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Sample records for oily water separating

  1. On the use of ultrafiltration membranes in oily water separators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tremblay, A.Y.; Nottegar, M. [Ottawa Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Veinot, D.E. [Defence Research Establishment Atlantic, Halifax, NS (Canada)

    2000-07-01

    Laboratory studies were conducted on the use of ultrafiltration membranes for oil water purification from ships bilges. Bilge water is a complex and highly variable mixture of several components such as seawater, lubricating oil, greases, marine diesel fuel, hydraulic oil, detergents, metal oxides, corrosion inhibitors, asbestos and other wastes. This laboratory study examined the performance of ultrafiltration membranes when separating oily waste water of similar composition to that of bilge water. Ultrafiltration membranes are nanoporous materials produced from ceramic, polymeric or metallic substrates. The ability of the membrane to retain macromolecules, colloids, sub-micron particles and oil emulsions depends on the size of the nanopores. The best results in this study occurred when upper and lower bounds on the membrane pore size were found to exist. It was determined that ultrafiltration is a viable separation process for the treatment of bilge water for compliance with overboard discharge regulations. 7 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs.

  2. The development of membrane based high purity oily water separators for use in Arctic waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, H.; Tremblay, A.Y. [Ottawa Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Industrial Membrane Centre; Veinot, D.E. [Defence Research and Development Canada, Halifax, NS (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    With increased exploration and industrial activity in the Canadian Arctic, interest in the Northwest Passage as a shipping route has also increased. The oily wastewater produced by ships must be treated prior to discharge, particularly in the sensitive Arctic environment where biodegradation of organics is very slow due to cold climatic conditions and low sunlight. As such, safe techniques are needed for the treatment of oily wastewater released from ships. However, bilge water is difficult to treat because it contains seawater, particulates, used oils and detergents. Membrane based oily water separators (OWS) are considered to be a key technology for the treatment of bilge water onboard ships. The issues that must be taken into account in the ship-born use of membrane based OWS include the proper treatment of the oily brine before discharge; the substantial reduction in volume that is required; the complexity of the technology; labour associated with the operation of the system due to filter changes and cleaning; and, system automation to simplify its operation. In this study, a membrane-based process for treating bilge water was developed to meet stringent discharge regulations for discharge in Arctic waters. Currently, this discharge limit is set at 0 ppm. A pilot scale membrane cascade system was designed and evaluated. Multilumen ceramic membranes were used in the first stage and Sepa{sup R} test cells were used in the second stage. Optimal membrane pore size was determined. The study investigated the separation of oil and grease using different molecular weight cut-off (MWCO) membranes. The study revealed that through proper membrane design, it is possible to remove oil and grease from bilge water to a level permitting its discharge to Arctic waters. However, it was recommended that low level aromatic diesel fuels be used in ships operating in Arctic waters since the presence of soluble aromatics in diesel fuel increases the technical difficulty of reaching

  3. Oily Bilgewater Separators

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    11 3.3.4 Flotation ...Flocculation, • Flotation , and • Ultrafiltration . EPA evaluated the effectiveness of bilge separators by their ability to achieve low effluent oil...parameters, suspended solids), metals (arsenic, copper , cadmium, chromium, lead, mercury, selenium and zinc) and organics (benzene, chloroform

  4. Separation efficiency of two waste polymer fibers for oily water treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sokolović Dunja S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This work is concerned with the efficiency of two different waste polymeric materials as the filter media in a laboratory-scale bed coalescer in the horizontal fluid flow mode, operating in a steady-state regime. The applied materials are: waste polyethylene terephthalate from textile industry, BA1 and waste polypropylene from carpet industry, PP. Using these compressible fiber polymeric materials, high bed porosity (up to 98% could be obtained. The investigation was carried out over a wide range of working conditions. Bed permeability was varied in the range from 0.18•10-9 to 5.389•10-9 m2. Operating fluid velocity was varied from 19 to 80 m/h, until the critical velocity was reached. Different oily wastewaters were used in the experiments. Oily wastewater is defined as the oil-inwater emulsion model prepared using mineral oils of different physico-chemical characteristics: crude oil (A from Vojvodina region, two vacuum distillation fractions (A1, A4, and blended petroleum product with a high paraffinic content (P1. Both applied polymeric materials, BA1 and PP, showed high separation efficiency for treatment of all investigated oily wastewater. However, the BA1 material showed higher efficiency in a wider range of bed permeability and physico-chemical characteristics of oil. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172022

  5. Separation of motor oils, oily wastes and hydrocarbons from contaminated water by sorption on chrome shavings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gammoun, A; Tahiri, S; Albizane, A; Azzi, M; Moros, J; Garrigues, S; de la Guardia, M

    2007-06-25

    In this paper, the ability of chrome shavings to remove motor oils, oily wastes and hydrocarbons from water has been studied. To determine amount of hydrocarbons sorbed on tanned wastes, a FT-NIR methodology was used and a multivariate calibration based on partial least squares (PLS) was employed for data treatment. The light density, porous tanned waste granules float on the surface of water and remove hydrocarbons and oil films. Wastes fibers from tannery industry have high sorption capacity. These tanned solid wastes are capable of absorbing many times their weight in oil or hydrocarbons (6.5-7.6g of oil and 6.3g of hydrocarbons per gram of chrome shavings). The removal efficiency of the pollutants from water is complete. The sorption of pollutants is a quasi-instantaneous process.

  6. Aquatek introduces new oily water technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2006-01-01

    Many conventional oily water separators cause clogged filters on marine vessels, which has led some operators to illegally discharge oily wastes into lakes and oceans. This article presented details of a simple and reliable technology to separate chemically emulsified and mechanically suspended oil particles from water. Designed by Newfoundland entrepreneurs and commercialized by Aquatek Environmental Inc., the Aquatek separator does not require membranes or chemicals and can be configured to function without moving parts or external energy. The small size of the separator has made it the subject of considerable interest at marine technology shows. The technology is able to treat highly variable concentrations of oily water without clogging, and works on low oil concentrations as well as fluids consisting of all-free oil. The Aquatek has the ability to separate oil from water as well as water from oil. Tests have indicated that the technology can also be used to treat produced water at oilfields. It was concluded that the separator is a major improvement over other available products. 2 figs

  7. Separation of oily materials in radioactive waste waters by flotation. Determination of operation and control parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortiz O, H.B.; Flores E, R.M.

    2003-01-01

    In this work the determination of the operation and control parameters (air/solids ratio G/S, retention time Θ, pressure P and de pressurized volume of mixed air-water V), of the flotation system used in the treatment of oleaginous residual water (polluted mainly with 60 Co) coming from the decontamination process of worn out oils, using as response parameters the concentration of oleaginous material and the residual turbidity. The obtained results allowed to observe the dependence of G/S with the pressure and volume of air-water given. At the same time it was settled down that the set of operation conditions that offers the greater separation percentage of G As and turbidity in the smallest time, they are those obtained by V 2 = 0.0012 m 3 and P 2 = 620 kPa, (G/S = 0.30 - 0.35, = 14-16 min) for what were employees as the ideal values of operation and control in the flotation system. As long as, the concentration of total Co is found under 1 mgL -1 . Finally, the selected flotation system showed high separation levels of 60 Co, whose specific activity are below of 0.007 BqmL -1 . (Author)

  8. Separation of oily materials in radioactive waste waters by flotation. Flotation kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flores E, R.M.; Ortiz O, H.B.

    2003-01-01

    The rate of separation of oil and total cobalt in the oleaginous residual water previously treated by coagulation/flocculation with a quaternary ammonium amine (25 mgL -1 ) and with modified anionic polyacrylamide (1.5 mgL -1 ) (pH = 7, G 1 = 300 s -1 and G 2 = 30 s -1 ) was determined. The experimental essays to determine the flotation kinetics, its were carried out using as operation and control parameters the air/solids relationship (G/S 0.35), pressure (P =620 kPa) and volume of air-water mixture (V = 37% of V f ), obtained in previous essays, at two different pressure levels and volume of discharged mixture. The kinetic studies of flotation obtained for the flotation system with conventional air dissolved (DAF) its suggest a first order kinetics that it can be represented by the SCC model. At the same time its show that the separation of the present pollutants in the residual water is governed by the removal velocity of the oil. Meanwhile, the concentration of total Co below 1 mgL -1 , on the other hand, the concentration of the 60 Co at the end of the flotation process resulted smaller than 0.008 Bq/ml, as long as the one 54 Mn were not detectable. (Author)

  9. Antimicrobial cotton textiles with robust superhydrophobicity via plasma for oily water separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ming; Pang, Jiuyin; Bao, Wenhui; Zhang, Wenbo; Gao, He; Wang, Chengyu; Shi, Junyou; Li, Jian

    2017-10-01

    During these decades, functional materials are facing the severe challenge of their weak surface structure. To solve this problem, plasma technology and spraying technology were utilized to improve the bonding effect between cotton substrates and coating structures. Herein, silica/silver nanoparticles (SiO2/Ag NPs) were prepared and introduced to the nano-/micro- structures on sample surface by spraying technology in the existence of polyurethane adhesive. Then the circles of spraying procedure containing adhesive and SiO2/Ag NPs had been discussed. After further fluorination, the samples still displayed an excellent waterproof property even after abrasion test with sand paper and various washing test by its solvent-acetone or harsh liquids with strong acidity/alkalinity, indicating their robust surfaces structures. More importantly, this product displayed the outstanding performance no matter in laboratory oil/water filtration or the extensive oil leakage and spill. At last, our modification also endowed the cotton sample with great antimicrobial property.

  10. Porous ceramic membrane with superhydrophobic and superoleophilic surface for reclaiming oil from oily water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Changhong; Xu, Youqian; Zhang, Wei; Liu, Yang; Li, Jun

    2012-01-01

    A porous ceramic tube with superhydrophobic and superoleophilic surface was fabricated by sol-gel and then surface modification with polyurethane-polydimethysiloxane, and an oil-water separator based on the porous ceramic tube was erected to characterize superhydrophobic and superoleophilic surface's separation efficiency and velocity when being used to reclaim oil from oily water and complex oily water containing clay particle. The separator is fit for reclaiming oil from oily water.

  11. Scheme for analysis of oily waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lysyj, I.; Rushworth, R.; Melvold, R.; Russell, E.C.

    1980-01-01

    A scheme is described for gross and detailed chemical characterization of oily waters. Total, suspended, and dissolved organic content and hydrocarbon levels of the sample are determined. Volatile and water-soluble fractions are characterized in greater detail. Lower aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons are separated from the water by nitrogen sparging and are collected in an activated carbon absorption column. They are then extracted into carbon disulfide and analyzed gas chromatographically. The water-soluble fraction is extracted into chloroform or adsorbed on Amberlite XAD type of resin. Class characterization of this fraction is performed using the HPLC procedure. GC-MS-C is used for detailed analysis. The methodology was used for studying the effectiveness of bilge and ballast water treatments.

  12. Enhanced remediation of an oily sludge with saline water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enhanced remediation of an oily sludge with saline water. ... the remediation of an oily sludge, which was part of the waste stream from the improvement ... m3 of fresh water respectively while 'treatment' reactors C and D received ...

  13. Oxidation of oily sludge in supercritical water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui Baochen; Cui Fuyi; Jing Guolin; Xu Shengli; Huo Weijing; Liu Shuzhi

    2009-01-01

    The oxidation of oily sludge in supercritical water is performed in a batch reactor at reaction temperatures between 663 and 723 K, the reaction times between 1 and 10 min and pressure between 23 and 27 MPa. Effect of reaction parameters such as reaction time, temperature, pressure, O 2 excess and initial COD on oxidation of oily sludge is investigated. The results indicate that chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal rate of 92% can be reached in 10 min. COD removal rate increases as the reaction time, temperature and initial COD increase. Pressure and O 2 excess have no remarkable affect on reaction. By taking into account the dependence of reaction rate on COD concentration, a global power-law rate expression was regressed from experimental data. The resulting pre-exponential factor was 8.99 x 10 14 (mol L -1 ) -0.405 s -1 ; the activation energy was 213.13 ± 1.33 kJ/mol; and the reaction order for oily sludge (based on COD) is 1.405. It was concluded that supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) is a rapidly emerging oily sludge processing technology.

  14. Treatment of oily water by flotation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortiz O, H.B.

    2002-01-01

    The operation of the nuclear power plants such as Laguna Verde (CLV) with nuclear reactors of the boiling water type (BWR) produce radioactive waste solids, liquids and gaseous which require of a special treatment in their operation and arrangement. Such is the case of the liquid wastes from CLV which are a mixture of water and synthetic oils coming from leaks and spilling by pressure of maintenance of electro-mechanical equipment associated to the performance of the nuclear power plant. This mixture of water and spent oils is pretreated by means of sedimentation, centrifugation and evaporation. However the realized efforts by the CLV, the spent oil obtained from the pretreatment contains concentrations of radioactive material higher than the tolerance limits established in the normative in force in radiological safety (0.37 Bq m L -1 for 60 Co and 54 Mn). In this context it was necessary to design an efficient treatment system and economically profitable which separates the oil, the heavy metals and the leftovers of radioactive material that could be present in water, with the purpose of fulfil with the Mexican Official Standards corresponding for its unload or even it can reuse it in the wash process of treated oil. The treatment system of oily water waste consists of: a) Coagulation-flocculation, b) Flotation system with modified air dissolved (DAFm). The proposed flotation process allows to reach a higher separation efficiencies of: Concentration of greases and oils: 94.11 %; Turbidity: 98.6 %; 60 Co: 82.3 % ; Co: 94.8 % and Cr: 99.9 % (Author)

  15. Separation of oily materials in radioactive waste waters by flotation. Flotation kinetics; Separacion de materiales oleosos en aguas residuales radiactivas por flotacion. Cinetica de flotacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores E, R M; Ortiz O, H B [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2003-07-01

    The rate of separation of oil and total cobalt in the oleaginous residual water previously treated by coagulation/flocculation with a quaternary ammonium amine (25 mgL{sup -1}) and with modified anionic polyacrylamide (1.5 mgL{sup -1}) (pH = 7, G{sub 1} = 300 s{sup -1} and G{sub 2} = 30 s{sup -1}) was determined. The experimental essays to determine the flotation kinetics, its were carried out using as operation and control parameters the air/solids relationship (G/S 0.35), pressure (P =620 kPa) and volume of air-water mixture (V = 37% of V{sub f}), obtained in previous essays, at two different pressure levels and volume of discharged mixture. The kinetic studies of flotation obtained for the flotation system with conventional air dissolved (DAF) its suggest a first order kinetics that it can be represented by the SCC model. At the same time its show that the separation of the present pollutants in the residual water is governed by the removal velocity of the oil. Meanwhile, the concentration of total Co below 1 mgL{sup -1}, on the other hand, the concentration of the {sup 60} Co at the end of the flotation process resulted smaller than 0.008 Bq/ml, as long as the one {sup 54} Mn were not detectable. (Author)

  16. Use of polymeric resins for removing contaminants from oily waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clarisse, M.D.; Queiros, Y.G.C.; Mauro, A.C.; Lucas, E.F. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Macromoleculas; Barbosa, C.C.R. [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Barbosa, L.C.F.; Louvisse, A.M.T. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES)

    2004-07-01

    Polymeric resins are being tried as an alternative material for treating oily waters from the petroleum industry, which have already been treated by conventional methods. The objective of this work has been to evaluate the purification degree of synthetic oily waters when treated in fixed bed columns packed with polymeric resins made up of hydrophilic and lipophilic moieties. The analysis used for characterizing the total grease and oil content (TOG) was fluorimetry. Starting oily waters of average TOG 40 ppm were prepared. Data obtained from eluted waters did not outweigh 1% of the TOG values of starting solutions. The kinetic study showed that the contaminant removal efficiency depends on the system elution flow rate; optimum removal values were reached at a 7.0 mL/min flow rate. High efficiency and speed in the purification process were obtained at this optimum flow rate. The passage of a water volume 1,000 times the volume of the column bed was not sufficient to observe its saturation level. (author)

  17. TORR system polishes oily water clean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mowers, J.

    2002-01-01

    The TORR (total oil recovery and remediation) system utilizes a specially patented polymer material, similar to styrofoam, which is used to get rid of non-soluble hydrocarbons from water. An application in Fort Smith, Northwest Territories, is described where it was used to recover diesel oil, which had been seeping into the groundwater over a period of 20 years. About 100,000 gallons of heating oil had leached into the water; TORR removed the non-soluble hydrocarbons, while another piece of equipment removed the soluble portions. After treatment the water tested consistently at non-detectable levels and was clean enough to be discharged into the town's sewer system. The system is considered ideal for oil spills clean-up underground, onshore, or the open sea, but it also has many potentially useful applications in industrial and oilfield applications. Water used in steam injection and water floods to produce heavy oil and SAGD applications are some of the obvious ones that come to mind. Cleaning up the huge tailings ponds at the mining and processing of oil sands, and removing diluent from water that is used to thin out bitumen in pipelines so that it can be transported to processing plants, are other promising areas of application. Several field trials to test the effectiveness of the system in these type of applications are scheduled for the summer and fall of 2002

  18. Treatment of the oily produced water (OPW using coagulant mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Hosny

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of the oily produced water (OPW before injection into oil reservoirs is necessary to reduce formation damage. This can be done using chemo-physical process to minimize the oil droplets in water. In this respect, this work aims to extract natural polymer (chitosan from shrimp shells and mix it with coagulants (chitosan/carboxy methyl cellulose and chitosan/aluminum sulfate to adsorb oil from OPW. Adsorption experiments were carried out in batch mode firstly to choose the best coagulants in water treatment, also to investigate the effects of pH on the adsorption uptake, adsorbent dosage, coagulant mixture doses and contact time. It was found that the oil removal by chitosan reached 96.35% and 59% at pH = 4 and pH = 9, respectively. The ability of chitosan to remove oil was increased after adding different coagulants CMC/or aluminum sulfate at average mixing time between 30 and 60 min. It was also found that the highest removal efficiency of chitosan/CMC is 99% at (90% chitosan: 10% CMC and chitosan/Al2(SO43 is 85% at (80% chitosan: 20% Al2(SO43. The SEM photographs of chitosan, chitosan/CMC and chitosan/Al2(SO43 mixture as oil removal showed that chitosan/Al2(SO43 lies between chitosan alone and chitosan/CMC mixture. Generally chitosan/CMC characterized significantly by its high ability to adsorb petroleum oil and suspended solids from OPW, additionally, reduces the economic cost of water treatment.

  19. Enhanced remediation of an oily sludge with saline water

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    UFUOMA

    biodegradation of oily sludge by hydrocarbon utilizing bacteria (Bacillus subtilis) at salinity (NaCl ... petroleum waste. In recent times, several literatures have shown that bioremediation has high potentials for restoring polluted media with least negative impact on the ..... salinity, bacterial consortium is highly stable in immo-.

  20. Oily bilge water treatment with a tubular ultrafiltration system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, L.R.; Jackson, D.F.; Schatzberg, P.

    1976-11-01

    The Navy has been developing various oil pollution abatement systems. One potential process for the separation of oil in bilge water is ultrafiltration, a pressure-driven membrane process which can separate, concentrate, and fractionate macromolecular solutes and suspended species from water. A tubular ultrafiltration system using cellulosic and noncellulosic membranes was tested with bilge oil obtained from a patrol craft. Tests were also conducted with tap water, river water, a turbine lubricating oil, and a fuel oil, alone and in combination with a nonionic detergent. The addition of the detergent was observed to result in a steeper flux decline than when any of the fluids were evaluated alone. Both membrane types produced a permeate with an oil content generally less than 15 mg/l. Although the noncellulosic membranes exhibited higher flux rates than the cellulosic membranes, only the former could be restored by a cleaning operation to its initial water flux after experiencing a decline in flux. A cumulative irreversible flux decline was exhibited by the cellulosic membrane. Cleaning operations, some of which were time-consuming, consisted of flushing the membrane with ultrafiltrate, distilled water, tap water, or the manufacturer's enzyme-detergent formulation. Only the last of these, when employed at elevated temperature (125/sup 0/F), restored the initial water flux of the noncellulosic membrane.

  1. Treatment of bilge and oily drain water of tankers and current measures against combustible oil gas discharge; Tanker no biruji yudakusui shori oyobi kanensei sekiyu gas haishutsu taiskau no genjo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agatsuma, Y.

    1996-07-25

    This paper describes the current actual conditions on treatment of bilge discharged from engine area and oily drain water from cargo area of tankers. Clean bilge among various bilges discharged from engine area such as vapor drain, fresh water, rainwater, seawater and condensed water is directly dumped into the sea after temporary storage in a clean tank. Oily bilge is produced mainly by mixing of clean bilge and leakage oil from main engines and various auxiliaries. Oily bilge is dumped into the sea under comparative monitoring of the bilge quality with the dumping standard by oil concentration monitoring and control equipment after the primary treatment in a treatment tank and the secondary treatment in a bilge separator. Oily drain water from cargo area contains water ballast for cargo oil tanks, wash water for tanks and lines, and bilge produced in pump room. The oily drain water is dumped under a specific condition. However, water ballast for specific ballast tanks is excluded from the oily drain water. 2 figs.

  2. Separation of oily materials in radioactive waste waters by flotation. Determination of operation and control parameters; Separacion de materiales oleosos en aguas residuales radiactivas por flotacion. Determinacion de parametros de operacion y control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz O, H B; Flores E, R M [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2003-07-01

    In this work the determination of the operation and control parameters (air/solids ratio G/S, retention time {theta}, pressure P and de pressurized volume of mixed air-water V), of the flotation system used in the treatment of oleaginous residual water (polluted mainly with {sup 60} Co) coming from the decontamination process of worn out oils, using as response parameters the concentration of oleaginous material and the residual turbidity. The obtained results allowed to observe the dependence of G/S with the pressure and volume of air-water given. At the same time it was settled down that the set of operation conditions that offers the greater separation percentage of G As and turbidity in the smallest time, they are those obtained by V{sub 2} = 0.0012 m{sup 3} and P{sub 2} = 620 kPa, (G/S = 0.30 - 0.35, = 14-16 min) for what were employees as the ideal values of operation and control in the flotation system. As long as, the concentration of total Co is found under 1 mgL{sup -1}. Finally, the selected flotation system showed high separation levels of {sup 60} Co, whose specific activity are below of 0.007 BqmL{sup -1}. (Author)

  3. Treatment of oily water by flotation; Tratamiento de aguas oleosas por flotacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz O, H B

    2002-07-01

    The operation of the nuclear power plants such as Laguna Verde (CLV) with nuclear reactors of the boiling water type (BWR) produce radioactive waste solids, liquids and gaseous which require of a special treatment in their operation and arrangement. Such is the case of the liquid wastes from CLV which are a mixture of water and synthetic oils coming from leaks and spilling by pressure of maintenance of electro-mechanical equipment associated to the performance of the nuclear power plant. This mixture of water and spent oils is pretreated by means of sedimentation, centrifugation and evaporation. However the realized efforts by the CLV, the spent oil obtained from the pretreatment contains concentrations of radioactive material higher than the tolerance limits established in the normative in force in radiological safety (0.37 Bq m L{sup -1} for {sup 60} Co and {sup 54} Mn). In this context it was necessary to design an efficient treatment system and economically profitable which separates the oil, the heavy metals and the leftovers of radioactive material that could be present in water, with the purpose of fulfil with the Mexican Official Standards corresponding for its unload or even it can reuse it in the wash process of treated oil. The treatment system of oily water waste consists of: a) Coagulation-flocculation, b) Flotation system with modified air dissolved (DAFm). The proposed flotation process allows to reach a higher separation efficiencies of: Concentration of greases and oils: 94.11 %; Turbidity: 98.6 %; {sup 60} Co: 82.3 % ; Co: 94.8 % and Cr: 99.9 % (Author)

  4. Sustainable water recovery from oily wastewater via forward osmosis-membrane distillation (FO-MD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Sui; Wang, Peng; Fu, Xiuzhu; Chung, Tai-Shung

    2014-04-01

    This study proposed and investigated a hybrid forward osmosis - membrane distillation (FO-MD) system for sustainable water recovery from oily wastewater by employing lab-fabricated FO and MD hollow fiber membranes. Stable oil-in-water emulsions of different concentrations with small droplet sizes (oil droplets and partial permeation of acetic acid could be achieved. Finally, an integrated FO-MD system was developed to treat the oily wastewater containing petroleum, surfactant, NaCl and acetic acid at 60 °C in the batch mode. The water flux in FO undergoes three-stage decline due to fouling and reduction in osmotic driving force, but is quite stable in MD regardless of salt concentration. Oily wastewater with relatively high salinity could be effectively recovered by the FO-MD hybrid system while maintaining large water flux, at least 90% feed water recovery could be readily attained with only trace amounts of oil and salts, and the draw solution was re-generated for the next rounds of FO-MD run. Interestingly, significant amount of acetic acid was also retained in the permeate for further reuse as a chemical additive during the production of crude oil. The work has demonstrated that not only water but also organic additives in the wastewater could be effectively recovered by FO-MD systems for reuse or other utilizations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Hydrogen sulfide generation in shipboard oily-water waste. Part 3. Ship factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodgeman, D.K.; Fletcher, L.E.; Upsher, F.J.

    1995-04-01

    The chemical and microbiological composition of bilge-water in ships of the Royal Australian Navy has been investigated in relation to the formation of hydrogen sulfide by sulfate-reducing bacteria. Sulfate-reducing bacteria were found in most ships in populations up to 800,000 per mL. Sulfate in the wastes is provided by sea-water. Sea-water constitutes up to 60% (median 20%) of the wastes analysed. Evidence for generation of hydrogen sulfide in the ships was found directly as sulfide or indirectly as depressed sulfate concentrations. The low levels of sulfide found in bilge-water from machinery spaces suggested the ventilation systems were effectively removing the gas from the working area. The effect of storage of the wastes under conditions which simulated the oily- water holding tanks of ships were also investigated. Some wastes were found to produce large quantities of hydrogen sulfide on storage. The wastes that failed to produce hydrogen sulfide were investigated to identify any specific nutritional deficiencies. Some organic substances present in bilge-water, such as lactate or biodegradable cleaning agents, and phosphate strongly influenced the generation of hydrogen sulfide in stored oily-water wastes.

  6. Treatment of oily bilge water by electrocoagulation process using aluminum electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soeprijanto, Perdani, Adela Dea; Nury, Dennis Farina; Pudjiastuti, Lily

    2017-05-01

    Electrocoagulation is electrochemical water and wastewater treatment technology which is the simplest technology using an electrochemical cell where the supply of DC power is applied to the electrodes, made of aluminum metals, and the electrolyte is oily bilge water. The electrocoagulation of oily bilge water was experimentally conducted in a batch system. Aluminum plates with dimensions of 20 cm ×8 cm × 0.2 cm were used for electrodes and mounted vertically with a distance of 4 cm. These electrodes were then connected to the direct current power supply of 10 V and 10 A. The total area of the effective working plate was 160 cm2 when immersed at a depth of 10 cm to the solutions. The results showed that total dissolved Solids (TDS) decreased from 31.2 to 7.54 mg/l and formation of sludge increased up to 12.54 g/l with oil concentration of 50 g/l for 15 min. The largest oil removal of 99.5% was obtained using the initial oil concentration of 55 g/l and the lowest of 96.25% was obtained with the initial oil concentration of 146.04 g/l. A current density of 62.3 mA/cm2 was achieved for a maximum oil removal.

  7. Study on heat transfer performance of water-borne and oily graphene coatings using anti-/de-icing component

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Long; Zhang, Yidu; Wu, Qiong; Jie, Zhang

    2018-02-01

    A graphene coating anti-/de-icing experiment was proposed by employing water-borne and oily graphene coatings on the composite material anti-/de-icing component. Considering the characteristics of helicopter rotor sensitivity to icing, a new graphene coating enhancing thermal conductivity of anti-/de-icing component was proposed. The anti-/de-icing experiment was conducted to validate the effectiveness of graphene coating. The results of the experiment show that the graphene coatings play a prominent role in controlling the heat transfer of anti-/de-icing component. The anti-/de-icing effect of oily graphene coating is superior to water-borne graphene.

  8. Water reclamation from emulsified oily wastewater via effective forward osmosis hollow fiber membranes under the PRO mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Gang; de Wit, Jos S; Chung, Tai-Shung

    2015-09-15

    By using a novel hydrophilic cellulose acetate butyrate (CAB) as the membrane material for the hollow fiber substrate and modifying its outer surface by polydopamine (PDA) coating and inner surface by interfacial polymerization, we have demonstrated that the thin-film composite (TFC) membranes can be effectively used for sustainable water reclamation from emulsified oil/water streams via forward osmosis (FO) under the pressure retarded osmosis (PRO) mode. The newly developed TFC-FO hollow fiber membrane shows characteristics of high water flux, outstanding salt and oil rejection, and low fouling propensity. Under the PRO mode, the newly developed TFC-FO membrane exhibits a water flux of 37.1 L m(-2) h(-1) with an oil rejection of 99.9% using a 2000 ppm soybean oil/water emulsion as the feed and 1 M NaCl as the draw solution. Remarkable anti-fouling behaviors have also been observed. Under the PRO mode, the water flux decline is only 10% of the initial value even after a 12 h test for oil/water separation. The water flux of the fouled membrane can be effectively restored to 97% of the original value by water rinses on the fiber outer surface without using any chemicals. Furthermore, the flux declines are only 25% and 52% when the water recovery of a 2000 ppm soybean oil/water emulsion and a 2000 ppm petroleum oil/water emulsion containing 0.04 M NaCl reaches 82%, respectively. This study may not only provide insightful guidelines for the fabrication of effective TFC-FO membranes with high performance and low fouling behaviors for oily wastewater under the PRO mode but also add an alternative perspective to the design of new materials for water purification purposes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Steam-water separator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modrak, T.M.; Curtis, R.W.

    1978-01-01

    The steam-water separator connected downstream of a steam generator consists of a vertical centrifugal separator with swirl blades between two concentric pipes and a cyclone separator located above. The water separated in the cyclone separator is collected in the inner tube of the centrifugal separator which is closed at the bottom. This design allows the overall height of the separator to be reduced. (DG) [de

  10. Continues treatment of oily sludge at Colombian refineries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Echeverria, Victor; Monsalve, Gladys; Vidales, Humberto

    2002-01-01

    The Colombian Petroleum institute - ICP, the research and development branch of Ecopetrol has developed a unique technological package used to treat oily sludge in a continuous way. The sludge comes from a refinery with 220000 barrels of crude per day load, located in the Middle Madgalena River Valley in Colombia. The technological package allows for a) the recovery of the hydrocarbon contained in oily wastes (up to 50%) b) the elimination of the oil contained in solid using a biodegradation process and, c) the availability economically and technically feasible solution to handle oily sludge generated in the refinery. The oily treated in this process come from maintenance of refinery's equipment and also from the physical chemical separation process at the industrial wastewater treatment plant. Oily sludge is a complex system where light and heavy oils, contaminated water and contaminated solids coexist in the form of direct, inverse and multiple emulsions. The comprehensive technological package allows the treatment of oily sludge in a cost effective way. ICP technological package developed includes technologies combining mechanical, thermal, chemical and electrostatic dehydration techniques and stimulated and intensive bioremediation to decontamination of solids saturated with residual oil. This technological package brings a solution to old environmental problem caused by the inappropriate final disposal of oily wastes such as storage in ponds, marshes and open pits: Nowadays wastes generated are treated in a continuous process that is environmentally friendly and economically profitable

  11. Review of pre-treated peat applied in treating domestic wastewaters and oily waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, X.; Coles, C.A.; Asapo, E.S.

    2008-01-01

    This paper discussed recent research related to the use of peat in removing contaminants from domestic wastewater, oil-contaminated water, and soil. The review also discussed methods of pretreating peat before its application to polluted area. Pretreatment processes are needed to remove components in peat that interfere with treatment mechanisms. Polymers are added to peat in order to encourage the aggregation of the peat particles into larger colloidal particles that are easy to dewater. Phosphoric acid treatments are also applied to increase the swelling capacity of peat. Hydrogen peroxide is used to break down oil-contaminated peat in order to facilitate its subsequent decomposition. Experiments have demonstrated that peat is an effective adsorbent for many different types of oil. Studies have demonstrated that the removal rate for standard mineral and crude oils from wastewater using peat was 83 and 70 per cent. Applications of commercial peat to the surface of oily contaminated waters resulted in oil removal efficiencies of 99.998 per cent. It was concluded that peat is an effective, low-cost material for removing contaminants from domestic waste water and oil-contaminated water. The peat can also be used as a secondary energy source after the sorption process. While peat is an abundant resource in Canada, the resource is found mainly in wetlands. Effective harvesting strategies should be used to ensure the environmental sustainability of peat filtration systems. 38 refs., 1 tab

  12. Steam-water separator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modrak, T.M.; Curtis, R.W.

    1978-01-01

    A two-stage steam-water separating device is introduced, where the second stage is made as a cyclone separator. The water separated here is collected in the first stage of the inner tube and is returned to the steam raising unit. (TK) [de

  13. Laboratory evaluation of the emulsifying characteristics of pumps. [Bilge and ballast water oily wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harvey, A.C.; Guzdar, A.R.; Fiswell, D.R.

    1973-10-01

    The program was devoted to a laboratory investigation of the emulsifying characteristics of different pumps suitable for shipboard pumping of bilge and ballast water oily wastes. The tests were designed to investigate the effect of several parameters, such as oil type, input oil concentration, detergent, pump operating characteristics (pressure and flow rate), and salt versus fresh water, on emulsification. Tests were conducted on the Foster-Miller tests loop. No. 2 fuel oil, lubricating oil and No. 6 fuel oil were the oils tested at concentrations ranging from 1 to 10%. The oils were tested with and without the addition of 10% Gamlen D surfactant. The pumps used were a Parker Diaphragm pump, a Blackmer Sliding Vane pump, an Ingersoll Rand Centrifugal pump and a Deming Centrifugal pump. Pump pressure ranged from 10 to 60 psi and flow rate from 10 to 100 gpm. A total of 270 tests were conducted covering 198 different operating points, 108 concerning pump comparison, 54 concerning oil concentration and surfactant, and 45 concerning salt water.

  14. Method and apparatus for processing oily wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torline, W.N.; Williams, R.K.

    1993-01-01

    A method of treating oily wastewater is described comprising the steps of passing oily wastewater through a coalescer to coalesce dispersed oil droplets; separating a free oil fraction as a liquid stream having a lower specific gravity from a contaminated water stream having a higher specific gravity; filtering particulate material from said contaminated water stream; passing the filtered water stream under pressure across an ultrafiltration membrane to separate a retentate fraction enriched in residual emulsified oil from an aqueous permeate fraction; recycling said substantially only retentate fraction to said coalescer; filtering said aqueous permeate through an activated carbon filter to remove low molecular weight organic materials; subjecting the filtrate from said activated carbon filter to cation exchange to remove heavy metal ions; and periodically flushing said ultra filter with filtrate from said particulate filter to maintain the permeability of said ultrafiltration membrane

  15. Oily skin: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakuma, Thais H; Maibach, Howard I

    2012-01-01

    Oily skin (seborrhea) is a common cosmetic problem that occurs when oversized sebaceous glands produce excessive amounts of sebum giving the appearance of shiny and greasy skin. This paper overviews the main concepts of sebaceous gland anatomy and physiology, including the biosynthesis, storage and release of sebum, as well as its relationship to skin hydration and water barrier function. We also address how skin oiliness may vary according to diet, age, gender, ethnicity and hot humid climates. The deeper understanding of this skin type provides the opportunity to better guide patients regarding skin care and also assist in the development of sebosuppressive agents. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. A self-cleaning underwater superoleophobic mesh for oil-water separation

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Lianbin; Zhong, Yujiang; Cha, Dong Kyu; Wang, Peng

    2013-01-01

    and inexpensive approaches for the cleaning-up of the oily pollution in water system. In this study, a self-cleaning underwater superoleophobic mesh that can be used for oil-water separation is prepared by the layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly of sodium silicate

  17. Assesment of the behavior of chitosan emulsions in the treatment of oily waters; Avaliacao do comportamento de emulsoes de quitosana no tratamento de aguas oleosas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grem, Izabel Cristina S.; Almeida, Sarah M.; Queiros, Yure G.C.; Mansur, Claudia R.E. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro/ Instituto de Macromoleculas/Laboratorio de Macromoleculas e Coloides na Industria de Petroleo, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], E-mails: celias@ima.ufrj.br, izabelgrem@ima.ufrj.br, yuregomes@ima.ufrj.br

    2011-07-01

    Chitosan, due to the presence of amino and hydroxyl groups in its structure has been applied in different fields, but the use of chitosan in the treatment of oily waters is still a subject rarely addressed. Thus, emulsions of chitosan solutions in hexane or water were prepared and their behavior were evaluated in reducing the oil content in synthetic oily waters. Experimental results obtained in this initial study showed that the emulsions prepared were effective in oil removal of treated water. Moreover, we observed that this efficiency seems to be related to the droplets size distribution of chitosan solution dispersed in the nanoemulsions. (author)

  18. Separating oil from water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webb, C

    1991-04-11

    The technology available to deal with oil spills has assumed many new faces in recent years. Methods of dealing with small-scale pollution in the process industries and vast oil slicks such as that in the Gulf have developed in parallel. The progress being made in finding new means of separating oil from water is reported and the relative merits of bioremediation, hydrocylones, horizontal separators and gas flotation are discussed. (author).

  19. Ultrafiltration concept for separating oil from water. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldsmith, R.L.; Schrab H.

    1973-01-01

    Discharge of oily wastes from shipboard operations of deballasting, bilge pumping, and slop tank cleaning constitutes a serious water pollution problem. Membrane ultrafiltration was studied in this project as a means of generating a highly purified water from a variety of oily wastes.

  20. A new electrokinetic technology for revitalization of oily sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habibi, S.

    2004-07-01

    Oily sludge is a mixture of hydrocarbons, water, metals and suspended fine solids. The petroleum industry is faced with the challenge of handling large volumes of such sludge whose properties depend on the nature of the crude oil, the processing capacity, the down-stream capacities and the design of effluent treatment plants. The management of oily sludge is both complicated and costly due to its complex composition. For that reason, this study developed a method to improve the separation of phases to allow for greater reuse of oily sludge. The study focused on the use of electrokinetic phenomena for the remediation of oily sludge. An amphoteric surfactant was used to evaluate the effect of surfactant on the electrokinetic mobilization or organic contaminants in oily sludge. A series of electrokinetic cell tests were conducted with varying electrical potentials for a 32 day period. Electrical parameters were measured on a daily basis and samples were collected at specific time intervals for UV/VIS and FTIR analysis. The study involved a range of electrokinetic processes such as electrocoagulation, electro-coalescence, desorption, electrophoresis and electro-osmosis. Study results were used to evaluate the thermodynamics of the proposed process and new theories on the behaviour of colloidal components of oily sludge were derived. The study indicated that there is an excellent separation of water, hydrocarbon and solid phases. Since the recovered solid phase has a high hydrocarbon content, it can be recycled for other processes. Some of the volatile hydrocarbons that were released during the process can also be captured and burned as a fuel. The separated water had a low concentration of hydrocarbon and could be sent to wastewater treatment plants.

  1. One-step fabrication of novel superhydrophobic and superoleophilic sponge with outstanding absorbency and flame-retardancy for the selective removal of oily organic solvent from water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Yuqian; Pang, Youyou; Jiang, Xiaomei; Huang, Jie; Xi, Fengna; Liu, Jiyang

    2018-01-01

    Absorbent materials integrated with superhydrophobicity, superoleophilicity and flame-retardancy are highly desired in the adsorption/removal of flammable oils/organic compounds as well as reducing the risk of fire and explosion. Here, one-step fabrication of novel superhydrophobic and superoleophilic sponge with outstanding absorbency and flame-retardancy was presented. Using raw melamine (ME) sponge as the supporting matrix, the formation of polydopamine (PDA) nanoaggregates via in-situ self-polymerization of high-concentrated dopamine and the covalent grafting of hydrophobic n-dodecylthiol (DT) onto PDA were combined in a feasible alkaline water/ethanol medium. As investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), the as-prepared ME/PDA/DT sponge possessed hierarchical structure with submicron PDA nanoaggregates containing DT motif (low surface energy) on 3D interconnected porous network. It exhibited superhydrophobic (water contact angle 157.7°) and superoleophilic (oily/organic solvent contact angle 0° properties. Owing to the highly porous structure, superhydrophobic property, chemical and mechanical stability, the ME/PDA/DT sponge exhibited outstanding absorbency properties of oily organic solvents including fast absorption kinetics, high absorption capacity, and easy reusability. Also, the ME/PDA/DT sponge could be used for one-line continuous organic solvent/water separation. More interestingly, the ME/PDA/DT sponge demonstrated improved flame-retardant property as compared to the intrinsic flame-retardant nature of the raw melamine sponge. Consequently, the risk of fire and explosion was expected to reduce when the fabricated sponge was used as an absorbent for flammable oils and organic compounds. The ease of the one-step superhydrophobic/superoleophilic modification and the promising feature of the obtained materials exhibit great potential for application in oils/organic solvents clean-up.

  2. Application of thin film composite membranes with forward osmosis technology for the separation of emulsified oil-water

    KAUST Repository

    Duong, Hoang Hanh Phuoc; Chung, Neal Tai-Shung

    2014-01-01

    Large amounts of oily wastewater have been produced from various industries. The main challenge of oily wastewater treatments is to separate the stable emulsified oil particles from water. Therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of forward osmosis (FO) processes to treat the stable oil-water emulsions. The FO technique has been demonstrated successfully for the treatment of a wide range of oil-water emulsions from a low to a very high concentration up to 200,000. ppm. The dependence of separation performance on oily feed concentration and flow rate has been investigated. Water can be separated from oily feeds containing 500. ppm or 200,000. ppm emulsified oil at a relatively high flux of 16.5±1.2. LMH or 11.8±1.6. LMH respectively by using a thin film composite membrane PAN-TFC and 1. M NaCl as the draw solution. Moreover, this membrane can achieve an oil rejection of 99.88% to produce water with a negligible oil level. Due to the presence of emulsified oil particles in the oily feed solutions, the membrane fouling has been addressed in this study. Better anti-fouling TFC FO membranes are needed. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

  3. Application of thin film composite membranes with forward osmosis technology for the separation of emulsified oil-water

    KAUST Repository

    Duong, Hoang Hanh Phuoc

    2014-02-01

    Large amounts of oily wastewater have been produced from various industries. The main challenge of oily wastewater treatments is to separate the stable emulsified oil particles from water. Therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of forward osmosis (FO) processes to treat the stable oil-water emulsions. The FO technique has been demonstrated successfully for the treatment of a wide range of oil-water emulsions from a low to a very high concentration up to 200,000. ppm. The dependence of separation performance on oily feed concentration and flow rate has been investigated. Water can be separated from oily feeds containing 500. ppm or 200,000. ppm emulsified oil at a relatively high flux of 16.5±1.2. LMH or 11.8±1.6. LMH respectively by using a thin film composite membrane PAN-TFC and 1. M NaCl as the draw solution. Moreover, this membrane can achieve an oil rejection of 99.88% to produce water with a negligible oil level. Due to the presence of emulsified oil particles in the oily feed solutions, the membrane fouling has been addressed in this study. Better anti-fouling TFC FO membranes are needed. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

  4. Oil-water separators for use in ships

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parry, G.; Nuttall, P.J.

    1978-11-04

    After ratification by the United Nations Assembly of the 15 ppm limit for the oil content in water discharges from ships, as recommended by the Intergovernmental Maritime Consultative Organization, all oil separating systems used to treat cargo tank washings, oil-contaminated ballast water from double-bottom tanks, engineroom bilge water, or oily sludge from self-cleaning fuel oil purifiers, will be subjected to a stringent test procedure specified by IMCO. This specification requires the use of centrifugal supply pumps capable of discharging at 1.5 times the separator capacity and operating at over 1000 rpm. To meet the 15 ppm standards, filtration or coalescence equipment must be added to conventional single-stage static separators. Tests by Alexander Esplen and Co. Ltd. showed that a two-stage Comyn coagulator incorporating elements specially designed by Vokes Ltd. meets the IMCO requirements. Separator system control and maintenance problems are discussed.

  5. Characterization of oily mature skin by biophysical and skin imaging techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Melo, M O; Maia Campos, P M B G

    2018-02-13

    The skin is a complex biological system and may suffer change according to the environmental factors, as higher temperatures can increase sebum excretion, presenting oiliness and acne. These alterations can persist during the aging and provoke more changes in aged skin. In this study we evaluated the mature oily skin characteristics using biophysical and skin imaging techniques. Sixty healthy female subjects, aged between 39 and 55 years old were recruited and separated into 2 groups according to their skin type: normal/dry and oily skin. The skin was evaluated in terms of stratum corneum water content, transepidermal water loss (TEWL) sebum content, dermis thickness and echogenicity, skin microrelief, and pores content. The mature oily skin presented no significant differences when compared to the normal/dry skin on the stratum corneum water content and TEWL parameters. The sebum content was significantly higher on the oily skin group. The microrelief analysis showed an increase of skin roughness values in the oily skin and increase of scaliness in the normal/dry skin. The oily skin showed lower dermis echogenicity mainly in the frontal region and higher dermis thickness when compared to normal/dry skin. The mature oily skin showed different characteristics from normal/dry skin in terms of sebum content, microrelief parameters, and dermis thickness. This way, the characterization of mature oily skin in an objective way is very important to development of dermocosmetic products for more effective treatments focused specially on this type of skin. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Biological treatment and toxicity of low concentrations of oily wastewater (bilgewater)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stamper, D.M. [NAVSEA Carderrock Div., West Bethesda, MD (United States). Biological Sciences Group; Montgomery, M.T. [Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC (United States). Marine Biochemistry Section

    2008-08-15

    Oily waste water from ships occurs when materials leak, spill, or are washed off the decks and drain into the bilge compartments of ships. The wastes include diesel fuel, coolants, and engine, transmission, and hydraulic oils. Treatments for oily waste water in the United States Navy are based on a combination of density separation and ceramic membrane ultrafiltration techniques, which may not meet planned regulations that will require lower levels of oil pollutants. This study tested the biodegradability and toxicity of low concentrations of oily waste water in order to establish the feasibility of using a combined shipboard oily and sanitary waste water treatment system. The toxic effects of diesel fuel and other components of the waste water were also tested. The study showed that diluting the oily effluent with the sanitary waste stream resulted in waste water with low enough oil content to meet the anticipated changes in waste water regulations. The study also showed that the low concentrations of waste water were catabolized in the presence of the sanitary waste stream. A modified PolyTox assay was used to test the waste water samples. Results of the study showed that heterotrophic bacterial production rates did not show any toxic effects. The addition of detergent in the samples had no impact on toxicity levels. It was concluded that combining oil and sanitary waste water in a single biological treatment system is a feasible option for ensuring the future regulations are met. 37 refs., 2 tabs., 4 figs.

  7. Antifouling Cellulose Hybrid Biomembrane for Effective Oil/Water Separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollarigowda, Ravichandran H; Abraham, Sinoj; Montemagno, Carlo D

    2017-09-06

    Oil/water separation has been of great interest worldwide because of the increasingly serious environmental pollution caused by the abundant discharge of industrial wastewater, oil spill accidents, and odors. Here, we describe simple and economical superhydrophobic hybrid membranes for effective oil/water separation. Eco-friendly, antifouling membranes were fabricated for oil/water separation, waste particle filtration, the blocking of thiol-based odor materials, etc., by using a cellulose membrane (CM) filter. The CM was modified from its original superhydrophilic nature into a superhydrophobic surface via a reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer technique. The block copolymer poly{[3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl acrylate]-block-myrcene} was synthesized using a "grafting-from" approach on the CM. The surface contact angle that we obtained was >160°, and absorption tests of several organic contaminants (oils and solvents) exhibited superior levels of extractive activity and excellent reusability. These properties rendered this membrane a promising surface for oil/water separation. Interestingly, myrcene blocks thiol (through "-ene-" chemistry) contaminants, thereby bestowing a pleasant odor to polluted water by acting as an antifouling material. We exploited the structural properties of cellulose networks and simple chemical manipulations to fabricate an original material that proved to be effective in separating water from organic and nano/microparticulate contaminants. These characteristics allowed our material to effectively separate water from oily/particulate phases as well as embed antifouling materials for water purification, thus making it an appropriate absorber for chemical processes and environmental protection.

  8. Fundamental aspects of oily waters treatment from the mineral industries by electrolytic techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merma, A.G.; Gonzales, L.V.; Torem, M.L. [Pontifical Catholic Univ. of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Dept. of Materials Engineering

    2010-07-01

    There is an immediate need to develop innovative and more effective techniques for treatment of wastewaters as regulations on effluent wastewater discharge are becoming increasingly prevalent. The mining and metallurgical industries generate wastewaters that contain stable oil-in-water emulsions, arising from residues of liquid streams that serve the purpose of lubrication, cooling, cleaning and corrosion prevention in the equipment used in those industries. Chemically stabilized oil-water emulsions produced in the mineral industries can be treated using an electrocoagulation technique that considers the effects of operating parameters such as initial pH, current density, reaction time, electrode area/liquid volume ratio and electrode materials on the separation of oil as measured by the chemical oxygen demand. The paper discussed electrocoagulation as well as the materials and methods for the study, including oil in water emulsions; the experimental apparatus; and the experimental procedure. It was concluded that the electrolysis of this kind of oil in water emulsions with aluminum electrodes resulted in pH neutralization regardless of the initial pH tested. 18 refs., 4 figs.

  9. Analysis of Polluted Oily Water Management in Klaipėda Sea Port Klaipėda sea port contaminated oily water management analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Goda Zobėlaitė; Jolanta Dvarionienė; Gediminas Stonkus

    2010-01-01

    Lithuania is one of the countries that have ratified the Marpol 73/78 Convention which foresees the tools of reduction and prevention of sea pollution with bilge water and other substances. The Directive of the European Parliament and Council 2000/59/EB is addressed to the reduction of waste on board of ships and its wash overboard..
    Analysis of the ships entering Klaipėda Sea Port has estimated that oil waste comprises about 74 % of the whole collected waste amount. The analysis o...

  10. X-ray fluorescence spectrometry characteristics of oily waste water from steel processing and an evaluation of its impact on the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekol, Sefa

    2018-04-11

    Metal-cutting fluids, one of the most consumed materials in the metallurgy industry, turn into oily wastewater after being used in the metalworking processes. The amount of cutting fluids used can reach up to millions of tons. And these invaluable fluids are difficult to distil and expensive, and impossible to store. Even after it is disposed and recaptured, the end product has no commercial value. In this study, the effect of this mixture was examined on the ecosystem using the Allium cepa test system in which onion root tips were treated with three different concentrations of waste-cutting fluid, based on a 24- and 48-h cell cycle. The oily wastewater exhibited a mechanism which triggered the chromosomal and nuclear abnormalities in the onion root-tip meristem and reduced the mitotic index. Common abnormalities observed in the experimental groups based on the water concentration were chromosome stickiness, c-mitosis, and micronuclei formation. In the experimental group with the lowest water concentration, budding nuclei were observed at a different level than all of the other experimental groups. The x-ray fluorescence analysis showed that the concentrations of elements, such as silicon, calcium, iron, and zinc, were higher in the oily wastewater than those in the unused cutting oil.

  11. Heavy Water - Industrial Separation Processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peculea, M.

    1984-01-01

    This monograph devoted to the heavy water production mainly presents the Romanian experience in the field which started in early sixties from the laboratory scale production and reached now the level of large scale industrial production at ROMAG-Drobeta, Romania. The book is structured in eleven chapters entitled: Overview, The main physical properties, Sources, Uses, Separation factor and equilibrium constant, Mathematical modelling of the separation process, Thermodynamical considerations on the isotope separation, Selection criteria for heavy water separation processes, Industrial installations for heavy water production, Prospects, Acknowledgements. 200 Figs., 90 Tabs., 135 Refs

  12. Superhydrophilic graphene oxide@electrospun cellulose nanofiber hybrid membrane for high-efficiency oil/water separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ao, Chenghong; Yuan, Wei; Zhao, Jiangqi; He, Xu; Zhang, Xiaofang; Li, Qingye; Xia, Tian; Zhang, Wei; Lu, Canhui

    2017-11-01

    Inspired from fishscales, membranes with special surface wettability have been applied widely for the treatment of oily waste water. Herein, a novel superhydrophilic graphene oxide (GO)@electrospun cellulose nanofiber (CNF) membrane was successfully fabricated. This membrane exhibited a high separation efficiency, excellent antifouling properties, as well as a high flux for the gravity-driven oil/water separation. Moreover, the GO@CNF membrane was capable to effectively separate oil/water mixtures in a broad pH range or with a high concentration of salt, suggesting that this membrane was quite promising for future real-world practice in oil spill cleanup and oily wastewater treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Experimental Study on Water Sensitivity Difference Based on Oiliness of Porous Medium Rock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the differences of water sensitivity experiment of porous medium rock between conventional dry core samples and oil-bearing core. The comparison was made to analyze the impact of single-phase fluid and multiphase fluid on the actual sensitivity of rock. The nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR test was carried out to reveal the distribution of oil in porous medium and the microscopic influence mechanism of oil phase. The study shows that the initial oil in place could isolate the clay from water, and then the expansion and the migration of the clay were prevented to reduce the decrease of degree of damage.

  14. A self-cleaning underwater superoleophobic mesh for oil-water separation

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Lianbin

    2013-07-31

    Oil-water separation has recently become a global challenging task because of the frequent occurrence of oil spill accidents due to the offshore oil production and transportation, and there is an increasing demand for the development of effective and inexpensive approaches for the cleaning-up of the oily pollution in water system. In this study, a self-cleaning underwater superoleophobic mesh that can be used for oil-water separation is prepared by the layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly of sodium silicate and TiO2 nanoparticles on the stainless steel mesh. The integration of the self-cleaning property into the all-inorganic separation mesh by using TiO2 enables the convenient removal of the contaminants by ultraviolet (UV) illumination, and allows for the facile recovery of the separation ability of the contaminated mesh, making it promising for practial oil-water separation applications.

  15. Effects of direct and alternating current on the treatment of oily water in an electroflocculation process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Cerqueira

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In the direct current mode (DC, widely used in electroflocculation (EC, the formation of an impermeable oxide layer on the cathode causes the declining of the efficiency of this process. This disadvantage has been reduced by adopting alternating current (AC. In this study, the effects of AC and DC on operational parameters such as the removal of oils and greases (O&G, color and turbidity from oil-in-water (O/W emulsions of the petroleum industry using aluminum electrodes were investigated. Removal efficiencies of 95%, 97% and 99% of O&G, color and turbidity with energy consumption of 0.280 kWh/m³ and electrode consumption of 0.12 g and 0.18 g were achieved at a current density of 3 A, operation time of 3 minutes and initial pH of 9.0 using AC and DC, respectively. In continuous flow tests performed with the same experimental conditions, the electrode consumption at times up to 60 minutes were 1.6 g and 3.4 g using AC and DC, respectively.

  16. Evaluating oil/water separators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murdoch, M.A.

    1993-01-01

    Four commercially available oil/water separators were tested at an oil refinery test facility. The separators were the Alfa-Laval OFPX 413 disk-stack centrifuge, the Conoco Vortoil hydrocyclone system, International Separation Technology's Intr-Septor 250, and a modified Flo Trend gravity separator. Each machine was tested against mixtures of salt water and crude oil, and mixtures of salt water and a water-in-oil emulsion. The impact on separator performance from simulated sea motion, and from the addition of emulsion breakers and debris to the influent, were also evaluated. The test equipment, instrumentation, analysis facilities, test plans, and procedures to conduct the tests are described, but test results are not reported. Recommendations for improved test procedures are included. The inability to accurately monitor flow rates was found to have the greatest negative impact on test performance and results. Aspects of the test program that worked well included the use of flexible and semi-rigid hoses for customizing the test setups, the use of modular and leased tanks, and the sea motion simulator swing table design. 3 refs., 2 tabs

  17. Separation efficiency of two waste polymer fibers for oily water treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Sokolović Dunja S.; Vulić Tatjana J.; Kiralj Arpad I.; Hadnađev-Kostić Milica S.; Sokolović Srđan S.

    2016-01-01

    This work is concerned with the efficiency of two different waste polymeric materials as the filter media in a laboratory-scale bed coalescer in the horizontal fluid flow mode, operating in a steady-state regime. The applied materials are: waste polyethylene terephthalate from textile industry, BA1 and waste polypropylene from carpet industry, PP. Using these compressible fiber polymeric materials, high bed porosity (up to 98%) could be obtained. The invest...

  18. Analysis of petroleum oily sludge producing in petroleum field of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Cicero de Souza; Lima, Regineide Oliveira; Silva, Edjane Fabiula Buriti da; Castro, Kesia Kelly Vieira de; Chiavone Filho, Osvaldo; Araujo, Antonio Souza de [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), RN (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    In exploration and production of petroleum is generated solid waste different and components other. The petroleum oily sludge is a complex mix of components different (water, oil and solid). The petroleum oily sludge generally has other residues and is formed during production and operations, transport, storage and petroleum refining (atmospheric residue, vacuum residue and catalytic cracking residue). However, according to its origin, the compositions can be found quite varied for sludge. Observing the process steps production and refining is possible to locate its main sources and percentage contributions in terms of waste generation. The elemental analysis was performed with oily sludge from region and it showed different composition. For carbon element and hydrogen, small differences was observed, but for was observed greater differences for Oxygen element. The sludge has different inorganic and organic composition. The sludge from oil water separator (OWS) 2 showed a greater amount of oil (94.88%), this may indicate a residue of aggregate high for petroleum industry. In analysis of Saturates, Aromatics, Resins and Asphaltenes (SARA), the sludge from unloading showed amount high of saturates. The inorganic material separated from sludge was characterized and sludge from OWS 2 had high amount sulfur (41.57%). The sludge analyzed showed organic components high values, so it can be treated and reprocessed in process units petroleum industry. The analysis thermal degradation had a better setting for treated oily sludge. (author)

  19. Oily Sludge Biodetoxification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    are usually transient and systems rapidly recover when normal conditions are restored . Also, some organic pollutants (e.g., polychlorinated 9...surplus components (tanks, concrete pad and berm, microfiltration unit, and biofilters) that were available at the site, so it is not necessarily...commercial components and disposal of Biofilters Microfiltration SBR Oily Waste Receiving Blowers Controls 11 the residual solids that

  20. Isolation, identification and characterization of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens BZ-6, a bacterial isolate for enhancing oil recovery from oily sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wuxing; Wang, Xiaobing; Wu, Longhua; Chen, Mengfang; Tu, Chen; Luo, Yongming; Christie, Peter

    2012-06-01

    Over 100 biosurfactant-producing microorganisms were isolated from oily sludge and petroleum-contaminated soil from Shengli oil field in north China. Sixteen of the bacterial isolates produced biosurfactants and reduced the surface tension of the growth medium from 71 to treat oily sludge and the recovery efficiencies of oil from oily sludge were determined. The oil recovery efficiencies of different isolates ranged from 39% to 88%. Bacterial isolate BZ-6 was found to be the most efficient strain and the three phases (oil, water and sediment) were separated automatically after the sludge was treated with the culture medium of BZ-6. Based on morphological, physiological characteristics and molecular identification, isolate BZ-6 was identified as Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. The biosurfactant produced by isolate BZ-6 was purified and analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. There were four ion peaks representing four different fengycin A homologues. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Fabrication and evaluation of nanocellulose sponge for oil/water separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phanthong, Patchiya; Reubroycharoen, Prasert; Kongparakul, Suwadee; Samart, Chanatip; Wang, Zhongde; Hao, Xiaogang; Abudula, Abuliti; Guan, Guoqing

    2018-06-15

    Nanocellulose sponge was fabricated by a facile method: freeze-drying of nanocellulose aqueous suspension to sponge state, following by hydrophobic treatment with stearoyl chloride at 50 °C for 1 h. The obtained nanocellulose sponge showed superhydrophobicity (160° of water contact angle) and superoleophilicity with high protection from water but selective absorption of oil. Its absorption capacities for various kinds of oil and non-polar liquids were 25-55 times higher than its dry weight and exhibited excellent selectivity for absorbing of oil which spilled on the surface of water or underwater with high separation efficiency. This superhydrophobic nanocellulose sponge can be easily recovered by simple squeezing and reused at least 10 cycles with remained high separation efficiency. It is expected that such a biodegradable nanocellulose sponge can be applied to solve the oil spill accident and treat the oily wastewater from households and industries. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Characterization of Oily and Non-Oily Natural Sediments in Palm Oil Mill Effluent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reem A. Alrawi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Palm oil is one of the many vegetable oils widely consumed around the world. The production of palm oil requires voluminous amount of water with the concurrent generation of large amount of wastewater known as palm oil mill effluent (POME. POME is a mixture of water, oil, and natural sediments (solid particles and fibres.There is a dearth of information on the physical properties of these POME sediments. This study intends to distinguish the physical properties of oily and non-oily POME sediments which include sediment size, particle size distribution (PSD, sediment shape, sediment surface morphology, and sediment density. These characterizations are important for future researches because these properties have significant effects on the settling process that occurs either under natural gravity or by coagulations. It was found that the oily and non-oily POME sediments have different sizes with nonspherical irregular shapes, and because of that, the aspect ratio (AR and circularity shape factors were adopted to describe the shapes of these sediments. The results also indicate that the density of oily POME sediment decreases as the sediment size increases.

  3. Synthesis and chemical modification of polymeric resins for the treatment of cations and aromatic hydrocarbons in produced oily water; Sintese de modificacao quimica de resina polimerica e aplicacao na remocao de cations e hidrocarbonetos aromaticos presentes em agua produzida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aversa, Thiago M.; Rodrigues, Monique F.; Vieira, Helida V.P.; Queiros, Yure G.C.; Lucas, Elizabete F. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto de Macromoleculas, Lab. de Macromoleculas e Coloides na Industria do Petroleo, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], e-mail: thiagoaversa@ima.ufrj.br

    2011-07-01

    The use of chemically modified resins in oily water treatment process is not very developed yet. Because of this, this work suggests to study the styrene and divinylbenzene sulfonation effect on oil and grease, aniline and calcium removal from the water. The aniline, oils and greases belong to a class of toxic organic compounds, with the Brazilian maximum limits established for disposal in CONAMA 393/2007, while the calcium ions belong to the group of cations of alkaline earth metals which improve hardness to the water, may cause fouling as carbonates and sulfates form. By using sulfonated resins in oily water treatment it is possible to remove not only oils and greases but also calcium and aniline. These kinds of polar compounds are removed because of the cation exchange capacity of resin. (author)

  4. Adaptable bioinspired special wetting surface for multifunctional oil/water separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavalenka, Maryna N.; Vüllers, Felix; Kumberg, Jana; Zeiger, Claudia; Trouillet, Vanessa; Stein, Sebastian; Ava, Tanzila T.; Li, Chunyan; Worgull, Matthias; Hölscher, Hendrik

    2017-01-01

    Inspired by the multifunctionality of biological surfaces necessary for the survival of an organism in its specific environment, we developed an artificial special wetting nanofur surface which can be adapted to perform different functionalities necessary to efficiently separate oil and water for cleaning accidental oil spills or separating industrial oily wastewater. Initial superhydrophobic nanofur surface is fabricated using a hot pulling method, in which nano- and microhairs are drawn out of the polymer surface during separation from a heated sandblasted steel plate. By using a set of simple modification techniques, which include microperforation, plasma treatment and subsequent control of storage environment, we achieved selective separation of either water or oil, variable oil absorption and continuous gravity driven separation of oil/water mixtures by filtration. Furthermore, these functions can be performed using special wetting nanofur made from various thermoplastics, including biodegradable and recyclable polymers. Additionally, nanofur can be reused after washing it with organic solvents, thus, further helping to reduce the environmental impacts of oil/water separation processes. PMID:28051163

  5. Performance study of mullite and mullite-alumina ceramic MF membranes for oily wastewaters treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abbasi, Mohsen; Mirfendereski, Mojtaba; Fini, Mahdi Nikbakht

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, results of an experimental study on separation of oil from actual and synthetic oily wastewaters with mullite and mullite-alumina tubular ceramic membranes are presented. Mullite and mullite-alumina microfiltration (MF) symmetric membranes were synthesized from kaolin clay and α......-alumina membranes for treatment of synthetic wastewaters were investigated. In order to determine the best operating conditions, 250-3000ppm condensate gas in water emulsions was employed as synthetic oily wastewaters using mullite membrane. At the best operating conditions (3bar pressure, 1.5m/s cross flow...... velocity and 35°C temperature), performance of mullite and mullite-alumina membranes for treatment of real and synthetic wastewaters were also compared. The results for treatment of emulsions showed that the mullite ceramic membrane has the highest R (93.8%) and the lowest FR (28.97%). Also, the mullite...

  6. Research on Treatment Technology and Device of Oily Sludge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J. Q.; Shui, F. S.; Li, Q. F.

    2017-12-01

    Oily sludge is a solid oily waste, which is produced during the process of oil exploitation, transportation, refining and treatment of oily sewage. It contains a great number of hazardous substance, and is difficult to handle with. To solve the problem of waste resources of oil sludge with high oil content and usually not easy to aggregate during the preparation of profile control agent, a new oily sludge treatment device was developed. This device consists of heat supply unit, flush and filter unit, oil removal unit and dehydration unit. It can effectively clean and filter out the waste from oily sludge, recycle the oil resources and reduce the water content of the residue. In the process of operation, the water and chemical agent are recycled in the device, eventually producing little sewage. The device is small, easy to move and has high degree of automation control. The experimental application shows that the oil removal rate of the oily sludge is up to 70%, and the higher the oil content rate the better the treatment.

  7. A facile method for emulsified oil-water separation by using polyethylenimine-coated magnetic nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Ting; Qi, Dongming; Zhang, Dong; Lü, Yulan; Zhao, Hongting

    2018-04-01

    Oil spills and oily wastewater discharges from ships and industrial activities have serious impacts on the environment and human health. In this study, a class of easy-to-synthesize polyethylenimine (PEI)-coated Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) was successfully synthesized via a one-step coprecipitation method. The synthesized PEI-coated Fe3O4 MNPs were characterized by using multiple technologies and applied in emulsified oil-water separation for the first time. It was found that the PEI effectively tuned the surface charge and wettability of MNPs. As a result, the PEI-coated MNPs could successfully assemble at the oil-water interface and promote the coalescence of oil droplets, thereby facilitating the subsequent magnetic separation. Results showed that the oil-water separation performance was superior and enhanced with the increase of ionic strength. Recycling experiment indicated that the PEI-coated MNPs could be reused up to six times without showing a significant decrease in separation efficiency. All of these results suggested that the PEI-coated MNP could potentially be used as a class of promising nanomaterials for emulsified oil-water separation. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  8. Facility to separate water and steam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loesel, G.

    1977-01-01

    The water/steam mixture from the pressure vessel e.g. of a BWR is separated by means of centrifugal separators untilizing the natural separation of steam. The steam is supplied to a steam drying vessel and the water to a water collecting tank. These vessels may be combined to a common vessel or connected through additional pipes. From the water collecting tank, arranged below the steam dryer, a feedwater pipe runs back to the pressure vessel. By construction out of individual components cleaning, decontamination, and operating control are essentially simplified. (RW) 891 RW [de

  9. Treatment of oily wastes by agglomeration techniques to produce an auxiliary carbonaceous fuel with low SO2 emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majid, A.; Capes, C.E.; Sparks, B.D.

    1992-01-01

    Oily sludges and organic wastes are produced by a number of industries, particularly those related to the recovery of processing of petroleum. Traditional sludge disposal methods, involving concentration by impoundment followed by land filling or land farming, are meeting with increasingly stringent regulations. Further treatment of the wastes and reduction of volume and recycle are being encouraged and legislated. Such treatment may range from separation of constituents into higher value products, such as the separation of oil or other organic components from mineral (ash forming) impurities and water, to stabilization of impurities to prevent leaching or to reduce emissions during combustion. This paper reports on liquid phase agglomeration (LPA) which has the potential to play a major role in oily waste treatment processes. It can be adapted to separate finely divided solids or liquids from immiscible liquid suspensions or emulsions

  10. Eco-Friendly Superwetting Material for Highly Effective Separations of Oil/Water Mixtures and Oil-in-Water Emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chih-Feng; Yang, Sheng-Yi; Kuo, Shiao-Wei

    2017-02-20

    Because the treatment of oily wastewater, generated from many industrial processes, has become an increasing environmental concern, the search continues for simple, inexpensive, eco-friendly, and readily scalable processes for fabricating novel materials capable of effective oil/water separation. In this study we prepared an eco-friendly superhydrophilic and underwater superoleophobic polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)-modified cotton that mediated extremely efficient separations of mixtures of oil/water and oil/corrosive solutions. This PVP-modified cotton exhibited excellent antifouling properties and could be used to separate oil/water mixtures continuously for up to 20 h. Moreover, the compressed PVP-modified cotton could separate both surfactant-free and -stabilized oil-in-water emulsions with fluxes of up to 23,500 L m -2 h -1 bar -1 -a level one to two orders of magnitude higher than that possible when using traditional ultrafiltration membranes having similar rejection properties. The high performance of our PVP-modified cotton and its green, low-energy, cost-effective preparation suggest its great potential for practical applications.

  11. Photocatalytic Degradation of Oil using Polyvinylidene Fluoride/Titanium Dioxide Composite Membrane for Oily Wastewater Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rusli Ummi Nadiah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Production of industrial wastewater is increasing as the oil and gas industry grows rapidly over the years. The constituents in the industrial wastewater such as organic and inorganic matters, dispersed and lubricant oil and metals which have high toxicity become the major concern to the environment and ecosystem. There are many technologies are being used for oil removal from industrial wastewater. However, there are still needs to find an effective technology to treat oily wastewater before in can be discharge safely to the environment. Membrane technology is an attractive separation technology to treat oily wastewater. The aim of this study is to fabricate polyvinylidene/titanium dioxide (PVDF/TiO2 composite membrane with further treatment using hot pressed method to enhance the adhesion between TiO2 with the membrane surfaces. In this study the structural and physical properties of fabricated membrane were conducted using X-ray diffraction (XRD and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR respectively. The photocatalytic degradation of oil was measured using UV-Vis Spectroscopy. The FTIR results confirmed that, hot pressed PVDF/TiO2 membrane TiO2 was successfully deposited onto PVDF membranes surface and XRD results shows that the XRD pattern of PVDF//TiO2 found that the crystalline structure was remained unchanged after hot pressed. Clear water was obtained after synthetic oily wastewater was exposed to visible light for at least 6 hours. In conclusion, PVDF/TiO2 composite membrane can be a potential candidate to degrade oil in oily wastewater and suggested to possess an excellent performance if perform simultaneously with membrane separation process.

  12. New technology for recyclingmaterials from oily cold rollingmill sludge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bo; Zhang, Shen-gen; Tian, Jian-jun; Pan, De-an; Meng, Ling; Liu, Yang

    2013-12-01

    Oily cold rolling mill (CRM) sludge is one of metallurgical industry solid wastes. The recycle of these wastes can not only protect the environment but also permit their reutilization. In this research, a new process of "hydrometallurgical treatment + hydrothermal synthesis" was investigated for the combined recovery of iron and organic materials from oily CRM sludge. Hydrometallurgical treatment, mainly including acid leaching, centrifugal separation, neutralization reaction, oxidizing, and preparation of hydrothermal reaction precursor, was first utilized for processing the sludge. Then, micaceous iron oxide (MIO) pigment powders were prepared through hydrothermal reaction of the obtained precursor in alkaline media. The separated organic materials can be used for fuel or chemical feedstock. The quality of the prepared MIO pigments is in accordance with the standards of MIO pigments for paints (ISO 10601-2007). This clean, effective, and economical technology offers a new way to recycle oily CRM sludge.

  13. Leidenfrost Driven Waste-Water Separator

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A Leidenfrost Driven Waste-Water Separator (LDS) is proposed in response to TA 6.1: Environmental Control and Life Support Systems and Habitation Systems. The LDS...

  14. Nylon 6,6 Nonwoven Fabric Separates Oil Contaminates from Oil-in-Water Emulsions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan A Ortega

    Full Text Available Industrial oil spills into aquatic environments can have catastrophic environmental effects. First responders to oil spills along the coast of the Gulf of Mexico in the southern United States have used spunbond nylon fabric bags and fences to separate spilled oil and oil waste from contaminated water. Low area mass density spunbond nylon is capable of sorbing more than 16 times its mass in low viscosity crude oil and more than 26 times its mass in higher viscosity gear lube oil. Nylon bags separated more than 95% of gear lube oil contaminate from a 4.5% oil-in-water emulsion. Field testing of spunbond nylon fences by oil spill first responders has demonstrated the ability of this material to contain the oily contaminate while allowing water to flow through. We hypothesize that the effectiveness of nylon as an oil filter is due to the fact that it is both more oleophilic and more hydrophilic than other commonly used oil separation materials. The nylon traps oil droplets within the fabric or on the surface, while water droplets are free to flow through the fabric to the water on the opposite side of the fabric.

  15. Produced water treatment for beneficial use : emulsified oil removal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waisi, Basma

    2016-01-01

    The development of novel carbon material, high accessible surface area, interconnected porosity, and stable nanofiber nonwoven media for emulsified oil droplets separation from oily wastewater, in particular for oilfields produced water treatment, is discussed in this thesis. Firstly, the quantity

  16. Separation of water through gas hydrate formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boch Andersen, Torben; Thomsen, Kaj

    2009-01-01

    Gas hydrate is normally recognized as a troublemaker in the oil and gas industry. However, gas hydrate has some interesting possibilities when used in connection with separation of water. Nordic Sugar has investigated the possibility of using gas hydrates for concentration of sugar juice. The goal...... of the project was to formulate an alternative separation concept, which can replace the traditional water evaporation process in the sugar production. Work with the separation concept showed that gas hydrates can be used for water separation. The process is not suitable for sugar production because of large...... volumes and the needs for high pressure. The process could be interesting for concentration of heat sensitive, high value products...

  17. Environmental implications of release of oil-based drilling fluids and oily cuttings into waters of the Canadian northwest Atlantic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barchard, W.W.; Doe, K.G.; Mahon, S.D.; Moores, R.B.; Osborne, J.M.; Parker, W.R.

    1986-01-01

    In 1982, the Environmental Protection Service became aware that companies conducting petroleum exploration in the waters of eastern Canada would request permission to use and discharge oil-based drilling fluids and/or drill cuttings contaminated with oil-based drilling fluids. It was determined from an evaluation of North Sea data that aspects of the toxicity of oil-based drilling fluids should be evaluated using techniques applicable to Canadian marine conditions. Although it is unlikely that permission will be granted to dispose of whole oil-based muds into the ocean, whole mud formulations were tested as a close approximation to the mixture which would adhere to discharged drilling cuttings. Test organisms were exposed to whole muds as an approximation of the worst possible exposure regime. Static bioassays (96-hour) were conducted using threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus). In general, high pH and the inclusion of certain emulsifiers seemed to contribute greatly to the lethality of the whole muds. Diesel oil-based muds were more acutely toxic than those formulated with alternate base oils which were virtually non-acutely toxic. Acute, sublethal and long-term studies were also conducted only on drill cuttings contaminated with alternate base oil muds. These more closely reflect proposed discharge strategies. Although 96-hour exposures resulted in no mortality, longer-term exposures (four to thirty-two days) resulted in significant behavioural changes and/or mortality to Macoma balthica, Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis, larval Homarus americanus and Nephthys caeca. The results suggest that use of alternate oil-based drilling fluids will have an effect on the marine environment intermediate between water-based muds and diesel oil-based muds. 73 refs., 6 figs., 18 tabs.

  18. Applying CFD in the Analysis of Heavy Oil/Water Separation Process via Hydrocyclone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Angelim

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years most of the oil reserves discovered has been related to heavy oil reservoirs whose reserves are abundant but still show operational difficulties. This fact provoked great interest of the petroleum companies in developing new technologies for increasing the heavy oil production. Produced water generation, effluent recovered from the production wells together with oil and natural gas, is among the greatest potential factors for environmental degradation. Thus, a new scenario of the oil industry appears requiring improvement in treatment units for produced water. Among the technological improvements in the facilities, the use of hydrocyclones has been applied in the treatment of the oily water. In this sense, this study aims to investigate numerically the separation process of heavy oil from a water stream via hydrocyclone, using the computational fluid dynamics technique. In the mathematical modeling was considered a two-phase, three-dimensional, stationary, isothermal and turbulent flow. Results of streamlines, pressure and volume fraction fields of the involved phases (oil and water into the hydrocyclone, and mechanical efficiency and pumping power of the fluids are shown and analyzed. In conclusion, it seems that with increasing fluid input velocity in the device there is an increase in pressure drop, indicating a greater pumping energy consumption of the mixture, and greatly influences the separation process efficiency.

  19. Tritium separation from heavy water using electrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogata, Y.; Sakuma, Y.; Ohtani, N.; Kodaka, M.

    2001-01-01

    A tritium separation from heavy water by the electrolysis using a solid polymer electrode (SPE) was specified on investigation. The heavy water (∼10 Bq g -1 ) and the light water (∼70 Bq g -1 ) were electrolysed using an electrolysis device (Tripure XZ001, Permelec Electrode Ltd.) with the SPE layer. The cathode was made of stainless steel (SUS314). The electrolysis was carried out at 20 A x 60 min, with the electrolysis temperature at 10, 20, or 30degC, and 15 A x 80 min at 5degC. The produced hydrogen and oxygen gases were recombined using a palladium catalyst (ND-101, N.E. Chemcat Ltd.) with nitrogen gas as a carrier. The activities of the water in the cell and of the recombined water were analyzed using a liquid scintillation counter. The electrolysis potential to keep the current 20 A was 2-3 V. The yields of the recombined water were more than 90%. The apparent separation factors (SF) for the heavy water and the light water were ∼2 and ∼12, respectively. The SF value was in agreement with the results in other work. The factors were changed with the cell temperature. The electrolysis using the SPE is applicable for the tritium separation, and is able to perform the small-scale apparatus at the room temperature. (author)

  20. Smart candle soot coated membranes for on-demand immiscible oil/water mixture and emulsion switchable separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian; Zhao, Zhihong; Li, Dianming; Tian, Haifeng; Zha, Fei; Feng, Hua; Guo, Lin

    2017-09-21

    Oil/water separation is of great importance for the treatment of oily wastewater, including immiscible light/heavy oil-water mixtures, oil-in-water or water-in-oil emulsions. Smart surfaces with responsive wettability have received extensive attention especially for controllable oil/water separation. However, traditional smart membranes with a switchable wettability between superhydrophobicity and superhydrophilicity are limited to certain responsive materials and continuous external stimuli, such as pH, electrical field or light irradiation. Herein, a candle soot coated mesh (CSM) with a larger pore size and a candle soot coated PVDF membrane (CSP) with a smaller pore size with underwater superoleophobicity and underoil superhydrophobicity were successfully fabricated, which can be used for on-demand immiscible oil/water mixtures and surfactants-stabilized oil/water emulsion separation, respectively. Without any continuous external stimulus, the wettability of our membranes could be reversibly switched between underwater superoleophobicity and underoil superhydrophobicity simply by drying and washing alternately, thus achieving effective and switchable oil/water separation with excellent separation efficiency. We believe that such smart materials will be promising candidates for use in the removal of oil pollutants in the future.

  1. Study on the effect of innovative leaching solvent on the oil removal for oily drilling cuttings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Long; Ma, Cha; Hao, Weiwei; Li, Mu; Huang, Zhao; Liu, Yushuang

    2018-02-01

    A new type of leaching solvent for oily drilling cuttings was developed, and the effect of leaching solvent on the oil removal for oily cuttings was investigated. The results indicated that the leaching solvent had good capacity of oil removal for oily cuttings, and the oil content of treated cuttings is less than 0.6%. The leaching solvent could be separated from the oil phase through distillation, and the recyclable solvent could be reused to treat other cuttings. Moreover, oil resources adsorbed on the oily cuttings could be recycled and reused to prepare new drilling fluids, so the drilling cost could be reduced greatly. As a result, the leaching solvent could treat the oily cuttings effectively, and recycle and reuse oil resources, and thus produce great economic benefits. It can play an essential role in safe drilling jobs and improvement of drilling efficiency in the future.

  2. Microbubble Distillation for Ethanol-Water Separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atheer Al-yaqoobi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the current study, a novel approach for separating ethanol-water mixture by microbubble distillation technology was investigated. Traditional distillation processes require large amounts of energy to raise the liquid to its boiling point to effect removal of volatile components. The concept of microbubble distillation by comparison is to heat the gas phase rather than the liquid phase to achieve separation. The removal of ethanol from the thermally sensitive fermentation broths was taken as a case of study. Consequently the results were then compared with those which could be obtained under equilibrium conditions expected in an “ideal” distillation unit. Microbubble distillation has achieved vapour compositions higher than that which could be obtained under traditional equilibrium conditions. The separation was achieved at liquid temperature significantly less than the boiling point of the mixture. In addition, it was observed that the separation efficiency of the microbubble distillation could be increased by raising the injected air temperature, while the temperature of the liquid mixture increased only moderately. The separation efficiency of microbubble distillation was compared with that of pervaporation for the recovery of bioethanol from the thermally sensitive fermentation broths. The technology could be controlled to give high separation and energy efficiency. This could contribute to improving commercial viability of biofuel production and other coproducts of biorefinery processing.

  3. Separation control with fluidic oscillators in water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, H.-J.; Woszidlo, R.; Nayeri, C. N.; Paschereit, C. O.

    2017-08-01

    The present study assesses the applicability of fluidic oscillators for separation control in water. The first part of this work evaluates the properties of the fluidic oscillators including frequency, cavitation effects, and exerted thrust. Derived from the governing internal dynamics, the oscillation frequency is found to scale directly with the jet's exit velocity and the size of the fluidic oscillator independent of the working fluid. Frequency data from various experiments collapse onto a single curve. The occurrence of cavitation is examined by visual inspection and hydrophone measurements. The oscillation frequency is not affected by cavitation because it does not occur inside the oscillators. The spectral information obtained with the hydrophone provide a reliable indicator for the onset of cavitation at the exit. The performance of the fluidic oscillators for separation control on a bluff body does not seem to be affected by the presence of cavitation. The thrust exerted by an array of fluidic oscillators with water as the working fluid is measured to be even larger than theoretically estimated values. The second part of the presented work compares the performance of fluidic oscillators for separation control in water with previous results in air. The array of fluidic oscillators is installed into the rear end of a bluff body model. The drag improvements based on force balance measurements agree well with previous wind tunnel experiments on the same model. The flow field is examined by pressure measurements and with particle image velocimetry. Similar performance and flow field characteristics are observed in both water and air.

  4. Remediation of an oily leachate pond in Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriipsalu, Mait; Marques, Marcia; Hogland, William

    2005-12-01

    Until recent years, waste oil and oil-contaminated waters commonly ended up in landfills. At some dump sites, ponds of oily liquids and leachate were formed. To remediate such ponds, an interdisciplinary approach is now required, keeping costs at an affordable level, particularly in countries with changing economies. From 1974 to 1993, liquid oily wastes taken to the Laguja landfill, in Estonia, were disposed of in a pond with a surface area of 9800 m2. It was estimated that the pond contained 4500-6000 m3 of oily water and 3500 m3 of oil-containing bottom sediments. This study aimed at developing an environmentally sound and cost-effective method for remediation of the oily liquids, leachate and contaminated underlying sediment material, to meet the existing legal demands. It was concluded that treatment of contaminated water is well established and the procedures carried out to meet the regulatory demands achieved satisfactory results. However, regarding treatment of sediments it was concluded that legal and technological aspects, as well as monitoring procedures are not fully established and are usually underestimated. Laboratory investigations can provide valuable information in decision-making, and contribute to effective full-scale remediation planning.

  5. Separations Technology for Clean Water and Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarvinen, Gordon D [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-06-22

    Providing clean water and energy for about nine billion people on the earth by midcentury is a daunting challenge. Major investments in efficiency of energy and water use and deployment of all economical energy sources will be needed. Separations technology has an important role to play in producing both clean energy and water. Some examples are carbon dioxide capture and sequestration from fossil energy power plants and advanced nuclear fuel cycle scemes. Membrane separations systems are under development to improve the economics of carbon capture that would be required at a huge scale. For nuclear fuel cycles, only the PUREX liquid-liquid extraction process has been deployed on a large scale to recover uranium and plutonium from used fuel. Most current R and D on separations technology for used nuclear fuel focuses on ehhancements to a PUREX-type plant to recover the minor actinides (neptunium, americiu, and curium) and more efficiently disposition the fission products. Are there more efficient routes to recycle the actinides on the horizon? Some new approaches and barriers to development will be briefly reviewed.

  6. Supported graphene oxide hollow fibre membrane for oily wastewater treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, Nur Hidayati; Alias, Nur Hashimah; Shahruddin, Munawar Zaman; Hussein, Siti Nurliyana Che Mohamed; Dollah, Aqilah

    2017-12-01

    Oil and gas industry deals with a large amount of undesirable discharges of liquid, solid, and gaseous wastes and the amounts can considerably change during the production phases. Oilfield wastewater or produced water is known to constitute various organic and inorganic components. Discharging the produced water can pollute surface and underground water and therefore the necessity to treat this oily wastewater is an inevitable challenge. The current technologies for the treatment of this metastable oil-in-water are not really effective and very pricey. As a result, there is a great interest from many parties around the world in finding cost-effective technologies. In recent years, membrane processes have been utilized for oily wastewater treatment. In these work, a graphene oxide membrane supported on a highly porous Al2O3 hollow fibre was prepared using vacuum assisted technique and its performance in treating oily wastewater was investigated. Graphene oxide (GO) was prepared using a modified Hummer's method and further characterized using XRD, FTIR, TGA and SEM. The results showed that the GO was successfully synthesized. The GO membrane was deposited on alumina hollow fibre substrates. The membrane performance was then investigated using dead-end filtration setup with synthetic oily wastewater as a feed. The effects of operating times on rejection rate and permeate flux were investigated. The experimental results showed that the oil rejections were over 90%. It was concluded that the supported GO membrane developed in this study may be considered feasible in treating oily wastewater. Detail study on the effects of transmembrane pressure, oil concentration, pH and fouling should be carried out in the future

  7. Progress in Treatment of Oily Wastewater by Inorganic Porous Ceramic Membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dai Xiaoyuan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The composition and complexity of oily wastewater contains many solid particles, free oil, emulsified oil and so on.It brought about a series of environmental pollution problems when oily wastewater was directly discharged into rivers, lakes and other water bodies. Therefore, researchers are committed to study how to deal with oily wastewater to deal with oily wastewater to apply it to meet the requirements of water injection.Inorganic porous ceramic membrane has excellent properties among many filtering methods. For example, high temperature and high pressure resistance, resistance to acid and alkali, low energy consumption, no pollution to the environment and has a good prospect in the field of oily wastewater treatment, which has attracted the attention of many scholars not only at home but also on abroad. This article describes the present situation of the research on the treatment of oily wastewater by ceramic membrane in recent years, and expounded the significance of the treatment of oily wastewater to people’s lives and makes an expectation for the development of inorganic porous ceramic membrane in the future.

  8. [Isolation of an excellent bio-flocculant-producing strain and its application in the treatment of cold-rolling waste oily water].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Guo-Yuan; Ding, Cui-Ping; Yang, Jia-Xuan

    2011-09-01

    An excellent strain (designated as T-3) which produces bio-flocculants was isolated from soil samples, and identified as Klebsiella sp. species based on the analysis of morphology, physiology and biochemistry and 16S rDNA sequences measurement. The effects of culture conditions such as pH values, temperature, carbon sources and nitrogen sources on bio-flocculants production by T-3 strain were studied. The experiment results show that T-3 strain has better adaptability to carbon sources and nitrogen sources, and higher capacity of bio-flocculants was obtained when the initial pH value of culture and temperature were 9 and 25 degrees C respectively. Based on the colorimetric reactions of proteins and polysaccharide substance, ultraviolet scanning analysis and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy analysis, it is found that the bio-flocculants produced by T-3 strain contains -OH and -COO(-) groups and belongs to anionic type flocculant. Moreover, the main component is polysaccharides. The treatment of oily cold-rolling wastewater by the bio-flocculant was investigated and the better result was obtained. When the dosages of CaCl2, bio-flocculants and poly aluminium chloride were 4 g x L(-1), 10% (volume fraction) and 1 g x L(-1) respectively, and the pH value was 7.0, the oil concentration, COD and turbidity were decreased to 10 mg x L(-1), 218.4 mg x L(-1) and 1.36 from 4 819 mg x L(-1), 28 456.8 mg x L(-1) and 3 950 with the removal efficiencies of 99.79%, 92.32% and 99.97% respectively. The interaction between flocculant and oily droplets is achieved by the interaction of Van der Waals force, hydrogen bond and the bridged coordination of Ca2+, in which the bridged coordination of Ca2+ is the dominant.

  9. SELECTION OF CHEMICAL TREATMENT PROGRAM FOR OILY WASTEWATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Díaz

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available When selecting a chemical treatment program for wastewater to achieve an effective flocculation and coagulation is crucial to understand how individual colloids interact. The coagulation process requires a rapid mixing while flocculation process needs a slow mixing. The behavior of colloids in water is strongly influenced by the electrokinetic charge, where each colloidal particle carries its own charge, which in its nature is usually negative. Polymers, which are long chains of high molecular weight and high charge, when added to water begin to form longer chains, allowing removing numerous particles of suspended matter. A study of physico-chemical treatment by addition of coagulant and flocculant was carried out in order to determine a chemical program for oily wastewater coming from the gravity separation process in a crude oil refinery. The tests were carried out in a Jar Test equipment, where commercial products: aluminum polychloride (PAC, aluminum sulfate and Sintec D50 were evaluated with five different flocculants. The selected chemical program was evaluated with fluids at three temperatures to know its sensitivity to this parameter and the mixing energy in the coagulation and flocculation. The chemical program and operational characteristics for physico-chemical treatment with PAC were determined, obtaining a removal of more than 93% for suspended matter and 96% for total hydrocarbons for the selected coagulant / flocculant combination.

  10. Separation of water from organic liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meldrum, I.G.; Villiers Naylor, T. de.

    1990-04-10

    This invention relates to the separation of water from fluids by the pervaporation process using a membrane. The invention is characterized in that the membrane has an active layer which consists essentially only of polymers of an unsaturated organic acid, the acid having not more than 6 carbon atoms for every acid group (not counting any carbon atoms in the acid groups), and the polymer having at least a substantial proportion of the acid groups in the form of a salt. The preferred fluids for use in the process of the invention are organic fluids, such as a hydrocarbon gas (in particular, methane) or a liquid. The process is especially suitable for separating water from mixtures with alkanols, in particular alkanols having 1 to 5 carbon atoms in the molecule, such as ethanol and isopropanol. The unsaturated organic acid may be a sulfur acid, such as a sulfonate or a sulfate or a phosphorus acid, but is preferably a carboxylic acid. Thus, the active layer may be poly(acrylic acid) or poly(maleic acid). The cation of the salt form of the acid groups is preferably an alkali metal, especially cesium. Experiments are described to illustrate the invention. 13 tabs.

  11. Heavy-metal removal from petroleum oily sludge using lemon- scented geraniums[General Conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badawieh, A.; Elektorowicz, M. [Concordia Univ., Montreal, PQ (Canada). Dept. of Building, Civil and Environmental Engineering

    2006-07-01

    Finding an acceptable method to manage oily sludge generated during petroleum processes is one of the challenges currently facing the petroleum industry. This study investigated the response of plants to heavy-metal removal from oily sludge to determine the feasibility of using phytoremediation technologies as a treatment method for oily sludge. In particular, scented geraniums (Pelargonium sp. Frensham) have shown a strong capability to survive harsh conditions such as poor soil, high/low temperatures, high heavy-metal concentrations and low water content. In response to this observation, this feasibility study placed scented geraniums in a series of pots containing oily sludge where heavy-metal concentrations were artificially increased up to 2000 ppm. Plants were grown in two systems over a period of 50 days. The first system included oily sludge and soil while the second system included oily sludge, soil and compost. The study revealed that the scented geraniums accumulated up to 1600 mg, 1000 mg, and 1200 mg, of cadmium, nickel and vanadium respectively per 1 kg of the plant's dry weight. The results suggest that phytoremediation technology may be a potential method for successfully treating or pretreating oily sludge in the field.

  12. Water column separation in power plant circulating water systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papadakis, C.N.

    1977-01-01

    Power plant circulating water system condensers operate with a siphon. Column separation is a common occurence in such condensers during low pressure transients. The assumptions that no gas evolves from solution leads to very conservative values of maximum pressures upon rejoining of separated column. A less conservative method led to the development of a macroscopic mathematical model including the presence of air and vapor in a cavity which forms at the top of the condenser. The method of characteristics is used to solve the equations. A case study is analyzed to illustrate the applicability of the developed mathematical model and to provide comparisons of the results obtained

  13. 40 CFR 61.347 - Standards: Oil-water separators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards: Oil-water separators. 61.347... Waste Operations § 61.347 Standards: Oil-water separators. (a) Except as provided in § 61.352 of this subpart, the owner or operator shall meet the following standards for each oil-water separator in which...

  14. Evaluation of landfarming disposal method for oily sludge in Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hejazi, R.F.; Husain, T.

    2000-01-01

    Saudi Aramco generates approximately 30,000 cubic meters of oily sludge every year. The sludge comes from tank bottoms, separator bottoms, desalination bottoms, and oil spills. This sludge contains water and oil emulsions with naphthalenic and other waxes, in addition to iron oxide scale. In 1982, 10-acre area was set aside in the Ras Tanura Refinery to serve as a pilot plot for landfarming. In 1983, the size of the area was increased to 17 acres, including the original area, and was divided into a number of subplots. Dikes and elevated roadways were constructed around the landfarm for the control of surface run-off and for easier access to the site. In addition, there were seven groundwater-monitoring wells installed inside and outside the area at depths that ranged from 23 to 44 feet. The authors discussed the steps taken and explained the conclusions of the study. Considering the climatic conditions prevalent in Saudi Arabia, including low precipitations and hot temperatures, landfarming proved to be the most cost effective method to treat and dispose of oily sludge. The four centrifugation systems tested by Saudi Aramco met the performance criteria. A discussion of various parameters such as moisture content, pH, microbiological activity and heavy metal content were also evaluated. 5 refs., 3 figs

  15. Biomimetic Multilayer Nanofibrous Membranes with Elaborated Superwettability for Effective Purification of Emulsified Oily Wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Jianlong; Jin, Qing; Zong, Dingding; Yu, Jianyong; Ding, Bin

    2018-05-09

    Creating a porous membrane to effectively separate the emulsified oil-in-water emulsions with energy-saving property is highly desired but remains a challenge. Herein, a multilayer nanofibrous membrane was developed with the inspiration of the natural architectures of earth for gravity-driven water purification. As a result, the obtained biomimetic multilayer nanofibrous membranes exhibited three individual layers with designed functions; they were the inorganic nanofibrous layer to block the serious intrusion of oil to prevent the destructive fouling of the polymeric matrix; the submicron porous layer with designed honeycomb-like cavities to catch the smaller oil droplets and ensures a satisfactory water permeability; and the high porous fibrous substrate with larger pore size provided a template support and allows water to pass through quickly. Consequently, with the cooperation of these three functional layers, the resultant composite membrane possessed superior anti-oil-fouling property and robust oil-in-water emulsion separation performance with good separation efficiency and competitive permeation flux solely under the drive of gravity. The permeation flux of the membrane for the emulsion was up to 5163 L m -2 h -1 with a separation efficiency of 99.5%. We anticipate that our strategy could provide a facile route for developing a new generation of specific membranes for oily wastewater remediation.

  16. 40 CFR 63.686 - Standards: Oil-water and organic-water separators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards: Oil-water and organic-water... Operations § 63.686 Standards: Oil-water and organic-water separators. (a) The provisions of this section apply to the control of air emissions from oil-water separators and organic-water separators for which...

  17. A new submarine oil-water separation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Wen-Bin; Liu, Bo-Hong

    2017-12-01

    In order to solve the oil field losses of environmental problems and economic benefit caused by the separation of lifting production liquid to offshore platforms in the current offshore oil production, from the most basic separation principle, a new oil-water separation system has been processed of adsorption and desorption on related materials, achieving high efficiency and separation of oil and water phases. And the submarine oil-water separation device has been designed. The main structure of the device consists of gas-solid phase separation device, period separating device and adsorption device that completed high efficiency separation of oil, gas and water under the adsorption and desorption principle, and the processing capacity of the device is calculated.

  18. Oily skin: specific features in Chinese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouveau-Richard, S; Zhu, W; Li, Y H; Zhang, Y Z; Yang, F Z; Yang, Z L; Lian, S; Qian, B Y; Ran, Y P; Bouillon, C; Chen, H D; de Lacharrière, O

    2007-02-01

    Inconsistent data are available on the various types of skin, their prevalence and characterization, particularly regarding Asian skins. This observation prompted to conduct a large study in China to assess the prevalence of oily skin and identify the specific factors related to that type of skin. The multicentre trial involved 1787 Chinese women in Shenyang, Harbin, Beijing, Chengdu and Suzhou, between 18 and 65 years of age. Data on history of acne, the presence of environmental factors and a detailed self-evaluation of the skin were collected using a standardized questionnaire. A clinical evaluation of facial skin oiliness was carried-out by a dermatologist at each centre. Sebum secretion was measured on the forehead using Sebumeter SM810. Statistical analysis (multiple correspondence analysis) of typology was conducted based on self-evaluation data. According to self-evaluation data, oily skin prevalence in the overall Chinese population of the study was 25.6%. Self-evaluation results were quite consistent with sebum measurements and with clinical assessment by dermatologist. Parameters associated with oily skin were (i) shiny skin and a past history of acne, (ii) irregular menstruation, and (iii) highly reactive or sensitive skin. Moreover, a clear and significant link was noted between oily skin and the ingestion of spicy or sweet food. Lastly, sebum levels were found to be twice as high in Beijing as in the other cities and were correlated to higher oily skin prevalence. The study demonstrated the capacity of women for proper self-evaluation of their skin type. It also suggests a potential link between nutritional factors such as spicy and/or sweet diets and oily skin as well as between sensitive and oily skin in this population.

  19. Superhydrophobic Cu{sub 2}S@Cu{sub 2}O film on copper surface fabricated by a facile chemical bath deposition method and its application in oil-water separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pi, Pihui, E-mail: phpi@scut.edu.cn; Hou, Kun; Zhou, Cailong; Li, Guidong; Wen, Xiufang; Xu, Shouping; Cheng, Jiang; Wang, Shuangfeng

    2017-02-28

    Highlights: • A superhydrophobic film with macro/nano structure was fabricated on copper surface. • The as-prepared film shows outstanding water repellency and long-term storage stability. • The same method was used to fabricate superhydrophobic/superoleophilic copper mesh. • The obtained mesh could realize separation of various oily sewages with separation efficiency above 94%. - Abstract: Cu{sub 2}S and Cu{sub 2}O composite (Cu{sub 2}S@Cu{sub 2}O) film with micro/nano binary structure was created on copper surface using the mixing solution of sodium thiosulphate and copper sulfate by a facile chemical bath deposition method. After modification with low-cost polydimethylsioxane (PDMS), the superhydrophobic Cu{sub 2}S@Cu{sub 2}O film was obtained. The as-prepared film shows outstanding water repellency with a water contact angle larger than 150° and long-term storage stability. The geometric morphology and chemical composition of the film were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS) and attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), respectively. Moreover, the same method was used to fabricate superhydrophobic/superoleophilic copper mesh, and it could realize separation of various oily sewages with separation efficiency above 94%. This strategy has potential to fabricate the practical superhydrophobic Cu{sub 2}S@Cu{sub 2}O film on copper surface on a large scale due to its simplicity and low cost.

  20. New technology for recycling materials from oily cold rolling mill sludge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bo Liu; Shen-gen Zhang; Jian-jun Tian; De-an Pan; Ling Meng; Yang Liu

    2013-01-01

    Oily cold rolling mill (CRM) sludge is one of metallurgical industry solid wastes. The recycle of these wastes can not only protect the environment but also permit their reutilization. In this research, a new process of“hydrometallurgical treatment+hydrothermal synthesis”was investigated for the combined recovery of iron and organic materials from oily CRM sludge. Hydrometallurgical treatment, mainly including acid leaching, centrifugal separation, neutralization reaction, oxidizing, and preparation of hydrothermal reaction precursor, was first utilized for processing the sludge. Then, micaceous iron oxide (MIO) pigment powders were prepared through hydrothermal reaction of the obtained precursor in alkaline media. The separated organic materials can be used for fuel or chemical feedstock. The quality of the prepared MIO pigments is in accordance with the standards of MIO pigments for paints (ISO 10601-2007). This clean, eff ective, and economical technology off ers a new way to recycle oily CRM sludge.

  1. Fabrication of Hydrophobic Membrane for the Separation of n-Hexane/Water Mixture Using Novel Oleophilic Nanoparticle and Kevlar Fabric, as a Superior Support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanieh Karimnezhad

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The fabrication of functionalized membranes with hydrophobic/oleophilic surfaces for the elimination of n-hexane from water using para-aminobenzoate alumoxane, boehmite-epoxide and a novel nanoparticle, i.e., Stearate Alumoxane by a simple coating technique, is reported here. FTIR was used to characterize nanoparticles. SEM and contact angle measurement analyses were used to identify the nanocomposite membranes. The concentrations of oil in permeate and retentate were measured by UV/vis spectrophotometer. The morphology of Stearate alumoxane nanoparticles was investigated by means of SEM images. The composed film of nanoparticles on the Kevlar fabric was hydrophobic with water contact angle of ~ 145° and oleophilic with oil contact angle of ~ 0º. In addition, the membranes retained stable hydrophobicity and high separation efficiency even after employing for 6 times. Applying these properties, a setup was considered using the functionalized Kevlar fabric to separate oil through down to a collector and leave water drops. Our batch filtration system was exclusively gravity-driven. The achieved separation system can separate the oily water mixture (with the concentration of 20 % (v/v n-hexane in water, effectively with a separation efficiency of 84%.

  2. MERCURY SEPARATION FROM POLLUTANT WATER USING ZEOLITES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsenic is known to be a hazardous contaminant in drinking water that causes arsenical dermatitis and skin cancer. In the present work, the potential use of a variety of synthetic zeolites for removal of arsenic from water has been examined at room temperature. Experiments have...

  3. Review on heavy water separation at pilot scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wuryanto; Soeroto Ronodirdjo.

    1976-01-01

    The isotope exchange system ammonia-water and hydrogen sulfide water dual temperature are studied. Comparison of the two methods with water electrolysis, water distillation, hydrogen distillation and catalytic water hydrogen exchange are discussed. Water distillation is a simple method. Electrolysis of water has the highest separation factor. The isotope exchange hydrogen sulfide water dual temperature will be done in accord with the report on the operation of a dual temperature single stage for deuterium concentration written by M.L.Eidinoff and C.F. Hiskey. (authors)

  4. Preparation and characterization of thermo- and pH dual-responsive 3D cellulose-based aerogel for oil/water separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Linyan; Li, Lian; Wang, Yixi; Wu, Jianning; Meng, Guihua; Liu, Zhiyong; Guo, Xuhong

    2018-01-01

    Oily wastewater caused by industrial production and crude oil leakage has attracted worldwide attention. Here, a thermo- and pH dual-responsive biodegradable cellulose-based aerogel for oil-water separation was designed and prepared via surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) of non-fluorine-containing 2-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate (DMAEMA). The cellulose-based aerogel exhibit switchable superhydrophilicity with a water contact angle (WCA) of 0° and hydrophobicity (WCA 130°) by modulating pH or temperature. The functionalized cellulose-based aerogels could be used to absorb the water under 60 °C (pH 7.0) and pH is 1.0 (T = 25 °C), while absorb oil underwater when the temperature is above 60 °C (pH 7.0) or pH is 13.0 (T = 25 °C). So this adsorbent were suitable for the separation of water-rich or oil-rich oil/water mixtures, and it could adsorb oil over ten times its own weight, and had a good reusability. What's more, the cellulose-based aerogel is green, low cost, and environmental friendly, which makes it a promising candidate to be used for oil-water separation.

  5. Land treatment of produced oily sand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bleckmann, C.A.; Wilson, E.J.; Hayes, K.W.; Hercyk, N.L.

    1995-01-01

    Land treatment successfully treated oily waste generated during the production of crude oil. More than 13 years of safe operations demonstrated the environmental acceptability of the method. Nearly 80% of the applied waste oil was removed by natural biodegradation processes. The oily fraction of the waste was found to have an average half-life in the soil of approximately 3 years, with significant variability between years. There was a slight increase in the proportion of heavy hydrocarbons (resins and asphaltenes) in the soil, suggesting the preferential degradation of the lighter constituents

  6. Recent development in the treatment of oily sludge from petroleum industry: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Guangji; Li, Jianbing; Zeng, Guangming

    2013-10-15

    Oily sludge is one of the most significant solid wastes generated in the petroleum industry. It is a complex emulsion of various petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs), water, heavy metals, and solid particles. Due to its hazardous nature and increased generation quantities around the world, the effective treatment of oily sludge has attracted widespread attention. In this review, the origin, characteristics, and environmental impacts of oily sludge were introduced. Many methods have been investigated for dealing with PHCs in oily sludge either through oil recovery or sludge disposal, but little attention has been paid to handle its various heavy metals. These methods were discussed by dividing them into oil recovery and sludge disposal approaches. It was recognized that no single specific process can be considered as a panacea since each method is associated with different advantages and limitations. Future efforts should focus on the improvement of current technologies and the combination of oil recovery with sludge disposal in order to comply with both resource reuse recommendations and environmental regulations. The comprehensive examination of oily sludge treatment methods will help researchers and practitioners to have a good understanding of both recent developments and future research directions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Identification of SSR and retrotransposon-based molecular markers linked to morphological characters in oily sunfl ower (Helianthus annuus L.) under natural and water-limited states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Soleimani Gezeljeh; Darvishzadeh, Reza; Ebrahimi, Asa; Bihamta, Mohammad Reza

    2018-03-01

    Sunflower is an important source of edible oil. Drought is known as an important factor limiting the growth and productivity of field crops in most parts of the world. Agricultural biotechnology mainly aims at developing crops with higher tolerance to the challenging environmental conditions, such as drought. This study examined a number of morphological characters, along with relative water content (RWC) in 100 inbred sunflower lines. A 10 × 10 simple lattice design with two replications was employed to measure the mentioned parameters under natural and water-limited states during two successive years. In molecular trial, 30 simple sequence repeat (SSR) primer pairs, as well as 14 inter-retrotransposon amplified polymorphism (IRAP) and 14 retrotransposon-microsatellite amplified polymorphism (REMAP) primer combinations were used for DNA fingerprinting of the lines. Most of the examined characters had lower average values under water-limited than natural states. Maximum and minimum reductions were observed in the cases of yield and oil percentage, respectively. The broad-sense heritabilities for all the examined characters were 0.20-0.73 and 0.10-0.34 under natural and water-limited states, respectively. In the studied samples, 8.97% of the 435 possible locus pairs of the SSRs represented significant linkage disequilibrium (LD) levels. In the association analysis using SSR markers, 22 and 21 markers were identified (P ≤ 0.05) for the studied characters under natural and water-limited states, respectively. The corresponding values were 50 and 37 using retrotransposon-based molecular markers. Some detected markers were communal between the characters under water-limited and natural states. This was in line with the phenotypic correlations detected between the characters. Communal markers facilitate the simultaneous selection of several characters and can thus improve the efficacy of selection based on markers in the plant-breeding activities.

  8. Gas stripping and recirculation process in heavy water separation plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazzer, D.B.; Thayer, V.R.

    1976-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide is stripped from hot effluent, in a heavy water separation plant of the dual temperature isotope separation type, by taking liquid effluent from the hot tower before passage through the humidifier, passing the liquid through one or more throttle devices to flash-off the H 2 S gas content, and feeding the gas into an absorption tower containing incoming feed water, for recycling of the gas through the process

  9. Separation factor dependence upon cathode material for tritium separation from heavy water by electrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogata, Y.; Sakuma, Y.; Ohtani, N.; Kotaka, M.

    2002-01-01

    Using three cathode materials, i.e. carbon (C), stainless steel (SUS), and nickel (Ni), tritium was separated from heavy water by electrolysis, and the separation factors were compared. To separate hydrogen isotopes, heavy water was electrolyzed by an electrolysis device with a solid polymer electrode (SPE), which needed no electrolyte additives for electrolysis. The anode was made of 3 mm thickness of a sintered porous titanium plate covered with iridium oxide. The cathode was made of the same thickness of a sintered porous carbon, stainless steel, or nickel plate. Heavy water or light water spiked with tritiated water was electrolyzed 20 A x 60 min with the electrolysis cell temperature at 10, 20 or 30degC, and 15 A x 80 min at 5degC. The produced hydrogen and oxygen gases were recombined using a palladium catalyst with nitrogen gas as a carrier. The activities of the water in the electrolysis cell and of the recombined water were analyzed using a liquid scintillation counter. The apparent D-T separation factor (SF D/T ) and H-T separation factor (SF H/T ) were calculated as quotient the specific activity of the water in the cell divided by that of the recombined water. The electrolysis potential to keep the current 20 A was 2-3 V. The average yields of the recombined water were 95%. At the cell temperature of 20degC, SF D/T (C), SF D/T (SUS), and SF D/T (Ni) were 2.42, 2.17, and 2.05, respectively. At the same temperature, SF H/T (C), SF H/T (SUS), and SF H/T (Ni) were 12.5, 10.8, and 11.8, respectively. The SFs were in agreement with the results in other works. The SFs were changed with the cell temperature. (author)

  10. Monitoring of biopile composting of oily sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriipsalu, Mait; Nammari, Diauddin

    2010-05-01

    This paper describes a bioreactor set-up used to simulate degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in a static biopile. The large-scale test was performed in a 28 m(3) custom-designed reactor. Oily sludge (40% by weight, having 7% dry matter [DM], and hydrocarbons C(10)-C(40) 160,000 mg kg(-1) DM) was mixed with organic-rich amendments - mature oil-compost (40%) and garden waste compost (20%). Within the reactor, the temperature and soil gases were monitored continuously during 370 days via 24 measurement points. Also, moisture content was continuously recorded and airflow through compost mix occasionally measured. Three-dimensional ordinary kriging spatial models were created to describe the dynamic variations of temperature, air distribution, and hydrocarbon concentration. There were large temperature differences in horizontal and vertical sections during initial months of composting only. Water content of the mixture was uneven by layers, referring on relocation of moisture due to aeration and condensation. The air distribution through the whole reactor varied largely despite of continuous aeration, while the concentration of O(2) was never reduced less than 1-2% on average. The results showed that composting of sludge using force-aerated static biopile technology was justified during the first 3-4 months, after which the masses could be re-mixed and heaped for further maturation in low-tech compost windrows. After 370 days of treatment, the content of hydrocarbons (C( 10)-C(40)) in the compost mixture was reduced by 68.7%.

  11. Tissue free water tritium separation from foodstuffs by azeotropic distillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constantin, F.; Ciubotaru, A.; Popa, D.

    1998-01-01

    In this paper the tritium separation from tissue free water in foodstuffs by azeotropic distillation is described. Tritium in tissue water is assayed by liquid scintillation counting using well-established quenched correction method. The mean value of the tritium concentration in tissue water from foodstuffs is about 6-12 Bq/l very similar to the tritium mean concentration measured in the surface waters of the area where the samples have been collected (about 12 Bq/l. Therefore, the tritium content in the water fraction of the food samples can be considered in equilibrium with the local environmental water sources. The azeotropic distillation it is an accessible separation method which does not need a sophisticated and expansive distillation apparatus. It is a fast method of separation tissue free water from foodstuffs being very important in the surveillance activity of the environmental within nuclear electric plant. It is suitable for processing a small quantity of samples and for a production type facility when a large number of samples must be processed because the solvent can be purified and reused. The azeotropic distillation has some limits being used to separate water from samples with high content of water (85-90%) and simple a simple chemical structures as: vegetables, fruits, cereal, soil, vegetation. According to the results obtained, the organic substituents of milk, wine, meat (casein, lactose, milk fat, alcohol, esters) may enhance the chemisorption of tritium on through exchange organic hydrogen as -OH, -SH, -NH, -COOH with tritium. Also, the tissue water separation by azeotropic distillation is not complete and can not guarantee the absence of the vaporization isotope effect of the HTO/H 2 O system., However, the azeotropic distillation is the preferred method of the water extraction from food samples, which makes it useful for the tritium transfer from soil to foodstuffs. (authors)

  12. Tissue free water tritium separation from foodstuffs by azeotropic distillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Constantin, F; Ciubotaru, A; Popa, D [Inspectorate of Public Health of Bucharest (Romania)

    1999-12-31

    In this paper the tritium separation from tissue free water in foodstuffs by azeotropic distillation is described. Tritium in tissue water is assayed by liquid scintillation counting using well-established quenched correction method. The mean value of the tritium concentration in tissue water from foodstuffs is about 6-12 Bq/l very similar to the tritium mean concentration measured in the surface waters of the area where the samples have been collected (about 12 Bq/l. Therefore, the tritium content in the water fraction of the food samples can be considered in equilibrium with the local environmental water sources. The azeotropic distillation it is an accessible separation method which does not need a sophisticated and expansive distillation apparatus. It is a fast method of separation tissue free water from foodstuffs being very important in the surveillance activity of the environmental within nuclear electric plant. It is suitable for processing a small quantity of samples and for a production type facility when a large number of samples must be processed because the solvent can be purified and reused. The azeotropic distillation has some limits being used to separate water from samples with high content of water (85-90%) and simple a simple chemical structures as: vegetables, fruits, cereal, soil, vegetation. According to the results obtained, the organic substituents of milk, wine, meat (casein, lactose, milk fat, alcohol, esters) may enhance the chemisorption of tritium on through exchange organic hydrogen as -OH, -SH, -NH, -COOH with tritium. Also, the tissue water separation by azeotropic distillation is not complete and can not guarantee the absence of the vaporization isotope effect of the HTO/H{sub 2}O system., However, the azeotropic distillation is the preferred method of the water extraction from food samples, which makes it useful for the tritium transfer from soil to foodstuffs. (authors) 2 tabs.

  13. Separation of Process Water using Hydroxy Sodalite Membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khajavi, S.

    2010-01-01

    This thesis describes the synthesis, characterization, and application of Hydroxy Sodalite (H-SOD) membranes in selective separation of water from aqueous solutions and reaction media. The emphasis has been put on the development of a tight membrane film that could be primarily used for water

  14. Highly permeable double-skinned forward osmosis membranes for anti-fouling in the emulsified oil-water separation process

    KAUST Repository

    Duong, Hoang Hanh Phuoc; Chung, Neal Tai-Shung; Wei, Shawn; Irish, Lana

    2014-01-01

    Forward osmosis (FO) has attracted wide attention in recent years. However, the FO performance may be restricted due to internal concentration polarization (ICP) and fast fouling propensity that occurs in the membrane sublayer. Particularly, these problems significantly affect the membrane performance when treating highly contaminated oily wastewater. Recently, double-skinned flat sheet cellulose acetate (CA) membranes consisting of two selective skins via the phase inversion method have demonstrated less ICP and fouling propensity over typical single-skinned membranes. However, these membranes exhibit low water fluxes of <12 LMH under 2 M NaCl draw solution. Therefore, a novel double-skinned FO membrane with a high water flux has been aimed for in this study for emulsified oil-water treatment. The double-skinned FO membrane comprises a fully porous sublayer sandwiched between (i) a truly dense skin for salt rejection and (ii) a fairly loose dense skin for emulsified oil particle rejection. The former dense skin is a polyamide synthesized via interfacial polymerization, while the latter one is a self-assembled sulfonated pentablock copolymer (Nexar copolymer) layer. The resultant double-skinned membrane exhibits a high water flux of 17.2 LMH and a low reverse salt transport of 4.85 gMH using 0.5 M NaCl as the draw solution and DI water as the feed. The double-skinned membrane outperforms the single-skinned membrane with much lower fouling propensity for emulsified oil-water separation. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

  15. Highly permeable double-skinned forward osmosis membranes for anti-fouling in the emulsified oil-water separation process

    KAUST Repository

    Duong, Hoang Hanh Phuoc

    2014-04-15

    Forward osmosis (FO) has attracted wide attention in recent years. However, the FO performance may be restricted due to internal concentration polarization (ICP) and fast fouling propensity that occurs in the membrane sublayer. Particularly, these problems significantly affect the membrane performance when treating highly contaminated oily wastewater. Recently, double-skinned flat sheet cellulose acetate (CA) membranes consisting of two selective skins via the phase inversion method have demonstrated less ICP and fouling propensity over typical single-skinned membranes. However, these membranes exhibit low water fluxes of <12 LMH under 2 M NaCl draw solution. Therefore, a novel double-skinned FO membrane with a high water flux has been aimed for in this study for emulsified oil-water treatment. The double-skinned FO membrane comprises a fully porous sublayer sandwiched between (i) a truly dense skin for salt rejection and (ii) a fairly loose dense skin for emulsified oil particle rejection. The former dense skin is a polyamide synthesized via interfacial polymerization, while the latter one is a self-assembled sulfonated pentablock copolymer (Nexar copolymer) layer. The resultant double-skinned membrane exhibits a high water flux of 17.2 LMH and a low reverse salt transport of 4.85 gMH using 0.5 M NaCl as the draw solution and DI water as the feed. The double-skinned membrane outperforms the single-skinned membrane with much lower fouling propensity for emulsified oil-water separation. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

  16. Technology of ceramic and polymeric membranes for oil/water separation; Tecnologia de membranas ceramicas e polimericas para separacao oleo/agua

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, A.A; Souto, K.M; Silva, Adriano A.; Lira, H.L.; Carvalho, L.H.; Costa, A.C.F.M. [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    In last years, separation techniques by membranes and membranes grew of a laboratory simple tool for an industrial process with a considerable technical and commercial impact. Today, membranes have been being widely used in the treatment of the oily/water, because they offer chemical, thermal resistance and resistance the pressure for a wide variety of alimentation terms. Membrane can be defined as a barrier that separates two phases and that restricts, total or partially, the transportation of one or several present chemical species in the phases. The morphology of the membrane and nature of the material that constitutes are some characteristics that are going to define application kind. The ideal structure for these filters is the asymmetric, formed by one or more layers of different pores size, with gradual reduction of the pores size, when approaches the side filtrate. Having in mind that the environmental legislations more process with membranes offers a new option to face these challenges. The membranes typically used in the oil and water separation act as a barrier for the emulsified oil and solubilization. In the petroleum production and refined oil water mixed with oil is prosecuted in great volumes in lots of processes, this mixture should be treated to separate the oil of water before it can return to the environment or even to be reused in the process. This review aims relate studies done with ceramic and polymeric membranes using a separation oil/water system mounted in laboratory scale in UFCG/CCT/ANP/PHH25. The results show that filtration membranes, micro filtration and ultrafiltration were very effective in oil/water separation. (author)

  17. Water separator for a steam turbine for nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herzog, J.; Hubble, W.S.; Woods, K.K.

    1976-01-01

    The invention concerns a water separator for the condensation of humidity from steam of the inertia type, which has an improved flow distribution and can therefore be built for large dimensions. This is achieved by variation of the dimensions of the components of the liquid separator, particularly by the configuration of the drain trough, and by the fixing of suitable impact sheets, which produce turbulence and distribute the wet steam evenly over the separator elements. There is a detailed representation with drawings. (UW) [de

  18. Studying oily sludge treatment by thermo chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Guolin

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays surfactants were used to wash oily sludge and reclaim oil. This paper presents the optimum conditions for washing oily sludge with surfactant solutions using the single factor experiment. The agents tested are AEO-9, Peregal O, TritonX-100, sodium metasilicate and sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate (DBS. In the experiments, four factors affecting residual oil rate are investigated which include liquid/solid mass rate, reaction temperature, reaction time and eluent mass fraction. Results obtained through experimental runs were compared and used to select a kind of agent, in order to get the best cleaning effect. The optimum parameters of these agents are different from others, and under the optimum conditions their treatment effects are better. And the washing effect of Na2SiO3·9H2O is best and its residual oil rate is only about 1.6%.

  19. The treatment and disposal of oily solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, R.A.D.; Noordhuis, B.R.

    1991-01-01

    Oily solids are generated as a waste product of Brunel Shell Petroleum's drilling and production activities. The main sources are waste oil based mud, tank bottom sludges, and oil contaminated soil. The oily solids are stored in a purpose built holding basin which is gradually being filled up. The need for appropriate treatment and an acceptable means of final disposal of the solids has been recognized as an item for attention in the Company's Environmental Management Plan. The paper describes the resulting feasibility study which is evaluating the relative merits of processes such as incineration, lime stabilization, and landfarming. The feasibility study is considering the quantity and properties of the solids, the environmental conditions in Brunei, the availability of treatment services in the country, and the need to define acceptable environmental criteria for the treatment and disposal methods. The way in which these factors influence the study are discussed

  20. Joint water-fat separation and deblurring for spiral imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dinghui; Zwart, Nicholas R; Pipe, James G

    2018-06-01

    Most previous approaches to spiral Dixon water-fat imaging perform the water-fat separation and deblurring sequentially based on the assumption that the phase accumulation and blurring as a result of off-resonance are separable. This condition can easily be violated in regions where the B 0 inhomogeneity varies rapidly. The goal of this work is to present a novel joint water-fat separation and deblurring method for spiral imaging. The proposed approach is based on a more accurate signal model that takes into account the phase accumulation and blurring simultaneously. A conjugate gradient method is used in the image domain to reconstruct the deblurred water and fat iteratively. Spatially varying convolutions with a local convergence criterion are used to reduce the computational demand. Both simulation and high-resolution brain imaging have demonstrated that the proposed joint method consistently improves the quality of reconstructed water and fat images compared with the sequential approach, especially in regions where the field inhomogeneity changes rapidly in space. The loss of signal-to-noise-ratio as a result of deblurring is minor at optimal echo times. High-quality water-fat spiral imaging can be achieved with the proposed joint approach, provided that an accurate field map of B 0 inhomogeneity is available. Magn Reson Med 79:3218-3228, 2018. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  1. Volumetric fat-water separated T2-weighted MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasanawala, Shreyas S.; Sonik, Arvind; Madhuranthakam, Ananth J.; Venkatesan, Ramesh; Lai, Peng; Brau, Anja C.S.

    2011-01-01

    Pediatric body MRI exams often cover multiple body parts, making the development of broadly applicable protocols and obtaining uniform fat suppression a challenge. Volumetric T2 imaging with Dixon-type fat-water separation might address this challenge, but it is a lengthy process. We develop and evaluate a faster two-echo approach to volumetric T2 imaging with fat-water separation. A volumetric spin-echo sequence was modified to include a second shifted echo so two image sets are acquired. A region-growing reconstruction approach was developed to decompose separate water and fat images. Twenty-six children were recruited with IRB approval and informed consent. Fat-suppression quality was graded by two pediatric radiologists and compared against conventional fat-suppressed fast spin-echo T2-W images. Additionally, the value of in- and opposed-phase images was evaluated. Fat suppression on volumetric images had high quality in 96% of cases (95% confidence interval of 80-100%) and were preferred over or considered equivalent to conventional two-dimensional fat-suppressed FSE T2 imaging in 96% of cases (95% confidence interval of 78-100%). In- and opposed-phase images had definite value in 12% of cases. Volumetric fat-water separated T2-weighted MRI is feasible and is likely to yield improved fat suppression over conventional fat-suppressed T2-weighted imaging. (orig.)

  2. Biological black water treatment combined with membrane separation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Voorthuizen, E.M.; Zwijnenburg, A.; van der Meer, Walterus Gijsbertus Joseph; Temmink, Hardy

    2008-01-01

    Separate treatment of black (toilet) water offers the possibility to recover energy and nutrients. In this study three combinations of biological treatment and membrane filtration were compared for their biological and membrane performance and nutrient conservation: a UASB followed by effluent

  3. Water hammer with column separation : a historical review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergant, A.; Simpson, A.R.; Tijsseling, A.S.

    2006-01-01

    Column separation refers to the breaking of liquid columns in fully filled pipelines. This may occur in a water-hammer event when the pressure in a pipeline drops to the vapor pressure at specific locations such as closed ends, high points or knees (changes in pipe slope). The liquid columns are

  4. Separation of tritiated water from water using composite membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncan, J.; Nelson, D.

    1996-01-01

    Polymeric composite membranes are being developed to remove tritium from contaminated water at DOE sites. Industrial membrane systems are being developed that have proven to be energy efficient, and membrane technologies such as reverse-osmosis have been well developed for desalination and other industrial/municipal applications. Aromatic polyphosphazene membranes are being investigated because they have excellent radiological, thermal, and chemical stability. The FY 1996 effort is directed toward delineating a potential mechanism, providing a statistical approach to data acquisition, refining a mass balance, and designing a staged array module

  5. Reliability Omnipotent Analysis For First Stage Separator On The Separation Process Of Gas, Oil And Water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sony Tjahyani, D. T.; Ismu W, Puradwi; Asmara Santa, Sigit

    2001-01-01

    Reliability of industry can be evaluated based on two aspects which are risk and economic aspects. From these points, optimation value can be determined optimation value. Risk of the oil refinery process are fire and explosion, so assessment of this system must be done. One system of the oil refinery process is first stage separator which is used to separate gas, oil and water. Evaluation of reliability for first stage separator system has been done with FAMECA and HAZap method. The analysis results, the probability of fire and explosion of 1.1x10 - 2 3 /hour and 1.2x10 - 1 1 /hour, respectively. The reliability value of the system is high because each undesired event is anticipated with safety system or safety component

  6. The separation of stable water-in-oil emulsions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velicogna, D.; Koundakjiian, A.; Beausejour, I.

    1993-01-01

    Stable oil-in-water emulsions are a major problem in the recovery of spilled oils. Such emulsions can contain as little as 10% oil and can have properties very different from the original oils, making their storage and disposal difficult. These problems have led to experiments testing the feasibility of a process for separating these stable emulsions into dischargeable water and reusable oil. The technique investigated involves use of a recyclable solvent to remove the oil and subsequent distillation and/or membrane treatment to recover the oil and recycle the solvent. Results of preliminary tests show that stable water-in-oil emulsions can be separated quite readily with a regenerated solvent system. The only products of these systems are oil, which can be sent to a refinery, and dischargeable water. The recycled solvent can be used many times without any significant decrease in separation efficiency. In order to enhance the throughput of the system, a solvent vapor stripping method was invented. This stripping method also improves the quality of the products and the recycled solvent. Membrane methods can be used as a post-treatment for the produced water in order to achieve more adequate compliance with discharge limits. 4 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs

  7. Photoelectrochemical water splitting in separate oxygen and hydrogen cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landman, Avigail; Dotan, Hen; Shter, Gennady E.; Wullenkord, Michael; Houaijia, Anis; Maljusch, Artjom; Grader, Gideon S.; Rothschild, Avner

    2017-06-01

    Solar water splitting provides a promising path for sustainable hydrogen production and solar energy storage. One of the greatest challenges towards large-scale utilization of this technology is reducing the hydrogen production cost. The conventional electrolyser architecture, where hydrogen and oxygen are co-produced in the same cell, gives rise to critical challenges in photoelectrochemical water splitting cells that directly convert solar energy and water to hydrogen. Here we overcome these challenges by separating the hydrogen and oxygen cells. The ion exchange in our cells is mediated by auxiliary electrodes, and the cells are connected to each other only by metal wires, enabling centralized hydrogen production. We demonstrate hydrogen generation in separate cells with solar-to-hydrogen conversion efficiency of 7.5%, which can readily surpass 10% using standard commercial components. A basic cost comparison shows that our approach is competitive with conventional photoelectrochemical systems, enabling safe and potentially affordable solar hydrogen production.

  8. A review of the technological solutions for the treatment of oily sludges from petroleum refineries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Leonardo Jordão; Alves, Flávia Chaves; de França, Francisca Pessôa

    2012-10-01

    The activities of the oil industry have several impacts on the environment due to the large amounts of oily wastes that are generated. The oily sludges are a semi-solid material composed by a mixture of clay, silica and iron oxides contaminated with oil, produced water and the chemicals used in the production of oil. Nowadays both the treatment and management of these waste materials is essential to promote sustainable management of exploration and exploitation of natural resources. Biological, physical and chemical processes can be used to reduce environmental contamination by petroleum hydrocarbons to acceptable levels. The choice of treatment method depends on the physical and chemical properties of the waste as well as the availability of facilities to process these wastes. Literature provides some operations for treatment of oily sludges, such as landfilling, incineration, co-processing in clinkerization furnaces, microwave liquefaction, centrifugation, destructive distillation, thermal plasma, low-temperature conversion, incorporation in ceramic materials, development of impermeable materials, encapsulation and biodegradation in land farming, biopiles and bioreactors. The management of the technology to be applied for the treatment of oily wastes is essential to promote proper environmental management, and provide alternative methods to reduce, reuse and recycle the wastes.

  9. Tightening water quality regulations produces an innovative separation technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welther, P.B.; Broussard, P.C.

    1994-01-01

    The impact of the recent proposed changes in the water quality standards for offshore producing platforms is having a far reaching effect on the oil and gas industry. At a time when oil companies are cutting back their work forces and reducing capital outlays in order to stay competitive in the market, water treatment equipment manufacturing companies are aggressively seeking innovative and cost effective solutions to meet the environmental requirements. Necessity drives advancements in technology, so Monosep Corporation has accepted the challenge to improve induced gas flotation technology and to develop enhanced gravity separation. This system of improved gas flotation and enhanced gravity separation can be used to consistently meet the proposed new guideline of an ''oil and grease'' maximum monthly average of 29 mg/l (milligrams per liter) in the discharged water from offshore platforms. The results demonstrated in the field suggest that adding enhanced gravity separation upstream of existing gas flotation units can improve performance sufficient to meet the Proposed stricter discharge limits. For platforms that do not have efficient gas flotation units, the old units can be replaced or modified to include the new features improved gas flotation technology like the Veirsep. For those few platforms are having difficulty meeting the current discharge requirements, both a new improved gas flotation unit, as well as a more sophisticated upstream gravity separator like the Cyclosep, may need to be installed. Chemical additives are sometimes a required necessity, but must be used sparingly due to the potential for creating soluble oil problems

  10. Separation of tritiated water using graphene oxide membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sevigny, Gary J. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Motkuri, Radha K. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Gotthold, David W. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Fifield, Leonard S. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Frost, Anthony P. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Bratton, Wesley [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-06-28

    In future nuclear fuel reprocessing plants and possibly for nuclear power plants, the cleanup of tritiated water will be needed for hundreds of thousands of gallons of water with low activities of tritium. This cleanup concept utilizes graphene oxide laminar membranes (GOx) for the separation of low-concentration (10-3-10 µCi/g) tritiated water to create water that can be released to the environment and a much smaller waste stream with higher tritium concentrations. Graphene oxide membranes consist of hierarchically stacked, overlapping molecular layers and represent a new class of materials. A permeation rate test was performed with a 2-µm-thick cast Asbury membrane using mixed gas permeability testing with zero air (highly purified atmosphere) and with air humidified with either H2O or D2O to a nominal 50% relative humidity. The membrane permeability for both H2O and D2O was high with N2 and O2 at the system measurement limit. The membrane water permeation rate was compared to a Nafion® membrane and the GOx permeation was approximately twice as high at room temperature. The H2O vapor permeation rate was 5.9 × 102 cc/m2/min (1.2 × 10-6 g/min-cm2), which is typical for graphene oxide membranes. To demonstrate the feasibility of such isotopic water separation through GOX laminar membranes, an experimental setup was constructed to use pressure-driven separation by heating the isotopic water mixture at one side of the membrane to create steam while cooling the other side. Several membranes were tested and were prepared using different starting materials and by different pretreatment methods. The average separation result was 0.8 for deuterium and 0.6 for tritium. Higher or lower temperatures may also improve separation efficiency but neither has been tested yet. A rough estimate of cost compared to current technology was also included as an indication of potential viability of the process. The relative process costs were based on the rough size of facility to

  11. Improvement of steam separator in boiling water reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaefer, Jan Peter; Cremer, Ingo; Lorenz, Maik [AREVA GmbH, Erlangen (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    The potential to improve the function of the steam separator is identified and explored by scaled air-water tests and validated CFD calculations. It can be outlined that requirements on a modern steam separator for BWR plants will be fulfilled, combined with very good operational experience of the existing separator designs (e.g. material, layout). With the new steam separator design, modern high performance fuel assembly designs can be used for various core loading strategies (e.g. low leakage). This allows an increased thermal power of up to +50 % for the fuel element clusters in the center of the core with high radial peaking factors. In addition, any problems with unallowable high moisture at the turbine are solved with the new design, which have been identified for running BWR plants with the old steam separator design after applying new core loading patterns (e.g. after power uprates). A compatible steam separator design for all running BWRs is ready to launch. (orig.)

  12. PROJECT OF POLLUTANTS SEPARATOR FROM THE GAS STATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Kościelnik

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Oily wastewater are dangerous for the environment, because they can contaminate ground water or surface, which can lead to contamination of the biosystem or poisoning of humans and animals. The treatment plant of this kind may include petroleum products or substances derived from natural gas, crude oil, asphalt or natural wax. Of course, in the wastewater oily you cannot forget about vegetable oils used in catering. Waste water of this type to be cleaned are subjected to the following processes: flotation, sedimentation, filtration, flowing out, thermal methods, biodegradation, adsorption or chemical and thermal methods to destabilize the emulsion. The aim of this study was to design a separator pollution from the gas station. We present the investment and operating costs. In designing the system chosen individual process units based on the requirements of the quality of wastewater specified in PN - EU 858.

  13. Deuterium isotope separation factor between hydrogen and liquid water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rolston, J.H.; den Hartog, J.; Butler, J.P.

    1976-01-01

    The overall deuterium isotope separation factor between hydrogen and liquid water, α, has been measured directly for the first time between 280 and 370 0 K. The data are in good agreement with values of α calculated from literature data on the equilibrium constant for isotopic exchange between hydrogen and water vapor, K 1 , and the liquid-vapor separation factor, α/sub V/. The temperature dependence of α over the range 273-473 0 K based upon these new experimental results and existing literature data is given by the equation ln α = -0.2143 + (368.9/T) + (27,870/T 2 ). Measurements on α/sub V/ given in the literature have been surveyed and the results are summarized over the same temperature range by the equation ln α/sub V/ = 0.0592 - (80.3/T) +

  14. Tritium separation from light and heavy water by bipolar electrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramey, D.W.; Petek, M.; Taylor, R.D.; Kobisk, E.H.; Ramey, J.; Sampson, C.A.

    1979-10-01

    Use of bipolar electrolysis with countercurrent electrolyte flow to separate hydrogen isotopes was investigated for the removal of tritium from light water effluents or from heavy water moderator. Deuterium-tritium and protium-tritium separation factors occurring on a Pd-25% Ag bipolar electrode were measured to be 2.05 to 2.16 and 11.6 to 12.4 respectively, at current densities between 0.21 and 0.50 A cm -2 , and at 35 to 90 0 C. Current densities up to 0.3 A cm -2 have been achieved in continuous operation, at 80 to 90 0 C, without significant gas formation on the bipolar electrodes. From the measured overvoltage at the bipolar electrodes and the electrolyte conductivity the power consumption per stage was calculated to be 3.0 kwh/kg H 2 O at 0.2 A cm -2 and 5.0 kwh/kg H 2 O at 0.5 A cm -2 current density, compared to 6.4 and 8.0 kwh/kg H 2 O for normal electrolysis. A mathematical model derived for hydrogen isotope separation by bipolar electrolysis, i.e., for a square cascade, accurately describes the results for protium-tritium separation in two laboratory scale, multistage experiments with countercurrent electrolyte flow; the measured tiritum concentration gradient through the cascade agreed with the calculated values

  15. Selective intake of down-pit water and separating potable water from water-bearing seams at the Rydultowy mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musiolik, H; Sikora, A; Murek, R

    1987-06-01

    Discusses problems of pit water selection. Describes the method of water intake, down-pit transport, pumping the separated potable water and its treatment at the Rydultowy mine. Stresses the usefulness of pit water selection in view of the existing shortage of potable water. Geologic and mining conditions at the mine are described along with the amount of water influx into the mine. Advantages arising from mine water utilization are outlined.

  16. Experimental and computational investigation of polyacrylonitrile ultrafiltration membrane for industrial oily wastewater treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adib Hooman; Hassanajili, Shadi; Sheikhi-Kouhsar, Mohammad Reza; Salahi, Abdolhamid; Mohammadi, Toraj

    2015-01-01

    An experimental study on separation of industrial oil from oily wastewater has been done. A polyacrylonitrile membrane with a molecular weight cut-off (MWCO) of 20 kDa was used and an outlet wastewater of API unit of Tehran refinery was employed. The main purpose of this study was to develop a support vector machine model for permeation flux decline and fouling resistance in a cross-flow hydrophilic polyacrylonitrile membrane during ultrafiltration. The operating conditions which have been applied to develop a support vector machine model were transmembrane pressure (TMP), operating temperature, cross flow velocity (CFV), pH values of oily wastewater, permeation flux decline and fouling resistance. The testing results obtained by the support vector machine models are in very good agreement with experimental data. The calculated squared correlation coefficients for permeation flux decline and fouling resistance were both 0.99. Based on the results, the support vector machine proved to be a reliable accurate estimation method

  17. Experimental and computational investigation of polyacrylonitrile ultrafiltration membrane for industrial oily wastewater treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adib Hooman; Hassanajili, Shadi; Sheikhi-Kouhsar, Mohammad Reza [Shiraz University, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Salahi, Abdolhamid; Mohammadi, Toraj [Iran University of Science and Technology (IUST), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-01-15

    An experimental study on separation of industrial oil from oily wastewater has been done. A polyacrylonitrile membrane with a molecular weight cut-off (MWCO) of 20 kDa was used and an outlet wastewater of API unit of Tehran refinery was employed. The main purpose of this study was to develop a support vector machine model for permeation flux decline and fouling resistance in a cross-flow hydrophilic polyacrylonitrile membrane during ultrafiltration. The operating conditions which have been applied to develop a support vector machine model were transmembrane pressure (TMP), operating temperature, cross flow velocity (CFV), pH values of oily wastewater, permeation flux decline and fouling resistance. The testing results obtained by the support vector machine models are in very good agreement with experimental data. The calculated squared correlation coefficients for permeation flux decline and fouling resistance were both 0.99. Based on the results, the support vector machine proved to be a reliable accurate estimation method.

  18. Separation of radionuclides from water by magnesium oxide adsorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tseng, Chia-Lian; Lo, Jem-Mau; Yeh, Si-Jung

    1987-01-01

    Adsorption by magnesium oxide of more than forty radionuclides in respective ionic species in water was observed. Generally, the radionuclides in di-valent and/or multi-valent cations are favorably adsorbed by magnesium oxide; but not for the those in mono-valent cations. In addition, the adsorption by magnesium oxide was not effective to most of the radionuclides in negative ionic species. From the observations, the adsorption mechanism is more prominently by the ion exchange of the di- or multi-valent cation species with the hydrous magnesium oxide. Separation of the radionuclides related to the corrosion products possibly produced in a nuclear power plant from natural seawater was attempted by the magnesium oxide adsorption method. It should be emphasized that the adsorption method was found to be practical for separating radionuclides from a large quantity of natural seawater with high recovery and high reproducibility. (author)

  19. Separation of hydrogen isotope by hydrogen-water exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isomura, Shohei; Kaetsu, Hayato; Nakane, Ryohei

    1979-01-01

    The deuterium exchange reaction between gaseous hydrogen and liquid water is studied by use of three kinds of trickle bed exchange columns packed with hydrophobic catalysts supporting platinum. All columns have the effective lengths of 30 cm. They are 17 mm, 30 mm, and 95 mm in diameters, respectively. The separation experiments are carried out by the once-through methods. The separation efficiencies of the columns are evaluated by the parameters such as the height equivalent to a theoretical plate (H. E. T. P.) and the mass transfer co-efficient. It is found that the operating condition of the exchange column is optimum when the superficial hydrogen flow velocity is 0.3 m/sec. (author)

  20. Separating decadal global water cycle variability from sea level rise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlington, B D; Reager, J T; Lo, M-H; Karnauskas, K B; Leben, R R

    2017-04-20

    Under a warming climate, amplification of the water cycle and changes in precipitation patterns over land are expected to occur, subsequently impacting the terrestrial water balance. On global scales, such changes in terrestrial water storage (TWS) will be reflected in the water contained in the ocean and can manifest as global sea level variations. Naturally occurring climate-driven TWS variability can temporarily obscure the long-term trend in sea level rise, in addition to modulating the impacts of sea level rise through natural periodic undulation in regional and global sea level. The internal variability of the global water cycle, therefore, confounds both the detection and attribution of sea level rise. Here, we use a suite of observations to quantify and map the contribution of TWS variability to sea level variability on decadal timescales. In particular, we find that decadal sea level variability centered in the Pacific Ocean is closely tied to low frequency variability of TWS in key areas across the globe. The unambiguous identification and clean separation of this component of variability is the missing step in uncovering the anthropogenic trend in sea level and understanding the potential for low-frequency modulation of future TWS impacts including flooding and drought.

  1. The Use of Demulsifiers for Separating Water from Anthracene Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zečević, N.

    2008-03-01

    , causes the phenomenon of cavitations.In the oil-furnace carbon black plant of Petrokemija d. d. Kutina, the storage tank TK48003, was filled with 800 tons of anthracene oil. The average water fraction in the tank was w = 10·10 –2. It was impossible to manipulate in the process of production, because the mentioned water fraction caused the cavitations effect. Therefore, it was necessary to decrease the water fraction to below w = 2.0·10 –2, which will be satisfactory for production.As the water and anthracene oil formed a homogeneous emulsion (similar density at all temperatures, it was impossible to manage decanting the water from the anthracene oil. Additionally, it was impossible to manage evaporation of the water from the oil by heating the whole emulsion,because the flash point of anthracene oil is in the temperature range of T = 100 to 105 °C. Distillation of the whole emulsion of 800 tons was also impossible, because there was no distillation column adequate for separating the water from the anthracene oil. Thus, the use of different demulsifiers proved as a potential solution for separating the homogeneous mixture of anthracene oil and water. Namely, demulsifiers are a special type of high molecular tensides and organic solvents, which serve for separation the water from different hydrocarbons.The most common use is in emulsions with “lighter” hydrocarbons, especially when the density is not above r=0.850 g cm–3. Since the density of anthracene oil ranges from r=1.05 to 1.09 g cm–3, it was necessary to customise the conditions of application, and to choose the mostadequate demulsifier for the separation of water from anthracene oil. Therefore, we experimented with different kinds of demulsifiers in cooperation with the companies TEH PROJEKT KEMO d. o. o. and KEM PROJEKT d. o. o. In laboratory conditions, we tested five different demulsifiers with different concentrations, and their efficiency in separating the water from anthracene oil. We then

  2. Numerical Study of Water Control with Downhole Oil-Water Separation Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin Khor Yin

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The maturing oil fields with increasing water production can pose a challenging produced water handling and disposal issues. This paper presents a numerical study of a motorless hydrocyclone to enhance understanding of the downhole oil-water separation. The turbulence of fluid flow is obtained using K-ε Realizable Turbulence model for complex swirl dominated flow, while the interface between hydrocarbon and water is described using the Discrete Phase model. In this approach, factors which contribute to the hydrocyclone separation instability were discussed. Discussion is then extended to the relationship of residence time with pressure difference between overflow and underflow. These pressure differences are able to relate to pressure condition for high water cut well which require downhole separation.

  3. Separation and extraction device for mixed radioactive waste water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamachi, Kimio; Takebe, Tsukasa.

    1989-01-01

    The separation device for radioactive sludges comprises cyclone separators each made of conical vessel and arranged in a plurality of stages in series, in which only oils of low density are extracted at the initial stage and heavy sludges are separated from a mixture of water and sludges in the succeeding stage. When sludges are injected at high velocity to the conical vessel in the tangential direction at the edge thereof. The heavy components in the sewage sludges move from the central portion to the outer circumference of the voltex flow and impinge against the inner wall of the vessel. If the vessel is a cylindrical shape or such a shape having a small slope spproximate to that of a cylinder and has short length, the entire portion is swirled and the heavy components are deposited to the inner circumference of the cylinder of the centrifugal force making it difficult for discharge. However, in a vessel of conical shape, since the inner wall of the vessel is inclined, the stream is directed downward by the vertical component thereof and only the heavy components move selectively downward. Thus the size of the device is reduced as a whole and the consumption of filter is reduced. (N.H.)

  4. Electrospun magnetically separable calcium ferrite nanofibers for photocatalytic water purification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EL-Rafei, A.M.; El-Kalliny, Amer S.; Gad-Allah, Tarek A.

    2017-01-01

    Three-dimensional random calcium ferrite, CaFe 2 O 4 , nanofibers (NFs) were successfully prepared via the electrospinning method. The effect of calcination temperature on the characteristics of the as-spun NFs was investigated. X-ray diffraction analysis showed that CaFe 2 O 4 phase crystallized as a main phase at 700 °C and as a sole phase at 1000 °C. Field emission scanning electron microscopy emphasized that CaFe 2 O 4 NFs were fabricated with diameters in the range of 50–150 nm and each fiber was composed of 20–50 nm grains. Magnetic hysteresis loops revealed superparamagnetic behavior for the prepared NFs. These NFs produced active hydroxyl radicals under simulated solar light irradiation making them recommendable for photocatalysis applications in water purification. In the meantime, these NFs can be easily separated from the treated water by applying an external magnetic field. - Highlights: • Three-dimensional porous random CaFe 2 O 4 NFs were successfully produced via electrospinning method. • These NFs exhibited typical superparamagnetic behavior for the ferromagnetic materials. • The low band-gap energy of these NFs (~1.6 eV) allows them to absorb a wide range of the solar spectrum. • These NFs can produce the active • OH under solar light and can be recovered easily by applying an external magnetic field. • These NFs can be used solely as magnetically separable photocatalyst or as magnetic additive for another photocatalyst.

  5. Item reduction and psychometric validation of the Oily Skin Self Assessment Scale (OSSAS) and the Oily Skin Impact Scale (OSIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbuckle, Robert; Clark, Marci; Harness, Jane; Bonner, Nicola; Scott, Jane; Draelos, Zoe; Rizer, Ronald; Yeh, Yating; Copley-Merriman, Kati

    2009-01-01

    Developed using focus groups, the Oily Skin Self Assessment Scale (OSSAS) and Oily Skin Impact Scale (OSIS) are patient-reported outcome measures of oily facial skin. The aim of this study was to finalize the item-scale structure of the instruments and perform psychometric validation in adults with self-reported oily facial skin. The OSSAS and OSIS were administered to 202 adult subjects with oily facial skin in the United States. A subgroup of 152 subjects returned, 4 to 10 days later, for test–retest reliability evaluation. Of the 202 participants, 72.8% were female; 64.4% had self-reported nonsevere acne. Item reduction resulted in a 14-item OSSAS with Sensation (five items), Tactile (four items) and Visual (four items) domains, a single blotting item, and an overall oiliness item. The OSIS was reduced to two three-item domains assessing Annoyance and Self-Image. Confirmatory factor analysis supported the construct validity of the final item-scale structures. The OSSAS and OSIS scales had acceptable item convergent validity (item-scale correlations >0.40) and floor and ceiling effects (skin severity (P skin (P skin), as assessments of self-reported oily facial skin severity and its emotional impact, respectively.

  6. Upgrading of technology of absorptive cleaning of oily wastewaters

    OpenAIRE

    Pavluh, L. I .

    2013-01-01

    Oily wastewater treatment technology is improved through the improvement of the absorptive properties of sorbents based on plant waste. The cost of flowsheets for treatment of wastewaters contaminated with oil products is presented.

  7. Electrospun magnetically separable calcium ferrite nanofibers for photocatalytic water purification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    EL-Rafei, A.M., E-mail: am.amin@nrc.sci.eg [Refractories, Ceramics and Building Materials Department, National Research Centre, 33 EL Bohouth St. (former EL Tahrir St.), P.O. 12622, Dokki, Giza (Egypt); El-Kalliny, Amer S.; Gad-Allah, Tarek A. [Water Pollution Research Department, National Research Centre, 33 EL Bohouth St. (former EL Tahrir St.), P.O. 12622, Dokki, Giza (Egypt)

    2017-04-15

    Three-dimensional random calcium ferrite, CaFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}, nanofibers (NFs) were successfully prepared via the electrospinning method. The effect of calcination temperature on the characteristics of the as-spun NFs was investigated. X-ray diffraction analysis showed that CaFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} phase crystallized as a main phase at 700 °C and as a sole phase at 1000 °C. Field emission scanning electron microscopy emphasized that CaFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} NFs were fabricated with diameters in the range of 50–150 nm and each fiber was composed of 20–50 nm grains. Magnetic hysteresis loops revealed superparamagnetic behavior for the prepared NFs. These NFs produced active hydroxyl radicals under simulated solar light irradiation making them recommendable for photocatalysis applications in water purification. In the meantime, these NFs can be easily separated from the treated water by applying an external magnetic field. - Highlights: • Three-dimensional porous random CaFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} NFs were successfully produced via electrospinning method. • These NFs exhibited typical superparamagnetic behavior for the ferromagnetic materials. • The low band-gap energy of these NFs (~1.6 eV) allows them to absorb a wide range of the solar spectrum. • These NFs can produce the active {sup •} OH under solar light and can be recovered easily by applying an external magnetic field. • These NFs can be used solely as magnetically separable photocatalyst or as magnetic additive for another photocatalyst.

  8. WATER-GAS SHIFT WITH INTEGRATED HYDROGEN SEPARATION; A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maria Flytzani-Stephanopoulos; Jerry Meldon; Xiaomei Qi

    2001-01-01

    Optimization of the water-gas shift (WGS) reaction system for hydrogen production for fuel cells is of particular interest to the energy industry. To this end, it is desirable to couple the WGS reaction to hydrogen separation using a semi-permeable membrane, with both processes carried out at high temperature to improve reaction kinetics. Reduced equilibrium conversion of the WGS reaction at high temperatures is overcome by product H(sub 2) removal via the membrane. This project involves fundamental research and development of novel cerium oxide-based catalysts for the water-gas-shift reaction and the integration of these catalysts with Pd-alloy H(sub 2)-separation membranes supplying high purity hydrogen for fuel cell use. Conditions matching the requirements of coal gasifier-exit gas streams will be examined in the project. In the first year of the project, we prepared a series of nanostructured Cu- and Fe-containing ceria catalysts by a special gelation/precipitation technique followed by air calcination at 650 C. Each sample was characterized by ICP for elemental composition analysis, BET-N2 desorption for surface area measurement, and by temperature-programmed reduction in H(sub 2) to evaluate catalyst reducibility. Screening WGS tests with catalyst powders were conducted in a flow microreactor at temperatures in the range of 200-550 C. On the basis of both activity and stability of catalysts in simulated coal gas, and in CO(sub 2)-rich gases, a Cu-CeO(sub 2) catalyst formulation was selected for further study in this project. Details from the catalyst development and testing work are given in this report. Also in this report, we present H(sub 2) permeation data collected with unsupported flat membranes of pure Pd and Pd-alloys over a wide temperature window

  9. Feasibility evaluation of downhole oil/water separator (DOWS) technology.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veil, J. A.; Langhus, B. G.; Belieu, S.

    1999-01-31

    The largest volume waste stream associated with oil and gas production is produced water. A survey conducted by the American Petroleum Institute estimated that 20.9 billion barrels of produced water were disposed of in 1985 (Wakim 1987). Of this total, 91% was disposed of through disposal wells or was injected for enhanced oil recovery projects. Treatment and disposal of produced water represents a significant cost for operators. A relatively new technology, downhole oil/water separators (DOWS), has been developed to reduce the cost of handling produced water. DOWS separate oil and gas from produced water at the bottom of the well and reinject some of the produced water into another formation or another horizon within the same formation, while the oil and gas are pumped to the surface. Since much of the produced water is not pumped to the surface, treated, and pumped from the surface back into a deep formation, the cost of handling produced water is greatly reduced. When DOWS are used, additional oil may be recovered as well. In cases where surface processing or disposal capacity is a limiting factor for further production within a field, the use of DOWS to dispose of some of the produced water can allow additional production within that field. Simultaneous injection using DOWS minimizes the opportunity for contamination of underground sources of drinking water (USDWs) through leaks in tubing and casing during the injection process. This report uses the acronym 'DOWS' although the technology may also be referred to as DHOWS or as dual injection and lifting systems (DIALS). Simultaneous injection using DOWS has the potential to profoundly influence the domestic oil industry. The technology has been shown to work in limited oil field applications in the United States and Canada. Several technical papers describing DOWS have been presented at oil and gas industry conferences, but for the most part, the information on the DOWS technology has not been widely

  10. The removal of phenols from oily wastewater by chlorine dioxide

    OpenAIRE

    Hsu, Chung-Jung

    1988-01-01

    Treatability studies were performed on oily wastewaters produced by petroleum and canning industries. Chlorine dioxide was used for the removal of phenolic compounds from these oily wastewaters. Most of phenolic compounds can be destroyed by chlorine dioxide within 15 minutes if CI02-to-phenol ratios of higher than 5.0 are provided. Factors such as pH, temperature, and COD have little effect on phenol removal. The effectiveness of chlorine dioxide treatment depends critic...

  11. 40 CFR 60.692-3 - Standards: Oil-water separators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards: Oil-water separators. 60.692... Emissions From Petroleum Refinery Wastewater Systems § 60.692-3 Standards: Oil-water separators. (a) Each oil-water separator tank, slop oil tank, storage vessel, or other auxiliary equipment subject to the...

  12. Separation and determination of dimethylarsenate in natural waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Issa Nureddin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple and efficient method for separation and determination of dimethylarsenate DMAs(V was developed in this work. Two resins, a strong base anion exchange (SBAE resin and iron-oxide coated hybrid (HY resin were tested. By simple adjusting pH value of water at 7.00, DMAs(V passed through the HY column without any changes, while all other arsenic species [inorganic arsenic and monomethylarsonate, MMAs(V] were quantitatively bonded on HY resin. The resin capacity was calculated according to the breakthrough points in a fixed bed flow system. At pH 7.00 the HY resins bonded more than 4150 μg g-1 of As(III, 3500 μg g-1 of As(V and 1500 μg g1 of MMAs(V. Arsenic adsorption behavior in the presence of impurities showed tolerance with the respect to potential interference of anions commonly found in natural water. DMAs(V was determined in the effluent by ICP-MS. The detection limit was 0.03 μg L?1 and relative standard deviation (RSD was between 1.1?7.5 %. Proposed method was established performing standard procedures: with external standard, certified reference material and the standard addition method.

  13. Tritium separation from light and heavy water by bipolar electrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petek, M.; Ramey, D.W.; Taylor, R.D.

    1981-01-01

    Using multiple bipolar electrolytic separation of hydrogen isotopes with Pd-25%Ag electrodes, the mathematical feasibility of this method for tritium separation was shown and experimentally verified. Separation factors were measured on single bipolar electrodes and were found to be approximately equivalent to those associated with individual ordinary electrolytic systems. Multibipolar separations were experimentally achieved in single cascaded cells in which each bipolar electrode was of equal area to others in a series arrangement. Factors measured for multibipolar H-D separation were close to the values measured in single-stage cell measurements; for H-T separation, interstage leakage reduced the measured separation factor. However, in both cases separation of sufficient magnitude was achieved to show feasibility for real application to the extraction of tritium from large-volume systems at high current density. (author)

  14. Green technological approach to synthesis hydrophobic stable crystalline calcite particles with one-pot synthesis for oil-water separation during oil spill cleanup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Min-Nan; Maity, Jyoti Prakash; Bundschuh, Jochen; Li, Che-Feng; Lee, Chin-Rong; Hsu, Chun-Mei; Lee, Wen-Chien; Huang, Chung-Ho; Chen, Chien-Yen

    2017-10-15

    The process of separating oil and water from oil/water mixtures is an attractive strategy to answer the menace caused by industrial oil spills and oily wastewater. In addition, water coproduced during hydrocarbon exploitation, which can be an economic burden and risk for freshwater resources, can become an important freshwater source after suitable water-oil separation. For oil-water separation purposes, considerable attention has been paid to the preparation of hydrophobic-oleophilic materials with modified surface roughness. However, due to issues of thermodynamic instability, costly and complex methods as well as lack of ecofriendly compounds, most of hydrophobic surface modified particles are of limited practical application. The study presents a facile procedure, to synthesize crystalline particles of calcite, which is the most stable polymorph of CaCO 3 from industrial CaCO 3 using oleic acid as an additive in a one-pot synthesis method. The XRD results show that the synthesized particles were a well-crystallized form of calcite. The FTIR results reflect the appearance of the alkyl groups from the oleic acid in synthesized particles which promotes the production of calcite with 'rice shape' (1.64 μm) (aggregated by spherical nanoparticle of 19.56 nm) morphology with concomitant changes in its surface wettability from hydrophilic to hydrophobic. The synthesized particles exhibited near to super hydrophobicity with ∼99% active ratio and a contact angle of 143.8°. The synthesized hydrophobic calcite particles had an oleophilic nature where waste diesel oil adsorption capacity of synthesized calcium carbonate (HCF) showed a very high (>99%) and fast (7 s) oil removal from oil-water mixture. The functional group of long alkyl chain including of CO bounds may play critical roles for adsorption of diesel oils. Moreover, the thermodynamically stable crystalline polymorph calcite (compared to vaterite) exhibited excellent recyclability. The isothermal study

  15. Floated oil is separated and is recovered; Fujoyu wo bunri{center_dot}kaishu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    The Nisseki MITSUBISHI developed the separation of the oil of the oiliness cutting oil which arose by machine tools, etc. in Kowa Mtech and cooperation jointly with recovery equipment. The same equipment is made to be sales promotion tool of the lubricating oil in the name of [YUNI-CLEAN] and the sole agent sells the Nisseki MITSUBISHI. The price is opened. The result of using the same equipment for besides the recovery of contamination oil which accumulates in tanks such as the machine tool using water-soluble lubricating oil recovery of floated oil of oil separating tank of the waste water treatment process, etc.. (translated by NEDO)

  16. Treatment of offshore produced water - an effective membrane process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, J.; Larson, R.; Scherer, B.

    1991-01-01

    The conference paper describes a new membrane technology being extremely effective in separating hydrocarbons from water streams. The membrane is composed of a completely natural cellulose and is resistant to all hydrocarbons and organic solvents, and preliminary tests have shown that it is resistant to fouling by oily molecules and calcium scaling. The membrane system being designed shows good potential for the treatment of offshore produced water with a hydrocarbon content well within present and emerging standards. 6 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs

  17. A preliminary investigation of the impact of oily skin on quality of life and concordance of self-perceived skin oiliness and skin surface lipids (sebum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Y; Niu, Y; Zhong, S; Liu, H; Zhen, Y; Saint-Leger, D; Verschoore, M

    2013-10-01

    This preliminary study investigated both the impact of oily skin on quality of life (QoL) and the agreement between subjective oily skin self-assessment and objective skin surface sebum measurement in young to middle-aged Chinese women in Beijing. A 18-item Chinese version of the Oily Skin Self-Image Questionnaire (OSSIQ) was used to assess the impact of oily skin on QoL in 300 healthy female subjects (age groups: 20-25; 26-30; 31-35,). The subjects were divided equally into the oily skin group and the non-oily skin group based on their self-perception of skin oiliness. The level of skin surface lipids (SSL) was measured on the middle of the forehead, and both cheeks using the Sebumeter(®). In order to assess the agreement between self-perceived skin oiliness and measured SSL, we tentatively used the SSL median value as a dividing point to regroup all subjects. The results indicate that the Chinese version of the OSSIQ distinguished the oily skin group from the non-oily skin group. Subjects in the oily skin group had significant higher emotional status score and behavior score when compared with subjects in the non-oily skin group. Subjects in the oily skin group had higher SSL when compared with subjects in the non-oily skin group, especially in younger age groups. The agreement between self-perceived skin oiliness and measured SSL was moderately strong in younger age groups, and declined with age. These results strongly suggest that having oily skin can cause a significant negative impact on QoL among Chinese women. The Chinese version of the OSSIQ is a reliable and valid tool for assessing the impact of oily skin on QoL. The accuracy of oily skin self-assessment declines with age. © 2013 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  18. Radionuclide separations and processing for defense water management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fryberger, T.B.

    1993-01-01

    An overview is given of the Department of Energy's Efficient Separations and Processing Integrated Program (ESPIP). This program sponsors research in advanced chemical separations for removal of radionuclides and hazardous components from radioactive defense wastes. Separations processing will reduce the volume of high-level waste that must be disposed of in a deep geological repository and will improve the quality of low-level wastes acceptable for near-surface disposal. DOE defense complex processing needs as well as technologies that are currently under development in the program are discussed

  19. Speciation and phase separation of water in quartz (A review ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    By sp3-hybridization of electron bonds, the water molecule exhibits a tetrahedral charged structure, leading to various water point defects in the form of substitution of ... The formation of combined defect [SiO4]-H2O-M+ [M3+O4] upon water speciation (M+ is metallic ion), is an indication of the presence of hydrous species.

  20. Treatment of emulsified oily wastewater by commercial scale electrocoagulation at Vancouver shipyards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephenson, R.J.; Tennant, B.D. [McKay Creek Technologies Ltd., North Vancouver, BC (Canada); Hartle, D.R. [Vancouver Shipping Co. Ltd., BC (Canada); Stuckert, B. [Quantum Environmental Group, Richmond, BC (Canada)

    2002-06-01

    Some of the emulsified oily wastewater generated by the Washington Marine Group fleet and the Vancouver shipyards are from sources such as bilge water, tank wash water from gas freeing operations, ballast water, and wastewater from pressure washing equipment. The Washington Marine Group is the largest shipbuilding, ship maintenance and repair, and marine transportation company in Canada, a group to which McKay Creek Technologies belongs. A investigation was performed in an attempt to find commercially viable means of treating this wastewater. McKay Creek Technologies developed its own cleaning process. Electrocoagulation is a process based on the use of an electrical current in an electrochemical cell to coagulate contaminants in wastewater. With three years of experience gained by treating the wastewater of the Washington Marine Group operations at Vancouver shipyards using this technology, McKay Creek Technologies has found ways to treat emulsified oily wastewater simply and effectively. It has been determined that electrocoagulation is an effective treatment method for emulsified oils, poly-nuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), poorly settling solids, poorly soluble organics, contaminants which add turbidity to water, and negatively charged metal species like arsenic, molybdenum, and phosphate. A brief history of electrocoagulation was provided, and the authors explained the process and how it was applied to the situation at Vancouver shipyards. 2 refs., 5 tabs., 1 fig.

  1. Apparatus for the separation of water from water-steam mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Judith, H.; Schwerdtner, O. von.

    1975-01-01

    Steam flowing from the high-pressure part of a saturated-steam turbine of nuclear power stations to the preheater or steam directly passing off to the low-pressure part contains a high amount of moisture. This is removed by a separating device in the overflow pipe working as an axial cyclon. To this end a twist generator with radially mounted guide vanes forces a twisting movement on the water-steam mixture whereby the water component is thrown towards the wall of the overflow pipe. Behind the twist generator the overflow pipe is provided with ring slots or annular gaps through which the centrifuged water gets into water collecting chambers concentrically surrounding the overflow pipe. The main water seperation results from the first annular gap through centrifugal effects. The rest is removed by steam suction through the other gaps. For steam suction purposes, i.e. in order to produce an underpressure, the collecting chambers of these gaps are connected with the overflow pipe behind the twist generators by means of a suction pipe. In order to also remove small water droplets without increasing the twist, an agglomerator is installed in the overflow pipe before the twist generator. It consists of baffle or guide plates within an elliptic intermediate piece in a bend of the overflow pipe. Therefore the flanks of the guide plates run parallel to the flow direction of the steam. (DG/PB) [de

  2. The testing of a steam-water separating device used for vertical steam generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Xunshen; Cui Baoyuan; Xue Yunkui; Liu Shixun

    1989-01-01

    The air-water screening tests of a steam-water separating device used for vertical steam generators at low pressure are introduced. The article puts emphasis on the qualification test of the steam-water separating device at hot conditions in a high temperature and pressure water test rig. The performance of the comprehensive test of the steam-water separating device indicates that the humidity of the steam at the drier exit is much less than the specified amount of 0.25%

  3. Research on preventive technologies for bed-separation water hazard in China coal mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gui, Herong; Tong, Shijie; Qiu, Weizhong; Lin, Manli

    2018-03-01

    Bed-separation water is one of the major water hazards in coal mines. Targeted researches on the preventive technologies are of paramount importance to safe mining. This article studied the restrictive effect of geological and mining factors, such as lithological properties of roof strata, coal seam inclination, water source to bed separations, roof management method, dimensions of mining working face, and mining progress, on the formation of bed-separation water hazard. The key techniques to prevent bed-separation water-related accidents include interception, diversion, destructing the buffer layer, grouting and backfilling, etc. The operation and efficiency of each technique are corroborated in field engineering cases. The results of this study will offer reference to countries with similar mining conditions in the researches on bed-separation water burst and hazard control in coal mines.

  4. Transient Simulations of Gas-Oil-Water Separation Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tor S. Schei

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available A set of mathematical models for the dynamic simulation of offshore processing plants is developed. Each process unit is modeled separately, and the various models are integrated into a system for the simulation of an entire plant. The purpose of the simulation system is to study the effects of various disturbances and investigate appropriate control strategies. Important variables subject to control are pressure, flow rate, temperature, vessel liquid level and compressor speed. In separators the rate of interfacial mass transfer between the liquid and vapour phases at non-equilibrium is modeled as a first order time lag. The vapour liquid equilibrium ratio is linearized with respect to variations in pressure and temperature for each separator stage. A realistic scenario is chosen in order to demonstrate the capabilities of the simulation system.

  5. [Study on essential oil separation from Forsythia suspensa oil-bearing water body based on vapor permeation membrane separation technology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Zhu, Hua-Xu; Tang, Zhi-Shu; Pan, Yong-Lan; Li, Bo; Fu, Ting-Ming; Yao, Wei-Wei; Liu, Hong-Bo; Pan, Lin-Mei

    2018-04-01

    To investigate the feasibility of vapor permeation membrane technology in separating essential oil from oil-water extract by taking the Forsythia suspensa as an example. The polydimethylsiloxane/polyvinylidene fluoride (PDMS/PVDF) composite flat membrane and a polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) flat membrane was collected as the membrane material respectively. Two kinds of membrane osmotic liquids were collected by self-made vapor permeation device. The yield of essential oil separated and enriched from two kinds of membrane materials was calculated, and the microscopic changes of membrane materials were analyzed and compared. Meanwhile, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used to compare and analyze the differences in chemical compositions of essential oil between traditional steam distillation, PVDF membrane enriched method and PDMS/PVDF membrane enriched method. The results showed that the yield of essential oil enriched by PVDF membrane was significantly higher than that of PDMS/PVDF membrane, and the GC-MS spectrum showed that the content of main compositions was higher than that of PDMS/PVDF membrane; The GC-MS spectra showed that the components of essential oil enriched by PVDF membrane were basically the same as those obtained by traditional steam distillation. The above results showed that vapor permeation membrane separation technology shall be feasible for the separation of Forsythia essential oil-bearing water body, and PVDF membrane was more suitable for separation and enrichment of Forsythia essential oil than PDMS/PVDF membrane. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  6. Method for separation of water from bituminous shales, etc. [water-free heavy product and water-containing light product

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hellsing, G H

    1908-10-13

    The method is characterized by conducting all the products of distillation, coming from the retorts, into a controllable system of condensation. This system of condensation is so constructed that the products of distillation are cooled to such a temperature that only the water-free heavy distillates are being condensed, and is furthermore so constructed that the other products of distillation, not yet condensed, are being condensed in an ordinary system of coolers. The purpose is to separate the distillates into a water-free heavy product and a water-containing lighter product. The patent includes an additional claim.

  7. System and process for efficient separation of biocrudes and water in a hydrothermal liquefaction system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Hart, Todd R.; Neuenschwander, Gary G.; Oyler, James R.; Rotness, Jr, Leslie J.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Zacher, Alan H.

    2016-08-02

    A system and process are described for clean separation of biocrudes and water by-products from hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) product mixtures of organic and biomass-containing feedstocks at elevated temperatures and pressures. Inorganic compound solids are removed prior to separation of biocrude and water by-product fractions to minimize formation of emulsions that impede separation. Separation may be performed at higher temperatures that reduce heat loss and need to cool product mixtures to ambient. The present invention thus achieves separation efficiencies not achieved in conventional HTL processing.

  8. Separate treatment of turbid water from sludge treatment; Separate Behandlung von Truebwaessern aus der Schlammbehandlung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehm, B.; Arnold, E.; Wilderer, P.A. [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Lehrstuhl und Pruefamt fuer Wasserguete- und Abfallwirtschaft

    1999-07-01

    In semi-technical investigations, discontinuous activated sludge processes and biofilm processes for the nitrification of sludge water were compared. Both processes were found to be equally suited for this application. (orig.) [German] In halbtechnischen Untersuchungen wurden diskontinuierlich betriebene Belebtschlamm- und Biofilmverfahren zur Nitrifikation von Schlammwaessern gegenuebergestellt. Es zeigte sich, dass beide Verfahren gleichermassen fuer diese Anwendung geeignet sind. (orig.)

  9. Simultaneous Design of Ionic Liquids and Azeotropic Separation for Systems Containing Water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roughton, Brock; Camarda, Kyle V.; Gani, Rafiqul

    Separation of azeotropic mixtures is a very common but challenging task, covering a wide range of industrial sectors and issues. For example, most down-stream separation problems following a synthesis step of pharmaceutical and/or biochemical processes, involve the separation of azeotropes. Also......, many separation tasks in the petrochemical and chemical industries involve separation of azeotropic mixtures. A common issue with the design and operation of these separation tasks is whether or not to use solvents? And, if solvents are to be used, what kind of solvent should be used and what would....... Since a large number of azeotropes encountered include water as one of the compounds, the use of ionic liquids in solvent-based separation of water in azeotropic systems has been investigated. Along with the design of the ionic liquid being used to entrain water, the extractive distillation process has...

  10. 40 CFR 63.137 - Process wastewater provisions-oil-water separators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... wastewater provisions—oil-water separators. (a) For each oil-water separator that receives, manages, or...; (2) A floating roof meeting the requirements in 40 CFR part 60, subpart QQQ § 60.693-2 (a)(1)(i), (a... to construct and operate a floating roof, such as over the weir mechanism, the owner or operator...

  11. Microbial control on decomposition of radionuclides-containing oily waste in soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selivanovskaya, Svetlana; Galitskaya, Polina

    2014-05-01

    The oily wastes are formed annually during extraction, refinement, and transportation of the oil and may cause pollution of the environment. These wastes contain different concentrations of waste oil (40-60%), waste water (30-90%), and mineral particles (5-40%). Some oily wastes also contain naturally occurring radionuclides which were incorporated by water that was pumped up with the oil. For assessment of the hazard level of waste treated soil, not only measurements of contaminants content are needed, because bioavailability of oily components varies with hydrocarbon type, and soil properties. As far as namely microbial communities control the decomposition of organic contaminants, biological indicators have become increasingly important in hazard assessment and the efficiency of remediation process. In this study the decomposition of radionuclides-containing oily waste by soil microbial communities were estimated. Waste samples collected at the Tikchonovskii petroleum production yard (Tatarstan, Russia) were mixed with Haplic greyzem soil at ratio 1:4 and incubated for 120 days. During incubation period, the total hydrocarbon content of the soil mixed with the waste reduced from 156 ± 48 g kg-1 to 54 ± 8 g kg-1 of soil. The concentrations of 226Ra and 232Th were found to be 643 ± 127, 254 ± 56 Bq kg-1 and not changed significantly during incubation. Waste application led to a soil microbial biomass carbon decrease in comparison to control (1.9 times after 1 day and 1.3 times after 120 days of incubation). Microbial respiration increased in the first month of incubation (up to 120% and 160% of control after 1 and 30 days, correspondingly) and decreased to the end of incubation period (74% of control after 120 days). Structure of bacterial community in soil and soil/waste mixture was estimated after 120 days of incubation using SSCP method. The band number decreased in contaminated soil in comparison to untreated soil. Besides, several new dominant DNA

  12. Ion exchange separation of low boric acid concentrations from water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kysela, J.; Brabec, J.; Peterka, F.

    1975-01-01

    Boric acid poisoning of the moderator of the TR-O experimental heavy water reactor was studied. The possibility is discussed of removing boric acid from heavy water by means of a strong basic anion exchanger, below the residual concentration of 0.01 mg B/l. Measurements of the usable capacities of the strong basic anion exchanger Zerollit FF showed that the penetration of boric acid during the sorption period does not exceed the value of 0.015 mg B/l. The dependence was found of capacity on the boric acid concentration in the solution. Analytical methods used to determine B in water are also described. (author)

  13. Improvements on heavy water separation technology by isotopic water-hydrogen sulfide exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peculea, M.

    1987-01-01

    A series of possible variance is presented for the heavy water separation technology by isotopic H 2 O-H 2 S exchange at dual temperatures. The critical study of these variants, which are considered as characteristic quantities for the isotopes transport (production) and the extraction level is related to a dual temperature plant fed by liquid and cold column, which is the up-to-date technology employed in all heavy water production plants as variants of following plants are studied: dual temperature plant with double feeding; dual-temperature plant with equilibrium column (booster); dual-temperature-dual-pressure plant. Attention is paid to the variant with equilibration column (booster), executed and tested at the State Committee for Nuclear Energy and to the dual-temperature-dual pressure plant which presents the highest efficiency. (author)

  14. Numerical simulation and structural optimization of the inclined oil/water separator.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liqiong Chen

    Full Text Available Improving the separation efficiency of the inclined oil/water separator, a new type of gravity separation equipment, is of great importance. In order to obtain a comprehensive understanding of the internal flow field of the separation process of oil and water within this separator, a numerical simulation based on Euler multiphase flow analysis and the realizable k-ε two equation turbulence model was executed using Fluent software. The optimal value ranges of the separator's various structural parameters used in the numerical simulation were selected through orthogonal array experiments. A field experiment on the separator was conducted with optimized structural parameters in order to validate the reliability of the numerical simulation results. The research results indicated that the horizontal position of the dispenser, the hole number, and the diameter had significant effects on the oil/water separation efficiency, and that the longitudinal position of the dispenser and the position of the weir plate had insignificant effects on the oil/water separation efficiency. The optimal structural parameters obtained through the orthogonal array experiments resulted in an oil/water separation efficiency of up to 95%, which was 4.996% greater than that realized by the original structural parameters.

  15. Characteristics of water isotopes and hydrograph separation during ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2College of Geography and Environmental Science, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou 730070, ... During 2013, a water-isotope source apportionment study was conducted during ..... in the Chilean Andes II: Qualitative and quantitative.

  16. Recycling soil nitrate nitrogen by amending agricultural lands with oily food waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, M T; Voroney, R P

    2003-01-01

    With current agricultural practices the amounts of fertilizer N applied are frequently more than the amounts removed by the crop. Excessive N application may result in short-term accumulation of nitrate nitrogen (NO3-N) in soil, which can easily be leached from the root zone and into the ground water. A management practice suggested for conserving accumulated NO3-N is the application of oily food waste (FOG; fat + oil + greases) to agricultural soils. A two-year field study (1995-1996 and 1996-1997) was conducted at Elora Research Center (43 degrees 38' N, 80 degrees W; 346 m above mean sea level), University of Guelph, Ontario, Canada to determine the effect of FOG application in fall and spring on soil NO3-N contents and apparent N immobilization-mineralization of soil N in the 0- to 60-cm soil layer. The experiment was planned under a randomized complete block design with four replications. An unamended control and a reference treatment [winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cover crop] were included in the experiment to compare the effects of fall and spring treatment of oily food waste on soil NO3-N contents and apparent N immobilization-mineralization. Oily food waste application at 10 Mg ha(-1) in the fall decreased soil NO3-N by immobilization and conserved 47 to 56 kg NO3-N ha(-1), which would otherwise be subject to leaching. Nitrogen immobilized due to FOG application in the fall was subsequently remineralized by the time of fertilizer N sidedress, whereas no net mineralization was observed in spring-amended plots at the same time.

  17. Auto Drain Valve Water Separator inside the Unit of Komatsu HD 465-7R

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manurung, V. A. T.; Joko W, Y. T.; Poetra, R. I.

    2018-02-01

    Water separator is a component that separate water from fuel, so the circulating fuel in the fuel system is not contaminated by water. If there is water inside the water separator, it will be carried by into the fuel system and then impacting to the engine performance. It’s such as lowering engine power because the fuel filter is clogged due to the fuel mix with water. Then the real danger is in case of the fuel mixes with the water. It will damage the fuel system components such as blockage of injectors due to corrosion and wear of fuel supply pump. As informed from daily maintenance record data, we have found that the low power engine trouble was caused by the fuel filter that was clogged high enough. Using the fishbone analysis, we got the main problem is there was water in the fuel separator at maximum level and did not discharge. In this condition, it is need optional device to automatically discharge the water from the water separator while maximum level reached, so the operator does not need to drain the water manually. The operator will be warned by buzzing active alarm and flashing caution lamp inside the cabin. By this method, the potential risk of mix up water with fuel would be avoided and the loss of others component failure would be mostly avoided. By using this tool, we can save net quality income around IDR (Indonesia Rupiah) 11,673,519,800.

  18. Arrangement for separating water and steam in a through boiler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wittchow, E.

    1979-01-01

    An axial cyclone in the form of a spin generator with radial nozzles and a flow controller are installed directly in the overflow line between high and low pressure parts of a turbine. The water is centrifuged sideways via outlet slots into a water collecting chamber. The nozzles themselves are hollow and form the support for the flow controller. The extracted steam is taken via the nozzles to the flow controller and returned from this to the overflow line. (DG) 891 HP/DG 892 MB [de

  19. A device for pre-separating water-drops in a two-phase flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andro, Jean; Peyrelongue, J.-P.

    1974-01-01

    The invention relates to the mechanical pre-separation of water-drops in suspension in a flow of saturated steam. To this end, the method comprises the steps of carrying out rough separations by directing the flow towards curved surfaces adapted to deflect that flow and to project the drops onto said surfaces, sucking the film formed by the water-drops displaced by centrifugal force on the outer periphery of said surfaces, directing the steam separated from the water-drops onto five separators so as to extract dry steam and discharging the water provided by the sucking of said surfaces and the five separators. The invention applies to the drying of steam issuing from the high-pressure bodies of nuclear steam-turbines [fr

  20. Comment on "Spontaneous liquid-liquid phase separation of water"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limmer, David T.; Chandler, David

    2015-01-01

    Yagasaki et al. [Phys. Rev. E 89, 020301 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevE.89.020301] present results from a molecular dynamics trajectory illustrating coarsening of ice, which they interpret as evidence of transient coexistence between two distinct supercooled phases of liquid water. We point out that neither two distinct liquids nor criticality are demonstrated in this simulation study. Instead, the illustrated trajectory is consistent with coarsening behaviors analyzed and predicted in earlier work by others.

  1. Comment on "Spontaneous liquid-liquid phase separation of water".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limmer, David T; Chandler, David

    2015-01-01

    Yagasaki et al. [Phys. Rev. E 89, 020301 (2014)] present results from a molecular dynamics trajectory illustrating coarsening of ice, which they interpret as evidence of transient coexistence between two distinct supercooled phases of liquid water. We point out that neither two distinct liquids nor criticality are demonstrated in this simulation study. Instead, the illustrated trajectory is consistent with coarsening behaviors analyzed and predicted in earlier work by others.

  2. A Microfluidic Method to Assess Emulsion Stability in Crude-Oil/Water Separators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krebs, T.; Schroën, C.G.P.H.; Boom, R.M.

    2011-01-01

    The control of emulsion stability and droplet size is of crucial importance for oil production, especially for the processes of crude/oil water separation and cleanup of produced water. To recover pure oil and water, coalescence between droplets needs to take place, the extent of which will depend

  3. Separation kinetics of an oil-in-water emulsion under enhanced gravity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krebs, T.; Schroën, C.G.P.H.; Boom, R.M.

    2012-01-01

    The breakup of crude oil emulsions to produce clean oil and water phases is an important task in crude oil processing. We have investigated the demulsification kinetics of a model oil-in-water emulsion in a centrifugal field to mimic the forces acting on emulsion droplets in oil/water separators

  4. Application of porous materials in oil substances separation from water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gołub, Adam; Piekutin, Janina

    2017-11-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the ability of the four porous materials: birch bark, cork, glass wool, and polyurethane foam to reduce the mineral oil index and the concentration of n-alkanes C7H16-C38H78 as well as to select the most efficient materials. Model solutions of gasoline, diesel oil, and distilled water with the following values of mineral oil index were prepared to tests: 52 μg/dm3, 68 μg/dm3 and 73 μg/dm3. Then, studies were carried out using a dynamic method, wherein the columns were filled with adsorbents tested, and in each of three testing series, 500 mL of the model solution at constant bed load of 1,0551 m3/m2h was filtered through the column. After filtration, the collected sample had volume of 250 mL. The collected samples were subject to determination of mineral oil index and concentrations of n-alkanes from C7H16 to C38H78. Studies have shown that the most effective materials to lower the mineral oil index and the concentrations of n-alkanes in water are birch bark and glass wool.

  5. Treatment of phosphate-containing oily wastewater by coagulation and microfiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jin; Sun, Yu-xin; Huang, Zhi-feng; Liu, Xing-qin; Meng, Guang-yao

    2006-01-01

    The oily wastewater generated from pretreatment unit of electrocoating industry contains oils, phosphate, organic solvents, and surfactants. In order to improve the removal efficiencies of phosphate and oils, to mitigate the membrane fouling, coagulation for ceramic membrane microfiltration of oily wastewater was performed. The results of filtration tests show that the membrane fouling decreased and the permeate flux and quality increased with coagulation as pretreatment. At the coagulant Ca (OH)2 dosage of 900 mg/L, the removal efficiency of phosphate was increased from 46.4% without coagulation to 99.6%; the removal of COD and oils were 97.0% and 99.8%, respectively. And the permeate flux was about 70% greater than that when Ca(OH)2 was not used. The permeate obtained from coagulation and microfiltration can be reused as make-up water, and the recommended operation conditions for pilot and industrial application are transmembrane pressure of 0.10 MPa and cross-flow velocity of 5 m/s. The comparison results show that 0.2 microm ZrO2 microfilter with coagulation could be used to perform the filtration rather than conventional ultrafilter, with very substantial gain in flux and removal efficiency of phosphate.

  6. Selective separation of oil and water with mesh membranes by capillarity

    KAUST Repository

    Yu, Yuanlie; Chen, Hua; Liu, Yun; Craig, Vincent S.J.; Lai, Zhiping

    2016-01-01

    The separation of oil and water from wastewater generated in the oil-production industries, as well as in frequent oil spillage events, is important in mitigating severe environmental and ecological damage. Additionally, a wide arrange of industrial processes require oils or fats to be removed from aqueous systems. The immiscibility of oil and water allows for the wettability of solid surfaces to be engineered to achieve the separation of oil and water through capillarity. Mesh membranes with extreme, selective wettability can efficiently remove oil or water from oil/water mixtures through a simple filtration process using gravity. A wide range of different types of mesh membranes have been successfully rendered with extreme wettability and applied to oil/water separation in the laboratory. These mesh materials have typically shown good durability, stability as well as reusability, which makes them promising candidates for an ever widening range of practical applications. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.

  7. Selective separation of oil and water with mesh membranes by capillarity

    KAUST Repository

    Yu, Yuanlie

    2016-05-29

    The separation of oil and water from wastewater generated in the oil-production industries, as well as in frequent oil spillage events, is important in mitigating severe environmental and ecological damage. Additionally, a wide arrange of industrial processes require oils or fats to be removed from aqueous systems. The immiscibility of oil and water allows for the wettability of solid surfaces to be engineered to achieve the separation of oil and water through capillarity. Mesh membranes with extreme, selective wettability can efficiently remove oil or water from oil/water mixtures through a simple filtration process using gravity. A wide range of different types of mesh membranes have been successfully rendered with extreme wettability and applied to oil/water separation in the laboratory. These mesh materials have typically shown good durability, stability as well as reusability, which makes them promising candidates for an ever widening range of practical applications. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.

  8. Robust and durable superhydrophobic cotton fabrics for oil/water separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Zhaozhu; Xu, Xianghui; Guo, Fang; Zhu, Xiaotao; Men, Xuehu; Ge, Bo

    2013-08-14

    By introducing the incorporation of polyaniline and fluorinated alkyl silane to the cotton fabric via a facile vapor phase deposition process, the fabric surface possessed superhydrophobicity with the water contact angle of 156° and superoleophilicity with the oil contact angle of 0°. The as-prepared fabric can be applied as effective materials for the separation of water and oil mixture with separation efficiency as high as 97.8%. Compared with other materials for oil/water separation, the reported process was simple, time-saving, and repeatable for at least 30 times. Moreover, the obtained fabric kept stable superhydrophobicity and high separation efficiency under extreme environment conditions of high temperature, high humidity, strong acidic or alkaline solutions, and mechanical forces. Therefore, this reported fabric has the advantages of scalable fabrication, high separation efficiency, stable recyclability, and excellent durability, exhibiting the strong potential for industrial production.

  9. Recycle of valuable products from oily cold rolling mill sludge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bo; Zhang, Shen-gen; Tian, Jian-jun; Pan, De-an; Liu, Yang; Volinsky, Alex A.

    2013-10-01

    Oily cold rolling mill (CRM) sludge contains lots of iron and alloying elements along with plenty of hazardous organic components, which makes it as an attractive secondary source and an environmental contaminant at the same time. The compound methods of "vacuum distillation + oxidizing roasting" and "vacuum distillation + hydrogen reduction" were employed for the recycle of oily cold rolling mill sludge. First, the sludge was dynamically vacuum distilled in a rotating furnace at 50 r/min and 600°C for 3 h, which removed almost hazardous organic components, obtaining 89.2wt% ferrous resultant. Then, high purity ferric oxide powders (99.2wt%) and reduced iron powders (98.9wt%) were obtained when the distillation residues were oxidized and reduced, respectively. The distillation oil can be used for fuel or chemical feedstock, and the distillation gases can be collected and reused as a fuel.

  10. Formation of oiliness and sebum output--comparison of a lipid-absorbant and occlusive-tape method with photometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serup, J

    1991-07-01

    Sebum output and the development of oiliness formation were studied in 24 acne-prone volunteers. Sebutape and photometric measurement by the Sebumeter were compared. Tapes were taken 1, 2 and 3 h after degreasing. Tapes were scored, and light transmission was measured by a special densitometric device. Sebumeter recordings were performed after 3 h. Densitometric evaluation of tapes was accurate with a high correlation to scoring. Sebutape and Sebumeter assessments correlated. However, in some individuals the tape method overestimated the sebum output. Right-left comparison indicated that the tape method was less reproducible, particularly after longer sampling periods. It is suggested that Sebutape, due to water occlusion and temperature insulation during the sampling period, interferes with sebum droplet formation and spreading. However, such systematic interference may be advantageous since sweating and heat are important clinical prerequisites in the formation of oiliness. Thus, it is suggested that the Sebutape is a specialized method for the determination of 'oiliness', the very last phase of sebum output, in which sebum droplets spread over the skin surface. The tape is not automatically comparable to other methods for determining sebum output from the follicular reservoir.

  11. Immobilizing Water into Crystal Lattice of Calcium Sulfate for its Separation from Water-in-Oil Emulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Guangming; Li, Junxi; Nie, Yunliang; Zhang, Sen; Dong, Fan; Guan, Baohong; Lv, Xiaoshu

    2016-07-19

    This work report a facile approach to efficiently separate surfactant-stabilized water (droplet diameter of around 2.0 μm) from water-in-oil emulsion via converting liquid water into solid crystal water followed by removal with centrifugation. The liquid-solid conversion is achieved through the solid-to-solid phase transition of calcium sulfate hemihydrate (CaSO4. 0.5H2O, HH) to dihydrate (CaSO4·2H2O, DH), which could immobilize the water into crystal lattice of DH. For emulsion of 10 mg mL(-1) water, the immobilization-separation process using polycrystalline HH nanoellipsoids could remove 95.87 wt % water at room temperature. The separation efficiency can be further improved to 99.85 wt % by optimizing the HH dosage, temperature, HH size and crystalline structure. Property examination of the recycled oil confirms that our method has neglectable side-effect on oil quality. The byproduct DH was recycled to alpha-HH (a valuable cemetitious material widely used in construction and binding field), which minimizes the risk of secondary pollution and promotes the practicality of our method. With the high separation efficiency, the "green" feature and the recyclability of DH byproduct, the HH-based immobilization-separation approach is highly promising in purifying oil with undesired water contamination.

  12. Heat exchanger with dirt separator for the use of the heat energy of waste water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1975-11-13

    Well-known heat exchanger systems consist of separate heat exchangers and dirt separators. In the case here in question both devices form a unit. A finned tube heat exchanger is positioned in the center of the dirt separator and is given extra protection through deflection sheets. A safety overflow is supplied so that no residue can appear in the waste water line when decanting.

  13. On the implications of aerosol liquid water and phase separation for organic aerosol mass

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset contains data presented in the figures of the paper "On the implications of aerosol liquid water and phase separation for organic aerosol mass"...

  14. Operations and maintenance manual for the water/oil separator (F-2014)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, R.M.

    1996-01-01

    This Document Provides Operating, Maintenance and Spare Part Information for the Ultra Aqua UFA-6 Water/Oil Separator Installed at MASF. (The plant has been designed for processing of condensates from air compressors.)

  15. Microfluidic methods to assess demulsification kinetics for oil-water-separation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krebs, T.; Schroën, C.G.P.H.; Boom, R.M.

    2012-01-01

    The control of emulsion stability is of crucial importance in the process of crude/oil water separation, which is a key step in industrial oil production. Separation is enhanced if coalescence between droplets takes place, the extent of which will depend on the flow parameters as well as on the

  16. Influence of Biopreparations on the Bacterial Community of Oily Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biktasheva, L. R.; Galitskaya, P. Yu; Selivanovskaya, S. Yu

    2018-01-01

    Oil pollution is reported to be one the most serious environmental problems nowadays. Therefore, methods of remediation of oily polluted soils and oily wastes are of great importance. Bioremediation being a perspective method of sanitation of oil pollutions, includes biostimulation of the polluted sites’ indigenous microflora, and in some cases additional introduction of active strains able to decompose hydrocarbon. The efficacy of introducing such biopreparations depends on the interactions between the introduced microbes and the indigenous ones. In this study, the influence of bacterial consortium (Rhodococcus jialingiae, Stenotrophomonas rhizophila and Pseudomonas gessardii) introduction on the bioremediation of an oily waste sampled from a refinery situated in the Mari El region (Russia) was estimated. Single and multiple inoculations of the consortium in addition to moistening and aeration were compared with a control sample, which included only aeration and moistening of the waste. It was shown, that two of the three introduced strains (Rh. jialingiae and Ps.gessardii) gene copy numbers were higher in the inoculated variants than in the control sample and with their initial counts, which meant that these strains survived and included into the bacterial community of the wastes. At the same time, bacterial counts were significantly lower, and the physiological profile of waste microflora slightly altered in the inoculated remediation variants as compared with the control sample. Interestingly, no difference in the degradation rates of hydrocarbons was revealed in the inoculated remediation variants and the control sample.

  17. Slurry-phase biodegradation of weathered oily sludge waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machín-Ramírez, C; Okoh, A I; Morales, D; Mayolo-Deloisa, K; Quintero, R; Trejo-Hernández, M R

    2008-01-01

    We assessed the biodegradation of a typical oily sludge waste (PB401) in Mexico using several regimes of indigenous microbial consortium and relevant bioremediation strategies in slurry-phase system. Abiotic loss of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) in the PB401 was insignificant, and degradation rates under the various treatment conditions ranged between 666.9 and 2168.7 mg kg(-1) day(-1) over a 15 days reaction period, while viable cell count peaked at between log(10)5.7 and log(10)7.4 cfu g(-1). Biostimulation with a commercial fertilizer resulted in 24% biodegradation of the TPH in the oily waste and a corresponding peak cell density of log(10)7.4 cfu g(-1). Addition of non-indigenous adapted consortium did not appear to enhance the removal of TPH from the oily waste. It would appear that the complexities of the components of the alkylaromatic fraction of the waste limited biodegradation rate even in a slurry system.

  18. Tunable Nanocomposite Membranes for Water Remediation and Separations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierra, Sebastian Hernandez

    Nano-structured material fabrication using functionalized membranes with polyelectrolytes is a promising research field for water pollution, catalytic and mining applications. These responsive polymers react to external stimuli like temperature, pH, radiation, ionic strength or chemical composition. Such nanomaterials provide novel hybrid properties and can also be self-supported in addition to the membranes. Polyelectrolytes (as hydrogels) have pH responsiveness. The hydrogel moieties gain or lose protons based on the pH, displaying swelling properties. These responsive materials can be exploited to synthesize metal nanoparticles in situ using their functional groups, or to immobilize other polyelectrolytes and biomolecules. Due to their properties, these responsive materials prevent the loss of nanomaterials to the environment and improve reactivity due to their larger surface areas, expanding their range of applications. The present work describes different techniques used to create nanocomposites based on poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) hollow fiber and flat sheet membranes, both thick sponge-like and thin. Due to their hydrophobicity, hollow fiber membranes were hydrophilized by a water-based green process of cross-linking polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) onto their surface. Commercial hydrophilic and hydrophilized lab-prepared membranes were subsequently functionalized with a poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) hydrogel through free radical polymerizations. This work advanced membrane functionalization, specifically flat sheet membranes, from lab-scale to full-scale by modifications of the polymerization procedures. The hydrogel functionalized membranes by redox polymerization showed an expected responsive behavior, represented by permeability variation at various pH values (4.0 ≤ pH ≤ 9.0), from 53.9 to 3.4 L/(m2EhEbar) and a change in effective pore size from 222 to 111 nm, being 3800 L/(m 2EhEbar) and 650 nm the former permeability and pore size values of the

  19. Innovative in-line separators: removal of water or sand in oil/water and gas/liquid/solid pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jepson, Paul; Cheolho Kang; Gopal, Madan [CC Technologies, Dublin, OH (United States)

    2003-07-01

    In oil and gas production, multiphase mixtures are often separated before downstream processing. The separators are large, often 20 - 40 feet long and large diameter and use sophisticated internals. The costs are in the millions of dollars. Further, the sand and water in the flow can cause severe internal erosion and corrosion respectively before the flow reaches the separators. The CC Technologies/MIST In line Separation System is a cost-effective, efficient device for use in multiphase environments. The device is applicable for gas/solid, gas/liquid/solid and oil/water systems and offers exceptional separation between phases for a fraction of the cost of expensive gravity separators and hydro cyclones. The System contains no moving parts and is designed to be of the same diameter as the pipe, and experiences low shear forces. It can be fabricated with standard pipes. The efficiency of the separator has been determined in an industrial scale, pilot plant test facility at CC Technologies in 4-inch diameter pipes and has been found to be in excess of 98-99% for the removal of sand. Two phase oil/water separation effectiveness is in excess of 90% in 1-stage and 95% in 2 - stage. (author)

  20. Anaerobic treatment as a core technology for energy, nutrients and water from source-separated domestic waste(water)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeeman, G.; Kujawa, K.; Mes, de T.Z.D.; Graaff, de M.S.; Abu-Ghunmi, L.N.A.H.; Mels, A.R.; Meulman, B.; Temmink, B.G.; Buisman, C.J.N.; Lier, van J.B.; Lettinga, G.

    2008-01-01

    Based on results of pilot scale research with source-separated black water (BW) and grey water (GW), a new sanitation concept is proposed. BW and GW are both treated in a UASB (-septic tank) for recovery of CH4 gas. Kitchen waste is added to the anaerobic BW treatment for doubling the biogas

  1. Selective separation of oil and water with special wettability mesh membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Defei

    2017-02-24

    Due to the different interfacial effects of oil and water, utilizing the special wettability of solid surfaces to design an oil and water separation process has been demonstrated to be an effective approach for oil/water separation. In this report, a simple process has been developed to fabricate special surface wettability mesh membranes. The carbon nanoparticles with diameters of 10 nm were first coated onto the surface of steel wires based on a candle soot coating process. These templates of carbon nanoparticles were then coated with a more stable layer of silica (SiO2) particles via a facile chemical vapor deposition route. After being modified by two separate methods, a superhydrophobic/superoleophilic membrane was obtained by the use of 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorooctyltrichlorosilane (PFOTS) and a oleophobic/superhydrophilic membrane was obtained by using poly(diallyldimethylammonium-perfluorooctanoate) (PDDA–PFO). Separation experiments show that these superhydrophobic/superoleophilic or oleophobic/superhydrophilic mesh membranes can be used to selectively separate oil/water with a high flux of more than 930 L m−2 h−1 and a collecting efficiency of over 97%. Furthermore, the repetitions of the separation experiments demonstrate that these superhydrophobic/superoleophilic or oleophobic/superhydrophilic mesh membranes are durable, stable and reusable, making them encouraging candidates for practical oil-polluted water treatment.

  2. Theoretic analysis for gravity separation of water droplets in PWR steam generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Shixun

    1995-10-01

    Gravity separation space of water droplets in the PWR steam generator is one of three important separating mechanisms and provides a link between primary (vane) separator and chevron dryer. The design of steam generator should not only have highly efficient and compact separator and dryer, but also an adequate height of gravity separation space. Too short a gravity separation space will not sufficiently separate the moisture and adversely affect the performance of the dryer; too long a gravity separation space will add additional costs for steam generator and nuclear island installation. The droplet entrainment in the process of gravity separation space was theoretically studied and droplet trajectory was analytically modelled. A general expression for the height required by gravity separation, diameter and velocity of those droplets carried over was also obtained. In the analysis, the slip between two phases was considered and a combined term of diameter and viscosity was introduced. The modelling can provide a theoretical basis for determining the height of the gravity separation space. (2 refs., 2 figs.)

  3. Investigating the Intrinsic Ethanol/Water Separation Capability of ZIF-8: An Adsorption and Diffusion Study

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Ke; Lively, Ryan P.; Zhang, Chen; Koros, William J.; Chance, Ronald R.

    2013-01-01

    Intrinsic ethanol/water separation capability of ZIF-8 is characterized by a detailed study of adsorption and diffusion of ethanol and water vapor in dodecahedral crystals with principle axis dimension of 324, 15.8, and 0.4 μm. ZIF-8 exhibits

  4. Development of a centrifugal in-line separator for oil-water flows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slot, J.J.

    2013-01-01

    The world energy consumption will increase in the next decades. However, many aging oil fields are showing a steady decline in oil production. And they are producing increasing amounts of water, making the separation of the oil from the oil-water mixture an important processing step. In-line

  5. Anomalous dispersion of magnetic spiky particles for enhanced oil emulsions/water separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hui-Jiuan; Hang, Tian; Yang, Chengduan; Liu, Guishi; Lin, Di-An; Wu, Jiangming; Pan, Shuolin; Yang, Bo-Ru; Tao, Jun; Xie, Xi

    2018-01-25

    In situ effective separation of oil pollutants including oil spills and oil emulsions from water is an emerging technology yet remains challenging. Hydrophobic micro- or nano-materials with ferromagnetism have been explored for oil removal, yet the separation efficiency of an oil emulsion was compromised due to the limited dispersion of hydrophobic materials in water. A surfactant coating on microparticles prevented particle aggregation, but reduced oil absorption and emulsion cleaning ability. Recently, polystyrene microbeads covered with nanospikes have been reported to display anomalous dispersion in phobic media without surfactants. Inspired by this phenomenon, here magnetic microparticles attached with nanospikes were fabricated for enhanced separation of oil emulsions from water. In this design, the particle surfaces were functionalized to be superhydrophobic/superoleophilic for oil absorption, while the surface of the nanospikes prevented particle aggregation in water without compromising surface hydrophobicity. The magnetic spiky particles effectively absorbed oil spills on the water surface, and readily dispersed in water and offered facile cleaning of the oil emulsion. In contrast, hydrophobic microparticles without nanospikes aggregated in water limiting the particle-oil contact, while surfactant coating severely reduced particle hydrophobicity and oil absorption ability. Our work provides a unique application scope for the anomalous dispersity of microparticles and their potential opportunities in effective oil-water separation.

  6. Increasing the dust separation efficiency by water spray during the operation of coal combines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feskov, M I; Kurdyukov, A N

    1974-08-01

    Possibilities of efficient wet dust separation around coal combines and their working members are described. The water consumption for dust separation around working members ranges from 0.3 to 1 l/cu m dust-laden air. The working member can be isolated from his surroundings by plastic walls or shields, while water or air curtains are rather unreliable. Such isolation requires a considerable increase in the water expenditure to improve the wettability of the coal particles by humidifying the air. Laboratory experiments revealed improved wettability and sedimentability of coal particles in humid air.

  7. Electrolytic separation factors for oxygen isotopes in light and heavy water solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulens, J.; Olmstead, W.J.; Longhurst, T.H.; Gale, K.L.; Rolston, J.H.

    1987-01-01

    The electrolytic separation factor, α, has been measured for /sup 17/O and /sup 18/O at Pt and Ni anodes in both light and heavy water solutions of 6M KOH as a function of current density. For oxygen-17, isotopic separation effects were not observed, within the experimental uncertainty of +-2%, under all conditions studied. For oxygen-18, there is a small difference of 2% in α values between Pt and Ni in both light and heavy water solutions, but there is no significant difference in α values between light and heavy water solutions. In light waters solutions, the separation factor at Pt is small, α(/sup 18/O) ≤ 1.02 for i ≥ 0.1 A/cm/sub 2/. This value agrees reasonably well with theoretical estimates

  8. MICROWAVE HEATING AND SEPARATION OF WATER-IN-OIL EMULSION FROM MEXICAN CRUDE OIL

    OpenAIRE

    VAZQUEZ V., ADRIAN; LOPEZ M., ARTURO; ANDRADE C., LUIS J.; VAZQUEZ A., ARIANA M.

    2014-01-01

    Microwave heating and gravity sedimentation are alternatives for demulsification and layer separation into oil and water layers, this process was demonstrated in the laboratory and provides an option for reducing and oil recovering from water-in-oil Mexican oil emulsions. The combinatorial process was implemented in a test lab using Mexican crude oil samples. The Laboratory samples were 100% and 50-50%, crude and crude-water respectively, were heated. The results were encouraging show that mi...

  9. Green Chromatographic Separation of Coumarin and Vanillins Using Subcritical Water as the Mobile Phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayan, Berkant; Akay, Sema; Yang, Yu

    2016-08-01

    Pure water was used as the eluent for separation of coumarin, vanillin and ethyl vanillin at temperatures ranging from 100 to 200°C using a homemade subcritical water chromatography (SBWC) system. Chromatographic separations were performed on five commercial columns including XTerra MS C18, XBridge C18, Zorbax RRHD Eclipse Plus, Zorbax SB-Phenyl and Zorbax SB-C18 columns. The retention time of all three solutes decreased with increasing water temperature. The shortest retention time among all acceptable separations, less than 4 min, was achieved on the Zorbax SB-C18 column at 200°C. While separations on the XTerra MS C18 column resulted in fronting peaks and a degradation peak from ethyl vanillin on the Zorbax RRHD Eclipse Plus column was observed, all three other columns yielded reasonable separations under SBWC conditions. In addition to separation of the standard test mixture, separation of coumarin contained in a skincare cream sample was also carried out using SBWC. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Ethanol-water separation by pervaporation using silicone and polyvinyl alcohol membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chinchiw, S.

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available In this research, experiments were carried out to investigate the effects of operating parameters onthe pervaporation performance for the separation of ethanol-water solutions. Composite silicone membranessupported on polysulfone prepared with varied silicone contents and commercial polyvinyl alcohol (Pervap®2211, Sulzer membranes were used. The results showed that the composite silicone/polysulfone membranescoated with 3 wt% of silicone exhibited highest permeation flux with slightly lower separation factor forethanol. Furthermore, it was found that the composite silicone/polysulfone membranes were suitable for theseparation of ethanol from a dilute ethanol solutions. Both the separation factor and permeation flux of the composite membranes increased with increasing temperature and feed concentration. A membrane coated with a 7 wt% silicone gave highest separation factor of 7.32 and permeation flux of 0.44 kg/m2h at 5 wt% ethanol feed concentration and feed temperature of 70ºC. For polyvinyl alcohol membranes, the results showed that the membranes were suitable for the dehydration of concentrated ethanol solutions. The permeation flux increased and the separation factor for water decreased with increasing water feed concentration and temperature. The membrane gave highest separation factor of 248 and permeation flux of 0.02 kg/m2h at 5 wt% water feed concentration and feed temperature of 30ºC.

  11. Water isotope partitioning and ecohydrologic separation in mixed conifer forest explored with a centrifugation water extraction method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, W.; Mercer, J.; Pleasants, M.; Williams, D. G.

    2017-12-01

    Isotopic partitioning of water within soil into tightly and loosely bound fractions has been proposed to explain differences between isotopic water sources used by plants and those that contribute to streams and ground water, the basis for the "two water worlds" hypothesis. We examined the isotope ratio values of water in trees, bulk soil, mobile water collected from soil lysimeters, stream water, and GW at three different hillslopes in a mixed conifer forest in southeastern Wyoming, USA. Hillslopes differed in aspect and topographic position with corresponding differences in surface energy balance, snowmelt timing, and duration of soil moisture during the dry summer. The isotopic results support the partitioning of water within the soil; trees apparently used a different pool of water for transpiration than that recovered from soil lysimeters and the source was not resolved with the isotopic signature of the water that was extracted from bulk soil via cryogenic vacuum distillation. Separating and measuring the isotope ratios values in these pools would test the assumption that the tightly bound water within the soil has the same isotopic signature as the water transpired by the trees. We employed a centrifugation approach to separate water within the soil held at different tensions by applying stepwise increases in rotational velocity and pressures to the bulk soil samples. Effluent and the remaining water (cryogenically extracted) at each step were compared. We first applied the centrifugation method in a simple lab experiment using sandy loam soil and separate introductions of two isotopically distinct waters. We then applied the method to soil collected from the montane hillslopes. For the lab experiment, we predicted that effluents would have distinct isotopic signatures, with the last effluent and extracted water more closely representing the isotopic signature of the first water applied. For our field samples, we predicted that the isotopic signature of the

  12. Separation of rate processes for isotopic exchange between hydrogen and liquid water in packed columns 10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butler, J.P.; Hartog, J. den; Goodale, J.W.; Rolston, J.H.

    1977-01-01

    Wetproofed platinum catalysts in packed columns promote isotopic exchange between counter-current streams of hydrogen saturated with water vapour and liquid water. The net rate of deuterium transfer from isotopically enriched hydrogen has been measured and separated into two rate processes involving the transfer of deuterium from hydrogen to water vapour and from water vapour to liquid. These are compared with independent measurements of the two rate processes to test the two-step successive exchange model for trickle bed reactors. The separated transfer rates are independent of bed height and characterize the deuterium concentrations of each stream along the length of the bed. The dependences of the transfer rates upon hydrogen and liquid flow, hydrogen pressure, platinum loading and the effect of dilution of the hydrophobic catalyst with inert hydrophilic packing are reported. The results indicate a third process may be important in the transfer of deuterium between hydrogen and liquid water. (author)

  13. Robust water fat separated dual-echo MRI by phase-sensitive reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romu, Thobias; Dahlström, Nils; Leinhard, Olof Dahlqvist; Borga, Magnus

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this work was to develop and evaluate a robust water-fat separation method for T1-weighted symmetric two-point Dixon data. A method for water-fat separation by phase unwrapping of the opposite-phase images by phase-sensitive reconstruction (PSR) is introduced. PSR consists of three steps; (1), identification of clusters of tissue voxels; (2), unwrapping of the phase in each cluster by solving Poisson's equation; and (3), finding the correct sign of each unwrapped opposite-phase cluster, so that the water-fat images are assigned the correct identities. Robustness was evaluated by counting the number of water-fat swap artifacts in a total of 733 image volumes. The method was also compared to commercial software. In the water-fat separated image volumes, the PSR method failed to unwrap the phase of one cluster and misclassified 10. One swap was observed in areas affected by motion and was constricted to the affected area. Twenty swaps were observed surrounding susceptibility artifacts, none of which spread outside the artifact affected regions. The PSR method had fewer swaps when compared to commercial software. The PSR method can robustly produce water-fat separated whole-body images based on symmetric two-echo spoiled gradient echo images, under both ideal conditions and in the presence of common artifacts. Magn Reson Med 78:1208-1216, 2017. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  14. On-line separation of iodine species in reactor water using mixer-settlers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malmbeck, R.; Skarnemark, G.

    1995-01-01

    A method for separation of iodine species from water has been developed. It is based on liquid-liquid extraction and separation is achieved in four extraction steps. A system based on this method for continuous separation of iodine species using mixer-settlers has been developed. It consists of four mixer-settler batteries with 4,4,6 and 6 mixer-settler stages each. As organic phase an aliphatic kerosene is used and the separation is improved if the organic solvent has been pretreated with iodine carrier, stripped and washed. With an aqueous feed flowrate of 10 ml/min and mixer-settler battery phase flowratios of approximately 0.1 except for the elementary iodine strip battery with a phase flowratio of 1, the system separation performance is 92% for methyl iodide, 97% for iodate and elementary iodine and 99% for iodide. (orig.)

  15. Bacterial flora of soil after application of oily waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, V

    1975-01-01

    The influence of mineral oils and oily waste on the bacterial flora of soil was studied both in the field and in model experiments by plate counts followed by examination of the composition of the bacterial flora developing on the plates and by enrichment cultures followed by isolation of pure cultures. A strong increase in bacterial numbers after oil application was observed both in field and model experiments, and this increase occurred within all groups of bacteria, except spore formers and streptomycetes. The most important species of oil decomposing bacteria belonged to the genera Arthrobacter and Pseudomonas.

  16. Development of a water separator for steam drying in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kall, H.

    1979-01-01

    In the wet steam of nuclear power plants with light water cooling the content of liquid phase before entering the high- and low-pressure turbine or at the inlet of the reheater connected in between is limited to a few parts per thousand. For the mechanical drying necessary to maintain this moisture limit there is suited the socalled lamellar separator, in which the vertical laminae, arranged one beside the other, confine a great number of separating ducts, bended in periodically changing sequence, through which wet steam is flowing. In the development of such a lamellar separator with internal drain channels described in this paper the droplet motion in the carrier gas stream and the discharge of the separated liquid is treated independently from each other. The mathematical and experimental study of the first-mentioned partial process leads to its complete description in a dimensionless separation diagram. During the subsequent discharge of the primarily separated droplet fluid there may be torn off droplets by the steam flow and carried away from the separator.The limit for the draining capacity reached with the occurrence of this phenomenon was determined in preliminary experiments with air and water and in experiments with wet steam carried out close to operating conditions. (orig.) 891 GL/orig. 892 RRD [de

  17. Tritium separation from heavy water by electrolysis with solid polymer electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogata, Y.; Ohtani, N.; Kotaka, M.

    2003-01-01

    A tritium separation from heavy water by electrolysis using a solid polymer electrode layer was specified. The cathode was made of stainless steel or nickel. The electrolysis was performed for 1 hour at 5, 10, 20, and 30 deg C. Using a palladium catalyst, generated hydrogen and oxygen gases were recombined, which was collected with a cold trap. The activities of the samples were measured by a liquid scintillation counter. The apparent tritium separation factors of the heavy and light water at 20 deg C were ∼2 and ∼12, respectively. (author)

  18. Hydrogen isotope separation in hydrophobic catalysts between hydrogen and liquid water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye, Linsen, E-mail: yls2005@mail.ustc.edu.cn [China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China); Luo, Deli [Science and Technology on Surface Physics and Chemistry Laboratory, Jiangyou 621907 (China); Tang, Tao; Yang, Wan; Yang, Yong [China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China)

    2015-11-15

    Hydrogen isotope catalytic exchange between hydrogen and liquid water is a very effective process for deuterium-depleted potable water production and heavy water detritiation. To improve the characteristics of hydrophobic catalysts for this type of reaction, foamed and cellular structures of hydrophobic carbon-supported platinum catalysts were successfully prepared. Separation of deuterium or tritium from liquid water was carried out by liquid-phase catalytic exchange. At a gas–liquid ratio of 1.53 and exchange temperature of 70 °C, the theoretical plate height of the hydrophobic catalyst (HETP = 34.2 cm) was slightly lower than previously reported values. Changing the concentration of the exchange column outlet water yielded nonlinear changes in the height of the packing layer. Configurations of deuterium-depleted potable water and detritiation of heavy water provide references for practical applications.

  19. The treatment of oily brines containing waste oils using membrane technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, H.; Tremblay, A.Y. [Ottawa Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Veinot, D.E. [Defence R and D Canada, Halifax, NS (Canada). Atlantic Dockyard Laboratory

    2004-07-01

    Bilge water is an oily wastewater from ships that must be treated before it is discharged to coastal waters. It is difficult to treat because it contains seawater, particulates, used oils and detergents. This paper presents the results of a study which examined a cascaded membrane system comprised of a backflushed microfiltration membrane used for pretreatment of bilge water. It also examined an ultrafiltration membrane used in the final polishing step. Membrane pore size, materials and support structures were examined for single tube carbon membrane and multilumen ceramic membranes. Results indicate that membranes with a pore size less than 0.2 microns can treat bilge water directly. The performance of the membrane depends on its pore size and on the particle size distribution of the bilge water. Backflushing improved the flux in single tube carbon membranes but not in the multilumen ceramic membranes. Another important factor in bilge water treatment was the clearance of the support structure with respect to particulates. Heating, air and steam methods were all found to be suitable for membrane flux regeneration. A hybrid microfiltration and ultrafiltration membrane proved to be very effective in treating bilge water.

  20. Oil water laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    P Junior, Oswaldo A.; Verli, Fernando; Lopes, Humberto E.

    2000-01-01

    Usually, the oily water effluent from petroleum processes needs to be treated prior to its environment discard and/or reuse. The synthesis of such water effluent residues in an Oily Water Laboratory - equipped with Water Treatment Pilot Scale Units - is fundamental to the study and effectiveness comparison among the typical industrial water treatment processes. The Oily Water Laboratory will allow the reproduction - in a small scale - of any oily water effluent produced in the industrial PETROBRAS units - such reproduction can be obtained by using the same fluids, oily concentration, salinity, process temperature, particle size distribution etc. Such Laboratory also allows the performance analysis of typical industrial equipment used throughout the water treatment schemes (e.g., hydro-cyclones), resulting in design and/or operational guidelines for these industrial scale schemes. In the particular niche of very small diameter oil droplet removal, more efficient and non-conventional schemes - such as centrifuges and/or membrane filtration - will be also studied in the Laboratory. In addition, the Laboratory shall be used in the certification of in-line oily water analyzers (e.g., TOC - Total Organic Carbon and OWC - Oil Wax Content). This paper describes the characteristics of such Laboratory and its main operational philosophy. (author)

  1. Amine functionalized magnetic nanoparticles for removal of oil droplets from produced water and accelerated magnetic separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Saebom, E-mail: saebomko@austin.utexas.edu [University of Texas, Department of Petroleum and Geosystems Engineering (United States); Kim, Eun Song [University of Texas, Department of Biomedical Engineering (United States); Park, Siman [University of Texas, Department of Civil, Architectural and Environmental Engineering (United States); Daigle, Hugh [University of Texas, Department of Petroleum and Geosystems Engineering (United States); Milner, Thomas E. [University of Texas, Department of Biomedical Engineering (United States); Huh, Chun [University of Texas, Department of Petroleum and Geosystems Engineering (United States); Bennetzen, Martin V. [Maersk Oil Corporate (Denmark); Geremia, Giuliano A. [Maersk Oil Research and Technology Centre (Qatar)

    2017-04-15

    Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) with surface coatings designed for water treatment, in particular for targeted removal of contaminants from produced water in oil fields, have drawn considerable attention due to their environmental merit. The goal of this study was to develop an efficient method of removing very stable, micron-scale oil droplets dispersed in oilfield produced water. We synthesized MNPs in the laboratory with a prescribed surface coating. The MNPs were superparamagnetic magnetite, and the hydrodynamic size of amine functionalized MNPs ranges from 21 to 255 nm with an average size of 66 nm. The initial oil content of 0.25 wt.% was reduced by as much as 99.9% in separated water. The electrostatic attraction between negatively charged oil-in-water emulsions and positively charged MNPs controls, the attachment of MNPs to the droplet surface, and the subsequent aggregation of the electrically neutral oil droplets with attached MNPs (MNPs-oils) play a critical role in accelerated and efficient magnetic separation. The total magnetic separation time was dramatically reduced to as short as 1 s after MNPs, and oil droplets were mixed, in contrast with the case of free, individual MNPs with which separation took about 36∼72 h, depending on the MNP concentrations. Model calculations of magnetic separation velocity, accounting for the MNP magnetization and viscous drag, show that the total magnetic separation time will be approximately 5 min or less, when the size of the MNPs-oils is greater than 360 nm, which can be used as an optimum operating condition.

  2. Use of oleaginous plants in phytotreatment of grey water and yellow water from source separation of sewage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavagnolo, Maria Cristina; Malagoli, Mario; Alibardi, Luca; Garbo, Francesco; Pivato, Alberto; Cossu, Raffaello

    2017-05-01

    Efficient and economic reuse of waste is one of the pillars of modern environmental engineering. In the field of domestic sewage management, source separation of yellow (urine), brown (faecal matter) and grey waters aims to recover the organic substances concentrated in brown water, the nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorous) in the urine and to ensure an easier treatment and recycling of grey waters. With the objective of emphasizing the potential of recovery of resources from sewage management, a lab-scale research study was carried out at the University of Padova in order to evaluate the performances of oleaginous plants (suitable for biodiesel production) in the phytotreatment of source separated yellow and grey waters. The plant species used were Brassica napus (rapeseed), Glycine max (soybean) and Helianthus annuus (sunflower). Phytotreatment tests were carried out using 20L pots. Different testing runs were performed at an increasing nitrogen concentration in the feedstock. The results proved that oleaginous species can conveniently be used for the phytotreatment of grey and yellow waters from source separation of domestic sewage, displaying high removal efficiencies of nutrients and organic substances (nitrogen>80%; phosphorous >90%; COD nearly 90%). No inhibition was registered in the growth of plants irrigated with different mixtures of yellow and grey waters, where the characteristics of the two streams were reciprocally and beneficially integrated. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Advances in Magnetically Separable Photocatalysts: Smart, Recyclable Materials for Water Pollution Mitigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gcina Mamba

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Organic and inorganic compounds utilised at different stages of various industrial processes are lost into effluent water and eventually find their way into fresh water sources where they cause devastating effects on the ecosystem due to their stability, toxicity, and non-biodegradable nature. Semiconductor photocatalysis has been highlighted as a promising technology for the treatment of water laden with organic, inorganic, and microbial pollutants. However, these semiconductor photocatalysts are applied in powdered form, which makes separation and recycling after treatment extremely difficult. This not only leads to loss of the photocatalyst but also to secondary pollution by the photocatalyst particles. The introduction of various magnetic nanoparticles such as magnetite, maghemite, ferrites, etc. into the photocatalyst matrix has recently become an area of intense research because it allows for the easy separation of the photocatalyst from the treated water using an external magnetic field. Herein, we discuss the recent developments in terms of synthesis and photocatalytic properties of magnetically separable nanocomposites towards water treatment. The influence of the magnetic nanoparticles in the optical properties, charge transfer mechanism, and overall photocatalytic activity is deliberated based on selected results. We conclude the review by providing summary remarks on the successes of magnetic photocatalysts and present some of the future challenges regarding the exploitation of these materials in water treatment.

  4. Sludge Water Characteristics Under Different Separation Methods from a Membrane Bioreactor

    KAUST Repository

    Wei, Chunhai

    2013-11-22

    The concept of sludge water was proposed to integrate the relative terminologies and its characteristics under different separation methods from a membrane bioreactor (MBR) were investigated in this study. Based on chemical oxygen demand (COD) and three-dimensional fluorescence excitation-emission matrix (F-EEM), and compared with the control (gravitational sedimentation), some suspended particulate organics or biopolymer clusters (mainly proteins) were released from sludge flocs into the supernatant after centrifugation under low to middle centrifugal forces (10-4000 g) and then aggregated into a pellet under high centrifugal forces (10000-20000 g). Filtration (1.2 μm glass fiber filter) produced sludge water with a lower biopolymers concentration than the control (gravitational sedimentation followed by filtration) due to cake layer formation during filtration. As for centrifugation followed by filtration, low to middle centrifugal forces did not significantly affect sludge water characteristics but high centrifugal forces reduced the concentrations of some proteins in sludge water from advanced analytical protocols including F-EEM and liquid chromatography with on-line organic carbon detection (LC-OCD), demonstrating a low to middle centrifugal force suitable for MBR sludge water separation. From LC-OCD, the main fractions of sludge water were humic substances and building blocks, low molecular weight neutrals and biopolymers (mainly proteins rather than polysaccharides). Supplemental materials are available for this article. Go to the publisher\\'s online edition of Separation Science and Technology to view the supplemental file. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

  5. Sludge Water Characteristics Under Different Separation Methods from a Membrane Bioreactor

    KAUST Repository

    Wei, Chunhai; Amy, Gary L.

    2013-01-01

    The concept of sludge water was proposed to integrate the relative terminologies and its characteristics under different separation methods from a membrane bioreactor (MBR) were investigated in this study. Based on chemical oxygen demand (COD) and three-dimensional fluorescence excitation-emission matrix (F-EEM), and compared with the control (gravitational sedimentation), some suspended particulate organics or biopolymer clusters (mainly proteins) were released from sludge flocs into the supernatant after centrifugation under low to middle centrifugal forces (10-4000 g) and then aggregated into a pellet under high centrifugal forces (10000-20000 g). Filtration (1.2 μm glass fiber filter) produced sludge water with a lower biopolymers concentration than the control (gravitational sedimentation followed by filtration) due to cake layer formation during filtration. As for centrifugation followed by filtration, low to middle centrifugal forces did not significantly affect sludge water characteristics but high centrifugal forces reduced the concentrations of some proteins in sludge water from advanced analytical protocols including F-EEM and liquid chromatography with on-line organic carbon detection (LC-OCD), demonstrating a low to middle centrifugal force suitable for MBR sludge water separation. From LC-OCD, the main fractions of sludge water were humic substances and building blocks, low molecular weight neutrals and biopolymers (mainly proteins rather than polysaccharides). Supplemental materials are available for this article. Go to the publisher's online edition of Separation Science and Technology to view the supplemental file. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

  6. Study on magnetic separation system using high Tc superconducting bulk magnets for water purification technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oka, T; Kanayama, H; Tanaka, K; Fukui, S; Ogawa, J; Sato, T; Ooizumi, M; Yamaguchi, M; Yokoyama, K; Noto, K

    2009-01-01

    The application of superconducting bulk magnets to the magnetic separation techniques has been investigated for the Mn-bearing waste water drained from the university laboratories. The research has been conducted in comparison with the electromagnets, and the cryo-cooled superconducting solenoid magnet. The separation ratios of ferrite precipitates including Mn element in the waste slurry were estimated by means of the high gradient magnetic separation method with ferromagnetic iron filters in the water channel and open gradient magnetic separation without them. As the magnetic force acting on the particles is given by the product of a magnetization of particles and a gradient of magnetic field, and a superconducting bulk magnet shows a sharp gradient of the magnetic field on the surface, the performances of the bulk magnet system were almost equivalent to those of the superconducting solenoid magnet with wide bore with respect to the magnetic separation ratios. The separation ratios for Mn have reached over 80 % for HGMS and 10 % for OGMS under the flow rates less than 3 liter/min.

  7. Amide-induced phase separation of hexafluoroisopropanol-water mixtures depending on the hydrophobicity of amides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takamuku, Toshiyuki; Wada, Hiroshi; Kawatoko, Chiemi; Shimomura, Takuya; Kanzaki, Ryo; Takeuchi, Munetaka

    2012-06-21

    Amide-induced phase separation of hexafluoro-2-propanol (HFIP)-water mixtures has been investigated to elucidate solvation properties of the mixtures by means of small-angle neutron scattering (SANS), (1)H and (13)C NMR, and molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. The amides included N-methylformamide (NMF), N-methylacetamide (NMA), and N-methylpropionamide (NMP). The phase diagrams of amide-HFIP-water ternary systems at 298 K showed that phase separation occurs in a closed-loop area of compositions as well as an N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) system previously reported. The phase separation area becomes wider as the hydrophobicity of amides increases in the order of NMF amides due to the hydrophobic interaction gives rise to phase separation of the mixtures. In contrast, the disruption of HFIP clusters causes the recovery of the homogeneity of the ternary systems. The present results showed that HFIP clusters are evolved with increasing amide content to the lower phase separation concentration in the same mechanism among the four amide systems. However, the disruption of HFIP clusters in the NMP and DMF systems with further increasing amide content to the upper phase separation concentration occurs in a different way from those in the NMF and NMA systems.

  8. Magnetic separation technique for environmental water purification by strong magnetic field generator loading HTS bulk magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oka, T.; Tanaka, K.; Kimura, T.; Mimura, D.; Fukui, S.; Ogawa, J.; Sato, T.; Ooizumi, M.; Yokoyama, K.; Yamaguchi, M.

    2010-01-01

    The magnetic separation technique in combination with high temperature superconducting bulk magnets has been investigated to purify the ground water which has been used in the coolant system for the incinerator furnace to cool the burning gas. The experiment has been operated by means of the newly-built alternating channel type magnetic separating device. The separation ratios of ferromagnetic flocks including fine magnetite powder have been estimated by means of the high gradient magnetic separation method with small iron balls filled in the water channels. As the magnetic force acting on the magnetic particle is given by the product of a magnetization of the material and a gradient of magnetic field, and as the ferromagnetic stainless steel balls yield the steep gradient of magnetic field around them in a strong magnetic field, the system has exhibited a quite excellent performance with respect to the separation ratios. The separation ratios of the flocks which contain the magnetite powder with the values more than 50 ppm have remained over 80% for under the flow rates less than 5 L/min.

  9. Poly(lactide-co-glycolide) nanocapsules containing benzocaine: influence of the composition of the oily nucleus on physico-chemical properties and anesthetic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Melo, Nathalie Ferreira Silva; Grillo, Renato; Guilherme, Viviane Aparecida; de Araujo, Daniele Ribeiro; de Paula, Eneida; Rosa, André Henrique; Fraceto, Leonardo Fernandes

    2011-08-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the influence of the oily nucleus composition on physico-chemical properties and anesthetic activity of poly (lactide-co-glycolide) nanocapsules with benzocaine. Nanocapsules containing benzocaine were prepared with three different oily nucleus composition and characterized by mean diameter, polydispersivity, zeta potential, pH and stability were investigated as a function of time. In vitro release kinetics were performed in a system with two compartments separated by a cellulose membrane. Intensity and duration of analgesia were evaluated in rats by sciatic nerve blockade. The greatest stability, slower release profile and improvement in the local anesthetic activity of BZC were obtained with the formulation using USP mineral oil as component. Results from our study provide useful perspectives on selection of the primary materials needed to produce suspensions of polymeric nanocapsules able to act as carriers of BZC, with potential future application in the treatment of pain.

  10. The influence of chemicals on water quality in a high pressure separation rig

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnsen, Einar E.; Hemmingsen, Paal V.; Mediaas, Heidi; Svarstad, May Britt E.; Westvik, Arild

    2006-03-15

    In the research laboratory of Statoil at Rotvoll, Trondheim, a high pressure experimental rig used for separation and foaming studies has been developed. There have been several studies to ensure that the high pressure separation rig produces reliable and consistent results with regard to the water-in-oil and oil-in-water contents. The results are consistent with available field data and, just as important, consistent when changing variables like temperature, pressure drop and water cut. The results are also consistent when changing hydrodynamic variables like flow velocity and mixing point (using different choke valves) and when using oil with and without gas saturation. At equal experimental conditions, the high pressure separation rig is able to differentiate between separation characteristics of oil and water from different fields and from different wells at the same field. The high pressure separation and foam rig can be used from -10 deg C to 175 deg C and at pressures up to 200 bar. Crude oil and water are studied under relevant process conditions with respect to temperature, pressure, shear, water cut and separation time. In the present work the influence of chemicals on the oil and water quality has been studied. Chemicals have been mixed into the oil and/or water beforehand or added in situ (on-stream; simulated well stream). The amount of oil in the water after a given residence time in the separation cell has been measured. The results from the high pressure rig show that some demulsifiers, with their primary purpose of giving less water in oil, also have influence on the water quality. Improvement of water quality has been observed as well as no effect or aggravation. The experimental results have been compared to results from bottle tests at the field. The results from the bottle tests and from the laboratory are not corresponding, and only a full-scale field test can tell which of them are the correct results, if any. (Experience from corresponding

  11. Investigation of a separation process involving liquid-water-coal systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, Jr, D V; Burry, W

    1987-01-01

    A liquid-liquid-solid separation procedure wherein a water-oil-coal-mineral matter slurry is allowed to come to equilibrium through mechanical agitation has for many years been applied to the separation of coal from mineral matter. The product is a black cottage cheese-like mass of agglomerated coal particles and oil suspended in the excess water which supports the dispersed mineral matter particles. A liquid bridge model which was proposed by earlier investigators is reviewed critically and used to estimate the free energy per unit area of the separation of coals of different ranks. Observations of the kinetics of the process suggest that the simple liquid bridge model is insufficient, probably due to the heterogeneous surfaces of the coal. An alternative model is proposed. 14 references.

  12. An Evaluation of Two Hydrograph Separation Methods of Potential Use in Regional Water Quality Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huff, D.D.

    1999-01-01

    Streamflow data are more useful for evaluating hydrologic model results and studying water quality once baseflow and storm runoff have been separated. However, it is important to select an appropriate hydrograph separation method. They examined tow methods and evaluated their conceptual basis, ease of application, cost of data processing, and acceptability of results. they chose the quick flow hydrograph separation method, which is in use at the Coweeta Hydrologic Laboratory, because it gives acceptable results and is easy and inexpensive to use. For regional assessment, they anticipate that the Coweeta program will be useful as an aid in developing general quantitative relationships between changes in land use and the associated changes in surface runoff yield and water quality degradation.

  13. A Classroom Demonstration of Water-Induced Phase Separation of Alcohol-Gasoline Biofuel Blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Sherry A.; Anderson, James E.; Wallington, Timothy J.

    2009-01-01

    A significant issue associated with ethanol-gasoline blends is the phase separation that occurs with the addition of small volumes of water, producing an ethanol-deficient gasoline layer and an ethanol-rich aqueous layer. The gasoline layer may have a lower-than-desired octane rating due to the decrease in ethanol content, resulting in engine…

  14. Pervaporation Separation of Water-Ethanol Mixtures Using Organic-Inorganic Nanocomposite Membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preyssler type heteropolyacid viz., H14[NaP5W30O110] incorporated chitosan nanocomposite membranes (NCMs) were prepared by solution casting, characterized using a variety of techniques and employed in the pervaporation separation of water-ethanol mixtures as a function of feed wa...

  15. Non-parametric method for separating domestic hot water heating spikes and space heating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bacher, Peder; de Saint-Aubain, Philip Anton; Christiansen, Lasse Engbo

    2016-01-01

    In this paper a method for separating spikes from a noisy data series, where the data change and evolve over time, is presented. The method is applied on measurements of the total heat load for a single family house. It relies on the fact that the domestic hot water heating is a process generating...

  16. Multi-scale graph-cut algorithm for efficient water-fat separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berglund, Johan; Skorpil, Mikael

    2017-09-01

    To improve the accuracy and robustness to noise in water-fat separation by unifying the multiscale and graph cut based approaches to B 0 -correction. A previously proposed water-fat separation algorithm that corrects for B 0 field inhomogeneity in 3D by a single quadratic pseudo-Boolean optimization (QPBO) graph cut was incorporated into a multi-scale framework, where field map solutions are propagated from coarse to fine scales for voxels that are not resolved by the graph cut. The accuracy of the single-scale and multi-scale QPBO algorithms was evaluated against benchmark reference datasets. The robustness to noise was evaluated by adding noise to the input data prior to water-fat separation. Both algorithms achieved the highest accuracy when compared with seven previously published methods, while computation times were acceptable for implementation in clinical routine. The multi-scale algorithm was more robust to noise than the single-scale algorithm, while causing only a small increase (+10%) of the reconstruction time. The proposed 3D multi-scale QPBO algorithm offers accurate water-fat separation, robustness to noise, and fast reconstruction. The software implementation is freely available to the research community. Magn Reson Med 78:941-949, 2017. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  17. In-Line Oil-Water Separation in Swirling Flow (USB stick)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slot, J.J.; van Campen, L.J.A.M.; Hoeijmakers, Hendrik Willem Marie; Mudde, R.F.; Johansen, S.T.

    2011-01-01

    An in-line oil-water separator has been designed and is investigated for single- and two-phase flow. Numerical single-phase flow results show an annular reversed flow region. This flow pattern agrees qualitatively with results from measurements. In the two-phase flow simulations two different drag

  18. Water hammer with column separation : a review of research in the twentieth century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergant, A.; Simpson, A.R.; Tijsseling, A.S.

    2004-01-01

    Column separation refers to the breaking of liquid columns in fully filled pipelines. This may occur in a water hammer event when the pressure drops to the vapor pressure at specific locations such as closed ends, high points or knees (changes in pipe slope). A vapor cavity, driven by the inertia of

  19. New design of a PEFC cathode separator of for water management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiura, K.; Takahashi, N.; Kamimura, T.

    2017-11-01

    Generally, polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs) need humidifiers to prevent the drying of the membrane, but this use of humidifiers creates water management issues, such as the flooding/plugging phenomena and decreased system efficiency because of an increase in the electric energy needed for auxiliary equipment. Although most researchers have developed high-temperature membranes that do not need humidifiers, a lot of time is necessary for the development of these membranes, and these membranes drive up costs. Therefore, we propose a new cathode separator design that can recycle water generated by power generation in the same cell and a stack structure that can redistribute water collected in the cathode outlet manifold to drying cells. Because the new cathode separator has a bypass channel from the gas outlet to the gas inlet to transport excess water, a dry part in the gas inlet is supplied with excess water in the gas outlet through the bypass channel even if the PEFC is operated under dry conditions. Excess water in the PEFC stack can be transported from the cell with excess water to the drying cell through the cathode outlet manifold with a porous wall. Therefore, we confirm the influence of the plugging phenomenon in the cathode gas outlet manifold on the cell performance of each cell in the stack. As a result, the cell performance of the new cathode separator design is better than that of the standard separator under the low humidity conditions. We confirm that the plugging phenomenon in the cathode outlet manifold affects the cell performance of each cell in the stack.

  20. Saline sewage treatment and source separation of urine for more sustainable urban water management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekama, G A; Wilsenach, J A; Chen, G H

    2011-01-01

    While energy consumption and its associated carbon emission should be minimized in wastewater treatment, it has a much lower priority than human and environmental health, which are both closely related to efficient water quality management. So conservation of surface water quality and quantity are more important for sustainable development than green house gas (GHG) emissions per se. In this paper, two urban water management strategies to conserve fresh water quality and quantity are considered: (1) source separation of urine for improved water quality and (2) saline (e.g. sea) water toilet flushing for reduced fresh water consumption in coastal and mining cities. The former holds promise for simpler and shorter sludge age activated sludge wastewater treatment plants (no nitrification and denitrification), nutrient (Mg, K, P) recovery and improved effluent quality (reduced endocrine disruptor and environmental oestrogen concentrations) and the latter for significantly reduced fresh water consumption, sludge production and oxygen demand (through using anaerobic bioprocesses) and hence energy consumption. Combining source separation of urine and saline water toilet flushing can reduce sewer crown corrosion and reduce effluent P concentrations. To realize the advantages of these two approaches will require significant urban water management changes in that both need dual (fresh and saline) water distribution and (yellow and grey/brown) wastewater collection systems. While considerable work is still required to evaluate these new approaches and quantify their advantages and disadvantages, it would appear that the investment for dual water distribution and wastewater collection systems may be worth making to unlock their benefits for more sustainable urban development.

  1. Analytical and preparative separation of organic acids from water by extraction with trioctylamine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eberle, S.H.; Hoyer, O.; Knobel, K.P.; Hodenberg, S. von

    1977-12-01

    The extraction of pure organic acids and of humic and ligninsulfonic acid from water by a solution of trioctylamine in chloroform was investigated (technical grade amine = ALAMINE). Quantitative separation is achieved by double extraction with 5% ALAMINE at pH 3,5 - 4. The acids may be back-extracted with dilute sodium hydroxide solution. Procedures are described for the analytical extraction of water samples of 200 to 2.000 ml and for the flow-through processing of large water volumes. (orig.) [de

  2. Separation setup for the light water detritiation process in the water-hydrogen system based on the membrane contact devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozenkevich, M. B.; Rastunova, I. L.; Prokunin, S. V.

    2008-01-01

    Detritiation of light water wastes down to a level permissible to discharge into the environment while simultaneously concentrating tritium to decrease amount of waste being buried is a constant problem. The laboratory setup for the light water detritiation process is presented. The separation column consists of 10 horizontally arranged perfluorosulphonic acid Nafion-type membrane contact devises and platinum catalyst (RCTU-3SM). Each contact device has 42.3 cm 2 of the membrane and 10 cm 3 of the catalyst. The column is washed by tritium free light water (L H2O ) and the tritium-containing flow (F HTO ) feeds the electrolyser at λ = G H2 /L H2O = 2. A separation factor of 66 is noted with the device at 336 K and 0.145 MPa. (authors)

  3. SCADA System of Physicochemical Variables in a Mixture Separator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Marcela Bustamante Álvarez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a research project developed by professors from Universidad de los Llanos and Colciencias Young Researcher, whose aim is to implement the necessary instrumentation to monitor and control with a SCADA system of physicochemical variables for a mixture separation process in oily water, thereby seeking to minimize environmental damage in water sources. The project was divided into three methodological stages: the establishment of interest variables, the design and implementation of the SCADA system, and the testing for results validation. This system has sensors to capture and transfer data to a PLC (S71200 for each of the system variables such as temperature, level, flow and pH. It also has HMI interface for interacting with the system. The SCADA system greatly facilitates process monitoring and establishes the possibility of remote action, just by providing the programmable logic controller (PLC to an Ethernet network.

  4. A simplified approach for the simulation of water-in-oil emulsions in gravity separators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lakehal, D.; Narayanan, C. [ASCOMP GmbH, Zurich (Switzerland); Vilagines, R.; Akhras, A.R. [Saudi Aramco, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia). Research and Development Center

    2009-07-01

    A new method of simulating 3-phase flow separation processes in a crude oil product was presented. The aim of the study was to increase the liquid capacity of the vessels and develop methods of testing variable flow entry procedures. The simulated system was based on gravity separation. Oil well streams were injected into large tanks where gas, oil and water were separated under the action of inertia and gravity. An interface tracking technique was combined with a Euler-Euler model developed as part of a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) program. Emulsion physics were modelled by interface tracking between the gas and oil-in-water liquid mixture. Additional scalar transport equations were solved in order to account for the diffusive process between the oil and water. Various settling velocity models were used to consider the settling of the dispersed water phase in oil. Changes in viscosity and non-Newtonian emulsion behaviour were also considered. The study showed that the interface tracking technique accurately predicted flow when combined with an emulsion model designed to account for the settling of water in the oil phase. Further research is now being conducted to validate computational results against in situ measurements. 13 refs., 1 tab., 8 figs.

  5. Waste water purification by magnetic separation technique using HTS bulk magnet system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oka, T.; Kanayama, H.; Tanaka, K.; Fukui, S.; Ogawa, J.; Sato, T.; Ooizumi, M.; Terasawa, T.; Itoh, Y.; Yabuno, R.

    2009-01-01

    We have investigated the feasibility of strong magnetic field generators composed of the high temperature superconducting (HTS) bulk magnet systems to the magnetic separation techniques for the waste water including thin emulsion bearing the cutting oil. Two types of the strong field generators were prepared by the face-to-face HTS bulk magnet systems, which emit the magnetic field density of 1 and 2 T in the open spaces between the magnetic poles activated by the pulsed field magnetization and the field cooling methods, respectively. A couple of water channels containing iron balls were settled in the strong field to trap the magnetized flocks in the waste water. The separation ratios of flocks containing 200 ppm magnetite powder were evaluated with respect to the flow rates of the waste water. The performances of bulk magnet system have kept showing values of around 100% until the flowing rate reached up to 18 l/min. This suggests that the magnetic separation by using bulk magnets is effective for the practical water purification systems.

  6. Development of a higher capacity, lower pressure drop steam/water separator with reduced primary-to-secondary spacing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pruster, W.P.; Kidwell, J.H.; Eaton, A.M.; Wall, J.R.

    1985-01-01

    The goal of this development effort was to double the steam flow capacity of an existing module steam/water separator design without significantly increasing the pressure drop while simultaneously minimizing the vertical distance (spacing) between the primary and secondary separation stages. The development work included extensive air/water and steam/water testing. The steam/water tests were performed at a common pressure of 300 psia (2.1 MPa) with comparable water and steam flows

  7. Facile Preparation of Nanostructured, Superhydrophobic Filter Paper for Efficient Water/Oil Separation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhua Wang

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a facile and cost-effective method to obtain superhydrophobic filter paper and demonstrate its application for efficient water/oil separation. By coupling structurally distinct organosilane precursors (e.g., octadecyltrichlorosilane and methyltrichlorosilane to paper fibers under controlled reaction conditions, we have formulated a simple, inexpensive, and efficient protocol to achieve a desirable superhydrophobic and superoleophilic surface on conventional filter paper. The silanized superhydrophobic filter paper showed nanostructured morphology and demonstrated great separation efficiency (up to 99.4% for water/oil mixtures. The modified filter paper is stable in both aqueous solutions and organic solvents, and can be reused multiple times. The present study shows that our newly developed binary silanization is a promising method of modifying cellulose-based materials for practical applications, in particular the treatment of industrial waste water and ecosystem recovery.

  8. Separation of three water-soluble vitamins by poly(dimethylsiloxane) microchannel electrophoresis with electrochemical detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang-Yun; Zhang, Qian-Li; Lian, Hong-Zhen; Xu, Jing-Juan; Chen, Hong-Yuan

    2007-09-01

    A method for rapid separation and sensitive determination of three water-soluble vitamins, pyridoxine, ascorbic acid (VC), and p-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) has been developed by PDMS microchannel electrophoresis integrated with amperometric detection. After treatment of the microchip with oxygen plasma, the peak shapes of the three analytes were essentially improved. Pyridoxine, VC, and PABA were well separated within only 80 s in a running buffer of 20 mM borate solution (pH 8.5). Good linearity was obtained within the concentration range of 2-200 microM for the three water-soluble vitamins. The detection limits were 1.0 microM for pyridoxine and VC, and 1.5 microM for PABA. The proposed method has been successfully applied to real human urine sample, without solid phase extraction, with recoveries of 80-122% for the three water-soluble vitamins.

  9. Robust superhydrophobic surface by nature-inspired polyphenol chemistry for effective oil-water separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Yiming; Huang, Jingjing; Zhang, Shiyu; Wang, Yinghua; Gu, Shaojin; Cao, Genyang; Yang, Hongjun; Ye, Dezhan; Zhou, Yingshan; Xu, Weilin

    2018-05-01

    With the ever-increasing oil spillages, oil-water separation has attracted widespread concern in recent years. In this work, a nature-inspired polyphenol method has been developed to fabricate the durable superhydrophobic surfaces for the oil-water separation. Inspiring from the adhesion of polyphenol and reducing capacity of free catechol/pyrogallol groups in polyphenol, firstly, the simple immersion of commercial materials (melamine sponge, PET, and nonwoven cotton fabrics) in tannic acid (TA) solution allows to form a multifunctional coating on the surface of sponge or fabrics, which was used as reducing reagent to generate Ag nanoparticles (NPs). Then, decoration of 1H, 1H, 2H, 2H-perfluorodecanethiol (PFDT) molecules produced superhydrophobic surfaces. The surface topological structure, chemical composition, and superhydrophobic property of the as-prepared surface are characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and water contact angle (WCA) measurements. The WCAs of as-prepared sponge and fabrics were higher than 150°. The stability, absorption capacity, and recyclability of as-prepared sponge and fabrics were investigated. The as-prepared sponge demonstrates high oil/water selectivity and high absorption capacity (66-150 g/g) for a broad variety of oils and organic solvents, and was chemically resistant, robust against abrasion, and long-term durability in harsh environments. Most important of all, it can continuously separate various kinds of oils or organic pollutants from the surface of water. This study presents a facile strategy to fabricate superhydrophobic materials for continuous oil-water separation, displaying great potential in large-scale practical application.

  10. Effect of liquid oil additive on lithium-ion battery ceramic composite separator prepared with an aqueous coating solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sang Woo [Division of Advanced Materials Engineering, Kongju National University, 1223–24, Cheonan-daero, Cheonan, Chungnam, 31080 (Korea, Republic of); Ryou, Myung-Hyun [Department of Chemical & Biological Engineering, Hanbat National University, 125, Dongseodaero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 34158 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Yong Min, E-mail: yongmin.lee@hanbat.ac.kr [Department of Chemical & Biological Engineering, Hanbat National University, 125, Dongseodaero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 34158 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Kuk Young, E-mail: kycho@hanyang.ac.kr [Department of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, Hanyang University, 55, Hanyangdaehak-ro, Sangrok-gu, Ansan, Gyeonggi-do, 15588 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-08-05

    Ceramic composite separators (CCSs) play a critical role in ensuring safety for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), especially for mid- and large-sized devices. However, production of CCSs using organic solvents has some cost and environmental concerns. An aqueous process for fabricating CCSs is attractive because of its cost-effectiveness and environmental-friendliness because organic solvents are not used. The success of an aqueous coating system for LIBs is dependent upon minimizing moisture content, as moisture has a negatively impact on LIB performance. In this study, CCSs were fabricated using an aqueous coating solution containing Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and an acrylic binder. Compared with polyethylene (PE) separators, CCSs coated with an aqueous coating solution showed improved thermal stability, electrolyte uptake, puncture strength, ionic conductivity, and rate capability. In addition, our new approach of introducing a small amount of an oily liquid to the aqueous coating solution reduced the water adsorption by 11.7% compared with coatings that do not contain the oily liquid additive. - Highlights: • Ceramic composite separator is fabricated using aqueous coating process. • Coated separator showed enhanced mechanical and thermal stability. • Liquid oil additive in coating solution reduce moisture reabsorption of separator. • Oil additive in aqueous coating solution does not deteriorate LIB performance.

  11. Green Approach to the Fabrication of Superhydrophobic Mesh Surface for Oil/Water Separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fajun; Lei, Sheng; Xu, Yao; Ou, Junfei

    2015-07-20

    We report a simple and environment friendly method to fabricate superhydrophobic metallic mesh surfaces for oil/water separation. The obtained mesh surface exhibits superhydrophobicity and superoleophilicity after it was dried in an oven at 200 °C for 10 min. A rough silver layer is formed on the mesh surface after immersion, and the spontaneous adsorption of airborne carbon contaminants on the silver surface lower the surface free energy of the mesh. No low-surface-energy reagents and/or volatile organic solvents are used. In addition, we demonstrate that by using the mesh box, oils can be separated and collected from the surface of water repeatedly, and that high separation efficiencies of larger than 92 % are retained for various oils. Moreover, the superhydrophobic mesh also possesses excellent corrosion resistance and thermal stability. Hence, these superhydrophobic meshes might be good candidates for the practical separation of oil from the surface of water. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Separation and recovery of chromium and vanadium metal ions from waste waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothmann, H.; Bauer, G.; Stuhr, A.; Retelsdorf, H-J.

    1987-01-01

    Possibilities of Cr- and V- recovery from waste waters, precipitation of chromate and vanadate ions as insoluble compounds, absorption of Cr and V on solid ion exchange resins, absorption of Cr and V on fluid ion exchangers. Extraction with fluid exchangers: simultaneous extraction of Cr and V with Ion Exchanger Hoe F 1857 to determine the distribution isotherms, separate extraction of Cr in a continuously operating mixer-settler plant, separate extraction of vanadate in a constantly operating mixer-settler plant, test with an extraction column, losses in the organic phase during chromium and vanadium extraction, discussion of the test results and economic considerations

  13. A new type separation column for the water-hydrogen isotope catalytic exchange process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedorchenko, O.A.; Alekseev, I.A.; Trenin, V.D.

    2001-01-01

    The catalytic water/hydrogen isotope exchange process is by right considered the most attractive for the solution a number of urgent problems of hydrogen isotope separation. A new type exchange reaction column is described and studied in details by computer simulation and with the help of McCabe-Thiele diagrams. It is shown that the new column in comparison with a traditional one needs less catalyst quantity and a smaller diameter for the solving of the same separation tasks. Generalized calculation data are presented in graphical form

  14. Functionalized sio2 microspheres for extracting oil from produced water

    KAUST Repository

    Mishra, Himanshu; Farinha, A. S. F.; Sinha, Shahnawaz

    2017-01-01

    Functionalized material, methods of producing the functionalized material, and use thereof for separation processes such as but not limited to use for separating and extracting a dissolved organic foulant, charged contaminant or oily matter or any

  15. Evaluation of the permeability of microporous membranes polyamide 6 / clay bentonite for water-oil separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medeiros, P.S.S.; Medeiros, K.M.; Araujo, E.M.; Lira, H.L.

    2014-01-01

    The petroleum refining industries have faced major problems in relation to the treatment of their effluents before disposal into the environment. Among the conventional technologies treatment of these effluents, the process of oil-water separation by means of membranes has been extensively used, for having enormous potentiality. Therefore, in this study, hybrid membranes of polyamide 6/ bentonite clay were produced by the technique of phase inversion and by precipitation of the solution from the nanocomposites obtained by melt intercalation. The clay was organically modified with the quaternary ammonium salt (Cetremide®). The nanocomposites were obtained from (PA6) with untreated (AST) and treated clay (ACT), which were subsequently characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD). Already membranes were characterized by XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and flow measurements. From the XRD results, it was observed an exfoliated and/or partially exfoliated structure for the nanocomposites and for the membranes. From SEM images it was observed that the presence of AST and ACT clays in the polymeric matrix caused changes in membrane morphology and pore formation. The flow with distilled water in the membranes showed a decrease initially and then followed by stability. All membranes tested in the process of separating emulsions of oil in water, particularly those of nanocomposites obtained a significant reduction of oil concentration in the permeate, thus showing that these membranes have a great potential to be applied to the water-oil separation. (author)

  16. Purification of condenser water in thermal power station by superconducting magnetic separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha, D.W.; Kwon, J.M.; Baik, S.K.; Lee, Y.J.; Han, K.S.; Ko, R.K.; Sohn, M.H.; Seong, K.C.

    2011-01-01

    Magnetic separation using cryo-cooled Nb-Ti superconducting magnet was applied for the purification of condenser water. Iron oxides in condenser water were effectively removed by superconducting magnetic separation. The effect of magnetic field strength and filter size was determined. Thermal power station is made up of a steam turbine and a steam condenser which need a lot of water. The water of steam condenser should be replaced, since scales consisting of iron oxide mainly are accumulated on the surface of condenser pipes as it goes. Superconducting high gradient magnetic separation (HGMS) system has merits to remove paramagnetic substance like iron oxides because it can generate higher magnetic field strength than electromagnet or permanent magnet. In this paper, cryo-cooled Nb-Ti superconducting magnet that can generate up to 6 T was used for HGMS systems. Magnetic filters were designed by the analysis of magnetic field distribution at superconducting magnets. The result of X-ray analysis showed contaminants were mostly α-Fe 2 O 3 (hematite) and γ-Fe 2 O 3 (maghemite). The higher magnetic field was applied up to 6 T, the more iron oxides were removed. As the wire diameter of magnetic filter decreased, the turbidity removal of the sample was enhanced.

  17. Bioinspired Diatomite Membrane with Selective Superwettability for Oil/Water Separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Yu-Hsiang; Yang, Ching-Yu; Chang, Haw-Kai; Hung, Wei-Chen; Chen, Po-Yu

    2017-05-03

    Membranes with selective superwettability for oil/water separation have received significant attention during the past decades. Hierarchical structures and surface roughness are believed to improve the oil repellency and the stability of Cassie-Baxter state. Diatoms, unicellular photosynthetic algae, possess sophisticated skeletal shells (called frustules) which are made of hydrated silica. Motivated by the hierarchical micro- and nanoscale features of diatom, we fabricate a hierarchical diatomite membrane which consists of aligned micro-sized channels by the freeze casting process. The fine nano-porous structures of frustules are well preserved after the post sintering process. The bioinspired diatomite membrane performs both underwater superoleophobicity and superhydrophobicity under various oils. Additionally, we demonstrate the highly efficient oil/water separation capabililty of the membranes in various harsh environments. The water flux can be further adjusted by tuning the cooling rates. The eco-friendly and robust bioinspired membranes produced by the simple, cost-effective freeze casting method can be potentially applied for large scale and efficient oil/water separation.

  18. Tritium isotope separation from light and heavy water by bipolar electrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petek, M.; Ramey, D.W.; Taylor, R.D.; Kobisk, E.H.

    1980-01-01

    A process for separating tritium from light and heavy water is described. Hydrogen is transferred at and through bipolar electrodes at rates H > D > T. In a cell containing several bipolar electrodes placed in series between two terminal electrodes, a flow of hydrogen is established from the terminal anode compartment toward the terminal cathode. An electrolyte feed containing tritium is continuously added to the system and is subsequently transported countercurrent to the hydrogen mass transfer. A cascaded system is established, in which effluent streams enriched and depleted in tritium can be withdrawn. The voltage drop is smaller at any bipolar electrode as compared to the voltage for normal electrolysis. Cell design is compact because isotope separation occurs at bipolar electrodes without evolution of gas. Isotope separation was demonstrated in laboratory cells where a steady-state tritium concentration gradient was attained. This gradient was in agreement with concentrations calculated from a derived mathematical model

  19. Dual Superlyophobic Copper Foam with Good Durability and Recyclability for High Flux, High Efficiency, and Continuous Oil-Water Separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wenting; Li, Song; Liu, Yan; Xu, Zhengzheng; Wei, Sufeng; Wang, Guoyong; Lian, Jianshe; Jiang, Qing

    2018-03-21

    Traditional oil-water separation materials have to own ultrahigh or ultralow surface energy. Thus, they can only be wetted by one of the two, oil or water. Our experiment here demonstrates that the wettability in oil-water mixtures can be tuned by oil and water initially. Hierarchical voids are built on commercial copper foams with the help of hydrothermally synthesized titanium dioxide nanorods. The foams can be easily wetted by both oil and water. The water prewetted foams are superhydrophilic and superoleophobic under oil-water mixtures, meanwhile the oil prewetted foams are superoleophilic and superhydrophobic. In this paper, many kinds of water-oil mixtures were separated by two foams, prewetted by corresponding oil or water, respectively, combining a straight tee in a high flux, high efficiency, and continuous mode. This research indicates that oil-water mixtures can be separated more eco-friendly and at lower cost.

  20. Development of Ultrafiltration Membrane-Separation Technology for Energy-Efficient Water Treatment and Desalination Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yim, Woosoon [Univ. of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV (United States); Bae, Chulsung [Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (United States)

    2016-10-28

    The growing scarcity of fresh water is a major political and economic challenge in the 21st century. Compared to thermal-based distillation technique of water production, pressure driven membrane-based water purification process, such as ultrafiltration (UF), nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO), can offer more energy-efficient and environmentally friendly solution to clean water production. Potential applications also include removal of hazardous chemicals (i.e., arsenic, pesticides, organics) from water. Although those membrane-separation technologies have been used to produce drinking water from seawater (desalination) and non-traditional water (i.e., municipal wastewater and brackish groundwater) over the last decades, they still have problems in order to be applied in large-scale operations. Currently, a major huddle of membrane-based water purification technology for large-scale commercialization is membrane fouling and its resulting increases in pressure and energy cost of filtration process. Membrane cleaning methods, which can restore the membrane properties to some degree, usually cause irreversible damage to the membranes. Considering that electricity for creating of pressure constitutes a majority of cost (~50%) in membrane-based water purification process, the development of new nano-porous membranes that are more resistant to degradation and less subject to fouling is highly desired. Styrene-ethylene/butylene-styrene (SEBS) block copolymer is one of the best known block copolymers that induces well defined morphologies. Due to the polarity difference of aromatic styrene unit and saturated ethylene/butylene unit, these two polymer chains self-assemble each other and form different phase-separated morphologies depending on the ratios of two polymer chain lengths. Because the surface of SEBS is hydrophobic which easily causes fouling of membrane, incorporation of ionic group (e,g, sulfonate) to the polymer is necessary to reduces fouling

  1. Fabrication of superhydrophobic cotton textiles for water-oil separation based on drop-coating route.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ming; Wang, Chengyu; Wang, Shuliang; Li, Jian

    2013-08-14

    In the present study, we are so excited to report a simple drop-coating method for fabricating the superhydrophobic cotton textiles which can remove the water in oil (or the oil in water). It is confirmed that the superhydrophobic composite thin film containing modified-ZnO nanoparticles and polystyren (PS) has been successfully fabricated on the cotton textiles surface by a single-step procedure, and the superhydrophobic cotton textiles displays an excellent property in water-oil separation which is rarely put forward and studied. The static water contact angle on the superhydrophobic cotton sample surface arranges from 153° to 155°, and stays almost the same after exposure to ambient air or immersion in the corrosive liquids and oil, indicating the considerable range of potential applications for the superhydrophobic cotton textiles fabricated by this simple method. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. An Eulerian-Eulerian CFD Simulation of Air-Water Flow in a Pipe Separator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.A. Afolabi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a three dimensional Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD of air-water flow using Eulerian –Eulerian multiphase model and RSM mixture turbulence model to investigate its hydrodynamic flow behaviour in a 30 mm pipe separator. The simulated results are then compared with the stereoscopic PIV measurements at different axial positions. The comparison shows that the velocity distribution can be predicted with high accuracy using CFD. The numerical velocity profiles are also found to be in good qualitative agreement with the experimental measurements. However, there were some discrepancies between the CFD results and the SPIV measurements at some axial positions away from the inlet section. Therefore, the CFD model could provide good physical understanding on the hydrodynamics flow behaviour for air-water in a pipe separator.

  3. Pervaporation separation of ethanol-water mixtures using polyethylenimine composite membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neidlinger, H.H.; Schissel, P.O.; Orth, R.A.

    1985-06-19

    Synthetic, organic, polymeric membranes were prepared from polyethylenimine for use with pervaporation apparatus in the separation of ethanol-water mixtures. The polymeric material was prepared in dilute aqueous solution and coated onto a polysulfone support film, from which excess polymeric material was subsequently removed. Cross-links were then generated by limited exposure to toluene-2,4-diisocyanate solution, after which the prepared membrane was heat-cured. The resulting membrane structures showed high selectivity in permeating ethanol or water over a wide range of feed concentrations. 2 tabs.

  4. Separation and Fixation of Toxic Components in Salt Brines Using a Water-Based Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franks, Carrie J.; Quach, Anh P.; Birnie, Dunbar P.; Ela, Wendell P.; Saez, Avelino E.; Zelinski, Brian J.; Smith, Harry D.; Smith, Gary Lynn L.

    2004-01-01

    Efforts to implement new water quality standards, increase water reuse and reclamation, and minimize the cost of waste storage motivate the development of new processes for stabilizing waste water residuals that minimize waste volume, water content and the long-term environmental risk from related by products. This work explores the use of an aqueous-based emulsion process to create an epoxy/rubber matrix for separating and encapsulating waste components from salt laden, arsenic contaminated, amorphous iron hydrate sludges. Such sludges are generated from conventional water purification precipitation/adsorption processes, used to convert aqueous brine streams to semi-solid waste streams, such as ion exchange/membrane separation, and from other precipitative heavy metal removal operations. In this study, epoxy and polystyrene butadiene (PSB) rubber emulsions are mixed together and then combined with a surrogate sludge. The surrogate sludge consists of amorphous iron hydrate with 1 part arsenic fixed to the surface of the hydrate per 10 parts iron mixed with sodium nitrate and chloride salts and water. The resulting emulsion is cured and dried at 80 C to remove water. Microstructure characterization by electron microscopy confirms that the epoxy/PSB matrix surrounds and encapsulates the arsenic laden amorphous iron hydrate phase while allowing the salt to migrate to internal and external surfaces of the sample. Salt extraction studies indicate that the porous nature of the resulting matrix promotes the separation and removal of as much as 90% of the original salt content in only one hours time. Long term leaching studies based on the use of the infinite slab diffusion model reveal no evidence of iron migration or, by inference, arsenic migration, and demonstrate that the diffusion coefficients of the unextracted salt yield leachability indices within regulations for non-hazardous landfill disposal. Because salt is the most mobile species, it is inferred that arsenic

  5. Fabrication of superhydrophobic and superoleophilic textiles for oil–water separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue, Chao-Hua; Ji, Peng-Ting; Zhang, Ping; Li, Ya-Ru; Jia, Shun-Tian

    2013-01-01

    Superhydrophobic and superoleophilic textiles were fabricated by a simple sol–gel coating using tetraethoxysilane and 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexamethyl disilazane as precursors. After coating, the fibers were decorated with -Si(CH 3 ) 3 functionalized SiO 2 nanoparticles, complimenting the microscale roughness inherent in the textile weave and lowering the surface energy. The textiles indicated superhydrophobic and superoleophilic property simultaneously. Utilizing these properties, a setup was designed using the textile as a screen mesh to filter oil through down to a collector and leave water drops rolling over, realizing continuous oil–water mixture separation.

  6. HILIC separation and quantitation of water-soluble vitamins using diol column.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karatapanis, Andreas E; Fiamegos, Yiannis C; Stalikas, Constantine D

    2009-04-01

    Hydrophilic interaction liquid-chromatography (HILIC) in conjunction with diode array detection has been applied for the separation of selected-water-soluble vitamins using an end-capped HILIC-diol column. Vitamins with significant biological importance, such as thiamine (B(1)), riboflavin (B(2)), nicotinic acid (B(3)), nicotinamide (B(3)), pyridoxine (B(6)), folic acid (B(9)), cyanocobalamin (B(12)) and ascorbic acid (vitamin C) were simultaneously separated. Chromatographic conditions including type and percentage of organic modifier in the mobile phase, pH, type and concentration of buffer salt and flow rate were investigated. ACN was shown to offer superior separation for the compounds tested as compared to methanol, isopropanol and THF. Isocratic separation and analysis were achieved for six vitamins (B(1), B(2), nicotinic acid/nicotinamide, B(6) and C) at ACN-H(2)O 90:10, containing ammonium acetate 10 mM, triethylamine 20 mM, pH 5.0, using a flow rate of 0.8 mL/min, while a gradient was necessary to resolve a mixture of all eight water-soluble vitamins. The HILIC method was validated and successfully applied to the analysis of a pharmaceutical formulation and an energy drink negating the need for time consuming clean-up steps.

  7. Supercritical water-treated fused silica capillaries in analytical separations: Status review

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Karásek, Pavel; Horká, Marie; Šlais, Karel; Planeta, Josef; Roth, Michal

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 1539, MAR (2018), s. 1-11 ISSN 0021-9673 R&D Projects: GA MV VI20172020069; GA ČR(CZ) GA16-03749S; GA MZd(CZ) NV16-29916A Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : supercritical water * fused silica capillary * surface treatment Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation OBOR OECD: Analytical chemistry Impact factor: 3.981, year: 2016

  8. Determination of traces of uranium in sea water after separation by froth flotation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekine, K.

    1975-01-01

    Uranium in sea water is separated by froth flotation of the uranium (VI)-Arsenazo III-Zephiramine ion-adduct and then determined by neutron activation or spectrophotometric method using the uranium(IV)-Arsenazo III complex. Results of the analysis of Pacific coastal samples by the two methods are in good agreement; an average value of 3.0μg U/per liter was obtained. (author)

  9. Bioinspired polydopamine particles-assisted construction of superhydrophobic surfaces for oil/water separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Bin; Wang, Yanbing; Peng, Bo; Deng, Ziwei

    2016-11-15

    Frequent oil spillages and industrial discharge of oils/organic solvents have induced severe environmental pollution and ecological damage, and a great cost in energy and finance has been consumed to solve the problems raised. Therefore, it is urgent to develop a surface hydrophobic modification that can be applied to materials with desired properties of high separation efficiency, excellent selectivity and stable performance in extreme conditions during the oil/water separation. Herein, with combined bioinspirations from mussel adhesive protein (polydopamine) and superhydrophobic lotus leaf (hierarchical structures), we develop a general way to superhydrophobically modify various commercial materials, aiming for the selective removal of oils/organic solvents from water. In this procedure, immersing commercial materials (e.g. melamine sponge, stainless steel mesh, nylon netting and cotton cloth) into water/ethanol/ammonia mixtures at a low concentration of dopamine (DA, 2mg/mL) allows a polydopamine (PDA) coating with a tunable roughness appearing on the substrate in one step. This is because DA can self-polymerize and form PDA particles with a catalyst of ammonia, attaching to any surfaces due to abundant catechol and amine groups in PDA, and ultimately, resulting in hierarchical structures. The subsequent decoration with 1H, 1H, 2H, 2H-perfluorodecanethiol features the surface superhydrophobic and superoleophilic. This approach is straightforward and economic, and carried out under a mild, environmental-benign circumstance, with nonspecific substrate demands. In addition, the as-prepared superhydrophobic materials exhibit excellent separation performances including high absorption/separation capacity, excellent selectivity, and extraordinary recyclability for collecting various oils/organic solvents from water. These superhydrophobic materials have also verified to be highly chemical resistant, environment stable and mechanically durable. Therefore, this

  10. Motion-based, high-yielding, and fast separation of different charged organics in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xuan, Mingjun; Lin, Xiankun; Shao, Jingxin; Dai, Luru; He, Qiang

    2015-01-12

    We report a self-propelled Janus silica micromotor as a motion-based analytical method for achieving fast target separation of polyelectrolyte microcapsules, enriching different charged organics with low molecular weights in water. The self-propelled Janus silica micromotor catalytically decomposes a hydrogen peroxide fuel and moves along the direction of the catalyst face at a speed of 126.3 μm s(-1) . Biotin-functionalized Janus micromotors can specifically capture and rapidly transport streptavidin-modified polyelectrolyte multilayer capsules, which could effectively enrich and separate different charged organics in water. The interior of the polyelectrolyte multilayer microcapsules were filled with a strong charged polyelectrolyte, and thus a Donnan equilibrium is favorable between the inner solution within the capsules and the bulk solution to entrap oppositely charged organics in water. The integration of these self-propelled Janus silica micromotors and polyelectrolyte multilayer capsules into a lab-on-chip device that enables the separation and analysis of charged organics could be attractive for a diverse range of applications. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Performance of a New Magnetic Chitosan Nanoparticle to Remove Arsenic and Its Separation from Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Removal performance of arsenic in water by a novel magnetic chitosan nanoparticle (MCNP with a diameter of about 10 nm, including adsorption kinetics, adsorption isotherm, main influencing factors, and regeneration effects, was investigated. In addition, the effective separation way for MCNP particles and the new application mode were developed to prompt the application of MCNP. The results showed that MCNP exhibited excellent ability to remove As(V and As(III from water in a wide range of initial concentrations, MCNP removed arsenic rapidly with more than 95% of arsenic adsorbed in initial 15 min, and the whole process fitted well to the pseudo-second-order model. The Langmuir model fits the equilibrium data better than the Freundlich isotherm model and the maximum adsorption capacities of As(V and As(III were 65.5 mg/g and 60.2 mg/g, respectively. The saturated MCNP could be easily regenerated and kept more than 95% of initial adsorption capacity stable after 10 regeneration cycles. A new magnetic material separation method was established to separate MCNP effectively. The continuous-operation instrument developed based on the MCNP could operate stably and guarantee that the concentration of arsenic meets the guideline limit of arsenic in drinking water regulated by the WHO.

  12. Novel nanocomposite Kevlar fabric membranes: Fabrication characterization, and performance in oil/water separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimnezhad, Hanieh; Rajabi, Laleh; Salehi, Ehsan; Derakhshan, Ali Ashraf; Azimi, Sara

    2014-02-01

    Nanocomposite membranes with hydrophilic surface were fabricated for separation of oil (n-hexane) from oil/water emulsion. Three different nanomaterials namely, para-aminobenzoate alumoxane (PAB-A), boehmite-epoxide and polycitrate alumoxane (PC-A) were coated on the Kevlar fabric (support), according to a three-step dip-coating protocol. FTIR, SEM, TEM, UV/vis spectrophotometer, and wettability analyses were used to characterize the composite membranes. The three coating layers interacted chemically with one another and also physically with the Kevlar fabric. Water uptake measurements indicated that the membrane is a hydrophilic one. SEM and TEM analyses showed the smooth surface of the composite membrane and three-dimensional dendrimeric hyper-branched structure of (PC-A), respectively. A dead-end filtration setup was applied to test the membranes performance under natural gravity force. Effect of pH as an important variable affecting separation process was investigated with the neutral pH provided the optimum condition for the separation. Oil rejection and permeate fluxes were also monitored. The optimum flux and rejection obtained, were 7392 (Lm-2 h-1) and 89.06% at pH 7, respectively. Fouling occurred as a gel layer on the membrane surface. The deposited oil droplets on the surface of the membrane were successfully washed away with satisfactory permeate flux recovery (FRR = 88.88% at neutral pH), using hot distilled water and acidic solution as eluents.

  13. Simulation of water column separation in Francis pump-turbine draft tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolet, C; Alligne, S; Bergant, A; Avellan, F

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents the modelling, simulation and analysis of the transient behaviour of a 340 MW pump-turbine in case of emergency shutdown in turbine mode with focus on possible draft tube water column separation. The model of a pumped storage power plant with simplified layout is presented. This model includes a penstock feeding one 340MW pump-turbine with the related rotating inertia and a tailrace tunnel. The model of the tailrace tunnel allowing for water column separation simulation is introduced. The simulation results of the transient behaviour of the pump-turbine in case of emergency shutdown in generating mode, with and without downstream water column separation model are presented for different degree of severity triggered by the submergence and the tailrace tunnel length. The amplitudes of the pressure peaks induced by the cavity collapse are analysed with respect to the pressure drop magnitude and tailrace dimensions. The maximum and minimum pressure amplitudes obtained along the tailrace tunnel are analysed for different test case conditions.

  14. Separation of thorium (IV) from lanthanide concentrate (LC) and water leach purification (WLP) residue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AL-Areqi, Wadeeah M.; Majid, Amran Ab.; Sarmani, Sukiman

    2014-01-01

    Thorium (IV) content in industrial residue produced from rare earth elements production industry is one of the challenges to Malaysian environment. Separation of thorium from the lanthanide concentrate (LC) and Water Leach Purification (WLP) residue from rare earth elements production plant is described. Both materials have been tested by sulphuric acid and alkaline digestions. Th concentrations in LC and WLP were determined to be 1289.7 ± 129 and 1952.9±17.6 ppm respectively. The results of separation show that the recovery of Th separation from rare earth in LC after concentrated sulphuric acid dissolution and reduction of acidity to precipitate Th was found 1.76-1.20% whereas Th recovery from WLP was less than 4% after concentrated acids and alkali digestion processes. Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectroscopy (ICP-MS) was used to determine Th concentrations in aqueous phase during separation stages. This study indicated that thorium maybe exists in refractory and insoluble form which is difficult to separate by these processes and stays in WLP residue as naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM)

  15. The role of interfacial water layer in atmospherically relevant charge separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Indrani

    Charge separation at interfaces is important in various atmospheric processes, such as thunderstorms, lightning, and sand storms. It also plays a key role in several industrial processes, including ink-jet printing and electrostatic separation. Surprisingly, little is known about the underlying physics of these charging phenomena. Since thin films of water are ubiquitous, they may play a role in these charge separation processes. This talk will focus on the experimental investigation of the role of a water adlayer in interfacial charging, with relevance to meteorologically important phenomena, such as atmospheric charging due to wave actions on oceans and sand storms. An ocean wave generates thousands of bubbles, which upon bursting produce numerous large jet droplets and small film droplets that are charged. In the 1960s, Blanchard showed that the jet droplets are positively charged. However, the charge on the film droplets was not known. We designed an experiment to exclusively measure the charge on film droplets generated by bubble bursting on pure water and aqueous salt solution surfaces. We measured their charge to be negative and proposed a model where a slight excess of hydroxide ions in the interfacial water layer is responsible for generating these negatively charged droplets. The findings from this research led to a better understanding of the ionic disposition at the air-water interface. Sand particles in a wind-blown sand layer, or 'saltation' layer, become charged due to collisions, so much so, that it can cause lightning. Silica, being hydrophilic, is coated with a water layer even under low-humidity conditions. To investigate the importance of this water adlayer in charging the silica surfaces, we performed experiments to measure the charge on silica surfaces due to contact and collision processes. In case of contact charging, the maximum charge separation occurred at an optimum relative humidity. On the contrary, in collisional charging process, no

  16. Recovery of iron from cyanide tailings with reduction roasting–water leaching followed by magnetic separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yali; Li, Huaimei; Yu, Xianjin

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Using reduction roasting–water leaching–magnetic separation method, the recovery of iron from cyanide tailings was optimized. ► The recovery of iron was highly depended on the water-leaching process after reduction roasting. ► The results suggest that the method can be effectively used for iron recovery, and the grade of magnetic concentrate and recovery rate can reach 59.11% and 75.12%, respectively. - Abstract: Cyanide tailing is a kind of solid waste produced in the process of gold extraction from gold ore. In this paper, recovery of iron from cyanide tailings was studied with reduction roasting–water leaching process followed by magnetic separation. After analysis of chemical composition and crystalline phase, the effects of different parameters on recovery of iron were chiefly introduced. Systematic studies indicate that the high recovery rate and grade of magnetic concentrate of iron can be achieved under the following conditions: weight ratios of cyanide tailings/activated carbon/sodium carbonate/sodium sulfate, 100:10:3:10; temperature, 50 °C; time, 60 min at the reduction roasting stage; the liquid to solid ratio is 15:1 (ml/g), leaching at 60 °C for 5 min and stirring speed at 20 r/min at water-leaching; exciting current is 2 A at magnetic separation. The iron grade of magnetic concentrate was 59.11% and the recovery ratio was 75.12%. The mineralography of cyanide tailings, roasted product, water-leached sample, magnetic concentrate and magnetic tailings were studied by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) technique. The microstructures of above products except magnetic tailings were also analyzed by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy disperse spectroscopy (EDS) to help understand the mechanism.

  17. Free-living dinitrogen-fixing bacteria isolated from petroleum refinery oily sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laguerre, G.; Bossand, B.; Bardin, R.

    1987-07-01

    Dinitrogen-fixing activity (acetylene reduction and /sup 15/N/sub 2/ fixation) was found in an oily sludge originating from a petroleum refinery. Two representative dinitrogen-fixing bacterial strains were isolated from this oily waste. Their nitrogenase activity was effective when they were cultivated on sterilized sludge or simple carbon substrates (organic acid salts, sugars). Using the classical methods, these strains could not be unambiguously related to other diazotrophic taxa. The landfarming process is widely used for oily sludge disposal; this study shows that oily sludges are more than a simple carbon input into the soil but that they must also be considered as real sources of dinitrogen-fixing and probably degradative microorganisms.

  18. Free-living dinitrogen-fixing bacteria isolated from petroleum refinery oily sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laguerre, G.; Bossand, B.; Bardin, R.

    1987-01-01

    Dinitrogen-fixing activity (acetylene reduction and 15 N 2 fixation) was found in an oily sludge originating from a petroleum refinery. Two representative dinitrogen-fixing bacterial strains were isolated from this oily waste. Their nitrogenase activity was effective when they were cultivated on sterilized sludge or simple carbon substrates (organic acid salts, sugars). Using the classical methods, these strains could not be unambiguously related to other diazotrophic taxa. The landfarming process is widely used for oily sludge disposal; this study shows that oily sludges are more than a simple carbon input into the soil but that they must also be considered as real sources of dinitrogen-fixing and probably degradative microorganisms

  19. Effective preparation of magnetic superhydrophobic Fe3O4/PU sponge for oil-water separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zeng-Tian; Lin, Bo; Jiang, Li-Wang; Lin, En-Chao; Chen, Jian; Zhang, Shi-Jie; Tang, Yi-Wen; He, Fu-An; Li, De-Hao

    2018-01-01

    Fe3O4 nanoparticles were modified by tetraethoxysilane and different amounts of trimethoxy (1H,1H,2H,2H-heptadecafluorodecyl) silane in sequence to obtain the magnetic nanoparticles with low surface energy, which could be used to construct the superhydrophobic surfaces for PU sponge, cotton fabric, and filter paper by a simple drop-coating method. Particularly, all the resultant Fe3O4/PU sponges containing different fluoroalkylsilane-modified Fe3O4 nanoparticles possessed both high water repellency with contact angle in the range of 150.2-154.7° and good oil affinity, which could not only effectively remove oil from water followed by convenient magnetic recovery but also easily realize the oil-water separation as a filter only driven by gravity. The Fe3O4/PU sponges showed high absorption capability of peanut oil, pump oil, and silicone oil with the maximum absorptive capacities of 40.3, 39.3, and 46.3 g/g, respectively. Such novel sponges might be a potential candidate for oil-water separation as well as oil absorption and transportation accompanied by the advantages of simple process, remote control by magnetic field, and low energy consumption.

  20. Heterogeneously catalyzed deuterium separation processes: Hydrogen-water exchange studies at elevated temperatures and pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halliday, J.D.; Rolston, J.H.; Au, J.C.; Den Hartog, J.; Tremblay, R.R.

    1985-01-01

    New processes for the separation of hydrogen isotopes are required to produce heavy water for CANDU nuclear reactors and to extract tritium formed in the moderator during reactor operation. Wetproofed platinum catalysts capable of promoting rapid exchange of isotopes between countercurrent flows of hydrogen and liquid water in packed columns have been developed at CRNL over the past 15 years. These catalysts provide a catalystic surface for the gas phase exchange reaction H/sub 2/O/sub (v)/ + HD/sub (g)/ ↔ HDO/sub (v)/ + H/sub 2(g)/ as well as a large liquid surface for the liquid phase isotope transfer reaction HDO/sub (v)/ + H/sub 2/O/sub (iota)/↔HDO/sub (iota)/+H/sub 2/O/sub (v)/. Any economic stand-alone heavy water separation process, based on bithermal hydrogen-water exchange over wetproofed platinum catalysts, requires rapid overall exchange of isotopes between two phases at two temperatures. Catalysts developed for cold tower operation at 25-60 0 C are now being tested in a laboratory scale stainless steel trickle bed reactor for performance and stability at simulated hot tower conditions, 150 0 C and 2.0 MPa pressure. Catalytically active layers containing platinum supported on carbon or crystalline silica and wetproofed with Teflon have been prepared on ceramic spheres and stainless steel screening and tested in both random and ordered bed columns

  1. Separation, Characterization and Fouling Potential of Sludge Waters from Different Biological Wastewater Treatment Processes

    KAUST Repository

    Xue, Jinkai

    2011-07-01

    The major limitation, which hinders the wider application of membrane technology and increases the operating costs of membranes involved in wastewater treatment plants, is membrane fouling induced by organic matter. Extracellular polymeric products (EPS) and soluble microbial products (SMP) are the two most mentioned major foulants in publications, for which the debate on precise definitions seems to be endless. Therefore, a concept of sludge water, which conceptually covers both EPS and SMP, has been developed in this research. A standard procedure of sludge water separation, which is centrifugation at 4000g for 15 min followed by 1.2μm glass fiber filter filtration, was established based on separation experiments with membrane tank sludge from the KAUST MBR wastewater treatment plant. Afterwards, sludge waters from the KAUST MBR WWTP anoxic tank, aerobic tank and membrane tank as well as sludge waters from the Jeddah WWTP anoxic tank, aerobic tank and secondary effluent were produced through the previously developed standard procedure. The obtained sludge water samples were thereafter characterized with TOC/COD, LC-­‐OCD and F-­‐EEM, which showed that KAUST anoxic/ aerobic /membrane tank sludge waters had similar characteristics for all investigated parameters, yet the influent naturally had a higher DOC and biopolymer concentration. Moreover, lower TOC/COD, negligible biopolymers and low levels of humics were found in KAUST effluent. Compared with the KAUST MBR WWTP, the Jeddah WWTP’s sludge waters generally had higher DOC and biopolymer concentrations. To investigate sludge water fouling potential, the KAUST membrane tank sludge water as well as the Jeddah secondary effluent were filtrated through a membrane array consisting of an ultrafiltration (UF) Millipore RC10kDa at the first step followed by a nanofiltration (NF) KOCH Acid/Base stable NF200 at the second step. It was found that cake layer and standard blocking occurred simultaneously during both

  2. Anaerobic treatment as a core technology for energy, nutrients and water recovery from source-separated domestic waste(water).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeeman, Grietje; Kujawa, Katarzyna; de Mes, Titia; Hernandez, Lucia; de Graaff, Marthe; Abu-Ghunmi, Lina; Mels, Adriaan; Meulman, Brendo; Temmink, Hardy; Buisman, Cees; van Lier, Jules; Lettinga, Gatze

    2008-01-01

    Based on results of pilot scale research with source-separated black water (BW) and grey water (GW), a new sanitation concept is proposed. BW and GW are both treated in a UASB (-septic tank) for recovery of CH4 gas. Kitchen waste is added to the anaerobic BW treatment for doubling the biogas production. Post-treatment of the effluent is providing recovery of phosphorus and removal of remaining COD and nitrogen. The total energy saving of the new sanitation concept amounts to 200 MJ/year in comparison with conventional sanitation, moreover 0.14 kg P/p/year and 90 litres of potential reusable water are produced. (c) IWA Publishing 2008.

  3. Evidence for phase separation of ethanol-water mixtures at the hydrogen terminated nanocrystalline diamond surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssens, Stoffel D; Drijkoningen, Sien; Saitner, Marc; Boyen, Hans-Gerd; Wagner, Patrick; Larsson, Karin; Haenen, Ken

    2012-07-28

    Interactions between ethanol-water mixtures and a hydrophobic hydrogen terminated nanocrystalline diamond surface, are investigated by sessile drop contact angle measurements. The surface free energy of the hydrophobic surface, obtained with pure liquids, differs strongly from values obtained by ethanol-water mixtures. Here, a model which explains this difference is presented. The model suggests that, due to a higher affinity of ethanol for the hydrophobic surface, when compared to water, a phase separation occurs when a mixture of both liquids is in contact with the H-terminated diamond surface. These results are supported by a computational study giving insight in the affinity and related interaction at the liquid-solid interface.

  4. Pebax®1657/Graphene oxide composite membranes for improved water vapor separation

    KAUST Repository

    Akhtar, Faheem Hassan

    2016-11-02

    In this study composite mixed matrix membranes containing hydrophilic microphase-separated block copolymer (Pebax® 1657) and graphene oxide nanosheets were prepared using a dip coating method. Water vapor and N2 gas permeation were measured as a function of different parameters: (i) layer thickness, (ii) content of graphene oxide (GO), and (iii) content of reduced GO. Surprisingly, a concentration of only 2 wt% of GO nanosheets well dispersed in the Pebax layer boosted the selectivity 8 times by decreasing the water vapor permeance by only 12% whereas N2 gas permeance decreased by 70%. Using reduced GO instead, the water vapor permeance declined by up to 16% with no influence on the N2 gas permeance. We correlated the permeation properties of the mixed matrix membranes with different models and found, that both the modified Nielsen model and the Cussler model give good correlation with experimental findings.

  5. Pebax®1657/Graphene oxide composite membranes for improved water vapor separation

    KAUST Repository

    Akhtar, Faheem Hassan; Kumar, Mahendra; Peinemann, Klaus-Viktor

    2016-01-01

    In this study composite mixed matrix membranes containing hydrophilic microphase-separated block copolymer (Pebax® 1657) and graphene oxide nanosheets were prepared using a dip coating method. Water vapor and N2 gas permeation were measured as a function of different parameters: (i) layer thickness, (ii) content of graphene oxide (GO), and (iii) content of reduced GO. Surprisingly, a concentration of only 2 wt% of GO nanosheets well dispersed in the Pebax layer boosted the selectivity 8 times by decreasing the water vapor permeance by only 12% whereas N2 gas permeance decreased by 70%. Using reduced GO instead, the water vapor permeance declined by up to 16% with no influence on the N2 gas permeance. We correlated the permeation properties of the mixed matrix membranes with different models and found, that both the modified Nielsen model and the Cussler model give good correlation with experimental findings.

  6. Microbial processes in the Kanda Bay, a meromictic water body artifically separated from the White Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savvichev, A S; Demidenko, N A; Krasnova, E D; Kalmatskaya, O V; Kharcheva, A N; Ivanov, M V

    2017-05-01

    Sings of meromixis are found by means of microbiological and biogeochemical investigations in the southernn part of the Kanda Bay, an artificial water body separated front the White Sea with a railway dam. The concentration of oxygen in the bottom layer attained 1.9 mmol/L, intensity of the process of microbial sulfate reduction, 3.0 μmol of sulfur/(L day). The concentration of dissolved methane, 3.7 μmol/L. Isotopic composition of carbon in methane (δ 13 C (CH 4 ) =-79.2‰) indicates to its microbial genesis. At present, Kanda Bay is a sole in Russia man-made marine water body for which there are data on the rate of microbial processes responsible for formation of bottom water layer containing hydrogen sulfide and methane.

  7. Flexible Superhydrophobic and Superoleophilic MoS2 Sponge for Highly Efficient Oil-Water Separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xiaojia; Wang, Xiufeng; Ouyang, Xiaoping; Wen, Cuie

    2016-01-01

    Removal of oils and organic solvents from water is an important global challenge for energy conservation and environmental protection. Advanced sorbent materials with excellent sorption capacity need to be developed. Here we report on a superhydrophobic and superoleophilic MoS2 nanosheet sponge (SMS) for highly efficient separation and absorption of oils or organic solvents from water. This novel sponge exhibits excellent absorption performance through a combination of superhydrophobicity, high porosity, robust stability in harsh conditions (including flame retardance and inertness to corrosive and different temperature environments) and excellent mechanical properties. The dip-coating strategy proposed for the fabrication of the SMS, which does not require a complicated process or sophisticated equipment, is very straightforward and easy to scale up. This finding shows promise for water remediation and oil recovery. PMID:27272562

  8. Inspired by Stenocara Beetles: From Water Collection to High-Efficiency Water-in-Oil Emulsion Separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xinjuan; Qian, Long; Yuan, Xianxia; Zhou, Cailong; Li, Zhaowen; Cheng, Jiang; Xu, Shouping; Wang, Shuangfeng; Pi, Pihui; Wen, Xiufang

    2017-01-24

    Inspired by the water-collecting mechanism of the Stenocara beetle's back structure, we prepared a superhydrophilic bumps-superhydrophobic/superoleophilic stainless steel mesh (SBS-SSM) filter via a facile and environmentally friendly method. Specifically, hydrophilic silica microparticles are assembled on the as-cleaned stainless steel mesh surface, followed by further spin-coating with a fluoropolymer/SiO 2 nanoparticle solution. On the special surface of SBS-SSM, attributed to the steep surface energy gradient, the superhydrophilic bumps (hydrophilic silica microparticles) are able to capture emulsified water droplets and collect water from the emulsion even when their size is smaller than the pore size of the stainless steel mesh. The oil portion of the water-in-oil emulsion therefore permeates through pores of the superhydrophobic/superoleophilic mesh coating freely and gets purified. We demonstrated an oil recovery purity up to 99.95 wt % for surfactant-stabilized water-in-oil emulsions on the biomimetic SBS-SSM filter, which is superior to that of the traditional superhydrophobic/superoleophilic stainless steel mesh (S-SSM) filter lacking the superhydrophilic bump structure. Together with a facile and environmentally friendly coating strategy, this tool shows great application potential for water-in-oil emulsion separation and oil purification.

  9. Effective treatment of oily scum via catalytic wet persulfate oxidation process activated by Fe2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Xingzhong; Guan, Renpeng; Wu, Zhibin; Jiang, Longbo; Li, Yifu; Chen, Xiaohong; Zeng, Guangming

    2018-04-05

    Oily scum, a hazardous by-product of petroleum industry, need to be deposed urgently to reduce environmental risks. This paper introduces catalytic wet persulfate oxidation (CWPO) process in the treatment of oily scum to realize risk relief. Under the activation of heat and Fe 2+ , persulfate (PS) was decomposed into sulfate radicals and hydroxyl radicals, which played a major role on the degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons. The effects of wet air oxidation (WAO) and CWPO process on the degradation of oily scum were compared. In CWPO process, the total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs) content of oily scum was decreased from 92.63% to 16.75%, which was still up to 70.19% in WAO process. The degradation rate of TPHs in CWPO process was about 3.38 times higher than that in WAO process. The great performance of CWPO process was also confirmed by elemental analysis, which indicated that the C and H contents of oily scum were reduced significantly by CWPO process. These results indicated that CWPO process has high potential on the degradation of oily scum for environmental protection. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. A rapid and simple separation method of Tc-99 in water samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchida, Shigeo; Tagami, Keiko

    1999-01-01

    Technetium-99 ( 99 Tc) is one of the important elements on safety evaluation of reprocessing plant and waste disposal plant, because it is a long half-life nuclide and large fission yield (about 6%) from 235 U and 239 Pu. We studied in this work a rapid and simple separation method of 99 Tc in water samples by ICP-MS. Tc in 2 litre of inland water or 1.5 litre of sea water sample solutions was condensed and separated by mini-column resin (TEVA·Spec resin) (Eichrom Co., Ltd.). The experimental results showed the best conditions as followed that 1) after controlling 0.1M nitric acid sample solution, passed it through the column, 2) then the inhibitory elements such as Ru are removed by 40 ml of 2M nitric acid solution, and 3) Tc was recovered by 4 ml of 8M nitric acid solution. 95% or more recovery of Tc was obtained. 100% Ru, an inhibited element of ICP-MS, was removed. The elute obtained from 4 ml of 8M nitric acid solution was diluted ten times with pure water and 99 Tc was measured by ICP-MS. The limit of detection of 2 litre inland water and 1.5 litre sea water were 3 mBql -1 and 4 mBql -1 , respectively. The organic compounds were not removed before running to column, because the concentration of organic compounds was not so large. When large amounts of them are contained, they should be removed. If suspended materials absorb Tc, Tc should be changed to TcO 4 - . (S.Y.)

  11. Investigating the Intrinsic Ethanol/Water Separation Capability of ZIF-8: An Adsorption and Diffusion Study

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Ke

    2013-04-11

    Intrinsic ethanol/water separation capability of ZIF-8 is characterized by a detailed study of adsorption and diffusion of ethanol and water vapor in dodecahedral crystals with principle axis dimension of 324, 15.8, and 0.4 μm. ZIF-8 exhibits extremely low water uptakes. At 35 C and a relative pressure (P/Po) of 0.95, the water uptakes for 324, 15.8, and 0.4 μm ZIF-8 are 0.184, 0.197, and 0.503 mmol/g, respectively, all of which are less than 1 wt % increase relative to original sorbent mass (0.33, 0.35, 0.91 wt %). For ethanol adsorption, ZIF-8 exhibits an S-shape isotherm with low ethanol uptakes at P/Po up to 0.08 and the cage filling phenomenon occurs at P/P o higher than 0.08. The ethanol saturation uptake in ZIF-8 is as high as 30% of the sorbent weight. Because of the existence of the hydrophilic -N-H functionality introduced by the terminating imidazolate (Im) linker and the overall hydrophobicity of the inner network, the effect of outer surface area of ZIF-8 crystals is proved to be non-negligible as ZIF-8 crystals becomes smaller despite the extremely large inner surface area and pore volume, especially for water sorption. The variation of isosteric heats of adsorption for water reveals the existence of structural defect of ZIF-8 framework. Transport diffusivity and corrected diffusivity for water and ethanol in ZIF-8 are determined within the entire P/Po range. The ethanol/water separation performance in ZIF-8 is evaluated in terms of vapor-phase sorption selectivity and permselectivity. While ZIF-8 exhibits ample ethanol/water sorption selectivity, it is not effective for ethanol extraction as a membrane material from dilute ethanol aqueous solutions due to the unfavorable diffusion selectivity and the competitive water uptakes in the adsorbed ethanol phase. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  12. Separation and determination of arsenic species in water by selective exchange and hybrid resins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Issa, Nureddin Ben [Faculty of Technology and Metallurgy, University of Belgrade, Karnegijeva 4, Belgrade (Serbia); Rajakovic-Ognjanovic, Vladana N. [Faculty of Civil Engineering, University of Belgrade, Bulevar Kralja Aleksandra 73, Belgrade (Serbia); Marinkovic, Aleksandar D. [Faculty of Technology and Metallurgy, University of Belgrade, Karnegijeva 4, Belgrade (Serbia); Rajakovic, Ljubinka V., E-mail: ljubinka@tmf.bg.ac.rs [Faculty of Technology and Metallurgy, University of Belgrade, Karnegijeva 4, Belgrade (Serbia)

    2011-11-07

    Highlights: {yields} A simple and efficient method for separation and determination of arsenic species. {yields} A new hybrid resin HY-AgCl is effective for iAs and oAs analytical separation. {yields} SBAE resin was convenient for the separation of As(III) from As(V) and oAs species. {yields} HY-Fe resin was convenient for the separation of DMAs(V). - Abstract: A simple and efficient method for separation and determination of inorganic arsenic (iAs) and organic arsenic (oAs) in drinking, natural and wastewater was developed. If arsenic is present in water prevailing forms are inorganic acids of As(III) and As(V). oAs can be found in traces as monomethylarsenic acid, MMA(V), and dimethylarsenic acid, DMAs(V). Three types of resins: a strong base anion exchange (SBAE) and two hybrid (HY) resins: HY-Fe and HY-AgCl, based on the activity of hydrated iron oxides and a silver chloride were investigated. It was found that the sorption processes (ion exchange, adsorption and chemisorptions) of arsenic species on SBAE (ion exchange) and HY resins depend on pH values of water. The quantitative separation of molecular and ionic forms of iAs and oAs was achieved by SBAE and pH adjustment, the molecular form of As(III) that exists in the water at pH <8.0 was not bonded with SBAE, which was convenient for direct determination of As(III) concentration in the effluent. HY-Fe resin retained all arsenic species except DMAs(V), which makes possible direct measurements of this specie in the effluent. HY-AgCl resin retained all iAs which was convenient for direct determination of oAs species concentration in the effluent. The selective bonding of arsenic species on three types of resins makes possible the development of the procedure for measuring and calculation of all arsenic species in water. In order to determine capacity of resins the preliminary investigations were performed in batch system and fixed bed flow system. Resin capacities were calculated according to breakthrough

  13. Superhydrophobic silica wool—a facile route to separating oil and hydrophobic solvents from water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crick, Colin R.; Bhachu, Davinder S.; Parkin, Ivan P.

    2014-12-01

    Silica microfiber wool was systematically functionalized in order to provide an extremely water repellent and oleophilic material. This was carried out using a two-step functionalization that was shown to be a highly effective method for generating an intense water repulsion and attraction for oil. A demonstration of the silica wools application is shown through the highly efficient separation of oils and hydrophobic solvents from water. Water is confined to the extremities of the material, while oil is absorbed into the voids within the wool. The effect of surface functionalization is monitored though observing the interaction of the material with both oils and water, in addition to scanning electron microscope images, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and energy dispersive x-ray analysis. The material can be readily utilized in many applications, including the cleaning of oil spills and filtering during industrial processes, as well as further water purification tasks—while not suffering the losses of efficiency observed in current leading polymeric materials.

  14. Achieving high permeability and enhanced selectivity for Angstrom-scale separations using artificial water channel membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yue-Xiao; Song, Woochul C; Barden, D Ryan; Ren, Tingwei; Lang, Chao; Feroz, Hasin; Henderson, Codey B; Saboe, Patrick O; Tsai, Daniel; Yan, Hengjing; Butler, Peter J; Bazan, Guillermo C; Phillip, William A; Hickey, Robert J; Cremer, Paul S; Vashisth, Harish; Kumar, Manish

    2018-06-12

    Synthetic polymer membranes, critical to diverse energy-efficient separations, are subject to permeability-selectivity trade-offs that decrease their overall efficacy. These trade-offs are due to structural variations (e.g., broad pore size distributions) in both nonporous membranes used for Angstrom-scale separations and porous membranes used for nano to micron-scale separations. Biological membranes utilize well-defined Angstrom-scale pores to provide exceptional transport properties and can be used as inspiration to overcome this trade-off. Here, we present a comprehensive demonstration of such a bioinspired approach based on pillar[5]arene artificial water channels, resulting in artificial water channel-based block copolymer membranes. These membranes have a sharp selectivity profile with a molecular weight cutoff of ~ 500 Da, a size range challenging to achieve with current membranes, while achieving a large improvement in permeability (~65 L m -2  h -1  bar -1  compared with 4-7 L m -2  h -1  bar -1 ) over similarly rated commercial membranes.

  15. Oil recovery from refinery oily sludge via ultrasound and freeze/thaw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ju; Li, Jianbing; Thring, Ronald W; Hu, Xuan; Song, Xinyuan

    2012-02-15

    The effective disposal of oily sludge generated from the petroleum industry has received increasing concerns, and oil recovery from such waste was considered as one feasible option. In this study, three different approaches for oil recovery were investigated, including ultrasonic treatment alone, freeze/thaw alone and combined ultrasonic and freeze/thaw treatment. The results revealed that the combined process could achieve satisfactory performance by considering the oil recovery rate and the total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) concentrations in the recovered oil and wastewater. The individual impacts of five different factors on the combined process were further examined, including ultrasonic power, ultrasonic treatment duration, sludge/water ratio in the slurry, as well as bio-surfactant (rhamnolipids) and salt (NaCl) concentrations. An oil recovery rate of up to 80.0% was observed with an ultrasonic power of 66 W and an ultrasonic treatment duration of 10 min when the sludge/water ratio was 1:2 without the addition of bio-surfactant and salt. The examination of individual factors revealed that the addition of low concentration of rhamnolipids (treatment process. The experimental results also indicated that ultrasound and freeze/thaw could promote the efficiency of each other, and the main mechanism of oil recovery enhancement using ultrasound was through enhanced desorption of petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs) from solid particles. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Forward osmosis for oily wastewater reclamation: Multi-charged oxalic acid complexes as draw solutes

    KAUST Repository

    Ge, Qingchun

    2017-06-11

    Forward osmosis (FO) has demonstrated its merits in hybrid FO seawater desalination. However, FO may have a potential for other applications if suitable draw solutes are available. In this study, a series of novel draw solutes based on oxalic acid (OA)-transitional metal complexes are presented. Influential factors of FO performance have been systematically investigated by varying the transitional metals, cations of the complex draw solutes as well as the experimental conditions. Compared to NaCl and other recently synthesized draw solutes, the OA complexes show superior FO performance in terms of high water fluxes up to 27.5 and 89.1 LMH under the respective FO and PRO (pressure retarded osmosis) modes, both with negligible reverse solute fluxes. The features of octahedral geometry, abundant hydrophilic groups and ionic species are crucial for the OA complexes as appropriate draw solutes with satisfactory FO performance. Among the synthesized OA complexes, the ammonium salt of chromic complex (NH4-Cr-OA) outperforms others due to the presence of more ionic species in its complex system. NH4-Cr-OA also performs better than the typical NaCl draw solute in FO oily wastewater treatment with higher water recovery and negligible reverse fluxes. Dilute solutions of OA complexes have been reconcentrated through membrane distillation (MD) and reused to new round of FO processes. The OA complexes have demonstrated their suitability and superiority as a novel class of draw solutes for the FO process in this study.

  17. Facile way in fabricating a cotton fabric membrane for switchable oil/water separation and water purification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yubin; Feng, Ziliang; He, Yi; Fan, Yi; Ma, Jing; Yin, Xiangying

    2018-05-01

    With dopamine and NiFe2O4 particles, a novel modified cotton fabric (PDA-NiFe2O4@CF) was prepared by one-pot method. Surface morphology, composition of the PDA-NiFe2O4@CF were investigated with SEM, EDX, XRD and FT-IR, respectively. According to the results, the cotton fiber surface was well coated with NiFe2O4 particles. Subsequently, wetting behavior of the modified cotton fabric was determined. The PDA-NiFe2O4@CF is superamphiphilic in air, and a dual lyophobic behavior was indicated with an oil contact angle (OCA) of 153° under water and a water contact angle (WCA) of 145° under oil. The rough micro-nano scale surface structure and high-surface-energy compositions of the PDA-NiFe2O4@CF makes the surface to be easily covered by one medium and enables it to repel other unmixable medium simultaneously. Therefore, water-oil mixtures can be separated on demand. Besides, with the unusual dual lyophobic surface of PDA-NiFe2O4@CF, both two types of emulsions were separated by gravity driven. On the other hand, it was also found that the as-prepared PDA-NiFe2O4@CF had good adsorption performance for methylene blue.

  18. Fate of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons during composting of oily sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriipsalu, M; Marques, M; Hogland, W; Nammari, D R

    2008-01-01

    In order to assess the effectiveness of aerobic degradation with emphasis on the 16 U.S. EPA priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), oily sludge generated by a dissolved air flotation flocculation unit of a wastewater treatment plant in a petroleum refinery was amended with remediated oil-contaminated soil and non-mature garden waste compost 40:40:20 (wet weight) respectively. About 21 t of the mixture with a top-layer formed by 30 cm of remediated soil was treated in a 28 m3 air-forced reactor. The PAH concentration was monitored for 370 days. In the top-layer, a reduction of 88 % of the total extractable PAH was measured at day 62 and a final reduction of 93% at day 370. In the mixture, a reduction of 72% in total PAH was measured at day 62, followed by fluctuation in concentration with a final measured reduction of 53% at day 370. The analysis of individual PAH in the mixture suggested that volatilization and biodegradation are the main mechanisms responsible for the reduction of 2 ring PAH and 3-4 ring PAH, respectively. Fluctuation of 5-6 ring PAH concentrations with increase observed at the end of the period might result from a combination of the following: (i) sequestration of large PAH in the organic matrix (reducing bioavailability, biodegradability and eventually, extractability) and desorption as composting progresses; (ii) heterogeneous distribution of the stable large PAH in the mixture, thus affecting sampling. It was concluded that one-time composting in static-aerated biopiles with organic amendments as the sole strategy to treat oily sludge is very effective in reducing the content of 2-4 ring PAH, but it is not effective in reducing the content of 5-6 ring PAHs, even after a relatively long time span (370 d). The concentrations measured in the remediated soil that formed the top layer after 62 days of composting suggests that further relevant reduction of residual PAH (89% of total PAH and 69% of 5-6 ring PAH) can be obtained if the

  19. Surfactant-nanotube interactions in water and nanotube separation by diameter: atomistic simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, E. J. F.; Dos Santos, M. C.

    2010-05-01

    A non-destructive sorting method to separate single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) by diameter was recently proposed. By this method, SWNTs are suspended in water by surfactant encapsulation and the separation is carried out by ultracentrifugation in a density gradient. SWNTs of different diameters are distributed according to their densities along the centrifuge tube. A mixture of two anionic surfactants, namely sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS) and sodium cholate (SC), presented the best performance in discriminating nanotubes by diameter. Unexpectedly, small diameter nanotubes are found at the low density part of the centrifuge tube. We present molecular dynamics studies of the water-surfactant-SWNT system to investigate the role of surfactants in the sorting process. We found that surfactants can actually be attracted towards the interior of the nanotube cage, depending on the relationship between the surfactant radius of gyration and the nanotube diameter. The dynamics at room temperature showed that, as the amphiphile moves to the hollow cage, water molecules are dragged together, thereby promoting the nanotube filling. The resulting densities of filled SWNT are in agreement with measured densities.

  20. Surveillance of parasitic Legionella in surface waters by using immunomagnetic separation and amoebae enrichment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Tsui-Kang; Wu, Shu-Fen; Hsu, Bing-Mu; Kao, Po-Min; Tao, Chi-Wei; Shen, Shu-Min; Ji, Wen-Tsai; Huang, Wen-Chien; Fan, Cheng-Wei

    2015-01-01

    Free-living amoebae (FLA) are potential reservoirs of Legionella in aquatic environments. However, the parasitic relationship between various Legionella and amoebae remains unclear. In this study, surface water samples were gathered from two rivers for evaluating parasitic Legionella. Warmer water temperature is critical to the existence of Legionella. This result suggests that amoebae may be helpful in maintaining Legionella in natural environments because warmer temperatures could enhance parasitisation of Legionella in amoebae. We next used immunomagnetic separation (IMS) to identify extracellular Legionella and remove most free Legionella before detecting the parasitic ones in selectively enriched amoebae. Legionella pneumophila was detected in all the approaches, confirming that the pathogen is a facultative amoebae parasite. By contrast, two obligate amoebae parasites, Legionella-like amoebal pathogens (LLAPs) 8 and 9, were detected only in enriched amoebae. However, several uncultured Legionella were detected only in the extracellular samples. Because the presence of potential hosts, namely Vermamoeba vermiformis, Acanthamoeba spp. and Naegleria gruberi, was confirmed in the samples that contained intracellular Legionella, uncultured Legionella may survive independently of amoebae. Immunomagnetic separation and amoebae enrichment may have referential value for detecting parasitic Legionella in surface waters.

  1. OPTIMIZATION OF DEMULSIFIER FORMULATION FOR SEPARATION OF WATER FROM CRUDE OIL EMULSIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Hajivand

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this study, various water-soluble and oil-soluble demulsifiers were selected for separation of water from crude oil emulsions and their productivity measured using the Bottle-test method at 70 °C and 10 ppm concentration. The best ones among 23 demulsifiers examined through the screening process were fatty alcohol ethoxylate, triethanol amine and urea from the water-soluble group and Basororol E2032, Basorol PDB 9935 and TOMAC from the oil-soluble category. Furthermore, the present study investigated the factors effective for demulsification such as temperature, concentration, pH, salinity and modifiers. It was found that the separation improves with increasing demulsifier concentration, increasing salt content, increasing temperature up to 80 °C, keeping the pH values between 5-9. Adding solvent modifiers proved unnecessary. Two formulations were prepared based on suggested optimal concentrations of demulsifier content by experimental design using Qualitec 4 and these proved to be highly effective in treating real and synthetic emulsions.

  2. The use of packed water in urban drinking water and its advantages to other methods of separating drinking water from undrinkable water (The case study : Ferdows city in south Khorasan)

    OpenAIRE

    Mehdi Akhgari; Ahmad Mansuri; Saeed Mansuri; Sara Mirzaei

    2014-01-01

    Today,more than one billion people of the world don't have access to safe drinking water.  Therefore, due to the population increase andconsequently increasing water needs, and the reduction of drinking watersources available, separating drinking water and non-drinking water seemsnecessary. In this article, the use of packed water is compared to other methods,such as two networks (drinkable and non-drinkable) water supply, public waterstations, purifying drinking water, and transferring high ...

  3. Hydration, phase separation and nonlinear rheology of temperature-sensitive water-soluble polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Fumihiko; Koga, Tsuyoshi [Department of Polymer Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyoto 615-8510 (Japan); Kaneda, Isamu [Department of Food Science, Rakuno Gakuen University, Ebetsu, Hokkaido 069-8501 (Japan); Winnik, Francoise M, E-mail: ftanaka@phys.polym.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Chemistry and Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Montreal, Montreal, H3C 3J7 (Canada)

    2011-07-20

    The collapse of a poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) chain upon heating and the phase diagrams of aqueous PNIPAM solutions with a very flat lower critical solution temperature (LCST) phase separation line are theoretically studied on the basis of cooperative dehydration (simultaneous dissociation of bound water molecules in a group of correlated sequence), and compared with the experimental observation of temperature-induced coil-globule transition by light scattering methods. The transition becomes sharper with the cooperativity parameter {sigma} of hydration. The reentrant coil-globule-coil transition and cononsolvency in a mixed solvent of water and methanol are also studied from the viewpoint of competitive hydrogen bonds between polymer-water and polymer-methanol. The downward shift of the cloud-point curves (LCST cononsolvency) with the mol fraction of methanol due to the competition is calculated and compared with the experimental data. Aqueous solutions of hydrophobically modified PNIPAM carrying short alkyl chains at both chain ends (telechelic PNIPAM) are theoretically and experimentally studied. The LCST of these solutions is found to shift downward along the sol-gel transition curve as a result of end-chain association (association-induced phase separation), and separate from the coil-globule transition line. Associated structures in the solution, such as flower micelles, mesoglobules, and higher fractal assembly, are studied by ultra small-angle neutron scattering with theoretical modeling of the scattering function. Dynamic-mechanical modulus, nonlinear stationary viscosity, and stress build-up in start-up shear flows of the associated networks are studied on the basis of the affine and non-affine transient network theory. The molecular conditions for thickening, strain hardening, and stress overshoot are found in terms of the nonlinear amplitude A of the chain tension and the tension-dissociation coupling constant g.

  4. Microbial-Influenced Corrosion of Corten Steel Compared with Carbon Steel and Stainless Steel in Oily Wastewater by Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansouri, Hamidreza; Alavi, Seyed Abolhasan; Fotovat, Meysam

    2015-07-01

    The microbial corrosion behavior of three important steels (carbon steel, stainless steel, and Corten steel) was investigated in semi petroleum medium. This work was done in modified nutrient broth (2 g nutrient broth in 1 L oily wastewater) in the presence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and mixed culture (as a biotic media) and an abiotic medium for 2 weeks. The behavior of corrosion was analyzed by spectrophotometric and electrochemical methods and at the end was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy. The results show that the degree of corrosion of Corten steel in mixed culture, unlike carbon steel and stainless steel, is less than P. aeruginosa inoculated medium because some bacteria affect Corten steel less than other steels. According to the experiments, carbon steel had less resistance than Corten steel and stainless steel. Furthermore, biofilm inhibits separated particles of those steels to spread to the medium; in other words, particles get trapped between biofilm and steel.

  5. Composting oily sludges: Characterizing microflora using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persson, A.; Quednau, M.; Ahrne, S.

    1995-01-01

    Laboratory-scale composts in which oily sludge was composted under mesophilic conditions with amendments such as peat, bark, and fresh or decomposed horse manure, were studied with respect to basic parameters such as oil degradation, respirometry, and bacterial numbers. Further, an attempt was made to characterize a part of the bacterial flora using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD). The compost based on decomposed horse manure showed the greatest reduction of oil (85%). Comparison with a killed control indicated that microbial degradation actually had occurred. However, a substantial part of the oil was stabilized rather than totally broken down. Volatiles, on the contrary, accounted for a rather small percentage (5%) of the observed reduction. RAPD indicated that a selection had taken place and that the dominating microbial flora during the active degradation of oil were not the same as the ones dominating the different basic materials. The stabilized compost, on the other hand, had bacterial flora with similarities to the ones found in peat and bark

  6. Separation of water and oil by poly (acrylic acid)-coated stainless steel mesh prepared by radiation crosslinking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nho, Young Chang; Shin, Jung Woong; Park, Jong Seok; Lim, Young Mook; Jeun, Joon Pyo; Kang, Phil Hyun [Research Division for Industry and Environment, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    The stainless steel mesh coated with poly(acrylic acid) hydrogel was fabricated and applied for the separation of water and oil. The stainless steel mesh was immersed in aqueous poly (acrylic acid) solution, and then irradiated by radiation to introduce poly(acrylic acid) hydrogel on the surface of mesh by crosslinking. It was possible to separate oil and water from mixtures of oil/water effectively using the hydrogel-coated mesh. The effect of irradiation dose, coating thickness, size of mesh on the separation efficiency was examined.

  7. Study of the separation of strontium from solutions which imitate natural waters of increased mineralization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golub, A.M.; Voitko, I.N.; Glushchenko, L.V.; Mitrofanova, O.G.; Zyryanova, N.P.

    1976-01-01

    It has been shown by experiments on synthetically prepared solutions that it is possible to separate strontium and calcium by carbonate precipitation from the larger part of the magnesium accompanying them in natural high mineral waters. In this way the residual content of strontium is reduced to a value of 40-50 mg/liter and, under conditions of removing CO 2 from the solution, to 5-10 mg/liter. The high ionic strength of the solution prevented a more complete precipitation of strontium. Magnesium may be isolated from the filtrate after precipitation of the calcium-strontium mixture. The possibility has been shown of isolating strontium from the mixture of carbonates by means of pyrolysis at 1100-1200 0 and the selective solution of SrO in hot water

  8. Application of reverse osmosis membrane for separation of toxic metal in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syahril Ahmad

    2010-01-01

    Experimental separation of toxic metal in water has been done using reverse osmosis membrane made from composite material. Experiment was done by simulation in which metals that will be observed solved with water in different concentration and then used as feed solution in reverse osmosis process. Metals observed were Cr"6"+, Mn"2"+ and Pb"2"+ and reverse osmosis process was done at pressure of 40 Bar for all metals. Experiment result showed that value of feed solution concentration would affect flux and coefficient rejection of membrane. Composite membrane with polyacrylamide as active layer of membrane can reject metals observed with value of rejection coefficient more than 90%, except for Mn"2"+metal that have concentration 250 ppm and 500 ppm. (author)

  9. Separation of methyltin species from inorganic tin, and their interactions with humates in natural waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omar, M.; Bowen, H.J.M.

    1982-01-01

    Tin(II) and tin(IV) are absorbed from aqueous solutions by Sephadex G-25 gel, from which they can be eluted by humates or fulvates, with which they interact more strongly. Methyltin species are not absorbed by Sephadex G-25, and so can be separated from inorganic tin. Both inorganic tin and methyltin species in natural waters at pH 7.4 can be quantitatively retained by passing through small columns of Chelex-100 resin: the methyltin species can then be washed off the resin with 4M nitric acid. Trimethyltin chloride 113 Sn in water scarcely interacts with fulvates, humates, kaolinite or montmorillonite but is absorbed by Sphagnum peat. Dimethyltin dichloride- 113 Sn reacts significantly with all the above materials after 2 hours equilibration. Methyltin trichloride- 113 Sn interacts weakly in alkaline solutions. (author)

  10. Separation and reconstruction of high pressure water-jet reflective sound signal based on ICA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hongtao; Sun, Yuling; Li, Meng; Zhang, Dongsu; Wu, Tianfeng

    2011-12-01

    The impact of high pressure water-jet on the different materials target will produce different reflective mixed sound. In order to reconstruct the reflective sound signals distribution on the linear detecting line accurately and to separate the environment noise effectively, the mixed sound signals acquired by linear mike array were processed by ICA. The basic principle of ICA and algorithm of FASTICA were described in detail. The emulation experiment was designed. The environment noise signal was simulated by using band-limited white noise and the reflective sound signal was simulated by using pulse signal. The reflective sound signal attenuation produced by the different distance transmission was simulated by weighting the sound signal with different contingencies. The mixed sound signals acquired by linear mike array were synthesized by using the above simulated signals and were whitened and separated by ICA. The final results verified that the environment noise separation and the reconstruction of the detecting-line sound distribution can be realized effectively.

  11. Decontamination of radioactive process waste water by foam separation. Vol. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shakir, K.; Aziz, M.; Beheir, Sh.G.; Benyamin, K.; Samy, S.; Salama, H.N.

    1996-01-01

    On the basis of new studies and previous work from this laboratory, several foam separation techniques are considered feasible methods to carry out the separation of radioactive nuclides from simulated radioactive process waste water. Anionic or cationic collectors were used depending on the type of charge on the ion or precipitate to be removed. Sodium lauryl sulphate, aerosol-18 potassium oleate, acetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide, dodecyl pyridinium chloride and gelation were examined as the collector. Aluminium hydroxide, iron (III) oxyhydroxide and hydrous manganese dioxide were studied as the adsorbing floc adsorbing colloid flotation and copper ferrocyanide as the co precipitating agent in co precipitate flotation. The effects of varying the collector, the adsorbing colloid floc, co precipitant and metal ion concentrations, the PH, the gas flow rate, the ionic strength, length of the flotation column and multistage separation on the percentage removal, volume reduction and enrichment ratio were investigated. According to experimental results, adsorbing colloid flotation, whenever applicable, is the preferred method for decontamination. Radionuclide removal up to 100% were obtained. 4 figs., 13 tabs

  12. Decontamination of radioactive process waste water by foam separation. Vol. 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shakir, K; Aziz, M; Beheir, Sh G; Benyamin, K; Samy, S; Salama, H N [Nuclear Chemistry, and Radiation Protection Departments, Hot Laboratories and Nuclear Research Centers, atomic Energy Authority, P.O. Box 13759, Cairo (Egypt)

    1996-03-01

    On the basis of new studies and previous work from this laboratory, several foam separation techniques are considered feasible methods to carry out the separation of radioactive nuclides from simulated radioactive process waste water. Anionic or cationic collectors were used depending on the type of charge on the ion or precipitate to be removed. Sodium lauryl sulphate, aerosol-18 potassium oleate, acetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide, dodecyl pyridinium chloride and gelation were examined as the collector. Aluminium hydroxide, iron (III) oxyhydroxide and hydrous manganese dioxide were studied as the adsorbing floc adsorbing colloid flotation and copper ferrocyanide as the co precipitating agent in co precipitate flotation. The effects of varying the collector, the adsorbing colloid floc, co precipitant and metal ion concentrations, the PH, the gas flow rate, the ionic strength, length of the flotation column and multistage separation on the percentage removal, volume reduction and enrichment ratio were investigated. According to experimental results, adsorbing colloid flotation, whenever applicable, is the preferred method for decontamination. Radionuclide removal up to 100% were obtained. 4 figs., 13 tabs.

  13. Autogenous healing and reinforcement corrosion of water-penetrated separation cracks in reinforced concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramm, W.; Biscoping, M.

    1998-01-01

    Depending on the crack width, the thickness of the structure, the water pressure, and the degree of acid of the water, long-term investigations have been performed over a period of 2 years with respect to the autogenous healing and reinforcement corrosion of water-penetrated separation cracks in reinforced concrete by the University of Kaiserslautern, supported by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG). For the waters penetrating the cracks deionised water (neutral, pH=7.0), and boric acid treated deionised water with a pH-value of 6.1 and 5.2 (weakly acid waters) were used. A complete autogenous healing could not be observed. The water penetrating the cracks could hardly be measured with a pH-value of 7.0 at the end of the test. While naturally at the beginning of the test, no influence of the water-chemical degree of the acids could be determined, the existing flow-through quantities towards the end of the test period depended clearly on the crack width and the pH-value. With an increasing crack width and an increasing acid-degree larger flow-through quantities were measured. Depending on the pH-value and the crack width it was determined whether and to which extent corrosion developed at the reinforcing steel bars crossing the cracks. With a crack width of 0.1 mm, corrosion was not to be observed in any case. For the test specimens with a crack width of 0.2 mm a start of the corrosion was found depending on the pH-value. With an increasing width of the crack, an increasing corrosion development is to be expected for test specimens penetrated by acid water. For a crack width of 0.4 mm and a pH-value of 5.2, the highest corrosion development was to be observed, however, there were weakenings of the cross section not worth being mentioned even after a 2-year test period. (orig.)

  14. A toxicity reduction evaluation for an oily waste treatment plant exhibiting episodic effluent toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erten-Unal, M; Gelderloos, A B; Hughes, J S

    1998-07-30

    A Toxicity Reduction Evaluation (TRE) was conducted on the oily wastewater treatment plant (Plant) at a Naval Fuel Depot. The Plant treats ship and ballast wastes, berm water from fuel storage areas and wastes generated in the fuel reclamation plant utilizing physical/chemical treatment processes. In the first period of the project (Period I), the TRE included chemical characterization of the plant wastewaters, monitoring the final effluent for acute toxicity and a thorough evaluation of each treatment process and Plant operating procedures. Toxicity Identification Evaluation (TIE) procedures were performed as part of the overall TRE to characterize and identify possible sources of toxicity. Several difficulties were encountered because the effluent was saline, test organisms were marine species and toxicity was sporadic and unpredictable. The treatability approach utilizing enhancements, improved housekeeping, and operational changes produced substantial reductions in the acute toxicity of the final effluent. In the second period (Period II), additional acute toxicity testing and chemical characterization were performed through the Plant to assess the long-term effects of major unit process improvements for the removal of toxicity. The TIE procedures were also modified for saline wastewaters to focus on suspected class of toxicants such as surfactants. The TRE was successful in reducing acute toxicity of the final effluent through process improvements and operational modifications. The results indicated that the cause of toxicity was most likely due to combination of pollutants (matrix effect) rather than a single pollutant.

  15. The effect of silica toward polymer membrane for water separation process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamalludin, Mohd Riduan; Rosli, M. U.; Ishak, Muhammad Ikman; Khor, C. Y.; Shahrin, Suhaimi; Ismail, Ras Izzati; Lailina N., M.; Leng Y., L.; Jahidi, H.

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this present work was to investigate the effect of different percentage rice husk silica (RHS) particles composition towards polymer mixed matrix membrane microstructure and performance in water separation process. The polymer membranes were prepared by a phase inversion method using polysulfone (PSf), N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) as solvent, distilled water as non-solvent and fixed RHS at 400°C as an additive. The microstructures of PSf/PEG/RHS sample were characterized by performing scanning electron microscope (SEM). The performance was measured by using pure water flux and humic acid for the rejection test. The analyzed result of SEM analysis revealed that the addition of RHS obviously improved the microstructure of the membrane especially at the top and sub layer at the range of 1 until 3 wt. %. This was proven by the pure water flux (PWF) value measured from 114.47 LMH to 154.04 LMH and rejection from value 83% to 96% at this specified range substantially higher than the mixed matrix membrane with synthetic silica. In fact, the presence of RHS particles not only improved the properties and performance of membrane but also possess biodegradable properties which can minimize the pollution and provide a membrane green technology system.

  16. Waste Water for Power Generation via Energy Efficient Selective Silica Separations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nenoff, Tina M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Brady, Patrick Vane [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sasan, Koroush [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Paap, Scott M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Heimer, Brandon Walter [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Krumhansl, James L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Howe, Kerry [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Stoll, Zachary [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Stomp, James [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-09-01

    Silica is ubiquitous in produced and industrial waters, and plays a major disruptive role in water recycle. Herein we have investigated the use of mixed oxides for the removal of silica from these waters, and their incorporation into a low cost and low energy water purification process. High selectivity hydrotalcite (HTC, (Mg6Al2(OH)16(CO3)•4H2O)), is combined in series with high surface area active alumina (AA, (Al2O3)) as the dissolved silica removal media. Batch test results indicated that combined HTC/AA is a more effective method for removing silica from industrial cooling tower wasters (CTW) than using HTC or AA separately. The silica uptake via ion exchange on the mixed oxides was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), and Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). Furthermore, HTC/AA effectively removes silica from CTW even in the presence of large concentrations of competing anions, such as Cl-, NO3- HCO3-, CO32- and SO42-. Similar to batch tests, Single Path Flow Through (SPFT) tests with sequential HTC/AA column filtration has very high silica removal too. Technoeconomic Analysis (TEA) was simultaneously performed for cost comparisons to existing silica removal technologies.

  17. Mechanically durable underwater superoleophobic surfaces based on hydrophilic bulk metals for oil/water separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Huadong; Lian, Zhongxu; Xu, Jinkai; Wan, Yanling; Wang, Zuobin; Li, Yiquan; Yu, Zhanjiang; Weng, Zhankun

    2018-04-01

    Despite the success of previous methods for fabricating underwater superoleophobic surfaces, most of the surfaces based on soft materials are prone to collapse and deformation due to their mechanically fragile nature, and they fail to perform their designed functions after the surface materials are damaged in water. In this work, the nanosecond laser-induced oxide coatings on hydrophilic bulk metals are reported which overcomes the limitation and shows the robust underwater superoleophobicity to a mechanical challenge encountered by surfaces deployed in water environment. The results show that the surface materials have the advantage that the underwater superoleophobicity is still preserved after the surfaces are scratched by knife or sandpaper and even completely destroyed because of the hydrophilic property of damaged materials in water. It is important that the results provide a guide for the design of durable underwater superoleophobic surfaces, and the development of superoleophobic materials in many potential applications such as the oil-repellent and the oil/water separation. Additionally, the nanosecond laser technology is simple, cost-effective and suitable for the large-area and mass fabrication of mechanically durable underwater superoleophobic metal materials.

  18. Preparation of diclofenac-imprinted polymer beads for selective molecular separation in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Tongchang; Kamra, Tripta; Ye, Lei

    2018-03-01

    Molecular imprinting technique is an attractive strategy to prepare materials for target recognition and rapid separation. In this work, a new type of diclofenac (DFC)-imprinted polymer beads was synthesized by Pickering emulsion polymerization using 2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate as the functional monomer. The selectivity and capacity of the molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) were investigated in aqueous solution. Equilibrium binding results show that the MIPs have a high selectivity to bind DFC in a wide range of pH values. Moreover, in liquid chromatography experiment, the imprinted polymer beads were packed into column to investigate the binding selectivity under nonequilibrium conditions. The retention time of DFC on the MIP column is significantly longer than its structural analogues. Also, retention of DFC on the MIP column was significantly longer than on the nonimprinted polymer column under aqueous condition. As the new MIP beads can be used to achieve direct separation of DFC from water, the synthetic method and the affinity beads developed in this work opened new possibilities for removing toxic chemicals from environmental and drinking water. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Durable superhydrophobic and superoleophilic filter paper for oil–water separation prepared by a colloidal deposition method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, Chuan; Wang, Jiadao; Chen, Zhifu; Chen, Darong

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A method for fabricating durable superhydrophobic filter paper was developed. • Oil–water separation efficiency exceeds 99% using the as-prepared filter paper. • The as-prepared filter paper has good recyclability and durability. • The method is easy, low cost and can be industrialized. - Abstract: A method for manufacturing durable superhydrophobic and superoleophilic filter paper for oil–water separation was developed via colloidal deposition. A porous film composed of PTFE nanoparticles was formed on filter paper, which was superhydrophobic with a water contact angle of 155.5° and superoleophilic with an oil contact angle of 0°. The obtained filter paper could separate a series of oil–water mixtures effectively with high separation efficiencies over 99%. Besides, the as-prepared filter paper kept stable superhydrophobicity and high separation efficiency even after 30 cycle times and could also work well under harsh environmental conditions like strong acidic or alkaline solutions, high temperature and ultraviolet irradiation. Compared with other approaches for fabricating oil–water materials, this approach is able to fabricate full-scale durable and practical oil–water materials easily and economically. The as-prepared filter paper is a promising candidate for oil–water separation

  20. Multiparametric fat-water separation method for fast chemical-shift imaging guidance of thermal therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jonathan S; Hwang, Ken-Pin; Jackson, Edward F; Hazle, John D; Stafford, R Jason; Taylor, Brian A

    2013-10-01

    A k-means-based classification algorithm is investigated to assess suitability for rapidly separating and classifying fat/water spectral peaks from a fast chemical shift imaging technique for magnetic resonance temperature imaging. Algorithm testing is performed in simulated mathematical phantoms and agar gel phantoms containing mixed fat/water regions. Proton resonance frequencies (PRFs), apparent spin-spin relaxation (T2*) times, and T1-weighted (T1-W) amplitude values were calculated for each voxel using a single-peak autoregressive moving average (ARMA) signal model. These parameters were then used as criteria for k-means sorting, with the results used to determine PRF ranges of each chemical species cluster for further classification. To detect the presence of secondary chemical species, spectral parameters were recalculated when needed using a two-peak ARMA signal model during the subsequent classification steps. Mathematical phantom simulations involved the modulation of signal-to-noise ratios (SNR), maximum PRF shift (MPS) values, analysis window sizes, and frequency expansion factor sizes in order to characterize the algorithm performance across a variety of conditions. In agar, images were collected on a 1.5T clinical MR scanner using acquisition parameters close to simulation, and algorithm performance was assessed by comparing classification results to manually segmented maps of the fat/water regions. Performance was characterized quantitatively using the Dice Similarity Coefficient (DSC), sensitivity, and specificity. The simulated mathematical phantom experiments demonstrated good fat/water separation depending on conditions, specifically high SNR, moderate MPS value, small analysis window size, and low but nonzero frequency expansion factor size. Physical phantom results demonstrated good identification for both water (0.997 ± 0.001, 0.999 ± 0.001, and 0.986 ± 0.001 for DSC, sensitivity, and specificity, respectively) and fat (0.763 ± 0.006, 0

  1. A charge-polarized porous metal-organic framework for gas chromatographic separation of alcohols from water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jian-Ke; Ji, Min; Chen, Cheng; Wang, Wu-Gen; Wang, Peng; Chen, Rui-Ping; Zhang, Jie

    2013-02-25

    A bipyridinium ligand with a charge separated skeleton has been introduced into a metal-organic framework to yield a porous material with charge-polarized pore space, which exhibits selective adsorption for polar guest molecules and can be further used in gas chromatography for the separation of alcohol-water mixtures.

  2. Development of nanocomposites polyamide66/ bentonite clay membranes obtained by solution for water-oil separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medeiros, Keila Machado de

    2010-01-01

    Microporous membranes were obtained from nanocomposites polyamide66 and regional bentonite clay, through the technique of immersion precipitation. The nanocomposites were obtained by solution with a pre-established reaction time. The clay was treated with quaternary ammonium salt (Cetremide®) in order to make it organophilic. Untreated and treated clay were characterized by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and thermogravimetry (TG), which confirmed the insertion of the Cetremide® salt in the layers of clay and their thermal stability. While the membranes were characterized by XRD, TG, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and flow measurements. The results of XRD, TG and DSC confirmed the thermal stability and morphological structure with intercalated/partially exfoliated lamellae of clay in the polymer matrix. By SEM, it was revealed an asymmetric morphology consisting of a skin layer and a porous sublayer. The higher clay content in the membrane give the lower film thickness. This influencing directly the flow measurements of the membranes produced from the nanocomposites. In general, the initial flow with distilled water through the membranes decrease and stabilise after 60 min, this due to a compression or swelling occurred in the membranes. In tests of water-oil separation it was found that the relationship J/J0 tends to be greater when using emulsions with lower concentration. The water-oil separation tests at concentrations of 300 and 500 ppm for all membranes showed a significant reduction in oil concentration in the permeate, thus showing that these membranes have potential for this application. (author)

  3. Robust and durable superhydrophobic fabrics fabricated via simple Cu nanoparticles deposition route and its application in oil/water separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jintao; Wang, Hongfei

    2017-06-15

    The exploitation of separation materials with high selectivity for oil pollutants is of great importance due to severe environmental damage from oil spillages and industrial discharge of oils. A facile in situ growth process for creating superhydrophobic-superoleophilic fabrics for oil-water separation is developed. This proposed method is based mainly on the deposition Cu nanoparticles and subsequent hydrophobic modification. Compared with the hydrophilicity of original fabric, the water contact angle of the modified fabric rises to 154.5°, suggesting its superhydrophobicity. The as-prepared fabrics also exhibit wonderful oil-water selectivity, excellent recyclability, and high separation efficiency (>94.5%). Especially, via pumping the fabric rolled into a multilayered tube, various types of oils on water surface can be continuously separated in situ without any water uptake. Furthermore, the superhydrophobic fabrics show excellent superhydrophobic stability, and can resist different chemicals, such as salty, acidic, and alkaline solutions, oils, and hot water. After the abrasion of 400cycles, the broken fabric still possesses highly hydrophobicity with water contact angle of 145°. Therefore, due to simple fabrication steps, low cost, and scalable process, the as-prepared fabrics can be applied in the separation of oils and other organic solvents from water. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Validation of a High-Performance Liquid Chromatography method for the determination of vitamin A, vitamin D3, vitamin E and benzyl alcohol in a veterinary oily injectable solution

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Neagu; Georgiana Soceanu; Ana Caterina Bucur

    2015-01-01

    A new simple, rapid, accurate and precise high – performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for determination of vitamin A, vitamin D3, vitamin E and benzyl alcohol in oily injectable solution was developed and validated. The method can be used for the detection and quantification of known and unknown impurities and degradants in the drug substance during routine analysis and also for stability studies in view of its capability to separate degradation products. The method was validate...

  5. Recovery of energy and iron from oily sludge pyrolysis in a fluidized bed reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Linbo; Han, Jun; He, Xiang; Zhan, Yiqiu; Yu, Fei

    2015-05-01

    In the steel industry, about 0.86 ton of oily sludge is produced for every 1000 tons of rolling steel. Due to the adverse impact on human health and the environment, oily sludge is designated as a hazardous waste in the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRT). In this paper, the pyrolysis treatment of oily sludge is studied in a fluidized bed reactor at a temperature range of 400-600 °C. During oily sludge pyrolysis, a maximum oil yield of 59.2% and a minimum energy loss of 19.0% are achieved at 500 °C. The energy consumption of treating 1 kg oily sludge is only 2.4-2.9 MJ. At the same time, the energy of produced oil, gas and solid residue are 20.8, 6.32, and 0.83 MJ, respectively. In particular, it is found that the solid residue contains more than 42% iron oxide, which can be used as the raw material for iron production. Thus, the simultaneous recovery of energy and iron from oil sludge by pyrolysis is feasible. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Patient experiences with oily skin: the qualitative development of content for two new patient reported outcome questionnaires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbuckle, Robert; Atkinson, Mark J; Clark, Marci; Abetz, Linda; Lohs, Jan; Kuhagen, Ilka; Harness, Jane; Draelos, Zoe; Thiboutot, Diane; Blume-Peytavi, Ulrike; Copley-Merriman, Kati

    2008-10-16

    To develop the content for two new patient reported outcome (PRO) measures to: a) assess the severity of symptoms; and b) the impact of facial skin oiliness on emotional wellbeing using qualitative data from face to face, and internet focus groups in Germany and the US. Using input from initial treatment satisfaction focus groups (n = 42), a review of relevant literature and expert clinicians (n = 3), a discussion guide was developed to guide qualitative inquiry using Internet focus groups (IFGs). IFGs were conducted with German (n = 26) and US (n = 28) sufferers of oily skin. Questionnaire items were generated using coded transcript data from the focus groups. Cognitive debriefing was conducted online with 42 participants and face to face with an additional five participants to assess the comprehension of the items. There were equal numbers of male and female participants; mean age was 35.4 (SD 9.3) years. On average, participants had had oily skin for 15.2 years, and 74% (n = 40) reported having mild-moderate acne. Participants reported using visual, tactile and sensory (feel without touching their face) methods to evaluate the severity of facial oiliness. Oily facial skin had both an emotional and social impact, and was associated with feelings of unattractiveness, self-consciousness, embarrassment, irritation and frustration. Items were generated for a measure of oily skin severity (Oily Skin Self-Assessment Scale) and a measure of the impact of oily skin on emotional well-being (Oily Skin Impact Scale). Cognitive debriefing resulted in minor changes to the draft items and confirmed their face and content validity. The research provides insight into the experience of having oily skin and illustrates significant difficulties associated with the condition. Item content was developed for early versions of two PRO measures of the symptoms and emotional impact of oily facial skin. The psychometric validation of these measures reported elsewhere.

  7. Patient experiences with oily skin: The qualitative development of content for two new patient reported outcome questionnaires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Draelos Zoe

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To develop the content for two new patient reported outcome (PRO measures to: a assess the severity of symptoms; and b the impact of facial skin oiliness on emotional wellbeing using qualitative data from face to face, and internet focus groups in Germany and the US. Methods Using input from initial treatment satisfaction focus groups (n = 42, a review of relevant literature and expert clinicians (n = 3, a discussion guide was developed to guide qualitative inquiry using Internet focus groups (IFGs. IFGs were conducted with German (n = 26 and US (n = 28 sufferers of oily skin. Questionnaire items were generated using coded transcript data from the focus groups. Cognitive debriefing was conducted online with 42 participants and face to face with an additional five participants to assess the comprehension of the items. Results There were equal numbers of male and female participants; mean age was 35.4 (SD 9.3 years. On average, participants had had oily skin for 15.2 years, and 74% (n = 40 reported having mild-moderate acne. Participants reported using visual, tactile and sensory (feel without touching their face methods to evaluate the severity of facial oiliness. Oily facial skin had both an emotional and social impact, and was associated with feelings of unattractiveness, self-consciousness, embarrassment, irritation and frustration. Items were generated for a measure of oily skin severity (Oily Skin Self-Assessment Scale and a measure of the impact of oily skin on emotional well-being (Oily Skin Impact Scale. Cognitive debriefing resulted in minor changes to the draft items and confirmed their face and content validity. Conclusion The research provides insight into the experience of having oily skin and illustrates significant difficulties associated with the condition. Item content was developed for early versions of two PRO measures of the symptoms and emotional impact of oily facial skin. The psychometric validation of

  8. Facile Fabrication of Superhydrophobic Paper with Excellent Water Repellency and Moisture Resistance by Phase Separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan Li

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A simple but effective method of fabricating superhydrophobic paper with excellent moisture resistance was developed by precipitating carnauba wax onto the surface of cellulose fibers using a phase separation method. Response surface methodology (RSM was used to optimize the effects of the preparation variables on the water contact angle (WCA of the paper surface. The four independent variables were carnauba wax concentration, immersion time, coagulation bath ratio (water/ethanol, and coagulation bath time. The optimal treatment conditions were as follows: wax concentration, 3.78% (wax/chloroform, w/v; immersion time, 1.46 h; coagulation bath ratio, 13/87 (water/ethanol, v/v; and coagulation bath time, 2.63 h. Under these conditions, the experimental WCA reached 152.7°, which agreed closely with the predicted value of 154.1°. The surface morphology of the superhydrophobic paper was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM and atomic force microscopy (AFM, and the images showed that cluster-like carnauba wax aggregation completely covered the fiber surface, resulting in increased roughness. Moreover, the moisture resistance of the obtained superhydrophobic paper was evaluated. The results demonstrated that under high relative humidity conditions, the moisture resistance of the superhydrophobic paper significantly improved, and its tensile strength remained high.

  9. Selectivity differences of water-soluble vitamins separated on hydrophilic interaction stationary phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yuanzhong; Boysen, Reinhard I; Hearn, Milton T W

    2013-06-01

    In this study, the retention behavior and selectivity differences of water-soluble vitamins were evaluated with three types of polar stationary phases (i.e. an underivatized silica phase, an amide phase, and an amino phase) operated in the hydrophilic interaction chromatographic mode with ESI mass spectrometric detection. The effects of mobile phase composition, including buffer pH and concentration, on the retention and selectivity of the vitamins were investigated. In all stationary phases, the neutral or weakly charged vitamins exhibited very weak retention under each of the pH conditions, while the acidic and more basic vitamins showed diverse retention behaviors. With the underivatized silica phase, increasing the salt concentration of the mobile phase resulted in enhanced retention of the acidic vitamins, but decreased retention of the basic vitamins. These observations thus signify the involvement of secondary mechanisms, such as electrostatic interaction in the retention of these analytes. Under optimized conditions, a baseline separation of all vitamins was achieved with excellent peak efficiency. In addition, the effects of water content in the sample on retention and peak efficiency were examined, with sample stacking effects observed when the injected sample contained a high amount of water. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Hydrolytic pretreatment of oily wastewater by immobilized lipase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeganathan, Jeganaesan; Nakhla, George; Bassi, Amarjeet

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the hydrolysis of wastewater with high oil and grease (O and G) concentration from a pet food industry using immobilized lipase (IL) as a pretreatment step for anaerobic treatment through batch and continuous-flow experiments. The intrinsic Michaelis constant (K m ) and maximum reaction rate (V max ) were estimated experimentally and the K m value of IL (22.5 g O and G/L) was six-folds higher than that of the free lipase (FL) (3.6 g O and G/L), whereas V max of both FL (31.3 mM/g min) and IL (33.1 mM/g min) were similar. Preliminary batch anaerobic respirometric experiments showed that chemical oxygen demand (COD) and O and G reduction were 49 and 45% without pretreatment and 65 and 64% with IL pretreatment respectively, while the maximum growth rate (μ max ) for pretreated wastewater (0.17 d -1 ) was 3.4-folds higher than that of raw wastewater (0.05 d -1 ) with similar Monod half-saturation constants (K s ∼ 2.7 g COD/L). The continuous-flow experimental study showed the feasibility of employing the hybrid packed bed reactor (PBR)-upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) system for the treatment of high-strength oily wastewater, as reflected by its ability to operate at an oil loading rate (LR) of 4.9 kg O and G/m 3 d (to the PBR) without any problems for a period of 100 days. During pseudo-steady-state conditions, the hybrid UASB produced relatively higher biogas compared to the control UASB, The effluent COD and O and G concentrations of hybrid system were 100 mg/L lower than that of the control UASB reactor and no foam production was observed in the hybrid UASB compared to the control UASB reactor

  11. Characterization of oily sludge from a Tehran oil refinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidarzadeh, Nima; Gitipour, Saeid; Abdoli, Mohammad Ali

    2010-10-01

    In this study, oily sludge samples generated from a Tehran oil refinery (Pond I) were evaluated for their contamination levels and to propose an adequate remediation technique for the wastes. A simple, random, sampling method was used to collect the samples. The samples were analyzed to measure Total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH), polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and heavy metal concentrations in the sludge. Statistical analysis showed that seven samples were adequate to assess the sludge with respect to TPH analyses. The mean concentration of TPHs in the samples was 265,600 mg kg⁻¹. A composite sample prepared from a mix of the seven samples was used to determine the sludge's additional characteristics. Composite sample analysis showed that there were no detectable amounts of PAHs in the sludge. In addition, mean concentrations of the selected heavy metals Ni, Pb, Cd and Zn were 2700, 850, 100, 6100 mg kg⁻¹, respectively. To assess the sludge contamination level, the results from the analysis above were compared with soil clean-up levels. Due to a lack of national standards for soil clean-up levels in Iran, sludge pollutant concentrations were compared with standards set in developed countries. According to these standards, the sludge was highly polluted with petroleum hydrocarbons. The results indicated that incineration, biological treatment and solidification/stabilization treatments would be the most appropriate methods for treatment of the sludges. In the case of solidification/stabilization, due to the high organic content of the sludge, it is recommended to use organophilic clays prior to treatment of the wastes.

  12. Biodegradation of an oily bilge waste using algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpenter, M.J.

    1987-01-01

    A mixed community of microogranisms was collected from the harbor at the North Island Navy Base and was monitored in a test ecosystem containing an oily bilge waste obtained from off-loading ships. Cultures were examined in the presence and absence of the algae. It was thought that the algae might enhance the degradation of the oil waste by providing oxygen and possibly a nutrient source from dying phytoplankton for the bacterial community. The change in community structure was monitored by isolating the various groups of organisms and determining the biomass change over time for the algae, bacteria and yeasts/fungi subjected to the bilge waste. The biomass (i.e., colony forming units) of the yeasts and fungi increased 100 fold in a 6 week test period. The community containing only the bacteria and fungi/yeasts lost the fungal component of the population, although active bacteria biomass increased more than 10 fold during exposure to the waste. The test ecosystem was subjected to a radiolabeled compound (/sup 14/C-phenol) and bilge waste mixture to ascertain the ability of the communities to mineralize the phenol and/or assimilate the labeled hydrocarbon. The community containing the algae started mineralizing the phenol (measure by /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ production) 24 hours after exposure to the waste/phenol mixture. The bacteria/yeast-fungi community had a lag period of 384 hours before extensive catabolism of the labeled compound occurred. Current data indicate algae may enhance the biodegradation rate of oil bilge waste in a mixed microbial community.

  13. Hydrolytic pretreatment of oily wastewater by immobilized lipase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeganathan, Jeganaesan; Nakhla, George; Bassi, Amarjeet

    2007-06-25

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the hydrolysis of wastewater with high oil and grease (O&G) concentration from a pet food industry using immobilized lipase (IL) as a pretreatment step for anaerobic treatment through batch and continuous-flow experiments. The intrinsic Michaelis constant (K(m)) and maximum reaction rate (V(max)) were estimated experimentally and the K(m) value of IL (22.5g O&G/L) was six-folds higher than that of the free lipase (FL) (3.6gO&G/L), whereas V(max) of both FL (31.3mM/gmin) and IL (33.1mM/gmin) were similar. Preliminary batch anaerobic respirometric experiments showed that chemical oxygen demand (COD) and O&G reduction were 49 and 45% without pretreatment and 65 and 64% with IL pretreatment respectively, while the maximum growth rate (micromax) for pretreated wastewater (0.17d(-1)) was 3.4-folds higher than that of raw wastewater (0.05d(-1)) with similar Monod half-saturation constants (K(s) approximately 2.7gCOD/L). The continuous-flow experimental study showed the feasibility of employing the hybrid packed bed reactor (PBR)-upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) system for the treatment of high-strength oily wastewater, as reflected by its ability to operate at an oil loading rate (LR) of 4.9kgO&G/m(3)d (to the PBR) without any problems for a period of 100days. During pseudo-steady-state conditions, the hybrid UASB produced relatively higher biogas compared to the control UASB, The effluent COD and O&G concentrations of hybrid system were 100mg/L lower than that of the control UASB reactor and no foam production was observed in the hybrid UASB compared to the control UASB reactor.

  14. Development of a High Performance PES Ultrafiltration Hollow Fiber Membrane for Oily Wastewater Treatment Using Response Surface Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor Adila Aluwi Shakir

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study attempts to optimize the spinning process used for fabricating hollow fiber membranes using the response surface methodology (RSM. The spinning factors considered for the experimental design are the dope extrusion rate (DER, air gap length (AGL, coagulation bath temperature (CBT, bore fluid ratio (BFR, and post-treatment time (PT whilst the response investigated is rejection. The optimal spinning conditions promising the high rejection performance of polyethersulfone (PES ultrafiltration hollow fiber membranes for oily wastewater treatment are at the dope extrusion rate of 2.13 cm3/min, air gap length of 0 cm, coagulation bath temperature of 30 °C, and bore fluid ratio (NMP/H2O of 0.01/99.99 wt %. This study will ultimately enable the membrane fabricators to produce high-performance membranes that contribute towards the availability of a more sustainable water supply system.

  15. Durable underwater superoleophobic PDDA/halloysite nanotubes decorated stainless steel mesh for efficient oil-water separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Kun; Zeng, Yicheng; Zhou, Cailong; Chen, Jiahui; Wen, Xiufang; Xu, Shouping; Cheng, Jiang; Lin, Yingguang; Pi, Pihui

    2017-09-01

    A durable underwater superoleophobic mesh was conveniently prepared by layer-by-layer (LBL) assembly of poly (diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA) and halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) on a stainless steel mesh. The hierarchical structure and roughness of the PDDA/HNTs coating surface were controlled by adjusting the number of layer deposition cycles. When the PDDA/HNTs coating with 10 deposition cycles was decorated on the mesh with pore size of about 54 μm, the underwater superoleophobic mesh was obtained. The as-prepared underwater superoleophobic PDDA/HNTs decorated mesh exhibits outstanding oil-water separation performance with a separation efficiency of over 97% for various oil/water mixtures, which allowed water to pass through while repelled oil completely. In addition, the as-prepared decorated mesh still maintained high separation efficiency above 97% after repeated 20 separation times for hexane/water mixture or chloroform/water mixture. More importantly, the as-prepared decorated mesh is durable enough to resist chemical and mechanical challenges, such as strong alkaline, salt aqueous and sand abrasion. Therefore, the as-prepared decorated mesh has practical utility in oil-water separation due to its stable oil-water performance, remarkable chemical and mechanical durability and the facile and eco-friendly preparation process.

  16. Separating grey- and blackwater in urban water cycles - sensible in the view of misconnections?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolksdorf, J; Cornel, P

    2017-09-01

    The infrastructure approach SEMIZENTRAL has been developed for fast growing cities, to meet their challenges regarding water supply as well as biowaste and wastewater treatment. The world's first full-scale SEMIZENTRAL Resource Recovery Center (RRC) has been implemented in Qingdao (PR China). Greywater (GW) and blackwater (BW) are collected and treated separately. Measurement of influent concentrations differ significantly from the design values. Thus, the operation strategy for the RRC had to be adapted. Amongst other reasons, the changed influent characteristic was caused by misconnections of GW and BW sewers. Already a misconnection rate of 6-8% requires an extension of the GW treatment process for nitrification/denitrification to fulfill effluent standards. Hence, measures should be taken to avoid or reduce misconnections. Nonetheless, in a semi-centralized scale (>10,000 inhabitants) a 100% avoidance might not be possible. Thus, consequences from misconnections should be considered during the design of source-oriented infrastructure systems.

  17. New strategies in actinide separation - water-soluble complexing agents for the innovative SANEX process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruff, Christian M.; Muelllich, Udo; Geist, Andreas; Panak, Petra J.

    2012-01-01

    Reduction of the radiotoxicity and thermal output of radioactive wastes prior to their permanent disposal is a topic of extreme interest for the issue of final nuclear waste disposal. One possibility to this end is a process referred to as actinide separation. This process can be optimised by means of a newly developed water-soluble molecule, as has been shown in studies on the molecule's complex chemistry using ultra-modern laser-based spectroscopy methods under process-relevant reaction conditions. Through the use of curium (III) and europium (III), which as members of the trivalent actinides and lanthanides family have excellent spectroscopic properties, it has been possible to generate spectroscopic and thermodynamic data which will facilitate our understanding of the complex chemistry and extraction chemistry of this molecule family.

  18. Inorganic-Organic Thiol-ene Coated Mesh for Oil/Water Separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qiyi; de Leon, Al; Advincula, Rigoberto C

    2015-08-26

    A highly efficient mesh for oil/water separation was fabricated by using a superhydrophobic and superoleophilic coating of thiol-ene hybrid, consisting of pentaerythritol tetra(3-mercaptopropionate) (PETMP), 2,4,6,8-tetramethyl-2,4,6,8-tetravinylcyclotetrasiloxane (TMTVSi), and hydrophobic fumed silica nanoparticles, via a simple two-step fabrication process. Spray deposition and UV curing photopolymerization were sequentially performed, during which solvent evaporation provides microscale roughness while nanoparticle aggregation forms nanoscale roughness. The hierarchical morphologies were stabilized after UV curing photopolymerization. High contact angle (>150°) and low roll-off angle (<5°) were achieved due to the multiscale roughness structure of the hierarchical morphologies. These coatings also have excellent chemical resistance, as well as temperature and pH stability, after curing.

  19. Continuous 222Rn measurements in water to perform a hydrograph separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, H.; Kies, A.; Tosheva, Z.

    2004-01-01

    To get information about the different components of runoff before, during and after heavy rain events, micro catchments were selected to perform hydrograph separations using the radioactive noble gas 222 Rn and the stable isotope 18 O as natural occurring, conservative tracers. These tracers help to separate 'pre event', 'event', and 'post event' water in the total runoff. The selected micro basins are situated in the western part of Luxembourg and belong to the Attert River catchment area. Our investigations are a part of the project 'Cycleau' which is studying risk assessments in the Attert River area. By combining the databases great opportunities for comparison were realized. So far the catchment areas have been studied for two years. Continuous monitoring radon detectors were installed at selected measuring points, which were important for the different flow regimes. Along with the detectors precision thermometers, conductivity instruments, CO 2 -detectors, flow meter, v-notches, and automatic sampler for chemical analysis were set up. Besides the continuous measurements for 222 Rn, point samples were taken for liquid scintillation analysis (LCS). Single rain events will have been sampled and measured intensively for 222 Rn (LCS) and 18 O in two to three days field campaigns, for a comparison of the continuous method with the 18 O results and to strengthen our data by the end of march 2004. During the first year of this study instrument testing and evaluation was performed. Different radon monitor units were examined to find instruments that work best under field conditions. Additionally, separate units had to be constructed for a degassing of the solved gases out of the water, because the instruments for radon measuring were constructed for radon in air not for radon in water. A 'bubbler' had be developed that performs the degassing process. The techniques will be presented. Through stable results from our instrument developments, we observed different radon

  20. Theoretical perspectives on electron transfer and charge separation events in photochemical water cleavage systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozak, J.J.; Lenoir, P.M.; Musho, M.K.; Tembe, B.L.

    1984-01-01

    We study in this paper the dynamics induced by models for photochemical water cleavage systems, focusing on the spatial and temporal factors influencing electron transfer and charge separation processes in such systems. The reaction-diffusion theory is formulated in full generality and the consequences explored in a number of spatio-temporal regimes, viz. the spatially homogeneous system in the long-time limit (i.e. the steady state for a well-stirred system), the spatially homogeneous system in evolution, and the spatially inhomogeneous system in evolution (where, in the latter study, we consider electron transfer at the cluster surface to be governed by a rate constant that reflects the localized nature of such processes). The results of numerical simulations are presented for all three cases and used to highlight the importance of heterogeneous environments in enhancing the cage escape yield of charge separated species, and to demonstrate the dependence of the hydrogen yield on the localization of electron-transfer processes in the vicinity of the microcatalyst surface

  1. Economic optimization of heat pump-assisted distillation columns in methanol-water separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahandeh, Hossein; Jafari, Mina; Kasiri, Norollah; Ivakpour, Javad

    2015-01-01

    Finding efficient alternative to CDiC (Conventional Distillation Column) for methanol-water separation has been an attractive field of study in literature. In this work, five heat pump-assisted schemes are proposed and compared to each other to find the optimal one; (1) VRC (Vapor Recompression Column), (2) external HIDiC (Heat-Integrated Distillation Column), (3) intensified HIDiC with feed preheater, (4) double compressor intensified HIDiC-1, and (5) double compressor intensified HIDiC-2. GA (Genetic Algorithm) is then implemented for optimization of the schemes when TAC (Total Annual Cost) is its objective function. During optimization, two new variables are added for using only appropriate amount of the overhead stream in VRC and double compressor intensified HIDiCs, and another new binary variable is also used for considering feed preheating. Although TAC of the intensified HIDiC with feed preheater is found higher than CDiC by 25.0%, all optimal VRC, external HIDiC, double compressor intensified HIDiCs schemes are reached lower optimal TAC by 3.1%, 27.2%, 24.4%, and 34.2%. Introduced for the first time, the optimal scheme is the double compressor intensified HIDiC-2 with 34.2% TAC saving, 70.4% TEC (Total Energy Consumption) reduction with payback period of 3.30 years. - Highlights: • Study of an industrial distillation unit in methanol-water separation. • Optimization of different heat pump-assisted distillation columns. • Implementation of genetic algorithm during optimization. • Economic and thermodynamic comparisons of optimal results with the industrial case

  2. Selection of ionic liquids as entrainers for separation of (water + ethanol)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ge Yun [College of Chemical Engineering and Material Science, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310014 (China); Zhang Lianzhong [College of Chemical Engineering and Material Science, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310014 (China)], E-mail: zhanglz@zjut.edu.cn; Yuan Xingcai; Geng Wei; Ji Jianbing [College of Chemical Engineering and Material Science, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310014 (China)

    2008-08-15

    For selection of ionic liquids (ILs) which can be potentially used as entrainers for separation of the azeotropic mixture of (water + ethanol) by extractive distillation, (vapor + liquid) equilibrium was measured for the ternary systems of (water + ethanol + an IL) using a previously proposed ebulliometer. The experimental measurement was performed at p = 100 kPa and in a way of continuous synthesis, in which analysis of liquid phase composition was avoided. While the mole fraction of ethanol calculated on IL-free basis, x{sub 2}{sup '}, was kept almost unchanged at 0.95, isobaric T, x, y data were measured at different IL mass fractions. Activity coefficients, as well as relative volatilities, of the volatile components were obtained from the experimental data without the need of a thermodynamic model of the liquid phase. There were eight ILs in our investigation: 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([bmim][BF{sub 4}]), 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([emim][BF{sub 4}]), 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium dicyanamide ([bmim][N(CN){sub 2}]), 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium dicyanamide ([emim][N(CN){sub 2}]), 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([bmim][Cl]), 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([emim][Cl]), 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([bmim][OAc]), and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([emim][OAc]). The effect of the ILs on the relative volatility of the volatile components was depicted separately by their effect on the activity coefficients. The results indicated that, among the eight ILs studied, [emim][Cl] has the largest effect on enhancement of the relative volatility. Another IL, [emim][OAc], has also significant effect. Considering the relatively low viscosity and melting point of [emim][OAc], this IL might be favorable candidate as entrainer for potential industrial application.

  3. The microsponge delivery system reduces facial oiliness and shine during acne therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kircik, Leon H

    2013-11-01

    Acne therapies that are able to show efficacious treatment of acne lesions as well as to address the issues of oiliness and shine control may be particularly appropriate for the treatment of patients with acne vulgaris that is accompanied by oily skin and facial shine. The microsphere delivery system (MDS), a novel delivery technology for topical therapy, can be customized to optimize product attributes, including oil absorption. Clinical trials have clearly established the efficacy and tolerability of such MDS formulations in the treatment of acne. In addition, studies have shown that the use of products formulated with an MDS provides a more significant reduction in facial shine than non-MDS acne therapy, as well as a reduction in facial sebum accumulation relative to control. Future clinical research should aim to further delineate the effect of individual topical acne treatment formulations on oiliness and shine.

  4. Optimizing Oily Wastewater Treatment Via Wet Peroxide Oxidation Using Response Surface Methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Jianzhong; Wang, Xiuqing; Wang, Xiaoyin

    2014-01-01

    The process of petroleum involves in a large amount of oily wastewater that contains high levels of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and toxic compounds. So they must be treated before their discharge into the receptor medium. In this paper, wet peroxide oxidation (WPO) was adopted to treat the oily wastewater. Central composite design, an experimental design for response surface methodology (RSM), was used to create a set of 31 experimental runs needed for optimizing of the operating conditions. Quadratic regression models with estimated coefficients were developed to describe the COD removals. The experimental results show that WPO could effectively reduce COD by 96.8% at the optimum conditions of temperature 290 .deg. C, H 2 O 2 excess (HE) 0.8, the initial concentration of oily wastewater 3855 mg/L and reaction time 9 min. RSM could be effectively adopted to optimize the operating multifactors in complex WPO process

  5. Prolonged retainment of contrast media in renal tumours by oily X-ray contrast media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryzkov, V.K.; Anisimov, V.N.

    1990-01-01

    In 194 patients with renal tumours an angiographic investigation with the oily X-ray contrast medium Iodolipol was carried out. A selective tropism of oily X-ray contrast media was found in the malignant zones only. The application of the preparation caused no complications. The oily X-ray contrast medium persisted in the tumours over several weeks or months. After embolization of the renal arteria a moderate size reduction of malign tumours in the first 10-14 d was seen. The ability of Iodolipol for a lasting retainment in malign tumour tissue allows a follow-up of the involution of the pathologic focus after arterial embolization of the tumour vessels. (author)

  6. Forward osmosis for oily wastewater reclamation: Multi-charged oxalic acid complexes as draw solutes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Qingchun; Amy, Gary Lee; Chung, Tai-Shung

    2017-10-01

    Forward osmosis (FO) has demonstrated its merits in hybrid FO seawater desalination. However, FO may have a potential for other applications if suitable draw solutes are available. In this study, a series of novel draw solutes based on oxalic acid (OA)-transitional metal complexes are presented. Influential factors of FO performance have been systematically investigated by varying the transitional metals, cations of the complex draw solutes as well as the experimental conditions. Compared to NaCl and other recently synthesized draw solutes, the OA complexes show superior FO performance in terms of high water fluxes up to 27.5 and 89.1 LMH under the respective FO and PRO (pressure retarded osmosis) modes, both with negligible reverse solute fluxes. The features of octahedral geometry, abundant hydrophilic groups and ionic species are crucial for the OA complexes as appropriate draw solutes with satisfactory FO performance. Among the synthesized OA complexes, the ammonium salt of chromic complex (NH 4 -Cr-OA) outperforms others due to the presence of more ionic species in its complex system. NH 4 -Cr-OA also performs better than the typical NaCl draw solute in FO oily wastewater treatment with higher water recovery and negligible reverse fluxes. Dilute solutions of OA complexes have been reconcentrated through membrane distillation (MD) and reused to new round of FO processes. The OA complexes have demonstrated their suitability and superiority as a novel class of draw solutes for the FO process in this study. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Reducing COD level on oily effluent by utilizing biosurfactant-producing bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Franco Carvalho Jacobucci

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Two bacteria isolated from crude oil contaminated soil, Pantoea agglomerans and Planococcus citreus, produced biosurfactants utilizing 1.5% of kerosene and olive oil as the sole carbon sources, respectively. The bacteria and the biosurfactants produced were introduced to oily effluent, arising from margarine and soap industry. Emulsification activities were determined by increases in the absorbance of the oil-in-water emulsions at 610 nm, whereas the water-in-oil emulsions were expressed as the height (cm of the emulsion layers formed. The 72 h incubation experiment resulted in a COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand reduction of 76% with Planococcus citreus strain and 70% with Pantoea agglomerans.The COD reduction with bacterial biosurfactants was over 50% in 24 h of incubation. The COD reduction showed that these strains and the surfactants produced could be used in bioremediation processes.Duas bactérias isoladas de solo contaminado com derivados de petróleo, Pantoea agglomerans e Planococcus citreus, produzem biosurfactantes utilizando respectivamente 1.5% de querosene e óleo de oliva como únicas fontes de carbono. As bactérias e os biosurfactantes produzidos foram adicionados a um efluente oleoso obtido de uma indústria nacional de sabão e margarina. As atividades de emulsificação foram determinadas pelo aumento da absorbância das emulsões óleo em água a 610 nm, enquanto que as emulsões do tipo água em óleo foram expressas em centímetros, pela altura do halo de espumas formado. A redução da demanda química de oxigênio (COD mostra que as linhagens e os biosurfactantes produzidos podem ser utilizados em processos de biorremediação.

  8. Observation of water separated ion-pairs between cations and phospholipid headgroups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Post, Sietse T; Hunger, Johannes; Bonn, Mischa; Bakker, Huib J

    2014-04-24

    In this work, we present evidence for ion pair formation of cations with a high surface charge density (Na(+) and Ca(2+)) and phosphate groups of phospholipids. We used femto-second infrared pump-probe and dielectric spectroscopy to probe the dynamics of water molecules in solutions of phosphorylethanolamine and different types of cations. We find that sodium and calcium cooperatively retard the dynamics of water in solutions of phosphorylethanolamine, implying the formation of solvent separated ion pairs. This ion-specific interaction is absent for potassium, cesium and ammonium. We compare our results to dielectric spectroscopy experiments, which probes the rotation of all dipolar molecules and ions in solution. The rotation of the dipolar phosphorylethanolamine ion shows that long-lived ion-pairs are only formed with calcium and not with ammonium, cesium, potassium, and sodium. This finding implies that the association between calcium and the phosphate is strong with lifetimes exceeding 200 ps, while the interaction with sodium is relatively short-lived (∼20-100 ps).

  9. Tritium isotope separation by water distillation column packed with silica-gel beads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukada, Satoshi

    2004-01-01

    Tritium enrichment or depletion by water distillation was investigated using a glass column of 32cm in height packed with silica-gel beads of 3.4mm in average diameter. The total separation factor of the silica-gel distillation column, α H-T , was compared with those of an open column distillation tower and of a column packed with stainless-steel Dixon rings. Depletion of the tritium activity in the distillate was enhanced by isotopic exchange with water absorbed on silica-gel beads that have a higher affinity for HTO than for H 2 O. The value of α H-T -1 of the silica-gel distillation column was about four times larger than that of a column without any packing and about two times larger than that of the Dixon-ring column. The improvement of α H-T by the silica-gel adsorbent indicated that the height of the distillation-adsorption column becomes shorter than that of the height of conventional distillation columns. (author)

  10. Generalized Software Architecture Applied to the Continuous Lunar Water Separation Process and the Lunar Greenhouse Amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perusich, Stephen; Moos, Thomas; Muscatello, Anthony

    2011-01-01

    This innovation provides the user with autonomous on-screen monitoring, embedded computations, and tabulated output for two new processes. The software was originally written for the Continuous Lunar Water Separation Process (CLWSP), but was found to be general enough to be applicable to the Lunar Greenhouse Amplifier (LGA) as well, with minor alterations. The resultant program should have general applicability to many laboratory processes (see figure). The objective for these programs was to create a software application that would provide both autonomous monitoring and data storage, along with manual manipulation. The software also allows operators the ability to input experimental changes and comments in real time without modifying the code itself. Common process elements, such as thermocouples, pressure transducers, and relative humidity sensors, are easily incorporated into the program in various configurations, along with specialized devices such as photodiode sensors. The goal of the CLWSP research project is to design, build, and test a new method to continuously separate, capture, and quantify water from a gas stream. The application is any In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) process that desires to extract or produce water from lunar or planetary regolith. The present work is aimed at circumventing current problems and ultimately producing a system capable of continuous operation at moderate temperatures that can be scaled over a large capacity range depending on the ISRU process. The goal of the LGA research project is to design, build, and test a new type of greenhouse that could be used on the moon or Mars. The LGA uses super greenhouse gases (SGGs) to absorb long-wavelength radiation, thus creating a highly efficient greenhouse at a future lunar or Mars outpost. Silica-based glass, although highly efficient at trapping heat, is heavy, fragile, and not suitable for space greenhouse applications. Plastics are much lighter and resilient, but are not

  11. Study on Water Quality of Surface Runoff and Groundwater Runoff on the Basis of Separation by a Numerical Filter

    OpenAIRE

    Kawara, Osami; Fukumoto, Kohji

    1994-01-01

    In this study we investigated the water quality of surface runoff and groundwater runoff from the basins of the Yodo River and the Asahi River based on that separated by a numerical filter. The water quality of the surface runoff is greatly different from the groundwater runoff. The tendency of concentration change in accordance with river discharges is different from each other. The water qtiality of groundwater runoff changes with river discharges clockwise in many cases. The differences of...

  12. Fabrication of a novel superhydrophobic and superoleophilic surface by one-step electrodeposition method for continuous oil/water separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Meisu; Jiang, Meihuizi; Zhang, Yanzong; Liu, Yan; Shen, Fei; Yang, Gang; He, Yan; Wang, Lilin; Zhang, Xiaohong; Deng, Shihuai

    2018-03-01

    A novel superhydrophobic and superoleophilic surface was fabricated by one-step electrodeposition on stainless steel meshes, and the durability and oil/water separation properties were assessed. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and optical contact angle measurements were used to characterize surface morphologies, chemical compositions, and wettabilities, respectively. The results indicated that the as-prepared mesh preformed excellent superhydrophobicity and superoleophilicity with a high water contact angle (WCA) of 162 ± 1° and oil contact angle of (OCA) 0°. Meanwhile, the as-prepared mesh also exhibited continuous separation capacity of many kinds of oil/water mixtures, and the separation efficiency for lubrication oil/water mixture was about 98.6%. In addition, after 10 separation cycles, the as-prepared mesh possessed the WCAs of 155 ± 2°, the OCAs of 0° and the separation efficiency of 97.8% for lubrication oil/water mixtures. The as-prepared mesh also retained superhydrophobic and superoleophilic properties after abrading, immersing in salt solutions and different pH solutions.

  13. A multi-stage oil-water-separating process design for the sea oil spill recovery robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Min-ge; Wu, Jian-guo; Lin, Xinhua; Wang, Xiao-ming

    2018-03-01

    Oil spill have the most common pollution to the marine ecological environment. In the late stage of physical method recovery, because of the thin oil and the strong sea breeze, the recovery vessels has low efficiency and high energy consumption. This paper develops a multi-stage oil-water-separating process carried by the sea oil spill recovery robot in severe conditions. This design consists of three separation process, among which both the first and third process adopt corrugated sheets horizontal oil-water separator, while the second is hydraulic rotary breaker. This design also equiptment with rectifier and cyclone separator and other important components. This process has high flexibility and high recovery efficiency. The implement effect is significant.

  14. Engineering of Mixed Matrix Membranes for Water Treatment, Protective Coating and Gas Separation

    KAUST Repository

    Hammami, Mohamed Amen

    2017-11-01

    Mixed Matrix Membranes (MMMs) have received worldwide attention during the last decades. This is due to the fact that the resulting materials can combine the good processability and low cost of polymer membranes with the diverse functionality, high performance and thermal properties of the fillers. This work explores the fabrication and application of MMMs. We focused on the design and fabrication of nanofillers to impart target functionality to the membrane for water treatment, protective coating and gas separation. This thesis is divided into three sections according to the application including: I- Water Treatment: This part is divided into three chapters, two related to the membrane distillation (MD) and one related to the oil spill. Three different nanofillers have been used: Periodic mesoporous organosilica (PMO), graphene and carbon nanotube (CNT). Those nanofillers were homogeneously incorporated into polyetherimide (PEI) electrospun nanofiber membranes. The doped nanoparticle not only improved the mechanical properties and thermal stability of the pristine fiber but also enhanced the MD and oil spill performance due to the functionality of those nanofillers. II- Protective coating: This part includes two chapters describing the design and the fabrication of a smart antibacterial and anti-corrosion coating. In the first project, we fabricated colloidal lysozyme-templated gold nanoclusters gating antimicrobial-loaded silica nanoparticles (MSN-AuNCs@lys) as nano-fillers in poly(ethylene oxide)/poly(butylene terephthalate) polymer matrix. MSN-AuNCs@lys dispersed homogeneously within the polymer matrix with zero NPs leaching. The system was coated on a common radiographic dental imaging device that is prone to oral bacteria contamination. This coating can successfully sense and inhibit bacterial contamination via a controlled release mechanism that is only triggered by bacteria. In the second project, the coaxial electrospinning approach has been applied to

  15. Functionalized sio2 microspheres for extracting oil from produced water

    KAUST Repository

    Mishra, Himanshu

    2017-03-16

    Functionalized material, methods of producing the functionalized material, and use thereof for separation processes such as but not limited to use for separating and extracting a dissolved organic foulant, charged contaminant or oily matter or any combination thereof from water, such as produced water, are provided. In an embodiment, the functionalized material is a mineral material, such as mica, silica (e.g. an SiO2 microsphere) or a metal oxide, and the outer surface of the material is functionalized with an alkyl chain or a perfluorinated species. In an embodiment, the method of making the functionalized material, includes: a) providing a mineral material; b) providing an alkyl chain and/or a perfluorinated species, the alkyl chain or perfluorinated species selected to dissolve organic foulants, charged contaminants or oily matter from water or any combination thereof; c) hydroxylating the material via a concentrated acid solution or a basic solution; and d) grafting the alkyl chain and/or the perfluorinated species onto the material via a silanation reaction.

  16. Free-breathing volumetric fat/water separation by combining radial sampling, compressed sensing, and parallel imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benkert, Thomas; Feng, Li; Sodickson, Daniel K; Chandarana, Hersh; Block, Kai Tobias

    2017-08-01

    Conventional fat/water separation techniques require that patients hold breath during abdominal acquisitions, which often fails and limits the achievable spatial resolution and anatomic coverage. This work presents a novel approach for free-breathing volumetric fat/water separation. Multiecho data are acquired using a motion-robust radial stack-of-stars three-dimensional GRE sequence with bipolar readout. To obtain fat/water maps, a model-based reconstruction is used that accounts for the off-resonant blurring of fat and integrates both compressed sensing and parallel imaging. The approach additionally enables generation of respiration-resolved fat/water maps by detecting motion from k-space data and reconstructing different respiration states. Furthermore, an extension is described for dynamic contrast-enhanced fat-water-separated measurements. Uniform and robust fat/water separation is demonstrated in several clinical applications, including free-breathing noncontrast abdominal examination of adults and a pediatric subject with both motion-averaged and motion-resolved reconstructions, as well as in a noncontrast breast exam. Furthermore, dynamic contrast-enhanced fat/water imaging with high temporal resolution is demonstrated in the abdomen and breast. The described framework provides a viable approach for motion-robust fat/water separation and promises particular value for clinical applications that are currently limited by the breath-holding capacity or cooperation of patients. Magn Reson Med 78:565-576, 2017. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  17. Experimental Validation of Hybrid Distillation-Vapor Permeation Process for Energy Efficient Ethanol-Water Separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The energy demand of distillation-based systems for ethanol recovery and dehydration can be significant, particularly for dilute solutions. An alternative separation process integrating vapor stripping with a vapor compression step and a vapor permeation membrane separation step,...

  18. Removal of Iron Oxide Scale from Feed-water in Thermal Power Plant by Using Magnetic Separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, Motohiro; Shibatani, Saori; Mishima, Fumihito; Akiyama, Yoko; Nishijima, Shigehiro

    2017-09-01

    One of the factors of deterioration in thermal power generation efficiency is adhesion of the scale to inner wall in feed-water system. Though thermal power plants have employed All Volatile Treatment (AVT) or Oxygen Treatment (OT) to prevent scale formation, these treatments cannot prevent it completely. In order to remove iron oxide scale, we proposed magnetic separation system using solenoidal superconducting magnet. Magnetic separation efficiency is influenced by component and morphology of scale which changes their property depending on the type of water treatment and temperature. In this study, we estimated component and morphology of iron oxide scale at each equipment in the feed-water system by analyzing simulated scale generated in the pressure vessel at 320 K to 550 K. Based on the results, we considered installation sites of the magnetic separation system.

  19. Dewatering and low-temperature pyrolysis of oily sludge in the presence of various agricultural biomasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Song; Zhou, Xiehong; Wang, Chuanyi; Jia, Hanzhong

    2017-08-24

    Pyrolysis is potentially an effective treatment of waste oil residues for recovery of petroleum hydrocarbons, and the addition of biomass is expected to improve its dewatering and pyrolysis behavior. In this study, the dewatering and low-temperature co-pyrolysis of oil-containing sludge in the presence of various agricultural biomasses, such as rice husk, walnut shell, sawdust, and apricot shell, were explored. As a result, the water content gradually decreases with the increase of biomass addition within 0-1.0 wt % in original oily sludge. Comparatively, the dewatering efficiency of sludge in the presence of four types of biomasses follows the order of apricot shell > walnut shell > rice husk > sawdust. On the other hand, rice husk and sawdust are relatively more efficient in the recovery of petroleum hydrocarbons compared with walnut shell and apricot shell. The recovery efficiency generally increased with the increase in the biomass content in the range of 0-0.2 wt %, then exhibited a gradually decreasing trend with the increase in the biomass content from 0.2 to 1.0 wt %. The results suggest that optimum amount of biomass plays an important role in the recovery efficiency. In addition, the addition of biomass (such as rice husk) also promotes the formation of C x H y and CO, increasing the calorific value of pyrolysis residue, and controlled the pollution components of the exhaust gas discharged from residue incineration. The present work implies that biomass as addictive holds great potential in the industrial dewatering and pyrolysis of oil-containing sludge.

  20. Modeling boron separation from water by activated carbon, impregnated and unimpregnated

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ristic, M.; Grbavcic, Z. [Belgrade Univ., Belgrade (BA). Faculty of Technology and Metallurgy; Marinovic, V. [Belgrade Univ., Belgrade (BA). Ist. of Technical Science of the Serbian Academy of Science and Arts

    2000-10-01

    The sorption of boron from boric acid water solution by impregnated activated carbon has been studied. Barium, calcium, mannitol, tartaric acid and citric acid were used as chemical active materials. All processes were performed in a chromatographic continuous system at 22{sup 0} C. Experimental results show that activated carbon impregnated with mannitol is effective in removing boron from water. The separation of boron from the wastewater from a factory for producing enameled dishes by activated carbon impregnated with mannitol was also performed. Two models have been applied to describe published and new data on boron sorption by impregnated activated carbon. Both of them are based on the analysis of boron concentration response to the step input function. This led to a mathematical model that quite successfully described impregnation effects on adsorption capacities. [Italian] E' stato studiato l'assorbimento del boro, mediante carbone attivo impregnato, da soluzioni acquose di acido borico. Quali materiali chimici attivi sono stati utilizzati: bario, calcio, mannitolo, acido tartarico ed acido citrico. Tutti i processi sono stati condotti in un sistema cromatografico continuo a 22{sup 0}C. I risultati sperimentali mostrano che il carbone attivo impregnato con mannitolo e' efficace nella rimozione del boro dall'acqua. E' anche stata effettuata la separazione del boro da acque di scarico di un'industria per la produzione di piatti smaltati mediante carbone attivo impregnato con mannitolo. Sono stati applicati due modelli per descrivere i risultati, pubblicati e nuovi, dell'assorbimento del boro mediante carbone attivo impregnato. Entrambi sono basati sull'analisi della risposta alla concentrazione di boro successivamente incrementata a stadi. Cio' porta ad un modello matematico che descrive abbastanza soddisfacentemente gli effetti dell'impregnazione sulla capacita' di assorbimento.

  1. Membrane contactor/separator for an advanced ozone membrane reactor for treatment of recalcitrant organic pollutants in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, Wai Kit; Jouët, Justine; Heng, Samuel; Yeung, King Lun; Schrotter, Jean-Christophe

    2012-01-01

    An advanced ozone membrane reactor that synergistically combines membrane distributor for ozone gas, membrane contactor for pollutant adsorption and reaction, and membrane separator for clean water production is described. The membrane reactor represents an order of magnitude improvement over traditional semibatch reactor design and is capable of complete conversion of recalcitrant endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) in water at less than three minutes residence time. Coating the membrane contactor with alumina and hydrotalcite (Mg/Al=3) adsorbs and traps the organics in the reaction zone resulting in 30% increase of total organic carbon (TOC) removal. Large surface area coating that diffuses surface charges from adsorbed polar organic molecules is preferred as it reduces membrane polarization that is detrimental to separation. - Graphical abstract: Advanced ozone membrane reactor synergistically combines membrane distributor for ozone, membrane contactor for sorption and reaction and membrane separator for clean water production to achieve an order of magnitude enhancement in treatment performance compared to traditional ozone reactor. Highlights: ► Novel reactor using membranes for ozone distributor, reaction contactor and water separator. ► Designed to achieve an order of magnitude enhancement over traditional reactor. ► Al 2 O 3 and hydrotalcite coatings capture and trap pollutants giving additional 30% TOC removal. ► High surface area coating prevents polarization and improves membrane separation and life.

  2. Highly efficient separation of surfactant stabilized water-in-oil emulsion based on surface energy gradient and flame retardancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Mengying; Peng, Shan; Deng, Wanshun; Miao, Xinrui; Wen, Ni; Zhou, Qiannan; Deng, Wenli

    2018-06-15

    Surface energy gradient would generate an imbalance force to drive tiny water droplets in dry air from the hydrophilic bumps to superhydrophobic domains, which has found on the Stenocara beetle's back. Inspired by this phenomenon, we introduced a pristine superhydrophilic filter paper on the lower surface energy superhydrophobic filter paper. ZnSn(OH) 6 particles and polydimethylsiloxane were mixed to prepare the superhydrophobic coating, and the coating was spray-coated on the poly(dialkyldimethylammonium chloride) covered filter paper to separate the span 80 stabilized water-in-isooctane emulsion. A pristine filter paper was added on the superhydrophobic filter paper to fabricate another membrane for separation. The results revealed that with a pristine filter paper, the membrane performed higher efficiency and more recyclability, and it could separate the emulsions with higher surfactant concentrations. The stabilized water droplets passed the superamphiphilic surface, and hindered by the superhydrophobic surface, generating a surface energy gradient for better separation. In addition, the superhydrophobic membrane could be protected from fire to some degree due to the introduced ZnSn(OH) 6 particles with excellent flame retardancy. This easy and efficient approach via simply bringing in pristine superhydrophilic membrane has great potential applications for water-in-oil emulsion separation or oil purification. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Purification of biologically treated Tehran refinery oily wastewater using reverse osmosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salahi, Abdolhamid; Mohammadi, Toraj; Fini, Mahdi Nikbakht

    2012-01-01

    were found to be complex. By increasing acidic and basic nature of the feed, permeation flux was found to increase but rejection decrease. At original oily wastewater composition, high rejection of TDS (87%), COD (95%), BOD5 (95%), TOC (90%), turbidity (82%) and oil and grease content (87%) along...

  4. Microbial degradation of waste hydrocarbons in oily sludge from some Romanian oil fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazar, I.; Dobrota, S.; Voicu, A.; Stefanescu, M.; Sandulescu, L.; Petrisor, I.G.

    1999-01-01

    During oil production and processing activities, significant quantities of oily sludge are produced. The sludge represents not only an environmental pollution source but also occupies big spaces in storage tanks. Romania, an experienced European oil-producing and processing country, is faced with environmental problems generated by oily sludge accumulations. Many such accumulations are to be submitted to bioremediation processes based on the hydrocarbon degradation activity of naturally occurring, selectively isolated bacteria. In this paper the results concerning a laboratory screening of several natural bacterial consortia and laboratory tests to establish the performance in degradation of hydrocarbons contained in oily sludges from Otesti oil field area, are presented. As a result of the laboratory screening, we selected six natural bacterial consortia (BCSl-I 1 to BCSl-I 6 ) with high ability in degradation of hydrocarbons from paraffinic and non-paraffinic asphaltic oils (between 25.53%-64.30% for non-paraffinic asphaltic oil and between 50.25%-72.97% for paraffinic oil). The laboratory tests proved that microbial degradation of hydrocarbons contained in oily sludge from Otesti oil field area varied from 16.75% to 95.85% in moving conditions (Erlenmeyers of 750 ml on rotary shaker at 200 rpm) and from 16.85% to 51.85% in static conditions (Petri dishes Oe 10 cm or vessels of 500 ml)

  5. An observational study of the effect of vibration on the caking of suspensions in oily vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Rohit; Bork, Olaf; Alawi, Fadil; Nanjan, Karthigeyan; Tucker, Ian G

    2016-11-30

    An oily suspension of penethamate (PNT) that was physically stable on storage, caked solidly during road/air transport. This paper reports on the caking behaviour of PNT oily suspension formulations exposed to vibrations in a lab-based test designed to simulate road/air transport. The lab-test was used to study the effects of container type (glass v PET) and formulation (oil, surfactant type and concentration) on the physical stability of suspension under vibration. Redispersibility of the sediment was lower at longer vibrations times and at higher intensity of vibration. Caking on vibration was strongly influenced by the type of container (caking in glass but not in PET) possibly due to tribo-charging of particles. Caking on vibration was dependent on the formulation: type and concentration of surfactant; type of oil. The physical stability of oily suspensions, and the effect of vibration are two areas which have been largely neglected in the pharmaceutical literature. This paper discusses some potential mechanisms for the observations but studies using fully characterised materials are required. Finally we conclude that static testing of physical stability of oily suspensions is not sufficient and that a vibrational stress test is required. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Improved Charge Separation in WO3/CuWO4 Composite Photoanodes for Photoelectrochemical Water Oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danping Wang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Porous tungsten oxide/copper tungstate (WO3/CuWO4 composite thin films were fabricated via a facile in situ conversion method, with a polymer templating strategy. Copper nitrate (Cu(NO32 solution with the copolymer surfactant Pluronic®F-127 (Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO, USA, generic name, poloxamer 407 was loaded onto WO3 substrates by programmed dip coating, followed by heat treatment in air at 550 °C. The Cu2+ reacted with the WO3 substrate to form the CuWO4 compound. The composite WO3/CuWO4 thin films demonstrated improved photoelectrochemical (PEC performance over WO3 and CuWO4 single phase photoanodes. The factors of light absorption and charge separation efficiency of the composite and two single phase films were investigated to understand the reasons for the PEC enhancement of WO3/CuWO4 composite thin films. The photocurrent was generated from water splitting as confirmed by hydrogen and oxygen gas evolution, and Faradic efficiency was calculated based on the amount of H2 produced. This work provides a low-cost and controllable method to prepare WO3-metal tungstate composite thin films, and also helps to deepen the understanding of charge transfer in WO3/CuWO4 heterojunction.

  7. Smart surfaces with switchable superoleophilicity and superoleophobicity in aqueous media: Toward controllable oil/water separation

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, L.

    2012-02-01

    Advanced materials with surfaces that have controllable oil wettability when submerged in aqueous media have great potential for various underwater applications. Here we have developed smart surfaces on commonly used materials, including non-woven textiles and polyurethane sponges, which are able to switch between superoleophilicity and superoleophobicity in aqueous media. The smart surfaces are obtained by grafting a block copolymer, comprising blocks of pH-responsive poly(2-vinylpyridine) and oleophilic/hydrophobic polydimethylsiloxane (i.e., P2VP-b-PDMS) on these materials. The P2VP block can alter its wettability and its conformation via protonation and deprotonation in response to the pH of the aqueous media, which provides controllable and switchable access of oil by the PDMS block, resulting in the switchable surface oil wettability in the aqueous media. On the other hand, the high flexibility of the PDMS block facilitates the reversible switching of the surface oil wettability. As a proof of concept, we also demonstrate that materials functionalized with our smart surfaces can be used for highly controllable oil/water separation processes.

  8. Simulation and optimization of stable isotope 18O separation by water vacuum distillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yuyan; Qin Chuanjiang; Xiao Bin; Xu Jing'an

    2012-01-01

    In the research, a stable isotope 18 O separation column was set up by water vacuum distillation with 20 m packing height and 0.1 m diameter of the column. The self-developed special packing named PAC- 18 O was packed inside the column. Firstly, a model was created by using the Aspen Plus software, and then the simulation results were validated by test results. Secondly, a group of simulation results were created by Aspen Plus, and the optimal operation conditions were gotten by using the artificial neural network (ANN) and Statistica software. Considering comprehensive factors drawn from column pressure and from withdrawing velocity, conclusions were reached on the study of the impact on the abundance of the isotope 18 O. The final results show that the abundance of the isotope 18 O increases as column pressure dropping and withdrawing velocity decreasing. Besides, the optimal column pressure and the incidence formula between the abundance of the isotope 18 O and withdrawing velocity were gotten. The conclusion is that the method of simulation and optimization can be applied to 18 O industrial design and will be popular in traditional distillation process to realize optimization design. (authors)

  9. Process for the separation of deuterium and tritium from water using ammonia and a hydrogen-nitrogen-mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandrin, Ch.

    1986-01-01

    A multistage process for separation of deuterium and tritium from water using ammonia and a hydrogen-nitrogen mixture. In a first stage isotopic exchange takes place between water containing deuterium and tritium, and ammonia depleted in deuterium and tritium. The molar ammonia throughput is chosen to be greater than two third of the molar throughput of water. The advantage of the process consists in the fact that the main product is water almost entirely free from deuterium and tritium. The byproducts are compounds enriched in deuterium and tritium, and nitrogen enriched in N-15

  10. Technical Note: Interleaved Bipolar Acquisition and Low-rank Reconstruction for Water-Fat Separation in MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, JaeJin; Park, HyunWook

    2018-05-17

    To acquire interleaved bipolar data and reconstruct the full data using low-rank property for water fat separation. Bipolar acquisition suffers from issues related to gradient switching, the opposite gradient polarities, and other system imperfections, which prevent accurate water-fat separation. In this study, an interleaved bipolar acquisition scheme and a low-rank reconstruction method were proposed to reduce issues from the bipolar gradients while achieving a short imaging time. The proposed interleaved bipolar acquisition scheme collects echo-time signals from both gradient polarities; however, the sequence increases the imaging time. To reduce the imaging time, the signals were subsampled at every dimension of k-space. The low-rank property of the bipolar acquisition was defined and exploited to estimate the full data from the acquired subsampled data. To eliminate the bipolar issues, in the proposed method, the water-fat separation was performed separately for each gradient polarity, and the results for the positive and negative gradient polarities were combined after the water-fat separation. A phantom study and in-vivo experiments were conducted on a 3T Siemens Verio system. The results for the proposed method were compared with the results of the fully sampled interleaved bipolar acquisition and Soliman's method, which was the previous water-fat separation approach for reducing the issues of bipolar gradients and accelerating the interleaved bipolar acquisition. The proposed method provided accurate water and fat images without the issues of bipolar gradients and demonstrated a better performance compared with the results of the previous methods. The water-fat separation using the bipolar acquisition has several benefits including a short echo-spacing time. However, it suffers from bipolar-gradient issues such as strong gradient switching, system imperfection, and eddy current effects. This study demonstrated that accurate water-fat separated images can

  11. An Underwater Superoleophobic Sepiolite Fibrous Membrane (SFM) for Oil­‐in­‐water Emulsion Separation

    KAUST Repository

    Yao, Pinjiang

    2014-12-01

    Separating oil/water emulsions is significant for the ecosystem and the petroleum and processing industry. To this end, we prepared an underwater superoleophobic membrane inspired by unique wettability of the fish scales. This membrane was fabricated by a facile vacuum filtration process of sepiolite nanofibers and chitosan, and after the cross-linking via glutaraldehyde, a self-standing membrane was obtained. The as-prepared membrane exhibited excellent capability of separating both the surfactant-free and surfactant-stabilized oil-in-water emulsions with high efficiency. This sepiolite fibrous membrane offers a convenient, reliable and efficient way for the large-scale de-emulsification process.

  12. Preparation of novel cotton fabric composites with pH controlled switchable wettability for efficient water-in-oil and oil-in-water emulsions separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qian; Wu, Jianning; Meng, Guihua; Wang, Yixi; Liu, Zhiyong; Guo, Xuhong

    2018-06-01

    The wetting materials with the ability of controllable oil/water separation have drawn more and more public attention. In this article, the novel cotton fabric (CF) with pH controlled wettability transition was designed by a simple, environmentally friendly coating copolymer/SiO2 nanoparticles, poly(heptadecafluorodecyl methacrylate- co-3-trimethoxysilylpropyl methacrylate- co-2-vinilpiridine) (PHDFDMA- co-PTMSPMA- co-P2VP). Furthermore, the structures and morphologies of coated CF were confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), NMR, GPC, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The coated CF exhibits switchable wettability between superhydrophobicity and superhydrophilicity via adjusting pH value. When the coated CF is placed in the neutral aqueous (pH = 7.0), it is superhydrophobic in the air and superoleophilic. It allows oil to go through but blocking water. However, in acidic aqueous environment (pH = 3.0), it turns superhydrophilic and underwater superoleophobic, which allows water to penetrate but blocking oil. Therefore, the coated CF could be applied to separate oil/water mixtures, ternary oil/water/water mixtures continuously and different surfactant stabilized emulsions (oil-in-water, water-in-oil) and displays the superior separation capacity for oil-water mixtures with a high efficiency of 99.8%. Moreover, the cycling tests demonstrate that the coated CF possesses excellent recyclability and durability. Such an eminent, controllable water/oil permeation feature makes coated CF could be selected as an ideal candidate for oil/water separation.

  13. In situ separation of root hydraulic redistribution of soil water from liquid and vapor transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey M. Warren; J. Renée Brooks; Maria I. Dragila; Frederick C. Meinzer

    2011-01-01

    Nocturnal increases in water potential and water content in the upper soil profile are often attributed to root water efflux, a process termed hydraulic redistribution (HR). However, unsaturated liquid or vapor flux of water between soil layers independent of roots also contributes to the daily recovery in water content, confounding efforts to determine the actual...

  14. Domestic wash water reclamation for reuse as commode water supply using filtration: Reverse-osmosis separation technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, J. B., Jr.; Batten, C. E.; Wilkins, J. R.

    1974-01-01

    A combined filtration-reverse-osmosis water recovery system has been evaluated to determine its capability to reclaim domestic wash water for reuse as a commode water supply. The system produced water that met all chemical and physical requirements established by the U.S. Public Health Service for drinking water with the exception of carbon chloroform extractables, methylene blue active substances, and phenols. It is thought that this water is of sufficient quality to be reused as commode supply water. The feasibility of using a combined filtration and reverse-osmosis technique for reclaiming domestic wash water has been established. The use of such a technique for wash-water recovery will require a maintenance filter to remove solid materials including those less than 1 micron in size from the wash water. The reverse-osmosis module, if sufficiently protected from plugging, is an attractive low-energy technique for removing contaminants from domestic wash water.

  15. A fluidized layer of granular material used for the separation of particulate impurities in drinking water treatment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pivokonský, Martin; Bubáková, Petra; Hnaťuková, Petra; Knesl, Bohuslav

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 59, č. 2 (2011), s. 95-106 ISSN 0042-790X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA200600902 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20600510 Keywords : aggregation * destabilization * fluidized layer * separation * water treatment Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 0.340, year: 2011

  16. BACTERIAL POPULATION DYNAMICS IN WASTE OILY EMULSIONS FROM THE METAL-PROCESSING INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Kaszycki

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Oil-containing wastewaters are regarded as main industrial pollutants of soil and water environments. They can occur as free-floating oil, unstable or stable oil-in-water (O/W emulsions, and in the case of extreme organic load, as water-in-oil (W/O emulsions. In this study two types of oily effluents, a typical O/W emulsion marked as E1 and a W/O emulsion E2, both discharged by local metal processing plants were examined to test their toxicity to microbial communities and the ability to serve as nutrient sources for bacterial growth. The organic contaminant load of the samples was evaluated on the basis of chemical oxygen demand (COD parameter values and was equal to 48 200 mg O2·dm-3 and >300 000 mg O2·dm-3 for E1 and E2, respectively.Both emulsions proved to be non toxic to bacterial communities and were shown to contain biodiverse autochthonous microflora consisting of several bacterial strains adapted to the presence of xenobiotics (the total of 1.36 · 106 CFU·cm-3 and 1.72 · 105 CFU·cm-3 was determined for E1 and E2, respectively. These indigenous bacteria as well as exogenously inoculated specialized allochthonous microorganisms were biostimulated so as to proliferate within the wastewater environment whose organic content served as the only source of carbon. The most favorable cultivation conditions were determined as fully aerobic growth at the temperature of 25 ºC. In 9 to 18 day-tests, autochthonous as well as bioaugmented allochthonous bacterial population dynamics were monitored. For both emulsions tested there was a dramatic increase (up to three orders of magnitude in bacterial frequency, as compared to the respective initial values. The resultant high biomass densities suggest that the effluents are susceptible to bioremediation. A preliminary xenobiotic biodegradation test confirmed that mixed auto- and allochthonous bacterial consortia obtained upon inoculation of the samples with microbiocenoses preselected for efficient

  17. Improvement of a separation method for the reduction of secondary waste from the water-jet abrasive suspension cutting technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandauer, M.; Gentes, S.; Heneka, A.; Krauss, C.O.; Geckeis, H.; Plaschke, M.; Schild, D.; Tobie, W.

    2017-01-01

    Full text of publication follows. Disassembling the reactor pressure vessel and its built-in components is a huge challenge in the deconstruction of a nuclear power plant. After being exposed to neutron irradiation for years, the activated components need to be disassembled and packed by remote controlled techniques. Underwater disassembling systems have the advantage of the shielding effect of water against radiation. To avoid the generation of aerosols, cold cutting processes are preferred. A cutting method that meets these requirements is the water-jet abrasive suspension cutting technique (WASS). This method provides high flexibility and is immune towards mechanical stress in the components. During the cutting process, a mixture of abrasive particles and radioactive steel particles from the cut components is generated. Depending on the operational conditions, the amount of this secondary waste increases substantially. Therefore, despite of its intrinsic technical benefits, WASS has a serious disadvantage towards other cutting techniques due to the huge disposal costs of secondary waste. During our previous joint research project between KIT and AREVA GmbH called NENAWAS ('New Disposal Methods for the Secondary Waste Treatment of the Water-jet Abrasive Suspension Cutting Technique', funded by the German ministry for education and research, BMBF), a prototype separation device for WASS secondary waste was developed and tested. Using a magnetic filter, steel particles could be successfully separated from the rest of the secondary waste. The separation process is examined using elemental analysis (ICP-OES) for quantification of the separation grade. Additionally, morphologies of particles and particle aggregates before and after the separation process were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). In the abrasive particle fraction after separation of the steel particles a remaining contamination by tiny steel particles could be detected by elemental and

  18. Separation of oil and grease from oil sludge using surfactant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ainon Abdul Aziz; Syed Hakimi Sakuma Syed Ahmad; Zalina Laili

    2005-01-01

    The objective of the experiments was to observe the efficiency of the surfactant to remove oil and grease from oil sludges using various surfactant concentration ranging from 10 %, 15 %, 20 % and 30 %. The surfactant solution consists of two mixtures of Aqua 2000 and D Bond. The oil sludge were subjected to heating and surfactant treatment process. Remaining oil and grease concentration were observed on the oil sludges after treatment. Small scale experiments were conducted by heating process, without heating process and heating process with addition of sodium chloride. Surfactant solution was added in each process. Results shows that there is separation of oil and grease from the oil sludges. There were formation of mini emulsions (oil in water). The higher the concentration of surfactant used, the higher the concentrations of mini emulsion formed as observed. Solid remains after the treatment process were found to contain lesser oil concentration with presence of bitumen, sediment, organic and inorganic materials. After a washing process using distilled water, the solid was still black but less oily than before the treatment. There is no separation of oil occurred in aqueous solution for the control experiment. (Author)

  19. Superhydrophobicity construction with dye-sensitised TiO2 on fabric surface for both oil/water separation and water bulk contaminants purification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Linfeng; Zhang, Shengmiao; Zhang, Meng; Chen, Jianding

    2017-12-01

    For the promising material for both oil/water separation and water-soluble contaminants, the Dye@TiO2-TEOS/VTEO hybrid modified polyester fabric is developed by a simple dip-coating process, which combines Dye-sensitised TiO2 with silicon contained superhydrophobic coating to guarantee the long-term stability of Dye-sensitised TiO2 system as well as material's sustainability. The modified fabric possesses selective oil/water seperation properties towards water and oil, besides, mechanical, acid and alkali durability shows this material's appropriate performance on oil/water separation. UV-Vis absorption spectrum reveals the Dye 4-(2H-imidazol-2-ylazo) benzoic acid could sensitize the semiconductor TiO2 for visible light catalytic organic pollutant degradation that is also confirmed by methylene blue degradation experiment. Density Functional calculation (DFT) witnesses that HOMO, HOMO-1 of Dye contributed by oxygen bonding to TiO2 can insert into TiO2 band gap and result in low energy electron excitation. The ability of oil/water separation and water-soluble contaminants purification provides the material opportunity to practical applications in environmental restoration and human life.

  20. Sub-1min separation in sequential injection chromatography for determination of synthetic water-soluble dyes in pharmaceutical formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davletbaeva, Polina; Chocholouš, Petr; Bulatov, Andrey; Šatínský, Dalibor; Solich, Petr

    2017-09-05

    Sequential Injection Chromatography (SIC) evolved from fast and automated non-separation Sequential Injection Analysis (SIA) into chromatographic separation method for multi-element analysis. However, the speed of the measurement (sample throughput) is due to chromatography significantly reduced. In this paper, a sub-1min separation using medium polar cyano monolithic column (5mm×4.6mm) resulted in fast and green separation with sample throughput comparable with non-separation flow methods The separation of three synthetic water-soluble dyes (sunset yellow FCF, carmoisine and green S) was in a gradient elution mode (0.02% ammonium acetate, pH 6.7 - water) with flow rate of 3.0mLmin -1 corresponding with sample throughput of 30h -1 . Spectrophotometric detection wavelengths were set to 480, 516 and 630nm and 10Hz data collection rate. The performance of the separation was described and discussed (peak capacities 3.48-7.67, peak symmetries 1.72-1.84 and resolutions 1.42-1.88). The method was represented by validation parameters: LODs of 0.15-0.35mgL -1 , LOQs of 0.50-1.25mgL -1 , calibration ranges 0.50-150.00mgL -1 (r>0.998) and repeatability at 10.0mgL -1 of RSD≤0.98% (n=6). The method was used for determination of the dyes in "forest berries" colored pharmaceutical cough-cold formulation. The sample matrix - pharmaceuticals and excipients were not interfering with vis determination because of no retention in the separation column and colorless nature. The results proved the concept of fast and green chromatography approach using very short medium polar monolithic column in SIC. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Separation of yttrium from strontium in the aqueous phase of the water/nitrobenzene system

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vaňura, P.; Makrlík, E.; Vobecký, Miloslav

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 253, č. 1 (2002), s. 171-172 ISSN 0236-5731 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4031919 Keywords : stroncium * yttrium * separation Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 0.502, year: 2002

  2. Separation of microamounts of yttrium from strontium in the two-phase water/nitrobenzene system

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Makrlík, E.; Vaňura, P.; Vobecký, Miloslav

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 253, č. 1 (2002), s. 153-155 ISSN 0236-5731 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4031919 Keywords : separation * stroncium * yttrium Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 0.502, year: 2002

  3. Separation of azeotropic mixtures of alcohols and water with FricDiff

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breure, B.; Peters, E.A.J.F.; Kerkhof, P.J.A.M.

    2008-01-01

    FricDiff is an energy efficient separation process based on a difference in transport velocities of the components of a gas or vapor mixture when they diffuse through a sweep gas ('enhancer'). The separation process takes place inside the pores of a non-selective macro-porous barrier. In this paper

  4. [Fast separation and analysis of water-soluble vitamins in spinach by capillary electrophoresis with high voltage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiaoqin; You, Huiyan

    2009-11-01

    In capillary electrophoresis, 0-40 kV (even higher) voltage can be reached by a connecting double-model high voltage power supply. In the article, water-soluble vitamins, VB1, VB2, VB6, VC, calcium D-pantothenate, D-biotin, nicotinic acid and folic acid in vegetable, were separated by using the high voltage power supply under the condition of electrolyte water solution as running buffer. The separation conditions, such as voltage, the concentration of buffer and pH value etc. , were optimized during the experiments. The results showed that eight water-soluble vitamins could be baseline separated in 2.2 min at 40 kV applied voltage, 25 mmol/L sodium tetraborate buffer solution (pH 8.8). The water-soluble vitamins in spinach were quantified and the results were satisfied. The linear correlation coefficients of the water-soluble vitamins ranged from 0.9981 to 0.9999. The detection limits ranged from 0.2 to 0.3 mg/L. The average recoveries ranged from 88.0% to 100.6% with the relative standard deviations (RSD) range of 1.15%-4.13% for the spinach samples.

  5. Isoporous PS-b-PEO ultrafiltration membranes via self-assembly and water-induced phase separation

    KAUST Repository

    Karunakaran, Madhavan

    2014-03-01

    A simple and efficient approach towards the fabrication of a skinned membrane with highly ordered pores in the nanometer range is presented here. We successfully combined the self-assembly of PS-b-PEO block copolymer and water induced phase separation for the preparation of isoporous PS-b-PEO block copolymer membranes. We produced for the first time asymmetric isoporous PS-b-PEO membranes with a 100nm thin isoporous separating layer using water at room temperature as coagulant. This was possible by careful selection of the block lengths and the solvent system. FESEM, AFM and TEM measurements were employed to characterize the nanopores of membranes. The pure water fluxes were measured and the flux of membrane was exceptionally high (around 800Lm-2h-1bar-1). Protein rejection measurements were carried out for this membrane and the membrane had a retention of about 67% of BSA and 99% of γ-globulin. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

  6. Applying a method of chemical separation and mass spectrometry for the determination of radium-226 in surface water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sibello Hernandez, Rita Y; Cozzella, Maria Letizia; Guillen Arruebarrena, Aniel

    2014-01-01

    Radium-226 ( 226 Ra) is a naturally occurring radionuclide, alpha emitter with half-life of 1 622 years originating from uranium-238 ( 238 U). Its presence in drinking water is a major radiological hazards, which requires constant monitoring. The analytical techniques used in the determination of 226 Ra generally require the establishment of secular equilibrium and/or tedious separation of other elements. The main objective of this paper is to demonstrate the efficiency and speed of a method of preconcentration and separation of 226 Ra in natural water samples using coprecipitation with MnO 2 radius and purification by cation exchange resin Dowex 50WX8. Measurement technique was Quadrupole Mass Spectrometry and associated induced plasma ICP-Q-MS. The 226 Ra values obtained are in the range of 0,010-0,219 pg/L in natural waters analyzed

  7. Numerical investigation of coalescing plate system to understand the separation of water and oil in water treatment plant of petroleum industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedat Yayla

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The most widely utilized process of produced water treatment is considered to be use of coalescing or corrugated plate systems in the oil industry because these systems have promising results in the acceleration of the separation process. Even use of corrugated plate systems seem to be effective in separation processes, the geometrical parameters of the plate system could greatly influence the performance of separation process. In this study, a two-dimensional computational fluid dynamics model for coalescing plates was developed to investigate Reynolds number and plate hole shape on separation efficiency. Spacing between plates was set to 12 mm while fluid mixture’s Reynolds number varied between 5 and 45 for the computational model. Hole profile and dimensions were determined to be cylindrical, rectangular and ellipse shapes as 10, 15 and 20 mm based on hydraulic diameter definition, respectively. Furthermore, when hole profiles of coalescing plates were chosen to be ellipse and rectangular shapes, separation efficiency nearly stayed constant regardless of hole dimension. The study also reported that change of oil fraction from 5% to 15% caused approximately 30% increase in the separation efficiency. The investigation also revealed Reynolds number of the mixture was inversely proportional to the separation efficiency. It was also found that the highest separation efficiency was obtained for a cylindrical shape with a hole diameter of 15 mm when distance between plates was 12 mm and Reynolds number was 18.

  8. Effects of oily fish intake on cardiovascular risk markers, cognitive function, and behavior in school-aged children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, Camilla T.; Lauritzen, Lotte; Hauger, Hanne

    2016-01-01

    Background Most children in Western populations do not meet recommendations for fish consumption. Oily fish is an important source of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA), which reduce blood pressure and plasma triacylglycerol in adults and may affect cognitive development...... and behavior. However, to our knowledge, the potential effects of oily fish on cardiometabolic health, cognitive function, and behavior in children have not been investigated. The aim of the FiSK Junior study is to investigate the effects of oily fish consumption on cardiovascular risk markers, cognitive...... function, and behavior in healthy children. Methods/design We are conducting a randomized controlled trial with 8- to 9-year-old Danish children, comparing the effect of consuming 300 g/week of oily fish with poultry (control) for 12 weeks between August 2016 and June 2017. The primary outcomes are blood...

  9. Algae separation from urban landscape water using a high density microbubble layer enhanced by micro-flocculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shuwen; Xu, Jingcheng; Liu, Jia; Wei, Qiaoling; Li, Guangming; Huang, Xiangfeng

    2014-01-01

    Eutrophication of raw water results in outbreaks of algae, which hinders conventional water treatment. In this study, high density microbubble layers combined with micro-flocculation was adopted to remove algae from urban landscape water, and the effects of pressure, hydraulic loading, microbubble layer height and flocculation dosage on the removal efficiency for algae were studied. The greatest removal efficiency for algae, chemical oxygen demand, nitrogen and phosphorus was obtained at 0.42 MPa with hydraulic loading at 5 m/h and a flocculation dosage of 4 mg/L using a microbubble layer with a height of 130 cm. Moreover, the size, clearance distance and concentration of microbubbles were found to be affected by pressure and the height of the microbubble layer. Based on the study, this method was an alternative for algae separation from urban landscape water and water purification.

  10. The multiple gas-liquid subsea separation system: development and qualification of a novel solution for deep water field production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abrand, Stephanie; Butin, Nicolas; Shaiek, Sadia; Hallot, Raymond [Saipem S.p.A., Milano (Italy)

    2012-07-01

    Subsea processing is more and more considered as a viable solution for the development of deep and ultra deep water fields. SAIPEM has developed a deep water gas separation and liquid boosting system, based on its proprietary 'Multi pipe' separator concept, providing a good flexibility in handling a wide range of steady and un-steady multiphase input streams using a relatively simple mechanical arrangement. The Multi pipe Concept features an array of vertical pipes for gas/liquid separation by gravity and adequate liquid hold up volumes. The operating principle is the same as standard gravity vessels. Specific inlet pipe arrangements have been worked out to enhance the separation efficiency and internals can be implemented to further optimize the performances. The limited diameter and wall thickness of the vertical pipes make the Multi pipe Concept particularly suited for deep and ultra-deep water applications and/or high pressure conditions where the selection of a single separator vessel could lead to unpractical wall thicknesses. In most cases, standard API or ASME pipes can be utilized for the Multi pipe Separator, thus enabling conventional fabrication methods, and in turn reducing cost and delivery time and opening opportunities for local content. The qualification testing program has seen two subsequent phases. The first qualification phase aimed at the confirmation of the hydrodynamic behavior of the system. In particular, the homogeneous distribution of the multiphase stream into the pipes and the stability of the liquid levels under un-steady inlet conditions were continuously assessed during the tests. This first qualification phase gave confidence in the viability of the Multi pipe and in its good hydrodynamic behavior under the different inlet conditions that can be encountered during field production. It proved that, having the same liquid level in all the separator pipes, whatever the inlet conditions are, the Multi pipe separator can be

  11. Monitoring, characterization and comparison. Operation-project of oil and oil water systems in platforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    P Junior, Oswaldo A.; Louvisse, Ana M.T.; Ramalho, Joao B.V.S.; Miragaya, Jose C.G.

    2000-01-01

    During the process of petroleum production, water are also commonly produced. Usually, a standard oil-water separation process will not lead to water phase ready to be discharged - the present legislation requires oily contents (oil and/or greases) bellow 20 mg/L concentration level value. Thus, secondary treatment is required to bring such oily concentration to the allowed level or lower, prior to the water discard in the environment. This paper describes the adopted systematic work in the Campos Basin Petroleum Production Platforms, which has allowed to evaluate and optimize the water treatment performed in there. Such description includes the typical water treatment systems installed, the typical physical-chemistry of the effluents and also presents comparisons between the basic designs that guided such systems construction and their present operational conditions and set-ups. The analysis of such results has allowed the introduction of minor modifications leading to the process optimization. The common use of Pilot Plants in such optimization process is also described and their contribution reported. (author)

  12. Experimental investigation of droplet separation in a horizontal counter-current air/water stratified flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabriel, Stephan Gerhard

    2015-01-01

    A stratified counter-current two-phase gas/liquid flow can occur in various technical systems. In the past investigations have mainly been motivated by the possible occurrence of these flows in accident scenarios of nuclear light water-reactors and in numerous applications in process engineering. However, the precise forecast of flow parameters, is still challenging, for instance due to their strong dependency on the geometric boundary conditions. A new approach which uses CFD methods (Computational Fluid Dynamics) promises a better understanding of the flow phenomena and simultaneously a higher scalability of the findings. RANS methods (Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes) are preferred in order to compute industrial processes and geometries. A very deep understanding of the flow behavior and equation systems based on real physics are necessary preconditions to develop the equation system for a reliable RANS approach with predictive power. Therefore, local highly resolved, experimental data is needed in order to provide and validate the required turbulence and phase interaction models. The central objective of this work is to provide the data needed for the code development for these unsteady, turbulent and three-dimensional flows. Experiments were carried out at the WENKA facility (Water Entrainment Channel Karlsruhe) at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT). The work consists of a detailed description of the test-facility including a new bended channel, the measurement techniques and the experimental results. The characterization of the new channel was done by flow maps. A high-speed imaging study gives an impression of the occurring flow regimes, and different flow phenomena like droplet separation. The velocity distributions as well as various turbulence values were investigated by particle image velocimetry (PIV). In the liquid phase fluorescent tracer-particles were used to suppress optical reflections from the phase surface (fluorescent PIV, FPIV

  13. A Scalable Method toward Superhydrophilic and Underwater Superoleophobic PVDF Membranes for Effective Oil/Water Emulsion Separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Tao; Meng, Jianqiang; Hao, Tingyu; Wang, Zihong; Zhang, Yufeng

    2015-07-15

    A superhydrophilic and underwater superoleophobic PVDF membrane (PVDFAH) has been prepared by surface-coating of a hydrogel onto the membrane surface, and its superior performance for oil/water emulsion separation has been demonstrated. The coated hydrogel was constructed by an interfacial polymerization based on the thiol-epoxy reaction of pentaerythritol tetrakis (3-mercaptopropionate) (PETMP) with diethylene glycol diglycidyl ether (PEGDGE) and simultaneously tethered on an alkaline-treated commercial PVDF membrane surface via the thio-ene reaction. The PVDFAH membranes can be fabricated in a few minutes under mild conditions and show superhydrophilic and underwater superoleophobic properties for a series of organic solvents. Energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis shows that the hydrogel coating was efficient throughout the pore lumen. The membrane shows superior oil/water emulsion separation performance, including high water permeation, quantitative oil rejection, and robust antifouling performance in a series oil/water emulsions, including that prepared from crude oil. In addition, a 24 h Soxhlet-extraction experiment with ethanol/water solution (50:50, v/v) was conducted to test the tethered hydrogel stability. We see that the membrane maintained the water contact angle below 5°, indicating the covalent tethering stability. This technique shows great promise for scalable fabrication of membrane materials for handling practical oil emulsion purification.

  14. Polydimethylsiloxane-Based Superhydrophobic Surfaces on Steel Substrate: Fabrication, Reversibly Extreme Wettability and Oil-Water Separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xiaojing; Li, Hongqiang; Lai, Xuejun; Zhang, Lin; Liang, Tao; Feng, Yuchun; Zeng, Xingrong

    2017-01-25

    Functional surfaces for reversibly switchable wettability and oil-water separation have attracted much interest with pushing forward an immense influence on fundamental research and industrial application in recent years. This article proposed a facile method to fabricate superhydrophobic surfaces on steel substrates via electroless replacement deposition of copper sulfate (CuSO 4 ) and UV curing of vinyl-terminated polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). PDMS-based superhydrophobic surfaces exhibited water contact angle (WCA) close to 160° and water sliding angle (WSA) lower than 5°, preserving outstanding chemical stability that maintained superhydrophobicity immersing in different aqueous solutions with pH values from 1 to 13 for 12 h. Interestingly, the superhydrophobic surface could dramatically switch to the superhydrophilic state under UV irradiation and then gradually recover to the highly hydrophobic state with WCA at 140° after dark storage. The underlying mechanism was also investigated by scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Additionally, the PDMS-based steel mesh possessed high separation efficiency and excellent reusability in oil-water separation. Our studies provide a simple, fast, and economical fabrication method for wettability-transformable superhydrophobic surfaces and have the potential applications in microfluidics, the biomedical field, and oil spill cleanup.

  15. Comparison of cytotoxicity in vitro and irritation in vivo for aqueous and oily solutions of surfactants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czajkowska-Kośnik, Anna; Wolska, Eliza; Chorążewicz, Juliusz; Sznitowska, Małgorzata

    2015-01-01

    The in vivo model on rabbit eyes and the in vitro cytotoxicity on fibroblasts were used to compare irritation effect of aqueous and oily (Miglyol 812) solutions of surfactants. Tween 20, Tween 80 and Cremophor EL were tested in different concentrations (0.1, 1 or 5%) and the in vitro test demonstrated that surfactants in oil are less cytotoxic than in aqueous solutions. In the in vivo study, the aqueous solutions of surfactants were characterized as non-irritant while small changes in conjunctiva were observed after application the oily solutions of surfactants and the preparations were classified as slightly irritant, however this effect was similar when Miglyol was applied alone. In conclusion, it is reported that the MTT assay does not correlate well with the Draize scores.

  16. Sequencing batch reactor treatment of oily wastewater from can manufacturing and gasoline tank bottoms

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Xiaochun

    1988-01-01

    This study was a full-scale investigation of SBR for the treatment of oily wastewater with determination of the effects of different operating conditions on process performance. It was demonstrated that under a rather complex situation, the performance of the SBR could be significantly improved, compared to the results prior to the study. In contrast to the low COD reduction, significantly higher BOD5 removals were achieved. When the waste was only composed of wasted oils, the BOD...

  17. Study of factors governing oil-water separation process using TiO₂ films prepared by spray deposition of nanoparticle dispersions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gondal, Mohammed A; Sadullah, Muhammad S; Dastageer, Mohamed A; McKinley, Gareth H; Panchanathan, Divya; Varanasi, Kripa K

    2014-08-27

    Surfaces which possess extraordinary water attraction or repellency depend on surface energy, surface chemistry, and nano- and microscale surface roughness. Synergistic superhydrophilic-underwater superoleophobic surfaces were fabricated by spray deposition of nanostructured TiO2 on stainless steel mesh substrates. The coated meshes were then used to study gravity driven oil-water separation, where only the water from the oil-water mixture is allowed to permeate through the mesh. Oil-water separation efficiencies of up to 99% could be achieved through the coated mesh of pore sizes 50 and 100 μm, compared to no separation at all, that was observed in the case of uncoated meshes of the same material and pore sizes. An adsorbed water on the TiO2 coated surface, formation of a water-film between the wires that form the mesh and the underwater superoleophobicity of the structured surface are the key factors that contribute to the enhanced efficiency observed in oil-water separation. The nature of the oil-water separation process using this coated mesh (in which the mesh allows water to pass through the porous structure but resists wetting by the oil phase) minimizes the fouling of mesh so that the need for frequent replacement of the separating medium is reduced. The fabrication approach presented here can be applied for coating large surface areas and to develop a large-scale oil-water separation facility for oil-field applications and petroleum industries.

  18. Validation of a High-Performance Liquid Chromatography method for the determination of vitamin A, vitamin D3, vitamin E and benzyl alcohol in a veterinary oily injectable solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Neagu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A new simple, rapid, accurate and precise high – performance liquid chromatography (HPLC method for determination of vitamin A, vitamin D3, vitamin E and benzyl alcohol in oily injectable solution was developed and validated. The method can be used for the detection and quantification of known and unknown impurities and degradants in the drug substance during routine analysis and also for stability studies in view of its capability to separate degradation products. The method was validated for accuracy, precision, specificity, robustness and quantification limits according to ICH Guidelines. The estimation of vitamin A, vitamin D3, vitamin E and benzyl alcohol was done by Waters HPLC system manager using gradient pump system. The chromatographic conditions comprised a reverse-phased C18 column (5 µm particle size, 250 mm×4.6 mm i.d. with a mobile phase consisting of tetrahydrofurane, acetonitrile and water in gradient elution. The flow rate was 0.8 ml/min and 2.0 ml/min. Standard curves were linear over the concentration range of 16.50 µg/ml to 11.00 mg/ml for vitamin A, 10.05 µg/ml to 6.70 mg/ml for vitamin E, 0.075 µg/ml to 0.050 mg/ml for vitamin D3 and 1.25 mg/ml to 5.00 mg/ml for benzylalcohol. Statistical analyses proved the method was precise, reproducible, selective, specific and accurate for analysis of vitamin A, vitamin D3, vitamin E, benzyl alcohol and impurities.

  19. Surface-Enhanced Separation of Water from Hydrocarbons: Potential Dewatering Membranes for the Catalytic Fast Pyrolysis of Pine Biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engtrakul, Chaiwat; Hu, Michael Z.; Bischoff, Brian L.; Jang, Gyoung G.

    2016-10-20

    The impact of surface-selective coatings on water permeation through a membrane when exposed to catalytic fast pyrolysis (CFP) vapor products was studied by tailoring the surface properties of the membrane coating from superhydrophilic to superhydrophobic. Our approach used high-performance architectured surface-selective (HiPAS) membranes that were inserted after a CFP reactor. At this insertion point, the inner wall surface of a tubular membrane was exposed to a mixture of water and upgraded product vapors, including light gases and deoxygenated hydrocarbons. Under proper membrane operating conditions, a high selectivity for water over one-ring upgraded biomass pyrolysis hydrocarbons was observed as a result of a surface-enhanced capillary condensation process. Owing to this surface-enhanced effect, HiPAS membranes have the potential to enable high flux separations, suggesting that water can be selectively removed from the CFP product vapors.

  20. Determining the Source of Water Vapor in a Cerium Oxide Electrochemical Oxygen Separator to Achieve Aviator Grade Oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, John; Taylor, Dale; Martinez, James

    2014-01-01

    More than a metric ton of water is transported to the International Space Station (ISS) each year to provide breathing oxygen for the astronauts. Water is a safe and compact form of stored oxygen. The water is electrolyzed on ISS and ambient pressure oxygen is delivered to the cabin. A much smaller amount of oxygen is used each year in spacesuits to conduct Extra Vehicular Activities (EVAs). Space suits need high pressure (>1000 psia) high purity oxygen (must meet Aviator Breathing Oxygen "ABO" specifications, >99.5% O2). The water / water electrolysis system cannot directly provide high pressure, high purity oxygen, so oxygen for EVAs is transported to ISS in high pressure gas tanks. The tanks are relatively large and heavy, and the majority of the system launch weight is for the tanks and not the oxygen. Extracting high purity oxygen from cabin air and mechanically compressing the oxygen might enable on-board production of EVA grade oxygen using the existing water / water electrolysis system. This capability might also benefit human spaceflight missions, where oxygen for EVAs could be stored in the form of water, and converted into high pressure oxygen on-demand. Cerium oxide solid electrolyte-based ion transport membranes have been shown to separate oxygen from air, and a supported monolithic wafer form of the CeO2 electrolyte membrane has been shown to deliver oxygen at pressures greater than 300 psia. These supported monolithic wafers can withstand high pressure differentials even though the membrane is very thin, because the ion transport membrane is supported on both sides (Fig 1). The monolithic supported wafers have six distinct layers, each with matched coefficients of thermal expansion. The wafers are assembled into a cell stack which allows easy air flow across the wafers, uniform current distribution, and uniform current density (Fig 2). The oxygen separation is reported to be "infinitely selective" to oxygen [1] with reported purity of 99.99% [2

  1. CORRELATION BETWEEN RAINFALL PATTERNS AND THE WATER TABLE IN THE GENERAL SEPARATIONS AREA OF THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, C.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate rainfall and water table elevation data in search of a correlation that could be used to understand and predict water elevation changes. This information will be useful in placing screen zones for future monitoring wells and operations of groundwater treatment units. Fifteen wells in the General Separations Area (GSA) at Savannah River Site were evaluated from 1986 through 2001. The study revealed that the water table does respond to rainfall with minimal delay. (Water level information was available monthly, which restricted the ability to evaluate a shorter delay period.) Water elevations were found to be related to the cumulative sum (Q-Delta Sum) of the difference between the average rainfall for a specific month and the actual rainfall for that month, calculated from an arbitrary starting point. Water table elevations could also be correlated between wells, but using the right well for correlation was very important. The strongest correlation utilized a quadratic equation that takes into account the rainfall in a specific area and the rainfall from an adjacent area that contributes through a horizontal flow. Specific values vary from well to well as a result of geometry and underground variations. R2's for the best models ranged up to 0.96. The data in the report references only GSA wells but other wells (including confined water tables) on the site have been observed to return similar water level fluctuation patterns

  2. Procedure and equipment for the separation of isotopes for deuterium upgrading and for the production of heavy water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoell, M.

    1981-01-01

    The invention concerns a simple procedure for the separation of isotopes for the enrichment of deuterium and for the production of heavy water as well as the equipment necessary for carrying out the process. Methane is conducted over bacterial cultures oxidizing methane to water and carbon dioxide. An enrichment of deuterium takes place in non-oxidized methane. The bacterial cultures are placed on carriers that are arranged in oxidation columns as baffle plates. Several oxidation towers of this kind can be arranged in series. (orig./RW) [de

  3. Phase separation of acetonitrile-water mixtures and minimizing of ice crystallites from there in confinement of MCM-41.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittaka, Shigeharu; Kuranishi, Miki; Ishimaru, Shinji; Umahara, Osamu

    2007-03-07

    The effect of confinement of an acetonitrile-water mixture, whose correlation length was comparable to the pore size of the mesopores of MCM-41 (d=2.4-3.6 nm), on the phase changes was studied. Used techniques were low temperature differential scanning calorimetry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, where the phase separation, lowering of the freezing and melting temperatures, and phase transitions of the acetonitrile were detected. The latter occurred in the mesopores at temperatures similar to that of the pure liquid, while the melting temperature of the water in the mesopores<3.1 nm decreased markedly at higher acetonitrile contents, suggesting a marked lowering of ice crystallite size.

  4. Water and fat separation in real-time MRI of joint movement with phase-sensitive bSSFP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzoli, Valentina; Nederveen, Aart J; Oudeman, Jos; Sprengers, Andre; Nicolay, Klaas; Strijkers, Gustav J; Verdonschot, Nico

    2017-07-01

    To introduce a method for obtaining fat-suppressed images in real-time MRI of moving joints at 3 Tesla (T) using a bSSFP sequence with phase detection to enhance visualization of soft tissue structures during motion. The wrist and knee of nine volunteers were imaged with a real-time bSSFP sequence while performing dynamic tasks. For appropriate choice of sequence timing parameters, water and fat pixels showed an out-of-phase behavior, which was exploited to reconstruct water and fat images. Additionally, a 2-point Dixon sequence was used for dynamic imaging of the joints, and resulting water and fat images were compared with our proposed method. The joints could be visualized with good water-fat separation and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), while maintaining a relatively high temporal resolution (5 fps in knee imaging and 10 fps in wrist imaging). The proposed method produced images of moving joints with higher SNR and higher image quality when compared with the Dixon method. Water-fat separation is feasible in real-time MRI of moving knee and wrist at 3 T. PS-bSSFP offers movies with higher SNR and higher diagnostic quality when compared with Dixon scans. Magn Reson Med 78:58-68, 2017. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  5. A Water-/Fireproof Flexible Lithium-Oxygen Battery Achieved by Synergy of Novel Architecture and Multifunctional Separator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Yan-Bin; Yang, Xiao-Yang; Chang, Zhi-Wen; Zhu, Yun-Hai; Liu, Tong; Yan, Jun-Min; Jiang, Qing

    2018-01-01

    To meet the increasing demands for portable and flexible devices in a rapidly developing society, it is urgently required to develop highly safe and flexible electrochemical energy-storage systems. Flexible lithium-oxygen batteries with high theoretical specific energy density are promising candidates; however, the conventional half-open structure design prevents it from working properly under water or fire conditions. Herein, as a proof-of-concept experiment, a highly safe flexible lithium-oxygen battery achieved by the synergy of a vital multifunctional structure design and a unique composite separator is proposed and fabricated. The structure can effectively prevent the invasion of water from the environment and combustion, which is further significantly consolidated with the help of a polyimide and poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) composite separator, which holds good water resistance, thermal stability, and ionic conductivity. Unexpectedly, the obtained lithium-oxygen battery exhibits superior flexibility, water resistance, thermal resistance, and cycling stability (up to 218 cycles; at a high current of 1 mA and capacity of 4 mA h). This novel water/fireproof, flexible lithium-oxygen battery is a promising candidate to power underwater flexible electronics. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Development of a subsea system for water separation; Desenvolvimento de sistema submarino de separacao de agua produzida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueiredo, Mauricio W. de; Ramalho, Joao Batista V.S.; Souza, Antonio Luiz S. de; Gomes, Jose Adilson T.; Burmann, Clovis P. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    Oil production is normally followed by water production in increasing rates, mostly when waterflooding is used as oil recovery mechanism. In order to minimize the impact that high rates of produced water causes to the topside facilities , PETROBRAS is working on the development of a subsea system for oil-water separation, so that most of the produced water on the mud line can be removed and reinjected in the reservoir or in a bearing formation. The article shows how this development has been carried, the scenario definition for the pilot, the problems associated to an installation in a system already operating and the oil characteristics determination. These data constitute the base for the survey to define the technologies with potential application on the separation system to be developed. The special characteristic of the oil, with high tendency to form stable emulsions with water, are also analyzed, as well as the difficulties it brings to the process in the subsea environment, where there are vessel size and fluid heating limitations. (author)

  7. Selective separation of oil and water with special wettability mesh membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Defei; Yu, Yuanlie; Chen, Xin; Zheng, Yuying

    2017-01-01

    that these superhydrophobic/superoleophilic or oleophobic/superhydrophilic mesh membranes are durable, stable and reusable, making them encouraging candidates for practical oil-polluted water treatment.

  8. SEPARATION OF WATER VAPORS FROM AIR BY SORPTION ON SOME COMPOSITE MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OANA HAUTĂ

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents an experimental investigation of the kinetics of water vapor sorption on two composites synthesized by impregnating activated carbon and activated alumina respectively with lithium bromide (named as MCA2 and MCC2 respectively. The obtained results showed an increase in water amount adsorbed on both composite materials. Due to different chemical natures of the host matrices, the water sorption kinetics on MCC2 is faster compared to that of MCA2. The presence of calcium chloride instead of lithium bromide in alumina pores will determine a shorter breakthrough time and a higher adsorption rate of water vapors.

  9. Arsenic contamination of underground water in Bangladesh: cause, effect, separation, determination and remedy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, M.J.

    2003-01-01

    Arsenic contamination of underground water of Bangladesh has become the gravest concern for the lives of millions of people of this land. Probable causes and effects of arsenic contamination of underground water of Bangladesh have been extensively discussed. The extent of current knowledge regarding the specification of arsenic in environmental waters in delineated. A simple, non-extractive, highly sensitive and selective quench photometric methods for the rapid determination of arsenic at trace levels in aqueous medium has been developed. This paper also presents a short review of the technologies used for arsenic removal of underground water in Bangladesh. (author)

  10. Separation of iodine-131 from water using isotopic exchange with iodine-starch compound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignatov, V.P.; Kolomejtseva, I.V.

    1990-01-01

    Conditions of iodine isotopic exchange with iodine-starch compound (ISC) were studied with the aim of compound utilizatoin for radioactive iodine separation from solution. It is shown that in pH range from 2 to 7 the degree of iodine extraction and coefficient of its distribution practically do not depend on pH, at pH>7 ISC destruction (decolorizing) starts and iodine extraction decreases. Rapid method of iodine separation from solution is suggested. The method can be used in radiochemical techniques. The degree of extraction equals 80 %, a higher degree of extraction can not be achieved owing to ISC formation peculiarities

  11. Grouting aid for controlling the separation of water for cement grout for grouting vertical tendons in nuclear concrete pressure vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schupack, M.

    1976-01-01

    Considerable testing and development work has led to grouting procedures which can successfully grout 60 m and taller tendons in containment structures. The exaggerated water separation phenomena of strand tendons can be controlled by chemical admixtures using proper mixing and pumping procedures. Experience with both vertical six-bar tendons and large capacity strand type tendons are described. History, development work, characteristics of grout using the admixtures, mixing and pumping procedure, full scale tests and practical applications are included. (author)

  12. Experimental Application of an Advanced Separation Process for NOM Removal from Surface Drinking Water Supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arianna Callegari

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Natural organic matter (NOM in drinking water supplies significantly impacts on water supply quality and treatment, due to observed reactivity with many dissolved and particulate species. Several technologies are used nowadays to remove NOM from the water supply. The evolution of water-related directives, and progressively more restrictive standards for drinking water, however, call for the investigation of advanced, more efficient, and cost-effective water treatment processes. This paper contains a brief overview on the state-of-the-art methods for NOM removal from supply waters, and describes the experimental application of an advanced technology, tested and validated at the pilot scale on the water supply source of a town in Poland. The process allowed significant removal of natural organic matter (about 50% as Dissolved Organic Carbon and turbidity (from 50% to 90%, however, these results requested significant additions of powdered activated carbon. The key to success of this type of process is a correct setup with the identification of optimal types and dosages of reagents. Based on the results of the tests conducted it is foreseeable that this technology could be used onsite, not only for removal of NOM, but also of other hard-to-tackle pollutants potentially contained in the freshwater supply and not presently considered.

  13. Separation of water-soluble metabolites of benzo[a]pyrene formed by cultured human colon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Autrup, Herman

    1979-01-01

    A method has been developed to separate conjugated metabolites of benzo[a]pyrene into three major fractions: sulfate esters, glucuronides and glutathione conjugates. In cultured human colon, formation of sulfate esters and glutathione conjugates is the major conjugation pathway, while formation......-hydroxybenzo[a]pyrene were the major substrates for sulfotransferase in cultured human colon....

  14. Separation of yttrium from strontium in the aqueous phase of the water/nitrobenzene extraction system

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vaňura, P.; Makrlík, E.; Vobecký, Miloslav

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 256, č. 1 (2003), s. 171-172 ISSN 0236-5731 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LN00B084 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4031919; CEZ:MSM 230000009 Keywords : extraction * strontium * yttrium Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 0.472, year: 2003

  15. In situ separation of root hydraulic redistribution of soil water from liquid and vapor transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, Jeffrey [ORNL; Brooks, J Renee [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Corvallis, OR; Dragila, Maria [Oregon State University, Corvallis; Meinzer, Rick [USDA Forest Service

    2011-01-01

    Nocturnal increases in water potential ( ) and water content (WC) in the upper soil profile are often attributed to root water efflux into the soil, a process termed hydraulic lift or hydraulic redistribution (HR). We have previously reported HR values up to ~0.29 mm day-1 in the upper soil for a seasonally dry old-growth ponderosa pine site. However, unsaturated liquid or vapor flux of water between soil layers independent of roots also contributes to the diurnal patterns in WC, confounding efforts to determine the actual magnitude of HR. In this study, we estimated liquid (Jl) and vapor (Jv) soil water fluxes and their impacts on quantifying HR in situ by applying existing data sets of , WC, temperature (T) and soil physical properties to soil water transport equations. Under moist conditions, Jl between layers was estimated to be larger than necessary to account for measured nocturnal increases in WC of upper soil layers. However, as soil drying progressed unsaturated hydraulic conductivity declined rapidly such that Jl was irrelevant (< 2E-06 cm hr-1 at 0-60 cm depths) to total water flux by early August. In surface soil at depths above 15 cm, large T fluctuations can impact Jv leading to uncertainty concerning the role, if any, of HR in nocturnal WC dynamics. Vapor flux was estimated to be the highest at the shallowest depths measured (20 - 30 cm) where it could contribute up to 40% of hourly increases in nocturnal soil moisture depending on thermal conditions. While both HR and net soil water flux between adjacent layers contribute to WC in the 15-65 cm soil layer, HR was the dominant process and accounted for at least 80% of the diurnal increases in WC. While the absolute magnitude of HR is not easily quantified, total diurnal fluctuations in upper soil water content can be quantified and modeled, and remain highly applicable for establishing the magnitude and temporal dynamics of total ecosystem water flux.

  16. Removal of macro-pollutants in oily wastewater obtained from soil remediation plant using electro-oxidation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolfaghari, Mehdi; Drogui, Patrick; Blais, Jean François

    2018-03-01

    Electro-oxidation process by niobium boron-doped diamond (Nb/BDD) electrode was used to treat non-biodegradable oily wastewater provided from soil leachate contaminated by hydrocarbons. Firstly, the diffusion current limit and mass transfer coefficient was experimentally measured (7.1 mA cm -2 and 14.7 μm s -1 , respectively), in order to understand minimum applied current density. Later on, the oxidation kinetic model of each pollutant was investigated in different current densities ranged between 3.8 and 61.5 mA cm -2 . It was observed that direct oxidation was the main removal mechanism of organic and inorganic carbon, while the indirect oxidation in higher current density was responsible for nitrogen oxidation. Hydrocarbon in the form of colloidal particles could be removed by electro-flotation. On the other hand, electro-decomposition on the surface of cathode and precipitation by hydroxyl ions were the utmost removal pathway of metals. According to the initial experiments, operating condition was further optimized by central composite design model in different current density, treatment time, and electrolyte addition, based on the best responses on the specific energy consumption (SEC), chemical oxygen demand (COD), and total organic carbon (TOC) removal efficiency. Unde r optimum operating condition (current density = 23.1 mA cm -2 , time = 120 min, Ti/Pt as a cathode, and Nb/BDD as the anode), electro-oxidation showed the following removal efficiencies: COD (84.6%), TOC (68.2%), oil and grease (99%), color (87.9%), total alkalinity (92%), N tot (18%), NH 4 + (31%), Ca (66.4%), Fe (71.1%), Mg (41.4%), Mn (78.1%), P tot (75%), S (67.1%), and Si (19.1%). Graphical abstract Environmental significance statement Soil treatment facilities are rapidly grown throughout the world, especially in North America due to its intense industrialization. High water content soil in humid area like Canada produces significant amount of leachate which is

  17. An in situ polymerization approach for the synthesis of superhydrophobic and superoleophilic nanofibrous membranes for oil-water separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Yanwei; Si, Yang; Raza, Aikifa; Yang, Liping; Mao, Xue; Ding, Bin; Yu, Jianyong

    2012-12-21

    Superhydrophobic and superoleophilic nanofibrous membranes exhibiting robust oil-water separation performance were prepared by a facile combination of electrospun cellulose acetate (CA) nanofibers and a novel in situ polymerized fluorinated polybenzoxazine (F-PBZ) functional layer that incorporated silica nanoparticles (SiO(2) NPs). By employing the F-PBZ/SiO(2) NPs modification, the pristine hydrophilic CA nanofibrous membranes were endowed with a superhydrophobicity with the water contact angle of 161° and a superoleophilicity with the oil contact angle of 3°. Surface morphological studies have indicated that the wettability of resultant membranes could be manipulated by tuning the surface composition as well as the hierarchical structures. The quantitative hierarchical roughness analysis using the N(2) adsorption method has confirmed the major contribution of SiO(2) NPs on enhancing the porous structure, and a detailed correlation between roughness and solid-liquid interface pinning is proposed. Furthermore, the as-prepared membranes exhibited fast and efficient separation for oil-water mixtures and excellent stability over a wide range of pH conditions, which would make them a good candidate in industrial oil-polluted water treatments and oil spill cleanup, and also provided a new insight into the design and development of functional nanofibrous membranes through F-PBZ modification.

  18. Standardization of sequential separation of naturally occurring radionuclides in drinking water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nair, Madhu G.; Rao, D.D.; Sathyapriya, R.S.; Sarkar, P.K.

    2012-01-01

    Human are constantly exposed to radiation originating from natural or manmade sources. The main contribution for internal dose is due to radionuclides from uranium and thorium series in drinking water. The distribution of these elements varies depending on the geological and physiological characteristics of the aquifer. With increased concern for radiological safety of public, it is necessary to evaluate the naturally occurring radionuclides in the drinking water

  19. Dynamics of bacterial populations during bench-scale bioremediation of oily seawater and desert soil bioaugmented with coastal microbial mats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Nidaa; Dashti, Narjes; Salamah, Samar; Sorkhoh, Naser; Al-Awadhi, Husain; Radwan, Samir

    2016-03-01

    This study describes a bench-scale attempt to bioremediate Kuwaiti, oily water and soil samples through bioaugmentation with coastal microbial mats rich in hydrocarbonoclastic bacterioflora. Seawater and desert soil samples were artificially polluted with 1% weathered oil, and bioaugmented with microbial mat suspensions. Oil removal and microbial community dynamics were monitored. In batch cultures, oil removal was more effective in soil than in seawater. Hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria associated with mat samples colonized soil more readily than seawater. The predominant oil degrading bacterium in seawater batches was the autochthonous seawater species Marinobacter hydrocarbonoclasticus. The main oil degraders in the inoculated soil samples, on the other hand, were a mixture of the autochthonous mat and desert soil bacteria; Xanthobacter tagetidis, Pseudomonas geniculata, Olivibacter ginsengisoli and others. More bacterial diversity prevailed in seawater during continuous than batch bioremediation. Out of seven hydrocarbonoclastic bacterial species isolated from those cultures, only one, Mycobacterium chlorophenolicum, was of mat origin. This result too confirms that most of the autochthonous mat bacteria failed to colonize seawater. Also culture-independent analysis of seawater from continuous cultures revealed high-bacterial diversity. Many of the bacteria belonged to the Alphaproteobacteria, Flavobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria, and were hydrocarbonoclastic. Optimal biostimulation practices for continuous culture bioremediation of seawater via mat bioaugmentation were adding the highest possible oil concentration as one lot in the beginning of bioremediation, addition of vitamins, and slowing down the seawater flow rate. © 2016 The Author. Microbial Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  20. Enhanced configuration of a water detritiation system; impact on ITER Isotope Separation System based cryogenic distillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cristescu, Ion, E-mail: ion.cristescu@kit.edu

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • An enhanced configuration of ITER WDS has been developed. • The proposed configuration allows minimization of hazards due to the reduction of tritium inventory. • The load on the tritium recovery system (ITER ISS) is minimized with benefits on mitigation of the explosion hazards. - Abstract: Tritiated water is generated in the ITER systems by various sources and may contain deuterium and tritium at various concentrations. The reference process for the ITER Water Detritiation System is based on Combined Electrolysis Catalytic Exchange (CECE) configuration. During long time operation of the CECE process, the accumulation of deuterium in the electrolysis unit and consequently along the Liquid Phase Catalytic Exchange (LPCE) column is unavoidable with consequences on the overall detritiation factor of the system. Beside the deuterium issue in the process, the large amount of the tritiated water with tritium activity up to 500 Ci/kg in the electrolysis cells is a concern from the safety aspect of the plant. The enhanced configuration of a system for processing tritiated water allows mitigation of the effects due to deuterium accumulation and also reduction of tritium inventory within the electrolysis system. In addition the benefits concerning to the interface between the water detritiation system and tritium recovery based cryogenic distillation are also presented.

  1. Determination of aromatic and PAH content of oily wastewaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lysyj, I. (Rockwell International, Canoga Park, CA); Russell, E.C.

    1978-08-01

    A method for analysis of oil and grease in water is described. The method is used to provide data on total, dissolved, and suspended organic content of wastewater sample and the concentration of hydrocarbons. Additionally, volatile and water soluble fractions which contain many organic compounds critical to the environment are characterized both qualitatively and quantitatively. A number of real-life treated and untreated bilge waste samples were collected at the U.S. Army Fort Eustis facility and analyzed using this method. It was found that untreated bilge wastewater contained both suspended and dissolved organic matter. The suspended organics ranged between 10 and 300 ppM, while the dissolved organics were in the 10 to 150 ppM range. Treated bilge wastewater usually contained no suspended organics but did contain rather high levels of dissolved organic matter 700 to 200 ppM). Up to 70% of the dissolved organics in untreated bilge wastewater were chloroform extractable, while less than 10% of the dissolved organis in treated bilge wastewater were extractable into chloroform. It is believed that the bulk of organic matter in treated bilge wastewater were extractable into chloroform. It is believed that the bulk of organic matter in treated bilge wastewater is biologically derived from the degradation of petroleum, while smaller portions consist of refractory, petroleum derived, water-soluble organic compounds.

  2. Separation and Recovery of Uranium Metal from Spent Light Water Reactor Fuel via Electrolytic Reduction and Electrorefining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrmann, S.D.; Li, S.X.

    2010-01-01

    A series of bench-scale experiments was performed in a hot cell at Idaho National Laboratory to demonstrate the separation and recovery of uranium metal from spent light water reactor (LWR) oxide fuel. The experiments involved crushing spent LWR fuel to particulate and separating it from its cladding. Oxide fuel particulate was then converted to metal in a series of six electrolytic reduction runs that were performed in succession with a single salt loading of molten LiCl - 1 wt% Li2O at 650 C. Analysis of salt samples following the series of electrolytic reduction runs identified the diffusion of select fission products from the spent fuel to the molten salt electrolyte. The extents of metal oxide conversion in the post-test fuel were also quantified, including a nominal 99.7% conversion of uranium oxide to metal. Uranium metal was then separated from the reduced LWR fuel in a series of six electrorefining runs that were performed in succession with a single salt loading of molten LiCl-KCl-UCl3 at 500 C. Analysis of salt samples following the series of electrorefining runs identified additional partitioning of fission products into the molten salt electrolyte. Analyses of the separated uranium metal were performed, and its decontamination factors were determined.

  3. The issue of separation of uranium from drinking water in the Czech Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krmela, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Natural ground water used for the preparation of drinking water contains a number of cations, anions, elements and other substances depending on the bedrock composition (Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, heavy metals, radioactive elements, arsenic, chromium, carbonates, sulfates, phosphates, silicates, fulvic and humic acids etc.). Information about composition of drinking water is important to comply with all the requirements on sanitary of drinking water. The elements that affect the quality of drinking water mainly from groundwater, also includes radioactive elements contained in bedrock sections where water is extracted. These are the elements with long half-lives, mainly alpha emitters (U, Ra, Rn, Th, and elements of the decay series). Uranium and its decay products are found in all environmental compartments. Radionuclides come to the environment both naturally - weathering and leaching of the rocks, and as a consequence of human activities in connection with the use of raw materials. Uranium occurs naturally in four oxidation states. The most mobility has hexa-valent state (uranyl ion). Uranyl is highly soluble form of uranium in water. Mobility of uranium in soil and water is affected by many factors. Complex processes in soil and rock lead to redox reactions forming both insoluble compounds (lower valence forms of uranium) and soluble form of U (VI) (forming by reoxidation), which is again leachable into groundwater. The content of uranium in groundwater depends on the geological composition of the ground, and can reach up to hundreds of μg/L. At present the issue associated with removing uranium from drinking water is solved in the Czech Republic. New limit for the concentration of natural uranium ( 234 U, 235 U and 238 U) was recommended at a level of 15 μg/L as the highest limit based on the World Health Organization (WHO). Advice of the Chief Health Officer of the Czech Republic came into force on 1st January 2010, which decreased the limit for uranium in drinking

  4. Uranium separation and concentration from ground waters on TIO-PAN sorbent and determination by TRLFS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raindl, Jakub; Spendlikova, Irena; Nemec, Mojmir; Sebesta, Ferdinand; Zavadilova, Alena; John, Jan

    2011-01-01

    A new sorbent, viz. hydrated titanium dioxide embedded on a polyacrylonitrile solid support, was tested for the title purpose. Uranium so separated was eluted with 0.1M HCl. Uranium concentrations before and after sorption/elution were determined by time resolved laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS ). The study is aimed at the development of a method suitable for sample preparation for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) measurements and at determining the 236 U/U ratio (in cooperation with the VERA facility at the University of Vienna, Austria)

  5. Dynamic Oil-in-Water Concentration Acquisition on a Pilot-Scaled Offshore Water-Oil Separation Facility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løhndorf, Petar Durdevic; Raju, Chitra Sangaraju; Bram, Mads Valentin

    2017-01-01

    This article is a feasibility study on using fluorescence-based oil-in-water (OiW) monitors for on-line dynamic efficiency measurement of a deoiling hydrocyclone. Dynamic measurements are crucial in the design and validation of dynamic models of the hydrocyclones, and to our knowledge, no dynamic...

  6. Oily wastewater treatment at Khartoum North Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eltahir, M. M.; Taha, T. S.

    2009-01-01

    To a chief these goals a series of experimental procedure have been executed for the wastewater in sump tank at river side where all wastewater collected. This paper attempts to investigate the chemical and physical characteristics of Khartoum North Power Station waste water and to suggest methods for removing oil before being discharged to River Bule Nile. To achieve this goal numerous numbers of samples have been collected and examined to detect oil content, turbidity, suspended solids, total dissolved solids, pH, BOD, COD and conductivity, and average values of these parameters were 924.3 ppm, 554.2 NTU, 80 ppm, 559.5 ppm, 7.3 pH unit, 130 Pm, 443.14 ppm, 736.7 μs/cm respectively. The average values of these results were compared with [1] guide lines which are 15 ppm, 5 ppm, 60 ppm, <1000 ppm, 7.5 pH unit, 60 ppm, 100 ppm 500 μs/cm respectively. The outcome of the paper confirmed that waste water at Khartoum North Power Station (KNPS) is heavily polluted with oil and other pollutants. For this reason a second phase of experiments is carried out mainly to remove or reduce oil content to 6.7 ppm and other pollutants to levels which may comply with International Regulations and Local Authority acts. The treatment phase of experiment comprising different processing units arranged in a logical sequence starting with units for oil removal through a coagulation process, NaoH ending with air floatation and skimping to reduce oil content. Results obtained from second phase of experiments after waste water being treated are encouraging and a total reduction in contamination of not less than 80% has been achieved. (Author)

  7. Facile Synthesis of Flexible Methylsilsesquioxane Aerogels with Surface Modifications for Sound- Absorbance, Fast Dye Adsorption and Oil/Water Separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingzhong Guo

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available New flexible methylsilsesquioxane (MSQ aerogels have been facilely prepared by a sol–gel process with methyltrimethoxysilane (MTMS and dimethyldimethoxysilane (DMDMS as co-precursors, followed by surface modification and ambient pressure drying. The microstructure, mechanical properties and hydrophobicity of these MSQ aerogels after surface modifications of hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO and/or hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS were investigated in detail, and the applications of surface-modified MSQ aerogels in sound-absorbance, fast dye adsorption and oil/water separation were evaluated, respectively. The MSQ aerogels surface-modified by HMDS possess flexibility, elasticity and superhydrophobicity, and demonstrate good performance in the mentioned applications. The resultant MSQ aerogel used in sound-absorbance has high frequency (about 6 kHz acoustic absorptivity of up to 80%, benefiting from its macroporous structure and porosity of 94%, and it also possesses intermediate frequency acoustic absorptivity (about 1 kHz up to 80% owing to its elasticity. This MSQ aerogel can selectively separate oil from oil/water mixtures with high efficiency due to its superhydrophobicity and superlipophilicity, resulting from a lot of methyl groups, density as low as 0.12 cm3·g−1 and a water contact angle as high as 157°. This MSQ aerogel can be assembled to be a monolithic column applied for fast dye adsorption, and shows selective adsorption for anionic dyes and removal efficiency of methyl orange of up to 95%.

  8. Separation of heavy metals, in particular uranium, from sea water by use of anchor groups of high selectivity. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lieser, K.H.; Gleitsmann, B.

    1982-01-01

    The separation of the trace elements Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn and U from sea water in a fluidized bed of Hyphan on bead cellulose and Hyphan on polystyrene is studied in parallel experiments during a period of 8 months. Samples from the incoming water and from the exchangers are taken from time to time for determining the trace element content. The loading curves are presented and discussed. At the beginning the trace elements are taken up quantitatively by Hyphan on bead cellulose whereas about one half or less is fixed on Hyphan on polystyrene. This is due to the fast exchange on bead cellulose and the slow exchange on polystyrene. It is shown that the loading curves of the individual elements can be calculated in the range where loading is proportional to concentration. The loading is restricted by the exchange equilibria. At the end of the experiments loading with the above mentioned trace elements corresponds to about 40% of the capacity. Hyphan on bead cellulose is well suited for separation of U from sea water whereas the network of the polystyrene beads shows pronounced exclusion of the voluminous tris-carbonato complex of U. (orig.) [de

  9. Microphase Separation in Oil-Water Mixtures Containing Hydrophilic and Hydrophobic Ions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tasios, Nikos; Samin, Sela; van Roij, Rene; Dijkstra, Marjolein

    2017-01-01

    We develop a lattice-based Monte Carlo simulation method for charged mixtures capable of treating dielectric heterogeneities. Using this method, we study oil-water mixtures containing an antagonistic salt, with hydrophilic cations and hydrophobic anions. Our simulations reveal several phases with a

  10. Distribution of B, Cl and Their Isotopes in Pore Waters Separated from Gas Hydrate Potential Areas, Offshore Southwestern Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung-Chun Chao Chen-Feng You

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Boron (B and chlorine (Cl are widely distributed on the Earth’s surface and show distinctive geochemical behaviors. Cl behaves rather conservatively in oceanic environments while B is an excess-volatile and its distribution is sensitive to sediment absorption and organic matter degradation. The distribution of B, Cl and their isotopes in pore waters provide useful information for distinguishing between shallow circulation and deep origin fluid sources. Thirty-six sediment cores 0 - 5 m in length were sampled from a foreland accretionary prism offshore Southwestern Taiwan where strong bottom simulating reflectors (BSRs and an abundance of mud diapirs were discovered. More than 350 pore water samples were separated and analyzed for B, Cl and other major ions. Four long cores were selected for B and Cl isotopic analysis. We found that the Cl in all cores varied less than 10%, suggesting no major hydrate dissolution or formation involvement at shallow depths in the study area. However, the B concentration changed greatly, ranging between 360 and 650 μM, indicating a possible sedimentary contribution during the early diagenesis stage. The B isotopic compositions were relatively depleted (~25 to 37‰ in these pore waters, implying the addition of sedimentary exchangeable B with low δ11B. The Cl isotopes showed rather large variations, more than 8‰, possibly related to the addition of deep situated fluids. In summary, the chemical and isotopic characteristics of pore waters separated from piston cores off Southwestern Taiwan suggest strong influence from organic matter degradation during diagenesis at shallow depths and the possible addition of deep fluids advecting through mud diapir channels at greater depths, causing a minor degree of hydrate dissolution / formation to occur at shallow depths. Further systematic investigation of pore waters δ18O and δD are needed in a future study.

  11. The Janus effect on superhydrophilic Cu mesh decorated with Ni-NiO/Ni(OH)2 core-shell nanoparticles for oil/water separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Zhi-Yong; Lyu, Shu-Shen; Fu, Yuan-Xiang; Heng, Yi; Mo, Dong-Chuan

    2017-07-01

    Janus effect has been studied for emerging materials like Janus membranes, Janus nanoparticles, etc., and the applications including fog collection, oil/water separation, CO2 removal and stabilization of multiphasic mixtures. However, the Janus effect on oil/water separation is still unclear. Herein, Janus Cu mesh decorated with Ni-NiO/Ni(OH)2 core-shell nanoparticles is synthesized via selective electrodeposition, in which we keep one side of Cu mesh (Janus A) to be superhydrophilic, while manipulate the wettability of another side (Janus B) from hydrophobic to superhydrophilic. Experimental results indicate that Cu mesh with both-side superhydrophilic shows the superior oil/water separation performance (separation efficiency >99.5%), which is mainly due to its higher water capture percentage as well as larger oil intrusion pressure. Further, we demonstrate the orientation of Janus membranes for oil/water separation, and summarize that the wettability of the upper surface plays a more important role than the lower surface to achieve remarkable performance. Our work provides a clear insight of Janus effect on oil/water separation, it is significative to design high-performance membranes for oil/water separation and many other applications.

  12. Thermodynamical effects accompanied freezing of two water layers separated by sea ice sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogorodsky, Petr; Marchenko, Aleksey

    2014-05-01

    The process of melt pond freezing is very important for generation of sea ice cover thermodynamic and mass balance during winterperiod. However, due to significant difficulties of field measurements the available data of model estimations still have no instrumental confirmation. In May 2009 the authors carried out laboratory experiment on freezing of limited water volume in the University Centre in Svalbard ice tank. In the course of experiment fresh water layer of 27.5 cm thickness at freezing point poured on the 24 cm sea ice layer was cooled during 50 hours at the temperature -10º C and then once again during 60 hours at -20º C. For revealing process typical characteristics the data of continuous measurements of temperature and salinity in different phases were compared with data of numerical computations obtained with thermodynamic model which was formulated in the frames of 1-D equation system (infinite extension of water freezing layer) and adapted to laboratory conditions. The known surprise of the experiment became proximity of calculated and measured estimates of process dynamics that confirmed the adequacy of the problem mathematical statement (excluding probably process finale stage). This effect can be explained by formation of cracks on the upper layer of ice at sharp decreases of air temperature, which temporary compensated hydrostatic pressure growth during freezing of closed water volume. Another compensated mechanism can be migration of brine through the lower layer of ice under influence of vertical pressure gradient and also rejection of gas dissolved in water which increased its compressibility. During 110 hours cooling thickness of water layer between ice layers reduced approximately to 2 cm. According to computations this layer is not chilled completely but keeps as thin brine interlayer within ice body whose thickness (about units of mm) is determined by temperature fluctuations of cooled surface. Nevertheless, despite good coincidence of

  13. Fabrication of stable and durable superhydrophobic surface on copper substrates for oil-water separation and ice-over delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jie; Yang, Fuchao; Guo, Zhiguang

    2016-03-15

    We report a simple and rapid method to fabricate superhydrophobic films on copper substrates via Fe(3+) etching and octadecanethiol (ODT) modification. The etching process can be as short as 5 min and the ODT treatment only takes several seconds. In addition, the whole process is quite flexible in reaction time. The superhydrophobicity of as-prepared surfaces is mechanically durable and chemically stable, which have great performance in oil-water separation and ice-over resistance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Separation of ethanol and water by extractive distillation with salt and solvent as entrainer: process simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Gil, I. D.; Uyazán, A. M.; Aguilar, J. L.; Rodríguez, G.; Caicedo, L. A.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this work is to simulate and analyze an extractive distillation process for azeotropic ethanol dehydration with ethylene glycol and calcium chloride mixture as entrainer. The work was developed with Aspen Plus® simulator version 11.1. Calculation of the activity coefficients employed to describe vapor liquid equilibrium of ethanol - water - ethylene glycol - calcium chloride system was done with the NRTL-E equation and they were validated with experimental data. The dehydration pro...

  15. Electrodialysis-based separation process for salt recovery and recycling from waste water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Shih-Perng

    1997-01-01

    A method for recovering salt from a process stream containing organic contaminants is provided, comprising directing the waste stream to a desalting electrodialysis unit so as to create a concentrated and purified salt permeate and an organic contaminants containing stream, and contacting said concentrated salt permeate to a water-splitting electrodialysis unit so as to convert the salt to its corresponding base and acid.

  16. Separation of xylose oligomers using centrifugal partition chromatography with a butanol-methanol-water system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Ching-Shuan; Clausen, Edgar C; Lay, Jackson O; Gidden, Jennifer; Carrier, Danielle Julie

    2013-01-01

    Xylose oligomers are the intermediate products of xylan depolymerization into xylose monomers. An understanding of xylan depolymerization kinetics is important to improve the conversion of xylan into monomeric xylose and to minimize the formation of inhibitory products, thereby reducing ethanol production costs. The study of xylan depolymerization requires copious amount of xylose oligomers, which are expensive if acquired commercially. Our approach consisted of producing in-house oligomer material. To this end, birchwood xylan was used as the starting material and hydrolyzed in hot water at 200 °C for 60 min with a 4 % solids loading. The mixture of xylose oligomers was subsequently fractionated by a centrifugal partition chromatography (CPC) with a solvent system of butanol:methanol:water in a 5:1:4 volumetric ratio. Operating in an ascending mode, the butanol-rich upper phase (the mobile phase) eluted xylose oligomers from the water-rich stationary phase at a 4.89 mL/min flow rate for a total fractionation time of 300 min. The elution of xylose oligomers occurred between 110 and 280 min. The yields and purities of xylobiose (DP 2), xylotriose (DP 3), xylotetraose (DP 4), and xylopentaose (DP 5) were 21, 10, 14, and 15 mg/g xylan and 95, 90, 89, and 68 %, respectively. The purities of xylose oligomers from this solvent system were higher than those reported previously using tetrahydrofuran:dimethyl sulfoxide:water in a 6:1:3 volumetric ratio. Moreover, the butanol-based solvent system improved overall procedures by facilitating the evaporation of the solvents from the CPC fractions, rendering the purification process more efficient.

  17. Applying CFD in the Analysis of Heavy Oil/Water Separation Process via Hydrocyclone

    OpenAIRE

    K Angelim; A De Lima; J Souza; S Neto; V Oliveira; G Moreira

    2017-01-01

    In recent years most of the oil reserves discovered has been related to heavy oil reservoirs whose reserves are abundant but still show operational difficulties. This fact provoked great interest of the petroleum companies in developing new technologies for increasing the heavy oil production. Produced water generation, effluent recovered from the production wells together with oil and natural gas, is among the greatest potential factors for environmental degradation. Thus, a new scenario of ...

  18. Separating hydrogen and oxygen evolution in alkaline water electrolysis using nickel hydroxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Long; Dong, Xiaoli; Wang, Yonggang; Xia, Yongyao

    2016-01-01

    Low-cost alkaline water electrolysis has been considered a sustainable approach to producing hydrogen using renewable energy inputs, but preventing hydrogen/oxygen mixing and efficiently using the instable renewable energy are challenging. Here, using nickel hydroxide as a redox mediator, we decouple the hydrogen and oxygen production in alkaline water electrolysis, which overcomes the gas-mixing issue and may increase the use of renewable energy. In this architecture, the hydrogen production occurs at the cathode by water reduction, and the anodic Ni(OH)2 is simultaneously oxidized into NiOOH. The subsequent oxygen production involves a cathodic NiOOH reduction (NiOOH→Ni(OH)2) and an anodic OH− oxidization. Alternatively, the NiOOH formed during hydrogen production can be coupled with a zinc anode to form a NiOOH-Zn battery, and its discharge product (that is, Ni(OH)2) can be used to produce hydrogen again. This architecture brings a potential solution to facilitate renewables-to-hydrogen conversion. PMID:27199009

  19. Brown adipose tissue quantification in human neonates using water-fat separated MRI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerod M Rasmussen

    Full Text Available There is a major resurgence of interest in brown adipose tissue (BAT biology, particularly regarding its determinants and consequences in newborns and infants. Reliable methods for non-invasive BAT measurement in human infants have yet to be demonstrated. The current study first validates methods for quantitative BAT imaging of rodents post mortem followed by BAT excision and re-imaging of excised tissues. Identical methods are then employed in a cohort of in vivo infants to establish the reliability of these measures and provide normative statistics for BAT depot volume and fat fraction. Using multi-echo water-fat MRI, fat- and water-based images of rodents and neonates were acquired and ratios of fat to the combined signal from fat and water (fat signal fraction were calculated. Neonatal scans (n = 22 were acquired during natural sleep to quantify BAT and WAT deposits for depot volume and fat fraction. Acquisition repeatability was assessed based on multiple scans from the same neonate. Intra- and inter-rater measures of reliability in regional BAT depot volume and fat fraction quantification were determined based on multiple segmentations by two raters. Rodent BAT was characterized as having significantly higher water content than WAT in both in situ as well as ex vivo imaging assessments. Human neonate deposits indicative of bilateral BAT in spinal, supraclavicular and axillary regions were observed. Pairwise, WAT fat fraction was significantly greater than BAT fat fraction throughout the sample (ΔWAT-BAT = 38 %, p<10(-4. Repeated scans demonstrated a high voxelwise correlation for fat fraction (Rall = 0.99. BAT depot volume and fat fraction measurements showed high intra-rater (ICCBAT,VOL = 0.93, ICCBAT,FF = 0.93 and inter-rater reliability (ICCBAT,VOL = 0.86, ICCBAT,FF = 0.93. This study demonstrates the reliability of using multi-echo water-fat MRI in human neonates for quantification throughout the torso of BAT depot volume and fat

  20. Bacterial Community Dynamics and Biodegradation Rates in Untreated and Oily Soils During PAH Exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakaria, A.E.M.

    2008-01-01

    The approach taken in this study represents an attempt to address the possible selective effects of Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) on the bacterial community structure of an untreated garden soil (S) and a chronically contaminated oily soil (CS). Untreated and chronically hydrocarbon polluted soils, collected from Egypt were enriched in shaking flasks containing 50 mg/l anthracene as a sole source of carbon over a period of 15 days. Bacterial communities in each soil were profiled by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis of the PCR amplified 16 S r DNA gene fragments after 0, 5, 10, and 15 days. Culture able biodegrading bacterial counts on minerals- Silica gel- Oil (MSD) plates as well as anthracene degradation for both soils were followed up at the same time intervals. Nine bacterial species were found to be dominant in the pristine soil before enrichment with the model polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), eight of them disappeared after live days of enrichment with the domination of one new species. It stayed dominant in soil until 15 days - exposure to anthracene. Therefore it can be used as a bio marker for PAH pollution. The chronically contaminated soil revealed a remarkable increase in the diversity directly after 5 days exposure to PAH HPLC analysis of the extracted anthracene remained in the biodegradation flasks after different degradation periods revealed that a higher biodegradation rates were accomplished by the oily soil consortium rather than by the pristine one. Before exposure to PAH, counts of culture able biodegrading bacteria were found to be higher in the untreated soil rather than in the oily one. After exposure the situation has been a bit altered as the counts in the untreated soil revealed a temporary suppression with a prolongation of the time required for growth as a result of the hydrocarbon stress

  1. Treatment of Oily Wastewater Produced From Old Processing Plant of North Oil Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Faris Hammoodi Al-Ani

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The main objectives of this research were to study and analyses oily wastewater characteristics originating from old-processing plant of North Oil Company and to find a suitable and simple method to treat the waste so it can be disposed off safely. The work consists of two stages; the first was the study of oily wastewater characteristics and its negative impacts. The results indicated that oil and grease were the most dominant pollutant with concentration range between 1069 – 3269.3 mg/l that must be removed; other pollutants were found to be within Iraqi and EPA standards. The next stage was the use of these characteristics to choose the proper technology to treat that wastewater. This stage was divided into two stages: the first stage was a jar tests to find the optimum doses of alum, lime and powdered activated carbon (PAC. The second stage was the treatment by a batch pilot plant constructed for this purpose employing the optimum doses as determined from the first stage to treat the waste using a flotation unit followed by a filtration-adsorption unit. The removal efficiencies of flotation unit for oil and grease, COD, and T.S.S found to be 0.9789, 0.974, and 0.9933, respectively, while the removal efficiency for T.D.S was very low 0.0293. From filtration – adsorption column the removal efficiencies of oil and grease, T.D.S, COD, and T.S.S were found to be 0.9486, 0.8908, 0.6870, and 0.7815, respectively. The overall removal efficiencies of pilot plant were 0.9986, 0.8939, 0.9921, and 0.9950, respectively. The results indicated that this type of treatment was the simplest and most effective method that can be used to treat produced oily wastewater before disposal

  2. Dual-Functional Superhydrophobic Textiles with Asymmetric Roll-Down/Pinned States for Water Droplet Transportation and Oil-Water Separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xiaojing; Li, Hongqiang; Lai, Xuejun; Zhang, Lin; Liao, Xiaofeng; Wang, Jing; Chen, Zhonghua; He, Jie; Zeng, Xingrong

    2018-01-31

    Superhydrophobic surfaces with tunable adhesion from lotus-leaf to rose-petal states have generated much attention for their potential applications in self-cleaning, anti-icing, oil-water separation, microdroplet transportation, and microfluidic devices. Herein we report a facile magnetic-field-manipulation strategy to fabricate dual-functional superhydrophobic textiles with asymmetric roll-down/pinned states on the two surfaces of the textile simultaneously. Upon exposure to a static magnetic field, fluoroalkylsilane-modified iron oxide (F-Fe 3 O 4 ) nanoparticles in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) moved along the magnetic field to construct discrepant hierarchical structures and roughnesses on the two sides of the textile. The positive surface (closer to the magnet, or P-surface) showed a water contact angle up to 165°, and the opposite surface (or O-surface) had a water contact angle of 152.5°. The P-surface where water droplets easily slid off with a sliding angle of 7.5° appeared in the "roll-down" state as Cassie mode, while the O-surface was in the "pinned" state as Wenzel mode, where water droplets firmly adhered even at vertical (90°) and inverted (180°) angles. The surface morphology and wetting mode were adjustable by varying the ratios of F-Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles and PDMS. By taking advantage of the asymmetric adhesion behaviors, the as-fabricated superhydrophobic textile was successfully applied in no-loss microdroplet transportation and oil-water separation. Our method is simple and cost-effective. The fabricated textile has the characteristics of superhydrophobicity, magnetic responsiveness, excellent chemical stability, adjustable surface morphology, and controllable adhesion. Our findings conceivably stand out as a new tool to fabricate functional superhydrophobic materials with asymmetric surface properties for various potential applications.

  3. Computational Flow Dynamic Simulation of Micro Flow Field Characteristics Drainage Device Used in the Process of Oil-Water Separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangya Jin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aqueous crude oil often contains large amounts of produced water and heavy sediment, which seriously threats the safety of crude oil storage and transportation. Therefore, the proper design of crude oil tank drainage device is prerequisite for efficient purification of aqueous crude oil. In this work, the composition and physicochemical properties of crude oil samples were tested under the actual conditions encountered. Based on these data, an appropriate crude oil tank drainage device was developed using the principle of floating ball and multiphase flow. In addition, the flow field characteristics in the device were simulated and the contours and streamtraces of velocity magnitude at different nine moments were obtained. Meanwhile, the improvement of flow field characteristics after the addition of grids in crude oil tank drainage device was validated. These findings provide insights into the development of effective selection methods and serve as important references for oil-water separation process.

  4. Turbine endwall two-cylinder program. [wind tunnel and water tunnel investigation of three dimensional separation of fluid flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langston, L. S.

    1980-01-01

    Progress is reported in an effort to study the three dimensional separation of fluid flow around two isolated cylinders mounted on an endwall. The design and performance of a hydrogen bubble generator for water tunnel tests to determine bulk flow properties and to measure main stream velocity and boundary layer thickness are described. Although the water tunnel tests are behind schedule because of inlet distortion problems, tests are far enough along to indicate cylinder spacing, wall effects and low Reynolds number behavior, all of which impacted wind tunnel model design. The construction, assembly, and operation of the wind tunnel and the check out of its characteristics are described. An off-body potential flow program was adapted to calculate normal streams streamwise pressure gradients at the saddle point locations.

  5. Determination of inorganic arsenic species in natural waters--benefits of separation and preconcentration on ion exchange and hybrid resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Issa, Nureddin; Rajaković-Ognjanović, Vladana N; Jovanović, Branislava M; Rajaković, Ljubinka V

    2010-07-19

    A simple method for the separation and determination of inorganic arsenic (iAs) species in natural and drinking water was developed. Procedures for sample preparation, separation of As(III) and As(V) species and preconcentration of the total iAs on fixed bed columns were defined. Two resins, a strong base anion exchange (SBAE) resin and a hybrid (HY) resin were utilized. The inductively-coupled plasma-mass spectrometry method was applied as the analytical method for the determination of the arsenic concentration in water. The governing factors for the ion exchange/sorption of arsenic on resins in a batch and a fixed bed flow system were analyzed and compared. Acidity of the water, which plays an important role in the control of the ionic or molecular forms of arsenic species, was beneficial for the separation; by adjusting the pH values to less than 8.00, the SBAE resin separated As(V) from As(III) in water by retaining As(V) and allowing As(III) to pass through. The sorption activity of the hydrated iron oxide particles integrated into the HY resin was beneficial for bonding of all iAs species over a wide range of pH values from 5.00 to 11.00. The resin capacities were calculated according to the breakthrough points in a fixed bed flow system. At pH 7.50, the SBAE resin bound more than 370 microg g(-1) of As(V) while the HY resin bound more than 4150 microg g(-1) of As(III) and more than 3500 microg g(-1) of As(V). The high capacities and selectivity of the resins were considered as advantageous for the development and application of two procedures, one for the separation and determination of As(III) (with SBAE) and the other for the preconcentration and determination of the total arsenic (with HY resin). Methods were established through basic analytical procedures (with external standards, certified reference materials and the standard addition method) and by the parallel analysis of some samples using the atomic absorption spectrometry-hydride generation

  6. Treatment of the oily waste sludges through thermal plasma in absence of oxygen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castaneda J, G.; Pacheco S, J.

    2001-01-01

    The thermal plasma process in absence of oxygen for the degradation of oily waste sludges was evaluated. These residues are commonly generated in the petrochemical industry and are considered hazardous wastes according to the present environmental regulations. The process was operated using difference residence times and the characteristics of the gaseous by products and residual soils were determined. The efficiency of organic matter degradation was 99.99%. The attained volume reduction, under the best conditions was 95.5%. The residual soils were composed of carbon and clays. The residual gases have low molecular weight. The resulting final wastes were non-hazardous and could be disposed of in landfills. (Author)

  7. Persistence of Smectic-A Oily Streaks into the Nematic Phase by UV Irradiation of Reactive Mesogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ines Gharbi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Thin smectic liquid crystal films with competing boundary conditions (planar and homeotropic at opposing surfaces form well-known striated structures known as “oily streaks”, which are a series of hemicylindrical caps that run perpendicular to the easy axis of the planar substrate. The streaks vanish on heating into the nematic phase, where the film becomes uniform and exhibits hybrid alignment. On adding sufficient reactive mesogen and polymerizing, the oily streak texture is maintained on heating through the entire nematic phase until reaching the bulk isotropic phase, above which the texture vanishes. Depending on the liquid crystal thickness, the oily streak structure may be retrieved after cooling, which demonstrates the strong impact of the polymer backbone on the liquid crystal texture. Polarizing optical, atomic force, and scanning electron microscopy data are presented.

  8. Flow characteristics of centrifugal gas-liquid separator. Investigation with air-water two-phase flow experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoneda, Kimitoshi; Inada, Fumio

    2004-01-01

    Air-water two-phase flow experiment was conducted to examine the basic flow characteristics of a centrifugal gas-liquid separator. Vertical transparent test section, which is 4 m in height, was used to imitate the scale of a BWR separator. Flow rate conditions of gas and liquid were fixed at 0.1 m 3 /s and 0.033 m 3 /s, respectively. Radial distributions of two-phase flow characteristics, such as void fraction, gas velocity and bubble chord length, were measured by traversing dual optical void probes in the test section, horizontally. The flow in the standpipe reached to quasi-developed state within the height-to-diameter aspect ratio H/D=10, which in turn can mean the maximum value for an ideal height design of a standpipe. The liquid film in the barrel showed a maximum thickness at 0.5 to 1 m in height from the swirler exit, which was a common result for three different standpipe length conditions, qualitatively and quantitatively. The empirical database obtained in this study would contribute practically to the validation of numerical analyses for an actual separator in a plant, and would also be academically useful for further investigations of two-phase flow in large-diameter pipes. (author)

  9. Thin-layer chromatography with stationary phase gradient as a method for separation of water-soluble vitamins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimpoiu, Claudia; Hosu, Anamaria; Puscas, Anitta

    2012-02-03

    The group of hydrophilic vitamins play an important role in human health, and their lack or excess produces specific diseases. Therefore, the analysis of these compounds is indispensable for monitoring their content in pharmaceuticals and food in order to prevent some human diseases. TLC was successfully applied in the analysis of hydrophilic vitamins, but the most difficult problem in the simultaneous analysis of all these compounds is to find an optimum stationary phase-mobile phase system due to different chemical characteristics of analytes. Unfortunately structural analogues are difficult to separate in one chromatographic run, and this is the case in hydrophilic vitamins investigations. TLC gives the possibility to perform two-dimensional separations by using stationary phase gradient achieving the highest resolution by combining two systems with different selectivity. The goal of this work was to develop a method of analysis enabling separation of hydrophilic vitamins using TLC with adsorbent gradient. The developed method was used for identifying the water-soluble vitamins in alcoholic extracts of Hippophae rhamnoides and of Ribes nigrum. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Mass separation and risk assessment of commingled contamination in soil and ground water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, Q.L.; Chau, T.S. [Alberta Environment, Red Deer, AB (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    Gasoline service stations in urban areas may be sources of groundwater pollution if petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs) were to leak from underground storage tanks. Depending on the site-specific hydrogeologic conditions, the PHC could be retained in the soil, float on top of the groundwater table, dissolve in the groundwater or partition into soil vapour. This study focused on risk assessment and and management of soil and groundwater pollution caused by PHC releases from multiple sources which lead to commingling of subsurface plumes that require identification, assessment and control. Risk management decisions are made according to the different protection zones corresponding to different exposure pathways into which the commingled groundwater plume is divided, such as inhalation, ingestion and freshwater aquatic life. In order to effectively evaluate and manage commingled plumes, responsible parties must cooperate in sharing information on contaminated sites and developing joint programs for investigation, monitoring, remediation and risk management. This study proposed methodologies for determining mass contribution to a commingled plume from multiple contaminant sources. It was concluded that the levels of risk to human and environmental health can be determined by considering contaminant sources, migration pathways and potential receptors. Migration of PHCs in the subsurface is influenced by several uncertainties such as pollutant release and remediation histories, preferential pathways and hydrogeologic boundary conditions. Proper site characterization is necessary for reliable mass separation and to delineate contaminant plumes. Mathematical models can be used to simulate subsurface flow and transport processes. 5 refs., 4 figs.

  11. Rapid detection of Escherichia coli and enterococci in recreational water using an immunomagnetic separation/adenosine triphosphate technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushon, R.N.; Brady, A.M.; Likirdopulos, C.A.; Cireddu, J.V.

    2009-01-01

    Aims: The aim of this study was to examine a rapid method for detecting Escherichia coli and enterococci in recreational water. Methods and Results: Water samples were assayed for E. coli and enterococci by traditional and immunomagnetic separation/adenosine triphosphate (IMS/ATP) methods. Three sample treatments were evaluated for the IMS/ATP method: double filtration, single filtration, and direct analysis. Pearson's correlation analysis showed strong, significant, linear relations between IMS/ATP and traditional methods for all sample treatments; strongest linear correlations were with the direct analysis (r = 0.62 and 0.77 for E. coli and enterococci, respectively). Additionally, simple linear regression was used to estimate bacteria concentrations as a function of IMS/ATP results. The correct classification of water-quality criteria was 67% for E. coli and 80% for enterococci. Conclusions: The IMS/ATP method is a viable alternative to traditional methods for faecal-indicator bacteria. Significance and Impact of the Study: The IMS/ATP method addresses critical public health needs for the rapid detection of faecal-indicator contamination and has potential for satisfying US legislative mandates requiring methods to detect bathing water contamination in 2 h or less. Moreover, IMS/ATP equipment is considerably less costly and more portable than that for molecular methods, making the method suitable for field applications. ?? 2009 The Authors.

  12. Remediation of water pollution caused by pharmaceutical residues based on electrochemical separation and degradation technologies: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirés, Ignasi; Brillas, Enric

    2012-04-01

    In the last years, the decontamination and disinfection of waters by means of direct or integrated electrochemical processes are being considered as a very appealing alternative due to the significant improvement of the electrode materials and the coupling with low-cost renewable energy sources. Many electrochemical technologies are currently available for the remediation of waters contaminated by refractory organic pollutants such as pharmaceutical micropollutants, whose presence in the environment has become a matter of major concern. Recent reviews have focused on the removal of pharmaceutical residues upon the application of other important methods like ozonation and advanced oxidation processes. Here, we present an overview on the electrochemical methods devised for the treatment of pharmaceutical residues from both, synthetic solutions and real pharmaceutical wastewaters. Electrochemical separation technologies such as membrane technologies, electrocoagulation and internal micro-electrolysis, which only isolate the pollutants from water, are firstly introduced. The fundamentals and experimental set-ups involved in technologies that allow the degradation of pharmaceuticals, like anodic oxidation, electro-oxidation with active chlorine, electro-Fenton, photoelectro-Fenton and photoelectrocatalysis among others, are further discussed. Progress on the promising solar photoelectro-Fenton process devised and further developed in our laboratory is especially highlighted and documented. The abatement of total organic carbon or reduction of chemical oxygen demand from contaminated waters allows the comparison between the different methods and materials. The routes for the degradation of the some pharmaceuticals are also presented. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Setup and commissioning of a combined water detritiation and isotope separation experiment at the Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welte, S., E-mail: stefan.welte@kit.edu; Cristescu, I.; Dittrich, H.; Lohr, N.; Melzer, C.; Michling, R.; Plusczyk, C.; Schaefer, P.

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: • Technical scale, tritium compatible liquid phase catalytic exchange (LPCE). • Technical scale, tritium compatible cryogenic distillation. • Combines processing option for tritiated water and isotope separation. -- Abstract: The European union in kind supply for the ITER fuel cycle development consists, among others, of the water detritiation system (WDS) and the isotope separation system (ISS). In order to mitigate the release of tritium to the environment, these systems are combined by feeding hydrogen exhaust from the ISS into the WDS for final processing. Therefore, the WDS is the final tritium barrier before releasing hydrogen (H{sub 2}) exhaust to the environment. The TRENTA 4 scaled prototype facility at TLK is based on combination of the combined electrolysis and catalytic exchange (CECE) process and a cryogenic distillation (CD) process. All components are fully tritium compatible and controlled using a state of the art control system for process automation, backed up by an additional dedicated safety system. The paper will give a detailed overview of the current experimental facility including all process components. Furthermore the paper will present the results of the functional test of the WDS/ISS combination using protium and deuterium, as well the results of the first commissioning runs using HTO of approximately 5 × 10{sup 9} Bq kg{sup −1} activity concentration.

  14. A study on the separation and extraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in water sample by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Won; Hong, Jee Eun; Park, Song Ja; Pyo, Hee Soo; Kim, In Hwan

    1998-01-01

    The separation and sample extraction methods of 19 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH S ) in water samples were investigated by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and some ex-traction methods involved liquid-liquid extraction, disk extraction and solid-phase extraction methods. The separation of 19 PAH s was possible by partial variation of oven temperature of GC/MS in temperature range 80∼310.deg.C. Extraction procedures of PAH s in water samples were somewhat modified and com-pared as extraction recoveries and the simplicity of methods. Extraction recoveries of PAH s were 71.3∼109.5% by liquid-liquid extraction method. By using disk extraction, good extraction recoveries (80.7∼94.9%) were obtained in case of C 1 8 disk extraction method by filtration. And extraction recoveries of PAH s by C 1 8 solid-phase were in the range of 51.8∼77.9%. Method detection limits (S/N=5) of 19 PAH s were in the range of 0.25∼6.25 ppb by liquid-liquid extraction and solid-phase extraction and 0.05∼1.25 ppb by disk extraction methods

  15. Rapid Detection and Enumeration of Giardia lamblia Cysts in Water Samples by Immunomagnetic Separation and Flow Cytometric Analysis ▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keserue, Hans-Anton; Füchslin, Hans Peter; Egli, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Giardia lamblia is an important waterborne pathogen and is among the most common intestinal parasites of humans worldwide. Its fecal-oral transmission leads to the presence of cysts of this pathogen in the environment, and so far, quantitative rapid screening methods are not available for various matrices, such as surface waters, wastewater, or food. Thus, it is necessary to establish methods that enable reliable rapid detection of a single cyst in 10 to 100 liters of drinking water. Conventional detection relies on cyst concentration, isolation, and confirmation by immunofluorescence microscopy (IFM), resulting in low recoveries and high detection limits. Many different immunomagnetic separation (IMS) procedures have been developed for separation and cyst purification, so far with variable but high losses of cysts. A method was developed that requires less than 100 min and consists of filtration, resuspension, IMS, and flow cytometric (FCM) detection. MACS MicroBeads were used for IMS, and a reliable flow cytometric detection approach was established employing 3 different parameters for discrimination from background signals, i.e., green and red fluorescence (resulting from the distinct pattern emitted by the fluorescein dye) and sideward scatter for size discrimination. With spiked samples, recoveries exceeding 90% were obtained, and false-positive results were never encountered for negative samples. Additionally, the method was applicable to naturally occurring cysts in wastewater and has the potential to be automated. PMID:21685159

  16. Biological and photocatalytic treatment integrated with separation and reuse of titanium dioxide on the removal of chlorophenols in tap water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suryaman, Dhanus; Hasegawa, Kiyoshi

    2010-01-01

    We investigated biological, photocatalytic, and combination of biological and photocatalytic treatments in order to remove a mixture of 2-chlorophenol, 2,4-dichlorophenol, 2,4,5-trichlorophenol, and pentachlorophenol in tap water (total: 100 mg L -1 , each: 25 mg L -1 ). The removal of chlorinated phenols was conducted with a flow biological treatment and a circulative flow photocatalytic treatment under black light and sunlight irradiations integrated with titanium dioxide separation and reuse. The combined biological-photocatalytic treatment significantly shortened the degradation and mineralization time of both the biological treatment and the photocatalytic treatment. The removed chlorophenols per hour by the combined biological-photocatalytic treatment was 25.8 mg h -1 , whereas by the combined photocatalytic-biological treatment was 10.5 mg h -1 . After a large portion of biodegradable 2-chlorophenol and 2,4-dichlorophenol, and around half amount of slightly biodegradable 2,4,5-trichlorophenol were removed by the biological treatment, the remained three chlorophenols, biorecalcitrant pentachlorophenol, and biodegradation products were completely removed by the subsequent photocatalytic treatment. Since titanium dioxide particles in tap water spontaneously sedimented on standing after the photocatalytic treatment, the combined treatment can be operated by integrating with the titanium dioxide separation and reuse. The TiO 2 particles were recovered and reused at least three times without significantly decreasing the removal efficiency.

  17. Biological and photocatalytic treatment integrated with separation and reuse of titanium dioxide on the removal of chlorophenols in tap water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suryaman, Dhanus, E-mail: dhanussuryaman@yahoo.com [Agency for the Assessment and Application of Technology, M.H. Thamrin No. 8, Jakarta 10340 (Indonesia); Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Toyama, 3190 Gofuku, Toyama 930-8555 (Japan); Hasegawa, Kiyoshi [Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Toyama, 3190 Gofuku, Toyama 930-8555 (Japan)

    2010-11-15

    We investigated biological, photocatalytic, and combination of biological and photocatalytic treatments in order to remove a mixture of 2-chlorophenol, 2,4-dichlorophenol, 2,4,5-trichlorophenol, and pentachlorophenol in tap water (total: 100 mg L{sup -1}, each: 25 mg L{sup -1}). The removal of chlorinated phenols was conducted with a flow biological treatment and a circulative flow photocatalytic treatment under black light and sunlight irradiations integrated with titanium dioxide separation and reuse. The combined biological-photocatalytic treatment significantly shortened the degradation and mineralization time of both the biological treatment and the photocatalytic treatment. The removed chlorophenols per hour by the combined biological-photocatalytic treatment was 25.8 mg h{sup -1}, whereas by the combined photocatalytic-biological treatment was 10.5 mg h{sup -1}. After a large portion of biodegradable 2-chlorophenol and 2,4-dichlorophenol, and around half amount of slightly biodegradable 2,4,5-trichlorophenol were removed by the biological treatment, the remained three chlorophenols, biorecalcitrant pentachlorophenol, and biodegradation products were completely removed by the subsequent photocatalytic treatment. Since titanium dioxide particles in tap water spontaneously sedimented on standing after the photocatalytic treatment, the combined treatment can be operated by integrating with the titanium dioxide separation and reuse. The TiO{sub 2} particles were recovered and reused at least three times without significantly decreasing the removal efficiency.

  18. Flotation-Separation of the Pollutant Species of Chromium, Cadmium and Lead from aqueous Solutions and Natural Waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghazy, S.E.; Kabil, M.A.; Shallaby, A.M.; Ammar, N.S.

    1999-01-01

    This work aims to present simple, rapid and accurate procedures to recover the pollutant species of chromium, cadmium and lead from different types of water using the flotation technique. To achieve this goal, precipitate flotation was the method of choice for this investigation using oleic acid (HOL) as a surfactant. Cr(III) as its hydroxide and Cr(VI) as Ag 2 CrO 4 or Ag 2 Cr 2 O 7 are removed in 6.5±0.2 and 6-75 ph range, respectively. 2,4,6-Tri(2-pyridyl)-1,3,5-triazine (TPTA), in the presence of KI, is a good collector for quantitative separation of trace amounts of Cd(II) in the ph range 6-7.5. Chloranilic acid (CAA) is found to be the most effective complexing agent for the flotation of trace amounts of Pb(II) over the ph range 4-7. The effects of surfactant and analyte concentrations, foreign ions and temperature have been examined. The application of this procedure to recover these analytes added to natural samples has been investigated. Also, a procedure for sective separation of Cr(III) from Cr(VI) either in aqueous solutions or in saline water is proposed. Moreover, a mechanism of flotation is suggested

  19. Simple and fast fabrication of superhydrophobic metal wire mesh for efficiently gravity-driven oil/water separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Botao

    2016-12-15

    Superhydrophobic metal wire mesh (SMWM) has frequently been applied for the selective and efficient separation of oil/water mixture due to its porous structure and special wettability. However, current methods for the modification of metal wire mesh to be superhydrophobic suffered from problems with respect to complex experimental procedures or time-consuming process. In this study, a very simple, time-saving and single-step electrospray method was proposed to fabricate SMWM and the whole procedure required about only 2min. The morphology, surface composition and wettability of the SMWM were all evaluated, and the oil/water separation ability was further investigated. In addition, a commercial available sponge covered with SMWM was fabricated as an oil adsorbent for the purpose of oil recovery. This study demonstrated a convenient and fast method to modify the metal wire mesh to be superhydrophobic and such simple method might find practical applications in the large-scale removal of oils. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Dynamic Oil-in-Water Concentration Acquisition on a Pilot-Scaled Offshore Water-Oil Separation Facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petar Durdevic

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is a feasibility study on using fluorescence-based oil-in-water (OiW monitors for on-line dynamic efficiency measurement of a deoiling hydrocyclone. Dynamic measurements are crucial in the design and validation of dynamic models of the hydrocyclones, and to our knowledge, no dynamic OiW analysis of hydrocyclones has been carried out. Previous studies have extensively studied the steady state efficiency perspective of hydrocyclones, and have related them to different key parameters, such as the pressure drop ratio (PDR, inlet flow rate, and the flow-spilt. Through our study, we were able to measure the dynamics of the hydrocyclone’s efficiency ( ϵ response to step changes in the inlet flow rate with high accuracy. This is a breakthrough in the modelling, control, and monitoring of hydrocyclones.

  1. Separation of gaseous hydrogen from a water-hydrogen mixture in a fuel cell power system operating in a weightless environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanowski, William E. (Inventor); Suljak, George T. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A fuel cell power system for use in a weightless environment, such as in space, includes a device for removing water from a water-hydrogen mixture condensed from the exhaust from the fuel cell power section of the system. Water is removed from the mixture in a centrifugal separator, and is fed into a holding, pressure operated water discharge valve via a Pitot tube. Entrained nondissolved hydrogen is removed from the Pitot tube by a bleed orifice in the Pitot tube before the water reaches the water discharge valve. Water discharged from the valve thus has a substantially reduced hydrogen content.

  2. Successful treatment with supercritical water oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, R.

    1994-01-01

    Supercritical Water Oxidation (SCWO) operates in a totally enclosed system. It uses water at high temperatures and high pressure to chemically change wastes. Oily substances become soluble and complex hydrocarbons are converted into water and carbon dioxide. Research and development on SCWO is described

  3. Separation of benzene from mixtures with water, methanol, ethanol, and acetone: highlighting hydrogen bonding and molecular clustering influences in CuBTC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gutiérrez-Sevillano, J.J.; Calero, S.; Krishna, R.

    2015-01-01

    Configurational-bias Monte Carlo (CBMC) simulations are used to establish the potential of CuBTC for separation of water/benzene, methanol/benzene, ethanol/benzene, and acetone/benzene mixtures. For operations under pore saturation conditions, the separations are in favor of molecules that partner

  4. A tale of gastric layering and sieving: Gastric emptying of a liquid meal with water blended in or consumed separately.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camps, Guido; Mars, Monica; de Graaf, Cees; Smeets, Paul A M

    2017-07-01

    The process of gastric emptying determines how fast gastric content is delivered to the small intestine. It has been shown that solids empty slower than liquids and that a blended soup empties slower than the same soup as broth and chunks, due to the liquid fraction emptying more quickly. This process of 'gastric sieving' has not been investigated for liquid foods. To determine whether gastric sieving of water can also occur for liquid foods. Two groups of men participated in a parallel design (n=15, age 22.6±2.4y, BMI 22.6±1.8kg/m 2 , and n=19, age 22.2±2.5y, BMI 21.8±1.5kg/m 2 ) and consumed an isocaloric shake (2093kJ, CARBOHYDRATES: 71g, FAT: 18g, PROTEIN: 34g), either in a 500-mL version (MIXED) or as a 150-mL shake followed by 350mL water (SEPARATE). Participants provided appetite ratings and were scanned using MRI to determine gastric emptying rate and volume at three time-points within 35min post ingestion. Gastric emptying the percentage emptied in 35min was significantly smaller for MIXED (29±19%) than for SEPARATE (57±11%, p<0.001). In the present study we show that gastric sieving can occur for liquid foods; water is able to drain from the stomach while a layer of nutrient rich liquid is retained. In indirect gastric emptying measurements, the behavior of labelling agents may be affected by the layering and confound emptying measurements. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Toxicity of effluents from gasoline stations oil-water separators to early life stages of zebrafish Danio rerio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Romulo Nepomuceno; Mariz, Célio Freire; Paulo, Driele Ventura de; Carvalho, Paulo S M

    2017-07-01

    Used petroleum hydrocarbons and gasoline stations runoff are significant sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to aquatic ecosystems. Samples of the final effluent of oil-water-separators were collected at gasoline stations in the metropolitan region of Recife, Brazil, before release to sewage or rainwater systems. Effluent soluble fractions (ESF) were prepared and bioassays were performed according to the Fish Embryo Toxicity Test. The test involved exposing zebrafish Danio rerio embryos to dilutions of the ESFs for 96 h, with daily examination of lethality and sublethal morphological effects integrated through the General Morphology Score (GMS), based on the achievement of developmental hallmarks. Frequencies of abnormalities were recorded after exposures. ESF LC50-96h (lethal concentration to 50% of exposed embryos) in the most toxic effluent achieved 8.9% (v/v), equivalent to 11 μg phenanthrene equivalents L -1 . GMS scores indicated significantly delayed embryo-larval development at ESF dilutions of 10% and 20% from effluents of all gas stations. Major abnormalities detected after the 96 h exposure included the presence of a yolk sac not fully absorbed coupled with the lack of an inflated swim bladder, lack of both pectoral fins, and the failure to develop a protruding mouth. Effective equivalent PAH concentrations that induce a 50% frequency of larvae without an inflated swim bladder (EC50) were 4.9 μg phenanthrene L -1 , 21.8 μg naphthalene L -1 , and 34.1 μg chrysene L -1 . This study shows that PAHs in ESFs from gas stations oil water separators are toxic to zebrafish, contributing to the toxicity of urban storm waters. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. On-demand oil-water separation via low-voltage wettability switching of core-shell structures on copper substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kung, Chun Haow; Zahiri, Beniamin; Sow, Pradeep Kumar; Mérida, Walter

    2018-06-01

    A copper mesh with dendritic copper-oxide core-shell structure is prepared using an additive-free electrochemical deposition strategy for on-demand oil-water separation. Electrochemical manipulation of the oxidation state of the copper oxide shell phase results in opposite affinities towards water and oil. The copper mesh can be tuned to manifest both superhydrophobic and superoleophilic properties to enable oil-removal. Conversely, switching to superhydrophilic and underwater superoleophobic allows water-removal. These changes correspond to the application of small reduction voltages (air drying. In the oil-removal mode, heavy oil selectively passes through the mesh while water is retained; in water-removal mode, the mesh allows water to permeate but blocks light oil. The smart membrane achieved separation efficiencies higher than 98% for a series of oil-water mixtures. The separation efficiency remains high with less than 5% variation after 30 cycles of oil-water separation in both modes. The switchable wetting mechanism is demonstrated with the aid of microstructural and electrochemical analysis and based on the well-known Cassie-Baxter and Wenzel theories. The selective removal of water or oil from the oil-water mixtures is driven solely by gravity and yields high efficiency and recyclability. The potential applications for the relevant technologies include oil spills cleanup, fuel purification, and wastewater treatment.

  7. Separation and concentration of water-borne contaminants utilizing insulator-based dielectrophoresis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lapizco-Encinas, Blanca Hazalia; Fiechtner, Gregory J.; Cummings, Eric B.; Davalos, Rafael V.; Kanouff, Michael P.; Simmons, Blake Alexander; McGraw, Gregory J.; Salmi, Allen J.; Ceremuga, Joseph T.; Fintschenko, Yolanda

    2006-01-01

    This report focuses on and presents the capabilities of insulator-based dielectrophoresis (iDEP) microdevices for the concentration and removal of water-borne bacteria, spores and inert particles. The dielectrophoretic behavior exhibited by the different particles of interest (both biological and inert) in each of these systems was observed to be a function of both the applied electric field and the characteristics of the particle, such as size, shape, and conductivity. The results obtained illustrate the potential of glass and polymer-based iDEP devices to act as a concentrator for a front-end device with significant homeland security and industrial applications for the threat analysis of bacteria, spores, and viruses. We observed that the polymeric devices exhibit the same iDEP behavior and efficacy in the field of use as their glass counterparts, but with the added benefit of being easily mass fabricated and developed in a variety of multi-scale formats that will allow for the realization of a truly high-throughput device. These results also demonstrate that the operating characteristics of the device can be tailored through the device fabrication technique utilized and the magnitude of the electric field gradient created within the insulating structures. We have developed systems capable of handling numerous flow rates and sample volume requirements, and have produced a deployable system suitable for use in any laboratory, industrial, or clinical setting.

  8. Separation of ethanol and water by extractive distillation with salt and solvent as entrainer: process simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. D. Gil

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to simulate and analyze an extractive distillation process for azeotropic ethanol dehydration with ethylene glycol and calcium chloride mixture as entrainer. The work was developed with Aspen Plus® simulator version 11.1. Calculation of the activity coefficients employed to describe vapor liquid equilibrium of ethanol - water - ethylene glycol - calcium chloride system was done with the NRTL-E equation and they were validated with experimental data. The dehydration process used two columns: the main extractive column and the recovery column. The solvent to feed molar ratio S/F=0.3, molar reflux ratio RR=0.35, number of theoretical stages Ns=18, feed stage Sf=12, feed solvent stage SS=3, and feed solvent temperature TS=80 ºC, were determined to obtain a distillate with at least 99.5 % mole of ethanol. A substantial reduction in the energy consumption, compared with the conventional processes, was predicted by using ethylene glycol and calcium chloride as entrainer.

  9. Experimental investigation and modeling of industrial oily wastewater treatment using modified polyethersulfone ultrafiltration hollow fiber membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salahi, Abdolhamid; Mohammadi, Toraj; Behbahani, Reza Mosayebi; Hemmati, Mahmood

    2015-01-01

    Hollow fiber membranes were prepared from polyethersulfone/additives/NMP and DMSO system via phase inversion induced by precipitation in non-solvent coagulation bath. The interaction effects of polyethylene-glycol (PEG), propionic-acid (PA), Tween-20, PEG molecular weight and polyvinyl-pyrrolidone (PVP) on morphology and performance of synthesized membranes were investigated. Taguchi method (L 16 orthogonal array) was used initially to plan a minimum number of experiments. 32 membranes were synthesized (with two replications) and their permeation flux and TOC rejection properties to oily wastewater treatment were studied. The obtained results indicated that addition of PA to spinning dope decreases flux while it increases TOC rejection of prepared membranes. Also, the result shows that addition of PVP, Tween-20 and PEG content in spinning dope enhances permeation flux while reducing TOC rejection. The obtained results indicated that the synthesized membranes was effective and suitable for treatment of the oily wastewater to achieve up to 92.6, 98.2, and 98.5% removal of TOC, TSS, and OGC, respectively with a flux of 247.19 L/(m 2 h). Moreover, Hermia's models were used for permeation flux decline prediction. Experimental data and models predictions were compared. The results showed that there is reasonable agreement between experimental data and the cake layer model followed by the intermediate blocking model

  10. Bio-degradation of oily food waste employing thermophilic bacterial strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awasthi, Mukesh Kumar; Selvam, Ammaiyappan; Chan, Man Ting; Wong, Jonathan W C

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this work was to isolate a novel thermophilic bacterial strain and develop a bacterial consortium (BC) for efficient degradation oily food waste. Four treatments were designed: 1:1 mixture of pre-consumption food wastes (PrCFWs) and post-consumption food wastes (PCFWs) (T-1), 1:2 mixture of PrCFWs and PCFWs mixture (T-2), PrCFWs (T-3) and PCFWs (T-4). Equal quantity of BC was inoculated into each treatment to compare the oil degradation efficiency. Results showed that after 15days of incubation, a maximum oil reduction of 65.12±0.08% was observed in treatment T-4, followed by T-2 (55.44±0.12%), T-3 (54.79±0.04%) and T-1 (52.52±0.02%), while oil reduction was negligible in control. Results indicate that the development of oil utilizing thermophilic BC was more cost-effective in solving the degradation of oily food wastes and conversion into a stable end product. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Synthesis of microbial elastomers based on soybean oily acids. Biocompatibility studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazer, Derya Burcu; Hazer, Baki; Kaymaz, Figen

    2009-01-01

    Biocompatibility studies of the autoxidized and unoxidized unsaturated medium-long chain length (m-lcl) co-poly-3-hydroxyalkanoates (m-lclPHAs) derived from soya oily acids have been reported. Pseudomonas oleovorans was grown on a series of mixtures of octanoic acid (OA) and soya oily acids (Sy) with weight ratios of 20:80, 28:72 and 50:50 in order to obtain unsaturated m-lcl copolyesters coded PHO-Sy-2080, PHO-Sy-2872 and PHO-Sy-5050, respectively. The PHA films were obtained by solvent cast from CHCl 3 . They were all originally sticky and waxy except PHO-Sy-5050. Autoxidation of the unsaturated copolyester films was carried out on exposure to air at room temperature in order to obtain crosslinked polymers. They became a highly flexible elastomer after being autoxidized (about 40 days of autoxidation). The in vivo tissue reactions of the autoxidized PHAs were evaluated by subcutaneous implantation in rats. The rats appeared to be healthy throughout the implantation period. No symptom such as necrosis, abscess or tumorigenesis was observed in the vicinity of the implants. Retrieved materials varied in their physical appearance after 6 weeks of implantation. In vivo biocompatibility studies of the medical applications indicated that the microbial copolyesters obtained were all biocompatible and especially the PHOSy series of copolyesters had the highest biocompatibility among them.

  12. Optimal sample size of signs for classification of radiational and oily soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babayev, M.P.; Iskenderov, S.M.; Aghayev, R.A.

    2012-01-01

    Full text : This article tells about classification of radiational and oily soils that should be in essence a compact intelligence system which contains maximum information on classes of soil objects in the accepted feature space. The stored experience shows that the volume of the most informative soil signs can make up maximum 7-8 indexes. More correct approach to our opinion for a sample of the most informative (most important) indexes is the method of testing and mistakes, that is the experimental method, allowing to make use a wide experience and intuition of the researcher, or group of the researchers, engaged for many years in the field of soil science. At this operational stage of the formal device of soils classification, to say more concrete, the assessment section of selfdescriptiveness of soil signs of this formal device, in our opinion, is purely mathematized and in some cases even not reflect the true picture. In this case it will be calculated 21 pair of correlative elements between the selected soil signs as a measure of the linear communication. The volume of the correlative row will be equal to 6, as the increase in volume of the correlative row can sharply increase the volume calculation. Pertinently to note that, it is the first time an attempt is made to create correlative matrixes of the most important signs of radiation and oily soils

  13. Experimental investigation and modeling of industrial oily wastewater treatment using modified polyethersulfone ultrafiltration hollow fiber membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salahi, Abdolhamid; Mohammadi, Toraj [Iran University of Science and Technology (IUST), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Behbahani, Reza Mosayebi [Petroleum University of Technology (PUT), Ahwaz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hemmati, Mahmood [Research Institute of Petroleum Industry, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    Hollow fiber membranes were prepared from polyethersulfone/additives/NMP and DMSO system via phase inversion induced by precipitation in non-solvent coagulation bath. The interaction effects of polyethylene-glycol (PEG), propionic-acid (PA), Tween-20, PEG molecular weight and polyvinyl-pyrrolidone (PVP) on morphology and performance of synthesized membranes were investigated. Taguchi method (L{sub 16} orthogonal array) was used initially to plan a minimum number of experiments. 32 membranes were synthesized (with two replications) and their permeation flux and TOC rejection properties to oily wastewater treatment were studied. The obtained results indicated that addition of PA to spinning dope decreases flux while it increases TOC rejection of prepared membranes. Also, the result shows that addition of PVP, Tween-20 and PEG content in spinning dope enhances permeation flux while reducing TOC rejection. The obtained results indicated that the synthesized membranes was effective and suitable for treatment of the oily wastewater to achieve up to 92.6, 98.2, and 98.5% removal of TOC, TSS, and OGC, respectively with a flux of 247.19 L/(m{sup 2}h). Moreover, Hermia's models were used for permeation flux decline prediction. Experimental data and models predictions were compared. The results showed that there is reasonable agreement between experimental data and the cake layer model followed by the intermediate blocking model.

  14. Low-temperature pyrolysis of oily sludge: roles of Fe/Al-pillared bentonites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Hanzhong

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Pyrolysis is potentially an effective treatment of oily sludge for oil recovery, and the addition of a catalyst is expected to affect its pyrolysis behavior. In the present study, Fe/Al-pillared bentonite with various Fe/Al ratios as pyrolysis catalyst is prepared and characterized by XRD, N2 adsorption, and NH3-TPD. The integration of Al and Fe in the bentonite interlayers to form pillared clay is evidenced by increase in the basal spacing. As a result, a critical ratio of Fe/Al exists in the Fe/Al-pillared bentonite catalytic pyrolysis for oil recovery from the sludge. The oil yield increases with respect to increase in Fe/Al ratio of catalysts, then decreases with further increasing of Fe/Al ratio. The optimum oil yield using 2.0 wt% of Fe/Al 0.5-pillared bentonite as catalyst attains to 52.46% compared to 29.23% without catalyst addition in the present study. In addition, the addition of Fe/Al-pillared bentonite catalyst also improves the quality of pyrolysis-produced oil and promotes the formation of CH4. Fe/Al-pillared bentonite provides acid center in the inner surface, which is beneficial to the cracking reaction of oil molecules in pyrolysis process. The present work implies that Fe/Al-pillared bentonite as addictive holds great potential in industrial pyrolysis of oily sludge.

  15. Fabrication of superhydrophobic copper surface on various substrates for roll-off, self-cleaning, and water/oil separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasmal, Anup Kumar; Mondal, Chanchal; Sinha, Arun Kumar; Gauri, Samiran Sona; Pal, Jaya; Aditya, Teresa; Ganguly, Mainak; Dey, Satyahari; Pal, Tarasankar

    2014-12-24

    Superhydrophobic surfaces prevent percolation of water droplets and thus render roll-off, self-cleaning, corrosion protection, etc., which find day-to-day and industrial applications. In this work, we developed a facile, cost-effective, and free-standing method for direct fabrication of copper nanoparticles to engender superhydrophobicity for various flat and irregular surfaces such as glass, transparency sheet (plastic), cotton wool, textile, and silicon substrates. The fabrication of as-prepared superhydrophobic surfaces was accomplished using a simple chemical reduction of copper acetate by hydrazine hydrate at room temperature. The surface morphological studies demonstrate that the as-prepared surfaces are rough and display superhydrophobic character on wetting due to generation of air pockets (The Cassie-Baxter state). Because of the low adhesion of water droplets on the as-prepared surfaces, the surfaces exhibited not only high water contact angle (164 ± 2°, 5 μL droplets) but also superb roll-off and self-cleaning properties. Superhydrophobic copper nanoparticle coated glass surface uniquely withstands water (10 min), mild alkali (5 min in saturated aqueous NaHCO3 of pH ≈ 9), acids (10 s in dilute HNO3, H2SO4 of pH ≈ 5) and thiol (10 s in neat 1-octanethiol) at room temperature (25-35 °C). Again as-prepared surface (cotton wool) was also found to be very effective for water-kerosene separation due to its superhydrophobic and oleophilic character. Additionally, the superhydrophobic copper nanoparticle (deposited on glass surface) was found to exhibit antibacterial activity against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria.

  16. Effect of process water chemistry and particulate mineralogy on model oilsands separation using a warm slurry extraction process simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Wik; B.D. Sparks; S. Ng; Y. Tu; Z. Li; K.H. Chung; L.S. Kotlyar [Syncrude Canada Ltd., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Edmonton Research Center

    2008-06-15

    Variability in ore composition and process parameters is known to affect bitumen recovery from natural oilsands. In this work, we extend our earlier investigations with model oilsands systems (MOS) to determine the effects of calcium, magnesium and bicarbonate ion concentrations in the process water and their interactions with 'active' solids such as: kaolinite, montmorillonite and ultra-fine silica. Our results demonstrate that solids mineralogy and decreasing particle size produce negative outcomes on bitumen recovery related to concomitant effects on bitumen droplet size during flotation. In some cases, certain process water chemistries were found to restore recovery, but clay concentration was the key factor. Naturally acidic oilsands are known to give poor bitumen recoveries. An MOS prepared with connate water at pH 2 responded in the same way. Comparison with a typical oilsands showed no significant differences in middlings pH and the large, negative effect on bitumen recovery was not reversed by higher caustic loading during separation. This result may be caused by irreversible co-flocculation of bitumen and mineral particles during preparation of the MOS and may reflect similar behavior in comparable natural samples. 29 refs., 20 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Super-hydrophilicity of hydroxy modified poly(m-phenylenediamine) aerogel for separation of oil/water and biocompatibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gang; Liu, Zhiduo; Zhang, Nan; Li, Jiurong; Xu, Anli; Xiang, Pengcheng; Hu, Xurui; Guo, Qinglei; Chen, Da

    2018-04-01

    We demonstrate the ultra-light weight and super-hydrophilic hydroxyl modified poly (m-phenylenediamine) (Hy-PmPD) aerogel by utilizing simple oxygen plasma treatment. The average pore size and specific surface area are obtained as 5.21 nm and 671 m2 g‑1, respectively. Due to the large amount of oxygen-containing groups (e.g., C–OH and N–OH), the contact angle of Hy-PmPD for water is about 7.2°, which indicates the super-hydrophilic ability of Hy-PmPD. The large surface area and super-hydrophilic nature of ultra- light weight Hy-PmPD aerogel conclusively certify that high absorption capacities and ultrafast absorption rate for water. As a result, the Hy-PmPD aerogel enables to separate crude oil and water. Additionally, the Hy-PmPD aerogel indicates good biocompatibility that can be implanted as the bio-platform for monitoring the cell culture behavior. This work may provide a facile and effective strategy for the applications in the absorption or removal of organics, particularly in environmental protection, pollution control, as well as noninvasive to the microflora.

  18. A facile approach for the fabrication of 3D flower-like Cu2S nanostructures on brass mesh with temperature-induced wetting transition for efficient oil-water separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Lei; Kang, Zhixin

    2017-11-01

    3D flower-like Cu2S nanostructures on brass meshes have been fabricated for the first time, with a reversible wetting transition and excellent durability. In the present work, we demonstrated a simple and environmentally-benign method to fabricate the nanostructures utilizing an electrolyte containing CuSO4·5H2O, EDTA-2Na and CH3CSNH2. The superhydrophobicity was achieved by drying thoroughly at 200 °C, instead of using low surface energy materials. After annealing at 300 °C for 6 min, the superhydrophobic surface was oxidized and became superhydrophilic. However, the superhydrophobicity can be restored by heating at 200 °C for several hours. In simpler terms, the reversible wetting transition is responded to the temperature. Scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffractometer, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were employed to characterize the surfaces and analyze the wetting transition mechanism. Furthermore, different kinds of oily sewages were separated by as-prepared mesh with high separation efficiency. It is believed that this method should have a promising future in expanding the applications of copper alloys.

  19. A Synergistic Combination of Advanced Separation and Chemical Scale Inhibitor Technologies for Efficient Use of Imparied Water As Cooling Water in Coal-based Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jasbir Gill

    2010-08-30

    Nalco Company is partnering with Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) in this project to jointly develop advanced scale control technologies that will provide cost-effective solutions for coal-based power plants to operate recirculating cooling water systems at high cycles using impaired waters. The overall approach is to use combinations of novel membrane separations and scale inhibitor technologies that will work synergistically, with membrane separations reducing the scaling potential of the cooling water and scale inhibitors extending the safe operating range of the cooling water system. The project started on March 31, 2006 and ended in August 30, 2010. The project was a multiyear, multi-phase project with laboratory research and development as well as a small pilot-scale field demonstration. In Phase 1 (Technical Targets and Proof of Concept), the objectives were to establish quantitative technical targets and develop calcite and silica scale inhibitor chemistries for high stress conditions. Additional Phase I work included bench-scale testing to determine the feasibility of two membrane separation technologies (electrodialysis ED and electrode-ionization EDI) for scale minimization. In Phase 2 (Technology Development and Integration), the objectives were to develop additional novel scale inhibitor chemistries, develop selected separation processes, and optimize the integration of the technology components at the laboratory scale. Phase 3 (Technology Validation) validated the integrated system's performance with a pilot-scale demonstration. During Phase 1, Initial evaluations of impaired water characteristics focused on produced waters and reclaimed municipal wastewater effluents. Literature and new data were collected and evaluated. Characteristics of produced waters vary significantly from one site to another, whereas reclaimed municipal wastewater effluents have relatively more uniform characteristics. Assessment to date confirmed that calcite and silica

  20. A robust and stretchable superhydrophobic PDMS/PVDF@KNFs membrane for oil/water separation and flame retardancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Deke; Gou, Xuelian; Wu, Daheng; Guo, Zhiguang

    2018-04-05

    The wide application of superhydrophobic membranes has been limited due to their complicated preparation technology and weak durability. Inspired by the mechanical flexibility of nanofibrous biomaterials, nanofibrils have been successfully generated from Kevlar, which is one of the strongest synthetic fibers, by appropriate hydrothermal treatment. In this study, a robust superhydrophobic PDMS/PVDF@KNFs membrane is prepared via a simple one-step process and subsequent curing without combination with inorganic fillers. The as-prepared PDMS/PVDF@KNFs membrane not only shows efficient oil/water separation ability and oil absorption capacity but also has excellent superhydrophobicity stability after deformation. The resultant membrane shows stretchability, flexibility and flame retardance because of the reinforcing effect and the excellent flame retardancy of Kevlar. We believe that this simple fabrication of PDMS/PVDF@KNFs has promising applications in filtering membranes and wearable devices.

  1. The effect of a daily facial cleanser for normal to oily skin on the skin barrier of subjects with acne.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draelos, Zoe D

    2006-07-01

    Acne vulgaris is a common skin disorder that affects many people every year, especially the teenaged population. People with acne find the condition especially difficult to manage because of the disease's chronicity and variability in response to treatment. Acne is the result of pores clogged with shed skin cells combined with sebum in the hair follicle. Successful treatment of acne is important because acne has the potential to result in lasting physical and emotional scarring. For many years, physicians have agreed that although cleansing is not effective on its own, effective cleansing is an important part of any acne treatment regimen. However, patients have not been satisfied with the types of cleansers available. In addition to containing dyes and perfumes that can irritate and exacerbate acne, these cleansers often are too harsh and can result in excessive drying of the skin, which leads to overcompensation by the oil glands and ultimately to more oil on the surface of the skin. This study examined the use of a daily facial cleanser formulated for normal to oily skin in subjects with mild facial acne. The cleanser was studied for 2 weeks in the absence of additional treatments to eliminate the confounding effects of various treatments. Subjects were monitored for skin barrier function through transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and corneometry, sebum level, and lesion counts. The results of the study indicate that the facial cleanser is gentle and does not damage the skin barrier or result in sebum overcompensation; additionally, the cleanser is effective at deep-pore cleansing, which may help to manage some acne-associated symptoms.

  2. Simultaneous separation of water- and fat-soluble vitamins in isocratic pressure-assisted capillary electrochromatography using a methacrylate-based monolithic column.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Hiroki; Kitagawa, Shinya; Ohtani, Hajime

    2013-06-01

    A method of simultaneous separation of water- and fat-soluble vitamins using pressure-assisted CEC with a methacrylate-based capillary monolithic column was developed. In the proposed method, water-soluble vitamins were mainly separated electrophoretically, while fat soluble-ones were separated chromatographically by the interaction with a methacrylate-based monolith. A mixture of six water-soluble and four fat-soluble vitamins was separated simultaneously within 20 min with an isocratic elution using 1 M formic acid (pH 1.9)/acetonitrile (30:70, v/v) containing 10 mM ammonium formate as a mobile phase. When the method was applied to a commercial multivitamin tablet and a spiked one, the vitamins were successfully analyzed, and no influence of the matrix contained in the tablet was observed. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Photocatalytic pretreatment of oily wastewater from the restaurant by a vacuum ultraviolet/TiO2 system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang Jianxiong; Lu Lu; Zhan Wei; Li Bo; Li Daosheng; Ren Yongzheng; Liu Dongqi

    2011-01-01

    The present study aims at investigating the performance of a vacuum ultraviolet (VUV, 185 nm) and TiO 2 oxidation system for the pretreatment of oily wastewater from restaurant. The influence of irradiation time, pH, dissolved oxygen (DO), the dosage of TiO 2 and the initial chemical oxygen demand (COD) concentration on COD removal efficiency was ascertained and optimum process conditions for stable and effective operation were determined. Under the optimum conditions of irradiation 10 min, initial COD 3981 mg/L, TiO 2 150 mg/L, pH 7.0 and flow rate of air 40 L/h, the process of VUV and TiO 2 /VUV achieved removal efficiencies of COD, BOD 5 and oil as 50 ± 3%, 37 ± 2%, 86 ± 3%, and 63 ± 3%, 43 ± 2%, 70 ± 3%, respectively. The biodegradability factor f B of the wastewater was determined as 1.56 which indicated that the VUV/TiO 2 process improved the biodegradability of the oily wastewater significantly. Results clearly indicate that VUV/TiO 2 photolysis tends to destruct parts of COD, BOD 5 , and ammonia, as well as enhances the biodegradability of the oily wastewater simultaneously. Thus, this technique could be used as a pretreatment step for conventional biological treatment of oily wastewater.

  4. Comparative description of morphological features of flax oily (Linum usitatissimum L. different sorts in the conditions of Precarpathian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inessa F. Drozd

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains the results of investigation of meteorological conditions influence on morphological features of different flax oily sorts in the conditions of Precarpathian. The results confirm, that weather terms and the terms of the sowing have influence on the height of plants, number of capsules and seeds per plant.

  5. Acceleration of organic removal and electricity generation from dewatered oily sludge in a bioelectrochemical system by rhamnolipid addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yunshu; Zhao, Qingliang; Jiang, Junqiu; Wang, Kun; Wei, Liangliang; Ding, Jing; Yu, Hang

    2017-11-01

    Conversion of biomass energy of dewatered oily sludge to electricity is the rate-limiting process in bioelectrochemical system (BES). In this study, 2mgg -1 rhamnolipids were added to dewatered oily sludge, resulting in a significant enhancement in maximum power density from 3.84±0.37 to 8.63±0.81Wm -3 , together with an increase in total organic carbon (TOC) and total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) removal from 24.52±4.30 to 36.15±2.79mgg -1 and 29.51±3.30 to 39.80±2.47mgg -1 , respectively. Rhamnolipids can also enhance the solubilization and promote the hydrolysis of dewatered oily sludge with increases in SOCD from 14.93±2.44 to 18.40±0.08mgg -1 and VFAs from 1.02±0.07 to 1.39±0.12mgg -1 . Furthermore, bacteria related to substrate degradation were predominant in dewatered oily sludge, and bacteria related to the sulfate/sulfide cycle were significantly enriched by rhamnolipid addition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Oily calcium hydroxide suspension (Osteoinductal) used as an adjunct to guided bone regeneration: an experimental study in rats.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stavropoulos, A.; Geenen, C.; Nyengaard, J.R.; Karring, T.; Sculean, A.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate whether an oily calcium hydroxide suspension (OCHS) promotes bone healing when used as an adjunct to guided bone regeneration (GBR). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Rigid, hemispherical, teflon capsules were placed with their open part facing the lateral surface of the ramus on both

  7. Photocatalytic pretreatment of oily wastewater from the restaurant by a vacuum ultraviolet/TiO2 system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jian-xiong; Lu, Lu; Zhan, Wei; Li, Bo; Li, Dao-sheng; Ren, Yong-zheng; Liu, Dong-qi

    2011-02-15

    The present study aims at investigating the performance of a vacuum ultraviolet (VUV, 185 nm) and TiO(2) oxidation system for the pretreatment of oily wastewater from restaurant. The influence of irradiation time, pH, dissolved oxygen (DO), the dosage of TiO(2) and the initial chemical oxygen demand (COD) concentration on COD removal efficiency was ascertained and optimum process conditions for stable and effective operation were determined. Under the optimum conditions of irradiation 10 min, initial COD 3981 mg/L, TiO(2) 150 mg/L, pH 7.0 and flow rate of air 40 L/h, the process of VUV and TiO(2)/VUV achieved removal efficiencies of COD, BOD(5) and oil as 50±3%, 37±2%, 86±3%, and 63±3%, 43±2%, 70±3%, respectively. The biodegradability factor f(B) of the wastewater was determined as 1.56 which indicated that the VUV/TiO(2) process improved the biodegradability of the oily wastewater significantly. Results clearly indicate that VUV/TiO(2) photolysis tends to destruct parts of COD, BOD(5), and ammonia, as well as enhances the biodegradability of the oily wastewater simultaneously. Thus, this technique could be used as a pretreatment step for conventional biological treatment of oily wastewater. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Preconcentration of Arsenic in Water Samples Using the Composition-Induced Phase Separation Method and Determination by ETAAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Güçoğlu M.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A new phase transition microextraction method was developed for determination of trace amount of arsenic ions in water samples in this work. The method is based on the critical point of miscibility of solvents. In this method the mixed solution of sample and organic solvent is initially homogeneous but is separated into two phases by adding a secondary solvent (modifier. In acidic medium As(V was complexed with ammonium molybdate, this complex was quantitatively extracted to the mixture of organic solvent (acetonitrile/methyl isobutyl ketone before ETAAS determination. Total inorganic arsenic (III, V was extracted similarly after oxidation of As(III to As(V with nitric acid. Concentration of As(III was calculated by difference in the concentration between total arsenic and As(V. Optimization of the experimental conditions and instrumental parameters was investigated in detail. A detection limit of 0.05 μgL−1 with enrichment factor of 85 was achieved for only 5 mL of sample. The analytical curve was linear in the concentration range of 0.25-4.00 μgL−1. Relative standard deviation (RSD for 10 replicate determinations of 2.0 μgL−1 of As(V was 4,1%. The method was successfully applied to preconcentration and determination of arsenic in real water samples.

  9. Numerical simulation of heat transfer to separation tio2/water nanofluids flow in an asymmetric abrupt expansion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oon Cheen Sean

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Flow separation and reattachment of 0.2% TiO2 nanofluid in an asymmetric abrupt expansion is studied in this paper. Such flows occur in various engineering and heat transfer applications. Computational fluid dynamics package (FLUENT is used to investigate turbulent nanofluid flow in the horizontal double-tube heat exchanger. The meshing of this model consists of 43383 nodes and 74891 elements. Only a quarter of the annular pipe is developed and simulated as it has symmetrical geometry. Standard k-epsilon second order implicit, pressure based-solver equation is applied. Reynolds numbers between 17050 and 44545, step height ratio of 1 and 1.82 and constant heat flux of 49050 W/m2 was utilized in the simulation. Water was used as a working fluid to benchmark the study of the heat transfer enhancement in this case. Numerical simulation results show that the increase in the Reynolds number increases the heat transfer coefficient and Nusselt number of the flowing fluid. Moreover, the surface temperature will drop to its lowest value after the expansion and then gradually increase along the pipe. Finally, the chaotic movement and higher thermal conductivity of the TiO2 nanoparticles have contributed to the overall heat transfer enhancement of the nanofluid compare to the water.

  10. Chemical Separation Technique of Strontium-90 in the Soil Water as theStandard Methods for Environmental Radioactivity Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ngasifudin-Hamdani; Suratman; Djoko-Sardjono, Ign; Winduanto-Wahyu SP

    2000-01-01

    Research about separation technique of strontium-90 from its materialmatrix using chemical precipitation method has been done. That technique wasapplied on the detection of radionuclide strontium-90 containing in the soilwater of near nuclear reactor facility P3TM BATAN in three location. The twoimportant parameters used in this technique were growth time of Y-90 andstirring time. The result shown that activity of strontium-90 in the pos-01was between 1.801x10 -19 - 9.616x10 -17 μCi/cm 3 , pos-02 was8.448x10 -19 - 1.003x X 10 -16 μCi/cm 3 and pos-03 was 6.719x10 -19 - 11.644x10 -16 μCi/cm 3 . From those data shown that activity of Sr-90in the soil water of near nuclear reactor facility P3TM BATAN was still belowthe limit value of maximum concentration permitted i.e. 4.0x10 -7 -3.5x10 -6 μCi/cm 3 . The statistic test using analysis of varian twofactorial with random block design shown that the activity of Sr-90 in thesoil water was influenced by the interaction which take place between growthlong time of Y-90 and stirring long time. (author)

  11. High pressure liquid chromatographic method for the separation and quantitation of water-soluble radiolabeled benzene metabolites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabourin, P.J.; Bechtold, W.E.; Henderson, R.F.

    1988-01-01

    The glucuronide and sulfate conjugates of benzene metabolite as well as muconic acid and pre-phenyl- and phenylmercapturic acids were separated by ion-pairing HPLC. The HPLC method developed was suitable for automated analysis of a large number of tissue or excreta samples. p-Nitrophenyl [ 14 C]glucuronide was used as an internal standard for quantitation of these water-soluble metabolites. Quantitation was verified by spiking liver tissue with various amounts of phenylsulfate or glucuronides of phenol, catechol, or hydroquinone and analyzing by HPLC. Values determined by HPLC analysis were within 10% of the actual amount with which the liver was spiked. The amount of metabolite present in urine following exposure to [ 3 H]benzene was determined using p-nitrophenyl [ 14 C]glucuronide as an internal standard. Phenylsulfate was the major water-soluble metabolite in the urine of F344 rats exposed to 50 ppm [ 3 H]benzene for 6 h. Muconic acid and an unknown metabolite which decomposed in acidic media to phenylmercapturic acid were also present. Liver, however, contained a different metabolic profile. This indicates that urinary metabolite profiles may not be a true reflection of what is seen in individual tissues

  12. Simple and Green Fabrication of a Superhydrophobic Surface by One-Step Immersion for Continuous Oil/Water Separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jingfang; Liu, Bin; Li, Longyang; Zeng, Zhixiang; Zhao, Wenjie; Wang, Gang; Guan, Xiaoyan

    2016-07-21

    In this paper, stainless steel meshes with superhydrophobic and superoleophilic surfaces were fabricated by rapid and simple one-step immersion in a solution containing hydrochloric acid and stearic acid. The apparent contact angles were tested by a video contact angle measurement system (CA). Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were conducted to characterize the surface topographies and chemical compositions. The SEM results showed that mesh surfaces were covered by ferric stearate (Fe[CH3(CH2)16COO]2) with low surface energy. The CA test results showed that the mesh had a maximum apparent contact angle of 160 ± 1.0° and a sliding angle of less than 5.0° for the water droplet, whereas the apparent contact angle for the oil droplet was zero. Ultrasound oscillation and exposure tests at atmospheric conditions and immersion tests in 3.5 wt % NaCl aqueous solution were conducted to confirm the mesh with excellent superhydrophobic and superoleophilic properties. On the basis of the superhydrophobic mesh, a miniature separation device pump was designed to collect pure oil from the oil/water mixture. It showed that the device was easier and convenient. The techniques and materials presented in this work are promising for application to wastewater and oil spill treatment.

  13. Oily Fish Consumption Modifies the Association between CD36 rs6969989 Polymorphism and Lipid Profiles in Korean Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Yoonjin; Kim, Yangha

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association of CD36, a class B scavenger receptor, rs6969989 polymorphism with the serum lipid profiles in Korean women, together with their modulation by oily fish consumption. Subjects were participants from the Korean Genome Epidemiology Study (KoGES), which was initiated in 2001 as a large-scale. A total of 4,210 women aged 39 to 70 were included in this study. Data were collected using self-administered questionnaires, anthropometric measurements, and blood chemical analysis. Dietary intake was analyzed using a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. The minor allele frequency for rs6969989 was found in 12% of this population. Homozygotes minor G allele at the rs6868989 exhibited significantly higher high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) concentrations ( P -trend=0.043) and lower fasting glucose ( P -trend=0.013) than major allele A carriers. The risk of low HDL-C was significantly lower in homozygotes for the G allele than the A allele carriers ( P -trend=0.032). Gene-diet interaction effects between rs6969989 and oily fish intake were significantly associated with the risk of dyslipidemia ( P -interaction= 0.004). Subjects with homozygotes minor G allele and high oily fish intake generally had a lower risk of dyslipidemia than did those with major allele homozygotes and low oily fish intake. These findings supported that oily fish consumption may modulate the contributions of CD36 rs6969989 on genetic predisposition to the risk of dyslipidemia.

  14. ITER task D316 (1996): design review of isotope separation system (WBS 3.2 B) and water detritiation system (WBS 3.2 E)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sood, S.K.; Fong, C.

    1997-05-01

    The design review performed on the ITER Isotope Separation System and the Water Detritiation System are summarized. The objectives of the task are: to produce a Design Description Document for the Feed Treatment and Vacuum system for the Water Detritiation system; to review the process system operation and control philosophy for the Water Detritiation System; to review the equipment arrangement drawings where available. 1 fig., 3 refs

  15. Protective role of coriandrum sativum oily extracts on ehrlich tumour bearing mice subjected to gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Sayed Aly, S.M.

    2000-01-01

    This study was planned to evaluate the potency of coriandrum, sativum oily extract [in a dose of 1 mg/kg body weight; for six successive doses] as a chemopreventive agent against solid ehrlich tumour transplanted to the thigh of the left leg of mice subjected or not to gamma irradiation. The protective role of coriander oil was assessed through studying the level of serum phosphorus, calcium, prostaglandins, and anti-thyroid antibodies levels. Meanwhile, the content of cholesterol and triacylglycerols both in hepatic and tumor tissues were also measured. The levels of serum calcium ions revealed significant decline in the tested groups as compared with the control ones. Measurements of serum PGE 2 and anti-thyroid antibodies levels exhibited significant fluctuated changes as compared with the control levels. Serum phosphorus levels induced only non-significant changes. The contents of cholesterol both in hepatic and tumor tissues induced significant decline in the tested proups as compared with the control ones

  16. Potential of glycerol and soybean oil for bioremediation of weathered oily-sludge contaminated soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nascimento, T.C.F.; Franca, F.P. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Escola de Quimica], E-mail: fpfranca@eq.ufrj.br; Oliveira, F.J.S. [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-04-15

    The bioremediation of petroleum-contaminated soil was investigated on laboratory scale. This work evaluated the effect of co-substrate addition in tropical climate soil highly contaminated with oily residue. Glycerol and soybean oil were used as auxiliary co-substrates for contaminant degradation. Three different concentrations of co-substrate were tested, and the experiments were carried out over 60 days. The following parameters were monitored: humidity, pH, total heterotrophic bacteria, total fungi, total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH), and the concentrations of benzo[a]pyrene and chrysene. The soil supplementation with renewable co-substrates improved the efficiency of the biodegradation TPH, with removals of 85% and 83% for glycerol and soybean oil, respectively, compared to a 55% removal yielded by the biodegradation process without supplementation. The use of glycerol increased Chrysene and Benzo[a]pyrene biodegradation by 50%, while soybean oil supplementation increased their removal by 36%. (author)

  17. The black genre within humor: critical approach to the comic Boogie the oily by Roberto Fontanarrosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Tusa Jumbo

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This article does a study approach to the black humour genre in the written work of Roberto Fontanarrosa, an Argentine writer very famous in Latin American, in reference to the case Boogie the oily comic. In Boogie we observe a use of humor based on a naked, open and highly criticism toward to the liquid contemporary culture through the creation of a protagonist who reflects in itself all vices and evils of society. As methodology, this paper does a literature review and qualitative content analysis taking as reference ten comics of Boogie; with this material this article analyzes connotative and denotative messages. In conclusion this paper infers that a comic can serve as a vehicle to express reality by mean of absurdity and irony. Consequently, Boogie shows the culture of tolerance that human being has taken in front of the deformation values of today’s world.

  18. Methodology for predicting oily mixture properties in the mathematical modeling of molecular distillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. F. Gayol

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A methodology for predicting the thermodynamic and transport properties of a multi-component oily mixture, in which the different mixture components are grouped into a small number of pseudo components is shown. This prediction of properties is used in the mathematical modeling of molecular distillation, which consists of a system of differential equations in partial derivatives, according to the principles of the Transport Phenomena and is solved by an implicit finite difference method using a computer code. The mathematical model was validated with experimental data, specifically the molecular distillation of a deodorizer distillate (DD of sunflower oil. The results obtained were satisfactory, with errors less than 10% with respect to the experimental data in a temperature range in which it is possible to apply the proposed method.

  19. Methodology for predicting oily mixture properties in the mathematical modeling of molecular distillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gayol, M.F.; Pramparo, M.C.; Miró Erdmann, S.M.

    2017-01-01

    A methodology for predicting the thermodynamic and transport properties of a multi-component oily mixture, in which the different mixture components are grouped into a small number of pseudo components is shown. This prediction of properties is used in the mathematical modeling of molecular distillation, which consists of a system of differential equations in partial derivatives, according to the principles of the Transport Phenomena and is solved by an implicit finite difference method using a computer code. The mathematical model was validated with experimental data, specifically the molecular distillation of a deodorizer distillate (DD) of sunflower oil. The results obtained were satisfactory, with errors less than 10% with respect to the experimental data in a temperature range in which it is possible to apply the proposed method. [es

  20. Treatment of automotive industry oily wastewater by electrocoagulation: statistical optimization of the operational parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    GilPavas, Edison; Molina-Tirado, Kevin; Gómez-García, Miguel Angel

    2009-01-01

    An electrocoagulation process was used for the treatment of oily wastewater generated from an automotive industry in Medellín (Colombia). An electrochemical cell consisting of four parallel electrodes (Fe and Al) in bipolar configuration was implemented. A multifactorial experimental design was used for evaluating the influence of several parameters including: type and arrangement of electrodes, pH, and current density. Oil and grease removal was defined as the response variable for the statistical analysis. Additionally, the BOD(5), COD, and TOC were monitored during the treatment process. According to the results, at the optimum parameter values (current density = 4.3 mA/cm(2), distance between electrodes = 1.5 cm, Fe as anode, and pH = 12) it was possible to reach a c.a. 95% oils removal, COD and mineralization of 87.4% and 70.6%, respectively. A final biodegradability (BOD(5)/COD) of 0.54 was reached.