzzy explanations and proposes a method to obtain approximate solutions when fuzzy explanations do not exist. Fuzzy abduction is a procedure similar to the inverse operation of fuzzy relational equations, however, the proposed method does not require iterative calculation whose number of times cannot be obtain beforehand. 10 refs., 1 fig.

  15. Numerical analysis of combustion mechanism in iron bath type smelting reduction furnace. Tetsuyokugata yoyu kangenro ni okeru nensho kiko no kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinotake, A.; Takamoto, Y. (Nippon Steel Corp., Tokyo (Japan))

    1992-07-01

    Introduction and numerical analysis based on mathematical model has been made on the combustion phenomena, and the obtained results are used to analyze material and heat balance in the smelting reduction furnace. Distribution of gas flow, temperature and concentration into the furnace has been possible to estimate for the case where coke or coal is taken as raw material. Variation of dual combustion rate while changing supplied amount of coal species in smelting reduction experiment with 5t capacity, is explained. Under constant oxygen injection, one of the material and heat balance point which operates material and temperature at constant state by coal species and heat loss amount, has been determined, and dual combustion rate and heat efficiency at this point are determined simultaneously. Dual combustion rate and heat efficiency, the source unit of coal and oxygen have increased with the increase of amount of heat loss where as the production of molten iron decreased. Material and heat balance point is shifted to the point with less supply of coal and oxygen when prereduction degree of the ore is increased, and dual combustion rate and heat efficiency has increased. 11 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs.

  16. On the muscle activity control in the hierarchy motor systems. Hierarchy undo system ni okeru kin no kassei seigyo ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akiba, M.; Miyamoto, Y. (Osaka Industrial University, Osaka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering)

    1991-10-31

    Excitory impulses for motor systems are controlled by the psychophysiological nervous systems in the body either autonomically or voluntarily. Involved in the voluntary control loop are motor cortex, basal gangalia, thalamus, cerebellum, etc. The purpose of this study is to confirm whether it is possible to reduce or emphasize the muscle contraction voluntarily through electromyogram (EMG) feedback training. EMG can indicate the excitory impulses of motor units. In the experiments, electrodes were placed on the skin above muscles. A significant reduction effect was observed for subjects trained in relaxation of the forehead musculature through EMG feedback. Results of the experiments suggested that biofeedback training for relaxation of the forehead tensional muscle might be effective in eliminating muscle contraction, and that feedback training for activation of damaged muscles might be effective in emphasizing muscle contraction. 4 refs., 9 figs.

  17. Research activities at thermo-fluid engineering laboratories in Takushoku University; Takushoku Daigaku kogakubu kikai system kogakuka ni okeru ryutai kogaku oyobi netsukogaku kankei no kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujimoto, I.; Hori, M.; Matsunaga, N. [Takushoku University, Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-01-20

    This paper introduces general conditions of studies at the Machine System Engineering Department of the Faculty of Engineering at the Takushoku University. Studies related to transonic cascade flutters in fluid engineering include behavioral analysis of impact waves around vibrating blades. Behavior of impact waves making twisting vibration at high vibration frequency is elucidated by means of schlieren photography. In addition, the single blade vibration method is used to analyze aerodynamic decay properties of cascades. Elucidation is made on non-steady stalling properties of vibrating single blades (particularly, the hysteresis phenomenon of stalling elevation angles with restoring elevation angles). In the field of thermal engineering, studies are being made on effects of unburned components on NO-NO{sub 2} conversion using a fluidity reactor. Similar reactions are being studied by means of chemical dynamics calculations using the CHEMKIN-II/SENKIN program. A coaxial jet flow experimenting equipment is used to study NO{sub 2} generating mechanism in the field closer to real combustors. Data are accumulated to verify numerical computation by experiments and measurements of spraying flames produced by a model spray combustor. Measurements and experiments are also performed on absorption of NO{sub 2} into water, and on coefficient of diffusion between two kinds of gases. (NEDO)

  18. Switching surge overvoltages on a feeding system of a MAGLEV train; Jiki fujoshiki tetsudo no kidenkei ni okeru kaihei surge kaden`atsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muragishi, H. [Nippon Yusoki Co. Ltd., Kyoto (Japan); Nakamura, Y.; Muraoka, N.; Ametani, A. [Doshisha Univ., Kyoto (Japan)

    1997-04-20

    Discussions using simulations were given on surge overvoltages and earth fault surge overvoltage associated with operation of a section switchgear in a feeding system of a MAGLEV train. Results of the discussions may be summarized as follows: throw-in surge overvoltage caused by the section switchgear is about 25 kV at maximum on the coil and about 15 kV on the cable sheath. The coil overvoltage increases as the closer to 90 degrees the throw-in phase approaches, and the greater the power supply frequency increases. The cable sheath overvoltage, however, is not affected by these environments. Breaking surge overvoltage caused by the section switchgear reaches 115 kV on the coil and about the same value on the cable sheath when the breaking current is 50 A. Earth fault surge overvoltage due to cable fault is 24 kV at maximum on the coil, while it reaches 32 kV on the cable sheath. The cable sheath overvoltage depends largely on sheath installing conditions. These overvoltages can be suppressed sufficiently lower than insulation levels of each device by installing arresters. 17 refs., 18 figs.

  19. Novel control strategies of HVDC system with self-commutated converter. Jireishiki henkanki wo tekiyoshita HVDC sytem ni okeru tanshi seigyo to kyocho seigyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tokiwa, Y.; Ichikawa, F.; Suzuki, K. (Tokyo Electric Power Co. Inc., Tokyo (Japan)); Inokuchi, H.; Hirose, S.; Kimura, K. (Toshiba Corp., Tokyo (Japan))

    1992-01-20

    This report describes new control strategies of a self -commutated converter applied to the HVDC systems; that is, the cooperative control for a two-terminal transmission system and the terminal control which is applicable to a multi-terminal system. The DC voltage control with an upper and lower power-limiter showed excellent characteristics when applied to the two- terminal transmission system. A voltage margin method was also introduced as a power flow reversal method. These terminal control methods, if required, are able to change interchange power at the receiving end in the case of fault in the communication system. Moreover, the DC voltage control with two-stage voltage control characteristics was proposed for the multi-terminal HVDC system. with this mehtod, the DC transmission system can be operated continuously and stably cooperating electric power at each terminal even when one terminal is collapsed. The terminal control performance in the above two-terminal HVDC system was tested with a simulator. The result showed favorable performance characteristics at the time of power flow reversal and one terminal start-up during other terminal operation. 5 refs., 16 figs.

  20. Pitting corrosion of copper in aqueous solutions containing phosphonic acid as an inhibitor. Hosuhon san wo inhibita toshite fukumu suiyoekichu ni okeru do no koshiku ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, Y. (Muroran Univ., Hokkaido (Japan). Graduate School); Seri, O.; Tagashira, K. (Muroran Univ., Hokkaido (Japan)); Nagata, K. (Sumitomo Light Metal Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan). Technical Research Lab.)

    1993-09-15

    Phosphonic acid-based inhibitors that are poured into cooling water for copper-tube circulation systems for open heat-accumulators were studied on their influence on pitting corrosion of copper. Amino trimethylene phosphonic acid (ATMP) dissolved into distilled water to 50 ppm was used for the immersion corrosion test. The corrosion-proof effect of additives such as ZnSO4, benzotriazole (BTA) was tested too. 0.5 mm thick phosphate-treated copper plates with a hole of 5 mm in diameter were used as test specimens. Pitting corrosion on the copper plate occurred when ATMP, BTA and ZnSO4 coexisted. It was proved that SO4 [sup 2-] is essential since Na2SO4 in stead of ZnSO4 induced also corrosion. The pitting took place when 0.6 ppm or more of SO4 [sup 2-] was present in a BTA-added ATMP solution. It was observed that the pitting is prone to occur with increase of SO4 [sup 2-] and the number of pitting increases. The following relationship is established when pitting corrosion occurs; E[sub b] [le] E[sub corr], where the former is a potential value at which current density shows a steep increase and the latter is an average value of spontaneous electrode potential showing a plateau. 8 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Investigational study on the development, production and wide spread of welfare apparatus in north Europe; Hokuo ni okeru fukushi yogu no kaihatsu seisan fukyu ni kansuru chosa kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    For the purpose of grasping the present situation of the development/production/spread of welfare apparatus in north Europe, an investigation was conducted paying visits to Sweden and Denmark. Basically in the Swedish policy for handicapped persons, disablement is defined not only as features which belong to each individual, but as problems arising when the environment surrounding each individual touches one another. Moreover, characteristics of their policies on welfare apparatus are that major welfare apparatus can be provided for the disabled free of charge, and that the government and public organs play a major role in each step of the development, evaluation, distribution and provision of welfare apparatus. Features of the market of welfare apparatus are that users and buyers of the apparatus are different persons, that a public corporation called SUB participates in determining selling prices, etc., and that the market reflects needs and requests from users comparatively naturally. The needs for welfare apparatus at the Research Institute of Handicapped Persons are grasped through opinion exchanges with groups of handicapped persons or information exchanges with the technical aid center. 3 refs., 11 figs., 10 tabs.

  2. Results of geophysical survey on Hanaore-fault in the Kyoto urban area; Butsuri tansa ni yoru Kyoto shigaichi ni okeru Hanaore danso chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshioka, T. [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan); Echigo, T. [Osaka Soil Test, Osaka (Japan); Toshioka, T.; Matsubara, Y. [Oyo Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-05-27

    This paper reports results of gravity survey and seismic survey using the shallow bed reflection method to identify distribution of the Hanaore fault in the Kyoto urban area. In the gravity survey, level differential structure caused by the fault was identified as an abrupt change in Bouger anomalous values. The continuity therefrom made the estimation possible on existence and positions of such faults as the Hanaore fault belonging to the Hanaore fault system, the Shishigaya fault, the Kaguraoka fault, and the Okazaki fault. The estimation as a result of the gravity survey include the following findings: the Hanaore fault runs from south of the Yoshidayama in the south-north direction; the distribution of the Okazaki fault has a level differential structure falling on the east side; the structure shows low Bouger anomaly distribution; and this area forms a rift valley belt. In the seismic survey using the shallow bed reflection method, no distinct reflection plane considered as the basement was verified because of influence from urban area noise. However, it was possible to estimate such an underground structure as a monoclinal fold from shapes of the reflection plane and the distribution depths. 7 refs., 5 figs.

  3. Discussion on sensor location in circular array for spatial autocorrelation method; Kukan jiko sokanho no enkei array ni okeru jishinkei haichi no kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, H.; Iwamoto, K.; Saito, T.; Yoshida, A. [Iwate University, Iwate (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-05-27

    Methods to derive underground structures by utilizing the dispersion phenomenon of surface waves contained in microtremors include the frequency-wave number analysis method (the F-K method) and the spatial autocorrelation method (SAC method). The SAC method is said capable of estimating the structures to deeper depths than with the F-K method if the same seismometer is used. However, the F-K method is used more frequently. This is because the SAC method imposes a strict restriction that seismometers must be arranged evenly on the same circumference, while the F-K method allows seismometers to be arranged arbitrarily during an observation. Therefore, the present study has discussed whether the SAC method can be applied to observations with the seismometers arranged in the same way as in the F-K method, by using microtremor data acquired from actual observations. It was made clear that a seismometer arrangement for the SAC method may be sufficed with at least three meters arranged on the same circumference. These meters may not have to be arranged evenly, but because the acquired phase velocities may vary according to wave arriving directions and seismometer arrangement, it is desirable to perform observations with seismometers arranged as evenly as possible. 13 figs.

  4. Array measurements of long-period microtremors in southwestern Kanto plain, Japan; Kanto heiya nanseibu ni okeru yaya choshuki bido no array kansoku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamanaka, H.; Sato, H.; Kurita, K.; Seo, K. [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-05-27

    Array measurements of long-period microtremors were carried out in the southwestern part of Kanto Plain, Japan, to obtain S-wave velocity structures in sedimentary beds as fundamental data for estimating long-term strong ground motion in Kanto Plain. The major component in a long-term seismic motion observed in Kanto Plain is the surface wave. According to the result of observations on Love wave by Kinoshita et al, the wavelengths of the surface waves of a long-term cycle are 10 to 20 km. Therefore, if an array observation is to be performed at intervals of about two wavelengths, about 40 points will be required to cover the entire Kanto plain. The final phase velocity is decided by averaging phase velocities of each cycle obtained for each data set. The acquired phase velocities are analyzed inversely by using a genetic algorithm to derive the S-wave velocities at each observation point. The present microtremor array observation has used 13 points in the southwestern part of Kanto Plain to acquire S-wave velocity (Vs) distribution in sedimentary beds. It was made clear that beds with Vs of 1.0 km/s and Vs of 1.5 km/s exist in this area between the surface bed and the seismic foundation with Vs of about 3 km/s. 10 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Airborne gamma-ray survey around the Negoro fault. 1; Negoro danso shuhen chiiki ni okeru kuchu {gamma} sen tansa. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakayama, E.; Kasuya, Y.; Hasegawa, H. [Aero Asahi Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Tsukuda, E. [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1997-05-27

    An airborne gamma-ray survey was carried out to investigate the active fault system in the central structure line in the peripheral area of the city of Wakayama. At the same time, with an objective to enhance applicability of the airborne gamma-ray survey to active fault investigation, fundamental data were acquired and discussed. The measurement data were processed according to the standard method specified by IAEA. An ID-FFT filter and a nonlinear filter were employed to extract anomalous gamma-ray intensity values. The gamma-ray intensity distribution chart shows a noticeable positive anomalous area extending from the central part of the western edge to the north-east direction. This area agrees nearly well with the Negoro fault, but its peak portion is positioned slightly more to south than the position of the Negoro fault shown in existing data. The Sakuraike fault and the vicinity of the central structure line also show positive anomaly as a whole, particularly remarkably in the vicinity of their converging portion. However, differing from the vicinity of the Negoro fault, the areas are not extracted as an anomalous area which has directionality and extends in a line form. One of the factors for this would be that it is a fault in unsolidified deposits with low opening trend, differing from the one in solidified rocks. 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  6. FY 1998 annual report on power generation by waste heat from cement production in China; Chugoku ni okeru cement hainetsu hatsuden 1998 nendo chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    This project is to implement a feasibility study for applying waste heat power generation, which have been already commercialized in Japan and producing remarkable results, to China's cement plants producing 3,500 t/d or more of clinker, and thereby to try to establish a link with the Japan's clean development mechanism. It is expected that introduction of these systems improves energy use efficiency and environments in China. The study results indicate that the project for a Tongling Conch plant could generate power of 15,000 kW, reducing CO2 emissions by 89,178 t/y and cumulatively 1,783,560 tons in the 20-year period. The results also indicate that the project will be highly profitable, with an estimated internal return rate of as high as 33.78%. The project for a Huaxin plant could generate power of 8,400 kW, reducing CO2 emissions by 48,412 t/y and cumulatively 968,240 tons in the 20-year period, annually saving power charges by 325 million yen and bringing an internal return rate of 10.72%. (NEDO)

  7. Development of high field magnets at the National Research Institute for Metals. Kinzoku zairyo gijutsu kenkyusho ni okeru kojikai magnet gun no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiyoshi, T.; Inoue, K.; Maeda, H. (National Research Inst. for Metals, Tsukuba (Japan))

    1993-06-20

    Sinece 1988, the Scince and Technology Agency has initiated the superconductor multicore project, which has a purpose of the versatile study on the high temperature superconducting materials of the oxide series. The National Research Institute for Metals is in charge of 5 cores out of them, and in the performance evaluation core which is one of them, the development of each kind of the high field magnets is being advanced for evaluating the characteristics under the high magnetic field. As the magnets, including the 40T class hybrid magnet which generates the steady state magnetic field of 40T, the superconducting magnet of 20T with a large diameter which generates the magnetic field over 20T with a superconductor, the condenser bank system for the pulse magnet to generate the pulse magnetic field up to 80T, and the ultra-precise magnet system which generates the magnetic field with a high uniformity will be consolidated. Keeping pace with a removal of the National Research Institute for Metals to Tsukuba, the construction of the strong magnetic field station is being advanced in the Sakura area. These several kinds of magnets are scheduled to be used in turn for the international joint study. 33 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  8. Temperature control of a heat exchanger for the photosensitive materials coating and drying process; Kanko zairyo tofu kanso purosesu ni okeru kucho system no ondo seigyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kido, K.; Sato, N.; Shimoji, M. [Konica Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan). Production Engineering Center; Nakanishi, E. [Kansai Univ., Suita, Osaka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-11-01

    A feedforward/feedback control system was developed to maintain the temperature profile of air in an air conditioning system for photosensitive material coating and drying. The feedforward control was attained based on a heat exchanger dynamic model using the flow rate of hot water as the manipulated variable and the air temperature as the controlled variable, while feedback control was performed by means of optimum control theory based on a linearized heat exchanger dynamic model. To evaluate the performance of the control system developed in this study, simulation and experimental studies were carried out where a stepwise change of set values is performed in order to maintain uniform production quality for each product grade. It is shown that the control system under consideration successfully controls air temperature in an air conditioning system for photosensitive material coating and drying. 4 refs., 7 figs.

  9. Temperature dynamic models of heat exchanger for photosensitive material coating and drying processes; Kanko zairyo tofu kanso process ni okeru kucho system no ondo doteki model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kido, K.; Sato, N.; Shimoji, M. [Konica Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Nakanishi, E. [Kobe University, Kobe (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-01-20

    Nonlinear and linear temperature dynamic models of a heat exchanger were investigated for air conditioning control of coating and drying processes for photosensitive materials. The nonlinear model was derived from heat balance based on the assumption of lumped parameter system that the heat exchanger is divided into small parts in the direction of flow (divided cell model). In each part, the temperature of the heating fluid, heated fluid and heat transfer tube with fin are assumed to be uniform. Parameters involved in this model were estimated from experimental data of the step response characteristics of temperature. The linear model is obtained by linearizing this nonlinear model. It was confirmed that the dynamic behavior of temperature can be successfully expressed by both nonlinear and linear models. Both models are considered to be utilizable for process analysis and control system design of the air conditioning system under consideration. 1 ref., 13 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Fatigue properties of austempered ductile cast iron at room and elevated temperatures; Austemper kyujo kokuen chutetsu no chukoon ni okeru hiro tokusei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuyama, K.; Hasegawa, N.; Inaga, K. [Gifu University, Gifu (Japan)

    1995-06-15

    Austempered ductile cast iron (ADI) is used widely as a structural material with high strength and toughness. However, since few studies have been made on investigation of fatigue properties at medium to high temperatures, this paper describes rotating bending tests carried out in temperature range between room temperature and 400{degree}C to investigate the fatigue properties and the fatigue crack generating behavior. The following results were obtained: the fatigue limit (fatigue strength after 10{sup 7} bendings) showed a remarkable maximizing phenomenon at temperatures around 300{degree}C; micronization of the base structure caused by transformation of residual austenite was recognized above 300{degree}C, and so was rise in the hardness; heating to this temperature led to rise in the Ms point, making the transformation occur more easily; the effect of repetitive stress causes a processing induced transformation; the temperature at which the transformation and the micronization are completed declines by about 50{degree}C lower than in the non-transformed region; and the fatigue fracture at middle to high temperatures is caused more frequently by internally existing graphite and development of cracks from very small casting cavities. 31 refs., 10 figs., 7 tabs.

  11. Cooperative measurements of microtremors in the north-eastern region of Nishinomiya city, Hyogo Pref.; Nishinomiyashi hokutobu ni okeru joji bido no godo kansoku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maiguma, T.; Matsuzawa, H. [Saitama University, Saitama (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Sawada, Y.; Tazawa, Y. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-05-01

    For the purpose of generally grasping space distribution of ground vibration characteristics, cooperative measurements were conducted in a wide area, mainly in the area stricken by the M7 earthquake. Forty-five organs such as governmental institutes, universities, and private company institutes participated in the measurements which were conducted at 1967 measuring points. The area which the author is in charge is an area from the north of Nishinomiya City to the south of Takarazuka City. The area is relatively far from the hypocenter area, but the magnitude is 7 there and damage was concentrated. The measurements were made by each independent team from August 29 to September 1, 1995. As a result of spectral measurements of NS, EW and UD components, conspicuous peaks were seen in an extent of 1.5 sec. cycle in almost all measuring points and components. Further, in spectra of horizontal motion components of A measuring point group, conspicuous peaks were seen in an extent of 0.15-0.5 sec. cycle, and in those in B and C measuring point groups, in an extent of 0.35-0.5 sec. cycle. In upper/lower motion components, conspicuous peaks were seen in an extent of 0.3 sec. cycle in A measuring point group. 4 figs.

  12. Questionnaire investigation for the earthquake in Honjo city and Yazawa city, Akita Prefecture; Jishin ni kansuru ishiki chosa (Akitaken Honjoshi oyobi Yuzawashi ni okeru anketo kara)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nogoshi, M. [Akita University, Akita (Japan). College of Education; Kabutoya, S.

    1996-05-01

    Consciousness for the earthquake was investigated by questionnaire surveys made in Honjo City and Yuzawa City, Akita Pref. in October 1995 twelve years after the Nihonkai Chubu Earthquake (M=7.7) in May 1983. The survey was conducted in terms of 27 items including personality, memory, knowledge/interest, psychology/action, mental attitude/preparations, wishes for researchers and administration, etc. Also included were the items on the Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake and the earthquake blank areas. The number of distributed questionnaires and the recovery rate of them are 1500 and 79.2% in Honjo City, and 1700 and 84.7% in Yuzawa City. From the survey, it was found that people have a lot of knowledge of and high interest in the earthquake and well remember it, and a lot of people know of tsunami, liquefaction phenomena, and the earthquake blank area. Further, they are afraid of earthquakes and think of their actions to be taken in case of earthquake. However, most people are little prepared for earthquakes. Important future subjects were suggested for the study of disaster prevention measures. 13 figs.

  13. Report of the 14th IFAC symposium on automatic control in aerospace; Dai 14 kai IFAC `koku uchu ni okeru jido seigyo symposium` shusseki hokoku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakasuka, S. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-04-05

    This is the report of the 14th International Federation of Automatic Control (IFAC) symposium on automatic control in aerospace, held on August 24 to 28 1998 at National Seoul University, ROK, by the author who participated in the symposium. This symposium is held by the IFAC`s Aerospace Technical Committee once in every 3 years for automatic control mainly for aerospace, in particular navigation, guidance and control of aircraft, satellites, rockets and the like. A total of 65 papers were presented to 25 sessions, with a total of 106 attendees. There were a number of attendees from Japan, and Russia sent an unusually large number of attendees. The general lectures covered the topics of, e.g., attitude and orbit control of satellites and the like, control of aircraft, guidance and control of missiles, navigation of aircraft and space aircraft, space robotics, failure diagnosis, basic theories on control, and system development. Reports on development and results of actual projects accounted for the majority in the sessions for control of satellites, rockets and the like. (NEDO)

  14. Optimization of man-machine roll allocation in automatic systems; Jidoka system ni okeru hito to kikai no yakuwari buntan no saitekika

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamasaki, H. [Yokokawa Electric Corp., Tokyo (Japan). Research and Development Lab.

    1996-08-10

    Bearing reliability and safety of automatic systems in mind, man-machine roll allocation in the operation of facilities is examined, and the optimal roll allocation is proposed. The outline of the method for man-machine roll allocation is given in process instrumentation system, robotized assembly plant, railroad operation control system, and passenger airplane operation control system. The types of man-machine roll allocation in automatic system is divided into normal and emergency cases. Improvement in the total reliability of man-machine system can be expected by man-machine mutual complementary roll allocation. The core of the intelligent support system for emergency is the growing knowledge base, and the system performs intelligent support automatically or with the support of human in an emergency. For smooth man-machine information interchange at man`s own will, logical difference between man and machine must be adjusted in the man-machine interface. 8 refs., 2 tabs.

  15. Regulations concerning open access to transmission grid in U.S.. Analysis of order No.888; Beikoku ni okeru open access no hokisei. Order No.888 no kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maruyama, M.

    1999-02-01

    Recently, countries aiming at deregulation of the electricity supply industry tend to choose `open access models` that allow final customers the freedom to select suppliers. For example, in 1996, U.S. Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) issued Order No. 888, which requires electric utilities to open their transmission grid for third parties. However, there are a lot of issues to be addressed before we adopt such models in our country. In this paper, we discuss open access of the transmission grid from the view points of utility regulation, taking account of the debates over regulations on grid access, especially concerning Order No.888 and previous laws and regulations in the United States. The results are: 1. At the end of 1980s, laws and regulations were established to require electric utilities to open their transmission grid for third parties. However, propriety of the wheeling order was decided on a case-by-case basis before the enactment of Order No.888. 2. Under tile provisions of Order No. 888 issued in 1996, electric utilities are required to open their transmission grid any time by request. Nevertheless, that obligation is limitative because (1) the electric utilities have a preferential access to the grid, (2) eligible customers can access to the grid only if there is available transmission capacity. Hence, one of the critical issues to be addressed is how to calculate their available transmission capacity. (author)

  16. Practical risk estimation method and applications of aerial photographs for preventing slope disasters in railways; Tetsudo ni okeru shamen saigai to sono taiosaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugiyama, T.; Noguchi, T. [Railway Technical Research Institute, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-12-01

    This paper, upon describing the actual states of slope disasters in railways, indicates the current status of measures taken to prevent these disasters. It also describes the measures to prevent slope disasters occurring currently and the future prospect thereof, focusing on the following two points: (1) a recently developed method for evaluating risks in banking and excavation slopes, and (2) an information control technology to prevent disasters of slope collapses by using remote sensing system and attempts on a method to estimate locations with risks of collapse occurrence by using the former information control technology. Development has been made of a method to evaluate rain disaster risks, which can identify quantitatively rain resisting strength of slopes, reflect the rain resisting strength on the operation rules, and estimate disasters on the real time basis. The method has been developed by using a statistic method to estimate the collapse critical rain amount as an exciting cause from predisposing cause of banking and excavation slopes, based on the record of nationwide disasters. Discussions were given on application of latest remote sensing technologies to slopes along railroads. Furthermore, an attempt was implemented on estimating collapse risks along railroad lines, utilizing slope information extracted from the above application of the remote sensing technologies. 13 refs., 12 figs., 7 tabs.

  17. Integrated practical technology for rationalization of production system in Miike coal mine; Seisan kozo kaikaku no tame no sogo shien gijutsu (Miike tanko ni okeru gijutsu kaikaku)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furukawa, H. [Mitsui Mining Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-25

    This paper describes the improvement of production structure and the reduction since the latter half of FY 1990 in the Miike Coal Mine. The annual production was reduced from 4.5 to 2.35 million tons. The rationalization strategy is composed of the increase in productivity with intensive faces by introducing high performance mining facilities (MHP) and by modifying mining method, the mechanization of driving works, the simplification of underground structures, the reduction of indirect costs, and the rationalization of surface management departments. Faces were reduced to one or two by the MHP, and high operation rate and energy saving are achieved using self-advancing frames. Face moving period was reduced by rotating the MHP within the underground. Labor-saving of belt conveyors was achieved using built-up frames. For the gallery driving, a base gallery was excavated before production, and level driving was expanded through the base gallery. High-speed and systematic face driving was realized through in-seam driving by operating road header without using blasting. To avoid the decrease in operation rate due to unexpected faults or spring waters, early grasping system of face conditions was established, and environmental arrangement was enriched. The efficiency was improved from 96 in FY 1988 to 159 t/person{center_dot}month in FY 1995. 4 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Historical overview of geophysical exploration for hydrocarbon prospecting in Japan; Nippon no sekiyu kogyo ni okeru butsuri tanko gijutsu no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamura, Y. [Japan Petroleum Exploration Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-08-01

    This paper describes a historical overview of geophysical exploration for hydrocarbon prospecting in Japan. In general, history is divided into eras by the qualitative change. In the case of geophysical exploration, the history is desired to be divided by considering the both of qualitative change in the technology and that in the practical application. In the early time of geophysical prospecting, gravitational exploration, magnetic exploration, seismic refraction method and seismic reflection method were elementarily and successfully tried. In the era of classical geophysical exploration, seismic reflection method and gravitational/magnetic methods were basically completed, and accumulation structures of potential petroleum were discovered around existing oil fields. In the era of systematic geophysical exploration, techniques of underground geological reflection profiles were completed with digitalization, and systematic petroleum exploration was conducted. In the era of modern geophysical exploration, 3D seismic was put into practice, and the inversion accuracy was improved, in which the geophysical exploration could be contributed jointly with the geological techniques. New development era of geophysics is expected. 31 refs., 10 figs., 5 tabs.

  19. Role of simulation model in petroleum exploration. Have we developed new ideas for exploration; Sekiyu tanko ni okeru simulation no yakuwari. Hatashite wareware no shikoho wa kawattanoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakayama, K. [Japex Jeoscience Institute, Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes a role of simulation model in petroleum exploration based on geology. Geology is based on inductive method in which a scientific fact can be extracted and estimated from the pile of descriptive records. Such an inductive method is called a backward model. While, geophysics is based on a deductive method in which a physical or mathematical model is developed assuming a uniformitarialism in the past before extracting a scientific fact through the model calibration. Such a deductive method is called forward model. Introduction of simulation model has been useful for petroleum exploration due to its deductive property. However, some conceptualization and simplification are introduced in such a method. Therefore, its accuracy is still far from the fact. However, objective concept can be obtained to certain degree. Simulation modeling is one of a significant methods by which petroleum exploration can be activated and new ideas can be created in the field of petroleum geology. It is required to apply the simulation modeling by checking it using conventional inductive method. 12 refs., 7 figs.

  20. Regional unification of energy in North America. ; NAFTA and its related matters. Hokubei ni okeru energy no chiiki togo. ; NAFTA to sono kanren ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-01

    The present paper reported energy-related items in the NAFTA. Being discussed among the US, Canada and Mexico, the NAFTA aims at withdrawing the trade barrier, relaxing the investment limitation and protecting the right of intellectual ownership. The foreign enterprises are influenced in both import tax cutdown and original home regulation. Main points which are related to the energy in Mexico are as follows: Mexico reserves the property rights of natural gas and pipelines while the PEMEX maintains the oil export/import and transport rights. In the power generation field, the CFE (Committee for Federal Electricity) owns the power generation and selling rights while the NAFTA approves the foreign investment in the power generation facilities. As per performance contract which forms a special field, incentive is given to the foreign enterprises when succeeding in oil exploration. In the petrochemical field, there exist basic petrochemical products in which the foreign investment is prohibited. A 100% participation of foreign capital is allowed in all other products than the above ones. How the foregoing changes influence the foreign investment is uncertain.

  1. Local corrosion of magnesia-chrome refractory at slag-metal interface; Yoyu slag metal kaimen ni okeru magnesia / chrom shitsu taikabutsu no kyokubu sonsho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tao, Z.; Mukai, K.; Ogata, M. [Kyushu Inst. of Tech., Kitakyushu, Fukuoka (Japan)

    1998-09-01

    The corrosion mode of refractory depending on the chemical dissolution of molten slag-metal, a component of refractory is classified mainly into the corrosion of inner slag phase body and inner metal phase body, and local corrosion at slag surface and slag-metal interface, and local corrosion at the interface of different type of refractories. Among them, local corrosion occurring at the slag-metal interface is a serious problem that effects the life of refractory, and these recent years research regarding the prevention of this type of local corrosion has been closed up. So far, number of researches regarding the local corrosion of solid oxides at slag-metal interface has been carried out. However, these are all based on close single component and research regarding the practical oxides with multiple components and multiporous characteristic has not been carried out. In this research, practical magnesia-chrome refractory (CaO-SiO2-Al203-FetO) slag-metal system is described and revelation of local corrosion phenomena at slag-metal interface was studied. 17 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Fiscal 1998 research report. Feasibility survey on offshore wind power generation in Japan; 1998 nendo chosa hokokusho. Nippon ni okeru yojo furyoku hatsuden no donyu kanosei chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    This survey studied the feasibility of large-scale offshore wind power generation in Japan. Attempt was also made on preparation of outline maps of offshore wind around Japan. The cost of future offshore wind power generation systems is roughly dependent on technical issues and environmental issues. As technical issues, 'installation site,' 'foundation,' 'system interconnection' and 'maintenance/management' were summarized based on applications in Europe. As a result, it was clarified that technical issues can be solved with existing technologies to a certain extent, however, those relate to economical problems closely. The previous environment impact assessments say that wind power generation has no problems on the environmental issues. As relatively strong wind coastal areas, the outline maps of offshore wind point out Western Hokkaido area, Japan Sea area of Tohoku district, Pacific ocean area of the central part of Honshu, Genkai Nada area, Western Kyushu area and Southwest islands area, and suggest that these areas are promising for offshore wind power generation. (NEDO)

  3. Composition dependence of the rate of bainitic transformation in Cu-Zn-Al alloys; Cu-Zn-Al gokin ni okeru bainite hentai sokudo no gokin sosei izonsei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tabuchi, M.; Marukawa, K. [Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1998-04-20

    The bainitic transformation is known to have an intermediate nature between the martensitic transformation and the diffusional transformation, while its transformation mechanism has not yet been clarified precisely. If this transformation involves lattice shearing like the martensitic transformation, it should take place more easily in those alloys which have a higher tendency to transform martensitically. On this expectation, the composition dependence of bainitic transformation kinetics has been studied in Cu-Zn-Al alloys. Especially, the relation between the martensitic transformation temperature (Ms) and the bainitic transformation rate was examined. The transformation process was traced by measuring the electrical resistivity of specimens during aging. It was found that the transformation rate is higher in those alloys having a higher Ms temperature. The activation energy for the process, obtained from its temperature dependence, is independent of the alloy composition and roughly equal to that for solute diffusion in the parent alloy. This indicates that the transformation is controlled by diffusion of solute atoms. The composition dependence of the bainitic transformation rate is discussed in terms of a diffusion controlled growth theory. 15 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. Continuous cooling transformation behavior for heat treatment of spheroidal graphite cast iron. Kyujo kokuen chutetsu no netsushoriji ni okeru renzoku reikyaku hentai kyodo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakata, T.; Matsumoto, H. (Shibaura Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)); Kasugai, T. (National Research Institute for Metals, Tsukuba (Japan)); Koyama, M. (Automobile Foundry Co. Ltd., Yokohama (Japan))

    1992-08-25

    In order to study basic heat treatment properties of spheroidal graphite cast iron, the continuous cooling transformation(CCT) diagrams for the material equivallent to FCD700 under various austenitized conditions were obtained. There were 4 kinds of austenitized conditions varying from 1123K and 420s to 1323K and 1,800s. Eight kinds of cooling time from the austenitized temperature to 773K ranged from 6s to 4,000s. The transformation temperature was measured by a thermal expansion method. When the austenitized temperature was increased from 1123K to 1323K, ferrite and pearlite transformation regions moved a little in the CCT diagrams and the martensite transformation temperature decreased from 493K to 458K. The bainite region in the CCT diagrams disappeared at the austenite temperatures above 1223K. The nucleation sites of ferrite and pearlite in the spheroidal graphite cast iron were generated at grain boundary between austenite and graphite but not at grain boundary between austenites. The reason of such phenomena was also studied. 10 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Isothermal transformation behavior in 12%Cr-0.3%C steel; 12%Cr-0.3%C ko ni okeru koon hentai kyodo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikami, M. [Japan Casting and Forging Corp., Kitakyushu (Japan); Tsuchiyama, T.; Takaki, S. [Kyushu Univearsity, Fukuoka (Japan)

    2001-01-01

    In order to get fine grain of large martensitic stainless steels products, it is available to use the isothermal transformation before the austenitizing. When 12%Cr-0.3%C steel is subjected to the full solution treatment and following isothermal transformation at 900-1,020K, it is observed that the microstructures are affected by the isothermal ageing temperature. The microstructure transformed isothermally at 1,020K is the full eutectoid structure where carbides precipitate homogeneously. On the other hand, the microstructure transformed at 900K is the mixed heterogeneous structure: the eutectoid structure where carbides precipitate densely around the edge of prior austenite grains and the ferrite structure where carbides hardly precipitate in the center of prior austenite grains. These phenomena are concerned with the decreasing in carbon content in the untransformed austenite as the eutectoid transformation progresses. The amount of decreasing in carbon at 900K is larger than at 1,020K, which causes the shortage of carbon in austenite in the last period of isothermal transformation. In the case of the isothermal transformation at 900K, the reason of why there are the ferrite structures with no carbide in the center of prior austenite grains is that the massive transformation is induced by the shortage of carbon in untransformed austenite. (author)

  6. Effective range of electrical stimulation in brain silica preparation; No slice hyohon ni okeru denki shigeki koka han`i no kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takimori, T.; Ogawa, T.; Nishida, M. [Akita University, Akita (Japan)

    1997-08-20

    In order to examine the confines of electrical stimulation in layer 2/3 of visual cortex in the brain slice preparation, we estimated the effective range of the stimulation based on the excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP) evoked in layer V neuron which receives input from layer 2/3. For this purpose, we recorded and compared EPSPs amplitudes evoked by stimulations at directly over site of recording electrode and lateral site in layer 2/3. Since the EPSP increased linearly with stimulus intensity before the saturation, it was considered that the EPSP correlates with the number of projecting neurons in area directly excited with the stimulation. Then we formed the region model by which we can get the ratios between the neuron numbers in areas excited by different sites stimulations against the stimulus effective ranges. And in the stimulus intensity for action potential threshold of layer 5 neuron, we evaluated the effective range for the relative values of EPSPs to be produced with the stimulations of 250{mu}m lateral site and directory over site. In the model, the ratio increased monotonically with the effective range and in the case of 250{mu}m for the effective range, the ratio between those EPSPs was less than the value in the model. These results led the conclusion that the effective range of the intensity for layer 5 neuron to generate the output is confined within 250{mu}m from directly over site, that is, within layer 2/3. 7 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Survey of the trend of technical development and industrial policies in Asian countries; Asia shokoku ni okeru gijutsu kaihatsu no doko to sangyo gijutsu seisaku ni kansuru chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    A sharp rise in industrial productivity in Asia countries indicates a rising level of R and D technology. Since Japan has not clearly grasped the R and D ability in these countries, it has not given appropriate personnel/material R and D support to them. Therefore, for the purpose of exactly grasping the R and D ability of Asian countries (Korea, Taiwan, the Philippines, Indonesia and India) and studying an effective and appropriate method for R and D cooperation, a survey was conducted of R and D potentials in Asia and R and D support policies of the countries. As a result of the survey, the following are taken up as items to be considered: promotion of exchanges between Tsukuba, etc. in Japan and research/university towns and science parks being constructed in lots of countries, participation of private companies in high-tech joint work in cooperation with Japan, sending information from Japan using internet, etc. and exact grasp of needs at partner side, cooperation given to new comers without asking for research results (use of OB researchers, etc.) 25 refs., 39 figs., 59 tabs.

  8. Preventive design review as quality assurance and further task at Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Ltd.; Kawasaki Juko ni okeru jizen kensho no torikumi to kongo no tenkai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minakata, S.; Okazaki, S.; Nishimoto, T.; Saeki, H.; Niguma, Y. [Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Ltd., Kobe (Japan)

    1999-12-01

    At Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Ltd. (KHI), to reduce the risk in manufacturing and contribute to our company management, the most useful method of our Quality Assurance (QA) activities is preventive verification by design reviews (DR). During a design review, we effectively use the abundant experience of our company in the technologies of design, manufacturing and management to prevent failures resulting from the upper processes, such as design. As a direct result of this activity (GRP-50 and 75), failure costs have been greatly reduced. In the future we will continue to evolve our QA activities backed by preventive verification, aiming at linking Total Quality Management (TQM) to management in order to progress our company management and business process. (author)

  9. Origin of the latest miocene alkaline rocks from Oki-dogo island, SW-Japan; Oki togo ni okeru makkichushinsei oki arukari kazanganrui no seiin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, S. [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan)] Sawada, Y. [Shimane Univ., Matsue (Japan)

    1998-05-05

    Volcanic rocks, which erupted in later stage Cenozoic, are distributed widely in Oki-Dogo located at 60 km off Simane peninsular in the sea of Japan. In advanced stage Miocene, alkaline volcanic group rocks such as shoshonite, trachybasalt and rhyolite had erupted. These rocks are classified into Oki-trachyte, rhyolite, Hei-tracyte and quartz rhyolite from the bottom of the stratum. Rhyolite group rocks are classified into two groups on geological features, rock`s descriptions and chemical compositions. It was clarified that the rhyolite group had a unique composition change that the components such as Fe, Y, Ce, Pb, Ba, Nb, Rb, Zr, Th, changed from 1.1 times to several times in spite of the Si content almost without changing. On the basis of these results, the author of this paper proposed the models for partial melting and magma mixing of the earth`s crust materials at the lowest co-melting point to solve the origin of two groups of rhyolite. 34 refs., 11 figs., 8 tabs.

  10. Survey on the feasibility of simple waste energy systems in medium or small cities; Chusho toshi ni okeru kan`igata haikibutsu riyo energy system no kanosei chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    For effective use of wastes, the concept of a waste utilization system suitable for local characteristics of the Kyushu district was surveyed. The amount, features and processing method of wastes were surveyed for every kind of wastes and every region. Characteristics of wastes themselves and their use technologies were surveyed to study the energy system concept, and the concept was selected mainly for simple middle or small-scale systems. Main wastes available as heat source showed distinctive distributions every region. The following seven concepts were thus selected: RDF (refuse derived fuel) energy system mainly using general wastes, RDF system using wood chips and agricultural plastic wastes, co-generation system by premixed combustion of chicken manure and combustion improver, premixed combustion of livestock manure and combustion improver, methane fermentation using livestock, distillery and starch wastes, and pyrolytic oil system or gas system using agricultural plastic wastes. Establishment of any systems is difficult only in single region because of their economic scale. The collection and storage methods of raw materials should be studied. 36 figs., 40 tabs.

  11. Horizontal wells in the Daleel field 2nd development campaign; Dariru yuden no niji kaihatsu ni okeru suihei koi ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanagisawa, K. [Japex Oman Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-11-01

    The horizontal wells excavated at various places in the world have been carried out at an increasing tempo during recent some years. In particular, Oman has a number of small scale petroleum wells and a task on what means their oil production should be increased, therefore the horizontal excavation is judged to be much optimum. In this Daleed field 2nd development mainly consisting the prolonged region development ranged from north to south, all developing oil wells were determined to excavate with the horizontal excavation method and 10 wells were planned to excavate from the judgement of the possibility of low cost, in addition to the advance of the horizontal excavation technique. The excavating operation was conducted from July 1st, 1994 to March 22nd, 1995, and was finished without any failures. Test results of all oil wells are good, and the mean value of the initial production indices of the horizontal wells were about 3 times to that of vertical wells. And, it made possible to produce petroleum from the areas impossible in the vertical wells, because of presence of gas gap. Adoption of the horizontal well increased early oil production rate, which brought a lot of contribution to economics of the project. 3 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Study on the swirling flow field in a rotating cylinder. 3rd Report. Experiment; Kaiten kannai ni okeru senkai nagareba ni kansuru kenkyu. 3. Jikken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kishibe, T. [Hitachi, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Kaji, S. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    2000-02-25

    In the previous papers, the swirling flow field in a rotating hollow turbine shaft was solved using computational fluid dynamics. It was observed that a large-scale spiral vortex existed at a place where the swirling flow turned radially outward. In this report, the pressure fluctuations in the swirling flow field are measured. The main part of the internal cooling air system of a gas turbine is used as the experimental apparatus. A specially devised liner in inserted inside the hollow turbine shaft and ten pressure sensors are embedded axially and circumferentially in the liner to measure the unsteady wall pressures. The pressure fluctuations which have the same characteristics as the rotating spiral vortex predicted in the numerical results are captured. The amplitude is great at the sensors near the place where the vortex was predicted in the numerical results and the precession frequency of the rotating spiral vortex is in close agreement with the calculated frequency. (author)

  13. Study on the impact assessment for the life cycle assessment (LCA); Kankyo fuka bunseki ni okeru impact assessment ni kansuru chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    This report describes the impact assessment which is an important step for LCA. For classification of the impact assessment, the existing literature was reviewed and a skeleton for the classification was proposed. The weighting factors for nine selected impact categories, which were used to calculate environmental load point (ELP) for the valuation, were obtained for two overseas groups, i.e., students of Amsterdam University and SETAC Europe members. It was found that the former provided the similar trends to general Japanese, however that the latter gave high weighting in the global warming and depletion of ozone layer. The ELP was proposed and applied to automatic washing machine, coffee maker, waste incineration power generation system, and co-generation system. As a result, its effectiveness was demonstrated. This report also describes problems for the LCA of thermal and material recycling of PS trays. 99 refs., 96 figs., 73 tabs.

  14. Investigation into the analysis method of total ecobalance in chemical industry products. 3; Kagaku kogyo seihin ni okeru total eko balance no bunseki shuho ni kansuru chosa. 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    For the purpose of establishing a total life-cycle ecobalance analysis (LCA) method, the paper studied making of a general computer program for chemical industry products. The study has been made on general-purpose plastics (PET/PSP (polystyrene paper)) since fiscal 1993 aiming at making the CO2 emission computing program covering the entire process of production from extraction of raw materials through waste disposal. In fiscal 1995, the following were conducted for enhancement of generalization of the method: expansion of environmental load items and increase in validity of the concept, and expansion of database. Notice was taken of not only CO2 but SOx, NOx and water quality load items. The survey was made on the recycling situation in Japan and abroad and the PET recycling plant , and environmental load item data are collected to expand database. The program was verified by analyzing an example of reusing PET bottle to carpet, and one-step development can be made toward the establishment of the method. Moreover, an analysis was made for the environmental assessment of the related programs abroad, and a tentative original plan can be proposed for the standardization of environmental load analysis and the integrated assessment method. 39 refs., 130 figs., 76 tabs.

  15. Investigational study of the CO2 balance in high temperature CO2 separation technology; Nisanka tanso koon bunri gijutsu ni okeru CO2 balance ni kansuru chosa kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    An investigational study was conducted to clarify the adaptable environment and effectivity of technologies of high temperature separation/recovery/reutilization of CO2. In the study, data collection, arrangement and comparison were made of various separation technologies such as the membrane method, absorption method, adsorption method, and cryogenic separation method. With the LNG-fired power generation as an example, the adaptable environment and effectivity were made clear by making models by a process simulator, ASPEN PLUS. Moreover, using this simulator, effects of replacing the conventional steam reforming of hydrocarbon with the CO2 reforming were made clear with the methanol synthesis as an example. As to the rock fixation treatment of high temperature CO2, collection/arrangement were made of the data on the fixation treatment of the CO2 separated at high temperature into basic rocks such as peridotite and serpentinite in order to clarify the adaptable environment and effectivity of the treatment. Besides, a potentiality of the fixation to concrete waste was made clear. 57 refs., 57 figs., 93 tabs.

  16. Numerical analysis of viscoelastic start-up flow in abrupt contraction channel; Kyushukusho ryuro ni okeru nendansei ryutai no start up nagare no suchi keisan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, T.; Nakamura, K. [Osaka University, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1998-10-25

    Start-up flows of viscoelastic fluids in a two-dimensional 4 to 1 abrupt contraction channel is numerically studied and the transient behavior of viscoelastic fluids is discussed. The multi mode Leonov model is applied to describe the rheological properties of the viscoelastic fluid. The numerical simulation has been carried out for two Weissenberg numbers. The following results are obtained from the present analysis: The corner vortices develop with time and restrict the velocity gradient to relax the growth of the stress field. The circular secondary flow works as a stress relief mechanism. The overshoot of the stress growth is observed at the high Weissenberg number and is not done at the low Weissenberg number. This phenomenon is caused by the unsteady elongational property of the fluid. 15 refs., 9 figs.

  17. Numerical calculation of viscoelastic flows through eccentric abrupt contraction; Henshin kyushuku shoryuro ni okeru nendansei ryutai no nagare no suchi kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, K.; Mori, N.; Matsumura, K. [Osaka University, Osaka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-04-25

    Numerical simulations of viscoelastic flows through an eccentric four-to-one abrupt contraction are carried out using the Giesekus model. The SMAC (Simplified-Marker-and-Cell) method is used to analyze the three-dimensional flows. The velocity profiles along the path line passing through the center of the exit exhibit an overshoot near the entry section, and at high Weissenberg numbers an undershoot follows the overshoot. The magnitude of the stress along the same path line has a peak near the entry, section, and its slow relaxation process indicates that a large downstream length is necessary for fully developed stress conditions to exist. The peak is lower than that for the flow through the concentric four-to-one abrupt contraction ; the decrease in the peak amplitude is understood to be due to the distortion of the path line in the eccentric geometry. A corner vortex, the height of which is a maximum at the widest corner, grows as the Weissenberg number increases. Furthermore, the tangential flow toward the widest section inside the vortex is determined. 19 refs., 10 figs.

  18. Education for hydraulics and pneumatics in Kanazawa University, Department of Human and Mechanical System Engineering; Kanazawa Daigaku Ningen Kikai Kogakuka ni okeru yukuatsu kyoiku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsui, Y. [Kanazawa University, Ishikawa (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    2000-03-15

    The above-named department was established in 1996. It advocates, standing on the basis of mechanical engineering, 'adaptation with man,' 'symbiosis with society,' and 'harmony with nature,' and, under these mottos, aims to bring up engineers who are able to create technologies in the field of mechanical engineering. There is no independent subject for fluid power. Relative subjects are the science of flows, thermodynamics and exercise, energy and environmental engineering, and nature and flow. Lectures are given using textbooks mainly. There is no subject that requires experiment on fluid power. It is hoped that teaching materials will be provided. Studies for graduation and master's theses are the 'suction performance of toroidal pumps' and the 'fluid force in, and flow coefficients of, spool valves.' Collaborative researches with industrial circles conducted so far involve the 'study of automotive vane pumps' and the 'suction performance of toroidal pumps.' It is difficult for subjects related to hydraulics and pneumatics to interest students greatly. To interest and attract students, it is felt, the concept like 'hydraulics and pneumatics signify power sources' which gives a tough and mighty impression should be replaced by a softer-tone expression like 'hydraulics/pneumatics and mechatronics and control.' (NEDO)

  19. Education for hydraulics and pneumatics in Yokohama University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Sciences; Yokohama Kokuritsu Daigaku ni okeru yukuatsu kyoiku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Y. [Yokohama National University, Yokohama (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    2000-03-15

    Described herein is education for hydraulics and pneumatics in Yokohama University. Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science pursues to most efficiently produce high-quality products useful for human living and compatible with the environments, based on scientific and technological knowledge man has learned. This department has four professional education courses, materials designs, mechanical processes, hot fluid dynamics, and mechanical systems. An independent subject of hydraulic and pneumatic systems is provided for hydraulics and pneumatics. The lectures on mechatronics include those for digitally-, electronically/hydraulically- and electronically/pneumatically-controlled devices, and their characteristics. The related subjects include fluid dynamics, basic fluid analysis, applied fluid analysis, turbo machines, and automatic control. The postgraduate courses provide hydraulic and pneumatic engineering for, e.g., cavitation and unsteady flow through conduits, hydraulic/pneumatic driving and controlling, modeling and robust control of mechanical systems, and designs of fluid-controlling devices and actuators. The experimental courses include tests of centrifugal pump performance, measurement of pressure distributions on journal bearings, and tests of fluid flow through conduits. (NEDO)

  20. Application of information theory to the sensitivity analysis of cogeneration system performance; Johoryo no gainen ni yoru kojenereshon system ni okeru fuka deta eikyo bunseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, K.; Ishizaka, T.; Honnma, I. [Tokyo Electric Power Co., Inc. (Japan)

    1996-01-05

    Cogeneration system (CGS) is anticipated by department of energy to play an important role in environment preservation. Cogeneration system`s estimation is depended on the preconditions, heat and electricity load data. Since the recognition of heat and electricity load is difficult, efficiency in load data is demanded repeatedly for the evaluation of cogeneration system. Necessary load factors for the estimation of cogeneration system from the energy department`s point of view as well as what measure may become good while recognizing load factors are investigated in this paper. Based on this, a proposal is made by considering load factors of buildings as a standard for estimation of the system. Further fixed quantity assessment is made with the results of computer simulation. From the obtained results, following observations are noted. Recognization of total load capacity is become very important when base load is introduced considerable amount for houses. Load factor`s information is very important for hotel when heat and electricity are used in balance. It is concluded that irrespective of motor capacity, whole day load factor information is necessary for office buildings. 6 refs., 15 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Optimum orbit and control of reflux ratio in the batch distillation; Bacchi joryu ni okeru kanryuhi no saiteki kido to seigyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morimoto, Jun; Susuzki, Mutsumi [Tohoku University, Miyagi (Japan)

    1999-06-05

    In the batch distillation, optimum orbit of reflux ratio exists under evaluation function of utility cost minimum and product quantity maximum. Enormous repeat calculation was necessary in order to calculate such optimum orbit by maximum principle. In this paper, calculation method which corrects initial value of the Hamilton accompanying function is proposed. Optimum orbit is calculated by this calculation method and advance on recent computer in the real time, and there is it, and it would be able to control the reflux ratio. And, it is also possible reflux ratio optimum state variable control table beforehand. These control method become an operation which is truly optimum for evaluation function. (translated by NEDO)

  2. Application of numerical analysis method to jet engine combustion design. Jet engine yo nenshoki no sekkei ni okeru suchi kaiseki no tekiyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Negoro, T.; Arai, M.; Kuyama, T.; Nakahata, T.; Hirokawa, M. (Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))

    1993-01-20

    This paper describes features and applications of numerical analysis for jet engine combustor design. The numerical analysis for flow fields in a combustor has set a limitation on objects to be analyzed for each component element in the combustor or each design element, and carried out the analysis upon selecting basic formulas and models. The numerical analysis is effective to predict qualitatively the effects on flow patterns in the whole combustor liner interior or temperature distributions in the combustor liner interior, but is not sufficiently effective for use as quantitative evaluation. An application suggested that a parallel shape is more preferable that does not squeeze a flow outlet on the outer side that can be expected of providing sufficiently large recirculation flow region, as a result of analyzing the flow patterns around fuel injection valves. Dump diffuser analysis revealed that the above shape is preferable in supplying air stably from the annulus part into the liner interior through air holes. It was verified that the analysis of flows in the combustor liner has identified features of the flows qualitatively. 4 refs., 13 figs.

  3. Effects of fuel and air mixing on WOT output in direct injection gasoline engine; Chokufun gasoline kikan ni okeru nenryo to kuki no kongo to shutsuryoku seino

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noda, T.; Iriya, Y.; Naito, K.; Mitsumoto, H.; Iiyama, A. [Nissan Motor Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    The effects of in-cylinder charge motion and the characteristics of the fuel spray and piston crown shape on WOT output in a direct injection gasoline engine are investigated. The fuel and air mixing process in a cylinder is analyzed by computer simulation and LIF method visualization. As a result, the technical factors to achieve enough mixing in a DI gasoline engine equipped with bowl in piston optimized for stratified combustion are clarified. 7 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Numerical simulation of fuel sprays and combustion in a premixed lean diesel engine; Kihaku yokongo diesel kikan ni okeru nenryo funmu to nensho no suchi simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyamoto, T.; Harada, A.; Sasaki, S.; Shimazaki, N.; Hashizume, T.; Akagawa, H.; Tsujimura, K.

    1997-10-01

    Fuel sprays and combustion in a direct injection Premixed lean Diesel Combustion (PREDIC) engine, which can make smokeless combustion with little NOx emission, is studied numerically. Numerical simulation was carried out by means of KIVA II based computer code with a combustion submodel. The combustion submodel describes the formation of combustible fuel vapor by turbulent mixing and four-step chemical reaction which includes low temperature oxidation. Comparison between computation and experiment shows qualitatively good agreement in terms of heat release rate and NO emission. Computational results indicate that the combustion is significantly influenced by fuel spray characteristics and injection timing to vary NO emission. 10 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Development of natural gas in the South American region and internationalization of a market thereof; Nanbei chiiki ni okeru tennen gasu kaihatsu to shijo no kokusaika

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niwa, N. [Japan Petroleum Development Association, Tokyo (Japan); Terada, S. [Mitsubishi Research Institute, Inc., Tokyo (Japan)

    2000-09-01

    Recently, natural gas development in the South American region is actively advanced. Especially, southern countries have formed the customs union 'Mercosur' (the South America south cooperation market), and an energy supply network such as the natural gas pipeline has been formed with the integration of the market. In this paper, a present state of development project, an installment balance situation, a production situation, a relation infrastructure and a trend of the market of natural gas in South America especially each country of the southern district are described. And, the introduction of foreign capital is also advancing with the restructuring related to the natural gas business in these countries. Therefore, those trends are also described. In the South American countries, Argentina has abundant natural gas reserves which is the next quantity to Venezuela, and has coped with the development of natural gas since early times. According to the prediction of future demand trend of natural gas, Argentina, Bolivia and Trinidad Tobago are mentioned as an exporter of natural gas, and Brazil and Chile are mentioned as an importer of natural gas. (NEDO)

  6. Motion analysis of human cervical vertebrae and injury mechanisms during low speed rear impacts; Teisokudo tsuitotsu ni okeru ningen no keitsui kyodo kaiseki to shogai mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ono, K. [Japan Automobile Research Institute Inc., Tsukuba (Japan); Kaneoka, K.; Inami, S.; Hayashi, K. [University of Tsukuba. Tsukuba (Japan)

    1998-05-01

    It is said that, as long as a head rest is used in an automobile, dilation of the cervical vertebrae will not extend the physiological range. However, neck injuries are still occurring frequently as a result of the rear collision accidents. This paper describes an experiment simulating low speed rear impacts by using ten volunteers for the purpose of clarifying the neck injury mechanism. Data taken by using a continuous X-ray photographing device were analyzed. The following points were made clear on features of collisions from comparison with normal cervical vertebral behavior: at a rear impact, the cervical vertebrae are subjected to action of axial compression force due to inertia of the neck, in addition to push-up of the body resulting in upward movement, and the force remains affecting the cervical vertebral behavior thereafter; the effect appears as a bending condition in the cervical vertebrae in the initial stage around 50 to 100 ms after the impact, and then transfers into dilation behavior; and this condition exceeds the normal physiologically movable range, particularly the movement of the winding center being abnormal, which is thought to involve in the mechanism of generating injuries in vertebral joints. 8 refs., 11 figs.

  7. New utilization and recall of carbon dioxide in domestic and foreign countries; Saikin no naigai ni okeru tansan gas no riyo to kaishu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanada, M.

    1994-09-01

    This paper summarizes the utilization technologies and recovery of carbon dioxide. Carbon dioxide is manufactured from such inorganic materials as carbonates and cokes, and such organic materials as hydrocarbons and alcohols. Carbon dioxide used in refreshing beverages is manufactured by sulfuric acid decomposition of sodium bicarbonate or limestone, pyrolysis of carbonates, natural gushing, and alcohol fermentation. Sodium carbonate is obtained by using the Solvay process that uses NaCl, NH3 and CaCO3 as the raw materials, but CO2 from hydrocarbons is utilized recently. The sugar industry uses slaked lime and CO2 in cleaning raw sugar concentrates. Grain size, shape, and grain size distribution of the precipitated calcium carbonate light obtained from reaction of slaked lime and CO2 are affected by reaction temperatures and concentrations. This precipitated calcium carbonate light is used in rubber filling, paper manufacturing, and plastics. South Africa and other countries manufacture gypsum for cement by using limestone and sulfuric acid as the raw materials. The annual dispersion of CO2 from fossil fuel consumption amounts to 5.2 billion tons. Discussed as its reducing measures include fixation by sea algae, adsorption, absorption and clathration by zeolite and monoethanol amine. 8 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs.

  8. Improvement of performance of non-equilibrium MHD disk generator by means of segmented loads; Hiheiko disk gata MHD hatsudenki ni okeru bunkatsu fuka ni yoru seino kaizen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, H.; Okuno, Y.; Kabashima, S. [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-08-20

    The performance of non-equilibrium MHD disk generator with segmented loads is examined with {gamma}-{theta} two dimensional numerical simulations. The use of segmented loads is found to improve the generator performance when a low electron temperature plasma is introduced to the channel. The simulation results reveal the desired values of load resistances connected in upstream and downstream regions, respectively. The concept of the segmented loads is considered to be superior to rearranging seed fractions and load resistances. 10 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Comparison of ER and MR actuators in terms of performance in ERMC high-precision positioning; ERMC koseido ichigime ni okeru ER/MR actuator no seino hikaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, T.; Watanabe, H. [Tokyo Engineering Univ., Tokyo (Japan); Sugimoto, A. [Research Inst. of Industrial Safety, Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-01-15

    Although the characters of a (magnetorheological (ER) fluid are quite like those of a dispersed electrorheological (ER) fluid, MR differs from ER in that the change in shear stress that MR shows upon magnetic field application is scores of times greater than that ER shows and that MR can be used even when the voltage is low. In this lecture, antagonistic rotation type actuators working on ER or MR are caused to incline with the angle of inclination controlled by the ERMC system, and the two are compared in terms of the frequency of stoppage achieved. The ERMC system is a high-precision positioning system making full use of the variable flow characteristics of the Bingham plastic that is a functional fluid. (translated by NEDO)

  10. Pressure response of electrorheological suspension in a model ER damper; ER damper model ni okeru bunsanke ER ryutai no atsuryoku oto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakano, M.; Yonekawa, T. [Yamagata University, Yamagata (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1995-01-25

    This paper reports the examination result of the pressure response of an electrorheological suspension fluid (obtained when the particles of a strong acid ion-exchange resin are dispersed on silicon oil and whose rheological characteristics vary with the action in the external electric field) in an electrorheological (ER) damper model (experimental equipment consisting of an ER valve with plane parallel electrode and a piston cylinder). A rectangular wave voltage is applied to the ER valve to obtain the pressure fall components based on the steady ER effect of an ER fluid flowing between the plane parallel electrodes. The intensity of the electric field and the dependence on the flow velocity were formulated by an approximate function. The flow velocity dependency of this ER effect does not coincide with the theoretical analysis result based on a Bingham fluid model. The pressure in a cylinder presents the transient response of a first-order lag to the rectangular wave voltage input to the ER valve. The time constant value in this case can be explained by considering the compressibility of the residual air in the ER fluid. 11 refs., 11 figs.

  11. Study of the influence of microgravity on the biological cells and molecular level; Seitai saibo bunshi level ni okeru bisho juryoku no eikyo ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    The shape of osteoblast, gene appearance, gene of rice blast, cellular fusion of plants, gravity acceptance mechanism of unicellular organisms, and physiological and immunity functions of mice were investigated under the microgravity condition. The influence of gravity on the vital reaction and the influence of microgravity on the crystallization of vital substances were also investigated. For the observation of osteoblast, the fluorescence dye reacted with Ca was well taken in the cells. The microgravity affected the stability of rice blast, but hardly affected the protoplast culture of mushroom. The reaction of ciliate against the gravity related to the specific gravity difference between cells and outer liquid. The level of adrenaline in blood of mice increased during the drop. The moving speed of trigger waves of chemical parallel slit formed at the BZ reaction under the microgravity became 60% to 80% of that on the ground. In the case of crystallization at the deposition agent concentration of 1% to 4%, the turbidity showing the degree of crystallization changed complicatedly. Nine processes of crystal growth were recognized. 21 refs., 55 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Traffic flow characteristics and analysis on weaving sections of the Hanshin Expressway. Hanshin kosokudoro ni okeru orikomi kukan no kotsu jittai to kotsuryu kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makigami, Y. (Ritsumeikan Univ., Kyoto (Japan). Faculty of Engineering); Toyota, (Japan Highway Public Corp., Tokyo (Japan)); Matsuo, T. (Hanshin Expressway Public Corp., Osaka (Japan))

    1992-01-20

    The report is aimed at giving an idea about design of the weaving section or traffic plan, which describes the outline and the results of a series of traffic survay and capacity analysis on weaving section on the Central Loop and its neighboring section of the Hanshin Expressway in 1985 to 1990 by making use of both areal photographs taken from a helicopter and video recordings and which makes an effort to clear which area does the traffic jam caused by the narrow road affect on and how does the mechanism show while making search the characteristics of the traffic flow in a weaving section. Using these traffic data, the applicability of HCM-85 Weaving Capacity Analysis Method to the Japanese expressway is evaluated. It also makes a touch to the problems and study about analysis method of weaving section. 11 refs., 21 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. Combined process of pyrolyzer/combuster for gas production and power generation; Chugoku ni okeru chukibo hatsuden to toshi gas seizo no tame no fukugo process no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ooka, I. [The University of Tokushima, Tokushima (Japan); Ma, T.

    1997-10-30

    In China, they are using a lot of coal by direct firing for domestic cooking, space heating and industrial use. Therefore air pollution is the big problem in every cities in winter season. And at moment, they do not have enough infrastructure for supplying energy such as gas and electric power. There is a great need for facilities for supplying gas and electric power from coal in big cities with much less pollution. This paper d a combined process of medium size plant of gas production and power generation by using fluidized circulation bed pyrolizer and combuster, to contribute to the energy supply which greatly reduces air and water polution and coal consumption. 1 ref., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  14. Design and construction of precast PC-slab for the `Tokai Obu viaduct`; Tokai Obu kokakyo ni okeru precast PC yukaban no sekkei to seko

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizuguchi, K.; Murayama, A. [Japan Highway Public Corporation, Tokyo (Japan); Kitayama, K.; Yamashita, S. [P.S. Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-03-31

    This paper describes the construction of Toukai Obu viaduct completed in 1997. This viaduct is specified by use of PC slabs, length of 974.5m and design speed of 100km/h, and was constructed aiming at cost reduction and new rational structure. Precast PC (PCa) slabs prestressed in a direction of slab span were produced under severe quality control in a factory. The PCa slabs stocked in a factory were transported by trailer and specific frame to the construction site, and laid on steel bridge girders by crane. An RC loop joint method for PCa slabs was newly adopted as one of the lap splice methods of reinforcing bars which is superior in cost and maintenance to conventional slab connecting methods in a longitudinal direction of bridges with PC steel material. Because of less domestic applications, a cyclic loading fatigue test at fixed points was carried out using a small model to obtain fatigue proof stress and fracture morphology. A moving loading test was also carried out at an actual loading level using full-scale slab specimens to obtain fatigue proof stress and long-span slab behavior. 7 refs., 24 figs., 8 tabs.

  15. Perpendicular construction of bridge girder for long span suspension bridge under a rapid stream; Kyuchoryuka ni okeru chodai tsuribashi no hokoketa chokka tsuri koho no kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirayama, J.; Sakamoto, M.; Nakao, T.; Koga, N. [Honshu-Shikoku Bridge Authority, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-06-20

    Perpendicular construction of bridge girder for a long span suspension bridge, which is to be constructed over the Kurushima Channel, an international route, has been investigated. For the construction of suspension bridge over channels, the overhang construction is generally employed. Bridge girder perpendicular construction, in which unit girder block is lifted from a carrier barge and directly constructed by means of lifting beams located at main cable, is a superb method in terms of cost, time, and safety. It is necessary to stay the carrier barge during the anchoring of girder block and lifting beams. Mooring of the carrier barge is required under a rapid stream, which results in the trouble of under way ships. A propulsion positioning system has been developed for the bridge girder carrier barge, by which the position/propulsion of four thrusters equipped at each corner of the barge can be automatically controlled. Thus, the perpendicular construction of bridge girder has been developed, in which mooring is not required even under the rapid stream. The position of barge can be maintained within a range of {plus_minus}2.5 m even under a rapid stream with a speed of 3 kn. The quick joint can be certainly connected for about one minute in the horizontal movement within {plus_minus}2.5 m and vertical movement within 0.5 m. For this perpendicular construction, the construction time can be shortened to around 16 to 17 minutes, which has been usually taken for three hours. 2 refs., 17 figs., 4 tabs.

  16. Suppression of cell metabolism y structuring water under hydrophobic-gas pressure; Sosuisei gasu atsuryokuka ni okeru mizu no kozoka wo riyo shita saibo no taisha yokusei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashimoto, Atsushi; Kameoka, Takaharu [Mie University, Mie (Japan). Dept. of Bioinformation Scicence; Shiinoki, Yasuhiko; Ito, Kensuke [Snow Brand Milk Products Corp., Tokyo (Japan). Technical Research Institute

    1999-03-10

    We propose a new method to suppress cell metabolism by dissolving hydrophobic gas into intracellular water, and structuring it under hydrophobic-gas pressure. Xenon, krypton, argon, and helium gases show death inhibitory effects on all test bacteria (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus salivarius) suspended in physiological saline with no nutrient component during storage under the conditions. In addition, different death inhibitory effects are observed among the five test bacteria, and this proposed method is more effective for gram-negative bacteria with thin cell walls than for gram-positive bacteria with thick cell walls. Further, xenon gas exhibit more significant effects for death inhibition than any other test gases, and the optimum initial partial pressure to inhibit the death is observed only for xenon gas in the present experimental conditions. Consequently, it is experimentally suggested that the cell metabolism can be suppressed almost perfectly by making the optimum water structure. (author)

  17. Production planning support system using. Phi. NET in FA. FA bun prime ya ni okeru. Phi. NET oyo seisan keikau shien system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Igawa, Y.; Hibino, K. (Fuji Electric Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))

    1991-08-10

    In response to a wide use of the production simulation for production scheduling in the domain of factory automation (FA), a system of a machining flexible manufacturing system (FMS) production line using a general-purpose distribution control system building tool {Phi}NET was developed by Fuji Electric. In this report, an outline of this system was introduced as to its constitution and performance. This FMS production line has functions of the production scheduling, the production simulation, and the production instruction. Among them, the {Phi}NET model, in which the network model called petri-net and the production rule were combined, was applied to the production simulation. Consequently, was provided a prospect that the {Phi}NET would be developed to an FA simulator with which a production engineer can build a model with his own field language and conduct a simulation. 4 figs.

  18. Studies on substitutional protein sources for fish meal in the diet of Japanese flounder; Hirame shiryo ni okeru miriyo shigen no riyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kikuchi, K.; Furuta, T.; Sakaguchi, I. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-08-01

    Effectiveness of livestock industry wastes and vegetable protein added to fish meal in fish farming is tested by feeding the Japanese flounder. In the experiment, a part or the whole of the fish meal protein is replaced by the meat meal (MM), meat and bone meal (MBM), corngluten meal (CGM), or dried silkworm pupa meal (SPM), and fries of the Japanese flounder are fed on the new diets for eight weeks. On a diet containing 60% or less of MM, no change is detected in the fish in terms of increase in weight, protein efficiency ratio, and blood components, indicating that 60% at the highest of fish meal may be replaced by MM. In the case of MBM, it can occupy approximately 20%. As for CGM, the proper substitution rate is approximately 40%. Essential amino acids that the new diets may lack are added for an approximately 10% improvement on the result. The SPM substitution works up to 40%, when, however, the blood components are degraded. The proper substitution rate is therefore placed at approximately 20%. 38 refs., 2 figs., 17 tabs.

  19. Survey of the actual state of the coal related research and development in Japan. 11; Nippon ni okeru sekitan kanren kenkyu kaihatsu jittai chosa. 11

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    NEDO is surveying the actual state of the coal related research/development in Japan to supply information on the coal related research/development in Japan to IEA`s coal research project database. This book of fiscal 1997 version includes 338 subjects. The details described are name of research institute, the section in charge, address, name of country, telephone No., name of joint researcher, research theme, classification, outline of research, project No., name of researcher, sponsor, the budget appropriated, term of research, remarks, etc. The books of data collected from each country in surveys of the actual state of the coal related R and D and IEA`s coal researches which have been made so far are submitted for general viewing at NEDO Information Center. Also, a part of those can be accessible from the energy database of which NEDO Information Center is performing on-line service for user members

  20. Microscopic damage of quasi-isotropic carbon/epoxy laminates at various temperatures; Kakuondo kankyoka ni okeru carbon/epoxy giji tohosei sekisoban no bishiteki sonsho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, H. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Ogi, K.; Matsubara, T.; Wang, W.; Takao, Y. [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Research Inst. for Applied Mechanics

    1998-06-15

    Quasi-isotropic Carbon/Epoxy laminates under tensile loading are investigated to understand the effects of temperature on stress-strain response and damage progress including the interlaminar delamination growth behavior. The material system used is T800H/3631 and the stacking sequence is quasi-isotropic [0deg/45deg/-45deg/90deg]s. The transverse crack behavior is microscopically observed and its density is quantitatively measured by using an optical microscope under various loads at different temperatures, i.e., low (-100deg), room (25deg) and high (150deg) temperatures. The interlaminar delamination growth behavior is non-destructively examined by a scanning acoustic microscope (SAM). It is found that nonlinearity observed in the stress-strain response is caused by the large scale interlaminar delamination throughout the length of the specimen. The transverse crack propagation and interlaminar delamination growth behavior are obviously affected by the temperature environments. Characteristic transverse crack formation at the edge of -45deg layer under -100deg is pointed out and its mechanism is discussed with the use of shear coupling of an off -axis lamina. 10 refs., 16 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Study of installation of PV systems at campus; Campus ni okeru taiyoko hatsuden donyu ni kansuru kenkyu (taiyo denchi nomi wo secchishita baai no yobi kento)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuboi, N.; Tanaka, H.; Okumiya, M. [Nagoya University, Nagoya (Japan)

    1997-11-25

    In terms of energy consumption, environmentality and economical efficiency in the case of installing the photovoltaic power system on the rooftop of the university campus, a comparative study was conducted with other power generation systems. As objects to be comparatively studied, selected were the all-electric type centralized space heating/cooling system, cogeneration system, nighttime heat storage system and centralized system with solar cells installed. The panel area of the PV system is 10,000m{sup 2} on the rooftop and 7,000{sup 2} on the outer wall. About data on solar radiation, average values obtained in Nagoya were used. Assessment was made in terms of energy consumption amount at the time of operation, system COP, emission amounts of CO2, NOx and SOx at the time of manufacturing and operation, initial cost, running cost, etc. As a result of the study, an effect of reducing global warming gas was admitted in the PV system. However, the initial cost of the solar cell panel was high, and the life cycle cost of the PV system was lower than other systems. 1 ref., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. Heat pump using dual heat sources of air and water. Performance in cooling mode; Mizu kuki ryonetsugen heat pump no kenkyu. Reibo unten ni okeru seino

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, S.; Miura, N. [Kanagawa Institute of Technology, Kanagawa (Japan); Uchikawa, Y. [Kubota Corp., Osaka (Japan)

    1997-11-25

    When a heat pump is used for cooling purpose, it is possible to utilize different kinds of waste water as high-heat sources. However, these heat sources would have their temperatures vary with seasons and time in a day. Therefore, a discussion was given on performance of a heat pump when water and air heat sources are used for condensers during cooling operation independently, in series and in parallel, respectively. The air condenser shows an equivalent COP as compared with the water condenser when air temperature is lower by about 8 degC than water temperature. At the same heat source temperature, the COP for the water condenser indicated a value higher by about 0.6 than the case of the air condenser. A method to use condensers in parallel experiences little contribution from the air heat source, and performance of the heat pump decreases below the case of using the water heat source independently when the air heat source temperature becomes higher than that of the water heat source. In the case of series use in which a water condenser is installed in front and an air condenser in rear, its effect is exhibited when temperature in the air heat source is lower than that in the water heat source. Better performance was shown than in operating the water heat source independently. 2 refs., 9 figs.

  3. Comparison of performance between a parallel and a series solar-heat pump system; Solar heat pump system ni okeru heiretsu setsuzoku no seino hikaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanayama, K.; Zhao, J.; Baba, H.; Endo, N. [Kitami Institute of Technology, Hokkaido (Japan)

    1997-11-25

    In a solar heat pump system, a single-tank system was fabricated, in which a heat pump is installed in series between a heat collecting tank and a heat storage tank. At the same time, a double-tank system was also fabricated, in which two tanks are assembled into one to which a solar system and a heat pump are connected in parallel. Performance of both systems was analyzed by using measured values and estimated values. Heat collecting efficiency in the double-tank system is higher by about 13 points than in the single-tank system. Nevertheless, the coefficient of performance for the single-tank system is 1.03 to 1.51 times greater than that of the double-tank system. Dependency of the single-tank system on natural energy is higher by 0.3 to 3 points than the double-tank system. Putting the above facts together, it may be said that the single-tank system connecting the solar system and the heat pump in parallel is superior in performance to the double-tank system of the series connection. 3 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Starting and stopping control on power conditioner in photovoltaic power system; Taiyoko hatsuden system ni okeru power conditioner no kido teishi seigyo ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirose, M.; Ishihara, Y.; Todaka, T.; Harada, K. [Doshisha University, Kyoto (Japan); Oshiro, H.; Nakamura, H. [Japan Quality Assurance Organization, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-11-25

    Studies are made about the control of the power conditioner over the maximum power point tracking (MPPT) function in a photovoltaic power generation system. The analysis is conducted by means of computer simulation into the effect of a start/stop function added to the control of MPPT and the effect on the generation of power of the setting of parameters in the start/stop function. The reduction in output power due to difference between the actual operation point and the optimum operation point is evaluated by use of a load matching correction factor. In this simulation, it is assumed that the solar cell array consists of 13 rows in 5 parallel columns, is capable of a normal output of 3.149kW, has a panel tilted at 30 degrees, and faces due south. The power conditioner is assumed to be a system rated at 3kVA, equipped with system interconnection and back flow features. As a result, it is learned that the stop voltage should be set at 180V or lower and the steady voltage near 185.5V for a good result and that there is not much need after all for the start/stop technique. 2 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Study on the simulation time increments for solar DHW heating systems; Taiyonetsu kyuto simulation ni okeru keisan jikan kankaku no kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, M.; Udagawa, M. [Kogakuin University, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-11-25

    Calculation time intervals effective in simulating solar DHW systems were discussed, taking into account water temperature in a heat storage tank and calorific power in supplied hot water. The discussion was given on a direct heat collecting system in which heat passes through a heat collector from the bottom of the heat storage tank and returns to the center of the tank, and an indirect heat collecting system which has a heat exchanger built inside the heat storage tank at its bottom. The calculation was performed with time intervals of one to sixty minutes and five to forty-five layer divisions. The following results were obtained: because the calorific power of the hot water supplied is underestimated in the calculation if the calorific power of one hot water supply is extremely large, the calculation time intervals must be reduced to 1 to 15 minutes; cumulative calorific power of the hot water supply was found to show little variation if the number of division is greater than fifteen; and the daily cumulative effective heat collection amount shows very little variation due to the calculation time intervals, but errors from the measured value have decreased as the smaller the number of layer division in the direct heat collecting system, and as the greater the number of division in the indirect heat collecting system. 4 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Necessity of irrigation for revegetation on reclaimed land with fly ash. Sekitanbai umetatechi ni okeru ryokuka no tameno kangai no hitsuyosei ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sekiyama, Tetsuo; Kozakai, Kazuki; Okabe, Katsumi.

    1989-02-01

    In view of the growing importance of revegetation measures of a reclaimed land with fly ash discharged from a coal burning thermal power plant, a study was made on necessity of irrigation in case of the positive execution of the above revegetation. This is a report of the above study. The conclusions of the study are as follows: (1) Comparing the available moisture amounts in terms of volume percentage of moisture, about 36% is for fly ash and about 34% for volcanic ash soil, but when fly ash is solidified, the above figure for fly ash becomes about 90% of that for volcanic ash soil. (2) The maximum water infiltration capacity of fly ash is 1/10-1/50 of that of volcanic ash soil and the surface run-off is much. The furrow or drip irrigation system is suitable. (3) The evaporation in fly ash is almost same as that in volcanic ash soil and the designed duty of water irrigation is considered to be 7-8mm/day (in case of cultivation of tangerine and pasture). (4) In case when the above reclaimed land is covered with volcanic ash soil, an aquifer is observed at the boundary layer between the surface soil coverage and the land. Hence draining measures such as underdrainage systems are desirable from the viewpoint of the growth of plants. 8 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Land subsidence in the Saga plane due to water shortage in 1994; Saga heiya ni okeru 1994 nen ijo kassui to jiban chinka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hachiya, Y.; Kitajima, J. [Saga Prefectural Government Office, Saga (Japan); Jinno, K. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-08-21

    This paper reports land subsidence in Saga Plane during the abnormal drought in 1994. Saga Plane is arranged with a table land with a height of 20 m or lower above sea level, an alluvial fan, an inundation plane, and a delta in that order, with a reclaimed land spreading in front thereof. Groundwater is utilized mainly for industrial use in the Saga district, with consumption of 12 million m{sup 3} per year in around 1975 and 3.5 million m{sup 3} per year in recent years. The Shiraishi district uses groundwater mainly for tap water supply and agriculture, with normal consumption of 600 to 900 m{sup 3} per year having risen to 2000 m{sup 3} per year in 1994 when the abnormal drought has been experienced. The Saga prefectural government has been conducting groundwater collection amount survey, groundwater level measurement and level survey every year. As a result of observations, annual maximum subsidence has stopped at 3.3 cm and subsidence volume of 1280 m{sup 3} as a result of reduced groundwater collection in the Saga area. The Shiraishi area had ground water collection greatly increased due to drought, with the annual maximum subsidence having reached 16.0 cm and the subsidence volume of 5.9 million m{sup 3}. 7 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Population dynamics of bacteria for phosphorus removal in sequencing batch reactor (SBR) activated sludge processes. Kaibunshiki kassei odeiho ni okeru datsu rin tokusei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okada, M.; Ueno, Y.; Lin, C.; Murakami, A. (Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Tokyo (Japan))

    1990-01-10

    As the phosphorus removal processes, chemical methods and biological methods are considered. This paper discussed a biological phosphorus removal method. Laboratory experiments of phosphorus removal in sequencing batch reactor (SBR) activated sludge processes were operated using synthetic waste water to clarify the effects of solid retention time (SRT) and organic substrates on the accumulation of bacteria having phosphorus removal ability (bio-P-bacteria). The accumulation of bio-P-bacteria was enhanced by large fluctuation in concentration of organic substances in the reactor fed in a short period of time under anaerobic condition. However, the accumulation did not be enhanced in the reactor operated with SRT less than 25 d. The specific growth rates of bio-P-bacteria were estimated to a range from 0.033/d to 0.035/d in the SBR activated sludge processes fed with glucose and polypeptone as substrates. Therefore, large SRT is necessary for the accumulation of bio-P-bacteria. 18 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Effect of applied synthetic auxin on root growth in plantlet propagation by cuttage and tissue culture; Sashiki to soshiki baiyo ni okeru gosei auxin rui no shiyo koka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shoji, K.; Yoshihara, T. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-12-01

    The effect of synthetic plant hormone 4-C1-IAA and TFIBA on root growth in plantlet propagation was clarified by the cuttage and the issue culture of strawberry seedling production. A periwinkle, vine, and azalea are the effect of 4-C1-IAA on root growth, and a promotion effect was recognized for rooting and root elongation. The concentration of 4-C1-IAA in which the growth promotion effect of a root most appears varies depending on the species of a plant. The concentration of a periwinkle was 20 ppm, and that of an azalea was 2000 ppm. The growth promotion effect of a root in 4-C1-IAA and TFIBA was compared with IBA for an azalea. The result showed that 4-C1-IAA is the same in the effect as IBA and that TFIBA is higher than for IBA. The growth of a vine`s terminal bud was promoted by the effect of TFIBA on root growth, and the callus occurring when IBA was treated was not formed. The rooting of a strawberry was promoted by the effect of TFIBA on root growth. The combined use of TFIBA and BA promotes the growth of a side bud and forms a multi-bud plant. However, rooting was inhibited. The callus caused by the effect of BA on root growth could be suppressed through the combined use with TFIBA. 6 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Fixed position holding control for self-propulsion barges under disturbance condition; Gairanka ni okeru jiko baji no teiten hoji seigyo ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kijima, K.; Murata, W.; Furukawa, Y. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-04-10

    In direct hoisting work in suspension bridge construction, since a cable crane directly hoists a bridge beam block put on a barge on the sea, precise fixed position holding function is required for a barge. The control system was then designed on the basis of an ILQ control theory, and the effect of change in time constant as design parameter on fixed position holding performance was studied. In addition, the critical disturbance for fixed position holding control was studied through numerical simulation under various disturbance conditions using the above designed control system. As a result, in the design of control systems on the basis of an ILQ control theory, the precise control system could be designed by diminishing, in particular, the time constant for state variable around a z axis among time constants according to the extent of disturbance. The control performance was largely affected by response delay period from sensing of disturbance to beginning of control. 3 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Flow characteristics of Hijiori HDR reservoir form circulation test in 1995; Koon tantai Hijiori jikkenjo ni okeru shinbu choryuso yobi junkan shiken (1995 nendo) kekka to ryudo kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukushima, N.; Hyodo, M.; Shinohara, N.; Takasugi, S. [Geothermal Energy Research and Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-05-01

    This paper reports the result of a preliminary circulation test conducted in fiscal 1995 on a deep reservoir (at a depth of about 2200 m) in the Hijiori hot dry rock experimental field. One water injection well and two production wells were drilled to constitute a circulation loop, to which the circulation test was performed to investigate the flow characteristics thereof. The result revealed the following matters: total amount of injected water of 51500 m{sup 3} resulted in a total fluid recovery rate of about 40%; as a result of well stimulation given twice during the initial stage of the water injection, the continuity impedance in the vicinity of the injection well decreased largely (however, the continuity improvement upon the second attempt was considerably inferior to that from the first attempt); and increase in the water injection amount does not necessarily lead to increase in the production amount. The paper describes additionally that it is extremely difficult to interpret non-linearity between the injection and production amounts by using a model prepared previously with a main objective to analyze the Hijiori HDR circulation system. 1 ref., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Analysis of the pressure response of high angle multiple (HAM) fractures intersecting a welbore; Kokeisha multi fracture (HAM) kosei ni okeru atsuryoku oto kaiseki ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ujo, S.; Osato, K. [Geothermal Energy Research and Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Arihara, N. [Waseda University, Tokyo (Japan); Schroeder, R.

    1996-05-01

    This paper reports pressure response analysis on wells piercing a high angle multi (HAM) fracture model. In this model which is defined on a three-dimensional space, a plurality of slanted fractures intersect with wells at high angles (however, intersection of fractures with each other is not considered). With respect to the pressure response analysis method using this model, the paper presents a basic differential equation on pressure drawdown and boundary conditions in the wells taking flows in the fractures pseudo-linear, as well as external boundary conditions in calculation regions (a reservoir spreads to an infinite distance, and its top and bottom are closed by non-water permeating beds). The paper also indicates that results of calculating a single vertical fracture model and a slanted fracture model by using a numerical computation program (MULFRAC) based on the above equations agree well respectively with the existing calculation results (calculations performed by Erlougher and Cinco et al). 5 refs., 6 figs.

  13. Application of streaming potential method for detection of fractures in granitic rock; Kamaishi kozan ni okeru ryutai ryudo den`iho tekiyo shiken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Negi, T.; Yokoi, K.; Yoneda, Y. [Nittetsu Mining Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Senba, T. [Power Reactor and Nuclear fuel Development Corporation, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-05-01

    Measurements were made using the streaming potential method for the purpose of investigating the expansion of hydration cracks, direction of their propagation, and the chaining of cracked surfaces, in the granitic rock. Tests were conducted by use of a bore hole in the gallery wall. The bore hole yielded approximately 400 liters of water per minute, the bore hole was closed and then opened, and the change with the passage of time in the spontaneous potential (SP) on the gallery wall was measured. At a spot 31.2m from the mine entrance, the SP dropped by 15mV simultaneously with the opening of the bore hole, and rose by 14mV simultaneously with the closure of the same. The phenomenon was true for other locations, that is, for the section from the mine entrance to a spot 9.0m therefrom, and for a section beginning at 15.0m and ending at 19.2m therefrom. No change in the SP was observed in a group of cracks with water springing out of the gallery roof, beginning at a point 40m and ending at a point 54m from the mine entrance. The result suggests the possible application of the streaming potential method to the investigation of cracks. 1 ref., 10 figs.

  14. 2D resistivity survey in complex geological structure area. Application to the volcanic area; Fukuzatsuna chishitsu kozo chiiki ni okeru hiteiko nijigen tansa. Kazangan chiiki deno tekiorei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asakawa, S.; Ikuma, T.; Tanifuji, R. [DIA Consultants Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-05-01

    Introduced herein is an application of 2D resistivity survey to a volcanic rock area where the survey result is difficult to interpret because of its complex geological structure. In a dam site survey, main problems involve the permeability of water through faults and weathered, altered zones. At this site, a 2D resistivity survey was conducted, a 2D geological structure was deduced from the resistivity section, and the result was examined. It was found that resistivity distribution was closely related to hydrographic factors, but no obvious correlation was detected between rock classes and R, Q, and D. In conducting investigations into a section planned for a highway tunnel, it was learned that the problem was a volcanic ash layer to collapse instantly upon absorbing water, and the distribution of the ash layer, not to be disclosed by boring, was subjected to a 2D resistivity survey. The survey was conducted into the structure above where the tunnel would run, and further into the face, and studies were made about what layer was reflected by the resistivity distribution obtained by analysis. The result of the analysis agreed with the details of the layer that was disclosed afterward. 4 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Travel time and ray path computation in 2D-heterogeneous structures; Fukinshitsu kozo ni okeru jishinha soji oyobi hasen no atarashii keisan hoho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujie, G.; Kasahara, J.; Sato, T.; Mochizuki, K. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Earthquake Research Institute

    1996-05-01

    Methods were studied for determining the initial travel time and ray paths with stability when an non-linear travel time inversion is performed in an inhomogeneous structure. The travel time calculation was based on Faria and Stoffa`s method. First, the 2-dimension space was sectioned by grids, and `slowness` was assigned to all the lattice points. Starting from the vibration source, travel time at each lattice point is sequentially calculated. This method calculates travel time for any structure without breakup. In this study, an algorithm more sophisticated than the method of Faria, et al., was developed, and the improvement of travel time calculation accuracy led to the accurate determination of the direction of incidence into the lattice points during the initial motion. The calculation of ray paths was effected by tracing back from the receiving points the incidence into the lattice points or by following back the ray paths to the vibration source. This method performs stable calculation for a heavily inhomogeneous structure and, with the algorithm being simple, do the parallel programming as well. 1 ref., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Magnetotelluric investigation in and around southern part of Hidaka metamorphic belt in Hokkaido, Japan; Hidaka henseitai nanbuiki ni okeru MT kansoku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, H.; Utsugi, M.; Hirano, K.; Doi, T.; Nishida, Y.; Arita, K. [Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan)

    1996-05-01

    An MT observation was conducted in the Hidaka district, Hokkaido, for the estimation of the 2D resistivity structure in the southern part of the metamorphic belt, when frequencies of the VLF, ELF, and ULF bands were used. An approximately 42km-long traverse line was set to cross the Hidaka metamorphic belt from east to west. As for the observation points, 48 VLF points, 16 ELF points, and 4 ULF points were provided. During the data processing, impedance tensor was calculated in the frequency domain for the determination of the apparent resistivity relative to frequency and the phase difference. As the result, it was found that there is a fairly large resistivity gap between observation spots MNS and KWR and that the boundary corresponds to the Hidaka metamorphic belt, that the metamorphic belt that is reflected as a conspicuous high-resistivity layer in the VLF-, ELF-MT slopes down toward the east and has a distribution as deep as 10km in the vicinity of observation point KWR, that this high-resistivity layer sandwiches a low-resistivity layer at a depth of 5-7km, and that on the east side of the metamorphic belt there is a medium-resistivity layer creeping under the belt from the east side toward the west side. 5 refs., 6 figs.

  17. Flow characteristic of Hijiori HDR reservoir from circulation test in 1991; Koon tantai Hijiori jikkenjo ni okeru senbu choryuso shiken (1991 nendo) kekka to ryudo kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiga, T.; Hyodo, M.; Shinohara, N.; Takasugi, S. [Geothermal Energy Research and Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-05-01

    This paper reports one example of flow analyses on a circulation test carried out in fiscal 1991 at the Hijiori hot dry rock experimental field (Yamagata Prefecture). A fluid circulation model was proposed to simulate an HDR circulation system for a shallow reservoir (at a depth of about 1800 m) demonstrated in the circulation test by using an electric circuit network (which expresses continuity impedance in resistance and fluid storage in capacitance). Storage capacity of the reservoir was estimated by deriving time constant of the system from data of time-based change in reservoir pressure associated with transition phenomena during the circulation test. The storage capacity was estimated separately by dividing change of storage in the reservoir by change in the reservoir pressure. To derive the storage in the reservoir, a method to calculate non-recovered flows in the circulation test was utilized. The results of evaluating the reservoir capacity in the shallow reservoir using the above two independent methods were found substantially consistent. 3 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Succession of benthos and nutrient removal rate in the hydroponic culture system; Shokubutsu suiko saibaikei ni okeru konken seibutsu no henka to eiyoen no jokyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aizaki, M. [National Inst. for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba (Japan); Nakazato, H. [Biox Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-08-10

    Such nutrients as nitrogen and phosphorus discharged into lakes and rivers can cause organic contamination as a result of eutrophication in water areas if they are left as they are. However, they can be re-utilized as resources if they are utilized more effectively. This paper reports a hydroponic organism filtering method as a promising method of utilization thereof. It also explains transition in organism phase in rhizosphere and a water purification experiment. Such suspended matters as phytoplanktons in raw water are filtered and captured by roots of plants; such small animals as tendipedidae and physia live symbiotically in the rhizosphere; their excrements and nutrients are absorbed into and utilized by plants; and coexistence is made possible between diverse water-front environments including terrestrial systems and diverse living organisms. Cresson cultivation, observation on transition in the benthos composition, and a lake water purification experiment were carried out at the Kasumigaura Lake experimental facility. Various findings were acquired such that, in order to attain diverse coexistences including those with natural enemies and well-ventilated environments, a water channel of larger than a certain size is required. Results were also obtained that can be expected as an effective technique that may be used in public water areas. 3 refs., 4 figs.

  19. Study on the effect of measurement points upon reduced added mass matrix; Shukusho fuka shitsuryo matrix ni okeru kansokuten no eikyo ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Funaki, T.; Hayashi, S. [Osaka University, Osaka (Japan). Faculty of engineering

    1996-12-31

    It is known in estimating vibration characteristics of a ship that fluid range affects largely a structure. A parameter calculation was performed on node vibration in the vertical direction of a rotating elliptic body such as a ship to investigate the effect of an arranging method of the measurement points upon the result of the analysis. As a result, it is thought that equivalent interval arrangement of 21 measurement points would be sufficient in a lower order side mode of vibrations with less than four nodes. An analysis of calculations performed by arranging measurement points in experimental measurement points revealed that analysis accuracy would not increase even if the number of measurement points is increased if it is done so without considering rotation vector. An experiment was carried out with the number of measurement points increased to verify the above fact, with which the analysis was verified correct. Therefore, as has been forecasted in the previous report, the cause for the analysis accuracy deterioration in a high order mode may be estimated as the effect of the rotation vector. However, since it is not the situation that an analysis considering the rotation vector has been conducted, it cannot be concluded yet that the effect of the rotation vector is the sole cause. 4 refs., 14 figs., 7 tabs.

  20. Maneuvering response of slender ship with sinusoidal steering in shallow waters; Sensuiiki ni okeru saichosen no seigen soda ni yoru soju oto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasukawa, H. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-09-04

    In order to grasp memory effect of wake vortices on the maneuvering hydrodynamic characteristics and motions in shallow waters, this paper discusses maneuvering performance of ship advancing with sinusoidal steering. The unsteady slender body theory is used for analyzing the hydrodynamic characteristics acting the hull obliquely advancing or turning around, and hinge-flap model is employed for analyzing the rudder force characteristics. A method has been proposed by which variable components of bearing and transverse displacement of ship advancing with sinusoidal steering in shallow waters can be calculated. Differential coefficient of hull and rudder was calculated by varying the frequency. It was confirmed that the differential coefficient of hull agreed with the test results using cistern. Using this method, maneuvering response using hydrodynamic coefficient in the actual motion frequency was compared with that near the zero frequency. As a result, it was found that memory effect of wake vortices on the maneuvering response of ship can not be ignored in very shallow waters. 12 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Detection of arcing ground fault location on a distribution network connected PV system; Hikarihatsuden renkei haidensen ni okeru koko chiryaku kukan no kenshutsuho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, M.; Iwaya, K.; Morooka, Y. [Hachinohe Institute of Technology, Aomori (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    In the near future, it is supposed that a great number of small-scale distributed power sources, such as photovoltaic power generation for general houses, will be interconnected with the ungrounded neutral distribution system in Japan. When ground fault of commercial frequency once occurs, great damage is easily guessed. This paper discusses the effect of the ground fault on the ground phase current using a 6.6 kV high-voltage model system by considering the non-linear self-inductance in the line, and by considering the non-linear relation of arcing ground fault current frequency. In the present method, the remarkable difference of series resonance frequency determined by the inductance and earth capacity between the source side and load side is utilized for the detection of high-voltage arcing ground fault location. In this method, there are some cases in which the non-linear effect obtained by measuring the inductance of sound phase including the secondary winding of transformer can not be neglected. Especially, for the actual high-voltage system, it was shown that the frequency characteristics of transformer inductance for distribution should be theoretically derived in the frequency range between 2 kHz and 6 kHz. 2 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Experimental results of acetone hydrogenation on a heat exchanger type reactor for solar chemical heat pump; Solar chemical heat pump ni okeru acetone suisoka hanno netsu kaishu jikken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takashima, T.; Doi, T.; Tanaka, T.; Ando, Y. [Electrotechnical Laboratory, Tsukuba (Japan); Miyahara, R.; Kamoshida, J. [Shibaura Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    With the purpose of converting solar heat energy to industrial heat energy, an experiment of acetone hydrogenation was carried out using a heat exchanger type reactor that recovers heat generated by acetone hydrogenation, an exothermic reaction, and supplies it to an outside load. In the experiment, a pellet-like activated carbon-supported ruthenium catalyst was used for the acetone hydrogenation with hydrogen and acetone supplied to the catalyst layer at a space velocity of 400-1,200 or so. In the external pipe of the double-pipe type reactor, a heating medium oil was circulated in parallel with the flow of the reactant, with the heat of reaction recovered that was generated from the acetone hydrogenation. In this experiment, an 1wt%Ru/C catalyst and a 5wt%Ru/C catalyst were used so as to examine the effects of variation in the space velocity. As a result, from the viewpoint of recovering the heat of reaction, it was found desirable to increase the reaction speed by raising catalytic density and also to supply the reactant downstream inside the reaction pipe by increasing the space velocity. 1 ref., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Results of photovoltaic power generation system operation in Tokyo Electric Power Company; Tokyo Denryoku ni okeru taiyoko hatsuden setsubi no unten jisseki ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuda, H.; Itokawa, K. [Tokyo Electric Power Co. Inc., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    A report was made on the measurement of data and the results of the analysis at 14 sites of photovoltaic power generation facilities operated under system interconnection by Tokyo Electric Power Company. This type of system is provided in 40 sites as of the end of fiscal 1995, generating 479kw. The items measured were the generated electric energy at all 14 sites, and the quantity of solar radiation, outside air temperature, panel temperature, etc., at limited sites; and the capacity of each equipment, azimuth and inclination of the panel were also recorded simultaneously. Hourly values were used for the analysis. Five minute values were utilized, however, in the examination of the cause of lowered output and in the situation recognition of the influence of the shade or the change of weather. The utilization factor of the facilities was in the average 10.8% in fiscal 1994 and 10.7% in fiscal 1995. The factor decreased slightly unless the panel azimuth faced due south. The utilization factor at the panel inclination of 35 degrees and 45 degrees showed both 10.4% through the year making no difference. The system seemed to show no overwhelming possibilities in coping with electric power demand. The reason was that deviation existed for 2 hours or so in the peak and that reliability was low as basic power facilities. However, it was determined that the system be continuously examined in future. 9 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Technical trend and prospect for wafer cleaning on LSI manufacturing process; LSI seizo kotei ni okeru weha senjo gijutsu no saikin no doko totenbo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiratsuka, Y. [Dan Science Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-01-31

    Presently used cleaning process of silicone wafer is based on the modification of so called RCA method from the knowhow point of view, presented by W.Kern and others 25 years ago. On the other hand, with the progress of development of element for next generation, it was already clarified to be required on the process, demanded for high degree control of silicone surface. When considered the practical measure for this, there is a movement towards the establishment of new silicone wafer cleaning concept for new generation instead of making difficult process by precise RCA cleaning. One of the new proposed method is IMEC cleaning. Further, in Tohoku University, new cleaning process, alternative to RCA method is proposed, in which treatment of all chemicals is carried out at room temperature, types of chemicals used for cleaning are limited to minimum and also, concentration of these chemicals is kept as minimum as possible, amount of used superpure wafer is saved by effective recycling and reutilization of spent chemicals. With these tecnologies, there has appeared the sign for new development for cleaning technology. 36 refs., 28 figs., 6 tabs.

  5. Wind energy technology : from the past to the future; 20 seiki ni okeru furyoku riyo gijutsu no henkan. Furyoku hatsuden : kako kara mirai e

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ushiyama, I. [Ashikaga Institute of Technology, Tochigi (Japan)

    2000-01-20

    Windmills are one of the oldest prime movers and have been used for more than 700 years in Europe. The transition from low speed windmills for grain grinding and water pumping to high speed wind turbines for electric power generation had occurred at first, reviews the windmill technologies and the researchers before 20{sup th} century. Then describes the back ground of how the wind power generator has existed and how the four pioneers developed their wind power generator. The historical developments of windmills to wind turbines in this century are studied focusing mainly on Danish activities. Then, the effort of the development of large wind turbine such as Smith-Putnum's first MW machine in U.S.A. and other mammoth machine concept are introduced. The new concept machines such as Savonius and Darrieus wind turbines in 1920s to 1930s are also explained. Finally, the novel technologies of wind turbine covering larger machines, variable speed generators, special wing sections for wind turbines, theoretical analysis method of wind turbine performance, offshore wind turbines, and wind turbine control technologies are stated. (author)

  6. Process of microbial degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in the downstream of the Tamagawa river. Tamagawa karyuiki ni okeru sekiyukei tanka suiso no biseibutsu bunkai katei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morito, M. (Sumitomo 3M Co., Kanagawa (Japan)); Okada, M.; Murakami, A. (Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering)

    1990-12-10

    The process of biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons was investigated in the downstream of the Tamagawa river. Petroleum hydrocarbons, such as hexadecane, octylbenzene, and 1-methylnaphtalene were observed to be rapidly degraded by microorganisms in the water sampled from the surface of the river after a period of lag time. The longer lag time was observed in order of hexadecane

  7. FY 2000 Industrial science and technology research and development themes - cooperative project with academic circles. Report on the results of research and development for creating new bioaffinity molecules using submicron beads (Research and development for creating new bioaffinity molecules using submicron beads); 2000 nendo biryushi riyogata seitai ketsugo busshitsu nado sosei gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Described herein are the FY 2000 results of the research and development of technologies for creating new bioaffinity molecules using submicron beads, including those for organic receptor analysis and refining. The program for development and research of fixation technology develops immobilizing reaction and latex particle having cleavable linker, and synthesize small molecules for the identification of target receptors. The program for development of organic receptor refining technology directly refines cisplatin-telomere binding proteins from crude nuclear extracts of HeLa, and analyzes them; analyzes the functions of Ref-1 purified from Jurkat cell nuclear extracts as the binding protein for drug E3330 which specifically controls the transcriptive factor NF-{kappa}B; and studies LK6A having an MLR inhibiting activity, promoters for production of Alendronate, Taxol and leptin, D91-6092 as a promising anti-cancer agent, and antirheumatic, antiallergic, antitumor agents and FK506 as immunosuppressant agent. (NEDO)

  8. FY 2000 report on the R and D of the particulate utilization type creation technology of biological connective substances. Survey of the technical trend overseas; 2000 nendo biryushi riyogata seitai ketsugo busshitsu nado sosei gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Kaigai gijutsu doko chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    The paper summarized the reports on the results of Japanese engineers' participating in the related scientific meetings held overseas as a survey report on the trend of the overseas technology. The scientific meetings they participated in were: 1) Impact of Genomics on Medicine and Pharmacogenomics Europe (Amsterdam; May 15-26, 2000), 2) Drug Discovery Technology 2000 (Boston; August 10-20, 2000), 3) Biotechnology 2000 (Berlin; September 3-12, 2000), 4) PacificChem 2000 (Hawaii; December 14-21, 2000), 5) 4th Winter Conference on Medicinal and Bioorganic Chemistry (Seattle; January 27 - February 4, 2001). Impact of Genomics on Medicine was composed of the following five fields: microarrays, proteomics, functional genomics and target validation, genetic variation technology, and applications of SNP analysis (joint session). Pharmacogenomics Europe was composed of the following four fields: applications of SNP analysis (joint session), SNP assays, targets and compounds, and clinical applications. (NEDO)

  9. Report on achievements in fiscal 1999 on research and development of the technology to create biological bonding substances utilizing particulates under the industrial and scientific technology research and development theme [university collaborated type]. Research and development of the technology to create biological bonding substances utilizing particulates; 1999 nendo biryushi riyogata seitai ketsugo busshitsu nado sosei gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    This paper describes the achievements in fiscal 1999 on development of the technology to create biological bonding substances utilizing particulates. In fixing ligands onto particulates, it is necessary that various compounds be fixed with their receptor bonding specificity maintained. Therefore, carboxylic acid, thiol and bromoacetyl groups were introduced into the particulates. Capping them by using methoxyacetyl was found capable of suppressing non-specific adsorption. Opioid compounds were synthesized for their fixation onto particulates for selection and separation. Carrying particulate bonding precursors in latex beads was realized. Synthesis will continue on opiod compounds in which amide groups are introduced into different positions to provide the particulate carrying ligands with diversity. Biological receptors for different compounds were obtained and refined by using compound fixing particulates. Refinement and acquisition were possible on FK506 bonded protein in a short time from cell extraction liquid by using the fixing particulates for the FK506 bonded protein. The paper also describes analysis of bonded domains, and position-specific fixation of the biological receptors. (NEDO)

  10. FY 2000 Industrial science and technology research and development themes - cooperative project with academic circles. Report on the results of research and development of technologies for creating new bioaffinity molecules using submicron beads (Development of technologies for rational use of energy); 2000 nendo biryushi riyogata seitai ketsugo busshitsu nado sosei gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Energy shiyo gorika gijutsu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Described herein are the FY 2000 results of the research and development for creating new bioaffinity molecules using submicron beads. The program for development of technology for analyzing chemical-biomolecule complexes using submicron affinity beads has developed a detachable linker which allows the complex, composed of ligand on the affinity latex particle surfaces and receptor bound thereto, to be detached directly from the particles, and also developed the prototype of magnetite-containing polymer particles with a diameter of submicron order, which facilitate recovery of the affinity latex. The program for development of technology to create chemical substances with new functions has successfully constructed the focused library composed of 400 compounds based on the split and pool method for FR225659 as a glucose modulator, chosen as the target material. It also has established the method of synthesizing opioid alkaloid as the target compound on the solid phase, and synthesized 39 opioid compounds with condensed indol rings, having diverse of several substituents. (NEDO)

  11. FY 1998 results of the intellectual basement project using functions of private companies (venture promotion type basement creation R and D project). Development of endocrine disrupter testing method and development of environmental assessment method; 1998 nendo naibunpi kakuran busshitsu ni taisuru shiken hoho kaihatsu oyobi eikyo hyoka shuho kaihatsu hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    For the purpose of assessing the risk in relation to endocrine disrupting chemicals, the following were conducted: development of testing/assessment method for endocrine disrupting chemicals, survey of the actual exposure assessment, development of measuring method for the concentration in the environment. In the development of the testing method, the following were carried out: development of a high-throughput screening method for evaluating endocrine disrupting chemicals; as screening testing method using mammals, uterotrophic assay, Hershberger assay using castrated male rats, thyroid hormone assay in pubertal rats, enhanced OECD 407 test guideline for 28-day toxicity test; study on yeast two-hybrid assay for endocrine disrupter; sex-reversal assay for suspected endocrine disrupting chemicals using S-rR strain medaka. In the development of exposure assessment method, estrogenic potency of individual nonylphenol congeners isolated from technical mixtures; determination of endocrine disrupters and related chemicals from industry and nature origin in river water and sediment; research for the flow of industrial origin chemicals; reconstruction of pollution history of chemicals using sediment cores. (NEDO)

  12. Fiscal 1998 industrial science and technology R and D theme (University coordination type). Research report on R and D of technologies for creating new bioaffinity molecules using submicron beads; 1998 nendo biryushi riyogata seitai ketsugo busshitsu nado sosei gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    This report summarizes the fiscal 1998 result on the entrusted research 'R and D of technologies for creating new bioaffinity molecules using submicron beads' based on 'Industrial science and technology R and D system.' As for development of technologies for analyzing chemical- biomolecule complexes using submicron affinity beads, for molecule design of DNA to be connected with cisplatin, telomere DNA was employed as a target DNA of cisplatin, and cisplatin-modified DNA (Pt-DNA) was synthesized. Reaction condition for Pt-DNA connected beads was established, and affinity beads with Pt-DNA were prepared. As for development of organic receptor refining technology, proteins bound to cisplatin-DNA were preliminarily analyzed, showing that the Pt-DNA is a proper target chemical substance. It is the first evidence that certain proteins recognize cisplatin-damaged telomere DNA. In addition, introduction of the equipment for developing analysis technology of binding domains, development of technology to create organic receptors with new functions, and general research on the titled technologies were carried out. (NEDO)

  13. FY 1998 annual report on the research on the possibility of introducing a usable chemical substance manufacturing system by utilizing natural gas containing CO2; CO{sub 2} gan'yu tennen gas den katsuyo ni yoru yuyo kagaku busshitsu seizo system donyu kanosei ni kansuru chosa kenkyu 1998 nendo chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    The trends of effective use of gas containing CO2 from natural gas fields are surveyed, and usable chemical substance manufacturing systems which utilize natural energy are investigated, evaluated and analyzed, to extract promising systems for effective use of CO2-containing natural gas and thereby to promote its effective use. Chapter 1 outlines possibility of integrated use of gas containing CO2 from natural gas fields and natural gas energy. Chapter 2 describes the research trends in the CO2 conversion reactions for using unexploited CO2 as the carbon source. Chapter 3 describes natural energy utilization technology applicable to gas containing CO2 from natural gas fields. Chapter 4 describes performance of chemical manufacturing systems utilizing natural gas containing CO2. The energy balances and CO2 emission coefficients are estimated, based on the above. The evaluation is implemented in the order of (1) conventional steam reforming, (2) steam reforming in which heat is supplied by a solar furnace, (3) examination of the exhaust gases from a methanol synthesis process, and (4) examination of CO2-mixed reforming. Chapter 5 describes summary and proposals. (NEDO)

  14. Report on achievements in fiscal 1999 on the project for research and development of an intellectual base creating and utilizing technology. Development of a screening test method with high accuracy for internal secretion disturbing substances; 1999 nendo chiteki kiban sosei riyo gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu. Naibunpi kakuran busshitsu no koseido screening shiken hoho no kaihatsu oyobi data kiban seibi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    This paper describes the achievements in fiscal 1999 on developing a screening test method with high accuracy for internal secretion disturbing substances. Development was made in cooperation with the OECD on the screening method that uses as a parameter whether a chemical substance has a hormone-like activity. For the womb breeding assay method to evaluate a feminine hormone-like activity, a reproducibility and comparison test was performed on womb breeding in immature rats administered with ethinylestradiol, the administration routes, and animals used (young and weak rats, and rats whose ovaries have been extracted). In order to evaluate a masculine hormone-like activity, the basic data were collected to develop the Hershberger method, and participation was made in the OECD verification tests. Discussions were given on comparison on castrated and non-castrated rats when 17 {alpha}-methyltestosterone was administered, the administration period of time and reproducibility when immature rats were used. The Hershberger method reactivity was discussed on rats relative to estrogen. In a toxicity test using 28-day repetitive administration, bisphenol A gave impacts on the kidney, the stomach and intestine tubes. (NEDO)

  15. Fiscal 1997 report on the results of the international standardization R and D. Measurement of ultra-micro chemical substances and measuring methods of hormone effects; 1997 nendo seika hokokusho kokusai hyojun soseigata kenkyu kaihatsu. Chobiryo kagaku busshitsu no keisoku horumon eikyo sayo sokuteiho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    Concerning the measurement system of ultra-micro hazardous chemical substances in the global environment, the paper examined the present situation of chemical substances such as dioxins, made an experimental study on the method to analyze dioxins in exhaust gas from an aspect of international consistency, and worked out a JIS draft. As to the standard measuring method of hormone effects of chemical substances, the paper developed the competitive bonding experiment system to measure bonding ability of chemical substances to homo sapiens estrogen receptor (ER). By measuring ER bonding ability of 78 kinds of chemical substances, the measuring method was developed. In the development of the assay system for detection of hormone-like compounds, the assay system with transfer activity via estrogen receptor as an index was established using cultured cells and yeast. Further, the development was made of a measuring method of receptor bonding activity of hormone-like substances. 33 refs., 151 figs., 66 tabs.

  16. Fiscal 1998 achievement report on regional consortium research and development project. Regional consortium of venture business fostering type--Creation of key industries (Development of technologies for manufacturing and utilizing various biological regulatory substances using Hokkaido-produced biomasses as materials); 1998 nendo Dosan biomass wo genryo to shita kakushu seitai chosetsu kino busshitsu no seisan riyo gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    The efforts aim to meet consumers' needs for products that will prevent lifestyle diseases or the like. For this purpose, substances answering the purpose are extracted from Hokkaido-produced agricultural and aquatic biomasses, and prepared for testing. Researches are conducted on how they behave in the enzyme, cell, and biological systems, and active substances are isolated and identified. In relation to the aquatic biomass, a technology is established of extracting and separating DHA (docosahexaenoic acid), EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid), taurine, etc., which are multivalent unsaturated fatty acids effective in preventing lifestyle diseases, from the unused parts of the squid. In relation to the agricultural biomass, antimicrobial active substances are extracted and separated from small fruit plants such as the chicory. Long-keeping foods are tentatively produced by the addition of dried powder of the chicory root tuber. In the elucidation of various biological regulatory substances contained in the Hokkaido-produced biomasses, they are tested for their abilities to resist microbes and active oxygen. Furthermore, verification tests are conducted by administering the substances to the senescence-accelerated mouse (SAM). (NEDO)

  17. Diffusion of matter in the wall turbulent flow. 5th Report. Local similarity of the fluctuating concentration field of the plume from a wall point source in a turbulent pipe flow; Hekimen sendanryuchu no busshitsu kakusan no kenkyu. 5. Enkannai hekimen tengen kakusan no hendo nodoba no kyokusho sojisei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miwa, M.; Sakai, Y.; Nakamura, I. [Nagoya University, Nagoya (Japan)

    1997-05-25

    In this report. we extend the similarity argument previously used to the mean square concentration fluctuation equation on the symmetrical plane of the wall point source plume in a turbulent pipe flow to find the similar solution for the mean square concentration fluctuation distribution. The main assumptions are the Lagrangean similar hypothesis and an appropriate eddy diffusivity distribution to the triple correlation term and the mixing length theory. It is found that the distribution of the similar solution shows good agreement with experimental data in a pipe flow. In the case of a wall point source in a turbulent boundary layer on a flat plate, the same argument is appliciable, and the similar solution obtained shows good agreement with the experimental data. And the budget of the fluctuating concentration intensity is investigated on the basis of the similar solution and the mean square concentration fluctuation equation. 16 refs., 8 figs.

  18. Spontaneous cytotoxic T-Cell reactivity against indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase-2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Rikke Bæk; Køllgaard, Tania; Andersen, Rikke Sick;

    2011-01-01

    Several lines of data have suggested a possible link between the indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO)-like protein IDO2 and cancer. First, IDO2 expression has been described in human tumors, including renal, gastric, colon, and pancreatic tumors. Second, the apparent selective inhibition of IDO2...

  19. Numerical method to calculate flow-induced vibration in turbulent flow. 3rd Report. Analysis of vortex-induced vibration in an array of elastically supported tubes; Ranryuba ni okeru ryutai kozotai rensei shindo kaiseki shuho no kaihatsu. 3. Kangun ni okeru uzu reiki shindo kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadaoka, N.; Umegaki, K. [Hitachi, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-01-25

    A vortex-induced vibration of an array of elastically supported tubes is simulated in two-dimension by using a flow-induced vibration analysis program, which was developed in order to evaluate flow-induced vibration in various components such as heat exchangers. From a comparison of calculated results and experimental data, the following points are observed. (1) For the calculated results in a 5 {times} 5 square array, the flow pattern surrounding the first-row tubes is markedly different from that observed in the second-row or third-row tubes. This flow pattern is the same as that obtained from the experiment. (2) All tubes begin to oscillate due to unsteady fluid force and the oscillating mode is different for each row of tubes. These oscillation patterns show the same tendency in the experiments and it is concluded that the developed method can simulate vortex-induced vibration in an array of elastically supported tubes. 19 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Crítica Institucional à brasileira: a relação entre artistas e instituições nos idos dos anos 1960/1970 no Brasil – o caso Fiat Lux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raíza Ribeiro Cavalcanti

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available When speaking of Institutional Critique, is almost instantaneous the reference that comes to mind: Hans Haacke, Marcel Broodthaers, Daniel Buren and Michael Asher. These artists, emerged in the mid 1960s, became known as the first generation of Institutional Critique, after Benjamin Buchloch defined their critical work in that category. However, thinking about the same period of artistic production in Brazil, could it be said that there was also the emergence of artistic practices which could be read within the concept of Institutional Critique? To think about this question, I focus this paper on O Sermão da Montanha – Fiat Lux from the artist Cildo Meireles. I will try to observe in this work how the issues of Institutional Critique appear in Brazil, considering the different social and political contexts of Latin America, the United States and Europe (the latter, places where this concept emerged and whose artists became canons of this practice.

  1. Especies maderables y no maderables con sustancias colorantes utilizadas para el teñido y pintado de telas en 19 comunidades indígenas de la región Ucayali, Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Riveros

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo de investigación se llevó a cabo en 19 comunidades indígenas de la etnia Shipibo-Conibo, en la Región Ucayali, con el objetivo de determinar que especies maderables y no  maderables son utilizadas, como materia prima para teñir o dibujar líneas en las telas, con el diseño característico de este grupo étnico.  La metodología utilizada fue descriptiva, con visitas a las diferentes comunidades indígenas, talleres participativos, conversaciones con los artesanos más experimentados y colecta botánica de las especies señaladas por ellos.  Se logró determinar que las especies con sustancias de coloración más utilizadas son Swietenia macrophylla (caoba, Trichilia maynasiana, Trichilia poeppigiana  (Meliaceae, Terminalia oblonga, Terminalia sp., Buchenavia parvifolia (Combretaceae, y Picramnia juniniana (Simaroubaceae. Las tonalidades que proporcionan son rojos, café oscuro, café claro y en el caso de Picramnia juniniana, lila. Los componentes químicos encontrados en las sustancias colorantes fueron taninos, flavonoides, lactonas y quinonas.

  2. Temperature profiles from XBT casts from the CIUDAD DE SALAMANCA and other platforms as part of the International Decade of Ocean Exploration (IDOE) from 1966-06-02 to 1974-08-29 (NODC Accession 7500613)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profiles were collected from XBT casts from the CIUDAD DE SALAMANCA and other platforms from 02 June 1966 to 29 August 1974. Data were collected by the...

  3. Oceanographic Station Data from bottle casts from the KNORR as part of the International Decade of Ocean Exploration (IDOE) from 18 May 1972 to 03 June 1972 (NODC Accession 7200809)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Oceanographic Station Data were collected from bottle casts from the KNORR from 18 May 1972 to 03 June 1972. Data were collected by the Woods Hole Oceanographic...

  4. Oceanic Environmental data from the ALAMINOS and other platforms from the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean as part of the International Decade of Ocean Exploration (IDOE) from 01 February 1971 to 01 December 1971 (NODC Accession 7200737)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Oceanic Environmental data were collected from the ALAMINOS and other platforms from 01 February 1971 to 01 December 1971. Data were collected in the Gulf of Mexico...

  5. Temperature profile data collected using XBT from the KANA KEOKI from the Pacific Ocean during the International Decade of Ocean Exploration / North Pacific Experiment (IDOE/NORPAX) project, 1979-02-06 to 1980-06-14 (NCEI Accession 8100518)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature, depth, and other data were collected using bathythermograph (BT/XBT) casts from KANA KEOKI in the Pacific Ocean from February 6, 1979 to June 14, 1980....

  6. Physical and fluorescence data collected using moored buoy casts as part of the IDOE/POLYMODE (International Decade of Ocean Exploration / combination of USSR POLYGON project and US MODE) from 07 December 1975 to 03 January 1977 (NODC Accession 7700569)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Physical and fluorescence data were collected using moored buoy from May 4, 1975 to December 18, 1975. Data were submitted by Massachusetts Institute of Technology;...

  7. Oceanographic Station Data from bottle casts from fixed stations as part of the International Decade of Ocean Exploration / Controlled Ecosystem Pollution Experiment (IDOE/CEPEX) from 13 September 1973 to 09 October 1973 (NODC Accession 7400382)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Oceanographic Station Data were collected from bottle casts from fixed stations from 13 September 1973 to 09 October 1973. Data were collected by the Skidway...

  8. Oceanographic Station Data from bottle casts from the ACONA as part of the International Decade of Ocean Exploration (IDOE) from 06 October 1970 to 30 April 1972 (NODC Accession 7201035)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Oceanographic Station Data were collected from bottle casts from the ACONA from 06 October 1970 to 30 April 1972. Data were collected by the University of Alaska -...

  9. Oceanographic Station Data from bottle casts from the THOMAS G. THOMPSON as part of the International Decade of Ocean Exploration / Coastal Upwelling Ecosystems Analysis (IDOE/CUEA) from 26 March 1973 to 14 May 1973 (NODC Accession 7600854)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Oceanographic Station Data were collected from bottle casts from the THOMAS G. THOMPSON from 26 March 1973 to 14 May 1973. Data were collected by the University of...

  10. Oceanographic Station Data from bottle casts from the OCONOSTOTA as part of the International Decade of Ocean Exploration (IDOE) from 06 January 1976 to 14 December 1976 (NODC Accession 7700612)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Oceanographic Station Data were collected from bottle casts from the OCONOSTOTA from 06 January 1976 to 14 December 1976. Data were collected by the Moss Landing...

  11. Oceanographic Station Data from bottle casts from the MELVILLE as part of the International Decade of Ocean Exploration / Geochemical Ocean Study (IDOE/GEOSECS) from 30 August 1973 to 08 June 1974 (NODC Accession 7601522)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Oceanographic Station Data were collected from bottle casts from the MELVILLE from 30 August 1973 to 08 June 1974. Data were collected by the Scripps Institution of...

  12. Especies maderables y no maderables con sustancias colorantes utilizadas para el teñido y pintado de telas en 19 comunidades indígenas de la región Ucayali, Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Riveros

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo de investigación se llevó a cabo en 19 comunidades indígenas de la etnia Shipibo-Conibo, en la Región Ucayali, con el objetivo de determinar que especies maderables y no  maderables son utilizadas, como materia prima para teñir o dibujar líneas en las telas, con el diseño característico de este grupo étnico.  La metodología utilizada fue descriptiva, con visitas a las diferentes comunidades indígenas, talleres participativos, conversaciones con los artesanos más experimentados y colecta botánica de las especies señaladas por ellos.  Se logró determinar que las especies con sustancias de coloración más utilizadas son Swietenia macrophylla (caoba, Trichilia maynasiana, Trichilia poeppigiana  (Meliaceae, Terminalia oblonga, Terminalia sp., Buchenavia parvifolia (Combretaceae, y Picramnia juniniana (Simaroubaceae. Las tonalidades que proporcionan son rojos, café oscuro, café claro y en el caso de Picramnia juniniana, lila. Los componentes químicos encontrados en las sustancias colorantes fueron taninos, flavonoides, lactonas y quinonas.

  13. Atmospheric pollutant and other data from the TRIDENT and tower as part of the International Decade of Ocean Exploration (IDOE) from 01 February 1972 to 01 September 1972 (NODC Accession 7300574)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Atmospheric pollutant and other data were collected from the TRIDENT and tower from 01 February 1972 to 01 September 1972. Data include trace metals in the...

  14. Plankton and other data from the ASTERIAS and other platforms as part of the International Decade of Ocean Exploration (IDOE) from 01 June 1972 to 01 October 1972 (NODC Accession 7300573)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Plankton and other data were collected from the ASTERIAS and other platforms from 01 June 1972 to 01 October 1972. Data were collected by the All Union Research...

  15. Temperature profile data from STD/CTD casts from the MELVILLE from the Indian Ocean for the International Decade of Ocean Exploration / Geochemical Ocean Section Study (IDOE/GEOSECS) project, 06 December 1977 to 21 April 1978 (NODC Accession 8200055)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature and salinity profile data were collected using STD/CTD casts from MELVILLE from the Indian Ocean from December 6, 1977 to April 21, 1978. Data were...

  16. Poly[dimethylammonium [(μ2-benzene-1,2-dicarboxylato-κ2O1:O3[μ2-3-(pyridin-4-yl-1H-pyrazol-1-ido-κ2N1:N3]cuprate(II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Na

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In the title complex, {(C2H8N[Cu(C8H4O4(C8H6N3]}n, there are two CuII cations (each located on a centre of inversion, one benzene-1,2-dicarboxylate dianion, one 3-(pyridin-4-yl-1H-pyrazol-1-ide anion and one dimethylammonium cation in the asymmetric unit. The dimethylammonium cation was highly disordered and was treated with the SQUEEZE routine in PLATON [Spek (2009. Acta Cryst. D65, 148–155]; the crystallographic data takes into account the presence of the cation. Each CuII cation exhibits a square-planar coordination geometry. A benzene-1,2-dicarboxylate dianion bridges two CuII cations, building a linear chain along [001]. The chains are connected by 3-(pyridin-4-yl-1H-pyrazol-1-ide anions, constructing a layer parallel to (101. The layers are assembled into a three-dimensional supramolecular network through C—H...π interactions.

  17. Current, meteorological, and other data from fixed platforms as part of the International Decade of Ocean Exploration / Coastal Upwelling Ecosystems Analysis (IDOE/CUEA) from 01 April 1972 to 01 August 1972 (NODC Accession 7400582)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current, meteorological, and other data were collected from fixed platforms from 01 April 1972 to 01 August 1972. Data were collected by the University of Washington...

  18. Temperature profile data from STD/CTD casts from the MOANA WAVE from the Pacific Ocean during the International Decade of Ocean Exploration / North Pacific Experiment (IDOE/NORPAX) project, 22 February to 27 May 1975 (NODC Accession 7800703)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature and salinity profile data were collected using STD/CTD casts from MOANA WAVE in the Pacific Ocean from February 22, 1975 to May 27, 1975. Data were...

  19. Zooplankton species identities and other data from the KNORR and other platforms as part of the International Decade of Ocean Exploration (IDOE) from 01 June 1969 to 01 December 1971 (NODC Accession 7200735)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Zooplankton species identities and other data were collected from the KNORR and other platforms from 01 June 1969 to 01 December 1971. Data were collected by the...

  20. Chemical and other data collected using bottle casts from the KNORR as part of the International Decade of Ocean Exploration / from Geochemical Ocean Section Study (IDOE/GEOSECS) project, from 12 July 1972 to 24 April 1978 (NODC Accession 8600051)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data file contains trace chemicals reported in a format similar to SD2. These data were collected by Scripps Institute of Oceanography (SIO) from July 12, 1972...

  1. Mechanisms of ionic conduction related to the structure of the gel electrolytes composed of cross-linked PEO matrix; Kakyo PEO wo matrix kokkaku to suru gel denkaishitsu no kozo to ion ido kiko

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aihara, Y.; Arai, S. [Yuasa Corp., Osaka (Japan); Hayamizu, K. [National Institute of Materials and Chemical Research, Tsukuba (Japan); Price, W.

    1998-04-27

    The ionic conduction mechanism of a non-aqueous polymer gel electrolyte based on the matrix of a chemically cross-linked polyethylene oxide is reported. Subjected to experiment in this report is a polyethylene oxide (PEO)/{gamma}-butyrolactone (GBL) base electrolyte . In this electrolyte, GBL is the solvent and LiBF4 is the solute, and cross-linked polyethylene glycol diacrylate serves as the matrix polymer. Concerning this gel electrolyte, ionic conductivity is determined by the AC impedance method, and diffusion coefficients are determined respectively for the polymer, GBL, Li{sup +}, and BF4{sup -} by measuring nuclear magnetic resonance using the field gradient method. In addition , the outcome of measurement by DSC (differential scanning calorimeter) is mentioned. One of the conclusions arrived at after evaluating the above-said results is described below. It is opined that the diffusion of BF4{sup -} and GBL proceeds at a relatively high rate while Li{sup +} moves on interacting with the matrix polymer and subjected to solvent exchange in the adjacent region. 19 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  2. Current meter and other data from fixed platforms as part of the International Decade of Ocean Exploration / Coastal Upwelling Ecosystems Analysis (IDOE/CUEA) from 01 July 1972 to 01 August 1972 (NODC Accession 7500614)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current meter and other data were collected from fixed platforms from 01 July 1972 to 01 August 1972. Data were collected by the Pacific Marine Environmental...

  3. (Ethylenediamine-κ2N,Nbis[2-(pyridin-2-yl-κN-1,3-imidazol-1-ido-κN1]cobalt(III nitrate monohydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiu-Ling Feng

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, [Co(C8H6N32(C2H8N2]NO3·H2O, the CoIII ion is coordinated by four N atoms from two 2-(pyridin-2-yl-1,3-imidazol-1-ide ligands and two N atoms of ethylenediamine in a distorted octahedral geometry. In the crystal, classical N—H...N(O and O—H...N(O hydrogen bonds connect all the isolated components together to yield a three-dimensional structure.

  4. Tetrakis(dimethylammonium trans-dichloridobis[5,5′-(pyrazine-2,3-diylbis(1H-tetrazol-1-ido-κN1]copper(II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju-Hsiou Liao

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, (C2H8N4[Cu(C6H2N102Cl2], consists of an anionic complex which is composed of a CuII ion surrounded by four N atoms from two pyrazine-2,3-diylbis(1H-tetrazol-1-ide ligands, and two Cl− atoms in a trans-Cl2N4 coordination geometry; the CuII atom lies on a site of symmetry 2/m. The Cu—Cl distance of 2.8719 (5 Å is long due to the Jahn–Teller distortion of the d9 electron configuration of CuII ion. The tetrazole and pyrazine rings make an N—C—C—N torsion angle of 38.25 (17°. The charge of the anionic complex is balanced by four dimethylammonium cations, which interact with the anionic complexes via N—H...N and N—H...Cl hydrogen bonds.

  5. Temperature and other data collected using tide gauge from the Pacific Ocean as part of the International Decade of Ocean Exploration / North Pacific Experiment (IDOE/NORPAX) project from 01 January 1977 to 01 January 1978 (NODC Accession 8100451)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature, pressure, salinity, wind direction, and tide height data were collected using tide gauge in the Pacific Ocean. Data were collected from January 1, 1977...

  6. Temperature profile data collected using bathythermograph (BT/XBT) casts in part of the International Decade of Ocean Exploration / North Pacific Experiment (IDOE/NORPAX) project from 01 November 1977 to 28 February 1978 (NODC Accession 8100400)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using bathythermograph (BT/XBT) casts from the KANA KEOKI from November 1, 1977 to February 28, 1978. Data were submitted by...

  7. Temperature profile data from fixed platforms from the Gulf of Mexico and the NW Atlantic (limit-40 W) as part of the International Decade of Ocean Exploration (IDOE) from 15 April 1977 to 25 November 1980 (NODC Accession 8200122)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and tide data were collected from fixed platforms in the Gulf of Mexico and the NW Atlantic (limit-40 W) from 15 April 1977 to 25 November 1980....

  8. Efeito do ácido bórico sobre a velocidade da reação do 2-hidroxibenzaldéido com nucleófilos nitrogenados

    OpenAIRE

    Simionatto, Edesio Luiz

    1997-01-01

    Tese (doutorado) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Centro de Ciências Físicas e Matemáticas. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Química O ácido bórico acelera a reação de formação da oxima derivada do 2-hidroxibenzaldeído. Os resultados cinéticos e a análise por espectroscopia ultravioleta, sugerem, que o efeito do ácido bórico é sobre o estado de transição da etapa de desidratação da reação, através da formação de um complexo com o intermediário de adição formado pelo rápido equilíbrio ...

  9. Zooplankton species identities and other data from the KNORR and other platforms as part of the International Decade of Ocean Exploration (IDOE) from 01 September 1969 to 01 December 1971 (NODC Accession 7300577)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Zooplankton species identities and other data were collected from the KNORR and other platforms the from 01 September 1969 to 01 December 1971. Data were collected...

  10. Heavy metals transfer through the Inner Continental Shelf to the open ocean data as part of the International Decade of Ocean Exploration (IDOE) submitted October, 1972 (NODC Accession 7300575)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Heavy metals transfer through the Inner Continental Shelf to the open ocean data were collected by the Skidway Institute of Oceanography (SKIO). Data were collected...

  11. Temperature profiles from XBT casts from NOAA Ship OCEANOGRAPHER as part of the International Decade of Ocean Exploration (IDOE) from 1973-02-13 to 1973-06-10 (NODC Accession 7300904)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profiles were collected from XBT casts from NOAA Ship OCEANOGRAPHER from 13 February 1973 to 10 June 1973. Data were collected by the National Ocean...

  12. Crystal structure of poly[di-μ-aqua-{5-[(1Z-2-(4-chlorophenyl-1-cyanoethenyl]-1,2,3,4-tetrazol-1-ido-κN1}sodium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel T. Mague

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, [Na(C10H5ClN5(H2O2]n, infinite chains of [Na(H2O2]+ cations having a diamond-shaped cross-section and running parallel to the b axis are formed. O—H...N hydrogen bonds to the anions generate layers parallel to (100 which have the chlorobenzenecyanoethenyl substituents protruding from both surfaces. The sodium ion makes a short contact of 2.4801 (13 Å with the N atom of the tetrazolide ring which is syn to the cyano N atom.

  13. Temperature profiles from STD casts from the Oregon Coast from the YAQUINA as part of the International Decade of Ocean Exploration / Coastal Upwelling Ecosystems Analysis (IDOE/CUEA) from 07 August 1972 to 26 August 1972 (NODC Accession 9800111)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profiles were collected from STD casts from the Oregon Coast from the YAQUINA from 07 August 1972 to 26 August 1972. Data were collected by the...

  14. Opposing Biological Functions of Tryptophan Catabolizing Enzymes During Intracellular Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divanovic, Senad; Sawtell, Nancy M.; Trompette, Aurelien; Warning, Jamie I.; Dias, Alexandra; Cooper, Andrea M.; Yap, George S.; Arditi, Moshe; Shimada, Kenichi; DuHadaway, James B.; Prendergast, George C.; Basaraba, Randall J.; Mellor, Andrew L.; Munn, David H.; Aliberti, Julio

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have underscored physiological and pathophysiological roles for the tryptophan-degrading enzyme indolamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) in immune counterregulation. However, IDO was first recognized as an antimicrobial effector, restricting tryptophan availability to Toxoplasma gondii and other pathogens in vitro. The biological relevance of these findings came under question when infectious phenotypes were not forthcoming in IDO-deficient mice. The recent discovery of an IDO homolog, IDO-2, suggested that the issue deserved reexamination. IDO inhibition during murine toxoplasmosis led to 100% mortality, with increased parasite burdens and no evident effects on the immune response. Similar studies revealed a counterregulatory role for IDO during leishmaniasis (restraining effector immune responses and parasite clearance), and no evident role for IDO in herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection. Thus, IDO plays biologically important roles in the host response to diverse intracellular infections, but the dominant nature of this role—antimicrobial or immunoregulatory—is pathogen-specific. PMID:21990421

  15. Spontaneous cytotoxic T-Cell reactivity against indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase-2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Rikke Bæk; Køllgaard, Tania; Andersen, Rikke Sick;

    2011-01-01

    by the D stereoisomer of the IDO blocker 1-methyl-tryptophan (1MT), which tends to be more active than the L-isomer in a variety of biological assays for IDO function, suggests that IDO2 may be important to sustain immune escape and growth of tumors. Especially, D-1MT heightens chemotherapeutic efficacy...... in mouse models of cancer in a nontoxic fashion. Here, we describe the immunogenicity of IDO2 by showing the presence of spontaneous cytotoxic T-cell reactivity against IDO2 in peripheral blood of both healthy donors and cancer patients. Furthermore, we show that these IDO2-specific T cells are cytotoxic...

  16. Study of solute incorporation into ice-layer on freeze concentration with ice-lining; Ice lining toketsu noshukuho ni okeru hyosho sochu eno yoshitsu torikomi ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamazaki, Y.; Shinozaki, K. [Fujisawa Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd., Osaka (Japan); Hirata, Y. [Osaka University, Osaka (Japan)

    1997-07-10

    The mechanism of solute incorporation into an ice-layer in freeze concentration with ice-lining was studied by changing the impeller speed N and the difference between the brine temperature and the freezing point of the feed solution {Delta}T in 10 kg/m{sup 3} CCNa solution. The effect of N on the apparent partition coefficient of the solute K, is more serious than that of {Delta}T. The growth rate of the ice layer is 10{sup -7} - 10{sup -6}m/s under the condition of {Delta}T=2.8 - 7.9degC and N = 20-400 min{sup -1}. The growth rate had a little effect on solute incorporation into the ice-layer. K values depended on the surface condition of the ice layer, which is effected by the mixing speed of the impeller. The ice layer formed at low mixing speed has a complex rough shape, and has much solute because of adhesion to a large surface area. Therefore, it is recommended that freeze concentration is performed by making an ice layer with smooth surface at high mixing speed. 9 refs., 6 figs.

  17. Relationships between oxygen content, modulation period and superconducting property of Bi-based superconducting oxides. Bi kei sankabtsu chodendotai ni okeru sanso ganryo, hencho kozo oyobi chodendo tokusei no sokan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deshimaru, Y.; Shimizu, Y.; Miura, N.; Yamazoe, N. (Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Graduate School of Engineering Sciences); Hiroi, Z.; Bando, Y. (Kyoto Univ., Kyoto (Japan). Inst. for Chemical Research)

    1992-09-10

    Two (2223 and 2212) of three superconducting phases in the Pb-doped Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O (BSCCO) oxide superconductor were examined for their changes of crystal structures and superconducting properties with changing oxygen content. Their oxygen sorption behavior examined by the temperature-programmed-desorption method showed that both samples desorb trace amounts of oxygen in a temperature range of 350-600 centigrade and the behavior examined by the temperature-programmed oxidation method showed that they absorb (absorb) reversibly oxygen desorbed above in a range of 100-350 centigrade. The critical temperature to bear diamagnetism (Tc) of the 2223 sample fell from 111 K to 96 K as oxygen was desorbed up to 600 centigrade. However, Tc recovers reversibly to the initial value when oxygen was re-absorbed. Contrary to the 2223, the 2212 sample showed the opposite Tc change. Both samples increased in their c-axes lengths and their modulation periods and the changes were reversible respectively. It was pointed out that the Tc behaviors of both sample systems were dependent on the concentration of holes on the CuO2 surfaces. 33 refs., 9 figs.

  18. Technologies adopted in the lean-burn GA15DE engine for improving combustion and controlling the air-fuel ratio; Kogata 4 kito lean burn engine (GA15DE) ni okeru nensho kaizen oyobi seigyo gijutsu ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, K.; Matsumura, M. [Nissan Motor Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-10-07

    This paper summarizes an automotive engine with improved fuel consumption, having realized lean combustion. The lean-burn engine is such an engine that can be operated in an air-fuel ratio compatible in the combustion stability limit and the NOx emission limit by means of combustion improvement, and achieved improvement in fuel consumption as the result. The engine can be expected of higher fuel consumption improving effect than the EGR of the conventional engines because of the lean-burn mechanism. The newly developed lean-burn engine is characterized by less change in its specifications from the basic specifications. Lean fuel burning requires creating a gas mixture condition that is easy to ignite and acquiring a gas flowing field which spreads quickly upon ignition. To achieve these goals, swirl control valves and phase difference cams were disposed. Further, long-discharge coils are used to improve the ignitability. In order to operate the tertiary catalyst more effectively, an A/F sensor that operates in the catalytic area was adopted for the air-fuel ratio feedback control in place of an O2 sensor. The mileage of a vehicle equipped with the lean-burn engine was increased by 17.8% to 20.5 km/l. 2 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Data acquisition and evaluation analysis on advanced high-efficiency energy system field test project (fiscal 2000); 2000 nendo sendoteki kokoritsu energy system field test jigyo ni okeru data shuyaku oyobi hyoka kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Field tests have been performed on the next generation phosphoric acid fuel cell power generation systems to collect and analyze the long-term operation data and trouble cases by introducing the final proliferation pattern into the actual demand on a trial basis. This paper reports the achievements in fiscal 2000. The locations of executing the field tests in fiscal 2000 are the 15 sites, including the NTT Central Training Center, and the Environment and Energy Exploratirium. Measurements were carried out at each test site on fuel gas consumption, fuel cell output power amount, utilized quantity of heat at low temperatures, utilized quantity of heat at elevated temperatures, and discarded quantity of heat. In addition, the total demand power amount and the shutdown information were also put into order. As a result of the evaluation analysis, the second factory of Senhoku Manufactory recorded the longest operation time of 23,777 hours, whose operation factor has reached 92%. Five systems had the continuous operation time exceeded 5,000 hours. The power generation efficiency was about 40% in a system using the town gas 13A fuel, wherein the total efficiency was 90% or greater. The largest number of failures in fiscal 2000 was seven at Tochigi Factory of Kirin Brewery, whose average number of failure was 1.6 a year. (NEDO)

  20. Considerations on FEM modeling in analyzing buckling and plastic collapse of a detection control; Boto panel no zakutsu sosei hokai kaiseki ni okeru FEM model ka ni kansuru kosatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao, T.; Fujikubo, M.; Yanagihara, D.; Irisawa, M. [Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-10-01

    Buckling and plastic collapse of upper decks and bottom outer plates of a hull results directly in longitudinal bending collapse of the hull. Therefore, discussions were given on analysis for pressure destruction strength of a detection control panel which assumes an upper deck and a bottom outer plate. Pressure destruction behavior of the panting panel is a complex phenomenon accompanying non-linearity and geometrical non-linearity of the materials. Its whole phenomenon may be analyzed by using the finite element method (FEM) as a principle, but the analysis is not efficient. Therefore, considerations were given in relation to modeling when using the FEM. The considerations were given on a panel attached with flat steel panting members with respect to the modeling scope which considers the buckling mode according to the aspect ratio of the panel partitioned by the deflection control members. If the local buckling mode of the panel is an even number wave mode in the longitudinal direction, a triple span model is required. A modeling scope for a case of being subjected to water pressure and in-plane compression was considered on a panel attached with angle-type steel members having non-symmetric cross section. In this case, a triple bay model is more preferable to reproduce the behavior under water pressure loading. 1 ref., 6 figs.

  1. Internal friction and microplasticity of carbon-fiber-reinforced SiC ceramics; Tanso sen`i kyoka SiC ceramics no hakai zenku katei ni okeru naibu masatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogawa, H.; Nishino, Y.; Asano, S. [Nagoya Institute of Technology, Nagoya (Japan)

    1995-08-20

    Mechanical responses of carbon-fiber-reinforced SiC ceramics before fracture were measured in the strain range below 2 {times} 10{sup {minus}3} by two experimental methods: mechanical hysteresis and internal friction. Load-deflection curves were obtained by the three-point bending deformation in loading-unloading cycles. A little permanent strain was found after the first cycle even in the range where fracture never occurred. A closed hysteresis loop was observed after several cycles and stabilized with a symmetrical shape after more than twenty cycles. Such a stabilized hysteresis loop is attributed to the steady-state microplastic deformation and may cause the amplitude-dependent internal friction. Internal friction was measured in the fundamental mode of free-free resonant vibration as a function of strain amplitude. With increasing the amount of prestrain in the bending deformation, internal friction increased and became sensitive to the strain amplitude. The amplitude-dependent internal friction in the composites is considered to originate from fiber pull-out or microcrack propagation. The internal friction data were analyzed on the basis of the microplasticity theory and converted into the plastic strain expressed as a function of stress. Therefore, it becomes possible to non-destructively study the forerunning process of fracture of the fiber-reinforced ceramics. 23 refs., 6 figs.

  2. 55th electric science promotion prize (progress prize). Demonstration of optical soliton transmission on OPGW first in the world; Dai 55 kai denki gakujutsu shinkosho (shinposho) jusho. Seiaihatsu no OPGW ni okeru hikari soriton denso no jissho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-06-10

    Electric science promotion prize (progress prize) is given to `Person who newly proposed a new concept, theory, material, device, system and method on electrical science and technology, or demonstrated these proposals` by the commendation committee of Institute of Electrical Engineers of Japan every year. Eight promotion prizes including that for Kansai Electric Power`s `Demonstration of optical soliton transmission on OPGW first in the world` were given. This research succeeded in development of the transmission/ receiving device suitable for optical soliton transmission, and the prediction method of an optimum transmission condition by computer simulation. In addition, this research succeeded in 10Gbit transmission of 784km and 40Gbit transmission (4-wave multiplex) of 392km by applying the above research result to Okurobe trunk line OPGW (98.2km). This demonstration of optical soliton transmission on OPGW is first in the world. (NEDO)

  3. Detection of the oscillation mode of measured waveforms in power systems by Prony analysis; Puroni kaisekiho ni yoru denryoku keito ni okeru jissoku hakei no doyo mode kenshutsu ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shibata, K. [Kansai Electaric Power Co. Inc., Osaka (Japan)

    2000-04-01

    This paper describes the detection method of the oscillation modes by Prony analysis from measured data on power systems. A Prony analysis method can obtain the oscillation frequency and logarithmic damping rate corresponding to eigenvalue directly, and is suitable for detecting the oscillation modes. The analysis result showed that longer sampling intervals of 0.2-0.4s allows detection of the long-period oscillation modes from less data, and the index corresponding to waveform areas allows evaluation of the significance of each mode. It was also confirmed that a low-pass filter with a time constant of nearly 0.2s is effective for poor data including various noises, and correction of amplitude and phase shifts is possible by filter. In addition, the study result on application of a Prony analysis method to instantaneous value waveforms showed that analysis of harmonic characteristics is possible by selecting proper analytical parameters, and a Prony analysis method is applicable to analysis of measured data enough. (NEDO)

  4. Research activities of hybrid ceramic ball bearings for turbochargers in research and development center, Koyo Seiko; Koyo seiko sogo kenkyusho ni okeru turbocharger yo ceramic tamajikuuke no kenkyu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanimoto, K. [Koyo Seiko Co. Ltd., Osaka (Japan)

    2000-05-20

    Silicon nitride ceramics developed at Hikari Seiko's General Technology Research Institute was applied for the first time in the world in 1998 to balls used in bearing for turbo chargers for commercially available passenger cars. This paper reports the summary thereof. Silicon nitride used in the ceramic ball bearing is a high quality ceramic material that uses yttrium oxide and aluminum oxide as sintering auxiliaries, and is treated with hot static water pressure and made denser. Characteristics of low density as compared to that of high-carbon chrome bearing steel used as the general bearing steel are as follows: bearing weight, and ball's centrifugal force under high speed rotation are reduced; its heat resistance makes use of bearing possible under elevated temperatures; and shared bondage reduces seizing due to running out of oil film when the bearing is rotated at high speeds. Thus, the material is well suitable for turbo chargers. Its rolling fatigue life exceeds that of the bearing steel, and it is made clear that the damage pattern is exfoliation similar to that in the bearing steel. A life test for the ceramic ball bearing showed a result exceeding the calculated life time. (NEDO)

  5. Quantum analysis in the transition process to excited state of an oxygen molecule induced by electron collisions; Denshi shototsu ni tomonau sanso bunshi ni okeru reiki jotai sen`i no ryoshironteki kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishimaru, K. [Gifu National College of Technology, Gifu (Japan); Okazaki, K. [Tokyo Inst. of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-06-25

    For understanding of fundamental chemical reactions under a highly non equilibrium condition which is quite often used in plasma processing, the relevant atomic and molecular processes must be clarified. In this study, an analysis of the transition process to the excited state of an oxygen molecule induced by electron collisions in the oxygen plasma has been carried out. First, the electron density distribution in an oxygen molecule has been calculated using the extended Huckel molecular orbital method. Then, the electron potential energy distribution in the transition process to the excited state has been estimated. The electron behavior has been calculated using the estimated unidimensional electron potential energy distribution and unsteady quantum mechanics. As a result, the transition process to the excited state of an oxygen molecule induced by electron collisions and its conditions have been clarified qualitatively. 9 refs., 9 figs.

  6. Generation of metallic arc spectrum of pumping discharge of XeCl laser; XeCl ekishima laser reiki hoden ni okeru arc iko to kinzoku supekutoru no hassei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koike, H.; Yukimura, K. [Doshisha University, Kyoto (Japan)

    1997-12-20

    An arc generation of a long-pulse spiker-sustainer excimer laser with about 250ns of pulse width , is discussed by using time-varying spectroscopic method. First arcing occurs during a main discharge for laser excitation and shows XeII spectrum, while a glow-like discharge represents only XeI spectrum, the metallic spectrum such as Nil caused by vaporization of electrode material begins to appear just after the termination of the main discharge. Second arcing occurs after about 2{mu}s, which brings strong intensity of Nil spectrum. It means that the reignition arc might be produced in a metallic vapor that appears during the main discharge. Accordingly, it is concluded that the reignition arc is inherently metallic, which is different from the main arc with rare gas plasma. 9 refs., 9 figs.

  7. Ionization current in N2 gas. Part 7. ; Diffusion and reflection of metastable particles. N2 gas chu ni okeru denri denryu. 7. ; Jun antei reiki ryushi no kakusan to hansha

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, S.; Ito, H.; Sekizawa, H. (Chiba Inst. of Technology, Chiba (Japan)); Ikuta, N. (Tokushima Univ., Tokushima (Japan))

    1993-06-20

    The energy loss process in quenching of excited particles by collision to other ones and solid surfaces was investigated with metastable excited particles formed in weakly ionized gases. The measured lifetime of N2 metastable particles in N2, N2/CO, N2/CH3 gases during Townsent discharge did not agree with the Molnar's theoretical value which was obtained by solving diffusion equations using the boundary condition that assumes the density of excited particles to be zero at electrodes and tube walls. Strange behavior was observed too, that is, coefficients of diffusion and reaction rate determined by the theoretical lifetime change systematically with the distance between electrodes. Then, the novel boundary condition that takes reflection coefficient into account was applied to solve diffusion equations. The results obtained could account for experimental results without any discrepancy. The analysis of results clarified the dependence of various parameters of metastable excited particles on the reflection coefficient. The increase of reflection coefficient decreases the surface quenching of excited particles at electrodes and elongs effectively excited lifetime and increases the number of collisional quenching in gas phases. 16 refs., 8 figs.

  8. Determination of electron impact ionization and excitation coefficients in He-Xe gas mixtures. He-Xe kongo gas ni okeru denshi shototsu denri keisu oyobi reiki keisu no sokutei to kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, K.; Tachibana, K. (Kyoto Inst. of Technology, Kyoto (Japan))

    1991-03-20

    The rare gas discharge gives a stable discharge and light emission characteristics at low temperature in comparison with the discharge of the vapor of such a metal as Hg. The present barrier for the commercialization of the color PDP lies in the lower level of its emission intensity and efficiency in comparison with that of CRT. In this report, an electron impact ionization coefficient in a gas mixture and an electron impact excitation coefficient for a XeIs {sub 4} level were analyzed using a Boltzmann equation by means of a steady state Townsend method using a drift tube. By comparing both, the elementary process in the gas mixture is investiagted to discuss the respective contributions for the effective ionization coefficient and the excitation coefficient. As a result, it was found that the ionization process in the He-Xe gas mixture could be described by the processes of direct ionization of Xe and He, and an indirect ionization (Penning effect) by an active helium. 37 refs., 12 figs.

  9. Pressure dependence of emission intensity of rare-gas excimer light produced by silent discharge; Teikiatsu ryoiki ni okeru musei hoden reiki ki gas excimer hikari shutsuryoku no atsuryoku izonsei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, Y.; Tanaka, M.; Yukimura, K. [Doshisha University, Kyoto (Japan)

    1996-09-20

    To establish the pressure dependence of silent discharge excited rare gas excimer light emission, a vacua ultraviolet light was subjected to spectroscopic analysis at a pressure lower than 20kPa. Researches are under way to apply the discharge excited rare gas excimer lamp as a vacuum ultraviolet light source for the development of new materials and for the conservation of environments. When the pressure is as low as 1.8kPa or 4.4kPa, the emission has peaks at wavelengths centering on 147nm and 149nm, both of which are the resonance lines of the xenon atom. Excimer generation becomes prominent as the pressure increases, with the second continuum of light growing dominant at 35kPa to weaken relatively the resonance lines and the first continuum of light. In the first continuum, emission increases only at a suppressed rate, as compared with emission in the second continuum, due for instance to a collision caused relaxation process in which excimers are lost. In the case of xenon in the vicinity of 10-11kPa, the first continuum of light and the second continuum of light are approximately equal in emission intensity, producing a vacuum ultraviolet light source with a bandwidth relatively large for a single gas spectrum. 14 refs., 11 figs.

  10. Evaluation of the autonomic neuropathy function immediately after a change to upright posture using the impulse response function; Impulse oto kansu wo mochiita shisei henkan katoki ni okeru jiritsu shinkei kino hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokoyama, K. [Nagoya City University, Nagoya (Japan); Moyoshi, M.; Takata, K. [Daido Institute of Technology, Nagoya (Japan); Watanabe, Y. [Toyota College of Technology, Aichi (Japan)

    1997-05-20

    Autonomic neuropathy function immediately after a change to upright posture has been evaluated by applying transient response function of the system to the blood regulation system. The impulse response function was determined from the change in heart rate before postural change to the upright posture, and was compared with the transient change immediately after a change to the upright posture. The time series of R-R interval of electrocardiogram was used as the time series of the change in heart rate. To determine the impulse response function, an autoregressive model was applied to the R-R interval time series. The impulse response function at the steady state is a transient reaction at the impulse stimulation added to the blood regulation system. The R-R interval decreases rapidly by the autonomic neuropathy reaction in which the blood is rapidly transferred into the legs immediately after a change to upright posture. There is a close correlation between the initial temporary decrease in R-R interval and the impulse response function derived from the change in heart rate immediately after a change to the upright posture. Accordingly, the blood regulation and autonomic neuropathy functions can be evaluated by the impulse response function without actual standing test and load of tested persons. 9 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Trend of recent motor sports related technology. From engine point of view; Saikin no motor sports ni okeru saishin gijutsu no doko. Engine no shiten kara mita gijutsu doko

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okamoto, T. [Toyota Motor Corp., Aichi (Japan)

    2000-02-01

    This paper presents the trend of the motorsports related technology focusing on F1, Champ Car and Le Man using high technology and high fundamental technology. Indeed each category of these three has its own regulation. Therefore the difference in the regulations which depends on the restriction level for usable technology requires different technological development. One is using real high technology while another is using high fundamental technology. Taking these affairs into account, characteristic of the each technology for each motor sports category is described from engine point of view. (author)

  12. Report on the field test project for wind power development at Shinwa-no-Sato Park (wind characteristics investigation); Shinwa no sato koen ni okeru furyoku kaihatsu field test jigyo (fukyo seisa) hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    Wind characteristics are observed for a year at Shinwa-no-Sato Park, Kirishima Town, Aira-gun, Kagoshima Prefecture. The average wind speeds at 20m and 10m above ground are 3.9m/s and 3.3m/s, but they are a little higher in the prevalent directions of east and east-north-east, and are 4.7m/s and 5.5m/s. The annual operation rates of the 150kW, 300kW, and 750kW wind turbine models are 36.0%, 39.1%, and 55.5%. Their annual capacitor ratios are 12.4%, 14.9%, and 15.0%. The annual wind direction occurrence rate on the wind axis is as high as 70.6% in the direction of west, and it should be highly evaluated that turbulence intensity is 0.3 or less in all the directions. As for the surroundings, the observation station is situated in a park which contains no residential zone that may cause noise-related troubles, and possibilities are quite low of difficulties entailing electromagnetic wave emission. Accordingly, wind power development at Kirishima Town is not impossible. But, before a wind power system is actually introduced into the park, it is necessary to select a wind turbine which can operate on low wind speeds of 1-3m/s and can easily connect to the commercial line in the interconnection scheme. (NEDO)

  13. Film condensation of HCFC-123 on in-line bundles of horizontal finned tubes. Effect of fin geometry. Suihei fin tsuki kan no gobanme kangun ni okeru HCFC-123 no gyoshuku. Fin keijo no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honda, H.; Takamatsu, H.; Takada, N. (Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Institute of Advanced Material Study); Kim, K. (Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan)); Ishikawa, Y. (Otsuka Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))

    1994-06-25

    Theoretical analysis and experiments were carried out in regard to the condensation of HCFC-123 vapor on a horizontal finned tube. The previous paper described the theoretical analysis on the film condensation in a tube nest with low-fins. In this study, approximate expressions of heat transfer coefficient for a newly proposed high-performance finned tubes are suggested and compared with the experimental results. In the test, HCFC-123 vapor was flowed from the upper part of the tube nest arranged in squares of 3 rows and 15 layers (tube pitch: 22mm), and was condensed on the tube surface. The liquid film formation was observed, and the heat transfer properties were measured. Two kinds of conventional low-fin tubes and two kinds of finned tubes of which shape is similar to the newly proposed ones were tested. One of the new finned tubes showed the highest heat transfer performance, which was about 85% higher than that of the conventional low-fin (26 fpi) tube. The theoretical model for condensation in the previous paper was correspondent with the experimental data at low vapor speed and low condensate inundation rate. 14 refs., 14 figs., 4 tabs.

  14. Film condensation of HCFC-123 on staggered bundles of horizontal finned tubes. Effect of fin geometry; Suihei fintsukikan no chidori kanbun ni okeru HCFC-123 no gyoshuku. Fin keijo no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honda, H.; Takamatsu, H.; Takada, N. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Institute of Advanced Material Study; Makishi, O. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Sejimo, H. [NKK Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-03-25

    Experiments were conducted to obtain row-by-row heat transfer data during condensation of downward flowing HCFC-123 vapor in staggered bundles of horizontal two-dimensional fin tubes. Two conventional low fin tubes and two finned tubes with fin shapes close to that of a new high-performance fin proposed by Zhu and Honda were tested. The latter tubes had fin dimensions that were optimized by theoretical analysis. The heat transfer characteristics were compared with previous results for in-line bundles of the same test tubes and with theoretical predictions for stagnant vapor. The decrease in heat transfer due to condensate inundation was less significant for the staggered tube bundle. The highest heat transfer coefficient was provided by the staggered bundle of one of the new finned tubes. The theoretical predictions compared well with experimental data at a low vapor velocity and a low to medium condensate inundation rate. 15 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. On the relation between free volume and powder pressure with the gas stream in the powder moving-bed; Gasu nagare wo tomonau kotai idoso ni okeru kukanritsu to ryutaiatsu no kankei ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomoyasu, Suminao; Yoshino, Akio; Iwata, Hiroshi; Kawazoe, Hiromitsu

    1999-04-05

    On the stand pipe with gas stream equipped the bottom in fluidized bed from powder and equation of continuity of the gas, equation of momentum balance considering frictional force of wall surface and equation of pressure loss of the gas by relative speed and test data on the axial gas pressure distribution besides with stand pipe axial direction powder pressure {sigma}{sub z} relational expression of free volume {epsilon} it asks ask. According to this result, (1) d{sigma}{sub z}/d{epsilon} is increased in free volume or big part in the stand pipe entrance, and it once lowers in the middle, and in addition, it increases in the downward again. That is to say, the inflection point of the powder pressure does the right and presence in the. intermediate. (2) There is mainly the high possibility by the effect of the frictional force of stand pipe wall surface on d{sigma}{sub z}/d{epsilon} increasing in the stand pipe inlet vicinity. (3) The powder pressure is not only free volume but also function of the powder particle diameter too. And, this powder ratio and free volume also showed that the distribution of amount of gas which flow and axial gas pressure, powder pressure, free volume, etc. was obtained the stand pipe from relational expression of particle size and other theoretical formula. (translated by NEDO)

  16. Correlation of voidage and stress of granular materials in a packed moving bed accompanied with gas flow; Gasu nagare wo tomonau funtai idoso ni okeru kugekiritsu to funtaiatsu no kankei ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomoyasu, Yoshitada. [Sanzou Energy Engineering Corp., Okayama (Japan); Yoshino, Fumio.; Iwata, Hiroshi.; Kawazoe, Hiromitsu. [Tottori University, Tottori (Japan). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1999-03-10

    The flow characteristics of granular materials and gas in a vertical packed moving bed, called a [stand pipe], furnished at the bottom of the fluidized bed are investigated theoretically and experimentally. A correlation equation of axial stress {sigma}{sub z} and voidage {epsilon} of granular materials in the stand pipe is proposed through investigations of the continuity equation, the momentum balance equation, Ergun's equation for gas pressure loss and the gas pressure distribution data measured experimentally in the axial direction. Regarding the relation of the axial stress and the voidage, it was recogniged that : 1. The absolute value of d{sigma}{sub z}/d{epsilon} is large at the voidage near the minimum fluidizing condition, and at the voidage in the dense packed condition, and an inflection point of {sigma}{sub z} exists in range between the both conditions ; 2. It seems to be the wall-friction-effect of stand pipe that the absolute value of d{sigma}{sub z}/d{epsilon} is larger at the inlet of stand pipe, and ; 3. The stress is also a function of the particle diameter. The gas flow rate, axial stress distribution of granular materials, gas pressure distribution and voidage distribution in the axial direction of the stand pipe can be calculated from relating equations. (author)

  17. Modified spatial autocorrelation method using autoregressive model for estimating underground velocity structure from microtremor array observation; Bido array tansa ni okeru kukan jiko sokanho no jiko kaiki model wo mochiita kairyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, H.; Saito, T. [Iwate University, Iwate (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Obuchi, T. [Kawasaki Geological Engineering Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-02-01

    Spatial autocorrelation method (SAC) is an effective analysis for estimating underground S-wave velocity structure from microtremor phase velocity dispersion relation because it has larger detectable range of microtremor wavelength than frequency-wavenumber analysis. However, phase velocities estimated by conventional SAC methods such as band-pass filtered method or Fast Fourier Transform method were not precise if suitable band width was not selected for analysis. We proposed a new technique for SAC using autoregressive model which estimated spectra with high resolution because the best fitting model can be selected using AIC. We apply the new method to calculate phase velocities of microtremors which were observed at a ground of Morioka Technical High School with arrays. As a result, phase velocities calculated by the new method were continuous with frequency although those calculated by the conventional methods were scattered. This indicates that SAC functions calculated by the new method are estimated better than those by conventional SAC methods. 13 refs., 7 figs.

  18. Case of electro-magnetic shielding building. Pt. 2. Reduction method of magnetic noise due to microtremor in magnetically shielded room; Kenchiku setsubi ni okeru denji shield no jitsurei. 2. Shield room no bishindo ni kiinsuru jiki noise taisaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamazaki, K.; Abe, T.; Kamei, Y. [Takenaka Corp., Osaka (Japan)

    2000-01-05

    Magnetic sensitivity can be limited by microtremor of magnetically shielded room (MSR) used for the measurements of extremely magnetic fields such as biomagnetic measurements as well as environmental magnetic noise at low frequencies caused by trains, motorcars traffics and elevators but each of which can be reduced by MSR. The relation between the vibration of MSR and magnetic noise, and the reduction method of the magnetic noise due to microtremor of MSR are discussed experimentally. The correlations were high between acceleration in horizontal direction of ceiling panel and magnetic signal in horizontal and vertical directions. The magnetic noises were almost proportional to the displacement on the ceiling panel of MSR. Further an active isolation system was installed as a base of MSR to reduce the microtremor of the MSR. We also measured reduction effect of vibration and magnetic noise in an MSR actually mounted on TACMI by experiment when artificial vibrations were applied to the MSR by means of heal impacts and by a truck which run over a wood panel (height is 50 mm) on the road nearby at a speed of 20km per hour. (author)

  19. Fiscal 1997 report on the feasibility survey of Japan`s cooperation into energy/environment related fields in Asian countries; 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho (Asia shokoku ni okeru energy kankyo kanren bun`ya eno kyoryoku kanosei chosa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    A survey was made to study possibilities of Japan`s cooperation in tackling energy/environment problems in Asian countries. In 1995 the GNP growth rate was 2.6% in the world, while it was 7.9% in Asia showing a rapid growth. With the accelerating industrialization and urbanization, energy demand is now over three times as much as that in the 1980s. This means increases in waste and environmental pollution. Especially, the use of firewood in non-electrified areas is a serious problem the same as the slash-and-burn farming and deforestation. Also relating to the production of electric power, it is inevitable to choose hydroelectric power and renewable energy in addition to fossil fuels. Therefore, the necessity is heightening of various technologies for it and environmental protection technologies such as coal cleaning. Local areas, where the population density is extremely low and the electrification cost is high, became victims of elecrification. There the power system should be shifted from the central supply system to the local distributed one. For it, it is necessary to recognize an importance of the distributed type renewable energy which is friendly to the environment. The paper outlined the state of each country and energy by policy and environment. 10 figs., 83 tabs.

  20. Fiscal 1996 survey report on the environmentally friendly type coal utilization system feasibility study. Survey by region/industry in India; Kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system kanosei chosa. Indo ni okeru sekitan riyo gaikyo chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    A survey was made in India which is a coal producing/consuming country following China in Asia and where coal is used for about 60% of the primary commercial energy. The survey was conducted on coal production/distribution/utilization and environmental issues, aiming at studying feasibility of introducing the environmentally friendly coal utilization system into every industry including the residential/commercial one, and at implementing a comprehensive master plan including Japan`s international cooperation. Total power source facilities in fiscal 1995 are 83.3 million kW, 64% of which are coal thermal power facilities and generated 260 TWh, 69% of the total output energy. Main commercial energy sources are coal, oil and natural gas, and oil is self-sufficient. The survey this time did not examine very well the actual state of the environmental pollution problem caused by the coal utilization. Indian coal is high in ash content but low in sulfur content, and therefore, SOx polluting air has not been a very important problem so far, but soot/smoke is almost the problem. Further, ash treatment after combustion at boilers, etc. is expected to be a big problem in the future. 49 figs., 88 tabs.

  1. Reduction of artificial source effect in the high-resolution aeromagnetic survey in the Hanshin region; Hanshin chiiki no komitsudo kuchu jiki tansa ni okeru jinko noise source no eikyo no jokyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakatsuka, T.; Makino, M.; Morijiri, R.; Okuma, S. [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1997-05-27

    A high-resolution aeromagnetic survey was carried out in December 1995 on areas from Kobe City to Kyoto City in relation to the Hyogoken-nanbu Earthquake in 1995. It was found in the survey that effects of electric trains driven by direct current and man-made structures cannot be avoided, working as a large noise factor in extraction and analysis of geological information. This paper describes a quantitative analysis on magnetic anomaly suspected to have been caused from artificial sources seen in the magnetic map of the Hanshin area obtained from the above exploration data. The paper also gives considerations on methods to remove the effects therefrom. It then describes a quantitative analysis and the result of attempts on removal of the anomaly, taking up the following factors: (1) distribution of specific and remarkable magnetic anomalies which correspond to railroad positions of the Hanshin Railways running through the Nishinomiya-Toyonaka area, (2) the magnetic anomaly trend in positive and negative pair seen in the seafront area of Kobe City, and (3) typical bipolar isolated type magnetic anomaly in the north-west part of Kobe City. The cause for (1) was loop current flown for the railway operation, that for (2) was man-made structures in the improved seafront area, and that for (3) was a provisionally built metal waste storage yard. 9 figs.

  2. 2D inversion results and interpretation of CSAMT data in the Itaya prospect, Northern Honshu, Japan; Tohoku nanbu chiiki Itaya chiku ni okeru CSAMT ho nijigen kaiseki kekka to sono kaishaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshioka, K.; Hishida, H.; Katayama, H. [Metal Mining Agency of Japan, Tokyo (Japan); Takakura, S. [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1997-05-27

    A two-dimensional analysis was carried out on electric exploration data obtained by using the CSAMT method in the Itaya prospect in the southern part of the Tohoku region in Japan. Considerations were given on mine exploration targets. Gold produced in this area is contained in stockwork or vein deposited quartz in silicified hydrothermal breccia. Therefore, the exploration targets are silicified rocks that show high resistivity. The field investigation using the CSAMT method was conducted by installing a dipole source of about 1.9 km as a transmission source at a location about 6 km apart from the investigation area, and by measuring transmission currents from 8 to 10A and ten frequencies from 4 to 2048 Hz. The two-dimensional analysis was performed by using programs of a forward calculation that used a finite element method and of an inversion calculation that used a least-squares method. Analysis utilizing resistivity of the boring cores made minimizing RMS misfit possible. As a result, estimations were made on distribution of silicification and claying alteration from the detailed resistivity distribution around the Itaya mine. 5 ref., 8 figs.

  3. Three-dimensional modeling in the electromagnetic/magnetotelluric methods. Accuracy of various finite-element and finite difference methods; Denjiho MT ho ni okeru sanjigen modeling. Shushu no yugen yosoho to sabunho no seido

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, Y. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-05-27

    To enhance the reliability of electromagnetic/magnetotelluric (MT) survey, calculation results of finite-element methods (FEMs) and finite difference methods (FDMs) were compared. Accuracy of individual methods and convergence of repitition solution were examined. As a result of the investigation, it was found that appropriate accuracy can be obtained from the edge FEM and FDM for the example of vertical magnetic dipole, and that the best accuracy can be obtained from the FDM among four methods for the example of MT survey. It was revealed that the ICBCG (incomplete Cholesky bi-conjugate gradient) method is an excellent method as a solution method of simultaneous equations from the viewpoint of accuracy and calculation time. For the joint FEM, solutions of SOR method converged for both the examples. It was concluded that the cause of error is not due to the error of numerical calculation, but due to the consideration without discontinuity of electric field. The conditions of coefficient matrix increased with decreasing the frequency, which resulted in the unstable numerical calculation. It would be required to incorporate the constraint in a certain form. 4 refs., 12 figs.

  4. Study on passive earth pressure acting on the embedment of an earth retaining wall for braced excavation work in cohesive soil; Nenseido jiban ni okeru kussaku dodomeheki neirebu no judo doatsu ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, H. [Pacific Consultants K.K., Tokyo (Japan); Hirashima, K. [Yamanashi University, Yamanashi (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1995-12-15

    Passive earth pressure exerts a great influence on the stress and deformation of earth retaining walls in braced excavation. To calculate this pressure, conventional ultimate earth pressure equation, or Rankine-Resals and Coulomb`s equation, are currently applied respectively to cohesive and sandy soil. However, these intentional equation to determine passive earth pressure do not adequately take into account the excavation width during work and the shearing resistance on the earth retaining wall surface. This paper deals with cohesive soil only, deriving a calculation equation for passive earth pressure, which takes into account excavation width and the shearing resistance of the earth retaining wall surface. Then, constants in this equation are determined using the calculation results obtained from the finite element method with blasts-plastic elements. The calculation results are also compared with measured values in the model test in order to check the applicability of the calculation equation for passive earth pressure thus obtained. Finally, this paper proposes a practicable calculation equation for passive earth pressure. 13 refs., 10 figs., 10 tabs.

  5. Countermeasures for exhaust prevention of organic solvents at print shop. 3. Removal of organic solvents by catalytic oxidation method; Insatsu kojo ni okeru yuki yozai haishutsu boshi taisaku. 3. Shokubai sankaho ni yoru yuki yozai no jokyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yano, H. [Shimizu Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Shoda, M. [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan). Research Laboratory of Resources Utilization

    1997-05-10

    This paper summarizes circumstances of a catalytic oxidation type deodorizing experiment and a demonstration test on exhaust gas discharged actually from a print shop. The catalytic oxidation method is a method to burn the odor constituents, which are ethyl acetate, isopropyl alcohol and toluene, at temperatures of 200 to 300 degC. Space velocity was used as a parameter, and two kinds of platinum systems and two kinds of manganese + copper systems were used as catalysts. Elucidation was made on the space velocity and removal efficiency, removal efficiency of each catalyst, unreacted decomposition originated constituents at low temperatures (150 to 180 degC), and efficiency of each catalyst to remove each constituent. The result revealed that nearly 100% removal is possible at a space velocity of 33000 hr {sup -1} when the platinum-based catalyst and the manganese + copper based catalyst (both in pellet form) are combined. It was also found that the combination is advantageous in terms of cost. A demonstration test was performed at a new factory. Under a condition of combination of the above catalysts at 1:1 ratio, the space velocity of 30000 hr {sup -1}, and gas temperature at catalyst layer inlet of 200 degC, the removal efficiency was 97.9% to 98.7%, which clears the exhaust regulation value specified by the Tokyo Metropolitan Government. Average concentration in the working environment was 120.9 ppm, which cleared the maximum permissible concentration. 7 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Countermeasures for exhaust prevention of organic solvents at print shop. 1. Removal of organic solvents by activated carbon adsorption method; Insatsu kojo ni okeru yuki yozai haishutsu boshi taisaku. 1. Kasseitan kyuchakuho ni yoru yuki yozai no jokyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yano, H. [Shimizu Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Shoda, M. [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan). Research Laboratory of Resources Utilization

    1997-05-10

    This paper describes the state of discharge of organic solvents from a print shop and a deodorizing experiment using a deodorizing equipment of activated carbon adsorption type of a bench test scale. The subject existing print shop has a working space volume of 2000 m{sup 3} and total air exhaust volume of 32000 m{sup 3} per hour. The identified main solvents are ethyl acetate, isopropyl alcohol and toluene. Solvent exhaust concentration at a duct was more than two times greater than the exhaust regulation value. The experiment was performed by using an equipment having an adsorption tower filled with activated carbons of particle form and pellet form made from coconut shell respectively. The gas concentration at an inlet to the deodorizing equipment was 394 ppm as the total concentration, exceeding the exhaust regulation value of 200 ppm. It was verified that the activated adsorption process has high removal effect. The break-through time which expresses life of activated carbon was 38 hours for the particle-formed carbon and 29 hours for the pellet-formed carbon when the total outlet gas concentration was set to 10 ppm. If the adsorption continues after the break-through time has been reached, a displacement phenomenon (displacement among constituents due to selective adsorption) can occur. The required length of the adsorption belt was derived. It was verified that the activated carbons can be regenerated and re-used. 10 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Countermeasures for exhaust prevention of organic solvents at print shop. 2. Diffusion prevention of organic solvents evaporating from printing process; Insatsu kojo ni okeru yuki yozai haishutsu boshi taisaku. 2. Insatsuki kara hasseisuru yuki yozai no kakusan boshi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yano, H.; Suzuki, Y. [Shimizu Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Shoda, M. [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan). Research Laboratory of Resources Utilization

    1997-05-10

    With an objective to preserve the environment and reduce load on a deodorizing device, discussions were given on a high-efficiency hood for printing machines in a print shop. Solvents discharged from this factory consist of ethyl acetate, isopropyl alcohol and toluene, whose maximum total permissible concentration is 147 ppm. Two kinds of hoods with different opening areas were fabricated on a trial basis as hoods for monochromic gravure printing machines. Elucidation was made on the relationship of concentrations in a laboratory and ducts with discharged air amount. Collection effect is greater in a hood with higher face air velocity at the opening portion. It was made clear that the minimum air discharge amount that can clear the permissible concentration is 1000 m{sup 3} per hour inclusive of the safety factor. This value is derived under a condition that the secondary drying blower is stopped during printing work and the drying portion is shut off. For the similar purpose a hood for two-color gravure printing machine (with the first and second printing portions provided with hoods and installed with resistance plates to equalize face air velocity between both hoods) was fabricated on a trial basis for discussion. The minimum required air discharge amount was estimated to be 1100 m{sup 3} per hour. Total air discharge amount when all the printing machines are operating would be 10400 m{sup 3} per hour, and the concentration would be 690 ppm. 5 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Fiscal 1998 research report on the development trends of natural gas conversion technologies into liquefied fuel in Russia; 1998 nendo Roshia ni okeru tennen gas no ekitai nenryoka gijutsu no kaihatsu doko nado ni kansuru chosa kenkyu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Russia having natural gas resources largest in the world is actively promoting the basic research on liquefaction technology of natural gas such as Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthetic catalyst, and its research potential is extremely high. This 3-year research project surveys the R and D trends of catalyst technology for liquefaction of natural gas, and fabricates the prototype FT synthetic catalyst based on the idea of Russian researchers to evaluate its feasibility experimentally. This report summarizes the following to clarify the research background: (1) The technology system for liquefaction of natural gas, and its future R and D trend, (2) The R and D trends of liquefaction technology of natural gas in the world, (3) The R and D trends of liquefaction technology of natural gas in Russia, (4) The research system of catalyses in Russia, (5) The activities of Russian catalysis research institutes, (6) The fuel liquefaction technologies of Russian major research institutes, and (7) The proposals from Russian research institutes. (NEDO)

  9. Ethanol production by high cell-density culture with periodic reversion of circulating flow in cross-flow filtration. Ryudo hoko henkan cross flow rokaho wo mochiita komitsudo baiyoho ni okeru ethanol seisan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asakura, T.; Toda, K. (The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Institute of Applied Microbiology)

    1991-07-25

    For the purpose of effective production of ethanol, high cell-density culture was examined using a bioreactor with a flat-membrane filtlation module for three kinds of ethanol production microorganism, and the productivity of ethanol fermentation was investigated. The flow direction of the culture broth circulating along a flat membrane in the filtration module was changed periodically, at intervals of 4 minutes and 1 minute, as a result of which, the filtration flux was stabilized to some degree and increased five-fold over that of the control experiment. When the cell concentration in the reactor was maintained at a constant by draining broth at a proper rate, the filtration flux was stabilized further and increased twenty-fold over that of the control experiment. The productivity and exit concentration of ethanol in this cell recycle culture when the cell concentration was 200 gl{sup {minus}1} of Bakers yeast, were 83.7 gl{sup {minus}1}h{sup {minus}1} and 30.2 gl{sup {minus}1}, respectively. For the other two kinds of yeast, high ethanol concentration and productivity were confirmed, concluding that this production method was effective. 25 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Effect of intermolecular cohesion on coal liquefaction. 3. Reactivity of oxygen methylated coal; Sekitan teibunshika hanno ni okeru bunshikan gyoshuryoku no koka. 3. O-methyl ka tan no hanno tokusei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, M.; Nagaishi, H.; Yoshida, T. [Hokkaido National Industrial Research Institute, Sapporo (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    The reactivity of oxygen methylated coal was studied to control hydrogen bond in bituminous coal liquefaction and intermolecular cohesion such as van der Waals force. In experiment, crushed and dried Illinois coal of 100mesh or less was used as specimen, and oxygen methylated coal was prepared by Liotta`s method using tetrabutylammonium halide. Coal liquefaction was conducted in an electromagnetic agitation autoclave using tetralin solvent under initial hydrogen pressure of 100kg/cm{sup 2} while heating. The molecular weight distribution of the products obtained was measured by gel permeation chromatography (GPC) analysis. The experimental results are as follows. The effect of intermolecular cohesion in bituminous coal on the reactivity is mainly derived from decomposing reaction from preasphaltene to oil. Yields of oil fraction by methylation increase corresponding to release of intermolecular cohesion. Since the thermal release is promoted with temperature rise, the difference in yield due to different treatments decreases. 5 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Tholeiitic and calc-alkaline magma series at Adatara volcano, northesast Japan. ; Evolution mechanisms and genetic relationship. Tohoku Nippon, Adatara kazan ni okeru soreaito, karuku alkaline magma keiretsu. ; Sono shinka mechanism to seiin kankei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujinawa, A. (Ibaraki University, Ibaraki (Japan). Faculty of Science)

    1991-07-15

    In this report, the generation and evolution processes of coexisting low-alkali tholeiitic and calc-alkaline magmas at Adatara volcano is discussed on the basis of petrological data, and a reasonable petrological model is proposed. For the tholeiitic suite, variations of major-, trace- and rare earth-elements and Sr isotopic compositions are explained with the fractional crystallization hypothesis. These are mineralogical observations supporting this hypothesis. In contrast, for calc-alkaline suite, compositional variations of considerable numbers of major-elements and trace-elements are explained with the fractional crystallization model, but wide variations of Ni and Cr, and light REE heavy-REE ratios are inconsistent with this model. It is considered that other processes, such as mixing of magmas, assimilation and gaseous transfer, may have operated as additional processes. Also, mineralogical data are compatible with this view. 62 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Feasibility survey of the environmentally-friendly coal utilization system. Feasibility survey of the environmentally-friendly coal utilization system in the Philippines; Kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system kanosei chosa. Philippines ni okeru kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system kanosei chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    With relation to the coal of the Philippines, where the expansion of the use of coal as a substitute for petroleum/plant fuel is aimed at, the paper grasped the situation of coal production/development, the trend of coal import and domestic distribution, the coal utilization trend, and environmental problems, and analyzed the situation of coal utilization/spread by industry including the commercial/residential use. The purpose of the survey is to draw up a master plan for the introduction of the environmentally-friendly coal utilization system. As to the use of environmentally-friendly coal technology which should be adopted to the coal mining industry and commercial/residential sector, cited are the introduction of coal preparation technology and power transmission technology, and the development/spread of briquette as a firewood substituting fuel. In the electric power sector, the problem is the treatment of ash after combustion and the effective use. Relating to the treatment of flue gas, there is no installation at all of desulfurization facilities and denitrification facilities. In the cement industry sector, they wish to return fuel from heavy oil to coal. For it, it is necessary to study dust preventive measures. In the other sectors, coal hasn`t been used very much. An increase in coal demand is not expected also in the future, and big problems concerning coal haven`t occurred. 42 figs., 64 tabs.

  13. Characteristics of natural gas lean combustion through the compression of quiescent charge in a rapid compression combustor; Kyusoku asshuku nensho sochinai seishi yokongoki asshuku ni okeru tennen gas no kihaku nensho tokusei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kataoka, K. [Okayama University of Science, Okayama (Japan); Segawa, D.; Kadota, T.; Hirooka, S. [University of Osaka Prefecture, Osaka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Higashino, K. [Osaka Gas Co. Ltd., Osaka (Japan)

    1997-04-25

    In order to develop a natural gas fueled spark ignition engine with high thermal efficiency and clean exhaust gases, combustion characteristics of natural gas and air mixtures were examined using a rapid compression combustor. We concentrated on lean mixtures because of their potential for high efficiency and low pollutant emissions. To elucidate the effect of compression-induced physical aspects on the combustion process, the charge was kept quiescent before the start of the compression process. The results showed that an increased charge pressure increased the time required for combustion. A high compression ratio or piston speed tended to shorten the combustion time, but their effects were rather weak. An increased humidity in mixtures measurably increased the combustion time. The stratified charge, which was examined using the soap bubble method, markedly improved the combustion process of lean mixtures. 7 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Propagation of shock waves in dilute bubbly liquids. 4th Report. Comparison between theory and experiment for a uniform bubbly mixture; Kihoryuchu ni okeru shogekiha no denpa. 4. Kin`itsu kiho bunpuji no jikken to riron tono hikaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kameda, M.; Shimaura, N.; Higashino, F. [Tokyo Univ. of Agriculture and Technology, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Technology; Matsumoto, Y. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-07-25

    Transient shock wave phenomena in a liquid containing non-condensable gas bubbles are studied experimentally and numerically. In order to obtain a uniform spatial distribution of bubbles experimentally, an upwardly directed bubbly flow, whose initial gas volume fraction is 0.2%, is generated in a shock tube. The liquid used is silicone oil. Nitrogen, argon, and SF6 gas bubbles are tested to show the thermal effects of the bubble interior. The transient pressure profiles determined in the experiments for the upwardly bubbly flow agree well quantitatively with those obtained by numerical calculation using a uniform spatial distribution of bubbles. Since the thermal diffusivity of SF6 is much lower than that of nitrogen and argon, the damping on the radial oscillation of the SF6 bubble is mainly due to the compressibility of the liquid. Thus, the radial motion of the bubble should be estimated by solving an equation in which the liquid compressibility is taken into account. 12 refs., 10 figs.

  15. Study on heat collector of the solar system utilizing outdoor air. Experimental results in cases of cold and warm regions; Gaiki donyushiki solar system no shunetsubu ni kansuru kenkyu. Kanreichi to ondanchi ni okeru shunetsu jikken to kosatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komano, S.; Ebara, Y. [OM Solar Association, Shizuoka (Japan); Wada, H. [Wada Building Constructors Co. Ltd., Hokkaido (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    An experiment on heat collection was made in the heat collector of a solar system utilizing outdoor air in cold and warm regions. In this system, outdoor air is heated by the air circulation layer on the roof exposed to solar radiation. The heated air is supplied to the object space for heating and ventilation. In the experiment in a cold region, the heat collection characteristics can be adjusted by putting a baffle plate in the air duct according to the experiment of a glass heat collector. The heat collecting air layer on only the iron roof may leak or freeze in the region subject to coldness or heavy snowfall. Therefore, preheat forms the space of a garret, and the preheat temperature comparatively becomes low. The data in which the heat collection characteristics can be adjusted using only a glass heat collector is required corresponding to the regional situation. In the experiment in a warm region, an experiment was made inclusive of the preheat for which outdoor air is absorbed at the eaves. As a result, the heat collection characteristics of preheat were improved. Moreover, a heat collection temperature of about 60{degree}C was obtained on the heat collection surface including the preheat. 1 ref., 12 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. Case building for the global environment era. Part 1. Introduction of household cogeneration system into HUD building; Chikyu kankyo jidai e mukete no tatemonorei. 1. Kodan jutaku ni okeru jutaku cogeneration donyu no kokoromi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Negishi, T. [Housing and Urban Development Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-01-05

    A household cogeneration system is described, to be introduced into an HUD (Housing and Urban Development Corporation) skyscraper, a leading-edge environmental coexistence type of the corporation with 40 stories above ground and one below, total floorage 55,681{sup 2}m, accommodating 462 residences. The energy consumption under the maximum load is approximately 6723MJ/h for cooling, 5379MJ/h for heating, 4613MJ/h for hot water supply, or 1009kW in wattage. The cogeneration system is to have two 100kW city gas engine generators, whose output will be supplied only to common use facilities and heat source rooms in the high-rise building, for corridor lighting, elevators, and pumping. Heat in the gas engine exhaust and waste cooling water is recovered and utilized for hot water supply and heating for the individual residences. Simulation results show that there is an approximately 7.2% saving on energy and, relative to environmental protection, a reduction in CO2 emission of approximately 9% a year. 2 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Stratigraphy and eruption ages of deposits at the southeast side of Nishiyama volcano, Hachijo island during the last 2,500 years; Hachijojima, Nishiyama kazan nantoroku ni okeru saikin 2,500 nenkan no funshutsubutsu no sojo to funka nendai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugihara, S.; Shimada, S. [Meiji University, Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-10-25

    The Nishiyama volcano of the Hachijo island is a stratovolcano whose volcanic activity started approximately 10,000 years ago. Among the lateral volcanos surrounding the cone-shaped mountain, there is a Kandoyama tuff cone formed by a phreatomagmatic eruption at the southeastern base of the Nishiyama volcano. It is known that Kandoyama`s latest eruption is not older than 4,000 years. In this report, the stratigraphy of eruptive deposits and the types of eruptions involving Nishiyama after Kandoyama formation are clarified. Also, the history of Nishiyama` eruption is discussed, for which a study is made about the stratigraphic relationship between its eruption and the results of {sup 14}C dating or the eruption remainders, corresponding terrestrial episodes recorded in ancient literature usable for eruption dating, etc. The conclusion is summarized below. The eruptive deposits are to be supposedly dated at a period after the completion of caldera aggradation. At the southeastern base of Nishiyama, the eruption of 1605 is to immediately follow the eruption of approximately 1,100 years ago, and no eruption so active as to cause the outflow of lava is noticed therebetween. It is inferred that the Nishiyama volcano erupts once in a period of 300-700 years. 44 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. General report on investigations of fault, earthquake motion and damage due to the 1995 Hyogoken-nanbu Earthquake; 1995 nen Hyogoken nanbu jishin ni okeru danso, jishindo, higai ni kansuru chosa kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    Compiled herein are the results of various investigations and examinations conducted concerning the 1995 Hyogoken-nambu earthquake. Along the boundary surface between the granite and Osaka group, and in the Osaka group, accumulated displacements and flexural structures are found, supposedly attributable to faulting, by high-density electric prospecting and underground radar prospecting near the Nojima earthquake fault. Displaced structures in the unconsolidated covering layer are detected to the depth of 10-odd meters. Displacement of ground water due to earthquake is different between the shallow and deep layers, which can be explained by a simplified model. The dynamic stress drop in the main shock is equal to the maximum ({Delta}{gamma}) value of each of the aftershocks, and there exists a certain ceiling over the {Delta}{gamma}dependence on the earthquake moment. The maximum acceleration of the earthquake motion estimated from waveforms in the rock is approximately 300 gals, which probably results from the concentration in one direction of the inputted energy wherein long period components are dominant. The newly developed nonlinear analysis technique simulates the attenuation and amplification of acceleration accompanied by liquefaction, and the buckling behavior of bridge columns may be explained by this technique. 72 refs., 84 figs., 6 tabs.

  19. Solute element distribution and carbide formation in Ni-base superalloys fabricated by rheocasting. Kaiten kakuhan gyokoshita Ni ki chogokin ni okeru yoshitsu genso no bunpu to tankabutsu seisei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okazaki, Y.; Ichikawa, K. (Mechanical Engineering Laboratory, Tsukuba (Japan)); Matsuo, M. (Nippon Steel Corp., Tokyo (Japan))

    1991-07-20

    An attention has begun being given on a method for manufacturing highly ductile metallic materials by means of mechanically stirring the materials in solid-liquid coexisting region and uniformly micronizing the structure. This study discussed effects of the rotation stirring on the microstructures, distribution of solute elements, carbide formation, phosphorous segregation and solid-liquid distribution coefficients in the Ni-base superalloy TMP-3. The results obtained may be summarized as: In the agitated structural material stirred at 70 rev/s in the solid-liquid coexisting region, the dendrite structure was broken up and equiaxed grain structure with the primary solid particle size of 65{plus minus}15{mu}m was formed; the element distribution of Ni, Cr, Co, Al, Ti, Mo, Nb, and W showed no noticeable difference by positions in the structure; the size of{gamma}{prime} phase precipitated on crystal boundaries decreases when cast by rheocasting than when cast stationarily; and the carbides of Nb, Ti and Mo precipitate uniformly along grain boundaries, different from that they precipitate in a plate form in stationary casting. 19 refs., 13 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. Roles of calcareous nannofossil in petroleum exploration. Its usefulness for biostratigraphy, sequence stratigraphy and paleoceanography; Sekiyu tanko ni okeru sekitanshitsu nanno kaseki no yakuwari. Sono seiso jogaku, sequence so jogaku oyobi kokaiyogakuteki yukosei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiramatsu, C. [Japan Petroleum Exploration Corp., Musashino, Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-05-01

    Conventionally, stratigraphy of oil field area of East-northern Japan Sea side was decided and used by foraminifer fossils. Foraminifer fossils analysis has various types of benefits not only from the aspect of rich in data, easy available of data at the exploration site, promptness, formation sequence decision but also from the point of view of wider application area such as estimation of paleo-environment using bottom species and so forth, and even at present, it covers the most important position in the fine fossil analysis of well samples. Research of calcareous nannofossil of East-northern coast region of the Japan Sea has been promoted rapidly since the beginning of 1980`s, and its effectiveness for the detail determination of stratigraphy age has been stressed. According to this research findings, quaternary section will be possible with contrast of about 10,000 order by using calcareous nannofossil base. In this report, simple introduction of the application of calcareous nannofossil stratigraphy to oil exploration in the same region together with the role of calcareous nannofossil in the oil exploration, are described. 29 refs., 8 figs.

  1. Study on the performances of handling and stability influenced by the differential terms in the state variables; Soansei ni okeru jotai hensunai no bibun yoso ga seino ni oyobosu eikyo no kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugasawa, F. [Tamagawa University, Tokyo (Japan); Mori, H. [Nissan Motor Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    The analysis method using the system matrix for state variables can not be applied to the analysis for the system has Complex Cornering Stiffness. The reason is there are differential terms in the state variables. It is found that the differential terms m the state variables can be changed to the constant terms in another state variables. 4 refs., 9 figs.

  2. Combustion characteristics of spark ignition and pilot flame ignition systems in a stratified charge Wankel type rotary engine; Sojo kyuki bankerugata rotary kikan ni okeru spark plug tenka to pilot kaen tenka ni yoru nensho tokusei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Y.; Moriyoshi, Y.; Wada, Y. [Chiba University, Chiba (Japan); Muroki, T. [Kanagawa Institute of Technology, Kanagawa (Japan)

    1998-05-25

    A pilot flame ignition system, which has superior characteristics in the high ignition energy and the large flame contact area to a conventional spark ignition system, is experimentally examined by the indicated pressure analysis and the high speed direct photography. A model combustion chamber, which simulates a Wankel-type direct injection stratified charge rotary engine, was employed to test the ignition performance of both the pilot flame ignition and spark ignition systems. As a result, it was found that the pilot flame system successfully ignites the very lean charge stratified mixture which the spark system fails to ignite and that the combustion characteristic difference using different ignition systems becomes small as the overall equivalence ratio is increased. 6 refs., 15 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Stabilizing control of continuous DTB crystallizer. Influence of undissolved fine crystals in external heater; DTB gata renzoku shosekiki no anteika seigyo. Gaibu kanetsuki ni okeru bisho kessho tokenokori no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naito, Kiyoshi; Sotowa, Ken' ichi; Kano, Manabu; Hasebe, Shinji; Hashimoto, Iori [Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1999-01-10

    In the study of modeling and control of continuous DTB crystallizers, it has been common practice to assume complete dissolution of fine crystals in an external heater (fines dissolver). However, complete dissolution of fine crystals is not always guaranteed because the dissolution rate is finite. In this work, a model of an external heater is developed by taking account of the finite dissolution rate of the crystals. The model is used to study the influence of incomplete dissolution of fine crystals on the stabilizing control of the crystal size distribution (CSD). It is found to be difficult to suppress the sustained oscillation of CSD by using the conventional SISO controllers, which regulate the amount of fines crystals by manipulating the fines flow rate. This is because when the fines flow rate is very large, an increase in the fines flow rate can reduce the amount of crystal dissolution in the external heater. It is demonstrated that instability can be avoided by imposing an upper limit on the fines flow rate. Furthermore, it is shown that the upper limit can be predicted by using the results of open-loop simulation. (author)

  4. Relationship between the electric resistivity and the rain fall in discontinuity zone of rock slope by the continuous measurement; Renzoku tokei ni yoru ganban shamen no furenzokutaibu ni okeru mikake hiteiko henka to kou tono kankei ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kusumi, H.; Nishida, K. [Kansai University, Osaka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Nakamura, M. [Newjec Inc., Osaka (Japan)

    1996-10-01

    The relationship between change in resistivity and rainfall was studied by continuously measuring resistivities of fracture zone and stratum boundary along the measuring line of 95m long from the top to bottom of rock slope. The measurement field was located on a hill of 150-200m high at the northern part of Arima-Takatsuki tectonic line. Electrodes of 30m in maximum measuring depth were arranged at 289 points by dipole-dipole method. Resistivity was continuously measured at time intervals of 6 hours. Apparent resistivity was hardly affected by rainfall at points with less infiltration of stormwater from the ground surface, while it decreased by rainfall at points on fracture zone, stratum boundary or bleeding channel. The change rate of apparent resistivity could be approximated with the exponential function of rainfall. In such case, the apparent resistivity under most dried condition at the concerned point should be used as reference maximum apparent resistivity. The change rate of apparent resistivity due to rainfall in fracture zone reflects infiltration of stormwater, suggesting to be useful for disaster prevention of slopes. 5 refs., 6 figs.

  5. Utilization of two-way multicore cables and comparison of various electrode configurations in electrical prospecting; Denki tansa ni okeru sohokogata tashin cable no riyo to kakushu dekyoku haichi no hikaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takakura, S. [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan); Matsushima, J. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-10-01

    For more precise electrical prospecting, the new multicore cable was developed to allow high-density measurement by conventional equipment. Since conventional multicore cables are inferior in cost, length and weight, the new cable is composed of an n-conductor cable, two n-conductor male connectors and n lead wires. For connection of the multi-conductor cable and lead wires, cable sheath is peeled at n points at specific intervals. Sheath of the k-th conductor is peeled at k-th point from the terminal, and restored for insulation after connection of the conductor and lead wire. The male connectors are attached to the both ends of the multi-conductor cable. Since this two-way type cable can be used at every end, the measuring equipment can measure at one divisional point after another of a long measuring line while shifting the equipment from one point to another. All measurements are perfected only with two short cables. Resistivities were successfully measured along the long measuring line of 480m long with 97 electrodes arranged at intervals of 5m. Various electrode configurations were also compared. 1 ref., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Baseline experiment of interferometric PGS at the EDM network in the south Kanto area, Japan. GPS kansho sokuiho ni yoru kisen sokuryo no kiso jikken (Minamikanto koha sokuryomo ni okeru hikaku kansoku)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, T.; Murata, I.; Matsumoto, S.; Hirata, Y.; Takahashi, T. (The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Earthquake Research Institute); Tsuchiya, A. (National Space Development Agency of Japan, Tokyo (Japan)); Watada, S. (California Institute of Technology, California (USA)); Iga, A. (Sony Corp., Tokyo (Japan))

    1991-11-25

    The first field baseline observation using SONY GTT-4000, a GPS (Global Positioning System) interferometer was conducted at the EDM (Electromagnetic Distance Measurements) network of the Earthquake Research Institute in the southern Kanto Area, Japan. For the experiments, three GTT-4000 receivers of single frequency version were deployed at three sites which compose a triangle with side distances of about 8km, 12km, and 14km. The present paper introduces the receiver briefly, and the distances obtained by this receiver are compared with those obtained by the EDM observations. Consequently, it was shown that the results by GTT-4000 coincided well with those by EDM with less than 2ppm of accuracy. It was also shown that misclosures of the triangle which was obtained by the relative coordinate estimates were smaller than 1ppm. Furthermore, it was revealed that due to introduction of upgraded dual frequency capability, the receiver can reduce the effect of the ionospheric path delays. 5 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Measurements of fiber orientation in two-dimensional fiber suspension flow using image-processing method; Gazo shoriho ni yoru sen`i gan`yutai no nijigen nagare ni okeru sen`i haiko no sokutei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chono, S.; Tanoue, S.; Iemoto, Y. [Fukui University, Fukui (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1998-10-25

    Orientation profiles of fibers in fiber suspension flow between two parallel plates with a square cylinder on the center axis was studied by using the computer image analysis. The orientational order parameter S decreases near the square cylinder because the flow changes its direction and also a wake is developed, while it is large near the channel wall owing to high shear deformation. The preferred angle and S decrease in the downstream vicinity of the square cylinder, and reach fully-developed values at a farther area. S along the channel center axis increases with increasing a fiber concentration and the Reynolds number. The size of a square cylinder has an effect on the fiber orientation near the cylinder. Since a stagnation region and a large wake are developed before and after a cylinder for a viscoelastic fluid, a lower value of S near the cylinder is obtained for the viscoelastic fluid compared to that for a Newtonian fluid. At a downstream area, however, the viscoelastic fluid gives a higher values of S. 21 refs., 14 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Self-rehealing characteristics of a sodium current limiter and its over current coordination for low voltage distribution systems; Natoriumu (Na) genryu soshi no jiko fukkyu tokusei to teiatsu haiden kairo oyo ni okeru kadenryu kyocho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wada, Y.; Hamano, S.; Mori, T. [Mitsubishi Electric Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-07-20

    As one of the short circuits protection techniques in a power circuit, there is a technique called the current-limiting breaking. When a short circuit current commences to flow after a short circuit occurs, this technique limits and breaks this current under a certain value by some measures before this current reaches to the crest value. There is a current-limiting fuse in the best known one as a functional element doing the current-limiting breaking. However in case of a current-limiting fuse, when an element is fused off, because a current can not be flowed, it has to be replaced. As a new element to eliminate this defect and moreover with a current-limiting function, a self-rehealing type current-limiting element possessing the alkaline metal, Na as an element has been developed. In this report, as for this element called Na current-limiting element, together with elucidating a rehealing process after the current-limiting action experimentally in detail, an overcurrent coordination is investigated when this element is applied to a main circuit of the control center, which is one of the low voltage distribution systems. 5 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Statistical analysis on locality in rental housing. Situation of Bandung, Medan and Ujung Pandang in Indonesia; Indonesia chiho toshi ni okeru chintai jutaku jijo no chiikisa. Bandung(Jawato), Medan(Sumatorato), Ujungpandang(Suraueshito) wo rei to shite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasegawa, H. [Ministry of Construction, Tokyo (Japan). Building Research Inst.; Ishizaka, K. [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan)

    1998-06-30

    The locality in rental housing situation in provincial cities, Bandung (Java), Medan (Sumatra) and Ujung Pandang (Sulawesi) in Indonesia is clarified statistically based on fact-finding survey on condition of present and former housing, evaluation of present housing, improvement plan on housing and other items by questionnaire. The result shows that there is clear locality of physical conditions of rental housing among these three cities. Bandung shows locality based on urbanization as of Jakarta metropolitan area in smaller size, nuclear family and equipment level. Medan and Ujung Pandang shows locality based on specific character of the region such as large rental housing in Medan and provision of rental housing using ground floor level of traditional elevated floor houses in Ujung Pandang. Families in Medan and Ujung Pandang are generally extended families including brothers, sisters or relatives in addition to nuclear families, Consequently, is concluded that the construction of rental housing policy in Indonesia requires consideration of local characteristics. 7 refs., 11 figs., 5 tabs.

  10. Study on a wire grasping system for construction works in the electric supply utilizing a visual feedback technique. Visual feedback shuho-wo riyoshita haidensen koji ni okeru densen haaku system ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagata, T.; Eto, J.; Zhang, H.; Kimuro, Y.; Okada, N. (Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering); Yuki, M. (The Kyushu Electric Power Co. Inc., Fukuoka (Japan))

    1992-01-30

    Report is made of an automatic wire grasping system studied by applying an image processing method to it. Together with its concept and aspect, explanation is made of a method to process the image in each of the manual mode and auto mide, and control the manipulator. From a small CCD camera fitted to the finger end of manipulator, the image information is put in the computer through an image processor. The locative determination for the wire to be grasped can have the manipulator automatically shifted and located proper to grasp the wire. For the image processing in the auto mode, a linear equation was automatically detected of objective wire as per the image data put therein. Though experimentally fitted at the finger end of manipulator, the CCD camera requires a fitting of fiberscope at its end or other engineered method to take the image data therein against the insulation properties on the site. 4 refs., 16 figs.

  11. FY 1997 report of survey on the intellectual property in international collaboration research project; 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho (kokusai kyodo kenkyu ni okeru chiteki zaisanken ni tsuite no chosa hokokusho)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    In promoting international collaboration research project, coordination of the patent system of each country which participants to the project belong to has broad implications in concluding the contract for the project. For example, in Japan, 100% of the patent belongs to the government for contrast or collaboration project with the government. While, in the USA, the patent developed by the private company belongs to the private company even for the contrast project. In Japan, the shared patent can not be transferred to the third party or implemented without agreement with the partner. While, in the USA, the shared patent can be transferred to the third party or implemented without agreement with the partner. Due to such a difference, some projects can not be established by ill coordination of intellectual property even when the meaning of the projects is well understood. In this survey, was investigated the outline of patent systems of major countries to study about what should well balanced treatment of intellectual property in international collaboration research project be in the future. 4 figs., 8 tabs.

  12. Research and survey report of FY 1997 on the CO2 balance for high-temperature CO2 fixation and utilization technology; 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho (nisanka tanso koon bunri gijutsu ni okeru CO2 balance ni kansuru chosa kenkyu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The purpose of this research is to clarify the application condition and effectiveness of high-temperature CO2 fixation and utilization technology. To evaluate the present process, it was compared with others, such as separation using a polymer membrane, physico-chemical absorption process, adsorption process, hydrogen contact reduction process, and biological fixation. The development trends of absorption, membrane, adsorption, and cryogenic separation were investigated. The questionnaire was carried out about the separation technologies which are in the stage of performance test using actual gas, to arrange and compare the data and information. The current trends of chemical and biological CO2 fixation and utilization technology were also investigated for arranging the subjects. High-temperature CO2 disposal by the carbonation in concrete waste has been studied, to clarify its application conditions and effectiveness. In order to compare the separation technologies, treatment processes of CO2 in the exhaust gas from boilers of LNG power generation and coal fired power generation were simulated. These processes were simulated by ASPEN PLUS for the modeling. Trends of application of ASPEN PLUS and collection of information were surveyed by participating in the ASPEN WORLD. 103 refs., 51 figs., 55 tabs.

  13. Actual conditions of energy management in office buildings; Results of quetionaire inquiry about load leveling. Gyomu yo biru ni okeru energy kanri no jittai ni tsuite; Fuka heijunka ni kakawaru anketo chosa kekka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okubo, Katsuhiko (The Inst. of Applied Energy, Tokyo, (Japan))

    1989-07-20

    The electric power demand in Japan is increasing, and it is expected that annual load factor shows decreasing tendency. All electric power companies endeavor to improve load leveling than as it was, and intend to introduce direct saving system to control the loading equipments of consumers as well as indirect control such as midnight power system. Therefore, quetionaire inquiry about this new system was made for business power consumers in which power there are much difference in consumed power between day and night and much efficacy for power saving. As the results of the inquiry, it was understood that equipment of automatic or remote control for loading equipments were already introduced by many consumers and adoption of airconditioners controlled at every floor or every room is increased. So, about the control of the equipments in cosumers a method is also required so that electric power companies shall control the maximum demand by consumers and selection of control equipments are left on consumers' decision and judgment, and it is considered to be important that control by electric power companies shall not only turn on or off switchs but also realize convenience and economy of consumers. 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. Introduction effect of a load levelling system in an electric power system with a photovoltaic and wind system; Taiyoko/furyoku hatsuden wo donyu shita denryoku keito ni okeru fuka heijunka shisutemu no donyu koka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenmoku, Y.; Sakakibara, T. [Toyohashi University of Technology, Aichi (Japan); Nakagawa, S. [Maizuru College of Technology, Kyoto (Japan); Kawamoto, T. [Shizuoka University, Shizuoka (Japan)

    1998-12-05

    Introduction effect of load levelling system by a battery in an electric power system by a battery in an electric power system with a PV and wind system is investigated. Charge and discharge power of the battery are determined from a load curve and every hour data of PV and wind output. Annual cost of the power system is calculated from the generating power and the capacity of each source via the installed utility capacity and the capacity factor. It is found that (1) the battery system reduces the maximum demand and improves the load factor, (2) the cost effect of the battery system when introducing the PV system is higher than that when introducing the wind system. (author)

  15. Future vision of advanced telecommunication networks on electronic utilities. Part 1. Present and subjects of utility telecommunication network; Denki jigyo ni okeru joho tsushin network no shirai vision. 1. Joho tsushin network no genjo to kadai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakaki, S.; Manabe, S.; Ono, K.; Kawai, Y.; Miki, Y. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-04-01

    It is predicted that there will be many changes in environment of electric utilities such as expansion of electric power demand, spread of distributed power sources, and changes in market structures due to deregulation. As a first step to think about future telecommunication networks which respond to these changes and adopt technical innovation of telecommunication, present conditions and problems of the current utility telecommunication network are outlined. The utility telecommunication is characterized by high reliability and existence of the information that requires strict transmission delay restriction. The following points are given as the future subjects: although most utility telecommunication networks currently consist of leased lines, they have to be changed to the switched networks for diversifying telecommunication service. It should be considered that the leased line network, which has a hierarchical structure based on a geographical extent, will have a hierarchical structure that is able to correspond to the future telecommunication service. It is better for the current individual loop shape with dual telecommunication circuits to be changed into the overall link shape. In introducing the ATM transmission to improve the path efficiency, it is a premise to secure reliability. 8 refs., 7 figs., 7 tabs.

  16. Recent exploration and production technologies on natural gas; 20 seiki ni okeru tennengasu kaihatsu gijutsu no henkan. Tanko oyobi kaihatsu {center_dot} seisan gijutsu no gaiyo to sono suii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tada, Y. [Japan National Oil Corp., Tokyo (Japan). Natural Gas and Project Planning Dept.

    2000-03-20

    New diplomatic policies based on energy diversification and multinational cooperation, the rapid growth of economic development and energy demand, and the social consideration of preventing environmental pollution (such as CO{sup 2} emissions, acid rain, destruction of the ozone layer and global warming) have caused the utilization of natural gas resources to become the new energy trend. Exploration and production technologies for natural gas are basically very similar to those for crude oil. They also consist of various relevant technical aspects such as gravity survey, seismic survey, logging, well drilling, reservoir simulation, field development planning and production monitoring. Additionally, the oil and gas industry has been continuously making efforts to resolve various technical issues and improve its performance and efficiency. For the past ten years, as the result of these tremendous and ceaseless efforts, we have obtained various innovations and reduced risks and costs. Furthermore, new natural gas utilization technologies such as GTL (Gas to liquid), DME(Di-methyl ether), fuel cell and hythane are now under development and moreover, it's expected that the utilization of natural gas resources will further increase. This paper briefly explains the outline of exploration and production technologies applied to natural gas in the world. (author)

  17. Fiscal 1999 report on basic research for promotion of joint implementation programs. Research on collection and utilization of coal mine methane gas in Russia (Kuznetsk coal field); Russia (Kuznetsk tanden) ni okeru tanko methane gas kaishu riyo chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    The above-mentioned effort is to comply with the COP3 (Third Session of the Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change) joint implementation clause. At this coal field, mining facilities are growing superannuated and obsolescent in the prolonged business depression, causing frequent occurrence of disasters such as gas explosions. The coal mine gas collection rate at the Kuznetsk coal field is as low as 17%, with concern for safety discouraging sufficient collection. Even the small amount of the collected gas is, in the absence of gas utilizing facilities, totally discharged into the air. For the mitigation of global warming, for mining safety, and for the establishment of a foundation for business, it is desired that coal mine methane gas collection/utilization facilities and related technologies be introduced into the coal field. Gas purging from the pits is incomplete, which is attributed to the lack of equipment capable of excavating proper-diameter bores longer than 100m for longwall mining. Ventilation also needs improvement. The research is under way on the premise that highly reliable intermediate range (300m) boring equipment and gas management technologies will be available. Collection of gas of a 30-35% concentration level at a collection rate of 40% is the target. (NEDO)

  18. Research report for fiscal 1998 on the basic research on the promotion of joint implementation and so forth. Coalbed methane collection and utilization project in China; 1998 nendo Chugoku ni okeru tanko methane gas kaishu riyo project chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    China is surveyed for promotion of joint implementation, which is one of the flexibility measures in the Kyoto Protocol, the Third Session of the Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. The project aims to collect methane for global warming suppression and to use it as town gas and for power generation as well. The survey covers the 2 coalfields of Yangquan and Panjiang. The Yangquan coalfield is the largest anthracite yielding base in China, with 6 mines in operation. Power generation centering on a 100MW plant is discussed, and generation fired by a mixture of debris out of the coal preparation facility and gas is compared with another fired by town gas, on the assumption that 130-million m{sup 3} is available under the current circumstances. In the case of the Panjiang coalfield, which is expected to develop into a large coal base in the southern part of China, power generation centering on a 50MW plant fired by a mixture of debris and gas is discussed, on the assumption that 63-million m{sup 3} is collectable from the existing 5 mines. Use of town gas is also studied. When Japan's coalbed methane collection technology is applied, the gas drainage rate will be elevated to 40-35% or higher. It is desired that the use of gas drainage will be further diffused for the prevention of disasters of coal mine gas explosion. It is hoped that the use of environmentally friendly energies will be enhanced. (NEDO)

  19. Future trends in coal mining technology at Ikeshima Colliery. Mainly, setup and actual results of high-speed man riding train; Ikeshima Tanko ni okeru tanko gijutsu no doko. Toku ni kosoku jinsha no donyu to jisseki ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiromoto, K.; Irie, T.; Murakami, M. [Matsushima Coal Mining Co. Ltd., Fukuoka (Japan); Takahashi, K. [The Coal Mining Research Center, Japan, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-25

    This paper describes the introduction of high-speed man riding train at Ikeshima Coal Mine. The production area is below the sea bottom in the southern offshore of the Ikeshima Island. With increasing the depth of production faces, it is significant for the insurance of operation time to enhance the intensive and highly efficient transportation system and to reduce the transportation and movement time. A high-speed man riding train has been introduced as a transportation system for workers. It is operated in the base gallery at the -650 m level from No. 1 train stop to southern train stop with a distance of 5477 m. It is operated at the maximum speed of 50 km/h, and the single transportation time can be reduced from 18 to 12 minutes. Construction was started in 1995, and practical operation was started in November 1996. Various technical problems were solved concerning the high-speed operation, advanced management of tracks, and monitor and control of operation conditions and a signal system. This system was named as `Goddess-Jikai` which has been operated 19 times a day in the running interval with a return way of 11 km. It has been safely and comfortably operated in a total distance of 33700 km by the end of May 1997. Oscillation is measured by the continuous oscillation monitoring system, and track management is enhanced using a track inspection train. Future high-speed safe operation is expected. 6 figs., 6 tabs.

  20. On the households of same family name and occupation. At old map in Hirato on 1792; Doi setai ni okeru dosei and dogyo setai. Hirato rokuchozu {center_dot} kansei 4 nen (1792)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kojina, Kyoji; Iida, Toshihiko; Oya, Maki

    1999-09-01

    There were 79 lodging households at Hirato on 1792; 79 combinations of the main household and the sub household, and so there were 29 combinations of same family name, 27 combinations of same occupation. Then the households of same family name and same occupation were only 13 pairs. These 13 pairs were following, the teams of Daylaborer were 4, the team of Daylaborer were 4, the teams of Carpenter were 3, the teams of Dyer were 2, the teams of Wooden Bucket Maker were 2, the team of Ship wright and Noodle was both one. So on the rest households of same family name, the main household of Unemployed were 7 teams, the same teams of Wholesaler were 3, the same teams of the Dyer were 2, and single-team were 4, total 16. The teams of the main household of Unemployed were divided in four groups, 1st combinations were three samples with Daylaborer and 2nd were two samples with Carpenter, so one simple with Blacksmith and Dry-Cake Maker. The teams of the main household whose occupation was Wholesaler were two combinations with Unemployed and one combination with Unknown. The teams of the main house-hold whose occupation was Dyer were one with Unemployed and another with Dyer-Apprentice. Four single-teams were Fishmongers with Unemployed, Citrus Fruits with Daylaborer, Shether with Worker in metal and Daylaborer with Blacksmith. Then on the occupations of lodging households, Daylaborers were 18 households, Unemployeds were 16 households, Carpenters were 8 households, Wooden-Bucket Makerws and Dyers and Fish Street-Salers were each three households and so. On the main households of lodging households, Unemployeds were 13 households, Daylaborers were 11 households, Carpenters and Dyers both were six households, Haberdasherys and Fishmongers both were four households and so. At the cases of same occupation in the combination of the main and the sub household, Daylaborers were 8 teams which located in five towns except two towns. Carpenters were five teams which located in only 'Shokunin-machi', Fish Street-salers were three teams which located in 'Sakikata-machi' and 'Uodana-machi'. The others located each in only one town. On 4th Job there were total five cases, on the three cases main job was Wholesaler and on the rest cases was Pawn Shop and Malt Syrup Shop. The sets of main Job was Wholesaler, the 2nd Oil Dealer, the 3rd Miso-Shoyu and the 4th Rice Shop were two. The rest set was main Job Wholesaler, the 2nd Job Malted Rice Shop, the 3rd Job Miso-Shoyu and the 4th Job Notion. The next case of the main Job was Pawn Shop, the 2nd Oil Dealer, the 3rd Miso-Shoyu and the 4th Dyer. The other case the main Job was Malt Syrup Shop, the 2nd Job Malted Rice Shop, the 3rd Job Tobacco Shop and the 4th Job Rice Shop. (author)