WorldWideScience

Sample records for oil-exporting countries

  1. Oil exporting countries need nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stauffer, T.R.

    1982-01-01

    The economic rationale for nuclear power in the oil exporting countries is analysed, with the collateral objective of defining the size of the potential market in terms of the exporting countries' economic opportunities and energy needs. The need for appropriate new institutions for licensing reactors, training personnel, and starting up plants follows directly from the size of the market and the economic incentives for the oil exporters to husband gas and oil. Gas and oil resources of the Middle Eastern countries are discussed, and future electricity needs estimated. (author)

  2. Analysis of oil export dependency of MENA countries: Drivers, trends and prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharyya, Subhes C.; Blake, Andon [CEPMLP, University of Dundee, Dundee DD1 4HN, Scotland (United Kingdom)

    2010-02-15

    The purpose of this paper is to analyse how oil export dependencies of Middle East and North African (MENA) oil producers have evolved over the past two decades and to identify the main driving factors from an energy policy perspective. The paper expresses the oil export dependency of each economy in terms of a multiplicative identity that captures effective export price, export to primary oil supply ratio, oil dependency and oil export intensity of the country. Using the data for 1980-2006, the evolution in these factors is investigated for seven MENA countries and the influence of the above factors is decomposed using the Laspeyres index. The analysis shows that energy price and increasing energy intensity in the MENA countries have influenced the overall oil export dependency. Reducing the energy intensity can improve oil export revenue share to GDP by 5-10% in most of the countries while Iran can gain significantly by increasing its export volume. (author)

  3. Analysis of oil export dependency of MENA countries: Drivers, trends and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharyya, Subhes C.; Blake, Andon

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to analyse how oil export dependencies of Middle East and North African (MENA) oil producers have evolved over the past two decades and to identify the main driving factors from an energy policy perspective. The paper expresses the oil export dependency of each economy in terms of a multiplicative identity that captures effective export price, export to primary oil supply ratio, oil dependency and oil export intensity of the country. Using the data for 1980-2006, the evolution in these factors is investigated for seven MENA countries and the influence of the above factors is decomposed using the Laspeyres index. The analysis shows that energy price and increasing energy intensity in the MENA countries have influenced the overall oil export dependency. Reducing the energy intensity can improve oil export revenue share to GDP by 5-10% in most of the countries while Iran can gain significantly by increasing its export volume. (author)

  4. Energy consumption and economic growth: The case of oil exporting countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehrara, Mohsen

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the causal relationship between the per capita energy consumption and the per capita GDP in a panel of 11 selected oil exporting countries by using panel unit-root tests and panel cointegration analysis. The results show a unidirectional strong causality from economic growth to energy consumption for the oil exporting countries. The findings have practical policy implications for decision makers in the area of macroeconomic planning. In most major oil exporting countries, government policies keep domestic prices bellow free market level, resulting in high levels of domestic energy consumption. The results imply that the energy conservation through reforming energy price policies has no damaging repercussions on economic growth for this group of countries. (author)

  5. Dynamic correlation between stock market and oil prices: The case of oil-importing and oil-exporting countries

    OpenAIRE

    Filis, George; Degiannakis, S.; Floros, C.

    2011-01-01

    The paper investigates the time-varying correlation between stock market prices and oil prices for oil-importing and oil-exporting countries. A DCC-GARCH-GJR approach is employed to test the above hypothesis based on data from six countries; Oil-exporting: Canada, Mexico, Brazil and Oil-importing: USA, Germany, Netherlands. The contemporaneous correlation results show that i) although time-varying correlation does not differ for oil-importing and oil-exporting economies, ii) the correlation i...

  6. The impact of oil-export dependency on a developing country; The case of Algeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heidarian, J. (World Bank, Washington, DC (USA)); Green, R.D. (Howard Univ., Washington, DC (US). Dept. of Economics)

    1989-10-01

    A large oil export sector is often considered to be a potential spur to diversification and full modernization in third world countries, especially when a central government controls and plans the use of oil revenues with such goals in mind. We evaluate this proposition by developing a 12-equation Keynesian econometric model of the Algerian economy. The model's equations, estimated using ordinary least squares, are robust with strong R-squares, significant t-tests for the independent variables, and reasonable Durbin-Watson statistics. Historical simulations track the true variables rather closely. Our RMSEs (percentage) are in general better than those in most studies of less-developed countries, ranging from 7 to 21%. Our results indicate that there has been a growing dependency of most major economic sectors on oil revenues, both before and after nationalization. Improvements in oil exports will, ceteris paribus, lead to elastic increases in luxury imports and domestic consumption, and inelastic increases in domestic investment. Thus, the goals of diversification, modernization and industrialization will not be met under the current set of policies in Algeria. (author).

  7. Oil prices, fiscal policy, and economic growth in oil-exporting countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Anshasy, Amany A.

    This dissertation argues that in oil-exporting countries fiscal policy could play an important role in transmitting the oil shocks to the economy and that the indirect effects of the changes in oil prices via the fiscal channel could be quite significant. The study comprises three distinct, yet related, essays. In the first essay, I try to study the fiscal policy response to the changes in oil prices and to their growing volatility. In a dynamic general equilibrium framework, a fiscal policy reaction function is derived and is empirically tested for a panel of 15 oil-exporters covering the period 1970--2000. After the link between oil price shocks and fiscal policy is established, the second essay tries to investigate the impact of the highly volatile oil prices on economic growth for the same sample, controlling for the fiscal channel. In both essays the study employs recent dynamic panel-data estimation techniques: System GMM. This approach has the potential advantages of minimizing the bias resulting from estimating dynamic panel models, exploiting the time series properties of the data, controlling for the unobserved country-specific effects, and correcting for any simultaneity bias. In the third essay, I focus on the case of Venezuela for the period 1950--2001. The recent developments in the cointegrating vector autoregression, CVAR technique is applied to provide a suitable framework for analyzing the short-run dynamics and the long-run relationships among oil prices, government revenues, government consumption, investment, and output.

  8. The asymmetric relationship between oil revenues and economic activities: The case of oil-exporting countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehrara, Mohsen

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the nonlinear or asymmetric relationship between oil revenues and output growth in oil-exporting countries, applying a dynamic panel framework and two different measures of oil shocks. The main results in this paper confirm the stylized facts that in heavily oil-dependent countries lacking the institutional mechanisms de-linking fiscal expenditure from current revenue, oil revenue shocks tend to affect the output in asymmetric and nonlinear ways. The findings suggest that output growth is adversely affected by the negative oil shocks, while oil booms or the positive oil shocks play a limited role in stimulating economic growth. The findings have practical policy implications for decision makers in the area of macroeconomic planning. The use of stabilization and savings funds and diversification of the real sector seems crucial to minimize the harmful effects of oil booms and busts

  9. Statistical properties of country risk ratings under oil price volatility: Evidence from selected oil-exporting countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Chang; Sun, Xiaolei; Chen, Jianming; Li, Jianping

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on the application of panel models for identification and analysis of influence of oil price volatility on statistical properties of country risk ratings which stem from uncertainty of macroeconomic fluctuations. Firstly, two statistical properties of country risk ratings, volatility clustering and asymmetrical revision were identified in a theoretical framework based on Cruces (2006). Secondly, considering the oil price volatility, numerical experiments were conducted based on extended models to test and verify specific properties of country risk ratings in selected oil-exporting countries. Empirical results suggest that properties of country risk remain comparatively steady despite oil price volatility. It is also found that the oil price volatility can obviously exaggerate the country risk volatility, as it happened during 2007–2009. Country clustering based on the properties of country risk ratings shows that the selected countries maintain a significant clustering tendency. These features are of great importance for estimating risk exposure of international trade and investments in oil export during extreme situations. - Highlights: •Relationship between oil price volatility and country risk is the focus. •An extended model based on Cruces (2006) is proposed. •Volatility clustering and asymmetrical revision of country risk ratings is explored. •Oil price volatility can obviously exaggerate properties of country risk volatility.

  10. An economic Manifesto for the oil exporting countries of the Persian Gulf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Askari

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The oil-exporting countries of the Persian Gulf have failed economically and socially. It is time for a radical new approach to managing oil revenues while oil and gas reserves last. We propose an approach to cut the level of oil revenues available to governments to zero while incorporating a formal “Oil Fund for All Generations”. Others have proposed and implemented oil funds but in our proposal the government would (in time lose all access to oil revenues; by taking easy money away from governments and rulers, the likelihood of waste, corruption and wars will be reduced, and there will be better chance of adopting and implementing rational economic policies to enhance equity across generations.

  11. Health Care Expenditure and GDP in Oil Exporting Countries: Evidence From OPEC Data, 1995-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazaeli, Ali Akbar; Ghaderi, Hossein; Salehi, Masoud; Fazaeli, Ali Reza

    2015-06-11

    There is a large body of literature examining income in relation to health expenditures. The share of expenditures in health sector from GDP in developed countries is often larger than in non-developed countries, suggesting that as the level of economic growth increases, health spending increase, too. This paper estimates long-run relationships between health expenditures and GDP based on panel data of a sample of 12 countries of the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC), using data for the period 1995-2012. We use panel data unit root tests, cointegration analysis and ECM model to find long-run and short-run relation. This study examines whether health is a luxury or a necessity for OPEC countries within a unit root and cointegration framework. Panel data analysis indicates that health expenditures and GDP are co-integrated and have Engle and Granger causality. In addition, in oil countries that have oil export income, the share of government expenditures in the health sector is often greater than in private health expenditures similar developed countries. The findings verify that health care is not a luxury good and income has a robust relationship to health expenditures in OPEC countries.

  12. Exchange rate of the US dollar and the J curve: the case of oil exporting countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yousefi, A.; Wirjanto, T.S.

    2003-01-01

    This study examines the effects of changes in the exchange rate of the US dollar on the trade balances of three oil-exporting countries, namely Iran, Venezuela and Saudi Arabia. An exchange rate pass-through model is applied to allow changes in the exchange rate of the dollar to affect prices of traded goods. Then, the impact of changes in prices on the quantities of imports and exports of these economies is estimated. The results suggest a partial exchange rate pass-through to these countries' import and export prices in terms of the US dollar. While the three countries raise the price of their primary export (namely crude oil) in response to a depreciation of the dollar, Saudi Arabia's long-run pricing strategy in securing a larger market share stands in contrast to that of the two other OPEC members. The sum of the estimated long-run price elasticities of demand for imports and exports is found to exceed unity for Iran and Venezuela, but less than unity for Saudi Arabia. (author)

  13. Exchange rate of the US dollar and the J curve. The case of oil exporting countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yousefi, Ayoub; Wirjanto, Tony S.

    2003-01-01

    This study examines the effects of changes in the exchange rate of the US dollar on the trade balances of three oil-exporting countries, namely Iran, Venezuela and Saudi Arabia. An exchange rate pass-through model is applied to allow changes in the exchange rate of the dollar to affect prices of traded goods. Then, the impact of changes in prices on the quantities of imports and exports of these economies is estimated. The results suggest a partial exchange rate pass-through to these countries' import and export prices in terms of the US dollar. While the three countries raise the price of their primary export (namely crude oil) in response to a depreciation of the dollar, Saudi Arabia's long-run pricing strategy in securing a larger market share stands in contrast to that of the two other OPEC members. The sum of the estimated long-run price elasticities of demand for imports and exports is found to exceed unity for Iran and Venezuela, but less than unity for Saudi Arabia

  14. Economic Exposure to Oil Price Shocks and the Fragility of Oil-Exporting Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toon Vandyck

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available From a price range between 100 and 120 USD (U.S. dollars per barrel in 2011–2014, the crude oil price fell from mid-2014 onwards, reaching a level of 26 USD per barrel in January 2016. Here we assess the economic consequences of this strong decrease in the oil price. A retrospective analysis based on data of the past 25 years sheds light on the vulnerability of oil-producing regions to the oil price volatility. Gross domestic product (GDP and government revenues in many Gulf countries exhibit a strong dependence on oil, while more diversified economies improve resilience to oil price shocks. The lack of a sovereign wealth fund, in combination with limited oil reserves, makes parts of Sub-Saharan Africa particularly vulnerable to sustained periods of low oil prices. Next, we estimate the macroeconomic impacts of a 60% oil price drop for all regions in the world. A numerical simulation yields a global GDP increase of roughly 1% and illustrates how the regional impact on GDP relates to oil export dependence. Finally, we reflect on the broader implications (such as migration flows of macroeconomic responses to oil prices and look ahead to the challenge of structural change in a world committed to limiting global warming.

  15. Renewable and non-renewable energy consumption and economic growth: Evidence from MENA Net Oil Exporting Countries.

    OpenAIRE

    Kahia, Montassar; Ben Aissa, Mohamed Safouane

    2014-01-01

    This study investigate the relationship between renewable and non-renewable energy consumption and economic growth in a sample of 13 MENA Net Oil Exporting Countries covering the period 1980–2012 within a multivariate panel framework. The Pedroni (1999, 2004), Kao (1999) as well as the Westerlund (2007) panel cointegration tests indicate that there is a long-run equilibrium relationship between real GDP, renewable energy consumption, non-renewable energy consumption, real gross fixed capital ...

  16. Monetary compensations in climate policy through the lens of a general equilibrium assessment: The case of oil-exporting countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waisman, Henri; Rozenberg, Julie; Hourcade, Jean Charles

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the compensations that major oil producers have claimed for since the Kyoto Protocol in order to alleviate the adverse impacts of climate policy on their economies. The amount of these adverse impacts is assessed through a general equilibrium model which endogenizes both the reduction of oil exportation revenues under international climate policy and the macroeconomic effect of carbon pricing on Middle-East's economy. We show that compensating the drop of exportation revenues does not offset GDP and welfare losses because of the time profile of the general equilibrium effects. When considering instead compensation based on GDP losses, the effectiveness of monetary transfers proves to be drastically limited by general equilibrium effects in opened economies. The main channels of this efficiency gap are investigated and its magnitude proves to be conditional upon strategic and policy choices of the Middle-East. This leads us to suggest that other means than direct monetary compensating transfers should be discussed to engage the Middle-East in climate policies. - Highlights: • We endogenize the interplay between climate policy, oil markets and the macroeconomy. • We quantify the transfers to compensate climate policy losses in oil-exporting countries. • We assess the general equilibrium effect of monetary transfers in opened economies. • The macroeconomic efficiency of transfers is altered by general equilibrium effects. • Monetary compensation schemes are not efficient for oil exporters in climate policy

  17. Tail dependence between oil and stocks of major oil-exporting countries using the CoVaR approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nader Trabelsi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the negative tail risk dependence between oil shocks and stock indices (at aggregated and desegregated levels for Saudi Arabia (KSA, United Arab Emirates (UAE and Russia, over the period between 2007 and 2016. DCC-MGARCH approach and CoVaR measure are employed to assess the oil shock exposure. The results show that the tail dependence is significant and depends on the origin of the oil shocks, with intensity that varies across countries and sectors. Keywords: Oil price shocks, Oil-exporting countries, Conditional VaR, JEL Classification: C58, G11, Q4

  18. Social and economic vulnerability indicators for oil exporting countries: methodology and comparison analysis; Indicadores de vulnerabilidade socioeconomica para paises exportadores de petroleo: metodologia e analise comparativa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jesus, Fernanda Delgado de

    2009-04-15

    The oil exporting countries can be vulnerable to this row-material as the oil importing ones, due to their social economic dependence of the revenues generated by the oil and gas sector. So, it is also important for those countries the analysis of their social economic vulnerability in order to contribute for the comprehension of their real actions related to their production strategies, aiming to affect oil price and market-share. Due to that, this thesis proposes a methodology based on social economic indicators of oil exporting countries, which will enclose the following aspects: physical, productive, commercial, macro economic, fiscal and social. These indicators will be applied to the OPEC members, Norway and Mexico, and orientated through a normalized scale as in a multicriteria methodology (AHP - Analytic Hierarchy Process). The analyzed results will drive the social economic implications, and the studied countries will be classified in a scale that goes from very favorable to very unfavorable. The results point the main social economic fragilities of the oil exporting countries, designing pathways to Brazil and their possible exporting ambitions. The most important considerations that became from the vulnerable oil export countries experiences refers to the necessity to straight and increases their macro economic foundations, industrial diversification incentives and the creation of an stabilization fund (based on oil revenues) for the future generations, or to severe oil prices oscillations periods in the international market (author)

  19. Investment requirements in the oil industry of the independent oil exporting countries in the face of environmental challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahmat, H.; Hamid, A.A.

    1992-01-01

    The oil industry has to operate under environmental constraints which involve commercial risks. Oil companies need to treat environmental management as an investment as well as an insurance problem, assessing risks and costs and deciding how to minimize them most cost effectively. Petroleum development in Malaysia is accelerating. In view of the high visibility of the industry and the wide publicity generated by a few incidents which have taken place outside Malaysia the national oil company, Petronas, is constantly vigilant in its efforts to preserve the environment. Oil producing countries like Malaysia will need to continue to set aside some of the revenue they obtain from the oil industry and use it for protecting the environment to ensure public acceptance and ultimately, orderly growth of their industry. Clearly they are less able to do so if their income is lessened through the interference with free trade among nations even if the purported reasons for the interference is the environment itself. Ultimately the environmental investment requirement in the oil industry of the independent and developing oil exporting countries is free trade without price distortions. The 1989 Langkawi Declaration on the Environment of the Commonwealth Heads of Government is appended to this article. (author)

  20. Electricity generation analyses in an oil-exporting country: Transition to non-fossil fuel based power units in Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farnoosh, Arash; Lantz, Frederic; Percebois, Jacques

    2013-12-01

    In Saudi Arabia, fossil-fuel is the main source of power generation. Due to the huge economic and demographic growth, the electricity consumption in Saudi Arabia has increased and should continue to increase at a very fast rate. At the moment, more than half a million barrels of oil per day is used directly for power generation. Herein, we assess the power generation situation of the country and its future conditions through a modelling approach. For this purpose, we present the current situation by detailing the existing generation mix of electricity. Then we develop a optimization model of the power sector which aims to define the best production and investment pattern to reach the expected demand. Subsequently, we will carry out a sensitivity analysis so as to evaluate the robustness of the model's by taking into account the integration variability of the other alternative (non-fossil fuel based) resources. The results point out that the choices of investment in the power sector strongly affect the potential oil's exports of Saudi Arabia. (authors)

  1. Oil exports under GATT and the WTO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdallah, H.

    2005-01-01

    This paper will try to focus on two aspects of oil production policy under the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) and the World Trade Organization. The first is how freely an oil producer can regulate the quantity of oil production and exports without violating GATT rules and the second is how an oil exporter could benefit from GATT rules to overstep barriers to market access imposed by oil-importing countries. (author)

  2. Un Manifesto economico per i paesi del Golfo Persico esportatori di petrolio(An Economic Manifesto for the Oil Exporting Countries of the Persian Gulf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Askari

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The oil-exporting countries of the Persian Gulf have failed economically and socially. It is time for a radical new approach to managing oil revenues while oil and gas reserves last. We propose an approach to cut the level of oil revenues available to governments to zero while incorporating a formal "Oil Fund for All Generations". Others have proposed and implemented oil funds but in our proposal the government would (in time lose all access to oil revenues; by taking easy money away from governments and rulers, waste, corruption, military expenditures and wars will be reduced, there will be better chance of adopting and implementing rational economic policies, and equity across generations may be enhanced. Hope may be slowly restored to a region that has lost hope. I paesi del Golfo Persico esportatori di petrolio hanno fallito dal punto di vista economico e sociale. È tempo di adottare un approccio radicalmente nuovo alla gestione dei ricavi petroliferi finché vi sono ancora riserve di petrolio e di gas. Noi proponiamo un approccio finalizzato ad azzerare il livello dei ricavi disponibili per i governi, istituendo allo stesso tempo un formale “Fondo petrolifero per tutte le generazioni”. Fondi petroliferi sono stati ipotizzati e realizzati anche da altri, ma nella nostra proposta il governo perderebbe (col tempo qualunque accesso ai ricavi petroliferi; sottraendo denaro facile ai governi e ai sovrani, la probabilità di sprechi, corruzione e guerre risulterebbe ridotta, e vi sarebbe maggiore possibilità di adottare e mettere in pratica politiche economiche razionali finalizzate ad accrescere l’equità tra le generazioni.  JEL Codes: O13, O53, Q48Keywords: Gas; Oil

  3. Petroleum production contracts of the oil exporting developing countries with US petroleum companies, and US tax laws. Erdoelproduktions-Vertraege erdoelexportierender Entwicklungslaender mit US-Oelunternehmen und US-Steuerrecht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mettenheimer, K.

    1987-01-01

    The publication deals with the US petroleum production contracts of the past three decades. It analyzes the different types of contracts ranging from franchises to the so-called non-risk service contract. Particular emphasis is on the influence of US tax laws on the terms and conditions of contract. Another point of discussion is the influence of US tax laws on the tax laws of the oil exporting developing countries. The conclusions drawn from the terms and conditions of contracts and the mutual influence of two tax systems aim at contributing to a system whose transnational investment decisions and contracts will not be influenced by fiscal consideration. (orig./HSCH).

  4. Depletion policies for oil-exporting developing economies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stournaras, Y A

    1984-01-01

    The fact that most oil-exporting countries are developing economies has important implications for oil supply which have not been properly taken into account in the literature on exhaustible resource depletion. The way in which depletion policies are affected by trade uncertainty, given the high degree of the major oil exporters' 'dependence' on crude oil revenues, by investment time lags which delay the exploitation of (some of) these countries' comparative advantage in a petroleum based development, and by ideological objections to the ideal of a rentier society and to foreign capital are examined.

  5. Climate-related electricity demand-side management in oil-exporting countries--the case of the United Arab Emirates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Iriani, Mahmoud A.

    2005-01-01

    The oil crisis of the 1970s has increased the concern about the continuity of oil imports flow to major oil-importing developed countries. Numerous policy measures including electricity demand-side management (DSM) programs have been adopted in such countries. These measures aim at reducing the growing need for electricity power that increases the dependency on imported foreign oil and damages the environment. On the other hand, the perception that energy can be obtained at very low cost in oil-rich countries led to less attention being paid to the potential of DSM policies in these countries. This paper discusses such potential using the case of the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Since air conditioning is a major source of electric energy consumption, the relationship between climate conditions and electric energy consumption is considered. An electricity demand model is constructed using time series techniques. The fitted model seems to represent these relationships rather well. Forecasts for electricity consumption using the estimated model indicate that a small reduction in cooling degrees requirement might induce a significant reduction in electric energy demand. Hence, a DSM program is proposed with policy actions to include, among others, measures to reduce cooling degrees requirement

  6. Electricity generation analyses in an oil-exporting country: Transition to non-fossil fuel based power units in Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farnoosh, Arash; Lantz, Frederic; Percebois, Jacques

    2014-01-01

    In Saudi Arabia, fossil-fuel is the main source of power generation. Due to the huge economic and demographic growth, the electricity consumption in Saudi Arabia has increased and should continue to increase at a very fast rate. At the moment, more than half a million barrels of oil per day is used directly for power generation. Herein, we assess the power generation situation of the country and its future conditions through a modelling approach. For this purpose, we present the current situation by detailing the existing generation mix of electricity. Then we develop an optimization model of the power sector which aims to define the best production and investment pattern to reach the expected demand. Subsequently, we will carry out a sensitivity analysis so as to evaluate the robustness of the model's by taking into account the integration variability of the other alternative (non-fossil fuel based) resources. The results point out that the choices of investment in the power sector strongly affect the potential oil's exports of Saudi Arabia. For instance, by decarbonizing half of its generation mix, Saudi Arabia can release around 0.5 Mb/d barrels of oil equivalent per day from 2020. Moreover, total power generation cost reduction can reach up to around 28% per year from 2030 if Saudi Arabia manages to attain the most optimal generation mix structure introduced in the model (50% of power from renewables and nuclear power plants and 50% from the fossil power plants). - Highlights: • We model the current and future power generation situation of Saudi Arabia. • We take into account the integration of the other alternative resources. • We consider different scenarios of power generation structure for the country. • Optimal generation mix can release considerable amount of oil for export

  7. Ex-Soviet Union: oil exporter or importer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khartukov, E.M.

    1993-01-01

    Perestroika of the Soviet economy and the political disintegration of the USSR have raised questions about the international ramifications of the ongoing economic and political developments in the world's largest oil-producing country. First of all, it relates to their impact on the quantity and quality of oil exports from the former Soviet Union (FSU). On the other hand, the opening of the national oil industry to foreign investors focuses their ever growing attention on the complicated internal, inter-republic oil issues which emerged after the sudden fragmentation of the Soviet oil empire into a dozen of sovereign but still interdependent parts. 1 fig., 7 tabs

  8. Russia vows to end oil export tax

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, R.J.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that Russia will eliminate its oil export tax by 1994 and until then will allow some exemptions, Russian officials have assured a group of US tax specialists. They stopped short of saying it would be repealed by the end of the year, the Ken Crawford, a member of a Tax Foundation delegation visiting Russia and managing partner of KPMG Peat Marwick's Moscow office. The export tax was one of several tax related Russian economic issues on which the US experts and Russian officials exchanged views early this month. The 15 member delegation was in Moscow on invitation from Russia's Ministry of Finance and State Committee on Taxation to help develop guidelines for laws governing Russia's taxation of foreign investment. The US group was sponsored by the Tax Foundation, Washington, DC, a nonprofit, nonpartisan tax and fiscal policy research and public education group

  9. Ex-USSR: Oil exporter or importer?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khartukov, E.M.

    1993-01-01

    Political disintegration and economic perestroika in the former Soviet Union (FSU) have major international ramifications and some of these can be found in the oil sector. An overview is presented of the FSU oil industry, including the conditions preceding and following the breakup. Early effects of the breakup included shortages of liquid fuels and the introduction of a strict export quota and license system. The likelihood of disruptions in oil exports, caused by political clashes between Russia and the other oil-transporting republics is low. Rapid decentralization of the Soviet oil trade is likely to bring forth currency-starved national exporters that may add substantially to international market competition and further undercut unstable world oil prices. In the short term, the FSU oil industry will suffer from inevitable imbalances which will manifest themselves in regional oil shortages and gluts spreading towards neighbouring international markets. In the medium and longer term the cooperating parts will become more self-reliant or infrastructurally independent and will speed natural growth and integration into neighbouring petroleum markets. Crude oil and oil product balances of the FSU republics are presented. 2 refs., 2 figs., 7 tabs

  10. Net oil exports embodied in China's international trade: An input–output analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Xu; Zhang, Baosheng; Feng, Lianyong; Snowden, Simon; Höök, Mikael

    2012-01-01

    As the world's second largest oil importer, China has been one of the important factors which affect the global oil market. In recent years, China has attained great international trade surplus through exporting a large number of “Made in China” products even during the global economic crisis. Due to direct and indirect effects in production chain, each 'Made in China' product contains oil directly or indirectly. China is exporting much oil through “Made in China” products, which is not often considered even within China. An input–output model is established to calculate oil embodied in the international trade of China. The research results suggest the following: China's net oil exports embodied in the international trade were 87.02 million tonnes in 2007; manufacture of communication equipment, computers and other electronic equipment is the largest sector to export embodied oil; United States, China Hong Kong SAR and Netherlands are the top three countries and regions which benefit most from the embodied oil in “Made in China” products. China's adjusted degree of dependence on foreign oil is 24.9% in 2007, and 38.4% in 2011 if net oil exports embodied in international trade are considered. -- Highlights: ► Model is established based on IO analysis to calculate the net oil exports embodied in China's international trade. ► China's net oil exports through “Made in China” products are 87 million tones in 2007. ► United States, China Hong Kong SAR and Netherlands benefit most from the embodied oil in China's international trade. ► China's degree of dependence on foreign oil can be reduced obviously if oil embodied in international trade are considered.

  11. EMPLOYMENT EFFECT OF INDONESIA’S NON-OIL EXPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Feriyanto

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Indonesian government needs both domestic and foreign investments to accelerate its economic development. The investments enable promoting export and creating higher employment level. This research uses a path analysis method to analyze time series data of the period 1990 to 2009. It finds that both domestic and foreign direct investments significantly and positively influence Indonesia’s non-oil exports. In addition, it suggests that non-oil export performance can eventually lead to an increase in employment level in Indonesia. The policy implication of these results is that Indonesian government should encourage investment to promote export and absorb more labor. Keywords: Foreign direct investment, domestic investment, non-oil export, labor absorptionJEL classification numbers: F42, F43

  12. Energy substitution in oil-exporting LDC's the Indonesian experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, A.; Soelistijo, U. (Pennsylvania State University, University Park (USA). Dept. of Mineral Economics)

    1989-02-01

    Many oil-exporting LDCs defy the stereotype of an OPEC country with an excess of oil reserves for current and future needs. In this paper it is suggested that serious consideration be given to the substitution of other fossil energy resources for oil used domestically in order to release more oil for export. This will generate more foreign exchange and extend the life of the reserve base. A coal-oil substitution programme for Indonesia is presented and analysed to illustrate the economic development benefits of this strategy. 11 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  13. Non oil exports finance and economic development in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Alsakran, Abdullah

    2014-01-01

    This thesis was submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy and awarded by Brunel University Oil is an important part of the Saudi economy. With the volatility of oil prices and the pressing needs of economic growth and development, the Saudi Arabian government has planned to diversify its sources of income. To this end, the majority of effort has focused on developing the non-oil export sectors, particularly in manufacturing. Despite government efforts to enhance the ratio of non-...

  14. The Parallel Market for Foreign Exchange in an Oil Exporting Economy; The Case of Iran, 1978-1990

    OpenAIRE

    Adnan Mazarei

    1995-01-01

    This paper provides a model for the determination of the parallel market exchange rate premium in a country where oil export earnings accrue directly to the government, and foreign exchange is centrally allocated for the importation of specific goods. Next, it studies the parallel market for foreign exchange In the Islamic Republic of Iran during the period 1978-90. The paper then examines the various time series properties of parallel market exchange rate in Iran, and the evidence of the rol...

  15. Elasticity and competitiveness of Indonesia’s palm oil export in India market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awan Setya Dewanta

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the elasticity and competitiveness of Indonsia’s palm oil export in the India market, 1990 -2014. The methods used are Error Correction Model (ECM and Revealed Comparative Advantage (RCA approach. The results shows that the price is inelastic in short-term but it is elastic in long-term. The income and exchange rate are elastic in the long-term. There is also a decline in competitiveness in the market India. These findings also demonstrate that palm oil is normal goods and can be easily substituted with the same products of other countries or other vegetable oils. It threatens the Indonesian palm oil competitiveness in the Indian market.

  16. The Importance of Target Market Selection for More Profitable Olive Oil Exports by Turkey: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa METE

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the quotas and taxes implemented by EU to Turkey were examined and it was observed that these policies have negative effects on Turkey’s olive oil exports. Due to the restrictive policies and low profitability in the entry to the EU market, it was determined that Turkey should be directed to the markets that have higher profitability compared with the exports to EU countries. These detections were carried out in accordance with the information obtained from International Trade Center (ITC and Market Access Database (MAD. As a result of the detections it has been found that exports to the EU countries are more profitable and the entry to the market is easier than to the US. As a result of the researches in ITC and MAD databases, actual companies in oil imports in the US market have been determined and it has shown by examining a bill of loading sample that the firms that make olive oils exports in Turkey easily enter new target markets if they know the usage of the databases

  17. Major oil exporters may profit rather than lose, in a carbon-constrained world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persson, Tobias A.; Azar, C.; Johansson, D.; Lindgren, K.

    2007-01-01

    The Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) claims compensation for losses in expected oil export revenues due to CO 2 mitigation measures in developing countries. These losses are expected for two primary reasons: a reduction in the consumption of oil in importing countries and a reduction in the producer price of oil (taxation in an importing country implies a transfer of rents from producers to consumers). So far, most studies have focused on these two mechanisms and corroborated that revenue losses for OPEC are to be expected. However, there are also mechanisms that may be expected to raise the price of oil products. In a cost-effective regime for dealing with climate change, i.e., a regime in which all or most countries participate and in which the same carbon price is applied on all carbon-emitting activities, the cost of using unconventional oil, or synthetic diesel from coal, will increase even more than the cost of using conventional oil. Given that reserves of conventional oil are expected to dwindle over time, heavy oils and coal to liquids might set the long-run price for liquid fuels, which means that the price of oil would increase beyond the carbon fee; i.e., the rent on conventional oil would increase. We use an energy-economic optimization model to analyze these three mechanisms. We find that the net present value of OPEC revenue from conventional oil increases slightly (at most by 4 percent) with a global CO 2 restriction regime. We also consider conditions under which this result does not hold

  18. Global Integration, Non-Oil Export and Economic Growth in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozoemena Stanley Nwodo

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on global integration, non-oil export and economic growth in Nigeria. The direct and interaction effect of the both openness variables and non-oil export on economic growth in Nigeria is investigated using quarterly data from 1986-2014. For analysis, it uses one measures of financial openness: de facto (total capital flow variables following Aizenman and Noy (2009.and a measure of trade openness adopted by Okoh (2004. The study applies the Autoregressive Distributed Lag Model (ARDL. The results show positive impact of non-oil export on economic growth in Nigeria both in the short run and in the long run, negative effect of trade and financial openness on economic growth however, the result recorded a negative effect of the interaction of trade openness and non-oil export on economic growth and a positive effect of the interaction of financial openness and non-oil export on economic growth. Thus, the study recommends among others that government should get the fundamentals right in the economy first that will boost non-oil sector before opening the economy for trade.

  19. Oil price shocks: Sectoral and dynamic adjustments in a small-open developed and oil-exporting economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dissou, Yazid

    2010-01-01

    The recent uptrend in oil prices represents both an opportunity and a challenge for small-open developed and oil-exporting countries. Using Canada as a study case and in contrast to most studies that use aggregate models, this paper employs a multi-sector, intertemporal general equilibrium model to provide perspectives on the sectoral, aggregate and dynamic adjustments of a sustained increase in oil prices. It highlights the transmission channels through which the rise in oil prices affects the domestic economy. The simulation results suggest that the shock would have positive aggregate impacts, but would also spur the reallocation of resources and would therefore induce disparities in sectoral adjustments. The suggested contraction in some industries could not however be attributed to a pure Dutch disease phenomenon because of, among other factors, the cost-push effect induced by the increase in oil prices.

  20. Press freedom, oil exports, and risk for natural disasters: a challenge for climato-economic theory?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arantes, Joana; Grace, Randolph C; Kemp, Simon

    2013-10-01

    Does the interaction between climactic demands, monetary resources, and freedom suggest a more general relationship between the environmental challenges that human societies face and their resources to meet those challenges? Using data on press freedom (Van de Vliert 2011a), we found no evidence of a similar interaction with natural resources (as measured by oil exports) or risk for natural disasters.

  1. The Asymmetric Effects of Oil Shocks on an Oil-exporting Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Omar Mendoza; David Vera

    2010-01-01

    We estimate the effects of unexpected changes in oil prices on output for the case of Venezuela, an oil-exporting economy. Following Hamilton (2003), Lee et al. (1995), and Mork (1989), we estimate measures of oil shocks and determine the effect of these

  2. Lifting the US crude oil export ban: A numerical partial equilibrium analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langer, Lissy; Huppmann, Daniel; Holz, Franziska

    2016-01-01

    The upheaval in global crude oil markets and the boom in shale oil production in North America brought scrutiny on the US export ban for crude oil from 1975. The ban was eventually lifted in early 2016. This paper examines the shifts of global trade flows and strategic refinery investments in a spatial, game-theoretic partial equilibrium model. We consider detailed oil supply chain infrastructure with multiple crude oil types, distinct oil products, as well as specific refinery configurations and modes of transport. Prices, quantities produced and consumed, as well as infrastructure and refining capacity investments are endogenous to the model. We compare two scenarios: an insulated US crude oil market, and a counter-factual with lifted export restrictions. We find a significant expansion of US sweet crude exports with the lift of the export ban. In the US refinery sector, more (imported) heavy sour crude is transformed. Countries importing US sweet crude gain from higher product output, while avoiding costly refinery investments. Producers of heavy sour crude (e.g. the Middle East) are incentivised to climb up the value chain to defend their market share and maintain their dominant position. - Highlights: • We study the impacts of lifting the US crude ban on global oil flows and investments. • We find massive expansion of US sweet crude oil exports. • We analyze the resulting welfare effects for US producers, refiners and consumers. • We indicate the changes on global trade patterns. • We conclude that lifting the ban is the right policy for the US and the global economy.

  3. MIC risk in the Halfdan oil export system quantified with a DNA-based diagnostic tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, Jan; Rasmussen, Kim; Andersen, Kenneth [Maersk Oil (Denmark); Holmkvist, Lars [DTI Oil and Gas (Denmark)

    2011-07-01

    The paper presents the risk involved due to microbial influenced corrosion (MIC) using the halfdan oil export system. With growth of assets, scale and microbial fouling, corrosion and souring have increased. Some of the consequences to operators include, safety issues and loss of production. An example of the effects caused by MIC is the Valhall platform in the Norwegian sector, which was shut down for 80 days. Some of the factors causing bacterial growth and MIC are O2, CO2, and H2S, solids. Consideration of four objectives, corrosive products, microbiological activities, microbes, and spatially associating microbes is very important for diagnosing MIC. The objective of the halfdan study was to investigate the corrosion mechanism in the oil export spool section. Observations show severe pitting inside the pipelines. Suggestions for the operator, including the risk assessment of MIC, are given along with a summary of results. It can be concluded that there is a certain need in the industry to understand and act upon MIC.

  4. Using inclusive wealth for policy evaluation: Application to electricity infrastructure planning in oil-exporting countries

    OpenAIRE

    Collins, Ross D.; Selin, Noelle E.; de Weck, Olivier L.; Clark, William C.

    2017-01-01

    Decision-makers often seek to design policies that support sustainable development. Prospective evaluations of how effectively such policies are likely to meet sustainability goals have nonetheless remained relatively challenging. Evaluating policies against sustainability goals can be facilitated through the inclusive wealth framework, which characterizes development in terms of the value to society of its underlying capital assets, and defines development to be potentially sustainable if th...

  5. The optimal currency-peg for an oil exporting country: The case of Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almasbahi, M.S.

    1990-01-01

    In a world of generalized floating exchange rates, it is not enough to solve the problem of exchange rate policy by determining whether to peg or float the currency under consideration. It is also necessary to choose to what major currency to peg. The main purpose of this study is to investigate and determine empirically the optimum currency peg for the Saudi riyal. To accomplish this goal, a simple conventional trade model, that includes variables found in many other studies of import and export demand, was used. In addition, an exchange rate term was added as a separate independent variable in the import and export demand equations in order to assess the effect of exchange rate on the trade flows. The criteria for the optimal currency peg in this study were based on two factors. First, the error statistics for projected imports and exports using alternative exchange rate regimes. Second, variances of projected imports, exports and trade balance using alternative exchange rate regimes. The exchange rate has a significant impact on the Saudia Arabian trade flows which implies that changes in the riyals value affect the Saudi trade deficit. Moreover, the exchange rate has a more powerful effect on its aggregate imports than on the world demand for its exports. There is also a strong support for the hypothesis that the exchange rate affects the value of the Saudi bilateral trade with its five major trade partners. On the aggregate level, the SDR peg seems to be the best currency peg for the Saudi riyal since it provides the best prediction errors and the lowest variance for the trade balance. Finally, on the disaggregate level, the US dollar provides the best performance and yields the best results among all the six currency pegs considered in this study

  6. The national oil companies and the modernization of tax regimes in oil exporting countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez-Padilla, V.

    1994-01-01

    The analysis of tax regimes for oil national companies leads through three conclusions : i) current tax regimes are economically inefficient but they may be corrected without changing the institutional framework ; ii) there is no optimal tax regime but certain principles such as equity, adaptability and neutrality have to be respected; iii) contracts and concessions might be appropriated tools while maintaining the monopoly of the national company but such a choice poses political and ideological problems. (Author). 26 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  7. Transport interests and environmental regimes. The Baltic Sea transit of Russian oil exports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knudsen, Olav F.

    2010-01-01

    In the environmentally exposed Baltic Sea, a prolonged confrontation has set the transport interests of Russian crude oil against environmental interests, promoted by Russia's neighbours. During the 1990s all the Baltic littoral states - including Russia - collaborated well on marine environmental issues. When Russian oil exports accelerated after 1999, this environmental understanding broke down. Russian interests shifted as its oil income suddenly rose drastically. The confrontation peaked over a proposal to make the entire Baltic Sea into a particularly sensitive sea area (PSSA) under the International Maritime Organization (IMO). The proposal was adopted by the IMO in spite of Russian objections. The article shows how environmental interests trump transport interests in a manner that may not be sustainable. The case illustrates the need for environmental collaboration to be flexible in the face of shifting constellations of competing interests. (author)

  8. Exports, government size and economic growth (Evidence from Iran as a developing oil-export based economy)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.F. Dizaji (Sajjad Faraji)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractIn this study, I investigate the short run and long run effects of government size and exports on the economic growth of Iran as a developing oil export based economy for the period of 1974 to 2008. For this purpose I use the bounds testing approach to cointegration and error correction

  9. Analysis of domestic price and inflation determinants in Iran (as a developing oil-export based economy)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.F. Dizaji (Sajjad Faraji)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractAbstract The objective of this study is to examine and investigate both behaviour and determinants of domestic prices and inflation rate in Iran as a developing oil export based economy. I apply two models; the first model is for investigating the main determinants of domestic prices

  10. Estimation of the Impacts of Non-Oil Traditional and NonTraditional Export Sectors on Non-Oil Export of Azerbaijan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicat Hagverdiyev

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The significant share of oil sector of the Azerbaijan export portfolio necessitates promotion of non-oil exports. This study analyzes weather the commodities which contain the main share (more than 70% in non-oil export are traditional or non-traditional areas, using the so-called Commodity-specific cumulative export experience function, for the 1995-2015 time frame. Then, the impact of traditional and non-traditional exports on non-oil GDP investigated employing econometric model. The results of the study based on 16 non-oil commodities show that cotton, tobacco, and production of mechanic devices are traditional sectors in non-oil export. The estimation results of the model indicate that both, traditional and non-traditional non-oil export sectors have economically and statistically significant impact on non-oil GDP.

  11. The Dutch disease effect in a high versus low oil dependent countries

    OpenAIRE

    Allegret , Jean-Pierre; Benkhodja , Mohamed Tahar

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the main impacts of the recent increase of oil price on oil exporting economies, we estimate a DSGE model for a sample of 16 oil exporting countries (Algeria, Argentina, Ecuador, Gabon, Indonesia, Kuwait, Libya, Malaysia, Mexico, Nigeria, Oman, Russia, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, and Venezuela) over the period from 1980 to 2010, except for Russia where our sample begins in 1992. In order to distinguish between high-dependent and low-dependent countries, we use two indic...

  12. The effects of oil shocks on government expenditures and government revenues nexus in Iran (as a developing oil-export based economy)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.F. Dizaji (Sajjad Faraji)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThe main purpose of this study is to investigate the dynamic relationship between government revenues and government expenditures in Iran as a developing oil export based economy. Moreover, I want to know how government expenditures and revenues respond to oil price (revenue) shocks. I

  13. The rapid growth of domestic oil consumption in Saudi Arabia and the opportunity cost of oil exports foregone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gately, Dermot; Al-Yousef, Nourah; Al-Sheikh, Hamad M.H.

    2012-01-01

    We analyze the rapid growth of Saudi Arabia's domestic oil consumption, a nine-fold increase in 40 years, to nearly 3 million barrels per day, about one-fourth of production. Such rapid growth in consumption – 5.7% annually, which is 37% faster than its income growth of 4.2% – will challenge Saudi Arabia's ability to increase its oil exports, which are relied upon in long-term world oil projections by the International Energy Agency (IEA), US Department of Energy (DOE) and British Petroleum (BP). However, these institutions assume unprecedented slowdowns in Saudi oil consumption – from 5.7% annual growth historically to less than 2% in the future – allowing them to project increases in Saudi oil exports. Using 1971–2010 data, we estimate that the income responsiveness (elasticity) of oil consumption is at least 1.5—using both Ordinary Least Squares regression and Cointegration methods. We believe that continued high growth rates for domestic oil consumption are more likely than the dramatic slowdowns projected by IEA, DOE and BP. This will have major implications for Saudi production and export levels. - Highlights: ► We analyze the rapid growth of Saudi Arabia's domestic oil consumption, now one-fourth of production. ► Estimated income elasticity of oil demand at least 1.5, using OLS and Co-integration. ► Yet IEA, DOE and BP project unprecedented slowdowns, from 5.7% historically to below 2%, half the rate of income growth. ► Continued high growth rates are more likely, with major implications for Saudi production and export levels.

  14. The influence of South Korean energy policy on OPEC oil exports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almansoori, Ali

    2014-01-01

    South Korea is the fifth top oil importer worldwide with 64% of its oil coming from OPEC member countries. Over the last 30 years, South Korea accounted for a rapid increase in energy use. This in turn led South Korea to be totally dependent on oil imports. Due to this increase, South Korea has been experiencing drastic changes in its energy system which could potentially impact its dependence on OPEC oil import. External and internal factors have forced South Korea to change its energy strategy and targets. These targets would be achieved by reducing its energy intensity and utilizing electricity and renewable energies in order to reduce its dependence on oil consumption. “Low Carbon, Green Growth” is one policy along with many other energy policies developed by South Korea for reducing greenhouse gases, thus this policy is receiving a remarkable attention today. These national policies along with other international ones are needed to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions and promote other green initiatives. This study puts emphasis on these policies as well as uses them to predict the future energy profile of South Korea and how these policies will impact on oil imports from OPEC member countries. - Highlights: • Analyze energy policy of South Korea and its energy profiles. • Study the factors that affect South Korea to change its energy strategy and targets. • Analyze the implications of South Korean energy policy on oil imports from OPEC. • South Korea will continue importing oil from OPEC countries for the next decade

  15. A fast-track preliminary thermo-mechanical design of oil export pipelines from P-56 platform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solano, Rafael F.; Mendonca, Salete M. de [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Franco, Luciano D.; Walker, Alastair; El-Gebaly, Sherif H. [INTECSEA, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-12-19

    The oil export pipelines of Marlim Sul field Module 3, Campus Basin, offshore Brazil, will operate in high pressure and temperature conditions, and will be laid on seabed crossing ten previously laid pipelines along the routes. In terms of thermo-mechanical design, these conditions turn out to be great challenges. In order to obtain initial results and recommendations for detail design, a preliminary thermo-mechanical design of pipelines was carried out as a fast-track design before the bid. This way, PETROBRAS can assess and emphasize the susceptibility of these lines to lateral buckling and pipeline walking behavior. Therefore, PETROBRAS can present a preliminary mitigation strategy for lateral buckling showing solutions based on displacement controlled criteria and by introducing buckle initiation along the pipeline using distribution buoyancy. Besides that, axial displacements and loads at the pipeline ends can be furnished also in order to provide a basis for the detailed design. The work reported in this paper follows the SAFEBUCK JIP methodology and recommendation, which were used to determine the allowable strain and maximum allowable VAS (Virtual Anchor Spacing) considered in the buckling mitigation strategy. The paper presents also the formation of uncontrolled buckles on the seabed and the propensity for pipeline walking in its sections between buckles. The buckling mitigation strategy established in this preliminary design confirms that the oil pipeline specifications are adequate to maintain integrity during design life. (author)

  16. Exploring crude oil production and export capacity of the OPEC Middle East countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Ken'ichi; Voudouris, Vlasios; Stasinopoulos, Dimitrios; Rigby, Robert; Di Maio, Carlo

    2012-01-01

    As the world economy highly depends on crude oil, it is important to understand the dynamics of crude oil production and export capacity of major oil-exporting countries. Since crude oil resources are predominately located in the OPEC Middle East, these countries are expected to have significant leverage in the world crude oil markets by taking into account a range of uncertainties. In this study, we develop a scenario for crude oil export and production using the ACEGES model considering uncertainties in the resource limits, demand growth, production growth, and peak/decline point. The results indicate that the country-specific peak of both crude oil export and production comes in the early this century in the OPEC Middle East countries. On the other hand, they occupy most of the world export and production before and after the peak points. Consequently, these countries are expected to be the key group in the world crude oil markets. We also find that the gap between the world crude oil demand and production broadens over time, meaning that the acceleration of the development of ultra-deep-water oil, oil sands, and extra-heavy oil will be required if the world continuous to heavily rely on oil products. - Highlights: ► We simulate the future scenario of crude oil export and production using ACEGES. ► The simulated results are analyzed using the GAMLSS framework. ► The peak points of oil export and production will come early in this century. ► The OPCE Middle East will produce most of the world crude oil in the near future. ► These countries will continuously be the key players in the crude oil markets.

  17. Analysis of the impact of the Kyoto Protocol on the export revenues of OPEC member states and on the oil import requirements of non-Annex I countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linden NH van der; Linde C van der; Lako P; Rooijen SNM van; Netherlands Energy Research; Netherlands Institute of International Relations; NOP

    2000-01-01

    The members of the Organisation of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) continue to voice their concerns about the adverse impact of the implementation of greenhouse gas emission reduction policies on the oil exporting countries. Referring to Article 4.8 of the UNFCCC, the OPEC is of the opinion

  18. Optimal capital accumulation and the allocation of investment between traded and nontraded sectors in oil-producing countries.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wijnbergen, S.J.G.

    1985-01-01

    A paper on the optimal capital accumulation and allocation of investment in oil exporting countries. Investigates the basis of consumption and investment levels on optimizing forward-looking behavior, the role of physical capital in the production, the impact of the decline in oil revenues on the

  19. Effects of oil production on economic growth in Eurasian countries: Panel ARDL approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bildirici, Melike Elif; Kayıkçı, Fazıl

    2013-01-01

    This study aims at analyzing the relationship between oil production and economic growth in major oil exporting Eurasian countries; Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Russian Federation and Turkmenistan for 1993–2010 periods. Empirical results reveal that oil production and economic growth are cointegrated for these countries. Furthermore, there is positive bi-directional causality between oil production and economic growth both in the long run and in the short run which supports the policies about investing in energy infrastructure. -- Highlights: ► Causality between economic growth and oil production is important for energy policies. ► Oil production and GDP are cointegrated for four oil exporting Eurasian countries. ► There is positive bi-directional causality between oil production and economic growth for these countries.

  20. Challenges for the heavy oil exportation though pipelines in deep waters; Desafios da exportacao de oleos pesados atraves de oleodutos em aguas profundas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreolli, Ivanilto; Borges Filho, Jonas P.; Gaspari, Eduardo F. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Due to the high pressures, low temperatures, and high viscosities involved, the heavy oil exportation in deep waters through pipelines imposes a number of challenges to be feasible. The viscosities involved in such scenarios are usually very high, which brings most of the system to a laminar flow even for the higher flow rates. In a laminar flow the viscosity is linearly and directly related to the frictional pressure drop and so its precise determination is crucial for the correct results from simulations in transient or in steady state, including the modeling thermal. This work presents some results in steady state and transient simulations of heavy oil of deg API around 16 and pipe length of approximately 20km. For the analyses in the steady state was concluded that in low outflows the required pressures can surpass the pressures in high outflows. In the transient regimen was concluded that in case of long stop, the return to the full outflow surpasses 6 days and the replacement of the fluids from the pipe by diesel is a solution to reduce significantly this time. (author)

  1. Budget deficit remedies and their impact on the non-oil sectors of an oil-exporting country: the case of Kuwait

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eltony, M.N.

    1998-01-01

    A model for the non-oil production side of the Kuwaiti economy was developed and estimated. The model, then, was simulated according to various scenarios designed to eliminate the budget deficit by the year 2000, in order to examine the effect on the non-oil sector of the economy. The results indicate that, in terms of its impact on non-oil GDP, the extreme case scenario is harsh, bringing down the level of non-oil GDP by more than 20% by the year 2000 from its level in 1993. The impact on the budget deficit may be very positive, but non-oil production and consumption will decline very rapidly, creating widespread hardship across all economic sectors. The results suggest a better option lies in adopting either of two intermediate case scenarios. While each of these will also cause a decline in non-oil GDP, it will not be to the extent caused by the extreme case scenario

  2. Energy conservation: an alternative for investment in the oil sector for OPEC member countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamani, M.

    2005-01-01

    Investment in the oil sector is the main policy of expanding net crude oil export capacity in OPEC Member Countries. The other alternative should be improving energy conservation policies. Since these countries benefit from cheap energy sources, it is reasonable to expect inefficient use of energy in their economies, resulting in relatively high energy intensity. This paper deals with the causality relationship between energy consumption and gross domestic product (GDP). First, stationary tests are run. Second, if there is a cointegrating relationship, an error correction model is applied; otherwise a standard Granger causality test is conducted. It was discovered that for all OPEC Member Countries we cannot statistically accept causality running from energy to GDP. Therefore, not only are proper conservation policies not a threat to economic growth, they also lead to an expansion of oil export capacity. (author)

  3. DEMAND FOR OIL PRODUCTS IN OPEC COUNTRIES: A PANEL COINTEGRATION ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nourah Al Yousef

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing consumption of oil-refined products on OPEC countries will have its impact on the availability of oil exports. The goal of this paper is to examine the determinants of oil refined products’ consumption for a panel consisting of 7 OPEC countries, namely, Algeria, Kuwait, Libya, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, United Emirates and Iran for the period of 1980–2010, by employing the recently developed panel data unit root tests and panel data cointegration techniques. Furthermore, conditional on finding cointegration, the paper extends the literature by employing the Pedroni Panel Fully Modified Ordinary Least Squares (FMOLS Dynamic OLS (DOLS procedure to generate. The study estimates the demand for Gasoline, Kerosene and Diesel. An attempt is also made to assess the impact of this demand on the future availability of OPEC oil exports.

  4. The role of diversification strategies in the economic development for oil-depended countries: - The case of UAE

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed Zain Elabdin Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    Diversification strategies adopted by oil-depended economies' played an important role in the economic development in these countries, which rely heavily on oil exports. UAE as an oil-dependency economy has the type of strategy to diversify the sources of its national income and reduce its dependence on oil to counter the instability in global oil prices. This paper seek to investigate whether the diversification strategies adopted by (UAE) is adequate to manage its economic development. T...

  5. The economic growth of oil countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arbod, G.

    2007-02-01

    The literature tries to apprehend the weakness of the economic growth of oil culminates by the assumption of ousted growth factors. In the Dutch Disease models the non-oil exporting sector would be ousted whereas in the analyses in terms of economic policies it would be the efficient economic policies. We consider the phenomenon through the growth theories, the oil income being regarded as an additional exogenous income for the economy. In this manner the growth dynamic of oil countries, even the most unfavourable, can be modelled without utilizing any concept of economic inefficiency. The last part of our work is devoted to the Saudi economy. After having developed a macro-econometric model, and using scenarios of oil prices, we lead a forecasted analysis of this economy. (author)

  6. Saudi Arabia a technically developing country and the question of introducing nuclear power during 1980-2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melibary, A.R.

    1980-07-01

    In this investigation, the possibility of introducing nuclear power during 1980-2000 to the oil exporting country Saudi Arabia is examined in view of generating the required electricity and desalted water during this period by using the nuclear fuels uranium and thorium. The investigation is carried out in a general framework by means of coupling the prevailing conditions in the country with the special requirements of the nuclear power industry in areas as the grid size, fuel cycle material demand and cost, and siting conditions. (orig.) [de

  7. Consuming the world's energy: Update series. Energy efficiency trends in oil countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This issue of Energy Detente addresses energy efficiency in selected oil producing countries over time and compare the varying effects of important crude oil price changes. As economies around the world heighten their benefits from conservation and efficient use of energy, oil producers will be crucial examples not only for their own sakes, but for consuming countries dependent upon their exports. In this sense, their potential for leadership and vision seems greater than ever. Specifically, 6 oil-exporting countries are featured: Australia, Kuwait, Indonesia, Nigeria, the United Kingdom, and Venezuela. This issue also presents the following: (1) the ED Refining Netback Data Series for the US Gulf and West Coasts, Rotterdam, and Singapore as of February 21, 1992; and (2) the ED Fuel Price/Tax Series for countries of the Eastern Hemisphere, February, 1992 edition

  8. Implications for the Venezuelan oil industry of new environmental regulations in consumer countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez M, J.C.

    1992-01-01

    New and tighter environmental regulations are being enacted in major oil consumer countries, inducing a reshaping of oil business strategies and operations in oil exporting countries. The priority areas include air and water pollution control, waste management, conservation of natural resources and oil spill control among others. This paper summarizes the more significant of those regulations in the U.S.A. and Europe, their aims, as well as the implications for Petroleos de Venezuela, S.A. (PDVSA) in terms of investment in new product specifications and pollution prevention programmes. A review of the Venezuelan environmental regulations has also been done recently, and the necessary investment to comply with the new national standards in existing installations are estimated in US$500 million for the period 1992-1996. Investment in local environmental protection, associated with the new installations in Venezuela for manufacturing cleaner products during the same period, are included in the costs of these installations presented in this document. (author)

  9. Real purchasing power of oil revenues for OPEC Member Countries: a broad currency basket and dynamic trade pattern approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazraati, M.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the real purchasing power of OPEC Member Countries' oil revenues, which are subject to 'the value of the US dollar vis-a-vis other major currencies' and 'world imported inflation'. The exponential weighting average formula with a broad basket of currencies is suggested. The basket of currencies is labelled as a broad currency basket and includes the major trading partners of OPEC Member Countries. The weights are normalized OPEC import shares of the countries of the basket and are updated and adjusted every year to incorporate a gradual change in the trade pattern. In other words, the dynamic trade pattern approach is incorporated in the calculations. The nominal dollar oil revenues of OPEC Member Countries are about $5,099 billion during 1970 to 2004, of which $3,725 bn (73 per cent) have been lost due to imported inflation and the dollar's depreciation. Imported inflation and dollar depreciation have had a respective 78.6 per cent and 21.4 per cent contribution to the losses of the purchasing power of OPEC Member Countries. The imported inflation rate approaches a stable low level, but OPEC still has a lot of concerns on dollar swings. The euro offers opportunities for many oil-exporting nations that have extensive trade relations with Euro-zone countries. Payments for oil exports can be invoked in euros at the prevailing dollar-euro rate on the day of a given contract, or any other trigger formula. This would immunize a major portion of OPEC oil revenues from dollar depreciation. (author)

  10. Export and Economic Growth Nexus in the GCC Countries: A panel Data Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    hatem Hatef abdulkadhim

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The export and economic growth nexus, which is called Balassa’s Export-Led Growth Hypothesis (ELGH  in the literature, is still an unstill issue in both the theoretical and empirical literature. In the present study, the effect of export on economic growth in  oil exporting developing countries, namely, Bahrain, Saudi Arabia, Qatar,  Kuwait, UAE, and Oman in the 1990–2014 period was tested based on three models, pooled ordinary least squares (POLS, fixed effects model (FEM, and random effects model (REM  via panel data analysis . The findings revealed strong support for the “export-led growth” hypothesis. In addition, our results show that apart from growth in the labor force, investments in capital formation are necessary for economic growth. According to the obtained results, the ability to adopt technological changes in order to increase efficiency, and sustain economic development is also important.

  11. The economic growth of oil countries; La croissance economique des pays petroliers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arbod, G

    2007-02-15

    The literature tries to apprehend the weakness of the economic growth of oil culminates by the assumption of ousted growth factors. In the Dutch Disease models the non-oil exporting sector would be ousted whereas in the analyses in terms of economic policies it would be the efficient economic policies. We consider the phenomenon through the growth theories, the oil income being regarded as an additional exogenous income for the economy. In this manner the growth dynamic of oil countries, even the most unfavourable, can be modelled without utilizing any concept of economic inefficiency. The last part of our work is devoted to the Saudi economy. After having developed a macro-econometric model, and using scenarios of oil prices, we lead a forecasted analysis of this economy. (author)

  12. The role of diversification strategies in the economic development for oil-depended countries: - The case of UAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Zain Elabdin Ahmed

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Diversification strategies adopted by oil-depended economies' played an important role in the economic development in these countries, which rely heavily on oil exports. UAE as an oil-dependency economy has the type of strategy to diversify the sources of its national income and reduce its dependence on oil to counter the instability in global oil prices. This paper seek to investigate whether the diversification strategies adopted by (UAE is adequate to manage its economic development. The methodology employed in this study is to examine the contribution of diversified sectors based on the country's GDP especially during and after the global financial crisis (2008-2012 using statistical analysis procedure. The results confirm that investment in different sectors rather than oil would have substantially improved the performance UAE economy.

  13. Oil price shocks and stock markets in the U.S. and 13 European countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jungwook; Ratti, Ronald A.

    2008-01-01

    Oil price shocks have a statistically significant impact on real stock returns contemporaneously and/or within the following month in the U.S. and 13 European countries over 1986:1-2005:12. Norway as an oil exporter shows a statistically significantly positive response of real stock returns to an oil price increase. The median result from variance decomposition analysis is that oil price shocks account for a statistically significant 6% of the volatility in real stock returns. For many European countries, but not for the U.S., increased volatility of oil prices significantly depresses real stock returns. The contribution of oil price shocks to variability in real stock returns in the U.S. and most other countries is greater than that of interest rate. An increase in real oil price is associated with a significant increase in the short-term interest rate in the U.S. and eight out of 13 European countries within one or two months. Counter to findings for the U.S. and for Norway, there is little evidence of asymmetric effects on real stock returns of positive and negative oil price shocks for oil importing European countries. (author)

  14. Fiscal terms for gas need improvement in many countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meurs, A.P.H. van; Seck, A.

    1997-01-01

    It would be logical to assume that many governments in the world would have more favorable fiscal terms for gas than for oil in order to stimulate gas development. The economics of gas is often less attractive than oil. In many countries gas markets are limited, often causing delays in gas development or restricting the level of production. Expensive gas pipeline and distribution systems need to be installed in order to deliver gas from the fields to markets. Prices for gas at the wellhead are usually lower than for oil on an energy equivalent basis. Gas is a desirable fuel for environmental reasons. Domestic gas development could result in a lower level of oil imports or increased oil exports. Low cost gas could be used in many ways to stimulate the development of certain industries. Finally, improved terms for gas could result in better overall petroleum exploration economics which often results in the discovery of more oil as well as gas. However, a comparative analysis of the government take for oil and for gas for the same concessions and contracts indicates that most governments still require identical fiscal terms for gas and oil. Only a few governments are stimulating gas development with more attractive fiscal terms

  15. Country profile: Syria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-06-01

    A relatively minor oil exporter on Middle Eastern terms, Syria is a member of OPEC and one of the first Arab states to take control of its hydrocarbon resources from foreign domination. After a period of decline, a major discovery is opening new perspectives of Syria's future. The author describes Syria's history since it emerged from the Ottoman Empire and a period of French domination into a period of industrialization and economic development. Oil is the largest single item in the balance of payments and the leading provider of revenues for investment by the government. Since the first discoveries in the 1950s, a number of fields have become productive. The configuration of refineries makes it necessary to export crude oil and import light crude from the new discoveries, making crude oil and petroleum products the largest negative items on the balance of payments. 1 figure.

  16. Climate change mitigation in developing countries. Brazil, China, India, Mexico, South Africa, and Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandler, W.; Secrest, T.J.; Logan, J. [Battelle Memorial Institute, Columbus, OH (United States); Schaeffer, R.; Szklo, A.S.; Schuler, M.E. [Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Dadi, Zhou; Kejun, Zhang; Yuezhong, Zhu; Huaqing, Xu [China Energy Research Institute, Beijing (China); Shukla, P.R. [Indian Institute of Management, Ahmedabad (India); Tudela, F. [El Colegio de Mexico, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Davidson, O.; Mwakasonda, S.; Spalding-Fecher, R.; Winkler, H.; Mukheibir, P. [University of Cape Toen, Cape Town (South Africa); Alpan-Atamer, S. [MedConsult, Ankara (Turkey)

    2002-10-15

    Greenhouse gas emissions from developing countries will likely surpass those from developed countries within the first half of this century, highlighting the need for developing country efforts to reduce the risk of climate change. While developing nations have been reluctant to accept binding emissions targets, asking that richer nations take action first, many are undertaking efforts that have significantly reduced the growth of their own greenhouse gas emissions. In most cases, climate mitigation is not the goal, but rather an outgrowth of efforts driven by economic, security, or local environmental concerns. This study attempts to document the climate mitigation resulting from such efforts in six key countries (Brazil, China, India, Mexico, South Africa, and Turkey) and to inform policy-making aimed at further mitigation in these and other developing nations. The six countries examined here reflect significant regional, economic, demographic, and energy resource diversity. They include the world's two most populous nations, a major oil exporter, Africa's largest greenhouse gas emitter, and the country with the largest expanse of tropical forest. While their circumstances vary widely, these countries share common concerns that have motivated actions resulting in reduced greenhouse gas emissions growth. Primary among these concerns are economic growth, energy security, and improved air quality. The analysis presented here demonstrates that actions taken by these countries to achieve these and other goals have reduced the growth of their combined annual greenhouse gas emissions over the past three decades by nearly 300 million tons a year. If not for these actions, the annual emissions of these six countries would likely be about 18 percent higher than they are today. To put these figures in perspective, if all developed countries were to meet the emission targets set by the Kyoto Protocol, they would have to reduce their emissions by an estimated 392

  17. Energy efficiency and capital-energy substitutability: Evidence from four OPEC countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adetutu, Morakinyo O.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The analysis examines energy efficiency gains in selected OPEC countries during 1972–2010. • Capital-energy substitutability is also explored to analyze the impact of policy measures to reduce energy use. • The magnitudes of energy efficiency gains are somewhat small or modest. • Energy and capital are substitutes in some countries, but complements in others. • Climate change policies need to internalize the environmental cost of energy consumption in end-use prices. - Abstract: Rapid economic growth and development in several oil-exporting developing countries have led to increasing energy consumption and the accompanying greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Consequently, a good understanding of the nature and structure of energy use in developing economies is required for future energy and climate change policies. To this end, a modified translog cost function is employed in this paper to estimate energy efficiency for selected members of the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) over the period 1972–2010. This also allows for the estimation of energy-capital substitutability, which arguably reflects the likely ease/disruption to long-term growth arising from policy measures aimed at reducing energy consumption and GHG emissions. The estimated results show that energy efficiency gains range from −14% to 13% for sampled countries. Furthermore, factor substitution elasticities suggest that energy and capital are substitutes in Algeria and Saudi Arabia, but are found to be complements in Iran and Venezuela. The insight generated by this study is that, over the last four decades, energy efficiency improvements in selected OPEC countries are modest, possibly reflecting a “subsidy effect” arising from artificially low energy prices. Thus, policy makers should take note that measures aimed at conserving energy need to internalize the environmental cost arising from energy consumption using pricing and fiscal instruments

  18. E-government factors to reduce administrative and finance corruption in Arab countries: Case study Iraqi oil sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, M. A.; Eman, Y.; Hussein, A. H.; Hasson, A. R.

    2015-12-01

    Arab countries face the corruption issues in its several public organizations. The corruption in these countries is considered as the main challenge. The oil sector is one of the public sectors that have huge level of corruption. However, the Iraqi economy had become dependable on oil sector daring the last three decades, and on the contrary, of what other oil countries did. The capital is considered as one of the essential factor for economic development. The revenues of oil exports will stay the essential source for economic development in Iraq in the future in order to reduce being dependable on oil. Since the beginning of the 3rd thousands, the world witnessed great rise in the demand on oil, but the Iraqi exports of crude oil come to be less than its similarities in the seventeenths of last century. So our oil sector is still in need of deep study. This study focuses on technological technique that can make huge decrease for corruption in oil sector in Iraq. However, e-government is considered as the best techniques that can decrease the corruption. Thus, this study bases on challenges that effect on build successful e-government project in Iraqi oil industry.

  19. GLOBAL PROSPECTS OF SYNTHETIC DIESEL FUEL PRODUCED FROM HYDROCARBON RESOURCES IN OIL&GAS EXPORTING COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav Kurevija

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Production of synthetic diesel fuel through Fischer-Tropsch process is a well known technology which dates from II World War, when Germany was producing transport fuel from coal. This process has been further improved in the South Africa due to period of international isolation. Today, with high crude oil market cost and increased demand of energy from China and India, as well as global ecological awareness and need to improve air quality in urban surroundings, many projects are being planned regarding production of synthetic diesel fuel, known as GTL (Gas To Liquid. Most of the future GTL plants are planned in oil exporting countries, such are Qatar and Nigeria, where natural gas as by-product of oil production is being flared, losing in that way precious energy and profit. In that way, otherwise flared natural gas, will be transformed into synthetic diesel fuel which can be directly used in all modern diesel engines. Furthermore, fossil fuel transportation and distribution technology grid can be used without any significant changes. According to lower emissions of harmful gasses during combustion than fossil diesel, this fuel could in the future play a significant part of EU efforts to reach 23% of alternative fuel share till 2020., which are now mostly relied on biodiesel, LPG (liquefied petroleum gas and CNG (compressed natural gas.

  20. Multivariate granger causality between electricity consumption, exports and GDP: Evidence from a panel of Middle Eastern countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narayan, Paresh Kumar; Smyth, Russell

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the causal relationship between electricity consumption, exports and gross domestic product (GDP) for a panel of Middle Eastern countries. We find that for the panel as a whole there are statistically significant feedback effects between these variables. A 1 per cent increase in electricity consumption increases GDP by 0.04 per cent, a 1 per cent increase in exports increases GDP by 0.17 per cent and a 1 per cent increase in GDP generates a 0.95 per cent increase in electricity consumption. The policy implications are that for the panel as a whole these countries should invest in electricity infrastructure and step up electricity conservation policies to avoid a reduction in electricity consumption adversely affecting economic growth. Further policy implications are that for the panel as a whole promoting exports, particularly non-oil exports, is a means to promote economic growth and that expansion of exports can be realized without having adverse effects on energy conservation policies

  1. Wave of Middle East migration raises questions of policy in many countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerakis, A S; Thayanithy, S

    1978-09-04

    Since 1973 the increase in revenues from petroleum has resulted in a substantial migration of workers to the oil exporting countries of the Middle East. Discussion focuses on the policies being used to minimize the costs and maximize the advantages of emigration, including description and evaluation of measures and proposals for further action. No action seems to have been taken to regulate the present wave of Middle Eastern emigration, probably because in its initial stages it proved an unmixed blessing for the labor exporting countries. Steps should have been taken to protect the emigrants. Their living conditions are unsatisfactory in some host countries, and frequently they are exploited by the unscrupulous middlemen who arranged their employment and wages. No effective international agreements, multilateral or bilateral, have been concluded to deal with these problems. A policy response is required as labor shortages emerge in the later phases of emigration, especially as the balance of payments situation improves and reserves rise. An appropriate strategy should combine both supply and demand management measures. It should avoid overambitious antiinflationary objectives. For the majority of the labor exporting countries discussed here, foreign exchange earnings from migrants have reached sizable amounts, exceeding, for example, $1 billion in Egypt, India, Pakistan, and the Yemen Arab Republic. Countries are maximizing those receipts by resorting to compulsion and surrender requirements. Emigrants should be coaxed and not compelled to remit currently a high proportion of savings and to invest a low percentage in the country where they work or in 3rd countries. Remittances by workers during the period of their stay in foreign countries are made for family maintenance and for investment. The most effective way to satisfy emigrants that they will be able to reexport their assets is to remove all restrictions on payments. Going beyond general policies to create a

  2. FY 1997 report on the field survey on country situations including efficient energy consumption. Vietnam; 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho (energy shohi koritsuka nado chiiki josei genchi chosa). Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    Field survey was made on the current state of and issues on energy in Vietnam. In Vietnam, firewood is in wide use as non-commercial energy, and sums to a half of total energy consumption. Other energies such as hydroelectric power, petroleum, natural gas and coal are self-sustainable. Commercial energy consumption in 1995 is estimated at 10,070,000t in oil equivalent, which is broken down into 23% for coal, 42% in oil, 5% for natural gas and 30% for electricity. Abundant water resources will form the mainstay of future electric power supply. Commercial production of oil started in 1986 becoming an oil exporting country. Several promising natural gas fields were discovered as the result of the exploration by foreign capital. Coal deposits are estimated to be nearly 3.5 billion tons, and most of them are anthracite. Electric power demand is growing at a higher rate than the economic growth of Vietnam. The growth rate of electric power demand is set to be 1.3 times that of GDP. Since construction funds for new plants cannot be satisfied with the national budget and domestic investment alone, the country is expecting foreign capitals. 21 figs., 36 tabs.

  3. Oil Trade and Climate Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Malik Curuk; Suphi Sen

    2015-01-01

    It has been argued that a depletable resource owner might optimally increase near-term supply in response to environmental policies promoting the development of alternative resources, which might render climate policy ineffective or even counterproductive. This paper empirically confirms this prediction using data on crude oil exports from OPEC to OECD countries between 2001-2010 in a gravity framework. It documents that oil exporters decrease prices and increase quantity of oil exports in re...

  4. Building country image process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zubović Jovan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The same branding principles are used for countries as they are used for the products, only the methods are different. Countries are competing among themselves in tourism, foreign investments and exports. Country turnover is at the level that the country's reputation is. The countries that begin as unknown or with a bad image will have limits in operations or they will be marginalized. As a result they will be at the bottom of the international influence scale. On the other hand, countries with a good image, like Germany (despite two world wars will have their products covered with a special "aura".

  5. The first safe country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaela Puggioni

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The Dublin II Regulation makes the first safe country of refuge solelyresponsible for refugees and asylum seekers. In the case of Italy, thefirst responsible country has not been acting responsibly.

  6. Radiotherapy in small countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Michael B; Zubizarreta, Eduardo H; Polo Rubio, J Alfredo

    2017-10-01

    To examine the availability of radiotherapy in small countries. A small country was defined as a country with a population less than one million persons. The economic status of each country was defined using the World Bank Classification. The number of cancers in each country was obtained from GLOBOCAN 2012. The number of cancer cases with an indication or radiotherapy was calculated using the CCORE model. There were 41 countries with a population of under 1 million; 15 were classified as High Income, 15 Upper Middle Income, 10 Lower Middle Income and one Low Income. 28 countries were islands. Populations ranged from 799 (Holy See) to 886450 (Fiji) and the total number of cancer cases occurring in small countries was 21,043 (range by country from 4 to 2476). Overall the total number of radiotherapy cases in small countries was 10982 (range by country from 2 to 1239). Radiotherapy was available in all HIC islands with 80 or more new cases of cancer in 2012 but was not available in any LMIC island. Fiji was the only LMIC island with a large radiotherapy caseload. Similar caseloads in non-island LMIC all had radiotherapy services. Most non-island HIC did not have radiotherapy services presumably because of the easy access to radiotherapy in neighbouring countries. There are no radiotherapy services in any LMIC islands. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Country Presentation Uganda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oriada, R.; Byakagaba, A.; Kiza, M.; Magembe, M.

    2010-01-01

    Like Many African countries, Uganda is not Immune to the problem of illicit trafficking of Nuclear and Radioactive materials. This has been worsened by the porosity of the Ugandan Borders. There is control on the few Entry points and much of the border line does not have adequate control on what enters and leaves the country. Uganda is also used as a transit route with the neighboring countries like Sudan, Democratic Republic of Congo, Kenya,Tanzania.

  8. The Trans-Caspian energy route: Cronyism, competition and cooperation in Kazakh oil export

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guliyev, Farid [School of Humanities and Social Sciences, Jacobs University Bremen, Campus Ring 1, D-28759 Bremen (Germany)], E-mail: f.guliyev@jacobs-university.de; Akhrarkhodjaeva, Nozima [School of Humanities and Social Sciences, Jacobs University Bremen, Campus Ring 1, D-28759 Bremen (Germany)

    2009-08-15

    The article delineates the major national, regional and international level stakeholders in the westward Trans-Caspian transportation of Kazakh oil, supplemented with a discussion of the prospect of expansion of the Trans-Caspian/South Caucasus corridor in light of the presumably harmful effect of the war between Russia and Georgia in August 2008. It demonstrates that while foreign companies have been backed by their respective governments, national firms have also enjoyed considerable state support, partly due to their close links to the interests of state elites in Kazakhstan and Azerbaijan. It appears that most companies along the shipping line either belong to the governments of Kazakhstan or Azerbaijan, directly or indirectly (through subsidiaries), or enjoy favoritism and a near monopoly in their markets (crony capitalism). Some of these firms are privately owned but registered in offshore tax havens, while some others have rather obscure ownership structures and corporate profiles. It suggests that cronyism and state capture comprise that politico-economic environment within which the future of Caspian transport systems will have to be decided.

  9. The Trans-Caspian energy route. Cronyism, competition and cooperation in Kazakh oil export

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guliyev, Farid; Akhrarkhodjaeva, Nozima [School of Humanities and Social Sciences, Jacobs University Bremen, Campus Ring 1, D-28759 Bremen (Germany)

    2009-08-15

    The article delineates the major national, regional and international level stakeholders in the westward Trans-Caspian transportation of Kazakh oil, supplemented with a discussion of the prospect of expansion of the Trans-Caspian/South Caucasus corridor in light of the presumably harmful effect of the war between Russia and Georgia in August 2008. It demonstrates that while foreign companies have been backed by their respective governments, national firms have also enjoyed considerable state support, partly due to their close links to the interests of state elites in Kazakhstan and Azerbaijan. It appears that most companies along the shipping line either belong to the governments of Kazakhstan or Azerbaijan, directly or indirectly (through subsidiaries), or enjoy favoritism and a near monopoly in their markets (crony capitalism). Some of these firms are privately owned but registered in offshore tax havens, while some others have rather obscure ownership structures and corporate profiles. It suggests that cronyism and state capture comprise that politico-economic environment within which the future of Caspian transport systems will have to be decided. (author)

  10. Russian oil exports : the Baltic Sea remains important route / Kari Liuhto

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Liuhto, Kari

    2003-01-01

    Kui Venemaa jätkab naftatranspordi suurendamist Läänemere sadamate kaudu, siis paneb see EL-i ja Venemaa suhted tõsiselt proovile, leiab autor ning et keskkonnale kõige ohutum viis naftat Venemaalt läände eksportida oleks läbi Murmanski sadama Põhja-Jäämeres. Tabel: Venemaa toornafta eksport 2002. aastal.

  11. Oil Prices, Credit Risks in Banking Systems, and Macro-Financial Linkages across GCC Oil Exporters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleh Alodayni

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper assesses the effect of the recent 2014–2015 oil price slump on the financial stability in the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC region. The first objective of this paper is to assess how oil price shock propagates within the macroeconomy and how the macro shocks transmit to GCC banks’ balance sheets. This part of the paper implements a System Generalized Method of Moments (GMM and a Panel Fixed Effect Model to estimate the response of nonperforming loans (NPLs to its macroeconomic determinants. The second objective of this paper is to assess any negative feedback effects between the GCC banking systems and the economy. The paper, therefore, implements a Panel VAR model to explore the macro-financial linkages between GCC banking systems and the real economy. The results indicate that oil price, non-oil GDP, interest rate, stock prices, and housing prices are major determinants of NPLs across GCC banks and the overall financial stability in the region. Credit risk shock tends to propagate disturbances to non-oil GDP, credit growth, and stock prices across GCC economies. A higher level of NPLs restricts banks’ credit growth and can dampen economic growth in these economies. The results support the notion that disturbances in banking systems lead to unwanted economic consequences for the real sector.

  12. The Trans-Caspian energy route. Cronyism, competition and cooperation in Kazakh oil export

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guliyev, Farid; Akhrarkhodjaeva, Nozima

    2009-01-01

    The article delineates the major national, regional and international level stakeholders in the westward Trans-Caspian transportation of Kazakh oil, supplemented with a discussion of the prospect of expansion of the Trans-Caspian/South Caucasus corridor in light of the presumably harmful effect of the war between Russia and Georgia in August 2008. It demonstrates that while foreign companies have been backed by their respective governments, national firms have also enjoyed considerable state support, partly due to their close links to the interests of state elites in Kazakhstan and Azerbaijan. It appears that most companies along the shipping line either belong to the governments of Kazakhstan or Azerbaijan, directly or indirectly (through subsidiaries), or enjoy favoritism and a near monopoly in their markets (crony capitalism). Some of these firms are privately owned but registered in offshore tax havens, while some others have rather obscure ownership structures and corporate profiles. It suggests that cronyism and state capture comprise that politico-economic environment within which the future of Caspian transport systems will have to be decided. (author)

  13. Day Care: Other Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjartarson, Freida; And Others

    This collection of 5 bilingual papers on day care programs in foreign countries (China, the Soviet Union, and 3 Scandinavian countries) is part of a series of papers on various aspects of day care published by the Canadian Department of Health and Welfare. Each paper is presented in both English and French. Paper I considers day care services in…

  14. Country Profiles, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzuki, Ariffin Bin; Peng, J. Y.

    A profile of Malaysia is sketched in this paper. Emphasis is placed on the nature, scope, and accomplishments of population activities in the country. Topics and sub-topics include: location and description of the country; population (size, growth patterns, age structure, urban/rural distribution, ethnic and religious composition, migration,…

  15. Serbia : Systematic Country Diagnostic

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2015-01-01

    This Systematic Country Diagnostic (SCD) aims to identify the major constraints on and opportunities for sustaining poverty reduction and shared prosperity in Serbia. The SCD serves as the analytic foundation on which the World Bank Group and the Government of Serbia will define a new Country Partnership Framework for FY2016 to FY2020. It is based on the best possible analysis, drawing on ...

  16. Telemedicine for Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combi, Carlo; Pozzani, Gabriele

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Developing countries need telemedicine applications that help in many situations, when physicians are a small number with respect to the population, when specialized physicians are not available, when patients and physicians in rural villages need assistance in the delivery of health care. Moreover, the requirements of telemedicine applications for developing countries are somewhat more demanding than for developed countries. Indeed, further social, organizational, and technical aspects need to be considered for successful telemedicine applications in developing countries. Objective We consider all the major projects in telemedicine, devoted to developing countries, as described by the proper scientific literature. On the basis of such literature, we want to define a specific taxonomy that allows a proper classification and a fast overview of telemedicine projects in developing countries. Moreover, by considering both the literature and some recent direct experiences, we want to complete such overview by discussing some design issues to be taken into consideration when developing telemedicine software systems. Methods We considered and reviewed the major conferences and journals in depth, and looked for reports on the telemedicine projects. Results We provide the reader with a survey of the main projects and systems, from which we derived a taxonomy of features of telemedicine systems for developing countries. We also propose and discuss some classification criteria for design issues, based on the lessons learned in this research area. Conclusions We highlight some challenges and recommendations to be considered when designing a telemedicine system for developing countries. PMID:27803948

  17. ERAWATCH Country Reports 2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimpe, Christoph

    between the national priorities and the structural challenges, highlighting the latest developments, their dynamics and impact in the overall national context. They further analyse and assess the ability of the policy mix in place to consistently and efficiently tackle these challenges. These reports were......This analytical country report is one of a series of annual ERAWATCH reports produced for EU Member States and Countries Associated to the Seventh Framework Programme for Research of the European Union (FP7). The main objective of the ERAWATCH Annual Country Reports is to characterise and assess...... the performance of national research systems and related policies in a structured manner that is comparable across countries. The Country Report 2012 builds on and updates the 2011 edition. The report identifies the structural challenges of the national research and innovation system and assesses the match...

  18. Country branding: an imperative for developing countries | Akotia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Clarifying what a country brand and country branding encompasses, this paper examines the competitive advantage a country brand engenders for developing countries. Furthermore, emphasising country branding as a social construction, this paper argues that for developing countries entrenched in the poverty cycle there ...

  19. European countries in transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gautier, Celia; Pescia, Dimitri; Ferreira, Francisco; Antunes, Rita; Claustre, Raphael; Priesner, Goerg C.; Pidous, Blandine; Dufour, Manon; Zuloaga, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    From the Atlantic Ocean to the Baltic Sea, from Portugal to Poland through UK, Germany or Austria, energy transition is in progress everywhere in Europe, but at different rhythms and in various conditions from one country to the other. How does the European framework promote the energy transition at the local and regional scales? What advantages the most advanced countries are relying on? How do citizens and local projects take over slow or retrograde governmental policies? This dossier gives some elements of answer through an overview of some energy policy scenarios under implementation in some European countries (Germany, Portugal, Denmark, Austria, UK, Spain)

  20. Public opinion: Country comparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Debbie

    2015-11-01

    Climate change awareness, risk perception and policy support vary between and within countries. National-scale comparisons can help to explain this variability and be used to develop targeted interventions.

  1. Investment in Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motooka, Takeshi

    1973-01-01

    The fundamental problems of investment in rural education in the present developing countries are analyzed. Needs of rural education are outlined and financial considerations related to investment in the improvement of rural educational programs are discussed. (SM)

  2. Mauritius country study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manraj, D D [Central Statistical Office (Mauritius)

    1998-10-01

    Mauritius has no known oil, gas or coal reserves but is only endowed with limited renewable energy resources namely hydropower and bagasse. Bagasse represents about one third of the country`s energy requirements and meets almost all of the sugar industries energy demand. Projects identified for mitigation options are: Energy Sector - Renewable Sources (Solar, Wind, Biomass); Transport Sector - Fuel switching and Mass transit transport; Manufacturing Sector - Increase efficiency of energy use in the manufacturing process. (EG)

  3. Inequality in OECD countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thévenot, Celine

    2017-08-01

    This article recalls the state of play of inequality levels and trends in OECD countries, with a special focus on Nordic countries. It sheds light on explaining the drivers of the rise in inequality and its economic consequences. It addresses in particular the issue of redistribution through taxes and transfers. It concludes with an overview of policy packages that should be considered to address the issue of rising inequalities.

  4. Country nuclear power profiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The preparation of Country Nuclear Power Profiles was initiated within the framework of the IAEA`s programme for nuclear power plant performance assessment and feedback. It responded to a need for a database and a technical document containing a description of the energy and economic situation and the primary organizations involved in nuclear power in IAEA Member States. The task was included in the IAEA`s programmes for 1993/1994 and 1995/1996. In March 1993, the IAEA organized a Technical Committee meeting to discuss the establishment of country data ``profiles``, to define the information to be included in the profiles and to review the information already available in the IAEA. Two expert meetings were convened in November 1994 to provide guidance to the IAEA on the establishment of the country nuclear profiles, on the structure and content of the profiles, and on the preparation of the publication and the electronic database. In June 1995, an Advisory Group meeting provided the IAEA with comprehensive guidance on the establishment and dissemination of an information package on industrial and organizational aspects of nuclear power to be included in the profiles. The group of experts recommended that the profiles focus on the overall economic, energy and electricity situation in the country and on its nuclear power industrial structure and organizational framework. In its first release, the compilation would cover all countries with operating power plants by the end of 1995. It was also recommended to further promote information exchange on the lessons learned from the countries engaged in nuclear programmes. For the preparation of this publication, the IAEA received contributions from the 29 countries operating nuclear power plants and Italy. A database has been implemented and the profiles are supporting programmatic needs within the IAEA; it is expected that the database will be publicly accessible in the future. Refs, figs, tabs.

  5. Country nuclear power profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-03-01

    The preparation of Country Nuclear Power Profiles was initiated within the framework of the IAEA's programme for nuclear power plant performance assessment and feedback. It responded to a need for a database and a technical document containing a description of the energy and economic situation and the primary organizations involved in nuclear power in IAEA Member States. The task was included in the IAEA's programmes for 1993/1994 and 1995/1996. In March 1993, the IAEA organized a Technical Committee meeting to discuss the establishment of country data ''profiles'', to define the information to be included in the profiles and to review the information already available in the IAEA. Two expert meetings were convened in November 1994 to provide guidance to the IAEA on the establishment of the country nuclear profiles, on the structure and content of the profiles, and on the preparation of the publication and the electronic database. In June 1995, an Advisory Group meeting provided the IAEA with comprehensive guidance on the establishment and dissemination of an information package on industrial and organizational aspects of nuclear power to be included in the profiles. The group of experts recommended that the profiles focus on the overall economic, energy and electricity situation in the country and on its nuclear power industrial structure and organizational framework. In its first release, the compilation would cover all countries with operating power plants by the end of 1995. It was also recommended to further promote information exchange on the lessons learned from the countries engaged in nuclear programmes. For the preparation of this publication, the IAEA received contributions from the 29 countries operating nuclear power plants and Italy. A database has been implemented and the profiles are supporting programmatic needs within the IAEA; it is expected that the database will be publicly accessible in the future

  6. CDM Country Guides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    Under the Integrated Capacity Strengthening for the Clean Development Mechanism (ICS-CDM) programme, IGES presents the CDM Country Guides, a series of manuals on CDM project development for Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia, the Philippines, and Thailand. These guidebooks aim at facilitating CDM project developments in Asia by providing essential information to both project developers and potential investors. Chapter 1, Introduction, is a summary of issues that developers and investors in CDM projects should be aware of. Includes tips for readers to effectively use the guidebook to find specific information. Chapter 2, Country Profile, comprises a profile that provides a broad picture of the country, including social, economic, and political information, as well as an overview of the country's energy situation, which is important for project development and investment. Chapter 3, The CDM Project Cycle, gives an explanation of the general CDM project cycle, which includes identifying a project, issuance of carbon credits, requirements, and stakeholders for each process. Chapter 4, Possible CDM Projects in the Country, is an overview of the country's potential resources and sectoral or project type categories that hold potential for CDM projects. Chapter 5, Government Authorities, gives a comprehensive picture of the CDM-related institutional framework and its inter-organisational relationships. Chapter 6, CDM Project Approval Procedures and Requirements Steps, informs about obtaining project approval and its requirements (e.g., country-specific provisions on additionality, sustainable development criteria, and environmental impact assessment) in the host country. Chapter 7, Laws and Regulations, is an overview of basic investment-related laws, environmental and property law, and sector-specific regulations relevant to CDM project activities. Chapter 8, Fiscal and Financing Issues, gives practical information on the financial market in the host country (both

  7. Country report: a methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colin, A.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a methodology which could be applicable to establish a country report. In the framework of nuclear non proliferation appraisal and IAEA safeguards implementation, it is important to be able to assess the potential existence of undeclared nuclear materials and activities as undeclared facilities in the country under review. In our views a country report should aim at providing detailed information on nuclear related activities for each country examined taken 'as a whole' such as nuclear development, scientific and technical capabilities, etc. In order to study a specific country, we need to know if there is already an operating nuclear civil programme or not. In the first case, we have to check carefully if it could divert nuclear material, if there are misused declared facilities or if they operate undeclared facilities and conduct undeclared activities aiming at manufacturing nuclear weapon. In the second case, we should pay attention to the development of a nuclear civil project. A country report is based on a wide span of information (most of the time coming from open sources but sometimes coming also from confidential or private ones). Therefore, it is important to carefully check the nature and the credibility (reliability?) of these sources through cross-check examination. Eventually, it is necessary to merge information from different sources and apply an expertise filter. We have at our disposal a lot of performing tools to help us to assess, understand and evaluate the situation (cartography, imagery, bibliometry, etc.). These tools allow us to offer the best conclusions as far as possible. The paper is followed by the slides of the presentation. (author)

  8. Tales From Two Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ooi, Can-Seng

    2006-01-01

    Place branding has become popular. Places brand themselves to attract tourists, talented foreign workers, investments and businesses. The brand accentuates the positive characteristics of the place; it frames the society and sells its cultures. In the context of tourism, this paper examines...... to present a prevailing reality. To the Danes, the brand is descriptive and should portray the country in a positive and accurate manner. To the Singaporeans, the brand is normative and a vision of what Singaporean society ought to become. These countries share common goals when branding themselves...

  9. Country report Egypt 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-07-01

    The 'Laenderberichte' (country reports), published at irregular intervals, give detailed information on the economic and social structure and development of the country discussed. Extensive tables with a highly specific classification contain data on population and economics, also for longer periods of time. The data appear in a detailed text part with maps, illustrations and tables. There are tables on: Territory and population, health services, social affairs, education and culture, employment, agriculture and forestry, fishery, manufacturing industry, civil engineering, inland trade, external trade, transportation, money and credits, investments, prices and wages, supply and consumption, total balance of national economy. (orig.) [de

  10. Country report Belgium 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    The 'Laenderberichte' (country reports), published at irregular intervals, give detailed information on the economic and social structure and development of the country discussed. Extensive tables with a highly specific classification contain data on population and economics, also for longer periods of time. The data appear in a detailed text part with maps, illustrations and tables. There are tables on: Territory and population, health services, social affairs, education and culture, employment, agriculture and forestry, fishery, manufacturing industry, civil engineering, inland trade, external trade, transportation, money and credits, investments, prices and wages, supply and consumption, total balance of national economy. (orig.) [de

  11. Country report Belarus 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    The 'Laenderberichte' (country reports), published at irregular intervals, give detailed information on the economic and social structure and development of the country discussed. Extensive tables with a highly specific classification contain data on population and economics, also for longer periods of time. The data appear in a detailed text part with maps, illustrations and tables. There are tables on: Territory and population, health services, social affairs, education and culture, employment, agriculture and forestry, fishery, manufacturing industry, civil engineering, inland trade, external trade, transportation, money and credits, investments, prices and wages, supply and consumption, total balance of national economy. (orig.) [de

  12. Country report Brazil 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    The 'Laenderberichte' (country reports), published at irregular intervals, give detailed information on the economic and social structure and development of the country discussed. Extensive tables with a highly specific classification contain data on population and economics, also for longer periods of time. The data appear in a detailed text part with maps, illustrations and tables. There are tables on: Territory and population, health services, social affairs, education and culture, employment, agriculture and forestry, fishery, manufacturing industry, civil engineering, inland trade, external trade, transportation, money and credits, investments, prices and wages, supply and consumption, total balance of national economy. (orig.) [de

  13. Optimizing coffee cultivation and its impact on economic growth and export earnings of the producing countries: The case of Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed M. Al-Abdulkader

    2018-05-01

    the export earnings of coffee by about $219.43–354.57 million a year, which in turns, will serve the national strategic trend to diversify the economic base and lower the dependency of incomes generated from oil exportation. Keywords: Sectorial mathematical model, Baseline model, Export based model, Economic return, Export earnings

  14. Optimizing coffee cultivation and its impact on economic growth and export earnings of the producing countries: The case of Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Abdulkader, Ahmed M; Al-Namazi, Ali A; AlTurki, Turki A; Al-Khuraish, Muteb M; Al-Dakhil, Abdullah I

    2018-05-01

    of coffee by about $219.43-354.57 million a year, which in turns, will serve the national strategic trend to diversify the economic base and lower the dependency of incomes generated from oil exportation.

  15. Country programme review. Mongolia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolnicar, J.; Kamel, R.; Perera, O.; Tauchid, M.

    1992-08-01

    This document reviews the current nuclear program in Mongolia, identifying the peaceful uses of nuclear technology in the country and possible future technical co-operation activities. Separate brief sections deal with food and agriculture; mineral resources; nuclear chemistry, nuclear physics and instrumentation; human health; radiation protection; water resources and nuclear energy. 1 tab

  16. RIO Country Report 2015

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimpe, Christoph; Mitchell, Jessica

    The 2015 series of RIO Country Reports analyse and assess the policy and the national research and innovation system developments in relation to national policy priorities and the EU policy agenda with special focus on ERA and Innovation Union. The executive summaries of these reports put forward...

  17. Touring the Low Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strien, van Kees

    1998-01-01

    Touring the Low Countries is an anthology of approximately forty travel documents by British tourists - journals, letters, and financial accounts - most of them published here for the first time.The United Provinces and the Spanish Netherlands, with all the variety of their contrasting cultural

  18. in a Developing Country

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GB

    This could have contributed to the refusal for readmission. In conclusion, identification and management of mucopolysaccharidosis type II in affected patients pose a problem in resource-constrained countries due to late identification and presentation, lack of facilities for diagnosis and treatment, as well as the cost and the.

  19. Algeria: Country Status Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFerren, Margaret

    A survey of the status of language usage in Algeria begins with an overview of the usage patterns of Arabic, the Berber languages, and French. The country's return to Arabic as its official language after independence from France in 1962 is discussed along with the resultant language planning, issues of language of instruction at the elementary,…

  20. CAPTURED India Country Evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O'Donoghue, R.; Brouwers, J.H.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    This report provides the findings of the India Country Evaluation and is produced as part of the overall CAPTURED End Evaluation. After five years of support by the CAPTURED project the End Evaluation has assessed that results are commendable. I-AIM was able to design an approach in which health

  1. Radiotherapy in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The Symposium presentations are divided into 6 chapters devoted to the following topics: radiation therapy for carcinoma of the cervix (6 papers), different approaches in radiation therapy (15 papers), hyperthermia (7 papers), chemical modifiers (7 papers), dosimetry and technology (5 papers), organization of radiation therapy in developing countries (5 papers). A separate abstract was prepared for each of these papers

  2. DEVELOPING COUNTRIES. TRANSITION ECONOMIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitru FILIPEANU

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available According to the modern theories of economic development – the take-off, backwardness, convergence and balanced growth hypothesis - the new industrialized states from Asia seem to have noticed the advantages of backwardness from which low income countries benefited, namely the possibility to take advantage of the latest technological discoveries of advanced countries, thus achieving a faster growth than the latter which operated closer to the technological border. The assimilation of appropriate technologies, however, required the efficient mobilization and allocation of resources and the improvement of human and physical capital. While the Western countries were confronted with crises generated by inflationary shocks and movements of speculative capital, the relative isolation of countries whose economy was planned by the world economy sheltered them until 1990, unemployment being practically non-existent. Asia's exceptional economic success is not only due to borrowing Western practices, but also to the fact that Asian societies maintained certain traditional features of their own culture - such as a strong work ethic - and integrated them in the modern business environment.

  3. Country programme review. Ethiopia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This document reviews the current nuclear program in Ethiopia, identifying the peaceful uses of nuclear technology in the country and possible future technical cooperation activities. Separate brief sections deal with food and agriculture; human health; water and geothermal resources; industrial applications and instrumentation; radiation protection; higher education; programming, coordination and development

  4. Countries in transition

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    tant role in an open global economy? Would it have the ... topics such as urban migration, labour issues, HIV/AIDS, and the ... A new approach to finding local solutions to armed conflict grew ... the fighting in four test countries: Somalia,. Eritrea ...

  5. Country programme review. Guatemala

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-09-01

    This document reviews the current nuclear program in Guatemala, identifying the peaceful uses of nuclear technology in the country and possible future technical co-operation activities. Separate brief sections deal with food and agriculture; human health; radiation protection; industrial applications and hydrology; nuclear analytical techniques; nuclear instrumentation and nuclear information

  6. Problems facing developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    Financing, above all political and technical considerations, remains the major obstacle faced by developing countries who wish to embark on a nuclear power programme. According to the IAEA, the support of the official lending agencies of the suppliers is essential. (author)

  7. Denmark. [CME Country Reports].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Council of Europe, Strasbourg (France). Documentation Center for Education in Europe.

    According to an agreement between the parties of the labour market and the Ministry of Labour, the immigration of foreign workers into Denmark takes place on a quota basis and conforms to a series of regulations, including a rule that the foreign worker, prior to departing from his country, must have made contract arrangements for his job. This…

  8. Macroeconomics in develpoing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Nayyar

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available This essay analyzes the differences between the economies of industrialized countriesand developing countries, which have important implications for macroeconomics interms of theory and policy. It considers the differences in macroeconomic objectives andexamines why the reach of macroeconomic policies is different in the two sets ofcountries. It argues that the distinction between short-run macroeconomic models andlong-term growth models is not quite appropriate for developing countries, wheremacroeconomic constraints on growth straddle time horizons and short-term policieshave long-term consequences. The essential hypothesis is that the nature of relationshipsand the direction of causation in macroeconomics, which shape analysis, diagnosis andprescription, depend on the institutional setting and not the analytical structure of models.And even if some laws of economics are universal, the functioning of economies can bemarkedly different. Therefore, economic theory and policy analysis should recognize,rather than ignore, such myriad differences.

  9. Botswana country study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1999-09-01

    This study was carried out in Botswana, Tanzania and Zambia as part of the project `Climate Change Mitigation in Southern Africa` funded by the Danish International Development Agency (Danida). The project was conducted parallel to the UNEP/GEF project `Economics of Greenhouse Gas Limitations` which involved 8 other developing countries and 2 regional projects in Latin America and the SADC region. The limitation of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions is a complex issue, intimately connected with economic development at local, national, regional and global levels. Key economic sectors such as energy, agriculture, industry and forestry all produce GHGs, and are likely to be affected directly and indirectly by any mitigation policy. The UNEP Greenhouse Gas Abatement Costing Studies, initiated in 1991, attempted to address these complex issues, developing a methodological framework and testing it through practical application in ten countries. (EHS) 28 refs.

  10. Mauritius country study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manraj, D.D.

    1998-01-01

    Mauritius has no known oil, gas or coal reserves but is only endowed with limited renewable energy resources namely hydropower and bagasse. Bagasse represents about one third of the country's energy requirements and meets almost all of the sugar industries energy demand. Projects identified for mitigation options are: Energy Sector - Renewable Sources (Solar, Wind, Biomass); Transport Sector - Fuel switching and Mass transit transport; Manufacturing Sector - Increase efficiency of energy use in the manufacturing process. (EG)

  11. Tanzania country study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meena, H E [Centre for Energy, Environment, Science and Technology, Dar es Salaam (Tanzania, United Republic of)

    1998-10-01

    An objective of this study is to analyse the role of the land use sectors of Tanzania (especially forestry) on mitigation of greenhouse gases. Specific emphasis is placed on the relationship between forestry and energy supply from biomass. This is a follow up study on an earlier effort which worked on mitigation options in the country without an in-depth analysis of the forestry and land use sectors. (au)

  12. MICROFINANCE AND POOREST COUNTRIES

    OpenAIRE

    阿部, 清司

    2004-01-01

    The world is divided into developing and developed countries. There are two kinds of banks: conventional ones and unconventional. Commercial banks are usually based on mutual distrust, while new unconventional banks, microfinances, are based on mutual trust. The origin of micro finance is deeply rooted in Asia. In 1976, Grameen Bank in Bangladesh was founded by Dr. Muhammad Yunus. It reverses conventional banking practice by removing the need for collateral. It creates a banking system based ...

  13. Cyclotrons in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vera Ruiz, Hernan

    2004-01-01

    Cyclotron accelerators are prolific sources of charged particle for the production of radionuclides and have become an essential tool in the practice of modern nuclear medicine by providing reliable radiotracers for SPECT and PET studies. In a recent survey conducted by the IAEA in 2001, the growth in the number of cyclotron facilities installed in laboratories and hospitals in developed as well as developing countries was recorded. This trend, which started in the late 70's, continues in the present time also and all indications are that it will continue in the next five to ten years. The reasons for this growth are several: technology involved has become more user or 'hospital friendly', third party reimbursement for several clinical studies based on F-18 PET radiopharmaceuticals at least in some of the advanced countries started in 1998 and above all, the clear irrefutable and demonstrable conclusion of the positive cost/benefit outcomes of PET studies in the field of oncology to a lesser degree, thus far, for cardiology and neurology. It is however recognizable that the overall financial cost of the technology, which comprises the premises to house the facility, the cyclotron accelerator, the corresponding radiochemistry and quality control equipment and the PET cameras can be nevertheless an expensive proposition that requires careful advance planning. This fact is even more relevant when the facility is planned for installation in a developing country, which, frequently, in addition to having a lack of sufficient financial resources, do have shortage of qualified human resources to efficiently run the facility. In spite of the above, it is fact that more and more public as well as private organizations in the developing countries are setting up cyclotron/PET programmes or are seriously considering the installation of such a facility

  14. Germany - an immigration country

    OpenAIRE

    Siebert, Horst

    2003-01-01

    Germany has about the same proportion of foreigners in its population as the United States, it is an immigration country. In a way, Germany has let immigration happen, but it did not really have an explicit immigration policy in the past. Now it has to make up its mind on its immigration policy in the future. The paper looks at the experience with immigration in the past, at the integration of foreigners and at the issues of immigration policy.

  15. Zambia country study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1999-09-01

    The Zambia Country Study, which was part of the Danida-funded project Climate Change Mitigation in Southern Africa: Phase 2, aimed at methodological development, national mitigation analysis and institutional capacity building in Zambia. The study comprised the following five elements: Comprehensive evaluation of national social and economic development framework for climate change; Baseline scenario(s) projection(s); Mitigation scenario(s) projection(s); Macro-economic assessment; Implementation Issues. (au) 17 refs.

  16. Tanzania country study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meena, H.E.

    1998-01-01

    An objective of this study is to analyse the role of the land use sectors of Tanzania (especially forestry) on mitigation of greenhouse gases. Specific emphasis is placed on the relationship between forestry and energy supply from biomass. This is a follow up study on an earlier effort which worked on mitigation options in the country without an in-depth analysis of the forestry and land use sectors. (au)

  17. Petroleum: fate of mankind. [in German]. Oel - Schicksal der Menschheit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konzelmann, G

    1976-01-01

    The author reports on the history, exploratio, exploitation, transport, and refining of petroleum, and on the policies in the petroleum business, concentrating on the oil-exporting countries. Many impressive color pictures supplement the text.

  18. Ekonomické, politické a společenské dopady exportu ropy ve vybraných zemích se zaměřením na Venezuelu

    OpenAIRE

    Bezděk, Martin

    2009-01-01

    This thesis is focused on the influence of money, that comes from oil export, on economy, politics and society of selected oil exporting countries: Venezuela, Saudi Arabia, Norway, Ira nand Equatorial Guinea. The first part characterizes oil, its extraction, reserves, flows, and consumption . The influence of oil on economy, politics and society is explained on the example of Venezuela in the second chapter. In the third part the effects in the other countries are compared. The key question i...

  19. Economic Indicators Selected Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-12-01

    DEFENCE I ECONOMIC INDICATORS SELECTED COUNTRIES DECEMBER QUARTER 1987 . ’-H ISSUED BY MANPOWER POLICY & STRATEGIES BRANCH " "’ :.S S ’,1l f ,am -m mW...100 Sour:e: Main Economic Indicators (OECD) Manufactured Basic Metal Year Goods Chemicals Metals Products 1980 100 100 100 100 1981 110 117 102 107...Earnings of all 1982 1986 7.4 Male Employees (a) Aug 1986 Aug 1987 4.8 Hourly Wace Rates 3 1979 1987 lt.2 Garden Island 1983 1987 6.7 Dockyards Dec

  20. Denmark country report 2016

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloksgaard, Lotte; Rostgaard, Tine

    2016-01-01

    The LP&R network produces an annual review of leave policies and related research, starting in 2004. The review covers Maternity, Paternity and Parental leaves; leave to care for sick children and other employment-related measures to support working parents; and early childhood education and care....... In addition to the new country, these are: Australia, Austria, Brazil, Belgium, Canada, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Mexico, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, Portugal...

  1. Denmark country note

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloksgaard, Lotte; Rostgaard, Tine

    2014-01-01

    The LP&R network produces an annual review of leave policies and related research, starting in 2004 (for earlier reviews, go to Archive 2005-2013). The review covers Maternity, Paternity and Parental leaves; leave to care for sick children and other employment-related measures to support working......, Israel. Altogether, it covers 35 countries. In addition to Israel, these are: Austria, Australia, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Poland...

  2. Education in European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petcu, N.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Education, vocational training and lifelong learning play a vital role in both an economic and social context. The paper herein aims to identify Romania’s place within the UE-countries, considering a series of general indices: total public expenditure on education as a percentage of GDP, private expenditure on education as % of GDP, annual expenditure on public and private educational institutions per pupil/student - by level of education, school expectancy, pupils and students, students - tertiary education, mobility of students in Europe, science and technology graduates, doctorate students in science and technology fields. Analysis methods: main components analysis, cluster analysis.

  3. Country profiles: Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    Within months, Belgium will have to import practically all of its energy requirements; coal production will stop in 1992. Though nuclear will continue to provide the bulk of the country's power supply, government policy has shifted away from reliance on the atom for electricity generation towards natural gas. With no oil reserves of its own, keeping demand under check has been a priority for governments down the years. The actual level of oil imports runs well above consumption since the refining sector supplies products for the European market. Belgium's own petrol station businesses face considerable rationalisation, with average throughput well below EC levels. (author)

  4. Argentina [Country report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreyra, R.

    2005-01-01

    The airborne geophysical surveys developed in Argentina are described. They have got more than 500.000 km 2 acquiring data for U, Th, K and total background activity. Other types of published data are also mentioned (satellite imagery, seismic hazard, climate, soil distributions, etc.). The availability of maps with the abundances of elements analyzed at the country and also at laboratories from Canada is described, as well as data of analysis of several elements at two study areas proposed at the outset of the project. The availability of process rate data and epidemiological data is also explained. Argentina intended fully to participate in the CRP at the outset of the project. Due, however, to external resource constraints imposed on the participating organization (Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, CNEA), the level of participation had to be significantly reduced. Nonetheless, in the first period of the CRP, Argentina undertook to collate existing geological and geochemical information within the country, and began to define potential areas for site specific natural systems safety indicator studies. (author)

  5. Country Presentation Congo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mwata, P.K.; SAKI, A.; KAZADI, J.

    2010-01-01

    Illicit trafficking of radioactive minerals, precious metals and nuclear materials is generally expanded practice in some parts of the Democratic Republic of Congo. The phenomenon took place early in 1990 and amplified from 1998. The main causes of this practice are political instability that led to general poverty among population and the lack of legal framework governing the exploitation of minerals. Nuclear Illicit trafficking in Congo concerns radioactive mineral sand precious metals in eastern and southern parts of the country. The unfavorable political environment that took place in Congo in the 1990s resulted in local manpower and mine workers immigrating to neighboring countries. A great fraction of these new jobless started exploiting abandoned mines residues searching for Cu, Co and Au for survival. First cases of illicit exploitation of uranium minerals were reported very soon after rock sliding that occurred in 2004 on Shinkolobwe site in Katanga region. This uncontrolled mineral exploitation got worse when several mining companies were licensed by GECAMINES company to explore, exploit, purchase minerals from individuals and export raw materials and concentrates.

  6. Influence of country brand slogan and logo in country positioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gina Pipoli de Azambuja

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available To build the image of a country minds consumers’ minds, countries apply marketing strategies that are based on their country brand development, in the same way that companies apply marketing to their products and services. The development of the logo and slogan to be used in the communication strategy, are two key elements of its success in the process of building the country brand (Keller 2008. Thus the objective of this research is to know the importance of using the logo and slogan in international marketing strategies of countries. To do this, this research analyzes the use of the logo and slogan, in country brand strategies of countries in the top places in the Country Brand Index (2009 of Future Brand.

  7. The effect of the downturn in oil prices on the external surpluses of the GCC countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metwally, M.M.

    1993-01-01

    The paper examines the impact of the downturn in oil prices on the performance of the external sectors of the members of the Gulf Co-operation Council (GCC). The paper also develops and tests a simultaneous-equations model to examine the interaction between the economies of the GCC and the rest of the world. The analysis shows that the slump in oil exports has reduced drastically the external surplus of the GCC and has resulted in structural shifts in the import and resource balance functions. (author)

  8. Precipitation Indices Low Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Engelen, A. F. V.; Ynsen, F.; Buisman, J.; van der Schrier, G.

    2009-09-01

    Since 1995, KNMI published a series of books(1), presenting an annual reconstruction of weather and climate in the Low Countries, covering the period AD 763-present, or roughly, the last millennium. The reconstructions are based on the interpretation of documentary sources predominantly and comparison with other proxies and instrumental observations. The series also comprises a number of classifications. Amongst them annual classifications for winter and summer temperature and for winter and summer dryness-wetness. The classification of temperature have been reworked into peer reviewed (2) series (AD 1000-present) of seasonal temperatures and temperature indices, the so called LCT (Low Countries Temperature) series, now incorporated in the Millennium databases. Recently we started a study to convert the dryness-wetness classifications into a series of precipitation; the so called LCP (Low Countries Precipitation) series. A brief outline is given here of the applied methodology and preliminary results. The WMO definition for meteorological drought has been followed being that a period is called wet respectively dry when the amount of precipitation is considerable more respectively less than usual (normal). To gain a more quantitative insight for four locations, geographically spread over the Low Countries area (De Bilt, Vlissingen, Maastricht and Uccle), we analysed the statistics of daily precipitation series, covering the period 1900-present. This brought us to the following definition, valid for the Low Countries: A period is considered as (very) dry respectively (very) wet if over a continuous period of at least 60 days (~two months) cq 90 days (~three months) on at least two out of the four locations 50% less resp. 50% more than the normal amount for the location (based on the 1961-1990 normal period) has been measured. This results into the following classification into five drought classes hat could be applied to non instrumental observations: Very wet period

  9. Country profile: Hungary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-09-01

    Country Profile: Hungary has been prepared as a background document for use by US Government agencies and US businesses interested in becoming involved with the new democracies of Eastern Europe as they pursue sustainable economic development. The focus of the Profile is on energy and highlights information on Hungary`s energy supply, demand, and utilization. It identifies patterns of energy usage in the important economic sectors, especially industry, and provides a preliminary assessment for opportunities to improve efficiencies in energy production, distribution and use by introducing more efficient technologies. The use of more efficient technologies would have the added benefit of reducing the environmental impact which, although is not the focus of the report, is an issue that effects energy choices. The Profile also presents considerable economic information, primarily in the context of how economic restructuring may affect energy supply, demand, and the introduction of more efficient technologies.

  10. Country profile: Hungary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-09-01

    Country Profile: Hungary has been prepared as a background document for use by US Government agencies and US businesses interested in becoming involved with the new democracies of Eastern Europe as they pursue sustainable economic development. The focus of the Profile is on energy and highlights information on Hungary's energy supply, demand, and utilization. It identifies patterns of energy usage in the important economic sectors, especially industry, and provides a preliminary assessment for opportunities to improve efficiencies in energy production, distribution and use by introducing more efficient technologies. The use of more efficient technologies would have the added benefit of reducing the environmental impact which, although is not the focus of the report, is an issue that effects energy choices. The Profile also presents considerable economic information, primarily in the context of how economic restructuring may affect energy supply, demand, and the introduction of more efficient technologies.

  11. Indonesian country report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munawir Zulqarnain, M.

    2005-01-01

    BATAN started to study EB (electron beam) flue gas treatment in 2001 after a joint memorandum of understanding on application of EB flue gas treatment in Power Plant between BATAN (National Nuclear Energy Agency), BPPT (Technology Implementation and Assessment Agency) and Indonesia Power Company was signed. Among several power plants (coal or oil) in Indonesia only one is installed with flue gas treatment equipment. This is to reduce CO 2 emission from the newest of coal power plant in Indonesia with 1200 MWe. The BATAN starts by seeking and learning data and engineering concept and processes from other countries to install an EB flue gas treatment equipment. The role of demonstration plant installation is very important to the future EB flue gas treatment in Indonesia. (S. Ohno)

  12. Country programme review Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamel, R.; Maluszynski, Y.; Maudarbocus, Y.; Cherif, H.S.; Morre, P.

    1993-12-01

    A five-expert mission was organized from 21-26 August 1993 and this document reflects the findings and recommendations of the team. Intensive contacts with heads of institutions, scientists and decision making persons in various sectors in the country were co-ordinated by the Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission. The terms of reference of the mission were: To assess the on-going TC projects; to assist the Bangladesh nationals to finalize the formulation of the new requests for 1995-96 TC programme and to establish priority areas with regard to the introduction of national projects involving accelerated technological transfer in order to catalyze national development plans in specific areas; to examine institutional framework suitable for the introduction of these priority nuclear techniques

  13. Country programming mission. Namibia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    In response to a request from the Government of Namibia conveyed in a letter dated 29 November 1990 IAEA provided a multi-disciplinary Programming Mission which visited Namibia from 15 - 19 July 1991. The terms of reference of the Mission were: 1. To assess the possibilities and benefits of nuclear energy applications in Namibia's development; 2. To advise on the infrastructure required for nuclear energy projects; 3. To assist in the formulation of project proposals which could be submitted for Agency assistance. This report is based on the findings of the Mission and falls into 3 sections with 8 appendices. The first section is a country profile providing background information, the second section deals with sectorial needs and institutional review of the sectors of agriculture including animal production, life sciences (nuclear medicine and radiotherapy) and radiation protection. The third section includes possible future technical co-operation activities

  14. Country Presentation Angola

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardoso, L.; Ferreira, Edson; Goma, A.

    2010-01-01

    The Republic of Angola joined the IAEA in September 1999. Since then, the country started by designing, promoting and developing its programme on nuclear and technology through the Unit for Nuclear Science and Technology created by the Ministry of Science and Technology.The Angolan Atomic Law was approved on June 28 and published on September 05, 2007.Radioactive Waste Every person who is licensed to generate, keep or manage radioactive waste shall be responsible for the safe management of radioactive waste generated by the practice or source for which he/she is authorized. No person shall transport any radioactive material, radioactive substance or radiation generator on any vessel or boat within the territorial waters or the exclusive economic zone of Angola; on any aircraft within the airspace of Angola; or any means of land transport without authorization from the Regulatory Authority of Atomic Energy

  15. Peer Country Comments Paper - Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bredgaard, Thomas

    Bidrag til EU-kommissionens peer-review on "Strategies for Employment policy Reform. Implementation Challenges in Decentralised Countries"......Bidrag til EU-kommissionens peer-review on "Strategies for Employment policy Reform. Implementation Challenges in Decentralised Countries"...

  16. The AEC and developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouvrieu, J.B.

    1983-01-01

    A historical background shows how AEC's activities have changed and consequently, the development of the AEC's relations with developing countries. Some examples serve to illustrate the different types of AEC cooperation with developing countries [fr

  17. Glaucoma in developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To describe the background and strategy required for the prevention of blindness from glaucoma in developing countries. Materials and Methods: Extrapolation of existing data and experience in eye care delivery and teaching models in an unequally developed country (India are used to make recommendations. Results: Parameters like population attributable risk percentage indicate that glaucoma is a public health problem but lack of simple diagnostic techniques and therapeutic interventions are barriers to any effective plan. Case detection rather than population-based screening is the recommended strategy for detection. Population awareness of the disease is low and most patients attending eye clinics do not receive a routine comprehensive eye examination that is required to detect glaucoma (and other potentially blinding eye diseases. Such a routine is not taught or practiced by the majority of training institutions either. Angle closure can be detected clinically and relatively simple interventions (including well performed cataract surgery can prevent blindness from this condition. The strategy for open angle glaucoma should focus on those with established functional loss. Outcomes of this proposed strategy are not yet available. Conclusions: Glaucoma cannot be managed in isolation. The objective should be to detect and manage all potential causes of blindness and prevention of blindness from glaucoma should be integrated into existing programs. The original pyramidal model of eye care delivery incorporates this principle and provides an initial starting point. The routine of comprehensive eye examination in every clinic and its teaching (and use in residency programs is mandatory for the detection and management of potentially preventable blinding pathology from any cause, including glaucoma. Programs for detection of glaucoma should not be initiated unless adequate facilities for diagnosis and surgical intervention are in place and

  18. Which Countries Become Tax Havens?

    OpenAIRE

    Dhammika Dharmapala; James R. Hines Jr.

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyzes the factors influencing whether countries become tax havens. Roughly 15 percent of countries are tax havens; as has been widely observed, these countries tend to be small and affluent. This paper documents another robust empirical regularity: better-governed countries are much more likely than others to become tax havens. Using a variety of empirical approaches, and controlling for other relevant factors, governance quality has a statistically significant and quantitativel...

  19. Export Variety and Country Productivity

    OpenAIRE

    Feenstra, Robert; Looi Kee, Hiau

    2004-01-01

    The authors study the link between export product variety and country productivity based on data from 34 industrial and developing countries, from 1982 to 1997. They measure export product variety by the share of U.S. imports on the set of goods exported by each sampled country relative to the world. It is a theoretically sound index which is consistent with within-country GDP maximization...

  20. Literacy Campaigns in Developing Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odunuga, Segun

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the problem of eradicating illiteracy in developing countries, where the illiteracy rate may average about 70 percent. Looks at the Arab countries, Latin America, Africa, and India and the factors that thwart attempts to increase literacy in those countries. These include religious habits and the problem of language in multilingual…

  1. Uranium exploration in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Premoli, C.

    1982-01-01

    The advantages to the developing countries of exploiting their uranium deposits in the next two decades to aid their own economic growth are considered. It is pointed out that in spite of the little known geology of these countries less sophisticated surveying methods have turned up large uranium deposits even in developed countries. Carborne surveys with simple crystal-detectors coupled to scintillators can be effective. Intelligent exploration in developing countries can be cheap due to low labour costs and less stringent environmental restraints and the uranium found could be sold to developed countries for their nuclear power programme. (U.K.)

  2. Countries and companies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenning, J.S.

    1990-01-01

    The trends and factors currently emerging are likely to have significant influence on the way the upstream oil and gas industry evolves in the coming decade. This paper discusses how these trends might influence events in the 1990s, particularly how they might influence relationships between host countries and companies in the oil industry. State owned companies will dominate the industry in resource terms. These statcos fall into three groups: a small group of technically able, financially sound, well-managed companies; a group of consumer statcos that have limited domestic production but significant domestic demand; a large group that are finding it difficult to maintain their production facilities in good standing to maximize recovery from their resources. This paper describes the future private sector as consisting of the Surviving Sisters and smaller, private companies very active in the upstream. How will these various players behave in the years to come? Conventional activity in the upstream will continue as companies seek to optimize their upstream portfolios

  3. Country risk analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, A.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that the oil industry has been an internationally based industry that has been heavily dependent on outside financing sources. Historically, financing came from investment houses that, in most cases, participated in the projects as equity investors. However, investment companies can no longer satisfy the capital requirements of the current high level of exploration and development activities. The current trend is to involve commercial banks on a purely lending basis. Commercial banks, by their nature, are risk averse. In the case of oil and gas exploration and production they are asked to take not only technical risk and price risk but geopolitical risk as well. Methods have been developed by commercial banks to reduce technical and price risks to point which enables them to be comfortable with a loan. However, geopolitical risks are more difficult to assess. The risk associated with many countries are the nationalization of the investment, new tax restrictions, restriction of currency movements, and/or revisions to the production sharing agreements

  4. Tanzania country study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1999-09-01

    Objectives of this study are to analyse the role of the land use sectors of Tanzania (especially forestry) on mitigation of greenhouse gases. Specific emphasis is placed on the relationship between forestry and energy supply from biomass, as well as other forestry products. This is a follow up study on an earlier effort which worked on mitigation options in the country without and in-depth analysis of the forestry and land use sectors. Analysis of the mitigation scenario has been based on Comprehensive Mitigation Analysis (COMAP). This study has analysed the forestry and land use sector behaviour on the basis of the current policies on land and environment. Furthermore three scenarios have been developed on the basis of what is expected to happen in the sectors, the worse scenario being a catastrophic one where if things takes the business as usual trend then the forest resources will easily be depleted. The TFAP scenario takes into account the implementation of the current plans as scheduled while the mitigation scenario takes into account the GHG mitigation in the implementation of the plans. A Comprehensive Mitigation Analysis Process (COMAP) has been used to analyse the GHG and cost implications of the various programmes under the mitigation scenario. (au) 30 refs.

  5. Country watch. Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turra, M D

    1994-01-01

    Persons who are infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) or who suffer from acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) often have their civil rights violated in Brazil. To remedy this, the Candido Mendes College in Rio de Janeiro introduced a voluntary course, "AIDS - Legal Approaches", into its law curriculum. Incentive was provided by the college's Model Law Office (MLO), where students learn to defend the rights of people in need. Class size is about 25; law professors use recent magazine and newspaper articles, and documentation on lawsuits concerning persons with HIV to teach the class. Course topics include relevant civil law (suits against blood banks), contract law (suits against private health insurance companies which refuse to cover treatment expenses related to HIV or AIDS), family law, inheritance law, labor law (unjust dismissal of persons with HIV), criminal law (intentional transmission of AIDS), violations of basic human rights, and comparative jurisprudence and constitutional law (a comparison of Brazilian law in this area to the laws of other countries). Students, during their field practice periods at the MLO, provide legal assistance to persons with HIV. Approximately 150 cases have been handled, often with positive outcomes, to date. Clients hear about the program via television, radio, and newspapers. Materials and information about lawsuits handled by the MLO are available to other colleges and universities with the hope of stimulating the formation of similar programs elsewhere.

  6. Swaziland: country profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrington, L

    1988-06-01

    Although Swaziland had been independent from colonialism for 20 years, a powerful monarch, King Mswati II, continues to control the country's political, religious, and social system. Swaziland has a population of 676,000, half of whom are under 15 years of age. The infant mortality rate is 105/1000 live births and 25% of children die before they reach their 5th birthday. Life expectancy is 54 years. Tribal chiefs, representing the king, hold and distribute about half of the national land. Most of the fertile land remains in the hands of white settler farmers. The concentration of income in foreign companies and urban centers has exacerbated poverty in rural areas. Depreciation of rand-linked local currency has boosted export earnings, but it has also raised the price of food and medical imports. Swaziland's main exports are sugar, wood pulp, chemicals, and fruit, most of which go to the UK and South Africa. The major food crops are maize, beans, groundnuts, and sorghum. About half of the working population is engaged in small-scale subsistence farming, but food yields are declining. The major producers are foreign companies attracted by Swaziland's low taxes and cheap labor supply.

  7. Country watch: India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, A; Sehgal, P N

    1995-01-01

    Linking more than 3000 health and development organizations, the Voluntary Health Association of India (VHAI) is one of the largest networks in the country. In 1990 VHAI began incorporating HIV/STD-related activities into its broader programs. An existing infrastructure for intersectoral collaboration in the areas of community health promotion, public policy, information and documentation, and communications facilitated inclusion of the new activities. Several VHAI departments collaborate in offering training courses, workshops, and seminars at the state and community levels to involve nongovernmental organizations and professional groups in HIV/STD prevention and counseling. More than 950 persons have been trained so far, including trainers of primary health care workers, family physicians, medical practitioners, social scientists, teachers, community volunteer workers, and youth leaders. Local experts act as training resource persons; materials produced locally, abroad, and by VHAI itself are used. Training facilities are offered free of charge to member organizations; VHAI also awards fellowships for field training and financial support for approved projects. VHAI suggests intervention measures to governmental and nongovernmental organizations related to drug users, youth, truck drivers, blood donors, and people living with HIV/AIDS. The information, documentation, and communications departments provide members with a wide variety of information, education, and communication (IEC) materials that can be translated into local languages: posters, folders, flip charts, stickers, and folk songs. VHAI advocacy issues that have been highlighted through the press include: confidentiality, protection against discrimination, the right of all persons to health care, and the need to make properly-equipped STD clinics available. VHAI has established sub-networks in Tamil Nadu (155 organizations) and Manipur (55 organizations) states. VHAI has found that incorporating HIV

  8. COUNTRY IMAGE VS. COUNTRY BRAND: DIFFERENCES AND SIMILARITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denisa Adriana COTÎRLEA

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This article was written in order to provide an overview regarding the differences and similarities regarding two congruent, yet different concepts: country brand and country image. The geopolitical context and, implicitly, the current global context require a redefinition – or a more complex circumscription – of the “country image” and “country branding” concepts. In this paper, the author aimed to highlight the characteristics and particularities of the approached concepts in order to shape a framework of the context within these two operate; a brief analysis of the literature is presented, trying to emphasize the slight difference between the approached concepts

  9. Developed-developing country partnerships: Benefits to developed countries?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Shamsuzzoha B

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Developing countries can generate effective solutions for today’s global health challenges. This paper reviews relevant literature to construct the case for international cooperation, and in particular, developed-developing country partnerships. Standard database and web-based searches were conducted for publications in English between 1990 and 2010. Studies containing full or partial data relating to international cooperation between developed and developing countries were retained for further analysis. Of 227 articles retained through initial screening, 65 were included in the final analysis. The results were two-fold: some articles pointed to intangible benefits accrued by developed country partners, but the majority of information pointed to developing country innovations that can potentially inform health systems in developed countries. This information spanned all six WHO health system components. Ten key health areas where developed countries have the most to learn from the developing world were identified and include, rural health service delivery; skills substitution; decentralisation of management; creative problem-solving; education in communicable disease control; innovation in mobile phone use; low technology simulation training; local product manufacture; health financing; and social entrepreneurship. While there are no guarantees that innovations from developing country experiences can effectively transfer to developed countries, combined developed-developing country learning processes can potentially generate effective solutions for global health systems. However, the global pool of knowledge in this area is virgin and further work needs to be undertaken to advance understanding of health innovation diffusion. Even more urgently, a standardized method for reporting partnership benefits is needed—this is perhaps the single most immediate need in planning for, and realizing, the full potential of international

  10. Developed-developing country partnerships: benefits to developed countries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, Shamsuzzoha B; Dadwal, Viva; Rutter, Paul; Storr, Julie; Hightower, Joyce D; Gooden, Rachel; Carlet, Jean; Bagheri Nejad, Sepideh; Kelley, Edward T; Donaldson, Liam; Pittet, Didier

    2012-06-18

    Developing countries can generate effective solutions for today's global health challenges. This paper reviews relevant literature to construct the case for international cooperation, and in particular, developed-developing country partnerships. Standard database and web-based searches were conducted for publications in English between 1990 and 2010. Studies containing full or partial data relating to international cooperation between developed and developing countries were retained for further analysis. Of 227 articles retained through initial screening, 65 were included in the final analysis. The results were two-fold: some articles pointed to intangible benefits accrued by developed country partners, but the majority of information pointed to developing country innovations that can potentially inform health systems in developed countries. This information spanned all six WHO health system components. Ten key health areas where developed countries have the most to learn from the developing world were identified and include, rural health service delivery; skills substitution; decentralisation of management; creative problem-solving; education in communicable disease control; innovation in mobile phone use; low technology simulation training; local product manufacture; health financing; and social entrepreneurship. While there are no guarantees that innovations from developing country experiences can effectively transfer to developed countries, combined developed-developing country learning processes can potentially generate effective solutions for global health systems. However, the global pool of knowledge in this area is virgin and further work needs to be undertaken to advance understanding of health innovation diffusion. Even more urgently, a standardized method for reporting partnership benefits is needed--this is perhaps the single most immediate need in planning for, and realizing, the full potential of international cooperation between developed and

  11. Archival Education in Scandinavian Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammet Hanefi Kutluoğlu

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Every country has responsibilities to provide the necessary personnel needed for their archival inheritance by education. Education can be shaped through tradition, historical inheritance and scientifi c necessities by defi ning the right educational method. Scandinavian countries have determined different education models based on their tradition, historical inheritance and requirements. In this article we focused on the formation of archival tradition, application of archival education in Scandinavian countries and the infl uence of the developments taking place in Europe on these countries. The relation between the archival education in European and Scandinavian countries is evaluated through a comparative method, and similarities to other countries are also evaluated. Finally, the present situation of archival education and the measures needed in this fi eld are taken into consideration.

  12. Dealing with the problem countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, R.W.

    1985-01-01

    The test of America's policies to prevent nuclear proliferation is the so-called problem countries, those states that pose the greatest risk of ''going nuclear.'' Most visible - and the source of greatest concern - are those countries which have developed or appear to be in the process of developing nuclear weapons capabilities. In addition to Pakistan, near-nuclear countries of note include India, Israel, South Africa, Argentina, South Korea, and Taiwan. Several other countries, including Iraq, Iran, Libya, and Brazil, seem to pose proliferation risks in the longer term. More problematic are countries, such as Mexico, that, although they seem to represent little or no proliferation risk themselves, pose difficult problems by challenging restrictions in nuclear export policy. The author examines US policy toward some of the problem countries, paying particular attention to Pakistan. The constants in US policy and the few changes wrought by the Reagan administration are noted throughout

  13. Hungary country study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uerge-Vorsatz, D.; Fuele, M. [eds.

    1999-09-01

    Hungary recognises the importance of limiting greenhouse gas emissions in order to prevent or mitigate their impact on the global climate. On an international level, Hungary is not a significant carbon dioxide emitter, neither to the absolute degree nor on a per capita basis. This means that the principal reason for Hungarian participation in emission`s reduction is not perceivable international consequences but solidarity and participation in the common action of the countries of the world. Hungary is a signatory to both the Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto protocol. However, the (Hungarian) National Environmental Program also emphasises that the fulfilment of international conventions must happen at a level and pace reasonable for Hungary. The goal of this study is to investigate the potentials, costs and implementation strategies of greenhouse gas abatement in Hungary. First presented is a background of Hungary`s economy and a summary of the economic transitions in Hungary. A brief description of the Hungarian energy sector is included, with a short summary of carbon dioxide emissions, and of the Hungarian forestry sector. The following chapter is devoted to the development of baseline scenarios, from bottom-up and top-down perspectives. In the chapter on mitigation, the spectrum of energy efficiency measures in the residential and public sectors is discussed. Fifteen specific measures, whose impact is considered important, are selected and discussed in detail. The cost curves are developed for the discussed mitigation options. Then, we discuss the issues related to the implementation of energy efficiency measures in the Hungarian residential and commercial sectors. After a general background and a framework on the implementation of the energy efficiency measures in the sectors chosen, we elaborate on the practicality of these concepts. As a case study, the concept and the feasibility of carbon/energy taxes are examined. To complete the

  14. Nuclear energy for developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemery, L.S.

    1980-01-01

    This paper examines the circumstances which must prevail before a reasonable technical, administrative and sociological case can be made to justify the introduction of nuclear power technology to a developing country. The role played by the IAEA in responding to needs of developing countries is considered and problems of nuclear plant safety and materials safeguards discussed. Plans for nuclear power in several developing countries are outlined

  15. Renewable Energy Country Attractiveness Indices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-02-01

    Since 2003 Ernst and Young team has been releasing quarterly data that ranks national renewable energy markets, and their suitability for individual technologies. The Country Attractiveness Indices now track the relative attractiveness of 30 countries' renewable energy markets across a selection of technologies each quarter. The Renewable Energy Country Attractiveness Indices publication scores and comments on various technologies, including: on-shore wind, off-shore wind, solar PV, solar CSP, biomass, and geothermal.

  16. Nuclear medicine in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kremenchuzky, S.; Degrossi, O.J.

    1991-01-01

    The economic crisis through which developing countries are passing means that every field of endeavour must adapt to new realities imposed by each particular's country's situation. Public health is no exception, although it is obviously a priority field in view of the repercussions which social and economic phenomena can have on the health of a country's inhabitants. This article briefly considers ways in which nuclear medicine facilities in Argentina may be improved

  17. Culture at the Country Level

    OpenAIRE

    Maseland, R.K.J.; Hoorn, A.A.J. van; Herk, H. van; Torelli, C.J.

    2017-01-01

    This chapter introduces and critically discusses the idea of measuring the culture of countries and cross-national differences therein. We start by elaborating the theoretical foundations for studying culture at the country level. We highlight the use of countries or nations as a unit of analysis and pay special attention to the way in which a group-level construct such as culture has implications at lower levels of analysis, affecting the values and beliefs of individuals. After briefly trac...

  18. Renewable Energy Country Profiles. Caribbean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-09-15

    IRENA Renewable Energy Country Profiles take stock of the latest developments in the field of renewables at country level around the world. Each profile combines analysis by IRENA's specialists with the latest available country data and additional information from a wide array of sources. The resulting reports provide a brief yet comprehensive picture of the situation with regard to renewable energy, including energy supply, electrical generation and grid capacity, and access. Energy policies, targets and projects are also considered, along with each country's investment climate and endowment with renewable energy resources. The energy statistics presented here span the period from 2009 until 2012, reflecting varying timelines in the source material. Since data availability differs from country to country, wider regional comparisons are possible only for the latest year with figures available for every country included. Despite the time lag in some cases, the evident differences and disparities between countries and regions around the world remain striking. The current package of country profiles is just a starting point. The geographic scope will continue to expand, and existing profiles will be enhanced with new indicators, with the whole series maintained as a live product on the IRENA website (www.irena.org)

  19. Indonesia country report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murni Soedyartomo Soentono, Tri [National Nuclear Energy Agency of Indonesia - Batan, Radioisotopes and Radiopharmaceuticals Development Centre, Pasar Jum' at, Cinere Raya, 12570 Jakarta (Indonesia)

    2008-07-01

    Several nuclear research are currently operation in Serpong, Jakarta, Bandung and Yogyakarta; these facilities has been in operation step wisely and having strong link with various universities and laboratories within the country (30 MW in Serpong, 2 MW in Bandung, Cyclotron CS-30 Serpong, Accelerator Yogyakarta, Irradiator Co-60). Public Acceptance: Further more the routine activities of the public information by WiN regarding the peaceful uses of nuclear energy, especially to the immediate environment of the NPP candidate site are indeed of important steps. Future of nuclear power: Since 1990's, Indonesia planned to build NPP station in Jepara to anticipate future energy crisis. Indonesia National Energy Policy has four main objectives: - Securing the continuity of energy supply for domestic use at price affordable to the public, - Enhancing the life quality of the people, - Stimulating economic growth, and, - Reserving an adequate supply of oil and gas for expert to provide source of foreign exchange to fund the national development program. Nuclear Waste Management Policy: Law no 10/1997 on nuclear power became the basic policy in management of radioactive waste The only national agency dealing with radioactive substances, BATAN possesses all data and information concerning the use of nuclear power. Radioactive waste management is particularly earmarked for maximum protection of living creatures, the environment and its ecosystems. In order to guarantee maximum safety and protection, all parties involved in the acquisition of radioactive materials should abide by the ALARA (As Low As Reasonably Achievable) principle. In order to achieve radioactive waste management that complies with the principle of sustainable development, technological applications should be technically and economically viable for maximum protection of the environment and safety from any potential nuclear hazards, now and in future. The application must also be accepted by the community

  20. Do all countries grow alike?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, J. W. B.; Economidou, C.; Koetter, M.; Kolari, J. W.

    This paper investigates the driving forces of output change in 77 countries during the period 1970-2000. A flexible modeling strategy is adopted that accounts for (i) the inefficient use of resources, and (ii) different production technologies across countries. The proposed model can identify

  1. Ukraine : Country Procurement Assessment Report

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2001-01-01

    The main objectives of the country procurement assessment are to diagnose the public procurement system in Ukraine, assess compatibility of the country's laws, policies and procedures with international best practices, review compliance with the procurement laws and regulations and identify areas for improvement of the procurement system in Ukraine. With due recognition of the considerable...

  2. Rural poverty in transition countries

    OpenAIRE

    Macours, K; Swinnen, Jo

    2006-01-01

    This paper uses new poverty data based on household level surveys to analyze changes in rural poverty and rural-urban poverty differences in 23 transition countries of Central and Eastern Europe and the firmer Soviet Union. The paper presents a series of hypotheses to explain differences across countries and changes over time.

  3. List of High risk countries

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Francine Sinzinkayo

    2013-07-26

    Higher Risk Countries and Territories. Reviewed regularly. Last update: July 26, 2013. Country/Territory. Note (1). Sources of Concern. Canadian. Law or. Policy. Knowledge of research setting. Ability to monitor research activities. (Note 2). Operational. Issues. (Note 3). Banking. Restrictions. (Note 4). Afghanistan. X. X.

  4. Natural gas in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holwerda, B.

    1998-01-01

    Everywhere in the world plans are being made to stimulate the natural gas industry in developing countries. High investment costs are the biggest problem almost everywhere. Even countries with a closed economy realize that they do not get far without foreign capital. Cases are presented for Africa, Pakistan, and Indonesia

  5. Energy problems in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tasugi, Hirosaburo [Japan Industrial Tech. Association, Tokyo, Japan

    1989-06-20

    In order to rid the people's living of poverty in developing countries, first, the production of food has been planned to increase. And then, resource development and industrialization have been tried to improve with efforts. Because of such development and an increase in population, energy consumption has been increasing. Advanced countries have supported these countries in many ways, however, there is much difference in their assistance depend on various situations such as racial, religious, and political ones. Moreover, a gap between cities and farm villages has widen since infrastructure has not been fully equipped in developing countries. The electrification ratio is used as an index to show the degree of development in developing countries. It is low in the countries where development is lagging, particularly in farm villages. This gap is an urgent problem that faces developing countries. In order to cope with the actual conditions, advanced countries including Japan should be plan to reinforce their technological and economic assistance more suitable for farm villages. Furthermore, they should also improve the assistance system which includes a measure for environmental pollution control, considering the spot directly. 3 figs., 14 tabs.

  6. Photovoltaic marketing in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muntasser, M.A.; Bara, M.F.; Quadri, H.A.; El-Tarabelsi, R.; La-azebi, I.F.

    2000-01-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) insolation-harnessing is acknowledged as the most practical economic solution to meet the requirements of one hundred million people without electricity in the developing countries. Industrialised countries in particular, have been active in utilising such technologies because they can afford the current peak watt prices of US $3-15 for such systems. The market in those countries will soon be close to saturation and attention by suppliers will have to be shifted to the already established larger market in less developed countries (LDCs). PV marketing in these developing countries, i.e. ability to penetrate the potential market, is facing tremendous hurdles. This paper reviews the present status and future directions of the PV market in developing countries as well as discusses the current technical, social, financial or geopolitical barriers and constraints, which are in line with the trends in the world. The paper concludes by making a global policy package proposal, in terms of an appeal on the global community concerned with PV to propagate proposal, in terms of an appeal on the global community concerned with PV to propagate this proposal more convincingly, perhaps to emanate from an internationally recognised 'forum', like a PV conference and exhibition, with cooperation and participation of PV manufacturers, suppliers, industrialised countries, NGOs, financial institutions and developing countries. (Author)

  7. Globalization : Countries, Cities and Multinationals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McCann, Philip; Acs, Zoltan J.

    2011-01-01

    McCann P. and Acs Z. J. Globalization: countries, cities and multinationals, Regional Studies. This paper explores the relationship between the size of a country, the size of its cities, and the importance of economies of scale in the modern era of globalization. In order to do this, it integrates

  8. Japan country report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morisaki, Rieko [Energy Communication Planning, 3-9-16 Aobadai, 818-0137 Dazaifu (Japan)

    2008-07-01

    1. Nuclear 2007 highlights: - A magnitude 6.8 earthquake occurred in Niigata on July 16 2007. Owing to this earthquake, 3 units operating and 1 unit during start-up were shutdown automatically at TEPCO's Kashiwazaki-Kariwa NPS. Now, all 7 units of the NPS are in an outage for investigation. This influenced the capacity factor of Japanese NPPs in FY 2007, which stood at just 60.7%. - Debate on global warming is more and more active in Japan, as it is the host country of the G8 Hokkaido Toyako Summit in July. The Japan Atomic Energy Commission released 'White Paper on Nuclear Energy 2007' in March 2008. In the paper, they first expressed the view that the expansion of the peaceful use of nuclear energy is indispensable. 2. Nuclear overview: a. Energy policy: Electricity share: 25.4% of nuclear. The energy policy of Japan aims at nuclear power generation being maintained at the current level (30 to 40% of the total electricity generation) or increasing even after 2030, for stable energy supply and as a countermeasure against global warming. - Nuclear Fuel Cycle: The active tests at the JNFL reprocessing plant in Rokkasho-mura are in the final phase for commercial operation in 2008. By FY 2010 Plutonium utilization in LWRs in 16 to 18 NPP units. Around FY 2010 Installment of new centrifuges at the uranium enrichment plant at Rokkasho-mura. In FY 2012 Start of commercial operation of MOX fuel fabrication plant. Fast-breeder reactor cycle: Operation of the prototype reactor 'MONJU' has been suspended since a secondary sodium leak in 1995. JAEA (Japan Atomic Energy Agency) completed full-scale remodeling work and is implementing various tests to confirm the capabilities and soundness of MONJU. They aim to start its operation within FY 2008. Around 2025 Building a demonstration FBR. Before 2050 Development of a commercial FBR. - Electricity production (Operating): BWR: 32 units (including 4 units of APWR), PWR: 23 units. - Electricity production

  9. Business ethics in developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.J. Rossouw

    1992-03-01

    Full Text Available Underlying this paper is the conviction that it is of the utmost importance that business ethics should indeed become an integral part of business culture in all, and therefore also in developing countries. It is not to be denied that business ethics has to a much larger extent become pari of the business culture' in developed countries than in developing countries. The primary aim of this paper is to provide an explanation for the fact that business ethics is fighting an uphill battle in becoming pari of the business culture in developing countries. Secondly, a thumbnail sketch is given of the preconditions that have to be fulfilled in order to stimulate the development of a moral business culture in developing countries. In order to achieve these goals I will focus mainly on Africa, and more specifically on South Africa.

  10. Alcohol fuels for developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharya, Partha

    1993-01-01

    The importance of alcohol as an alternative fuel has been slowly established. In countries such as Brazil, they are already used in transport and other sectors of economy. Other developing countries are also trying out experiments with alcohol fuels. Chances of improving the economy of many developing nations depends to a large extent on the application of this fuel. The potential for alcohol fuels in developing countries should be considered as part of a general biomass-use strategy. The final strategies for the development of alcohol fuel will necessarily reflect the needs, values, and conditions of the individual nations, regions, and societies that develop them. (author). 5 refs

  11. Business Cycles in Developing Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rand, John; Tarp, Finn

    2002-01-01

    This paper demonstrates that developing countries differ considerably from their developed counterparts when focus is on the nature and characteristics of short run macroeconomic fluctuations. Cycles are generally shorter, and the stylized facts of business cycles across countries are more diverse...... than those of the rather uniform industrialized countries. Supply-side models are generally superior in explaining changes in output, but a “one-size fits all” approach in formulating policy is inappropriate. Our results also illustrate the critical importance of understanding business regularities...

  12. Absenteeism in the Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løkke Nielsen, Ann-Kristina; Eskildsen, Jacob Kjær; Jensen, Troels Wendelboe

    2007-01-01

    and Sweden. Employees working in the public sector, more specific the municipalities, have a higher level of absence compared to the private sector. According to the personal characteristics, women are more absent than men in all Nordic countries, but the effect of age differs according to the country...... in question. If the manager however is a woman and the employee likewise, then the level of absence is higher in Denmark, Norway and Finland compared to the other gender constellations. Originality/value - Because of the lack of international comparative studies of absenteeism in the Nordic countries...

  13. A revisited gravity equation in trade flow analysis: an application to the case of Tunisian olive oil exports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Angulo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo revisa la utilidad del modelo de gravedad para el análisis de los principales determinantes de la exportación. Se mejoran los modelos tradicionales de corte transversal mediante la consideración de los efectos de las variables omitidas y/o la dinámica de los flujos de comercio, a través del uso de las técnicas de econometría espacial y de especificaciones para datos de panel. Esta propuesta se aplica a las exportaciones de aceite de oliva tunecino durante el periodo 2001-2009. Los resultados muestran evidencia acerca de la inercia encontrada en los volúmenes de exportación, dado que es probable que las relaciones de comercio afianzadas en el pasado continúen en el futuro. También se obtiene evidencia acerca de la existencia de claras similitudes entre los flujos de los países importadores vecinos. Por otra parte, los resultados muestran una relación positiva y significativa entre el nivel de renta del país importador y el volumen de aceite de oliva importado. El efecto del índice de desarrollo humano de los países importadores es positivo. La distancia entre países tiene un efecto negativo sobre el volumen de comercio. Por el contrario, compartir el mismo idioma aumenta el flujo de comercio de aceite de oliva. Finalmente, las cifras de comercio y los resultados reflejan una fuerte dependencia de la producción de aceite de oliva tunecino de las precipitaciones.

  14. A Chinese resource curse? The human rights effects of oil export dependence on China versus the United States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bader, J.; Daxecker, U.

    2015-01-01

    Critiques of China’s ‘oil diplomacy’ center on its alleged disregard for transparency and human rights, yet such claims ignore that the problematic relationship between resource extraction and human rights precedes Chinese market entry. This article explores whether human rights implications are

  15. Progress in the developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simnad, M.

    1981-01-01

    Nuclear programmes in selective developing countries are briefly discussed. The oil rich countries of Iraq, Libya and Iran all have reactors on order. Turkey has decided to purchase a PWR from the USSR and Egypt's programme anticipates a capacity of 6600 MWe by 2000. The current projections for India are 6000 MWe by 1990 and 20,000 MWe by 2000. The progress of Pakistan, South Korea and other Asian countries are discussed. The predicted growth in reactors and population in Latin America is considered - 17 reactors presently planned for a population of 340 million and 18-57 possible additions in 2000 for an estimated population of 600 million. The role of the IAEA and experience of some Western countries in technology transfer is discussed with the ambitious Spanish nuclear power programme and the experience of Argentina in purchasing Candu reactors. (author)

  16. social protection for developing countries

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nicola Smit

    challenges of informal economy workers in developing countries. This view. 5 ibid. ..... in the informal economy – an international and regional perspective” 2007 4 TSAR 700-715. ..... management – should be improved. In South Africa the ...

  17. Nuclear power in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, R.W.

    1980-01-01

    A few of the essential issues which arise when we consider nuclear power and development together in the context of energy policy are discussed. Ethical concerns must ultimately be expressed through policies and their impact on people. There are ethical issues associated with nuclear power in the developing countries which deserve our attention. Four aspects of the question of nuclear power in developing countries are considered: their energy situation; the characteristics of nuclear power which are relevant to them; whether developing countries will undertake nuclear power programmes; and finally the ethical implications of such programmes. It is concluded that what happens in developing countries will depend more on the ethical nature of major political decisions and actions than on the particular technology they use to generate their electricity. (LL)

  18. Explaining nascent entrepreneurship across countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.R. Thurik (Roy); A.J. van Stel (André); A.R.M. Wennekers (Sander); P. Reynolds (Paul)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractThis paper aims at explaining cross-country variation in nascent entrepreneurship. Regression analysis is applied using various explanatory variables derived from three different approaches. We make use of the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor database, including nascent entrepreneurship

  19. Child labour in developing countries

    OpenAIRE

    Dvořáková, Pavla

    2014-01-01

    Child labour in developing countries Abstract This bachelor thesis deals with the child labour and its occurence in developing countries. The main aim is to present the basic view of this problem. The term of child labour relies here on Convention on the Rights of the Child and conventions of International Labour Organization. There are several types of child labour, in which children appear most, including the worst forms of child labour. Every type includes description of activities perform...

  20. Transport in the Nordic countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gustafsson, B.; Pettersson, S.; Vilkamo, S.

    1989-01-01

    Transport of radioactive material from different fields of operation is well advanced in the Nordic countries: waste from the medical sector, industry, research, and now in increasing amounts from reactor operation, including spent fuel. In the future, waste from decommissioning will also be transported. This report gives the amount of radioactive waste material to be transported in the Nordic countries. Transport routes, transport containers, and transport systems are described. Legislations and transport regulatins are discussed. (author)

  1. Renewable Energy Country Profiles. Pacific

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-09-15

    The IRENA Renewable Energy Country Profiles take stock of the latest development of renewable energy in two regions where renewable energy can make a significant contribution to combat climate change and bring modern energy services to everyone: Africa and the Pacific. These two regions are presented separately in this volume and its sister publication. The country profiles combine elements of IRENA analysis with the latest information available from a vast array of sources in order to give a brief yet comprehensive and up-to-date picture of the situation of renewable energy that includes energy supply, electrical capacity, energy access, policies, targets, investment climate, projects and endowment in renewable energy resources. Because of the different timelines of these sources, data presented here refer to years between 2008 and 2012. Data availability also differs from country to country, which makes comparison with a wider regional group possible only for the year for which figures are available for all the members of the group; while this may not be the most recent year, the differences between countries, regions and the world remain striking. The current country profiles are just a starting point; they will be extended upon with new indicators to make them more informative, and maintained as a live product on the IRENA website as a key source of information on renewable energy.

  2. Renewable Energy Country Profiles. Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-02-15

    The IRENA Renewable Energy Country Profiles take stock of the latest development of renewable energy in two regions where renewable energy can make a significant contribution to combat climate change and bring modern energy services to everyone: Africa and the Pacific. These two regions are presented separately in this volume and its sister publication. The country profiles combine elements of IRENA analysis with the latest information available from a vast array of sources in order to give a brief yet comprehensive and up-to-date picture of the situation of renewable energy that includes energy supply, electrical capacity, energy access, policies, targets, investment climate, projects and endowment in renewable energy resources. Because of the different timelines of these sources, data presented here refer to years between 2008 and 2012. Data availability also differs from country to country, which makes comparison with a wider regional group possible only for the year for which figures are available for all the members of the group; while this may not be the most recent year, the differences between countries, regions and the world remain striking. The current country profiles are just a starting point; they will be extended upon with new indicators to make them more informative, and maintained as a live product on the IRENA website as a key source of information on renewable energy.

  3. Pharmacovigilance activities in ASEAN countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwankesawong, Wimon; Dhippayom, Teerapon; Tan-Koi, Wei-Chuen; Kongkaew, Chuenjid

    2016-09-01

    This study aimed to explore the current landscape and identify challenges of pharmacovigilance (PV) among Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) countries. This cross-sectional survey collected data from May 2014 to December 2015. Questionnaires seeking to collect information on resources, processes, roles and responsibility, and functions of PV systems were sent to relevant persons in the ASEAN countries. Functions of PV centers were measured using the minimum World Health Organization requirements for a functional national PV system. Performances of PV centers were measured by the following: (1) the indicators related to the average number of individual case safety reports (ICSR); (2) presence of signal detection activities and subsequent action; and (3) contribution to the global vigilance database. Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, and Vietnam completed the survey. PV systems in four surveyed countries (Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, and Thailand) achieved all aspects of the World Health Organization minimum requirement for a functional national PV system; the remaining countries were deemed to have unclear communication strategies and/or no official advisory committee. Average numbers of recent ICSR national returns ranged from 7 to 3817 reports/year/million population; three countries (Malaysia, Singapore, and Thailand) demonstrated good performance in reporting system and reported signal detection activities and subsequent actions. All participating countries had submitted ICSRs to the Uppsala Monitoring Center during the survey period (2013-2015). Four participating countries had functional PV systems. PV capacity, functionality, and legislative framework varied depending on local healthcare ecosystem networks. Implementing effective communication strategies and/or technical assistance from the advisory committee are needed to strengthen PV in ASEAN. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright

  4. Republic of Venezuela. Country profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakkert, R

    1985-06-01

    Venezuela's current economic and demographic situation is described. Venezuela is a major oil country, and the oil industry accounts for 90% of the country's foreign exchange, 70% of the government's revenues, and 15% of the gross domestic product. The economy experienced a sudden and high rate of economic growth in the mid-1970s as a result of high oil prices; however, in recent years, declining oil prices have had a negative effect on the economy. The country is now faced with a serious trade deficit, and the government recently imposed restrictions on imports. Imports in recently years had increased markedly. The emphasis on the oil industry weakened the agricultural sector and, as a result, food imports increased. In addition, the rapid economic growth experienced during the 1970s greatly increased the demand for imported consumer goods. Venezuela has the 4th highest foreign debt in the world (US$35 billion). Despite these problems Venezuela has a relatively high per capita income (US$4,140) and living standard, compared to other countries in the region. Venezuela's total population is 14.6 million, and the population is unevenly distributed. 86% of the population lives in cities of 2500 or more. 37.4% of the population and 70% of the industry is concentrated in the Federal District which contains Caracas, and in the surrounding states of Aragua, Miranda, and Carabobo. This area constitutes only 2.36% of the country's territory. Most of the oil fields are located in the state of Zulia which also contains the country's 2nd largest city (Maracaibo). The country's coastal area contains most of the agricultural lands, and the prairies just south of the coastal mountain ranges are devoted primarily to cattle raising. The remaining 58.2% of the country's territory is essentially jungle and contains only 6.9% of the country's population. The annual population growth rate is 3.11%. Although the rate declined in recent years it is higher than in most of the other

  5. Export opportunities in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, J.

    1992-01-01

    Developing countries will offer major opportunities to US exporters of energy and related environmental equipment in the next ten years. These opportunities arise because the markets in developing countries will be growing much faster than those in the developed countries during this period, and because these countries will not in most cases have strong domestic manufacturers to compete against. US technologies will help these countries solve their energy, environmental, and economic development problems, and help the US solve its serious trade balance problems. This market will represent over $200 billion between now and 2000. There are, however, many potential problems. These include a lack of focus and coordination among US government trade assistance organizations, a lack of interest on the part of US firms in exporting and an unwillingness to make the needed investments, barriers put up by the governments of potential foreign customers, and strong international competition. This paper describes how the United States Agency for International Development's (A.I.D.) Office of Energy and other US agencies are helping US firms resolve these problems with a comprehensive program of information, trade promotion assistance, and co-funding of feasibility studies. In addition, there are monies available to match unfair concessionary financing offered by our major competitors

  6. Nuclear power for developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kendall, J.; Kupitz, J.; Rogner, H. H.

    2000-01-01

    Nuclear power is a proven technology which currently makes a large contribution to the electricity supply in a number of countries and, to a much less extent, to heat supply in some countries. Nuclear power is economically competitive with fossil fuels for base load electricity generation in many countries, and is one of the commercially proven energy supply options that could be expanded in the future to reduce environmental burdens, especially greenhouse gas emissions, from the electricity sector. Over the past five decades, nearly ten thousand reactor-years of operating experience have been accumulated with current nuclear power plants. Building upon this background of success and applying lessons learned from the experience of operating plants, new generations of nuclear power plants have been, or are being developed. Improvements incorporated into these advance designs include features that will allow operators more time to perform equipment protection and safety actions in response to equipment failures and other off normal operating conditions, and that will reduce and simplify the actions required. Great attention is also paid to making new plants simpler to operate, inspect, maintain and repair, thus increasing their overall cost efficiency and their compatibility with the infrastructure of developing countries. The paper provides a discussion of future world energy supply and demand projections, current status and prospects for nuclear power, a short summary of advanced reactor concepts and non-electrical applications of nuclear energy for developing countries, and a review of the role of the IAEA. (author)

  7. Pharmaceutical policies in European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Pedro Pita

    2010-01-01

    Pharmaceutical expenditures have an important role in Europe. The attempts to control expenditure have used a wide range of policy measures. We reviewed the main measures adopted by the European Union countries, especially in countries where governments are the largest third-party payers. To complement a literature review on the topic, data was gathered from national reviews of health systems and direct inquiries to several government bodies. Almost all countries regulate prices of pharmaceutical products. Popular policy measures include international referencing to set prices (using as benchmark countries that have set lower prices), internal reference pricing systems to promote price competition in domestic markets, and positive lists for reimbursement to promote consumption of generics (including in some cases substitution by pharmacists of drugs prescribed by physicians). Despite the wide range of policy measures, it is not possible to identify a "silver bullet" to control pharmaceutical expenditures. We also identified two main policy challenges: policy coordination among countries within the European Union to maintain incentives for R&D at the global level, and the development of new relationships with the pharmaceutical industry; namely, the so-called risk-sharing agreements between the pharmaceutical industry and governments/regulators (or large third-party payers).

  8. Cancer epidemiology in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whelan, S.L.

    2002-01-01

    It is estimated that there were over 10 million new cancer cases in 2000, 5.4 million of them occurring in the developing countries (Parkin et al, 2001). The marked geographical variation in cancer occurrence results in differing therapeutic priorities: North America has more new cancer cases than South-Central Asia, but there are more deaths from cancer in South-Central Asia, reflecting a different pattern of cancer rather than differences in prognosis. Prediction of future trends is difficult, but the impact of population increase and ageing will be significant, with an expected 63% increase in the population of the less developed countries in 50 years. Four sites of cancer namely breast, cervix, colorectal and nasopharyngeal carcinoma are reviewed, looking at their present and possible future importance in the context of developing countries and their aetiology

  9. Energy investment in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rovani, Y.

    1982-01-01

    The developing countries are likely to represent the fastest growing component of the global energy demand over the next two decades. The paper presents considerations based on the World Bank's approach to the energy sector in these countries. It is considered that an accelerated development of conventional indigenous sources of energy is absolutely vital if developing countries are to attain a satisfactory rate of economic growth. The cost of the energy investment, the power sector issues, the optimal use of the resources, the role of the external financing and the need of technical assistance are reviewed. One emphasizes the role of the World Bank in analyzing and preparing projects, and in mobilizing financing from other official and commercial sources

  10. Traditional Medicine in Developing Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, Rikke Stamp

    or spiritual healer and self-treatment with herbal medicine or medicinal plants. Reliance on traditional medicine varies between countries and rural and urban areas, but is reported to be as high as 80% in some developing countries. Increased realization of the continued importance of traditional medicine has......People use traditional medicine to meet their health care needs in developing countries and medical pluralism persists worldwide despite increased access to allopathic medicine. Traditional medicine includes a variety of treatment opportunities, among others, consultation with a traditional healer...... led to the formulation of policies on the integration of traditional medicine into public health care. Local level integration is already taking place as people use multiple treatments when experiencing illness. Research on local level use of traditional medicine for health care, in particular the use...

  11. Fundamental research in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moravesik, M.J.

    1964-01-01

    Technical assistance is today a widespread activity. Large numbers of persons with special qualifications in the applied sciences go to the developing countries to work on specific research and development projects, as do educationists on Fulbright or other programmes - usually to teach elementary or intermediate courses. But I believe that until now it has been rare for a person primarily interested in fundamental research to go to one of these countries to help build up advanced education and pure research work. Having recently returned from such an assignment, and having found it a most stimulating and enlightening experience, I feel moved to urge strongly upon others who may be in a position to do so that they should seek similar experience themselves. The first step is to show that advanced education and fundamental research are badly needed in the under-developed countries.

  12. Country Presentation. Central African Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paulin Poussoumandji-Ouinga, P.

    2010-01-01

    No incident related to the illicit trafficking of nuclear and other radioactive materials has been yet reported in the country. However, rumors relating to the orphaned sources exist due to buried radioactive waste and former radiotherapy activities. Illicit trafficking of nuclear materials and radioactive materials is a new threat for the law enforcement agents.This is contributed by absence of dedicated equipment for radiation detection either at the border or within the country, lack of awareness of agents in charge of enforcement control, porosity of the border, absence of a protocol for exchanging information between Customs, intelligence and Police Service

  13. Radioassay services in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belcher, E.H.

    1978-01-01

    The findings and recommendations of an advisory group convened by the IAEA to give guidance relating to the development of IAEA projects involving radioassay are presented. The current status of radioassay services in different countries is reviewed; guiding principles relating to the organization of such services are affirmed, with particular reference to services in developing countries; the needs of services at various levels as regards accommodation, staff, equipment, supporting services and running costs, including minimum initial needs, are specified; operational problems are identified and indications given how they may be solved; facilities for training in radioassay are reviewed; finally, reference is made to IAEA activities in the field in question. (author)

  14. Arab countries are waking up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pauron, M.

    2008-01-01

    Year after year, the Arab world is confirming its interest for the gas industry. In front of an increasing local consumption, a growth of export demand and a rise of rates, the Arab countries are multiplying the projects and partnerships in a sector for which the intervention of foreign expert companies and investment are often necessary. This paper presents an overview of the past year of the gas industry in Arab countries: the projects in progress, the penetration of occidental markets by Arab companies, and the difficulties encountered by the GTL (Gas to Liquid) industry. (J.S.)

  15. Preferences, country bias, and international trade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Roy (Santanu); J.M.A. Viaene (Jean-Marie)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractAnalyzes international trade where consumer preferences exhibit country bias. Why country biases arise; How trade can occur in the presence of country bias; Implication for the pattern of trade and specialization.

  16. CDM Country Guide for Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    Under the Integrated Capacity Strengthening for the CDM (ICS-CDM) programme, IGES presents the CDM Country Guides, a series of manuals on CDM project development for Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia, the Philippines, and Thailand. These guidebooks aim at facilitating CDM project developments in Asia by providing essential information to both project developers and potential investors. This volume is on Indonesia

  17. CDM Country Guide for China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    Under the Integrated Capacity Strengthening for the CDM (ICS-CDM) programme, IGES presents the CDM Country Guides, a series of manuals on CDM project development for Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia, the Philippines, and Thailand. These guidebooks aim at facilitating CDM project developments in Asia by providing essential information to both project developers and potential investors. This volume is on China

  18. CDM Country Guide for India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    Under the Integrated Capacity Strengthening for the CDM (ICS-CDM) programme, IGES presents the CDM Country Guides, a series of manuals on CDM project development for Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia, the Philippines, and Thailand. These guidebooks aim at facilitating CDM project developments in Asia by providing essential information to both project developers and potential investors. This volume is on India

  19. Nuclear power for developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirschmann, H.; Vennemann, J.

    1980-01-01

    The paper describes the energy policy quandary of developing countries and explains why nuclear power plants of a suitable size - the KKW 200 MW BWR nuclear power plant for electric power and/or process steam generation is briefly presented here - have an economic advantage over fossil-fuelled power plants. (HP) [de

  20. Bulgaria : Country Financial Accountability Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2003-01-01

    Bulgaria's ambitious program of reforms in several areas, including public financial management (PFM), focuses greatly on its entry into the European Union (EU). Thus, the country has a well developed system, and structure of financial management, that relies heavily on information technology (such as in the area of cash management), and has independent external audits, and parliamentary o...

  1. Mexico : Country Financial Accountability Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2004-01-01

    This Country Financial Accountability Assessment (CFAA) summarizes the status of implementation of financial management measures of the Federal public sector, showing both strengths, and areas for improvement, and, reflects input contributions in each area of public management. The main strength observed was the existence of clear rules governing the Federal Government's administrative fin...

  2. Mobilizing technology for developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, C Jr

    1979-10-01

    Mr. Weiss says that the 15 years since the UN Conference on Science, Technology, and Development in Geneva have taught us that what seem at first to be technological obstacles to development frequently turn out on closer examination to have been policy failures; that introduction of technologies into developing countries must be accompanied by institutional and policy changes if the technologies are to benefit the countries. He points out that choice of alternative technology for a developing country should depend on careful overall assessment of local techno-economic, geographical, ecological, and social factors, as well as the desired balance between growth and equity. Such a technology assessment, a key element in the choice of appropriate (i.e., locally suitable) technology for particular investment projects, should be built into procedures for project preparation and appraisal in governments and development assistance agencies. Turning to technologists, Mr. Weiss says they face a double challenge: (1) to recognize potential for new efforts to harness science and technology for the benefit of the developing countries; and (2) by understanding the social, institutional, and economic framework into which an innovation is to operate, to ease its application and diffusion, and thus speed and increase its practical impact. 25 references.

  3. The Country of Origin Effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Lala; Baldin, Andrea

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to analyse the country of origin (COO) effect on wine purchase in China by considering a sample from an e-commerce website. The paper contribute to the literature on hedonic pricing by applying this model to the Chinese market and including COO as product attribute....

  4. Countries compared on public performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jedid-Jah Jonker

    2012-01-01

    How well is the public sector performing? Are citizens being well served? This report compares the performance of nine public services in 28 developed countries over the period 1995-2009. Four sectors - education, health care, social safety and housing - are studied in some detail, while the

  5. Hepatoblastoma in the nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Fine Licht, S; Schmidt, L S; Rod, Naja Hulvej

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about the aetiology of hepatoblastoma. Because of the young age at diagnosis, several studies have looked at various birth characteristics. The purpose of this study was to investigate the incidence of hepatoblastoma in the Nordic countries and the association between selected bir...

  6. Planned Change in Agrarian Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niehoff, Arthur H.

    The report provides operationally relevant concepts and guidelines for persons responsible for planning and implementing development projects in agrarian countries. A framework for describing or evaluating the conduct of development projects is proposed, and applied to the results of an analysis of 203 case studies of past projects. Influences,…

  7. Pigmentary disorders in Western countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Veen, J. P. Wietze

    2007-01-01

    Countries in the so-called "Western" world, especially in Europe, witnessed a dramatic change in ethnic backgrounds of their populations starting in the last decennia of the last century. This had repercussions on various aspects of our society, including medical practice. In dermatology for

  8. Industry Switching in Developing Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Newman, Carol; Rand, John; Tarp, Finn

    Firm turnover (i.e. firm entry and exit) is a well-recognized source of sectorlevel productivity growth across developing and developed countries. In contrast, the role and importance of firms switching activities from one sector to another is little understood. Firm switchers are likely...

  9. Road safety in developing countries.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, D.A.

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents a classification of countries (developing and developed alike), divided into two main categories: an economical and historical entry. When road safety problems are placed into the economical context, it then appears that, among other things: (1) The road safety problem in the

  10. and high-income countries

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    opperwjj

    sociodemographic, health risk behaviour and social-legal correlates among university students ... no national seatbelt law or a law that does not apply to all occupants, poor attitudes towards ..... inconsistently used seatbelts than female students, while in some other countries (China, ..... and Exercise, 35, 1381–1395. Cunill ...

  11. Welfare reform in European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Immervoll, Herwig; Kleven, Henrik Jacobsen; Kreiner, Claus Thustrup

    2007-01-01

    This article compares the effects of increasing traditional welfare to introducing in-work benefits in the 15 (pre-enlargement) countries of the European Union. We use a labour supply model encompassing responses to taxes and transfers along both the intensive and extensive margins, and the EUROMOD...

  12. CDM Country Guide for Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    Under the Integrated Capacity Strengthening for the CDM (ICS-CDM) programme, IGES presents the CDM Country Guides, a series of manuals on CDM project development for Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia, the Philippines, and Thailand. These guidebooks aim at facilitating CDM project developments in Asia by providing essential information to both project developers and potential investors. This volume is on Thailand

  13. CDM Country Guide for Cambodia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    Under the Integrated Capacity Strengthening for the CDM (ICS-CDM) programme, IGES presents the CDM Country Guides, a series of manuals on CDM project development for Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia, the Philippines, and Thailand. These guidebooks aim at facilitating CDM project developments in Asia by providing essential information to both project developers and potential investors. This volume is on Cambodia

  14. Tanzania : Country Procurement Assessment Report

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2003-01-01

    This Country Procurement Assessment Report (CPAR)intends to determine the compatibility of national procurement law, and practices, with the principles of economy, and with international procurement practices. This CPAR, the second of its kind in Tanzania, looks at the legislative framework, the performance of regulatory functions, the enforcement regime, and the capacity of public sector ...

  15. Country Energy Profile, South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    This country energy profile provides energy and economic information about South Africa. Areas covered include: Economics, demographics, and environment; Energy situation; Energy structure; Energy investment opportunities; Department of Energy (DOE) programs in South Africa; and a listing of International aid to South Africa.

  16. Country Energy Profile, South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-08-01

    This country energy profile provides energy and economic information about South Africa. Areas covered include: Economics, demographics, and environment; Energy situation; Energy structure; Energy investment opportunities; Department of Energy (DOE) programs in South Africa; and a listing of International aid to South Africa

  17. Uzbekistan : Country Procurement Assessment Report

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2003-01-01

    Uzbekistan inherited the Soviet system for the procurement of goods, works and services for State needs. This system was suitable for a command economy but lacks the essential elements of competitiveness, transparency and accountability, which are the hallmarks of a market-based approach to government contracting. This Country Procurement Assessment Report (CPAR) comes at a time when a num...

  18. Sanitation planning in developing countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerstens, S.M.

    2016-01-01

    Sanitation planning in developing countries: Added value of resource recovery

    Worldwide 2.5 billion people lack access to sanitation. This impacts human live, the environment and represents a loss of valuable resources that can be regained from wastewater. This study

  19. Anxiety sensitivity in six countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zvolensky, MJ; Arrindell, WA; Taylor, S; Bouvard, M; Cox, BJ; Stewart, SH; Sandin, B; Cardenas, SJ; Eifert, GH

    In the present study, the Anxiety Sensitivity Index-Revised (ASI-R; Taylor & Cox, Journal of Anxiety Disorders 12 (1998) 463; Behaviour Research and Therapy 36 (1998) 37) was administered to a large sample of persons (n = 2786) from different cultures represented in six different countries: Canada,

  20. Nuclear energy in transition countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knapp, V.

    2000-01-01

    Transition countries, respectively the countries that have in the year's 89/90 broken with the communist political and economy system are passing through difficult years. From their traditional markets within the closely interconnected socialist economy system, which has disintegrated, they have to reorient themselves to new, often saturated and sophisticated markets. To integrate into Europe as equal partners, rather then remain poor relatives, they must reduce this development gap in a reasonable time, not longer than 15 years. Slower pace would not give acceptable perspective to their young people and they would look for it elsewhere, thereby reducing creative forces for progress. Examples of economic development show that sustained growth of GDP is impossible without similar industrial growth, which, in turn, requires corresponding increase of energy use. In the same time these countries are the parts of densely populated European region and are subject to emission restriction of effluents with local or global effects. It is difficult to see how these countries could attain their development goals, whilst respecting their Kyoto obligations, without supplying increased energy demand from nuclear sources. (author)

  1. Urban bioclimatology in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jauregui, E

    1993-11-15

    A brief review of the literature on urban human bioclimatology in the tropics is undertaken. Attempts to chart human bioclimatic conditions on the regional/local scale have been made in several developing countries. The effective temperature scheme (with all its limitations) is the one that has been most frequently applied. The possibilities of application of bioclimatic models based on human heat balance for the tropical urban environment are discussed.

  2. Physician assistant education: five countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooker, Roderick S; Kuilman, Luppo

    2011-01-01

    Physician assistant (PA) education has undergone substantial change since the late 1960s. After four decades of development, other countries have taken a page from the American experience and launched their own instructional initiatives. The diversity in how different countries approach education and produce a PA for their nation's needs provides an opportunity to make comparisons. The intent of this study was to document and describe PA programs in Australia, Canada, the United Kingdom, The Netherlands, and the United States. We reviewed the literature and contacted a network of academics in various institutions to obtain primary information. Each contact was asked a set of basic questions about the country, the PA program, and the deployment of graduates. Information on US PA programs was obtained from the Physician Assistant Education Association. At year's end 2010, the following was known about PA development: Australia, one program; Canada, four programs; United Kingdom, four programs; The Netherlands, five programs; the United States, 154 programs. Trends in program per capita growth remain the largest in the United States, followed by The Netherlands and Canada. The shortest program length was 24 months and the longest, 36 months. Outside the United States, almost all programs are situated in an academic health center ([AHC] defined as a medical university, a teaching hospital, and a nursing or allied health school), whereas only one-third of US PA programs are in AHCs. All non-US programs receive public/government funding whereas American programs are predominately private and depend on tuition to fund their programs. The PA movement is a global phenomenon. How PAs are being educated, trained, and deployed is known only on the basic level. We identify common characteristics, unique aspects, and trends in PA education across five nations, and set the stage for collaboration and analysis of optimal educational strategies. Additional information is needed on

  3. Nuclear power in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lane, J.A.; Covarrubias, A.J.; Csik, B.J.; Fattah, A.; Woite, G.

    1977-01-01

    This paper is intended to be a companion to similar papers by OECD/NEA and CMEA and will summarize the nuclear power system plans of developing Member States most likely to have nuclear programmes before the year 2000. The information that is presented is derived from various sources such as the Agency 1974 study of the market for nuclear power in developing countries, the annual publication, ''Power Reactors in Member States - 1976 Edition'', various nuclear power planning studies carried out by the Agency during the period 1975 and 1976, direct correspondence with selected Member States and published information in the open literature. A preliminary survey of the prospects for nuclear power in Member States not belonging to the OECD or having centrally planned economies indicates that about 27 of these countries may have operating nuclear power plants by the end of the century. In the 1974 Edition of the ''Market Survey'' it was estimated that the installed nuclear capacity in these countries might reach 24 GW by 1980, 157 GW by 1190 and 490 GW by the year 2000. It now appears that these figures are too high for a number of reasons. These include 1) the diminished growth in electrical demand which has occurred in many Member States during the last several years, 2) the extremely high cost of nuclear plant construction which has placed financial burdens on countries with existing nuclear programmes, 3) the present lack of commercially available small and medium power reactors which many of the smaller Member States would need in order to expand their electric power systems and 4) the growing awareness of Member States that more attention should be paid to exploitation of indigenous energy sources such as hydroelectric power, coal and lignite

  4. Country differences in sustainable consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    2010-01-01

    In a sustainability perspective, consumption research has an unfortunate individualizing bias, which means that macro and structural causes of unsustainable consumption tend to be ignored. Hence, a comprehensive model of determinants of the sustainability of consumption is developed and applied...... on a specific case: organic food consumption. The analyzed data are published research on why consumer purchase of organic food products differs between countries. As expected, organic food's share of total food consumption depends heavily on political regulation, including legal definitions and standards...

  5. [AIDS, developing countries and ethnopsychiatry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrhardt, N; Defourny, J; Bertrand, J

    1995-04-01

    This work briefly assesses the history of the AIDS epidemic in different geographic regions and examines factors that render developing countries particularly vulnerable. It reviews the three main techniques of traditional therapeutic systems and examines their implications for psychiatric treatment of AIDS patients from developing countries. Young age structures, low rates of condom usage, women's lack of education and of sexual bargaining power, and the deficiencies of health and educational facilities are among factors that increase risks of HIV in developing countries. Health education geared to specific audiences should encourage condom use and other preventive measures. Among factors to encourage condom use, group decision making appears to be of greatest potential influence on behavior in sub-Saharan Africa and among African immigrants to Europe. To encourage preventive measures and to understand reactions of non-Western populations to HIV, it is desirable to understand the deeper meanings of their cultures and of traditional therapies. It is difficult and misguided to pose a diagnosis according to the criteria of Western psychiatry. Western psychiatry has been proven incompetent in its attempts to treat members of traditional societies, whether immigrants or in their countries of origin. And attempts to integrate traditional healing into a western medical system have not been successful. Traditional systems accomplish therapeutic goals by three major techniques, possession, shamanism, and clairvoyance, or their numerous variants. It is recommended that group sessions be held with immigrants requiring treatment, in which the principal therapist is assisted by translators, who help create a space for the patient intermediate between the two cultures, where the therapies can coexist without conflict.

  6. Sanitation planning in developing countries

    OpenAIRE

    Kerstens, S.M.

    2016-01-01

    Sanitation planning in developing countries: Added value of resource recovery Worldwide 2.5 billion people lack access to sanitation. This impacts human live, the environment and represents a loss of valuable resources that can be regained from wastewater. This study shows that resource recovery can be a potential driver to accelerate sanitation. A new sanitation decision framework for policy makers was created and tested in Indonesia. The variety of advantages and disadvantages of sanitatio...

  7. Palliative radiotherapy in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, B.J.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: The International Agency for Research on Cancer predicts that cancer incidence in developing countries will increase dramatically in the first two decades of this millennium. Already some 80% of cancer patients in developing countries present with incurable disease. [n many cases pain is a severe problem and palliation is needed to improve quality of life as well as extending survival. This paper will consider the physical and clinical aspects of palliative radiotherapy (PRT), choice of radiation modality, alternative approaches to imaging and therapy and cost-benefit considerations. The potential benefits of a dedicated palliative centre include lower cost and therefore more centres, enabling more patients access to regional palliative care. Whilst there is an obvious need for palliative radiotherapy, simple curative treatments could also be managed. C060 radiotherapy has important advantages in developing countries, because of the higher initial cost of a linear accelerator, as well as the need for reliable power supply and the level of skill required by linac technicians and physicists. The beam characteristics of both C060 units and low energy linacs are compared and both are found to be acceptable for palliation. The concept of telemedicine is also discussed, using mobile phones and internet communication to allow rural clinics to receive support from specialists based in the cities, to send images for remote diagnosis and remote dose planning for radiotherapy. (author)

  8. Nuclear trade between developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stahl, K.

    1990-01-01

    The analysis of nuclear south-south cooperation is based on the evaluation of official documents (the texts of laws, of contracts for nuclear cooperation treaties, safeguard treaties, official government policy speeches etc.). These data were supplemented by numerous interviews with representatives of atomic energy authorities, foreign ministries, nuclear industries, members of parliament, representatives of the nuclear energy opposition movement and military representatives in the three states and by interviews with representatives of the IAEO and OPANAL in Mexico. The study deals with each country in turn: Chapter 2 gives an overview of the Indian nuclear energy programme and India's nuclear export activity and export policy. Chapter 3 analyzes Brazil's nuclear energy policy and Brazilian export capacities, exports and export policy in the nuclear sector. Chapter 4 looks at the development of the Argentinian nuclear energy programme and the crisis in it, at Argentina's nuclear export activities and its export policy and technology transfer policy in this field. Chapter 5 analyzes separately relations between Argentina and Brazil on nuclear cooperation, since they differ considerably from the two countries' relations with other Third World countries on this topic. The appendix documents the most important contractual agreements and government policy declarations on nuclear cooperation between the two states. (orig.) [de

  9. Development perspective of transitional countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilić Bogdan B.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The end of 20th century witnessed the affirmation and development of information technology as well as the transformation of industrial into information, "new economy", which caused changes in people and circumstances. The role and importance of nonhuman factors was increased, causing entrepreneurship and knowledge-based information to become the most significant resources. The Internet became the basis of the "new economy". It changes the way of doing business, studying, researching, communicating and competition. It also reduces operating costs, crosses national borders and leads to the globalization of the world economy. Transitional countries have to fit into modern development flows by formulating their own strategy of national development and establishing their own competitive advantages in conditions of "new economy". These advantages lie predominantly in highly qualified and skilled younger labor which learns fast and adopts new knowledge and skills, through reducing transactional costs, shortening of certain development stages through which developed countries have already gone, using their experience, scientific-technological progress, a rise in work productivity, etc. Experience of other countries should be innovated and adapted to one's own material and social conditions, not copied. This enables the emergence of "European small tigers", which are similar to "Asian small tigers".

  10. Joint default probabilities and country risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholtens, Bert; Hameeteman, Daphne

    2003-01-01

    The assessment of country risk is of crucial importance for both developing countries and international lenders and investors. Many existing country risk approaches are opaque and heavily rely on subjective choices. In general, they lack a theoretical basis. To assess country risk, we use the Merton

  11. Malaysia mental health country profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parameshvara Deva, M

    2004-01-01

    Malaysia is a tropical country in the heart of south east Asia with a population of 24 million people of diverse ethnic, cultural and religious backgrounds living in harmony in 330,000 km(2) of land on the Asian mainland and Borneo. Malaysia, which lies on the crossroads of trade between east and west Asia, has an ancient history as a centre of trading attracting commerce between Europe, west Asia, India and China. It has had influences from major powers that dominated the region throughout its history. Today the country, after independence in 1957, has embarked on an ambitious development project to make it a developed country by 2020. In this effort the economy has changed from one producing raw material to one manufacturing consumer goods and services and the colonial health system has been overhauled and social systems strengthened to provide better services for its people. The per capita income, which was under 1,000 US dollars at independence, has now passed 4,000 US dollars and continues to grow, with the economy largely based on strong exports that amount to over 100 billion US dollars. The mental health system that was based on institutional care in four mental hospitals at independence from British colonial rule in 1957 with no Malaysian psychiatrists is today largely based on over 30 general hospital psychiatric units spread throughout the country. With three local postgraduate training programmes in psychiatry and 12 undergraduate departments of psychiatry in the country--all started after independence--there is now a healthy development of mental health services. This is being supplemented by a newly established primary care mental health service that covers community mental health by integrating mental health into primary health care. Mental health care at the level of psychiatrists rests with about 140 psychiatrists most of whom had undertaken a four-year masters course in postgraduate psychiatry in Malaysia since 1973. However, there continues to be

  12. COMMODITY MARKET REGULATION: EXPORTING COUNTRIES VERSUS IMPORTING COUNTRIES

    OpenAIRE

    Souza, Leonardo Silveira

    2012-01-01

    The high in commodity prices in the international market in the last decade, tensions escalated between exporting and importing commodities countries, the extent of having their demands and pressures discussed in the main international organizations, especially in the G20. As altas nas cotações das commodities no mercado internacional na última década acirraram as tensões entre países exportadores e importadores de commodities, a ponto de terem suas reivindicações e pressões debatidas no...

  13. India mental health country profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandelwal, Sudhir K; Jhingan, Harsh P; Ramesh, S; Gupta, Rajesh K; Srivastava, Vinay K

    2004-01-01

    India, the second most populated country of the world with a population of 1.027 billion, is a country of contrasts. It is characterized as one of the world's largest industrial nations, yet most of the negative characteristics of poor and developing countries define India too. The population is predominantly rural, and 36% of people still live below poverty line. There is a continuous migration of rural people into urban slums creating major health and economic problems. India is one of the pioneer countries in health services planning with a focus on primary health care. Improvement in the health status of the population has been one of the major thrust areas for social development programmes in the country. However, only a small percentage of the total annual budget is spent on health. Mental health is part of the general health services, and carries no separate budget. The National Mental Health Programme serves practically as the mental health policy. Recently, there was an eight-fold increase in budget allocation for the National Mental Health Programme for the Tenth Five-Year Plan (2002-2007). India is a multicultural traditional society where people visit religious and traditional healers for general and mental health related problems. However, wherever modern health services are available, people do come forward. India has a number of public policy and judicial enactments, which may impact on mental health. These have tried to address the issues of stigma attached to the mental illnesses and the rights of mentally ill people in society. A large number of epidemiological surveys done in India on mental disorders have demonstrated the prevalence of mental morbidity in rural and urban areas of the country; these rates are comparable to global rates. Although India is well placed as far as trained manpower in general health services is concerned, the mental health trained personnel are quite limited, and these are mostly based in urban areas. Considering this

  14. The Determinants of Country Risk Ratings

    OpenAIRE

    Jean-Claude Cosset; Jean Roy

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to replicate Euromoney's and Institutional Investor's country risk ratings on the basis of economic and political variables. The evidence reveals that country risk ratings respond to some of the variables suggested by the theory. In particular, both the level of per capita income and propensity to invest affect positively the rating of a country. In addition, high-ranking countries are less indebted than low-ranking countries. It also appears that the ability of t...

  15. Peritoneal Dialysis in Western Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struijk, Dirk G

    2015-12-01

    better quality of life worldwide, but its prevalence is significantly lower than that of HD in all countries, with the exception of Hong Kong. Allowing reimbursement of PD but not HD has permitted to increase the use of PD over HD in many Asian countries like Hong Kong, Vietnam, Taiwan, Thailand, as well as in New Zealand and Australia over the last years. In the Western world, however, HD is still promoted, and the proportion of patients treated with PD decreases. Japan remains an exception in Asia where PD penetration is very low. Lack of adequate education of practitioners and information of patients might as well be reasons for the low penetration of PD in both the East and West. (2) Patient survival of PD varies between and within countries but is globally similar to HD. (3) Peritonitis remains the main cause of morbidity in PD patients. South Asian countries face specific issues such as high tuberculosis and mycobacterial infections, which are rare in developed Asian and Western countries. The infection rate is affected by climatic and socio-economic factors and is higher in hot, humid and rural areas. (4) Nevertheless, the promotion of a PD-first policy might be beneficial particularly for remote populations in emerging countries where the end-stage renal disease rate is increasing dramatically.

  16. Zambia mental health country profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayeya, John; Chazulwa, Roy; Mayeya, Petronella Ntambo; Mbewe, Edward; Magolo, Lonia Mwape; Kasisi, Friday; Bowa, Annel Chishimba

    2004-01-01

    This country profile for Zambia was compiled between 1998 and 2002. The objectives of the exercise were to first of all avail policymakers, other key decision makers and leaders in Zambia, information about mental health in Zambia in order to assist policy and services development. Secondly, to facilitate comparative analyses of mental health services between countries. The work involved formation of a core group of experts who coordinated the collection of information from the various organizations in Zambia. The information was later shared to a broad spectrum of stakeholders for consensus. A series of focus group discussions (FGDs) supplemented the information collected. There are various factors that contribute to mental health in Zambia. It is clear from the Zambian perspective that social, demographic, economic, political, environmental, cultural and religious influences affect the mental health of the people. With a population of 10.3 million and annual growth rate of 2.9%, Zambia is one of the most urbanized countries in sub-Saharan Africa. Poverty levels stood at 72.9% in 1998. In terms of unemployment, the most urbanized provinces, Lusaka (the capital city), and the copper-belt are the most affected. The gross domestic product (GDP) is US$3.09 billion dollars while per capita income is US$300. The total budget allocation for health in the year 2002 was 15% while the proportion of the GDP per capita expenditure for health was 5.6%. The HIV/AIDS prevalence rates stand at 20% among the reproductive age group 15-49 years. Political instability and wars in neighbouring states has resulted in an influx of refugees. Environmental factors affecting the country include natural and man-made disasters such as floods and drought, mine accidents, and deforestation. To a large extent in Zambia, people who are mentally ill are stigmatized, feared, scorned at, humiliated and condemned. However, caring for mental ill health in old age is positively perceived. It is

  17. Youth Entrepreneurship in Visegrad Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Holienka

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of our paper is to analyse the entrepreneurial activity drivers of youth and young adults in Visegrad countries, considering the opportunity/necessity motivation dichotomy. Research Design & Methods: We employ the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor data for young individuals (18 to 34 years from V4 countries for years 2011 to 2013. We use the binomial logistic regression modelling with logit transformation. Separate models are constructed for youth and young adults, as well as for opportunity- and necessity-driven entrepreneurial activity. Findings: We found common drivers and distinctive attributes affecting involvement of young people in business start-up according to its motivation. Self-confidence and access to networks are universally important factors. In most examined cases, fear of failure and being a female reduces chance of business start-up. Especially among youth, being a student significantly inhibits involvement in enterprising efforts. Implications & Recommendations: In order to support youth entrepreneurship, an emphasis should be put on education and training to build skills and knowledge required to business start-up, together with capacity to spot opportunities, and reduce fear of failure.  Also, formal and informal networking plays an important role. Contribution & Value Added: Based on empirical analysis, our findings point out the key drivers of entrepreneurial activity among young people in V4 countries. We show directions for policy makers aiming to foster entrepreneurship within young generation as both way to exploit available business opportunities, as well as reaction to necessity situations.

  18. Nuclear cardiology for developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feinendegen, L.E.

    1986-01-01

    The role of nuclear medicine in developing countries must be oriented to the local needs for clinical practice, the health care of large populations and the demands for research with sometimes extremely limited resources. To help define the locally differing needs, it is stressed that nuclear medicine provides the unique opportunity to observe the body at the molecular level of organization and thus makes the body biochemically transparent. Depending on the particular diagnostic demands, complex imaging with gamma scintigraphy or emission tomography may be the only method to choose in some instances, but for others it may be an unnecessary luxury. Nuclear cardiology, with the purpose of non-invasively assessing cardiac function, myocardial perfusion and myocardial metabolism, is a particular challenge in both respects for developing countries. Given such requirements, single-probe devices with multipurpose application are less expensive than gamma cameras and promise advanced diagnostic uses. In one examination, left ventricular function, global cardio-pulmonary circulation and the general circulatory adaptation to exercise can be investigated by non-gated simultaneous blood pool measurements over four lung regions, the heart and the liver. In addition, such devices have the advantages of compactness, robustness and electronic stability. Despite enormous difficulties regarding funding, infrastructure, equipment and maintenance, developing countries should be encouraged to participate in the evolution of nuclear medicine by responding and adapting to defined needs and perhaps by maintaining at least one national centre of excellence with capacities for research and training. Funds are best secured by providing an indispensable service in co-operation with the various clinical disciplines. (author)

  19. Cambodia: Country Poverty Analysis 2014

    OpenAIRE

    Asian Development Bank (ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB)

    2014-01-01

    Cambodia’s new national poverty lines show higher historical poverty rates and a dramatic decline in poverty during the 2007–2009 global financial crisis. With 18.9% of the population being poor in 2012, Cambodia now counts among the countries with the most rapid poverty reduction in the world. However, many people moved only slightly above the poverty line—remaining highly vulnerable—and poverty is increasing both in urban areas and according to the international poverty line of $2 per day. ...

  20. Construction industry in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moavenzadeh, F

    1978-01-01

    This paper provides a review of the construction capability available in the developing countries to meet the demand for shelter. It discusses the role of construction in the process of development and its importance to economic growth. It considers the issue facing the growth of a viable indigenous construction industry in the developing world within the context of the activities involved in the creation of constructed facilities--planning, design, contruction and maintenance; it also examines the environment within which the industry has developed. For each construction activity the paper reviews available capabilities, the various resources needed for the development of an indigenous industry, and some possible means of accommodating these needs.

  1. Pediatric anesthesia in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bösenberg, Adrian T

    2007-06-01

    To highlight the problems faced in developing countries where healthcare resources are limited, with particular emphasis on pediatric anesthesia. The fact that very few publications address pediatric anesthesia in the developing world is not surprising given that most anesthetics are provided by nonphysicians, nurses or unqualified personnel. In compiling this article information is drawn from pediatric surgical, anesthetic and related texts. In a recent survey more than 80% of anesthesia providers in a poor country acknowledged that with the limited resources available they could not provide basic anesthesia for children less than 5 years. Although many publications could be regarded as anecdotal, the similarities to this survey suggest that the lack of facilities is more generalized than we would like to believe. The real risk of anesthesia in comparison to other major health risks such as human immunodeficiency virus, malaria, tuberculosis and trauma remains undetermined. The critical shortage of manpower remains a barrier to progress. Despite erratic electrical supplies, inconsistent oxygen delivery, paucity of drugs or equipment and on occasion even lack of running water, many provide life-saving anesthesia. Perioperative morbidity and mortality is, however, understandably high by developed world standards.

  2. Infection control in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meers, P D

    1988-02-01

    The level of socio-political and economic development achieved by a country determines the quality and quantity of the health care its citizens receive. These factors also govern the amount of attention given to hospital-acquired infection. The problems of infection control in 'developing' countries include, first, the international problems that arise from clashes of personality and viewpoint among those responsible for it, exacerbated in some places by ethnic or religious traditions. Second are problems imposed by factors that affect the spectrum of infectious disease, and third is a variable deficiency of human and financial resources. In the search for solutions, an analysis suggests that nurses are particularly suited to take the lead in the prevention of infection, so that a special initiative directed towards their education in the rapidly developing science of hospital infection and its control is likely to be the most cost effective and appropriate initial approach. This needs to be accompanied by parallel improvements in the education of medical undergraduates. Anything else should be applied in response to measured need, and then only as money and manpower permit. Careful thought is required to avoid squandering scarce resources by applying inappropriate infection control technology.

  3. Country report on contamination monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oyuntulkhuur, Navaangalsan [National Centre for Hygiene, Epidemiology and Microbiology (Mongolia). Central Radiological Laboratory

    1997-06-01

    Mongolia is a non-nuclear country and has currently neither nuclear power plants nor research reactors. This country joined the Regional Co-operation Agreement (RCA) for the Asia Pacific region for research, development and training related to nuclear science and technology in 1993. Various measures has been taken for strengthening of radiation protection, cooperated with several international organizations mainly with IAEA. In Mongolia radioactive substances and sources are used for the following purposes: for research work; medical radiotherapy and diagnostic radiology in hospitals; industrial enterprises for technological processes; and for non-destructive testing in industry. Radiation safety inspection is conducted by the CRL. The inspections consist of verification of compliance with radiation safety requirements and with any additional requirements specified in the authorization of accounting records and a physical check on the presence of radiation sources; check on the work carried out by the radiation safety services to monitor radioactive contamination of the environment; and measurements and sampling. CRL should take much attention for improvement and development of the activities in the field of surface contamination monitoring concerning a wide use of radionuclides in different field of economy. (G.K.)

  4. Health, globalization and developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cilingiroglu, Nesrin

    2005-02-01

    In health care today, scientific and technological frontiers are expanding at unprecedented rates, even as economic and financial pressures shrink profit margins, intensify competition, and constrain the funds available for investment. Therefore, the world today has more economic, and social opportunities for people than 10 or 100 years since globalization has created a new ground somewhat characterized by rapid economic transformation, deregulation of national markets by new trade regimes, amazing transport, electronic communication possibilities and high turnover of foreign investment and capital flow as well as skilled labor. These trends can easily mask great inequalities in developing countries such as importation and spreading of infectious and non-communicable diseases; miniaturization of movement of medical technology; health sector trades management driven by economics without consideration to the social and health aspects and its effects, increasing health inequalities and their economic and social burden creation; multinational companies' cheap labor employment promotion in widening income differentials; and others. As a matter of fact, all these factors are major determinants of ill health. Health authorities of developing countries have to strengthen their regulatory framework in order to ensure that national health systems derive maximum benefit in terms of equity, quality and efficiency, while reducing potential social cost to a minimum generated risky side of globalization.

  5. Eastern countries - WIN activity review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stiopol, Mihaela

    1998-01-01

    Women can play this important role in informing people about nuclear energy. WIN is a world-wide association of women working professionally in the fields of nuclear energy and radiation application who want to devote their time to public information. The main goal of the WIN is to establish an objective and effective communication with the public through educational programmes, information exchange and arranging study visits. The membership includes women working in medicine and health care, in regulatory authorities, in industry and as independent researches at Universities. They want to contribute to objectively informing the public by making presentation, discussing and giving information materials on subjects such as; radiation, radioactivity and health effects medical applications nuclear energy nuclear power plants and their safety nuclear and environment uranium mining radiation protection energy sustainable development WIN is also open to men, supporting the goals of WIN. The intention of this paper was to underline the main aspects which reflect WIN activity in some Eastern and Central countries. There are common features and also specific elements for each country. But the goal is the same: to assure an effective and a real information of the public related to the nuclear field

  6. AIDS in the developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinker, J

    1988-01-01

    Without a medical miracle, it seems inevitable that the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) pandemic will become not only the most serious public health problem of this generation but a dominating issue in 3rd world development. As a present-day killer, AIDS in developing countries is insignificant compared to malaria, tuberculosis, or infant diarrhea, but this number is misleading in 3 ways. First, it fails to reflect the per capita rate of AIDS cases. On this basis, Bermuda, French Guyana, and the Bahamas have much higher rates than the US. Second, there is extensive underreporting of AIDS cases in most developing nations. Finally, the number of AIDS cases indicates where the epidemic was 5-7 years ago, when these people became infected. Any such projections of the growth of 3rd world AIDS epidemics are at this time based on epidemiologic data from the industrialized rations of the north and on the assumption that the virus acts similarly in the south as it does in the US and Europe. Yet, 3rd world conditions differ. Sexually transmitted diseases usually are more prevalent, and people have a different burden of other diseases and of other stresses to the immune system. In Africa, AIDS already is heavily affecting the mainstream population in some nations. Some regions will approach net population declines over the next decade. How far their populations eventually could decline because of AIDS is unclear and will depend crucially on countermeasures taken or not taken over the next 1-2 years. In purely economic terms, AIDS will affect the direct costs of health care, expenses which are unrealistic for most 3rd world countries. Further, the vast majority of deaths from AIDS in developing countries will occur among those in the sexually active age groups -- the wage earners and food producers. Deaths in this age group also will reduce the labor available for farming and industry. AIDS epidemics also may have significant effects on foreign investment in the 3rd

  7. HIS priorities in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amado Espinosa, L

    1995-04-01

    Looking for a solution to fulfill the requirements that the new global economical system demands, developing countries face a reality of poor communications infrastructure, a delay in applying information technology to the organizations, and a semi-closed political system avoiding the necessary reforms. HIS technology has been developed more for transactional purposes on mini and mainframe platforms. Administrative modules are the most frequently observed and physicians are now requiring more support for their activities. The second information systems generation will take advantage of PC technology, client-server models and telecommunications to achieve integration. International organizations, academic and industrial, public and private, will play a major role to transfer technology and to develop this area.

  8. Republic of Botswana. Country profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarver, J

    1985-08-01

    A summary of Botswana's population characteristics, population distribution, labor force characteristics, health situation, and transportation and communication facilities is provided. 87% of the country's 941,027 inhabitants live in the catchment area of the Limpopo River in the eastern region of the country. Much of the remaining area is covered by the Kalahari Desert. The population is growing at an annual rate of 3.6%, the birth rate is 50 and the total fertility rate is 6.6. The government has no official population policy. Major ethnic groups are the cattle raising Tswanas, which make up 50% of the population, the Herero, and the Basarwa, or Bushmen, of the Kalahri Desert. Urban areas are officially defined as population centers which contain 5000 or more residents and in which at least 75% of the inhabitants are engaged in nonagricultural work. According to this classification, 84% of the population is rural; however, most rural inhabitants live in agrotowns and temporarily move to outlying cattle and land posts during part of the year. Some of the agrotowns have almost 25,000 inhabitants. Major urban centers include 1) Gaborone, the capital and major administrative center, with a popualtion of 59,657; 2) Francistown, a large commercial center, with a population of 31,065; 3) Selebi-Phikwe, a mining center, populated by 29,469; and 4) Lobatse, a livestock marketing and processing center, with 19,034 residents. The urban population increased from 54,416 to 150,021 between 1971-81. The population has a young age structure. A large number of working aged males migrate temporarily to the Republic of South Africa to work in the gold mines. 37% of the economically active population is engaged in government services, 26% in mining, manufacturing, and construction, 21% in trade and finance, 6% in transportation, utilities, and communication, and 4.5% in agriculture. Only 1.3% of the land is cultivatable. The working age population is expected to double by the end of

  9. Strategy of the Development of the Country: opinions and attitudes of the country people

    OpenAIRE

    Somerauerová, Jana

    2009-01-01

    The conception of country-side and village. Demographic development of country-side places. Case study of attitude and positions of village inhabitants outspreaded to the country-side development (opinion poll).

  10. Drug discovery and developments in developing countries ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the major burden being in developing countries. Many of ... The driving force for drug discovery and development by pharmaceutical firms ... world and particularly in the third world countries ..... GFHR (2000) Global Forum for Health Research:.

  11. Radiation Protection Legislation in the Nordic Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Person, Lars.

    1990-01-01

    Recent alterations in the radiation protection laws of the Nordic countries are presented. The report amends the previous SS-report 87-37 with the title Radiation Protection and Atomic Energy Legislation in the Nordic Countries. (au)

  12. Fostering biotechnology entrepreneurship in developing countries

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fred

    countries cheaper and potentially easier to administer. Efficient sewage treatment ... developing countries, start-up funding for biotechnology companies is still very ... Business incubators are unique in stimulating spin-offs from universities and ...

  13. Fusion research and third world countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Nadi, A.M.

    1987-01-01

    The Egypt experience in the plasma researches, asking the technology transfer between advanced and third world countries is presented. The role of cooperation agreements between developing countries is also discussed. (M.C.K.) [pt

  14. Federation of Malaysia. Country profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcomb, L

    1985-01-01

    The 1984 population of Malaysia has been estimated at 14.7 million and the population growth rate averaged 2.3% in 1970-80. Population growth is officially encouraged to form a substantial home market for economic development. Toward this end, the 1985 budget has increased tax deductions for families with 5 children. The capital city of Kuala Lumpur is the largest metropolitan area (1 million population) and the Federal Territory is the most densely populated region. Immigration is strictly controlled by the government, and the percentage of foreign-born citizens was 5% in 1980. China, India, and Pakistan are decreasing in importance as countries of origin. Internal mobility, however, is increasing. Rural-rural migration accounted for 45% of internal migration in 1970-80 and was largely motivated by family reasons. Only 7% of Malaysians are estimated to move in search of work. Racial tensions led the government to grant special economic privileges to native-born Islamic Malays. The greatest proportion of the population is centered in the lowest age groups. The percentage of females 15-29 years of age rose from 26% in 1970 to 30% in 1980 and is expected to continue to rise. Fertility is on the decline. The majority of households in the country involve nuclear families. There has been an increase in the number of men and women who delay marriage or remain single. Education is widely available for children aged 6-15 years and those who meet certain academic standards receive free education up to age 19 years. The current labor force is estimated at 5.4 million, with an annual growth rate of 3.1%. Malaysia's per capita income (US $1860 in 1982) is among the highest in Southeast Asia and the gross national product increased by an average annual rate of 8% in 1970-81. The government plans to move toward the development of heavier industries and more manufacturing concerns.

  15. Natural Resources and FDI in GCC Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed Mahjoub Elheddad

    2016-01-01

    Natural resources are a blessing for some countries to attract FDI but cursed for others. Existing literature argues the suggestion that resource-rich countries attract less FDI because of resource (oil) price volatility. This study examines that natural resources discourage FDI in GCC countries (the FDI-Natural resources curse hypothesis), using panel data analysis for six oil dependent countries during 1980-2013 and applying several econometrics techniques. The main findings of this paper i...

  16. Absolute purchasing power parity in industrial countries

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Zhibai; Bian, Zhicun

    2015-01-01

    Different from popular studies that focus on relative purchasing power parity, we study absolute purchasing power parity (APPP) in 21 main industrial countries. Three databases are used. Both the whole period and the sub-period are analyzed. The empirical proof shows that the phenomenon that APPP holds is common, and the phenomenon that APPP does not hold is also common. In addition, some country pairs and the pooled country data indicate that the nearer the GDPPs of two countries are, the mo...

  17. Migration from New EU Member Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pytlikova, Mariola

    2007-01-01

    The main purpose of the paper is to give predictions of the migration potential from the 7 new EU member countries to the EEA/EU-13 countries. Being able to analyze 'real' migration behavior from these particular countries over the period 1990-2000 helps me to avoid problems related to (double) o...

  18. Consumer evaluations of products from developing countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verlegh, P.W.J.

    2002-01-01

    Consumers use country of origin as a signal or proxy for product quality. Consumers have little confidence in the ability of less developed countries to produce high quality goods. On the other hand emotionally attachment to a country or associations of "exoticness" or "authenticity" can lead to a

  19. African Journals Online: Browse by Country

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online: Browse by Country. Home > African Journals Online: Browse by Country. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Browse By Category · Browse Alphabetically · Browse By Country · List All Titles · Free to read Titles This Journal is ...

  20. Informational and Cultural Situation in Developing Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadirova, Goulnar

    Cultural development of modern countries in the East, including the Republic of Kazakhstan, is a complicated and contradictory process, where common cultural ways were shaped differently and specifically in the countries. Common historical fate has influenced this development and given these countries some common problems, but there is some…

  1. 31 CFR 500.301 - Foreign country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Foreign country. 500.301 Section 500.301 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... § 500.301 Foreign country. The term foreign country also includes, but not by way of limitation: (a) The...

  2. 31 CFR 515.301 - Foreign country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Foreign country. 515.301 Section 515.301 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... § 515.301 Foreign country. The term foreign country also includes, but not by way of limitation: (a) The...

  3. Implementing care policy in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tattum, L.; Phishner, E.S.

    1992-01-01

    How do chief executives of Western companies, from their plush offices, keep tabs on what happens at chemical plants in developing countries? Many point out that it is difficult to operate a Responsible Care policy in countries where industry associations have not yet started a coordinated initiative. 'Responsible Care is a program that has primarily a geographic dimension and is organized country by country by the industry associations,' note Kaspar Eigenmann, head of corporate unit safety and environment at Ciba (Basel). Where there is a campaign, the local Ciba company participates, he says. 'It's obvious that the industrialized countries are taking the lead,' adds Eigenmann

  4. Country Nuclear Power Profiles - 2013 Edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-08-01

    The Country Nuclear Power Profiles compile background information on the status and development of nuclear power programmes in Member States. The CNPP summarizes organizational and industrial aspects of nuclear power programs and provides information about the relevant legislative, regulatory, and international framework in each country. Its descriptive and statistical overview of the overall economic, energy, and electricity situation in each country and its nuclear power framework is intended to serve as an integrated source of key background information about nuclear power programs in the world. This 2013 edition, issued on CD-ROM and Web pages, contains updated country information for 51 countries

  5. Modelling energy systems for developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urban, F.; Benders, R.M.J.; Moll, H.C.

    2007-01-01

    Developing countries' energy use is rapidly increasing, which affects global climate change and global and regional energy settings. Energy models are helpful for exploring the future of developing and industrialised countries. However, energy systems of developing countries differ from those of industrialised countries, which has consequences for energy modelling. New requirements need to be met by present-day energy models to adequately explore the future of developing countries' energy systems. This paper aims to assess if the main characteristics of developing countries are adequately incorporated in present-day energy models. We first discuss these main characteristics, focusing particularly on developing Asia, and then present a model comparison of 12 selected energy models to test their suitability for developing countries. We conclude that many models are biased towards industrialised countries, neglecting main characteristics of developing countries, e.g. the informal economy, supply shortages, poor performance of the power sector, structural economic change, electrification, traditional bio-fuels, urban-rural divide. To more adequately address the energy systems of developing countries, energy models have to be adjusted and new models have to be built. We therefore indicate how to improve energy models for increasing their suitability for developing countries and give advice on modelling techniques and data requirements

  6. Projected uranium requirements of developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to examine the uranium requirements of developing countries both in aggregate and individually. Although the cumulative uranium requirements of these countries are expected to account for less than eight percent of total requirements, the fact that many of these countries are expressing renewed interest in nuclear is, in itself, encouraging. The countries analyzed in this paper are Argentina, Brazil, Egypt, India, Israel, Mexico, Pakistan, South Africa, South Korea and Taiwan. For each country, the existing and planned nuclear capacity levels have been identified and capacity factors have been projected. For countries with no previous nuclear power, the world weighted average capacity factor for the specific reactor type is utilized. Other factors influencing nuclear power demand and operations of these developing countries will be discussed, and finally, uranium requirements based on a calculated optimal tails assay of .30 will be provided

  7. Pakistan mental health country profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karim, Salman; Saeed, Khalid; Rana, Mowaddat Hussain; Mubbashar, Malik Hussain; Jenkins, Rachel

    2004-01-01

    The Republic of Pakistan is a South East Asian country with a population of over 140.7 million. Its population is fast growing and the majority (70%) live in rural areas with a feudal or tribal value system. The economy is dependent on agriculture and 35% of the population live below the poverty line. Islam is the main religion and 'mental illnesses' are stigmatized and widely perceived to have supernatural causes. The traditional healers along with psychiatric services are the main mental health service providers. The number of trained mental health professionals is small as compared to the population demands and specialist services are virtually non-existent. Lack of data on prevalence of various mental illnesses and monitory constraints are the major hurdles in the development of mental health services. A number of innovative programmes to develop indigenous models of care like the 'Community Mental Health Programme' and 'Schools Mental Health Programme' have been developed. These programmes have been found effective in reducing stigma and increase awareness of mental illness amongst the adults and children living in rural areas. Efforts by the government and mental health professionals have led to the implementation of a 'National Mental Health Policy' and 'Mental Health Act' in 2001. These aim at integrating mental health services with the existing health services, improving mental health care delivery and safeguarding the rights of mentally ill people. A favourable political will and the help of international institutions like the World Health Organization are required to achieve these aims.

  8. Nuclear power in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laue, H.J.; Bennett, L.L.; Skjoeldebrand, R.

    1984-01-01

    Experience clearly indicates that most developing countries actively planning and implementing nuclear power require broad-scope assistance if their use of nuclear technology is to be safe, economic, and reliable. The IAEA's assistance is directed both to general planning, and to the development of supporting structures and is based on an assessment of needs which cannot be satisfied by other means. The Agency's Division of Nuclear Power has the technical background and tools to support a comprehensive programme of assistance in nuclear power assessment, planning, and implementation. The overall objective of such a programme is to help strengthen national capabilities of executing the following tasks: Analysis of overall energy and electricity demand and supply projections; planning the possible role of nuclear power in electricity supply, through determining the economically optimal extent and schedule for the introduction of nuclear power plants; assessing the available infrastructures and the need, constraints, and possibilities for their development; and developing master schedules, programmes, and recommendations for action. Proposed programmes must be reviewed periodically, and one of the Agency's aims is to ensure that national competence to carry out such reviews exists or can be developed. Training of local staff is therefore one of the most important objectives

  9. Is Poland an Innovative Country?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chybowska, Dorota; Chybowski, Leszek; Souchkov, Valeri

    2018-03-01

    The potential for innovativeness is difficult to measure, though many have attempted to do so. In order to look at Poland's innovation potential, its current position and its opportunity to grow, compared with developing and developed countries, this study analysed the patent statistics of the Polish and European Patent Offices. Poland has been a member of the European Union for over a decade now. Therefore, we took into consideration the statistics for patent applications and grants for the last decade, up to the first quarter of 2016. The questions we wanted to answer concerned not only the technology fields that Poland patented its inventions in, but also the types of patent grantees and applicants. In order to determine why Poland is still considered to be only a moderate innovator by the Innovation Union Scoreboard, we also gathered information on Polish inventors abroad in 2015 and the first quarter of 2016, to see their number, technology fields, and types of patent grantees. Finally, we attempted to identify the main barriers that seem to inhibit Polish technology and innovation growth, despite significantly growing R&D intensities (up from 0.56 GDP and EUR 1,139 M in 2004 to 0.94 GDP and EUR 3,864 M in 2014).

  10. Focus on a few countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kane, M.

    2016-01-01

    This article presents the situation of wind energy in 5 countries. Egypt is strengthening its wind power production by starting the construction of a new wind farm of 250 MW while another is planned and 2 others are in the project phase. 'The Blue Circle', the first wind energy company of south-east Asia has launched a joint project with the Vietnamese TSV company to build a 40 MW wind farm in Viet-Nam. The government of South-Africa has opted for the development of solar and wind energies. Today 500.000 South-African households are powered by wind energy through 15 wind farms totaling 3 GW. Morocco plans to build 5 new wind power plants within 4 years, their cumulated capacity will reach 850 MW and the selling price of the electricity will be one of the lowest in the world: between 25 and 30 dollars/MWh. In Chad the city of Amdjaras will be soon entirely supplied with renewable energies. A wind farm connected to a high capacity system for storing energy is being built. (A.C.)

  11. Mortality from circulatory diseases by specific country of birth across six European countries: test of concept

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bhopal, Raj S.; Rafnsson, Snorri B.; Agyemang, Charles; Fagot-Campagna, Anne; Giampaoli, Simona; Hammar, Niklas; Harding, Seeromanie; Hedlund, Ebba; Juel, Knud; Mackenbach, Johan P.; Primatesta, Paola; Rey, Gregoire; Rosato, Michael; Wild, Sarah; Kunst, Anton E.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Important differences in cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality by country of birth have been shown within European countries. We now focus on CVD mortality by specific country of birth across European countries. Methods: For Denmark, England and Wales, France, The Netherlands, Scotland

  12. Germany, high-tech country

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    The Nuclear Technology Conference organized annually by the Deutsches Atomforum (DAtF) e.V. and the Kerntechnische Gesellschaft (KTG) e.V. was held in Aachen on May 13-15, 1997. Approximately 1000 participants from seventeen countries met to exchange information with experts from industry, research, science, and politics. Unlike earlier events, this one was not disturbed by demonstrations. DAtF President Dr. Wilfried Steuer welcomed Joachim H. Witt, Chief Executive Officer of the city of Aachen, who expressed words of welcome on behalf of his city at the opening of the plenary day of the conference. Energy policy and global competition were the optics of the address by Dr. Norbert Lammert, Parliamentary Undersecretary of State with the German Federal Ministry of Economics. He advocated grasping the changes offered by expanding global markets by reforming the structures of the energy supply sector. The rank of nuclear power in European research policy was explained by Fabricio Caccia Dominioni as representative of the European Commission. The electricity utilities were represented by Dr. Dietmar Kuhnt, Chief Executive Officer of RWE AG, who spoke about the security of energy investments. A thoughtful analysis of Germany as an industrial location was presented by Professor Dr. Herbert Henzler of McKinsey and Company Inc. The President of the European Nuclear Society (ENS), Ger R. Kuepers, sketched the development of nuclear power in the Netherlands, combining national and European aspects and emphasizing, in particular, the important function of ENS. Uranium enrichment as an European project was subject of the report by Dr. Klaus Messer, Urenco Ltd. The General Manager of Tractabel Energy Engineering and Chairman of Belgatom, Guy Frederic, examined the economic viability of nuclear power, appealing to the audience to reduce capital costs by innovation without detracting from safety. (orig./DG) [de

  13. Hydrogen Programs of Asian Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ken-ichiro OTA

    2006-01-01

    The global sustainability is a key word of the future energy system for human beings. It should be friendly to the earth and also to human beings. Considering the limit of resources, the materials recycling would be very important. Considering the second law of thermodynamics, the entropy production through any processes would be the final problems for the sustainable growth. We have to think how to dispose the increasing entropy outside earth in the clean energy system. At present, the global carbon cycle is changing by the emission of CO 2 with the large consumption of fossil fuels. The global environment including human society should stand on harmonizing with the earth, where the global recycles of materials are important. Thinking about the global recycles of carbon and water quantitatively, the existence of water is 27,000 times larger than that of carbon. The transportation of water is 3,160 times faster than that of carbon. These figures show that the hydrogen from water is a superior energy carrier, compared to the carbon. The environmental impact factor was defined as the ratio of annual quantity of materials produced by energy consumption of mankind to a natural movement on earth. The influence of human activities on the global environment can be evaluated quantitatively by this environmental impact factor. The environmental impact factor of water on the earth, 0.0001, is more than two orders of magnitude less than that of carbon, 0.036. This means the hydrogen/water cycle is superior to the carbon cycle as material circulation for energy system of mankind. The energy consumption will increase tremendously in Asian countries due to their population increase and economic growth. We need a clean energy system for the sustainable growth. The hydrogen energy system is the most suitable energy system. In this paper the recent hydrogen energy programs of Japan, China and Korea will be introduced. (authors)

  14. Hydrogen Programs of Asian Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ken-ichiro Ota

    2006-01-01

    The global sustainability is a key word of the future energy system for human beings. It should be friendly to the earth and also to human beings. Considering the limit of resources, the materials recycling would be very important. Considering the second law of thermodynamics, the entropy production through any processes would be the final problems for the sustainable growth. We have to think how to dispose the increasing entropy outside earth in the clean energy system. At present, the global carbon cycle is changing by the emission of CO 2 with the large consumption of fossil fuels. The global environment including human society should stand on harmonizing with the earth, where the global recycles of materials are important. Thinking about the global recycles of carbon and water quantitatively, the existence of water is 27,000 times larger than that of carbon. The transportation of water is 3,160 times faster than that of carbon. These figures show that the hydrogen from water is a superior energy carrier, compared to the carbon. The environmental impact factor was defined as the ratio of annual quantity of materials produced by energy consumption of mankind to a natural movement on earth. The influence of human activities on the global environment can be evaluated quantitatively by this environmental impact factor. The environmental impact factor of water on the earth, 0.0001, is more than two orders of magnitude less than that of carbon, 0.036. This means the hydrogen/water cycle is superior to the carbon cycle as material circulation for energy system of mankind. The energy consumption will increase tremendously in Asian countries due to their population increase and economic growth. We need a clean energy system for the sustainable growth. The hydrogen energy system is the most suitable energy system. In this paper the recent hydrogen energy programs of Japan, China and Korea will be introduced. (author)

  15. Romania biomass energy. Country study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burnham, M; Easterly, J L; Mark, P E; Keller, A [DynCorp, Alexandria, VA (United States)

    1995-12-01

    The present report was prepared under contract to UNIDO to conduct a case study of biomass energy use and potential in Romania. The purpose of the case study is to provide a specific example of biomass energy issues and potential in the context of the economic transition under way in eastern Europe. The transition of Romania to a market economy is proceeding at a somewhat slower pace than in other countries of eastern Europe. Unfortunately, the former regime forced the use of biomass energy with inadequate technology and infrastructure, particularly in rural areas. The resulting poor performance thus severely damaged the reputation of biomass energy in Romania as a viable, reliable resource. Today, efforts to rejuvenate biomass energy and tap into its multiple benefits are proving challenging. Several sound biomass energy development strategies were identified through the case study, on the basis of estimates of availability and current use of biomass resources; suggestions for enhancing potential biomass energy resources; an overview of appropriate conversion technologies and markets for biomass in Romania; and estimates of the economic and environmental impacts of the utilization of biomass energy. Finally, optimal strategies for near-, medium- and long-term biomass energy development, as well as observations and recommendations concerning policy, legislative and institutional issues affecting the development of biomass energy in Romania are presented. The most promising near-term biomass energy options include the use of biomass in district heating systems; cofiring of biomass in existing coal-fired power plants or combined heat and power plants; and using co-generation systems in thriving industries to optimize the efficient use of biomass resources. Mid-term and long-term opportunities include improving the efficiency of wood stoves used for cooking and heating in rural areas; repairing the reputation of biogasification to take advantage of livestock wastes

  16. Romania biomass energy. Country study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnham, M.; Easterly, J.L.; Mark, P.E.; Keller, A.

    1995-01-01

    The present report was prepared under contract to UNIDO to conduct a case study of biomass energy use and potential in Romania. The purpose of the case study is to provide a specific example of biomass energy issues and potential in the context of the economic transition under way in eastern Europe. The transition of Romania to a market economy is proceeding at a somewhat slower pace than in other countries of eastern Europe. Unfortunately, the former regime forced the use of biomass energy with inadequate technology and infrastructure, particularly in rural areas. The resulting poor performance thus severely damaged the reputation of biomass energy in Romania as a viable, reliable resource. Today, efforts to rejuvenate biomass energy and tap into its multiple benefits are proving challenging. Several sound biomass energy development strategies were identified through the case study, on the basis of estimates of availability and current use of biomass resources; suggestions for enhancing potential biomass energy resources; an overview of appropriate conversion technologies and markets for biomass in Romania; and estimates of the economic and environmental impacts of the utilization of biomass energy. Finally, optimal strategies for near-, medium- and long-term biomass energy development, as well as observations and recommendations concerning policy, legislative and institutional issues affecting the development of biomass energy in Romania are presented. The most promising near-term biomass energy options include the use of biomass in district heating systems; cofiring of biomass in existing coal-fired power plants or combined heat and power plants; and using co-generation systems in thriving industries to optimize the efficient use of biomass resources. Mid-term and long-term opportunities include improving the efficiency of wood stoves used for cooking and heating in rural areas; repairing the reputation of biogasification to take advantage of livestock wastes

  17. Country Nuclear Power Profiles - 2009 Edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-08-01

    The Country Nuclear Power Profiles compiles background information on the status and development of nuclear power programs in Member States. It consists of organizational and industrial aspects of nuclear power programs and provides information about the relevant legislative, regulatory, and international framework in each country. Its descriptive and statistical overview of the overall economic, energy, and electricity situation in each country, and its nuclear power framework is intended to serve as an integrated source of key background information about nuclear power programs in the world. The preparation of Country Nuclear Power Profiles (CNPP) was initiated in 1990s. It responded to a need for a database and a technical publication containing a description of the energy and economic situation, the energy and the electricity sector, and the primary organizations involved in nuclear power in IAEA Member States. This is the 2009 edition issued on CD-ROM and Web pages. It updates the country information for 44 countries. The CNPP is updated based on information voluntarily provided by participating IAEA Member States. Participants include the 30 countries that have operating nuclear power plants, as well as 14 countries having past or planned nuclear power programmes (Bangladesh, Egypt, Ghana, Indonesia, the Islamic Republic of Iran, Italy, Kazakhstan, Nigeria, Philippines, Poland, Thailand, Tunisia, Turkey and Vietnam). For the 2009 edition, 26 countries provided updated or new profiles. For the other countries, the IAEA updated the profile statistical tables on nuclear power, energy development, and economic indicators based on information from IAEA and World Bank databases

  18. Country Nuclear Power Profiles - 2007 Edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The preparation of Country Nuclear Power Profiles (CNPP) was initiated within the framework of the IAEA's programme on assessment and feedback of nuclear power plant performance. It responded to a need for a database and a technical publication containing a description of the energy and economic situation, the energy and the electricity sector, and the primary organizations involved in nuclear power in IAEA Member States. It covers background information on the status and development of nuclear power programmes in countries having nuclear plants in operation and/or plants under construction. This is the 2007 edition issued on CD-ROM and Web pages. It updates the country information, in general, to the end of 2006 for 39 countries. The CNPP is updated based on information voluntarily provided by participating IAEA Member States. Participants include the 30 countries that have operating nuclear power plants, as well as nine countries having past or planned nuclear power programmes (Bangladesh, Egypt, Indonesia, the Islamic Republic of Iran, Italy, Kazakhstan, Poland, Turkey, and Vietnam). For the 2007 edition, 21 countries provided information to the IAEA to update their profiles. For the 18 other countries, the IAEA updated the profile statistical tables on nuclear power, energy development, and economic indicators based on information from IAEA and World Bank databases. These 18 countries are Argentina, Belgium, Bulgaria, Canada, China, Egypt, Finland, Indonesia, Japan, Mexico, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, Slovenia, South Africa, Spain, Switzerland, and Ukraine. Overall, the CNPP reviews the organizational and industrial aspects of nuclear power programmes in participating countries, and provides information about the relevant legislative, regulatory and international frameworks in each country. It compiles the current issues in the new environment within which the electricity and nuclear sector operates, i.e. energy policy, and privatization and deregulation in

  19. World Development Report, 1980. Part I: Adjustment and Growth in the 1980s. Part II: Poverty and Human Development. Annex: World Development Indicators. With Summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isenman, Paul; And Others

    The report, third in a series of annual publications, examines some of the difficulties and prospects in areas of social and economic progress and human development which developing countries face during the next decade. Distinguishing oil-importing from oil-exporting developing countries, the first part of the report presents global and regional…

  20. Competitiveness of Halal Industry in Maghreb Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Rizki Moi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available To ensure that the countries produce halal products in order to remain in the international market, then they must make sure that they remain competitive in the market. Therefore, this study was to measure the competitiveness of the halal industry in the Maghreb countries which consist of five countries, namely Algeria, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco and Tunisia. The methodology of this study was using halal market share in the country and revealed comparative advantage (RCA. The study found that Mauritania is the most competitive country for halal industry because of it has the highest RCA value and followed by Morocco and Tunisia. While the countries that have lower competitiveness are Algeria and Libya. Therefore, the government and industry should plays a role to improve the competitiveness of their national halal industry and to ensure they remain competitive in the international halal market.

  1. Problems of nuclear power in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woite, G.

    1978-01-01

    The problems of nuclear power in developing countries are different in nature but not less severe than in industrialized countries. So far, only five developing countries with market economies (Argentina, India, Korea, Pakistan, Taiwan) have nuclear power plants in operation with a combined net output of 2.2 GWe. Nuclear projects with a total capacity of 15 GWe are under construction in these and four other developing countries in Asia and Latin America (Brazil, Iran, Mexico, Philippines). It is expected that most of the future nuclear power installed in developing countries of Asia, Africa and Latin America will be in these countries which have overcome some of the problems of nuclear power. (orig./RW) [de

  2. Country Value Premiums and Financial Crises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Zaremba

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper concentrates on the value premium across countries and contributes to the investment and asset pricing literature in three ways. First, I provide fresh evidence that the high-value countries perform significantly better than the low-value countries. Additionally, this phenomenon is indifferent to the choice of the computational currency, representative index or value indicator. Second, I demonstrate that the value effect can be successfully amplified by combining with country-level size and momentum effects. Third, I show that returns to the high-value countries deteriorate in financial crisis conditions, because the country-level value premium is negatively correlated with the credit spreads, TED spread and expected volatility. I examine data from 66 markets between years 2000 and 2013.

  3. Transplantation in low resource countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Faulkner

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Thalassemia major (TM is the most common deadly genetic disorder, a major cause of chronic non-infectious morbidity and financial burden in many low and middle-income regions. In these settings few children reach adulthood because proper long-term supportive care is seldom available. Bone marrow transplantation (BMT is the only available curative modality and it can be very successful and cost-effective for young children with low-risk features and a compatible related donor. However, in countries where TM is most prevalent, there is a dire shortage of BMT centers. The Cure2Children Foundation has supported a feasibility study evaluating safety, efficacy and costs of developing a new BMT center in an underserved lower-middle-income country with relatively untrained professionals within a structured collaboration and knowledge-transfer program. A total of 24 consecutive patients who underwent BMT in Pakistan between September 2008 and August 2010 are included in this prospective analysis, 17 from an established bone marrow transplant center, the National Institute for Blood Diseases in Karachi, Pakistan and the initial 7 BMTs from a start up unit in a government civil hospital, the Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences Children’s Hospital in Islamabad. Patients were matched for age, nutritional status, growth, disease, disease status and post-BMT follow-up time. All patients had a matched-related sibling donor, were younger than 10 years of age at the time of transplantation, received the same conditioning regimen. All needy families could rely on a support program throughout the 8-month post-transplant period. The Cure2Children Foundation provided professional and financial support as well as a structured web-based data management and cooperation platform. At a median follow up of 19.6 months (range 8.7 to 31.5 actuarial thalassemia-free survival is 85.6% and 85.7% and overall survival 94.1% and 85.7% in the established and start-up center

  4. Bangladesh (country/area statements).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-09-01

    According to this statement presented to the Committee on Population of the UN Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, the population of Bangladesh increased from 76.4 million in 1974 to 89.9 million in 1981 and if the annual estimated growth rate of 2.4% continues unchecked, the population will be 111.5 million by 1990. Rapid population growth increases the man-land ratio, while the undesirable age structure entails a high dependency burden and provides a large base for further population growth. The huge investment in food production is neutralized and educational facilities remain unavailable for most of the nation's 15.6 million school-age children. Even under the most optimistic population projection, the total will increase by more than 60% by the year 2015, exacerbating the already serious problems of poverty and unemployment. The urban population is expected to increase from 17.5 million at present to 37.3 million by 2000, including a multitude of squatters with no visible income-earning opportunities. The population policy adopted by the government in June 1976 was directed toward influencing demographic behavior primarily through information, education, and motivation activities and a wide array of family planning services provided at maternal-child health and family planning centers. The government has taken some steps to increase economic productivity and create employment, and has made administrative changes including upgrading the smallest administrative units and creating directorates for primary education and women's affairs. Health and population control strategies will include establishing primary health care and maternal-child health and family planning centers throughout the country, expanding the family planning worker to population ratio, and integrating the family planning programs with all development oriented programs. The National Council for Population Control and several other organizational structures have been created

  5. Determinants of energy efficiency across countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Guolin

    With economic development, environmental concerns become more important. Economies cannot be developed without energy consumption, which is the major source of greenhouse gas emissions. Higher energy efficiency is one means of reducing emissions, but what determines energy efficiency? In this research we attempt to find answers to this question by using cross-sectional country data; that is, we examine a wide range of possible determinants of energy efficiency at the country level in an attempt to find the most important causal factors. All countries are divided into three income groups: high-income countries, middle-income countries, and low-income countries. Energy intensity is used as a measurement of energy efficiency. All independent variables belong to two categories: quantitative and qualitative. Quantitative variables are measures of the economic conditions, development indicators and energy usage situations. Qualitative variables mainly measure political, societal and economic strengths of a country. The three income groups have different economic and energy attributes. Each group has different sets of variables to explain energy efficiency. Energy prices and winter temperature are both important in high-income and middle-income countries. No qualitative variables appear in the model of high-income countries. Basic economic factors, such as institutions, political stability, urbanization level, population density, are important in low-income countries. Besides similar variables, such as macroeconomic stability and index of rule of law, the hydroelectricity share in total electric generation is also a driver of energy efficiency in middle-income countries. These variables have different policy implications for each group of countries.

  6. Petroleum term markets and OPEC producers countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bensarsa, F.

    1994-01-01

    The situation of petroleum producers countries in front of term markets is described. With an economics liberalization, policy configuration changing the energetic balance (increasing of american imports, of asiatic demand and developing countries; decreasing of russian production), a more efficient technology, a right management of energetic resources with energy economy, renewable energies and non polluting energies, it is difficult for producers countries to resist at the pressure of financing tools, more and more modern and efficient as they are term markets

  7. Social effects of migration in receiving countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohndorf, W

    1989-06-01

    This paper examines the impact of post-1945 migration into Western, Middle, and Northern Europe from Southern Europe, Turkey, and Northern Africa, and migration to the traditional immigration countries by Asian and Latin American immigrants, on the social structures of receiving countries. Between 1955 and 1974, 1) traditional migration to the US and Australia became less important for European countries while traditional receiving countries accepted many immigrants from developing countries; and 2) rapid economic revival in Western and Northern Europe caused a considerable labor shortage which was filled by migrant workers especially from Southern Europe, Turkey, and Northern Africa, who stayed only until they reached their economic goals. Since 1974, job vacancies have declined and unemployment has soared. This employment crisis caused some migrants 1) to return to their countries of origin, 2) to bring the rest of their families to the receiving country, or 3) to lengthen their stay considerably. The number of refugees has also significantly increased since the mid-970s, as has the number of illegal migrants. After the mid-1970s, Europe began to experience integration problems. The different aspects of the impact of migration on social structures include 1) improvement of the housing situation for foreigners, 2) teaching migrants the language of the receiving country, 3) solving the unemployment problem of unskilled migrants, 4) improvement of educational and vocational qualifications of 2nd generation migrants, 5) development of programs to help unemployed wives of migrants to learn the language and meet indigenous women, 6) encouraging migrants to maintain their cultural identity and assisting them with reintegration if they return to their original country, 7) coping with the problems of refugees, and 8) solving the problems of illegal migration. Almost all receiving countries now severely restrict further immigration. [Those policies should result in

  8. Macroeconomic Volatility and Welfare in Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Loayza, Norman V.; Rancière, Romain; Servén, Luis; Ventura, Jaume

    2007-01-01

    Macroeconomic Volatility and Welfare in Developing Countries: An Introduction Norman V. Loayza, Romain Ranciere, Luis Serven, ` and Jaume Ventura Macroeconomic volatility, both a source and a reflection of underdevelopment, is a fundamental concern for developing countries. This article provides a brief overview of the recent literature on macroeconomic volatility in developing countries, highlighting its causes, consequences, and possible remedies. to reduce domestic policy-induced macroecon...

  9. AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTIVITY ASSESSMENT IN EUROPEAN COUNTRIES

    OpenAIRE

    Serrao, Amilcar

    2001-01-01

    This research work examines levels and trends in global agricultural productivity in fifteen European Union countries and four Eastern European countries that have already applied for European Union membership. The study makes use of data collected from the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and covers the period 1980-1998. An approach based on Data Envelopment Analysis is used to provide information on the peers of the (inefficient) i-th country and to derive the Malmqui...

  10. Broadband and Unbundling Regulations in OECD Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Wallsten, Scott

    2006-01-01

    Broadband penetration and available speeds vary widely across OECD countries. Policymakers around the world, and especially in countries like the U.S. that lag in the rankings, are searching for policies to narrow those gaps. Relatively little empirical work tests possible reasons for these differences. In this paper I test the impacts of regulations and demographics on broadband development in a panel dataset across countries. In addition to adding to the meager empirical literature on broad...

  11. Evaluating the Relative Environmental Impact of Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Bradshaw, Corey J. A.; Giam, Xingli; Sodhi, Navjot Singh

    2010-01-01

    Environmental protection is critical to maintain ecosystem services essential for human well-being. It is important to be able to rank countries by their environmental impact so that poor performers as well as policy ?models? can be identified. We provide novel metrics of country-specific environmental impact ranks ? one proportional to total resource availability per country and an absolute (total) measure of impact ? that explicitly avoid incorporating confounding human health or economic i...

  12. Network Effects in Countries' Adoption of IFRS

    OpenAIRE

    Ramanna, Karthik; Sletten, Ewa

    2014-01-01

    If the differences in accounting standards across countries reflect relatively stable institutional differences (e.g., auditing technology, the rule of law, etc.), why did several countries rapidly, albeit in a staggered manner, adopt IFRS over local standards in the 2003–2008 period? We test the hypothesis that perceived network benefits from the extant worldwide adoption of IFRS can explain part of countries' shift away from local accounting standards. That is, as more jurisdictions with ec...

  13. Reserve requirement systems in OECD countries

    OpenAIRE

    Yueh-Yun C. O’Brien

    2007-01-01

    This paper compares the reserve requirements of OECD countries. Reserve requirements are the minimum percentages or amounts of liabilities that depository institutions are required to keep in cash or as deposits with their central banks. To facilitate monetary policy implementation, twenty-four of the thirty OECD countries impose reserve requirements to influence their banking systems’ demand for liquidity. These include twelve OECD countries that are also members of the European Economic and...

  14. What Makes MNCs Succeed in Developing countries?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael W.; Gwozdz, Wencke

    MNCs are increasingly investing in developing countries to be part of rapid market growth, to enhance the efficiency of their value chains, and to access abundant resources and talent. The potential gains are high, however so are the risks. Some developing country subsidiaries become top performers...... regardless of location and industry. The findings of the study have important implications for the IB literature, for managers and for policy aimed at promoting FDI in developing countries....

  15. Mongolia, the forgotten developing country

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staudenherz, Anton

    2003-01-01

    In August 2003 I had an opportunity to visit Mongolia together with 20 other colleagues from different medical specialties (internal medicine, paediatrics, surgery, pathology, hygiene and infection). This small activity was sponsored by a Non-Governmental Organization, 'FABULA'. Our task was to carry out a two-week education programme for Mongolian colleagues at the University Hospital in Ulaanbaatar. I would like to briefly share my experiences and impressions with the readers of World Journal of Nuclear Medicine. Mongolia is a young democracy. Free parliamentary elections were held for the first time on 29 June, 1990. The new constitution was established on 14 February 1992. It is one of the sparsely populated countries of the world with 2.5 million inhabitants living in an area 18.7 times larger than Austria. With 64.6 years, the life expectancy is considerably lower than that in the industrialised countries, like Austria which has a life expectancy of 79 years. The child (< 5 years) mortality rate of 71/1000 is significantly high in comparison with Austria (5/1000). The expenditure on public health service as compared to the GDP is very low [source: WHO internet homepage: http://www3.who.int]. In spite of these alarming numbers the University hospital of Ulaanbaatar has established a department of nuclear medicine. This is part of the 'imaging diagnostic facility' which consists of four sub-units - x-ray, ultrasound, nuclear medicine and endoscopy. Mongolia started its first nuclear medicine facility in the year 1975 through the support received from the International Atomic Energy Agency under a Technical Cooperation Project. Prof. Dr. P. Onkhuudai, who currently is the head of the nuclear medicine department at First State Central Clinic of the National Medical University of Mongolia was the first trained and qualified nuclear medicine physician of Mongolia. Keeping in view the limitations of finance and other logistics, the standard of nuclear medicine

  16. Nuclear data applications in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehta, M.K.; Schmidt, J.J.

    1985-01-01

    The peaceful applications of nuclear science and technology currently receive an increasing attention in many developing countries. More than 15 developing countries operate, construct or plan nuclear power reactors, 70 developing countries are using or planning to use nuclear techniques in medicine, agriculture, industry, and for other vital purposes. The generation, application and computer processing of nuclear data constitute important elements of the nuclear infrastructure needed for the successful implementation of nuclear science and technology. Developing countries become increasingly aware of this need, and, with the help and cooperation of the IAEA Nuclear Data Section, are steadily gaining in experience in this field. The paper illustrates this development in typical examples. (orig.)

  17. Country of origin effect on brand perception

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iacob, Andreea

    2016-01-01

    During the past two decades there has been a substantial amount of empirical evidence on the country of origin phenomenon. However, marketing scholars have different perspectives and views on how the country of origin effect has impacted the brand perceptions of consumers. This paper presents...... an extensive review of the literature on the COO effect and traces the conceptual development of the country-of-origin construct in order to provide scholars and practitioners with a critical appraisal of the existing research on this topic. By following the grounds of the systematic literature, this study...... seeks to establish a solid base for country-of-origin research review....

  18. Readiness for banking technologies in developing countries

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Professor in the Department of Marketing Management, University of Johannesburg. ... From the organisation's perspective, it has been suggested ... technological readiness of developing countries' consumers, in an urban environment,.

  19. China (country/area statements).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-09-01

    According to this statement presented to the Committee on Population of the UN Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, China is similar to other countries in the region in that its rate of population growth has declined due to government family planning efforts while the absolute size of the population continues to increase because of the widening population base. However, China's enormous population of over 1 billion sets it apart and places great strain on economic development efforts. In the past decade the Chinese government has provided population education for the masses, explaining the relationship between population and socioeconomic development, and its overall family planning program has helped reduce population growth from 24.82/1000 in 1974 to 10.81/1000 in 1984. The net population increase has been over 100 million in the past 10 years, and if the present rate of increase with a total fertility rate of 2.1 is maintained for another 15 years, the total population would exceed 1.3 billion by 2000, posing a grave threat to China's socioeconomic development. The nucleus of China's population policy is its birth policy, whose main points are to promote family planning so that population growth will be in keeping with socioeconomic development and the utilization of natural resources and environmental protection. The policy is in line with the principles and objectives of the World Population Plan of Action adopted in 1974. The government has advocated the practice of "1 couple, 1 child" since 1979 to carry out the population policy and limit the total population to about 1.2 billion by the century's end. 28.17 million couples, 18.25% of the 150 million married couples of childbearing age, had received 1-child certificates by the end of 1984. Generally speaking, most couples in urban areas would be satisfied with 1 child, while those in rural areas usually prefer 2 children. The family planning program is carried out through publicity

  20. Occupation and leukemia in Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Talibov, Madar; Kautiainen, Susanna; Martinsen, Jan Ivar

    2012-01-01

    We studied occupational variation of the risk of acute myeloid leukemia, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, and other leukemia in Nordic countries.......We studied occupational variation of the risk of acute myeloid leukemia, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, and other leukemia in Nordic countries....

  1. Expert advisory services to other countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orstein, Roberto M.

    1998-01-01

    Argentina has provided expert services in the nuclear field to almost all the countries of Latin America and to many countries of other continents, in the framework of bilateral and multilateral cooperation agreements. A short history of these services is outlined and some statistical data are presented

  2. Market Dynamics and Productivity in Developing Countries ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    25 nov. 2009 ... Market Dynamics and Productivity in Developing Countries : Economic Reforms in the Middle East and North Africa. Book cover Market Dynamics and Productivity in Developing Countries: Economic Reforms in the Middle East. Directeur(s):. Khalid Sekkat. Maison(s) d'édition: Springer, CDRI. 25 novembre ...

  3. Tolerance of Cheating: An Analysis Across Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Magnus, J.R.; Polterovich, Viktor; Danilov, Dmitri; Savvateev, Aleksei

    2002-01-01

    Cheating is a serious problem in many countries. The cheater gets higher marks than deserved, thus reducing the efficiency of a country's educational system. In this study, the authors did not ask if and how often the student had cheated, but rather what the student's opinion was about a cheating

  4. Childcare Practices in Three Asian Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunus, Sham ah Md.

    2005-01-01

    Childcare practices such as feeding, toilet training, sleeping arrangement and discipline in three Asian countries (China, Japan, and India) are compared. These countries differ from each other in culture, religion, language and ethnic makeup from Euro-American culture. The differences in childcare practices are broadly related to the differences…

  5. Monitoring Outdoor Alcohol Advertising in Developing Countries ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Analyses on the placement, channels, size and content of outdoor alcohol advertising practices (N=807) in relation to existing regulations are given. For example, in Gambia, the country with the most stringent alcohol marketing regulations of all countries studied, outdoor alcohol advertisements are on average smaller and ...

  6. Consumer ethnocentrism and Country of origin effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iacob, Andrea Ioana

    The research on consumer ethnocentrism and country of origin effect is quite substantial in the area of consumer research, but there are competing views as to how low involvement products influence and interact with consumer ethnocentrism and country of origin in a transitional market setting...

  7. Radiation protection legislation in the Nordic countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persson, L.

    1992-01-01

    A close collaboration exists in the Nordic countries in the field of radiation protection. The radiation protection authorities attach major importance to a uniform interpretation of the international recommendations. The legal situation of the Nordic countries in the radiation protection field will be reviewed with the main emphasis on the new Swedish and Finnish laws. (author)

  8. Inflation Targeting in Emerging Market Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Frederic S. Mishkin

    2000-01-01

    This paper outlines what inflation targeting involves for emerging market/transition countries and discusses the advantages and disadvantages of this monetary policy strategy. The discussion suggests that although inflation targeting is not a panacea and may not be appropriate for many emerging market countries, it can be a highly useful monetary policy strategy in a number of them.

  9. Timor-Leste : Country Environmental Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2009-01-01

    The Country Environmental Analysis (CEA) for Timor-Leste identifies environmental priorities through a systematic review of environmental issues in natural resources management and environmental health in the context of the country's economic development and environmental institutions. Lack of data has been the main limitation in presenting a more rigorous analysis. Nevertheless, the repor...

  10. Entrepreneurship Education: Experiences in Selected Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakar, Rosni; Islam, Md Aminul; Lee, Jocelyne

    2015-01-01

    Entrepreneurship and education play a role in enhancing the country's economic state. Entrepreneurship helps the economy by providing job opportunities. The lack of job opportunities has caused unemployment rates to increase tremendously throughout the years making the development rate of a country slow down. One way for the economy to improve is…

  11. Assistance by governmental bodies of other countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eikenberg, H.

    1976-01-01

    A survey is given of the internationel agreements and cooperations between West Germany and foreign countries and organizations like the IAEA, of the assistance by Governmental organizations of other countries, the elements of technical assistance programs, of special arrangements concluded between agencies, research centres and other institutions. (HK) [de

  12. Library Education in the ASEAN Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atan, H. B.; Havard-Williams, P.

    1987-01-01

    Identifies the hierarchy of library development in Southeast Asian countries that results in the neglect of public and school libraries. Developing local library school curricula which focus on the specific needs of each country and cooperation among library schools are suggested as methods of correcting this situation. (CLB)

  13. Host country language ability and expatriate adjustment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selmer, Jan; Lauring, Jakob

    2015-01-01

    countries, one with an easy, relatively simple language and the other with a difficult, highly complex language. Consistent with Goal-Setting Theory, results indicated a relative advantage of expatriates’ language ability in terms of their adjustment in the host country with the difficult language...

  14. Entrepreneurial Intentions in Developing and Developed Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iakovleva, Tatiana; Kolvereid, Lars; Stephan, Ute

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study proposes to use the Theory of Planned Behaviour to predict entrepreneurial intentions among students in five developing and nine developed countries. The purpose is to investigate whether entrepreneurial intention and its antecedents differ between developing and developed countries, and to test the theory in the two groups of…

  15. Country logistics performance and disaster impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaillancourt, Alain; Haavisto, Ira

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this paper is to deepen the understanding of the relationship between country logistics performance and disaster impact. The relationship is analysed through correlation analysis and regression models for 117 countries for the years 2007 to 2012 with disaster impact variables from the International Disaster Database (EM-DAT) and logistics performance indicators from the World Bank. The results show a significant relationship between country logistics performance and disaster impact overall and for five out of six specific logistic performance indicators. These specific indicators were further used to explore the relationship between country logistic performance and disaster impact for three specific disaster types (epidemic, flood and storm). The findings enhance the understanding of the role of logistics in a humanitarian context with empirical evidence of the importance of country logistics performance in disaster response operations. © 2016 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2016.

  16. Environmental policy implementation in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamman, J.K.

    1990-01-01

    This study examines why national and international policies intended to protect limited natural resources in developing countries are not effectively implemented. It employs a comparative-policy implementation in three developing countries, Barbados, St. Lucia and St. Kitts, and three foreign assistance agencies, the US Agency for International Development, the Inter-American Development Bank and the Organization of American States. The decision-making process within the countries and donor agencies is closed, preventing key stakeholders from participating. In two instances, the mutually reinforcing behavior of top officials in the countries and the donor agencies led to decisions that prevented natural resources from being protected. In all three cases, strategies to implement environmental policies failed to account for four major elements: national politics, behavior in the donor agency, the culture of decision making, and economic necessity. The existing-decision making process in both developing countries and donor agencies is dysfunctional

  17. Gender Imbalance and Terrorism in Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younas, Javed

    2016-01-01

    This article investigates whether gender imbalance may be conducive to domestic terrorism in developing countries. A female-dominated society may not provide sufficient administration, law, or order to limit domestic terrorism, especially since societies in developing countries primarily turn to males for administration, policing, and paramilitary forces. Other economic considerations support female imbalance resulting in grievance-generated terrorism. Because male dominance may also be linked to terrorism, empirical tests are ultimately needed to support our prediction. Based on panel data for 128 developing countries for 1975 to 2011, we find that female gender imbalance results in more total and domestic terrorist attacks. This female gender imbalance does not affect transnational terrorism in developing countries or domestic and transnational terrorism in developed countries. Further tests show that gender imbalance affects terrorism only when bureaucratic institutions are weak. Many robustness tests support our results. PMID:28232755

  18. Natural Resources and FDI in GCC Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Mahjoub Elheddad

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Natural resources are a blessing for some countries to attract FDI but cursed for others. Existing literature argues the suggestion that resource-rich countries attract less FDI because of resource (oil price volatility. This study examines that natural resources discourage FDI in GCC countries (the FDI-Natural resources curse hypothesis, using panel data analysis for six oil dependent countries during 1980-2013 and applying several econometrics techniques. The main findings of this paper is that natural resources measured by oil rents have a negative association with FDI inflows; this negative impact is robust even when other FDI determinates of FDI  are included. FDI inflows decreased between 0.15 and 0.92% when oil rents increased by 1%. In addition, the empirical results show that trade openness and labour force are the main factors that encourage FDI, while political instability and corruption deter FDI inflows into GCC countries.

  19. Gender Imbalance and Terrorism in Developing Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younas, Javed; Sandler, Todd

    2017-03-01

    This article investigates whether gender imbalance may be conducive to domestic terrorism in developing countries. A female-dominated society may not provide sufficient administration, law, or order to limit domestic terrorism, especially since societies in developing countries primarily turn to males for administration, policing, and paramilitary forces. Other economic considerations support female imbalance resulting in grievance-generated terrorism. Because male dominance may also be linked to terrorism, empirical tests are ultimately needed to support our prediction. Based on panel data for 128 developing countries for 1975 to 2011, we find that female gender imbalance results in more total and domestic terrorist attacks. This female gender imbalance does not affect transnational terrorism in developing countries or domestic and transnational terrorism in developed countries. Further tests show that gender imbalance affects terrorism only when bureaucratic institutions are weak. Many robustness tests support our results.

  20. EU CONTRIBUTION TO SUPPORT DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Popa

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the EU aid concerning to improved the economic situation from developing countries. Therefore, the aim of this research is to identify how EU states contribute to helping poor countries, members of the World Trade Organization. For the beginning, we define the EU’position before, during and after the Doha Round – a round of WTO multilateral trade negotiations. Moreover, we analyse the development dimension, focusing on countries „marginalized” until early of XXI century in terms of international trade, because this represents the idea-axis of the Doha Round. In this context, the EU – one of the leading global commercial players and a key member of the institution mentioned above – has set several objectives to achieve the basic goal of negotiations and several ways to support developing countries. To conclude, we propose to define the key points of the European aid for least developed and developing countries.

  1. Usability Evaluation in a Digitally Emerging Country

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lizano, Fulvio; Sandoval, Maria Marta; Bruun, Anders

    2013-01-01

    Several emerging countries experience increasing software development activities. With the purpose of provide useful feedback on possible courses of action for increasing application of usability evaluation in such countries, this paper explores the status of usability evaluation in a digitally...... emerging country. Our aim is to identifying common characteristics or behavioral patterns that could be compared with digitally advanced countries. We used an online survey answered by 26 software development organizations, which gave a snapshot of the application of usability evaluation...... in these organizations. We found many similarities with advanced countries, several completely new obstacles more connected with software development matters and a relatively positive improvement in the lack of “usability culture”. These findings suggest good conditions to improve conduction of usability evaluations...

  2. Country Nuclear Power Profiles - 2010 Edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-08-01

    The Country Nuclear Power Profiles compiles background information on the status and development of nuclear power programs in Member States. It consists of organizational and industrial aspects of nuclear power programs and provides information about the relevant legislative, regulatory, and international framework in each country. Its descriptive and statistical overview of the overall economic, energy, and electricity situation in each country, and its nuclear power framework is intended to serve as an integrated source of key background information about nuclear power programs in the world. The preparation of Country Nuclear Power Profiles (CNPP) was initiated in 1990s. It responded to a need for a database and a technical publication containing a description of the energy and economic situation, the energy and the electricity sector, and the primary organizations involved in nuclear power in IAEA Member States. This is the 2010 edition issued on CD-ROM and Web pages. It updates the country information for 48 countries. The CNPP is updated based on information voluntarily provided by participating IAEA Member States. Participants include the 29 countries that have operating nuclear power plants, as well as 19 countries having past or planned nuclear power programmes (Bangladesh, Belarus, Chile, Egypt, Ghana, Indonesia, the Islamic Republic of Iran, Italy, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Lithuania, Morocco, Nigeria, Philippines, Poland, Thailand, Tunisia, Turkey and Vietnam). For the 2010 edition, 24 countries provided updated or new profiles. For the other countries, the IAEA updated the profile statistical tables on nuclear power, energy development, and economic indicators based on information from IAEA and World Bank databases. The CNPP reports have been prepared by each Member State in accordance with the IAEA format. The IAEA is not responsible for the content of these reports

  3. Country Nuclear Power Profiles - 2011 Edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-08-01

    The Country Nuclear Power Profiles compiles background information on the status and development of nuclear power programs in Member States. It consists of organizational and industrial aspects of nuclear power programs and provides information about the relevant legislative, regulatory, and international framework in each country. Its descriptive and statistical overview of the overall economic, energy, and electricity situation in each country, and its nuclear power framework is intended to serve as an integrated source of key background information about nuclear power programs in the world. The preparation of Country Nuclear Power Profiles (CNPP) was initiated in 1990s. It responded to a need for a database and a technical publication containing a description of the energy and economic situation, the energy and the electricity sector, and the primary organizations involved in nuclear power in IAEA Member States. This is the 2011 edition issued on CD-ROM and Web pages. It updates the country information for 50 countries. The CNPP is updated based on information voluntarily provided by participating IAEA Member States. Participants include the 29 countries that have operating nuclear power plants, as well as 21 countries having past or planned nuclear power programmes (Bangladesh, Belarus, Chile, Egypt, Ghana, Indonesia, the Islamic Republic of Iran, Italy, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kuwait, Lithuania, Morocco, Nigeria, Philippines, Poland, Syrian Arab Republic, Thailand, Tunisia, Turkey and Vietnam). For the 2011 edition, 23 countries provided updated or new profiles. For the other countries, the IAEA updated the profile statistical tables on nuclear power, energy development, and economic indicators based on information from IAEA and World Bank databases.

  4. Oil Producers vulnerability: restrictions for oil supply strategy - OPEC, Mexico and Norway; Indicadores de vulnerabilidade do produtor de petroleo: restricoes a estrategia de oferta - OPEP, Mexico and Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delgado, Fernanda; Schaeffer, Roberto; Szklo, Alexandre [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE)

    2008-07-01

    Few analysts address the socio-economic vulnerability faced by large oil producers countries that restricts their oil supply strategies. However, such as net import countries may be vulnerable to oil supply, large oil exporters countries may also become vulnerable due to their socio-economic dependence on oil, as export revenues are so important to their wealth generation and their populations' well-fare status. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the vulnerabilities of some oil exporters as the OPEC's member-countries, Mexico and Norway face, or may face, and that may restrict their degree of freedom for productive decision making (including investments) and for elaborating oil supply strategies (aiming at taking a larger share of the oil revenue). In order to do that this paper is divided in 3 sections. Initially, socio-economic vulnerability indicators for the oil exporting countries are presented, built and analyzed. Socio-economic vulnerability indicators comprehend, for instance, the following dimensions: physical, productive, fiscal, commercial, macroeconomic and social. The next section regards the application of a multi criteria method, the AHP - Analytic Hierarchy Process in order to summarize and organize the indicators. Finally, implications of the socio-economic vulnerabilities of these oil export countries for the world oil supply and price are derived. (author)

  5. Political instability in a country and health state in another country ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    political alternation, ethnic conflicts, tribalism, wars, coup d'états). These plagues that consume African society have serious impact on the economic growth of these countries, and diversely affect neighbouring countries known for their relative ...

  6. THE LONG-RUN AND SHORT-RUN EFFECTS OF CRUDE OIL PRICE ON METHANOL MARKET IN IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akbar Komijani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Substituting crude oil exports with value-added petrochemical products is one of the main strategies for policy makers in oil-driven economies to isolating the real sectors of economy from oil price volatility. This policy inclination has led to a body of literature in energy economics in recent decades. As a case study, this paper investigates the short-run and long-run relationship between Iran’s oil price and methanol price which is one of the most important non-oil exports of the oil-exporting country. To do so, the weekly data from 18 Jan. 2009 to 18 Sep. 2011 in a VECM framework is applied. The results show that in the long-run, oil price hikes leads to proportional increase in methanol price while in the short-run, this impact is not significant.

  7. Agricultural support measures of advanced countries and food insecurity in developing countries

    OpenAIRE

    Herrmann, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Many developing nations, especially the least developed countries, are subjected to recurrent spells of food insecurity. In order to understand food insecurity in these countries it is necessary to consider not only immediate or trigger-causes of food crises, but also its underlying or systemic causes. This paper argues that the agricultural support measures of advanced countries may act as a systemic cause for food insecurity in developing countries. While the import of subsidized foods by d...

  8. Clean development mechanism: Perspectives from developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sari, Agus P.; Meyers, Stephen

    1999-06-01

    This paper addresses the political acceptability and workability of CDM by and in developing countries. At COP-3 in Kyoto in 1997, the general position among developing countries changed from strong rejection of joint implementation to acceptance of CDM. The outgrowth of CDM from a proposal from Brazil to establish a Clean Development Fund gave developing countries a sense of ownership of the idea. More importantly, establishing support for sustainable development as a main goal for CDM overcame the resistance of many developing countries to accept a carbon trading mechanism. The official acceptance of CDM is not a guarantee of continued acceptance, however. Many developing countries expect CDM to facilitate a substantial transfer of technology and other resources to support economic growth. There is concern that Annex I countries may shift official development assistance into CDM in order to gain carbon credits, and that development priorities could suffer as a result. Some fear that private investments could be skewed toward projects that yield carbon credits. Developing country governments are wary regarding the strong role of the private sector envisioned for CDM. Increasing the awareness and capacity of the private sector in developing countries to initiate and implement CDM projects needs to be a high priority. While private sector partnerships will be the main vehicle for resource transfer in CDM, developing country governments want to play a strong role in overseeing and guiding the process so that it best serves their development goals. Most countries feel that establishment of criteria for sustainable development should be left to individual countries. A key issue is how CDM can best support the strengthening of local capacity to sustain and replicate projects that serve both climate change mitigation and sustainable development objectives.There is support among developing countries for commencing CDM as soon as possible. Since official commencement must

  9. Sizable variations in circulatory disease mortality by region and country of birth in six European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rafnsson, Snorri B; Bhopal, Raj S; Agyemang, Charles

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Circulatory disease mortality inequalities by country of birth (COB) have been demonstrated for some EU countries but pan-European analyses are lacking. We examine inequalities in circulatory mortality by geographical region/COB for six EU countries. METHODS: We obtained national deat...

  10. Preliminary Country Reports on Feasibility Survey: Policy Research and Education Institutions for Developing Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, James M.; Luikart, F. W.

    The feasibility of creating independent research and education centers that deal with public policy issues in developing countries is assessed. Countries that were surveyed include Brazil, Colombia, Bolivia, Costa Rica, Guatemala, South Korea, Philippines, Pakistan, and Nepal. For each country, a report describes the social and political climate…

  11. Epidemiology of prostate cancer in Asian countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Takahiro; Egawa, Shin

    2018-06-01

    The incidence of prostate cancer has been increasing worldwide in recent years. The GLOBOCAN project showed that prostate cancer was the second most frequently diagnosed cancer and the fifth leading cause of cancer mortality among men worldwide in 2012. This trend has been growing even in Asian countries, where the incidence had previously been low. However, the accuracy of data about incidence and mortality as a result of prostate cancer in some Asian countries is limited. The cause of this increasing trend is multifactorial. One possible explanation is changes in lifestyles due to more Westernized diets. The incidence is also statistically biased by the wide implementation of early detection systems and the accuracy of national cancer registration systems, which are still immature in most Asian countries. Mortality rate decreases in Australia, New Zealand and Japan since the 1990s are possibly due to the improvements in treatment and/or early detection efforts employed. However, this rate is increasing in the majority of other Asian countries. Studies of latent and incidental prostate cancer provide less biased information. The prevalence of latent and incidental prostate cancer in contemporary Japan and Korea is similar to those in Western countries, suggesting the influence of lifestyle changes on carcinogenesis. Many studies reported evidence of both congenital and acquired risk factors for carcinogenesis of prostate cancer. Recent changes in the acquired risk factors might be associated with the increasing occurrence of prostate cancer in Asian countries. This trend could continue, especially in developing Asian countries. © 2018 The Japanese Urological Association.

  12. Regulatory pathways for vaccines for developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milstien, Julie; Belgharbi, Lahouari

    2004-01-01

    Vaccines that are designed for use only in developing countries face regulatory hurdles that may restrict their use. There are two primary reasons for this: most regulatory authorities are set up to address regulation of products for use only within their jurisdictions and regulatory authorities in developing countries traditionally have been considered weak. Some options for regulatory pathways for such products have been identified: licensing in the country of manufacture, file review by the European Medicines Evaluation Agency on behalf of WHO, export to a country with a competent national regulatory authority (NRA) that could handle all regulatory functions for the developing country market, shared manufacturing and licensing in a developing country with competent manufacturing and regulatory capacity, and use of a contracted independent entity for global regulatory approval. These options have been evaluated on the basis of five criteria: assurance of all regulatory functions for the life of the product, appropriateness of epidemiological assessment, applicability to products no longer used in the domestic market of the manufacturing country, reduction of regulatory risk for the manufacturer, and existing rules and regulations for implementation. No one option satisfies all criteria. For all options, national infrastructures (including the underlying regulatory legislative framework, particularly to formulate and implement local evidence-based vaccine policy) must be developed. WHO has led work to develop this capacity with some success. The paper outlines additional areas of action required by the international community to assure development and use of vaccines needed for the developing world. PMID:15042235

  13. Prospects of Nuclear Power for Developing Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mourogov, V. M.; Khan, A. M.; Rogner, H-H.; Kagramanian, V. S.

    1998-01-01

    The demand for electricity in developing countries of the world is expected to grow rapidly in the coming decades as these countries undergo the process of industrialization, accompanied by increased urbanization, and seek to improve the living standards of their growing population. The continued heavy reliance of the power sector on fossil fuels will result in an increased dependence of a number of the developing countries on energy imports, with consequentbalance of payment difficulties and implications in terms of reduced energy security, cause severe degradation of the local and regional environment, and will also lead to increasing emissions of greenhouse gases. Increasing the share of hydropower in most of the developing countries is constrained by the limited potential of hydro resources as well as environmental considerations. Other renewable energy technologies such as solar PV and wind power are not expected to play a significant role in the commercial supply of electricity in the foreseeable future in the most part of the developing world. Thus nuclear power as a non-fossil alternative with a proven and mature technology may be called upon to play an increasing role in the future supply of electricity to developing countries. The paper discusses the main factors that are likely to affect, both positively and negatively, the deployment of nuclear power in developing countries and presents the results of the recent IAEA projections on nuclear power capacity growth up to the 2020. The paper also briefly reviews the prospects of nuclear power in Central and Eastern European countries. (author)

  14. IEA countries energy policy. Report 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The International Energy Agency is interested by the energy policy of its 23 members countries. This book sums up the evolution of energy policy in 1991 and 1992, sticking particularly to energy proposal and demand, to energy efficiency, to interaction between energy and environment, to the energy technology and to research and development activities. The 23 countries are examined regularly. The elaborate examinations refer to the energy policy of each member country to dictate the common orientation of their policy. Ministers meetings of IEA take place regularly. The latest took place in PARIS on the fourth of June 1993 where the ministers confirmed that there were essential elements of the energy policy and that they recommended to all countries to take that in account in the formulation of their strategies. Beyond the examinations by country, this book contains a whole report which throws into relief the main new acts which were happened in the IEA members countries and a glimpse on the evolution of the energy situation in the no members countries. It gives specific data and informations on the governmental budgets allocated to research and development energy activities. 6 annexes, 12 graphs., 5 tabs

  15. Are Muslim countries more prone to violence?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nils Petter Gleditsch

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, most armed conflicts have taken place in Muslim countries. Are Muslim countries more war-prone? Not necessarily, if we look at data for the whole period after World War II. But in the post-Cold War era, most wars are civil wars and Muslim countries have a disproportionate share of these. This is not mainly because conflicts among Muslims have increased, but because other conflicts have declined. Muslim countries are also overrepresented among countries with high levels of other forms of internal violence, including non-state conflict, one-sided violence, highly repressive human rights policies, and countries that practice capital punishment. They also have a higher than average participation in interstate conflicts. This is not a “clash of civilizations”—most of the victims are Muslims. We list several hypotheses, apart from religion itself, for why this pattern has emerged, including colonial history, interventions from major powers, and economic and political development. Finally, on a more optimistic note, while many Muslims are exposed to violence, four of the five countries with the largest Muslim populations do not currently experience civil war.

  16. Trading electricity outside the Nordic countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The subject of transborder trade of electricity between the Nordic countries and other North-European countries is dealt with. A detailed comparison of generating capacity, generating costs as well as electricity prices, market structure and national and international regulations is given. This shows that generating costs in the Nordic countries in general are lower than those in other North-European countries. This indicates a potential for transborder trade. Norway has a potential for exporting power while Denmark and Sweden have a potential for energy exports due to current excess capacity. Transmission capacity from the Nordic countries to Germany is limited. As access to the German transmission network is restricted, conditions for trade depend on differences between marginal cost. After transmission cost, those differences do not finance larger investments in further capacity. A change in the market structure in Germany with third party access to the transmission network will allow major consumers to buy directly from producers in the Nordic countries. An opening up of the market should reduce the price load in Germany. This could cause price increases in the Nordic countries. (AB)

  17. Teacher labor markets in developed countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladd, Helen F

    2007-01-01

    Helen Ladd takes a comparative look at policies that the world's industrialized countries are using to assure a supply of high-quality teachers. Her survey puts U.S. educational policies and practices into international perspective. Ladd begins by examining teacher salaries-an obvious, but costly, policy tool. She finds, perhaps surprisingly, that students in countries with high teacher salaries do not in general perform better on international tests than those in countries with lower salaries. Ladd does find, however, that the share of underqualified teachers in a country is closely related to salary. In high-salary countries like Germany, Japan, and Korea, for example, only 4 percent of teachers are underqualified, as against more than 10 percent in the United States, where teacher salaries, Ladd notes, are low relative to those in other industrialized countries. Teacher shortages also appear to stem from policies that make salaries uniform across academic subject areas and across geographic regions. Shortages are especially common in math and science, in large cities, and in rural areas. Among the policy strategies proposed to deal with such shortages is to pay teachers different salaries according to their subject area. Many countries are also experimenting with financial incentive packages, including bonuses and loans, for teachers in specific subjects or geographic areas. Ladd notes that many developed countries are trying to attract teachers by providing alternative routes into teaching, often through special programs in traditional teacher training institutions and through adult education or distance learning programs. To reduce attrition among new teachers, many developed countries have also been using formal induction or mentoring programs as a way to improve new teachers' chances of success. Ladd highlights the need to look beyond a single policy, such as higher salaries, in favor of broad packages that address teacher preparation and certification

  18. Evaluating the relative environmental impact of countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, Corey J A; Giam, Xingli; Sodhi, Navjot S

    2010-05-03

    Environmental protection is critical to maintain ecosystem services essential for human well-being. It is important to be able to rank countries by their environmental impact so that poor performers as well as policy 'models' can be identified. We provide novel metrics of country-specific environmental impact ranks - one proportional to total resource availability per country and an absolute (total) measure of impact - that explicitly avoid incorporating confounding human health or economic indicators. Our rankings are based on natural forest loss, habitat conversion, marine captures, fertilizer use, water pollution, carbon emissions and species threat, although many other variables were excluded due to a lack of country-specific data. Of 228 countries considered, 179 (proportional) and 171 (absolute) had sufficient data for correlations. The proportional index ranked Singapore, Korea, Qatar, Kuwait, Japan, Thailand, Bahrain, Malaysia, Philippines and Netherlands as having the highest proportional environmental impact, whereas Brazil, USA, China, Indonesia, Japan, Mexico, India, Russia, Australia and Peru had the highest absolute impact (i.e., total resource use, emissions and species threatened). Proportional and absolute environmental impact ranks were correlated, with mainly Asian countries having both high proportional and absolute impact. Despite weak concordance among the drivers of environmental impact, countries often perform poorly for different reasons. We found no evidence to support the environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis of a non-linear relationship between impact and per capita wealth, although there was a weak reduction in environmental impact as per capita wealth increases. Using structural equation models to account for cross-correlation, we found that increasing wealth was the most important driver of environmental impact. Our results show that the global community not only has to encourage better environmental performance in less

  19. The fight against tobacco in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackay, J L

    1994-02-01

    The battle to reduce the tobacco epidemic is not being won; the epidemic is merely being transferred from rich to poor countries. Tobacco-related mortality will rise from the present annual global toll of 3 million to over 10 million by the year 2025. Currently, most of these deaths are in developed countries but 7 out of the 10 million deaths will occur in developing countries by 2025. Developing countries cannot afford this increase, either in terms of human health or in economic costs, such as medical and health care costs, costs of lost productivity, costs of fires or costs of the misuse of land used to grow tobacco. As many of the tobacco-related illnesses, such as lung cancer or emphysema, are incurable even with expensive technology, the key to tobacco control lies in prevention. The essential elements of a national tobacco control policy are the same for all countries throughout the world--the only differences lie in fine tuning to a country's current situation. While indigenous production and consumption of tobacco remain a problem, of particular concern is the penetration of developing countries by the transnational tobacco companies, with aggressive promotional campaigns and the use of political and commercial pressures to open up markets and to promote foreign cigarettes. This includes specific targeting of women, few of whom currently smoke in developing countries. Also, tobacco advertising revenue prevents the media from reporting on the hazards of tobacco, a particularly serious problem in developing countries where awareness of the harmfulness of tobacco is low.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. Evaluating the Relative Environmental Impact of Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, Corey J. A.; Giam, Xingli; Sodhi, Navjot S.

    2010-01-01

    Environmental protection is critical to maintain ecosystem services essential for human well-being. It is important to be able to rank countries by their environmental impact so that poor performers as well as policy ‘models’ can be identified. We provide novel metrics of country-specific environmental impact ranks – one proportional to total resource availability per country and an absolute (total) measure of impact – that explicitly avoid incorporating confounding human health or economic indicators. Our rankings are based on natural forest loss, habitat conversion, marine captures, fertilizer use, water pollution, carbon emissions and species threat, although many other variables were excluded due to a lack of country-specific data. Of 228 countries considered, 179 (proportional) and 171 (absolute) had sufficient data for correlations. The proportional index ranked Singapore, Korea, Qatar, Kuwait, Japan, Thailand, Bahrain, Malaysia, Philippines and Netherlands as having the highest proportional environmental impact, whereas Brazil, USA, China, Indonesia, Japan, Mexico, India, Russia, Australia and Peru had the highest absolute impact (i.e., total resource use, emissions and species threatened). Proportional and absolute environmental impact ranks were correlated, with mainly Asian countries having both high proportional and absolute impact. Despite weak concordance among the drivers of environmental impact, countries often perform poorly for different reasons. We found no evidence to support the environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis of a non-linear relationship between impact and per capita wealth, although there was a weak reduction in environmental impact as per capita wealth increases. Using structural equation models to account for cross-correlation, we found that increasing wealth was the most important driver of environmental impact. Our results show that the global community not only has to encourage better environmental performance in less

  1. Evaluating the relative environmental impact of countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corey J A Bradshaw

    Full Text Available Environmental protection is critical to maintain ecosystem services essential for human well-being. It is important to be able to rank countries by their environmental impact so that poor performers as well as policy 'models' can be identified. We provide novel metrics of country-specific environmental impact ranks - one proportional to total resource availability per country and an absolute (total measure of impact - that explicitly avoid incorporating confounding human health or economic indicators. Our rankings are based on natural forest loss, habitat conversion, marine captures, fertilizer use, water pollution, carbon emissions and species threat, although many other variables were excluded due to a lack of country-specific data. Of 228 countries considered, 179 (proportional and 171 (absolute had sufficient data for correlations. The proportional index ranked Singapore, Korea, Qatar, Kuwait, Japan, Thailand, Bahrain, Malaysia, Philippines and Netherlands as having the highest proportional environmental impact, whereas Brazil, USA, China, Indonesia, Japan, Mexico, India, Russia, Australia and Peru had the highest absolute impact (i.e., total resource use, emissions and species threatened. Proportional and absolute environmental impact ranks were correlated, with mainly Asian countries having both high proportional and absolute impact. Despite weak concordance among the drivers of environmental impact, countries often perform poorly for different reasons. We found no evidence to support the environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis of a non-linear relationship between impact and per capita wealth, although there was a weak reduction in environmental impact as per capita wealth increases. Using structural equation models to account for cross-correlation, we found that increasing wealth was the most important driver of environmental impact. Our results show that the global community not only has to encourage better environmental performance in

  2. Energy policies of IEA countries: 1994 review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This 1994 edition contributes to the IEA's on-going analysis of countries'energy policies and market developments. it reviews recent trends and developments in energy demand and supply, efficiency, technology and environment. This year's Energy Policies includes: - critical reviews of all 23 IEA Member countries, including in-depth reviews of Finland, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Luxembourg and Switzerland; - a synthesis report highlighting major energy policy developments and market trends in IEA Member countries and an overview of significant energy developments elsewhere in the world; -an analysis of trends in key energy indicators over a twenty year period. (authors)

  3. 4. Rapidly industrializing countries: Forging new models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starke, L.

    1992-01-01

    This chapter discusses the following: the experience of newly industrializing countries (NIC); human development; broadening economic development; conserving natural resources (agriculture, forests, air quality); energy consumption; using more efficient technology; new markets and new products. Governments in rapidly industrializing countries can do a great deal to steer development in a sustainable direction by adopting appropriate policies - many of which are discussed in this and preceding chapters. Governments in industrialized countries also have an important role to play by offering the necessary technical and financial assistance to support this kind of development. The chapter uses as examples Brazil, Chile, Mexico, Indonesia, Malaysia, and Thailand

  4. Management of Radioactive Wastes in Developing Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel Ghani, A.H.

    1999-01-01

    The management of radioactive wastes is one area of increasing interest especially in developing countries having more and more activities in the application of radioisotopes in medicine, research and industry. For a better understanding of radioactive waste management in developing countries this work will discuss the following items:Classification of countries with respect to waste management programs. Principal Radionuclides used in medicine, biological research and others and the range of radioactivity commonly used. Estimation of radioactive waste volumes and activities. Management of liquid wastes Collection. Treatment. Management of small volumes of organic liquid waste. Collection Treatment. Packaging and storage of radioactive wastes

  5. Causal Attributions for Poverty in Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Juan Vázquez

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes attributional differences about causes of poverty in the less developed countries, among Nicaraguan ("actors" and Spanish ("observers" undergraduates. A self–applied questionnaire was used. It included socio–demographic questions and an adaptation of the "Causes of Third World Poverty Questionnaire" (CTWPQ. Results show agreement between Spanish and Nicaraguan in attributions about the main causes of poverty in the less developed countries, although there are differences about the perception of the incidence of the different causes in that situation. Nicaraguan students consider, as causes of poverty, more dispositional attributes about the population in those countries.

  6. Performance of mutual funds in european countries

    OpenAIRE

    Γκογκάκη, Ελεωνόρα

    2012-01-01

    In this thesis, the performance of 220 open-end domestic equity mutual funds of european countries (from 'weak' and 'strong' economies) is analyzed for an eight- year period from 1st January 2004 until 31st December 2011, which is then split in two four-year sub periods in order to examine their performance prior to the global financial crisis and after its burst in 2008. In order to compare the mutual funds' performance to that of each country's market, it used as benchmarks the countries' m...

  7. Validity of Linder Hypothesis in Bric Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rana Atabay

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the theory of similarity in preferences (Linder hypothesis has been introduced and trade in BRIC countries has been examined whether the trade between these countries was valid for this hypothesis. Using the data for the period 1996 – 2010, the study applies to panel data analysis in order to provide evidence regarding the empirical validity of the Linder hypothesis for BRIC countries’ international trade. Empirical findings show that the trade between BRIC countries is in support of Linder hypothesis.

  8. Developing countries are combating climate change. Actions in developing countries that slow growth in carbon emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reid, Walter V.; Goldemberg, Jose

    1998-01-01

    The role of developing countries in helping to solve the problem of climate change is increasingly a focus of political controversy. With levels of greenhouse gas emissions projected to exceed those of developed countries by 2020, some industrialized countries are calling on developing countries to take stronger action to meet the commitments they have made in the Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC). This review of recent policy changes in developing countries, however, suggests that they are already taking little appreciated steps that reduce rates of growth in carbon emissions. Indeed, since the 1992 signing of the FCCC, carbon emission savings in developing countries may be greater than those attained by industrialized countries. A major source of these gains can be attributed to energy price reforms that are likely to have led to substantial gains in production and end-use efficiency. (author)

  9. Health Behaviuor Interventions In Developing Countries

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    health promotion interventions specifically focusing on developing countries would ... example from Kenya and Brazil of web-based education on adolescents' ... Master of Public Health, College of Medicine, University of Malawi. Reviewed by: ...

  10. Pesticide Applicator Certification in Indian Country

    Science.gov (United States)

    This website provides information about the EPA Plan for the Federal Certification of Applicators of Restricted Use Pesticides within Indian Country, including plan requirements, how to become certified, how to register for training, and who is certified.

  11. IMF and economic reform in developing countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abbott, Philip; Andersen, Thomas Barnebeck; Tarp, Finn

    2010-01-01

    approach is in order. However, the cross-country approach is unlikely to provide a sound basis for drawing clear conclusions, so we review IMF programs from a different perspective, involving a broader literature on development strategy. In particular, it is widely accepted that a common characteristic......In this paper we assess the IMF approach to economic reform in developing countries. The impact of IMF program participation on economic growth has been evaluated empirically in a cross-country literature, with little evidence of IMF programs having been successful. This suggests that a fresh...... of IMF programs is a high degree of policy rigidity. This is in contrast with studies which hold that unleashing an economy's growth potential hinges on a set of well-targeted policy interventions aimed at removing country-specific binding constraints. The process of locating constraints that bind...

  12. Health aid and governance in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fielding, David

    2011-07-01

    Despite anecdotal evidence that the quality of governance in recipient countries affects the allocation of international health aid, there is no quantitative evidence on the magnitude of this effect, or on which dimensions of governance influence donor decisions. We measure health-aid flows over 1995-2006 for 109 aid recipients, matching aid data with measures of different dimensions of governance and a range of country-specific economic and health characteristics. Everything else being equal, countries with more political rights receive significantly more aid, but so do countries with higher corruption levels. The dependence of aid on political rights, even when we control for other governance indicators, suggests that health aid is sometimes used as an incentive to reward political reforms. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Dermatological moulage collections in the Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Worm, A M.; Sinisalo, H.; Eilertsen, G.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The art of producing and acquiring dermatological wax models, moulages, flourished all over Europe in the beginning of the twentieth century, whereas very little is known about the existence of moulage collections in the Nordic countries. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this paper is to elucidate...... the presence, the origin, the production place, the use and the condition of dermatological moulage collections in the Nordic countries. METHODS: In each Nordic country, an extensive survey was undertaken during spring 2016. Dermatological departments, museums with medical collections, persons assumed to have...... specific information about wax moulages as well as secondary sources were contacted and interviewed. RESULTS: Several hitherto undescribed collections have survived in each country, most however damaged and in disrepair. One Danish and part of a Finnish collection have been restored. Only few moulages...

  14. Market Dynamics and Productivity in Developing Countries ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2009-11-25

    Nov 25, 2009 ... ... economic performance is still lagging behind many regions of the world. Even in those countries that are the most advanced in implementing ... IWRA/IDRC webinar on climate change and adaptive water management.

  15. Estonian Golf & Country Club / Urmas Oja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Oja, Urmas, 1981-2012

    2005-01-01

    Konkursil "Eesti parim puitehitis 2005" pälvis voodrilaua eripreemia Jõelähtme Estonian Golf & Country Club'i katus. Arhitekt Andres Siim. Sisearhitekt Juta Lember. Konstruktor: AS Resand. 11 värv. ill

  16. Environmental isotope hydrology laboratories in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonfiantini, R.; Stichler, W.

    1991-01-01

    This article reports on the role, experience, and problems of environmental isotope hydrology laboratories in developing countries, based upon the IAEA's experience. It specifically offers guidance on important aspects of organization, staffing, and operation

  17. Problems of scientific research in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vose, P.B.; Cervellini, A.

    1983-01-01

    The paper gives a general consideration of the problems encountered in the scientific research by the developing countries. Possible optimizations in the long term as well as short term strategies are pointed out

  18. Finance and Competitiveness in Developing Countries

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The experience of these countries suggests that high productivity and competitiveness .... Fluctuations in the terms of trade and, hence, in the availability of foreign ...... plying mills), 3312 (wooden and cane containers), 3521 (paints, varnishes, ...

  19. Improving access to transport in developing countries

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Savill, T

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Improving access and mobility of people with disabilities is an essential component of the alleviation of poverty in developing countries. Disabled people are among the most socially excluded members of society and poorly designed and inaccessible...

  20. Developing countries unprepared for ballooning elderly population ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-11-29

    Nov 29, 2010 ... ... Economics and Demography of Aging at the University of California, Berkeley ... Another problem is that some of these countries are implementing social ... Presenting advances in financial inclusion and education for youth, ...

  1. The Wage Curve in the Nordic Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Erik Strøjer; Albæk, K.; Asplund, R.

    regions in the long run. One explanation put forward for this slow speed of regional wage adjustment is the rather centralized bargaining system on the labour market in the Nordic countries. Wages are set according to the average unemployment rate for the economy as a whole, and differences in regional...... for researchers or civil servants with a deeper interest in labour market problems. The main result from this study is that the wage formation at the regional level is rather inflexible in the short run in all five Nordic countries, with no effect from changes in local unemployment on the local wage level......This report focusses on wage formation in the Nordic countries with a special attention to the effect from changes in local unemployment on the local wage level. The book gives a comprehensive and comparable study of this topic in the five Nordic countries which may be of great value...

  2. Child Welfare in Developing Countries | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-08-05

    Aug 5, 2010 ... In developing countries, there has been relatively little empirical work on the analysis and measurement of child poverty. Further ... Based on original research in Africa and South America and using a ... Related content ...

  3. Country brand equity model: Sustainability perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodorović Milivoj

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a model of country brand equity that incorporates the issue of sustainability in determining destination brand equity. In particular, the model includes elements of sustainability as its core dimensions and promotes the concept of the country sustainability promise that transforms destination resources into the positive perception and experience. The theoretical model is empirically tested using global secondary data confirming that country image is the most important element followed by sustainability and loyalty. Also, the analysis suggests the existence of the higher order construct confirming the country brand equity concept. Based on the research findings, the article offers some implications to the destination managers by suggesting the direction for further development and strategy implementation.

  4. Should Japan Become a Normal Country

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yildiz, Ahmet

    2005-01-01

    This thesis evaluates Japanese geopolitical change in the post-Cold War era. It does so by analyzing Japan's history, its foreign policy since 1945, its reasons for becoming a normal country, and the impact of its normalization...

  5. Magnetic fusion research in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, M.H.A.

    1990-01-01

    This article is a presentation prepared by the Third World Academy of Sciences on magnetic fusion research activity in the developing countries and its connection with the IAEA's own fusion programme. 6 figs, 1 tab

  6. Power system deregulation and the Balkan countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glamochanin, Vlastimir; Stojkovska, Biljana; Cherepnalkoski, Trajche

    2001-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to show the current state and planned activities of the Power System deregulation and privatization in the following Balkan countries: Macedonia, Romania, Bulgaria, Yugoslavia, Greece, Croatia, Slovenia and Turkey

  7. Energy in developing countries: prospects and problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baum, V.

    1977-01-01

    This paper analyses requirements for primary energy and electric power in the developing countries in the light of projections of population and economic growth. It evaluates the availability of indigenous energy resources and focuses on input requirements (capital, technology, trained personnel) for accelerated energy development; it reviews possible supplies for such inputs from domestic sources, transnational corporations, multilateral institutions, and through co-operation among the developing countries themselves and between the developing and the developed countries. The paper analyses the findings of the United Nations study ''The Future of the World Economy. A Study on the Impact of the Prospective Economic Issues and Policies on the International Development Strategy'' as far as they relate to energy and the developing countries in the light of the objectives of the Declaration on the Establishment of a New International Economic Order

  8. Female labor force participation in developing countries

    OpenAIRE

    Verick, Sher

    2014-01-01

    While women’s labor force participation tends to increase with economic development, the relationship is not straightforward or consistent at the country level. There is considerably more variation across developing countries in labor force participation by women than by men. This variation is driven by a wide variety of economic and social factors, which include economic growth, education, and social norms. Looking more broadly at improving women’s access to quality employment, a critica...

  9. Helping transfer technology to developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masters, R.

    1978-01-01

    Manpower planning and training are an increasingly important part of the activities of the IAEA which organises a number of courses for engineers and administrators from developing countries. The Agency supports the view of these countries that there should be a real transfer of nuclear technology and not just the import of equipment and services. A Construction and Operation Management course held at Karlsruhe, is reviewed. (author)

  10. Area Handbook Series: Cuba; a Country Study,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    xix Chapter 1. Historical Setting. ...................................... Elizabeth de Lima ...Guane Rio Santo L F AntonClarao -22 % Fei ienfuegos Moron kNulvo Gerona Playa Sancti 11-,Giron Spirntu Jhoi ~~ ~Trinidad Cg a Tunas de Zaza * National...schol- arly literature. xi Country Profile 0 0l Country _ Formal Name: Cuba (Rep6blica de Cuba). Short Form: Cuba. Term for Citizens: Cubans. Capital

  11. Country Gender Assessment for Ukraine 2016

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2016-01-01

    Ukraine is currently classified as a lower-middle income country in 2014. The country experienced a sustained economic growth since the early 2000’s, being associated with a fast reduction in poverty. However, the global financial and economic crisis hit the economy of Ukraine, generating one of the largest economic setbacks in Eastern Europe. To address these issues, this paper is focused...

  12. Gastroenterology in developing countries: Issues and advances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandeville, Kate L; Krabshuis, Justus; Ladep, Nimzing Gwamzhi; Mulder, Chris JJ; Quigley, Eamonn MM; Khan, Shahid A

    2009-01-01

    Developing countries shoulder a considerable burden of gastroenterological disease. Infectious diseases in particular cause enormous morbidity and mortality. Diseases which afflict both western and developing countries are often seen in more florid forms in poorer countries. Innovative techniques continuously improve and update gastroenterological practice. However, advances in diagnosis and treatment which are commonplace in the West, have yet to reach many developing countries. Clinical guidelines, based on these advances and collated in resource-rich environments, lose their relevance outside these settings. In this two-part review, we first highlight the global burden of gastroenterological disease in three major areas: diarrhoeal diseases, hepatitis B, and Helicobacter pylori. Recent progress in their management is explored, with consideration of future solutions. The second part of the review focuses on the delivery of clinical services in developing countries. Inadequate numbers of healthcare workers hamper efforts to combat gastroenterological disease. Reasons for this shortage are examined, along with possibilities for increased specialist training. Endoscopy services, the mainstay of gastroenterology in the West, are in their infancy in many developing countries. The challenges faced by those setting up a service are illustrated by the example of a Nigerian endoscopy unit. Finally, we highlight the limited scope of many clinical guidelines produced in western countries. Guidelines which take account of resource limitations in the form of “cascades” are advocated in order to make these guidelines truly global. Recognition of the different working conditions facing practitioners worldwide is an important step towards narrowing the gap between gastroenterology in rich and poor countries. PMID:19533805

  13. The gender wage gap in developed countries

    OpenAIRE

    Kunze, Astrid

    2017-01-01

    Despite the increased attachment of women to the labour force in nearly all developed countries, a stubborn gender pay gap remains. This chapter provides a review of the economics literature on the gender wage gap, with an emphasis on developed countries. We begin with an overview of the trends in the gender differences in wages and employment rates. We then review methods used to decompose the gender wage gap and the results from such decompositions. We discuss how trends and differences in ...

  14. Effect of shadow economy - country's tax losses

    OpenAIRE

    Krumplytė, Jolita

    2009-01-01

    The article analyzes the content of shadow economy through the prism of the tax administration. The author provides the limitations of the study and methodologically based relationship between the shadow economy and the tax revenue not to be received to the national consolidate budget. Country's tax losses (tax gap) is the amount of the tax revenue that is not received to the country's consolidated budget in the tax non-payment effects: tax avoidance and tax evasion. Tax losses (tax gap) is t...

  15. Promoting nuclear medicine in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganatra, R.; Nofal, M.

    1986-01-01

    After a short review of the applications of nuclear medicine in diagnosis and treatment of diseases or in medical research the ways and the means of IAEA's support in helping developing countries to set up nuclear medicine capabilities in their hospitals are described. Some trends and new directions in the field of nuclear medicine and the problems related to the implementation of these techniques in developing countries are presented

  16. Energy Issues and Problems in Developing Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehdizadeh, Saeed

    1999-01-01

    In general, the developing countries due to changes in supply and demand for energy in the world, are facing several problems, such as: 1. Energy growth. 2.Energy consumption 3.Environmental protection. The objective of this paper is to study the problems caused by the increase in the energy consumption of the developing countries. also several guideline and solution schemes are recommended for these problems

  17. Energy technology transfer to developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldemberg, J.

    1991-01-01

    This paper gives some examples of how technology transfer can successfully be given to third world countries to allow them to benefit in their quest for economic growth and better standards of living through reduced energy consumption and environmental pollution. It also suggests methods by which obstacles such as high investment costs, lack of information, market demand, etc., can be overcome in order to motivate technological transfer by industrialized countries

  18. Importance of rural bioenergy for developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demirbas, Ayse Hilal; Demirbas, Imren

    2007-01-01

    Energy resources will play an important role in the world's future. Rural bioenergy is still the predominant form of energy used by people in the less developed countries, and bioenergy from biomass accounts for about 15% of the world's primary energy consumption and about 38% of the primary energy consumption in developing countries. Furthermore, bioenergy often accounts for more than 90% of the total rural energy supplies in some developing countries. Earth life in rural areas of the world has changed dramatically over time. Industrial development in developing countries, coming at a time of low cost plentiful oil supplies, has resulted in greater reliance on the source of rural bioenergy than is true in the developed countries. In developed countries, there is a growing trend towards employing modern technologies and efficient bioenergy conversion using a range of biofuels, which are becoming cost wise competitive with fossil fuels. Currently, much attention has been a major focus on renewable alternatives in the developing countries. Renewable energy can be particularly appropriate for developing countries. In rural areas, particularly in remote locations, transmission and distribution of energy generated from fossil fuels can be difficult and expensive. Producing renewable energy locally can offer a viable alternative. Renewable energy can facilitate economic and social development in communities but only if the projects are intelligently designed and carefully planned with local input and cooperation. Particularly in poor rural areas, the costs of renewable energy projects will absorb a significant part of participants' small incomes. Bio-fuels are important because they replace petroleum fuels. Biomass and biofuels can be used as a substitute for fossil fuels to generate heat, power and/or chemicals. Generally speaking, biofuels are generally considered as offering many benefits, including sustainability, reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, regional

  19. Causal Attributions for Poverty in Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    José Juan Vázquez; Sonia Panadero

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyzes attributional differences about causes of poverty in the less developed countries, among Nicaraguan ("actors") and Spanish ("observers") undergraduates. A self–applied questionnaire was used. It included socio–demographic questions and an adaptation of the "Causes of Third World Poverty Questionnaire" (CTWPQ). Results show agreement between Spanish and Nicaraguan in attributions about the main causes of poverty in the less developed countries, although there are difference...

  20. Reporting about disability evaluation in European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anner, Jessica; Kunz, Regina; Boer, Wout de

    2014-01-01

    To compare the official requirements of the content of disability evaluation for social insurance across Europe and to explore how the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health is currently applied, using the rights and obligations of people with disabilities towards society as frame of reference. Survey. We used a semi-structured questionnaire to interview members of the European Union of Medicine in Assurance and Social Security (EUMASS), who are central medical advisors in social insurance systems in their country. We performed two email follow-up rounds to complete and verify responses. Fifteen respondents from 15 countries participated. In all countries, medical examiners are required to report about a claimant's working capacity and prognosis. In 14 countries, medical reports ought to contain information about socio-medical history and feasible interventions to improve the claimant's health status. The format of medical reporting on working capacity varies widely (free text, semi- and fully structured reports). One country makes a reference to the ICF in their reports on working capacity, others consider doing so. Official requirements on medical reporting about disability in social insurance across Europe follow the frame of four features: work capacity, socio-medical history, feasibility of intervention and prognosis of disability. There is an increasing trend to make formal or informal reference to the ICF in the reports about working capacity. The four features and the ICF may provide common references across countries to describe disability evaluation, facilitating national and international research. Implications for Rehabilitation Reporting about disability in social insurance in different countries is about work capacity, social medical history, feasibility of intervention and prognosis of disability. Formats of reporting on work capacity vary among countries, from free text to semi-structured report forms to fully structured

  1. Globalization and Social Justice in OECD Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Björn Kauder; Niklas Potrafke

    2015-01-01

    Social justice is a topic of importance to social scientists and also political decision makers. We examine the relationship between globalization and social justice as measured by a new indicator for 31 OECD countries. The results show that countries that experienced rapid globalization enjoy social justice. When the KOF index of globalization increases by one standard deviation, the social justice indicator increases by about 0.4 points (on a scale from 1 to 10). The policy implication is t...

  2. Global Agricultural Trade and Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Aksoy, M. Ataman; Beghin, John C.

    2005-01-01

    Global Agricultural Trade and Developing Countries explores the outstanding issues in global agricultural trade policy and evolving world production and trade patterns. This book presents research findings based on a series of commodity studies of significant economic importance to developing countries. Setting the stage with background chapters and investigations of cross-cutting issues, the authors describe trade and domestic policy regimes affecting agricultural and food markets and analyz...

  3. Climate targets for all countries: the options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Philibert, C.; Pershing, J.

    2001-01-01

    This paper assesses five options for targets that could be taken by all countries to meet the ultimate objective of the Climate Change Convention: fixed, binding targets, dynamic targets; non-binding targets; sectoral targets, policies and measures. Each is evaluated according to criteria of environmental effectiveness, cost-effectiveness, contribution to economic growth and sustainable development, and equity. While fixed, binding targets continue to be viable for industrialized countries, they do not seem suitable for many developing countries in the near future. Dynamic targets could alleviate developing countries' concerns about constraining their development as well as broader concerns about possible introduction of 'hot air' in a world trading regime; they could also be considered for some or all industrialized countries. Non-binding targets could be politically appealing to developing counties, alleviate fears about development and/or hot air, but might only allow conditional participation in emissions trading by developing countries. Sectoral targets could offer a pragmatic first step - although their cost-effectiveness might be questioned. Finally, targets based on commitments to implement specific policies and measures might drive mitigation action and be part of negotiated packages including financial and technological cooperation. All these options may coexist in the future. (authors)

  4. Energy policies of IEA countries: 2006 review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    This compilation contains a broad analysis of recent trends and an easily accessible overview of energy policy of the 26 member countries of the International Energy Agency and other key non-member countries such as China, India and Russia, during the last 12 months. The overview section examines trends in energy markets, including an analysis of energy demand and supply, energy prices and energy related CO{sub 2} emissions. It highlights key policy trends across member and non-member countries on energy security, energy market reform, climate change mitigation, energy efficiency, renewables and energy R&D. The book contains a special chapter on energy efficiency, which compares the most successful efficiency policies of member countries on the basis of In-Depth Review findings of the past three years. It also presents the major findings of the World Energy Outlook 2006, key statistical information and brief summaries of major IEA publications released during the past year. In past years summaries of In-Depth Reviews conducted in the cycle covered by this book, as well as Standard Reviews, were published as part of the book. From this year they will only be available from the IEA's website on www.iea.org. Chapter headings are: Executive summary; Energy efficiency; World energy outlook 2006; Energy security; Energy market reform; Climate change; Renewable energy; Technology, research and development; Energy policies in key non-member countries; and Energy balances and key statistical data of IEA countries. 25 figs., 11 tabs., 4 annexes.

  5. Electric network interconnection of Mashreq Arab Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Amin, I.M.; Al-Shehri, A.M.; Opoku, G.; Al-Baiyat, S.A.; Zedan, F.M.

    1994-01-01

    Power system interconnection is a well established practice for a variety of technical and economical reasons. Several interconnected networks exist worldwide for a number of factors. Some of these networks cross international boundaries. This presentation discusses the future developments of the power systems of Mashreq Arab Countries (MAC). MAC consists of Bahrain, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates (UAE), and Yemen. Mac power systems are operated by government or semigovernment bodies. Many of these countries have national or regional electric grids but are generally isolated from each other. With the exception of Saudi Arabia power systems, which employ 60 Hz, all other MAC utilities use 50 Hz frequency. Each country is served by one utility, except Saudi Arabia, which is served by four major utilities and some smaller utilities serving remote towns and small load centers. The major utilities are the Saudi Consolidated electric Company in the Eastern Province (SCECO East), SCECO Center, SCECO West, and SCECO South. These are the ones considered in this study. The energy resources in MAC are varied. Countries such as Egypt, Iraq, and Syria have significant hydro resources.The gulf countries and Iraq have abundant fossil fuel, The variation in energy resources as well as the characteristics of the electric load make it essential to look into interconnections beyond the national boundaries. Most of the existing or planned interconnections involve few power systems. A study involving 12 countries and over 20 utilities with different characteristics represents a very large scale undertaking

  6. Country nuclear power profiles. 2003 ed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-03-01

    The preparation of Country Nuclear Power Profiles (CNPP) was initiated within the framework of the IAEA's programme on assessment and feedback of nuclear power plant performance. It responded to a need for a database and a technical publication containing a description of the energy and economic situation, the energy and the electricity sector, and the primary organizations involved in nuclear power in IAEA Member States. The CNPP covers background information on the status and development of nuclear power programmes in countries having nuclear plants in operation and/or plants under construction. It reviews the organizational and industrial aspects of nuclear power programmes in participating countries, and provides information about the relevant legislative, regulatory and international frameworks in each country. The CNPP compiles the current issues in the new environment within which the electricity and nuclear sector operates, i.e. energy policy, and privatization and deregulation in these sectors, the role of government, nuclear energy and climate change, and safety and waste management, which differ from country to country

  7. Country nuclear power profiles. 2003 ed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-03-01

    The preparation of Country Nuclear Power Profiles (CNPP) was initiated within the framework of the IAEA's programme on assessment and feedback of nuclear power plant performance. It responded to a need for a database and a technical publication containing a description of the energy and economic situation, the energy and the electricity sector, and the primary organizations involved in nuclear power in IAEA Member States. The CNPP covers background information on the status and development of nuclear power programmes in countries having nuclear plants in operation and/or plants under construction. It reviews the organizational and industrial aspects of nuclear power programmes in participating countries, and provides information about the relevant legislative, regulatory and international frameworks in each country. The CNPP compiles the current issues in the new environment within which the electricity and nuclear sector operates, i.e. energy policy, and privatization and deregulation in these sectors, the role of government, nuclear energy and climate change, and safety and waste management, which differ from country to country.

  8. Country nuclear power profiles. 2004 ed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-12-01

    The preparation of Country Nuclear Power Profiles (CNPP) was initiated within the framework of the IAEA's programme on assessment and feedback of nuclear power plant performance. It responded to a need for a database and a technical publication containing a description of the energy and economic situation, the energy and the electricity sector, and the primary organizations involved in nuclear power in IAEA Member States. The CNPP covers background information on the status and development of nuclear power programmes in countries having nuclear plants in operation and/or plants under construction. It reviews the organizational and industrial aspects of nuclear power programmes in participating countries, and provides information about the relevant legislative, regulatory and international frameworks in each country. The CNPP compiles the current issues in the new environment within which the electricity and nuclear sector operates, i.e. energy policy, and privatization and deregulation in these sectors, the role of government, nuclear energy and climate change, and safety and waste management, which differ from country to country

  9. Measuring Poverty and Wellbeing in Developing Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Tarp, Finn

    2017-01-01

    Detailed analyses of poverty and wellbeing in developing countries, based on large-scale, nationally representative household surveys, have been ongoing for more than three decades. The large majority of developing countries now conduct on a regular basis a variety of household surveys—income, co......Detailed analyses of poverty and wellbeing in developing countries, based on large-scale, nationally representative household surveys, have been ongoing for more than three decades. The large majority of developing countries now conduct on a regular basis a variety of household surveys......—income, consumption, health, demographics, labour force, household enterprise, and others. And the information base in developing countries with respect to poverty and wellbeing has improved dramatically. Nevertheless, appropriate measurement of poverty remains complex and controversial; this chapter lays out...... for the reader the issues and challenges. This is particularly true in developing countries where (i) the stakes with respect to poverty reduction are high; (ii) the determinants of living standards are often volatile; and (iii) related information bases, while much improved, are often characterized...

  10. What drives energy consumption in developing countries? The experience of selected African countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keho, Yaya

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the drivers of energy consumption in Sub-Saharan African countries. It applies the bounds testing approach to cointegration to time series data at individual country levels over the period from 1970 to 2011. The study finds that energy consumption is cointegrated with real GDP per capita, industrial output, imports, foreign direct investment, credit to private sector, urbanization and population. Furthermore, the sign and magnitude of long-run estimates vary significantly for a single country and across countries depending on the energy consumption variable used. Overall, the findings confirm the leading role of economic growth, industrial output, population and urbanization. Economic growth, industrial output and population have positive effects on energy consumption in the majority of countries. Given the urgent need to address climate change, African countries should adopt policies to improve energy efficiency and accelerate transition toward renewable energy. The African Renewable Energy Initiative launched at the 21st session of the United Nations Conference of the Parties (COP21) is an opportunity for African countries to provide and maintain widespread access to reliable and affordable environmentally cleaner energy to meet the requirements of rapid economic growth and improved living standards. - Highlights: •Key drivers of energy use in 12 African countries are examined. •Economic growth, industrial GDP, population and urbanization play a leading role in explaining energy use. •Urbanization has a positive effect on energy use in six countries and a negative effect in four countries. •The results obtained have useful policy implications.

  11. Achieving value for money in health: a comparative analysis of OECD countries and regional countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çelik, Yusuf; Khan, Mahmud; Hikmet, Neşet

    2017-10-01

    To measure efficiency gains in health sector over the years 1995 to 2013 in OECD, EU, non-member European countries. An output-oriented DEA model with variable return to scale, and residuals estimated by regression equations were used to estimate efficiencies of health systems. Slacks for health care outputs and inputs were calculated by using DEA multistage method of estimating country efficiency scores. Better health outcomes of countries were related with higher efficiency. Japan, France, or Sweden were found to be peer-efficient countries when compared to other developed countries like Germany and United States. Increasing life expectancy beyond a certain high level becomes very difficult to achieve. Despite declining marginal productivity of inputs on health outcomes, some developed countries and developing countries were found to have lowered their inefficiencies in the use of health inputs. Although there was no systematic relationship between political system of countries and health system efficiency, the objectives of countries on social and health policy and the way of achieving these objectives might be a factor increasing the efficiency of health systems. Economic and political stability might be as important as health expenditure in improving health system goals. A better understanding of the value created by health expenditures, especially in developed countries, will require analysis of specific health interventions that can increase value for money in health. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Country Nuclear Power Profiles - 2012 Edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-08-01

    The Country Nuclear Power Profiles compile background information on the status and development of nuclear power programmes in Member States. The CNPP's main objectives are to consolidate information about the nuclear power infrastructures in participating countries, and to present factors related to the effective planning, decision making and implementation of nuclear power programmes that together lead to safe and economical operations of nuclear power plants. The CNPP summarizes organizational and industrial aspects of nuclear power programs and provides information about the relevant legislative, regulatory, and international framework in each country. Its descriptive and statistical overview of the overall economic, energy, and electricity situation in each country and its nuclear power framework is intended to serve as an integrated source of key background information about nuclear power programs in the world. Topics such as reactor safety, nuclear fuel cycle, radioactive waste management and research programmes are for the most part not discussed in detail. Statistical data about nuclear plant operations, population, energy and electricity use are drawn from the PRIS, EEDB, World Development Indicators (WDI) of the World Bank and the national contributions. This publication is updated and the scope of coverage expanded annually. This is the 2012 edition, issued on CD-ROM and Web pages. It contains updated country information for 51 countries. The CNPP is updated based on information voluntarily provided by participating IAEA Member States. Participants include the 29 countries that have operating nuclear power plants, as well as 22 countries with past or planned nuclear power. Each of the 51 profiles in this publication is self-standing, and contains information officially provided by the respective national authorities. For the 2012 edition, 20 countries provided updated or new profiles. These are Argentina, Armenia, Bangladesh, Chile, Germany, Ghana

  13. Solar energy activities in the Arab countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sayigh, A.A.M.

    1991-01-01

    The Arab countries, 22 in total, are divided into three groups. Group one consists of all countries of the Middle East. The second group is the Arabian Peninsula, and the third group consists of all Arab countries in Africa. The paper outlines the solar density and sunshine hours, as well as wind data in the region and compares them with some industrialized countries. Brief surveys of various solar energy projects are tabulated: that is solar, wind and biomass. Several specific major projects in various parts of the Arab World will be discussed. More specifically, the cooling of the solar energy research building in Baghdad (120 tons of solar absorption chillers, 80 tons of heat pumps), the heating of King Abdu-Asis Airborne and Physical Training School near Tabuk, Saudi Arabia, the 350 kW PV. field of the solar energy village near Riyadh and the 100 kW solar thermal plant in Kuwait are discussed. It is worth noting that the present photovoltaic capacity in the Arab world is more than 3.0 MW and the yearly installation potential per year is 2.0 MW. There are at least five photovoltaic production facilities in the Arab countries. Two of them in Saudi Arabia with capacity of 400 kW, one in Iraq with a capacity of 200 kW, one in Tunisia with a capacity of 100 kW and on in Algeria with capacity of 100 kW. The Arab countries can absorb 5MW per year and more countries like Egypt, Sudan, Morocco, Jordan and Libya are thinking of having their own production capabilities. Five desalination plants are also mentioned, plus the Yanbu plant of 240m/day, which is one of the largest in the world. The potential of wind energy utilisation is considered. Obstacles hindering the process of solar energy in the region are also outlined. (author). 11 refs, 1 fig., 4 tabs

  14. Cheap oil. Good news - for most

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lorié, J.

    2014-01-01

    - The oil price has fallen by 40% in recent months, as a result of increasing oil supply, and is expected to be in the range of USD 70 - 80 per barrel in 2015. - The global economy is set to benefit, as are oil importing regions such as Europe and Asia. - Oil exporting countries like Brazil, Russia

  15. Dutch Disease and Nigeria Oil Economy | Otaha | African Research ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper examines why the enormous promises held out by the inflow of revenues from oil export has not made any significant improvement in the lives of Nigerians and the economy as a whole. The paper traces the problem to the inherent contradictions, anomalies, and problems associated with countries that depend ...

  16. Looking for alternative energy sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Michael

    2012-02-21

    With unrest in oil-exporting countries, backlashes against biofuels and photovoltaics, and a nuclear incident in Japan, the year 2011 rattled confidence in future energy supplies. The search for alternatives is all the more urgent, but some of the solutions investigated hark back to fossil fuels that we can't afford to burn.

  17. Examining the Economic Complexity of the Arab World to Identify ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Arab countries have experienced a long period of low growth. Their manufacturing sector is characterized by low competition, weak clustering, and a large number of microenterprises with fewer than 10 employees. As a result, the region's non-oil exports have been meager. The Philippines alone has more exports than the ...

  18. Black Edens, country Eves: Listening, performance, and black queer longing in country music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royster, Francesca T

    2017-07-03

    This article explores Black queer country music listening, performance, and fandom as a source of pleasure, nostalgia, and longing for Black listeners. Country music can be a space for alliance and community, as well as a way of accessing sometimes repressed cultural and personal histories of violence: lynching and other forms of racial terror, gender surveillance and disciplining, and continued racial and economic segregation. For many Black country music listeners and performers, the experience of being a closeted fan also fosters an experience of ideological hailing, as well as queer world-making. Royster suggests that through Black queer country music fandom and performance, fans construct risky and soulful identities. The article uses Tina Turner's solo album, Tina Turns the Country On! (1974) as an example of country music's power as a tool for resistance to racial, sexual, and class disciplining.

  19. Country nuclear power profiles. 2001 ed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-03-01

    The preparation of Country Nuclear Power Profiles was initiated within the framework of the IAEA's programme on assessment and feedback of nuclear power plant performance. It responded to a need for a database and a technical document containing a description of the economic situation, the energy and the electricity sector and the primary organizations involved in nuclear power in IAEA Member States. In 1998, the first edition of the Country Nuclear Power Profiles was published focusing on the overall economic, energy and electricity situation in the country and on its nuclear power industrial structure and organizational framework. The compilation was made based on contributions of 29 Member States with operating nuclear power plants by the end of 1995 and Italy. It also incorporated the 'Fact Sheets' on international, multilateral and bilateral agreements as collected by EXPO. The second edition, issued on CD-ROM only, covered the changes in the new environment of the electricity and the nuclear sector, i.e. the impact of privatization and deregulation on these sectors, be it that the situation differs from country to country. The third edition, issued as hard copy and CD-ROM, updates the country information, in general, to the end of 2000. This publication compiles background information on the status and development of nuclear power programmes in countries having operating nuclear plants and/or plants under construction as of 1 January 2001 and in countries actively engaged in planning such a programme. It presents historical information on energy supply and demand; reviews the organizational and industrial aspects of nuclear power programmes in participating countries for the same period; and provides information about the relevant legislative, regulatory, and international framework in each country. Topics such as reactor safety, the nuclear fuel cycle, radioactive waste management and research programmes are for the most part not discussed in detail

  20. Country nuclear power profiles. 2001 ed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-03-01

    The preparation of Country Nuclear Power Profiles was initiated within the framework of the IAEA's programme on assessment and feedback of nuclear power plant performance. It responded to a need for a database and a technical document containing a description of the economic situation, the energy and the electricity sector and the primary organizations involved in nuclear power in IAEA Member States. In 1998, the first edition of the Country Nuclear Power Profiles was published focusing on the overall economic, energy and electricity situation in the country and on its nuclear power industrial structure and organizational framework. The compilation was made based on contributions of 29 Member States with operating nuclear power plants by the end of 1995 and Italy. It also incorporated the 'Fact Sheets' on international, multilateral and bilateral agreements as collected by EXPO. The second edition, issued on CD-ROM only, covered the changes in the new environment of the electricity and the nuclear sector, i.e. the impact of privatization and deregulation on these sectors, be it that the situation differs from country to country. The third edition, issued as hard copy and CD-ROM, updates the country information, in general, to the end of 2000. This publication compiles background information on the status and development of nuclear power programmes in countries having operating nuclear plants and/or plants under construction as of 1 January 2001 and in countries actively engaged in planning such a programme. It presents historical information on energy supply and demand; reviews the organizational and industrial aspects of nuclear power programmes in participating countries for the same period; and provides information about the relevant legislative, regulatory, and international framework in each country. Topics such as reactor safety, the nuclear fuel cycle, radioactive waste management and research programmes are for the most part not discussed in detail

  1. [Risk sharing methods in middle income countries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inotai, András; Kaló, Zoltán

    2012-01-01

    The pricing strategy of innovative medicines is based on the therapeutic value in the largest pharmaceutical markets. The cost-effectiveness of new medicines with value based ex-factory price is justifiable. Due to the international price referencing and parallel trade the ex-factory price corridor of new medicines has been narrowed in recent years. Middle income countries have less negotiation power to change the narrow drug pricing corridor, although their fair intention is to buy pharmaceuticals at lower price from their scarce public resources compared to higher income countries. Therefore the reimbursement of new medicines at prices of Western-European countries may not be justifiable in Central-Eastern European countries. Confidential pricing agreements (i.e. confidential price discounts, claw-back or rebate) in lower income countries of the European Union can alleviate this problem, as prices of new medicines can be adjusted to local purchasing power without influencing the published ex-factory price and so the accessibility of patients to these drugs in other countries. In order to control the drug budget payers tend to apply financial risk sharing agreements for new medicines in more and more countries to shift the consequences of potential overspending to pharmaceutical manufacturers. The major paradox of financial risk-sharing schemes is that increased mortality, poor persistence of patients, reduced access to healthcare providers, and no treatment reduce pharmaceutical spending. Consequently, payers have started to apply outcome based risk sharing agreements for new medicines recently to improve the quality of health care provision. Our paper aims to review and assess the published financial and outcome based risk sharing methods. Introduction of outcome based risk-sharing schemes can be a major advancement in the drug reimbursement strategy of payers in middle income countries. These schemes can help to reduce the medical uncertainty in coverage

  2. Country nuclear power profiles. 2000 ed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-03-01

    The preparation of Country Nuclear Power Profiles was initiated within the framework of the IAEA programme on assessment and feedback of nuclear power plant performance. It responded to a need for a database and a technical document containing a description of the economic situation, the energy and the electricity sector and the primary organizations involved in nuclear power in IAEA Member States. In 1998, the first edition of the Country Nuclear Power Profiles was published focusing on the overall economic, energy and electricity situation in the country and on its nuclear power industrial structure and organizational framework. The compilation was made based on of 29 Member States with operating nuclear power plants by the end of 1995 and incorporated the 'Fact Sheets' on international, multilateral and bilateral agreements as collected by EXPO. In May 1999, an Advisory Group Meeting was organized with the purpose of updating the information in the Country Nuclear Power Profiles of each country, to reflect the new approaches and conditions of the national nuclear power programmes. The impact of the open electricity market, privatization and deregulation on the nuclear sector was an important aspect recommended by the experts to be taken in consideration. It was also recommended to periodically review the status and trends of nuclear industries in IAEA Member States and exchange information among experts of the lessons learned from the countries engaged in nuclear programmes, with a view to update the profiles at two year intervals. This second edition covers the changes in the new environment in the electricity as well as in the nuclear sector, be it that the situation differs from country to country. In general, the information is updated to 1999. For the preparation of this second edition, the IAEA received contributions from all 31 countries with operating power plants by the end of 1999, as well as Italy and the Islamic Republic of Iran. A database has been

  3. Export Credit Insurances in Developing Countries: The Case of Turkey and IMT Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cihat Koksal

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Export credit insurance is one of the substantial tools to promote export in a country. This paper endeavours to find out the effect of Export Credit Insurance covered by Export Credit Agencies on the developing countries’ export figures and GDP. The countries subject to the analysis are Turkey and Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand also known as IMT Countries. The relationship between export value, economic growth and export credit insurances will be analyzed using Vector Autoregression (VAR Model.

  4. Contribution of Arab countries to breast cancer research: comparison with non-Arab Middle Eastern countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweileh, Waleed M; Zyoud, Sa'ed H; Al-Jabi, Samah W; Sawalha, Ansam F

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most common types of cancers affecting women worldwide. The main objective of this study was to assess and compare research activity in breast cancer in Arab countries with non-Arab Middle Eastern countries. Publications about "breast cancer" as a research topic were retrieved using the ISI Web of Science database. Analysis was confined to original research and review articles. Research productivity was assessed by assessing number of publications and time trend of these publications, names of journals, citation analysis, top 10 active institutions as well as country contribution to breast cancer research. The quantity and quality of publications from Arab countries in addition to 3 other Middle East countries (Turkey, Iran and Israel) were assessed and compared using the h-index tool. A total of 1658 original research and review articles about "breast cancer" were published from Arab countries. Annual research productivity from Arab countries in the field of "breast cancer" was negligible but showed a significant increase in the last decade. Retrieved documents had relatively high citation parameters as measured by h-index of 61 and average citations of 17.46 per document. The highest research productivity was from Egypt with a total publication of 582 (35.10%). Cairo University with a total of 149 (8.99%) publications had the highest research productivity among institutions in Arab world. Forty four documents (2.65%) of breast cancer documents were published in Saudi Medical Journal. Arab researchers collaborated mostly with researchers from the United States of America (305; 18.40%) in breast cancer research. Compared with other non-Arab Middle Eastern countries, Arab countries had higher research productivity than some countries and lower than others, particularly Israel. The present data reveals a good contribution of some Arab countries to the field of "breast cancer" research. There is a gap between Arab countries and Israel in

  5. Energy demand in seven OECD countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patry, M.

    1990-01-01

    The intensity of utilization of energy has been declining in all OECD countries since the first oil price shock of 1973. In 1988, the OECD countries were consuming 1.7 billion tonnes of crude oil, that is two hundred million tonnes less than fifteen years ago. From 1974 to 1988, OECD oil consumption decreased at an average annual rate of 1.3% while the GDP of these countries rose by an average of 2.6% per annum. The authors present here a model of sectoral energy demand and interfuel substitution for the G-7 countries: Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the United Kingdom and the United States. The ultimate goal is to determine the relative importance of the contributing factors to the observed reversal in energy consumption per unit of production in these countries. The results they present should be viewed as preliminary. They point in the paper to a number of extensions that should improve the theoretical quality of the modeling effort and the statistical robustness of the results. They are presently expanding the data set to pinpoint more adequately the effects of structural change and conservation

  6. A hydrodynamic model for cooperating solidary countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luca, Roberto; Di Mauro, Marco; Falzarano, Angelo; Naddeo, Adele

    2017-07-01

    The goal of international trade theories is to explain the exchange of goods and services between different countries, aiming to benefit from it. Albeit the idea is very simple and known since ancient history, smart policy and business strategies need to be implemented by each subject, resulting in a complex as well as not obvious interplay. In order to understand such a complexity, different theories have been developed since the sixteenth century and today new ideas still continue to enter the game. Among them, the so called classical theories are country-based and range from Absolute and Comparative Advantage theories by A. Smith and D. Ricardo to Factor Proportions theory by E. Heckscher and B. Ohlin. In this work we build a simple hydrodynamic model, able to reproduce the main conclusions of Comparative Advantage theory in its simplest setup, i.e. a two-country world with country A and country B exchanging two goods within a genuine exchange-based economy and a trade flow ruled only by market forces. The model is further generalized by introducing money in order to discuss its role in shaping trade patterns. Advantages and drawbacks of the model are also discussed together with perspectives for its improvement.

  7. Transfer of radiation technology to developing countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markovic, Vitomir; Ridwan, Mohammad

    1993-10-01

    Transfer of technology is a complex process with many facets, options and constraints. While the concept is an important step in bringing industrialization process to agricultural based countries, it is clear, however, that a country will only benefit from a new technology if it addresses a real need, and if it can be absorbed and adapted to suit the existing cultural and technological base. International Atomic Energy Agency, as UN body, has a mandate to promote nuclear applicationsand assist Member States in transfer of technology for peaceful applications. This mandate has been pursued by many different mechanisms developed in the past years: technical assistance, coordinated research programmes, scientific and technical meetings, publications, etc. In all these activities the Agency is the organizer and initiator, but main contributions come from expert services from developed countries and, increasingly, from developing countries themselves. The technical cooperation among developing coutries more and more becomes part of different programmes. In particular, regional cooperation has been demonstrated as an effective instrument for transfer of technology from developed and among developing countries. Some examples of actual programmes are given.

  8. Dermatological moulage collections in the Nordic countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worm, A-M; Sinisalo, H; Eilertsen, G; Åhrén, E; Meyer, I

    2018-04-01

    The art of producing and acquiring dermatological wax models, moulages, flourished all over Europe in the beginning of the twentieth century, whereas very little is known about the existence of moulage collections in the Nordic countries. The aim of this study was to elucidate the presence, the origin, the production place, the use and the condition of dermatological moulage collections in the Nordic countries. In each Nordic country, an extensive survey was undertaken during spring 2016. Dermatological departments, museums with medical collections, persons assumed to have specific information about wax moulages as well as secondary sources were contacted and interviewed. Several hitherto undescribed collections have survived in each country, most, however, damaged and in disrepair. One Danish and part of a Finnish collection have been restored. Only few moulages are exhibited and some have been photographed and digitalized. Denmark and Sweden have had a local moulage production. Responses to the survey indicate that the result covers all collections of dermatological moulages in the Nordic countries, though some moulages may remain in private collections unknown to the authors, or uncatalogued in museums. Moulages are medical gems from bygone days before modern technology facilitated new means of communication. Restoration and appropriate storing should be considered for at least selected items from the Nordic collections. © 2017 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  9. Energy needs, developing countries and ICTP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sreenivasan, K.R.

    2005-01-01

    The energy consumption in the near future will go up at a more rapid rate than before. About four billion people use little energy today (1.6 billion are without electricity). The energy consumption will increase partly because more of them will begin to use more energy and partly because the population will increase (to an estimated 10-12 billion in the steady state). Dependence on fossil fuels cannot continue as now. Supplies are limited, availability will become a greater vagary as sources dry up and greenhouse effects may make them less useful even sooner. Sustainable energy options will have to be a mix of fossil fuels, nuclear energy, renewable sources and others like hydrogen. Participation of developing countries and dialogue with them are essential. Developing countries cannot follow the same path to progress as industrialized countries did in the past. Greater ingenuity is needed, which calls for greater investment in science. The industrialized countries have a large responsibility because unsustainable development in the developing part of the world will adversely affect every other part. ICTP's involvement in this respect involve dedicated scientific workshops over the years (some in cooperation with IAEA) with considerable participation from Developing Countries and TRIL Fellows. ICTP has a new section on Earth System Physics (consolidating energy issues as well). Since 1977 ICTP organized 21 courses and workshops, which were attended by about 2000 participants

  10. Initiating a Human Variome Project Country Node.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlAama, Jumana; Smith, Timothy D; Lo, Alan; Howard, Heather; Kline, Alexandria A; Lange, Matthew; Kaput, Jim; Cotton, Richard G H

    2011-05-01

    Genetic diseases are a pressing global health problem that requires comprehensive access to basic clinical and genetic data to counter. The creation of regional and international databases that can be easily accessed by clinicians and diagnostic labs will greatly improve our ability to accurately diagnose and treat patients with genetic disorders. The Human Variome Project is currently working in conjunction with human genetics societies to achieve this by establishing systems to collect every mutation reported by a diagnostic laboratory, clinic, or research laboratory in a country and store these within a national repository, or HVP Country Node. Nodes have already been initiated in Australia, Belgium, China, Egypt, Malaysia, and Kuwait. Each is examining how to systematically collect and share genetic, clinical, and biochemical information in a country-specific manner that is sensitive to local ethical and cultural issues. This article gathers cases of genetic data collection within countries and takes recommendations from the global community to develop a procedure for countries wishing to establish their own collection system as part of the Human Variome Project. We hope this may lead to standard practices to facilitate global collection of data and allow efficient use in clinical practice, research and therapy. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Status of nuclear power in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laue, H.J.

    1982-01-01

    In the context of the world-wide energy situation and the key position energy plays and will play for the economic and social development of any country, the energy demand situation up to the year 2000 is analysed. As a result, the world-wide energy demand will continue to increase, however, mainly in the developing world. Nuclear power is one of the important component in the energy mix of today and in the future. Status of nuclear power application in developing countries up to the end of the century. Any further growth of the peaceful use of nuclear power in developing countries is closely linked with the following requirements: - qualified manpower, - industrial infrastructure, - energy demand and supply assessments, - high investments, - assurance of supply of nuclear fuel and fuel cycle services, - availability of small and medium power reactors. The possible role of the IAEA in developing countries and international measures to remove some of the limitations for the peaceful use of nuclear energy in developing countries are discussed. (orig.)

  12. Tax Performance Assessment in Scandinavian Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bunescu Liliana

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to evaluate fiscal policy performance level in Nordic countries of Europe by quantifying the gap between their performance and an optimum benchmark value. In this study it was selected Denmark, Finland, Sweden and Norway. These countries occupy the first places in the ranking of countries with the highest rate of tax burden in Europe. The first part of paper contains general aspects of fiscal performance in international research and an overview of the Nordic tax systems model. The second part of paper focuses on evaluation of tax policy performance in these countries by using OptimTax scoring analysis. The research is based on a multivariate analysis instrument that uses quantitative data on various aspects of tax policy. OptimTax achieves a score for assessing the degree of optimization of fiscal policy. The results reveal high levels of tax performance in Scandinavian countries and a trend that seems to be more constant than ascending, except Norway.

  13. Plutonium use in foreign countries (03)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otagaki, Takao

    2004-03-01

    European countries and Japan had been implementing the strategy of spent fuel reprocessing in order to use nuclear material to the maximum. Plutonium recovered from reprocessing, however, must be recycle on light water reactors (LWRs) because of considerable delay of fast reactor development. In Europe, much of experiences of plutonium recycling have been accumulated until now. Thus, the status of plutonium recycling up to the end of 2003 in France, Germany, The U.K., Belgium, Switzerland and other countries were studied based on the following scope. (1) Basic policy and present status of plutonium recycling in primary countries of France, Germany, The U.K., Belgium, Switzerland, and Sweden which plans to recycle a part of plutonium: Backend policy and the status of spent fuel management were studied, then integrated analysis and evaluation of the position of plutonium recycling in backend and the status of plutonium recycling development were performed. (2) Plan and experience of Mixed Oxide (MOX) fuel fabrication and reprocessing of spent fuels: The data and information on plan and experience of MOX fuel fabrication and reprocessing in foreign countries were collected. (3) Plutonium inventories: The data and information of plutonium inventories of foreign countries were collected. (author)

  14. Plutonium use in foreign countries (01)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otagaki, Takao

    2002-03-01

    European countries and Japan had been implementing the strategy of spent fuel reprocessing in order to use nuclear material to the maximum. Plutonium recovered from reprocessing, however, must be recycle on light water reactors (LWRs) because of considerable delay of fast reactor development. In Europe, much of experience of plutonium recycling have been accumulated until now. Thus, the status of plutonium recycling up to the end of 2001 in France, Germany, The U.K., Belgium, Switzerland and other countries were studied based on the following scope. (1) Basic policy and present status of plutonium recycling in primary countries of France, Germany, The U.K., Belgium, Switzerland, and Sweden which recently appears the move of recycling a part of plutonium. Backend policy and the status of spent fuel management were studied, then integrated analysis and evaluation of the position of plutonium recycling in backend and the status of plutonium recycling development were performed. (2) Plan and experience of Mixed Oxide (MOX) fuel fabrication and reprocessing of spent fuels. The data and information on plan and experience of MOX fuel fabrication and reprocessing in foreign countries were collected. (3) Plutonium inventories. The data and information on plutonium inventories of foreign countries were collected. (author)

  15. Renewable Energy Country Profiles. Latin America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-06-15

    The IRENA Renewable Energy Country Profiles combine elements of IRENA analysis with the latest information available from a vast array of sources in order to give a brief yet comprehensive and up-to-date picture of the situation of renewable energy that includes energy supply, electrical capacity, energy access, policies, targets, investment climate, projects and endowment in renewable energy resources. Because of the different timelines of these sources, data presented here refer to years between 2009 and 2012. Data availability also differs from country to country, which makes comparison with a wider regional group possible only for the year for which figures are available for all the members of the group; while this may not be the most recent year, the differences between countries, regions and the world remain striking. The current country profiles are just a starting point; they will be extended upon with new indicators to make them more informative, and maintained as a live product on the IRENA website as a key source of information on renewable energy.

  16. Plutonium use in foreign countries (02)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otagaki, Takao

    2003-02-01

    European countries and Japan had been implementing the strategy of spent fuel reprocessing in order to use nuclear material to the maximum. Plutonium recovered from reprocessing, however, must be recycle on light water reactors (LWRs) because of considerable delay of fast reactor development. In Europe, much of experience of plutonium recycling have been accumulated until now. Thus, the status of plutonium recycling up to the end of 2002 in France, Germany, The U.K., Belgium, Switzerland and other countries were studied based on the following scope. (1) Basic policy and present status of plutonium recycling in primary countries of France, Germany, The U.K., Belgium, Switzerland, and Sweden which recently appears the move of recycling a part of plutonium. Backend policy and the status of spent fuel management were studied, then integrated analysis and evaluation of the position of plutonium recycling in backend and the status of plutonium recycling development were performed. (2) Plan and experience of Mixed Oside (MOX) fuel fabrication and reprocessing of spent fuels. The data and information on plan and experience of MOX fuel fabrication and reprocessing in foreign countries were collected. (3) Plutonium inventories. The data and information on plutonium inventories of foreign countries were collected. (author)

  17. Plutonium use in foreign countries. (04)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otagaki, Takao

    2005-03-01

    European countries and Japan had been implementing the strategy of spent fuel reprocessing in order to use nuclear material to the maximum. Plutonium recovered from reprocessing, however, must be recycle on light water reactors (LWRs) because of considerable delay of fast reactor development. In Europe, much of experience of plutonium recycling have been accumulated until now. Thus, the status of plutonium recycling up to the end of 2004 in France, Germany, The U.K., Belgium, Switzerland and other countries were studied based on the following scope. (1) Basic policy and present status of plutonium recycling in primary countries of France, Germany, the U.K., Belgium, Switzerland, and Sweden which plans to recycle a limited amount of plutonium: Backend policy and the status of spent fuel management were studied, then integrated analysis and evaluation of the position of plutonium recycling in backend and the status of plutonium recycling development were performed. (2) Plan and experience of Mixed Oxide (MOX) fuel fabrication and reprocessing of spent fuels: The data and information on plan and experience of MOX fuel fabrication and reprocessing in foreign countries were collected. (3) Plutonium inventories: The data and information on plutonium inventories of foreign countries were collected. (author)

  18. Acid deposition study in the Asian countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soon, Ting-Kueh [Tunku Abdul Rahman College, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Lau, Wai-Yoo [Malaysian Scientific Association, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    1996-12-31

    The Association of South East Asian Nations or ASEAN is a regional association of seven countries, namely Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, Brunei and Vietnam, located at the south eastern part of the Asian continent. Together with the East Asian States of Japan, China, Korea and Taiwan, this part of the world is experiencing rapid economic growth, especially in the last decade. Rapid industrialization has resulted in an increased demand for energy in the manufacturing and transport sectors, and also for infrastructure development. This has led to a significant increase in gaseous emissions and a corresponding increase in atmospheric acidity. Acid deposition study in the ASEAN countries began in the mid-70s when Malaysia first started her acid rain monitoring network in 1976. This was followed closely by Singapore and the other ASEAN countries in the 80s. By now all ASEAN countries have their own acid rain monitoring networks with a number of these countries extending the monitoring to dry deposition as well.

  19. Is astronomical research appropriate for developing countries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snowden, Michael S.

    An unproductive 45-cm astronomical telescope, given by JICA (Japan) to Sri Lanka, raises general questions as to the reasons for unproductive pure science in developing countries. Before installation, site, maintenance, and scientific objectives were discussed. The facility was launched with a conference organised by the UN Office for Outer Space Affairs. Unfortunately, no research or significant education has resulted after four years. The annual operating cost is U.S. $5000 per year, including salary for a trainee, maintenance, and a modest promotional programme. Comparison with a similar installation in Auckland suggests lack of funding or technical competence do not explain the failure in Sri Lanka. The facility in New Zealand, on the roof of Auckland University's Physics Department, has a slightly smaller budget but has led to modest but useful research and teaching. Lack of financial backing and expertise are often blamed for weak science in developing countries, but examination shows most of these countries have adequately skilled people, and plenty of resources for religion and military. General lack of motivation for science appears to be the principal reason. This lack of interest and highly inefficient bureaucracies are common to scientifically unproductive countries. They mostly lack the cultural and philosophical base of the European Renaissance that motivate the pursuit of modern science, an activity that violates human preferences. There are excellent facilities (ESO, SAAO, Cerro Tololo, and GONG) in some of these same countries, when administered from the West.

  20. Obesity and poverty paradox in developed countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Żukiewicz-Sobczak, Wioletta; Wróblewska, Paula; Zwoliński, Jacek; Chmielewska-Badora, Jolanta; Adamczuk, Piotr; Krasowska, Ewelina; Zagórski, Jerzy; Oniszczuk, Anna; Piątek, Jacek; Silny, Wojciech

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is a civilization disease and the proportion of people suffering from it continues to grow, especially in the developed countries. Number of obese people in Europe has increased threefold over the last 20 years. The paradox of obesity and poverty relationship is observed especially in the developed and developing countries. In developing countries, along with economic development and income growth, the number of people with overweight and obesity is increasing. This paradox has a relationship with both the easy availability and low cost of highly processed foods containing 'empty calories' and no nutritional value. To date, this paradox has been described in the United States and the United Kingdom, although many European countries are also experiencing high percentages of obese people. Among the reasons for the growing obesity in the population of poor people are: higher unemployment, lower education level, and irregular meals. Another cause of obesity is low physical activity, which among the poor is associated with a lack of money for sports equipment. Due to the large rate of deaths caused by diseases directly linked to obesity, the governments of many countries implement prevention programmes of overweight and obesity. These programmes are based primarily on educating the public about a healthy lifestyle based on healthy eating, daily physical activity and avoiding alcohol and cigarettes.

  1. Obesity and poverty paradox in developed countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wioletta Żukiewicz-Sobczak

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a civilization disease and the proportion of people suffering from it continues to grow, especially in the developed countries. Number of obese people in Europe has increased threefold over the last 20 years. The paradox of obesity and poverty relationship is observed especially in the developed and developing countries. In developing countries, along with economic development and income growth, the number of people with overweight and obesity is increasing. This paradox has a relationship with both the easy availability and low cost of highly processed foods containing ‘empty calories’ and no nutritional value. To date, this paradox has been described in the United States and the United Kingdom, although many European countries are also experiencing high percentages of obese people. Among the reasons for the growing obesity in the population of poor people are: higher unemployment, lower education level, and irregular meals. Another cause of obesity is low physical activity, which among the poor is associated with a lack of money for sports equipment. Due to the large rate of deaths caused by diseases directly linked to obesity, the governments of many countries implement prevention programmes of overweight and obesity. These programmes are based primarily on educating the public about a healthy lifestyle based on healthy eating, daily physical activity and avoiding alcohol and cigarettes.

  2. Cryptosporidiosis in Saudi Arabia and neighboring countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Areeshi, Mohammed Y.; Hart, C.A.; Beeching, N.J.

    2007-01-01

    Cryptosporidium is a coccidian protozoan parasite of the intestinal tract that causes severe and sometimes fatal watery diarrhea in immunocompromised patients and self-limiting but prolonged diarrheal disease in immunocompetent individuals. It exists naturally in animals and can be zoonotic. Although cryptosporidiosis is a significant cause of diarrheal disease in both developing and developed countries, it is more prevalent in developing countries and in tropical environments. We examined the epidemiology and disease burden of Cryptosporidium in Saudi Arabia and neighboring countries by reviewing 23 published studies of Cryptosporidium and etiology of diarrhea in between 1986 and 2006. The prevalence of Cryptosporidium infection in human's ranged from 1% to 37% with a median of 4%, while in animals it was for different species of animals and geographic locations of the studies. Most cases of cryptosporidiosis occurred among children less than 7 years of age and particularly in the first two years of life. The seasonality of Cryptosporidium varied depending on the geographic locations of the studies but it generally most prevalent in the rainy season. The most commonly identified species was Cryptosporidium parvum while C.hominis was detected only in one study from Kuwait. The cumulative experience from Saudi Arabia and four neighboring countries (Kuwait, Oman, Jordan and Iraq) suggest that Cryptosporidium is an important cause of diarrhea in human and cattle. However, the findings of this review also demonstrate the limitations of the available data regarding Cryptosporidium species and strains in circulation in these countries. (author)

  3. MEASURING SOFT ECONOMIC POWER OF COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Chugaiev

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Existing methods of measuring economic component of national soft power are mainly based on surveys of public opinion. Their results are summarized. We elaborate and test an index of soft economic power based on webometric approach. The index measures the amount of economic information about a country in the internet and the ratio of positive and negative information. The information usually reflects economic situation in a country, news, conditions for business, efficiency of governance, returns or economic relations with other countries. The leaders by the soft economic power index are the EU, the U,S, and China, The correlation between the index and the share in world GDP is high, but several outliers were detected. English-speaking countries tend to be overrepresented in the internet. Despite several advantages of the suggested approach, use of the index as the sole method of measurement is problematic, because other language bias, occasional double counting, imperfect classification of information as positive or negative, and imprecise results for small countries.

  4. Nuclear project finance in developing countries: The multi-country financing alternative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleck, J.B.

    1986-01-01

    It is the basic contention of this paper that, because of certain factors in the financial markets, multi-country financing (MCF) is the new alternative if not the imperative for large scale and turnkey nuclear plant programs in developing countries. The point is made that its successful use depends on the ability of the host country, the credit granting countries and suppliers to both recognize the MCF reality and manage its implicit variables. Those who collectively do so will be successful, and those who cannot will not be states the author. The aspects of MCF are described

  5. Waste management advisory missions to developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, K.T.

    1990-01-01

    The IAEA's Waste Management Advisory Programme (WAMAP) was initiated in 1987 as an interregional technical co-operation project to complement other activities in radioactive waste management. Its creation gave greater recognition to the importance of the safe management of radioactive wastes and promotion of long-term waste management technical assistance strategies for developing countries. Over the past 4 years, international experts have reviewed the radioactive waste management programmes of 29 developing countries. Missions have been conducted within the framework of the IAEA's Waste Management Advisory Programme (WAMAP). Ten of these countries have nuclear power plants in operation or under construction or have nuclear fuel cycle facilities. Altogether, 23 have research reactors or centres, eight have uranium or thorium processing programmes or wastes, and nine essentially have only isotope applications involving the use of radiation sources

  6. THE FASTEST GROWING LEAST DEVELOPED COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wioletta NOWAK

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents trends in economic growth and development in twelve least developed countries from 2006 to 2015. The study is based on the data retrieved from the World Bank Database. During the analysed 10 years, seven Asian (Myanmar, Lao PDR, Bhutan, Cambodia, Timor-Leste, Bangladesh, and Afghanistan and five African (Ethiopia, Rwanda, Angola, Sudan, and Mozambique LDCs had average annual GDP per capita growth rates higher than 4.0%. GDP has been largely generated through the services and industry sectors. A few LDCs sustained strong growth mainly because of foreign assistance and in other countries remittances were a significant source of development finance. Resource rich countries recorded high inflows of foreign direct investment. In a few fast growing LDCs the state has been heavily engaged in economy. The analysed LDCs substantially improved their development indicators.

  7. Decomposing Cross-Country Differences in Skills:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albæk, Karsten; Rosdahl, Anders

    2017-01-01

    This paper performs multivariate analysis of skill differences in the Nordic countries as assessed by OECD’s PIACC survey of adults aged 16-65. We decompose the differences in average skills between Finland and each of the three Scandinavian countries into a component that is due to different skill...... levels in subgroups of the population and a component that is due to differences in the composition of subgroups. The decompositions show that the high Finnish average skill level compared to the three Scandinavian countries can be attributed the low share of immigrants in Finland and to high scores...... among Finns with high school and less than high school education. The Finnish average score is pulled substantially downwards as a consequence of the low numeracy skill level among older Finns, which is consistent with an increase in the quantity or quality of Finnish education over time, relative...

  8. Migration from the new EU member countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Louise Møller; Lund Thomsen, Trine

    2012-01-01

    investigates the potentials, limitations and conflicts of interests that are connected with temporary employment of Eastern European migrant workers within the unskilled labour sectors seen from the perspective of Danish labour market actors; politicians, labour marked unions, Danish employers, Danish......During the past four years more than 52.500 Eastern European EU citizens have worked and lived in Denmark. Migrant workers from the new EU countries are characterized by a high degree of mobility, flexibility and eagerness in terms of working and adapting to working conditions. Poorer socioeconomic...... and working conditions in their home countries as well as being of another cultural background than their Danish colleagues brings with it many challenges. This article examines the consequences of low-skilled labour migration to Denmark from the new EU member countries in Eastern Europe. The article...

  9. Atom for peace in the socialist countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panasenkov, A.F.

    1979-01-01

    In general terms presented are the achievements of the Council of Mutual Economic Assistance (CMEA) countries in the sphere of nuclear science and technology. The activities of the Joint Institute of Nuclear Research in Dubna and the CMEA Commission on peaceful Use of Nuclear power are described. Works on the development and construction of plants with the WWER-1000 reactor are under completion, the BN-1600 fast reactor technical project is under way. The CMEA countries energy program and their cooperation in this field are presented in short. The directions of studies on the radioactive waste reprocessing and desposal are described. The work of International Economic Union (the ''Interinstrument''), created with the aim of specialization and cooperation on the CMEA countries in the field of nuclear instrument-industry is presented

  10. Country Competitiveness Relationship with Higher Education Indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos Lopez-Leyva

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the performance of global competitiveness and higher education competitiveness between two groups of countries. The first group is formed by four Asian countries; the second one by four Latin American countries. Indicators from the World Economic Forum 2007-2015 are compared. The indicators with the nearest proximity were found in the management quality of the universities, where there was only a five-point difference in favor of the Asian group. The indicator with the widest gap came from the quality of math and sciences education where we found a difference of 104 points. This is congruent with the results of PISA 2012, which showed a difference of 152 points in math.

  11. Contraceptive use in the Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindh, Ingela; Skjeldestad, Finn E; Gemzell-Danielsson, Kristina

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The aim was to compare contraceptive use in the Nordic countries and to assess compliance with recommendations from the European Medicines Agency regarding the use of combined oral contraception containing low-dose estrogen and levonorgestrel, norethisterone or norgestimate. MATERIAL...... AND METHODS: Data on hormonal contraceptive prescriptions and sales figures for copper intrauterine devices were obtained from national databases and manufacturers in Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden in 2010-2013. RESULTS: Contraceptive use was highest in Denmark (42%) and Sweden (41%), followed...... by Finland (40%). Combined oral contraception was the most used method in all countries, with the highest use in Denmark (26%). The second most used method was the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system, with the highest use in Finland (15%) and ≈10% in the other countries. Copper intrauterine devices...

  12. Adaptation to Climate Change in Developing Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mertz, Ole; Halsnæs, Kirsten; Olesen, Jørgen E.

    2009-01-01

    Adaptation to climate change is given increasing international attention as the confidence in climate change projections is getting higher. Developing countries have specific needs for adaptation due to high vulnerabilities, and they will in this way carry a great part of the global costs...... of climate change although the rising atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations are mainly the responsibility of industrialized countries. This article provides a status of climate change adaptation in developing countries. An overview of observed and projected climate change is given, and recent literature...... on impacts, vulnerability, and adaptation are reviewed, including the emerging focus on mainstreaming of climate change and adaptation in development plans and programs. The article also serves as an introduction to the seven research articles of this special issue on climate change adaptation in developing...

  13. Developing countries and the global science Web

    CERN Document Server

    Cerdeira, Hilda; Fonda, Carlo; Cottrell, R L A

    2003-01-01

    Enabling scientists from developing countries to bridge the gap between rich and poor depends on closing another gap - the "digital divide". Now the technology exists to monitor this divide, and it reveals some alarming results. Most developing countries experience great difficulties because of adverse economic conditions and political instability, which means they lag behind in scientific and technological development. With the advent of the World Wide Web and the rapid exchange of information via the Internet, one might naively have thought that much of the gap between developed and developing nations would disappear, even if problems still persisted for those areas of science that need expensive facilities. However, access to information, peer reviewed or not, depends on having the appropriate hardware, i.e. a computer, and Internet connectivity, and there is a serious problem with access to the Internet in developing countries. Gaining access to a computer is more of a question of economics, and one that ...

  14. Developing countries' motivation to use nuclear technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratsch, U.

    1990-01-01

    Governments of various developing countries see nuclear energy as an important tool for at least three political goals: Firstly, the expected rise in future energy demand, so they argue, can only be met if nuclear electricity production in the Third World is expanded. Fossil sources are supposed to become increasingly scarce and expensive, and they are also seen to be ecologically damaging. Technologies to harness renewable energy sources are not yet mature and still too costly. Secondly, nuclear technology is seen as one of the most advanced technologies. Mastering of it might help to diminish the technological gap between the First and the Third World. Thirdly, scientific progress in developing countries is hoped to be accelerated by operating research reactors in these countries. All of these arguments ought to be taken as serious motivations. (orig./HSCH) [de

  15. Quarterly coal statistics of OECD countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-04-27

    These quarterly statistics contain data from the fourth quarter 1990 to the fourth quarter 1991. The first set of tables (A1 to A30) show trends in production, trade, stock change and apparent consumption data for OECD countries. Tables B1 to B12 show detailed statistics for some major coal trade flows to and from OECD countries and average value in US dollars. A third set of tables, C1 to C12, show average import values and indices. The trade data have been extracted or derived from national and EEC customs statistics. An introductory section summarizes trends in coal supply and consumption, deliveries to thermal power stations; electricity production and final consumption of coal and tabulates EEC and Japanese steam coal and coking coal imports to major countries.

  16. Mobile ICT Acceptance in Late Adopter Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gimpel, Gregory; Sudzina, Frantisek; Petrovcikova, Katarina

    2014-01-01

    Despite the rapid global diffusion of the smartphone, some countries have experienced much slower uptake of the technology. The low smartphone penetration within Slovakia provides the opportunity to explore what drives smartphone use in late majority countries. Slovakia is a central European nation...... and part of the Eurozone. It has advanced telecommunications infrastructure and is subject to the same telecommunications regulations as other EU members. While neighbours have high smartphone penetration, Slovakia is a late majority adopter. This study uses Triandis’ theory of interpersonal behavior...... to investigate the question: What drives the use of smartphones in late majority countries? By studying the differences between current and potential smartphone users, the study revisits Karahanna et al.’s research question: Do potential adopters and users of IT hold the same behavioral and normative beliefs...

  17. Energy policies of IEA countries. 1993 review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    Energy policies in Member countries's and the international energy situation are highlighted in this 1993 edition. It reviews recent trends and developments in energy demand, conservation and efficiency, supply of primary fuels, environment, technology and R and D. This year's Review also gives an overview of significant developments in key policy areas since the IEA's creation, on the occasion of its 20th anniversary. Member countries' energy policies are reviewed in depth on a four-year cycle. In-depth reviews of the energy policies of Austria, Denmark, Germany, Greece, the United Kingdom and the United States were conducted in 1993. Energy policy developments and supply and demand trends for the other 17 countries are updated from the previous in-depth reviews and summarized in this volume. (authors). figs., tabs

  18. Handbook of nuclear countries 1994/1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kappell, V.

    1996-12-01

    The third edition of the Handbook covers 86 countries which are reviewed in separate chapters. Depending on the completeness of information available, the review of nuclear activities of a given country covers both peaceful and military uses of atomic energy, as well as the corresponding international trade and cooperations. An appendix reproduces a self-assessment by the Turkish Government, as well as the Treaty of Tlatelolco, the nuclear weapons ban treaty for the countries of Latin America. (orig.) [Deutsch] In dieser 3. Ausgabe des Handbuches werden 86 Laender erfasst, wobei die nunklearen Aktivitaeten jedes Landes in einem eigenen Abschnitt dargestellt werden. Je nach Umfang der verfuegbaren Fakten wird sowohl ueber die friedliche als auch die militaerische Nutzung der Kernenergie und ueber den internationalen Handel und die internationale Zusammenarbeit berichtet. Im Anhang wird eine Eigendarstellung der tuerkischen Regierung wiedergegeben, sowie der Vertrag von TLATELOLCO zum Verbot nuklearer Waffen in Latein-Amerika. (orig.)

  19. Comparing ecological awareness in developed countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kessel, H.

    1982-01-01

    This paper addresses the questions ''Do people think about the environment in similar ways.'', ''What are the similarities and differences across different groups within a country, and what are the similarities and differences across countries.'' Using a new factor-analytical approach (which is described in detail in the appendix) four independent cognitive dimensions of the ecological awareness could be found from a set of 12 Items of the International Environmental Survey of 1980: 1. Attitude toward science and technology; 2. Concern about resources and energy supply; 3. Attitude toward nuclear power; 4. Concern about the limits to growth. The major similarities overall and the minor differences between the countries will be discussed. (orig.) [de

  20. Country Fundamentals and Currency Excess Returns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daehwan Kim

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We examine whether country fundamentals help explain the cross-section of currency excess returns. For this purpose, we consider fundamental variables such as default risk, foreign exchange rate regime, capital control as well as interest rate in the multi-factor model framework. Our empirical results show that fundamental factors explain a large part of the cross-section of currency excess returns. The zero-intercept restriction of the factor model is not rejected for most currencies. They also reveal that our factor model with country fundamentals performs better than a factor model with usual investment-style factors. Our main empirical results are based on 2001-2010 balanced panel data of 19 major currencies. This paper may fill the gap between country fundamentals and practitioners' strategies on currency investment.

  1. Obesity Prevention in the Nordic Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockmarr, Anders; Hejgaard, Tatjana; Matthiessen, Jeppe

    2016-06-01

    Previous studies have shown that mean BMI and prevalences of overweight/obesity and obesity have increased over the last decades in the Nordic countries, despite highly regulated societies with a focus on obesity prevention. We review recent overweight/obesity and obesity prevention initiatives within four of the five Nordic countries: Sweden, Denmark, Finland, and Iceland. Moreover, we analyze the current situation based on monitoring data on BMI collected in 2011 and 2014, and obtain overall estimates of overweight/obesity and obesity prevalences for the Nordic Region. Data analysis shows that obesity in adults has increased from 2011 to 2014, while no significant changes were found for children. No significant increases were found for mean BMI and overweight/obesity prevalence. Obesity prevention initiatives among the Nordic countries are highly similar although minor differences are present, which is rooted in transnational Nordic cooperation and comparable societal structures.

  2. Obesity Prevention in the Nordic Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stockmarr, Anders; Hejgaard, Tatjana; Matthiessen, Jeppe

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that mean BMI and prevalences of overweight/obesity and obesity have increased over the last decades in the Nordic countries, despite highly regulated societies with a focus on obesity prevention. We review recent overweight/obesity and obesity prevention initiatives...... that obesity in adults has increased from 2011 to 2014, while no significant changes were found for children. No significant increases were found for mean BMI and overweight/obesity prevalence. Obesity prevention initiatives among the Nordic countries are highly similar although minor differences are present...... within four of the five Nordic countries: Sweden, Denmark, Finland, and Iceland. Moreover, we analyze the current situation based on monitoring data on BMI collected in 2011 and 2014, and obtain overall estimates of overweight/obesity and obesity prevalences for the Nordic Region. Data analysis shows...

  3. Synchrotron light sources in developing countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mtingwa, Sekazi K.; Winick, Herman

    2018-03-01

    We discuss the role that synchrotron light sources, such as SESAME, could play in improving the socioeconomic conditions in developing countries. After providing a brief description of a synchrotron light source, we discuss the important role that they played in the development of several economically emerging countries. Then we describe the state of synchrotron science in South Africa and that country’s leadership role in founding the African Light Source initiative. Next, we highlight a new initiative called Lightsources for Africa, the Americas & Middle East Project, which is a global initiative led by the International Union of Pure and Applied Physics and the International Union of Crystallography, with initial funding provided by the International Council for Science. Finally, we comment on a new technology called the multibend achromat that has launched a new paradigm for the design of synchrotron light sources that should be attractive for construction in developing countries.

  4. Nuclear power in the Nordic countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    Of the Nordic countries-Sweden, Finland, Denmark, and Norway-the first two have chosen nuclear energy to supply a large portion of their electrical generation requirements. Finland has opted for two Western-style boiling water reactors and two modified Russian-designed pressurized water reactors. The country has led the nuclear nations of the world in the 1990s with its capacity factor. Domestic reports state that nuclear is the lowest-cost electrical generation source, and Finland will need additional capacity by 2000. The country's nuclear waste storage facilities are in operation, with more under construction. In this, the second part of a two-part feature (the first part viewed Sweden's nuclear program), the attention is focused on Finland: its government, where it has positioned itself in the world economy, and the internal conflicts of how, or if, to add the needed electrical capacity

  5. IMMIGRATION GROWTH TENDENCIES IN OECD COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imran SARIHASAN

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Immigration became one of the relevant economic topics in recent years. Over the centuries millions of people have migrated, despite the physical, cultural etc. obstacles, to other lands in search of better lives for themselves and their children. In the context of development, globalization and labor market mobility, it is necessary to further analyze the determinants and consequences of migration not only on the host country, but also on the sending country. The increased interest and availability of data keeps this subject in the attention of economists all over the world. In this case an increase in immigration became very significant ıssue for policymakers. The aims of this study are to describe immigration growth tendencies and to answer how much is the average growth rate of foreıgn born population. Thus, in order to measure the native and foreign-born unemployed migrants, twenty-seven OECD countries were used in this research paper.

  6. Changing health inequalities in the Nordic countries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahelma, E; Lundberg, O; Manderbacka, K; Roos, E

    2001-01-01

    The Nordic countries, referring here to Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden, have often been viewed as a group of countries with many features in common, such as geographical location, history, culture, religion, language, and economic and political structures. It has also been habitual to refer to a "Nordic model" of welfare states comprising a large public sector, active labour market policies, high costs for social welfare as well as high taxes, and a general commitment to social equality. Recent research suggests that much of this "Nordicness" appears to remain despite the fact that the Nordic countries have experienced quite different changes during the 1980s and 1990s. How this relates to changes in health inequalities is in the focus of this supplement.

  7. The development of the strategy and plan for the decommissioning and abandonment of 36'' offshore oil export pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthews, Richard J. [PIMS of London Ltd, London, (United Kingdom); Galvez Reyes, Marco Antonio [PEMEX Refinacion, Veracruz, (Mexico)

    2010-07-01

    The decommissioning and abandonment of platforms and pipelines are big challenges for the pipeline industry. This paper presents a review of the decommissioning and abandonment processes based on a study case, the Rabon Grande pipeline system. First, the applicable international codes, standards and regulations associated with the decommissioning of pipelines are discussed. Next, this paper presents a review of the decommissioning and abandonment options and considerations available for the study case. The Rabon Grande pipeline system, which was shut down and isolated in 1990 pending decommissioning, is used as an example of applying decommissioning and abandonment best practice and establishing a realistic scope of work. A decommissioning plan is developed in light of these previous studies, followed by an environmental impact assessment. It is found that contrary to what was done in the case of the Rabon Grande pipeline, when a pipeline is to be shutdown, the best practice methodology is to temporally or fully decommission the system as soon as possible.

  8. Energy policies of IEA countries: 2006 review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    This compilation contains a broad analysis of recent trends and an easily accessible overview of energy policy of the 26 member countries of the International Energy Agency and other key non-member countries such as China, India and Russia, during the last 12 months. The overview section examines trends in energy markets, including an analysis of energy demand and supply, energy prices and energy related CO{sub 2} emissions. It highlights key policy trends across member and non-member countries on energy security, energy market reform, climate change mitigation, energy efficiency, renewables and energy R&D. The book contains a special chapter on energy efficiency, which compares the most successful efficiency policies of member countries on the basis of In-Depth Review findings of the past three years. It also presents the major findings of the World Energy Outlook 2006, key statistical information and brief summaries of major IEA publications released during the past year. In past years summaries of In-Depth Reviews conducted in the cycle covered by this book, as well as Standard Reviews, were published as part of the book. From this year they will only be available from the IEA's website on www.iea.org. Chapter headings are: Executive summary; Energy efficiency; World energy outlook 2006; Energy security; Energy market reform; Climate change; Renewable energy; Technology, research and development; Energy policies in key non-member countries; and Energy balances and key statistical data of IEA countries. 25 figs., 11 tabs., 4 annexes.

  9. Emerging industrial countries provide the sale opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dzhefs, Eh.; Grinkhal, G.

    1982-01-01

    Main trends in the development of nuclear power engineering in capitalist countries are considred. A particular attention is paid to a sharp contrast in the attitude to nuclear engineering in the developed and developing countries. In the first ones a considerable influence on the realization of nuclear engineering programs is exerted by the political situation, in the second ones the tendency to a transition from the NPP import to an increase in domestic industry contribution designing and fabricating separate plant units, equipment and fuel is clearly manifested

  10. What Makes MNCs Succeed in Developing Countries?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael W.; Gwozdz, Wencke

    2015-01-01

    ) are increasingly establishing subsidiaries in developing countries. The potential gains are high; however, so are the risks. While the issue of subsidiary performance should be at the heart of any international business (IB) enquiry into MNC activity in developing countries, surprisingly little research has...... examined this issue. Design/methodology/approach – Based on a comprehensive literature review of the IB performance literature, it is hypothesized that subsidiary performance essentially is shaped by five clusters of factors: location, industry, MNC capabilities, subsidiary role and entry strategy...

  11. Radiation protection monitoring in tropical, developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, K.; Drexler, G.

    1979-01-01

    Almost all radiation protection standards, manuals and textbooks have been written in and for industrialized countries in temperate climates, and most research effort and instrument manufacturers are also located there. There has been relatively little interest in the completely different socio-economic and climatic conditions in many developing countries. Some of the important differences in conditions, such as high temperatures and relative humidities, electric-power failures and voltage fluctuations, shortage of trained manpower, etc., are discussed, and suggestions are made how to minimize their impacts. Other important matters that are considered are recruitment and training, optimized organizational structures, and the proper choice of research topics in the radiation protection field. (author)

  12. Energy technology transfer to developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butera, F.; Farinelli, U.

    1992-01-01

    With the use of critical analyses of some examples of technology transfer by industrialized to third world countries, this paper illustrates the importance, in technology transfer, of giving due consideration to the specific social and marketing contexts of the targeted developing country and its physical and financial capability to acquire all the technology necessary to make the total realization of a desired industrial scheme feasible from the economic, technical and social points of view. It also indicates that the most effective transfers are those in which efforts are made to optimize local work force learning levels, process scheme efficiency and cost through the careful integration of innovative with conventional technologies

  13. Wind energy in the Mediterranean countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaudiosi, G.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reviews the main findings relative to the European Communities OPET (Organization for the Promotion of Energy Technology) June 1992 conference on the potential for small and medium size wind energy applications in the Mediterranean countries and gives a panoramic look at progress being made by these countries in the development and use of wind energy turbines. One system which appears to be promising is the Danish 100 kW 'Bonus' wind turbine (23 m rotor, 30 m tower height) which has seen successful applications at a seaside resort and at a remote radio station in terms of performance, environmental compatibility and public acceptance

  14. Vocational education in the Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    a common heritage in education policy. This volume will help strengthen the knowledge base required for transnational policy learning, and for developing vocational education internationally for the future. As a result, the book will be of interest to researchers, academics and postgraduate students......Vocational Education in the Nordic Countries: Learning from Diversity is the second of two books that disseminates new and systematic knowledge on the strengths and weaknesses of the different models of vocational education and training (VET) in four Nordic countries. Vocational education in Europe...... involved in the study of vocational education, educational studies and educational policy, as well as policy makers....

  15. Country Nuclear Power Profiles. 2016 Edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-12-01

    The Country Nuclear Power Profiles compile background information on the status and development of nuclear power programmes in Member States. The publication summarizes organizational and industrial aspects of nuclear power programmes and provides information about the relevant legislative, regulatory and international framework in each State. Its descriptive and statistical overview of the overall economic, energy and electricity situation in each State and its nuclear power framework is intended to serve as an integrated source of key background information about nuclear power programmes throughout the world. This 2016 edition, issued on CD-ROM, contains updated country information for 51 States.

  16. Country Nuclear Power Profiles - 2015 Edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-08-01

    The Country Nuclear Power Profiles compile background information on the status and development of nuclear power programmes in Member States. The publication summarizes organizational and industrial aspects of nuclear power programmes and provides information about the relevant legislative, regulatory and international framework in each State. Its descriptive and statistical overview of the overall economic, energy and electricity situation in each State and its nuclear power framework is intended to serve as an integrated source of key background information about nuclear power programmes throughout the world. This 2015 edition, issued on CD-ROM, contains updated country information for 51 States

  17. WTO negotiations on agriculture and developing countries:

    OpenAIRE

    Hoda, Anwarul; Gulati, Ashok

    2008-01-01

    The World Trade Organization’s Doha Round of trade talks has been plagued by a lack of concrete progress toward establishing a fair and harmonious agricultural trading system. Because the results of the Doha Round could have far-reaching implications for the trade and economic prospects of developing countries in the twenty-first century, it is critical for these countries to fully understand the issues involved in the negotiations on agriculture. However, there has been no authoritative an...

  18. Forward Looking Banking Stress in EMU Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez-Puig, Marta; Sosvilla Rivero, Simón, 1961-; Singh, Manish Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Based on contingent claims analysis(CCA), this paper tries to estimate the systemic risk build-up in the European Economic and Monetary Union (EMU) countries using a market based measure "distance-to-default"(DtD). It analyzes the individual and aggregated series for a comprehensive set of banks in each eurozone country over the period 2004-Q4 to 2013-Q2. Given the structural differences in financial sector and banking regulations at national level, the indices provide a useful indicator for ...

  19. DIFFERENT DYNAMICS FOR SOME COUNTRIES OF CEE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian SPIRIDON

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The study addresses the economic development of four European countries - Romania, Hungary, Czech Republic, and Poland beginning with 1990. It will be employed a descriptive analysis of their trade and growth dynamics. Emphasis will be placed on the determinants of economic growth of this group of countries in general and foreign trade in particular. The results indicate a heterogeneous dynamics of economic performances explained by specific characteristics and less by exogenous aspects related to trade partners and commercial structure, regional integration or foreign policy influenced by geographic proximity. In what concerns Romania, it appears to have been driven by a weaker engine of economic growth in the last two centuries.

  20. Internationalization of science in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salam, A.

    1980-03-01

    The history of science has gone through cycles among nations. In the period of antiquity the centres of science were in the East; in the middle ages scholars from the underdeveloped West travelled to the centres of study and research of the rich countries in the East to learn from the teachers there. In our century the cycle has turned and it is the East that turns to the West for science. Opportunities for scientists from developing countries are diminishing, however, and it is important that centres like the International Centre for Theoretical Physics in Trieste, supported by the IAEA, UNESCO and the Government of Italy, be provided with continuing and strong support

  1. Potential uranium provinces in some arabian countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salman, A A [Nuclear materials authority, El Maadi, Cairo, (Egypt)

    1995-10-01

    This work represents an attempt to delineate potential uranium provinces in some Arabian countries using various related recognition criteria. Definition of these provinces is based on the available geologic and tectonic setting beside geochronological sequence and some geochemical characteristics. This trial would be of a great help for interchanging the ideas and necessary data for the development in the fields of uranium exploration and production. As a result of this study, a number of promising potential uranium provinces are recommended in some arabian countries. 5 figs.

  2. Joint balance handling in the Nordic Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    In September 2002 Nordel introduced new principles for disposing of regulation power for balancing production and consumption of electricity. The new principles imply that the regulation power in the joint Nordic power system is better utilized, and that the settlement of imbalances between the countries follows joint rules. The settlement of imbalances in the individual countries follows different principles but Nordel is looking into the possibilities of a harmonization. EU's most recent draft of a strategy report on development of the power market points among other things towards a joint regulation power market as a tool against misuse of market power. (BA)

  3. Public Education and Growth in Developing Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schuppert, Christiane; Wirz, Nadja

    Human capital plays a key role in fostering technology adoption, the major source of economic growth in developing countries. Consequently, enhancing the level of human capital should be a matter of public concern. The present paper studies public education incentives in an environment in which...... governments can invest in human capital to facilitate the adoption of new technologies invented abroad or, instead, focus on consumptive public spending. Although human capital is pivotal for growth, the model reveals that incentives to invest in public education vanish if a country is poorly endowed...

  4. Climate Change Adaptation Practices in Various Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanik, A.; Tekten, D.

    2017-08-01

    The paper will be a review work on the recent strategies of EU in general, and will underline the inspected sectoral based adaptation practices and action plans of 7 countries; namely Germany, France, Spain, Italy, Denmark, USA and Kenya from Africa continent. Although every countries’ action plan have some similarities on sectoral analysis, each country in accordance with the specific nature of the problem seems to create its own sectoral analysis. Within this context, green and white documents of EU adaptation to climate change, EU strategy on climate change, EU targets of 2020 on climate change and EU adaptation support tools are investigated.

  5. How countries become rich and reduce poverty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whitfield, Lindsay

    2012-01-01

    For the sake of less developed countries, it is time to adjust the discussion of international development assistance on poverty reduction. This article attempts to do so by reviewing new and old literature explaining why some countries are rich and others are poor. History has repeatedly shown...... that building up capabilities in manufacturing and improving the productivity of agriculture are the keys to wealth creation and long-term sustained poverty reduction. Furthermore, industrialisation and increased agricultural productivity are interdependent processes. Discussion about ending world poverty needs...

  6. Problems of radiation therapy in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyimo, R; Neumeister, K

    1988-01-01

    Poverty as well as lack of proper cancer programmes has prevented the early detection of cancer in developing countries. Radiotherapy is applied mostly in advanced cases only. To change the situation comprehensive programmes must be introduced with particular attention to the importance of cancer control. The establishment of cancer societies as well as the introduction of centres for training of radiological personnel will really improve the situation. A realistic method for the optimization of radiotherapy in developing countries should be the use of radiomodification such as hypoxyradiotherapy.

  7. Changing education through ICT in developing countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georgsen, Marianne; Zander, Pär-Ola

    This book presents discussions of how information and communication technology (ICT) can play a vital role in developing education and thereby developing communities, countries and regions.Through examples of current research in developing countries, a number of highly relevant questions and topics...... and education The chapters in this volume are written by members of the international research group on ICT for Development (ICT4D) at Aalborg University together with researchers from around the world. This book is the first of its kind to concentrate fully on the relationship between ICT for development...... in the context of education. The book is essential reading for researchers, educational planners, policy advisers, students and educators....

  8. CSR Institutionalized Myths in Developing Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jamali, Dima; Lund-Thomsen, Peter; Khara, Navjote

    2017-01-01

    This article examines joint action initiatives among small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in the manufacturing industries in developing countries in the context of the ascendancy of corporate social responsibility (CSR) and the proliferation of a variety of international accountability tools...... place, and how developing country firms can gain credit and traction by focusing on high visibility CSR issues, although the plight of workers remains fundamentally unchanged. The authors revisit these findings in the discussion and concluding sections, highlighting the main research and policy...

  9. Country programme review Republic of Cameroon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherif, H.C.; Hasling, W.; Hera, C.H.; Maudarbocus, A.Y.; Mtimet, S.

    1993-10-01

    A multi-disciplinary country programme review and programming mission was undertaken to the Republic of Cameroon, from 21 to 25 June 1993. This report reflects the findings and recommendations of the mission and falls into four sections. The first section describes the country profile and includes information about its economy and its development plans and policies. The second reviews the Agency's past and present technical co-operation programmes in Cameroon. The third section deals with a sectoral programme and institutional review, and the fourth section presents possible future technical co-operation activities

  10. Nuclear power programmes in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    The paper on ''Nuclear power programmes in developing countries'' is a report to the IAEA by a Senior Expert Group. A description is given of the requirements for a successful nuclear power programme, including the constraints that developing countries might face in the introduction and execution of the programme. The group attempted to identify the main issues affecting the financing of nuclear power projects and suggested specific actions that could be undertaken in order to reduce economic and financial risks. The various issues were discussed under the topic headings:-programme-project-related factors, investment climate, financing plan, export credits and creditworthiness. (U.K.)

  11. Potential uranium provinces in some arabian countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salman, A.A.

    1995-01-01

    This work represents an attempt to delineate potential uranium provinces in some Arabian countries using various related recognition criteria. Definition of these provinces is based on the available geologic and tectonic setting beside geochronological sequence and some geochemical characteristics. This trial would be of a great help for interchanging the ideas and necessary data for the development in the fields of uranium exploration and production. As a result of this study, a number of promising potential uranium provinces are recommended in some arabian countries. 5 figs

  12. Surgical audit in the developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bankole, J O; Lawal, O O; Adejuyigbe, O

    2003-01-01

    Audit assures provision of good quality health service at affordable cost. To be complete therefore, surgical practice in the young developing countries, as elsewhere, must incorporate auditing. Peculiarities of the developing countries and insufficient understanding of auditing may be, however, responsible for its been little practised. This article, therefore, reviews the objectives, the commonly evaluated aspects, and the method of audit, and includes a simple model of audit cycle. It is hoped that it will kindle the idea of regular practice of quality assurance by surgeons working in the young developing nations and engender a sustainable interest.

  13. Energy and cooperation among the Scandinavian countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milas, R

    1984-11-01

    The Scandinavian countries have a long experience of functional cooperation in the field of energy. The oil crisis has been largely attenuated for Norway since the exploitation of the North Sea oil deposits. The future will be oil or nuclear, this is the characteristic of energy cooperation on the Scandinavian, European and international levels. In this connection, no level excludes another and the Scandinavian countries are going to patiently attempt to benefit from their Scandinavian dimension over the short range, their European vocation for research and development and their free trade ideology for the surveillance of markets on the level of international agencies.

  14. The role of electronic media in shaping the country's image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azel Zhanibek

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the influence of electronic media in the country to external image of Kazakhstan. Special attention is paid to the experience of various countries in promoting the country's image by electronic media.

  15. Development of gas markets in developing countries and in countries in economical transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roze, J.; Guegan, G.; Guerrini, Y.; Marzeau, J.M.

    2000-01-01

    The WOC 10 working committee of the CMG 2000 worldwide gas congress was devoted to the study of gas markets in developing countries and in countries in economical transition. This committee comprises three group of studies covering the following topics: natural gas in the less developed countries (environment protection, power production, institutional framework and cooperation), natural gas in countries in economical transition (situation in Eastern Europe, reforms and investments, prices and tariffs, towards the integration to the European Union), natural gas in developing countries (financing and technology transfers, down-side gas development, economical viability, technology transfers, projects financing, recommendations), inter-region development and power production (South America, Asia, role of the worldwide bank). (J.S.)

  16. Evaluating "Cat Country": The Humor within Satire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chung-chien Karen

    2010-01-01

    Satire, as a mode, is not frequently employed in Chinese narratives. "Cat Country," or "Mao Cheng Ji," written by Lao She (pen name of Shu Qing Chun, 1898--1966) has come under much attack of its literary values. Whereas most critics have no doubt that this work sets out to satirize China through the portrayal of a society of…

  17. Nuclear desalting potential for developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1969-01-01

    Nuclear power, having proved its success in large units, now poses problems for application in developing countries. Possible solutions for electricity supply, desalting systems and agricultural development are suggested by Joseph R. Wilson, of the Agency's Division of Nuclear Power and Reactors. His article is adapted from a lecture to students in Switzerland. (author)

  18. Energy resources in Arab countries: an overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Lababidi, M. Mukhtar [Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries, Technical Affairs Dept., Safat (Kuwait)

    1999-12-01

    The author examines the energy resources of Middle East and North African countries under the headings: oil (proven reserves, undiscovered potential recovery, improved recovery techniques, production capacities), natural gas (reserves, undiscovered potential gas recovery), shale oil and tar sand, coal, uranium, hydro, wind energy, solar energy and biomass. (UK)

  19. in OECD countries concerning biological drugs

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-22

    Aug 22, 2011 ... the pharmaceutical sector about biological drugs come under the umbrella of innovation system of each country. ... The cost of biotechnology R and D within public research centres and ... Existence of a suitable system to protect intellectual property ... biotechnology that provide the capital for industry and.

  20. Status consumption and poverty in developing countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kempen, L.A.C.M.

    2005-01-01

    This thesis investigates the scope, nature and welfare effects of status consumption by the poor in developing countries, a phenomenon that is virtually unexplored in the development economics literature. It addresses questions such as: why do the poor buy status-intensive goods, while they suffer