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Sample records for oilseed rape brassica

  1. NMR metabolomics of ripened and developing oilseed rape (Brassica napus) and turnip rape (Brassica rapa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kortesniemi, Maaria; Vuorinen, Anssi L; Sinkkonen, Jari; Yang, Baoru; Rajala, Ari; Kallio, Heikki

    2015-04-01

    The oilseeds of the commercially important oilseed rape (Brassica napus) and turnip rape (Brassica rapa) were investigated with (1)H NMR metabolomics. The compositions of ripened (cultivated in field trials) and developing seeds (cultivated in controlled conditions) were compared in multivariate models using principal component analysis (PCA), partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), and orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA). Differences in the major lipids and the minor metabolites between the two species were found. A higher content of polyunsaturated fatty acids and sucrose were observed in turnip rape, while the overall oil content and sinapine levels were higher in oilseed rape. The genotype traits were negligible compared to the effect of the growing site and concomitant conditions on the oilseed metabolome. This study demonstrates the applicability of NMR-based analysis in determining the species, geographical origin, developmental stage, and quality of oilseed Brassicas. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Inheritance of oilseed rape (Brassica napus) RAPD markers in a backcross progeny with Brassica campestris

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, T.R.; Jensen, J.; Bagger Jørgensen, Rikke

    1996-01-01

    Different cultivars/transgenic lines of oilseed rape (Brassica napus) were crossed (as females) with different cultivars/populations of Brassica campestris. All cross combinations produced seed, with an average seed set per pollination of 9.8. Backcrossing of selected interspecific hybrids (as...... females) to B. campestris resulted in a much lower seed set, average 0.7 seed per pollination. In the single backcross progeny where a large enough population (92 plants) was obtained for analysis, 33 B. napus specific RAPD markers were investigated to determine the extent of transfer of oilseed rape...

  3. Hormones and Pod Development in Oilseed Rape (Brassica napus) 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bouille, Pierre; Sotta, Bruno; Miginiac, Emile; Merrien, André

    1989-01-01

    The endogenous levels of several plant growth substances (indole acetic acid, IAA; abscisic acid, ABA; zeatin, Z; zeatin riboside, [9R]Z; isopentenyladenine, iP; and isopentenyladenosine, [9R]iP were measured during pod development of field grown oilseed Rape (Brassica napus L. var oleifera cv Bienvenu) with high performance liquid chromatography and immunoenzymic (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, ELISA) techniques. Results show that pod development is characterized by high levels of Z and [9R]Z in 3 day old fruits and of IAA on the fourth day. During pod maturation, initially a significant increase of IAA and cytokinins was observed, followed by a progressive rise of ABA levels and a concomitant decline of IAA and cytokinin (except iP) levels. The relationship between hormone levels and development, especially pod number, seed number per pod, and seed weight determination, will be discussed. PMID:16666891

  4. Quantification of Plasmodiophora brassicae Using a DNA-Based Soil Test Facilitates Sustainable Oilseed Rape Production

    OpenAIRE

    Ann-Charlotte Wallenhammar; Albin Gunnarson; Fredrik Hansson; Anders Jonsson

    2016-01-01

    Outbreaks of clubroot disease caused by the soil-borne obligate parasite Plasmodiophora brassicae are common in oilseed rape (OSR) in Sweden. A DNA-based soil testing service that identifies fields where P. brassicae poses a significant risk of clubroot infection is now commercially available. It was applied here in field surveys to monitor the prevalence of P. brassicae DNA in field soils intended for winter OSR production and winter OSR field experiments. In 2013 in Scania, prior to plantin...

  5. Biology and harmfulness of Brassica pod midge (Dasineura brassicae Winn. in winter oilseed rape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Draga Graora

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The Brassica pod midge (Dasineura brassicae Winn. is an important pest in oilseed rape (Brasica napus L.. It develops two generations per year and overwinters in the larval stage in cocoons in soil. Immigration of the first generation adults lasted from the beginning of April until the end of May. Larvae developed in pods from mid-April to mid-June, causing pod deformation and cracking, which resulted in premature falling out of seeds and yield reduction. Pod damage amounted to 11.6%. The emergence of the second generation adults was detected at the end of May and in the first ten days of June. D. brassicae was found to lay eggs in healthy pods and no correlation was found with the cabbage seed weevil, Ceutorhynchus assimilis Paykull.

  6. Bt-transgenic oilseed rape hybridization with its weedy relative, Brassica rapa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halfhill, Matthew D; Millwood, Reginald J; Raymer, Paul L; Stewart, C Neal

    2002-10-01

    The movement of transgenes from crops to weeds and the resulting consequences are concerns of modern agriculture. The possible generation of "superweeds" from the escape of fitness-enhancing transgenes into wild populations is a risk that is often discussed, but rarely studied. Oilseed rape, Brassica napus (L.), is a crop with sexually compatible weedy relatives, such as birdseed rape (Brassica rapa (L.)). Hybridization of this crop with weedy relatives is an extant risk and an excellent interspecific gene flow model system. In laboratory crosses, T3 lines of seven independent transformation events of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) oilseed rape were hybridized with two weedy accessions of B. rapa. Transgenic hybrids were generated from six of these oilseed rape lines, and the hybrids exhibited an intermediate morphology between the parental species. The Bt transgene was present in the hybrids, and the protein was synthesized at similar levels to the corresponding independent oilseed rape lines. Insect bioassays were performed and confirmed that the hybrid material was insecticidal. The hybrids were backcrossed with the weedy parent, and only half the oilseed rape lines were able to produce transgenic backcrosses. After two backcrosses, the ploidy level and morphology of the resultant plants were indistinguishable from B. rapa. Hybridization was monitored under field conditions (Tifton, GA, USA) with four independent lines of Bt oilseed rape with a crop to wild relative ratio of 1200:1. When B. rapa was used as the female parent, hybridization frequency varied among oilseed rape lines and ranged from 16.9% to 0.7%.

  7. Low level impurities in imported wheat are a likely source of feral transgenic oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, Juerg; Brodmann, Peter; Oehen, Bernadette; Bagutti, Claudia

    2015-11-01

    In Switzerland, the cultivation of genetically modified (GM) oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) and the use of its seeds for food and feed are not permitted. Nevertheless, the GM oilseed rape events GT73, MS8×RF3, MS8 and RF3 have recently been found in the Rhine port of Basel, Switzerland. The sources of GM oilseed rape seeds have been unknown. The main agricultural good being imported at the Rhine port of Basel is wheat and from 2010 to 2013, 19% of all Swiss wheat imports originated from Canada. As over 90% of all oilseed rape grown in Canada is GM, we hypothesised that imports of Canadian wheat may contain low level impurities of GM oilseed rape. Therefore, waste fraction samples gathered during the mechanical cleaning of Canadian wheat from two Swiss grain mills were analysed by separating oilseed rape seeds from waste fraction samples and testing DNA of pooled seeds for the presence of transgenes by real-time PCR. Furthermore, oilseed rape seeds from each grain mill were sown in a germination experiment, and seedling DNA was tested for the presence of transgenes by real-time PCR. GT73, MS8×RF3, MS8 and RF3 oilseed rape was detected among seed samples and seedlings of both grain mills. Based on this data, we projected a mean proportion of 0.005% of oilseed rape in wheat imported from Canada. Besides Canadian wheat, the Rhine port of Basel does not import any other significant amounts of agricultural products from GM oilseed rape producing countries. We therefore conclude that Canadian wheat is the major source of unintended introduction of GM oilseed rape seeds into Switzerland.

  8. Effects of plant densities on yield, yield components and some morphological characters of two cultivators of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Barzinjy, M.; Stölen, O.; Christiansen, Jørgen Lindskrog

    2003-01-01

    Effects of Plant Densities on Yield, Yield Components and some Morphological Characters of two Cultivators of Oilseed Rape (Brassica napus L.)......Effects of Plant Densities on Yield, Yield Components and some Morphological Characters of two Cultivators of Oilseed Rape (Brassica napus L.)...

  9. Indications of selenium protection against cadmium and lead toxicity in oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhilin Wu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the beneficial role of selenium (Se in protecting oilseed rape (Brassica napus L. plants from cadmium (Cd+2 and lead (Pb+2 toxicity. Exogenous Se markedly reduced Cd and Pb concentration in both roots and shoots. Supplementation of the medium with Se (5, 10 and 15 mg kg-1 alleviated the negative effect of Cd and Pb on growth and led to a decrease in oxidative damages caused by Cd and Pb. Furthermore, Se enhanced superoxide free radicals (O2-, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 and lipid peroxidation, as indicated by malondialdehyde (MDA accumulation, but decreased superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione peroxidase (GPx activities. Meanwhile, the presence of Cd and Pb in the medium affected Se speciation in shoots. The results suggest that Se could alleviate Cd and Pb toxicity by preventing oxidative stress in oilseed rape plant.

  10. Persistence of seeds from crops of conventional and herbicide tolerant oilseed rape (Brassica napus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutman, Peter J W; Berry, Kate; Payne, Roger W; Simpson, Euan; Sweet, Jeremy B; Champion, Gillian T; May, Mike J; Wightman, Pat; Walker, Kerr; Lainsbury, Martin

    2005-09-22

    A series of rotation experiments at five sites over four years has explored the environmental and agronomic implications of growing herbicide tolerant oilseed rape and sugar beet. This paper reports on the population dynamics of volunteer rape (Brassica napus). The experiments compared four winter oilseed rape (WOSR) cultivars: a conventional cultivar (Apex) and three developmental cultivars either genetically modified (GM) to be tolerant to glyphosate or glufosinate, or conventionally bred to be tolerant to herbicides of the imidazolinone group. Seed losses at harvest averaged 3575 seeds m(-2) but ranged from less than 2000 up to more than 10000 seeds m(-2). There was a rapid decline in seed numbers during the first few months after harvest, resulting in a mean loss of seeds of 60%. In subsequent seasons, the seedbank declined much more slowly at four of the five sites (ca 20% per year) and the models predicted 95% seed loss after approximately 9 years. Seed decline was much faster at the fifth site. There were no clear differences between the four cultivars in either the numbers of seeds shed at harvest or in their subsequent persistence. The importance of the persistence of GM rape seeds, in the context of the coexistence of GM and non-GM crops and the role of good management practices that minimize seed persistence, are discussed.

  11. Progressive introgression between ¤Brassica napus¤ (oilseed rape) and ¤B-rapa¤

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, L.B.; Siegismund, H.R.; Bagger Jørgensen, Rikke

    2003-01-01

    We have earlier shown extensive introgression between oilseed rape (Brassica napus) and B. rapa in a weedy population using AFLP markers specific for the nuclear genomes. In order to describe the progress of this introgression, we examined 117 offspring from 12 maternal plants from the introgress...

  12. Quantification of Plasmodiophora brassicae Using a DNA-Based Soil Test Facilitates Sustainable Oilseed Rape Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallenhammar, Ann-Charlotte; Gunnarson, Albin; Hansson, Fredrik; Jonsson, Anders

    2016-04-22

    Outbreaks of clubroot disease caused by the soil-borne obligate parasite Plasmodiophora brassicae are common in oilseed rape (OSR) in Sweden. A DNA-based soil testing service that identifies fields where P. brassicae poses a significant risk of clubroot infection is now commercially available. It was applied here in field surveys to monitor the prevalence of P. brassicae DNA in field soils intended for winter OSR production and winter OSR field experiments. In 2013 in Scania, prior to planting, P. brassicae DNA was detected in 60% of 45 fields on 10 of 18 farms. In 2014, P. brassicae DNA was detected in 44% of 59 fields in 14 of 36 farms, in the main winter OSR producing region in southern Sweden. P. brassicae was present indicative of a risk for >10% yield loss with susceptible cultivars (>1300 DNA copies g soil(-1)) in 47% and 44% of fields in 2013 and 2014 respectively. Furthermore, P. brassicae DNA was indicative of sites at risk of complete crop failure if susceptible cultivars were grown (>50 000 copies g(-1) soil) in 14% and 8% of fields in 2013 and 2014, respectively. A survey of all fields at Lanna research station in western Sweden showed that P. brassicae was spread throughout the farm, as only three of the fields (20%) showed infection levels below the detection limit for P.brassicae DNA, while the level was >50,000 DNA copies g(-1) soil in 20% of the fields. Soil-borne spread is of critical importance and soil scraped off footwear showed levels of up to 682 million spores g(-1) soil. Soil testing is an important tool for determining the presence of P. brassicae and providing an indication of potential yield loss, e.g., in advisory work on planning for a sustainable OSR crop rotation. This soil test is gaining acceptance as a tool that increases the likelihood of success in precision agriculture and in applied research conducted in commercial oilseed fields and at research stations. The present application highlights the importance of prevention of

  13. Quantification of Plasmodiophora brassicae Using a DNA-Based Soil Test Facilitates Sustainable Oilseed Rape Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann-Charlotte Wallenhammar

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Outbreaks of clubroot disease caused by the soil-borne obligate parasite Plasmodiophora brassicae are common in oilseed rape (OSR in Sweden. A DNA-based soil testing service that identifies fields where P. brassicae poses a significant risk of clubroot infection is now commercially available. It was applied here in field surveys to monitor the prevalence of P. brassicae DNA in field soils intended for winter OSR production and winter OSR field experiments. In 2013 in Scania, prior to planting, P. brassicae DNA was detected in 60% of 45 fields on 10 of 18 farms. In 2014, P. brassicae DNA was detected in 44% of 59 fields in 14 of 36 farms, in the main winter OSR producing region in southern Sweden. P. brassicae was present indicative of a risk for >10% yield loss with susceptible cultivars (>1300 DNA copies g soil−1 in 47% and 44% of fields in 2013 and 2014 respectively. Furthermore, P. brassicae DNA was indicative of sites at risk of complete crop failure if susceptible cultivars were grown (>50 000 copies g−1 soil in 14% and 8% of fields in 2013 and 2014, respectively. A survey of all fields at Lanna research station in western Sweden showed that P. brassicae was spread throughout the farm, as only three of the fields (20% showed infection levels below the detection limit for P.brassicae DNA, while the level was >50,000 DNA copies g−1 soil in 20% of the fields. Soil-borne spread is of critical importance and soil scraped off footwear showed levels of up to 682 million spores g−1 soil. Soil testing is an important tool for determining the presence of P. brassicae and providing an indication of potential yield loss, e.g., in advisory work on planning for a sustainable OSR crop rotation. This soil test is gaining acceptance as a tool that increases the likelihood of success in precision agriculture and in applied research conducted in commercial oilseed fields and at research stations. The present application highlights the importance of

  14. Unexpected diversity of feral genetically modified oilseed rape (Brassica napus L. despite a cultivation and import ban in Switzerland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juerg Schulze

    Full Text Available Despite cultivation and seed import bans of genetically modified (GM oilseed rape (Brassica napus L., feral GM plants were found growing along railway lines and in port areas at four sites in Switzerland in 2011 and 2012. All GM plants were identified as glyphosate-resistant GM event GT73 (Roundup Ready, Monsanto. The most affected sites were the Rhine port of Basel and the St. Johann freight railway station in Basel. To assess the distribution and intra- and interspecific outcrossing of GM oilseed rape in more detail, we monitored these two sites in 2013. Leaves and seed pods of feral oilseed rape plants, their possible hybridization partners and putative hybrid plants were sampled in monthly intervals and analysed for the presence of transgenes by real-time PCR. Using flow cytometry, we measured DNA contents of cell nuclei to confirm putative hybrids. In total, 2787 plants were sampled. The presence of GT73 oilseed rape could be confirmed at all previously documented sampling locations and was additionally detected at one new sampling location within the Rhine port. Furthermore, we found the glufosinate-resistant GM events MS8xRF3, MS8 and RF3 (all traded as InVigor, Bayer at five sampling locations in the Rhine port. To our knowledge, this is the first time that feral MS8xRF3, MS8 or RF3 plants were detected in Europe. Real-time PCR analyses of seeds showed outcrossing of GT73 into two non-GM oilseed rape plants, but no outcrossing of transgenes into related wild species was observed. We found no hybrids between oilseed rape and related species. GM plants most frequently occurred at unloading sites for ships, indicating that ship cargo traffic is the main entry pathway for GM oilseed rape. In the future, it will be of major interest to determine the source of GM oilseed rape seeds.

  15. Unexpected diversity of feral genetically modified oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) despite a cultivation and import ban in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, Juerg; Frauenknecht, Tina; Brodmann, Peter; Bagutti, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    Despite cultivation and seed import bans of genetically modified (GM) oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.), feral GM plants were found growing along railway lines and in port areas at four sites in Switzerland in 2011 and 2012. All GM plants were identified as glyphosate-resistant GM event GT73 (Roundup Ready, Monsanto). The most affected sites were the Rhine port of Basel and the St. Johann freight railway station in Basel. To assess the distribution and intra- and interspecific outcrossing of GM oilseed rape in more detail, we monitored these two sites in 2013. Leaves and seed pods of feral oilseed rape plants, their possible hybridization partners and putative hybrid plants were sampled in monthly intervals and analysed for the presence of transgenes by real-time PCR. Using flow cytometry, we measured DNA contents of cell nuclei to confirm putative hybrids. In total, 2787 plants were sampled. The presence of GT73 oilseed rape could be confirmed at all previously documented sampling locations and was additionally detected at one new sampling location within the Rhine port. Furthermore, we found the glufosinate-resistant GM events MS8xRF3, MS8 and RF3 (all traded as InVigor, Bayer) at five sampling locations in the Rhine port. To our knowledge, this is the first time that feral MS8xRF3, MS8 or RF3 plants were detected in Europe. Real-time PCR analyses of seeds showed outcrossing of GT73 into two non-GM oilseed rape plants, but no outcrossing of transgenes into related wild species was observed. We found no hybrids between oilseed rape and related species. GM plants most frequently occurred at unloading sites for ships, indicating that ship cargo traffic is the main entry pathway for GM oilseed rape. In the future, it will be of major interest to determine the source of GM oilseed rape seeds.

  16. Cadmium stress alters the redox reaction and hormone balance in oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Hui; Filardo, Fiona; Hu, Xiaotao; Zhao, Xiaomin; Fu, DongHui

    2016-02-01

    In order to understand the physiological response of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) leaves to cadmium (Cd) stress and exploit the physiological mechanisms involved in Cd tolerance, macro-mineral and chlorophyll concentrations, reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation, activities of enzymatic antioxidants, nonenzymatic compounds metabolism, endogenous hormonal changes, and balance in leaves of oilseed rape exposed to 0, 100, or 200 μM CdSO4 were investigated. The results showed that under Cd exposure, Cd concentrations in the leaves continually increased while macro-minerals and chlorophyll concentrations decreased significantly. Meanwhile, with increased Cd stress, superoxide anion (O2(• -)) production rate and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) concentrations in the leaves increased significantly, which caused malondialdehyde (MDA) accumulation and oxidative stress. For scavenging excess accumulated ROS and alleviating oxidative injury in the leaves, the activity of enzymatic antioxidants, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), and catalase (CAT), was increased significantly at certain stress levels. However, with increased Cd stress, the antioxidant enzyme activities all showed a trend towards reduction. The nonenzymatic antioxidative compounds, such as proline and total soluble sugars, accumulated continuously with increased Cd stress to play a long-term role in scavenging ROS. In addition, ABA levels also increased continuously with Cd stress while ZR decreased and the ABA/ZR ratio increased, which might also be providing a protective role against Cd toxicity.

  17. Adventitious presence of other varieties in oilseed rapeBrassica napus¤) from seed banks and certified seed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, T.; Hauser, Thure Pavlo; Bagger Jørgensen, Rikke

    2007-01-01

    To obtain information on possible sources of contamination of the seed harvest of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L., spp. napus) by other varieties (adventitious presence), we investigated the purity of certified seed lots; the abundance and origin of volunteers; and longevity and origin of seeds...... in the soil seed-bank. This information was acquired through DNA analysis of volunteers collected in the field and seedlings derived from the soil seed-bank. DNA profiles of the volunteers and seedlings were obtained using Inter Simple Sequence Repeat (ISSR) markers, and the profiles were compared with ISSR...... profiles from an assortment of 14 of the most commonly cultivated oilseed rape varieties from 1985 to 2004. This comparison was performed using the assignment program, AFLPOP. The age of the seed bank germinating to become volunteers was assumed from information on previously cultivated oilseed rape...

  18. Microspore culture of winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) in conjunction with other in vitro technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cegielska-Taras, T.; Szala, L.; Bartkowiak-Broda, I.

    2001-01-01

    Microspore culture in conjunction with other technologies such as selection, mutagenesis and transformation has been used for the production of novel genotypes of Brassica napus L. for crop improvement. The example of in vitro selection of microspore - derived embryos includes: a) ploidy level, b) seed oil composition (for example: high level of erucic acid), c) genotypes with restorer gene for CMS-ogura system (by means of isozyme marker PGI-2 ), d) herbicide resistant forms. Efficiency of microspore mutagenesis has been tested by the treatment of freshly isolated microspores with UV and MNU. Direct delivery of foreign gene to the microspores (microprojectile bombardment) combined with the use of Agrobacterium tumefaciens to microspore derived embryos seems to be a promising way of oilseed rape transformation. (author)

  19. Consequences of gene flow between oilseed rape (Brassica napus) and its relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yongbo; Wei, Wei; Ma, Keping; Li, Junsheng; Liang, Yuyong; Darmency, Henri

    2013-10-01

    Numerous studies have focused on the probability of occurrence of gene flow between transgenic crops and their wild relatives and the likelihood of transgene escape, which should be assessed before the commercial release of transgenic crops. This review paper focuses on this issue for oilseed rape, Brassica napus L., a species that produces huge numbers of pollen grains and seeds. We analyze separately the distinct steps of gene flow: (1) pollen and seeds as vectors of gene flow; (2) spontaneous hybridization; (3) hybrid behavior, fitness cost due to hybridization and mechanisms of introgression; (4) and fitness benefit due to transgenes (e.g. herbicide resistance and Bt toxin). Some physical, biological and molecular means of transgene containment are also described. Although hybrids and first generation progeny are difficult to identify in fields and non-crop habitats, the literature shows that transgenes could readily introgress into Brassica rapa, Brassica juncea and Brassica oleracea, while introgression is expected to be rare with Brassica nigra, Hirschfeldia incana and Raphanus raphanistrum. The hybrids grow well but produce less seed than their wild parent. The difference declines with increasing generations. However, there is large uncertainty about the evolution of chromosome numbers and recombination, and many parameters of life history traits of hybrids and progeny are not determined with satisfactory confidence to build generic models capable to really cover the wide diversity of situations. We show that more studies are needed to strengthen and organize biological knowledge, which is a necessary prerequisite for model simulations to assess the practical and evolutionary outputs of introgression, and to provide guidelines for gene flow management. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Do competitive conditions affect introgression of transgenes from oilseed rape (Brassica napus) to weedy Brassica rapa? AS case study with special reference to transplastomic oilseed rape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannessen, Marina

    In species where chloroplast inheritance is exclusively or predominantly maternal, pollen-mediated flow of transgenes is reduced if transgenes are inserted in chloroplast DNA instead of nuclear DNA. However, transmission of chloroplast-encoded transgeneswill still occur if transgenic individuals ...... affected the thousand-kernel weight significantly. It was concluded that further introgression of transgenes from transplastomic oilseed rape to B. rapa is mostlikely at current field densities of B. napus and when B. rapa is an abundant weed....

  1. Sulphur Nutrition and its Effect on Yield and Oil Content of Oilseed Rape (Brassica Napus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mária Varényiová

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the experiment was to study the importance of sulphur in oilseed rape (Brassica napus L. nutrition as well as the effect of rising doses of sulphur in combination with nitrogen on yield, oiliness, oil production, nutrients content in seed and nutrients uptake by rapeseed. The plot–scale experiment was established in years 2013/14 and 2014/15 within the agricultural cooperative in Mojmírovce. There were four fertilization treatments on 600 m2 experimental plots in three replications in this experiment. The first treatment was unfertilized control. Other three treatments were fertilized by the same nitrogen dose of 160 kg.ha−1 and by increasing doses of sulphur. The second treatment was fertilized by a dose of 15 kg.ha−1 S, the third by a dose of 40 kg.ha−1 and a dose of 65 kg.ha−1 S was applied at the fourth treatment. The highest average yield 3.96 t.ha-1 was found when a dose of 40 kg.ha−1 S was applied. The application of sulphur in a dose of 65 kg.ha−1 was accompanied by a yield decrease by 11.4 % as compared to the treatment where a sulphur dose of 40 kg.ha−1 was used. An average oil content of 45.1, 45.5, and 44.0 % was found in treatments in which the doses of sulphur of 15, 40 and 65 kg.ha−1 were applied. No significant difference among the treatments fertilized by sulphur was found. The average oil production reached 1809, 1802 and 1595 kg.ha−1 in cases of treatments fertilized by sulphur doses of 15, 40 and 65 kg.ha−1.

  2. Genome-wide analysis and expression profiling of the GRF gene family in oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jin-Qi; Jian, Hong-Ju; Yang, Bo; Lu, Kun; Zhang, Ao-Xiang; Liu, Pu; Li, Jia-Na

    2017-07-15

    Growth regulating-factors (GRFs) are plant-specific transcription factors that help regulate plant growth and development. Genome-wide identification and evolutionary analyses of GRF gene families have been performed in Arabidopsis thaliana, Zea mays, Oryza sativa, and Brassica rapa, but a comprehensive analysis of the GRF gene family in oilseed rape (Brassica napus) has not yet been reported. In the current study, we identified 35 members of the BnGRF family in B. napus. We analyzed the chromosomal distribution, phylogenetic relationships (Bayesian Inference and Neighbor Joining method), gene structures, and motifs of the BnGRF family members, as well as the cis-acting regulatory elements in their promoters. We also analyzed the expression patterns of 15 randomly selected BnGRF genes in various tissues and in plant varieties with different harvest indices and gibberellic acid (GA) responses. The expression levels of BnGRFs under GA treatment suggested the presence of possible negative feedback regulation. The evolutionary patterns and expression profiles of BnGRFs uncovered in this study increase our understanding of the important roles played by these genes in oilseed rape. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Introduction of beet cyst nematode resistance from Sinapis alba L. and Raphanus sativus L. into Brassica napus L. (oil-seed rape) through sexual and somatic hybridization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lelivelt, C.L.C.

    1993-01-01

    Experiments were performed to select for beet cyst nematode (Heterodera schachtii Schm., abbrev. BCN) resistant genotypes of Brassica napus L. (oilseed rape), and to introduce BCN-resistance from the related species Raphanus

  4. Analysis of yield and plant traits of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L. cultivated in temperate region in light of the possibilities of sowing in arid areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeusz Zając

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This work is a review of selected literature on the species of Brassica with the greatest economic significance. Oilseed rape (Brassica napus ssp. oleifera currently ranks third worldwide among oilseed crops used for oil production and is the most important in the temperate zone. The manifold uses of rape include not only human consumption of oil, but also the use of post-extraction meal to feed livestock as well as industrial applications as a source of bioenergy or cellulose. The improvement in the economic position of rape among crop plants is also due to the doubling of its yield between 1970 and 2009; the average annual increase in seed yield worldwide was 27 kg ha−1 yr−1. The yield level in Europe exceeds the average yields achieved in the world, particularly in Asia. Recently, the cultivation of oilseed rape was started on a relatively large acreage in Iran where the yield amounted 2.1 t ha−1, exceeding the yields of China and India. In Poland, the acreage of oilseed rape cultivation between 1965 and 2013 increased 3–4 times, and during this period the annual increase in seed yield was 29 kg ha−1 yr−1. Under the field conditions of the temperate climate zone, winter oilseed rape yield is mainly determined by agro-climatic conditions during the growing period, the level of nitrogen fertilization, and the production potential of varieties, which is currently highest in hybrids. There is a noticeable tendency of hybrids towards formation of more siliques by individual oilseed plants. Different production categories of plants appear in a rape crop. Semi-dwarf varieties of winter rapeseed are distinguished by greater silique density, particularly on the main shoot. Moreover, these hybrids are characterized by faster growth of the root system, which enables them to take up nitrogen from the soil more efficiently.

  5. Significant reductions in oil quality and lipid content of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) under climate change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Namazkar, Shahla; Egsgaard, Helge; Frenck, Georg

    2015-01-01

    Despite of the potential importance to food and bioenergy purposes, effects from climate change on plant oil quality have hardly been characterized.On a global basis Brassica napus L., rapeseed or oilseed rape, is the second largest source of vegetable oil after soybean and the predominant oil crop...... in Europe. We found significant changes in oil quality and quantity of four cultivars of oilseed rape grown in five future climate scenarios with elevated [CO2], [O-3] temperature and combinations hereof (similar to RCP8.5,(1)). Populations of the cultivars were grown under ambient and climate change...... conditions in a climate-phytotron. The treatments were ambient (360 ppm CO2, 19/12 degrees C (day/night), 20/20 ppb O-3 (day/night)), all factors elevated (650 ppm CO2, 24/17 degrees C, 60/20 ppb O-3), as well as two- and single-factor treatments with the elevated factors.The overall trend was that oil...

  6. Landscape-scale distribution and persistence of genetically modified oilseed rape (Brassica napus) in Manitoba, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knispel, Alexis L; McLachlan, Stéphane M

    2010-01-01

    Genetically modified herbicide-tolerant (GMHT) oilseed rape (OSR; Brassica napus L.) was approved for commercial cultivation in Canada in 1995 and currently represents over 95% of the OSR grown in western Canada. After a decade of widespread cultivation, GMHT volunteers represent an increasing management problem in cultivated fields and are ubiquitous in adjacent ruderal habitats, where they contribute to the spread of transgenes. However, few studies have considered escaped GMHT OSR populations in North America, and even fewer have been conducted at large spatial scales (i.e. landscape scales). In particular, the contribution of landscape structure and large-scale anthropogenic dispersal processes to the persistence and spread of escaped GMHT OSR remains poorly understood. We conducted a multi-year survey of the landscape-scale distribution of escaped OSR plants adjacent to roads and cultivated fields. Our objective was to examine the long-term dynamics of escaped OSR at large spatial scales and to assess the relative importance of landscape and localised factors to the persistence and spread of these plants outside of cultivation. From 2005 to 2007, we surveyed escaped OSR plants along roadsides and field edges at 12 locations in three agricultural landscapes in southern Manitoba where GMHT OSR is widely grown. Data were analysed to examine temporal changes at large spatial scales and to determine factors affecting the distribution of escaped OSR plants in roadside and field edge habitats within agricultural landscapes. Additionally, we assessed the potential for seed dispersal between escaped populations by comparing the relative spatial distribution of roadside and field edge OSR. Densities of escaped OSR fluctuated over space and time in both roadside and field edge habitats, though the proportion of GMHT plants was high (93-100%). Escaped OSR was positively affected by agricultural landscape (indicative of cropping intensity) and by the presence of an

  7. Greenhouse gas emissions from the energy crop oilseed rape (Brassica napus); the role of photosynthetically active radiation in diurnal N2O flux variation.

    OpenAIRE

    Keane, J.Ben; Ineson, P.; Vallack, Harry W.; Blei, Emanuel; Howarth, Steve; McNamara, Niall P.; Rowe, Rebecca; Williams, Mathew; Toet, Sylvia

    2017-01-01

    Oilseed rape (OSR, Brassica napus L.) is an important feedstock for biodiesel; hence, carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and particularly fertilizer-derived nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions during cultivation must be quantified to assess putative greenhouse gas (GHG) savings, thus creating an urgent and increasing need for such data. Substrates of nitrification [ammonium (NH4)] and denitrification [nitrate (NO3)], the predominant N2O production pathways, were supplied separately and in combinat...

  8. Hyperspectral and thermal imaging of oilseed rape (Brassica napus response to fungal species of the genus Alternaria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Baranowski

    Full Text Available In this paper, thermal (8-13 µm and hyperspectral imaging in visible and near infrared (VNIR and short wavelength infrared (SWIR ranges were used to elaborate a method of early detection of biotic stresses caused by fungal species belonging to the genus Alternaria that were host (Alternaria alternata, Alternaria brassicae, and Alternaria brassicicola and non-host (Alternaria dauci pathogens to oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.. The measurements of disease severity for chosen dates after inoculation were compared to temperature distributions on infected leaves and to averaged reflectance characteristics. Statistical analysis revealed that leaf temperature distributions on particular days after inoculation and respective spectral characteristics, especially in the SWIR range (1000-2500 nm, significantly differed for the leaves inoculated with A. dauci from the other species of Alternaria as well as from leaves of non-treated plants. The significant differences in leaf temperature of the studied Alternaria species were observed in various stages of infection development. The classification experiments were performed on the hyperspectral data of the leaf surfaces to distinguish days after inoculation and Alternaria species. The second-derivative transformation of the spectral data together with back-propagation neural networks (BNNs appeared to be the best combination for classification of days after inoculation (prediction accuracy 90.5% and Alternaria species (prediction accuracy 80.5%.

  9. Genetic variants associated with the root system architecture of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) under contrasting phosphate supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaohua; Chen, Yanling; Thomas, Catherine L; Ding, Guangda; Xu, Ping; Shi, Dexu; Grandke, Fabian; Jin, Kemo; Cai, Hongmei; Xu, Fangsen; Yi, Bin; Broadley, Martin R; Shi, Lei

    2017-08-01

    Breeding crops with ideal root system architecture for efficient absorption of phosphorus is an important strategy to reduce the use of phosphate fertilizers. To investigate genetic variants leading to changes in root system architecture, 405 oilseed rape cultivars were genotyped with a 60K Brassica Infinium SNP array in low and high P environments. A total of 285 single-nucleotide polymorphisms were associated with root system architecture traits at varying phosphorus levels. Nine single-nucleotide polymorphisms corroborate a previous linkage analysis of root system architecture quantitative trait loci in the BnaTNDH population. One peak single-nucleotide polymorphism region on A3 was associated with all root system architecture traits and co-localized with a quantitative trait locus for primary root length at low phosphorus. Two more single-nucleotide polymorphism peaks on A5 for root dry weight at low phosphorus were detected in both growth systems and co-localized with a quantitative trait locus for the same trait. The candidate genes identified on A3 form a haplotype 'BnA3Hap', that will be important for understanding the phosphorus/root system interaction and for the incorporation into Brassica napus breeding programs. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Kazusa DNA Research Institute.

  10. Hydroponics versus field lysimeter studies of urea, ammonium and nitrate uptake by oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkoun, Mustapha; Sarda, Xavier; Jannin, Laëtitia; Laîné, Philippe; Etienne, Philippe; Garcia-Mina, José-Maria; Yvin, Jean-Claude; Ourry, Alain

    2012-09-01

    N-fertilizer use efficiencies are affected by their chemical composition and suffer from potential N-losses by volatilization. In a field lysimeter experiment, (15)N-labelled fertilizers were used to follow N uptake by Brassica napus L. and assess N-losses by volatilization. Use of urea with NBPT (urease inhibitor) showed the best efficiency with the lowest N losses (8% of N applied compared with 25% with urea alone). Plants receiving ammonium sulphate, had similar yield achieved through a better N mobilization from vegetative tissues to the seeds, despite a lower N uptake resulting from a higher volatilization (43% of applied N). Amounts of (15)N in the plant were also higher when plants were fertilized with ammonium nitrate but N-losses reached 23% of applied N. In parallel, hydroponic experiments showed a deleterious effect of ammonium and urea on the growth of oilseed rape. This was alleviated by the nitrate supply, which was preferentially taken up. B. napus was also characterized by a very low potential for urea uptake. BnDUR3 and BnAMT1, encoding urea and ammonium transporters, were up-regulated by urea, suggesting that urea-grown plants suffered from nitrogen deficiency. The results also suggested a role for nitrate as a signal for the expression of BnDUR3, in addition to its role as a major nutrient. Overall, the results of the hydroponic study showed that urea itself does not contribute significantly to the N nutrition of oilseed rape. Moreover, it may contribute indirectly since a better use efficiency for urea fertilizer, which was further increased by the application of a urease inhibitor, was observed in the lysimeter study.

  11. The effects of seed size on hybrids formed between oilseed rape (Brassica napus and wild brown mustard (B. juncea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Bo Liu

    Full Text Available Seed size has significant implications in ecology, because of its effects on plant fitness. The hybrid seeds that result from crosses between crops and their wild relatives are often small, and the consequences of this have been poorly investigated. Here we report on plant performance of hybrid and its parental transgenic oilseed rape (Brassica napus and wild B. juncea, all grown from seeds sorted into three seed-size categories.Three seed-size categories were sorted by seed diameter for transgenic B. napus, wild B. juncea and their transgenic and non-transgenic hybrids. The seeds were sown in a field at various plant densities. Globally, small-seeded plants had delayed flowering, lower biomass, fewer flowers and seeds, and a lower thousand-seed weight. The seed-size effect varied among plant types but was not affected by plant density. There was no negative effect of seed size in hybrids, but it was correlated with reduced growth for both parents.Our results imply that the risk of further gene flow would probably not be mitigated by the small size of transgenic hybrid seeds. No fitness cost was detected to be associated with the Bt-transgene in this study.

  12. Identification and characterization of microRNAs in oilseed rape (Brassica napus) responsive to infection with the pathogenic fungus Verticillium longisporum using Brassica AA (Brassica rapa) and CC (Brassica oleracea) as reference genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Dan; Suhrkamp, Ina; Wang, Yu; Liu, Shenyi; Menkhaus, Jan; Verreet, Joseph-Alexander; Fan, Longjiang; Cai, Daguang

    2014-11-01

    Verticillium longisporum, a soil-borne pathogenic fungus, causes vascular disease in oilseed rape (Brassica napus). We proposed that plant microRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in the plant-V. longisporum interaction. To identify oilseed rape miRNAs, we deep-sequenced two small RNA libraries made from V. longisporum infected/noninfected roots and employed Brassica rapa and Brassica oleracea genomes as references for miRNA prediction and characterization. We identified 893 B. napus miRNAs representing 360 conserved and 533 novel miRNAs, and mapped 429 and 464 miRNAs to the AA and CC genomes, respectively. Microsynteny analysis with the conserved miRNAs and their flanking protein coding sequences revealed 137 AA-CC genome syntenic miRNA pairs and 61 AA and 42 CC genome-unique miRNAs. Sixty-two miRNAs were responsive to the V. longisporum infection. We present data for specific interactions and simultaneously reciprocal changes in the expression levels of the miRNAs and their targets in the infected roots. We demonstrate that miRNAs are involved in the plant-fungus interaction and that miRNA168-Argonaute 1 (AGO1) expression modulation might act as a key regulatory module in a compatible plant-V. longisporum interaction. Our results suggest that V. longisporum may have evolved a virulence mechanism by interference with plant miRNAs to reprogram plant gene expression and achieve infection. © 2014 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  13. Senescence-specific alteration of hydrogen peroxide levels in Arabidopsis thaliana and oilseed rape spring variety Brassica napus L. cv. Mozart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieker, Stefan; Riester, Lena; Stahl, Mark; Franzaring, Jürgen; Zentgraf, Ulrike

    2012-08-01

    In order to analyze the signaling function of hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) production in senescence in more detail, we manipulated intracellular H(2)O(2) levels in Arabidopsis thaliala (L.) Heynh by using the hydrogen-peroxide-sensitive part of the Escherichia coli transcription regulator OxyR, which was directed to the cytoplasm as well as into the peroxisomes. H(2)O(2) levels were lowered and senescence was delayed in both transgenic lines, but OxyR was found to be more effective in the cytoplasm. To transfer this knowledge to crop plants, we analyzed oilseed rape plants Brassica napus L. cv. Mozart for H(2)O(2) and its scavenging enzymes catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) during leaf and plant development. H(2)O(2) levels were found to increase during bolting and flowering time, but no increase could be observed in the very late stages of senescence. With increasing H(2)O(2) levels, CAT and APX activities declined, so it is likely that similar mechanisms are used in oilseed rape and Arabidopsis to control H(2)O(2) levels. Under elevated CO(2) conditions, oilseed rape senescence was accelerated and coincided with an earlier increase in H(2)O(2) levels, indicating that H(2)O(2) may be one of the signals to inducing senescence in a broader range of Brassicaceae. © 2012 Institute of Botany, the Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  14. Ideotype population exploration: growth, photosynthesis, and yield components at different planting densities in winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ni; Yuan, Jinzhan; Li, Ming; Li, Jun; Zhang, Liyan; Liu, Lixin; Naeem, Muhammad Shahbaz; Zhang, Chunlei

    2014-01-01

    Rapeseed is one of the most important edible oil crops in the world and the seed yield has lagged behind the increasing demand driven by population growth. Winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) is widely cultivated with relatively low yield in China, so it is necessary to find the strategies to improve the expression of yield potential. Planting density has great effects on seed yield of crops. Hence, field experiments were conducted in Wuhan in the Yangtze River basin with one conventional variety (Zhongshuang 11, ZS11) and one hybrid variety (Huayouza 9, HYZ9) at five planting densities (27.0×10(4), 37.5×10(4), 48.0×10(4), 58.5×10(4), 69.0×10(4) plants ha(-1)) during 2010-2012 to investigate the yield components. The physiological traits for high-yield and normal-yield populations were measured during 2011-2013. Our results indicated that planting densities of 58.5×10(4) plants ha(-1) in ZS11 and 48.0×10(4) plants ha(-1) in HYZ9 have significantly higher yield compared with the density of 27.0×10(4) plants ha(-1) for both varieties. The ideal silique numbers for ZS11 and HYZ9 were ∼0.9×10(4) (n m(-2)) and ∼1×10(4) (n m(-2)), respectively, and ideal primary branches for ZS11 and HYZ9 were ∼250 (n m(-2)) and ∼300 (n m(-2)), respectively. The highest leaf area index (LAI) and silique wall area index (SAI) was ∼5.0 and 7.0, respectively. Moreover, higher leaf net photosynthetic rate (Pn) and water use efficiency (WUE) were observed in the high-yield populations. A significantly higher level of silique wall photosynthesis and rapid dry matter accumulation were supposed to result in the maximum seed yield. Our results suggest that increasing the planting density within certain range is a feasible approach for higher seed yield in winter rapeseed in China.

  15. Genetic load and transgenic mitigating genes in transgenic Brassica rapa (field mustard × Brassica napus (oilseed rape hybrid populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warwick Suzanne I

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One theoretical explanation for the relatively poor performance of Brassica rapa (weed × Brassica napus (crop transgenic hybrids suggests that hybridization imparts a negative genetic load. Consequently, in hybrids genetic load could overshadow any benefits of fitness enhancing transgenes and become the limiting factor in transgenic hybrid persistence. Two types of genetic load were analyzed in this study: random/linkage-derived genetic load, and directly incorporated genetic load using a transgenic mitigation (TM strategy. In order to measure the effects of random genetic load, hybrid productivity (seed yield and biomass was correlated with crop- and weed-specific AFLP genomic markers. This portion of the study was designed to answer whether or not weed × transgenic crop hybrids possessing more crop genes were less competitive than hybrids containing fewer crop genes. The effects of directly incorporated genetic load (TM were analyzed through transgene persistence data. TM strategies are proposed to decrease transgene persistence if gene flow and subsequent transgene introgression to a wild host were to occur. Results In the absence of interspecific competition, transgenic weed × crop hybrids benefited from having more crop-specific alleles. There was a positive correlation between performance and number of B. napus crop-specific AFLP markers [seed yield vs. marker number (r = 0.54, P = 0.0003 and vegetative dry biomass vs. marker number (r = 0.44, P = 0.005]. However under interspecific competition with wheat or more weed-like conditions (i.e. representing a situation where hybrid plants emerge as volunteer weeds in subsequent cropping systems, there was a positive correlation between the number of B. rapa weed-specific AFLP markers and seed yield (r = 0.70, P = 0.0001, although no such correlation was detected for vegetative biomass. When genetic load was directly incorporated into the hybrid genome, by inserting a

  16. Effects of NaCl treatment on the antioxidant enzymes of oilseed rape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of NaCl treatment on the activity of antioxidant enzymes in leaves of oilseed rape seedlings (Brassica napus L.) were studied. The results showed that the relative water content from leaves of oilseed rape seedlings was gradually decreased and the electronic conductivity was increased during 0 - 24 h under 200 ...

  17. Fixed-route monitoring and a comparative study of the occurrence of herbicide-resistant oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) along a Japanese roadside

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishizawa, Toru; Nakajima, Nobuyoshi; Tamaoki, Masanori; Aono, Mitsuko; Kubo, Akihiro; Saji, Hikaru

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Previously, we conducted a roadside survey to reveal the occurrence of genetically modified (GM) oilseed rape along a Japanese roadside (Route 51). In this study, we performed successive and thorough fixed-route monitoring in 5 sections along another road (Route 23). Oilseed rape plants were detected on both sides of the road in each section between autumn 2009 and winter 2013, which included 3 flowering seasons. In four sections, more plants were found on the side of the road leading from the Yokkaichi port than on the opposite side. In the fifth section, the presence of clogged drains on the roadside, where juvenile plants concentrated, caused the opposite distribution: oilseed rape predominantly occurred along the inbound lanes (leading to the Yokkaichi port) in 2010 and 2012. Unlike in our previous survey, glyphosate- or glufosinate-resistant oilseed rape plants were abundant (>75% of analyzed plants over 3 years). Moreover, a few individuals bearing both herbicide resistance traits were also detected in some sections. The spillage of imported seeds may explain the occurrence of oilseed rape on the roadside. The abundance of herbicide-resistant oilseed rape plants may reflect the extent of contamination with GM oilseed rape seed within imports. PMID:26838503

  18. Male fitness of oilseed rapeBrassica napus¤), weedy ¤B-rapa¤ and their F1 hybrids when pollinating ¤B-rapa¤ seeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pertl, M.; Hauser, T.P.; Damgaard, C.

    2002-01-01

    The likelihood that two species hybridise and backcross may depend strongly on environmental conditions, and possibly on competitive interactions between parents and hybrids. We studied the paternity of seeds produced by weedy Brassica rapa growing in mixtures with oilseed rape (B. napus) and the...... is strongly influenced by their local frequencies, and that male fitness of F(1)hybrids, when pollinating B. rapa seeds, is low even when their female fitness (seed set) is high.......The likelihood that two species hybridise and backcross may depend strongly on environmental conditions, and possibly on competitive interactions between parents and hybrids. We studied the paternity of seeds produced by weedy Brassica rapa growing in mixtures with oilseed rape (B. napus......) and their F(1) hybrids at different frequencies and densities. Paternity was determined by the presence of a transgene, morphology, and AFLP markers. In addition, observations of flower and pollen production, and published data on pollen fertilisation success, zygote survival, and seed germination, allowed us...

  19. Determinants of nectar production in oilseed rape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enkegaard, Annie; Kryger, Per; Boelt, Birte

    2016-01-01

    in the beginning of a year (January–March) leading to the setting of more flowers. On the other hand, the decrease in the number of open oilseed rape flowers during the flowering period seems to be governed exclusively by inherent characteristics of oilseed rape. A late flowering in 2013 was associated...

  20. Modelling and estimating pollen movement in oilseed rape (Brassica napus) at the landscape scale using genetic markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devaux, C; Lavigne, C; Austerlitz, F; Klein, E K

    2007-02-01

    Understanding patterns of pollen movement at the landscape scale is important for establishing management rules following the release of genetically modified (GM) crops. We use here a mating model adapted to cultivated species to estimate dispersal kernels from the genotypes of the progenies of male-sterile plants positioned at different sampling sites within a 10 x 10-km oilseed rape production area. Half of the pollen clouds sampled by the male-sterile plants originated from uncharacterized pollen sources that could consist of both large volunteer and feral populations, and fields within and outside the study area. The geometric dispersal kernel was the most appropriate to predict pollen movement in the study area. It predicted a much larger proportion of long-distance pollination than previously fitted dispersal kernels. This best-fitting mating model underestimated the level of differentiation among pollen clouds but could predict its spatial structure. The estimation method was validated on simulated genotypic data, and proved to provide good estimates of both the shape of the dispersal kernel and the rate and composition of pollen issued from uncharacterized pollen sources. The best dispersal kernel fitted here, the geometric kernel, should now be integrated into models that aim at predicting gene flow at the landscape level, in particular between GM and non-GM crops.

  1. Comparative field evaluation of some newer versus conventional insecticides for the control of aphids (homoptera: aphididae) on oilseed rape (brassica napus l.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarwar, M.; Ahmad, N.; Bux, M.; Nasrullah, A.; Tofique, M.

    2011-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the effects of new insecticides like, Imidacloprid (Confidor 200 EC), Thiomethoxam (Actara 25 WG) and Acetamiprid (Megamos 20 SL) belonging to Nitroguanidine group along with conventional insecticides such as, Chlorpyrifos (Lorsban 40 EC) and Dimethoate (Systoate 40 EC) belonging to Organophosphate group against aphids' population on oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.). A perusal of data, based on the overall performance of the test compounds, reflected that newer insecticides were superior in reducing the population of aphids and yield enhancement as compared to conventional insecticides. The best results were achieved with the application of Imidacloprid by recording the lowest number of aphids (2.2 per plant) than obtained with Thiomethoxam and Acetamiprid (3.22 and 4.66, respectively). Other insecticides, viz., Chlorpyrifos and Dimethoate were also found to be effective in maintaining the aphids' population at lower levels per plant (16.2 and 17.5, respectively) over untreated control (227.7). Imidacloprid was responsible for increasing the grain yield to 3722.85 Kg per Hectare, approached by Thiomethoxam, Acetamiprid, Chlorpyrifos and Dimethoate as against unsprayed control (2980.0, 2542.85, 1542.85, 540.0 and 604.85 Kg per Hectare, respectively). Study indicated that selective use of newer insecticides would seem a reasonable strategy in aphids controlling and integration of such chemicals in insects' management package could help to reduce pest densities. (author)

  2. Evaluation of Yield and Yield Components of Oilseed Rape in the Wheat-Oilseed Rape Strip Intercropping Influenced by Chemical and Biological Fertilizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Amirmardfar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effects of wheat (Triticum aestivum and oilseed rape (Brassica napus strip intercropping on yield components, seed and biological yields of oilseed rape, field experiments were carried out as factorial based on randomized complete block design with three replications at Research Farm of Tabriz University, Tabriz, Iran during 2010-2012 cropping seasons. The first factor consisted of four types of wheat and oilseed rape cropping system, sole crop of oilseed rape (A1,: strip intercropping with 8:3 (A2, 12:4 (A3 and 16:5 (A4 of wheat and oilseed rape rows, respectively and the other factor consisted of two fertilizer levels, B1: 100% chemical fertilizers (urea and triple superphosphate and B2: 50% chemical fertilizers + biofertilizers (Nitrazhin and Barvar2. The results showed that strip intercropping of wheat- oilseed rape resulted in significant increase in yield components, seed yield per occupied unit area and biological yield per occupied unit area of oilseed rape as compared with mono-cropping. The number of silique per plant in intercropping systems was significantly higher than that of mono-cropping. The highest seed yield was obtained in the 16:5 rows of wheat-oilseed rape with 343.76 g.m-2 and the lowest mean was observed in mono-cropping of oilseed rape with 260.21 g.m-2. Biological yield per occupied unit area and seed yield per intercropped unit area in B1 were significantly greater than that of B2, but this treatment had no significant effect on the other traits. Because, B1 and B2 had no significant difference in seed yield per occupied unit area and due to the importance of reduction in chemical fertilizers consumption and food and environmental health care, strip intercropping of wheat-oilseed rape under 50% chemical fertilizers + biofertilizers can be recommended as a suitable cultural method.

  3. High-throughput phenotyping (HTP) identifies seedling root traits linked to variation in seed yield and nutrient capture in field-grown oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, C L; Graham, N S; Hayden, R; Meacham, M C; Neugebauer, K; Nightingale, M; Dupuy, L X; Hammond, J P; White, P J; Broadley, M R

    2016-04-06

    Root traits can be selected for crop improvement. Techniques such as soil excavations can be used to screen root traits in the field, but are limited to genotypes that are well-adapted to field conditions. The aim of this study was to compare a low-cost, high-throughput root phenotyping (HTP) technique in a controlled environment with field performance, using oilseed rape (OSR;Brassica napus) varieties. Primary root length (PRL), lateral root length and lateral root density (LRD) were measured on 14-d-old seedlings of elite OSR varieties (n = 32) using a 'pouch and wick' HTP system (∼40 replicates). Six field experiments were conducted using the same varieties at two UK sites each year for 3 years. Plants were excavated at the 6- to 8-leaf stage for general vigour assessments of roots and shoots in all six experiments, and final seed yield was determined. Leaves were sampled for mineral composition from one of the field experiments. Seedling PRL in the HTP system correlated with seed yield in four out of six (r = 0·50, 0·50, 0·33, 0·49;P emergence in three out of five (r = 0·59, 0·22, 0·49;P emergence, general early vigour or yield in the field. Associations between PRL and field performance are generally related to early vigour. These root traits might therefore be of limited additional selection value, given that vigour can be measured easily on shoots/canopies. In contrast, LRD cannot be assessed easily in the field and, if LRD can improve nutrient uptake, then it may be possible to use HTP systems to screen this trait in both elite and more genetically diverse, non-field-adapted OSR. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company.

  4. Evaluation of Effect of Gamma Rays Irradiation for Increasing of Variation in Germination and Agronomic Traits in Oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Momeni

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Increasing of genetic diversity is one of primary and basic goals of plant breeding programs. Induction of mutation is a method to increase genetic diversity that can be used in accommodate with selection, recombination and or combination of them in plant breeding. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of different doses of gamma rays (500, 700, 900, 1100 and 1300 Gry on primary growth characters, such as: rate and percentage of germination, the length of rootlet and stemlet in M1 generation, and on agronomic characters such as: plant height, number of lateral branches, number of pods on main and lateral stem, length of pods and weigth of 1000-seed in M2 generation for two varieties of oilseed rape (Brassica napus, PF and Zarfam. Results of lab experiments showed that for both varieties, the germination percentage, the length of rootlet and the length of stemlet were significantly decreased by mutagen in compare with the control. While germination rate was only significantly affected by mutagen in PF. The estimation of "F" showed that there was significant difference between the variance of treatments for the germination rate and germination percentage in PF cultivar and for germination rate and stemlet length in Zarfam cultivar. In fact, increasing of gamma doses causes considerable enhancement in variance of treatment in compare with the control. The maximum relative coefficient of variation was related to 1300 Gry for germination rate of PF. In M2, all traits of study except number of pods on main stem was decreased by different doses of Gamma rays in PF cultivar. In opposition to other traits, Pods on main stem in PF cultivar was increased in different doses of gamma ray in compare with the control. But in Zarfam cultivar, only 1000-seed weight was significantly affected by Gamma rays.

  5. Study of Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR and Drought on Physiological Traits and Ultimate Yield of Cultivars of Oilseed Rape (Brassica spp. L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    pooya arvin

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Oilseed rape (Brassica spp L. is one of the valuable oilseed crops which has been attracting attention in recent years. Iran is located in a semi-arid region, and water shortage has caused problems, namely providing drinking water as much as water supply for crop production. Not only does Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR make plant growth stimulating hormones like Auxin and Gibberellin but also can ease stress conditions by producing ABA. Consequently, considering the current water shortage crisis in Iran, we took three main criteria into account: the roles of PGPRs in increasing resistance to abiotic stress, relief of drought effects, and the importance of cultivation of oilseed rape. The present research has been compiled to study drought and some Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR on Physiological Traits and Ultimate Yield of Cultivars of Oilseed Rape. Materials and Methods The current study was done on the basis of two simultaneous experiments (under stress and non-stress experiments during 2010- 2011 growing season at Agriculture and Natural Resources Research Station of Torogh, Mashhad is situated in East-North of Iran (36° N, 59° E, 1003 ASL . Two research sites (under stress and no-stress fields were selected beside each other. This region has a semi-arid climate (annual rainfall 286 mm. The experimental design was factorial based on randomized completely block design with three replications in each experiment. The first treatment was Plant Growth Promoting Rizobactria, including B0: no inoculation (control, B1: co-inoculation (Pseudomonas flourescens 169+P. putida 108, B2: inoculation with P. flourescens 169 and B3: inoculation with P. putida 108. Second treatment was cultivar, including Hayola401 and Hayola330 cultivars belong to Brassica napus, Parkland and Goldrush cultivars belong to B. rapa and BP18 and landrace cultivars belong to B.juncea .Greenness index, plant height, relative water content

  6. Oilseed brassica improvement: through induced mutations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, S.A.; Ali, I.; Rehman, K.

    1990-06-01

    The oilseed brassica improvement programme is discussed in this report. Some observations on different plant mutants were made throughout the growth period and results revealed that most of the selected mutants of both the varieties expressed better performance than the parent by showing superior plant traits. A new species named brassica carinata has tremendous untapped potential as an oilseed crop. Efforts for creating maximum variability in rapeseed mustard varieties by means other than gamma radiation continued. (A.B.)

  7. Genetic and Epigenetic Changes in Oilseed Rape (Brassica napus L.) Extracted from Intergeneric Allopolyploid and Additions with Orychophragmus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, Mayank; Dang, Yanwei; Ge, Xianhong; Shao, Yujiao; Li, Zaiyun

    2016-01-01

    Allopolyploidization with the merger of the genomes from different species has been shown to be associated with genetic and epigenetic changes. But the maintenance of such alterations related to one parental species after the genome is extracted from the allopolyploid remains to be detected. In this study, the genome of Brassica napus L. (2n = 38, genomes AACC) was extracted from its intergeneric allohexaploid (2n = 62, genomes AACCOO) with another crucifer Orychophragmus violaceus (2n = 24, genome OO), by backcrossing and development of alien addition lines. B. napus-type plants identified in the self-pollinated progenies of nine monosomic additions were analyzed by the methods of amplified fragment length polymorphism, sequence-specific amplified polymorphism, and methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism. They showed modifications to certain extents in genomic components (loss and gain of DNA segments and transposons, introgression of alien DNA segments) and DNA methylation, compared with B. napus donor. The significant differences in the changes between the B. napus types extracted from these additions likely resulted from the different effects of individual alien chromosomes. Particularly, the additions which harbored the O. violaceus chromosome carrying dominant rRNA genes over those of B. napus tended to result in the development of plants which showed fewer changes, suggesting a role of the expression levels of alien rRNA genes in genomic stability. These results provided new cues for the genetic alterations in one parental genome that are maintained even after the genome becomes independent.

  8. Genetic and epigenetic changes in oilseed rape (Brassica napus L. extracted from intergeneric allopolyploid and additions with Orychophragmus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayank eGautam

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Allopolyploidization with the merger of the genomes from different species has been shown to be associated with genetic and epigenetic changes. But the maintenance of such alterations related to one parental species after the genome is extracted from the allopolyploid remains to be detected. In this study, the genome of Brassica napus L. (2n=38, genomes AACC was extracted from its intergeneric allohexaploid (2n=62, genomes AACCOO with another crucifer Orychophragmus violaceus (2n=24, genome OO, by backcrossing and development of alien addition lines. B. napus-type plants identified in the self-pollinated progenies of nine monosomic additions were analyzed by the methods of amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP, sequence-specific amplified polymorphism (SSAP, and methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP. They showed modifications to certain extents in genomic components (loss and gain of DNA segments and transposons, introgression of alien DNA segments and DNA methylation, compared with B. napus donor. The significant differences in the changes between the B. napus types extracted from these additions likely resulted from the different effects of individual alien chromosomes. Particularly, the additions which harbored the O. violaceus chromosome carrying dominant rRNA genes over those of B. napus tended to result in the development of plants which showed fewer changes, suggesting a role of the expression levels of alien rRNA genes in genomic stability. These results provided new cues for the genetic alterations in one parental genome that are maintained even after the genome becomes independent.

  9. Determination of the Titanium Contents in the Winter Oilseed Rape Plants (Brassica napus L. by the Application of Fertilizer Containing Titanium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Kováčik

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to obtain the information about changes of titanium contents in the phytomass during the growing season of winter oilseed rape and about the titanium contents drawn by the rape yield during two farming years the small plot field trial was established. In the trial the fertilizer Mg-Titanit (MgTi containing 8.5 g of titanium in 1 liter was used. The experiment consisted of 5 treatments. 0 – control treatment without MgTi fertilizer; 2xTi0.2 – two applications of MgTi in the dose of 0.2 l/ha; 3xTi0.2 – three applications of MgTi in the dose of 0.2 l/ha; 2xTi0.4 – two applications of MgTi in the dose of 0.4 l/ha; 3xTi0.4 – three applications of MgTi in the dose of 0.4 l/ha. The fertilizer was applied in spring during two, or three different growth stages: BBCH 50, BBCH 59, BBCH 66. The first plant sampling was carried out shortly before the first application of fertilizer (BBCH 50. The second, third and fourth sampling was taken 2–3 weeks after the application of Mg-Titanitu (BBCH 59, BBCH 66, BBCH 71. The obtained results showed that the titanium content in the phytomass of rape was falling during the monitored period. The titanium content in the rape aboveground phytomass varied in the interval from 16.81 to 67.6 mg/kg and in the root in the interval from 56.6 to 258.81 mg/kg. The titanium application on plant leaves in the quantities from 3.4 to 10.2 g per hectare of soil did not have the unambiguous impact on the titanium content in the rape phytomass. In the yield of one tonne of seed and appropriate quantity of rape straw on average 20 grams of titanium was taken in.

  10. Contribution of Nitrogen Uptake and Retranslocation during Reproductive Growth to the Nitrogen Efficiency of Winter Oilseed-Rape Cultivars (Brassica napus L. Differing in Leaf Senescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian Koeslin-Findeklee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Genotypic variation in N efficiency defined as high grain yield under limited nitrogen (N supply of winter oilseed-rape line-cultivars has been predominantly attributed to N uptake efficiency (NUPT through maintained N uptake during reproductive growth related to functional stay-green. For investigating the role of stay-green, N retranslocation and N uptake during the reproductive phase for grain yield formation, two line cultivars differing in N starvation-induced leaf senescence were grown in a field experiment without mineral N (N0 and with 160 kg N·ha−1 (N160. Through frequent harvests from full flowering until maturity N uptake, N utilization and apparent N remobilization from vegetative plant parts to the pods could be calculated. NUPT proved being more important than N utilization efficiency (NUE for grain yield formation under N-limiting (N0 conditions. For cultivar differences in N efficiency, particularly N uptake during flowering (NUPT and biomass allocation efficiency (HI to the grains, were decisive. Both crop traits were related to delayed senescence of the older leaves. Remobilization of N particularly from stems and leaves was more important for pod N accumulation than N uptake after full flowering. Pod walls (high N concentrations and stems (high biomass mainly contributed to the crop-residue N at maturity. Decreasing the crop-inherent high N budget surplus of winter oilseed-rape requires increasing the low N remobilization efficiency particularly of pod-wall N to the grains. Addressing this conclusion, multi-year and -location field experiments with an extended range of cultivars including hybrids are desirable.

  11. Oilseed brassica improvement through induced mutations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, S.A.; Ali, I.; Rehman, K.

    1992-07-01

    The improvement in processing and refining technologies of oil seed brassica have now made possible the use of rape seed mustard oil as cooking medium shortening, salad ingredients and in margarine in many countries. Different promising rape seed mutants were tested for yield and other agronomic traits in eight preliminary yields trails and results of these trails are presented in this report. Three varieties of rape seeds were subjected to 80, 100, 120 krads and two varieties of mustard were treated 60, 80, 100 krads dose of gamma rays. (A.B.)

  12. Recent Genetic Gains in Nitrogen Use Efficiency in Oilseed Rape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, Andreas; Pfeifer, Mara; Frisch, Matthias; Wittkop, Benjamin; Snowdon, Rod J.

    2017-01-01

    Nitrogen is essential for plant growth, and N fertilization allows farmers to obtain high yields and produce sufficient agricultural commodities. On the other hand, nitrogen losses potentially cause adverse effects to ecosystems and to human health. Increasing nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) is vital to solve the conflict between productivity, to secure the demand of a growing world population, and the protection of the environment. To ensure this, genetic improvement is considered to be a paramount aspect toward ecofriendly crop production. Winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) is the second most important oilseed crop in the world and is cultivated in many regions across the temperate zones. To our knowledge, this study reports the most comprehensive field-based data generated to date for an empirical evaluation of genetic improvement in winter oilseed rape varieties under two divergent nitrogen fertilization levels (NFLs). A collection of 30 elite varieties registered between 1989 and 2014, including hybrids and open pollinated varieties, was tested in a 2-year experiment in 10 environments across Germany for changes in seed yield and seed quality traits. Furthermore, NUE was calculated. We observed a highly significant genetics-driven increase in seed yield per-se and, thus, increased NUE at both NFLs. On average, seed yield from modern open-pollinated varieties and modern hybrids was higher than from old open-pollinated varieties and old hybrids. The annual yield progress across all tested varieties was ~35 kg ha−1 year−1 at low nitrogen and 45 kg ha−1 year−1 under high nitrogen fertilization. Furthermore, in modern varieties an increased oil concentration and decreased protein concentration was observed. Despite, the significant effects of nitrogen fertilization, a surprisingly low average seed yield gap of 180 kg N ha−1 was noted between high and low nitrogen fertilization. Due to contrary effects of N fertilization on seed yield per-se and seed

  13. Ozone dose-response relationships for spring oilseed rape and broccoli

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bock, Maarten; Op de Beeck, Maarten; De Temmerman, Ludwig; Guisez, Yves; Ceulemans, Reinhart; Vandermeiren, Karine

    2011-03-01

    Tropospheric ozone is an important air pollutant with known detrimental effects for several crops. Ozone effects on seed yield, oil percentage, oil yield and 1000 seed weight were examined for spring oilseed rape ( Brassica napus cv. Ability). For broccoli ( Brassica oleracea L. cv. Italica cv. Monaco) the effects on fresh marketable weight and total dry weight were studied. Current ozone levels were compared with an increase of 20 and 40 ppb during 8 h per day, over the entire growing season. Oilseed rape seed yield was negatively correlated with ozone dose indices calculated from emergence until harvest. This resulted in an R2 of 0.24 and 0.26 ( p broccoli the applied ozone doses had no effect on yield.

  14. Differences between winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) cultivars in nitrogen starvation-induced leaf senescence are governed by leaf-inherent rather than root-derived signals

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Koeslin-Findeklee, F.; Becker, M. A.; van der Graaff, E.; Roitsch, Thomas; Horst, W. J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 66, č. 13 (2015), s. 3669-3681 ISSN 0022-0957 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : Brassica napus * cytokinins * genotypic differences * leaf senescence * nitrogen efficiency * nitrogen starvation * reciprocal grafting * stay-green Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 5.677, year: 2015

  15. Ozone effects on yield quality of spring oilseed rape and broccoli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandermeiren, Karine; De Bock, Maarten; Horemans, Nele; Guisez, Yves; Ceulemans, Reinhart; De Temmerman, Ludwig

    2012-02-01

    The impact of elevated tropospheric ozone (O 3) on the quality of spring oilseed rape ( Brassica napus cv Ability) and broccoli ( Brassica oleracea L. cv Italic cv Monaco) was assessed during a three year Open - Top Chamber (OTC) experiment. Current ambient O 3 levels were compared to an increase of 20 and 40 ppb during 8 h per day over the entire growing season. The qualitative responses were expressed as a function of the accumulated hourly O 3 concentrations over a threshold of 40 ppb (AOT40) and the phytotoxic O 3 dose above a threshold of 6 nmol s -1 m -2 projected leaf area (POD 6). Our results provide clear evidence that O 3 has an influence on the qualitative attributes of the harvested products of these Brassica species. The responses were comparable whether they were expressed as a function of the accumulated O 3 concentrations or of the modelled O 3 uptake. The protein concentration of oilseed rape seeds and broccoli heads was significantly increased in response to O 3. There was also a shift in the fatty acid composition of the vegetable oil derived from seeds of oilseed rape. Oleic acid (18:1) declined significantly ( p broccoli an important shift occurred from indolic to aliphatic GSLs although the total GSL concentration was not changed. The increase in the aliphatic/indolic GSL ratio ( p broccoli were not influenced by O 3; glutathione (GSH) was slightly increased in response to a higher O 3 uptake ( p < 0.05). The consequences of these changes with regard to food and feed quality and human health are discussed.

  16. The effect of phytohormones on the 133Cs and 88Sr accumulation in oilseed rape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Mengluo; Xu Changhe; Li Xinlei; Wang Dan

    2011-01-01

    The effect of uptake and distribution of 133 Cs and 88 Sr in the common plant-India mustard (Brassica napus L.) by exogenous phytohormones (Gibberelin-A 3 GA 3 , Salicylates, SA, 3-indole acetic acid, IAA) treatments were studied by using hydroponic experiment. The results shown as follows: the biomass of above-ground and that of roots of oilseed rape were obviously higher than that of contrary (non-hormone), and the accumulation of 133 Cs and 88 Sr increased as well, under the three phytohormones treatments. The distribution sequence of 133 Cs and 88 Sr in oilseed rape was roots>above-grounds, and the contents was 1 3 3 Cs> 88 Sr. The accumulation ability of phytohormones was GA>SA>IAA, the accumulation of 133 Cs or 88 Sr increased with the phytohormone concentration. The treatment of mid-level of Gibberelin-A 3 (500 mg/L) and Salicylates acid (500 μmol/L) increased the biomass, enrichment and the translocation factors under the low concentration of 133 Cs and 88 Sr stress (1 mmol/L). Therefore, the phyto-extraction efficiency was enhanced in oilseed rape by using exogenous phytohormones. (authors)

  17. Changes in seed weight in response to different sources: sink ratio in oilseed rape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco M Iglesias

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Little knowledge exists about the degree of source, sink and source: sink limitations on mean seed weight in oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.. The objective of this work was to analyze the nature and magnitude on seed weight response to assimilate availability during the effective seed-filling period in oilseed rape. Three Argentinean varieties, Eclipse, Impulse, and Master, were grown under field conditions, and at the beginning of the effective seed filling period, a broad range of source: sink manipulation combinations were produced. Source manipulations consisted of two incoming radiation (R level reductions: 0% (Rn and ~50% (Rs combined with three different sources: sink treatments were applied: C, control; PR, ~50% pod removal, and D, 100% defoliation. Rs significantly reduced yield (15% and MSW (12% with respect to Rn, without significant effects on the rest of the sub yield components. Source:sink manipulation treatments significantly affected all yield components. PR diminished yield by 29%, reducing ca. 40% seeds pl-1 by reductions pods pl-1 (41% with respect to Rn, whereas PR increased MSW by 19%, counterbalancing the reduction in seeds pl-1 and thereby in yield. When considering different seed positions along the main raceme, Rs reduced MSW by 12% independently of seed positions onto the raceme. On the contrary, PR increased MSW in average 17% with respect to C. Results reported here suggest that oilseed rape has source: sink co-limitation during the effective seed filling period, which is apparently higher than wheat and lower than maize.

  18. Uptake, translocation, and distribution of root-applied [C ring-U-14C]-ZJ0273 in plants of oilseed rape and rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Zheng; Han Ailiang; Zhang Yanfei; Li Juying; Wang Yue; Wang Haiyan; Ye Qingfu; Lu Long

    2009-01-01

    ZJ0273, propyl 4-(2-(4, 6-dimethoxypyrimidin-2-yloxy) benzylamino) benzoate, is a novel ALS-inhibited herbicide development for pre-and post-emergence weed control in field of oilseed rape. The comparative uptake, translocation and distribution of root-applied [C ring-U- 14 C] ZJ0273 in the plants of susceptible rice and tolerant oilseed rape were investigated under laboratory conditions. The results showed that the uptake of [C ring-U- 14 C]-ZJ0273 in both rice (Oryza sativa L.) and oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) increased with time. Larger percentage of the applied ZJ0273 was uptaken by rice than oilseed rape at any sampling time. At 384 hours after treatment, the uptake of [C ring-U- 14 C]-ZJ0273 reached 24.1% of the applied amount in rice, while only 4.1% of the applied in oilseed rape. The majority of the absorbed ZJ0273 remained in the root of the tested plants, which indicated the weak mobility of ZJ0273 and/or its metabolites in both the plants of susceptible rice and tolerant oilseed rape. The radioactivity per unit of dry weight in the roots and leaves of rice was 9.470 Bq/mg and 0.910 Bq/mg, respectively, which was significantly higher than that in oilseed rape (3.870 Bq/mg and 0.390 Bq/mg). Therefore, the difference in the total uptake of ZJ0273 and the accumulation of ZJ0273 and/or its metabolites perunit of dry weight between rice and oilseed rape, which revealed in this study, might be one of the reasons for the different susceptibility of rice and oilseed rape on ZJ0273. (authors)

  19. Oilseed rape genotypes response to boron toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savić Jasna

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Response of 16 oilseed rape genotypes to B (boron toxicity was analyzed by comparing the results of two experiments conducted in a glasshouse. In Experiment 1 plants were grown in standard nutrient solutions with 10 µMB (control and 1000 µM B. Relative root and shoot growth varied from 20-120% and 31-117%, respectively. Variation in B concentration in shoots was also wide (206.5-441.7 µg B g-1 DW as well as total B uptake by plant (62.3-281.2 µg B g1. Four selected genotypes were grown in Experiment 2 in pots filled with high B soil (8 kg ha-1 B; B8. Shoot growth was not affected by B8 treatment, while root and shoot B concentration was significantly increased compared to control. Genotypes Panther and Pronto which performed low relative root and shoot growth and high B accumulation in plants in Experiment 1, had good growth in B8 treatment. In Experiment 2 genotype NS-L-7 had significantly lower B concentration in shots under treatment B8, but also very high B accumulation in Experiment 1. In addition, cluster analyses classified genotypes in three groups according to traits contrasting in their significance for analyzing response to B toxicity. The first group included four varieties based on their shared characteristics that have small value for the relative growth of roots and shoots and large values of B concentration in shoot. In the second largest group were connected ten genotypes that are heterogeneous in traits and do not stand out on any characteristic. Genotypes NS-L-7 and Navajo were separated in the third group because they had big relative growth of root and shoot, but also a high concentration of B in the shoot, and high total B uptake. Results showed that none of tested genotypes could not be recommended for breeding process to tolerance for B toxicity. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. OI 173028

  20. Biological control of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (oilseed rape isolate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-06-27

    Jun 27, 2011 ... Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib) De Bary, the causal agent of stem rot of oilseed rape, is one of the most important phytopathogens. In order to find appropriate biocontrol agents, antagonistic and especially chitinolytical activities of 110 soil actinomycetes were examined. Among assayed isolates,.

  1. Biological control of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (oilseed rape isolate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib) De Bary, the causal agent of stem rot of oilseed rape, is one of the most important phytopathogens. In order to find appropriate biocontrol agents, antagonistic and especially chitinolytical activities of 110 soil actinomycetes were examined. Among assayed isolates, Streptomyces sp. isolate 422 ...

  2. Effect of cadmium on plants of oilseed rape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pesko, M.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the influence of some production parameters of hydroponically grown plants of new Czech species of oilseed rape Opponent by cadmium and determine the amount of cadmium accumulated in plant organs. Studying the effect of cadmium on plants of new Czech species of oilseed rape Opponent confirmed that application of metal reduced the length and also fresh and dry weight of plant organs, while the inhibitory effect of Cd with increasing concentration of metal in solution increased. Plant roots responded to toxic effect of Cd more responsive. As a result of Cd applications occurred a significant decrease of content of assimilation pigments (chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, carotenoids) in plant leaves. Species of rape Opponent is a significant Cd battery, and for these plants is characterized by a high rate of translocation of this metal into the shoots.

  3. Genome-Wide Identification of MicroRNAs in Response to Cadmium Stress in Oilseed Rape (Brassica napus L. Using High-Throughput Sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongju Jian

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs have important roles in regulating stress-response genes in plants. However, identification of miRNAs and the corresponding target genes that are induced in response to cadmium (Cd stress in Brassica napus remains limited. In the current study, we sequenced three small-RNA libraries from B. napus after 0 days, 1 days, and 3 days of Cd treatment. In total, 44 known miRNAs (belonging to 27 families and 103 novel miRNAs were identified. A comprehensive analysis of miRNA expression profiles found 39 differentially expressed miRNAs between control and Cd-treated plants; 13 differentially expressed miRNAs were confirmed by qRT-PCR. Characterization of the corresponding target genes indicated functions in processes including transcription factor regulation, biotic stress response, ion homeostasis, and secondary metabolism. Furthermore, we propose a hypothetical model of the Cd-response mechanism in B. napus. Combined with qRT-PCR confirmation, our data suggested that miRNAs were involved in the regulations of TFs, biotic stress defense, ion homeostasis and secondary metabolism synthesis to respond Cd stress in B. napus.

  4. Ethanol production from rape straw: Part of an oilseed rape biorefinery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arvaniti, Efthalia

    The aim of this study was 1) present an oilseed rape whole crop biorefinery; 2) to investigate the best available experimental conditions for production of cellulosic ethanol from rape straw, and included the processes of thermo-chemical pretreatment, enzymatic hydrolysis, and C6 fermentation......, and 3) to couple cellulosic ethanol production to production of cellulolytic enzymes that are needed for cellulosic ethanol production, inside a rape straw biorefinery. For the first is based less on available experiments, and more on literature review. The second and third study conclusions were drawn...... rapeseed biodiesel plant of Europe to an oilseed rape whole-crop biorefinery by 2020 is envisioned and discussed. The description and discussion of this biorefinery is based partly on literature review, and partly on own experimental data, especially on pretreatment of rape straw, and production...

  5. Proteomic Analysis of Pollen and Blossom Honey from Rape Seed Brassica Napus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borutinskaitė Veronika

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In the study, honey from oilseed rape Brassica napus L., and both hand-collected (winter rape Visby and Cult and bee-collected pollen of oilseed rape were analyzed for their proteome content, in order to see if any plant proteins were present to allow the proteo-typing of the oilseed rape honey. Proteins were fractionated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE, stained by Coomassie blue and then analyzed by mass spectrometry. All identified proteins were divided into few groups due to their biological function. In 2DE gels with separated proteins from blossom honey, only bee (Apis mellifera main proteins (Major royal jelly protein 1-5 and Glucosidase were found. So we analyzed all proteins using gel-free based analysis with the SYNAPT G2 high definition mass spectrometry. We identified proteins that were present in both oilseed rape pollen and honey (Bna, Polygalacturonase, Non-specific lipid-transfer protein, GAPDH and others. We believe that these proteins are important for the nutritional value of plant pollen-enriched honey and further research is required on honey and honeybee pollen protein.

  6. Remote Diagnosis of Nitrogen Status in Winter Oilseed Rape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, S.

    2016-12-01

    Winter oilseed rape is one of the most important oilseed crops in the world. Compared with cereal crops, it requires high amount of nitrogen (N) supplies, but it is also characterized by low N use efficiency. The N nutrition index (NNI), defined as the ratio of the actual plant N concentration (PNC) to the critical PNC at a given biomass level, has been widely used to diagnose plant N status and to aid optimizing N fertilization. But traditional techniques to determine NNI in the lab are time-consuming and expensive. Remote sensing provides a promising approach for large-scale and rapid monitoring and diagnosis of crop N status. In this study, we conducted the experiment in the winter oilseed rape field with eight fertilization treatments in the growing season of 2014 and 2015. PNC, dry mass, and canopy spectra were measured during the different growth stages of winter oilseed rape. The N dilution curve was developed with measurements, and NNI was computed and analyzed for different treatments and different growth stage. For the same treatment, NNI decreased as more leaves were developing. Two methods were applied to remotely estimating NNI for winter oilseed rape: (1) NNI was estimated directly with vegetation indices (VIs) derived from canopy spectra; (2) the actual PNC and the critical PNC at the given biomass level were estimated separately with different types of VIs, and NNI was then computed with the two parts of the estimations. We found that VIs based solely on bands in the visible region provided the most accurate estimates of PNC. Estimating NNI directly with VIs had better performance than estimating the actual PNC and the critical PNC separately.

  7. Quantitative Multilevel Analysis of Central Metabolism in Developing Oilseeds of Oilseed Rape During In Vitro Culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwender, Jorg [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Hebbelmann, Inga [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Heinzel, Nicholas [Leibniz Inst. of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research, Gatersleben (Germany); Hildebrandt, Tatjana [Univ. of Hannover (Germany); Rogers, Alistair [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Naik, Dhiraj [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Indian Inst. of Advanced Research Koba, Gujarat (India); Klapperstuck, Matthias [Monash Univ., Melbourne, VIC (Australia); Braun, Hans -Peter [Univ. of Hannover (Germany); Schreiber, Falk [Monash Univ., Melbourne, VIC (Australia); Univ. Halle-Wittenberg, Melbourne (Australia); Denolf, Peter [Bayer CropScience (Belgium); Borisjuk, Ljudmilla [Leibniz Inst. of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research, Gatersleben (Germany); Rolletschek, Hardy [Leibniz Inst. of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research, Gatersleben (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    Seeds provide the basis for many food, feed, and fuel products. Continued increases in seed yield, composition, and quality require an improved understanding of how the developing seed converts carbon and nitrogen supplies into storage. Current knowledge of this process is often based on the premise that transcriptional regulation directly translates via enzyme concentration into flux. In an attempt to highlight metabolic control, we explore genotypic differences in carbon partitioning for in vitro cultured developing embryos of oilseed rape (Brassica napus). We determined biomass composition as well as 79 net fluxes, the levels of 77 metabolites, and 26 enzyme activities with specific focus on central metabolism in nine selected germplasm accessions. We observed a tradeoff between the biomass component fractions of lipid and starch. With increasing lipid content over the spectrum of genotypes, plastidic fatty acid synthesis and glycolytic flux increased concomitantly, while glycolytic intermediates decreased. The lipid/starch tradeoff was not reflected at the proteome level, pointing to the significance of (posttranslational) metabolic control. Enzyme activity/flux and metabolite/flux correlations suggest that plastidic pyruvate kinase exerts flux control and that the lipid/starch tradeoff is most likely mediated by allosteric feedback regulation of phosphofructokinase and ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase. Also, quantitative data were used to calculate in vivo mass action ratios, reaction equilibria, and metabolite turnover times. Compounds like cyclic 3',5'-AMP and sucrose-6-phosphate were identified to potentially be involved in so far unknown mechanisms of metabolic control. This study provides a rich source of quantitative data for those studying central metabolism..

  8. Effects of strontium stress on antioxidant characteristics of oilseed rape seedling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ao Jia; Tang Yunlai; Chen Mei; An Bing; Wang Dan; Tao Yang

    2010-01-01

    Seedlings of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) were treated with different concentration of Sr 2+ (0, 10, 20, 40 mmol/L SrCl 2 ) for 0, 7, 14, 21 days under quartz sand and Hoagland solution culture, and the antioxidant characteristics and Sr 2+ accumulation of seedling were investigated. Rape seedlings showed high accumulation capacity for strontium, especial the leaves. But the accumulation capacity declined with the increasing of Sr 2+ concentration. The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and the content of malondialdehyde (MDA) increased with the increasing of Sr 2+ concentration and then declined with the extention of the stress time. The activity of catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD) declined with the increasing of the Sr 2+ accumulation capacity. This study showed that oilseed rape had a very high strontium-tolerant and strontium-uptake capacity, and leaf was the organ that accumulates most of strontium. The accumulation capacity and activity of CAT, POD exhibited a significantly-negative correlation. (authors)

  9. Mapping Above-Ground Biomass of Winter Oilseed Rape Using High Spatial Resolution Satellite Data at Parcel Scale under Waterlogging Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiahui Han

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Oilseed rape (Brassica napus L. is one of the three most important oil crops in China, and is regarded as a drought-tolerant oilseed crop. However, it is commonly sensitive to waterlogging, which usually refers to an adverse environment that limits crop development. Moreover, crop growth and soil irrigation can be monitored at a regional level using remote sensing data. High spatial resolution optical satellite sensors are very useful to capture and resist unfavorable field conditions at the sub-field scale. In this study, four different optical sensors, i.e., Pleiades-1A, Worldview-2, Worldview-3, and SPOT-6, were used to estimate the dry above-ground biomass (AGB of oilseed rape and track the seasonal growth dynamics. In addition, three different soil water content field experiments were carried out at different oilseed rape growth stages from November 2014 to May 2015 in Northern Zhejiang province, China. As a significant indicator of crop productivity, AGB was measured during the seasonal growth stages of the oilseed rape at the experimental plots. Several representative vegetation indices (VIs obtained from multiple satellite sensors were compared with the simultaneously-collected oilseed rape AGB. Results showed that the estimation model using the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI with a power regression model performed best through the seasonal growth dynamics, with the highest coefficient of determination (R2 = 0.77, the smallest root mean square error (RMSE = 104.64 g/m2, and the relative RMSE (rRMSE = 21%. It is concluded that the use of selected VIs and high spatial multiple satellite data can significantly estimate AGB during the winter oilseed rape growth stages, and can be applied to map the variability of winter oilseed rape at the sub-field level under different waterlogging conditions, which is very promising in the application of agricultural irrigation and precision agriculture.

  10. Arthropod Pest Control for UK Oilseed Rape - Comparing Insecticide Efficacies, Side Effects and Alternatives.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Zhang

    Full Text Available Oilseed rape (Brassica napus is an important combinable break crop in the UK, which is largely protected from arthropod pests by insecticidal chemicals. Despite ongoing debate regarding the use of neonicotinoids, the dominant seed treatment ingredients used for this crop, there is little publicly available data comparing the efficacy of insecticides in controlling key arthropod pests or comparing the impacts on non-target species and the wider environment. To provide an insight into these matters, a UK-wide expert survey targeting agronomists and entomologists was conducted from March to June 2015. Based on the opinions of 90 respondents, an average of 20% yield loss caused by the key arthropod pests was expected to have occurred in the absence of insecticide treatments. Relatively older chemical groups were perceived to have lower efficacy for target pests than newer ones, partly due to the development of insecticide resistance. Without neonicotinoid seed treatments, a lack of good control for cabbage stem flea beetle was perceived. Wide spectrum foliar insecticide sprays were perceived to have significantly greater negative impacts than seed treatments on users' health, natural enemies, pollinators, soil and water, and many foliar active ingredients have had potential risks for non-target arthropod species in UK oilseed rape fields for the past 25 years. Overall, 72% of respondents opposed the neonicotinoid restriction, while 10% supported it. Opposition and support of the restriction were largely based on concerns for pollinators and the wider environment, highlighting the uncertainty over the side effects of neonicotinoid use. More people from the government and research institutes leaned towards neutrality over the issue, compared to those directly involved in growing the crop. Neonicotinoid restriction was expected to result in greater effort and expenditure on pest control and lower production (0-1 t/ha less. Alternatives for future

  11. Formulations of Bacillus subtilis BY-2 suppress Sclerotinia sclerotiorum on oilseed rape in the field

    Science.gov (United States)

    We are developing a collection of Bacillus strains, isolated from different environments, for use in controlling Sclerotinia sclerotiorum on oilseed rape in China and elsewhere. Strain BY-2, isolated from internal tissues of an oilseed rape root, was demonstrated to be Bacillus subtilis based on bi...

  12. Components of a Rice-Oilseed Rape Production System Augmented with Trichoderma sp. Tri-1 Control Sclerotinia sclerotiorum on Oilseed Rape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiaojia; Roberts, Daniel P; Xie, Lihua; Maul, Jude E; Yu, Changbing; Li, Yinshui; Zhang, Yinbo; Qin, Lu; Liao, Xing

    2015-10-01

    Sclerotinia sclerotiorum causes serious yield losses on many crops throughout the world. A multicomponent treatment that consisted of the residual rice straw remaining after rice harvest and Trichoderma sp. Tri-1 (Tri-1) formulated with the oilseed rape seedcake fertilizer was used in field soil infested with S. sclerotiorum. This treatment resulted in oilseed rape seed yield that was significantly greater than the nontreated control or when the fungicide carbendizem was used in the presence of this pathogen in field trials. Yield data suggested that the rice straw, oilseed rape seedcake, and Tri-1 components of this treatment all contributed incrementally. Similar treatment results were obtained regarding reduction in disease incidence. Slight improvements in yield and disease incidence were detected when this multicomponent treatment was combined with a fungicide spray. Inhibition of sclerotial germination by this multicomponent treatment trended greater than the nontreated control at 90, 120, and 150 days in field studies but was not significantly different from this control. This multicomponent treatment resulted in increased yield relative to the nontreated control in the absence of pathogen in a greenhouse pot study, while the straw alone and the straw plus oilseed rape seedcake treatments did not; suggesting that Tri-1 was capable of promoting growth. Experiments reported here indicate that a treatment containing components of a rice-oilseed rape production system augmented with Tri-1 can control S. sclerotiorum on oilseed rape, be used in integrated strategies containing fungicide sprays for control of this pathogen, and promote plant growth.

  13. Annual dynamics of wild bee densities: attractiveness and productivity effects of oilseed rape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedinger, Verena; Mitesser, Oliver; Hovestadt, Thomas; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf; Holzschuh, Andrea

    2015-05-01

    Mass-flowering crops may affect long-term population dynamics, but effects on pollinators have never been studied across several years. We monitored wild bees in oilseed rape fields in 16 landscapes in Germany in two consecutive years. Effects on bee densities of landscape oilseed rape cover in the years of monitoring and in the previous years were evaluated with landscape data from three consecutive years. We fit empirical data to a mechanistic model to provide estimates for oilseed rape attractiveness and its effect on bee productivity in comparison to the rest of the landscape, and we evaluated consequences for pollinator densities in consecutive years. Our results show that high oilseed rape cover in the previous year enhances current densities of wild bees (except for bumble bees). Moreover, we show a strong attractiveness of and dilution on (i.e., decreasing bee densities with increasing landscape oilseed rape cover) oilseed rape for bees during flowering in the current year, modifying the effect of the previous year's oilseed rape cover in the case of wild bees (excluding Bombus). As long as other factors such as nesting sites or natural enemies do not limit bee reproduction, our findings suggest long-term positive effects of mass-flowering crops on bee populations, at least for non-Bombus generalists, which possibly help to maintain crop pollination services even when crop area increases. Similar effects are conceivable for other organisms providing ecosystem services in annual crops and should be considered in future studies.

  14. Climate change and genetically modified insecticidal plants. Plant-herbivore interactions and secondary chemistry of Bt Cry1Ac-toxin producing oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) under elevated CO{sub 2} or O{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Himanen, S.

    2008-07-01

    Transgenic insect-resistant plants producing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) crystalline endotoxins are the first commercial applications of genetically modified crops and their use has steadily expanded over the last ten years. Together with the expanding agricultural use of transgenic crops, climate change is predicted to be among the major factors affecting agriculture in the coming years. Plants, herbivores and insects of higher trophic levels are all predicted to be affected by the current atmospheric climate change. However, only very few studies to date have addressed the sustained use and herbivore interactions of Bt-producing plants under the influence of these abiotic factors. The main objective of this study was to comparatively assess the performance of a Bt Cry1Ac toxin-producing oilseed rape line and its non-transgenic parent line in terms of vegetative growth and allocation to secondary defence compounds (glucosinolates and volatile terpenoids), and the performance of Bt-target and nontarget insect herbivores as well as tritrophic interaction functioning on these lines. For this, several growth chamber experiments with vegetative stage non-Bt and Bt plants facing exposures to doubled atmospheric CO{sub 2} level alone or together with increased temperature and different regimes of elevated O{sub 3} were conducted. The main hypothesis of this work was that Bt-transgenic plants have reduced performance or allocation to secondary compounds due to the cost of producing Bt toxin under changed abiotic environments. The Bt-transgenic oilseed rape line exhibited slightly delayed vegetative growth and had increased nitrogen and reduced carbon content compared to the non-transgenic parent line, but the physiological responses (i.e. biomass gain and photosynthesis) of the plant lines to CO{sub 2} and O{sub 3} enhancements were equal. Two aphid species, non-susceptible to Bt Cry1Ac, showed equal performance and reproduction on both plant lines under elevated CO{sub 2

  15. Remote Estimation of Vegetation Fraction and Yield in Oilseed Rape with Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Y.; Fang, S.; Liu, K.; Gong, Y.

    2017-12-01

    This study developed an approach for remote estimation of Vegetation Fraction (VF) and yield in oilseed rape, which is a crop species with conspicuous flowers during reproduction. Canopy reflectance in green, red, red edge and NIR bands was obtained by a camera system mounted on an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) when oilseed rape was in the vegetative growth and flowering stage. The relationship of several widely-used Vegetation Indices (VI) vs. VF was tested and found to be different in different phenology stages. At the same VF when oilseed rape was flowering, canopy reflectance increased in all bands, and the tested VI decreased. Therefore, two algorithms to estimate VF were calibrated respectively, one for samples during vegetative growth and the other for samples during flowering stage. During the flowering season, we also explored the potential of using canopy reflectance or VIs to estimate Flower Fraction (FF) in oilseed rape. Based on FF estimates, rape yield can be estimated using canopy reflectance data. Our model was validated in oilseed rape planted under different nitrogen fertilization applications and in different phenology stages. The results showed that it was able to predict VF and FF accurately in oilseed rape with estimation error below 6% and predict yield with estimation error below 20%.

  16. Genome-Wide Identification and Expression Profiling of Cytokinin Oxidase/Dehydrogenase (CKX) Genes Reveal Likely Roles in Pod Development and Stress Responses in Oilseed Rape (Brassica napus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Pu; Zhang, Chao; Ma, Jin-Qi; Zhang, Li-Yuan; Yang, Bo; Tang, Xin-Yu; Huang, Ling; Zhou, Xin-Tong; Lu, Kun; Li, Jia-Na

    2018-03-16

    Cytokinin oxidase/dehydrogenases (CKXs) play a critical role in the irreversible degradation of cytokinins, thereby regulating plant growth and development. Brassica napus is one of the most widely cultivated oilseed crops worldwide. With the completion of whole-genome sequencing of B. napus , genome-wide identification and expression analysis of the BnCKX gene family has become technically feasible. In this study, we identified 23 BnCKX genes and analyzed their phylogenetic relationships, gene structures, conserved motifs, protein subcellular localizations, and other properties. We also analyzed the expression of the 23 BnCKX genes in the B. napus cultivar Zhong Shuang 11 ('ZS11') by quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), revealing their diverse expression patterns. We selected four BnCKX genes based on the results of RNA-sequencing and qRT-PCR and compared their expression in cultivated varieties with extremely long versus short siliques. The expression levels of BnCKX5-1 , 5-2 , 6-1 , and 7-1 significantly differed between the two lines and changed during pod development, suggesting they might play roles in determining silique length and in pod development. Finally, we investigated the effects of treatment with the synthetic cytokinin 6-benzylaminopurine (6-BA) and the auxin indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) on the expression of the four selected BnCKX genes. Our results suggest that regulating BnCKX expression is a promising way to enhance the harvest index and stress resistance in plants.

  17. Nondestructive determination of nutritional information in oilseed rape leaves using visible/near infrared spectroscopy and multivariate calibrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu Fei, [No Value; Nie PengCheng, [No Value; Huang Min, [No Value; Kong WenWen, [No Value; He Yong, [No Value

    Nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium content are the three most important nutritional parameters for growing oilseed rape. We investigated visible and near infrared (Vis/NIR) spectroscopy combined with chemometrics for the fast and nondestructive determination of nutritional information in oilseed

  18. Ethanol production from rape straw: Part of an oilseed rape biorefinery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arvaniti, E

    2010-12-15

    Agricultural residues from rapeseed biodiesel industry (rapeseed cake, rape straw, crude glycerol), which represent the 82%wt. of the oilseed rape, currently have only low-grade applications in the market. For this, a scenario was built on exploiting qualities of rapeseed biodiesel residues for forming added-value products, and expanding and upgrading an existing biodiesel plant, to an oilseed rape biorefinery by 2020 in European ground. Selection of products was based on a technological feasibility study given the time frame, while priority was given to Low-Value-High-Volume readily marketed products, like production of energy and feed. Products selected except rapeseed biodiesel, were ethanol, biogas, enzymes energy, chemical building blocks, and superior quality animal fodder. The production lines were analyzed and prospects for 2020 were projected on a critical basis. Particular merit was given to two products, ethanol from cellulose, and cellulolytic enzymes from rape straw. Cellulosic ethanol from rape straw was optimized for all production steps, i.e. for thermo-chemical pretreatment, enzyme hydrolysis, and fermentation of C6 sugars. Thermo-chemical pretreatment was studied with Wet oxidation technique at different conditions of temperature, reaction time, and oxygen pressure, but also factors like pre-soaking straw in warm water, or recycling liquid were also studied. Wet oxidation has been extensively tested in the past for different substrates, and gives promising results with indicators that are important for cellulosic ethanol production; C6 sugars recovery, high digestibility for enzymes, and limited formed degradation products. Here, optimal pretreatment conditions for rape straw were first presoaking rape straw at 80 deg. C for 20 minutes, and then wet-oxidize with 12 bar of oxygen at 205 deg. C for 3 minutes. Recovery of cellulose and hemicellulose under these conditions was 105% and 106% respectively, while recovery of lignin was 86%. When this

  19. Ethanol production from rape straw: Part of an oilseed rape biorefinery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arvaniti, E.

    2010-12-15

    Agricultural residues from rapeseed biodiesel industry (rapeseed cake, rape straw, crude glycerol), which represent the 82%wt. of the oilseed rape, currently have only low-grade applications in the market. For this, a scenario was built on exploiting qualities of rapeseed biodiesel residues for forming added-value products, and expanding and upgrading an existing biodiesel plant, to an oilseed rape biorefinery by 2020 in European ground. Selection of products was based on a technological feasibility study given the time frame, while priority was given to Low-Value-High-Volume readily marketed products, like production of energy and feed. Products selected except rapeseed biodiesel, were ethanol, biogas, enzymes energy, chemical building blocks, and superior quality animal fodder. The production lines were analyzed and prospects for 2020 were projected on a critical basis. Particular merit was given to two products, ethanol from cellulose, and cellulolytic enzymes from rape straw. Cellulosic ethanol from rape straw was optimized for all production steps, i.e. for thermo-chemical pretreatment, enzyme hydrolysis, and fermentation of C6 sugars. Thermo-chemical pretreatment was studied with Wet oxidation technique at different conditions of temperature, reaction time, and oxygen pressure, but also factors like pre-soaking straw in warm water, or recycling liquid were also studied. Wet oxidation has been extensively tested in the past for different substrates, and gives promising results with indicators that are important for cellulosic ethanol production; C6 sugars recovery, high digestibility for enzymes, and limited formed degradation products. Here, optimal pretreatment conditions for rape straw were first presoaking rape straw at 80 deg. C for 20 minutes, and then wet-oxidize with 12 bar of oxygen at 205 deg. C for 3 minutes. Recovery of cellulose and hemicellulose under these conditions was 105% and 106% respectively, while recovery of lignin was 86%. When this

  20. Components of a rice-oilseed rape production system augmented with trichoderma sp. Tri-1 control sclerotinia sclerotiorum on oilseed rape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sclerotinia sclerotiorum causes serious yield losses on many crops throughout the world. In two field trials conducted at the same location in consecutive years, a treatment containing formulated Trichoderma harzianum-1 (Tri-1) resulted in oilseed rape seed yield that was significantly greater than...

  1. You reap what you sow - or do you? volunteers in organic row-sown and broadcast-sown oilseed rape fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Naja Steen; Rasmussen, Jesper; Bagger Jørgensen, Rikke

    2010-01-01

    The frequency and origin of oilseed rape volunteers in organic row and broadcast-sown oilseed rape fields was evaluated using DNA markers (ISSR) for analysis of potential volunteers in nine organic oilseed rape fields with different history. Using the software AFLPOP, the potential volunteers wer...

  2. Cadmium uptake and speciation changes in the rhizosphere of cadmium accumulator and non-accumulator oilseed rape varieties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU Dechun; XING Jianping; JIAO Weiping; WONG Woonchung

    2009-01-01

    Characteristics of cadmium (Cd) uptake kinetics and distribution of Cd speciation in the rhizosphere for Cd accumulator and non-accumulator oilseed rape varieties were investigated under nutrient solution and rhizobox soil culture conditions.The results showed that the maximal influx (Vmax) for Cd2+ and Km were significantly different for the two oilseed rape varieties.The value of Vmax for Cd accumulator oilseed rape Zhucang Huazi was two-fold greater than that for oilseed rape Chuangyou II-93.The exchangeable Cd concentration in the rhizosphere was significantly lower than in non-rhizospheric soils supplemented with Cd as CdSO4 for both the varieties.Carbonate-bound Cd in the rhizosphere of Cd accumulator oilseed rape was significantly higher than that in the rhizosphere of non-accumulator oilseed rape and non-rhizospheric soil.Cd accumulator oilseed rape had a higher Cd2+ affinity and more ability to uptake insoluble Cd in the soil than the non-accumulator oilseed rape.

  3. Plasticity of seed weight compensates reductions in seed number of oilseed rape in response to shading at flowering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Labra Fernandez, Marcelo; Struik, Paul C.; Evers, Jochem B.; Calderini, Daniel F.

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the response of the number of seeds and seed weight to the availability of assimilates is crucial for designing breeding strategies aimed to increase seed and oil yield in oilseed rape. This study aims to answer the questions: i) do seed number and seed weight in oilseed rape differ

  4. Reprogramming the Phenylpropanoid Metabolism in Seeds of Oilseed Rape by Suppressing the Orthologs of REDUCED EPIDERMAL FLUORESCENCE11[W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittasch, Juliane; Böttcher, Christoph; Frolov, Andrej; Strack, Dieter; Milkowski, Carsten

    2013-01-01

    As a result of the phenylpropanoid pathway, many Brassicaceae produce considerable amounts of soluble hydroxycinnamate conjugates, mainly sinapate esters. From oilseed rape (Brassica napus), we cloned two orthologs of the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) gene REDUCED EPIDERMAL FLUORESCENCE1 (REF1) encoding a coniferaldehyde/sinapaldehyde dehydrogenase. The enzyme is involved in the formation of ferulate and sinapate from the corresponding aldehydes, thereby linking lignin and hydroxycinnamate biosynthesis as a potential branch-point enzyme. We used RNA interference to silence REF1 genes in seeds of oilseed rape. Nontargeted metabolite profiling showed that BnREF1-suppressing seeds produced a novel chemotype characterized by reduced levels of sinapate esters, the appearance of conjugated monolignols, dilignols, and trilignols, altered accumulation patterns of kaempferol glycosides, and changes in minor conjugates of caffeate, ferulate, and 5-hydroxyferulate. BnREF1 suppression affected the level of minor sinapate conjugates more severely than that of the major component sinapine. Mapping of the changed metabolites onto the phenylpropanoid metabolic network revealed partial redirection of metabolic sequences as a major impact of BnREF1 suppression. PMID:23424250

  5. Reprogramming the phenylpropanoid metabolism in seeds of oilseed rape by suppressing the orthologs of reduced epidermal fluorescence1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittasch, Juliane; Böttcher, Christoph; Frolov, Andrej; Strack, Dieter; Milkowski, Carsten

    2013-04-01

    As a result of the phenylpropanoid pathway, many Brassicaceae produce considerable amounts of soluble hydroxycinnamate conjugates, mainly sinapate esters. From oilseed rape (Brassica napus), we cloned two orthologs of the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) gene reduced epidermal fluorescence1 (REF1) encoding a coniferaldehyde/sinapaldehyde dehydrogenase. The enzyme is involved in the formation of ferulate and sinapate from the corresponding aldehydes, thereby linking lignin and hydroxycinnamate biosynthesis as a potential branch-point enzyme. We used RNA interference to silence REF1 genes in seeds of oilseed rape. Nontargeted metabolite profiling showed that BnREF1-suppressing seeds produced a novel chemotype characterized by reduced levels of sinapate esters, the appearance of conjugated monolignols, dilignols, and trilignols, altered accumulation patterns of kaempferol glycosides, and changes in minor conjugates of caffeate, ferulate, and 5-hydroxyferulate. BnREF1 suppression affected the level of minor sinapate conjugates more severely than that of the major component sinapine. Mapping of the changed metabolites onto the phenylpropanoid metabolic network revealed partial redirection of metabolic sequences as a major impact of BnREF1 suppression.

  6. Root length densities of UK wheat and oilseed rape crops with implications for water capture and yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Charlotte A.; Sylvester-Bradley, Roger; Berry, Peter M.

    2015-01-01

    Root length density (RLD) was measured to 1 m depth for 17 commercial crops of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) and 40 crops of winter oilseed rape [Brassica napus; oilseed rape (OSR)] grown in the UK between 2004 and 2013. Taking the critical RLD (cRLD) for water capture as 1cm cm–3, RLDs appeared inadequate for full water capture on average below a depth of 0.32 m for winter wheat and below 0.45 m for OSR. These depths compare unfavourably (for wheat) with average depths of ‘full capture’ of 0.86 m and 0.48 m, respectively, determined for three wheat crops and one OSR crop studied in the 1970s and 1980s, and treated as references here. A simple model of water uptake and yield indicated that these shortfalls in wheat and OSR rooting compared with the reference data might be associated with shortfalls of up to 3.5 t ha–1 and 1.2 t ha–1, respectively, in grain yields under water-limited conditions, as increasingly occur through climate change. Coupled with decreased summer rainfall, poor rooting of modern arable crops could explain much of the yield stagnation that has been observed on UK farms since the 1990s. Methods of monitoring and improving rooting under commercial conditions are reviewed and discussed. PMID:25750427

  7. Specifics of soil temperature under winter oilseed rape canopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krčmářová, Jana; Středa, Tomáš; Pokorný, Radovan

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the course of soil temperature under the winter oilseed rape canopy and to determine relationships between soil temperature, air temperature and partly soil moisture. In addition, the aim was to describe the dependence by means of regression equations usable for pests and pathogens prediction, crop development, and yields models. The measurement of soil and near the ground air temperatures was performed at the experimental field Žabiče (South Moravia, the Czech Republic). The course of temperature was determined under or in the winter oilseed rape canopy during spring growth season in the course of four years (2010 - 2012 and 2014). In all years, the standard varieties (Petrol, Sherpa) were grown, in 2014 the semi-dwarf variety PX104 was added. Automatic soil sensors were positioned at three depths (0.05, 0.10 and 0.20 m) under soil surface, air temperature sensors in 0.05 m above soil surfaces. The course of soil temperature differs significantly between standard (Sherpa and Petrol) and semi-dwarf (PX104) varieties. Results of the cross correlation analysis showed, that the best interrelationships between air and soil temperature were achieved in 2 hours delay for the soil temperature in 0.05 m, 4 hour delay for 0.10 m and 7 hour delay for 0.20 m for standard varieties. For semi-dwarf variety, this delay reached 6 hour for the soil temperature in 0.05 m, 7 hour delay for 0.10 m and 11 hour for 0.20 m. After the time correction, the determination coefficient (R2) reached values from 0.67 to 0.95 for 0.05 m, 0.50 to 0.84 for 0.10 m in variety Sherpa during all experimental years. For variety PX104 this coefficient reached values from 0.51 to 0.72 in 0.05 m depth and from 0.39 to 0.67 in 0.10 m depth in the year 2014. The determination coefficient in the 0.20 m depth was lower for both varieties; its values were from 0.15 to 0.65 in variety Sherpa. In variety PX104 the values of R2 from 0.23 to 0.57 were determined. When using

  8. In-field frequencies and characteristics of oilseed rape with double herbicide resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz-Pfeilstetter, Antje; Zwerger, Peter

    2009-01-01

    When growing different transgenic herbicide-resistant oilseed rape cultivars side by side, seeds with multiple herbicide resistance can arise, possibly causing problems for the management of volunteer plants. Large-scale field experiments were performed in the years 1999/2000 and 2000/2001 in order to investigate the frequencies and the consequences of the transfer of herbicide resistance genes from transgenic oilseed rape to cultivars grown on neighboring agricultural fields. Transgenic oilseed rape with resistance to glufosinate-ammonium (LibertyLink, LL) and with glyphosate resistance (RoundupReady, RR), respectively, was sown in adjacent 0.5 ha plots, surrounded by about 8 ha non-transgenic oilseed rape. The plots and the field were either in direct contact (0.5 m gap width) or they were separated by 10 m of fallow land. Seed samples taken during harvest in the transgenic plots at different distances were investigated for progeny with resistance to the respective other herbicide. It was found that outcrossing frequencies were reduced to different extents by a 10 m isolation distance. In addition to pollen-mediated transgene flow as a result of outcrossing, we found considerable seed-mediated gene flow by adventitious dispersal of transgenic seeds through the harvesting machine. Volunteer plants with double herbicide resistance emerging in the transgenic plots after harvest were selected by suitable applications of the complementary herbicides Basta and Roundup Ultra. In both years, double-resistant volunteers were largely restricted to the inner edges of the plots. Expression analysis under controlled laboratory conditions of double-resistant plants generated by manual crosses revealed stability of transgene expression even at elevated temperatures. Greenhouse tests with double-resistant oilseed rape plants gave no indication that the sensitivity to a range of different herbicides is changed as compared to non-transgenic oilseed rape.

  9. Remote Estimation of Vegetation Fraction and Flower Fraction in Oilseed Rape with Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shenghui Fang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study developed an approach for remote estimation of Vegetation Fraction (VF and Flower Fraction (FF in oilseed rape, which is a crop species with conspicuous flowers during reproduction. Canopy reflectance in green, red, red edge and NIR bands was obtained by a camera system mounted on an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV when oilseed rape was in the vegetative growth and flowering stage. The relationship of several widely-used Vegetation Indices (VI vs. VF was tested and found to be different in different phenology stages. At the same VF when oilseed rape was flowering, canopy reflectance increased in all bands, and the tested VI decreased. Therefore, two algorithms to estimate VF were calibrated respectively, one for samples during vegetative growth and the other for samples during flowering stage. The results showed that the Visible Atmospherically Resistant Index (VARIgreen worked most accurately for estimating VF in flower-free samples with an Root Mean Square Error (RMSE of 3.56%, while the Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI2 was the best in flower-containing samples with an RMSE of 5.65%. Based on reflectance in green and NIR bands, a technique was developed to identify whether a sample contained flowers and then to choose automatically the appropriate algorithm for its VF estimation. During the flowering season, we also explored the potential of using canopy reflectance or VIs to estimate FF in oilseed rape. No significant correlation was observed between VI and FF when soil was visible in the sensor’s field of view. Reflectance at 550 nm worked well for FF estimation with coefficient of determination (R2 above 0.6. Our model was validated in oilseed rape planted under different nitrogen fertilization applications and in different phenology stages. The results showed that it was able to predict VF and FF accurately in oilseed rape with RMSE below 6%.

  10. 'Abasin-95', a new oilseed rape cultivar developed through induced mutations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, S.A.; Ali, I.; Rahman, K.

    2001-01-01

    Brassica oilseeds are the second most important source of vegetable oil in Pakistan. Due to the low priority attached to these to these crops in the past, no systematic breeding work was undertaken to develop improved varieties of rapeseed/mustard, resulting in a narrow genetic base of these crops. At the Nuclear Institute for Food and Agriculture (NIFA), gamma radiation was used to induce genetic variability in traits of economic importance thus diversifying the genetic base of indigenous/exotic cultivars of Brassica oilseeds

  11. Effects of Single and Multifactor Treatments with Elevated Temperature, CO2 and Ozone on Oilseed Rape and Barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Sabine Karin; Frenck, Georg; van der Linden, Leon Gareth

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the effect of elevated [CO2], [O3] and temperature on plant productivity and if these climate factors interacted with each other in multifactor treatments. The climate effects were studied in 14 different cultivars/lines of European spring oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) and spring...... barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). Seven genotypes of each species were cultivated in six single- and multifactor treatments with ambient or elevated CO2 (385 ppm and 700 ppm), O3 (20 ppb and 60 ppb) and temperature (12/19 °C and 17/24 °C). Growth and production parameters were measured. Elevated CO2 increased....... A significantly decreased yield and thousand grain weight was also seen in barley due to elevated O3. The multifactor combination of elevated CO2, O3 and temperature showed a decrease in growth and production in the two species, though not statistically significant for all parameters. This trend suggests...

  12. Biowaste-derived hydrolysates as plant disease suppressants for oilseed rape

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jindřichová, Barbora; Burketová, Lenka; Montoneri, E.; Francavilla, M.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 183, MAY 10 (2018), s. 335-342 ISSN 0959-6526 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LD14056 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Biogas digestate * Compost * Induced resistance * Leptosphaeria maculans * Oilseed rape Subject RIV: GF - Plant Pathology, Vermin, Weed, Plant Protection OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 5.715, year: 2016

  13. Dispersal of solitary bees and bumblebees in a winter oilseed rape field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calabuig, Isabel

    2000-01-01

    Dispersal distributions of solitary bees and bumblebees were studied in a winter oilseed rape field. Window-traps were placed in the rape field along a line transect perpendicular to the field edge. 19 species of solitary bees were recorded and all but four species are polylectic, including...... Brassicaceae as host-plant family. Through non-linear regression, the decline in solitary bee individuals versus distance from field edge significantly fitted a steep two-parameter exponential decay function. Activity of solitary bees was clearly highest within 30 metres from the field edge. Apparently......, solitary bees do not play any noteworthy role in the pollination of winter oilseed rape in Denmark. The traps yielded ten species of bumblebees, and a significant linear correlation was found between numbers of individuals and distance from the field edge. This result is attributed to bumblebee foraging...

  14. Distance from forest edge affects bee pollinators in oilseed rape fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Samantha; Requier, Fabrice; Nusillard, Benoît; Roberts, Stuart P M; Potts, Simon G; Bouget, Christophe

    2014-02-01

    Wild pollinators have been shown to enhance the pollination of Brassica napus (oilseed rape) and thus increase its market value. Several studies have previously shown that pollination services are greater in crops adjoining forest patches or other seminatural habitats than in crops completely surrounded by other crops. In this study, we investigated the specific importance of forest edges in providing potential pollinators in B. napus fields in two areas in France. Bees were caught with yellow pan traps at increasing distances from both warm and cold forest edges into B. napus fields during the blooming period. A total of 4594 individual bees, representing six families and 83 taxa, were collected. We found that both bee abundance and taxa richness were negatively affected by the distance from forest edge. However, responses varied between bee groups and edge orientations. The ITD (Inter-Tegular distance) of the species, a good proxy for bee foraging range, seems to limit how far the bees can travel from the forest edge. We found a greater abundance of cuckoo bees (Nomada spp.) of Andrena spp. and Andrena spp. males at forest edges, which we assume indicate suitable nesting sites, or at least mating sites, for some abundant Andrena species and their parasites (Fig. 1). Synthesis and Applications. This study provides one of the first examples in temperate ecosystems of how forest edges may actually act as a reservoir of potential pollinators and directly benefit agricultural crops by providing nesting or mating sites for important early spring pollinators. Policy-makers and land managers should take forest edges into account and encourage their protection in the agricultural matrix to promote wild bees and their pollination services.

  15. Oilseed rape in energetic circle; Uljana repica u energetsko proizvodnom krugu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pliestic, S; Kricka, T [Agronomski fakultet, Zavod za poljoprivrednu tehnologiju, skladistenje i transport, Zagreb (Croatia)

    1997-12-31

    The usage of methyl-ester (biofuel) on the basis of oilseed rape in some countries of West Europe is investigated as energy source, and a few years ago was in experimental application. Oilseed rape is one of the major oilseed crops intended for the production of methyl-ester, especially for internal combustion engines. But, except for primary methyl-ester, secondary produces are: 1. Oil cakes or crushed oil seeds - usage value is enormous, especially if it is used as a feed for all livestock categories. 2. Oilseed rape hay -its use as a means of energy source is gaining in importance. 3. Remains of the plant are used for activating the soil fauna and improving the whole soil structure. New `00` cultivars have high - quality oil and improved meal quality; also, then have reduced amount of glucosinolates - below 5 mmol/g, and ERUCA acid, which enabled their use as feed in serve quantity. (author). 5 tabs., 2 figs., 7 refs.

  16. Genetic variation and inheritance of phytosterol and oil content in a doubled haploid population derived from the winter oilseed rape Sansibar × Oase cross.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teh, Lishia; Möllers, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Identification of QTL for phytosterol content, oil content, fatty acids content, protein content of defatted meal, and seed weight by multiple interval mapping in a Brassica napus DH population. Phytosterols are minor seed constituents in oilseed rape which have recently drawn wide-interest from the food and nutrition industry due to their health benefit in lowering LDL cholesterol in humans. To understand the genetic basis of phytosterol content and its relationship with other seed quality traits in oilseed rape, QTL mapping was performed in a segregating DH population derived from the cross of two winter oilseed rape varieties, Sansibar and Oase, termed SODH population. Both parental lines are of canola quality which differ in phytosterol and oil content in seed. A genetic map was constructed for SODH population based on a total of 1638 markers organized in 23 linkage groups and covering a map length of 2350 cM with a mean marker interval of 2.0 cM. The SODH population and the parental lines were cultivated at six environments in Europe and were phenotyped for phytosterol content, oil content, fatty acids content, protein content of the defatted meal, and seed weight. Multiple interval mapping identified between one and six QTL for nine phytosterol traits, between two and six QTL for four fatty acids, five QTL for oil content, four QTL for protein content of defatted meal, and three QTL for seed weight. Colocalizations of QTL for different traits were more frequently observed than individual isolated QTL. Major QTL (R (2) ≥ 25%) were all located in the A genome, and the possible candidate genes were investigated by physical localization of the QTL to the reference genome sequence of Brassica rapa.

  17. Detecting the Hormonal Pathways in Oilseed Rape behind Induced Systemic Resistance by Trichoderma harzianum TH12 to Sclerotinia sclerotiorum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkooranee, Jawadayn Talib; Aledan, Tamarah Raad; Ali, Ali Kadhim; Lu, Guangyuan; Zhang, Xuekun; Wu, Jiangsheng; Fu, Chunhua; Li, Maoteng

    2017-01-01

    Plants have the ability to resist pathogen attack after infection or treatment with biotic and abiotic elicitors. In oilseed rape plant Brassica napus AACC and in the artificially synthesized Raphanus alboglabra RRCC, the root-colonizing Trichoderma harzianum TH12 fungus triggers induced systemic resistance (ISR), and its culture filtrate (CF) triggers a systemic acquired resistance (SAR) response against infection by the Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid/ethylene (JA/ET) are plant hormone signals that play important roles in the regulation of ISR and SAR. In this study, at six different time points (1, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 days post-infection [dpi]), six resistance genes were used as markers of signaling pathways: JA/ET signaling used AOC3, PDF1.2 and ERF2 genes, while PR-1, TGA5 and TGA6 genes were used as markers of SA signaling. The results of quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) showed that AOC3, PDF1.2 and ERF2 expression levels in infected leaves of AACC and RRCC increase at 1 and 2 dpi with S. sclerotiorum or inoculation with TH12. PR-1, TGA5 and TGA6 expression levels increased at 8 and 10 dpi in infected leaves. PR-1, TGA5 and TGA6 expression levels increased early in plants treated with CF in both of the healthy genotypes. Furthermore, induction of SA- and JA/ET-dependent defense decreased disease symptoms in infected leaves at different times. The results suggest that the RRCC genotype exhibits resistance to disease and that the ability of TH12 and its CF to induce systemic resistance in susceptible and resistant oilseed rape genotypes exists. In addition, the results indicate for the first time that in RRCC the SA signaling pathway is involved in resistance to necrotrophic pathogens.

  18. Effects of Field Conditions on Emergence of Oilseed Rape Seed lots Grown in Khorasan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Yanegh

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Nineteen irrigated farms of canola from six cities of Khorasan selected to assess the seedling emergence one month after sowing in 2009. Soil texture of each farm determined using the Hydrometer method. The results showed that weather conditions of sowing areas had no significant effect on emergence of oilseed rape. With increasing the temperature (within the range of 19.5 to 21.5 ˚C emergence percentage was not increased significantly. Rainfall also caused no significant effect on seedling emergence. The percentage of emergence in machine-sowing and hand-sowing were 38.4% and 28%, respectively. Soils with loam silt, silt clay loam and loam texture had emergence of 27.2%, 31.2% and 47% respectively. It seems soil texture plays a great roll on the emergence of oilseed rape with epigeal seedlings.

  19. Industrially processed oilseed rape in the production of table eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mária Angelovičová

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of feed mixtures with varying proportions of rape cakes to the weight of table eggs, its components, thickness and strength of egg shell. The eggs were from the final laying hybrid ISA Brown reared in the enriched cage system under experimental conditions. An age of laying hens was from 48 to 54 weeks. Egg weight and its components were measured on scales type KERN 440-35N, with an accuracy of 0.01 g and a maximum weight of 400 g. Egg white weight was calculated. The thickness and strength of the egg shell were measured from the dried samples at 55 °C. From each egg shell were cut 3 pcs of samples in the equatorial plane, one sample from the blunt end and one sample from the sharp end. Egg shell thickness was measured by test instrument SOME, type 60/0.01mm with a range of 0 - 10 mm. Egg shell strength was measured according to test instrument Instron with the small body, having a diameter 4.48 mm to exert pressure on the egg shell. The obtained data were assessed in the program system SAS, version 8.2. Based on the results observed in egg weight of our experiment we can conclude that in the group with share 5% of rape cakes was non-statistically significant (p >0.05 decreased egg weight compared to the control group. Egg weight was reduced in the group with share 10% of rape cakes, which confirmed a statistically significant difference compared to egg weight of control group (p ˂0.05. The differences among experimental groups with share 5% and 10% of rape cakes in feed mixture and as well as to control group were not statistically significant (p >0.05 in weight of egg yolk, egg white, egg shell and egg shell strength. Egg shell thickness was no statistically significant (p >0.05 increased in experimental group with share 5% of rape cakes and decreased in experimental group with share 10% of rape cakes versus control group. Increase of egg shell thickness in experimental group with

  20. Influence of top dressing on yield and seed quality components of oilseed rape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vujaković Milka

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Oilseed rape is an agronomically important species grown for seed that contains 40-48% oil and 18-25% proteins. Oilseed rape has high demands for nitrogen. The research was performed on four varieties of oilseed rape (Banaćanka, Valeska, Slavica and Express developed at Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops in Novi Sad, during vegetative seasons 2007-2008 and 2008-2009. During vegetation, top dressing was applied with different amounts of KAN: control (0 kg N ha-1, 50 kg N ha-1, 100 kg N ha-1, 150 kg N ha-1 and the N quantity determination were performed applying the balancing method (also known as N-min method. Yield, 1000-seed weight, seed germination, oil and protein content were determined after harvest. Yield and seed germination depended on seed production year. 1000-seed weight depended on seed production year and genotype. Oil and protein content in seed depended on production year, genotype and amount of the N-fertilizer applied by top dressing.

  1. Application of Hyperspectral Imaging to Detect Sclerotinia sclerotiorum on Oilseed Rape Stems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenwen Kong

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Hyperspectral imaging covering the spectral range of 384–1034 nm combined with chemometric methods was used to detect Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (SS on oilseed rape stems by two sample sets (60 healthy and 60 infected stems for each set. Second derivative spectra and PCA loadings were used to select the optimal wavelengths. Discriminant models were built and compared to detect SS on oilseed rape stems, including partial least squares-discriminant analysis, radial basis function neural network, support vector machine and extreme learning machine. The discriminant models using full spectra and optimal wavelengths showed good performance with classification accuracies of over 80% for the calibration and prediction set. Comparing all developed models, the optimal classification accuracies of the calibration and prediction set were over 90%. The similarity of selected optimal wavelengths also indicated the feasibility of using hyperspectral imaging to detect SS on oilseed rape stems. The results indicated that hyperspectral imaging could be used as a fast, non-destructive and reliable technique to detect plant diseases on stems.

  2. Radio-sensitivity analysis and selection of useful mutants of rape (Brassica napus L.) by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goh, Eun Jeong; Kim, Wook Jin; Kim, Jin Baek; Kim, Dong Sub; Kim, Sang Hoon; Kang, Si Yong

    2010-01-01

    Rape (Brassica napus L.) plants are one of the major oilseed crops. The main components of rapeseed are oil (35 to 47%) and protein (15 to 32%). For the biodiesel production, the development of a new variety of rape plant with high biomass and/or oleic acid contents is required. In order to determine the optimum dose of gamma-ray irradiation, the rape seeds of cvs. Hanra (Hr), Youngsan (Ys), Tammi (Tm), and Tamra (Tr) were irradiated with a 100 ∼ 4,000 Gy dose range of gamma-rays. Considering the growth factors, the optimum doses were determined to be within the range of 600 ∼ 1,000 Gy for the selection of useful mutant lines. Six-hundred and eighty eight (688) M 2 mutant lines were obtained from 600 ∼ 1,000 Gy gamma-ray-irradiated M 1 plants through selfing. The growth characteristics, leaf shape, early flowering, and flower color were all investigated. The selected mutant numbers of early flowering, leaf shape, and flower color were 34, 52, and 3 from the four cultivars, respectively. These mutant lines will be used for the development of a new variety of rape plant with high biomass and oleic acid contents

  3. Potential environmental impacts associated with large-scale herbicide-tolerant GM oilseed rape crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fellous Marc

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available The Biomolecular Engineering Commission considers that the knowledge acquired in the last three years has provided significant information in reply to the points raised in its review dated 16 February 2001. The Commission has studied the potential environmental impacts associated with large-scale herbicidetolerantGMoilseed rape crops, making a distinction between direct and indirect impacts. Direct impacts stem from the intrinsic properties of herbicide-tolerant GM oilseed rape crops whereas indirect impacts result from practices associated with the farming of these crops. The Commission considers that, in the absence of the use of the herbicide in question in and outside of farmed land, there is no direct environmental risk (development of invasive crops per se associated with the presence of a herbicide-tolerance gene in oilseed rape (or related species. Nevertheless, since the interest of these tolerant crops lies in the use of the herbicide in question, indirect effects, to varying extents, have been identified and must be taken into account: the use of the herbicide in question, applied to agricultural fields containing the herbicide-tolerant crop could lead to an increase in oilseed rape volunteer populations in crop rotations; the selective pressure exerted by non-specific herbicides (to which the crops have been rendered tolerant may be very high in cases of continuous and uncontrolled use of these herbicides, and may result in the persistence of rare events such as the reproduction of fertile interspecies hybrids; the change to the range of herbicides used should be conveyed by more effective weed control and, like any change in farming practices, induce indirect effects on the agri-ecosystem, particularly in terms of changes to weeds and the associated animal life. Accordingly, the Biomolecular Engineering Commission recommends a global approach in terms of the large-scale farming of herbicide-tolerant crops that: accounts for the

  4. Comparative response of wheat and oilseed rape to nitrogen supply: absorption and utilisation efficiency of radiation and nitrogen during the reproductive stages determining yield

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dreccer, M.F.; Schapendonk, A.H.C.M.; Slafer, G.A.; Rabbinge, R.

    2000-01-01

    We investigated the response of spring wheat and oilseed rape to nitrogen (N) supply, focusing on the critical period for grain number definition and grain filling. Crops were grown in containers under a shelter and treated with five combinations of applied N. Wheat and oilseed rape produced

  5. Use of formulated Trichoderma sp. Tri-1 in combination with reduced rates of chemical pesticide for control of Sclerotinia sclerotiorium on oilseed rape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sustainable strategies for control of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum on oilseed rape are needed. Here we tested combinations of Trichoderma sp. Tri-1, formulated with oilseed rape seedcake and straw, with reduced application rates of the chemical pesticide Carbendazim for control of this pathogen on oils...

  6. Status of feral oilseed rape in Europe: its minor role as a GM impurity and its potential as a reservoir of transgene persistence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Squire, Geoffrey R.; Breckling, Broder; Dietz Pfeilstetter, Antje

    2011-01-01

    Feral oilseed rape has become widespread in Europe on waysides and waste ground. Its potential as a source of GM impurity in oilseed rape harvests is quantified, for the first time, by a consistent analysis applied over a wide range of study areas in Europe. The maximum contribution of feral...

  7. Meat and bone meal as nitrogen and phosphorus supplier to cereals and oilseed rape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Nogalska

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of meat and bone meal (MBM on cultivation of winter triticale, winter oilseed rape, winter wheat and maize. The average annual yields and protein yield achieved in crop rotation were studied. The field trials were carried out in north-eastern Poland in 2006–2010. The factor was dose of MBM: 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5 t ha-1 year-1 or 2.0, 3.0, 4.0 and 5.0 t ha-1 every other year. The four-year experiment has proven that MBM is a valuable nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizer in cultivation of cereals and oilseed rape. By amendment of the tested meal into the soil it produced crop yield and protein yield similar to that achieved by mineral fertilization. However, the crude fat yield of rape was significantly higher under the influence of all the MBM doses. The yield-stimulating effect of MBM did not depend on the frequency of its application; therefore it is more convenient to apply it once every two years. Increasing MBM from 1.5 to 2.5 t ha-1 did not significantly increase any of the four crop yields, therefore for soils that had satisfactory nutrients content, 1 or 1.5 t ha-1 MBM is enough and increasing MBM will only increase economic burden for farmers and environmental risks.

  8. Spillage of Viable Seeds of Oilseed Rape along Transportation Routes: Ecological Risk Assessment and Perspectives on Management Efforts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathrin Pascher

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Seed spillage during handling and transportation promotes establishment and invasion of feral crops into adjacent semi-natural habitats. This is also the case for oilseed rape (OSR, Brassica napus, where seed spillage may lead to establishment of herbicide resistant OSR populations in countries without cultivation of genetically modified OSR. Using data from Austria—where cultivation and import of genetically modified OSR are banned—as a prime example, we demonstrate that ports, oil mills, switchyards, and border railway stations to countries with different electric current systems—where trains have to stop—are the sites of primary concern with respect to seed spillage. Based on the results of the Austrian case study we discuss common measures to limit crop seed spillage which include intensified controls at border railway stations and the mode of seed packing during transportation. We further recommend sufficient cleaning both of goods wagons and of loading areas of trucks and ships as well as an appropriate weed management.

  9. Defense to Sclerotinia sclerotiorum in oilseed rape is associated with the sequential activations of salicylic acid signaling and jasmonic acid signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zheng; Tan, Xiaoli; Zhang, Zhiyan; Gu, Shoulai; Li, Guanying; Shi, Haifeng

    2012-03-01

    Signaling pathways mediated by salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) are widely studied in various host-pathogen interactions. For oilseed rape (Brassica napus)-Sclerotinia sclerotiorum interaction, little information of the two signaling molecules has been described in detail. In this study, we showed that the level of SA and JA in B. napus leaves was increased with a distinct temporal profile, respectively, after S. sclerotiorum infection. The application of SA or methyl jasmonate enhanced the resistance to the pathogen. Furthermore, a set of SA and JA signaling marker genes were identified from B. napus and were used to monitor the signaling responses to S. sclerotiorum infection by examining the temporal expression profiles of these marker genes. The SA signaling was activated within 12h post inoculation (hpi) followed by the JA signaling which was activated around 24 hpi. In addition, SA-JA crosstalk genes were activated during this process. These results suggested that defense against S. sclerotiorum in oilseed rape is associated with a sequential activation of SA signaling and JA signaling, which provide important clues for designing strategies to curb diseases caused by S. sclerotioru. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Large-scale monitoring of effects of clothianidin-dressed oilseed rape seeds on pollinating insects in Northern Germany: effects on honey bees (Apis mellifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolke, Daniel; Fuchs, Stefan; Grünewald, Bernd; Gao, Zhenglei; Blenau, Wolfgang

    2016-11-01

    Possible effects of clothianidin seed-treated oilseed rape on honey bee colonies were investigated in a large-scale monitoring project in Northern Germany, where oilseed rape usually comprises 25-33 % of the arable land. For both reference and test sites, six study locations were selected and eight honey bee hives were placed at each location. At each site, three locations were directly adjacent to oilseed rape fields and three locations were situated 400 m away from the nearest oilseed rape field. Thus, 96 hives were exposed to fully flowering oilseed rape crops. Colony sizes and weights, the amount of honey harvested, and infection with parasites and diseases were monitored between April and September 2014. The percentage of oilseed rape pollen was determined in pollen and honey samples. After oilseed rape flowering, the hives were transferred to an extensive isolated area for post-exposure monitoring. Total numbers of adult bees and brood cells showed seasonal fluctuations, and there were no significant differences between the sites. The honey, which was extracted at the end of the exposure phase, contained 62.0-83.5 % oilseed rape pollen. Varroa destructor infestation was low during most of the course of the study but increased at the end of the study due to flumethrin resistance in the mite populations. In summary, honey bee colonies foraging in clothianidin seed-treated oilseed rape did not show any detrimental symptoms as compared to colonies foraging in clothianidin-free oilseed rape. Development of colony strength, brood success as well as honey yield and pathogen infection were not significantly affected by clothianidin seed-treatment during this study.

  11. Potential bioetanol and biogas production using lignocellulosic biomass from winter rye, oilseed rape and faba bean

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersson, Anneli; Thomsen, Mette Hedegaard; Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik

    2007-01-01

    ) faba bean straw (Viciafaba L.). Their composition with regard to cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, extractives and ash was evaluated, as well as their potential as raw materials for ethanol and biogas production. The materials were pretreated by wet oxidation using parameters previously found...... to be optimal for pretreatment of corn stover (195 degrees C, 15 min, 2 g l(-1) Na2CO3 and 12 bar oxygen). It was shown that pretreatment was necessary for ethanol production from all raw materials and gave increased biogas yield from winter rye straw. Neither biogas productivity nor yield from oilseed rape...

  12. Can soil microbial diversity influence plant metabolites and life history traits of a rhizophagous insect? A demonstration in oilseed rape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachaise, Tom; Ourry, Morgane; Lebreton, Lionel; Guillerm-Erckelboudt, Anne-Yvonne; Linglin, Juliette; Paty, Chrystelle; Chaminade, Valérie; Marnet, Nathalie; Aubert, Julie; Poinsot, Denis; Cortesero, Anne-Marie; Mougel, Christophe

    2017-12-01

    Interactions between plants and phytophagous insects play an important part in shaping the biochemical composition of plants. Reciprocally plant metabolites can influence major life history traits in these insects and largely contribute to their fitness. Plant rhizospheric microorganisms are an important biotic factor modulating plant metabolites and adaptation to stress. While plant-insects or plant-microorganisms interactions and their consequences on the plant metabolite signature are well-documented, the impact of soil microbial communities on plant defenses against phytophagous insects remains poorly known. In this study, we used oilseed rape (Brassica napus) and the cabbage root fly (Delia radicum) as biological models to tackle this question. Even though D. radicum is a belowground herbivore as a larva, its adult life history traits depend on aboveground signals. We therefore tested whether soil microbial diversity influenced emergence rate and fitness but also fly oviposition behavior, and tried to link possible effects to modifications in leaf and root metabolites. Through a removal-recolonization experiment, 3 soil microbial modalities ("high," "medium," "low") were established and assessed through amplicon sequencing of 16S and 18S ribosomal RNA genes. The "medium" modality in the rhizosphere significantly improved insect development traits. Plant-microorganism interactions were marginally associated to modulations of root metabolites profiles, which could partly explain these results. We highlighted the potential role of plant-microbial interaction in plant defenses against Delia radicum. Rhizospheric microbial communities must be taken into account when analyzing plant defenses against herbivores, being either below or aboveground. © 2017 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  13. Growth and Yield Stimulation of Winter Oilseed Rape (Brasssica Napus L. by Mg-Titanit Fertiliser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kováčik Peter

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The effort to achieve higher yields at the required qualitative level has led to the intensive studying the problems of the rational usage of the titanium containing fertilisers by the agricultural research in the course the previous thirty years. Therefore, the objective of the experiment was to evaluate the impact of two doses of Mg-Titanit (0.2 l/ha and 0.4 l/ha on the formation of the aboveground and underground phytomass, also on the total chlorophyll in leaves, on the titanium and nitrogen content in the seeds and straw, on the quantity and quality of winter rape yield. The doses were applied two or three times on the leaves of winter rape (BBCH 50-52, BBCH 59, BBCH 66-67. The experiment was realized on the Haplic Chernozem (48°42´ N, 17°70´ E - Western Slovakia during two farming years (2009/2010 and 2010/2011. The results showed that all three applications of Mg-Titanit in both doses stimulated the formation of aboveground and underground phytomass of winter rape. The highest growth of phytomass was detected after the second application. The application of Mg-Titanit in the growth phases BBCH 50-52 and BBCH 59 increased the contents of both chlorophylls (a and b, where the growth of chlorophyll b content was more considerable than the growth of chlorophyll a content. The third spraying by Mg-Titanit decreased the content of the total chlorophyll. The application of Mg-Titanit had the positive impact on the yield of seeds, straw and fat content in the winter oilseed rape seeds.

  14. Isolation of an ascorbate peroxidase in Brassica napus and analysis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-04-05

    Apr 5, 2010 ... domain; APX, ascorbate peroxidase; Bn-APX, Brassica napus ascorbate ... Brassica napus, which is widely grown as the oilseed crop of rape or canola, .... grew on the SD-Leu-Trp-His-Ade medium and were verified by PCR.

  15. The effect of water and salt stresses on the phosphorus content and acid phosphatase activity in oilseed rape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisław Flasiński

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Oilseed rape plants responded to water and salt stresses (-0.5 MPa, PEG 6000 and NaCI by reduction of the fresh and dry weights of shoots and roots. When PEG was used, the ratio of dry weights of roots:shoots surpassed that of controls. The leaf protein content increased considerably. The phosphorus content decreased only in the roots, most significantly after three days of stress. Immediately after the stresses were induced, an increase in the acid phosphatase (AP activity was noted. Water and salt stresses caused four- and two-fold increases in AP activity in leaves, respectively. Changes in the enzyme activity were negligible in stems and roots. There are nine forms of AP in young leaves of oilseed rape. In the stressed plants, from No. 5 revealed lower activity and forms Nos 8 and 9, higher activities than in the control. The increase in AP activity was directly accompanied by the decrease in the water potential of the tissues. Oilseed rape is considerably less sensitive to salt stress than to water stress, which is manifested as the lower inhibition of plant growth and also by a smaller increase in acid phosphatase activity.

  16. Effects of exposure to winter oilseed rape grown from thiamethoxam-treated seed on the red mason bee Osmia bicornis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruddle, Natalie; Elston, Charlotte; Klein, Olaf; Hamberger, Anja; Thompson, Helen

    2018-04-01

    There has been increasing interest in the effects of neonicotinoid insecticides on wild bees. In solitary bee species the direct link between each individual female and reproductive success offers the opportunity to evaluate effects on individuals. The present study investigated effects of exposure to winter oilseed rape grown from thiamethoxam-treated seed on reproductive behavior and output of solitary red mason bees (Osmia bicornis) released in 6 pairs of fields over a 2-yr period and confined to tunnels in a single year. After adjustment to the number of females released, there was significantly lower production of cells and cocoons/female in tunnels than in open field conditions. This difference may be because of the lack of alternative forage within the tunnels. Under open field conditions, palynology of the pollen provisions within the nests demonstrated a maximum average of 31% oilseed rape pollen at any site, with Quercus (oak) contributing up to 86% of the pollen. There were no significant effects from exposure to oilseed rape grown from thiamethoxam-treated seed from nest establishment through cell production to emergence under tunnel or field conditions. Environ Toxicol Chem 2018;37:1071-1083. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  17. [Prediction of SPAD value in oilseed rape leaves using hyperspectral imaging technique].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Xi-bin; Liu, Fei; Zhang, Chu; He, Yong

    2015-02-01

    In the present work, prediction models of SPAD value (Soil and Plant Analyzer Development, often used as a parameter to indicate chlorophyll content) in oilseed rape leaves were successfully built using hyperspectral imaging technique. The hy perspectral images of 160 oilseed rape leaf samples in the spectral range of 380-1030 nm were acquired. Average spectrum was extracted from the region of interest (ROI) of each sample. We chose spectral data in the spectral range of 500-900 nm for analysis. Using Monte Carlo partial least squares(MC-PLS) algorithm, 13 samples were identified as outliers and eliminated. Based on the spectral information and measured SPAD values of the rest 147 samples, several estimation models have been built based on different parameters using different algorithms for comparison, including: (1) a SPAD value estimation model based on partial least squares(PLS) in the whole wavelength region of 500-900 nm; (2) a SPAD value estimation model based on successive projections algorithmcombined with PLS(SPA-PLS); (3) 4 kind of simple experience SPAD value estimation models in which red edge position was used as an argument; (4) 4 kind of simple experience SPAD value estimation models in which three vegetation indexes R710/R760, (R750-R705)/(R750-R705) and R860/(R550 x R708), which all have been proved to have a good relevance with chlorophyll content, were used as an argument respectively; (5) a SPAD value estimation model based on PLS using the 3 vegetation indexes mentioned above. The results indicate that the optimal prediction performance is achieved by PLS model in the whole wavelength region of 500-900 nm, which has a correlation coefficient(r(p)) of 0.8339 and a root mean squares error of predicted (RMSEP) of 1.52. The SPA-PLS model can provide avery close prediction result while the calibration computation has been significantly reduced and the calibration speed has been accelerated sharply. For simple experience models based on red edge

  18. Costs of growing wheat and oilseed rape in slovakia and other V4 countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenka Hudáková Stašová

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the issue of cost in primary agricultural production. In this paper, we assess the trends in the costs of agricultural products in the V4 countries and compare them with each other. The subject of the analysis is the evaluation of the structure and development of costs and benefits for agricultural production as a whole, partially for crop and for livestock production and also for two specifically selected products. The purpose is to find out whether the costs incurred for the cultivation of wheat and oilseed rape in Slovakia are adequate as they are compared with the surrounding countries. Following the evaluation of the development of total costs, we define the substantive issues in overhead costs and evaluate their development. Based on the results of the analyses we have defined the proportion of overhead costs in agriculture as an important component of total production costs. The paper points to the need to innovate and modernise the way we think about overheads and the method of their calculation. We also look for the answer to how modern cost management methods could influence their height and development. We propose to improve the calculation system of agricultural enterprises in the analysed countries by introducing of non-traditional calculation method which removes the inaccuracy of the traditional methods and the non-targeted allocation of high overheads to the products.

  19. Effects of insecticides intended for Ceutorhynchus napi Gyll. control in oilseed rape on ground beetles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivčev Lazar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of insecticides that are commonly used for conventional and integrated oilseed rape (OSR management on ground beetles were studied. Monitoring of harmful species showed that only insecticides intended against Ceutorhynchus napi should be applied. There were no differences in beetle numbers and phenology of settling of C. napi in the OSR fields that received different management practices. The type of OSR management has a primary and significant impact on ground beetles abundance. Early in the spring, ground beetles settled more massively on the non-tilled OSR field with abundant weed cover and mulch on soil surface. However, there were no significant differences in species richness between the OSR fields managed differently. A total of 22 species were recorded. Early in the spring, the granivorous ground beetles Amara aenea (47.3% and Harpalus distinguendus (32.5% were dominant. When insecticides were applied, immigration of ground beetles began, so that their adverse effect was minimal. In both management systems the number of ground beetles and their diversity increased after spraying. In conclusion, no significant harmful effects of the insecticides on ground beetles were detected in OSR fields managed in two different ways.

  20. Evidence for pollinator cost and farming benefits of neonicotinoid seed coatings on oilseed rape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budge, G. E.; Garthwaite, D.; Crowe, A.; Boatman, N. D.; Delaplane, K. S.; Brown, M. A.; Thygesen, H. H.; Pietravalle, S.

    2015-08-01

    Chronic exposure to neonicotinoid insecticides has been linked to reduced survival of pollinating insects at both the individual and colony level, but so far only experimentally. Analyses of large-scale datasets to investigate the real-world links between the use of neonicotinoids and pollinator mortality are lacking. Moreover, the impacts of neonicotinoid seed coatings in reducing subsequent applications of foliar insecticide sprays and increasing crop yield are not known, despite the supposed benefits of this practice driving widespread use. Here, we combine large-scale pesticide usage and yield observations from oilseed rape with those detailing honey bee colony losses over an 11 year period, and reveal a correlation between honey bee colony losses and national-scale imidacloprid (a neonicotinoid) usage patterns across England and Wales. We also provide the first evidence that farmers who use neonicotinoid seed coatings reduce the number of subsequent applications of foliar insecticide sprays and may derive an economic return. Our results inform the societal discussion on the pollinator costs and farming benefits of prophylactic neonicotinoid usage on a mass flowering crop.

  1. Large-scale monitoring of effects of clothianidin-dressed oilseed rape seeds on pollinating insects in Northern Germany: effects on red mason bees (Osmia bicornis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Britta; Gao, Zhenglei; Zumkier, Ulrich

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Elado® (10 g clothianidin & 2 g beta-cyfluthrin/kg seed)-dressed oilseed rape on the development and reproduction of mason bees (Osmia bicornis) as part of a large-scale monitoring field study in Northern Germany, where oilseed rape is usually cultivated at 25-33 % of the arable land. Both reference and test sites comprised 65 km 2 in which no other crops attractive to pollinating insects were present. Six study locations were selected per site and three nesting shelters were placed at each location. Of these locations, three locations were directly adjacent to oilseed rape fields, while the other three locations were situated 100 m distant from the nearest oilseed rape field. At each location, 1500 cocoons of O. bicornis were placed into the central nesting shelter. During the exposure phase, nest building activities and foraging behaviour were assessed repeatedly. Cocoons were harvested in autumn to assess parasitization and reproduction including larval development. The following spring, the emergence of the next generation of adults from cocoons was monitored. High reproductive output and low parasitization rates indicated that Elado ® -dressed oilseed rape did not cause any detrimental effects on the development or reproduction of mason bees.

  2. Radiation and nitrogen use at the leaf and canopy level by wheat and oilseed rape during the critical period for grain number definition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreccer, M.F.; Schapendonk, H.C.M.; Oijen, M. van; Pot, C.S.; Rabbinge, R.

    2000-01-01

    During the critical period for grain number definition, the amount of biomass produced per unit absorbed radiation is more sensitive to nitrogen (N) supply in oilseed rape than in wheat, and reaches a higher value at high N. This response was investigated by combining experimental and modelling work. Oilseed rape and wheat were grown at three levels of N supply, combined with two levels of plant density at high N supply. Canopy photosynthesis and daytime radiation use efficiency (RUE A ) were calculated with a model based on observed N-dependent leaf photosynthesis and observed canopy vertical distribution of light and leaf N. In oilseed rape, RUE A was higher than in wheat and, in contrast to wheat, the sensitivity to canopy leaf N content increased from the start to the end of the critical period. These results were partly explained by the higher leaf photosynthesis in oilseed rape vs wheat. In addition, oilseed rape leaves were increasingly shaded by the inflorescence. Thus, RUE A increased because more leaves were operating at non-saturating light levels. In both species, the vertical distribution of leaf N was close to that optimising canopy photosynthesis. The results are discussed in relation to possibilities for improvement of N productivity in these crops. (author)

  3. Large-scale monitoring of effects of clothianidin-dressed oilseed rape seeds on pollinating insects in northern Germany: residues of clothianidin in pollen, nectar and honey

    OpenAIRE

    Rolke, Daniel; Persigehl, Markus; Peters, Britta; Sterk, Guido; Blenau, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    This study was part of a large-scale monitoring project to assess the possible effects of Elado® (10 g clothianidin & 2 g β-cyfluthrin/kg seed)-dressed oilseed rape seeds on different pollinators in Northern Germany. Firstly, residues of clothianidin and its active metabolites thiazolylnitroguanidine and thiazolylmethylurea were measured in nectar and pollen from Elado®-dressed (test site, T) and undressed (reference site, R) oilseed rape collected by honey bees confined within tunnel tents. ...

  4. Suitability of an artificial diet for rape aphid, Brevicoryne brassicae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-09-15

    Sep 15, 2009 ... Brevicoryne brassicae, using life table parameters. A. Balvasi1* ... In this work, suitability of an artificial diet was studied through age-specific life tables. Development ... In large measure, the success of entomology over the past century is ..... balance on the improvement of an artificial diet for a biotype of.

  5. Immunopurification and characterization of a rape ( Brassica napus L.)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lipase or triacylglycerol acylhydrolase (E.C.3.1.1.3) was purified to homogeneity from rapeseed-germinated cotyledons (Brassica napus L.). The purification scheme involved homogenization, centrifugation, ultracentrifugation and affinity chromatography using polyclonal antibodies raised against porcine pancreatic lipase.

  6. Studies on nitrogen uptake and utilization by rape (Brassica napus L.) under different sowing dates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Qixin; Nie Guangming

    1992-01-01

    The nitrogen uptake and utilization by low erucic acid variety, Zhong You Di Gai No.2, of rape (Brassica napus L.) under different sowing dates were studied. Total N uptake, the percentage N derived from the fertilizer, the rate of utilization of nitrogenous fertilizer, the production efficiency of N-fertilizer (seed yield g/gN derived by rape plant from the fertilizer), total P uptake and the production efficiency of phosphorus (seed yield g/gP derived by rape plant from fertilizer and soil) were all significantly higher at early sowing than that at later sowing within the range of normal sowing dates. Therefore, the biomass yield, the seed yield and oil content all increased significantly at early sowing treatment, but erucic acid content showed no significant difference

  7. Mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions in the French winter oilseed rape in order to produce sustainable biodiesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flénet Francis

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of the study were (1 to evaluate the possibility for the French winter oilseed rape to achieve the 50% greenhouse gas (GHG saving criteria of the European Directive on the promotion of renewable energy (2009/28/EC, and (2 to investigate mitigation options. The agricultural GHG emissions were calculated with the actual seed yields and cultural operations of more than 5000 winter oilseed rape fields producing seeds collected by 27 grain storage companies (GSC, while the same values of GHG emissions for transport and biodiesel processing were used for all GSC. The study clearly showed that the 50% GHG saving criteria could not be achieved each year, by each of the grain storage company, without improvements of crop management. The possibility to reduce the GHG emissions by improving the efficiency of mineral N fertilization was demonstrated. Improving seed yields without increasing the amount of N application on the fields would also decrease GHG emissions. On the contrary, the application of organic matter appeared to be largely ineffective because of the way N2O emissions were calculated in the study (tier 1 method of International Panel on Climate Change.

  8. Oilseed rape as feedstock for biodiesel production in relation to the environment and human health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Angelovič

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Oilseed rape is one of the most important crops in cultivation process. A current developmental trend in non-food rapeseed production on agricultural land shows that this new course is irreversible and is a great opportunity for agriculture. Non-food rapeseed production is focused on the production of biodiesel. Biodiesel has good environmental properties. Lower emissions are produced by the combustion of biodiesel than for diesel. In content of exhaust gas is observed a significant decrease of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, particulate matter and etc. The analysis of the literary knowledge on impacts of biodiesel on exhaust emissions, on regulated emissions, shows a reduction of 10.1% for particulate matter, of 21.1% for hydrocarbons, and 11.0% for carbon monoxide with the use of B20. Nitrogen oxides (NOx increased by 2.0%. Biodiesel was introduced into the European market in the 1988s as B100. The use of blends with content up to 5% biodiesel has no significant impact on the emissions and their toxicity. An increased mutagenicity was observed with blends containing 20%. Nevertheless, increased mutagenic effects were observed under specific conditions. Accordingly, the problem concerning blends of diesel fuel with biodiesel (B20 should be investigated with high priority. No comprehensive risk assessment for diesel engine emissions from biodiesel and its blends is possible In regard to a comprehensive hazard characterization it is urged to develop a panel of standardized and internationally accepted protocols which allow a reliable assessment of possible health hazards which may arise from the combustion of new fuels compared to conventional diesel fuel. These methods should be robust and should reflect the various health hazards associated with diesel engine emissions to supplement data on regulated emissions. Methods for the generation of the exhaust and sample preparation should be harmonized. There is sufficient evidence supporting a

  9. Formulations of the endophytic bacterium Bacillus subtilis Tu-100 suppress Sclerotinia sclerotiorum on oilseed rape and improve plant vigor in field trials conducted at separate locations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sclerotinia sclerotiorum causes serious yield losses in crops in The People’s Republic of China. Two formulations of oilseed rape seed containing the endophytic bacterium Bacillus subtilis Tu-100 were evaluated for suppression of this pathogen in field trials conducted at two independent locations....

  10. Radiation and nitrogen use at the leaf and canopy level by wheat and oilseed rape during the critical period for grain number definition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dreccer, M.F.; Schapendonk, A.H.C.M.; Oijen, van M.; Pot, C.S.; Rabbinge, R.

    2000-01-01

    During the critical period for grain number definition, the amount of biomass produced per unit absorbed radiation is more sensitive to nitrogen (N) supply in oilseed rape than in wheat, and reaches a higher value at high N. This response was investigated by combining experimental and modelling

  11. Impacts of adding different components of wood vinegar on rape (Brassica napus L.) seed germiantion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Xue; Liu, Xia; Zhang, Qian

    2018-03-01

    In recent years, wood vinegar has been widely used in the agricultural production. It can be used as the soil amendment, antibacterial agent and organic fertilizer. This study investigated the effect of wood vinegar on rape (Brassica napus L.) seed germination. The results in this study showed that 1% (v/v) wood vinegar had the greatest inhibition effect on the seed germination of rape (Brassica napus L.). The wood vinegar (WV) and the distilled wood vinegar at 98 - 130 °C (D2) significantly inhibited seed germination by 100%, compared to the control treatment. However, the distilled wood vinegar (D1) had significantly increased the shoot length and root length by 58.4% and 31.7%, respectively. These positive effects could be attributed to the improved soil fertility, increased nutrient supply, and further stimulated plant growth. Overall, the D1 could be a promising soil amendment to promote plants growth and enhance crop yields. Effect of adding different components of distilled wood vinegar on the seed germination of rape

  12. Ecological Variation in Response to Mass-Flowering Oilseed Rape and Surrounding Landscape Composition by Members of a Cryptic Bumblebee Complex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dara A Stanley

    Full Text Available The Bombus sensu stricto species complex is a widespread group of cryptic bumblebee species which are important pollinators of many crops and wild plants. These cryptic species have, until now, largely been grouped together in ecological studies, and so little is known about their individual colony densities, foraging ranges or habitat requirements, which can be influenced by land use at a landscape scale. We used mass-flowering oilseed rape fields as locations to sample bees of this complex, as well as the second most common visitor to oilseed rape B. lapidarius, and molecular RFLP methods to distinguish between the cryptic species. We then used microsatellite genotyping to identify sisters and estimate colony densities, and related both proportions of cryptic species and their colony densities to the composition of the landscape surrounding the fields. We found B. lucorum was the most common member of the complex present in oilseed rape followed by B. terrestris. B. cryptarum was also present in all but one site, with higher proportions found in the east of the study area. High numbers of bumblebee colonies were estimated to be using oilseed rape fields as a forage resource, with B. terrestris colony numbers higher than previous estimates from non-mass-flowering fields. We also found that the cryptic species responded differently to surrounding landscape composition: both relative proportions of B. cryptarum in samples and colony densities of B. lucorum were negatively associated with the amount of arable land in the landscape, while proportions and colony densities of other species did not respond to landscape variables at the scale measured. This suggests that the cryptic species have different ecological requirements (which may be scale-dependent and that oilseed rape can be an important forage resource for many colonies of bumblebees. Given this, we recommend sustainable management of this crop to benefit bumblebees.

  13. Rice Yield and the Fate of Fertilizer Nitrogen as Affected by Addition of Earthworm Casts Collected from Oilseed Rape Fields: A Pot Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Min; Zhou, Xuefeng; Xie, Xiaobing; Zhao, Chunrong; Chen, Jiana; Cao, Fangbo; Zou, Yingbin

    2016-01-01

    The mechanism associated with improvement of soil nutritional status by oilseed rape crop, leading to better performance of rice crop, in rice-oilseed rape cropping systems is little known. The present study was aimed to test the hypothesis that earthworm casts produced during oilseed rape-growing season have positive effects on grain yield and fertilizer nitrogen (N) utilization in the subsequent flooded rice crop. A 15N-tracing pot experiment was conducted to determine the effects of earthworm casts collected from oilseed rape fields on yield attributes in rice and the fate of fertilizer N. Soil treated with earthworm casts (soil: earthworm casts = 4: 1, w/w) (EC1) produced 39% higher grain yield than soil only (EC0). EC1 had 18% more panicle number and 10% higher spikelet filling percentage than EC0. Aboveground biomass and harvest index were higher in EC1 than in EC0 by 20% and 15%, respectively. SPAD values in flag leaves were 10% and 22% higher under EC1 than EC0 at 15 and 20 days after heading, respectively. EC1 had 19% higher total N uptake and 18% higher physiological N-use efficiency than EC0. These positive effects of earthworm casts on yield attributes offset negative effects of decreasing N rate from 0.74 g pot-1 (equivalent to the recommended field rate of 150 kg ha-1) to 0.44 g pot-1 (equivalent to 60% of the recommended rate). Fertilizer N retention rate was 7% higher while fertilizer N loss rate was 6% lower in EC1 than in EC0. Our study suggests that earthworm casts produced during oilseed rape-growing season are expected to have the following benefits on the subsequent flooded rice system: (1) improving growth and physiological processes in rice plants and consequently increasing rice grain yield, and (2) increasing fertilizer N retention rate and hence decreasing fertilizer N loss rate and reducing environmental risk.

  14. Large-scale monitoring of effects of clothianidin-dressed oilseed rape seeds on pollinating insects in northern Germany: residues of clothianidin in pollen, nectar and honey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolke, Daniel; Persigehl, Markus; Peters, Britta; Sterk, Guido; Blenau, Wolfgang

    2016-11-01

    This study was part of a large-scale monitoring project to assess the possible effects of Elado ® (10 g clothianidin & 2 g β-cyfluthrin/kg seed)-dressed oilseed rape seeds on different pollinators in Northern Germany. Firstly, residues of clothianidin and its active metabolites thiazolylnitroguanidine and thiazolylmethylurea were measured in nectar and pollen from Elado ® -dressed (test site, T) and undressed (reference site, R) oilseed rape collected by honey bees confined within tunnel tents. Clothianidin and its metabolites could not be detected or quantified in samples from R fields. Clothianidin concentrations in samples from T fields were 1.3 ± 0.9 μg/kg and 1.7 ± 0.9 μg/kg in nectar and pollen, respectively. Secondly, pollen and nectar for residue analyses were sampled from free flying honey bees, bumble bees and mason bees, placed at six study locations each in the R and T sites at the start of oilseed rape flowering. Honey samples were analysed from all honey bee colonies at the end of oilseed rape flowering. Neither clothianidin nor its metabolites were detectable or quantifiable in R site samples. Clothianidin concentrations in samples from the T site were below the limit of quantification (LOQ, 1.0 µg/kg) in most pollen and nectar samples collected by bees and 1.4 ± 0.5 µg/kg in honey taken from honey bee colonies. In summary, the study provides reliable semi-field and field data of clothianidin residues in nectar and pollen collected by different bee species in oilseed rape fields under common agricultural conditions.

  15. Rice Yield and the Fate of Fertilizer Nitrogen as Affected by Addition of Earthworm Casts Collected from Oilseed Rape Fields: A Pot Experiment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Huang

    Full Text Available The mechanism associated with improvement of soil nutritional status by oilseed rape crop, leading to better performance of rice crop, in rice-oilseed rape cropping systems is little known. The present study was aimed to test the hypothesis that earthworm casts produced during oilseed rape-growing season have positive effects on grain yield and fertilizer nitrogen (N utilization in the subsequent flooded rice crop. A 15N-tracing pot experiment was conducted to determine the effects of earthworm casts collected from oilseed rape fields on yield attributes in rice and the fate of fertilizer N. Soil treated with earthworm casts (soil: earthworm casts = 4: 1, w/w (EC1 produced 39% higher grain yield than soil only (EC0. EC1 had 18% more panicle number and 10% higher spikelet filling percentage than EC0. Aboveground biomass and harvest index were higher in EC1 than in EC0 by 20% and 15%, respectively. SPAD values in flag leaves were 10% and 22% higher under EC1 than EC0 at 15 and 20 days after heading, respectively. EC1 had 19% higher total N uptake and 18% higher physiological N-use efficiency than EC0. These positive effects of earthworm casts on yield attributes offset negative effects of decreasing N rate from 0.74 g pot-1 (equivalent to the recommended field rate of 150 kg ha-1 to 0.44 g pot-1 (equivalent to 60% of the recommended rate. Fertilizer N retention rate was 7% higher while fertilizer N loss rate was 6% lower in EC1 than in EC0. Our study suggests that earthworm casts produced during oilseed rape-growing season are expected to have the following benefits on the subsequent flooded rice system: (1 improving growth and physiological processes in rice plants and consequently increasing rice grain yield, and (2 increasing fertilizer N retention rate and hence decreasing fertilizer N loss rate and reducing environmental risk.

  16. Chromosomal aberration induced by gamma rays in winter rape (Brassica napus L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luczkiewicz, T.; Rogalska, S.M.

    1994-01-01

    Winter rape seeds (Brassica napus L. cv. Jet Neuf) were irradiated twice with gamma rays. In γ 1-2 generation (dose 50.0 kR) plants with reduced fertility were selected. Offspring of these plants, in the following generations, were segregated into fertile plants, partly fertile and sterile plants. Analysis of meiosis in PCM revealed presence of a great number of cells (in prophase 1. and metaphase 1.) with crosses, rings and chains of multivalents. It is a proof of vast heterozygous translocation. (author)

  17. Different waves of effector genes with contrasted genomic location are expressed by Leptosphaeria maculans during cotyledon and stem colonization of oilseed rape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gervais, Julie; Plissonneau, Clémence; Linglin, Juliette; Meyer, Michel; Labadie, Karine; Cruaud, Corinne; Fudal, Isabelle; Rouxel, Thierry; Balesdent, Marie-Hélène

    2017-10-01

    Leptosphaeria maculans, the causal agent of stem canker disease, colonizes oilseed rape (Brassica napus) in two stages: a short and early colonization stage corresponding to cotyledon or leaf colonization, and a late colonization stage during which the fungus colonizes systemically and symptomlessly the plant during several months before stem canker appears. To date, the determinants of the late colonization stage are poorly understood; L. maculans may either successfully escape plant defences, leading to stem canker development, or the plant may develop an 'adult-stage' resistance reducing canker incidence. To obtain an insight into these determinants, we performed an RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) pilot project comparing fungal gene expression in infected cotyledons and in symptomless or necrotic stems. Despite the low fraction of fungal material in infected stems, sufficient fungal transcripts were detected and a large number of fungal genes were expressed, thus validating the feasibility of the approach. Our analysis showed that all avirulence genes previously identified are under-expressed during stem colonization compared with cotyledon colonization. A validation RNA-seq experiment was then performed to investigate the expression of candidate effector genes during systemic colonization. Three hundred and seven 'late' effector candidates, under-expressed in the early colonization stage and over-expressed in the infected stems, were identified. Finally, our analysis revealed a link between the regulation of expression of effectors and their genomic location: the 'late' effector candidates, putatively involved in systemic colonization, are located in gene-rich genomic regions, whereas the 'early' effector genes, over-expressed in the early colonization stage, are located in gene-poor regions of the genome. © 2016 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  18. TRANSGENIC PLANTS OF RAPE (BRASSICA NAPUS L. WITH GENE OSMYB4 HAVE INCREASED RESISTANCE TO SALTS OF HEAVY METALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raldugina G.N.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to study the response of the transgenic spring rape plants (Brassica napus L. var. ‘Westar’ with the rice transfactor-encoding gene Osmyb4 to treatment with salts of heavy metals (HM CuSO4 or ZnSO4 and accumulation in the leaves of biomass, metals, photosynthetic pigments, lipid peroxidation, and antioxidant compounds: total phenols, anthocyanins, and antioxidant enzyme activity superoxide dismutase (SOD and guaiacol peroxidase (POX were determined. Vegetatively propagated transgenic plants and wild-type plants were grown on Hoagland-Snyder medium at 24°C, then at the 5-6th leaves-stage, CuSO4 (in concentration 25-150 mM or ZnSO4 (500 - 5000 mM were added to the growth medium, and plants were exposed to the salts for 15 days. Under the action of small concentrations of salts, the results obtained for the transgenic and untransformed plants did not differ, but at high concentrations strong differences between transgenic and untransformed plants were observed. In transgenic plants, accumulation of biomass was greater. Carotene and xanthophyll were destroyed in transgenic plants less than in the untransformed plants. They have accumulated in their leaves more metal, especially Zn, reaching almost to the accumulation of 7 mg per g of dry biomass, bringing these plants to the hyperaccumulation of Zn. In the tissues of transgenic plants exposed to high concentrations of salts, the content of total phenols, anthocyanins, and low molecular weight compounds, that are responsible for protection against ROS, increased significantly. All these results indicate a greater stability of the transgenic plants to the action of heavy metals, as evidenced also by less activity of lipid peroxidases in their tissue: at high salt concentrations, malondialdehyde (MDA accumulated significantly less in transgenic plants than in non-transformed plant tissues. The greater stability of transgenic plants to stressful effect of HM is also evidenced by the

  19. Clearfield®-Clentiga® and Clearfield® Kombi-Pack: Two new herbicides for targeted weed control in winter- and spring oilseed rape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schönhammer, Alfons

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the Clearfield® Production System in winter oilseed rape in Germany is based on the herbicide Clearfield®-Vantiga® , a combination product consisting of the active ingredients metazachlor, quinmerac and imazamox, sold as Clearfield-Vantiga D together with the adjuvant Dash® E.C.. Clearfield-Vantiga D was introduced in autumn 2012 and has since proved superior performance on more than 10 000 ha of heavily weedy fields due to the very broad spectrum of activity, reliable foliar and soil activity and excellent crop safety in Clearfield oilseed rape hybrids. Although the authorized application period is very long (BBCH 10-18, it is mostly used relatively early, as soon as the majority of the important weeds is emerged. Metazachlor which is active mainly by cotyledon, hypocotyl and root uptake, is favoured by early applications. Clearfield-Clentiga is a suspension concentrate (SC, consisting of 250 g/l quinmerac and 12.5 g/l imazamox . The application rate is 1.0 l/ha + 1.0 l/ha of the adjuvant Dash E.C.. Approval is sought for use in winter oilseed rape in autumn (BBCH 10-18 and spring (BBCH 30-50 and in spring oilseed rape (BBCH 10-18. Results are presented for the autumn application in winter oilseed rape. A prerequisite for the application of both Clearfield-Clentiga and Clearfield-Vantiga D is the use of imazamox tolerant oilseed rape (Clearfield varieties. The amounts of active ingredient per hectare of quinmerac and imazamox are identical in Clearfield-Clentiga and Clearfield-Vantiga D, as well as the amount of adjuvant Dash E.C.. Clearfield-Clentiga, as a consequence of the absence of metazachlor, compared to Clearfield-Vantiga D has a slightly more limited spectrum of activity and a less pronounced soil activity, but provides greater flexibility in the choice of the application dates and of combinations with soil and foliar herbicides. Very effective, even at high weed pressure and in difficult soil conditions, are sequential

  20. An oilseed rape WRKY-type transcription factor regulates ROS accumulation and leaf senescence in Nicotiana benthamiana and Arabidopsis through modulating transcription of RbohD and RbohF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Liu; Ye, Chaofei; Zhao, Yuting; Cheng, Xiaolin; Wang, Yiqiao; Jiang, Yuan-Qing; Yang, Bo

    2018-06-01

    Overexpression of BnaWGR1 causes ROS accumulation and promotes leaf senescence. BnaWGR1 binds to promoters of RbohD and RbohF and regulates their expression. Manipulation of leaf senescence process affects agricultural traits of crop plants, including biomass, seed yield and stress resistance. Since delayed leaf senescence usually enhances tolerance to multiple stresses, we analyzed the function of specific MAPK-WRKY cascades in abiotic and biotic stress tolerance as well as leaf senescence in oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.), one of the important oil crops. In the present study, we showed that expression of one WRKY gene from oilseed rape, BnaWGR1, induced an accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), cell death and precocious leaf senescence both in Nicotiana benthamiana and transgenic Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). BnaWGR1 regulates the transcription of two genes encoding key enzymes implicated in production of ROS, that is, respiratory burst oxidase homolog (Rboh) D and RbohF. A dual-luciferase reporter assay confirmed the transcriptional regulation of RbohD and RbohF by BnaWGR1. In vitro electrophoresis mobility shift assay (EMSA) showed that BnaWGR1 could bind to W-box cis-elements within promoters of RbohD and RbohF. Moreover, RbohD and RbohF were significantly upregulated in transgenic Arabidopsis overexpressing BnaWGR1. In summary, these results suggest that BnaWGR1 could positively regulate leaf senescence through regulating the expression of RbohD and RbohF genes.

  1. Effects of Gamma Irradiation on Quality Characteristic and Microbiological Safety of Rape (Brassica napus) Pollen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyoung-Hee; Jeong, Su-Ji; Kim, Dam; Yook, Hong-Sun; Kim, Kwang-Hun

    2013-01-01

    This study is carried out to sanitize rape (Brassica napus) pollen by gamma irradiation. Rape pollens were treated with 0, 5, 10 and 15 kGy gamma irradiations, and then analyzed for the following: general composition, microbial population, reducing sugar, Hunter color values, TBARS (2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances) values, and VBN (volatile basic nitrogen). Mold and coliform bacteria were not detected in the samples irradiated at 5 kGy or more. Yeasts and total aerobic bacteria were not detected in the samples irradiated at 10 kGy or more (102 CFU/g). Moisture, ash, crude protein, crude fat, carbohydrate, reducing sugar and the contents of volatile basic nitrogen in the irradiated pollen did not show any significant changes by irradiation. Hunter color values, L, a and b values were decreased with increment of irradiation dose. TBARS values were increased with an increment of irradiation dose. In conclusion, gamma irradiation at 5 kGy was considered to be an effective treatment to control for mycotoxin producing fungi in rape pollen to minimize changes of general composition and physicochemical properties. Further studies should be investigated to reduce the detrimental effects induced by irradiation

  2. Reduction of antinutritional glucosinolates in Brassica oilseeds by mutation of genes encoding transporters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nour-Eldin, Hussam Hassan; Madsen, Svend Roesen; Engelen, Steven

    2017-01-01

    The nutritional value of Brassica seed meals is reduced by the presence of glucosinolates, which are toxic compounds involved in plant defense. Mutation of the genes encoding two glucosinolate transporters (GTRs) eliminated glucosinolates from Arabidopsis thaliana seeds, but translation of loss......-of-function phenotypes into Brassica crops is challenging because Brassica is polyploid. We mutated one of seven and four of 12 GTR orthologs and reduced glucosinolate levels in seeds by 60-70% in two different Brassica species (Brassica rapa and Brassica juncea). Reduction in seed glucosinolates was stably inherited...... over multiple generations and maintained in field trials of two mutant populations at three locations. Successful translation of the gtr loss-of-function phenotype from model plant to two Brassica crops suggests that our transport engineering approach could be broadly applied to reduce seed...

  3. Detecting Pathogens of Verticillium Wilt in Winter Oilseed Rape Using ELISA and PCR – Comparison of the Two Methods and With Visual Stand Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Spitzer

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available During 2013–2015, oilseed rape samples from various locations in the Czech Republic were analysed for the presence of Verticillium wilt. Samples were evaluated in the lab using ELISA and PCR as well as by visual evaluation during the samples collection. A comparison of detection match in individual methods also was made. ELISA and PCR matched in detecting Verticillium wilt in 60 % of cases. For practical use, a higher match rate would be necessary in cases where samples were to be analysed in various laboratories using only one of these techniques. The possibility was demonstrated to use kits as well as primers not targeted specifically to just Verticillium longisporum but recording both main species on oilseed rape (V. longisporum and V. dahliae. The match rates of lab analyses with visual evaluation of stand infection were surprisingly high at 62 % for ELISA and 77 % for PCR. All three stand evaluation methods matched in 56 % of cases.

  4. Large-scale monitoring of effects of clothianidin dressed oilseed rape seeds on pollinating insects in Northern Germany: implementation of the monitoring project and its representativeness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimbach, Fred; Russ, Anja; Schimmer, Maren; Born, Katrin

    2016-11-01

    Monitoring studies at the landscape level are complex, expensive and difficult to conduct. Many aspects have to be considered to avoid confounding effects which is probably the reason why they are not regularly performed in the context of risk assessments of plant protection products to pollinating insects. However, if conducted appropriately their contribution is most valuable. In this paper we identify the requirements of a large-scale monitoring study for the assessment of side-effects of clothianidin seed-treated winter oilseed rape on three species of pollinating insects (Apis mellifera, Bombus terrestris and Osmia bicornis) and present how these requirements were implemented. Two circular study sites were delineated next to each other in northeast Germany and comprised almost 65 km 2 each. At the reference site, study fields were drilled with clothianidin-free OSR seeds while at the test site the oilseed rape seeds contained a coating with 10 g clothianidin and 2 g beta-cyfluthrin per kg seeds (Elado®). The comparison of environmental conditions at the study sites indicated that they are as similar as possible in terms of climate, soil, land use, history and current practice of agriculture as well as in availability of oilseed rape and non-crop bee forage. Accordingly, local environmental conditions were considered not to have had any confounding effect on the results of the monitoring of the bee species. Furthermore, the study area was found to be representative for other oilseed rape cultivation regions in Europe.

  5. [Ecological effects of wheat-oilseed rape intercropping combined with methyl salicylate release on Sitobion avenae and its main natural enemies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jie; Liu, Ying-Jie; Li, Pei-Ling; Lin, Fang-Jing; Chen, Ju-Lian; Liu, Yong

    2012-10-01

    In order to explore the effects of wheat-oilseed rape intercropping in combining with methyl salicylate (MeSA) release on Sitobion avenae and its main natural enemies, a field experiment was conducted at the Tai'an Experimental Station of Shandong Agricultural University in East China from October 2008 to June 2010 to study the temporal dynamics of S. avenae and its main natural enemies as well as the ecological control effect on the aphid. In the plots of intercropping combined with MeSA release, the S. avenae apterae population reached a peak about 12 d in advance of the control, but the peak value was significantly lower than that of the control. The average annual number of S. avenae apterae per 100 wheat tillers decreased in the order of wheat monoculture > wheat-oilseed rape intercropping > MeSA release > wheat-oilseed rape intercropping combined with MeSA release. Moreover, the total number of ladybeetles was the highest in the plots of intercropping combined with MeSA release. The population densities of aphid parasitoids reached a peak about 10 d in advance of the control, which could play a significant role in controlling S. avenae at the filling stage of wheat. Taking the biological control index (BCI) as a quantitative indicator, and with the ladybeetles and parasitoids as the dominant control factors in fields, it was observed that wheat-oilseed rape intercropping combined with MeSA release could suppress the population increase of S. avenae apterae effectively from the heading to filling stages of wheat.

  6. Chitosan oligosaccharides-triggered innate immunity contributes to oilseed rape resistance against Sclerotinia sclerotiorum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Heng; Yan, Li; HongYan, Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Chitosan oligosaccharides (collectively, oligochitosan, or COS) are considered to be potent plant immunity elicitors. In this article, the induction of resistance to Sclerotinia sclerotiorum in Brassica napus L. var. Huyou 15 by COS is studied. Even though COS (50 mg mL1) did not affect radial...

  7. Availability of phosphorus from ground phosphate rocks for rape (Brassica napus L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Yongyi; Yang Juncheng; Chen Jingjian; Liu Delin; Zhu Zhaomin; Wu Ming

    1996-09-01

    The availability of phosphorus from the ground phosphate rock, which is provided by Kaiyang mining plant, Guizhou Province of China, is investigated in pot experiment with acid red soil for rape (Brassica napus L. No. 13 Xingyou, Chinese Olive Group) by 32 P indirect labelling method. The results show that the yield increased significantly by applying ground phosphate rock (GPR) and the efficiency of GPR is equal to 17.1% of that from calcium superphosphate. It is calculated as that the fertilizer efficiency of 1 kg of calcium superphosphate is the same as that of 8.53 kg ground phosphate rock in Guizhou Province of China. The effect on the grain yield is evaluated by pot and field microplot experiments, and it is found that the main effect is to increase the pod number. The fertilizer efficiency in field experiment is the same as that in pot experiment. (9 refs., 1 fig., 7 tabs.)

  8. Variations in fatty acid composition, glucosinolate profile and some phyto chemical contents in selected oil seed rape (Brassica napus L.) cultivars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Din Saad El-Beltag, H.; Mohamed, A. A.

    2010-07-01

    Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) is now the third most important source of edible oil in the world after soybean and palm oil. In this study seeds of five different rapeseed cultivars namely; pactol, silvo, topas, serw 4 and serw 6 were evaluated for their fatty acid composition, glucosinolate profile, amino acids, total tocopherols and phenolic content. Among all cultivars significant variability in fatty acids were observed. The oleic acid (C18:1) ranged from 56.31% to 58.67%, linoleic acid (C18:2) from 10.52% to 13.74%, {alpha}-linolenic acid (C18:3) from 8.83% to 10.32% and erucic acid (22:1) from 0.15% to 0.91%. The glucosinolate profile of rapeseed was also separated and identified using high-performance liquid chromatography. Small variations in the glucosinolate profile were observed among all tested cultivars; however, progoitrin and gluconapin were the major glucosinolate found. Additionally, silvo cultivar showed the highest total glucosinolate contents (5.97 {mu}mol/g dw). Generally, the contents of aspartic, glutamic, arginine and leucine were high, while the contents of tyrosine and isoleucine were low among all cultivars. For total tocopherols, the results indicated that both serw 6 and pactol cultivars had the highest total tocopherol contents (138.3 and 102.8 mg/100 g oil, respectively). Total phenolic contents varied from 28.0 to 35.4 mg/g dw. The highest total phenolic content was found in topas while the lowest value was detected in serw 6. These parameters; fatty acid contents, glucosinolate profile and amino acids together with total tocopherols and phenolic contents, could be taken into consideration by oilseed rape breeders as selection criteria for developing genotypes with modified seed quality traits in Brassica napus L. (Author)

  9. Nitrogen oxides and ozone fluxes from an oilseed-rape management cycle: the influence of cattle slurry application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuolo, Raffaella M.; Loubet, Benjamin; Mascher, Nicolas; Gueudet, Jean-Christophe; Durand, Brigitte; Laville, Patricia; Zurfluh, Olivier; Ciuraru, Raluca; Stella, Patrick; Trebs, Ivonne

    2017-05-01

    This study reports NO, NO2 and O3 mixing ratios and flux measurements using the eddy covariance method during a 7-month period over an oilseed-rape field, spanning an organic and a mineral fertilisation event. Cumulated NO emissions during the whole period were in agreement with previous studies and showed quite low emissions of 0.26 kg N ha-1 with an emission factor of 0.27 %, estimated as the ratio between total N emitted in the form of NO and total N input. The NO emissions were higher following organic fertilisation in August due to conditions favouring nitrification (soil water content around 20 % and high temperatures), while mineral fertilisation in February did not result in high emissions. The ozone deposition velocity increased significantly after organic fertilisation. The analysis of the chemical and turbulent transport times showed that reactions between NO, NO2 and O3 below the measurement height occurred constantly throughout the 7-month period. Following organic fertilisation, the NO ground fluxes were 30 % larger than the NO fluxes at the measurement height (3.2 m), while the NO2 fluxes switched from deposition to emission during certain periods, being negative at the surface and positive at the measurement height. This phenomenon of apparent NO2 emissions appears to be significant during strong NO emissions and high O3 ambient mixing ratios, even on a bare soil during August.

  10. Induction and purification of chitinase in Brassica napus L. ssp. oleifera infected with Phoma lingam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, U.; Giese, H.; Dalgaard Mikkelsen, J.

    1992-01-01

    A pathogen-induced chitinase (EC 3.2.1.14) was isolated from cotyledons of oilseed rape (Brassica napus cv. Bienvenu) 8 d after inoculation with Phoma lingam. The purified chitinase has a molecular weight of 30 kDa, and an isoelectric point of approx. 9.1. A partial amino-acid sequence obtained a...

  11. A comparison of two stomatal conductance models for ozone flux modelling using data from two Brassica species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Op de Beeck, M.; De Bock, M.; Vandermeiren, K.; Temmerman, L. de; Ceulemans, R.

    2010-01-01

    In this study we tested and compared a multiplicative stomatal model and a coupled semi-empirical stomatal-photosynthesis model in their ability to predict stomatal conductance to ozone (g st ) using leaf-level data from oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) and broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica Plenck). For oilseed rape, the multiplicative model and the coupled model were able to explain 72% and 73% of the observed g st variance, respectively. For broccoli, the models were able to explain 53% and 51% of the observed g st variance, respectively. These results support the coupled semi-empirical stomatal-photosynthesis model as a valid alternative to the multiplicative stomatal model for O 3 flux modelling, in terms of predictive performance. - A multiplicative stomatal model and a coupled semi-empirical stomatal-photosynthesis model performed equally well when tested against leaf-level data for oilseed rape and broccoli.

  12. Coat protein of Turnip mosaic virus in oilseed rape (Brassica napus)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mohammad

    2Department of Plant Breeding and Biotechnology, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad,. Iran. Accepted 15 August, 2012 ... led to prevalence of infectious diseases. Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV) is an .... During the sampling of canola plants for the detection of virus, some colonies of aphids were ...

  13. [Effects of wheat-oilseed rape intercropping and methyl salicylate application on the spatial distributions of Sitobion avenae and its main natural enemies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jie; Liu, Ying-Jie; Wang, Guang; Liu, Yong

    2012-07-01

    A field investigation was conducted on the spatial distributions of Sitobion avenae and its main natural enemies under wheat-oilseed rape intercropping and methyl salicylate application. With the development of wheat plant, an alternation from aggregation to uniform was observed in the spatial distribution of S. avenae under the intercropping and methyl salicylate application, being more obvious under the interaction of the two practices. The spatial distribution of S. avenae natural enemies was in accordance with that of the aphid. These results could be used for the reference of sampling investigation and forecast of wheat aphid and its natural enemies in field.

  14. Reaction of winter oilseed rape varieties to elevated concentrations of lead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oreščanin Bojana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Remediation methods allow the removal of metals from contaminated soil, and phytoremediation a technology for cleaning contaminated soil and waste material by plants, is becoming increasingly used. Brassica napus L., as one of the main oilcrops and high-biomass producing species, is becoming more and more interesting for the use in phytoextraction as it is proved to be tolerant to higher concentrations of heavy metals. The aim of this study was to examine the specific responses of three commercial winter rapeseed varieties, Banaćanka, Slavica and Kata, to the increased concentrations of lead in vitro. Significant reduction in root length of plants treated with lead was observed only in the variety Slavica, indicating susceptibility of this variety to the increased concentrations of this heavy metal. As in variety Kata a significant reduction in the length of the above-ground part due to the treatment with lead was detected, it could be concluded that the variety Banaćanka is the most tolerant to the applied concentrations of lead since there were no significant changes in the growth and biomass accumulation in all treatments except one, and could be recommended for further use in phytoremediation studies. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR31025 i br. III43007

  15. Insect pests and their natural enemies on spring oilseed rape in Estonia : impact of cropping systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. VEROMANN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the impact of different cropping systems, the pests, their hymenopteran parasitoids and predatory ground beetles present in two spring rape crops in Estonia, in 2003, were compared. One crop was grown under a standard (STN cropping system and the other under a minimised (MIN system. The STN system plants had more flowers than those in the MIN system, and these attracted significantly more Meligethes aeneus, the only abundant and real pest in Estonia. Meligethes aeneus had two population peaks: the first during opening of the first flowers and the second, the new generation, during ripening of the pods. The number of new generation M. aeneus was almost four times greater in the STN than in the MIN crop. More carabids were caught in the MIN than in STN crop. The maximum abundance of carabids occurred two weeks before that of the new generation of M. aeneus, at the time when M. aeneus larvae were dropping to the soil for pupation and hence were vulnerable to predation by carabids.

  16. Variations in fatty acid composition, glucosinolate profile and some phytochemical contents in selected oil seed rape (Brassica napus L. cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Mohamed, Amal

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Rapeseed (Brassica napus L. is now the third most important source of edible oil in the world after soybean and palm oil. In this study seeds of five different rapeseed cultivars namely; pactol, silvo, topas, serw 4 and serw 6 were evaluated for their fatty acid composition, glucosinolate profile, amino acids, total tocopherols and phenolic content. Among all cultivars significant variability in fatty acids were observed. The oleic acid (C18:1 ranged from 56.31% to 58.67%, linoleic acid (C18:2 from 10.52% to 13.74%, α-linolenic acid (C18:3 from 8.83% to 10.32% and erucic acid (22:1 from 0.15% to 0.91%. The glucosinolate profile of rapeseed was also separated and identified using high-performance liquid chromatography. Small variations in the glucosinolate profile were observed among all tested cultivars; however, progoitrin and gluconapin were the major glucosinolate found. Additionally, silvo cultivar showed the highest total glucosinolate c ontents (5.97 μmol/g dw. Generally, the contents of aspartic, glutamic, arginine and leucine were high, while the contents of tyrosine and isoleucine were low among all cultivars. For total tocopherols, the results indicated that both serw 6 and pactol cultivars had the highest total tocopherol contents (138.3 and 102.8 mg/100 g oil, respectively. Total phenolic contents varied from 28.0 to 35.4 mg/g dw. The highest total phenolic content was found in topas while the lowest value was detected in serw 6. These parameters; fatty acid contents, glucosinolate profile and amino acids together with total tocopherols and phenolic contents, could be taken into consideration by oilseed rape breeders as selection criteria for developing genotypes with modified seed quality traits in Brassica napus L.La colza (Brassica napus L. es hoy en día el tercer cultivo más importante de aceites comestibles en el mundo tras el aceite de soja y de palma. En este estudio semillas de cinco cultivos diferentes de colza

  17. Response of winter rape (Brassica napus L. ssp. oleifera Metzg., Sinsk to foliar fertilization and different seeding rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cezary A. Kwiatkowski

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment in growing winter rape was carried out during the period 2009-2011 in a family farm (owned by Mr. M. Bednarczyk located in Jaroszewice (Lublin region, on podzolic soil. Plant biometric features as well as yield and seed qualitative parameters (oil, protein and glucosinolate content were evaluated depending on the following rates of soil NPK fertilizers and on foliar fertilization (autumn spraying with the fertilizer solution: 100% and 75% of NPK as well as urea + nickel chelate + MgSO4H2O; 100% and 75% of NPK as well as urea + Plonvit R + MgSO4H2O. Plots without foliar fertilization (only 100% of NPK were the control treatment. The other experimental factor was the seeding rate (2.5 kg×ha-1 – 30 cm row spacing; 4 kg×ha-1 – 18 cm row spacing. Foliar spraying was done once in the autumn in the second decade of October. Tillage as well as mechanical and chemical control of agricultural pests in the plantation were typical for this plant species and consistent with the recommendations for winter rape protection. A hypothesis was made that the application of foliar fertilizers would have a beneficial effect on winter rape productivity, at the same time maintaining the high quality of raw material. It was also assumed that a reduction in the seeding rate of winter oilseed rape would result in reduced plant lodging and an increased number of siliques per plant; as a consequence, seed and oil productivity would be at a level not lower than that obtained at the higher seeding rate. The present study has proved that foliar fertilization of winter oilseed rape in the autumn period contributes to improved plant winter hardiness and increased productivity. The application of foliar fertilizers also enables the rates of basic mineral NPK fertilizers to be reduced by 25% without detriment to seed yield. Foliar fertilizers have been found to have a weaker effect on changing the chemical composition of rapeseed. The study has shown that

  18. Impact of different soil cultivation on weed species in winter rape (oilseed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Winkler

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A community of weeds and crops is affected by a number of factors, including, among other things, also tillage. In the years 2000–2002, the composition of weed species in rape stands was evaluated on the fields with the total area of 551 hectares (1 hectar equals to some 2.47 acres. The evaluation was carried out with the application of methodology developed by Kühn (1982. On the fields located in the cadastral area of Olomouc – Holice, which had been cultivated in a traditional manner, 115 relevés were recorded. On the fields in the cadastral area of Bohuňovice, which had been cultivated with the application of reduced tillage, 97 relevés were recorded and evaluated. All of the above fields were subjected to the application of chemical agents reducing the occurrence of weeds. The data thus received were processed by means of multidimensional analysis of ecological data with the application of a RDA method (Redundancy Analysis. In the course of three years, 75 weed species were found on the fields under conventional tillage, on the average, 8.2 species per a relevé, while 66 weed species were found during the same period of time on the fields cultivated by means of reduced tillage, on the average, 8.6 species per a relevé. The application of RDA analysis enabled us to sort out the selected species of weeds (i.e. those the frequency of occurrence of which exceeded 15 % into three groups. The conditions provided by the conventional tillage appeared to be more satisfactory for the weed species included in the first group (Arctium tomentosum, Elytrigia repens, Helianthus tuberosus, Chenopodium album, Lolium perenne and Papaver rhoeas. The species included in the second group, i.e. Alsinula media, Apera spica-venti, Atriplex patula, Bromus sterilis, Capsella bursa-pastoris, Equisetum arvense, Fallopia convolvulus, Myosotis arvensis and Thlaspi arvense., responded to reduced tillage by the increase in cover or by increased frequency of

  19. Determination of Flowering Phenology, Number of Flowers, Nectar and Pollen Potential of Oil Rape (Brassica napus L., Plant in Black Sea Coastal Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Necda Çankaya

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This research was carried out in 2011 and 2012 in order to determine the flowering phenology, number of flowers, nectar and pollen potential in the Samsun province of the oilseed rape (Brassica napus L., which is widely used in agriculture in our country. In the first year of the study (2011, it was determined that the rapeseed plant was in flower for 44 days, there were 2.694 flowers per plant, 1.89 kg/da nectar per day and 1330 kg/da pollen production. In the second year of the research (2012, it was revealed that the rapeseed plant was in flower for 39 days, there were 701 plants/flower in the plant, 0.38 kg/da nectar secreted daily and 331.57 kg/da pollen. According to the results of two years, the yield of rapeseed was found to be 41.5 days, the daily nectar production was 0.23 mg/flower/day, the nectar dry matter level was 20.25% and the pollen production was 0.48 mg/flower/day. In Samsun province, it was determined that rapeseed plants flowered before the flowering of many plants in the vicinity in the early spring, and provided honey bees, Apis mellifera L., and many other honey bees, nectar and pollen. It has been demonstrated that the cultivation of rapeseed is cultivated in the early spring, and it can be a convenient source of food for honey bees and other dusty insects.

  20. Accumulation of wet-deposited radiocaesium and radiostrontium by spring oilseed rape (Brássica napus L.) and spring wheat (Tríticum aestívum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bengtsson, Stefan B.; Eriksson, Jan; Gärdenäs, Annemieke I.; Vinichuk, Mykhailo; Rosén, Klas

    2013-01-01

    The accumulation of 134 Cs and 85 Sr within different parts of spring oilseed rape and spring wheat plants was investigated, with a particular focus on transfer to seeds after artificial wet deposition at different growth stages during a two-year field trial. In general, the accumulation of radionuclides in plant parts increased when deposition was closer to harvest. The seed of spring oilseed rape had lower concentrations of 85 Sr than spring wheat grain. The plants accumulated more 134 Cs than 85 Sr. We conclude that radionuclides can be transferred into human food chain at all growing stages, especially at the later stages. The variation in transfer factors during the investigation, and in comparison to previous results, implies the estimation of the risk for possible transfer of radionuclides to seeds in the event of future fallout during a growing season is still subject to considerable uncertainty. -- Highlights: •Accumulation of 134 Cs and 85 Sr in plants increased the closer to harvest the nuclides were deposited. • 134 Cs and 85 Sr concentrations in seeds were highest when deposited after flowering. •Activity concentrations of 134 Cs in spring oilseed rape were higher than the activity concentrations of 85 Sr. •Oilseed rape redistributes 134 Cs and 85 Sr to seed at a lower rate than wheat redistributes 134 Cs and 85 Sr to grain. -- Intercepted radionuclides can be transferred into the food chain for humans

  1. Increased [CO2] does not compensate for negative effects on yield caused by higher temperature and [O3] in Brassica napus L

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frenck, Georg; van der Linden, Leon Gareth; Mikkelsen, Teis Nørgaard

    2011-01-01

    in existing genotypes is vital. In this study, the responses in yield and biomass production of four different cultivars of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) were tested under five different combinations of increased [CO2] (700 ppm), temperature (+5 °C) and [O3] (+40 ppb). Especially the multifactor treatments...

  2. Biomass and biomass water use efficiency in oilseed crop (Brassica juncea L.) under semi-arid microenvironments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adak, Tarun; Kumar, Gopal; Chakravarty, N.V.K.; Katiyar, R.K.; Deshmukh, P.S.; Joshi, H.C.

    2013-01-01

    Biomass production in arid and semi-arid regions requires a special attention owing to spatiotemporal scarcity of irrigation water wherein improved water use efficiency (WUE) of the crop is targeted. Under field conditions, the crop undergoes dynamic changes in near ground or within-canopy microenvironments. This changed microclimatic condition may have an impact on phenological response of the oilseed crop which in turn would affect biomass productivity, economic seed yield and water use efficiency of the crop. Henceforth, quantification of biomass production and its WUE of oilseed Brassica crop is essentially required owing to have better understanding of the crop water requirement under the era of climate change. Following a 2 years field experiment, it was revealed that the changes in leaf area index were explained by about 68–74%. The best fit polynomial third order regression analysis indicated >93% prediction in biomass production as a function of time factor. Improved biomass partitioning into economic sinks was also observed. Small scale change in near ground microenvironment may reduce the prediction of biomass variability to the extent of 3%. The mean ET variations were observed as 2.4, 1.5 and 3.2 mm day −1 during the critical phenological stages. Mean seed yield, biomass WUE and seed yield WUE ranged between 2.71 and 2.87 Mg ha −1 , 11.4 and 13.1 g m −2 mm −1 and 19.3 and 22.9 kg ha −1 mm −1 respectively. Variations in both biomass and seed yield water use efficiencies due to small scale change in near ground microclimates were revealed. -- Highlights: ► Assessing biomass productivity and its water use efficiency under arid and semi-arid regions is important. ► Under field conditions, the crop undergoes dynamic changes in near ground or within-canopy microenvironments. ► We have estimated changes in seasonal ET, within-canopy micrometeorological dynamics. ► Biomass productivity, partitioning and water use efficiencies were

  3. Rape

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Map FAQs Customer Support Health Topics Drugs & Supplements Videos & Tools Español You Are Here: Home → Medical Encyclopedia → Rape (sexual assault) - overview URL of this page: //medlineplus. ...

  4. Genetic diversity of notary-national uniform rape seed yield trial and brassica napus varieties using raped markers and biochemical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakhat, J.; Fareed, A.; Swati, Z.A.; Shafi, M.

    2011-01-01

    In Pakistan, Brassica is the second most important source of oil after cotton. Seventeen NURYT (National Uniform Rape Seed Yield Trial) lines and 5 Brassica napus varieties were assessed through RAPD primers and biochemical assays. Seven different Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA markers (RAPD) were employed during the present study. A total of 30 RAPD bands were scored by these primers. Size of the scorable fragments ranged from approximately 250 to 2000 bp. Diversity index was estimated to be 42%. Mean genetic distance estimates ranged between 0.10 and 1.00. For the assessment of various biochemical parameters, Near Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy (NIRS) was used. Oil content ranged from 38.30 to 49% and protein content from 19.80 to 29.10% among the 22 genotypes. Maximum protein content was assayed in genotype RBN 3046 while minimum in Hyola 405. Glucosinolates ranged between 2 and 84% for genotype CRH 60/08 and CRH05/08 showing the maximum and minimum values respectively. Oleic acid (52 to 72.5%), linolenic acid (7.07 and 9.90%) and erucic acid content (9.57 to 38.3%) was also recorded during the present study. (author)

  5. Radiocaesium activity in rape oil and in rape cake after a wet deposition event

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaiko, Y.; Rappe-George, M.; Bengtsson, S. [Department of Soil and Environment (Sweden)

    2014-07-01

    After a release of radionuclides in agricultural areas there can be concerns on the levels of radionuclides in food products produced. The uptake of radionuclides via the above ground plant parts is a very important transport route into the food chain for humans as caesium is relatively mobile inside plants. In the production of rape oil the use of a processing factor (Pf) is used to estimate the activity concentration of radioactivity in the final oil product based on the activity concentration in rape seeds. The processing factor has been estimated to be 0.004 for caesium in rape oil by IAEA, and is based on a limited numbers of studies (1). In this project we analysed the activity concentration of radiocaesium ({sup 134}Cs) in rape oil and in rape cake from rape seeds contaminated after a wet deposition event with {sup 134}Cs. With the information of activity concentration of {sup 134}Cs in rape oil and in rape cake, we calculated the Pf-value and confirm or suggest new enhanced Pf-value. We analysed the activity concentration of {sup 134}Cs in rape oil and in rape cake from spring oilseed rape seeds (Brassica napus L.) that had been contaminated experimentally by wet deposited {sup 134}Cs in an earlier experiment by Bengtsson et al. (2013). The estimation of activity concentration of {sup 134}Cs in rape oil and in rape cake was achieved by performing extraction of the oil (and other extractable compounds) from the seeds based on the Randall extraction method (Randall, 1974) using petroleum ether as extraction chemical. The extracted oil and the rape cake samples were weighed and the activity concentration was measured with High-Purity Germanium (HPGe) detectors. Pf-values were calculated by dividing the measured activity concentration in rape oil after extraction by the activity concentration in oilseed rape seeds before extraction. Results from the present study will be presented at the international conference on radioecology and environmental radioactivity

  6. An individual-based model of the evolution of pesticide resistance in heterogeneous environments: control of Meligethes aeneus population in oilseed rape crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratonovitch, Pierre; Elias, Jan; Denholm, Ian; Slater, Russell; Semenov, Mikhail A

    2014-01-01

    Preventing a pest population from damaging an agricultural crop and, at the same time, preventing the development of pesticide resistance is a major challenge in crop protection. Understanding how farming practices and environmental factors interact with pest characteristics to influence the spread of resistance is a difficult and complex task. It is extremely challenging to investigate such interactions experimentally at realistic spatial and temporal scales. Mathematical modelling and computer simulation have, therefore, been used to analyse resistance evolution and to evaluate potential resistance management tactics. Of the many modelling approaches available, individual-based modelling of a pest population offers most flexibility to include and analyse numerous factors and their interactions. Here, a pollen beetle (Meligethes aeneus) population was modelled as an aggregate of individual insects inhabiting a spatially heterogeneous landscape. The development of the pest and host crop (oilseed rape) was driven by climatic variables. The agricultural land of the landscape was managed by farmers applying a specific rotation and crop protection strategy. The evolution of a single resistance allele to the pyrethroid lambda cyhalothrin was analysed for different combinations of crop management practices and for a recessive, intermediate and dominant resistance allele. While the spread of a recessive resistance allele was severely constrained, intermediate or dominant resistance alleles showed a similar response to the management regime imposed. Calendar treatments applied irrespective of pest density accelerated the development of resistance compared to ones applied in response to prescribed pest density thresholds. A greater proportion of spring-sown oilseed rape was also found to increase the speed of resistance as it increased the period of insecticide exposure. Our study demonstrates the flexibility and power of an individual-based model to simulate how farming

  7. An individual-based model of the evolution of pesticide resistance in heterogeneous environments: control of Meligethes aeneus population in oilseed rape crops.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Stratonovitch

    Full Text Available Preventing a pest population from damaging an agricultural crop and, at the same time, preventing the development of pesticide resistance is a major challenge in crop protection. Understanding how farming practices and environmental factors interact with pest characteristics to influence the spread of resistance is a difficult and complex task. It is extremely challenging to investigate such interactions experimentally at realistic spatial and temporal scales. Mathematical modelling and computer simulation have, therefore, been used to analyse resistance evolution and to evaluate potential resistance management tactics. Of the many modelling approaches available, individual-based modelling of a pest population offers most flexibility to include and analyse numerous factors and their interactions. Here, a pollen beetle (Meligethes aeneus population was modelled as an aggregate of individual insects inhabiting a spatially heterogeneous landscape. The development of the pest and host crop (oilseed rape was driven by climatic variables. The agricultural land of the landscape was managed by farmers applying a specific rotation and crop protection strategy. The evolution of a single resistance allele to the pyrethroid lambda cyhalothrin was analysed for different combinations of crop management practices and for a recessive, intermediate and dominant resistance allele. While the spread of a recessive resistance allele was severely constrained, intermediate or dominant resistance alleles showed a similar response to the management regime imposed. Calendar treatments applied irrespective of pest density accelerated the development of resistance compared to ones applied in response to prescribed pest density thresholds. A greater proportion of spring-sown oilseed rape was also found to increase the speed of resistance as it increased the period of insecticide exposure. Our study demonstrates the flexibility and power of an individual-based model to

  8. Control of slug damage to oilseed rape and wheat with imidacloprid seed dressings in laboratory and field experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simms, L.C.; Ester, A.; Wilson, M.J.

    2006-01-01

    Slugs are common pests of oilseed and cereal crops in Europe and are currently controlled using bait pellets that often fail to give adequate protection: Here we investigate the potential of the broad-spectrum insecticide imidacloprid, previously suggested to have activity against slugs, to control

  9. Lambs Fed Fresh Winter Forage Rape (Brassica napus L.) Emit Less Methane than Those Fed Perennial Ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.), and Possible Mechanisms behind the Difference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xuezhao; Henderson, Gemma; Cox, Faith; Molano, German; Harrison, Scott J.; Luo, Dongwen; Janssen, Peter H.; Pacheco, David

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine long-term effects of feeding forage rape (Brassica napus L.) on methane yields (g methane per kg of feed dry matter intake), and to propose mechanisms that may be responsible for lower emissions from lambs fed forage rape compared to perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.). The lambs were fed fresh winter forage rape or ryegrass as their sole diet for 15 weeks. Methane yields were measured using open circuit respiration chambers, and were 22-30% smaller from forage rape than from ryegrass (averages of 13.6 g versus 19.5 g after 7 weeks, and 17.8 g versus 22.9 g after 15 weeks). The difference therefore persisted consistently for at least 3 months. The smaller methane yields from forage rape were not related to nitrate or sulfate in the feed, which might act as alternative electron acceptors, or to the levels of the potential inhibitors glucosinolates and S-methyl L-cysteine sulfoxide. Ruminal microbial communities in forage rape-fed lambs were different from those in ryegrass-fed lambs, with greater proportions of potentially propionate-forming bacteria, and were consistent with less hydrogen and hence less methane being produced during fermentation. The molar proportions of ruminal acetate were smaller and those of propionate were greater in forage rape-fed lambs, consistent with the larger propionate-forming populations and less hydrogen production. Forage rape contained more readily fermentable carbohydrates and less structural carbohydrates than ryegrass, and was more rapidly degraded in the rumen, which might favour this fermentation profile. The ruminal pH was lower in forage rape-fed lambs, which might inhibit methanogenic activity, shifting the rumen fermentation to more propionate and less hydrogen and methane. The significance of these two mechanisms remains to be investigated. The results suggest that forage rape is a potential methane mitigation tool in pastoral-based sheep production systems. PMID:25803688

  10. Research fields, challenges and opportunities in European oilseed crops breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincourt Patrick

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Due to the geographical specialization in oilseed world production, Europe has a major role to play in winter oilseed rape and sunflower breeding. Mainly based on the most recen t results, this review aims to identify the main research and breeding targets for these two crops, as seen through publications, with an attempt to suggest what are opportunities and challenges in these research fields. Growing a healthy and yielding crop remains the key driver for agronomic production. However sustainability and environmental profiles of the cultivar are now entering the field of play: The sustainability concern invested the field of resistance to diseases. Nitrogen use efficiency became an important target for Brassica napus, and crop resilience toward drought stresses is the way chosen in Helianthus annuus breeding for yield improvement. Significant advances are underway for quality traits, but the uncertainty on nutritional and industrial demand may explain why the product diversification remains low.

  11. Prediction model for cabbage stem weevil ceutorhynchus pallidactylus Mrsh. occurrence on winther rape based on an artificial neural network

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klem, Karel; Spitzer, T.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 3 (2017), s. 302-308 ISSN 1461-9555 R&D Projects: GA MZe QJ1530373 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : Brassica napus L * cabbage stem weevil * Ceutorhynchus pallidactylus * model * neural network * oilseed rape * weather conditions Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Environmental sciences (social aspects to be 5.7) Impact factor: 1.726, year: 2016

  12. The impact of restrictions on neonicotinoid and fipronil insecticides on pest management in maize, oilseed rape and sunflower in eight European Union regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathage, Jonas; Castañera, Pedro; Alonso-Prados, José Luis; Gómez-Barbero, Manuel; Rodríguez-Cerezo, Emilio

    2018-01-01

    In 2013, the European Commission restricted the use of three neonicotinoids (clothianidin, imidacloprid and thiamethoxam) and the pyrazole fipronil, which are widely used to control early-season pests. Here, we used original farm survey data to examine the impact of the restrictions on pest management practices in eight regional case studies including maize, oilseed rape and sunflower in seven European Union (EU) countries. In four case studies, farmers switched to using untreated seeds as no alternative seed treatments were available. In three case studies, farmers switched to using unrestricted neonicotinoid- or pyrethroid-treated seeds. In five case studies, farmers increased the use of soil or foliar treatments, with pyrethroids as the principal insecticide class. Other changes in pest management practices ranged from increased sowing density to more frequent scouting for pests. Many farmers perceived that the time, cost and amount of insecticides required to protect crops increased, along with pest pressure. Alternative seed treatments were mostly perceived as being less effective than the restricted seed treatments. Farmers generally relied on alternative seed treatments or more soil/foliar treatments in the first growing season after the restrictions took effect. Further study is required to assess the effectiveness and sustainability of these alternatives compared with the restricted insecticides. © 2017 The Authors. Pest Management Science published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 The Authors. Pest Management Science published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Improved biogas production and biodegradation of oilseed rape straw by using kitchen waste and duck droppings as co-substrates in two-phase anaerobic digestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chuqiao; Hong, Feng; Lu, Yong; Liu, Hengming

    2017-01-01

    Oilseed rape straw (ORS) is a kind of biorefractory waste widely existing in the rural area of China, which is highly suitable to mix with kitchen waste (KW) and duck droppings (DD) in two-phase anaerobic digestion (AD). This research introduced the importance of KW and DD addition to improve the biogas production and biodegradation of ORS. A set of comparative experiments were conducted on two-phase mono- and co-digestion with organic load of 60 g VS/L. The total methane yield (TMY) and the biodegradation of ORS of co-digestions were obviously improving, and the synergistic effect found in the two-phase co-digestions. The optimum mixing ratio of ORS, KW and DD was 50:40:10, and the corresponding TMY and VS degradation rate of ORS were 374.5 mL/g VS and 49.7%, respectively. Addition of KW and DD maintained the pH within the optimal range for the hydrolyzing-acidification, improved the phase separation and buffering capacity of AD system. PMID:28767709

  14. Induction and selection of superior genetic variables of oil seed rape (brassica napus L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, S.S.; Ali, I.; Rehman, K.

    1990-01-01

    Dry and uniform seeds of two rape seed varieties, Ganyou-5 and Tower, were subjected to different doses of gamma rays. Genetic variation in yield and yield components generated in M1 was studied in M2 and 30 useful variants were isolated from a large magnetized population. The selected mutants were progeny tested for stability of the characters in M3. Only five out of 30 progenies were identified to be uniform and stable. Further selection was made in the segregating m3 progenies. Results on some of the promising mutants are reported. The effect of irradiation treatment was highly pronounced on pod length, seeds per pod and 1000-seed weight. The genetic changes thus induced would help to evolve high yielding versions of different rape seed varieties under local environmental conditions. (author)

  15. Antioxidant Enzyme Activities and Lipid Oxidation in Rape (Brassica campestris L. Bee Pollen Added to Salami during Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yawei Zhang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The present research investigated the antioxidant effect of rape (Brassica campestris L. bee pollen (RBP on salami during processing. Eight flavonoids in RBP ethanol extract were quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS analysis, and quercetin, rutin, and kaempferol were the major bioactive compounds. The RBP ethanol extract exhibited higher total antioxidant capacity than 6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tertramethylchromancarboxylic acid (trolox at the same concentration. The salami with 0.05% RBP extract had higher catalase (CAT, superoxide dismutase (SOD, and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px activities than that of the control throughout the processing time (p < 0.05. Significant decreases in peroxide value (POV and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS were obtained in the final salami product with 0.05% RBP ethanol extract or 1% RBP (p < 0.05. These results suggested that RBP could improve oxidative stability and had a good potential as a natural antioxidant for retarding lipid oxidation.

  16. Degradation of polychlorinated biphenyls in the rhizosphere of rape, Brassica napus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javorská, Hana; Tlustos, Pavel; Kaliszová, Regina

    2009-06-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the rhizosphere effect of rape plants on polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) dissipation in soils spiked with seven indicator congeners. Depletion of PCB in the rhizosphere was significantly higher in the soil with lower organic matter content. While in the Chernozem soil, 87% of PCB related to bulk soil were found in the 1st mm from roots, only 62%-69% were found in the Fluvisol soil with no significant influence of increased initial PCB concentration. Further from the roots, the concentration of lower chlorinated congeners decreased, which indicates their greater biodegradation in comparison with more chlorinated ones.

  17. Leaf Senescence, Root Morphology, and Seed Yield of Winter Oilseed Rape (Brassica napus L. at Varying Plant Densities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the yield and yield components were studied using a conventional variety Zhongshuang 11 (ZS 11 and a hybrid variety Zhongyouza 12 (ZYZ 12 at varying plant densities. The increase in plant density led to an initial increase in seed yield and pod numbers per unit area, followed by a decrease. The optimal plant density was 58.5 × 104 plants ha−1 in both ZS 11 and ZYZ 12. The further researches on physiological traits showed a rapid decrease in the green leaf area index (GLAI and chlorophyll content and a remarkable increase in malondialdehyde content in high plant density (HPD population than did the low plant density (LPD population, which indicated the rapid leaf senescence. However, HPD had higher values in terms of pod area index (PAI, pod photosynthesis, and radiation use efficiency (RUE after peak anthesis. A significantly higher level of dry matter accumulation and nitrogen utilization efficiency were observed, which resulted in higher yield. HPD resulted in a rapid decrease in root morphological parameters (root length, root tips, root surface area, and root volume. These results suggested that increasing the plant density within a certain range was a promising option for high seed yield in winter rapeseed in China.

  18. Preferential exclusion of hybrids in mixed pollinations between oilseed rape (Brassica napus) and weedy B. campestris (Brassicaceae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauser, T.P.; Bagger Jørgensen, Rikke; Østergård, Hanne

    1997-01-01

    amplified polymorphic DNA analysis. Using data on the proportion of fully developed seeds and the proportion of these seeds that were hybrids, a statistical model was constructed to estimate the fitness of conspecific and heterospecific pollen and the survival of conspecific and heterospecific zygotes...... for competition between male gametophytes and/or seeds within pods. To test whether competition influences the success of hybridization, pollen from the two species was mixed in different proportions and applied to stigmas of both species. The resulting seeds were scored for paternity by isozyme and randomly...... to seeds. B. campestris pollen in B. napus styles had a significantly lower fitness than the conspecific pollen, whereas no difference between pollen types was found in B. campestris styles. Hybrid zygotes survived to significantly lower proportions than conspecific zygotes in both species, with the lowest...

  19. To be or not to be biosafe : an evaluation of transgenic phosphinothricin-tolerant oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Metz, P.L.J.

    1997-01-01

    Genetic modification is an additional tool for conventional plant breeding to improve the application and quality of crop plants. No longer hampered by natural crossing barriers, application of genetic modification results in a nearly infinite pool from which genes, after isolation, can be

  20. Effects of Cycocel and Nitrogen Application on Yield and Yield Components of Autumn-Grown Oilseed Rape at Different Plant Densities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Majd

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this research, which was carried out as two experiments (in the field and greenhouse at Research Farm of College of Agriculture, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran, in 2009-2010 growing season, the effects of different levels of nitrogen, plant density and cycocel application on yield and yield components of autumn-grown oilseed rape (Talaye cultivar were investigated. The field experiment was designed as split-split plot based on completely randomized blocks design. Treatments included nitrogen level (80, 140, 200 and 260 kg/ha as the main plot, plant density (70 and 90 plants/m2 as sub-plot and cycocel rate (0, 1.4 and 2.8 L/ha as sub- subplot. The greenhouse experiment, which was arranged as a factorial based on complete randomized design, included nitrogen level (0, 50, 100, 150 and 200 kg/ha and cycocel rate (0, 1.4 and 2.8 L/ha. Results showed that the highest seed yield was achieved at 200 kg N/ha, 2.8 L/ha cycocel and plant density of 90 plants/m2 (533.17, 533.96 and 521.6 g/m2, respectively. Application of 2.8 L/ha cycocel was associated with increased number of siliques per plant and final plants dry weight. Increasing plant density from 70 to 90 plants/m2 was associated with decreased number of siliques per plant, plant dry weight and number of seeds per silique. It appears that application of 200 kg N/ha, 2.8 L/ha cycocel and plant density of 90 plants/m2 could be recommended for maximum grain yield of autumn-grown rapeseed cv. Talaye, in agroclimatic conditions similar to this research

  1. Potential of genetically modified oilseed rape for biofuels in Austria: Land use patterns and coexistence constraints could decrease domestic feedstock production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Dietmar; Eckerstorfer, Michael; Pascher, Kathrin; Essl, Franz; Zulka, Klaus Peter

    2013-01-01

    Like other EU Member States, Austria will meet the substitution target of the EU European Renewable Energy Directive for transportation almost exclusively by first generation biofuels, primarily biodiesel from oilseed rape (OSR). Genetically modified (GM) plants have been promoted as a new option for biofuel production as they promise higher yield or higher quality feedstock. We tested implications of GM OSR application for biodiesel production in Austria by means of high resolution spatially explicit simulation of 140 different coexistence scenarios within six main OSR cropping regions in Austria (2400 km2). We identified structural land use characteristics such as field size, land use diversity, land holding patterns and the proportion of the target crop as the predominant factors which influence overall production of OSR in a coexistence scenario. Assuming isolation distances of 800 m and non-GM-OSR proportions of at least 10% resulted in a loss of area for cultivation of OSR in all study areas ranging from −4.5% to more than −25%, depending on the percentage of GM farmers and on the region. We could show that particularly the current primary OSR cropping regions are largely unsuitable for coexistence and would suffer from a net loss of OSR area even at isolation distances of 400 or 800 m. Coexistence constraints associated with application of GM OSR are likely to offset possible GM gains by substantially reducing farmland for OSR cultivation, thus contradicting the political aim to increase domestic OSR area to meet the combined demands of food, feed and biofuel production. PMID:26109750

  2. Oilseed rape grain yield productivity increases with hybrid varietal types: a first balance sheet with post registration tests in France and in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinochet Xavier

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Since 1994 several oilseed rape hybrid types were proposed to farmers. Following registration experiments, Cetiom and different equivalent institutions in European Union have tested them in different post registration national networks. Grain yield productivity increases were demonstrated and a first synthesis could be done to check avantages and difficulties which had occurred. For winter types, Hybrid Composits were widely used, mainly in France and in the United Kingdom. Grain yield increases were important in the South and West part of France where their market shares increased up to 50-80%. Nevertheless, many fecondation problems occurred in several places all over Europe. Reasons of such problems were difficult to identify. Several factors, as cold temperatures, nutritionnal competitions, pollen avaibility may be involved to explain low seed sets. Restored Hybrids made with the NPZ hybridation system were successfully tested widely, and has reached significative market shares during 1999-2000 season. Less experiments were carried out with others hybrid types (Ogu-INRA Restored Hybrids, Mixed Hybrids. Ogu-INRA Restored Hybrids reached the highest grain yield levels but users are waiting for lower glucosinolates seed content hybrids which would come in the next future. Performances comparisons among countries have to be done carefully. Productivity increases with hybrid types could have been over estimated depending of pollinic environments or plot size and possible neighbouring effects. For France, results from field trials networks are coherent with results coming from postal surveys. For spring varieties, Polima restored hybrids and varietal associations have demonstrated a significative advantage compared to classical lines.

  3. Agronomic performance of rape seed (brassica napus L.) mutant lines under drought conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, S.A.; Ali, I.; Shah, S.J.A.; Rehman, K.; Rashid, A.

    1995-01-01

    Oil seed forms of Brassica napus are not well adapted to drought and the warner environments of Pakistan. Induced mutations were, therefore, utilized for improving drought tolerance efficiency of two napus cultivars. Induction of genetic variability, selection of desirable mutants and stabilization of mutants in acceptable agronomic background were carried out during 1988-1991. Fourteen promising mutants each of cv. Pak-cheen and Tower were evaluated for different agronomic characters in separate yield trials, under extremely drought conditions. The results demonstrated that yield potential of some mutants was very high and 9 mutants of cv. Pak-cheen and 8 mutants of cv. Tower significantly (P<0.05) out yield the local commercial cultivar. Eleven mutants in both the trials matured significantly earlier than the check. Nevertheless, more extensive testing of the drought tolerant lines under diversified environs of the country will help confirm these findings. (author)

  4. Rape (Brassica napus L. Growth Monitoring and Mapping Based on Radarsat-2 Time-Series Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wangfei Zhang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, 27 polarimetric parameters were extracted from Radarsat-2 polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (SAR at each growth stage of the rape crop. The sensitivity to growth parameters such as stem height, leaf area index (LAI, and biomass were investigated as a function of days after sowing. Based on the sensitivity analysis, five empirical regression models were compared to determine the best model for stem height, LAI, and biomass inversion. Of these five models, quadratic models had higher R2 values than other models in most cases of growth parameter inversions, but when these results were related to physical scattering mechanisms, the inversion results produced overestimation in the performance of some parameters. By contrast, linear and logarithmic models, which had lower R2 values than the quadratic models, had stable performance for growth parameter inversions, particularly in terms of their performance at each growth stage. The best biomass inversion performance was acquired by the volume component of a quadratic model, with an R2 value of 0.854 and root mean square error (RMSE of 109.93 g m−2. The best LAI inversion was also acquired by a quadratic model, but used the radar vegetation index (Cloude, with an R2 value of 0.8706 and RMSE of 0.56 m2 m−2. Stem height was acquired by scattering angle alpha ( α using a logarithmic model, with an R2 of 0.926 value and RMSE of 11.09 cm. The performances of these models were also analysed for biomass estimation at the second growth stage (P2, third growth stage (P3, and fourth growth stage (P4. The results showed that the models built at the P3 stage had better substitutability with the models built during all of the growth stages. From the mapping results, we conclude that a model built at the P3 stage can be used for rape biomass inversion, with 90% of estimation errors being less than 100 g m−2.

  5. Foliar K application delays leaf senescence of winter rape-seed (Brassica napus L.) under waterlogging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin Wan; Chao Hu; Chang Chen; Liyan Zhang; Ni Ma; Chunlei Zhang

    2017-01-01

    To better understand waterlogging effect on leaf senescence in winter rapseed (Brassica napus L.) during flowering stage, experiments were designed to explore foliar K application influences on adverse effects of waterlogging stress. Winter rapeseed was sprayed with K after waterlogging at initial flowering stage. Results indicated that waterlog-ging significantly decreased leaf net photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomatal conductance (Gs), intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci) and transpiration rate (Tr). It also declined maximum quantum yield of PS II (Fv/Fm), quantum yield of electron transport (ΦPS II) and pho-tochemical quenching (qP), but increased leaf non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) and minimal fluorescence (Fo). Interestingly, exogenous application of K significantly alleviated waterlogging-induced photosynthesis inhibition. Foliar K application increased RuBisCO activation, chlorophyll and soluble protein contents, while significantly decreased MDA con-tent under waterlogging stress. Moreover, K supplementation improved accumulation of K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, N, Zn2+, Mn2+, Fe2+ in leaves. In general, foliar K application is effective in alleviating deleterious effects of waterlogging stress and delays leaf senescence of winter rapeseed.

  6. Characterization of heavy metal-resistant endophytic bacteria from rape (Brassica napus) roots and their potential in promoting the growth and lead accumulation of rape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheng Xiafang; Xia Juanjuan; Jiang Chunyu; He Linyan; Qian Meng

    2008-01-01

    Two lead (Pb)-resistant endophytic bacteria were isolated from rape roots grown in heavy metal-contaminated soils and characterized. A pot experiment was conducted for investigating the capability of the two isolates to promote the growth and Pb uptake of rape from Pb-amended soil. The two isolates were identified as Pseudomonas fluorescens G10 and Microbacterium sp. G16 based on the 16S rDNA gene sequence analysis. Strains G10 and G16 exhibited different multiple heavy metal and antibiotic resistance characteristics and increased water-soluble Pb in solution and in Pb-added soil. Root elongation assays demonstrated increases in root elongation of inoculated rape seedlings compared to the control plants. Strain G16 produced indole acetic acid, siderophores and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase. Increases in biomass production and total Pb uptake in the bacteria-inoculated plants were obtained compared to the control. The two strains could colonize the root interior and rhizosphere soil of rape after root inoculation. - Heavy metal-resistant endophytic bacteria from rape have the potential of promoting the growth and lead uptake of rape

  7. The Emerging British Verticillium longisporum Population Consists of Aggressive Brassica Pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depotter, Jasper R L; Rodriguez-Moreno, Luis; Thomma, Bart P H J; Wood, Thomas A

    2017-11-01

    Verticillium longisporum is an economically important fungal pathogen of brassicaceous crops that originated from at least three hybridization events between different Verticillium spp., leading to the hybrid lineages A1/D1, A1/D2, and A1/D3. Isolates of lineage A1/D1 generally cause stem striping on oilseed rape (Brassica napus), which has recently been reported for the first time to occur in the United Kingdom. Intriguingly, the emerging U.K. population is distinct from the north-central European stem striping population. Little is known about the pathogenicity of the newly emerged U.K. population; hence, pathogenicity tests were executed to compare British isolates to previously characterized reference strains. In addition to the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, the pathogenicity of four British isolates was assessed on four cultivars of three Brassica crop species: oilseed rape (Quartz and Incentive), cauliflower (Clapton), and Chinese cabbage (Hilton). To this end, vascular discoloration of the roots, plant biomass accumulations, and fungal stem colonization upon isolate infection were evaluated. The British isolates appeared to be remarkably aggressive, because plant biomass was significantly affected and severe vascular discoloration was observed. The British isolates were successful stem colonizers and the extent of fungal colonization negatively correlated with plant biomass of cauliflower and Quartz oilseed rape. However, in Quartz, the fungal colonization of A1/D1 isolates was significantly lower than that of the virulent reference isolate from lineage A1/D3, PD589. Moreover, despite levels of stem colonization similar to those of A1/D1 strains, PD589 did not cause significant disease on Incentive. Thus, A1/D1 isolates, including British isolates, are aggressive oilseed rape pathogens despite limited colonization levels in comparison with a virulent A1/D3 isolate.

  8. Diversity and Genome Analysis of Australian and Global Oilseed Brassica napus L. Germplasm Using Transcriptomics and Whole Genome Re-sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Michelle Malmberg

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Intensive breeding of Brassica napus has resulted in relatively low diversity, such that B. napus would benefit from germplasm improvement schemes that sustain diversity. As such, samples representative of global germplasm pools need to be assessed for existing population structure, diversity and linkage disequilibrium (LD. Complexity reduction genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS methods, including GBS-transcriptomics (GBS-t, enable cost-effective screening of a large number of samples, while whole genome re-sequencing (WGR delivers the ability to generate large numbers of unbiased genomic single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, and identify structural variants (SVs. Furthermore, the development of genomic tools based on whole genomes representative of global oilseed diversity and orientated by the reference genome has substantial industry relevance and will be highly beneficial for canola breeding. As recent studies have focused on European and Chinese varieties, a global diversity panel as well as a substantial number of Australian spring types were included in this study. Focusing on industry relevance, 633 varieties were initially genotyped using GBS-t to examine population structure using 61,037 SNPs. Subsequently, 149 samples representative of global diversity were selected for WGR and both data sets used for a side-by-side evaluation of diversity and LD. The WGR data was further used to develop genomic resources consisting of a list of 4,029,750 high-confidence SNPs annotated using SnpEff, and SVs in the form of 10,976 deletions and 2,556 insertions. These resources form the basis of a reliable and repeatable system allowing greater integration between canola genomics studies, with a strong focus on breeding germplasm and industry applicability.

  9. Induction by chromium ions of chitinases and polyamines in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and rape (Brassica napus L. ssp. oleifera)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, S.; Hauschild, M.Z.; Rasmussen, U.

    1992-01-01

    Barley and rape seedlings were grown in hydroponic culture with increasing concentrations of CrO3 (Cr(VI)) or CrCl3 (Cr(III)). The chitinase activity and the concentrations of putrescine, spennidine and spermine were determined in the third leaf of barley seed-lings and in the second leaf of rape...

  10. Infestation of Polish Agricultural Soils by Plasmodiophora Brassicae Along The Polish-Ukrainian Border

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jędryczka Małgorzata

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available There has been a rapid, worldwide increase in oilseed rape production that has resulted in enormous intensification of oilseed rape cultivation, leading to tight rotations. This in turn, has caused an accumulation of pests as well as foliar and soil-borne diseases. Recently, clubroot has become one of the biggest concerns of oilseed rape growers. Clubroot is caused by the soil-borne protist Plasmodiophora brassicae Woronin. The pathogen may be present in groundwater, lakes, and irrigation water used in sprinkling systems. It can be easily transmitted from one field to another not only by water, but also by soil particles and dust transmitted by wind and on machinery. The aim of our overall study was to check for P. brassicae infestation of Polish agricultural soils. This paper presents the 2012 results of a study performed along the Polish-Ukrainian border in two provinces: Lublin (Lubelskie Voivodeship and the Carpathian Foothills (Podkarpackie Voivodeship, in south-east Poland. Monitoring was done in 11 counties, including nine rural and two municipal ones. In total, 40 samples were collected, out of which 36 were collected from fields located in rural areas and four from municipal areas, with two per municipal region. Each sample was collected at 8-10 sites per field, using a soil auger. The biotest to detect the presence of P. brassicae was done under greenhouse conditions using seedlings of the susceptible Brassicas: B. rapa ssp. pekinensis and the Polish variety of oilseed rape B. napus cv. Monolit. Susceptible plants grown in heavily infested soils produced galls on their roots. A county was regarded as free from the pathogen, if none of the bait plants became infected. The pathogen was found in three out of 40 fields monitored (7.5% in the Carpathian Foothill region. The fields were located in two rural counties. The pathogen was not found in Lublin province, and was also not detected in any of the municipal counties. The detection with

  11. Detecting management and fertilization effects on the carbon balance of winter oilseed rape with manual closed chamber measurements: Can we outrange gap-filling uncertainty and spatiotemporal variability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huth, Vytas; Moffat, Antje Maria; Calmet, Anna; Andres, Monique; Laufer, Judit; Pehle, Natalia; Rach, Bernd; Gundlach, Laura; Augustin, Jürgen

    2017-04-01

    Winter oilseed rape is the dominant biofuel crop in the young moraine landscape in North-Eastern Germany. However, studies on the effect of rapeseed cropping on net ecosystem exchange of CO2 (NEE) and the soil carbon (SC) balance are scarce. SC balance estimates are usually derived from long-term soil sampling field trials where rapeseed is part of different crop rotations. The estimated annual differences linked to rapeseed cropping are rather small (varying between losses of 40 g C m-2 and gains of up to 100 g C m-2). Testing management effects on the NEE and SC balance of cropping systems is best done by comparing plots with different treatments at the same site under the same climate. The soil sampling approach is in the need of field trials that run over decades, which has the disadvantage that management strategies of practical farming may have already changed when the results are derived. Continuous eddy covariance measurements of NEE would require large fields in flat terrain for each of the treatments, which is especially complicated in the heterogeneous landscapes of glacigenic origin of North-Eastern Germany. The common approach of using the chamber technique to derive NEE, however, is subject to the local soil and plant stand heterogeneities due to its tiny footprint. This technique might also disturb the ecosystem, the measurements are usually discontinuous requiring elaborate gap-filling techniques, and it has mostly been used on organic soils where large respiratory C losses occur. Therefore, our aim was to answer, if a combined approach of the eddy covariance and the chamber technique can detect the relatively small NEE and SC differences of rapeseed cropping on mineral soils within a shorter period of time than conventional soil sampling field trials can. We tested the new experimental design taking the advantages of both techniques into account: The eddy covariance tower measuring the NEE dynamics during the year; the chamber measurements to

  12. Irradiation effect on the seed vigor, SOD activity and MDA content in germinating seeds of yellow-seeded and black-seeded rape seed (Brassica napus L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Jixiang; Hu Danhong; Liu Houli

    1993-01-01

    Seeds of a set of near-isogenic lines (Brassica napus L.) with different seed coat color from yellow to black were irradiated by 60 Co γ-rays of 150 krad. Seed vigor, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in germinating seeds were analysed. In these characters, no significant difference between yellow-seeded lines (YLs) and black-seeded lines (BLs) showed before irradiation. But after irradiation, SOD activity in YLs was lower than that in BLs. While MDA content in YLs was obviously higher that that in DLs. As a result of irradiation, seed vigor of YLs was lower than that in BLs. these results indicated that the irradiation resistance of rape seed was related to the level of SOD as well as protective structure or substances in seed coat and that the radiosensitivity of YLs was higher than that of DLs

  13. Uptake of soil-, foliar-and pod-applied nitrogen and phosphorus by rape (Brassica napus L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Qinzheng; Xi Haifu; Lang Xianhua

    1992-01-01

    Uptake of soil-applied and foliar-and pod applied N, P by rape was studied by using 32 P and 15 N labelled fertilizer under pot culture condition. Application of phosphorus fertilizer to purplish clayey paddy soil which was poor in available P had influence on utilization of basal-dressed NH 4 HCO 3 by rape and subsequently on its growth and seed yield. Utilization rate of applied N in whole plant and seeds were 3.66 and 5.13 fold respectively as compared with control when 187.5 kg/ha of superphosphate were applied and increased with increasing application of superphosphate (187.5-562.5 kg/ha). Application of P fertilizer not only increased uptake of N but also promoted transportation of N from vegetative organs to seeds. Rape plant uptook 69.09% of foliar-and pod-applied N in form of 2% solution of urea after flowering and transported the N to seeds in greater proportion than that of soil-applied N. In the same period, 60% of foliar- and pod-applied P in form of 0.2% KH 2 PO 4 was absorbed by rape plant, most of which was in leaves. Uptake of N and P by rape increased 17.89% and 27.78% respectively when urea and phosphate was applied together compared with using urea and phosphate alone. Uptake of basal-dressed P by rape plant was 6% at early growing stage

  14. Application of rape pod sealants to reduce adverse environmental impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauša, Laimis; Steponavičius, Dainius; Jotautienė, Eglė; Kemzūraitė, Aurelija; Zaleckas, Ernestas

    2018-04-01

    Rape (Brassica napus L.) is a major global oilseed crop characterized by its high potential as an alimentary oil and in biodiesel production. The two most popular pod sealants (PS) used to reduce rape pod shattering are products in the pinolene range (di-1-p-menthene) and latex polymer products. Reports on the effective preservation of seed yield by these products are fairly contradictory. With this in mind, an experimental PS (PS4) that contained the active agents acrylic and trisiloxane was developed. Comparative experimental trials of the developed PS4 and three other PS (PS1, PS2 and PS3) containing active agents that are generally used for sealant production were conducted. The studies showed that the static and dynamic surface tension of PS4 was the lowest at the same concentration (2.0 g kg -1 ), consequently demonstrating the lowest spray drift. The chemical substances from PS had not penetrated the rape seeds in any of the PSs. The results indicate that treatment with PS4 exerts a beneficial effect in reducing rape seed yield loss (68-104 kg ha -1 in 2014 and 194-305 kg ha -1 in 2015) compared to other investigated PS. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Brassica cover crops for nitrogen retention in the Mid-Atlantic coastal plain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Jill E; Weil, Ray R

    2009-01-01

    Brassica cover crops are new to the mid-Atlantic region, and limited information is available on their N uptake capabilities for effective N conservation. Forage radish (Raphanus sativus L. cv. Daikon), oilseed radish (Raphanus sativus L. cv. Adagio), and rape (Brassica napus L. cv. Dwarf Essex) were compared with rye (Secale cereale L. cv. Wheeler), a popular cover crop in the region, with regard to N uptake ability and potential to decrease N leaching at two sites in Maryland. Plants were harvested in fall and spring for dry matter and N analysis. Soil samples from 0 cm to 105 to 180 cm depth were obtained in fall and spring for NH(4)-N and NO(3)-N analyses. Ceramic cup tension lysimeters were installed at depths of 75 to 120 cm to monitor NO(3)-N in soil pore water. Averaged across 3 site-years, forage radish and rape shoots had greater dry matter production and captured more N in fall than rye shoots. Compared with a weedy fallow control, rape and rye caused similar decreases in soil NO(3)-N in fall and spring throughout the sampled profile. Cover crops had no effect on soil NH(4)-N. During the spring on coarse textured soil, pore water NO(3)-N concentrations in freeze-killed Brassica (radish) plots were greater than in control and overwintering Brassica (rape) and rye plots. On fine textured soil, all cover crops provided a similar decrease in pore water NO(3)-N concentration compared with control. On coarse textured soils, freeze-killed Brassica cover crops should be followed by an early-planted spring main crop.

  16. Subgenome parallel selection is associated with morphotype diversification and convergent crop domestication in Brassica rapa and Brassica oleracea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheng, Feng; Sun, Rifei; Hou, Xilin; Zheng, Hongkun; Zhang, Fenglan; Zhang, Yangyong; Liu, Bo; Liang, Jianli; Zhuang, Mu; Liu, Yunxia; Liu, Dongyuan; Wang, Xiaobo; Li, Pingxia; Liu, Yumei; Lin, Ke; Bucher, Johan; Zhang, Ningwen; Wang, Yan; Wang, Hui; Deng, Jie; Liao, Yongcui; Wei, Keyun; Zhang, Xueming; Fu, Lixia; Hu, Yunyan; Liu, Jisheng; Cai, Chengcheng; Zhang, Shujiang; Zhang, Shifan; Li, Fei; Zhang, Hui; Zhang, Jifang; Guo, Ning; Liu, Zhiyuan; Liu, Jin; Sun, Chao; Ma, Yuan; Zhang, Haijiao; Cui, Yang; Freeling, Micheal R.; Borm, Theo; Bonnema, Guusje; Wu, Jian; Wang, Xiaowu

    2016-01-01

    Brassica species, including crops such as cabbage, turnip and oilseed, display enormous phenotypic variation. Brassica genomes have all undergone a whole-genome triplication (WGT) event with unknown effects on phenotype diversification. We resequenced 199 Brassica rapa and 119 Brassica oleracea

  17. The effects of gamma irradiation on morphological, cytological and biochemical characters of double-low rape (Brassica napus L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Huajun; He Yuanhui; Chen Xuifang

    1992-01-01

    The dormant seeds of three varieties of double-low rape were treated with 0, 80, 100, 120, 140 and 160 krad of γ-ray. The dose-effect curves of survival rate, yield, length of pod, rate of bearing pods and oil content in rapeseed fit the equation: y = Exp (-Ax-Bx 2 ). The dose-effect curves of field germination rate, seed bearing rate, number of seeds per pod and chromosome aberration rate fit the equation: y = A + Bx. The dose-effect curve of morphological malformation rate fit the equation: y = Ae Bx . The contents of erucic acid, linolenic acid, glucosinolates and protein in rapeseed changed irregularly with the increase of doses of gamma irradiation. Close correlation were found among the effects of irradiation on morphological, cytological and biochemical characters. The radiosensitivities of rape varieties were apparently different

  18. The bioaccumulation of heavy metals in Brassica napus L. in the area around Turów Power Station, Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niedźwiecka Alicja

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Brassica napus L. is a known bioaccumulator of copper, zinc, cadmium, lead, chromium, nickel and arsenic from soils. The metal ions are accumulated in the roots, stems, leaves and seeds of the oilseed rape. The samples of soils and plants were collected in the area around the Turów power station (Bogatynia city, Lower Silesia. The soil samples were collected from the surface layer of 0-25 cm. Roots, stems and pods of the oilseed rape were used in the study. The environmental samples were digested in HNO3, 60%, using the Microwave Digestion System. Metal concentrations have been dermined through the FAAS method. Three heavy metals - zinc, copper and lead – have been analyzed. The content of zinc was higher than the content of copper in all samples (plants and soils. In the roots of the oilseed rape higher concentration of metals compared to other parts of the plant was observed. In the soil samples, there was no correlation between the concentration of pollution and the distance from the power plant. Permissible concentrations of heavy metals relative to the standard according to the Polish Ministry of Environment Regulation from September 1st, 2016, have not been exceeded. The permissible pollution indexes (Wn in soils were exceeded compared to the geochemical background in uncontaminated soils of Poland. The bioaccumulation coefficients of heavy metals indicate lower metal concentrations in plants than in soils

  19. The health condition of spring oilseed crops in relation to the fungi colonising their seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Majchrzak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The research was conduced in the years 1999-2000. The aim of the research was to determine the health condition of overground parts and seeds of the following spring oilseed crops: crambe (Crambe abbysinica Hoechst. cv. B o r o w s k i, false flax (Camelina sativa L. cv. B o r o w s k a, spring rape (Brassica napus ssp. oleifera L. cv. M a r g o and oleiferous radish (Raphanus sativus var. oleiferus L. cv. P e g l e t t a. In all the years of the research alternaria blight was found on the leaves and siliques of spring rape and oleiferous radish and on the leaves and stems of crambe. False flax proved to be weakly infected by pathogens. On its leaves gray mould (Botrytis cinerea was found in all the years of the research. The disease was found on the siliques only in 1999. In 2000 powdery mildew was found on spring rape and false flax (respectively, Erysiphe crucifearum and E.cichoracearum. The weather conditions affected the intensity of the diseases on the studied spring oilseed crops. Alernaria genus, especially A.alternata was most commonly isolated from the seeds of examined plants. It constituted from 37% (in crambe to 63,3% (in spring rape of all the isolates. Of the remaining pathogenic species, numerous fungi of the Fusarium genus (F.avenaceum, F.culmorum, F.equiseti and F.oxysporum were isolated. They constituted from 1,0% (false flax to 17,3% (crambe of the isolates.

  20. A systemic increase in the recombination frequency upon local infection of Arabidopsis thaliana plants with oilseed rape mosaic virus depends on plant age, the initial inoculum concentration and the time for virus replication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youli eYao

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In the past, we showed that local infection of tobacco leaves with either Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV or Oilseed rape mosaic virus (ORMV resulted in a systemic increase in the homologous recombination frequency (HRF. Later on, we showed that a similar phenomenon occurs in Arabidopsis thaliana plants infected with ORMV. Here, we tested whether the time of removing the infected leaves as well as viral titer have any effect on the degree of changes in HRF in systemic tissues. An increase in HRF in systemic non-infected tissues was more pronounced when the infected leaves were detached from the infected plants at 60-96 hours post infection, rather than at earlier time. Next, we found that exposure to higher concentrations of inoculum was much more efficient in triggering an increase in HRF than exposure to lower concentrations. Finally, we showed that older plants exhibited a higher increase in HRF than younger plants. We found that an increase in genome instability in systemic tissues of locally infected plants depends on plant age, the concentration of initial inoculums and the time of viral replication.

  1. A rich TILLING resource for studying gene function in Brassica rapa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amoah Stephen

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Brassicaceae family includes the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana as well as a number of agronomically important species such as oilseed crops (in particular Brassica napus, B. juncea and B. rapa and vegetables (eg. B. rapa and B. oleracea. Separated by only 10-20 million years, Brassica species and Arabidopsis thaliana are closely related, and it is expected that knowledge obtained relating to Arabidopsis growth and development can be translated into Brassicas for crop improvement. Moreover, certain aspects of plant development are sufficiently different between Brassica and Arabidopsis to warrant studies to be carried out directly in the crop species. However, mutating individual genes in the amphidiploid Brassicas such as B. napus and B. juncea may, on the other hand, not give rise to expected phenotypes as the genomes of these species can contain up to six orthologues per single-copy Arabidopsis gene. In order to elucidate and possibly exploit the function of redundant genes for oilseed rape crop improvement, it may therefore be more efficient to study the effects in one of the diploid Brassica species such as B. rapa. Moreover, the ongoing sequencing of the B. rapa genome makes this species a highly attractive model for Brassica research and genetic resource development. Results Seeds from the diploid Brassica A genome species, B. rapa were treated with ethyl methane sulfonate (EMS to produce a TILLING (Targeting Induced Local Lesions In Genomes population for reverse genetics studies. We used the B. rapa genotype, R-o-18, which has a similar developmental ontogeny to an oilseed rape crop. Hence this resource is expected to be well suited for studying traits with relevance to yield and quality of oilseed rape. DNA was isolated from a total of 9,216 M2 plants and pooled to form the basis of the TILLING platform. Analysis of six genes revealed a high level of mutations with a density of about one per 60 kb. This

  2. Modification of "1"3"7Cs transfer to rape (Brassica napus L.) phytomass under the influence of soil microorganisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pareniuk, O.; Shavanova, K.; Laceby, J.P.; Illienko, V.; Tytova, L.; Levchuk, S.; Gudkov, I.; Nanba, K.

    2015-01-01

    After nuclear accidents, such as those experienced in Chernobyl and Fukushima, microorganisms may help purify contaminated soils by changing the mobility of radionuclides and their availability for plants by altering the physical and chemical properties of the substrate. Here, using model experiments with quartz sand as a substrate we investigate the influence of microorganisms on "1"3"7Cs transfer from substrate to plants. The highest transition of "1"3"7Cs from substrate to plants (50% increase compared to the control) was observed after Brassica napus L. seeds were inoculated by Azotobacter chroococcum. The best results for reducing the accumulation of "1"3"7Cs radionuclides (30% less) were noted after the inoculation by Burkholderia sp.. Furthermore, Bacillus megaterium demonstrated an increased ability to accumulate "1"3"7Cs. This research improves our prediction of the behavior of radionuclides in soil and may contribute towards new, microbiological countermeasures for soil remediation following nuclear accidents. - Highlights: • Representatives of soil bacteria can alter "1"3"7Cs soil-to-plant transfer factor. • This ability does not depend on the localization of bacteria on the root surface. • Selection of bacteria to increase or decrease the "1"3"7Cs transfer factor is possible.

  3. Distribución de nitrógeno, fósforo y azufre en un cultivo de colza: efectos sobre el ciclado de nutrientes Distribution of nitrogen, phosphorus and sulfur in oilseed rape: effects on nutrient cycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Rubio

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Comparado con otros cultivos, la colza tiene una alta demanda de azufre (S por lo que sería esperable que la inclusión de este cultivo en la rotación agrícola acelere el agotamiento de este nutriente en los suelos de las áreas cultivadas. En este trabajo, se comparan los patrones de partición de biomasa, S, nitrógeno (N y fósforo (P en plantas maduras de colza. La información a obtener es relevante desde el punto de vista del ciclado de nutrientes. Para ello se realizó un experimento de campo que se ajustó a un arreglo factorial con dos factores (N y S. En el momento de la cosecha, se midió la acumulación de biomasa, N, P y S en tres compartimientos: granos, rastrojo (resto de parte aérea y raíces. Aunque el rendimiento fue afectado levemente por la adición individual de N o S, la simultánea adición de ambos nutrientes provocó un incremento del 56%. El N y el P presentaron una distribución semejante entre los órganos de la planta estudiados, sin embargo, el S difirió marcadamente de ambos. Su partición al órgano que se exporta (granos fue de menor magnitud que la observada para N y P. En cambio, su partición al rastrojo en pie fue mayor. Esta característica atenuaría los efectos de la alta demanda de S sobre la exportación del cultivo y permitiría una reutilización del fertilizante agregado por el cultivo siguiente.Oilseed rape poses a higher sulfur (S demand, compared to other crops. This may indicate that the inclusion of this crop in the crop rotation could accelerate soil S depletion. In this work, we compared the allocation of biomass, nitrogen (N, phosphorus (P and S in oilseed rape mature plants. Two factors were analyzed in a field experiment: nitrogen and sulphur (two levels for each factor. At harvest, we measured the accumulation of biomass, N, P and S in three compartments: roots, straw and grains. Yield was little affected by the addition of single nutrients but the simultaneous addition of N and S

  4. Use of chemical mutagen for induction of useful genetic variation in different oil seed rape (brassica napus L.) cultivars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, I.; Shah, S.A.; Shah, S.J.A.; Rehman, K.

    1995-01-01

    Pre soaked seeds for 16 hrs of oil seed Rape cvs. Tower and Wester were treated with 1-3% concentrations of ethylene methane sulphonate (EMS) for 4 hrs with the objective to generate variation in characters of importance such as, early maturity, semi dwarf stature, lodging resistance and different yield components. After post washing (4 hrs) the seeds were filter dried and planted directly in the field as M1. Selection for desirable mutants was carried out in M2 and a number of mutants with desirable traits were selected during 1990-91. The mutants were tested for stability of the selected traits in plant to progenies in M3/M4 during 1992 and 1993. The stable 17 mutants were evaluated for yield and other agronomic characters in M5, in preliminary yield trials, during 1993-94. Eleven mutants exhibited early maturity and high yield potential than parent and local commercial variety. The promising mutants will be further tested in yield trials in future for confirmation of results. (author)

  5. NAPUS 2000 Rapeseed (Brassica napus breeding for improved human nutrition

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    Friedt Wolfgang

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Following a competition announcement of the Federal Ministry of Research and Education (BMBF a project dealing with the improvement of the nutritional value of oilseed rape (Brassica napus for food applications and human nutrition was worked out and started in autumn 1999. A number of partners (Figure 2 are carrying out a complex project reaching from the discovery, characterisation, isolation and transfer of genes of interest up to breeding of well performing varieties combined with important agronomic traits. Economic studies and processing trials as well as nutritional investigations of the new qualities are undertaken. B. napus seed quality aspects with respect to seed coat colour, oil composition, lecithin and protein fractions and antioxidants like tocopherols and resveratrol will be improved.

  6. Non-destructive in vitro selection of microspore-derived embryos with the fertility restorer gene for CMS Ogu-INRA in winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.

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    Lenka Havlíčková

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Technique developed in this study provides early and non-destructive sampling of embryonic tissue and the use of new markers for simple and efficient control of the presence of Rfo gene in all accessions.

  7. The effect of endo- and exogenous factors on growth and maturation of oilseed rape (Brassica napus cv. Jet Neuf siliques cultured in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucyna Drozdowska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of developmental stage of siliques, growth regulators, agar and sucrose concentrations in the medium was investigated on the morphogenesis of the silliques and seed maturation. Regeneration of shoots, roots and callus occurred at the base of siliques during their growth. The developmental stage of the incubated siliques was the most important factor affecting the number of seeds, while the conditions of culture (agar and growth regulators constituted a secondary factor. The reasons for the insignificant number of seeds produced could be the lack of fertilization of some of the ovules, limited ability of siliques to take up nutrients and the unspecific composition of the medium.

  8. Effect of elevated atmospheric CO/sub 2/on nitrogen distribution and N utilization efficiency in winter rape (brassica napus L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Z. H.; Lu, S.; Wang, W. M.; Song, H. X.; Lepo, J. E.

    2017-01-01

    We characterized the responses of plant dry biomass, nitrogen (N) distribution and N-utilization efficiency (NUtE) to changes in CO/sub 2/ concentration through exposure and culture of winter rape under normal-(380 mu mol.mol/sup -1/) and elevated-CO/sub 2/ (760 mu mo mol/sup -1/) conditions. Brassica napus (Xiangyou 15) was used as an agriculturally important model plant. Plants were cultivated in a greenhouse with sand culture under normal- (15 mmol.L/sup -1/) and limited-N (5 mmol.L/sup -1/) conditions. NUtE increased with elevated CO/sub 2/ regardless of whether N was limited. NUtE was higher under N limitation than under normal N conditions for both normal- and elevated-CO/sub 2/ conditions. 15N labeling was used to assess the distribution of N from vegetative- to reproductive-organs.N distribution within the plant and during different developmental stages was affected by CO/sub 2/ concentration and the level of N application. A higher proportion of N was found in siliques at the harvest stage for N-limited plants compared to normal-N plants. The proportion of N absorbed into siliques after the stem elongation stage under elevated-CO/sub 2/ conditions was significantly higher than under normal CO/sub 2/. The proportion of N transport, as well as the total amount of N, absorbed at the stem elongation stage from vegetative organs into siliques under elevated CO/sub 2/ was significantly lower than under normal-CO/sub 2/ conditions. However, the proportion of N absorbed at the stem elongation stage and thus lost from the silique under elevated CO/sub 2/ was significantly higher than under normal CO/sub 2/. In conclusion, limited N or elevated CO/sub 2/ generally benefitted plant NUtE. In addition, after the stem elongation stage, elevated CO/sub 2/ promoted the redistribution of N from plant vegetative tissues to reproductive organs; however, elevated CO/sub 2/ during or before stem elongation had the opposite effect. (author)

  9. BjuB.CYP79F1 Regulates Synthesis of Propyl Fraction of Aliphatic Glucosinolates in Oilseed Mustard Brassica juncea: Functional Validation through Genetic and Transgenic Approaches.

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    Manisha Sharma

    Full Text Available Among the different types of methionine-derived aliphatic glucosinolates (GS, sinigrin (2-propenyl, the final product in 3C GS biosynthetic pathway is considered very important as it has many pharmacological and therapeutic properties. In Brassica species, the candidate gene regulating synthesis of 3C GS remains ambiguous. Earlier reports of GSL-PRO, an ortholog of Arabidopsis thaliana gene At1g18500 as a probable candidate gene responsible for 3C GS biosynthesis in B. napus and B. oleracea could not be validated in B. juncea through genetic analysis. In this communication, we report the isolation and characterization of the gene CYP79F1, an ortholog of A. thaliana gene At1g16410 that is involved in the first step of core GS biosynthesis. The gene CYP79F1 in B. juncea showed presence-absence polymorphism between lines Varuna that synthesizes sinigrin and Heera virtually free from sinigrin. Using this presence-absence polymorphism, CYP79F1 was mapped to the previously mapped 3C GS QTL region (J16Gsl4 in the LG B4 of B. juncea. In Heera, the gene was observed to be truncated due to an insertion of a ~4.7 kb TE like element leading to the loss of function of the gene. Functional validation of the gene was carried out through both genetic and transgenic approaches. An F2 population segregating only for the gene CYP79F1 and the sinigrin phenotype showed perfect co-segregation. Finally, genetic transformation of a B. juncea line (QTL-NIL J16Gsl4 having high seed GS but lacking sinigrin with the wild type CYP79F1 showed the synthesis of sinigrin validating the role of CYP79F1 in regulating the synthesis of 3C GS in B. juncea.

  10. Co-ordinate regulation of sterol biosynthesis enzyme activity during accumulation of sterols in developing rape and tobacco seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harker, Mark; Hellyer, Amanda; Clayton, John C; Duvoix, Annelyse; Lanot, Alexandra; Safford, Richard

    2003-02-01

    The activities of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase, sterol methyl transferase 1 and sterol acyltransferase, key enzymes involved in phytosterol biosynthesis were shown to be co-ordinately regulated during oilseed rape ( Brassica napus L.) and tobacco ( Nicotiana tabacum L.) seed development. In both plants, enzyme activities were low during the initial stages of seed development, increasing towards mid-maturation where they remained stable for a time, before declining rapidly as the oilseeds reached maturity. During seed development, the level of total sterols increased 12-fold in tobacco and 9-fold in rape, primarily due to an increase in steryl ester production. In both seed tissues, stages of maximum enzyme activity coincided with periods of high rates of sterol production, indicating developmental regulation of the enzymes to be responsible for the increases in the sterol content observed during seed development. Consistent with previous studies the data presented suggest that sterol biosynthesis is regulated by two key steps, although there may be others. The first is the regulation of carbon flux into the isoprenoid pathway to cycloartenol. The second is the flux from cycloartenol to Delta(5)-end-product sterols. The implications of the results in terms of enhancing seed sterol levels by genetic modification are also discussed.

  11. The responses of crop - wild Brassica hybrids to simulated herbivory and interspecific competition: implications for transgene introgression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Jamie P; Justinova, Lenka; Poppy, Guy M

    2006-01-01

    Brassica rapa grows as a wild and weedy species throughout the world and is the most likely recipient of transgenes from GM oilseed rape. For transgene introgression to occur, the critical step which must be realized, is the formation of an F1 hybrid. Concerns exist that hybrid populations could be more vigorous and competitive compared to the parental species. This study examines the effect of simulated herbivory and interspecific competition on the vegetative and reproductive performance of non-transgenic F1 hybrids and their parental lines. Several vegetative and reproductive performance measures were used to determine the effect of simulated herbivory and competition on the Brassica lines, including leaf length and biomass for herbivory and seedling height and biomass for competition. For defoliation experiments, B. rapa showed little response in terms of leaf length but B. napus and the F1 hybrid responded negatively. Brassica rapa showed elevated biomass responses, but B. napus and the hybrid demonstrated negative responses to defoliation. Defoliation at the cotyledon stage had a slight effect upon final biomass with the F1 hybrid performing significantly worse than B. napus, although seed counts were not significantly different. For the series of competition experiments, hybrids seemed to be more similar to B. rapa in terms of early seedling growth and reproductive measures. The underperformance of hybrid plants when challenged by herbivory and competition, could potentially decrease survivorship and explain the rarity of hybrids in field surveys. However, should transgene introgression occur, the dynamics of hybrids could change radically thus increasing the risk of gene flow from a transgenic oilseed rape crop to the wild recipient.

  12. The high-quality genome of Brassica napus cultivar 'ZS11' reveals the introgression history in semi-winter morphotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Fengming; Fan, Guangyi; Hu, Qiong; Zhou, Yongming; Guan, Mei; Tong, Chaobo; Li, Jiana; Du, Dezhi; Qi, Cunkou; Jiang, Liangcai; Liu, Weiqing; Huang, Shunmou; Chen, Wenbin; Yu, Jingyin; Mei, Desheng; Meng, Jinling; Zeng, Peng; Shi, Jiaqin; Liu, Kede; Wang, Xi; Wang, Xinfa; Long, Yan; Liang, Xinming; Hu, Zhiyong; Huang, Guodong; Dong, Caihua; Zhang, He; Li, Jun; Zhang, Yaolei; Li, Liangwei; Shi, Chengcheng; Wang, Jiahao; Lee, Simon Ming-Yuen; Guan, Chunyun; Xu, Xun; Liu, Shengyi; Liu, Xin; Chalhoub, Boulos; Hua, Wei; Wang, Hanzhong

    2017-11-01

    Allotetraploid oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) is an agriculturally important crop. Cultivation and breeding of B. napus by humans has resulted in numerous genetically diverse morphotypes with optimized agronomic traits and ecophysiological adaptation. To further understand the genetic basis of diversification and adaptation, we report a draft genome of an Asian semi-winter oilseed rape cultivar 'ZS11' and its comprehensive genomic comparison with the genomes of the winter-type cultivar 'Darmor-bzh' as well as two progenitors. The integrated BAC-to-BAC and whole-genome shotgun sequencing strategies were effective in the assembly of repetitive regions (especially young long terminal repeats) and resulted in a high-quality genome assembly of B. napus 'ZS11'. Within a short evolutionary period (~6700 years ago), semi-winter-type 'ZS11' and the winter-type 'Darmor-bzh' maintained highly genomic collinearity. Even so, certain genetic differences were also detected in two morphotypes. Relative to 'Darmor-bzh', both two subgenomes of 'ZS11' are closely related to its progenitors, and the 'ZS11' genome harbored several specific segmental homoeologous exchanges (HEs). Furthermore, the semi-winter-type 'ZS11' underwent potential genomic introgressions with B. rapa (A r ). Some of these genetic differences were associated with key agronomic traits. A key gene of A03.FLC3 regulating vernalization-responsive flowering time in 'ZS11' was first experienced HE, and then underwent genomic introgression event with A r , which potentially has led to genetic differences in controlling vernalization in the semi-winter types. Our observations improved our understanding of the genetic diversity of different B. napus morphotypes and the cultivation history of semi-winter oilseed rape in Asia. © 2017 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Mutagenesis and haploid culture for disease resistance in Brassica napus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacDonald, M V; Ahmad, I; Ingram, D S [Botany School, University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    1990-01-01

    Full text: Most winter oilseed rape cultivars share parentage and therefore show little genetic diversity. There is no known resistance to Alternaria spp. in oilseed rape or in any related Brassica species. Experiments with tissue culture yielded only transient, non-genetic resistance. Therefore, mutagenesis may be used to generate heritable resistance to Alternaria spp. Gamma irradiation was applied to seeds of 'Bienvenue', secondary embryoids of cvs 'Primor' and 'Rapora', and buds of cvs 'Primor' and 'Ariana'. Isolated microspores from cv 'Ariana' and rapid cycling B. napus were also treated. The doses used ranged from 0-100 Gy for isolated microspores and buds, up to 600 Gy for seeds and 960 Gy for secondary embryoids. EMS was used to treat seeds of line WRG-42 (supplied by Nickersons RPB) and microspores of cv 'Bienvenue' and rapid cycling B. napus. Seeds were treated with up to 2.0% EMS for 0.2 h. before plating them on the culture medium. Seed irradiation up to 600 Gy did not reduce germination. M{sub 1} and M{sub 2} progenies were tested both in the laboratory and in field trials, and none of these were found to be resistant to Alternaria. However, considerable variation for other characters was observed. Haploid cultures from these plants were extremely difficult to regenerate, and for this reason no regenerant plants have been tested for resistance. For irradiated secondary embryoids the regeneration capacity decreased with increasing dose. Regenerated plants have been tested for resistance to Alternaria, but stable resistance was not observed. Haploid cultures were obtained from irradiated buds, using both anther and microspore culture. Low irradiation treatment was beneficial to developing embryoids. Some regenerants have been obtained from EMS treated microspores and seeds. Four plants have repeatedly given increased levels of resistance to A. brassicicola, and progenies are being tested to determine the genetic nature of the resistance. (author)

  14. Mutagenesis and haploid culture for disease resistance in Brassica napus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacDonald, M.V.; Ahmad, I.; Ingram, D.S.

    1990-01-01

    Full text: Most winter oilseed rape cultivars share parentage and therefore show little genetic diversity. There is no known resistance to Alternaria spp. in oilseed rape or in any related Brassica species. Experiments with tissue culture yielded only transient, non-genetic resistance. Therefore, mutagenesis may be used to generate heritable resistance to Alternaria spp. Gamma irradiation was applied to seeds of 'Bienvenue', secondary embryoids of cvs 'Primor' and 'Rapora', and buds of cvs 'Primor' and 'Ariana'. Isolated microspores from cv 'Ariana' and rapid cycling B. napus were also treated. The doses used ranged from 0-100 Gy for isolated microspores and buds, up to 600 Gy for seeds and 960 Gy for secondary embryoids. EMS was used to treat seeds of line WRG-42 (supplied by Nickersons RPB) and microspores of cv 'Bienvenue' and rapid cycling B. napus. Seeds were treated with up to 2.0% EMS for 0.2 h. before plating them on the culture medium. Seed irradiation up to 600 Gy did not reduce germination. M 1 and M 2 progenies were tested both in the laboratory and in field trials, and none of these were found to be resistant to Alternaria. However, considerable variation for other characters was observed. Haploid cultures from these plants were extremely difficult to regenerate, and for this reason no regenerant plants have been tested for resistance. For irradiated secondary embryoids the regeneration capacity decreased with increasing dose. Regenerated plants have been tested for resistance to Alternaria, but stable resistance was not observed. Haploid cultures were obtained from irradiated buds, using both anther and microspore culture. Low irradiation treatment was beneficial to developing embryoids. Some regenerants have been obtained from EMS treated microspores and seeds. Four plants have repeatedly given increased levels of resistance to A. brassicicola, and progenies are being tested to determine the genetic nature of the resistance. (author)

  15. Transfer of radioactive cesium from soil to rape plants, rape blossoms and rape honey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molzahn, D.; Klepsch, A.; Assmann-Wertmueller, U.

    1989-01-01

    Due to the test of atomic weapons and the accident in the nuclear power plant at Chernobyl, the vegetation in Germany has been exposed to cesium contamination in the soil. It was to be expected that activity would migrate from soil to plants and to food products. In this work, the transfer of radioactive cesium from soil to rape plants (Brassica napus var. oleifera), rape blossoms and further to rape honey was investigated. By measuring the gamma activity of cesium using germanium detectors with measuring capacity up to 30 h per sample (limit of detection about 0.14 Bq/kg to 0.19 Bq/kg), we determined a mean transfer factor f cs = 0,116 ± 0,080 for the system soil-rape plant, f cs = 0.065 + 0.075 for the system soil-rape blossom and F!S = 0.098 + 0.044 for the system soil-rape honey (plants and honey wet mass, soil dry mass) (Table IV). Additionally, for the transfer of cesium from rape plants to rape honey, a factor of f cs = 2.04 ± 7.23 (both wet mass) was determined. Due to some environmental circumstances, which can hardly ever be taken into account, the results obtained sometimes differ considerably. Nevertheless, the mean transfer factors are within the range of values found in literature (Table V) [de

  16. Potential impact of genetically modified Lepidoptera-resistant Brassica napus in biodiversity hotspots: Sicily as a theoretical model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manachini, Barbara; Bazan, Giuseppe; Schicchi, Rosario

    2018-03-14

    The general increase of the cultivation and trade of Bt transgenic plants resistant to Lepidoptera pests raises concerns regarding the conservation of animal and plant biodiversity. Demand for biofuels has increased the cultivation and importation of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.), including transgenic lines. In environmental risk assessments (ERAs) for its potential future cultivation as well as for food and feed uses, the impact on wild Brassicaeae relatives and on non-target Lepidoptera should be assessed. Here we consider the potential exposure of butterflies as results of possible cultivation or naturalization of spilled seed in Sicily (Italy). Diurnal Lepidoptera, which are pollinators, can be exposed directly to the insecticidal proteins as larvae (mainly of Pieridae) through the host and through the pollen that can deposit on other host plants. Adults can be exposed via pollen and nectar. The flight periods of butterflies were recorded, and they were found to overlap for about 90% of the flowering period of B. napus for the majority of the species. In addition, B. napus has a high potential to hybridise with endemic taxa belonging to the B. oleracea group. This could lead to an exposure of non-target Lepidoptera if introgression of the Bt gene into a wild population happens. A rank of the risk for butterflies and wild relatives of oilseed rape is given. We conclude that, in environmental risk assessments, attention should be paid to plant-insect interaction especially in a biodiversity hotspot such as Sicily. © 2018 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  17. Variations in fatty acid composition, glucosinolate profile and some phytochemical contents in selected oil seed rape (Brassica napus L.) cultivars

    OpenAIRE

    Amin Mohamed, Amal; El-Din Saad El-Beltagi, Hossam

    2010-01-01

    Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) is now the third most important source of edible oil in the world after soybean and palm oil. In this study seeds of five different rapeseed cultivars namely; pactol, silvo, topas, serw 4 and serw 6 were evaluated for their fatty acid composition, glucosinolate profile, amino acids, total tocopherols and phenolic content. Among all cultivars significant variability in fatty acids were observed. The oleic acid (C18:1) ranged from 56.31% to 58.67%, linoleic acid (C1...

  18. SSR marker variations in Brassica species provide insight into the origin and evolution of Brassica amphidiploids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Ajay Kumar; Singh, Kunwar Harendra; Singh, Lal; Nanjundan, Joghee; Khan, Yasin Jeshima; Singh, Dhiraj

    2018-01-01

    Oilseed Brassica represents an important group of oilseed crops with a long history of evolution and cultivation. To understand the origin and evolution of Brassica amphidiploids, simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were used to unravel genetic variations in three diploids and three amphidiploid Brassica species of U's triangle along with Eruca sativa as an outlier. Of 124 Brassica-derived SSR loci assayed, 100% cross-transferability was obtained for B. juncea and three subspecies of B. rapa , while lowest cross-transferability (91.93%) was obtained for Eruca sativa . The average % age of cross-transferability across all the seven species was 98.15%. The number of alleles detected at each locus ranged from one to six with an average of 3.41 alleles per primer pair. Neighbor-Joining-based dendrogram divided all the 40 accessions into two main groups composed of B. juncea / B. nigra/B. rapa and B. carinata/B. napus/B. oleracea . C-genome of oilseed Brassica species remained relatively more conserved than A- and B-genome. A- genome present in B. juncea and B. napus seems distinct from each other and hence provides great opportunity for generating diversity through synthesizing amphidiploids from different sources of A- genome. B. juncea had least intra-specific distance indicating narrow genetic base. B. rapa appears to be more primitive species from which other two diploid species might have evolved. The SSR marker set developed in this study will assist in DNA fingerprinting of various Brassica species cultivars, evaluating the genetic diversity in Brassica germplasm, genome mapping and construction of linkage maps, gene tagging and various other genomics-related studies in Brassica species. Further, the evolutionary relationship established among various Brassica species would assist in formulating suitable breeding strategies for widening the genetic base of Brassica amphidiploids by exploiting the genetic diversity present in diploid progenitor gene pools.

  19. Could nitrile derivatives of turnip (Brassica rapa) glucosinolates be Hepato-and/or cholangiotoxic in cattle?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnip (Brassica rapa ssp. rapa) and rape (Brassica napus ssp. biennis) and other brassica forage crops are generally regarded as “safe” feed for cattle during late summer and fall in New Zealand. However, when Pithomyces chartarum spore counts are high there are epidemics of sporidesmin toxicity (...

  20. Defective APETALA2 Genes Lead to Sepal Modification in Brassica Crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanfeng; Huang, Shuhua; Wang, Xuefang; Liu, Jianwei; Guo, Xupeng; Mu, Jianxin; Tian, Jianhua; Wang, Xiaofeng

    2018-01-01

    Many vegetable and oilseed crops belong to Brassica species. The seed production of these crops is hampered often by abnormal floral organs, especially under the conditions of abiotic conditions. However, the molecular reasons for these abnormal floral organs remains poorly understood. Here, we report a novel pistil-like flower mutant of B. rapa. In the flower of this mutant, the four sepals are modified to one merged carpel that look like a ring in the sepal positions, enveloping some abnormal stamens and a pistil, and resulting in poor seed production. This novel mutant is named sepal-carpel modification (scm). DNA sequencing showed that the BrAP2a gene, the ortholog of Arabidopsis APETALA2 (AP2) that specifies sepal identity, losses the function of in scm mutant due to a 119-bp repeated sequence insertion that resulted in an early transcription termination. BrAP2b, the paralog of BrAP2a featured two single-nucleotide substitutions that cause a single amino acid substitution in the highly conserved acidic serine-rich transcriptional activation domain. Each of the two BrAP2 genes rescues the sepal defective phenotype of the ap2-5 mutant of Arabidopsis. Furthermore, the knockout mutation of the corresponding BnAP2 genes of oilseed rape (B. napus) by CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome editing system resulted in scm-like phenotype. These results suggest that BrAP2 gene plays a key role in sepal modification. Our finding provides an insight into molecular mechanism underlying morphological modification of floral organs and is useful for genetic manipulation of flower modification and improvement of seed production of Brassica crops. PMID:29616073

  1. Defective APETALA2 Genes Lead to Sepal Modification in Brassica Crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanfeng Zhang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Many vegetable and oilseed crops belong to Brassica species. The seed production of these crops is hampered often by abnormal floral organs, especially under the conditions of abiotic conditions. However, the molecular reasons for these abnormal floral organs remains poorly understood. Here, we report a novel pistil-like flower mutant of B. rapa. In the flower of this mutant, the four sepals are modified to one merged carpel that look like a ring in the sepal positions, enveloping some abnormal stamens and a pistil, and resulting in poor seed production. This novel mutant is named sepal-carpel modification (scm. DNA sequencing showed that the BrAP2a gene, the ortholog of Arabidopsis APETALA2 (AP2 that specifies sepal identity, losses the function of in scm mutant due to a 119-bp repeated sequence insertion that resulted in an early transcription termination. BrAP2b, the paralog of BrAP2a featured two single-nucleotide substitutions that cause a single amino acid substitution in the highly conserved acidic serine-rich transcriptional activation domain. Each of the two BrAP2 genes rescues the sepal defective phenotype of the ap2-5 mutant of Arabidopsis. Furthermore, the knockout mutation of the corresponding BnAP2 genes of oilseed rape (B. napus by CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome editing system resulted in scm-like phenotype. These results suggest that BrAP2 gene plays a key role in sepal modification. Our finding provides an insight into molecular mechanism underlying morphological modification of floral organs and is useful for genetic manipulation of flower modification and improvement of seed production of Brassica crops.

  2. Rape sentencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ó Cathaoir, Katharina Eva

    This handbook conducts an analysis of the sentences imposed for rape by Irish courts. Part I examines The People (DPP) v. WD [2007] IEHC 310 by outlining the salient points of the decision, in particular the separation of rape sentences into categories of punishments. The mitigating and aggravating...... factors are also laid out. Part II analyses recent sentences for rape since 2007. All reported Court of Criminal Appeal (CCA) cases post The People (DPP) v. WD are included as well as a survey of two years of Irish Times reports (covering the period November 2010 to November 2012)....

  3. Origins of the amphiploid species Brassica napus L. investigated by chloroplast and nuclear molecular markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allender Charlotte J

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The amphiploid species Brassica napus (oilseed rape, Canola is a globally important oil crop yielding food, biofuels and industrial compounds such as lubricants and surfactants. Identification of the likely ancestors of each of the two genomes (designated A and C found in B. napus would facilitate incorporation of novel alleles from the wider Brassica genepool in oilseed rape crop genetic improvement programmes. Knowledge of the closest extant relatives of the genotypes involved in the initial formation of B. napus would also allow further investigation of the genetic factors required for the formation of a stable amphiploid and permit the more efficient creation of fully fertile re-synthesised B. napus. We have used a combination of chloroplast and nuclear genetic markers to investigate the closest extant relatives of the original maternal progenitors of B. napus. This was based on a comprehensive sampling of the relevant genepools, including 83 accessions of A genome B. rapa L. (both wild and cultivated types, 94 accessions of B. napus and 181 accessions of C genome wild and cultivated B. oleracea L. and related species. Results Three chloroplast haplotypes occurred in B. napus. The most prevalent haplotype (found in 79% of accessions was not present within the C genome accessions but was found at low frequencies in B. rapa. Chloroplast haplotypes characteristic of B. napus were found in a small number of wild and weedy B. rapa populations, and also in two accessions of cultivated B. rapa 'brocoletto'. Whilst introgression of the B. napus chloroplast type in the wild and weedy B. rapa populations has been proposed by other studies, the presence of this haplotype within the two brocoletto accessions is unexplained. Conclusions The distribution of chloroplast haplotypes eliminate any of the C genome species as being the maternal ancestor of the majority of the B. napus accessions. The presence of multiple chloroplast

  4. Gene expression profiling via LongSAGE in a non-model plant species: a case study in seeds of Brassica napus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friedt Wolfgang

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Serial analysis of gene expression (LongSAGE was applied for gene expression profiling in seeds of oilseed rape (Brassica napus ssp. napus. The usefulness of this technique for detailed expression profiling in a non-model organism was demonstrated for the highly complex, neither fully sequenced nor annotated genome of B. napus by applying a tag-to-gene matching strategy based on Brassica ESTs and the annotated proteome of the closely related model crucifer A. thaliana. Results Transcripts from 3,094 genes were detected at two time-points of seed development, 23 days and 35 days after pollination (DAP. Differential expression showed a shift from gene expression involved in diverse developmental processes including cell proliferation and seed coat formation at 23 DAP to more focussed metabolic processes including storage protein accumulation and lipid deposition at 35 DAP. The most abundant transcripts at 23 DAP were coding for diverse protease inhibitor proteins and proteases, including cysteine proteases involved in seed coat formation and a number of lipid transfer proteins involved in embryo pattern formation. At 35 DAP, transcripts encoding napin, cruciferin and oleosin storage proteins were most abundant. Over both time-points, 18.6% of the detected genes were matched by Brassica ESTs identified by LongSAGE tags in antisense orientation. This suggests a strong involvement of antisense transcript expression in regulatory processes during B. napus seed development. Conclusion This study underlines the potential of transcript tagging approaches for gene expression profiling in Brassica crop species via EST matching to annotated A. thaliana genes. Limits of tag detection for low-abundance transcripts can today be overcome by ultra-high throughput sequencing approaches, so that tag-based gene expression profiling may soon become the method of choice for global expression profiling in non-model species.

  5. A high-density SNP map for accurate mapping of seed fibre QTL in Brassica napus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liezhao Liu

    Full Text Available A high density genetic linkage map for the complex allotetraploid crop species Brassica napus (oilseed rape was constructed in a late-generation recombinant inbred line (RIL population, using genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP markers assayed by the Brassica 60 K Infinium BeadChip Array. The linkage map contains 9164 SNP markers covering 1832.9 cM. 1232 bins account for 7648 of the markers. A subset of 2795 SNP markers, with an average distance of 0.66 cM between adjacent markers, was applied for QTL mapping of seed colour and the cell wall fiber components acid detergent lignin (ADL, cellulose and hemicellulose. After phenotypic analyses across four different environments a total of 11 QTL were detected for seed colour and fiber traits. The high-density map considerably improved QTL resolution compared to the previous low-density maps. A previously identified major QTL with very high effects on seed colour and ADL was pinpointed to a narrow genome interval on chromosome A09, while a minor QTL explaining 8.1% to 14.1% of variation for ADL was detected on chromosome C05. Five and three QTL accounting for 4.7% to 21.9% and 7.3% to 16.9% of the phenotypic variation for cellulose and hemicellulose, respectively, were also detected. To our knowledge this is the first description of QTL for seed cellulose and hemicellulose in B. napus, representing interesting new targets for improving oil content. The high density SNP genetic map enables navigation from interesting B. napus QTL to Brassica genome sequences, giving useful new information for understanding the genetics of key seed quality traits in rapeseed.

  6. Subgenome parallel selection is associated with morphotype diversification and convergent crop domestication in Brassica rapa and Brassica oleracea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Feng; Sun, Rifei; Hou, Xilin; Zheng, Hongkun; Zhang, Fenglan; Zhang, Yangyong; Liu, Bo; Liang, Jianli; Zhuang, Mu; Liu, Yunxia; Liu, Dongyuan; Wang, Xiaobo; Li, Pingxia; Liu, Yumei; Lin, Ke; Bucher, Johan; Zhang, Ningwen; Wang, Yan; Wang, Hui; Deng, Jie; Liao, Yongcui; Wei, Keyun; Zhang, Xueming; Fu, Lixia; Hu, Yunyan; Liu, Jisheng; Cai, Chengcheng; Zhang, Shujiang; Zhang, Shifan; Li, Fei; Zhang, Hui; Zhang, Jifang; Guo, Ning; Liu, Zhiyuan; Liu, Jin; Sun, Chao; Ma, Yuan; Zhang, Haijiao; Cui, Yang; Freeling, Micheal R; Borm, Theo; Bonnema, Guusje; Wu, Jian; Wang, Xiaowu

    2016-10-01

    Brassica species, including crops such as cabbage, turnip and oilseed, display enormous phenotypic variation. Brassica genomes have all undergone a whole-genome triplication (WGT) event with unknown effects on phenotype diversification. We resequenced 199 Brassica rapa and 119 Brassica oleracea accessions representing various morphotypes and identified signals of selection at the mesohexaploid subgenome level. For cabbage morphotypes with their typical leaf-heading trait, we identified four subgenome loci that show signs of parallel selection among subgenomes within B. rapa, as well as four such loci within B. oleracea. Fifteen subgenome loci are under selection and are shared by these two species. We also detected strong subgenome parallel selection linked to the domestication of the tuberous morphotypes, turnip (B. rapa) and kohlrabi (B. oleracea). Overall, we demonstrated that the mesohexaploidization of the two Brassica genomes contributed to their diversification into heading and tuber-forming morphotypes through convergent subgenome parallel selection of paralogous genes.

  7. Molecular cloning and characterization of a KCS gene from Cardamine graeca and its heterologous expression in Brassica oilseeds to engineer high nervonic acid oils for potential medical and industrial use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, David C; Francis, Tammy; Guo, Yiming; Brost, Jennifer M; Katavic, Vesna; Mietkiewska, Elzbieta; Michael Giblin, E; Lozinsky, Sharla; Hoffman, Travis

    2009-12-01

    Nervonic acid 24:1 Delta15 (cis-tetracos-15-enoic acid) is a very long-chain monounsaturated fatty acid and exists in nature as an elongation product of oleic acid. There is an increasing interest in production of high nervonic acid oils for pharmaceutical, nutraceutical and industrial applications. Using a polymerase chain reaction approach, we have isolated a gene from Cardamine graeca L., which encodes a 3-ketoacyl-CoA synthase (KCS), the first component of the elongation complex involved in synthesis of nervonic acid. Expression of the Cardamine KCS in yeast resulted in biosynthesis of nervonic acid, which is not normally present in yeast cells. We transformed Arabidopsis and Brassica carinata with the Cardamine KCS under the control of the seed-specific promoter, napin. The T(3) generations of transgenic Arabidopsis and B. carinata plants expressing the Cardamine KCS showed that seed-specific expression resulted in relatively large comparative increases in nervonic acid proportions in Arabidopsis seed oil, and 15-fold increase in nervonic acid proportions in B. carinata seed oil. The highest nervonic acid level in transgenic B. carinata lines reached 44%, with only 6% of residual erucic acid. In contrast, similar transgenic expression of the Cardamine KCS in high erucic B. napus resulted in 30% nervonic acid but with 20% residual erucic acid. Experiments using the Lunaria KCS gene gave results similar to the latter. In both cases, the erucic acid content is too high for human or animal consumption. Thus, the Cardamine KCS: B. carinata high nervonic/highly reduced erucic transgenic seed oils will be the most suitable for testing in pharmaceutical/nutraceutical applications to improve human and animal health.

  8. Oilseeds business opportunities in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnands, J.H.M.; Biersteker, J.; Hiel, R.

    2007-01-01

    In this study the business opportunities for Dutch companies in the Ethiopian oilseeds sector are explored. Opportunities for setting up sustainable export chains should mutually benefit Dutch companies as well as the Ethiopian oilseeds sector in particular and the Ethiopian society in general.

  9. Cloning and expression study of BnaLCR78 in Brassica napus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuang, L.; Ze, L. Y.; Cheng, W. Y.

    2016-01-01

    BnaLCR78 genes of three types of rape were cloned in rape (Brassica napus), and encoded protein structure was analyzed, the Results showed that the protein had a conserved coding domain which was analogues among LCR family of Arabidopsis. The expression patterns of genes of three types of rape in varying tissues and in specific same tissues were analyzed using quantitative method. The Results showed that their expression patterns differ from that of former research in Brassica napus, which may result from the difference of sampling time. We speculated that the gene might be involved in transpiration and transportation and distribution of nutrient, oil content in seed. (author)

  10. Study on the Occurrence and Epidemic Model of Rape Sclerotinia Stem Rot of ‘Zheyou 50’

    OpenAIRE

    Xu Sen-fu; Wang Hui-fu; Yu Shanhong; Wang En-guo

    2013-01-01

    In order to investigate invading and epidemic rules of rape sclerotinia stem rot of ‘Zheyou 50’ and promote the development of brassica campestris industry, this paper studied the outbreak regularity and epidemic model of rape sclerotinia stem rot according to field investigation and infection. The result showed that machinery direct seeding rape was good for the occurrence of sclerotinia stem rot for the reason of late seeding and high density. The period from water damage appeared to wiltin...

  11. Radiation and nitrogen use in wheat and oilseed rape crops

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dreccer, M.F.

    1999-01-01

    Raising yield potential of crops with an efficient use of nutrients is imperative, given the prospects of increase in world population and the need to reduce environmental problems. Yield potential is proportional to the total biomass of a crop, which is highly responsive to nitrogen

  12. Brassica villosa, a system for studying non-glandular trichomes and genes in the Brassicas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayidu, Naghabushana K; Tan, Yifang; Taheri, Ali; Li, Xiang; Bjorndahl, Trent C; Nowak, Jacek; Wishart, David S; Hegedus, Dwayne; Gruber, Margaret Y

    2014-07-01

    Brassica villosa is a wild Brassica C genome species with very dense trichome coverage and strong resistance to many insect pests of Brassica oilseeds and vegetables. Transcriptome analysis of hairy B. villosa leaves indicated higher expression of several important trichome initiation genes compared with glabrous B. napus leaves and consistent with the Arabidopsis model of trichome development. However, transcripts of the TRY inhibitory gene in hairy B. villosa were surprisingly high relative to B. napus and relative transcript levels of SAD2, EGL3, and several XIX genes were low, suggesting potential ancillary or less important trichome-related roles for these genes in Brassica species compared with Arabidopsis. Several antioxidant, calcium, non-calcium metal and secondary metabolite genes also showed differential expression between these two species. These coincided with accumulation of two alkaloid-like compounds, high levels of calcium, and other metals in B. villosa trichomes that are correlated with the known tolerance of B. villosa to high salt and the calcium-rich natural habitat of this wild species. This first time report on the isolation of large amounts of pure B. villosa trichomes, on trichome content, and on relative gene expression differences in an exceptionally hairy Brassica species compared with a glabrous species opens doors for the scientific community to understand trichome gene function in the Brassicas and highlights the potential of B. villosa as a trichome research platform.

  13. Construction of an integrated genetic linkage map for the A genome of Brassica napus using SSR markers derived from sequenced BACs in B. rapa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    King Graham J

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Multinational Brassica rapa Genome Sequencing Project (BrGSP has developed valuable genomic resources, including BAC libraries, BAC-end sequences, genetic and physical maps, and seed BAC sequences for Brassica rapa. An integrated linkage map between the amphidiploid B. napus and diploid B. rapa will facilitate the rapid transfer of these valuable resources from B. rapa to B. napus (Oilseed rape, Canola. Results In this study, we identified over 23,000 simple sequence repeats (SSRs from 536 sequenced BACs. 890 SSR markers (designated as BrGMS were developed and used for the construction of an integrated linkage map for the A genome in B. rapa and B. napus. Two hundred and nineteen BrGMS markers were integrated to an existing B. napus linkage map (BnaNZDH. Among these mapped BrGMS markers, 168 were only distributed on the A genome linkage groups (LGs, 18 distrubuted both on the A and C genome LGs, and 33 only distributed on the C genome LGs. Most of the A genome LGs in B. napus were collinear with the homoeologous LGs in B. rapa, although minor inversions or rearrangements occurred on A2 and A9. The mapping of these BAC-specific SSR markers enabled assignment of 161 sequenced B. rapa BACs, as well as the associated BAC contigs to the A genome LGs of B. napus. Conclusion The genetic mapping of SSR markers derived from sequenced BACs in B. rapa enabled direct links to be established between the B. napus linkage map and a B. rapa physical map, and thus the assignment of B. rapa BACs and the associated BAC contigs to the B. napus linkage map. This integrated genetic linkage map will facilitate exploitation of the B. rapa annotated genomic resources for gene tagging and map-based cloning in B. napus, and for comparative analysis of the A genome within Brassica species.

  14. Changes in soil bacterial community structure as a result of incorporation of Brassica plants compared with continuous planting eggplant and chemical disinfection in greenhouses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tianzhu; Liu, Tongtong; Zheng, Chengyu; Kang, Chunsheng; Yang, Zichao; Yao, Xiaotong; Song, Fengbin; Zhang, Runzhi; Wang, Xuerong; Xu, Ning; Zhang, Chunyi; Li, Wei; Li, Shumin

    2017-01-01

    Greenhouse eggplant monocropping in China has contributed to the aggravation of soil-borne diseases, reductions in crop quality and yield, and the degradation of physical and chemical soil properties. Crop rotation is one effective way of alleviating the problems of continuous cropping worldwide; however, few studies have reported changes in soil bacterial community structures and physical and chemical soil properties after Brassica vegetables had been rotated with eggplant in greenhouses. In this experiment, mustard-eggplant (BFN) and oilseed rape-eggplant (BFC) rotations were studied to identify changes in the physicochemical properties and bacterial community structure in soil that was previously subject to monocropping. Samples were taken after two types of Brassica plants incorporated into soil for 15 days to compare with continually planted eggplant (control, CN) and chemical disinfection of soil (CF) in greenhouses. MiSeq pyrosequencing was used to analyze soil bacterial diversity and structure in the four different treatments. A total of 55,129 reads were identified, and rarefaction analysis showed that the soil treatments were equally sampled. The bacterial richness of the BFC treatment and the diversity of the BFN treatment were significantly higher than those of the other treatments. Further comparison showed that the bacterial community structures of BFC and BFN treatments were also different from CN and CF treatments. The relative abundance of several dominant bacterial genera in the BFC and BFN treatments (such as Flavobacteria, Stenotrophomonas, Massilia and Cellvibrio, which played different roles in improving soil fertility and advancing plant growth) was distinctly higher than the CN or CF treatments. Additionally, the total organic matter and Olsen-P content of the BFC and BFN treatments were significantly greater than the CN treatment. We conclude that Brassica vegetables-eggplant crop rotations could provide a more effective means of solving

  15. Transgene escape and persistence in an agroecosystem: the case of glyphosate-resistant Brassica rapa L. in central Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandolfo, Claudio E; Presotto, Alejandro; Carbonell, Francisco Torres; Ureta, Soledad; Poverene, Mónica; Cantamutto, Miguel

    2018-03-01

    Brassica rapa L. is an annual Brassicaceae species cultivated for oil and food production, whose wild form is a weed of crops worldwide. In temperate regions of South America and especially in the Argentine Pampas region, this species is widely distributed. During 2014, wild B. rapa populations that escaped control with glyphosate applications by farmers were found in this area. These plants were characterized by morphology and seed acidic profile, and all the characters agreed with B. rapa description. The dose-response assays showed that the biotypes were highly resistant to glyphosate. It was also shown that they had multiple resistance to AHAS-inhibiting herbicides. The transgenic origin of the glyphosate resistance in B. rapa biotypes was verified by an immunological test which confirmed the presence of the CP4 EPSPS protein and by an event-specific GT73 molecular marker. The persistence of the transgene in nature was confirmed for at least 4 years, in ruderal and agrestal habitats. This finding suggests that glyphosate resistance might come from GM oilseed rape crops illegally cultivated in the country or as a seed contaminant, and it implies gene flow and introgression between feral populations of GM B. napus and wild B. rapa. The persistence and spread of the resistance in agricultural environments was promoted by the high selection pressure imposed by intensive herbicide usage in the prevalent no-till farming systems.

  16. Rape embryogenesis I. The proembryo development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Tykarska

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of the proembryo of rape Brassica napus L. from the zygote to the young embryo proper is described. A number of regularities were found in the direction, succession, and distribution of segmental and differentiating divisions of the proembryo. The direction of the divisions seems to foe determined by the direction of growth and the shape of the cells. The termyoung embryo proper is proposed to denote the globular embryo which already possesses separate plerome and periblem mother-cells and mother-cells of the iec layer and of clumella. The body of the embryo proper is derived from the apical cell ca which arose from the first division of the zygote and from the hypophysis - the only suspensor cell which closes the spheroid of the embryo. The development of the Brassica napus L. proembryo follows the sub-archetype Capsella bursa-pastoris in the IV megarchetype of Soueges.

  17. Date Rape (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... owe" someone sex, even if you're a couple. Rape is not always violent. If you say " ... date rape" drugs like: rohypnol , called roofies, lunch money, or mind erasers GHB (gamma hydroxybutyric acid), called ...

  18. Forensic implications of rape

    OpenAIRE

    Novaković Milan

    2006-01-01

    Introduction. Rape is a sexual act of violence in which physical strength is used. Criminal law imposes strict punishments for such crimes as rape. Psycho-pathologically, rape is among the gravest of crimes, often associated with extremely deviated behavior. This article deals with the forensic aspects of sexual violence in Bosnia and Herzegovina in the period from 2000-2004. We report about sexual assaults, personality of delinquents, motives and consequences of rape. Material and Methods. T...

  19. Rape Myths, Rape Scripts, and Common Rape Experiences of College Women: Differences in Perceptions of Women Who Have Been Raped.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hockett, Jericho M; Saucier, Donald A; Badke, Caitlyn

    2016-03-01

    Rape is prevalent at colleges. Although research suggests commonalities across many college women's rape experiences (e.g., perpetrators using multiple coercive strategies), vignettes used to assess rape perceptions often reflect false beliefs. Two studies varying a perpetrator's coercive tactics examine rape perceptions using vignettes reflecting rape myths, rape scripts, or many college women's common rape experiences. Participants perceive a woman who was raped more positively in vignettes reflecting common rape experiences versus those reflecting rape myths or scripts. Theoretical, educational, and research implications are discussed. © The Author(s) 2015.

  20. Population structure and phylogenetic relationships in a diverse panel of Brassica rapa L

    Science.gov (United States)

    The crop species Brassica rapa L. has significant economic importance around the globe. Crop domestication and improvement has resulted in extreme phenotypic diversity and subspecies that are used for oilseed, food for human consumption and fodder for livestock. However, the global distribution and ...

  1. Improvement of brassica oilseeds through modern biotechnological approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.R.; Rashid, H.

    2007-01-01

    Pakistan is chronically deficient in the production of edible oils. So much so that 3/4 (three fourth) of the country's requirements are met through imports, costing huge amounts in foreign exchange. The total edible-oil requirements of Pakistan for 1999-2000 stands at 2 million tons. The rest was imported on heavy foreign exchange cost of US dollars 800 million/year (Anonymous, 2000). One disturbing aspect of this critical issue is an annual increase in the gap between consumption and domestic production of edible oils. The different uses of rapeseed have given rise to specialized cultivars, and it is important to differentiate between the three principal types viz. seed quality, high erucic acid (HEAR), and canola. The term Canola refers to seed or seed-products with less than 2% erucic acid in the oil and less than 30 macro mol/g meal of aliphatic glucosinolates. (author)

  2. The Realities of Date Rape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presley, Cara; Watson, Jennifer; Williams, Audrey R.

    This poster presentation addresses the issue of date rape, specifically in the college environment. Highlighted are date rape statistics, demographics, and date rape drugs. Also discussed are date rape warnings and prevention strategies. It is concluded that college and university administrators must place the issue of date rape and acquaintance…

  3. BRAD, the genetics and genomics database for Brassica plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Pingxia

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Brassica species include both vegetable and oilseed crops, which are very important to the daily life of common human beings. Meanwhile, the Brassica species represent an excellent system for studying numerous aspects of plant biology, specifically for the analysis of genome evolution following polyploidy, so it is also very important for scientific research. Now, the genome of Brassica rapa has already been assembled, it is the time to do deep mining of the genome data. Description BRAD, the Brassica database, is a web-based resource focusing on genome scale genetic and genomic data for important Brassica crops. BRAD was built based on the first whole genome sequence and on further data analysis of the Brassica A genome species, Brassica rapa (Chiifu-401-42. It provides datasets, such as the complete genome sequence of B. rapa, which was de novo assembled from Illumina GA II short reads and from BAC clone sequences, predicted genes and associated annotations, non coding RNAs, transposable elements (TE, B. rapa genes' orthologous to those in A. thaliana, as well as genetic markers and linkage maps. BRAD offers useful searching and data mining tools, including search across annotation datasets, search for syntenic or non-syntenic orthologs, and to search the flanking regions of a certain target, as well as the tools of BLAST and Gbrowse. BRAD allows users to enter almost any kind of information, such as a B. rapa or A. thaliana gene ID, physical position or genetic marker. Conclusion BRAD, a new database which focuses on the genetics and genomics of the Brassica plants has been developed, it aims at helping scientists and breeders to fully and efficiently use the information of genome data of Brassica plants. BRAD will be continuously updated and can be accessed through http://brassicadb.org.

  4. Rape in Rural Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nowsher Ali

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Rape is one of the silent brutal sexual offences in Bangladesh. Despite strong laws against it, the evil of rape continues to rise. Increasing trend of the silent cruel sexual offence (rape represents a major psychopath sexual disorder and public health problem and progress of the country. Objective: The aim of the study was to determine the pattern of alleged rape victims in a rural district of Bangladesh with the ultimate aim to create public awareness about the brutal crime. Materials and method: This retrospective study was carried out on 330 sexually assailed alleged rape victims’ report forms, who reported at Faridpur Medical College, Bangladesh from 2007 to 2011 for medical examination. Results: Among the study subjects maximum number (70.0% of alleged rape cases were under the age of 20 years. More than two-thirds (64.60% of the assailants were known to the victims, most of the incidents (64.20% occurred in the victims’ houses and nearby places. The study also revealed that minimum number of victims (14.20% reported within 24 hours for medical examination. Almost one fourth of the alleged rape cases were gang rape and no positive finding in favour of sexual intercourse was found in about three fourth (72.40% of cases. Conclusion: Public awareness about rape would be effective to report in due time with preserving the evidence of crime and modern techniques like DNA diagnosis may be of help to detect the assailant.

  5. Ukrainian cereals and oilseeds trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Б. В. Духницький

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To analyze peculiarities of Ukrainian cereals and oilseeds trade, the situation on the world market, and determine future prospects of its development. Methods. Analysis and synthesis, comparative evaluation, graphic procedure. Results. The role and place of Ukraine in a total grain supply to the world market was determined. Ukraine is a world’s top ten grain producer. Among domestic agricultural products, cereals, oilseeds and sunflower oil are in the highest demand in the world. In recent years, our state has reinforced its status as one of the leading exporters of cereals. The commodity pattern of cereals and oilseeds export was analyzed with specifying most in-demand positions and the main countries purchasing these pro­ducts. According to the results of 2015, Ukraine obtained the highest foreign currency revenue from export of corn, wheat and barley (in grain structure including soybeans and rapeseed (among oil crops. Key domestic and multinational operators are the main exporters of cereals and oilseeds in Ukraine and still hold their leading position. It was found a significant excess of import price of seeds as compared with export price of crops grown in Ukraine. Assortment of maize and sunflower seeds offered by major companies-producers in Ukraine was studied. Main trends of the world grain market development are considered. Conclusions. It was established that Ukraine is one of the major exporters of cereals and oilseeds. However, volatility of their prices significantly affects the export revenue that was decreasing even with increasing export quantities in kind. The dependence of domestic grain industry development on high-quality imported seed of maize and sunflower hybrids was recorded. It is expected that in the years to come Ukraine will maintain its strong positions in the world’s grain market.

  6. Unraveling the genetic basis of seed tocopherol content and composition in rapeseed (Brassica napus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xingxing; Zhang, Chunyu; Li, Lingjuan; Fritsche, Steffi; Endrigkeit, Jessica; Zhang, Wenying; Long, Yan; Jung, Christian; Meng, Jinling

    2012-01-01

    Tocopherols are important antioxidants in vegetable oils; when present as vitamin E, tocopherols are an essential nutrient for humans and livestock. Rapeseed (Brassica napus L, AACC, 2 n = 38) is one of the most important oil crops and a major source of tocopherols. Although the tocopherol biosynthetic pathway has been well elucidated in the model photosynthetic organisms Arabidopsis thaliana and Synechocystis sp. PCC6803, knowledge about the genetic basis of tocopherol biosynthesis in seeds of rapeseed is scant. This project was carried out to dissect the genetic basis of seed tocopherol content and composition in rapeseed through quantitative trait loci (QTL) detection, genome-wide association analysis, and homologous gene mapping. We used a segregating Tapidor × Ningyou7 doubled haploid (TNDH) population, its reconstructed F(2) (RC-F(2)) population, and a panel of 142 rapeseed accessions (association panel). Genetic effects mainly contributed to phenotypic variations in tocopherol content and composition; environmental effects were also identified. Thirty-three unique QTL were detected for tocopherol content and composition in TNDH and RC-F(2) populations. Of these, seven QTL co-localized with candidate sequences associated with tocopherol biosynthesis through in silico and linkage mapping. Several near-isogenic lines carrying introgressions from the parent with higher tocopherol content showed highly increased tocopherol content compared with the recurrent parent. Genome-wide association analysis was performed with 142 B. napus accessions. Sixty-one loci were significantly associated with tocopherol content and composition, 11 of which were localized within the confidence intervals of tocopherol QTL. This joint QTL, candidate gene, and association mapping study sheds light on the genetic basis of seed tocopherol biosynthesis in rapeseed. The sequences presented here may be used for marker-assisted selection of oilseed rape lines with superior tocopherol

  7. Fatty Acid and Transcript Profiling in Developing Seeds of Three Brassica napus Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petkova Mariana

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Fatty acid levels and gene expression profiles for selected genes associated with the synthesis of fatty acids (FA, triacylglycerol, and oil body proteins were examined in three oilseed rape (Brassica napus cultivars that have utility for cultivar development in our spring canola breeding program. The seed oil content of Bronowski, Q2, and Westar was 39.0, 40.1, and 40.6%, respectively at 40 days after flowering (DAF. During the 20 to 40 day period of seed development, cultivars had varying levels of palmitic, stearic, oleic, linoleic, α-linolenic, eicosenoic, and erucic acid. In general, the percentage of each FA was similar among the cultivars during seed development. However, the level of oleic acid was lower and the levels of eicosenoic acid and erucic acid were higher in Bronowski than in Q2 and Westar seeds; linoleic acid also tended to be lower in Bronowski. Gene expression among the cultivars was similar from 10 to 40 DAF. The few exceptions were that expression of KAS1 and SAD were higher in Westar and Q2 than in Bronowski at 25 DAF, SAD was highest in Q2, intermediate in Westar, and lowest in Bronowski at 35 DAF, FAD2 was higher in Q2 than in Bronowski at 35 DAF, FAD3 was higher in Q2 than in Bronowski at 15 DAF and Q2 and Westar at 25 and 30 DAF, and FAE1 was higher in Westar and Q2 than in Bronowski at 30 DAF. Correlation analysis for gene expression against DAF for each genotype supported a common trend in gene expression among the three cultivars with gene expression tending to decrease over time; except for LPAAT, which tended to increase. The correlation between the level of FAs and expression of genes by genotype indicated no general trend; rather correlations seem to depend on the genotype.

  8. Unraveling the genetic basis of seed tocopherol content and composition in rapeseed (Brassica napus L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingxing Wang

    for marker-assisted selection of oilseed rape lines with superior tocopherol content and composition.

  9. Development of three full-length infectious cDNA clones of distinct brassica yellows virus genotypes for agrobacterium-mediated inoculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Yan; Dong, Shu-Wei; Xiang, Hai-Ying; Chen, Xiang-Ru; Li, Da-Wei; Yu, Jia-Lin; Han, Cheng-Gui

    2015-02-02

    Brassica yellows virus is a newly identified species in the genus of Polerovirus within the family Luteoviridae. Brassica yellows virus (BrYV) is prevalently distributed throughout Mainland China and South Korea, is an important virus infecting cruciferous crops. Based on six BrYV genomic sequences of isolates from oilseed rape, rutabaga, radish, and cabbage, three genotypes, BrYV-A, BrYV-B, and BrYV-C, exist, which mainly differ in the 5' terminal half of the genome. BrYV is an aphid-transmitted and phloem-limited virus. The use of infectious cDNA clones is an alternative means of infecting plants that allows reverse genetic studies to be performed. In this study, full-length cDNA clones of BrYV-A, recombinant BrYV5B3A, and BrYV-C were constructed under control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter. An agrobacterium-mediated inoculation system of Nicotiana benthamiana was developed using these cDNA clones. Three days after infiltration with full-length BrYV cDNA clones, necrotic symptoms were observed in the inoculated leaves of N. benthamiana; however, no obvious symptoms appeared in the upper leaves. Reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) and western blot detection of samples from the upper leaves showed that the maximum infection efficiency of BrYVs could reach 100%. The infectivity of the BrYV-A, BrYV-5B3A, and BrYV-C cDNA clones was further confirmed by northern hybridization. The system developed here will be useful for further studies of BrYV, such as host range, pathogenicity, viral gene functions, and plant-virus-vector interactions, and especially for discerning the differences among the three genotypes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Overexpression of phyA and appA Genes Improves Soil Organic Phosphorus Utilisation and Seed Phytase Activity in Brassica napus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi; Ye, Xiangsheng; Ding, Guangda; Xu, Fangsen

    2013-01-01

    Phytate is the major storage form of organic phosphorus in soils and plant seeds, and phosphorus (P) in this form is unavailable to plants or monogastric animals. In the present study, the phytase genes phyA and appA were introduced into Brassica napus cv Westar with a signal peptide sequence and CaMV 35S promoter, respectively. Three independent transgenic lines, P3 and P11 from phyA and a18 from appA, were selected. The three transgenic lines exhibited significantly higher exuded phytase activity when compared to wild-type (WT) controls. A quartz sand culture experiment demonstrated that transgenic Brassica napus had significantly improved P uptake and plant biomass. A soil culture experiment revealed that seed yields of transgenic lines P11 and a18 increased by 20.9% and 59.9%, respectively, when compared to WT. When phytate was used as the sole P source, P accumulation in seeds increased by 20.6% and 46.9% with respect to WT in P11 and a18, respectively. The P3 line accumulated markedly more P in seeds than WT, while no significant difference was observed in seed yields when phytate was used as the sole P source. Phytase activities in transgenic canola seeds ranged from 1,138 to 1,605 U kg–1 seeds, while no phytase activity was detected in WT seeds. Moreover, phytic acid content in P11 and a18 seeds was significantly lower than in WT. These results introduce an opportunity for improvement of soil and seed phytate-P bioavailability through genetic manipulation of oilseed rape, thereby increasing plant production and P nutrition for monogastric animals. PMID:23573285

  11. Overexpression of phyA and appA genes improves soil organic phosphorus utilisation and seed phytase activity in Brassica napus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Wang

    Full Text Available Phytate is the major storage form of organic phosphorus in soils and plant seeds, and phosphorus (P in this form is unavailable to plants or monogastric animals. In the present study, the phytase genes phyA and appA were introduced into Brassica napus cv Westar with a signal peptide sequence and CaMV 35S promoter, respectively. Three independent transgenic lines, P3 and P11 from phyA and a18 from appA, were selected. The three transgenic lines exhibited significantly higher exuded phytase activity when compared to wild-type (WT controls. A quartz sand culture experiment demonstrated that transgenic Brassica napus had significantly improved P uptake and plant biomass. A soil culture experiment revealed that seed yields of transgenic lines P11 and a18 increased by 20.9% and 59.9%, respectively, when compared to WT. When phytate was used as the sole P source, P accumulation in seeds increased by 20.6% and 46.9% with respect to WT in P11 and a18, respectively. The P3 line accumulated markedly more P in seeds than WT, while no significant difference was observed in seed yields when phytate was used as the sole P source. Phytase activities in transgenic canola seeds ranged from 1,138 to 1,605 U kg(-1 seeds, while no phytase activity was detected in WT seeds. Moreover, phytic acid content in P11 and a18 seeds was significantly lower than in WT. These results introduce an opportunity for improvement of soil and seed phytate-P bioavailability through genetic manipulation of oilseed rape, thereby increasing plant production and P nutrition for monogastric animals.

  12. Mycobiota of rape seeds in Romania. I. Identification of mycobiota associated with rape seeds from different areas of Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana-Eugenia Şesan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The spectrum of fungal diversity associated with rape seeds belonging to 33 cultivars (Alaska, Astrada, Astrid, Atlantic, Betty, Champlein, Chayenne, Dexter, Digger, Elvis, Eurowest, Finesse, Herkules, Hydromel, Hydromel-MA, Ladoga, anitoba, Masa Rom, Milena, Mohican, Montego, Nectar, Ontario, Orkan, Perla (4 lots, Remy, Robust, Rodeo, Saphir, Tiger, Tiger CBC Lot ROM06-121-110, Triangle, Valesca, Vectra and 2 hybrids (H-90-20-83, H-90-21-83 has been established by samples’ macroscopical and microscopical analizying, during 2006-2008, for the first time in Romania. The Ulster method on malt-agar and PDA culture media has been used, evaluating the percentage of fungal taxons present on/in rape seeds. The most important pathogenic fungi identified were: Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib. de Bary, Botrytis cinerea Pers., Rhizoctonia solani Kühn, Alternaria brassicae (Berk. Sacc., A. brassicicola (Schwein. Wiltshire and Fusarium spp. Also, a large quantities of some saprophytic fungi, as Alternaria, Cladosporium, Aspergillus, Penicillium, Rhizopus have been recorded. These ones have been affected the health condition of rape seeds, suppressing their germination and other vital phenomena. Among potential antagonistic fungi the following genera have been isolated: Chaetomium (0-4%, Trichoderma (0-10%, Aspergillus (0-14%, Penicillium (0-100%. Some correlations and comparisons have been established between fungal diversity, their provenience, cultivars, culture media (Malt-Agar/MA, Potato-Dextrose-Agar/PDA used. It has been evaluated the behaviour of rape cultivars and hybrids towards the main rape seed pathogens.

  13. The Culture of Rape

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-09

    or a prostitute and it wasn’t really rape because her job implies that she really doesn ’ t care about her body. As a society, we continue to make...FAULKNER, DYSFUNCTIONA.t FAMILY, AND THE OLD SOUTH; RAPE OF CHARLOTTE TEMPLE AND VICTIM-BLAMING; AMERICA, LINEARLY CYCLICAL Circle one: Abstract- Tech...h &Fine Arts/333-7723 lRRESPONSIBILITY d1 2. WILLIAM FAULKNER, DYSFUNCTIONAL FAMILY t) AND TIIE OLD SOUTH .. L 3. RAPE OF CHARLOTTE TEMPLE AND

  14. Rape (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... harm than good. Talking about rape in a safe environment with the help and support of a trained professional is the best way to ensure long-term healing. Working through the pain sooner rather than later can ...

  15. Gas assisted Mechanical Expression of oilseeds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willems, P.

    2007-01-01

    It is the objective of this thesis to show the general applicability of the Gas Assisted Mechanical Expression (GAME) process for recovery of oil from oilseeds with high yields. In this process, the oilseeds are saturated with supercritical CO2 before mechanical pressing. The CO2 displaces part of

  16. Secondary victims of rape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Dorte Mølgaard; Bak, Rikke; Elklit, Ask

    2012-01-01

    secondary victims, including family members, partners, and friends of male and female rape victims. We found that many respondents found it difficult to support the PV and that their relationship with the PV was often affected by the assault. Furthermore, the sample showed significant levels...... of social support for the respondent, and feeling let down by others. The respondents were generally interested in friend-, family-, and partner-focused interventions, particularly in receiving education about how best to support a rape victim...

  17. QTL for phytosterol and sinapate ester content in Brassica napus L. collocate with the two erucic acid genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amar, Samija; Ecke, Wolfgang; Becker, Heiko C.

    2008-01-01

    Improving oil and protein quality for food and feed purposes is an important goal in rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) breeding programs. Rapeseed contains phytosterols, used to enrich food products, and sinapate esters, which are limiting the utilization of rapeseed proteins in the feed industry. Increasing the phytosterol content of oil and lowering sinapate ester content of meal could increase the value of the oilseed rape crop. The objective of the present study was to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) for phytosterol and sinapate ester content in a winter rapeseed population of 148 doubled haploid lines, previously found to have a large variation for these two traits. This population also segregated for the two erucic acid genes. A close negative correlation was found between erucic acid and phytosterol content (Spearman’s rank correlation, rs = −0.80**). For total phytosterol content, three QTL were detected, explaining 60% of the genetic variance. The two QTL with the strongest additive effects were mapped on linkage groups N8 and N13 within the confidence intervals of the two erucic acid genes. For sinapate ester content four QTL were detected, explaining 53% of the genetic variance. Again, a close negative correlation was found between erucic acid and sinapate ester content (rs = −0.66**) and the QTL with the strongest additive effects mapped on linkage groups N8 and N13 within the confidence intervals of the two erucic acid genes. The results suggests, that there is a pleiotropic effect of the two erucic acid genes on phytosterol and sinapate ester content; the effect of the alleles for low erucic acid content is to increase phytosterol and sinapate ester content. Possible reasons for this are discussed based on known biosynthetic pathways. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00122-008-0734-2) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:18335203

  18. Effects of Glucosinolates and Flavonoids on Colonization of the Roots of Brassica napus by Azorhizobium caulinodans ORS571

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Callaghan, Kenneth J.; Stone, Philip J.; Hu, Xiaojia; Griffiths, D. Wynne; Davey, Michael R.; Cocking, Edward C.

    2000-01-01

    Plants of Brassica napus were assessed quantitatively for their susceptibility to lateral root crack colonization by Azorhizobium caulinodans ORS571(pXLGD4) (a rhizobial strain carrying the lacZ reporter gene) and for the concentration of glucosinolates in their roots by high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). High- and low-glucosinolate-seed (HGS and LGS) varieties exhibited a relatively low and high percentage of colonized lateral roots, respectively. HPLC showed that roots of HGS plants contained a higher concentration of glucosinolates than roots of LGS plants. One LGS variety showing fewer colonized lateral roots than other LGS varieties contained a higher concentration of glucosinolates than other LGS plants. Inoculated HGS plants treated with the flavonoid naringenin showed significantly more colonization than untreated HGS plants. This increase was not mediated by a naringenin-induced lowering of the glucosinolate content of HGS plant roots, nor did naringenin induce bacterial resistance to glucosinolates or increase the growth of bacteria. The erucic acid content of seed did not appear to influence colonization by azorhizobia. Frequently, leaf assays are used to study glucosinolates and plant defense; this study provides data on glucosinolates and bacterial colonization in roots and describes a bacterial reporter gene assay tailored easily to the study of ecologically important phytochemicals that influence bacterial colonization. These data also form a basis for future assessments of the benefits to oilseed rape plants of interaction with plant growth-promoting bacteria, especially diazotrophic bacteria potentially able to extend the benefits of nitrogen fixation to nonlegumes. PMID:10788398

  19. Radiation-use efficiency in summer rape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, M.J.; Stewart, D.W.

    1995-01-01

    The radiation-use efficiency (RUE) is a parameter that represents a crop canopy's ability to convert intercepted solar energy to dry matter. The RUE is used in simulation models and can vary with crop type and environment. The objective was to examine the effects of varying row width and seeding rate on the amount of intercepted photosynthetically active radiation (IPAR) and the RUE in summer rape (Brassica napus L.). 'Westar' summer rape was seeded at rates of 1.5, 3.0, 6.0, and 12.0 kg ha-1 in rows spaced 15 or 30 cm apart. Plant sampling was done at key growth stages, and the leaf and pod areas and total plant dry weights were determined. After flowering, plants intercepted more PAR when grown in 15-cm-wide rows than 30-cm-wide rows. For both row widths, as seeding rate increased from 1.5 to 12.0 kg ha-1, IPAR increased. The RUE was greater for plants grown in 15-cm-wide rows than for those grown in 30-cm rows; however, RUE decreased with increasing seeding rate. The mean RUE value was 2.83 g MJ-1 PAR. When the pod area was added to the leaf area, the IPAR increased and the RUE decreased

  20. Rape Beyond Crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Margo

    2017-02-01

    Public health experts agree that sexual violence constitutes a significant public health issue. Yet criminal law dominates rape law almost completely, with public health law playing at best a small supporting role. Recent civil law developments, such as university disciplinary proceedings, similarly fixate on how best to find and penalize perpetrators. As a result, rape law continues to spin its wheels in the same arguments and obstacles. This Article argues that, without broader cultural changes, criminal law faces a double bind: rape laws will either be ineffective or neglect the importance of individual culpability. Public health law provides more promising terrain for rape prevention because it is a strong legal framework that can engage the complex causes of rape, including the social norms that promote sexual aggression. While criminal law can only punish bad behavior, public health interventions can use the more effective prevention strategy of promoting positive behaviors and relationships. They can also address the myriad sexual behaviors and social determinants that increase the risk of rape but are outside the scope of criminal law. Perhaps most importantly, public health law relies on evidence-based interventions and the expertise of public health authorities to ensure that laws and policies are effective. Transforming rape law in this way provides a framework for legal feminism to undertake the unmet challenge of "theorizing yes," that is, moving beyond how to protect women’s right to refuse sex and toward promoting and exploring positive models of sex. Criminal law is simply incapable of meeting this challenge because it concerns only what sex should not be. A public health framework can give the law a richer role in addressing the full spectrum of sexual attitudes and behaviors.

  1. The main weed species and their control in oilseed crops in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. SALONEN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A survey of weeds in spring-sown oilseed crops (Brassica rapa ssp. oleifera and Brassica napus ssp. oleifera was conducted in southern and central Finland during 2007–2009, representing the first such extensive investigation in the country. The occurrence of the most abundant weed species in oilseeds was surveyed in 429 fields. In the fields with moderate or high weed infestation, 1–6 harmful weed species were recorded by visual observation according to their biomass production. About 40 weed species were recorded, the most predominant being Chenopodium album, Galeopsis spp., Galium spurium, Sonchus arvensis and Tripleurospermum inodorum. Elymus repens was the only major grass weed. Chemical weed control of broad-leaved weeds had been practised in 53% of the fields, resulting in relatively good control. In addition, both selective graminicides and glyphosate were used to control E. repens. Mechanical weed control was not practised in any field. The crop yield level was about 300 kg ha-1 higher in the fields with low weed infestation compared with in the highly infested fields. New promising options to replace the banned herbicide trifluralin are available. Thus, the most harmful weeds, such as C. album, which interferes with the production of high-quality oil for human consumption, can still be effectively controlled.;

  2. Omics Approach to Identify Factors Involved in Brassica Disease Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco, Marta; Soengas, Pilar; Velasco, Pablo; Bhadauria, Vijai; Cartea, Maria E; Rodríguez, Victor M

    2016-01-01

    Understanding plant's defense mechanisms and their response to biotic stresses is of fundamental meaning for the development of resistant crop varieties and more productive agriculture. The Brassica genus involves a large variety of economically important species and cultivars used as vegetable source, oilseeds, forage and ornamental. Damage caused by pathogens attack affects negatively various aspects of plant growth, development, and crop productivity. Over the last few decades, advances in plant physiology, genetics, and molecular biology have greatly improved our understanding of plant responses to biotic stress conditions. In this regard, various 'omics' technologies enable qualitative and quantitative monitoring of the abundance of various biological molecules in a high-throughput manner, and thus allow determination of their variation between different biological states on a genomic scale. In this review, we have described advances in 'omic' tools (genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics) in the view of conventional and modern approaches being used to elucidate the molecular mechanisms that underlie Brassica disease resistance.

  3. If Your Child is Raped

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Know Child Abuse Self-Defense Emergency Contraception Abuse Am I in a Healthy Relationship? Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Sexual Harassment and Sexual Bullying Date Rape Abusive Relationships How Can I Help a Friend Who Was Raped? Drugs: What to Know Rape View more About Us ...

  4. Unacknowledged Rape in the Community: Rape Characteristics and Adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littleton, Heather; Layh, Marlee; Rudolph, Kelly

    2018-02-01

    Unacknowledged rape, labeling a rape as a nonvictimizing event, remains largely unstudied among non-college women. This study therefore sought to examine differences in assault characteristics, adjustment, and disclosure by rape acknowledgment status among a sample of lower income rape victims (n = 104) recruited from a reproductive health clinic (mean age = 28.8 years). Although unacknowledged rape was infrequent (17.1% of victims), unacknowledged victims reported that the perpetrator used less force and were less likely to have assertively resisted, as compared to acknowledged victims. There were no significant differences in disclosure, depression, and somatic complaints between unacknowledged and acknowledged rape victims. Implications of the findings for understanding rape acknowledgment and postrape adjustment among community women are discussed.

  5. Immunopurification and characterization of a rape (Brassica napus L.)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BEN HAMIDA

    centrifugation, ultracentrifugation and affinity chromatography using polyclonal antibodies raised against porcine ... on plant lipases, particularly from oil seeds, have been essentially ..... crude extract (lanes 2 and 3) as found in the sunflower.

  6. Effects of salt stress on phosphorus uptake by european rape sheiaralle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Guihua; Zhang Jianfeng; Wei Dongpu; Yang Juncheng; Mei Yong

    2007-01-01

    The effects of different salinity on phosphorus uptake by European rape Sheiaralle were studied under hydroponics and sand culture conditions. The results showed that above ground uptake of instant P increased with the salinity increased, the uptake of 32 P by roots firstly decreased and then increased with the increase salinity. Instant P uptake by Brassica napus was lower under different salinity treatment than in non-saline condition (P - , but the biomass yield decreased much faster than P uptake, so P relatively condensed, and uptake of P by Brassica napus increased as the salinity (including non-saline treatment) was increased (P<0.05). Fresh weight of Brassica napus decreased significantly with the salinity increased (P<0.05). (authors)

  7. Precursors to rape: pressuring behaviors and rape proclivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strain, Megan L; Hockett, Jericho M; Saucier, Donald A

    2015-01-01

    We developed measures assessing personal and normative attitudes toward two types of behaviors that are symptomatic of rape culture. We conceptualize sexual violence as existing on a continuum and argue that two types of behaviors may be potential antecedents to (and consequences of) sexual violence: attempts to pressure, which mimic the power dynamics of rape in a less aggressive fashion, and benevolent dating behaviors, which are accepted dating scripts in which men initiate action. We examined individuals' acceptance of these behaviors in relation to their attitudes toward rape victims and among men to rape proclivity. This initial work suggests that these constructs and measures may be useful to investigate in future research.

  8. The Vascular Pathogen Verticillium longisporum Does Not Affect Water Relations and Plant Responses to Drought Stress of Its Host, Brassica napus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopisso, Daniel Teshome; Knüfer, Jessica; Koopmann, Birger; von Tiedemann, Andreas

    2017-04-01

    Verticillium longisporum is a host-specific vascular pathogen of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) that causes economic crop losses by impairing plant growth and inducing premature senescence. This study investigates whether plant damage through Verticillium stem striping is due to impaired plant water relations, whether V. longisporum affects responses of a susceptible B. napus variety to drought stress, and whether drought stress, in turn, affects plant responses to V. longisporum. Two-factorial experiments on a susceptible cultivar of B. napus infected or noninfected with V. longisporum and exposed to three watering levels (30, 60, and 100% field capacity) revealed that drought stress and V. longisporum impaired plant growth by entirely different mechanisms. Although both stresses similarly affected plant growth parameters (plant height, hypocotyl diameter, and shoot and root dry matter), infection of B. napus with V. longisporum did not affect any drought-related physiological or molecular genetic plant parameters, including transpiration rate, stomatal conductance, photosynthesis rate, water use efficiency, relative leaf water content, leaf proline content, or the expression of drought-responsive genes. Thus, this study provides comprehensive physiological and molecular genetic evidence explaining the lack of wilt symptoms in B. napus infected with V. longisporum. Likewise, drought tolerance of B. napus was unaffected by V. longisporum, as was the level of disease by drought conditions, thus excluding a concerted action of both stresses in the field. Although it is evident that drought and vascular infection with V. longisporum impair plant growth by different mechanisms, it remains to be determined by which other factors V. longisporum causes crop loss.

  9. A spatial assessment of Brassica napus gene flow potential to wild and weedy relatives in the Fynbos Biome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Kalwij

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Gene flow between related plant species, and between transgenic and non-transgenic crop varieties, may be considered a form of biological invasion. Brassica napus (oilseed rape or canola and its relatives are well known for intra- and inter-specific gene flow, hybridisation and weediness. Gene flow associated with B. napus poses a potential ecological risk in the Fynbos Biome of South Africa, because of the existence of both naturalised (alien, weedy and native relatives in this region. This risk is particularly pertinent given the proposed use of B. napus for biofuel and the potential future introduction of herbicide-tolerant transgenic B. napus. Here we quantify the presence and co-occurrence of B. napus and its wild and weedy relatives in the Fynbos Biome, as a first step in the ecological risk assessment for this crop. Several alien and at least one native relative of B. napus were found to be prevalent in the region, and to be spatially congruent with B. napus fields. The first requirement for potential gene flow to occur has thus been met. In addition, a number of these species have elsewhere been found to be reproductively compatible with B. napus. Further assessment of the potential ecological risks associated with B. napus in South Africa is constrained by uncertainties in the phylogeny of the Brassicaceae, difficulties with morphology-based identification, and poor knowledge of the biology of several of the species involved, particularly under South African conditions.

  10. Application of Endophytic Pseudomonas fluorescens and a Bacterial Consortium to Brassica napus Can Increase Plant Height and Biomass under Greenhouse and Field Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard D. Lally

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Plant associated bacteria with plant growth promotion (PGP properties have been proposed for use as environmentally friendly biofertilizers for sustainable agriculture; however, analysis of their efficacy in the field is often limited. In this study, greenhouse and field trials were carried out using individual endophytic Pseudomonas fluorescens strains, the well characterized rhizospheric P. fluorescens F113 and an endophytic microbial consortium of 10 different strains. These bacteria had been previously characterized with respect to their PGP properties in vitro and had been shown to harbor a range of traits associated with PGP including siderophore production, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC deaminase activity, and inorganic phosphate solubilization. In greenhouse experiments individual strains tagged with gfp and Kmr were applied to Brassica napus as a seed coat and were shown to effectively colonize the rhizosphere and root of B. napus and in addition they demonstrated a significant increase in plant biomass compared with the non-inoculated control. In the field experiment, the bacteria (individual and consortium were spray inoculated to winter oilseed rape B. napus var. Compass which was grown under standard North Western European agronomic conditions. Analysis of the data provides evidence that the application of the live bacterial biofertilizers can enhance aspects of crop development in B. napus at field scale. The field data demonstrated statistically significant increases in crop height, stem/leaf, and pod biomass, particularly, in the case of the consortium inoculated treatment. However, although seed and oil yield were increased in the field in response to inoculation, these data were not statistically significant under the experimental conditions tested. Future field trials will investigate the effectiveness of the inoculants under different agronomic conditions.

  11. The receptor-like kinase SOBIR1 interacts with Brassica napus LepR3 and is required for Leptosphaeria maculans AvrLm1-triggered immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisong eMa

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe fungus Leptosphaeria maculans (L. maculans is the causal agent of blackleg disease of canola/oilseed rape (Brassica napus worldwide. We previously reported cloning of the B. napus blackleg resistance gene, LepR3, which encodes a receptor-like protein. LepR3 triggers localised cell death upon recognition of its cognate Avr protein, AvrLm1. Here, we exploited the Nicotiana benthamiana model plant to investigate the recognition mechanism of AvrLm1 by LepR3. Co-expression of the LepR3/AvrLm1 gene pair in N. benthamiana resulted in development of a hypersensitive response (HR. However, a truncated AvrLm1 lacking its indigenous signal peptide was compromised in its ability to induce LepR3-mediated HR, indicating that AvrLm1 is perceived by LepR3 extracellularly. Structure-function analysis of the AvrLm1 protein revealed that the C-terminal region of AvrLm1 was required for LepR3-mediated HR in N. benthamiana and for resistance to L. maculans in B. napus. LepR3 was shown to be physically interacting with the B. napus receptor like kinase, SOBIR1 (BnSOBIR1. Silencing of NbSOBIR1 or NbSERK3 (BAK1 compromised LepR3-AvrLm1-dependent HR in N. benthamiana, suggesting that LepR3-mediated resistance to L. maculans in B. napus requires SOBIR1 and BAK1/SERK3. Using this model system, we determined that BnSOBIR1 and SERK3/BAK1 are essential partners in the LepR3 signalling complex and were able to define the AvrLm1 effector domain.

  12. RESEARCHES ON OILSEEDS MARKET IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena SOARE

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This scientific paper presents the evolution of oilseeds market in Romania, during the period 2008-2013. In order to show as concise as possible the reality of the oilseeds sector, the research pictures, on the one hand, an evolution of oilseeds specific indicators and on the other hand, an evolution of external trade. Romania disposes of tradition and favourable pedo-climatic conditions for cultivating the oilseeds plants. This is demonstrated by the favourable results obtained in the last years, especially concerning the sunflower crop. In 2013, Romania registered a record for sunflower, occupying the first position in the European Union for cultivated area and production. A negative aspect is represented by the fact that our country has the best conditions in Europe for soybean crop, but it is still dependent on import. Romania imports a huge quantity of soybean oilcakes for animal feeding. Nowadays, Romania is an important actor in the sunflower world market, covering almost 19% of the global demand. In perspective, one could expect significant oilseeds productions with a positive influence on the agro-food trade balance in our country.

  13. Comparative mapping of Brassica juncea and Arabidopsis thaliana using Intron Polymorphism (IP markers: homoeologous relationships, diversification and evolution of the A, B and C Brassica genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Vibha

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Extensive mapping efforts are currently underway for the establishment of comparative genomics between the model plant, Arabidopsis thaliana and various Brassica species. Most of these studies have deployed RFLP markers, the use of which is a laborious and time-consuming process. We therefore tested the efficacy of PCR-based Intron Polymorphism (IP markers to analyze genome-wide synteny between the oilseed crop, Brassica juncea (AABB genome and A. thaliana and analyzed the arrangement of 24 (previously described genomic block segments in the A, B and C Brassica genomes to study the evolutionary events contributing to karyotype variations in the three diploid Brassica genomes. Results IP markers were highly efficient and generated easily discernable polymorphisms on agarose gels. Comparative analysis of the segmental organization of the A and B genomes of B. juncea (present study with the A and B genomes of B. napus and B. nigra respectively (described earlier, revealed a high degree of colinearity suggesting minimal macro-level changes after polyploidization. The ancestral block arrangements that remained unaltered during evolution and the karyotype rearrangements that originated in the Oleracea lineage after its divergence from Rapa lineage were identified. Genomic rearrangements leading to the gain or loss of one chromosome each between the A-B and A-C lineages were deciphered. Complete homoeology in terms of block organization was found between three linkage groups (LG each for the A-B and A-C genomes. Based on the homoeology shared between the A, B and C genomes, a new nomenclature for the B genome LGs was assigned to establish uniformity in the international Brassica LG nomenclature code. Conclusion IP markers were highly effective in generating comparative relationships between Arabidopsis and various Brassica species. Comparative genomics between the three Brassica lineages established the major rearrangements

  14. Rape Myth Consistency and Gender Differences in Perceiving Rape Victims: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hockett, Jericho M; Smith, Sara J; Klausing, Cathleen D; Saucier, Donald A

    2016-02-01

    An overview discusses feminist analyses of oppression, attitudes toward rape victims, and previously studied predictors of individuals' attitudes toward rape victims. To better understand such attitudes, this meta-analysis examines the moderating influences of various rape victim, perpetrator, and crime characteristics' rape myth consistency on gender differences in individuals' perceptions of rape victims (i.e., victim responsibility and blame attributions and rape minimizing attitudes). Consistent with feminist theoretical predictions, results indicated that, overall, men perceived rape victims more negatively than women did. However, this sex difference was moderated by the rape myth consistency within the rape vignettes. Implications for research are discussed. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. Attitudes toward Rape and Victims of Rape: A Test of the Feminist Theory in Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boakye, Kofi E.

    2009-01-01

    This study explores the usefulness of the feminist theory in explaining attitudes toward rape and victims of rape in Ghana. The feminist theory of rape posits, inter alia, that patriarchy and gender inequality are major factors in the aetiology of rape and attitudes toward rape and that underlying patriarchy and gender inequality are gender…

  16. Tolerance of Brassica nigra to Pieris brassicae herbivory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blatt, S.E.; Smallegange, R.C.; Hess, L.; Harvey, J.A.; Dicke, M.; Loon, van J.J.A.

    2008-01-01

    Black mustard, Brassica nigra (L.) Koch, is a wild annual species found throughout Europe and fed on by larvae of the large cabbage-white butterfly, Pieris brassicae L. We examined the impact of herbivory from P. brassicae, a gregarious herbivore, on B. nigra grown from wild seed collected locally.

  17. [Rape by 2 assaillants and gang rape in Montreal].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamontagne, Y; Boyer, R; Lamontagne, C; Giroux, J

    1984-11-01

    A survey was conducted in 230 cases of rape and rape attempts heard in the Judicial District of Montreal between January 1975 and May 1978. Data were compiled from the 30 assaults including two or more assaillants. Results show that in cases of rape committed by two men the aggressors are older than gang rapists, meet the victim mainly in her flat or in a bar, and rape her in her own home, in a car or a hotel. In these cases, voyeurism seems to be an important factor since, most of the time, rape is committed by only one of the two aggressors. On the other hand, gang rapists are younger, meet the victim in public places, on the street or when she is hitch-hiking and attack her in one of the aggressors' house, in public places or on the street. Exhibitionism seems more present in this group of rapists. For both groups the victims are mainly single, younger than the aggressors and have diverse occupations. Finally, regarding the legal outcome half of the subjects were liberated or acquitted in both groups. Rape committed by two men had never been studied or compared with gang rape up until now. Results of this survey show dynamic and demographic differences between these two groups of sexual delinquents.

  18. ASD and PTSD in Rape Victims

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elklit, Ask; Christiansen, Dorte M.

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, a number of studies have investigated the prediction of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) through the presence of acute stress disorder (ASD). The predictive power of ASD on PTSD was examined in a population of 148 female rape victims who visited a center for rape victims shortly after the rape or attempted rape. The PTSD…

  19. Cluster Analysis in Rapeseed (Brassica Napus L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahasi, J.M

    2002-01-01

    With widening edible deficit, Kenya has become increasingly dependent on imported edible oils. Many oilseed crops (e.g. sunflower, soya beans, rapeseed/mustard, sesame, groundnuts etc) can be grown in Kenya. But oilseed rape is preferred because it very high yielding (1.5 tons-4.0 tons/ha) with oil content of 42-46%. Other uses include fitting in various cropping systems as; relay/inter crops, rotational crops, trap crops and fodder. It is soft seeded hence oil extraction is relatively easy. The meal is high in protein and very useful in livestock supplementation. Rapeseed can be straight combined using adjusted wheat combines. The priority is to expand domestic oilseed production, hence the need to introduce improved rapeseed germplasm from other countries. The success of any crop improvement programme depends on the extent of genetic diversity in the material. Hence, it is essential to understand the adaptation of introduced genotypes and the similarities if any among them. Evaluation trials were carried out on 17 rapeseed genotypes (nine Canadian origin and eight of European origin) grown at 4 locations namely Endebess, Njoro, Timau and Mau Narok in three years (1992, 1993 and 1994). Results for 1993 were discarded due to severe drought. An analysis of variance was carried out only on seed yields and the treatments were found to be significantly different. Cluster analysis was then carried out on mean seed yields and based on this analysis; only one major group exists within the material. In 1992, varieties 2,3,8 and 9 didn't fall in the same cluster as the rest. Variety 8 was the only one not classified with the rest of the Canadian varieties. Three European varieties (2,3 and 9) were however not classified with the others. In 1994, varieties 10 and 6 didn't fall in the major cluster. Of these two, variety 10 is of Canadian origin. Varieties were more similar in 1994 than 1992 due to favorable weather. It is evident that, genotypes from different geographical

  20. Reflections on researching rape resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullman, Sarah E

    2014-03-01

    This article provides a retrospective account of my experience embarking on research about women's resistance to rape, including reflections on personal and professional experiences related to studying this topic. I discuss factors inspiring my interest, including pioneering feminist rape researchers, my experience as a woman living with the reality and fear of rape, and influential mentors who facilitated my career development as a scholar in graduate school and beyond. I weave this narrative together with my thoughts about how the study of resistance relates to other important issues in the field of sexual assault including alcohol, recovery, and prevention.

  1. Predicting Rape Victim Empathy Based on Rape Victimization and Acknowledgment Labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Suzanne L

    2016-06-01

    Two studies examined rape victim empathy based on personal rape victimization and acknowledgment labeling. Female undergraduates (Study 1, n = 267; Study 2, n = 381) from a Northeast U.S. midsize public university completed the Rape-Victim Empathy Scale and Sexual Experiences Survey. As predicted, both studies found that acknowledged "rape" victims reported greater empathy than unacknowledged victims and nonvictims. Unexpectedly, these latter two groups did not differ. Study 1 also found that acknowledged "rape" victims reported greater empathy than victims who acknowledged being "sexually victimized." Findings suggest that being raped and acknowledging "rape" together may facilitate rape victim empathy. © The Author(s) 2015.

  2. WOMEN ANTI-RAPE BELT

    OpenAIRE

    Sainath B Gadhe; Ganesh Chinchansure; Amar Kumar; Mritunjay Ojha

    2015-01-01

    Rape is fourth most common and frequently happening crime against women in India. Among metro cities, has more number of rape cases and compare to developed countries like Latin America developing countries like India has less number of such incidences, where very good security facilities are provided by government and ratio of education is higher. So it proves that illiteracy or security is not major reason behind such assaults but the unawareness about self-protection and inefficient self-p...

  3. Identification of QTLs for resistance to sclerotinia stem rot and BnaC.IGMT5.a as a candidate gene of the major resistant QTL SRC6 in Brassica napus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Wu

    Full Text Available Stem rot caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum in many important dicotyledonous crops, including oilseed rape (Brassica napus, is one of the most devastating fungal diseases and imposes huge yield loss each year worldwide. Currently, breeding for Sclerotinia resistance in B. napus, as in other crops, can only rely on germplasms with quantitative resistance genes. Thus, the identification of quantitative trait locus (QTL for S. sclerotiorum resistance/tolerance in this crop holds immediate promise for the genetic improvement of the disease resistance. In this study, ten QTLs for stem resistance (SR at the mature plant stage and three QTLs for leaf resistance (LR at the seedling stage in multiple environments were mapped on nine linkage groups (LGs of a whole genome map for B. napus constructed with SSR markers. Two major QTLs, LRA9 on LG A9 and SRC6 on LG C6, were repeatedly detected across all environments and explained 8.54-15.86% and 29.01%-32.61% of the phenotypic variations, respectively. Genotypes containing resistant SRC6 or LRA9 allele showed a significant reduction in disease lesion after pathogen infection. Comparative mapping with Arabidopsis and data mining from previous gene profiling experiments identified that the Arabidopsis homologous gene of IGMT5 (At1g76790 was related to the SRC6 locus. Four copies of the IGMT5 gene in B. napus were isolated through homologous cloning, among which, only BnaC.IGMT5.a showed a polymorphism between parental lines and can be associated with the SRC6. Furthermore, two parental lines exhibited a differential expression pattern of the BnaC.IGMT5.a gene in responding to pathogen inoculation. Thus, our data suggested that BnaC.IGMT5.a was very likely a candidate gene of this major resistance QTL.

  4. EFFECTS OF PLANT NUTRITION ON CANOLA (Brassica napus L. GROWTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sami Süzer

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Canola (Brassica napus L. is an important edible oilseed crop in the World and in Turkey. It has a healthy vegetable oil because of its balance with omega 3-6-9 essential fatty acids, making canola oil a healthy vegetable oil throughout the World for cooking and processed food industry. Canola production of high yield and good quality usually depends on well-balanced plant nutrition and growing conditions. A well-balanced soil condition also affects canola plants responses to stress factors such as disease and bad weather conditions. Nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium (NPK are some of the major nutrients required to significantly increase canola yield. Fertilizer application dosages in canola production vary because of the variable occurrence of NPK in the soil. A high yielding canola production needs a well-balanced fertilization program.

  5. ISLAMIC PERSPECTIVE ON MARITAL RAPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Endriyo Susila

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Marital rape has become a controversial issue in many countries including Indonesia. For the majority of the Indonesian people, it is impossible for rape to take place inside the marriage institution, however some other peoples believe that it possibly occurs. Since it is considered as a kind of rape anyway, those who agree with that concept, insist on the government of Indonesia to qualify marital rape as an offence. This is sounded usually by the human rights activists, especially the feminists. This research is aimed to elaborate the legal position of what so-call marital rape in Islam. As a country whose population is majority Muslim, it can be understood that the development of the Indonesian law is influenced by the Islamic values. This research provide an important reference to deal with the issue of the criminalization of marital rape in Indonesia.Since the research focuses more on the study of legal materials from various sources, it is qualified as a normative legal research. To support the collection of data, interview upon the competent legal experts has also been exercised. The standard of qualification of the legal experts involving in the interview are those who are interested in Islamic Law, especially Islamic Family law as well as Islamic Criminal Law.    Based on the research finding, it is found that the type of the relationship between husband and wife as suggested in Islamic teaching naturaly prevents the what so-call marital rape to occur. It is difficult to imagine the existence of marital rape inside the Muslim familes, since the husband is bound with the obligation to treat her wife well (mu’asyarah bil ma’ruf. In sexual matter, the doctrine of mu’asyarah bil ma’ruf can be applied by respecting the need and the willingness of the wife in sexual matter. Meaning to say, the husband is obliged to fulfill his wife sexual desire in one side, and in the other side he is not allowed to force her wife for sex when she

  6. The first occurrence of stem canker on oilseed rape caused by Leptosphaeria biglobosa in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitrović Petar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In October 2010 the occurrence of the stem canker symptoms in rapeseed was observed at the locality Rimski Šančevi in Serbia. Several strains of fungi were isolated from the stem. Morphological characteristics of the isolates were studied on a PDA medium at 25±1oC: growth rate, colour, shape and appearance of colonies and the edge of the colony, the pigment, size, colour and shape of pycnidiospores and pycnidia in 10 isolates (isolated in Serbia K-111, IK-112, K-113, K-114, K-115, K-116, IK-117, K-118, K-119, and K-120. All tested strains had fast growth, the regular form of colonies and poor sporulation on nutrient medium. Pycnidiospores are unicellular, hyaline, and mostly straight, with or without a drop of oil. Molecular identification was performed by the application the PCR technique using primers PN3/PN10. In addition to these 10 isolates, two reference strains obtained from the Centre for Agricultural Studies, Rothamsted, UK, which are marked with L. m (Leptosphaena maculanS, L. b (Leptosphaeria biglobosa and 7 reference isolates originating from Serbia, which are marked K-7, St-16, GS-25, L-5, C-3, LJ-2, S-1 were used. On the basis of DNA amplification with primers PN3 and PN10 tape length was about 580 bp for isolates (L.b, IK-111, K-112, K-113, K-114, K-115, K-116, K-117, K-118, K-119, K-120 while that was 560 bp for other group of isolates (L.m, K-7, St-16, GS-25, L-5, C-3, LJ- 2, S-1.This study showed that 10 isolates (K-111, K-112, K-113, IK- 114, K-115, K-116, K-117, K-118, K-119, K-120 isolated from the stem of rapeseed belong to the species Leptosphaeria biglobosa.

  7. Wild pollinators enhance oilseed rape yield in small-holder farming systems in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zou, Yi; Xiao, Haijun; Bianchi, Felix J.J.A.; Jauker, Frank; Luo, Shudong; Werf, van der Wopke

    2017-01-01

    Background: Insect pollinators play an important role in crop pollination, but the relative contribution of wild pollinators and honey bees to pollination is currently under debate. There is virtually no information available on the strength of pollination services and the identity of pollination

  8. The Effects of Weather on Oilseed Rape (OSR Yield in China: Future Implications of Climate Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaqin He

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the role of climatic factors on crop yields is essential in predicting the future impact of climate change. In order to understand the influence of climatic factors on OSR, detailed farm-level panel data from 2566 farms across 67 counties of the 6 major OSR production regions in China, from the surveys conducted by the national OSR industry project between 2008 and 2013, were used to examine the contribution of changes in selected climatic variables between 2008 and 2013 to yield variation. Spatial and temporal patterns of the relationships between OSR yield, climatic factors were estimated together with the effects of farmer adaptation and management practices on yield variability. The analysis revealed that yields in the low-latitude production regions were more sensitive to temperature increases and likely to decline. Precipitation iwas the most influential factor on yield at the first two growth stages; temperature and sunshine hours were most important at the third and fourth growth stages, respectively. Labour input was the most influential management factor affecting yields compared with fertilizer and other inputs. The study concludes that projection of future climate change impacts will need inter alia to incorporate more sophisticated and detailed measures of climatic variables than simple means of temperature and precipitation, incorporating timing in relation to plant growth and yield.

  9. The Effects of Weather on Oilseed Rape (OSR) Yield in China: Future Implications of Climate Change

    OpenAIRE

    Yaqin He; Brian J. Revell; Bofeng Leng; Zhongchao Feng

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the role of climatic factors on crop yields is essential in predicting the future impact of climate change. In order to understand the influence of climatic factors on OSR, detailed farm-level panel data from 2566 farms across 67 counties of the 6 major OSR production regions in China, from the surveys conducted by the national OSR industry project between 2008 and 2013, were used to examine the contribution of changes in selected climatic variables between 2008 and 2013 to yiel...

  10. Comparation of the Uptake and Accumulation of Heavy Metals by Rape Species Grown in Contaminated Soil Surrounding Mining Tails in Chenzhou, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YANG Yang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The rape is usually used for phytoremediation of metal-contaminated soils, because it has the characteristics of rapid growth, large biomass, and high potential to tolerate and accumulate large quantities of heavy metals. In this work, accumulation and transformation of Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd in four rape species(B. juncea L.(BJ, Brassica napus L.(BL, Canadian Brassica napus L.(CBL, local rape(LRwere investigated in soils surrounding mine area contaminated by lead-zinc ore tailings in Chenzhou, Hunan Province. The results showed a significantly high accumulation of Cu, Zn and Cd in leaves and roots of four rape species. However, the concentration of Pb in roots of all rape species was usually one or two orders of magnitude than other parts, and the concentration of heavy metals in stems and fruits was lower. The accumulation of heavy metals in leaves parts was in the order: Zn >Cu >Pb >Cd, and in roots was as: Pb >Zn >Cu >Cd; the order of bioconcentration factor(BCFof heavy metals in above-ground parts(leavesof rape species was: Cu: BJ ≥LR >BL >CBL, Zn: BL >CBL >BJ >LR, Pb: BJ≈LR > BL≈CBL, Cd: BL >CBL >BJ >LR; and the order of translocation factor(TFfrom stems to leaves was: Cu: LR >BJ≈CBL >BL,Zn: BL >LR > BJ >CBL, Pb: BJ >CBL≈LR >BL,Cd: BJ >BL >CBL >LR. It indicated there were significant differences among the species. The results of the field experiment suggested that B. juncea L. was suitable for phytoextraction of Cu, Pb contaminated soil, Brassica napus L. could be used to remediate Zn, Cd or heavy metal combined polluted soils.

  11. Rape myth acceptance impacts the reporting of rape to the police: a study of incarcerated women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, Nicole M; Lynch, Shannon M; Fritch, April M; Wong, Maria M

    2013-09-01

    We examined the association between rape myth acceptance (RMA) and reporting rapes to the police. Situational characteristics of the rape (e.g., stranger attack, injury) are known predictors of reporting, but no existing studies have examined the association between beliefs about rape and reporting. In addition, most studies of RMA do not assess victimization history. Incarcerated women experience high rates of sexual assaults prior to incarceration. We recruited 74 rape survivors from a northwestern state prison. Results suggest that women who endorsed higher levels of RMA were less likely to report their rapes to police; however, participants endorsed few rape myths.

  12. Law enforcement officers' perception of rape and rape victims: a multimethod study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mennicke, Annelise; Anderson, Delaney; Oehme, Karen; Kennedy, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    In a study to assess law enforcement officers' perceptions of rape and rape victims, researchers asked 149 law enforcement officers to respond to surveys which included a definition of rape measure, an unfounded rape claims measure, and the Rape Myth Acceptance Scale-Revised (RMA-R) measure. Although most officers scored low on the RMA-R--indicating that they did not adhere to myths about rape--most officers also responded with incomplete definitions of rape and inaccurate estimates of the number of false rape claims. Multivariate analyses indicated that officers' open-ended responses did not predict their scores on the RMA-R scale. It is argued that the RMA-R alone does not accurately measure officers' understanding of rape. Officers need ongoing training on the legal elements of the crime, the necessity of sensitivity with victims, and research-based statistics on the prevalence of rape.

  13. The impact of rape acknowledgment on survivor outcomes: The moderating effects of rape myth acceptance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Laura C; Newins, Amie R; White, Susan W

    2017-11-13

    Little is known about how rape acknowledgment relates to posttrauma functioning; recent research suggests the effect may depend on additional factors. In the current study, the moderating effect of rape myth acceptance (RMA) on the relationships between rape acknowledgment and mental health outcomes was examined. A sample of 181 female rape survivors recruited from a university completed an online survey assessing RMA, rape acknowledgment, depression symptoms, and alcohol use. Generally, the results supported that RMA moderated the influence of rape acknowledgment on depression symptoms and average quantity per drinking episode, but not frequency of alcohol use. The findings demonstrated that when individuals endorsed high levels of RMA, acknowledged rape survivors reported worse outcomes than unacknowledged rape survivors. Among individuals low on RMA, unacknowledged rape survivors reported worse outcomes than acknowledged rape survivors. It is recommended that clinicians recognize the role of survivor beliefs, such as RMA, in the relationship between labeling sexual assault experiences and mental health consequences. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Male Rape Victim and Perpetrator Blaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleath, Emma; Bull, Ray

    2010-01-01

    One of four possible vignettes manipulated by (a) level of rape myth contained within them (low vs. high) and (b) type of rape (stranger vs. acquaintance) was presented to participants followed by scales measuring victim blame, perpetrator blame, belief in a just world, sex-role egalitarian beliefs, and male rape myth acceptance. Victim blaming…

  15. Rape as a fuel crop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gylling Nielsen, C.; Sandager, A.M.; Nielsen, V.; Oestergaard, C.; Poulsen, E.P.; Vaarlid, T.

    1993-01-01

    The European Community has decided to limit the production of excess amounts of corn so that 15% of an agricultural area should lie fallow. Rape can be cultivated on setaside areas and converted to the biofuel rape seed oil methyl ester (ROME). The aim was to discover whether ROME as a fuel pollutes less than diesel oil. The combustion of ROME and light diesel was investigated and compared and the economics of there respective life cycles were considered with emphasis on their pollutive properties. It was concluded that in urban areas the use of ROME produces emissions that are more dangerous to health than those emitted by diesel oil. In addition the use of artificial fertilizers and pesticides which are necessary for the cultivation of rape constitute a further load on the environmental pollutive load. (AHJ) (44 refs.)

  16. Rape myth acceptance and rape acknowledgment: The mediating role of sexual refusal assertiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newins, Amie R; Wilson, Laura C; White, Susan W

    2018-05-01

    Unacknowledged rape, defined as when an individual experiences an event that meets a legal or empirical definition of rape but the individual does not label it as such, is prevalent. Research examining predictors of rape acknowledgment is needed. Sexual assertiveness may be an important variable to consider, as an individual's typical behavior during sexual situations may influence rape acknowledgment. To assess the indirect effect of rape myth acceptance on rape acknowledgment through sexual refusal assertiveness, an online survey of 181 female rape survivors was conducted. The indirect effects of two types of rape myths (He didn't mean to and Rape is a deviant event) were significant and positive. Specifically, acceptance of these two rape myths was negatively related to sexual refusal assertiveness, which was negatively associated with likelihood of rape acknowledgment. The results of this study indicate that sexual refusal assertiveness is associated with lower likelihood of rape acknowledgment among rape survivors. As a result, it appears that, under certain circumstances, women high in rape myth acceptance may be more likely to acknowledge rape when it results in decreased sexual refusal assertiveness. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Preparation of food supplements from oilseed cakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunil, L; Appaiah, Prakruthi; Prasanth Kumar, P K; Gopala Krishna, A G

    2015-05-01

    Oilseed cakes have been in use for feed preparation. Being rich in proteins, antioxidants, fibers, vitamins and minerals, oilseed cakes have been considered ideal for food supplementation. These oilseed cakes can be processed and made more palatable and edible by suitable treatments and then incorporated as food supplements for human consumption. Rice bran pellets (RBP), stabilized rice bran (SRB), coconut cake (CC) and sesame cake (SC) were taken up for the study. These were mixed with distilled water and cooked in such a way to separate the cooked solid residue and liquid extract followed by freeze drying to get two products from each. The raw, cooked dried residue and extract were analyzed for various parameters such as moisture (0.9-27.4 %), fat (2.1-16.1 %), ash (3.3-9.0 %), minerals (2.6-633.2 mg/100 g), total dietary fiber (23.2-58.2 %), crude fiber (2.7-10.5 %), protein (3.2-34.0 %), and the fat further analyzed for fatty acid composition, oryzanol (138-258 mg/100 g) and lignan (99-113 mg/100 g) contents and also evaluated sensory evaluation. Nutritional composition of products as affected by cooking was studied. The cooked products (residue and extract) showed changes in nutrients content and composition from that of the starting cakes and raw materials, but retained more nutrients in cooked residue than in the extract. The sensory evaluation of cooked residue and extract showed overall higher acceptability by the panelists than the starting cakes and raw materials. On the basis of these findings it can be concluded that these cooked residue and extract products are highly valuable for food supplementation than the raw ones.

  18. Women's attitudes toward forcible rape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolor, A

    1978-01-01

    This study assessed the attitudes of women with diverse backgrounds toward possible responses to an attempted sexual assault and also ascertained their beliefs about how society should handle a convicted rapist. Additionally, the role which the personality dimensions of assertiveness and internal-external expectamcy play in shaping attitudes toward rape was investigated. Seventy-seven women and 25 men were administered the Rathus Assertiveness Schedule, the Rotter I-E Scale, and a Rape Inventory. Women relied on a narrow range of options to deal with a rapist's attack, depending mostly on less active modes. They advocated humane approaches be taken with convicted rapists. Personality played only a minor role.

  19. Cultural and legal accounts of rape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández Villanueva, Concepción

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The present paper attempts to show how rape is represented in a variety of historical and contemporary discourses. Examples of rapes in Greek mythology, in the Bible, in medieval iconography, in literature, and in scientific theories, are compared and contrasted. Analysis suggests that such discourses tend to make sexual aggression (and specifically the rape of women legitimate, be it by minimizing the harm done; by normalizing and naturalizing sexual violence; or by aesthetisizing rape as art. Finally, the paper argues that putting modern legal accounts of rape into their historical perspective brings into sharper focus the persistence of ancient myths and discourses

  20. Evidence of an aggregation pheromone in the flea beetle,Phyllotreta Cruciferae (Goeze) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, C; Weiss, M J

    1992-06-01

    Laboratory olfactometer bioassays and field trapping experiments showed that the flea beetle,Phyllotreta cruciferae (Goeze), was highly attracted by oilseed rape(Brassica napus L.) when flea beetles were on the plant. This attraction was mediated by a flea beetle-produced aggregation pheromone based upon: (1) Oilseed rape damaged mechanically, or byP. cruciferae, or by diamondback moth,Plutella xylostella (L.), did not attractP. cruciferae. (2) Contact with the plants or feeding was required for the production of aggregation pheromone because oilseed rape alone was not attractive when separated from flea beetles by a screen. (3) Equal numbers of males and females were attracted.

  1. Could nitrile derivatives of turnip (Brassica rapa) glucosinolates be hepato- or cholangiotoxic in cattle?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collett, Mark G; Stegelmeier, Bryan L; Tapper, Brian A

    2014-07-30

    Turnip (Brassica rapa ssp. rapa) and rape (Brassica napus ssp. biennis) and other brassica forage crops are regarded as "safe" feed for cattle during late summer and fall in the North Island of New Zealand when high Pithomyces chartarum spore counts in pastures frequently lead to sporidesmin toxicity (facial eczema). Sporadic acute severe cases of turnip photosensitization in dairy cows characteristically exhibit high γ-glutamyl transferase and glutamate dehydrogenase serum enzyme activities that mimic those seen in facial eczema. The two diseases can, however, be distinguished by histopathology of the liver, where lesions, in particular those affecting small bile ducts, differ. To date, the hepato-/cholangiotoxic phytochemical causing liver damage in turnip photosensitization in cattle is unknown. Of the hydrolysis products of the various glucosinolate secondary compounds found in high concentrations in turnip and rape, work has shown that nitriles and epithionitriles can be hepatotoxic (and nephro- or pancreatotoxic) in rats. These derivatives include β-hydroxy-thiiranepropanenitrile and 3-hydroxy-4-pentenenitrile from progoitrin; thiiranepropanenitrile and 4-pentenenitrile from gluconapin; thiiranebutanenitrile and 5-hexenenitrile from glucobrassicanapin; phenyl-3-propanenitrile from gluconasturtiin; and indole-3-acetonitrile from glucobrassicin. This perspective explores the possibility of the preferential formation of such derivatives, especially the epithionitriles, in acidic conditions in the bovine rumen, followed by absorption, hepatotoxicity, and secondary photosensitization.

  2. What is a typical rape? Effects of victim and participant gender in female and male rape perception

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Irina

    2007-01-01

    The study had three research aims: (1) to examine the current perception of female rape. Given recent changes in public awareness of female rape, it was predicted that respondents would conceptualise a typical female rape as an acquaintance rape rather than as the stranger rape stereotype; (2) to examine whether these perceptions differ according to respondents’ gender; (3) to examine the ‘cultural lag’ theory of male rape where it was hypothesised that if the public perception of male rape l...

  3. The Psychological Impact of Rape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resick, Patricia A.

    1993-01-01

    Reviews the literature on the psychological impact of rape on adult female victims, and explores typical patterns of recovery, types of symptoms, and variables affecting recovery. Explores moderating and preassault variables, within-assault variables such as acquaintance status and level of violence, and postassault variables such as social…

  4. Negligent Rape and Reasonable Beliefs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Pelle Guldborg

    2008-01-01

    practice such defences are often acknowledged if the belief is reasonable by some general standard, even when this standard does not pertain to the rules currently governing the practice of intercourse in Denmark. As a result it has often been argued that the notion of negligent rape should be introduced...

  5. Impact of Indian Mustard (Brassica juncea and Flax (Linum usitatissimum Seed Meal Applications on Soil Carbon, Nitrogen, and Microbial Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Autumn S. Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a critical need to investigate how land application of dedicated biofuel oilseed meals affects soil ecosystems. In this study, mustard (Brassica juncea and flax (Linum usitatissimum seed meals and sorghum-sudangrass (Sorghum bicolor were added to soil at levels of 0, 1, 2.5, and 5% (w/w. Both the type of amendment and application rate affected soil organic C, total C & N, and C & N mineralization. Mustard meal amendment initially inhibited C mineralization as compared to flax, but >50% of mustard and flax organic C was mineralized within 51 d. Nitrogen mineralization was similar for flax and mustard, except for the 2.5% rate for which a lower proportion of mustard N was converted to nitrate. The mustard meal greatly impacted microbial community composition, appearing to select for specific fungal populations. The potential varying impacts of different oilseed meals on soil ecosystems should be considered when developing recommendations for land application.

  6. Quality of durable cookies enriched with rape bee pollen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Solgajová

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to enrich durable cookies with different additions of rape (Brassica napus var. napus bee pollen to increase nutritional properties of cookie samples and to improve technological and sensorial properties as well. Bee pollen is an important raw material due to its nutritional and functional properties. Cookie samples were prepared by substituting wheat flour with rape bee pollen in the amount of 16 % (1 g of bee pollen per cookie and 32 % (2 g of bee pollen per cookie using bee pollen from two localities Lenártovce and Nové Zámky. In baked samples beside sensory properties also chemical parameters and technological parameters of cookies were evaluated. It was found out that with the gradual addition of rape bee pollen the amount of ash content increased and the highest ash content was analysed in variants II and IV (0.71 and 0.77 % using 32 % addition of rape bee pollen. In terms of reducing sugars, addition of bee pollen caused that the content of reducing sugars in the products increased slightly. The highest reducing sugar content was determined in variant II. (24.59 %. On the other hand amount of crude protein the most considerably raised by addition of 2 g of pollen per cookie. The highest content of crude protein was analysed in variants II and IV (8.72 and 9.00 %. From the results of a linear models in which the dependent variables were the ash, crude protein and moisture it was determined the significant effect (p <0.05 only of the pollen addition. In the case of the model with the dependent variable reducing sugars it was found out significant effect (p<0.0001 of pollen addition and locality and their interactions. With the gradual addition of bee pollen values of technological parameters such as diameter and weight of cookies increased and thickness of products decreased. Based on sensory scores using a 9-point Hedonic scale the best sensorial acceptability (7.4 was found in variant I (1 g of bee

  7. Interpreting Rape: Differences Among Professionals and Non-Professional Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calhoun, Lawrence G.

    Physicians and rape crisis counselors may play important roles in assisting a rape victim; their beliefs and perceptions about rape may influence their treatment of the victim. Physicians (N=10) and volunteer rape counselors (N=44) completed questionnaires focused on demographic characteristics, their experiences with rape victims, and personal…

  8. Child rape: facets of a heinous crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangrade, K D; Sooryamoorthy, R; Renjini, D

    1995-01-01

    This article discusses the extent of child rape in India, case studies of girl children in legal procedures, rape settings and perpetrators, public morality, and the nature of rape laws in India. It is concluded that there is no safe place for children. Currently, rapists are allowed to go free or are acquitted. Prevention and control of child rape must involve punishment of rapists. It is not appropriate that society ostracize the victim and her family. Victims should not remain silent. National Crime Records Bureau statistics reveal increases in rape during 1986-91. State figures are given for 1986-88. Madhya Pradesh had the highest reported incidence of rape in 1988. In 1993, Madhya Pradesh had a total of 2459 rapes. Nationally, 10,425 women were reported as raped in 1991. 51.7% were 16-30 years old. There were 1099 cases of pedophilia in 1991, which was an increase over 1990. Over 50% of the pedophilia cases were reported in Uttar Pradesh. The record of convictions shows very low figures. 1992 trial results of 276 rape cases indicated that only 46 persons were convicted. Victims suffer from psychological effects of embarrassment, disgust, depression, guilt, and even suicidal tendencies. There is police and prosecution indifference as well as social stigma and social ostracism of the victim and her family. Many cases go unreported. The case studies illustrate the difficulties for the victim of experiencing the rape and the social responses: police harassment, shame and fear, and occasionally public outrage. The case studies illustrate rape in familiar settings, such as schools, family homes, and neighbors and friends' homes; rape by policemen; and rape by political influentials. Most offenders are young, married, and socioeconomically poor. Mass media portrayals fuel the frustrations of poor and lonely men in cities. Rapists exhibit anti-social behavior or psychopathology. Sexual offenses are related to society's moral values.

  9. Mycoflora and mycotoxin production in oilseed cakes during farm storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanier, Caroline; Heutte, Natacha; Richard, Estelle; Bouchart, Valerie; Lebailly, Pierre; Garon, David

    2009-02-25

    Agricultural activities involve the use of oilseed cakes as a source of proteins for livestock. Because the storage of oilseed cakes could induce the development of molds and the production of mycotoxins, a survey was conducted during the 5 months of farm storage. Mycoflora was studied by microscopic examinations, and the presence of Aspergillus fumigatus was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction. A multimycotoxin method was developed to quantify seven mycotoxins (aflatoxin B(1), alternariol, fumonisin B(1), gliotoxin, ochratoxin A, T-2 toxin, and zearalenone) in oilseed cakes by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. Among 34 fungal species identified, A. fumigatus and Aspergillus repens were observed during 5 and 4 months, respectively. Gliotoxin, an immunosuppressive mycotoxin, was quantified in oilseed cakes up to 45 microg/kg, which was associated with the presence of toxigenic isolates of A. fumigatus.

  10. The globalization of international oilseeds trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mittaine Jean-François

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In a globalised world, the trade of goods and services constitute the heart of the economic system. But the trade patterns may show extreme diversity depending upon the nature of the concerned products. The technical and functional constraints do impose their laws, particularly when they relate to biological products/commodities. The term globalization is generally used to describe a complex process of international integration. When referring to oilseeds, the term must also relate to agriculture and human nutritional requirements for a rising human population spread all over the world, particularly in large urban environment. With an annual harvest of about 450 Mn T, oilseeds are naturally “globalized” in their production patterns. The complexity of their production schemes associated with the diversity of their usage on widespread geographical regions gives this group of commodities a unique role on the world markets. This process of opened trade channels has enabled the sector to meet the supply requirements of a quickly rising demand coming from both the population and all the industrial usages including alternative “green” energy. However, for the time being, demand growth has not been fully counter-balanced by production growth. As a consequence, unless some strict reallocation of acreage is effectively organized or new high yielding technologies are developed, it is a fact that vegetable oil will keep a strong demand base for a long time, compounded by the mechanical demand from economic growth in highly populated emerging economies. The balancing of supply and demand is expected to remain a tight exercise every year. At the end of the day, the future of the entire industry largely lies in technology because the final stake is to ensure the proper feeding of a 9 billion people population in a not too far future.

  11. Colorless chlorophyll catabolites in senescent florets of broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roiser, Matthias H; Müller, Thomas; Kräutler, Bernhard

    2015-02-11

    Typical postharvest storage of broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) causes degreening of this common vegetable with visible loss of chlorophyll (Chl). As shown here, colorless Chl-catabolites are generated. In fresh extracts of degreening florets of broccoli, three colorless tetrapyrrolic Chl-catabolites accumulated and were detected by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC): two "nonfluorescent" Chl-catabolites (NCCs), provisionally named Bo-NCC-1 and Bo-NCC-2, and a colorless 1,19-dioxobilin-type "nonfluorescent" Chl-catabolite (DNCC), named Bo-DNCC. Analysis by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and mass spectrometry of these three linear tetrapyrroles revealed their structures. In combination with a comparison of their HPL-chromatographic properties, this allowed their identification with three known catabolites from two other brassicacea, namely two NCCs from oil seed rape (Brassica napus) and a DNCC from degreened leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana.

  12. Green solvents and technologies for oil extraction from oilseeds

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, S. P. Jeevan; Prasad, S. Rajendra; Banerjee, Rintu; Agarwal, Dinesh K.; Kulkarni, Kalyani S.; Ramesh, K. V.

    2017-01-01

    Oilseeds are crucial for the nutritional security of the global population. The conventional technology used for oil extraction from oilseeds is by solvent extraction. In solvent extraction, n-hexane is used as a solvent for its attributes such as simple recovery, non-polar nature, low latent heat of vaporization (330?kJ/kg) and high selectivity to solvents. However, usage of hexane as a solvent has lead to several repercussions such as air pollution, toxicity and harmfulness that prompted to...

  13. War rape, natality and genocide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schott, Robin May

    2011-01-01

    Feminist philosophy can make an important contribution to the field of genocide studies, and issues relating to gender and war are gaining new attention. In this article I trace legal and philosophical analyses of sexual violence against women in war. I analyze the strengths and limitations of the concept of social death—introduced into this field by Claudia Card—for understanding the genocidal features of war rape, and draw on the work of Hannah Arendt to understand the central harm of genocide as an assault on natality. The threat to natality posed by the harms of rape, forced pregnancy and forced maternity lie in the potential expulsion from the public world of certain groups—including women who are victims, members of the 'enemy' group, and children born of forced birth.

  14. Spousal rape: A challenge for pastoral counsellors

    OpenAIRE

    James A. Glanville; Yolanda Dreyer

    2013-01-01

    This article reflects on the criticism regarding the pastoral counsellor’s dealings with spousal rape victims. It argues that counsellors should be sensitive not to be biased, either personally or theologically, and should have an understanding of the biopsychosocial (biological, psychological and social) impact of spousal rape, such as rape-related post-traumatic stress and other related illnesses such as depression, victimisation and stigmatisation. The pastoral counsellors should be awar...

  15. Brassica ASTRA: an integrated database for Brassica genomic research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Christopher G; Robinson, Andrew J; Lim, Geraldine A C; Hopkins, Clare J; Batley, Jacqueline; Barker, Gary; Spangenberg, German C; Edwards, David

    2005-01-01

    Brassica ASTRA is a public database for genomic information on Brassica species. The database incorporates expressed sequences with Swiss-Prot and GenBank comparative sequence annotation as well as secondary Gene Ontology (GO) annotation derived from the comparison with Arabidopsis TAIR GO annotations. Simple sequence repeat molecular markers are identified within resident sequences and mapped onto the closely related Arabidopsis genome sequence. Bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) end sequences derived from the Multinational Brassica Genome Project are also mapped onto the Arabidopsis genome sequence enabling users to identify candidate Brassica BACs corresponding to syntenic regions of Arabidopsis. This information is maintained in a MySQL database with a web interface providing the primary means of interrogation. The database is accessible at http://hornbill.cspp.latrobe.edu.au.

  16. The Geography of Rape: Rape Victims in Urban and Rural Communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Louise Hjort

    Little is known from research about barriers to seeking and receiving help following domestic violence, rape, attempted rape, and sexual assault in Denmark. This study examined possible regional differences in reporting rape and sexual assault in urban and rural communities in a large region...

  17. Reduction of greenhouse gas emissions in the rape cultivation with special consideration of nitrogen fertilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heilmann, Hubert; Riemer, Doerte

    2017-01-01

    Involved into the research project ''Mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions in oilseed rape cropping with special consideration of nitrogen fertilizing'' regional specific GHG cropping emissions according to benchmark and regional experts are calculated by using a calculation method developed in cooperation with IFEU and according to IPCC (2006). The following results are achieved for 35 German NUTS2-regions: - nitrogen fertilization is the main influence for GHG emission reduction; - the use of low-emission nitrogen fertilizers is worth for GHG emission reduction; - without increasing the nutrient efficiency of organic fertilizers, GHG emission reductions are difficult to achieve in many regions; - GHG emission reduction/climate protection and realization of the WRRL or N-Saldo reduction come up to the same aim; - economic consequences of restrictive carbon mitigation can be compensated by slight price surcharges for certified raw material.

  18. Rape: psychopathology, theory and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gannon, Theresa A; Collie, Rachael M; Ward, Tony; Thakker, Jo

    2008-07-01

    Whether treatment programs are effective at rehabilitating rapists is yet to be determined empirically. From a scientist-practitioner perspective, treatment should be based on an empirical understanding of rape and rapists, and evidence-based knowledge of treatment outcome with rapists. In this paper we comprehensively review the characteristics of rapists, etiological features implicated in the commission of rape, and relevant treatment outcome research. We pay particular attention to contemporary knowledge about the core vulnerabilities and features required to understand and treat rapists effectively, and, where possible, highlight similarities and differences between rapists, child molesters and non-sexual violent offenders. We use an epistemological framework to (a) critique the various etiological accounts of rape available and (b) help guide professionals' use of such knowledge in both treatment design and evaluation. Gaps in the understanding of rapists' characteristics and etiological features are highlighted, as are discrepancies between current knowledge and treatment approaches. We conclude by highlighting areas for future research and practice innovation.

  19. High-throughput multiplex cpDNA resequencing clarifies the genetic diversity and genetic relationships among Brassica napus, Brassica rapa and Brassica oleracea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Jiangwei; Cai, Mengxian; Yan, Guixin; Wang, Nian; Li, Feng; Chen, Binyun; Gao, Guizhen; Xu, Kun; Li, Jun; Wu, Xiaoming

    2016-01-01

    Brassica napus (rapeseed) is a recent allotetraploid plant and the second most important oilseed crop worldwide. The origin of B. napus and the genetic relationships with its diploid ancestor species remain largely unresolved. Here, chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) from 488 B. napus accessions of global origin, 139 B. rapa accessions and 49 B. oleracea accessions were populationally resequenced using Illumina Solexa sequencing technologies. The intraspecific cpDNA variants and their allelic frequencies were called genomewide and further validated via EcoTILLING analyses of the rpo region. The cpDNA of the current global B. napus population comprises more than 400 variants (SNPs and short InDels) and maintains one predominant haplotype (Bncp1). Whole-genome resequencing of the cpDNA of Bncp1 haplotype eliminated its direct inheritance from any accession of the B. rapa or B. oleracea species. The distribution of the polymorphism information content (PIC) values for each variant demonstrated that B. napus has much lower cpDNA diversity than B. rapa; however, a vast majority of the wild and cultivated B. oleracea specimens appeared to share one same distinct cpDNA haplotype, in contrast to its wild C-genome relatives. This finding suggests that the cpDNA of the three Brassica species is well differentiated. The predominant B. napus cpDNA haplotype may have originated from uninvestigated relatives or from interactions between cpDNA mutations and natural/artificial selection during speciation and evolution. These exhaustive data on variation in cpDNA would provide fundamental data for research on cpDNA and chloroplasts. © 2015 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. ANALYSIS OF SLG GENE – THE MOLECULAR MARKER IN HYBRID BREEDING OF OIL SEED RAPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L DOLANSKÁ

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Oil seed rape (Brassica napus L. cultivars, donors of quality (SC and self-incompatible (SI lines have been analysed using identification of S-locus. In several Brassica napus cultivars one S-locus SLG gene was detected as dominant and the second S-locus as recessive. Amplification class II SLG gene screened recessive gene in all analysed samples (SC and SI. The DNA fragment of recessive gene corresponded to SLG gene W found in cv. Westar. S-haplotypes were analysed by PCR-RFLP. Different Brassica napus cultivars had an identical electrophoretic profile conforming with nonfunctional A10 allele in B. campestris. In B. napus A10 allele is localised in genome A. The functional recessive SLG gene is probably localised in genome C. Model of their segregation was suggested. SC and SI plants segregated in F2 generation at the ratio of approximately 3:1. This indicates a recessive monogenic disposition of SI in the experimental population.

  1. Oilseed Meal Effects on the Emergence and Survival of Crop and Weed Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie L. Rothlisberger

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Oilseed crops are being widely evaluated for potential biodiesel production. Seed meal (SM remaining after extracting oil may have use as bioherbicides or organic fertilizers. Brassicaceae SM often contains glucosinolates that hydrolyze into biologically active compounds that may inhibit various pests. Jatropha curcas SM contains curcin, a phytoxin. A 14-day greenhouse study determined that Sinapis alba (white mustard, Brassica juncea (Indian mustard, Camelina sativa, and Jatropha curcas applied to soil at varying application rates [0, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.5% (w/w] and incubation times (1, 7, and 14 d prior to planting affected seed emergence and seedling survival of cotton [Gossypium hirsutum (L.], sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench], johnsongrass (Sorghum halepense, and redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus. With each species, emergence and survival was most decreased by 2.5% SM application applied at 1 and 7 d incubations. White mustard SM incubated for 1 d applied at low and high rates had similar negative effects on johnsongrass seedlings. Redroot pigweed seedling survival was generally most decreased by all 2.5% SM applications. Based on significant effects determined by ANOVA, results suggested that the type, rate, and timing of SM application should be considered before land-applying SMs in cropping systems.

  2. Uptake of 3HHO and 32P by roots of wheat and rape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bole, J.B.

    1977-01-01

    Direct measurements were made of 3 HHO and 32 P taken up from labelled soil by roots of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and rape (Brassica campestris L.). Single roots were encased in labelled soil for 3 days, and the amount of 3 HHO and 32 P retained in the shoots was determined. Plants were grown to five stages of maturity in growth boxes under controlled conditions. Roots were labelled at up to four depths (to 90 cm) depending on the rooting depth at each stage of maturity. Uptake of 3 HHP per unit length of root increased as the plant age increased, while uptake of 32 P decreased to below detection levels by 45 days after germination. Larger amounts of both nutrients were translocated to and retained in the shoots from surface roots than from roots located deeper in the soil although the soil was uniform in temperature, bulk density, and composition through the growth boxes. Wheat roots were more efficient than rape roots in absorbing 3 HHO; however, rape roots took up larger amounts of 32 P per unit length of root. Neither native nor added P located more than 30 cm deep is of much importance to these annual crops, since uptake is minimal and the main demand for this nutrient occurs at early growth stages when the root system is restricted to the surface layers

  3. Tuning growth cycles of Brassica crops via natural antisense transcripts of BrFLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaorong; Zhang, Shaofeng; Bai, Jinjuan; He, Yuke

    2016-03-01

    Several oilseed and vegetable crops of Brassica are biennials that require a prolonged winter cold for flowering, a process called vernalization. FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC) is a central repressor of flowering. Here, we report that the overexpression of natural antisense transcripts (NATs) of Brassica rapa FLC (BrFLC) greatly shortens plant growth cycles. In rapid-, medium- and slow-cycling crop types, there are four copies of the BrFLC genes, which show extensive variation in sequences and expression levels. In Bre, a biennial crop type that requires vernalization, five NATs derived from the BrFLC2 locus are rapidly induced under cold conditions, while all four BrFLC genes are gradually down-regulated. The transgenic Bre lines overexpressing a long NAT of BrFLC2 do not require vernalization, resulting in a gradient of shortened growth cycles. Among them, a subset of lines both flower and set seeds as early as Yellow sarson, an annual crop type in which all four BrFLC genes have non-sense mutations and are nonfunctional in flowering repression. Our results demonstrate that the growth cycles of biennial crops of Brassica can be altered by changing the expression levels of BrFLC2 NATs. Thus, BrFLC2 NATs and their transgenic lines are useful for the genetic manipulation of crop growth cycles. © 2015 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Ecological audit of rape seed oil or rape methyl ester as a substitute for diesel fuel (ecological audit rape seed oil)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedrich, A.; Glante, F.; Schlueter, C.; Golz, C.; Noeh, I.; Reinhard, G.; Hoepfner, U.; Satorius, R.; Benndorf, R.; Bluemel, H.; Schaerer, B.; Rodt, S.

    1993-01-01

    The objective of this study is to answer the following central question: Is the environmental pollution burden resulting from the cultivation of rape and the use of rape seed oil or rape methyl ester to be rated less severe than that of the manufacture and use of diesel fuel, and should, therefore, farmland be used in Germany to grow rape for rape seed oil or rape methyl ester production as a substitute for diesel fuel? Firstly, the extent is investigated to which rape seed oil or rape methyl ester can contribute to cuts in emissions of climate-relevant trace gases as compared to diesel fuel from crude oil. Secondly, the environmental impact and hazards associated with the cultivation, transport and manufacture of rape seed oil or rape methyl ester (again as compared to diesel fuel) are investigated. The data analysed relate to the entire life cycle. (orig./UWA) [de

  5. Religious Affiliation, Religiosity, Gender, and Rape Myth Acceptance: Feminist Theory and Rape Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Michael D; Sligar, Kylie B; Wang, Chiachih D C

    2018-04-01

    Rape myths are false beliefs about rape, rape victims, and rapists, often prejudicial and stereotypical. Guided by feminist theory and available empirical research, this study aimed to examine the influences of gender, religious affiliation, and religiosity on rape myth acceptance of U.S. emerging adults. A sample of 653 university students aged 18 to 30 years were recruited from a large public university in the southern United States to complete the research questionnaires. Results indicated that individuals who identified as Roman Catholic or Protestant endorsed higher levels of rape myth acceptance than their atheist or agnostic counterparts. Men were found more likely to ascribe to rape myths than their female counterparts. Religiosity was positively associated with rape myth acceptance, even after controlling the effect of conservative political ideology. No significant interaction was found between gender and religious affiliation or gender and religiosity. Limitations, future research directions, and implications of the findings are discussed from the perspective of feminist theory.

  6. Fear of rape from behind prison walls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shermer, Lauren O'Neill; Sudo, Heather

    2017-06-12

    Purpose The Prison Rape Elimination Act has brought significant attention to the issue of sexual victimization within correctional institutions. While the actual risk of sexual victimization remains low, the perception of rape among inmates is high. Given how one's fear can translate into behavior, understanding how institutions impact the culture surrounding prison rape highlights areas for reducing violence within prisons. The paper aims to discuss these issues. Design/methodology/approach This study includes secondary analysis of a quantitative database created from semi-structured interviews with 564 high security, general population inmates. Using fear of rape as the outcome of interest, bivariate and logistic regression analyses are used to comment on the impact of individual and facility level characteristics on this outcome. Findings In general, the results from this study suggest that the greatest risk factors for fearing rape while in prison are being male, having a mental health issue, and hearing about rape within the institution. From these specific findings a few general lessons can be learned with the hope that practitioners can translate these lessons into policy initiatives in order to combat fear of rape among our inmate population. Originality/value This paper aims to fill a gap in the research on how the facility contributes to the fear of rape within prison. The end goal is to inform policy makers so that suggestions can be made to combat this problem and prevent further misconduct within these facilities.

  7. Rape avoidance behavior among Slovak women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokop, Pavol

    2013-05-28

    Rape has been a recurrent adaptive problem for many species, including humans. Rape is costly to women in terms of disease transmission, partner abandonment, and unwanted pregnancy (among other costs). Therefore, behavioral strategies which allow women to avoid coercive men may have been favored by selection. In line with this evolutionary reasoning, the current research documented that physically stronger women and those in a committed romantic relationship reported more rape avoidance behavior. In addition, virgin women tended to perform more rape avoidance behavior compared with their non-virgin counterparts. Women with high conception risk perceived themselves as physically stronger, which may protect them against a potential rapist. Fear of unwanted pregnancy from rape decreased as age increased, reflecting higher fertility among younger participants. However, older women reported more rape avoidance behavior, which contradicts evolutionary predictions. The results provide some support for evolutionary hypotheses of rape avoidance behavior which suggest that woman's perception of rape is influenced by parental investment and perceived physical condition.

  8. Psychobiological correlates of rape in female adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bicanic, I.A.E.

    2014-01-01

    A considerable percentage of youth in the Netherlands has been victimized by rape during adolescence. The present research shows that adolescence rape is correlated with high levels of psychological distress, neurobiological dysregulations and increased risk for problems with sexual and pelvic floor

  9. ASD and PTSD in Rape Victims

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elklit, Ask; Christiansen, Dorte M

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, a number of studies have investigated the prediction of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) through the presence of acute stress disorder (ASD). The predictive power of ASD on PTSD was examined in a population of 148 female rape victims who visited a center for rape victims...... shortly after the rape or attempted rape. The PTSD diagnosis based solely on the three core symptom clusters was best identified by a subclinical ASD diagnosis based on all ASD criteria except dissociation. However, a full PTSD diagnosis including the A2 and F criteria was best identified by classifying...... on ASD severity and sexual problems following the rape accounted for only 28% of the PTSD severity variance. In conclusion, the ASD diagnosis is not an optimal method for identifying those most at risk for PTSD. It remains to be seen whether a better way can be found....

  10. Analysis of oilseed of Halophytic species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parto Roshandel

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Seeds of Atriplex griffithii, Haloxylon ammodendron, Salicornia europaea and Salsola yazdiana were analyzed to determine their potential as sources of edible oil. The quantity of total oil varied from 13.8% in Atriplex griffithii to 20.9% in H. ammodendron. The proportion of unsaturated fatty acids were higher (62-73.8%, with the highest values of α-linoleic acid (18.6%, linoleic acid (28.6% and oleic acid (19.7% in the seeds of A. griffithii, H. ammodendron and S. europaea, respectively. Results of physicochemical evaluation of the extracted oils ranged as follows: iodine values, 99.8-106.5 (g I2/100 g; saponification value, 188-283 (mg KOH/1g of oil; peroxide value, 9-13 (meq./kg and refractive index, 1.4750- 1.4761. Amongst these oilseeds, S. europaea (containing 73.8% unsaturated fatty acids but not erucic acid was the highest in quality for human consumption followed by H. ammodendron.

  11. Mutation breeding of rape by using proton ion beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eun, J. S.; Chang, Y. S.; Han, S. G.; Choi, S. R.; Kim, J. S.

    2006-04-01

    This experiment was carried out by irradiation the proton ion beam and gamma-ray at level 100 to 2,000 Gy on dry seeds of 3 varieties, 'Naehan', 'Hanla' and 'Tammi' to increase the cultivation area and develope for biodiesel in rape (Brassica napus) and checked the radiosensitivity test including germination rate, emergence rate and chromosome aberration and the occurrence of morphological mutant in M1 generation. The germination rate and emergence rate were 98∼100% because they had no relation with radiation source, dosage and variety. There was no significance in survival rate up to 1,000 Gy dosage after sowing of 7 days and remarkably reduced from 39.5 to 69.6% at 1,500 to 2,000 Gy dosage. The length and area of cotyledon, and hypocotyl length were highly reduced with significance by increasing dosage of proton ion and gamma-irradiation in all 3 varieties and showed the sensitive responses on 'Naehan', 'Hanla' and 'Tammi' in order. By the way, there was a radiation hormesis in 'Tammi' by increasing the length and area of cotyledon in the proton ion treatment at 100∼200 Gy dosage compared to the control (no treatment). With the same effect, it had the similar results in the fresh weight of above-aerial parts in 3∼4 weeks after sowing

  12. A review on the challenges for the increased production of oilseeds ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents the trends of production, utilization and export of oilseeds and import of vegetable oils; available technologies and the prospects of increasing oilseeds production in Ethiopia. The oilseed industry is faced with enormous and multidimensional challenges that brought both treats and opportunities.

  13. Detecting the True Nature of Allegations of Rape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Zutter, André; Horselenberg, Robert; van Koppen, Peter J.

    2017-01-01

    A study was conducted to test whether it is possible to build a model to distinguish true and false allegations of rape based on the theory of fabricated rape. The theory is based on the principle that a false complainant of rape has not been raped and has to fabricate a story while the story of a

  14. Selection during crop diversification involves correlated evolution of the circadian clock and ecophysiological traits in Brassica rapa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarkhunova, Yulia; Edwards, Christine E; Ewers, Brent E; Baker, Robert L; Aston, Timothy Llewellyn; McClung, C Robertson; Lou, Ping; Weinig, Cynthia

    2016-04-01

    Crop selection often leads to dramatic morphological diversification, in which allocation to the harvestable component increases. Shifts in allocation are predicted to impact (as well as rely on) physiological traits; yet, little is known about the evolution of gas exchange and related anatomical features during crop diversification. In Brassica rapa, we tested for physiological differentiation among three crop morphotypes (leaf, turnip, and oilseed) and for correlated evolution of circadian, gas exchange, and phenological traits. We also examined internal and surficial leaf anatomical features and biochemical limits to photosynthesis. Crop types differed in gas exchange; oilseed varieties had higher net carbon assimilation and stomatal conductance relative to vegetable types. Phylogenetically independent contrasts indicated correlated evolution between circadian traits and both gas exchange and biomass accumulation; shifts to shorter circadian period (closer to 24 h) between phylogenetic nodes are associated with higher stomatal conductance, lower photosynthetic rate (when CO2 supply is factored out), and lower biomass accumulation. Crop type differences in gas exchange are also associated with stomatal density, epidermal thickness, numbers of palisade layers, and biochemical limits to photosynthesis. Brassica crop diversification involves correlated evolution of circadian and physiological traits, which is potentially relevant to understanding mechanistic targets for crop improvement. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  15. Present and future instances of virtual rape in light of three categories of legal philosophical theories on rape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strikwerda, Litska

    2015-01-01

    This paper is about the question of whether or not virtual rape should be considered a crime under current law. A virtual rape is the rape of an avatar (a person’s virtual representation) in a virtual world. In the future, possibilities for virtual rape of a person him- or herself will arise in

  16. Understanding Attribution of Blame in Cases of Rape: An Analysis of Participant Gender, Type of Rape and Perceived Similarity to the Victim

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubb, Amy Rose; Harrower, Julie

    2009-01-01

    This study examined a variety of factors that may influence attributions towards rape victims. A total of 156 participants completed a questionnaire, which included a measure of attitudes towards rape victims and a vignette depicting one of three rape scenarios (a stranger rape, date rape and seduction rape). Participants rated the extent to which…

  17. Spousal rape: A challenge for pastoral counsellors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A. Glanville

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article reflects on the criticism regarding the pastoral counsellor’s dealings with spousal rape victims. It argues that counsellors should be sensitive not to be biased, either personally or theologically, and should have an understanding of the biopsychosocial (biological, psychological and social impact of spousal rape, such as rape-related post-traumatic stress and other related illnesses such as depression, victimisation and stigmatisation. The pastoral counsellors should be aware of the legal and medical ramifications of spousal rape and have knowledge of the correct referral resources and procedures (trusted professionals, shelters and support structures. They should be self-aware and understand the effect that gender or previous traumatic personal experiences may have on their reactions. The article consists of the following sections: the phenomenon ‘rape’; acquaintance rape; spousal rape; post-traumatic stress; post-traumatic stress disorder; rape trauma syndrome; cognitive behavioural therapy; spirituality; doctrinal matters; social system of patriarchy; a pastoral counselling model; self-care.

  18. Spousal rape: A challenge for pastoral counsellors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A. Glanville

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article reflects on the criticism regarding the pastoral counsellor’s dealings with spousal rape victims. It argues that counsellors should be sensitive not to be biased, either personally or theologically, and should have an understanding of the biopsychosocial (biological, psychological and social impact of spousal rape, such as rape-related post-traumatic stress and other related illnesses such as depression, victimisation and stigmatisation. The pastoral counsellors should be aware of the legal and medical ramifications of spousal rape and have knowledge of the correct referral resources and procedures (trusted professionals, shelters and support structures. They should be self-aware and understand the effect that gender or previous traumatic personal experiences may have on their reactions. The article consists of the following sections: the phenomenon ‘rape’; acquaintance rape; spousal rape; post-traumatic stress; post-traumatic stress disorder; rape trauma syndrome; cognitive behavioural therapy; spirituality; doctrinal matters; social system of patriarchy; a pastoral counselling model; self-care.

  19. Phenolic Compounds in Brassica Vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Velasco

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic compounds are a large group of phytochemicals widespread in the plant kingdom. Depending on their structure they can be classified into simple phenols, phenolic acids, hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives and flavonoids. Phenolic compounds have received considerable attention for being potentially protective factors against cancer and heart diseases, in part because of their potent antioxidative properties and their ubiquity in a wide range of commonly consumed foods of plant origin. The Brassicaceae family includes a wide range of horticultural crops, some of them with economic significance and extensively used in the diet throughout the world. The phenolic composition of Brassica vegetables has been recently investigated and, nowadays, the profile of different Brassica species is well established. Here, we review the significance of phenolic compounds as a source of beneficial compounds for human health and the influence of environmental conditions and processing mechanisms on the phenolic composition of Brassica vegetables.

  20. Electrophoretic studies on rape seed proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudry, M.A.; Starr, A.; Bibi, N.

    1992-07-01

    Electrophoresis is a technique which separates biological molecules on the basis of charge and mass properties. The technique is used for separation, purification, characterization and identification of molecules/ compounds. Two major objectives for applications of electrophoresis have been studied in this report i.e. characterization of rape seed proteins and enzymes and identification of rape seed cultivars by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). Gamma irradiation is being successfully used to create genetic variability and germination which brought about definite changes in the rape seed proteins reflected in different bands. These differences could be used to study variability in crop plants. (A.B.)

  1. A survey of brassica vegetable smallholder farmers in the Gauteng and Limpopo provinces of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Mandiriza-Mukwirimba

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A study was taken to investigate the types of brassica vegetables mostly grown by smallholder farmers in two provinces of South Africa. Thirty-one smallholder vegetable farmers in the Gauteng province and Waterberg district in the Limpopo province were surveyed. In addition, the study also sought to establish the common diseases, the management strategies used and problems encountered by the farmers. Farmers were interviewed using a questionnaire with closed and open–ended questions. The results indicated that the smallholder farmers mostly grew cabbage (93.6% as their main brassica crop followed by rape (41.2%. Thirty percent of farmers could not identify or name the predominant disease/s encountered in their fields. Major diseases encountered by farmers surveyed were an unknown disease/s (33.3%, black rot (26.7%, Alternaria leaf spot (6.7% and white rust (6.7%. Smallholder farmers have inadequate technical information available especially relating to crop diseases, their identification and control. Farmers encountered challenges with black rot disease especially on cabbage, rape and kale and the disease was a problem during winter and summer. Generally, the smallholder farmers used crop rotation (74.2% as a major practice to manage the diseases experienced. They rotated their brassica vegetables with other crops/vegetables like tomatoes, onions, beetroots and maize. Most of the farmers interviewed (61.3% did not use chemicals to control diseases, whereas 38.7% of them used chemicals. This was mostly because they lacked information and knowledge, high costs associated with use of chemical fungicides and some were shifting towards organic farming. From the study it was noted that there was a need for technical support to improve farmers’ knowledge on disease identification and control within the surveyed areas.

  2. Estimation and change tendency of rape straw resource in Leshan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Qinlan; Gong, Mingfu

    2018-04-01

    Rape straw in Leshan area are rape stalks, including stems, leaves and pods after removing rapeseed. Leshan area is one of the main rape planting areas in Sichuan Province and rape planting area is large. Each year will produce a lot of rape straw. Based on the analysis of the trend of rapeseed planting area and rapeseed yield from 2008 to 2014, the change trend of rape straw resources in Leshan from 2008 to 2014 was analyzed and the decision-making reference was provided for resource utilization of rape straw. The results showed that the amount of rape straw resources in Leshan was very large, which was more than 100,000 tons per year, which was increasing year by year. By 2014, the amount of rape straw resources in Leshan was close to 200,000 tons.

  3. The Edible Oil and Oilseeds Value Chain in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Mandefro (Fenta); S. Drost (Sarah); J.C.A.C. van Wijk (Jeroen)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThis report investigates the dynamics of a multi-stakeholder platform (named: Coordination Group, or CG) for stakeholders of the oilseeds and edible oil value chains in Ethiopia. The CG was initiated by the Dutch development organisation SNV in 2005 as part of a broader programme to

  4. The global market for oilseeds: prospects and challenges for Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gosselet Nathalie

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The global market for oilseeds, grains, vegetable oil and oilseed meal is a complex market which is growing at a very fast pace, and which is characterized by the large volume of production which is traded between countries. Offer is geographically constrained in this market: there are few exporting countries and these are mainly situated on the American continent. Demand on the other hand is more widespread, although highest in Asiatic countries, China in particular. As a result, small importing countries, like Morocco, are in a vulnerable position, and take the full brunt of price volatility. In the 90s, Moroccan oilseed production was relatively high, unfortunately production dropped over the years, and Morocco must now buy vegetable oil and proteins on the global market. Reviving oilseed production in Morocco would considerably help the country and provide numerous benefits, such as food security, improving the country’s trade balance, and enhancing the agronomic management of land thanks to the introduction of break crops. Finally, it would also boost the entire agricultural sector and help increase the income of farmers.

  5. Sesame: the Underexploited Organic Oilseed Crop | Olowe | Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) is an important oilseed crop that ranks sixth among vegetable oils worldwide. Asia and Africa respectively account for 2.55 and 0.95 of the 3.66 million tons produced worldwide. However, Africa's net export of the commodity is just 38% of its production, despite the fact that the Continent has ...

  6. Green solvents and technologies for oil extraction from oilseeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, S P Jeevan; Prasad, S Rajendra; Banerjee, Rintu; Agarwal, Dinesh K; Kulkarni, Kalyani S; Ramesh, K V

    2017-01-01

    Oilseeds are crucial for the nutritional security of the global population. The conventional technology used for oil extraction from oilseeds is by solvent extraction. In solvent extraction, n -hexane is used as a solvent for its attributes such as simple recovery, non-polar nature, low latent heat of vaporization (330 kJ/kg) and high selectivity to solvents. However, usage of hexane as a solvent has lead to several repercussions such as air pollution, toxicity and harmfulness that prompted to look for alternative options. To circumvent the problem, green solvents could be a promising approach to replace solvent extraction. In this review, green solvents and technology like aqueous assisted enzyme extraction are better solution for oil extraction from oilseeds. Enzyme mediated extraction is eco-friendly, can obtain higher yields, cost-effective and aids in obtaining co-products without any damage. Enzyme technology has great potential for oil extraction in oilseed industry. Similarly, green solvents such as terpenes and ionic liquids have tremendous solvent properties that enable to extract the oil in eco-friendly manner. These green solvents and technologies are considered green owing to the attributes of energy reduction, eco-friendliness, non-toxicity and non-harmfulness. Hence, the review is mainly focussed on the prospects and challenges of green solvents and technology as the best option to replace the conventional methods without compromising the quality of the extracted products.

  7. The Effects of Rape Residue Mulching on Net Global Warming Potential and Greenhouse Gas Intensity from No-Tillage Paddy Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhi-Sheng; Cao, Cou-Gui; Guo, Li-Jin; Li, Cheng-Fang

    2014-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted to provide a complete greenhouse gas (GHG) accounting for global warming potential (GWP), net GWP, and greenhouse gas intensity (GHGI) from no-tillage (NT) paddy fields with different amounts of oilseed rape residue mulch (0, 3000, 4000, and 6000 kg dry matter (DM) ha−1) during a rice-growing season after 3 years of oilseed rape-rice cultivation. Residue mulching treatments showed significantly more organic carbon (C) density for the 0–20 cm soil layer at harvesting than no residue treatment. During a rice-growing season, residue mulching treatments sequestered significantly more organic C from 687 kg C ha−1 season−1 to 1654 kg C ha−1 season−1 than no residue treatment. Residue mulching significantly increased emissions of CO2 and N2O but decreased CH4 emissions. Residue mulching treatments significantly increased GWP by 9–30% but significantly decreased net GWP by 33–71% and GHGI by 35–72% relative to no residue treatment. These results suggest that agricultural economic viability and GHG mitigation can be achieved simultaneously by residue mulching on NT paddy fields in central China. PMID:25140329

  8. The effects of rape residue mulching on net global warming potential and greenhouse gas intensity from no-tillage paddy fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhi-Sheng; Cao, Cou-Gui; Guo, Li-Jin; Li, Cheng-Fang

    2014-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted to provide a complete greenhouse gas (GHG) accounting for global warming potential (GWP), net GWP, and greenhouse gas intensity (GHGI) from no-tillage (NT) paddy fields with different amounts of oilseed rape residue mulch (0, 3000, 4000, and 6000 kg dry matter (DM) ha(-1)) during a rice-growing season after 3 years of oilseed rape-rice cultivation. Residue mulching treatments showed significantly more organic carbon (C) density for the 0-20 cm soil layer at harvesting than no residue treatment. During a rice-growing season, residue mulching treatments sequestered significantly more organic C from 687 kg C ha(-1) season(-1) to 1654 kg C ha(-1) season(-1) than no residue treatment. Residue mulching significantly increased emissions of CO2 and N2O but decreased CH4 emissions. Residue mulching treatments significantly increased GWP by 9-30% but significantly decreased net GWP by 33-71% and GHGI by 35-72% relative to no residue treatment. These results suggest that agricultural economic viability and GHG mitigation can be achieved simultaneously by residue mulching on NT paddy fields in central China.

  9. Demography and findings of reported rape cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quader, M M; Rahman, M H; Kamal, M; Ahmed, A U; Saha, S K

    2010-01-01

    Six hundred and ninety nine cases of alleged rape were studied by the authors during the period from 2007-2008 at the Mymensingh Medical College, Mymensingh. Of these cases, 122 had positive findings of recent sexual intercourse; 250 cases had the positive findings of habituated sexual intercourse, and 327 cases had no findings of sexual intercourse but they complained of forcible sexual intercourse and found no sign of sexual intercourse. Most of the alleged victims of rape were nulliparous 87.12% and parous was only 12.87%. 430 (61.51%) cases of reported victims who were students of schools and colleges were not considered as rape cases considering their victim's history of love affairs, leaving home secretly with their lovers, living with them for many days. Gang rape was not so common (4.29% of raped cases) in our study. Age groups, their occupations, living areas, time of arrival for medico-legal examination have been studied. Most of the cases were students (61.51%). A few numbers of victims were subjected to gang rape. Examination and reporting the cases have been discussed.

  10. Brassica napus seed endosperm - metabolism and signaling in a dead end tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Christin; Rolletschek, Hardy; Sunderhaus, Stephanie; Braun, Hans-Peter

    2014-08-28

    Oilseeds are an important element of human nutrition and of increasing significance for the production of industrial materials. The development of the seeds is based on a coordinated interplay of the embryo and its surrounding tissue, the endosperm. This study aims to give insights into the physiological role of endosperm for seed development in the oilseed crop Brassica napus. Using protein separation by two-dimensional (2D) isoelectric focusing (IEF)/SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) and protein identification by mass spectrometry three proteome projects were carried out: (i) establishment of an endosperm proteome reference map, (ii) proteomic characterization of endosperm development and (iii) comparison of endosperm and embryo proteomes. The endosperm proteome reference map comprises 930 distinct proteins, including enzymes involved in genetic information processing, carbohydrate metabolism, environmental information processing, energy metabolism, cellular processes and amino acid metabolism. To investigate dynamic changes in protein abundance during seed development, total soluble proteins were extracted from embryo and endosperm fractions at defined time points. Proteins involved in sugar converting and recycling processes, ascorbate metabolism, amino acid biosynthesis and redox balancing were found to be of special importance for seed development in B. napus. Implications for the seed filling process and the function of the endosperm for seed development are discussed. The endosperm is of key importance for embryo development during seed formation in plants. We present a broad study for characterizing endosperm proteins in the oilseed plant B. napus. Furthermore, a project on the biochemical interplay between the embryo and the endosperm during seed development is presented. We provide evidence that the endosperm includes a complete set of enzymes necessary for plant primary metabolism. Combination of our results with metabolome data will further

  11. Genetic Diversity Studies Based on Morphological Variability, Pathogenicity and Molecular Phylogeny of the Sclerotinia sclerotiorum Population From Indian Mustard (Brassica juncea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj Sharma

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available White mold or stem rot disease are ubiquitously distributed throughout the world and the causal organism of this disease Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib. de Bary, is known to infect over 400 plant species. Sclerotinia stem rot is one of the most devastating fungal diseases and poses a serious threat to the worldwide cultivation of oilseed Brassica including India. S. sclerotiorum pathogen usually infects the stem but in severe cases leaves and pods also affected at different developmental stages that deteriorate not only the oil quality but also causing the seed and oil yield losses up to 90% depending on the severity of the disease infestation. This study investigated the morphological and molecular characterization of pathogenic S. sclerotiorum (Lib de Bary geographical isolates from oilseed Brassica including Brassica juncea (Indian mustard. The aim of this study was to compare isolates of S. sclerotiorum originated from different agro-climatic conditions and to analyse similarity or differences between them as well as to examine the virulence of this pathogen specifically in Brassica for the first time. The collection of S. sclerotiorum isolates from symptomatic Brassica plants was done and analyzed for morphological features, and molecular characterization. The virulence evaluation test of 65 isolates on four Brassica cultivars has shown 5 of them were highly virulent, 46 were virulent and 14 were moderately virulent. Phylogenetic analysis encompassing all the morphological features, SSR polymorphism, and ITS sequencing has shown the existence of high genetic diversity among the isolates that categorized all the isolates in three evolutionary lineages in the derived dendrogram. Further, genetic variability analysis based on sequences variation in ITS region of all the isolates has shown the existence of either insertions or deletions of the nucleotides in the ITS region has led to the interspecies variability and observed the variation were

  12. Different myrosinase and idioblast distribution in Arabidopsis and Brassica napus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasson, Erik; Jørgensen, Lise Bolt; Höglund, Anna-Stina

    2001-01-01

    Arabidopsis, Brassica napus, Myrosinase, Myrosinase Binding Protein, Glucosinolates, Myrosin Cell, Immunocytochemistry......Arabidopsis, Brassica napus, Myrosinase, Myrosinase Binding Protein, Glucosinolates, Myrosin Cell, Immunocytochemistry...

  13. User Guidelines for the Brassica Database: BRAD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaobo; Cheng, Feng; Wang, Xiaowu

    2016-01-01

    The genome sequence of Brassica rapa was first released in 2011. Since then, further Brassica genomes have been sequenced or are undergoing sequencing. It is therefore necessary to develop tools that help users to mine information from genomic data efficiently. This will greatly aid scientific exploration and breeding application, especially for those with low levels of bioinformatic training. Therefore, the Brassica database (BRAD) was built to collect, integrate, illustrate, and visualize Brassica genomic datasets. BRAD provides useful searching and data mining tools, and facilitates the search of gene annotation datasets, syntenic or non-syntenic orthologs, and flanking regions of functional genomic elements. It also includes genome-analysis tools such as BLAST and GBrowse. One of the important aims of BRAD is to build a bridge between Brassica crop genomes with the genome of the model species Arabidopsis thaliana, thus transferring the bulk of A. thaliana gene study information for use with newly sequenced Brassica crops.

  14. Exploring rape myths, gendered norms, group processing, and the social context of rape among college women: a qualitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deming, Michelle E; Covan, Eleanor Krassen; Swan, Suzanne C; Billings, Deborah L

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this research is to explore the negotiation strategies of college women as they interpret ambiguous rape scenarios. In focus groups, 1st- and 4th-year college women were presented with a series of three vignettes depicting incidents that meet the legal criteria for rape yet are ambiguous due to the presence of cultural rape myths, contexts involving alcohol consumption, varying degrees of consent, and a known perpetrator. These contexts are critical in understanding how college women define rape. Key findings indicated many of these college women utilized rape myths and norms within their peer groups to interpret rape scenarios.

  15. Energy consumption in barley and turnip rape cultivation for bioethanol and biodiesel (RME) production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikkola, Hannu; Ahokas, Jukka [University of Helsinki, Faculty of Agriculture and Forestry, Department of Agricultural Sciences, FIN-00014 Helsingin yliopisto (Finland); Pahkala, Katri [MTT, Agrifood Research Finland, Crop Science and Technology, FIN-31600 Jokioinen (Finland)

    2011-01-15

    The energy consumption for six spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) production chains and five spring turnip rape (Brassica rapa ssp. oleifera (DC) Metsg.) production chains were compared with each other and in relation to the energy content of the seed yield. Two cultivation intensities, standard and intensive production, were used for barley. Fertiliser production and grain drying were the most energy consuming phases of the chains. The production of nitrogen fertiliser alone accounted for 1/3-1/2 of the total energy consumption of the production chains. If barley were direct drilled and the yield stored in airtight silos, instead of drying, the energy consumption would decrease by 30-34%. Use of wood-chips instead of oil for grain drying would decrease the use of fossil fuel to the same extent. The input-output ratios for the intensive barley production chains were 0.18-0.25. They were somewhat lower than the ratios for the standard production intensity. The intensive production was more energy efficient despite higher input rates. The input-output ratios for turnip rape production were 0.32-0.34. The energy consumption for manufacturing, repair and maintenance of machines and buildings requires more research because it is a significant factor but the data available are largely old and few studies have been conducted. (author)

  16. Spectral data based vegetation indices to characterise crop growth parameters and radiation interception in brassica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kar, G.; Chakravarty, N.V.K.

    2001-01-01

    Four spectral data based vegetation indices viz., infra-red/red (IR/R) ratio, normalized difference (N.D.), greenness index (GNI) and brightness index (BNI) were derived to characterise leaf area index, above ground biomass production and intercepted photosynthetically active radiation in Brassica oilseed crop. It was found from correlation study among different spectral indices, plant growth parameters and radiation interception that there was strong relationship between infrared/red and normalized difference with green area index for all the three Brassica cultivars whereas these spectral were not significantly correlated with above ground biomass. On the other hand, the brightness and greenness indices were closely correlated with above groundry biomass as compared to infrared/red ratio and normalized difference. All the four spectral indices were correlated with intercepted photosynthetically active radiation (IP AR). The best fit equations relating them were derived, which can be incorporated in the algorithms of crop growth simulation model to estimate plant growth parameters and radiation interception using spectral indices

  17. Sheep numbers required for dry matter digestibility evaluations when fed fresh perennial ryegrass or forage rape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xuezhao; Krijgsman, Linda; Waghorn, Garry C; Kjestrup, Holly; Koolaard, John; Pacheco, David

    2017-03-01

    Research trials with fresh forages often require accurate and precise measurement of digestibility and variation in digestion between individuals, and the duration of measurement periods needs to be established to ensure reliable data are obtained. The variation is likely to be greater when freshly harvested feeds are given, such as perennial ryegrass ( Lolium perenne L.) and forage rape ( Brassica napus L.), because the nutrient composition changes over time and in response to weather conditions. Daily feed intake and faeces output data from a digestibility trial with these forages were used to calculate the effects of differing lengths of the measurement period and differing numbers of sheep, on the precision of digestibility, with a view towards development of a protocol. Sixteen lambs aged 8 months and weighing 33 kg at the commencement of the trial were fed either perennial ryegrass or forage rape (8/treatment group) over 2 periods with 35 d between measurements. They had been acclimatised to the diets, having grazed them for 42 d prior to 11 days of indoor measurements. The sheep numbers required for a digestibility trial with different combinations of acclimatisation and measurement period lengths were subsequently calculated for 3 levels of imposed precision upon the estimate of mean dry matter (DM) digestibility. It is recommended that if the standard error of the mean for digestibility is equal to or higher than 5 g/kg DM, and if sheep are already used to a fresh perennial ryegrass or forage rape diet, then a minimum of 6 animals are needed and 4 acclimatisation days being fed individually in metabolic crates followed by 7 days of measurement.

  18. La Violacion Sexual--The Reality of Rape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Chris; And Others

    1978-01-01

    The Hispanic rape victim often finds herself in a situation where discussing a rape may jeopardize not only her self esteem but her residency status, job and familial relations. Small wonder she prefers to remain silent. (Author/NQ)

  19. Domesticated proboscidea parviflora: a potential oilseed crop for arid lands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berry, J.; Bretting, P.K.; Nabhan, G.P.; Weber, C.

    1981-01-01

    Wild and domesticated Proboscidea parviflora were evaluated as oilseed crops for arid lands through chemical and biological analyses. Domesticated plants grown in the Sonoran desert bore seed containing 35-40 per cent oil and 23-27 per cent protein. Yield per hectare was estimated at 1000 kg of oil and 675 kg of protein, quantities which compare favourably with other crops. An ephemeral life cycle and certain characteristics of the fruit and seed allow this plant to grow in xeric habitats unsuitable for many other plants. Several Proboscidea species hybridize with P. parviflora and could be used in future crop breeding. Rapid germination and higher oil and protein content of seed make the domesticated P. parviflora superior to the wild form as a crop. Domesticated P. parviflora thus shows promise as an oilseed crop for the Sonoran Desert and possibly for other arid regions. (Refs. 22).

  20. Applications of Enzymes in Oil and Oilseed Processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Xuebing

    Enzymes, through the last 20-30 years research and development, have been widely explored for the uses in oil and oilseed processing. Following the conventional processing technology from oilseeds, the oil can be produced through pressing or solvent extraction. The crude oil is then refined to meet...... edible requirements. The oil can be also modified to meet functional or even nutritional needs. In each of those steps, enzymes have been used in industry successfully. For the oil processing stage, enzymes have been used to destroy the cell structure so that makes the oil release easier, where...... conventionally high temperature conditioning or cooking is necessary. The good story in industry is the fish oil and olive oil processing. Good quality and higher oil yield have been achieved through the use of enzymes in the processing stages. For the refining stage, the use of enzymes for degumming has...

  1. Date rape among undergraduates in southwestern Nigeria federal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The increasing number of date rapes occurring on University campuses and the need to decrease rape supportive attitudes point to the need for continued research on this field. Correlational survey design was adopted to examine the extent to which attitude towards date rape is associated with the respondents' emotional ...

  2. Management and Profile of Rape Victims attending the Karl Bremer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Setting: The study was conducted at the rape centre at the Karl Bremer Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa. To describe the frequency of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in rape victims, all consecutive patients who presented to the rape centre over the one-year period from 1 April 2006 to 31 March 2007 were included ...

  3. Rape Myth Acceptance, Sexual Trauma History, and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baugher, Shannon N.; Elhai, Jon D.; Monroe, James R.; Gray, Matt J.

    2010-01-01

    The prediction of false rape-related beliefs (rape myth acceptance [RMA]) was examined using the Illinois Rape Myth Acceptance Scale (Payne, Lonsway, & Fitzgerald, 1999) among a nonclinical sample of 258 male and female college students. Predictor variables included measures of attitudes toward women, gender role identity (GRI), sexual trauma…

  4. 77 FR 30871 - Implementing the Prison Rape Elimination Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-23

    ...--Implementing the Prison Rape Elimination Act Proclamation 8823--Armed Forces Day, 2012 #0; #0; #0; Presidential... Prison Rape Elimination Act Memorandum for the Heads of Executive Departments and Agencies Sexual... Rape Elimination Act of 2003 (PREA) was enacted with bipartisan support and established a ``zero...

  5. Reporting Rape in a National Sample of College Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolitzky-Taylor, Kate B.; Resnick, Heidi S.; Amstadter, Ananda B.; McCauley, Jenna L.; Ruggiero, Kenneth J.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Studies indicate that a small percentage of rapes are reported to law enforcement officials. Research also suggests that rapes perpetrated by a stranger are more likely to be reported and that rapes involving drugs and/or alcohol are less likely to be reported. College women represent a unique and understudied population with regard to…

  6. An Updated Measure for Assessing Subtle Rape Myths

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Sarah; Farmer, G. Lawrence

    2011-01-01

    Social workers responsible for developing rape prevention programs on college campuses must have valid evaluation instruments. This article presents the challenges encountered by the authors when they attempted to keep rape myth measures relevant to student populations by updating the language to reflect the subtleties involved with rape myths.…

  7. 42 CFR 50.306 - Rape and incest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rape and incest. 50.306 Section 50.306 Public... § 50.306 Rape and incest. Federal financial participation is available in expenditures for medical procedures performed upon a victim of rape or incest if the program or project has received signed...

  8. Debriefing effectiveness following exposure to pornographic rape depictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malamuth, Neil; Check, James

    1984-02-01

    Data are presented concerning the ethics of exposing undergraduate students to pornographic rape portrayals followed by a debriefing designed to dispel a number of rape myths. One hundred fifty males and females were randomly assigned to read pornographic stories. Some of these depicted a rape, whereas others depicted mutually consenting intercourse. Afterwards, those exposed to the rape version were given a debriefing which included statements concerning the true horror of rape and the existence of rape myths. About 10 days later, a "Public Survey" ostensibly conducted by a local committee of citizens was given to subjects in their classes. A postexperimental questionnaire confirmed that participants were not aware that this survey was related to the earlier phase of the research. As part of the survey, subjects were presented with actual newspaper articles about which their opinions were solicited. One of these articles, the dependent measure of the study, concerned rape. Subjects indicated their reactions to this article and their opinions about the general causes of rape. The results indicated that those exposed to the rape depictions followed by a "rape debriefing" were less accepting of certain rape myths than subjects exposed to mutually consenting intercourse depictions. Implications of the data for future research in this area are discussed both in terms of work focusing on the potential antisocial impact of violent pornography and of research specifically designed to identify the conditions most likely to change acceptance of rape myths.

  9. Exposure to Pornography and Acceptance of Rape Myths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Mike; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Summarizes the literature examining the association between acceptance of rape myths and exposure to pornography. States that nonexperimental methodology shows that exposure to pornography does not increase rape myth acceptance, while experimental studies show that exposure to pornography increases rape myth acceptance. Concludes that experimental…

  10. Enhancing the recovery of oilseed rape seed oil bodies (oleosomes) using bicarbonate-based soaking and grinding media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Chirico, Simone; di Bari, Vincenzo; Foster, Tim; Gray, David

    2018-02-15

    An aqueous process for the recovery of oil bodies from rapeseed using sodium bicarbonate-based soaking and grinding media (pH 9.5) was investigated. The effect of the ratio between seed and mass of media during grinding and molarity of the medium used on oil body integrity, purity and storage stability have been studied. The grinding of seeds in solution at a ratio of 1:7 (w/w) significantly improved the quality of oil body suspension to a size more in-line with that seen in vivo (average D 4,3 of 1.19µm). The purity and the composition of the recovered oil bodies depends on the molarity of medium used; the use of a sodium bicarbonate solution (pH 9.5, 0.1M) in the grinding and washing steps produced oil body preparations with the same purity as that resulting from washing a crude preparation with 9M urea. The resultant emulsion had improved physical stability over a storage period of one month. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Role of hydrogen peroxide and antioxidant enzymes in the interaction between a hemibiotrophic fungal pathogen, Leptosphaeria maculans, and oilseed rape

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jindřichová, Barbora; Fodor, J.; Šindelářová, Milada; Burketová, Lenka; Valentová, O.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 72, č. 2 (2011), s. 149-156 ISSN 0098-8472 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA522/08/1581; GA MŠk MEB040923 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : hydrogen peroxide * antioxidant enzymes * hemibiotrophic pathogen Subject RIV: GF - Plant Pathology, Vermin, Weed, Plant Protection Impact factor: 2.985, year: 2011

  12. Optimization of Nitrogen Rate and Planting Density for Improving Yield, Nitrogen Use Efficiency, and Lodging Resistance in Oilseed Rape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahbaz Khan

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Yield and lodging related traits are essential for improving rapeseed production. The objective of the present study was to investigate the influence of plant density (D and nitrogen (N rates on morphological and physiological traits related to yield and lodging in rapeseed. We evaluated Huayouza 9 for two consecutive growing seasons (2014–2016 under three plant densities (LD, 10 plants m−2; MD, 30 plants m−2; HD, 60 plants m−2 and four N rates (0, 60, 120, and 180 kg ha−1. Experiment was laid out in split plot design using density as a main factor and N as sub-plot factor with three replications each. Seed yield was increased by increasing density and N rate, reaching a peak at HD with 180 kg N ha−1. The effect of N rate was consistently positive in increasing the plant height, pod area index, 1,000 seed weight, shoot and root dry weights, and root neck diameter, reaching a peak at 180 kg N ha−1. Plant height was decreased by increasing D, whereas the maximum radiation interception (~80% and net photosynthetic rate were recorded at MD at highest N. Lodging resistance and nitrogen use efficiency significantly increased with increasing D from 10 to 30 plants m−2, and N rate up to 120 kg ha−1, further increase of D and N decreased lodging resistance and NUE. Hence, our study implies that planting density 30 plants m−2 can improve yield, nitrogen use efficiency, and enhance lodging resistance by improving crop canopy.

  13. Optimization of Nitrogen Rate and Planting Density for Improving Yield, Nitrogen Use Efficiency, and Lodging Resistance in Oilseed Rape

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Shahbaz; Anwar, Sumera; Kuai, Jie; Ullah, Sana; Fahad, Shah; Zhou, Guangsheng

    2017-01-01

    Yield and lodging related traits are essential for improving rapeseed production. The objective of the present study was to investigate the influence of plant density (D) and nitrogen (N) rates on morphological and physiological traits related to yield and lodging in rapeseed. We evaluated Huayouza 9 for two consecutive growing seasons (2014–2016) under three plant densities (LD, 10 plants m−2; MD, 30 plants m−2; HD, 60 plants m−2) and four N rates (0, 60, 120, and 180 kg ha−1). Experiment wa...

  14. Comparison of Regression Techniques to Predict Response of Oilseed Rape Yield to Variation in Climatic Conditions in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharif, Behzad; Makowski, David; Plauborg, Finn

    2017-01-01

    Statistical regression models represent alternatives to process-based dynamic models for predicting the response of crop yields to variation in climatic conditions. Regression models can be used to quantify the effect of change in temperature and precipitation on yields. However, it is difficult ...

  15. Factors Defining Field Germination of Oilseed Radish Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.V. Dorofeev

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Influence of temperature, depth of crops and granulometric of soil structure on germination speed, laboratory and field germination of oilseed radish seeds were studied. It was established that the period of seed-germination is defined both by temperature and granulometric structure of soil. The highest field germination was marked on sandy loam at depth of crops' seeds at 3 cm and 20°С.

  16. Resisting rape: the effects of victim self-protection on rape completion and injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tark, Jongyeon; Kleck, Gary

    2014-03-01

    The impact of victim resistance on rape completion and injury was examined utilizing a large probability sample of sexual assault incidents, derived from the National Crime Victimization Survey (1992-2002), and taking into account whether harm to the victim followed or preceded self-protection (SP) actions. Additional injuries besides rape, particularly serious injuries, following victim resistance are rare. Results indicate that most SP actions, both forceful and nonforceful, reduce the risk of rape completion, and do not significantly affect the risk of additional injury.

  17. The Psychology of the Politics of Rape: Political Ideology, Moral Foundations, and Attitudes Toward Rape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Michael D; Hilz, Emily N

    2018-04-01

    Previous research has found that conservatives and liberals emphasize different moral foundations. The purpose of these two studies was to investigate whether moral foundations mediate the relationship between political ideology and attitudes toward rape among U.S. college students. In Study 1, moral foundations fully mediated the relationship between political ideology and rape myth acceptance. Study 2 generally replicated the results of Study 1, with binding foundations demonstrating the most consistent mediating effects. These results suggest that individual differences in moral decision-making may explain the relationship between political ideology and attitudes toward rape.

  18. Study of Pea Accessions for Development of an Oilseed Pea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Khodapanahi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Global interest in stable energy resources coupled with growing demand for bio-oils in various conventional and arising industries has renewed the importance of vegetable oil production. To address this global interest, oilseed production has been increased in recent decades by different approaches, such as extending the cultivation area of oil crops, or breeding and growing genetically modified plants. In this study, pea (Pisum sativum L. accessions were screened for lipid content using a rapid extraction method. This method quantifies lipid concentration in pea seeds and was developed by assessing and comparing the results of existing extraction methods used for canola and soybean, the top two Canadian oilseeds. Seeds of 151 field pea accessions were grown to maturity in 2009 and 2010 at McGill University (Quebec, Canada. Overall, lipid concentration in pea seeds ranged from 0.9 to 5.0%. Among several seed characteristics, only seed shape (wrinkled verses round had a significant effect on the total lipid production in the seeds. Peas are a valuable source of protein and starch, but the lipid concentration in their seeds has been undervalued. This research supports the idea of developing a novel dual-purpose oilseed pea that emulates the protein and oil production in soybean seeds while being conveniently adapted to a colder climate.

  19. "Nobody Told Me It Was Rape": A Parent's Guide for Talking with Teenagers about Acquaintance Rape and Sexual Exploitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Caren; Fay, Jennifer

    This book was written to help parents talk to their adolescent children about acquaintance rape and sexual exploitation. It may also be useful to family life educators presenting units on rape and sexual exploitation. Acquaintance rape and sexual exploitation are explained in the first section. The second section discusses talking with teenagers…

  20. Rape, War, and the Socialization of Masculinity: Why Our Refusal to Give up War Ensures that Rape Cannot Be Eradicated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurbriggen, Eileen L.

    2010-01-01

    Rape is endemic during war, suggesting that there may be important conceptual links between the two. A theoretical model is presented positing that rape and war are correlated because traditional (hegemonic) masculinity underlies, and is a cause of, both. An analysis of the literatures on masculinity, rape perpetration, and military socialization…

  1. Examining the Relationship between Male Rape Myth Acceptance, Female Rape Myth Acceptance, Victim Blame, Homophobia, Gender Roles, and Ambivalent Sexism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Michelle; Gilston, Jennifer; Rogers, Paul

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between male rape myth acceptance, female rape myth acceptance, attitudes toward gay men, a series of gender role and sexism measures, victim blame and assault severity were investigated. It was predicted that men would display more negative, stereotypical attitudes than women and that male rape myth endorsement would be related…

  2. Perceptions of, and Assistance Provided to, a Hypothetical Rape Victim: Differences between Rape Disclosure Recipients and Nonrecipients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Lisa A.; Kehn, Andre; Gray, Matt J.; Salapska-Gelleri, Joanna

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Undergraduate rape disclosure recipients' and nonrecipients' sociodemographic and life experience variables, attitudes towards rape, and responses to a hypothetical rape disclosure were compared to determine differences between them. Participants: One hundred ninety-two undergraduates at 3 universities participated in this online survey…

  3. The Effectiveness of Two Types of Rape Prevention Programs in Changing the Rape-Supportive Attitudes of College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Linda A.; Stoelb, Matthew P.; Duggan, Peter; Hieger, Brad; Kling, Kathleen H.; Payne, June P.

    1998-01-01

    The effectiveness of two rape-prevention programs in changing college students' rape-supportive attitudes was investigated. (N=215) Conditions included an interactive mock talk show and a structured video intervention. Both interventions were effective, but attitudes were found to rebound over time. Implications for future rape-prevention…

  4. Plant host range of Verticillium longisporum and microsclerotia density in Swedisch soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Johansson, A.; Goud, J.C.; Dixelius, C.

    2006-01-01

    Verticillium longisporum is a soil-borne fungal pathogen causing vascular wilt of Brassica crops. This study was conducted to enhance our knowledge on the host range of V. longisporum. Seven crop species (barley, oat, oilseed rape, pea, red clover, sugar beet and wheat) and five weed species (barren

  5. Brassicaceae Mustards: Traditional and Agronomic Uses in Australia and New Zealand

    OpenAIRE

    Mahmudur Rahman; Amina Khatun; Lei Liu; Bronwyn J. Barkla

    2018-01-01

    Commonly cultivated Brassicaceae mustards, namely garlic mustard (Alliaria petiolata), white mustard (Brassica alba), Ethiopian mustard (B. carinata), Asian mustard (B. juncea), oilseed rape (B. napus), black mustard (B. nigra), rapeseed (B. rapa), white ball mustard (Calepina irregularis), ball mustard (Neslia paniculata), treacle mustard (Erysimum repandum), hedge mustard (Sisymbrium officinale), Asian hedge mustard (S. orientale), smooth mustard (S. erysimoides) and canola are the major ec...

  6. Data from: Can above-ground ecosystem services compensate for reduced fertilizer input and soil organic matter in annual crops?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gils, van S.H.; Putten, van der W.H.; Kleijn, D.

    2016-01-01

    Above-ground and below-ground environmental conditions influence crop yield by pollination, pest pressure, and resource supply. However, little is known about how interactions between these factors contribute to yield. Here, we used oilseed rape Brassica napus to test their effects on crop yield. We

  7. Can above-ground ecosystem services compensate for reduced fertilizer input and soil organic matter in annual crops?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gils, Stijn; van der Putten, Wim H; Kleijn, David

    2016-01-01

    1.Above-ground and below-ground environmental conditions influence crop yield by pollination, pest pressure, and resource supply. However, little is known about how interactions between these factors contribute to yield. Here, we used oilseed rape Brassica napus to test their effects on crop

  8. Can above-ground ecosystem services compensate for reduced fertilizer input and soil organic matter in annual crops?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gils, van S.H.; Putten, van der W.H.; Kleijn, D.

    2016-01-01

    1.Above-ground and below-ground environmental conditions influence crop yield by pollination, pest pressure and resource supply. However, little is known about how interactions between these factors contribute to yield. Here, we used oilseed rape Brassica napus to test their effects on crop

  9. Biomass production, symbiotic nitrogen fixation and inorganic N use in dual tri-component annual intercrops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, M.K.; Hauggaard-Nielsen, H.; Ambus, P.

    2005-01-01

    The interspecific complementary and competitive interactions between pea (Pisum sativum L.), barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.), grown as dual and tri-component intercrops were assessed in a field study in Denmark. Total biomass production and N use at two levels of ...

  10. Importance of winter rape for small rodents

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Heroldová, Marta; Zejda, J.; Zapletal, M.; Obdržálková, D.; Jánová, E.; Bryja, Josef; Tkadlec, E.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 4 (2004), s. 175-181 ISSN 0370-663X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK6005114 Keywords : Microtus arvalis * Apodemus microps * Brassica napus Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.379, year: 2004 http://www.cazv.cz/attachments/6-heroldova.pdf

  11. Rape Within the Hispanic Family Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinones-Sierra, Sylvia

    Because problems such as rape are often viewed as personal concerns of "la familia" there is great tendency on the part of Hispanics to accept this crime as something that must be resolved without intervention from the police, the hospitals or the courts. Seldom will much needed therapy and auxillary type services be sought due to the extreme…

  12. Reader responses to literary depictions of rape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.M. Koopman (Emy); M. Hilscher (Michelle); G.C. Cupchik (Gerald)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThis study explored reader responses to different literary depictions of rape. Four literary excerpts were used and divided as aesthetic versus nonaesthetic (style) and allusive versus explicit (detail). The general question was how readers would react to literary fragments depicting

  13. Ethical challenges when reading aesthetic rape scenes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.M. Koopman (Emy)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractBoth the issue of the ethics of representation and the issue of the ethics of reading are particularly important when it comes to representations of suffering and violence. This chapter addresses the ethics of representing and the ethics of reading rape, with a focus on the latter.

  14. Contact with Counter-Stereotypical Women Predicts Less Sexism, Less Rape Myth Acceptance, Less Intention to Rape (in Men) and Less Projected Enjoyment of Rape (in Women).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taschler, Miriam; West, Keon

    2017-01-01

    Intergroup contact-(positive) interactions with people from different social groups-is a widely researched and strongly supported prejudice-reducing mechanism shown to reduce prejudice against a wide variety of outgroups. However, no known previous research has investigated whether intergroup contact can also reduce sexism against women. Sexism has an array of negative outcomes. One of the most detrimental and violent ones is rape, which is both justified and downplayed by rape myth acceptance. We hypothesised that more frequent, higher quality contact with counter-stereotypical women would predict lower levels of sexism and thus less rape myth acceptance (in men) and less sexualised projected responses to rape (in women). Two studies using online surveys with community samples supported these hypotheses. In Study 1, 170 male participants who experienced more positive contact with counter-stereotypical women reported less intention to rape. Similarly, in Study 2, 280 female participants who experienced more positive contact with counter-stereotypical women reported less projected sexual arousal at the thought of being raped. Thus, the present research is the first known to show that contact could be a potential tool to combat sexism, rape myth acceptance, intentions to rape in men, and sexualisation of rape by women.

  15. In situ ruminal crude protein degradability of by-products from cereals, oilseeds and animal origin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Habib, G.; Khan, N.A.; Ali, M.; Bezabih, M.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish a database on in situ ruminal crude protein (CP) degradability characteristics of by-products from cereal grains, oilseeds and animal origin commonly fed to ruminants in Pakistan and South Asian Countries. The oilseed by-products were soybean meal, sunflower

  16. Stop Blaming the Victim: A Meta-Analysis on Rape Myths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez, Eliana; Gadalla, Tahany M.

    2010-01-01

    Although male rape is being reported more often than before, the majority of rape victims continue to be women. Rape myths--false beliefs used mainly to shift the blame of rape from perpetrators to victims--are also prevalent in today's society and in many ways contribute toward the pervasiveness of rape. Despite this, there has been limited…

  17. Meta-Analysis of the Prevalence of Unacknowledged Rape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Laura C; Miller, Katherine E

    2016-04-01

    Many sexual violence survivors do not label their experiences as rape but instead use more benign labels, such as "bad sex" or "miscommunication." A meta-analysis was conducted to estimate the mean prevalence of unacknowledged rape and to inform our understanding of methodological factors that influence the detection of this phenomenon. Studies were identified using PsycINFO, PubMED, and PILOTS and were required to report the percentage of unacknowledged rape that had occurred since the age of 14 among female survivors. Moderator variables included mean participant age, recruitment source, rape definition, and unacknowledged rape definition. Twenty-eight studies (30 independent samples) containing 5,917 female rape survivors met the inclusion criteria. Based on a random effects model, the overall weighted mean percentage of unacknowledged rape was 60.4% (95% confidence interval [55.0%, 65.6%]). There was a large amount of heterogeneity, Q(29) = 445.11, p rape survivors do not acknowledge that they have been raped. The results suggest that screening tools should use behaviorally descriptive items about sexual contact, rather than using terms such as "rape." © The Author(s) 2015.

  18. Male Peer Support to Hostile Sexist Attitudes Influences Rape Proclivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durán, Mercedes; Megías, Jesús L; Moya, Miguel

    2018-07-01

    Sexual assault affects a large proportion of women in the world. Although most rapes are committed by one man, the act itself may be influenced by many (e.g., the peer group). Hostile sexism (HS) has repeatedly been associated with men's rape proclivity, but the influence exerted by the HS of the peer group on rape proclivity has not been investigated. In this study, we explored the impact of perceived male peer support to HS on participants' rape proclivity. A sample of Spanish undergraduate students from a university in the south of Spain ( N = 134) completed the Ambivalent Sexism Inventory. Immediately afterwards, they received feedback on the supposed sexist responses of a peer group (high vs. low in HS); we kept the benevolent sexism (BS) of the peer group at medium levels. Next, we assessed participants' rape proclivity using acquaintance rape scenarios. Results showed an interaction between participants' own levels of HS and information about the HS of the peer group. Men high in HS reported higher rape proclivity in the high-HS peer-group condition than in the low-HS peer-group condition. By contrast, information on the peer group did not affect self-reported rape proclivity of men low in HS. Results also corroborated the relationship between participants' levels of HS and rape proclivity, and expanded the literature by revealing an unexpected influence of participants' BS on rape proclivity.

  19. Criminalizing rape within marriage: perspectives of Ghanaian university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adinkrah, Mensah

    2011-09-01

    Forcing sexual intercourse on an unwilling marital partner, or marital rape, is not a crime in many societies around the world, because of a marital exemption rule that prohibits the prosecution of husbands who rape their wives. Concurrently, marital rape is one of the least studied phenomena in sexual violence research. This is particularly true for societies in the non-Western world. The current study examined the general attitudes of a sample of university students in Ghana, a West African country, toward marital rape. Respondents were also asked whether an ongoing legislative effort to criminalize marital rape in the country was warranted. The results indicated strong opposition toward criminalization. The results also indicated no marked differences between male and female respondents in attitudes toward marital rape and the need for a legislative response to the phenomenon. Patriarchal ideologies such as wifely submission to the husband and an implicit duty to provide sex in marriage provided some of the justifications furnished for why marital rape should remain noncriminalized. Advocates of criminalization mentioned the social, physical, and psychological effects of rape and how the enactment of marital rape legislation and the imposition of severe criminal sanctions would help prevent the incidence of marital rape and other forms of violence against women in the society.

  20. OILSEEDS AS A PERSPECTIVE IN THE NUTRITION ON DAIRY FARM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ágnes Süli

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In the last decades many researches were made to change the milk product food’s composition. The production of better fat-compound milk and dairy products became a goal in the name of health conscious nutrition. Our researches were motivated by non-adequate milk fat’s compound. With the optimal supplement of the feed can be increased the proportion of the polyunsaturated fatty acids and can decreased the unsaturated fatty acids. The object of our experiment to study the effect of natural-based feed additives, such as oilseeds (whole linseed, extruded linseed, whole rapeseed on the fatty acid composition of milk fat. Further information was gained about of oilseeds in specific amounts to be fitted into technology of an intensive dairy farm in practice. The feed supplements were whole, untreated rapeseed and linseed and cold extruded linseed as a part of total mixed ration. The level of the processing of feed supplements affected the fatty acid composition of milk fat. The effect of full fat linseed feed supplement was more significant than that of the cold extruded linseed, in the increase of the polyunsaturated fatty acids, with special regard to the increase of the α-linolenic acid proportion. Out of the full fat oilseeds the feeding of full fat rapeseed did not result in a considerable change in the fatty acid composition of milk fat. After applying full fat linseed as feed supplement, the proportion of α-linolenic acid, a conjugated linoleic acid, an eicosadienoic acid and a docosapentaenoic acid increased in the fatty acid composition of milk fat, while the concentration of many saturated fatty acids reduced

  1. Genetic diversity and relationships among cabbage ( Brassica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The integration of our data with historical documents confirmed that traditional cabbage landraces cultivated in North of China were first introduced from Russia. Key words: Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP), genetic diversity, cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata), landraces, population structure.

  2. Dealing with rape in a new political landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Baroness Vivien

    2012-01-01

    Rape is controversial and constructing rape policy is complicated. Most victims, men and women, are raped by someone they know. The court case usually hangs on whether or not the complainant consented to the act. The defence feels free to portray the complainant in a negative light making the trial an ordeal. Some complainants decide it is one ordeal too many and withdraw from the process. Sustained criticism of the handling of rape cases over many years led to substantial improvements, with specially trained police officers, prosecutors and judges, and more defendants being convicted. Yet providing justice to rape victims requires more than an effective criminal justice response. It also requires recognition that victims are entitled to the support of the state. They should be treated with respect regardless of whether the case goes to trial or not. The rate of convictions for rape is not the only, or even the most important measure of a good policy.

  3. Economic benefit analysis of cultivating Pleurotus ostreatus with rape straw

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Qinlan; Gong, Mingfu; Tang, Mei

    2018-04-01

    The cultivation of Pleurotus ostreatus with rape straw not only can save the cultivation cost of P. ostreatus, but also can reuse the resources and protect the environment. By adding different proportion of rape straw to the cultivation material of P. ostreatus, the reasonable amount of rape straw was selected and the economic benefit of P. ostreatus cultivated with the optimum amount of rape straw was analyzed. The results showed that adding 10% to 40% rape straw to the cultivation material of P. ostreatus did not affect the yield and biological conversion rate of P. ostreatus, and the ratio of production and investment of the amount of rape straw in the range of 10% to 50% was higher than of cottonseed husk alone as the main material of the formula.

  4. Police officers' collaboration with rape victim advocates: barriers and facilitators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, Karen; Seffrin, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Secondary victimization may occur when rape victims make police reports. This can compromise the quality of official statements and jeopardize criminal cases. Rape reporters receive better treatment by police officers when advocates are involved and best practice police work includes such collaboration. Studies of advocates have described tension, role confusion, and poor communication with police officers. Many variables, including rape myth acceptance (RMA) and training on sexual assault dynamics, may affect officers' collaboration with advocates. There were 429 police officers who responded to a survey measuring their victim interviewing skill, formal training about rape, years on the job, number of victims known personally, number of recent rape cases, RMA, and collaboration with advocates. Results suggest that officers' interviewing skill, years on the job, and specific training are related to collaboration with victim advocates on rape cases. Professional, rather than personal, variables were most predictive of collaboration. Implications for officer selection and training are explored.

  5. The incidence and experience of rape among chemically dependent women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teets, J M

    1997-01-01

    This descriptive study investigated the incidence and experience of rape among chemically dependent women. Sixty women in a residential treatment facility were interviewed about sexual trauma they had experienced in their lives. In this sample 73% had been raped, and 45% had been raped more than once. The stories of rape were classified in five categories: rape while in the context of using, when too high to resist, while prostituting, by a significant other, and by a family member. Some 35% of the rapist described were friends of the women with whom they were using drugs. Only 20% of the rapes were reported to the police. Clinical implications for treatment of addicted women who are also survivors of violence is discussed.

  6. Cryptochrome 1 regulates growth and development in Brassica through alteration in the expression of genes involved in light, phytohormone and stress signalling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Pooja; Chatterjee, Mithu; Burman, Naini; Khurana, Jitendra P

    2014-04-01

    The blue light photoreceptors cryptochromes are ubiquitous in higher plants and are vital for regulating plant growth and development. In spite of being involved in controlling agronomically important traits like plant height and flowering time, cryptochromes have not been extensively characterized from agriculturally important crops. Here we show that overexpression of CRY1 from Brassica napus (BnCRY1), an oilseed crop, results in short-statured Brassica transgenics, likely to be less prone to wind and water lodging. The overexpression of BnCRY1 accentuates the inhibition of cell elongation in hypocotyls of transgenic seedlings. The analysis of hypocotyl growth inhibition and anthocyanin accumulation responses in BnCRY1 overexpressors substantiates that regulation of seedling photomorphogenesis by cry1 is dependent on light intensity. This study highlights that the photoactivated cry1 acts through coordinated induction and suppression of specific downstream genes involved in phytohormone synthesis or signalling, and those involved in cell wall modification, during de-etiolation of Brassica seedlings. The microarray-based transcriptome profiling also suggests that the overexpression of BnCRY1 alters abiotic/biotic stress signalling pathways; the transgenic seedlings were apparently oversensitive to abscisic acid (ABA) and mannitol. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Is Reporting of Rape on the Rise? A Comparison of Women with Reported versus Unreported Rape Experiences in the National Women's Study-Replication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolitzky-Taylor, Kate B.; Resnick, Heidi S.; McCauley, Jenna L.; Amstadter, Ananda B.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.; Ruggiero, Kenneth J.

    2011-01-01

    Rape affects one in seven women nationwide. Historically, most rape victims do not report rape to law enforcement. Research is needed to identify barriers to reporting and correlates of reporting to guide policy recommendations that address such barriers. We investigated the prevalence of reporting rape among a national sample of women (N = 3,001)…

  8. Communicating/Muting Date Rape: A Co-Cultural Theoretical Analysis of Communication Factors Related to Rape Culture on a College Campus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, Ann; Mattern, Jody L.; Herakova, Liliana L.; Kahl, David H., Jr.; Tobola, Cloy; Bornsen, Susan E.

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies suggest that college campuses foster a rape culture in which date rape (most commonly, rape of women) is an accepted part of campus activity (Buchwald, Fletcher, & Roth, 1993; Sanday, 2007). In focus groups at a Midwestern university, researchers asked students about rape as they experienced it or knew about it on campus. The…

  9. Rape: Is it a lifestyle or behavioral problem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamdar, Zeel N.; Kosambiya, Jayendrakumar K.; Chawada, Bansari L.; Verma, Mamtarani; Kadia, Abhinav

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: In India, girl is raped every 20 min. The majority of reports reveals youth is vulnerable group for rape victimization. A set of prejudicial, stereotyped, or false beliefs about rape, rape victims, and rapist exist in the community. Aims/Objectives: To study the attitude and myths toward rape among college going students of Surat City. Materials and Methods: College students of various streams were participated in the study based on attitude toward rape scale (21 items) and updated Illinois Rape Myth Acceptance Scale (22 items). A total of 332 participants from three different colleges of the city took part in the survey. Data analysis was done with the SPSS version 19. Results: Among the responders, 61.75% were female. Mean age of participants was 20.22 ± 1.27 years. Almost two-third (73%) of female participants and 42% of the male participants disagreed with the myth that “When a woman says ‘no’ she really means ‘yes’.” Around 30% of the participants were uncertain about the myth that “A woman cannot be raped by someone she previously knew or had sex with.” While almost 35% of participants believed that “Most rapes are carried out by strangers.” Strong sexual desire of guys, drunkenness, and girl's clothes were reported to be factors that provoke rape by 50%, 40%, and 33% of respondents, respectively, around 95% of female and 92% of male participants think that 7-year imprisonment for rape is not enough. Conclusions: Rape myths are found to be highly prevalent among youth and higher among males. PMID:28529364

  10. Quantitative Trait Loci Mapping in Brassica rapa Revealed the Structural and Functional Conservation of Genetic Loci Governing Morphological and Yield Component Traits in the A, B, and C Subgenomes of Brassica Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaonan; Ramchiary, Nirala; Dhandapani, Vignesh; Choi, Su Ryun; Hur, Yoonkang; Nou, Ill-Sup; Yoon, Moo Kyoung; Lim, Yong Pyo

    2013-01-01

    Brassica rapa is an important crop species that produces vegetables, oilseed, and fodder. Although many studies reported quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping, the genes governing most of its economically important traits are still unknown. In this study, we report QTL mapping for morphological and yield component traits in B. rapa and comparative map alignment between B. rapa, B. napus, B. juncea, and Arabidopsis thaliana to identify candidate genes and conserved QTL blocks between them. A total of 95 QTL were identified in different crucifer blocks of the B. rapa genome. Through synteny analysis with A. thaliana, B. rapa candidate genes and intronic and exonic single nucleotide polymorphisms in the parental lines were detected from whole genome resequenced data, a few of which were validated by mapping them to the QTL regions. Semi-quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR analysis showed differences in the expression levels of a few genes in parental lines. Comparative mapping identified five key major evolutionarily conserved crucifer blocks (R, J, F, E, and W) harbouring QTL for morphological and yield components traits between the A, B, and C subgenomes of B. rapa, B. juncea, and B. napus. The information of the identified candidate genes could be used for breeding B. rapa and other related Brassica species. PMID:23223793

  11. Reduction of greenhouse gas emissions in the rape cultivation with special consideration of nitrogen fertilization; Minderung von Treibhausgasemissionen im Rapsanbau unter besonderer Beruecksichtigung der Stickstoffduengung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heilmann, Hubert [Landesforschungsanstalt fuer Landwirtschaft und Fischerei Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Guelzow-Pruezen (Germany). Inst. fuer Pflanzenproduktion und Betriebswirtschaft; Riemer, Doerte

    2017-08-01

    Involved into the research project ''Mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions in oilseed rape cropping with special consideration of nitrogen fertilizing'' regional specific GHG cropping emissions according to benchmark and regional experts are calculated by using a calculation method developed in cooperation with IFEU and according to IPCC (2006). The following results are achieved for 35 German NUTS2-regions: - nitrogen fertilization is the main influence for GHG emission reduction; - the use of low-emission nitrogen fertilizers is worth for GHG emission reduction; - without increasing the nutrient efficiency of organic fertilizers, GHG emission reductions are difficult to achieve in many regions; - GHG emission reduction/climate protection and realization of the WRRL or N-Saldo reduction come up to the same aim; - economic consequences of restrictive carbon mitigation can be compensated by slight price surcharges for certified raw material.

  12. Energy rape seed - Non-food alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sipilae, K.

    1995-01-01

    The aim of the project is to evaluate possibilities to use agrobiomass for several energy end use sectors. The reference is common European approach where ethanol and rape seed oil is produced for transportation sector. The production costs are approximately 3 - 4 times higher compared to non taxed refinery price of gasoline and diesel fuel. This is also the case for energy crops compared to peat and coal. For Finnish conditions several other options are studied including technical and economical assessments. Solid fuels in form of energy crops like reed canary grass, salix-SRF and straw are evaluated as a feed to multifuel fluid bed boilers and as a futuristic scenario also for flashpyrolysis oil production. Rape seed oil is tested by Neste Oy as a biocomponent in heating oil and as a biocomponent in diesel fuel in engines by VTT. According to present results about 10 - 20 % rape seed oil can be mixed unprocessed to heating oils. Agrofibre production is studied in a laboratory phase with two advanced cooking methods to produce a high value product as a fraction of a biorefinery. The aim of the project is to identify possible research and development paths for future activities. With present prices no agrobiomass is today economically competitive with other fuels. (author)

  13. Introducing the Date and Acquaintance Rape Avoidance Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resendez, Josephine R; Hughes, Jamie S

    2016-01-01

    We present the Date and Acquaintance Rape Avoidance Scale (DARAS). The DARAS is a measure of a woman's behaviors used to avoid date and acquaintance rape. Three factor structures were possible. The DARAS may have measured several factors related to alcohol and drug use, self-defense, and date behaviors; 2 factors related to behaviors to avoid acquaintance versus date rape; or a single factor that represented general vigilance. The data revealed a highly reliable, 63 item single factor that was correlated with stranger rape avoidance, rejection of rape myths, hostile sexist beliefs about men, and benevolent sexist beliefs about women. The creation of the DARAS adds to the growing body of research on rape avoidance. The DARAS is key to understanding the behaviors women employ to avoid date rape. Rather than placing the responsibility for rape on the victim, the DARAS was developed as a theoretical and applied tool that can be used to improve theory and construct rape education and prevention programs.

  14. Mineral, vitamin C and crude protein contents in kale (Brassica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-10-27

    Oct 27, 2011 ... Key words: Kale (Brassica oleracea var. acephala), harvesting stage, vitamin C, crude protein, mineral content. .... L-ascorbic acid (or vitamin C) in plant tissues. .... Cooking methods of Brassica rapa affect the preservation of.

  15. In vitro propagation of Ethiopian mustard ( Brassica carinata A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Brassica carinata (A. Braun) is an amphi-diploid species that originated from interspecific hybridization between Brassica nigra and Brassica oleracea in the highlands of Ethiopia. The crop has many desirable agronomic traits but with oil quality constraints like high erucic acid and glucosinolate contents. In this study, two ...

  16. Tolerence of Braccica nigra to Pieris brassicae herbivory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blatt, S.E.; Smallegange, R.C.; Hess, L.; Harvey, J.A.; Dicke, D.; van Loon, J.J.A.

    2008-01-01

    Black mustard, Brassica nigra (L.) Koch, is a wild annual species found throughout Europe and fed on by larvae of the large cabbage-white butterfly, Pieris brassicae L. We examined the impact of herbivory from P. brassicae, a gregarious herbivore, on B. nigra grown from wild seed collected locally.

  17. Oilseeds and vegetable oils in asia: a world of diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mittaine Jean-François

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Out of the two dozen countries that constitute what is generally called “Asia”, some are the largest in the world while others are islands with smaller populations. When looking at oilseeds and vegetable oils in the region, one is faced with the same huge diversity which makes it complex to analyze, all the more that statistics are not easily available for many countries. Aside from the large differences in size, the region covers a wide spectrum of diversified climate environments. Asia is also mainly characterized by its huge population which has become largely urban, a key factor leading to the impressive growth of vegetable oil demand in the past 30 years. At an verage of 23.2 kg/year, Asian per capita consumption of oils and fats still remains slightly below the world average of 28.3 kg/capita/year. Therefore, although 53% of the world population is located in Asia, only 45% of world oils and fats is consumed in the region. As detailed in the paper, the world of Asian oilseeds and vegetable oils is highly concentrated on soybeans and palm oil. In spite of a large domestic production in China (12.3 MnT, soybeans are imported in huge quantities, mostly by China (78 MnT, 84% of the region’s imports where more than 28% of world soybeans production is being crushed. Palm oil, the second large commodity consumed in the region, is mainly produced within the region, mostly in Indonesia and Malaysia. So where is the “world of diversity”? Hidden behind those two dominant commodities, practically all of the ten oilseeds constituting the core of the world production are grown in significant quantities in the region while, for vegetable oils, all those of significant importance are produced within the region with the exception of olive oil. The main question that should be kept in mind when reviewing this large regional demand is under what condition will future vegetable oil production be able to meet the expected rise of per capita oils and

  18. BrassicaTED - a public database for utilization of miniature transposable elements in Brassica species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murukarthick, Jayakodi; Sampath, Perumal; Lee, Sang Choon; Choi, Beom-Soon; Senthil, Natesan; Liu, Shengyi; Yang, Tae-Jin

    2014-06-20

    MITE, TRIM and SINEs are miniature form transposable elements (mTEs) that are ubiquitous and dispersed throughout entire plant genomes. Tens of thousands of members cause insertion polymorphism at both the inter- and intra- species level. Therefore, mTEs are valuable targets and resources for development of markers that can be utilized for breeding, genetic diversity and genome evolution studies. Taking advantage of the completely sequenced genomes of Brassica rapa and B. oleracea, characterization of mTEs and building a curated database are prerequisite to extending their utilization for genomics and applied fields in Brassica crops. We have developed BrassicaTED as a unique web portal containing detailed characterization information for mTEs of Brassica species. At present, BrassicaTED has datasets for 41 mTE families, including 5894 and 6026 members from 20 MITE families, 1393 and 1639 members from 5 TRIM families, 1270 and 2364 members from 16 SINE families in B. rapa and B. oleracea, respectively. BrassicaTED offers different sections to browse structural and positional characteristics for every mTE family. In addition, we have added data on 289 MITE insertion polymorphisms from a survey of seven Brassica relatives. Genes with internal mTE insertions are shown with detailed gene annotation and microarray-based comparative gene expression data in comparison with their paralogs in the triplicated B. rapa genome. This database also includes a novel tool, K BLAST (Karyotype BLAST), for clear visualization of the locations for each member in the B. rapa and B. oleracea pseudo-genome sequences. BrassicaTED is a newly developed database of information regarding the characteristics and potential utility of mTEs including MITE, TRIM and SINEs in B. rapa and B. oleracea. The database will promote the development of desirable mTE-based markers, which can be utilized for genomics and breeding in Brassica species. BrassicaTED will be a valuable repository for scientists

  19. Broadening the genetic base of Abyssinian mustard (Brassica carinata A. Braun through introgression of genes from related allotetraploid species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farooq A. Sheikh

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Brassica carinata (BBCC, 2n=34 has still to emerge as a major oilseed crop owing to poor agronomic attributes like long stature, long maturity duration and low seed yield. The restricted amount of genetic variability available in natural B. carinata necessitates utilization of new sources of variability for broadening its genetic base. Interspecific hybridization followed by selection in selfed and back cross progenies was employed to generate useful variability into B. carinata cv ˈPC5ˈ from elite lines of Brassica napus (AACC, 2n=38 and Brassica juncea (AABB, 2n=36. The morphological evaluation of 24 stable introgressed progenies revealed wide range of variability for key economic traits. The progenies with mean maturity duration of 161 ± 2.1 days, short stature of 139.5 ± 6.5 cm and seed yield per plant of 18.6 ± 2.0 g in comparison to the corresponding figures of 168 ± 4.6 days, 230.6 ± 12.7 cm and 12.0 ± 2.4 g in ˈPC5ˈ (recurrent parent were recovered. Diversity analysis at morphological level revealed that 22 out of 24 stable introgressed progenies were grouped with B. carinata ˈPC5ˈ at average taxonomic distance of 1.19. The diversity at molecular level using 25 polymorphic and reproducible RAPD primers revealed that 19 out of 21 introgressed progenies grouped with B. carinata ˈPC5ˈ at a similarity coefficient of 0.68. The clusters in general represent a wide range of genetic diversity in the back cross lines of B. carinata as a result of introgression of genes from elite lines of B. napus and B. juncea parents.

  20. Silent Survivors: Rape Myth Acceptance in Incarcerated Women's Narratives of Disclosure and Reporting of Rape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, Nicole M.; Lynch, Shannon M.; Fritch, April M.; McArthur, Lyn N.; Smith, Shilo L.

    2011-01-01

    Prior research suggests that rape victims who do not disclose or report to the police give reasons including self-blame and fear of judgment; however, this research has not been conducted with incarcerated women. Female offenders are a unique population because they experience high rates of sexual assault prior to incarceration. This study…

  1. A Protection Motivation Theory application to date rape education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Shweta; Orwat, John; Grossman, Susan

    2011-12-01

    Date rape risk communication is a key component of education-based Date Rape Prevention Programs, common across colleges. In such programs, risk assessment in date rape is approached cautiously in order to avoid a tone of "victim blaming." Since it is important in the assessment of any risk to understand the surrounding social context of the risky situation and the individual's unique relationship with that social context, this study examines Protection Motivation Theory as it applies to handling the risk of date rape without victim blaming. The paper links individual personality and social contexts with risk communication. The study sample comprised 367 undergraduate women enrolled in a large Southern Public University. The study examines the relationships between dating activity, social competency, and type of information provided with the dependents variables of date rape related protection behavior (intent), belief, and knowledge. A factorial multiple analysis of covariance analysis found that the dependent variables had a significant relationship with aspects of social competency and dating activity. The exposure to varying information about date rape was not significantly related to the dependent variables of date rape-related protection behavior (intent), belief, and knowledge. The identification of social competency and dating activity status as protective factors in this study makes a significant contribution to the practice and research efforts in date rape education.

  2. Rape Myth Beliefs and Bystander Attitudes among Incoming College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The bystander approach to rape prevention is gaining popularity on college campuses, although research is limited. This study explored bystander attitudes and their relationship with rape myths in a sample of college students. Participants: Surveys from 2,338 incoming undergraduate students at a large, northeastern university were…

  3. Rape Survivors' Agency within the Legal and Medical Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greeson, Megan R.; Campbell, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    Many rape survivors seek help from the legal and medical systems post-assault. Previous studies have examined how social system personnel treat survivors, but less attention has been paid to how survivors attempt to shape their interactions with these systems. The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine rape survivors' agency--the active…

  4. Effect of chronic radiation on rape genotype formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabry, A.; Hannich, K.; Cerny, J.; Vyvadilova, M.

    1975-01-01

    The F 1 generation of hybrid plants of the Canadian erucic acid-free rape cross-bred with some European winter rape varieties with a high content of erucic acid were chronically irradiated in a gamma-field with doses ranging from 5978 to 329 R er vegetation. In segregating F 2 generations, the irradiation significantly increased the proportion of winter genotypes; a matroclinous influence on the developmental characteristics of plants occurred in irradiated segregating F 2 hybrid populations. As against spring rape, winter rape varieties used as the maternal form during hybridization caused a statistically significant increase in the frequency of winter genotypes. The segregation of half-winter forms in irradiated segregating hybrid populations of the F 2 generation proved the incomplete dominance of the spring habit of oil rape. Chronic irradiation significantly increased erucic-free (0 - 10% of erucic acid) and low-erucic (10 - 20% of erucic acid) genotype frequencies in segregating F 2 generations. Chronic irradiation of the hybrid plants of erucic-free spring rapes and erucic winter rapes with doses ranging from 5978 to 329 R per vegetation, together with the temperature screening of winter forms and with the determination of the fatty acid content, may be considered as an effective method of creating non-erucic and low-erucic winter forms of oil rape. (author)

  5. Rape Prevention with College Men: Evaluating Risk Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Kari A.; George, William H.

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluates the effectiveness of a theoretically based rape prevention intervention with college men who were at high or low risk to perpetrate sexually coercive behavior. Participants (N = 146) are randomly assigned to the intervention or control group. Outcomes include rape myth acceptance, victim empathy, attraction to sexual…

  6. Multiple Perpetrator Rape: Naming an Offence and Initial Research Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, Miranda Angel Helena; Kelly, Liz

    2009-01-01

    Multiple perpetrator rape presents a significant problem nationally and internationally. However, previous research is limited and findings are often contradictory. The details of 101 rape allegations recorded in a six-month period in a large police force in England were analysed. Findings are presented about case classification, victim and…

  7. "Spreading the Love" and Using Performances to Prevent Rape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Aurora

    2013-01-01

    While rape is ordinarily considered an invariable reality, Sharon Marcus argues that it is instead a cultural script, which casts women as victims and men as perpetrators. In imagining rape as a script, it may seem pertinent to suggest that the arts and performance have a role in its prevention. Performances can provide a forum to publicly reflect…

  8. A REVIEW OF LITERATURE: RAPE AND COMMUNICATION MEDIA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    social change in the community; a positive change, from social vices such as rape, stealing ... Language cannot be separated from social life, and is logically connected to it. ..... This form of rape is incest, and is committed by the child's parents or close relatives, such as .... Emotional numbness or irritability. Flashbacks.

  9. 107 SPOUSAL RAPE IN A GLOBALIZED WORLD Abstract Sexual

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fr. Ikenga

    5 Some have wondered why a married woman will cry foul and ... for the retention of spousal rape exemption among others is the fact that establishing rape within marriage is usually an uphill task, it is believed that such allegations can .... between unmarried persons is unlawful; it is noted that this act do not carry with it any ...

  10. Rape, sex partnership, and substance use consequences in women veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Brenda M; Mengeling, Michelle; Torner, James; Sadler, Anne G

    2011-06-01

    The association of rape history and sexual partnership with alcohol and drug use consequences in women veterans is unknown. Midwestern women veterans (N = 1,004) completed a retrospective telephone interview assessing demographics, rape history, substance abuse and dependence, depression, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). One third met lifetime criteria for substance use disorder (SUD), half reported lifetime completed rape, a third childhood rape, one quarter in-military rape, 11% sex with women. Lifetime SUD was higher for women with rape history (64% vs. 44%). Women with women as sex partners had significantly higher rates of all measures of rape, and also lifetime substance use disorder. Postmilitary rape, sex partnership, and current depression were significantly associated with lifetime SUD in multivariate models (odds ratio = 2.3, 3.6, 2.1, respectively). Many women veterans have a high need for comprehensive mental health services. Published 2011. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  11. Resources for Developing Acquaintance Rape Prevention Programs for Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earle, James P.; Nies, Charles T.

    1994-01-01

    Provides an annotated bibliography of videos and printed materials that may be used as educational tools in rape prevention programs. Focuses on sources that are aimed directly at men. Also outlines the use of consultants or lecturers as one of many resources in the construction and implementation of rape prevention programs. (KW)

  12. Ozone affects growth and development of Pieris brassicae on the wild host plant Brassica nigra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khaling, Eliezer; Papazian, Stefano; Poelman, Erik H.; Holopainen, Jarmo K.; Albrectsen, Benedicte R.; Blande, James D.

    2015-01-01

    When plants are exposed to ozone they exhibit changes in both primary and secondary metabolism, which may affect their interactions with herbivorous insects. Here we investigated the performance and preferences of the specialist herbivore Pieris brassicae on the wild plant Brassica nigra under elevated ozone conditions. The direct and indirect effects of ozone on the plant-herbivore system were studied. In both cases ozone exposure had a negative effect on P. brassicae development. However, in dual-choice tests larvae preferentially consumed plant material previously fumigated with the highest concentration tested, showing a lack of correlation between larval preference and performance on ozone exposed plants. Metabolomic analysis of leaf material subjected to combinations of ozone and herbivore-feeding, and focussing on known defence metabolites, indicated that P. brassicae behaviour and performance were associated with ozone-induced alterations to glucosinolate and phenolic pools. - Highlights: • We examined the effects of ozone on Pieris brassicae performance and preference. • We studied ozone and herbivore induced changes in the metabolome of Brassica nigra. • The performance of P. brassicae did not correlate with preference of ozonated plants. • Ozone and herbivore-feeding stress changes the phytochemical pools of B. nigra. - Ozone indirectly reduces herbivore performance, which is associated with change in phytochemical pools, but does not correlate with host plant preference

  13. Antioxidant Activities and Oxidative Stabilities of Some Unconventional Oilseeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uluata, Sibel; Ozdemir, Nurhayat

    2012-04-01

    The oils of some unconventional oilseeds (hemp, radish, terebinth, stinging nettle, laurel) were obtained by a cold-press method in which the total oil content, fatty acids, tocopherol isomers, some metal contents (Ca, Mg, Fe, Cu), antioxidant activity and oxidative stability were determined. The total oil content was determined ranging between 30.68 and 43.12%, and the oil samples had large amounts of unsaturated fatty acids, with oleic acid and linoleic acid. Of all the oils, terebinth seed oil had the highest α-tocopherol content (102.21 ± 1.01 mg/kg oil). Laurel oilseed had the highest antiradical activity in both the DPPH and ABTS assays. The peroxide value of the non-oxidized oils ranged between 0.51 and 3.73 mequiv O(2)/kg oil. The TBARS value of the non-oxidized oils ranged between 0.68 ± 0.02 and 6.43 ± 0.48 mmol MA equiv/g oil. At 110 °C, the Rancimat induction period of the oils ranged between 1.32 and 43.44 h. The infrared spectra of the samples were recorded by FTIR spectroscopy. The absorbance values of the spectrum bands were observed and it was determined that some of the chemical groups of oxidized oils caused changes in absorbance. As a result of the present research, the analyzed oils could be evaluated as an alternative to traditionally consumed vegetable oils or as additives to them.

  14. Standardized gene nomenclature for the Brassica genus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    King Graham J

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The genus Brassica (Brassicaceae, Brassiceae is closely related to the model plant Arabidopsis, and includes several important crop plants. Against the background of ongoing genome sequencing, and in line with efforts to standardize and simplify description of genetic entities, we propose a standard systematic gene nomenclature system for the Brassica genus. This is based upon concatenating abbreviated categories, where these are listed in descending order of significance from left to right (i.e. genus – species – genome – gene name – locus – allele. Indicative examples are provided, and the considerations and recommendations for use are discussed, including outlining the relationship with functionally well-characterized Arabidopsis orthologues. A Brassica Gene Registry has been established under the auspices of the Multinational Brassica Genome Project that will enable management of gene names within the research community, and includes provisional allocation of standard names to genes previously described in the literature or in sequence repositories. The proposed standardization of Brassica gene nomenclature has been distributed to editors of plant and genetics journals and curators of sequence repositories, so that it can be adopted universally.

  15. Unleashing the genome of Brassica rapa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haibao eTang

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The completion and release of the Brassica rapa genome is of great benefit to researchers of the Brassicas, Arabidopsis, and genome evolution. While its lineage is closely related to the model organism Arabidopsis thaliana, the Brassicas experienced a whole genome triplication subsequent to their divergence. This event contemporaneously created three copies of its ancestral genome, which had diploidized through the process of homeologous gene loss known as fractionation. By the fractionation of homeologous gene content and genetic regulatory binding sites, Brassica’s genome is well placed to use comparative genomic techniques to identify syntenic regions, homeologous gene duplications, and putative regulatory sequences. Here, we use the comparative genomics platform CoGe to perform several different genomic analyses with which to study structural changes of its genome and dynamics of various genetic elements. Starting with whole genome comparisons, the Brassica paleohexaploidy is characterized, syntenic regions with Arabidopsis thaliana are identified, and the TOC1 gene in the circadian rhythm pathway from Arabidopsis thaliana is used to find duplicated orthologs in Brassica rapa. These TOC1 genes are further analyzed to identify conserved noncoding sequences that contain cis-acting regulatory elements and promoter sequences previously implicated in circadian rhythmicity. Each 'cookbook style' analysis includes a step-by-step walkthrough with links to CoGe to quickly reproduce each step of the analytical process.

  16. Elevated atmospheric ozone increases concentration of insecticidal Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Cry1Ac protein in Bt Brassica napus and reduces feeding of a Bt target herbivore on the non-transgenic parent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Himanen, Sari J.; Nerg, Anne-Marja; Nissinen, Anne; Stewart, C. Neal; Poppy, Guy M.; Holopainen, Jarmo K.

    2009-01-01

    Sustained cultivation of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) transgenic crops requires stable transgene expression under variable abiotic conditions. We studied the interactions of Bt toxin production and chronic ozone exposure in Bt cry1Ac-transgenic oilseed rape and found that the insect resistance trait is robust under ozone elevations. Bt Cry1Ac concentrations were higher in the leaves of Bt oilseed rape grown under elevated ozone compared to control treatment, measured either per leaf fresh weight or per total soluble protein of leaves. The mean relative growth rate of a Bt target herbivore, Plutella xylostella L. larvae was negative on Bt plants in all ozone treatments. On the non-transgenic plants, larval feeding damage was reduced under elevated ozone. Our results indicate the need for monitoring fluctuations in Bt toxin concentrations to reveal the potential of ozone exposure for altering dosing of Bt proteins to target and non-target herbivores in field environments experiencing increasing ozone pollution. - Elevated atmospheric ozone can induce fluctuations in insecticidal protein concentrations in transgenic plants

  17. Elevated atmospheric ozone increases concentration of insecticidal Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Cry1Ac protein in Bt Brassica napus and reduces feeding of a Bt target herbivore on the non-transgenic parent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Himanen, Sari J. [University of Kuopio, Department of Environmental Science, P.O. Box 1627, FIN-70211 Kuopio (Finland)], E-mail: sari.himanen@uku.fi; Nerg, Anne-Marja [University of Kuopio, Department of Environmental Science, P.O. Box 1627, FIN-70211 Kuopio (Finland); Nissinen, Anne [University of Kuopio, Department of Environmental Science, P.O. Box 1627, FIN-70211 Kuopio (Finland); MTT Agrifood Research Finland, Plant Protection, FIN-31600 Jokioinen (Finland); Stewart, C. Neal [University of Tennessee, Department of Plant Sciences, Knoxville, TN 37996-4561 (United States); Poppy, Guy M. [University of Southampton, School of Biological Sciences, Southampton SO16 7PX (United Kingdom); Holopainen, Jarmo K. [University of Kuopio, Department of Environmental Science, P.O. Box 1627, FIN-70211 Kuopio (Finland)

    2009-01-15

    Sustained cultivation of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) transgenic crops requires stable transgene expression under variable abiotic conditions. We studied the interactions of Bt toxin production and chronic ozone exposure in Bt cry1Ac-transgenic oilseed rape and found that the insect resistance trait is robust under ozone elevations. Bt Cry1Ac concentrations were higher in the leaves of Bt oilseed rape grown under elevated ozone compared to control treatment, measured either per leaf fresh weight or per total soluble protein of leaves. The mean relative growth rate of a Bt target herbivore, Plutella xylostella L. larvae was negative on Bt plants in all ozone treatments. On the non-transgenic plants, larval feeding damage was reduced under elevated ozone. Our results indicate the need for monitoring fluctuations in Bt toxin concentrations to reveal the potential of ozone exposure for altering dosing of Bt proteins to target and non-target herbivores in field environments experiencing increasing ozone pollution. - Elevated atmospheric ozone can induce fluctuations in insecticidal protein concentrations in transgenic plants.

  18. Presence and Distribution of Oilseed Pumpkin Viruses and Molecular Detection of Zucchini Yellow Mosaic Virus

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Vučurović; Aleksandra Bulajić; Ivana Đekić; Danijela Ristić; Janoš Berenji; Branka Krstić

    2009-01-01

    Over the past decade, intensive spread of virus infections of oilseed pumpkin has resulted in significant economic losses in pumpkin crop production, which is currently expanding in our country. In 2007 and 2008, a survey for the presence and distribution of oilseed pumpkin viruses was carried out in order to identify viruses responsible for epidemics and incidences of very destructive symptoms on cucurbit leaves and fruits. Monitoring and collecting samples of oil pumpkin, as well as other s...

  19. Effects of rape on men: a descriptive analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Jayne; Archer, John; Davies, Michelle

    2005-02-01

    Previous studies of the effects of rape on men have focused mainly on clinical populations. This study extended current research by investigating the effects of rape on a non-clinical sample of men recruited from the general population by media advertising. A total of 40 male rape victims were asked to provide details of their assaults, levels of psychological disturbance, long-term effects, and reporting issues. Results revealed that most assaults had been carried out using physical or violent force, in a variety of different circumstances. All of the victims reported some form of psychological disturbance as a result of being raped. Long-term effects included anxiety, depression, increased feelings of anger and vulnerability, loss of self-image, emotional distancing, self-blame, and self-harming behaviors. Findings are discussed in relation to previous research in the area and perceptions of rape.

  20. Evaluation of an intervention to change attitudes toward date rape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanier, C A; Elliott, M N; Martin, D W; Kapadia, A

    1998-01-01

    The prevalence of date rape among college students is a major concern. Although much research has been done on risk factors for date rape, few researchers have specifically described interventions for the various stages of developing a date-rape prevention program. Previous programs have often relied on educational videos that feature a "typical" date-rape scenario, a format that some researchers suggest may have a negative effect on the way people engage in aggressive sexual behavior. A less violent theatrical production based on social learning theory and risk-factor reduction that resulted in a significant improvement in attitudes related to date rape among both male and female students at an elite Texas university is described.

  1. Suspects in criminal investigations of rape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinković Darko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigations of sexual assaults mostly focus on victims and their credibility, which may cause lack of firm evidence in relation to suspects. Given the fact that the criminal offence of rape is characterised by a high incidence of false reports and accusations, frequently indicating specific persons as the perpetrators, certain caution is necessary in the investigation in order to avoid false accusations and/or convictions. As regards the personality of the rapist and motives for committing a forcible sexual act, certain types or rather certain categories of perpetrators can be distinguished, although it should be noted that a large number of rapists do not belong to one category only, but rather combine characteristics of several different types. During a criminal investigation it is of vital importance to differentiate between a rape as a surprise attack and a rape as abuse of trust, as they are compatible with the nature of the suspect's defence. The suspect shall be subjected to a forensic examination in the course of the investigation in order to find traces which prove vaginal, anal or oral penetration, coerced sexual intercourse and identity of the rapist. While conducting an interrogation of a suspected rapist, a crime investigating officer shall use either factual or emotional approach to his interviewee, depending on his psychological and motivational characteristics. In this regard, the factual approach is believed to be more efficient with anger rapists and sadistic rapists, whereas the compassionate approach gives good results with the gentlemen-rapists and partly with the power asserting rapists.

  2. Occurrence of Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Pammel, 1895) Dowson 1939, on brassicas in Montenegro

    OpenAIRE

    Radunović Dragana; Balaž Jelica

    2012-01-01

    Brassicas form the most important group of vegetable crops in Montenegro. The cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata) is most commonly grown, although other brassicas, particularly kale, Brussels sprout, cauliflower and broccoli, have been increasingly produced since recently. One of the specialties of vegetable production in Montenegro is growing of collard (Brassica oleracea var. acephala), which is the simplest variety of the Brassica oleracea species ...

  3. Giving birth with rape in one's past: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halvorsen, Lotta; Nerum, Hilde; Oian, Pål; Sørlie, Tore

    2013-09-01

    Rape is one of the most traumatizing violations a woman can be subjected to, and leads to extensive health problems, predominantly psychological ones. A large proportion of women develop a form of posttraumatic stress termed Rape Trauma Syndrome. A previous study by our research group has shown that women with a history of rape far more often had an operative delivery in their first birth and those who gave birth vaginally had second stages twice as long as women with no history of sexual assault. The aim of this study is to examine and illuminate how women previously subjected to rape experience giving birth for the first time and their advice on the kind of birth care they regard as good for women with a history of rape. A semi-structured interview with 10 women, who had been exposed to rape before their first childbirth. Data on the birth experience were analyzed by qualitative content analysis. The main theme was "being back in the rape" with two categories: "reactivation of the rape during labor," with subcategories "struggle," "surrender," and "escape" and "re-traumatization after birth," with the subcategories "objectified," "dirtied," and "alienated body." A rape trauma can be reactivated during the first childbirth regardless of mode of delivery. After birth, the women found themselves re-traumatized with the feeling of being dirtied, alienated, and reduced to just a body that another body is to come out of. Birth attendants should acknowledge that the common measures and procedures used during normal birth or cesarean section can contribute to a reactivation of the rape trauma. © 2013, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2013, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. "You Owe Me": Effects of Date Cost, Who Pays, Participant Gender, and Rape Myth Beliefs on Perceptions of Rape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basow, Susan A.; Minieri, Alexandra

    2011-01-01

    Sexual social exchange theory was applied to perceptions of a date rape by manipulating the cost of the date and who paid in vignettes presented to 188 U.S. college students, who then rated the characters' sexual expectations, blame, responsibility, and rape justifiability. Findings from this between-participant design partially supported…

  5. Male Power and Female Victimization: Towards a Theory of Interracial Rape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaFree, Gary D.

    1982-01-01

    Tests two models of Black offender/White victim (BW) rape, using data from 443 rape cases. Results did not support the normative model which correlates BW rape with increased social interaction between Black men and White women and only partially supported the conflict model that correlates BW rape with increased Black politicization. (Author/AM)

  6. Rape and Child Sexual Abuse: What Beliefs Persist about Motives, Perpetrators, and Survivors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, Hannah; O'Higgins, Madeleine; Garavan, Rebecca; Conroy, Ronan

    2011-01-01

    Rape myths are prejudicial and stereotyped beliefs about rape which persist in society. They may have a significant impact on those affected by rape as well as the performance of legal and public participants in the justice system. Rape myths may differ over time and within different societies and cultural settings. Awareness of contemporary and…

  7. Agrobacterium mediated transformation of brassica juncea (l.) czern with chitinase gene conferring resistance against fungal infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, B.; Ambreen, S.; Khan, I.

    2015-01-01

    Brassica juncea (Czern and Coss., L.) is an important oilseed crop. Since it is attacked by several bacterial and fungal diseases, therefore, we developed an easy and simple protocol for the regeneration and transformation of B. juncea variety RAYA ANMOL to give rise to transgenic plants conferring resistance against various fungal diseases. The transformation was carried out using Agrobacterium with Chitinase gene. This gene was isolated from Streptomyces griseus HUT6037. We used two types of explants for transformation i.e. hypocotyls and cotyledons. Only hypocotyls explants showed good results regarding callus initiation. Different hormonal concentrations were applied i.e. BAP 2, 4 and 6 mgL-1 and NAA 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3 mgL-1. However, high transformation efficiency was observed by supplementing the medium with combination of 2 mgL-1 BAP and 0.2 mgL-1 for initiation of callus. Similarly 10 mgL-1 kanamycin and 200 mgL-1 cefotaxime also proved successful for the selection of transformed callus. In order to confirm the presence of transgenic callus Polymerase chain reaction was performed using specific primers for Chitinase gene. (author)

  8. Receipt of Post-Rape Medical Care in a National Sample of Female Victims

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinzow, Heidi M.; Resnick, Heidi S.; Barr, Simone C.; Danielson, Carla K.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.

    2014-01-01

    Background It is important for rape victims to receive medical care to prevent and treat rape-related diseases and injuries, access forensic exams, and connect to needed resources. Few victims seek care, and factors associated with post-rape medical care–seeking are poorly understood. Purpose The current study examined prevalence and factors associated with post-rape medical care–seeking in a national sample of women who reported a most-recent or only incident of forcible rape, and drug- or alcohol-facilitated/incapacitated rape when they were aged ≥14 years. Methods A national sample of U.S. adult women (N=3001) completed structured telephone interviews in 2006, and data for this study were analyzed in 2011. Logistic regression analyses examined demographic variables, health, rape characteristics, and post-rape concerns in relation to post-rape medical care–seeking among 445 female rape victims. Results A minority of rape victims (21%) sought post-rape medical attention following the incident. In the final multivariate model, correlates of medical care included black race, rape-related injury, concerns about sexually transmitted diseases, pregnancy concerns, and reporting the incident to police. Conclusions Women who experience rapes consistent with stereotypic scenarios, acknowledge the rape, report the rape, and harbor health concerns appear to be more likely to seek post-rape medical services. Education is needed to increase rape acknowledgment, awareness of post-rape services that do not require formal reporting, and recognition of the need to treat rape-related health problems. PMID:22813683

  9. Complete mitochondrial genome sequence of black mustard (Brassica nigra; BB) and comparison with Brassica oleracea (CC) and Brassica carinata (BBCC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamagishi, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Yoshiyuki; Terachi, Toru

    2014-11-01

    Crop species of Brassica (Brassicaceae) consist of three monogenomic species and three amphidiploid species resulting from interspecific hybridizations among them. Until now, mitochondrial genome sequences were available for only five of these species. We sequenced the mitochondrial genome of the sixth species, Brassica nigra (nuclear genome constitution BB), and compared it with those of Brassica oleracea (CC) and Brassica carinata (BBCC). The genome was assembled into a 232 145 bp circular sequence that is slightly larger than that of B. oleracea (219 952 bp). The genome of B. nigra contained 33 protein-coding genes, 3 rRNA genes, and 17 tRNA genes. The cox2-2 gene present in B. oleracea was absent in B. nigra. Although the nucleotide sequences of 52 genes were identical between B. nigra and B. carinata, the second exon of rps3 showed differences including an insertion/deletion (indel) and nucleotide substitutions. A PCR test to detect the indel revealed intraspecific variation in rps3, and in one line of B. nigra it amplified a DNA fragment of the size expected for B. carinata. In addition, the B. carinata lines tested here produced DNA fragments of the size expected for B. nigra. The results indicate that at least two mitotypes of B. nigra were present in the maternal parents of B. carinata.

  10. Gender-Blind Sexism and Rape Myth Acceptance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoll, Laurie Cooper; Lilley, Terry Glenn; Pinter, Kelly

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to explore whether gender-blind sexism, as an extension of Bonilla-Silva's racialized social system theory, is an appropriate theoretical framework for understanding the creation and continued prevalence of rape myth acceptance. Specifically, we hypothesize that individuals who hold attitudes consistent with the frames of gender-blind sexism are more likely to accept common rape myths. Data for this article come from an online survey administered to the entire undergraduate student body at a large Midwestern institution (N = 1,401). Regression analysis showed strong support for the effects of gender-blind sexism on rape myth acceptance. © The Author(s) 2016.

  11. Rape in South Africa: an invisible part of apartheid's legacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, S

    1994-06-01

    Male dominated power systems in South Africa coupled with a culture of aggression and domination have not allowed for the mainstream emergence of qualities such as trust, compassion, and gentleness, frequently associated with female virtues. Rape under such circumstances is the assertion of male power, and, as expected, the numbers of rape cases and other forms of gender violence have increased. Under an apartheid system, where only the rape of white women was prosecuted, and gender and race issues could diffuse the black struggle, there were difficulties in mobilizing support to end violence against black women. There was social acceptance that rape of black women was part of life. Police statistics on the incidence of rape were notoriously unreliable, because only a small percentage of cases are reported to police, and many women would be ashamed to admit to marital abuse, including rape. In women's groups, it was reported that 1 out of every 4 women had been raped, and raped at early ages, such as 14 years of age. In impoverished communities, there is widespread poverty, injustice, prejudice, alcohol abuse, and other conditions impacting on women. The rapists may be school classmates, or street fighters, or political activists. The sexual initiation of women worldwide and in South Africa frequently is accompanied by coercion. Abduction and forced sex is considered legitimate for young men, who believe that mental health is deleteriously affected by lack of sex. Girls may even be abducted from the classroom, as a way of preventing women's power and control over assets and resources and diminishing the potential threat to gender power relations. School girls who become pregnant are often forced to leave school. Victims of rape may be excluded from family life and forced to seek prostitution as a means of support. Rape is reportedly experienced among older women with bottles, tins, or other devices which inflict injury. Only rape with penal penetration is an

  12. Transfer of thallium from rape seed to rape oil is negligible and oil is fit for human consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loula, Martin; Kaňa, Antonín; Vosmanská, Magda; Koplík, Richard; Mestek, Oto

    2016-01-01

    Rape and other Brassicaceae family plants can accumulate appreciable amounts of thallium from the soil. Because some species of this family are common crops utilised as food for direct consumption or raw materials for food production, thallium can enter the food chain. A useful method for thallium determination is inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The limit of detection (0.2 pg ml(-1) Tl or 0.02 ng g(-1) Tl, taking in the account dilution during sample decomposition) found in the current study was very low, and the method can be used for ultra-trace analysis. Possible transfer of thallium from rape seed to the rape oil was investigated in two ways. The balance of thallium in rape seed meal (content 140-200 ng g(-1) Tl) and defatted rape seed meal indicated that thallium did not pass into the oil (p thallium in six kinds of edible rape seed oil and three kinds of margarines showed that the amount of thallium in rape seed oil is negligible.

  13. Carbon dioxide concentrations are very high in developing oilseeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goffman, Fernando D; Ruckle, Mike; Ohlrogge, John; Shachar-Hill, Yair

    2004-09-01

    A new method has been developed to rapidly determine the total inorganic carbon concentration (gaseous [CO2] + aqueous [CO(2)] + [HCO3-] + [CO3(2)-]) in developing seeds. Seeds are rapidly dissected and homogenized in 1 N HCl in gas-tight vials. The headspace gas is then analyzed by infrared gas analysis. Developing rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) and soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] seeds were analyzed and found to have up to 40 and 12 mM total inorganic carbon, respectively. These concentrations are ca. 600-2000-fold higher than in ambient air or values reported for leaves. Carbon dioxide concentrations in rapeseed peaked during the stage of maximum oil synthesis and declined as seeds matured. The consequences for seed metabolism, physiology and carbon economy are discussed.

  14. Brassica rapa L. seed development in hypergravity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Musgrave, M.E.; Kuang, A.; Allen, J.; Blasiak, J.; van Loon, J.J.W.A.

    2009-01-01

    Previous experiments had shown that microgravity adversely affected seed development in Brassica rapa L. We tested the hypothesis that gravity controls seed development via modulation of gases around the developing seeds, by studying how hypergravity affects the silique microenvironment and seed

  15. Attack modes and defence reactions in pathosystems involving Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, Brassica carinata, B. juncea and B. napus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uloth, Margaret B; Clode, Peta L; You, Ming Pei; Barbetti, Martin J

    2016-01-01

    Sclerotinia stem rot (SSR, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum) is a damaging disease of oilseed brassicas world-wide. Host resistance is urgently needed to achieve control, yet the factors that contribute to stem resistance are not well understood. This study investigated the mechanisms of resistance to SSR. Stems of 5-week-old Brassica carinata, B. juncea and B. napus of known resistance were infected via filter paper discs impregnated with S. sclerotiorum mycelium under controlled conditions. Transverse sections of the stem and portions of the stem surface were examined using optical and scanning electron microscopy. The association of anatomical features with the severity of disease (measured by mean lesion length) was determined. Several distinct resistance mechanisms were recorded for the first time in these Brassica-pathogen interactions, including hypersensitive reactions and lignification within the stem cortex, endodermis and in tissues surrounding the lesions. Genotypes showing a strong lignification response 72 h post-infection (hpi) tended to have smaller lesions. Extensive vascular invasion by S. sclerotiorum was observed only in susceptible genotypes, especially in the vascular fibres and xylem. Mean lesion length was negatively correlated with the number of cell layers in the cortex, suggesting progress of S. sclerotiorum is impeded by more cell layers. Hyphae in the centre of lesions became highly vacuolate 72 hpi, reflecting an ageing process in S. sclerotiorum hyphal networks that was independent of host resistance. The infection process of S. sclerotiorum was analogous in B. carinata and B. napus. Infection cushions of the highly virulent isolate of S. sclerotiorum MBRS-1 were grouped together in dense parallel bundles, while hyphae in the infection cushions of a less aggressive isolate WW-3 were more diffuse, and this was unaffected by host genotype. A variety of mechanisms contribute to host resistance against S. sclerotiorum across the three

  16. Flowering Dynamics and Pollinator Visitation of Oilseed Echium (Echium plantagineum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberle, Carrie A.; Forcella, Frank; Gesch, Russ; Weyers, Sharon; Peterson, Dean; Eklund, James

    2014-01-01

    Echium (Echium plantagineum L.) is an alternative oilseed crop in summer-wet temperate regions that provides floral resources to pollinators. Its seed oil is rich in omega-3 fatty acids, such as stearidonic acid, which is desired highly by the cosmetic industry. Seeds were sown in field plots over three years in western Minnesota in spring (early-sown) or early summer (late-sown), and flower abundance, pollinator visitation, and seed yields were studied. Initial flowering commenced 41 to 55 d after sowing, and anthesis duration (first flowering to harvest) was 34 to 70 d. Late sowing dates delayed anthesis, but increased the intensity of visitation by pollinators. Cumulative flower densities ranged from 1 to 4.5 billion ha−1. Flowers attracted numerous honey bees (Apis mellifera L.), as many as 35 per minute of observation, which represented about 50% of all insect visitors. Early-sown echium produced seed yields up to 750 kg ha−1, which were 2–29 times higher than those of late-sown echium. Early sowing of echium in Minnesota provides abundant floral resources for pollinators for up to two months and simultaneously produces seed yields whose profits rival those of corn (Zea mays L.). PMID:25427071

  17. Flowering dynamics and pollinator visitation of oilseed echium (Echium plantagineum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrie A Eberle

    Full Text Available Echium (Echium plantagineum L. is an alternative oilseed crop in summer-wet temperate regions that provides floral resources to pollinators. Its seed oil is rich in omega-3 fatty acids, such as stearidonic acid, which is desired highly by the cosmetic industry. Seeds were sown in field plots over three years in western Minnesota in spring (early-sown or early summer (late-sown, and flower abundance, pollinator visitation, and seed yields were studied. Initial flowering commenced 41 to 55 d after sowing, and anthesis duration (first flowering to harvest was 34 to 70 d. Late sowing dates delayed anthesis, but increased the intensity of visitation by pollinators. Cumulative flower densities ranged from 1 to 4.5 billion ha-1. Flowers attracted numerous honey bees (Apis mellifera L., as many as 35 per minute of observation, which represented about 50% of all insect visitors. Early-sown echium produced seed yields up to 750 kg ha-1, which were 2-29 times higher than those of late-sown echium. Early sowing of echium in Minnesota provides abundant floral resources for pollinators for up to two months and simultaneously produces seed yields whose profits rival those of corn (Zea mays L..

  18. Rape embryogenesis. III. Embryo development in time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Tykarska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available It was found that the growth curve of the rape embryo axis is of triple sigmoid type. Embryo growth occurs in 3 phases corresponding to 3 different periods of development. Phase I includes growth of the apical cell up to it's division into two layers of octants. Phase II comprises the increase of the spherical proembryo to the change of its symmetry from radial to bilateral. Phase III includes, growth of the embryo from the heart stage up to the end of embryogenesis. In each phase the relative growth rate increases drastically and then diminishes. The differences in growth intensity during the same phase are several-fold. The growth intensity maximum of the embryo axis occurs in phase II. The phasic growth intensity maxima occur: in phase I during apical cell elongation, :before its division, and in phases II and III in the periods of cell division ;growth in globular and torpedo-shaped -shaped embryos.

  19. Antioxidant Enzyme Activities of some Brassica Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodica SOARE

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper set out to comparatively study five species: white cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata alba Alef., red cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata f. rubra Alef., Kale (Brassica oleracea L. var. Acephala, cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis and broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. cymosa in order to identify those with high enzymatic and antioxidant activities. The enzymatic activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT and soluble peroxidase (POX as well as the antioxidant activity against 2.2’-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS radical cation were determined. Total superoxide dismutase activity was measured spectrophotometrically based on inhibition in the photochemical reduction of nitroblue tetrazolium. Total soluble peroxidase was assayed by measuring the increase in A436 due to the guaiacol oxidation and the catalase activity was assayed through the colorimetric method. The capacity of extracts to scavenge the ABTS radical cation was assessed colorimetric using Trolox as a standard. The obtained results show that studied enzymatic activities and the antioxidant activity against ABTS vary depending on the analyzed species. So, among the studied Brassicaceae species, it emphasize red cabbage with the highest enzymatic activity (CAT 22.54 mM H2O2/min/g and POX 187.2 mM ΔA/1min/1g f.w. and kale with highest antioxidant activity, of 767 μmol TE/100g f.w. The results of this study recommendintroducing the studied varieties in diet due to the rich antioxidant properties.

  20. Schema Effects of Rape Myth Acceptance on Judgments of Guilt and Blame in Rape Cases: The Role of Perceived Entitlement to Judge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyssel, Friederike; Bohner, Gerd

    2011-01-01

    Two experiments (N = 330) examined conditions that facilitate biasing effects of rape myth acceptance (RMA) on judgments of blame in rape cases. In both experiments, participants read a short vignette depicting a rape case. In Experiment 1, the amount of case-irrelevant information about defendant and plaintiff was varied. As predicted, high-RMA…

  1. Bioenergy for farms - turnip rape oil, biodiesel and biogas

    OpenAIRE

    Kuisma, Miia

    2006-01-01

    One research and one development project concerning production and processing technique of organic turnip rape is going on in Finland in 2006-2008. The development project concerns also biogas production from biomass.

  2. An empirical investigation of campus demographics and reported rapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiersma-Mosley, Jacquelyn D; Jozkowski, Kristen N; Martinez, Taylor

    2017-10-01

    Rape on college campuses continues to be a pervasive public health issue with approximately 11% of women experiencing rape while in college. As such, it is important to examine factors unique to college campuses that influence the occurrences of rape. Using data from 1,423 four-year universities (public and private with at least 1,000 students) from the Office of Education and the Clery Act (2014), we examined institutional risk factors, such as tuition, liquor violations, Greek-life, athletic programs, institution type (public vs. private), and geographical location. Public institutions with higher tuition, more liquor violations, and greater numbers of fraternity men and athletes were more likely to report rape on their campuses. Findings suggest that there are university-level characteristics which may increase certain campuses propensity toward violence against women.

  3. A model for predicting depression in victims of rape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regehr, C; Regehr, G; Bradford, J

    1998-01-01

    This article proposes a model for understanding the factors contributing to long-standing depression in women who have been raped. A path analysis of data obtained from 71 women who had been raped revealed that women with generalized beliefs that they could not control events in their lives were more likely to attribute responsibility for their rape to permanent intrapsychic factors and were more likely to be depressed. Women who perceived that they had higher levels of internal control tended to have higher levels of education, were more likely to be employed, and were less likely to be depressed more than one year after having been raped. Childhood sexual abuse was not associated with internal control or attributions of causality or depression in this analysis. Implications for the determination of prognosis and treatment recommendations in civil litigation assessments are discussed.

  4. 161 ETHICAL PROBLEMS OF RAPE AS A SOCIAL CANKERWORM ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    violence that involves intercourse without consent or against someone being willing ... Rape is a global problem with women and children being mostly vulnerable .... allows their wards to spend too much time watching television where sex is ...

  5. Evolution of Rape Myths and Sexual Assaults in Newspaper Coverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Wen Tsai

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The article presents an analysis of the coverage of three newspapers of rape in the daily Press in Taiwan. The idea that rape is a sexual rather than an aggressive act encourages people not to take it seriously as a crime-an attitude frequently revealed in comments by defense attorneys and newspaper. The authors’ investigated that the female victim who did not know most of her attackers will be portrayed as helpless and not responsible for her victimization. The newspapers sustained and reinforced the myths that a woman who is having consensual sex cannot be raped, and if so, she is held culpable and perceived as “asking for it.” A content analysis of newspapers’ headlines and coverage between 2002 and 2013 showed that more than 50% endorsed a rape myth.

  6. Page | 131 RISING CASES OF RAPE OFFENCES IN NIGERIA: NEW ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fr. Ikenga

    Key words: Rape, Rising Cases, New Measures, Penetration, Criminal Justice System, Tripod. 1. Introduction ... International Law and Jurisprudence, Faculty of Law, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka. .... 10 Sexual Offences Act 2003 of the UK.

  7. Genotypic variation of rape in phosphorus uptake from sparingly ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2012-02-14

    Feb 14, 2012 ... that exudation of organic acids by rape roots are probably involved in P ... Plant materials and seedling growth ..... Diversity in root architecture and ... froms, element distribution, and release of organic substances. Plant.

  8. An Empirical Exploration Into the Measurement of Rape Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Nicole L; Johnson, Dawn M

    2017-09-01

    Feminist scholars have long argued the presence of a "rape culture" within the United States; however, limited efforts have been made to quantify this construct. A model of rape culture was first proposed in 1980 and expanded in the 1990s in an effort to quantify rape myth acceptance. This model posits that five underlying components make up a rape culture: traditional gender roles, sexism, adversarial sexual beliefs, hostility toward women, and acceptance of violence. Although these components are proposed as cultural phenomenon and thus distinct from individually held beliefs, they have been exclusively explored on an individual level. Thus, to promote exploration of this phenomenon beyond individually held beliefs, the authors adapted a series of well-established measures to assess the perceived peer support of the constructs proposed to underlie rape culture and assess initial reliability and validity in a sample of 314 college students. Following determination of reliability and validity of these adapted measures, a hierarchical confirmatory factor analysis was run to examine the proposed model of rape culture. Results of this study highlight the uniqueness between individual and cultural factors as several items did not translate from an individual (i.e., personal endorsement) to a cultural level (i.e., perceived peer support) and were subsequently removed from the proposed final measurements. Furthermore, initial support for the aforementioned model of rape culture was identified. These findings are crucial given that limited conclusions may be drawn about the existence and in turn eradication of rape culture without an agreed upon definition and source of measurement.

  9. PTSD of rape after IS ("Islamic State") captivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kizilhan, Jan Ilhan

    2018-03-10

    Research into the psychological consequences of rape on women in war and warlike situations is limited. The aims of this study were (a) to describe the prevalence and the nature of PTSD symptoms among Yazidi women reporting rape during IS captivity, (b) to describe comorbidity of other psychological disorders, and (c) to examine the risk factors associated with posttraumatic stress disorder.The study included 296 Yazidi women survivors of rape and has been conducted in Germany since January 2016 as part of a special-quota project in the German region of Baden-Wuerttemberg, designed to support the women and children who have escaped after being held hostage by IS.The survivors were recruited into a retrospective, cross-sectional study. Interviews in Germany were done through trained personnel to evaluate the mental health status of raped women.All the investigated women had been raped many times during IS captivity. About 82% of the women were also physically tortured. Of the sample, 67% suffered from somatoform disorder, 53% suffered from depression, 39% from anxiety, and 28% from dissociation. The prevalence of PTSD in those with rape events of more than 20 times was 57% (95% CI = 35.1-65.9%), less than 20 times was 41% (95%, CI = 28.7-4.8% and less than 10 times 39% [95% CI = 28.2-41.8%], respectively.The IS captivity and wartime rapes had deep immediate and long-term consequences on the mental health of women survivors. The high prevalence of PTSD emphasizes the need for culturally sensitive diagnostic and therapeutic services to address the intermediate and long-term consequences of wartime rape.

  10. Factors related to the reporting of childhood rape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, R F; Resnick, H S; Saunders, B E; Kilpatrick, D G; Best, C

    1999-06-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether there would be differences in reported versus unreported cases of childhood rape on incident characteristics including life threat, physical injury, identity of the perpetrator, frequency of assault(s), and rates of posttraumatic stress disorder or major depression. In a telephone interview, a national probability sample of 4,008 (weighted) adult women was screened for a history of completed rape in childhood. Respondents were also assessed for DSM-III-R diagnoses of major depressive episode and/or posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Three hundred forty-one (8.5%) of these women were victims of at least one rape prior to the age of 18, for a total of 437 completed rapes. Of these 437 rape incidents, 52 (11.9%) were reported to the police or other authorities. Significant differences were obtained between reported versus nonreported cases on incident characteristics, including life threat, physical injury, identity of the perpetrator. Reported cases were more likely to involve life threat and/or physical injury, and were more likely to have been committed by a stranger than nonreported cases. No significant differences between reported and nonreported cases were found concerning whether the rape involved a single incident versus series of events, or rates of PTSD or major depression. Findings suggest that different characteristics are associated with reported versus unreported cases of childhood rape. Since few cases of childhood rape are actually reported to the authorities, it appears that we may be missing valuable information. Implications for research and clinical intervention are discussed.

  11. Women's erotic rape fantasies: an evaluation of theory and research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Critelli, Joseph W; Bivona, Jenny M

    2008-01-01

    This article is the first systematic review of the research literature on women's rape fantasies. Current research indicates that between 31% and 57% of women have fantasies in which they are forced into sex against their will, and for 9% to 17% of women these are a frequent or favorite fantasy experience. Erotic rape fantasies are paradoxical: they do not appear to make sense. Why would a person have an erotic and pleasurable fantasy about an event that, in real life, would be abhorrent and traumatic? In this article, the major theories of women's rape fantasies are evaluated both rationally and empirically. These theories explain rape fantasies in terms of masochism, sexual blame avoidance, openness to sexuality, sexual desirability, male rape culture, biological predisposition to surrender, sympathetic physiological activation, and adversary transformation. This article evaluates theory and research, makes provisional judgments as to which theories appear to be most viable, and begins the task of theoretical integration to arrive at a more complete and internally consistent explanation for why many women engage in erotic rape fantasies. Methodological critiques and programs for future research are presented throughout.

  12. Religiousness and Rape Myth Acceptance: Risk and Protective Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensz, Samantha; Jankowski, Peter J

    2017-03-01

    This study addressed the lack of research simultaneously examining multiple dimensions of religiousness when predicting rape myth acceptance, and extended prior findings of a mediating role for right-wing authoritarianism (i.e., uncritical submission to authority and aggressive attitude toward those who do not conform to social norms) in the association between religiousness and prejudice. The sample consisted of 99 undergraduate and graduate students ( M age = 31.87 years, 66.7% female, 80.82% White, and 93% Christian affiliated) from a religiously affiliated university in the Midwest United States. As hypothesized, dimensions of religiousness exhibited differential associations with rape myth acceptance. Religious motivation characterized by openness and exploration (i.e., quest religiousness) was a significant negative predictor of rape myth acceptance, directly, and indirectly through right-wing authoritarianism. In contrast, rigid adherence to religious beliefs, assumed to be "right" and absolutely true (i.e., religious fundamentalism), and extrinsically motivated religiousness each exhibited a positive association with rape myth acceptance through right-wing authoritarianism. In addition, internally motivated religiousness and religious fundamentalism each moderated the nonlinear effect for quest predicting rape myth acceptance. Findings suggest that uncritical religious and secular submission to external authorities or uncommitted and nonexploring religiousness may have increased the extent to which persons adhered to rape myths, whereas religious exploration was protective. Practical implications center on the need for socioculturally relevant prevention and intervention efforts with religious identifying college students.

  13. BraLTP1, a lipid transfer protein gene involved in epicuticular wax deposition, cell proliferation and flower development in Brassica napus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Liu

    Full Text Available Plant non-specific lipid transfer proteins (nsLTPs constitute large multigene families that possess complex physiological functions, many of which remain unclear. This study isolated and characterized the function of a lipid transfer protein gene, BraLTP1 from Brassica rapa, in the important oilseed crops Brassica napus. BraLTP1 encodes a predicted secretory protein, in the little known VI Class of nsLTP families. Overexpression of BnaLTP1 in B. napus caused abnormal green coloration and reduced wax deposition on leaves and detailed wax analysis revealed 17-80% reduction in various major wax components, which resulted in significant water-loss relative to wild type. BnaLTP1 overexpressing leaves exhibited morphological disfiguration and abaxially curled leaf edges, and leaf cross-sections revealed cell overproliferation that was correlated to increased cytokinin levels (tZ, tZR, iP, and iPR in leaves and high expression of the cytokinin biosynthsis gene IPT3. BnaLTP1-overexpressing plants also displayed morphological disfiguration of flowers, with early-onset and elongated carpel development and outwardly curled stamen. This was consistent with altered expression of a a number of ABC model genes related to flower development. Together, these results suggest that BraLTP1 is a new nsLTP gene involved in wax production or deposition, with additional direct or indirect effects on cell division and flower development.

  14. Effets allélopathiques des Brassicacées via leurs actions sur les agents pathogènes telluriques et les mycorhizes : analyse bibliographique. Partie II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reau Raymond

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Brassicas contain glucosinolates (GSL which decomposition is able to reduce the growth of populations of soil-borne fungi, bacterias or nematodes. These biocid effects on soil-borne microorganisms make a form of allelopathy phenomenon. The allelopathic properties depends on the GLS composition of the Brassicas: Indian mustard and in a lower extend Oilseed rape culd have the most powerfull action, White mustard would have a weaker action. These properties also depends on crop residues: green manure with quick decomposition would result with a higher action than crop residues after grain harvest.The main mechanisms are known. In vitro, isothiocyanates obtained from the GSL decomposition inhibit all the phases of the cycle of Aphanomyces eutiches, the fungus responsible for root rot of peas. The mycelian growth of Gaeumannomyces graminis tritici, the fungus responsible for the wheat take all is inhibited by some isothyocyanates at low concentration. Furthermore, several studies give the evidence that the incorporation of Brassicas residues into the soil does inhibit the growth of both soil-borne pathogens. At last, the presence of roots of Brassicas inhibits the germination of the mycorhizes known to improve the mineral nutrition of its host plant. This phenomenon could explain the depressive effect of oilseed rape on the nutrition of a subsequent maize.This knowledge of Brassicas effects into cropping systems offers issues for a better management of precedent effects of Brassicas; these effects being positive (integrated cop protection or negative (management of subsequent crop nutrition after Brassicas.

  15. Effets allélopathiques des Brassicacées via leurs actions sur les agents pathogènes telluriques et les mycorhizes : analyse bibliographique. Partie 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reau Raymond

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Brassicas contain glucosinolates (GSL which decomposition is able to reduce the growth of populations of soil-borne fungi, bacterias or nematodes. These biocid effects on soil-borne microorganisms make a form of allelopathy phenomenon. The allelopathic properties depends on the GLS composition of the Brassicas: Indian mustard and in a lower extend Oilseed rape could have the most powerfull action, White mustard would have a weaker action. These properties also depends on crop residues: green manure with quick decomposition would result with a higher action than crop residues after grain harvest. The main mechanisms are known. In vitro, isothiocyanates obtained from the GSL decomposition inhibit all the phases of the cycle of Aphanomyces eutiches, the fungus responsible for root rot of peas. The mycelian growth of Gaeumannomyces graminis tritici, the fungus responsible for the wheat take all is inhibited by some isothyocyanates at low concentration. Furthermore, several studies give the evidence that the incorporation of Brassicas residues into the soil does inhibit the growth of both soil-borne pathogens. At last, the presence of roots of Brassicas inhibits the germination of the mycorhizes known to improve the mineral nutrition of its host plant. This phenomenon could explain the depressive effect of oilseed rape on the nutrition of a subsequent maize. This knowledge of Brassicas effects into cropping systems offers issues for a better management of precedent effects of Brassicas; these effects being positive (integrated cop protection or negative (management of subsequent crop nutrition after Brassicas.

  16. Metacognitive aspects of rape myths: subjective strength of rape myth acceptance moderates its effects on information processing and behavioral intentions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Süssenbach, Philipp; Eyssel, Friederike; Bohner, Gerd

    2013-07-01

    The authors present a metacognitive approach to influences of rape myth acceptance (RMA) on the processing of rape-related information and rape proclivity. In Study 1, participants (N = 264) completed an RMA scale and subsequently reported the subjective strength (e.g., importance, certainty) of their RMA. Then they read about a rape case, viewed a photograph of the alleged crime scene, and rated the defendant's guilt on several items. Depending on condition, the photograph contained either RMA-applicable stimuli (e.g., alcoholic beverages) or neutral stimuli. Higher RMA predicted lower ratings of defendant guilt especially when applicable stimuli were present and RMA was strong. Study 2 (N = 85) showed that RMA-related attitude strength also moderated the effect of RMA on self-reported rape proclivity. Results of both studies indicate that the subjective strength of rape-related beliefs may be reliably assessed and serves as an important moderator of effects of RMA. The implications of these findings for prevention programs as well as future directions for research are discussed.

  17. Geographical Clusters of Rape in the United States: 2000-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Raid; Nabors, Nicole S.; Nelson, Arlene M.; Saqlain, Murshid; Kulldorff, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Background While rape is a very serious crime and public health problem, no spatial mapping has been attempted for rape on the national scale. This paper addresses the three research questions: (1) Are reported rape cases randomly distributed across the USA, after being adjusted for population density and age, or are there geographical clusters of reported rape cases? (2) Are the geographical clusters of reported rapes still present after adjusting for differences in poverty levels? (3) Are there geographical clusters where the proportion of reported rape cases that lead to an arrest is exceptionally low or exceptionally high? Methods We studied the geographical variation of reported rape events (2003-2012) and rape arrests (2000-2012) in the 48 contiguous states of the USA. The disease Surveillance software SaTScan™ with its spatial scan statistic is used to evaluate the spatial variation in rapes. The spatial scan statistic has been widely used as a geographical surveillance tool for diseases, and we used it to identify geographical areas with clusters of reported rape and clusters of arrest rates for rape. Results The spatial scan statistic was used to identify geographical areas with exceptionally high rates of reported rape. The analyses were adjusted for age, and in secondary analyses, for both age and poverty level. We also identified geographical areas with either a low or a high proportion of reported rapes leading to an arrest. Conclusions We have identified geographical areas with exceptionally high (low) rates of reported rape. The geographical problem areas identified are prime candidates for more intensive preventive counseling and criminal prosecution efforts by public health, social service, and law enforcement agencies Geographical clusters of high rates of reported rape are prime areas in need of expanded implementation of preventive measures, such as changing attitudes in our society toward rape crimes, in addition to having the criminal

  18. Identification and expression analysis of glucosinolate biosynthetic genes and estimation of glucosinolate contents in edible organs of Brassica oleracea subspecies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Go-Eun; Robin, Arif Hasan Khan; Yang, Kiwoung; Park, Jong-In; Kang, Jong-Goo; Yang, Tae-Jin; Nou, Ill-Sup

    2015-07-20

    Glucosinolates are anti-carcinogenic, anti-oxidative biochemical compounds that defend plants from insect and microbial attack. Glucosinolates are abundant in all cruciferous crops, including all vegetable and oilseed Brassica species. Here, we studied the expression of glucosinolate biosynthesis genes and determined glucosinolate contents in the edible organs of a total of 12 genotypes of Brassica oleracea: three genotypes each from cabbage, kale, kohlrabi and cauliflower subspecies. Among the 81 genes analyzed by RT-PCR, 19 are transcription factor-related, two different sets of 25 genes are involved in aliphatic and indolic biosynthesis pathways and the rest are breakdown-related. The expression of glucosinolate-related genes in the stems of kohlrabi was remarkably different compared to leaves of cabbage and kale and florets of cauliflower as only eight genes out of 81 were expressed in the stem tissues of kohlrabi. In the stem tissue of kohlrabi, only one aliphatic transcription factor-related gene, Bol036286 (MYB28) and one indolic transcription factor-related gene, Bol030761 (MYB51), were expressed. The results indicated the expression of all genes is not essential for glucosinolate biosynthesis. Using HPLC analysis, a total of 16 different types of glucosinolates were identified in four subspecies, nine of them were aliphatic, four of them were indolic and one was aromatic. Cauliflower florets measured the highest number of 14 glucosinolates. Among the aliphatic glucosinolates, only gluconapin was found in the florets of cauliflower. Glucoiberverin and glucobrassicanapin contents were the highest in the stems of kohlrabi. The indolic methoxyglucobrassicin and aromatic gluconasturtiin accounted for the highest content in the florets of cauliflower. A further detailed investigation and analyses is required to discern the precise roles of each of the genes for aliphatic and indolic glucosinolate biosynthesis in the edible organs.

  19. Identification and Expression Analysis of Glucosinolate Biosynthetic Genes and Estimation of Glucosinolate Contents in Edible Organs of Brassica oleracea Subspecies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Go-Eun Yi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Glucosinolates are anti-carcinogenic, anti-oxidative biochemical compounds that defend plants from insect and microbial attack. Glucosinolates are abundant in all cruciferous crops, including all vegetable and oilseed Brassica species. Here, we studied the expression of glucosinolate biosynthesis genes and determined glucosinolate contents in the edible organs of a total of 12 genotypes of Brassica oleracea: three genotypes each from cabbage, kale, kohlrabi and cauliflower subspecies. Among the 81 genes analyzed by RT-PCR, 19 are transcription factor-related, two different sets of 25 genes are involved in aliphatic and indolic biosynthesis pathways and the rest are breakdown-related. The expression of glucosinolate-related genes in the stems of kohlrabi was remarkably different compared to leaves of cabbage and kale and florets of cauliflower as only eight genes out of 81 were expressed in the stem tissues of kohlrabi. In the stem tissue of kohlrabi, only one aliphatic transcription factor-related gene, Bol036286 (MYB28 and one indolic transcription factor-related gene, Bol030761 (MYB51, were expressed. The results indicated the expression of all genes is not essential for glucosinolate biosynthesis. Using HPLC analysis, a total of 16 different types of glucosinolates were identified in four subspecies, nine of them were aliphatic, four of them were indolic and one was aromatic. Cauliflower florets measured the highest number of 14 glucosinolates. Among the aliphatic glucosinolates, only gluconapin was found in the florets of cauliflower. Glucoiberverin and glucobrassicanapin contents were the highest in the stems of kohlrabi. The indolic methoxyglucobrassicin and aromatic gluconasturtiin accounted for the highest content in the florets of cauliflower. A further detailed investigation and analyses is required to discern the precise roles of each of the genes for aliphatic and indolic glucosinolate biosynthesis in the edible organs.

  20. Who Helps the Helpers? Social Support for Rape Crisis Advocates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston-Kolnik, Jaclyn D; Odahl-Ruan, Charlynn A; Greeson, Megan R

    2017-08-01

    Secondary exposure to trauma may have negative effects on rape victim advocates' well-being. Self-care can help to mitigate these negative effects on advocates' well-being, and prior research suggests that social support is an especially important aspect of advocates' self-care. However, there is a lack of research on how rape crisis advocates access and receive social support in relationship to their advocacy work. Therefore, semistructured qualitative interviews were conducted with 15 rape crisis advocates who volunteered for a rape crisis center in Chicago to understand how they accessed social support from informal and formal support providers, and when they did receive support, what was helpful versus unhelpful. Data were analyzed using thematic content analysis. Results revealed that many advocates were able to seek out and receive positive instrumental and emotional social support that nurtured them and their work. However, advocates also experienced a variety of barriers to obtaining positive support from informal support providers, including fear of burdening providers and a reluctance or lack of preparedness of their support providers to speak about the issue. Advocates emphasized the need for rape crisis centers to provide resources for their informal social support systems in order to encourage helpful responses. In addition, advocates praised the rape crisis center for its built-in formal support structures, but also encouraged the organization to seek broader representation of persons from minority backgrounds among their advocates and mentors. Implications and future directions for research and rape crisis centers are also discussed. The present study highlights the importance of social support systems for advocates and potential barriers that may be addressed to reduce service provider burnout and vicarious trauma.

  1. Date rape among Cypriot female college students: an explorative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouta, Christiana; Tolma, Eleni L; Pavlou, Susana Elisa

    2013-09-01

    This study examined the prevalence and reporting of date rape among female college students (aged 18-24) in Cyprus and assessed the students' attitudes and awareness regarding date rape. In addition, the study examined how date rape is perceived among representatives of related private and governmental organizations in Cyprus. This is part of a larger multi-country study. This paper will focus only on the results pertaining to Cyprus. The study was coordinated by the Mediterranean Institute of Gender Studies. This study used quantitative and qualitative methods. In total, 476 female college students responded to an anonymous questionnaire, two focus group discussions were carried out, and five key-informant interviews with relevant institutional representatives were conducted. The results of the study indicated that unwanted sexual experiences and sexual violence, including date rape, do exist among young Cypriot women. Specifically, 1.3% of the research participants reported experiencing an attempted rape by their date, and 1.9 % of the study participants reported being raped on a date. Often this was caused by their boyfriend, friend or sexual partner (54.2%). The results of the qualitative study showed that young female Cypriots agreed that many women give in to psychological pressure because they feel guilty about letting the other person down or because they 'didn't satisfy him' or fear they might lose him. Despite the explorative nature of the study, it is significant as research on date rape in Cyprus is almost non-existent. The authors anticipate that the results of the study will be useful to other researchers and policy-makers involved in this area of research.

  2. Salt tolerance potential of brassica juncea Linn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibrar, M; Jabeen, M; Tabassum, J [University of Peshawar (Pakistan). Dept. of Botany; Hussain, F; Ilahi, I [University of Peshawar (Pakistan). Dept. of Pharmacy

    2003-07-01

    The present study showed that percent germination, radicle and plumule lengths of Brassica juncea were adversely affected by increasing the level of salinity. As compared to 95 per cent germination of the control, there were 92.50. 90.00. 90.00, 85.00, 87.50 and 80.00 per cent germinations respectively at 2.5, 5.0, 7.5. 10.0. 12.5 and 15.0 dSm/sup -1/ NaCI salinity levels. Similarly. all the parameters tested in the pot experiments showed gradual decline with the corresponding increasing levels of NaCl salinity. At lower levels of salinity (2.5 and 5.0 dSm/sup -l/), Brassica juncea had reasonably good growth and productivity. It showed greatly reduced growth and at 7.5 and 10.0 dSm/sup -1/ while at 12.5 and 15.0 10.0 dSm/sup -1/ salinity levels it was severely production affected. It is concluded from the present work that Brassica juncea can be grown fairly on mild saline soils for a food, fodder and seed production. (author)

  3. Salt tolerance potential of brassica juncea Linn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrar, M.; Jabeen, M.; Tabassum, J.; Hussain, F.; Ilahi, I.

    2003-01-01

    The present study showed that percent germination, radicle and plumule lengths of Brassica juncea were adversely affected by increasing the level of salinity. As compared to 95 per cent germination of the control, there were 92.50. 90.00. 90.00, 85.00, 87.50 and 80.00 per cent germinations respectively at 2.5, 5.0, 7.5. 10.0. 12.5 and 15.0 dSm/sup -1/ NaCI salinity levels. Similarly. all the parameters tested in the pot experiments showed gradual decline with the corresponding increasing levels of NaCl salinity. At lower levels of salinity (2.5 and 5.0 dSm/sup -l/), Brassica juncea had reasonably good growth and productivity. It showed greatly reduced growth and at 7.5 and 10.0 dSm/sup -1/ while at 12.5 and 15.0 10.0 dSm/sup -1/ salinity levels it was severely production affected. It is concluded from the present work that Brassica juncea can be grown fairly on mild saline soils for a food, fodder and seed production. (author)

  4. The structure of the Brassica napus seed microbiome is cultivar-dependent and affects the interactions of symbionts and pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybakova, Daria; Mancinelli, Riccardo; Wikström, Mariann; Birch-Jensen, Ann-Sofie; Postma, Joeke; Ehlers, Ralf-Udo; Goertz, Simon; Berg, Gabriele

    2017-09-01

    Although the plant microbiome is crucial for plant health, little is known about the significance of the seed microbiome. Here, we studied indigenous bacterial communities associated with the seeds in different cultivars of oilseed rape and their interactions with symbiotic and pathogenic microorganisms. We found a high bacterial diversity expressed by tight bacterial co-occurrence networks within the rape seed microbiome, as identified by llumina MiSeq amplicon sequencing. In total, 8362 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) of 40 bacterial phyla with a predominance of Proteobacteria (56%) were found. The three cultivars that were analyzed shared only one third of the OTUs. The shared core of OTUs consisted mainly of Alphaproteobacteria (33%). Each cultivar was characterized by having its own unique bacterial structure, diversity, and proportion of unique microorganisms (25%). The cultivar with the lowest bacterial abundance, diversity, and the highest predicted bacterial metabolic activity rate contained the highest abundance of potential pathogens within the seed. This data corresponded with the observation that seedlings belonging to this cultivar responded more strongly to the seed treatments with bacterial inoculants than other cultivars. Cultivars containing higher indigenous diversity were characterized as having a higher colonization resistance against beneficial and pathogenic microorganisms. Our results were confirmed by microscopic images of the seed microbiota. The structure of the seed microbiome is an important factor in the development of colonization resistance against pathogens. It also has a strong influence on the response of seedlings to biological seed treatments. These novel insights into seed microbiome structure will enable the development of next generation strategies combining both biocontrol and breeding approaches to address world agricultural challenges.

  5. The unique associations between rape acknowledgment and the DSM-5 PTSD symptom clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Laura C; Scarpa, Angela

    2017-11-01

    It is well documented in the sexual assault literature that more than half of rape survivors do not label their experience as rape. This is called unacknowledged rape. Although this phenomenon is common and undoubtedly has huge implications for psychotherapy, the impact of acknowledgment status on psychological adjustment is unclear. The present study aimed to delineate the unique impact of rape acknowledgment on psychopathology by examining PTSD symptoms at the cluster level. To examine this, 178 female college students who reported rape completed an online survey, including an assessment of PTSD symptoms in the past month. The results suggested that, after accounting for several covariates, acknowledged rape survivors reported significantly greater levels of intrusion and avoidance symptoms compared to unacknowledged rape survivors. The findings suggest that examining PTSD symptoms at the cluster level may provide more insight into the process of recovery following rape and therefore may better inform treatment decisions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Rape and Sexual Assault Victimization Among College-Age Females, 1995-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Statistics DECEMBER 2014 Special Report NCJ 2484 71 Rape and Sexual Assault Victimization Among College-Age Females, 1995–2013 Sofi ... 18 to 24 had the highest rate of rape and sexual assault victimizations compared to females in ...

  7. A review of mechanisms underlying anticarcinogenicity by brassica vegetables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, D.T.H.; Verhagen, H.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den; Poppel, G. van

    1997-01-01

    The mechanisms by which brassica vegetables might decrease the risk of cancer are reviewed in this paper. Brassicas, including all types of cabbages, broccoli, cauliflower and Brussels sprouts, may be protective against cancer due to their relatively high glucosinolate content. Glucosinolates are

  8. Identification and evolutionary dynamics of cacta DNA transposons in brassica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nouroz, F.; Noreen, S.; Harrison, J.S.H.

    2017-01-01

    Transposable elements are the major drivers of genome evolution and plasticity. Due to their transposition mode, they are classified into two major classes as Retrotransposons and DNA transposons. The En/Spm or CACTA elements are diverse group of DNA transposons proliferating in plant genomes. Various bioinformatics and molecular approaches were used for identification and distribution of CACTA transposons in Brassica genome. A combination of dot plot analysis and BLASTN searches yielded 35 autonomous and 7 non-autonomous CACTA elements in Brassica. The elements ranged in sizes from 1.2 kb non-autonomous elements to 11kb autonomous elements, terminated by 3 bp Target Site Duplication (TSD) and ~15 bp conserved Terminal Inverted Repeat (TIR) motifs (5'-CACTACAAGAAAACA-3'), with heterogeneous internal regions. The transposase (TNP) was identified from autonomous CACTA elements, while other protein domains from Brassica and other plants CACTA revealed similar organizations with minor differences. Both transposases (TNPD, TNPA) are present in most CACTA, while a few CACTA harboured an additional ATHILA ORF1-like domain. The PCR analysis amplified the CACTA transposases from 40 Brassica accessions (A, B, and C-genome) suggesting their distribution among various Brassica crops. A detailed characterization and evolutionary analysis of the identified CACTA elements allowed some to be placed in genome-specific groups, while most of them (Brassica-Arabidopsis elements) have followed the same evolutionary line. The distribution of CACTA in Brassica concluded that 3 bp TSDs generating CACTA transposons contributed significantly to genome size and evolution of Brassica genome. (author)

  9. Epidemiological studies on Brassica vegetables and cancer risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, D.T.H.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Poppel, G. van; Verhagen, H.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    1996-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the epidemiological data concerning the cancer-preventive effect of brassica vegetables, including cabbage, kale, broccoli, Brussels sprouts, and cauliflower. The protective effect of brassicas against cancer may be due to their relatively high content of

  10. Brassica oleracea: the dog of the plant world

    Science.gov (United States)

    The horticultural crop Brassica oleracea L. plays an important role in global food systems. Brassica oleracea is unique in that it has been domesticated into several morphotypes (cultivars), including broccoli, Brussels sprout, cabbage, cauliflower, kale, kohlrabi, and several lesser well known morp...

  11. Brassica oleracea; The dog of the plant world

    Science.gov (United States)

    The horticultural crop Brassica oleracea L. plays an important role in global food systems. Brassica oleracea is unique in that it has been domesticated into several morphotypes (cultivars), including broccoli, Brussels sprout, cabbage, cauliflower, kale, kohlrabi, and several lesser well known morp...

  12. Heat-resistant mechanism of transgenic rape by 45Ca isotope tracer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Falun; Yang Yuanyou; Liu Ning; Liao Jiali; Yang Jijun; Tang Jun; Liu Zhibin; Yang Yi

    2012-01-01

    The Ca 2+ uptake differences of the rape with heat-resistant gene and the general rape were investigated by 45 Ca isotope tracer. The results showed that the rape with heat-resistant gene can strengthen the regulation of calcium absorption. The calcium regulation ability of the heat-resistant genes may be able to play in the rape aspect of the mechanism of resistance. (authors)

  13. Improvement of oil-seed and industrial crops by induced mutations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    Out of 22 papers presented, seven dealing with the genetic improvement of crops using ionizing radiations, fall within the INIS subject scope. Other topics covered were oil-seed quality requirements for industrial processing and concepts of improving biomass production from higher plants

  14. Effect of unconventional oilseeds (safflower, poppy, hemp, camelina) on in vitro ruminal methane production and fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shaopu; Kreuzer, Michael; Braun, Ueli; Schwarm, Angela

    2017-08-01

    Dietary supplementation with oilseeds can reduce methane emission in ruminants, but only a few common seeds have been tested so far. This study tested safflower (Carthamus tinctorius), poppy (Papaver somniferum), hemp (Cannabis sativa), and camelina (Camelina sativa) seeds in vitro using coconut (Cocos nucifera) oil and linseed (Linum usitatissimum) as positive controls. All the tested oilseeds suppressed methane yield (mL g -1 dry matter, up to 21%) compared to the non-supplemented control when provided at 70 g oil kg -1 dry matter, and they were as effective as coconut oil. Safflower and hemp were more effective than linseed (21% and 18% vs. 10%), whereas the effects of poppy and camelina were similar to linseed. When methane was related to digestible organic matter, only hemp and safflower seeds and coconut oil were effective compared to the non-supplemented control (up to 11%). The level of methanogenesis and the ratios of either the n-6:n-3 fatty acids or C 18 :2 :C 18 :3 in the seed lipids were not related. Unconventional oilseeds widen the spectrum of oilseeds that can be used in dietary methane mitigation. In vivo confirmation of their methane mitigating effect is still needed, and their effects on animal performance still must be determined. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Oilseed Radish (Raphanus Sativus) Effects on Soil Structure and Soil Water Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oilseed radish (Raphanus sativus spp. oleifera) reduces nematode populations. Fall-incorporated radish biomass may also improve soil physical and hydraulic properties to increase the yield and quality of subsequently grown sugarbeet (Beta vulgaris L.). This field study determined radish effects on...

  16. Gas assisted mechanical expression of cocoa butter from cocoa nibs and edible oils from oilseeds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venter, M.J.; Willems, P.; Kuipers, N.J.M.; Haan, de A.B.

    2006-01-01

    The current methods used to recover high quality oil from oilseeds have low yields (mechanical expression, aqueous extraction), require the use of toxic chemicals and rigorous purification processes that can reduce the quality of the oil (solvent extraction with hexane) or are unsuitable for the

  17. Feasibility of cuphea as a new oilseed crop to climate and soil environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuphea, a new oilseed crop rich in medium-chain fatty acids (C8:0 to C14:0), may serve as a renewable, biodegradable source of oil for lubricants, motor oil, and aircraft fuel. Impacts of climate and soil environment on cuphea growth and development are not well understood. The objective of this stu...

  18. Investigation into the prospects of five novel oilseed crops within Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marvin, H.J.P.; Mastebroek, H.D.; Becu, D.M.S.; Janssens, R.J.J.

    2000-01-01

    The economic potential in Europe of five novel oilseed crops for applications within the chemical industry, particularly in paints and lubricants, was investigated within a multidisciplinary integrated research and development project. The entire production chain was subjected to a study. The

  19. Effect of Enzymatic Hydrolysis on the Antioxidant Properties of Alcoholic Extracts of Oilseed Cakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Arct

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study is to compare changes in the total phenolic, flavonoid and reducing sugar content and antioxidant activity of alcoholic extracts of Oenothera biennis, Borago officinalis and Nigella sativa oilseed cakes before and after enzymatic hydrolysis. Extraction with ethanol and hydrolysis with different commercially available glycosidases: α-amylase, β-glucosidase, β-glucanase and their combinations in a ratio of 1:1:1 were investigated. Total phenolic, flavonoid and reducing sugar content, iron-chelating activity and antioxidant activity according to DPPH and ABTS tests were measured in non-hydrolysed extracts and compared with the results obtained for the extracts after the application of immobilised enzymes. As a result, the hydrolysed extracts had a higher phenolic and reducing sugar content as well as higher iron-chelating and antioxidant activities. Total phenolic content of Oenothera biennis, Borago officinalis and Nigella sativa oilseed cake extracts after enzymatic hydrolysis was higher in comparison with non-hydrolysed extracts, i.e. 2 times (for the enzyme combination, and 1.5 and 2 times (for β-glucanase (p<0.05, respectively. The best results in increasing the flavonoid and sugar content as well as in iron-chelating activity were obtained after enzymatic hydrolysis of oilseed cake extracts by β-glucanase. Oilseed cake extracts after hydrolysis with an enzyme combination in a ratio of 1:1:1 had the highest increase in antioxidant activity.

  20. From Survivor to Thriver: A Pilot Study of an Online Program for Rape Victims

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littleton, Heather; Buck, Katherine; Rosman, Lindsey; Grills-Taquechel, Amie

    2012-01-01

    Approximately 15% to 20% of women have been victims of rape and close to a third report current rape-related PTSD or clinically significant depression or anxiety. Unfortunately, very few distressed rape victims seek formal help. This suggests a need to develop alternative ways to assist the many distressed victims of sexual violence. Online…