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Sample records for oil wastewater contained

  1. Mackerel biodiesel production from the wastewater containing fish oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Y.P.; Huang, H.M.; Lin, Y.F.; Huang, W.D.; Huang, Y.J.

    2014-01-01

    Marine fish such as mackerel are important for coastal fisheries in Taiwan. Nearly 60,000 tons of mackerel are produced in Suao, I-lan, Taiwan every year. In this study, oil from the discarded parts of mackerel fish contained in wastewater stream were used as the raw material to produce biodiesel through transesterification reaction. The major fuel properties of MB (mackerel biodiesel), including the iodine value, dynamic viscosity, flash point, and heat value, were determined and compared with sunflower seed oil methyl ester (SFM), JCB (Jatropha curcas biodiesel), and premium diesel (D). MB had a higher iodine value, dynamic viscosity, density, and flash point, but a lower heat value, than did D. MB was also used as fuel in a regular diesel engine to verify its emission characteristics. The MB fuel used for exhaust emission test included pure MB (MB100) and a 20% MB blend with premium diesel (MB20). The exhaust emission of MB was also compared with the exhaust emissions of D and JCB. The results showed that MB20 provided a significant reduction in NO, NO x , and SO 2 emissions under varied engine loads, and required no engine modification. - Highlights: • Biodiesel was produced from wastewater containing mackerel fish oil. • Mackerel biodiesel is compared with Jatropha biodiesel and sunflower seed biodiesel. • MBE (mackerel biodiesel) was found to contain higher amount of unsaturated fatty acids. • Mackerel biodiesel, diesel, and Jatropha biodiesel emissions are compared

  2. Improvement of biodegradability of oil wastewater contained PAM by pretreatment with Fenton oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bao, M.; Wang, N.

    2008-01-01

    The use of polymer flooding in enhanced oil recovery operations has resulted in higher levels of polyacrylamide (PAM) found in oil wastewater. PAM is harmful to the environment, particularly the monomer acrylamide that is generated from PAM degradation. In this study, PAM derived from oil wastewater was pretreated by Fenton oxidation. This oxidation method is based on the use of a mixture of H 2 O 2 and iron salts which produce hydroxyl radicals in acidic conditions. The method offers a cost-effective source of hydroxyl radicals, using easy-to-handle reagents. The purpose of this study was to transform PAM to biodegradable intermediums. The optimal conditions for the Fenton reactions were also determined and described. Under optimal conditions, the removal ratios of PAM and chemical oxygen demand (COD) were 83.8 and 77 per cent respectively. It was concluded that Fenton's oxidation is an effective treatment to improved the biodegradability of PAM. 14 refs., 1 tab., 7 figs

  3. Synthesis of sulfated Y-doped zirconia particles and effect on properties of polysulfone membranes for treatment of wastewater containing oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Yuqing, E-mail: zhangyuqing@tju.edu.cn [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); ARC Centre for Functional Nanomaterials, AIBN and School of Engineering, University of Queensland, Brisbane 4072 (Australia); Shan Xing; Jin Zhenhua; Wang Yueling [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China)

    2011-08-30

    Highlights: {yields} Novel hybrid membrane material - sulfated Y-doped zirconia particle is prepared. {yields} SZY/PSF membrane is formed by doping SZY particles into PSF membrane. {yields} Hydrophilicity, antifouling and anti-compaction property of PSF membrane is improved. {yields} Treatment efficiency of wastewater containing oil is enhanced. - Abstract: Polysulfone (PSF) membranes are broadly applied in many fields owing to good physicochemical stability, resistance to oxidation and chlorine. But when treated with wastewater containing oil, PSF membranes are easily contaminated due to their hydrophilicity, causing declining flux and lifespan of the membranes thereby limiting their large scale applications. In order to enhance the hydrophilic and anti-fouling capability of PSF membranes for treating wastewater containing oil, sulfated Y-doped zirconia particles (SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}/ZrO{sub 2}-Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} or SZY particles) were firstly synthesized and then doped into polysulfone to fabricate a novel hybrid membrane (SZY/PSF). The optimum preparation conditions of SZY particles were studied and determined. SZY particles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), specific surface area and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Wastewater containing oil (80 mg/L) was used to investigate the separation properties of SZY/PSF membranes. The results show that the oil concentration in the permeation is 0.67 mg/L, which meets the recycle standard of the Chinese oil-field (SY/T 5329-94, oil concentration <10 mg/L). It is concluded that doping SZY particles into polysulfone can reasonably resist membrane fouling and SZY/PSF membranes can be considered feasible in treating wastewater containing oil.

  4. Organic pollutant removal from edible oil process wastewater using electrocoagulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, S.; Can, O. T.; Hammed, M.; Nawarathna, D.; Simsek, H.

    2018-03-01

    Wastewaters generated from vegetable oil industries contain a high concentration of organic pollutants that are detrimental to the aquatic ecosystem. Electrochemical processes are gaining importance in the treatment of inorganic and resistant organic pollutants in wastewaters. In this study, electrocoagulation (EC) was applied to remove organic pollutants and oil and grease from canola oil wastewater using aluminum (Al) and iron (Fe) electrodes. The application of EC in the wastewater achieved more than 80% removal of organic carbon and nearly 100% removal of suspended solids (SS). The effectiveness of EC is influenced mainly by current density, pH, electrolyte (NaCl), electrode contact time and electrode type. It was observed that Al electrode combination yielded better removal at a lesser time compared to that of Fe electrodes. However, varying current densities had its significance in terms of coagulation time only. Increase in current density achieved decrease in coagulation time. Both Al and Fe could remove between 52-59% of oil and grease from canola oil wastewater

  5. The anaerobic treatment of sulfate containing wastewater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, A.

    1995-01-01


    In the anaerobic treatment of sulfate containing wastewater sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) will compete with methanogenic- (MB) and acetogenic bacteria (AB) for the available substrates such as hydrogen, acetate, propionate and butyrate. The outcome of this competition will

  6. Bacteria Provide Cleanup of Oil Spills, Wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Through Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contracts with Marshall Space Flight Center, Micro-Bac International Inc., of Round Rock, Texas, developed a phototrophic cell for water purification in space. Inside the cell: millions of photosynthetic bacteria. Micro-Bac proceeded to commercialize the bacterial formulation it developed for the SBIR project. The formulation is now used for the remediation of wastewater systems and waste from livestock farms and food manufacturers. Strains of the SBIR-derived bacteria also feature in microbial solutions that treat environmentally damaging oil spills, such as that resulting from the catastrophic 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil rig explosion in the Gulf of Mexico.

  7. 40 CFR 63.135 - Process wastewater provisions-containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-containers. 63.135 Section 63.135 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... wastewater provisions—containers. (a) For each container that receives, manages, or treats a Group 1... operate and maintain a cover on each container used to handle, transfer, or store a Group 1 wastewater...

  8. Electrochemical treatment of olive oil mill wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longhi, P.; Fiori, G [Milan Univ., Milan (Italy). Dept. of Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry; Vodopivec, B. [Milan Univ. Bicocca, Milan (Italy). Dept. of Biotechnologies and Biosciences

    2001-04-01

    The possibility of oxidizing at a PbO{sub 2} anode the phenols and polyphenols, present in the olive oil mill wastewater, has been studied as a pre-treatment for the submission of such wastewater to the traditional biological treatments. The results obtained operating at current densities ranging 500 to 2000 A/m{sup 2} show that it is possible to reduce the concentration of the phenolic components, which interfere with the biological treatments, down to low values without decreasing too much the total organic content of the wastewater. [Italian] E' stata studiata la possibilita' di ossidare anodicamente i componenti fenolici delle acque reflue di frantoio, quale pretrattamento delle stesse prima del loro invio ai processi di trattamento biologico. I risultati ottenuti impiegando PbO{sub 2} quale materiale anodico e operando con densita' di corrente comprese tra 500 e 2000 A/m{sup 2} mostrano come sia possibile eliminare, o almeno diminuire sino a concentrazioni accettabili, dalle acque di frantoio i fenoli e i polifenoli, che interferiscono con i normali trattamenti biologici, senza diminuire eccessivamente il carico organico totale.

  9. Comparative Studies of Oleaginous Fungal Strains (Mucor circinelloides and Trichoderma reesei) for Effective Wastewater Treatment and Bio-Oil Production

    OpenAIRE

    Bhanja, Anshuman; Minde, Gauri; Magdum, Sandip; Kalyanraman, V.

    2014-01-01

    Biological wastewater treatment typically requires the use of bacteria for degradation of carbonaceous and nitrogenous compounds present in wastewater. The high lipid containing biomass can be used to extract oil and the contents can be termed as bio-oil (or biodiesel or myco-diesel after transesterification). The separate experiments were conducted on actual wastewater samples with 5% v/v inoculum of Mucor circinelloides MTCC1297 and Trichoderma reesei NCIM992 strains. The observed reduction...

  10. Semipermeable membrane devices concentrate mixed function oxygenase inducers from oil sands and refinery wastewaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parrott, J.L.; Hewitt, L.M.

    2002-01-01

    The health of fish in the Athabasca River was examined to determine the effects of both natural and anthropogenic oil sands exposure on liver mixed function oxygenase (MFO) enzymes. Semipermeable membrane devices (SPMD) were used to concentrate bioavailable compounds that may result in MFO induction. The SPMDs were used for a period of 2 weeks in the Steepbank River as well as in oil refinery wastewater and intake ponds. They were then tested to see if they induced ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity in hepatoma cells, a cell line derived from a liver cancer of a small fish. SPMDs from the wastewater pond contained potent EROD inducers in fish liver cells. SPMDs from the Athabasca River exhibited some EROD inducers, but they were 1/100 as potent as those of the refinery wastewater. The characteristics of MFO inducers from refinery wastewater were different from natural inducers from the oil sands in the Athabasca and Steepbank Rivers. For instance, log Kow was less than 5 for refinery wastewater, but it was greater than 5 for Athabasca River wastewater and from natural oil sands exposure. In the case of the Steepbank River, the pattern of MFO induction was similar to the MFO induction seen in wild fish.The highest MFO inducers were found to be in the area of the mine, suggesting and anthropogenic pollution source. The less potent inducers were in the area of the natural and undisturbed oil sands. Very few inducers were found outside of the oil sands formation

  11. Environmental control technology for shale oil wastewaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mercer, B.W.; Wakamiya, W.; Bell, N.E.; Mason, M.J.; Spencer, R.R.; English, C.J.; Riley, R.G.

    1982-09-01

    This report summarizes the results of studies conducted at Pacific Northwest Laboratory from 1976 to 1982 on environmental control technology for shale oil wastewaters. Experimental studies conducted during the course of the program were focused largely on the treatment and disposal of retort water, particularly water produced by in situ retorting of oil shale. Alternative methods were evaluated for the treatment and disposal of retort water and minewater. Treatment and disposal processes evaluated for retort water include evaporation for separation of water from both inorganic and organic pollutants; steam stripping for ammonia and volatile organics removal; activated sludge and anaerobic digestion for removal of biodegradable organics and other oxidizable substances; carbon adsorption for removal of nonbiodegradable organics; chemical coagulation for removal of suspended matter and heavy metals; wet air oxidation and solvent extraction for removal of organics; and land disposal and underground injection for disposal of retort water. Methods for the treatment of minewater include chemical processing and ion exchange for fluoride and boron removal. Preliminary cost estimates are given for several retort water treatment processes.

  12. Enhancing anaerobic treatment of wastewaters containing oleic acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hwu, C.S.

    1997-01-01

    INTRODUCTION

    Lipids are one of the major organic pollutants in municipal and industrial wastewaters. Although domestic sewage typically contains about 40-100 mg/I lipids (Forster, 1992; Quéméneur and Marty, 1994), it is industrial wastewaters that are of greater

  13. Modification of Wastewater Treatment Technology at Cottonseed Oil Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alshabab Mary Shick

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Wastewaters from cottonseed oil producing plant in Syria were studied in laboratory experiments. Aim of the study was to suggest modification of wastewater treatment technology in order to increase its efficiency. Concentration of pollutants in wastewaters was controlled by measurement of COD. According to the results of experiments it was suggested to decrease significantly (8-20 times dosages of reagents (acidifier, coagulant, flocculant in several actual stages of treatment (acidification, separation, coagulation and sedimentation and add stage of dispersed air flotation before coagulation treatment. The modified wastewater treatment technology would reduce COD to the values allowed for irrigation waters by Syrian National Standard.

  14. Study on Olive Oil Wastewater Treatment: Nanotechnology Impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nika Gholamzadeh

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The olive mill wastewater (OMW is generated from olive oil extraction in olive mills. It contains a very high organic load and considerable quantities of phytotoxicity compounds. Comprehensive articles with different methods have been published about the treatment of OMW. This paper reviews the recent reports on the variety methods of OMW treatment. Biological process, containing aerobic pre-treatment by using different cultures and anaerobic co-digestion with other sewage and also added external nutrient with optimum ratio attracted much attention in the treatment of OMW. However, advanced oxidation process (AOP due to the high oxidation potential which causes destruction of organic pollutants, toxic and chlorinated compounds have been considered. Furthermore, membrane technologies consist of microfiltration, ultrafiltration and especially nanofiltrationin wastewater treatment are growing in recent years. They offer high efficiency and mediocre investments owing to novel membrane materials, membrane design technics, module figures and improvement of the skills. In addition, fouling reduces the membrane performances in time, which is a main problem of cost efficiency.

  15. Use of Bio-Amp, a commercial bio-additive for the treatment of grease trap wastewater containing fat, oil, and grease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Hao L; Xie, Yuefeng F; Chen, Yen-Chih

    2012-11-01

    This research investigated the application of Bio-Amp, a commercial bio-additive for the treatment of fat, oil, and grease (FOG) in a grease trap, and evaluated potential impacts of treated effluent on downstream collection system and treatment processes. Results show that after Bio-Amp treatment, FOG deposit formation was reduced by 40%, implicating a potential reduction of sewer line blockages. Chemical oxygen demand (COD), total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP) and total fatty acids were reduced by 39%, 33%, 56%, and 59%, respectively, which represents an overall loading reduction of 9% COD, 5% TN and 40% TP received by the treatment plant from all the dining halls. On the other hand, readily biodegradable COD fractions significantly increased, which implies a potential improvement on Bio-P removal. Overall, the results showed that application of Bio-Amp in grease trap provides potential reduction of sewer line blockages, and can also alleviate downstream treatment burden. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Edible Oil Industry Wastewater Treatment by Microfiltration with Ceramic Membrane

    OpenAIRE

    Zita Šereš; Dragana Šoronja Simović; Ljubica Dokić; Lidietta Giorno; Biljana Pajin; Cecilia Hodur; Nikola Maravić

    2016-01-01

    Membrane technology is convenient for separation of suspended solids, colloids and high molecular weight materials that are present. The idea is that the waste stream from edible oil industry, after the separation of oil by using skimmers is subjected to microfiltration and the obtained permeate can be used again in the production process. The wastewater from edible oil industry was used for the microfiltration. For the microfiltration of this effluent a tubular membrane was used with a pore ...

  17. Phycoremediation of industrial wastewater containing azo compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Parin D. Shah; Dipti Galani; M S. Rao

    2000-01-01

    This paper summarizes the state-of-the-art biological wastewater treatment technique that uses eukaryotic microalgae as well as several prokaryotic photosynthetic cyanobacteria. Micro algae are known to remove dyes by bioadsorption (sorption of dye molecules over the surface of algal cells), biodegradation and bioconversion (diffusion of dye molecules into the algal cells and subsequent conversion). This paper mainly focuses on biodegradation abilities of microalgae for t...

  18. Recovery of useful chemicals from palm oil mill wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratanaporn, Yuangsawad; Duangkamol, Na-Ranong; Teruoki, Tago; Takao, Masuda

    2017-11-01

    A two-step process consisting of pyrolysis of dried sludge and catalytic upgrading of pyrolysed liquid was proposed. Wastewater from a palm oil mill was separated to solid cake and liquid by filtration. The solid cake was dried and pyrolysed at 773 K. Liquid product obtained from the pyrolysis had two immiscible aqueous and oil phases (PL-A and PL-O). Identification of chemicals in PL-A and PL-O indicated that both phases contained various chemicals with unsaturated bonds, such as carboxylic acids and alcohols, however, most of the chemicals could not be identified. Catalytic upgrading of PL-A and PL-O over ZrO2·FeOx were separately performed using a fixed bed reactor at various conditions, T = 513-723 K and mass of catalyst to feed rate = 0.25-10 h. The main components in the liquid products of PL-A upgrading were methanol and acetone whereas they were acetone and phenol in the case of PL-O upgrading. More than 15% of carbon in raw material was deposited on the catalyst. To reduce the carbon deposition, the used catalyst was treated with air at 823 K. This simple treatment could reasonably regenerate the catalyst only for the case of PL-A catalytic upgrading.

  19. Treatment of heavy oil wastewater by UASB-BAFs using the combination of yeast and bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Xiao-Ling

    2015-01-01

    A novel system integrating an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor and a two-stage biological aerated filter (BAF) system was investigated as advanced treatment of heavy oil wastewater with large amounts of dissolved recalcitrant organic substances and low levels of nitrogen and phosphorus nutrients. #1 BAF, inoculated with two yeast strains (Candida tropicalis and Rhodotorula dairenensis), was installed in the upper reaches of #2 BAF inoculated with activated sludge. During the 180-day study period, the chemical oxygen demand (COD), ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N), oil and polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the wastewater were removed by 90.2%, 90.8%, 86.5% and 89.4%, respectively. Although the wastewater qualities fluctuated and the hydraulic retention time continuously decreased, the effluent quality index met the national discharge standard steadily. The UASB process greatly improved the biodegradability of the wastewater, while #1 BAF played an important role not only in degrading COD but also in removing oil and high molecular weight PAHs. This work demonstrates that the hybrid UASB-BAFs system containing yeast-bacteria consortium has the potential to be used in bioremediation of high-strength oily wastewater.

  20. Rapid estimation of organic nitrogen in oil shale wastewaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, B.M.; Harris, G.J.; Daughton, C.G.

    1984-03-01

    Many of the characteristics of oil shale process wastewaters (e.g., malodors, color, and resistance to biotreatment) are imparted by numerous nitrogen heterocycles and aromatic amines. For the frequent performance assessment of waste treatment procsses designed to remove these nitrogenous organic compounds, a rapid and colligative measurement of organic nitrogen is essential.

  1. Screening of thermotolerant microorganisms and application for oil separation from palm oil mill wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aran H-Kittikun

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The characteristics of palm oil mill wastewater (POMW were brown color, pH 3.8-4.3, temperature 48-55oC, total solids 68.2-82.1 g/l, suspended solids 26.2-65.6 g/l, oil and grease 19.1-25.1 g/l, COD 49.9-160.7g/l and BOD 32.5-75.3 g/l. After centrifugation (3,184 xg of 50 ml POMW for 10 min, the POMW was separated into 3 layers: top (oil, middle (supernatant and bottom layer (sediment. The sediment containeddry weight 1.19 g and oil and grease 1.07 g. In order to release oil and grease trapped in palm fiber debris in the POMW, cellulase- and/or xylanase-enzyme-producing and thermotolerant microorganisms wereisolated. The isolates SO1 and SO2 were isolated from soil near the first anaerobic pond of the palm oil mill. They were aerobic, Gram positive, rod shaped, thermotolerant microorganisms and produced cellulase 12.11 U/ml (3 days and 7.2 U/ml (4 days, and xylanase 50.98 U/ml (4 days and 20.42 U/ml (4 days, respectivelyin synthetic medium containing carboxymethycellulose as a carbon source. When these 2 isolates were added into the steriled POMW under shaking condition for 7 days, after centrifugation at 3,184 xg the isolate SO1gave the better % reduction of dry weight (64.66 % and of oil and grease in the bottom layer (85.32 % of the POMW.

  2. Oxygen enriched air using membrane for palm oil wastewater treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramlah Mohd Tajuddin

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available A research aimed to explore new method of aeration using oxygen enriched air performance on BOD reduction of palm oil wastewater was conducted. The oxygen enriched air was obtained from an Oxygen Enriched System (OES developed using asymmetric polysulfone hollow fiber membrane with composition consisting of PSF: 22%, DMAc: 31.8%, THF: 31.8%, EtOH: 14.4%. Palm oil wastewater samples were taken from facultative pond effluent. These samples were tested for its initial biochemical oxygen demand (BOD, total suspended solids (TSS, pH, conductivity, turbidity, dissolved oxygen (DO, suspended solids (SS, and total dissolved solids (TDS before being subjected to two modes of aeration system, that is diffused air and oxygen enriched air. These water quality concentrations were tested for every 20 minutes for two-hour period during the aeration process. Results of BOD, TSS, pH, conductivity, DO, SS and TDS concentrations against time of samples from the two modes of aeration were then compared. It was found that DO concentration achieved in oxygen enriched air aeration was better than aeration using diffused air system. Aeration using OES improve the DO concentration in the wastewater and thus improve the BOD reduction and also influence other physical characteristics of wastewater. This phenomenon indicates the advantage of using air with higher oxygen concentration for wastewater aeration instead of diffused air system.

  3. STUDY ON OIL WASTEWATER TREATMENT WITH POLYMERIC REAGENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RODICA BUCUROIU

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Used the polymeric reagents in oil wastewater treatment is an effective method of eliminate hydrocarbons. The present study aims to finding reagents that lead to lowering of extractible (EXT, suspended solids (SS and chemical oxygen demand (COD of industrial wastewater from washing cars in loading ramps petroleum products. For this purpose five reagents were tested, namely: polyamines, cationic polyacrylamides, polydiallydimethyl ammonium chloride (PolyDADMAC, melamine formaldehyde polymer resin and polydicyandiamide polymer resin. Obtaining removal degrees over 80 % justifies using this method in the industrial practice.

  4. Floating Oil-Spill Containment Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jack A.

    2012-01-01

    Previous oil containment booms have an open top that allows natural gas to escape, and have significant oil leakage due to wave action. Also, a subsea pyramid oil trap exists, but cannot move relative to moving oil plumes from deepsea oil leaks. The solution is to have large, moveable oil traps. One version floats on the sea surface and has a flexible tarp cover and a lower weighted skirt to completely entrap the floating oil and natural gas. The device must have at least three sides with boats pulling at each apex, and sonar or other system to track the slowly moving oil plume, so that the boats can properly locate the booms. The oil trap device must also have a means for removal of the oil and the natural gas. A second design version has a flexible pyramid cover that is attached by lines to ballast on the ocean floor. This is similar to fixed, metal pyramid oil capture devices in the Santa Barbara Channel off the coast of California. The ballast lines for the improved design, however, would have winches that can move the pyramid to always be located above the oil and gas plume. A third design is a combination of the first two. It uses a submerged pyramid to trap oil, but has no anchor and uses boats to locate the trap. It has ballast weights located along the bottom of the tarp and/or at the corners of the trap. The improved floating oil-spill containment device has a large floating boom and weighted skirt surrounding the oil and gas entrapment area. The device is triangular (or more than three sides) and has a flexible tarp cover with a raised gas vent area. Boats pull on the apex of the triangles to maintain tension and to allow the device to move to optimum locations to trap oil and gas. The gas is retrieved from a higher buoyant part of the tarp, and oil is retrieved from the floating oil layer contained in the device. These devices can be operated in relatively severe weather, since waves will break over the devices without causing oil leaking. Also, natural

  5. Watershed-Scale Impacts from Surface Water Disposal of Oil and Gas Wastewater in Western Pennsylvania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgos, William D; Castillo-Meza, Luis; Tasker, Travis L; Geeza, Thomas J; Drohan, Patrick J; Liu, Xiaofeng; Landis, Joshua D; Blotevogel, Jens; McLaughlin, Molly; Borch, Thomas; Warner, Nathaniel R

    2017-08-01

    Combining horizontal drilling with high volume hydraulic fracturing has increased extraction of hydrocarbons from low-permeability oil and gas (O&G) formations across the United States; accompanied by increased wastewater production. Surface water discharges of O&G wastewater by centralized waste treatment (CWT) plants pose risks to aquatic and human health. We evaluated the impact of surface water disposal of O&G wastewater from CWT plants upstream of the Conemaugh River Lake (dam controlled reservoir) in western Pennsylvania. Regulatory compliance data were collected to calculate annual contaminant loads (Ba, Cl, total dissolved solids (TDS)) to document historical industrial activity. In this study, two CWT plants 10 and 19 km upstream of a reservoir left geochemical signatures in sediments and porewaters corresponding to peak industrial activity that occurred 5 to 10 years earlier. Sediment cores were sectioned for the collection of paired samples of sediment and porewater, and analyzed for analytes to identify unconventional O&G wastewater disposal. Sediment layers corresponding to the years of maximum O&G wastewater disposal contained higher concentrations of salts, alkaline earth metals, and organic chemicals. Isotopic ratios of 226 Ra /228 Ra and 87 Sr /86 Sr identified that peak concentrations of Ra and Sr were likely sourced from wastewaters that originated from the Marcellus Shale formation.

  6. Removal of mineral oil and wastewater pollutants using hard coal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BRANISLAV R. SIMONOVIĆ

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the use of hard coal as an adsorbent for removal of mineral oil from wastewater. In order to determine the efficiency of hard coal as an adsorbent of mineral oil, process parameters such as sorption capacity (in static and dynamic conditions, temperature, pH, contact time, flow rate, and chemical pretreatment were evaluated in a series of batch and continuous flow experiments. There were significant differences in the mineral oil removal for various pH values examined. The adsorption of mineral oil increased as pH values diverged from 7 (neutral. At lower temperatures, the adsorption was notably higher. The wastewater flow rate was adjusted to achieve optimal water purification. Equilibrium was reached after 10 h in static conditions. At that time, more than 99% of mineral oil had been removed. At the beginning of the filtering process, the adsorption rate increased rapidly, only to show a minor decrease afterwards. Equilibrium data were fitted to Freundlich models to determine the water-hard coal partitioning coefficient. Physical adsorption caused by properties of the compounds was the predominant mechanism in the removal process.

  7. Integrated copper-containing wastewater treatment using xanthate process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yi-Kuo; Chang, Juu-En; Lin, Tzong-Tzeng; Hsu, Yu-Ming

    2002-09-02

    Although, the xanthate process has been shown to be an effective method for heavy metal removal from contaminated water, a heavy metal contaminated residual sludge is produced by the treatment process and the metal-xanthate sludge must be handled in accordance with the Taiwan EPA's waste disposal requirements. This work employed potassium ethyl xanthate (KEX) to remove copper ions from wastewater. The toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) and semi-dynamic leaching test (SDLT) were used to determine the leaching potential and stability characteristics of the residual copper xanthate (Cu-EX) complexes. Results from metal removal experiments showed that KEX was suitable for the treatment of copper-containing wastewater over a wide copper concentration range (50, 100, 500, and 1000 mg/l) to the level that meets the Taiwan EPA's effluent regulations (3mg/l). The TCLP results of the residual Cu-EX complexes could meet the current regulations and thus the Cu-EX complexes could be treated as a non-hazardous material. Besides, the results of SDLT indicated that the complexes exhibited an excellent performance for stabilizing metals under acidic conditions, even slight chemical changes of the complexes occurred during extraction. The xanthate process, mixing KEX with copper-bearing solution to form Cu-EX precipitates, offered a comprehensive strategy for solving both copper-containing wastewater problems and subsequent sludge disposal requirements.

  8. CARWASH WASTEWATERS: CHARACTERISTICS, VOLUMES, AND TREATABILITY BY GRAVITY OIL SEPARATION

    OpenAIRE

    C. Fall

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this research was to determine the characteristics, volumes and treatability of Full-service carwash wastewaters in Toluca (Mexico State). The average water use for Exterior-only wash was 50 L per small-size car and 170 L per medium-size vehicle (pick up, van or light truck). The Full-service wash (exterior, engine and chassis) required 170 L per small-size car and 300 L per light truck. Wastewaters were generally emulsified and contained high contaminant loads (in average, 1100 mg...

  9. Structural analysis of oil containment booms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badesha, S.S.; Hunt, J.; Wenck, E.

    1993-01-01

    In recent years, major oil spills, such as the Exxon Valdez incident, and many smaller spills have given rise to a worldwide marine environmental concern. One of the most successful devices for containing and facilitating the recovery of spilled oil, and one which does not endanger or alter the environment in any way, is the oil containment boom. Described in this paper is a finite element (FE)-based method for structural analysis of oil booms. In general, a number of FE models for a typical oil boom section are set up using the COSMOS FEA code. These models differ from one another in oil boom geometry, deployment configurations, and oil boom components. The FEA (fimite element analysis) models are made from the plate elements (skirt and tube), truss elements (tension members and ballast chain), and beam elements (end connector). Loads due to tow/current velocity, wind velocity, wave action, and ballasting, as determined from aero/hydrodynamics analysis, are applied as distributed pressures on the plate and beam elements. This method will predict boom tensile load strength, detailed stress distribution, and distortion characteristics for a particular boom with specific deployment configuration and environmental condition. The derived information can be used to highlight critical design features, thereby optimizing the oil boom design. Alternatively, this information can be used for the selection of an oil boom suited for a particular application and, more importantly, can provide the user with a control evaluation tool to determine whether a given oil boom design can withstand the stresses of its intended application

  10. Treatment of phosphate-containing oily wastewater by coagulation and microfiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jin; Sun, Yu-xin; Huang, Zhi-feng; Liu, Xing-qin; Meng, Guang-yao

    2006-01-01

    The oily wastewater generated from pretreatment unit of electrocoating industry contains oils, phosphate, organic solvents, and surfactants. In order to improve the removal efficiencies of phosphate and oils, to mitigate the membrane fouling, coagulation for ceramic membrane microfiltration of oily wastewater was performed. The results of filtration tests show that the membrane fouling decreased and the permeate flux and quality increased with coagulation as pretreatment. At the coagulant Ca (OH)2 dosage of 900 mg/L, the removal efficiency of phosphate was increased from 46.4% without coagulation to 99.6%; the removal of COD and oils were 97.0% and 99.8%, respectively. And the permeate flux was about 70% greater than that when Ca(OH)2 was not used. The permeate obtained from coagulation and microfiltration can be reused as make-up water, and the recommended operation conditions for pilot and industrial application are transmembrane pressure of 0.10 MPa and cross-flow velocity of 5 m/s. The comparison results show that 0.2 microm ZrO2 microfilter with coagulation could be used to perform the filtration rather than conventional ultrafilter, with very substantial gain in flux and removal efficiency of phosphate.

  11. Treatment of cyanide containing wastewater using cavitation based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jawale, Rajashree H; Gogate, Parag R; Pandit, Aniruddha B

    2014-07-01

    Industrial wastewater streams containing high concentrations of biorefractory materials like cyanides should ideally be treated at source. In the present work, degradation of potassium ferrocyanide (K4Fe(CN)6) as a model pollutant has been investigated using cavitational reactors with possible intensification studies using different approaches. Effect of different operating parameters such as initial concentration, temperature and pH on the extent of degradation using acoustic cavitation has been investigated. For the case of hydrodynamic cavitation, flow characteristics of cavitating device (venturi) have been established initially followed by the effect of inlet pressure and pH on the extent of degradation. Under the optimized set of operating parameters, the addition of hydrogen peroxide (ratio of K4Fe(CN)6:H2O2 varied from 1:1 to 1:30 mol basis) as process intensifying approach has been investigated. The present work has conclusively established that under the set of optimized operating parameters, cavitation can be effectively used for degradation of potassium ferrocyanide. The comparative study of hydrodynamic cavitation and acoustic cavitation suggested that hydrodynamic cavitation is more energy efficient and gives higher degradation as compared to acoustic cavitation for equivalent power/energy dissipation. The present work is the first one to report comparison of cavitation based treatment schemes for degradation of cyanide containing wastewaters. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Options for reducing oil content of sludge from a petroleum wastewater treatment plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Tae-Soon; Lee, Jae-Young

    2015-10-01

    Wastewater treatment plants at petroleum refineries often produce substantial quantities of sludge with relatively high concentrations of oil. Disposal of this waste is costly, in part because the high oil content requires use of secure disposal methods akin to handling of hazardous wastes. This article examines the properties of oily sludge and evaluates optional methods for reducing the oil content of this sludge to enable use of lower cost disposal methods. To reduce the oil content or break the structure of oily sludge, preliminary lab-scale experiments involving mechanical treatment, surfactant extraction, and oxidation are conducted. By applying surfactants, approximately 36% to 45% of oils are extracted from oily sludge. Of this, about 33% of oils are rapidly oxidised via radiation by an electron beam within 10 s of exposure. The Fenton reaction is effective for destruction of oily sludge. It is also found that 56% of oils were removed by reacting oily sludge with water containing ozone of 0.5 mg l(-1) over a period of 24 h. Oxidation using ozone thus can also be effectively used as a pretreatment for oily sludge. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. Treatment of wastewaters containing anilines using enzymes: an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mantha, R.; Biswas, N.; Taylor, K.E.; Bewtra, J.K.

    2002-01-01

    Aromatic amines are manufactured in a large scale for use in industries dealing with resins, dyes, plastics and rubber, pesticides and explosives. The majority of the production-related waste is either incinerated or released into the environment. The majority of them are highly toxic, carcinogenic or mutagenic and impose serious health hazards to mankind. Available conventional physical-chemical processes including activated carbon adsorption processes, solvent extraction processes, microbial degradation and various chemical-oxidation processes developed over the years are not selective in terms of the range of the aromatic pollutant removed during treatment. Thus, such treatment strategies are more economically suitable for treatment of dilute wastewaters and are invariably used as polishing steps. Enzymes such as peroxidases, in the presence of hydrogen peroxide, and laccases, in the presence of oxygen, catalyze the oxidation of a wide variety of phenols, biphenyls, anilines, benzidines and other related aromatic compounds. Various peroxidases and laccases have been used to treat wastewaters. With respect to anilines, the potential, scope and cost of enzymatic treatment is reviewed here and compared with conventional technology, e.g., the cost of enzymatic treatment using a crude enzyme preparation of soybean peroxidase was reported to be about $0.36/m 3 for synthetic wastewater containing 1 mM of aniline, compared to an activated sludge process of $1.05/m 3 and $1.31/m 3 for activated carbon process, while for p-toluidine, it was about $0.17/m 3 . Thus, through choice of enzyme and its mode of operation, treatment costs less than the conventional treatment strategies can be achieved. (author)

  14. A facile method to prepare dual-functional membrane for efficient oil removal and in situ reversible mercury ions adsorption from wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qingdong; Liu, Na; Cao, Yingze; Zhang, Weifeng; Wei, Yen; Feng, Lin; Jiang, Lei

    2018-03-01

    In this work, a novel thiol covered polyamide (nylon 66) microfiltration membrane was fabricated by combining mussel-inspired chemistry and coupling reaction, which owns excellent dual-function that can simultaneously remove oil from water efficiently and adsorb the mercury ions contained in the wastewater reversibly. Such membrane exhibited high oil/water separation efficiency, outstanding mercury adsorption ability, and good stability. Moreover, it can be regenerated in nitric acid solution, and maintain its good adsorption performance. The as-prepared membrane showed great potentials for water purification to reduce the heavy metal ion pollution and complicated industrial oily wastewater and living wastewater.

  15. Online sensing and control of oil in process wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khomchenko, Irina B.; Soukhomlinoff, Alexander D.; Mitchell, T. F.; Selenow, Alexander E.

    2002-02-01

    Industrial processes, which eliminate high concentration of oil in their waste stream, find it extremely difficult to measure and control the water purification process. Most oil separation processes involve chemical separation using highly corrosive caustics, acids, surfactants, and emulsifiers. Included in the output of this chemical treatment process are highly adhesive tar-like globules, emulsified and surface oils, and other emulsified chemicals, in addition to suspended solids. The level of oil/hydrocarbons concentration in the wastewater process may fluctuate from 1 ppm to 10,000 ppm, depending upon the specifications of the industry and level of water quality control. The authors have developed a sensing technology, which provides the accuracy of scatter/absorption sensing in a contactless environment by combining these methodologies with reflective measurement. The sensitivity of the sensor may be modified by changing the fluid level control in the flow cell, allowing for a broad range of accurate measurement from 1 ppm to 10,000 ppm. Because this sensing system has been designed to work in a highly invasive environment, it can be placed close to the process source to allow for accurate real time measurement and control.

  16. MBBR evaluation for oil refinery wastewater treatment, with post-ozonation and BAC, for wastewater reuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, E E; Cerqueira, A C F P; Dezotti, M

    2011-01-01

    This work evaluated the performance of a Moving Bed Biofilm Reactor (MBBR) in the treatment of an oil refinery wastewater. Also, it investigated the possibility of reuse of the MBBR effluent, after ozonation in series with a biological activated carbon (BAC) column. The best performance of the MBBR was achieved with a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 6 hours, employing a bed to bioreactor volume ratio (V(B)/V(R)) of 0.6. COD and N-NH₄(+) MBBR effluent concentrations ranged from 40 to 75 mg L⁻¹ (removal efficiency of 69-89%) and 2 to 6 mg L⁻¹ (removal efficiency of 45-86%), respectively. Ozonation carried out for 15 min with an ozone concentration of 5 mg L⁻¹ was able to improve the treated wastewater biodegradability. The treatment performance of the BAC columns was practically the same for ozonated and non ozonated MBBR effluents. The dissolved organic carbon (DOC) content of the columns of the activated carbon columns (CAG) was in the range of 2.1-3.8 mg L⁻¹, and the corresponding DOC removal efficiencies were comprised between 52 and 75%. The effluent obtained at the end of the proposed treatment presented a quality, which meet the requirements for water reuse in the oil refinery.

  17. Oxidative stability of diacylglycerol oil and butter blends containing diacylglycerols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Janni Brogaard; Nielsen, Nina Skall; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2006-01-01

    Diacylglycerol (DAG) oils produced from sunflower oil and traditional sunflower oil were stored for 20 wk at 38 degrees C, and their oxidative stability was measured. Moreover, two butter blends were produced containing 40 wt-% DAG oil made from sunflower oil or rapeseed oil, respectively, as well...... as two control butter blends with sunflower oil or rapeseed oil. Their oxidative stability during storage at 5 degrees C for up to 12 wk was examined by similar means as for the pure oils. The storage study of the oils indicated that the DAG oil was oxidatively less stable as compared to sunflower oil......, but that they had similar sensory quality. Storage of the butter blends revealed that blends with the two types of rapeseed oil (triacylglycerol (TAG) or DAG oil) were oxidatively more stable than the blends containing oils from sunflower. There was no unambiguous indication of DAG butter blends having a different...

  18. 46 CFR 56.50-60 - Systems containing oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Systems containing oil. 56.50-60 Section 56.50-60... APPURTENANCES Design Requirements Pertaining to Specific Systems § 56.50-60 Systems containing oil. (a)(1) Oil-piping systems for the transfer or discharge of cargo or fuel oil must be separate from other piping...

  19. Anaerobic treatment of protein, lipid and carbohydrate containing wastewaters using the EGSB technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petruy, R.

    1999-01-01

    Industries such as margarine, meat packing, dairy, slaughterhouse, edible oil (palm and olive oil) generate large amount of effluents. Strict environment laws in numerous countries has forced these agro-industries to apply suitable wastewater treatment in order to reduce the organic

  20. Treatment of wastewater containing dissolved metals by extraction-flotation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puget, Flavia Pereira

    2002-02-01

    In this work an alternative process for treating a wastewater containing dissolved metals (uranium and zirconium) is considered. In order to develop this work, a continuous separation unit, characterized by the association of solvent extraction and liquid-liquid flotation is used. Alamina 336 (a mixture of tri-octyl and tri-decyl amines) is used as extractant in the the extraction process, carried out inward the ejector. The splitting of the amine-water emulsion formed is carried out in a continuously operated flotation column (of approximately 2.5 L volume). The solvent extraction results showed that it is possible to reach an efficiency of about 95% for the uranium and zirconium extraction, for a metal in the feed concentration of 10 ppm and for a Q fa /Q fo ratio around 200. An efficiency of about 80% is reached in the flotation column when the liquid flowrate is equal 0.05 Lmin -1 and the air flowrate is equal 3.3 Lmin -1 . (author)

  1. Electrocoagulation in wastewater containing arsenic: Comparing different process designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, Henrik K.; Nunez, Patricio; Raboy, Deborah; Schippacasse, Italo; Grandon, Rodrigo

    2007-01-01

    Arsenic removal from wastewater is a key problem for copper smelters. This work shows results of electrocoagulation of aqueous solutions containing arsenic with three different process designs and operating parameters. Three types of electrocoagulation reactors were tested and compared: (a) a modified flow continuous reactor, (b) a turbulent flow reactor and (c) an airlift reactor. All used iron as sacrificial anodes. The results showed that the electrocoagulation process of a 100 mg/L As(V) solution could decrease the arsenic concentration to less than 2 mg/L in the effluent with a current density of 1.2 A/dm 2 with both the modified flow and the airlift reactor. The removal of arsenic with the turbulent flow reactor did not reach the same level but the Fe-to-As ratio (mol/mol) achieved in the coagulation process was in this case lower (approximately 7) than with the other two reactors. In addition, it seems that increasing the current density beyond a maximum value, the electrocoagulation process would not improve any further. This could probably be explained by passivation of the anode

  2. Electrocoagulation in wastewater containing arsenic: Comparing different process designs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Henrik K. [Departamento de Procesos Quimicos, Biotecnologicos y Ambientales, Universidad Tecnica Federico Santa Maria, Avenida Espana 1680, Valparaiso (Chile)]. E-mail: henrik.hansen@usm.cl; Nunez, Patricio [Departamento de Procesos Quimicos, Biotecnologicos y Ambientales, Universidad Tecnica Federico Santa Maria, Avenida Espana 1680, Valparaiso (Chile); Raboy, Deborah [Departamento de Procesos Quimicos, Biotecnologicos y Ambientales, Universidad Tecnica Federico Santa Maria, Avenida Espana 1680, Valparaiso (Chile); Schippacasse, Italo [Departamento de Procesos Quimicos, Biotecnologicos y Ambientales, Universidad Tecnica Federico Santa Maria, Avenida Espana 1680, Valparaiso (Chile); Grandon, Rodrigo [Departamento de Procesos Quimicos, Biotecnologicos y Ambientales, Universidad Tecnica Federico Santa Maria, Avenida Espana 1680, Valparaiso (Chile)

    2007-02-25

    Arsenic removal from wastewater is a key problem for copper smelters. This work shows results of electrocoagulation of aqueous solutions containing arsenic with three different process designs and operating parameters. Three types of electrocoagulation reactors were tested and compared: (a) a modified flow continuous reactor, (b) a turbulent flow reactor and (c) an airlift reactor. All used iron as sacrificial anodes. The results showed that the electrocoagulation process of a 100 mg/L As(V) solution could decrease the arsenic concentration to less than 2 mg/L in the effluent with a current density of 1.2 A/dm{sup 2} with both the modified flow and the airlift reactor. The removal of arsenic with the turbulent flow reactor did not reach the same level but the Fe-to-As ratio (mol/mol) achieved in the coagulation process was in this case lower (approximately 7) than with the other two reactors. In addition, it seems that increasing the current density beyond a maximum value, the electrocoagulation process would not improve any further. This could probably be explained by passivation of the anode.

  3. Segregation of metals-containing wastewater by pH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, P.A.; McTaggart, D.R.

    1990-10-01

    A pH-based sampling system has shown that there is a high correlation between low pH and metals contamination for the wastewater from the 4500 area (manhole 190) and the 2000 area (pump station). Wastewater from the Radiochemical Engineering Development Center (REDC) and the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) has not shown any metals concentrations above the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit limits for the Nonradiological Wastewater Treatment Plant (NRWTP). It is recommended that pH be used as the diversion criteria for wastewater from manhole 190 and the pump station to be sent to the metals tank of the NRWTP. Any wastewater with a pH less than 6.0 or greater than 10.0 should be sent to the metals tank. Based on the results of 29 weeks of sampling, it is expected that on the order of 36m 3 /wk (9500 gal/wk) of wastewater will be diverted to the metals tank of the NRWTP. Wastewater from REDC and HFIR can be sent to the nonmetals tank, but it should be sampled periodically and analyzed by Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) spectrophotometer to confirm that the metals concentration is not increasing. 1 ref., 2 figs., 9 tabs

  4. Oil refinery wastewater treatment using physicochemical, Fenton and Photo-Fenton oxidation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tony, Maha A; Purcell, Patrick J; Zhao, Yaqian

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the application of advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) to the treatment of wastewaters contaminated with hydrocarbon oil. Three different oil-contaminated wastewaters were examined and compared: (i) a 'real' hydrocarbon wastewater collected from an oil refinery (Conoco-Phillips Whitegate refinery, County Cork, Ireland); (ii) a 'real' hydrocarbon wastewater collected from a car-wash facility located at a petroleum filling station; and (iii) a 'synthetic' hydrocarbon wastewater generated by emulsifying diesel oil and water. The AOPs investigated were Fe(2+)/H(2)O(2) (Fenton's reagent), Fe(2+)/H(2)O(2)/UV (Photo-Fenton's reagent) which may be used as an alternative to, or in conjunction with, conventional treatment techniques. Laboratory-scale batch and continuous-flow experiments were undertaken. The photo-Fenton parametric concentrations to maximize COD removal were optimized: pH = 3, H(2)O(2) = 400 mg/L, and Fe(2+) = 40 mg/L. In the case of the oil-refinery wastewater, photo-Fenton treatment achieved approximately 50% COD removal and, when preceded by physicochemical treatment, the percentage removal increased to approximately 75%.

  5. Electrochemical removal of phenol from oil refinery wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelwahab, O; Amin, N K; El-Ashtoukhy, E-S Z

    2009-04-30

    This study explores the possibility of using electrocoagulation to remove phenol from oil refinery waste effluent using a cell with horizontally oriented aluminum cathode and a horizontal aluminum screen anode. The removal of phenol was investigated in terms of various parameters namely: pH, operating time, current density, initial phenol concentration and addition of NaCl. Removal of phenol during electrocoagulation was due to combined effect of sweep coagulation and adsorption. The results showed that, at high current density and solution pH 7, remarkable removal of 97% of phenol after 2h can be achieved. The rate of electrocoagulation was observed to increase as the phenol concentration decreases; the maximum removal rate was attained at 30 mg L(-1) phenol concentration. For a given current density using an array of closely packed Al screens as anode was found to be more effective than single screen anode, the percentage phenol removal was found to increase with increasing the number of screens per array. After 2h of electrocoagulation, 94.5% of initial phenol concentration was removed from the petroleum refinery wastewater. Energy consumption and aluminum Electrode consumption were calculated per gram of phenol removed. The present study shows that, electrocoagulation of phenol using aluminum electrodes is a promising process.

  6. Treatment of Wastewater Containing Organic Pollutants by Ionizing Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimura, A.; Taguchi, M. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (Japan); Maruyama, A. [Gunma Prefectural Sewerage Manegement General Office (Japan)

    2012-07-01

    We have investigated the treatment of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and halogented organic compounds (HOCs) in wastewater by ionizing radiation in the CRP. Three samples of the actual wastewater having estrogen activity were analyzed by the yeast two-hybrid assay, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and total organic carbon (TOC) analysis. Treatment of the wastewater is required to decrease the estrogen activity to less than 1 ng / L; the lower limit concentration of appearance of endocrine disrupting property. Medaka estrogen activity (mEA) initially increased and then decreased by β-ray irradiation, indicating that decomposition products in the real wastewaters also have the estrogen activity. The doses required to decrease in mEA of samples 1 to 3 below 1 ng / L, D{sub 1ng}, were estimated to be 100, 200 and 150 Gy (J kg{sup -1}), respectively. Since the D{sub 1ng} of 17 β-stradiol (E2) at 500 ng/L (1.8 nmol/L) in pure water was estimated to be 5 Gy as mentioned in the previous CRP, the elimination of estrogen activity of real wastewater is considered to be interfered by organic impurities. The economic cost of the treatment process of EDCs using electron beam was estimated at 17 yen m{sup -3}. (author)

  7. Treatment of Wastewater Containing Organic Pollutants by Ionizing Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, A.; Taguchi, M.; Maruyama, A.

    2012-01-01

    We have investigated the treatment of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and halogented organic compounds (HOCs) in wastewater by ionizing radiation in the CRP. Three samples of the actual wastewater having estrogen activity were analyzed by the yeast two-hybrid assay, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and total organic carbon (TOC) analysis. Treatment of the wastewater is required to decrease the estrogen activity to less than 1 ng / L; the lower limit concentration of appearance of endocrine disrupting property. Medaka estrogen activity (mEA) initially increased and then decreased by β-ray irradiation, indicating that decomposition products in the real wastewaters also have the estrogen activity. The doses required to decrease in mEA of samples 1 to 3 below 1 ng / L, D 1ng , were estimated to be 100, 200 and 150 Gy (J kg -1 ), respectively. Since the D 1ng of 17 β-stradiol (E2) at 500 ng/L (1.8 nmol/L) in pure water was estimated to be 5 Gy as mentioned in the previous CRP, the elimination of estrogen activity of real wastewater is considered to be interfered by organic impurities. The economic cost of the treatment process of EDCs using electron beam was estimated at 17 yen m -3 . (author)

  8. 40 CFR 63.137 - Process wastewater provisions-oil-water separators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... wastewater provisions—oil-water separators. (a) For each oil-water separator that receives, manages, or...; (2) A floating roof meeting the requirements in 40 CFR part 60, subpart QQQ § 60.693-2 (a)(1)(i), (a... to construct and operate a floating roof, such as over the weir mechanism, the owner or operator...

  9. Green synthesis of palm oil mill effluent-based graphenic adsorbent for the treatment of dye-contaminated wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teow, Yeit Haan; Nordin, Nadzirah Ilyiani; Mohammad, Abdul Wahab

    2018-05-12

    Textile wastewater contains methylene blue (MB), a major coloring agent in textile industry. Activated carbon (AC) is the most widely used adsorbent in removing dyes from industrial wastewater. However, high production cost of AC is the major obstacle for its wide application in dye wastewater treatment. In this study, a sustainable approach in synthesizing graphenic adsorbent from palm oil mill effluent (POME), a potential carbonaceous source, has been explored. This new development in adsorption technique is considered as green synthesis as it does not require any binder during the synthesis process, and at the same time, it helps to solve the bottleneck of palm oil industry as POME is the main cause contributed to Malaysia's water pollution problem. The synthesized GSC was characterized through XRD, FESEM, and EDX. The adsorption performance of the synthesized GSC was evaluated by adsorption of MB. The effect of initial concentration of synthetic MB solution (1-20 mg/L) and weight of GSC (5-20 g) were investigated. A remarkable change in color of synthetic MB solution from blue to crystal clear was observed at the end of adsorption study. High efficiency of the synthesized GSC for dye-contaminated wastewater treatment is concluded.

  10. A study on the treatment of industrial wastewater containing heavy metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Myoung Hwan; Jang, In Soon; Park, Jang Jin; Choi, Chang Shik; Lee, Yoon Hwan; Shin, Jin Myoung

    1993-06-01

    It is essential to treat heavy metals contained in industrial wastewater safely and economically for the protection of the environment. An effective method of separating heavy metals using acornic acid for the first time in the world must be utilized for wastewater treatment. One of the merits of this method lies in its cheap treatment cost. Furthermore, the secondary contamination, which occurs often when chemical purifiers are used, could be minimized. Another advantage of utilizing the acornic acid is that various kinds of heavy metals contained in industrial wastewater can be purified at once. The final purpose of this project is to commercialize the method by 1994. (Auther)

  11. The effects of oil sands wastewater on fish resulting from exposure to sub-lethal concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birkholz, D.A.; Goudey, J.S.; Balch, G.C.; Nelson, L.R.; MacKinnon, M.

    1995-01-01

    Rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, were exposed to sub-lethal concentrations of oil sands wastewater in flow through laboratory experiments as well as to artificial ponds containing sub-lethal concentrations of tailings pond water and fine tails in order to study the viability of the wet landscape remediation option. Large (200--300 g) fish were used for all the exposures in this preliminary study and the following data were collected: blood cell counts, sex hormone concentrations, sexual maturation, stress protein concentrations, PAH-metabolites in bile, condition factors, liver somatic indices, mixed function oxygenase induction, PAHs in muscle, external condition and the condition of internal organs. The data obtained from this study revealed no adverse effects upon fish during extended field exposures. Given similar exposure conditions in the release waters of a wet landscape reclamation, the data suggest that there may be no adverse effects upon fish, however, longer term studies, other indicator organisms and additional chronic tests should be conducted

  12. Removal of oil and grease from automobile garage wastewater using electrocoagulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manilal, A. M.; Harinarayanan Nampoothiri, M. G.; Soloman, P. A.

    2017-06-01

    Wastewater from automobile garages and workshops is an important contributor to the water pollution. Oil and grease is one of the major content of wastewater from vehicle garages. Wastewater from a public transport depot at Thrissur district in Kerala, India was collected for the study. A batch reactor has been devised to assess the efficacy of electrocoagulation in removing oil and grease from the wastewater. Aluminium and iron were tested as the anode material with stainless steel as cathode. Experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of various operating parameters such as current density, pH, time and salt concentration on oil and grease removal. The results shown that aluminium is superior to iron in removing the oil and grease from the wastewater. The reactor with aluminium as anode was able to remove 90.8 % of the oil and grease at a current density of 0.6 A/dm2 in 15 minutes. The calculated specific energy consumption is also less for aluminium in comparison with iron.

  13. Environmental and Human Health Impacts of Spreading Oil and Gas Wastewater on Roads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasker, T L; Burgos, W D; Piotrowski, P; Castillo-Meza, L; Blewett, T A; Ganow, K B; Stallworth, A; Delompré, P L M; Goss, G G; Fowler, L B; Vanden Heuvel, J P; Dorman, F; Warner, N R

    2018-06-19

    Thirteen states in the United States allow the spreading of O&G wastewaters on roads for deicing or dust suppression. In this study, the potential environmental and human health impacts of this practice are evaluated. Analyses of O&G wastewaters spread on roads in the northeastern, U.S. show that these wastewaters have salt, radioactivity, and organic contaminant concentrations often many times above drinking water standards. Bioassays also indicated that these wastewaters contain organic micropollutants that affected signaling pathways consistent with xenobiotic metabolism and caused toxicity to aquatic organisms like Daphnia magna. The potential toxicity of these wastewaters is a concern as lab experiments demonstrated that nearly all of the metals from these wastewaters leach from roads after rain events, likely reaching ground and surface water. Release of a known carcinogen (e.g., radium) from roads treated with O&G wastewaters has been largely ignored. In Pennsylvania from 2008 to 2014, spreading O&G wastewater on roads released over 4 times more radium to the environment (320 millicuries) than O&G wastewater treatment facilities and 200 times more radium than spill events. Currently, state-by-state regulations do not require radium analyses prior to treating roads with O&G wastewaters. Methods for reducing the potential impacts of spreading O&G wastewaters on roads are discussed.

  14. Photocatalytic Degradation of Oil using Polyvinylidene Fluoride/Titanium Dioxide Composite Membrane for Oily Wastewater Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rusli Ummi Nadiah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Production of industrial wastewater is increasing as the oil and gas industry grows rapidly over the years. The constituents in the industrial wastewater such as organic and inorganic matters, dispersed and lubricant oil and metals which have high toxicity become the major concern to the environment and ecosystem. There are many technologies are being used for oil removal from industrial wastewater. However, there are still needs to find an effective technology to treat oily wastewater before in can be discharge safely to the environment. Membrane technology is an attractive separation technology to treat oily wastewater. The aim of this study is to fabricate polyvinylidene/titanium dioxide (PVDF/TiO2 composite membrane with further treatment using hot pressed method to enhance the adhesion between TiO2 with the membrane surfaces. In this study the structural and physical properties of fabricated membrane were conducted using X-ray diffraction (XRD and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR respectively. The photocatalytic degradation of oil was measured using UV-Vis Spectroscopy. The FTIR results confirmed that, hot pressed PVDF/TiO2 membrane TiO2 was successfully deposited onto PVDF membranes surface and XRD results shows that the XRD pattern of PVDF//TiO2 found that the crystalline structure was remained unchanged after hot pressed. Clear water was obtained after synthetic oily wastewater was exposed to visible light for at least 6 hours. In conclusion, PVDF/TiO2 composite membrane can be a potential candidate to degrade oil in oily wastewater and suggested to possess an excellent performance if perform simultaneously with membrane separation process.

  15. Removal of Oil and Grease as Emerging Pollutants of Concern (EPC in Wastewater Stream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alade Abass O

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Wastewater characteristics, which depend on wastewater source, are increasingly becoming more toxic in recent times. The concentrations of oil and grease in wastewater streams have been observed to increase in wastewater stream with increasing adverse effects on the ecology. This results from the increasing use of oil and grease in high-demanded oil-processed foods, establishment and expansion of oil mills and refineries worldwide, as well as indiscriminate discharge of oil and grease into the water drains, domestically and industrially. This study reports the applications, efficiencies and challenges of the wastewater treatment techniques currently employed in the removal of oil and grease from the industrial wastewater and municipal water stream. The results shows that the concentrations of oil and grease injected into the ecosystem are of higher environmental impact and this needs to be given the desired attention. The desired development for effective removal of oil and grease as emerging pollutants of concern (EPC in wastewater stream are thus proposed. ABSTRAK: Ciri-ciri air sisa, bergantung kepada punca air sisa tersebut, menjadi semakin toksik akhir-akhir ini. Kepekatan minyak dan gris dalam air sisa anak sungai dilihat makin bertambah dalam air sisa anak sungai dengan bertambahnya kesan negatif ke atas ekologi. Ini disebabkan oleh peningkatan penggunaan minyak dan gris dalam makanan berproses yang tinggi permintaannya, penubuhan dan perkembangan kilang pertroleum dan loji penapisan di seluruh dunia. Minyak dan gris juga dibuang sewenang-wenangnya ke dalam parit air, dari kalangan domestik dan industry. Kajian ini membentangkan tentang aplikasi, keberkesanan dan teknik cabaran rawatan air buangan yang kini digunakan dalam pembuangan minyak dan gris dari air sisa industry dan air sungai perbandaran. Keputusan menunjukkan kepekatan minyak dan gris yang wujud dibuang ke dalam ekosistem mempunyai impak yang lebih tinggi terhadap persekitaran

  16. Experimental study on treatment of simulated boron containing radioactive wastewater by reverse osmosis membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiaowei; Yang Kai; Kong Jinsong

    2012-01-01

    Experiments were carried out on a pilot equipment to study the performance of treatment of simulated boron containing radioactive wastewater by reverse osmosis membrane. Results showed that the rejection efficiency of boron, simulated nuclides and salts in simulated wastewater could be enhanced by increasing the feedwater pH, improving the applied pressure or reducing the recovery ratio. By adjusting the simulated wastewater pH to 9.0, the boron concentration in permeate could be lower than 5 mg/L and two nuclides including cobalt and cesium could be removed to a satisfied extend. (authors)

  17. Refining of wax-containing oil by distillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1930-04-28

    A continuous method is disclosed for producing low cold test oil from wax-containing mineral oil, which comprises continuously heating the oil in a tubular heater with avoidance of cracking, and fractionating the resulting liquid and vapor in a fractionating tower with reflux to produce a wax-containing fraction having therein substantially all of the amorphous wax and being sufficiently free of crystalline wax so as to be waxable by a method suitable for the removal of amorphous wax.

  18. The effects of the natural coagulant Moringa oleifera and alum in wastewater treatment at the Bandar Abbas Oil Refinery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Dehghani

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The refining process generates large volumes of wastewater containing a variety of chemical contaminants. The use of natural substitutes in treating wastewater which have fewer harmful effects is considered an effective step towards protecting the environment and sustaining the development of these industries. This study focused on the use of Moringa oleifera and alum at the Wastewater Unit at Bandar Abbas Refinery. Methods: This study was performed in 2014 in a laboratory using jar apparatus. These experiments were conducted in batch system and effective parameters including pH, coagulant dose and contact time were investigated on the wastewater obtained from Bandar Abbas Oil Refinery. Results: The jar test experiment showed that M. oleifera at 70 mg/L, optimum temperature, pH, and mixing speed could remove 38.60% of chemical oxygen demand (COD, 63.70% of turbidity, and 62.05% of total suspended solids (TSS. Also, alum at 40 mg/L removed COD, turbidity, and TSS by 51.72%, 92.16%, and 85.26% respectively from the refinery wastewater. Moreover, when M. oleifera and alum was used together with a 2:1 dosage ratio (alum at 80 mg/L and M. oleifera at 70 mg/L, they will remove COD, turbidity, and TSS by up to 50.41%, 86.14%, and 81.52% respectively. Conclusion: The use of M. oleifera as a natural coagulant is important in treating refinery wastewater not only from an environmental but also an economic point of view.

  19. Olive oil mill wastewater for remediation of slag contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrara, Luciano; Panzella, Lucia; Napolitano, Alessandra; Giudicianni, Italo; d'Ischia, Marco; Arienzo, Michele

    2013-12-01

    Two olive mill wastewaters (OMW) samples, OMWa and OMWb, containing different polyphenolic loads were used for decontaminating an unauthorized dump site in the Campania region, south Italy. In a bench-scale experiment, OMWa at pH 6.0 (OMWapH6.0) and 4.7 (OMWapH4.7), OMWb at pH 4.7 (OMWbpH4.7) and OMWa free of the polyphenolic moiety polyphenol-free OMWa (PF-OMWa) were added to the soil for a 96 h contact time. At 96 h, OMWapH4.7 was more effective than OMWapH6.0, with Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn removal percentages of 30.7-68.1. Cd and Pb levels were 6.0 and 915 mg kg(-1), respectively, decreasing below the regulatory limits for industrial and commercial areas (15.0 and 1 × 10(3) mg kg(-1), respectively). A threefold decrease in Zn levels was also observed from 13.5 × 10(3) to 4.3 × 10(3) mg kg(-1). The metal removal efficiency of PF-OMWa dropped from 30.7 % to 15.6 % for Cd and from 37.9 % to 1.3 % for Pb. OMWbpH4.7 at 96 h was more efficient than OMWapH4.7, with mean removal percentages of 32.5 versus 7.8, respectively.

  20. Conceptual design for treatment of mining and metallurgical wastewaters which contains arsenic and antimony

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Željko Kamberović

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a preliminary design for treatment of mining and metallurgical wastewaters (MMW from the basin of antimony “Zajača“, which contains high concentrations of arsenic and antimony. MMW have been investigated in laboratory, due to large difference in concentrations of pollutants. Metallurgical wastewaters were treated using iron (II-sulfate and lime milk used to adjust the pH value at 7. After chemical treatment of metallurgical wastewater and its joining with mining wastewater, residual amount of arsenic in water was below maximum allowed concentrations, while the concentration of antimony, remained above the maximum allowed value. The final phase of purification process was performed using ion exchange resin. After treatment of MMW, they can be used as technical water in the smelting process of secondary raw lead materials.

  1. Biosorption of Lead by Pseudomonas sp Isolated from Oil-Contaminated Wastewaters in Khuzestan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mansour Meybodi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Biosorption is a most effective technology for the removal of such toxic substances as heavy metals. The objective of this study was four-fold: 1 to isolate lead resistant Pseudomonas strains, 2 to determine the optimal conditions of their growth, 3 to obtain the minimum inhibitory concentration of lead, and 4 to evaluate the bioremoval of lead from culture solutions. For the purposes of this study, oil-contaminated wastewater samples were collected from Khuzestan region and transferred to laboratory where they were homogenized and serially diluted up to 10-10 with sterile saline before they were cultured in Luria Bertani agar medium containing 5ppm of lead nitrate. Resistant strains were then isolated at 37°C for 24h. The samples were subsequently cultured in Macconkey agar for isolation of appropriate gram negative strains. Biochemical tests were used to identify the bacteria, 10 strains of which were screened as lead resistant ones from all the 24 isolates. The bacterial colonies were selected and tested with different concentrations (100- 2100 ppm of lead for their resistance. The plates were then incubated at 37ºC for 24h and Mso1 was chosen from among the lead resistant colonies for further experiments. This strain showed resistance to chloramphenicol (30µg and erythromycin (15µg when subjected to the antimicrobial susceptibility test. Optimal growth conditions included a temperature of 40°C at 100 rpm and a pH level of 6 in the presence of lead by spectrophotometry at 600nm. Absorption tests showed that the Mso1 strain had a metal removal efficiency of 38.45% from an aqueous solution containing 100 ppm of lead over 24h. The results confirmed the capability of Pseudomonassp in the bioremediation of Pb-contaminated wastewaters.

  2. Anaerobic treatment of sulfate-containing wastewater from distilleries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stadlbauer, E.A.; Oey, L.N.; Weber, B.

    1994-01-01

    Bioprocess evaluation of a staged arrangement of a Pulse Driven Loop Reaktor (PDLR) and a Pulsed Anaerobic Filter (PAF) using highly polluted cherry slops as industrial wastewater shows a COD removal efficiency of 80-90% at loading rates of 8-4 kg COD/(M 3 .d). Contamination of cherry slops by sulfate (2 g/l) and copper (150-200 mg/l) reduces COD degradation to 40-50 percent. A pulsed anaerobic baffled reactor was envisaged as a corrective tool to improve mineralisation in the presence of sulfate-rich substrates by confining sulfate reducing bacteria to the first 4 chambers of the reactor. Phasing slightly improves COD degradation yield, but is not sufficient for stable process performance. Consequently, the use of lactic acid in stead of sulfuric acid in cherry-fermentation was suggested as a preventive method to avoid sulphide-induced digester failure. (orig.) [de

  3. Biodegradation studies of oil sludge containing high hydrocarbons concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olguin-Lora, P.; Munoz-Colunga, A.; Castorena-Cortes, G.; Roldan-Carrillo, T.; Quej Ake, L.; Reyes-Avila, J.; Zapata-Penasco, I.; Marin-Cruz, J.

    2009-01-01

    Oil industry has a significant impact on environment due to the emission of, dust, gases, waste water and solids generated during oil production all the way to basic petrochemical product manufacturing stages. the aim of this work was to evaluate the biodegradation of sludge containing high hydrocarbon concentration originated by a petroleum facility. A sludge sampling was done at the oil residuals pool (ORP) on a gas processing center. (Author)

  4. Treatment of opium alkaloid containing wastewater in sequencing batch reactor (SBR)-Effect of gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bural, Cavit B.; Demirer, Goksel N.; Kantoglu, Omer; Dilek, Filiz B.

    2010-01-01

    Aerobic biological treatment of opium alkaloid containing wastewater as well as the effect of gamma irradiation as pre-treatment was investigated. Biodegradability of raw wastewater was assessed in aerobic batch reactors and was found highly biodegradable (83-90% degradation). The effect of irradiation (40 and 140 kGy) on biodegradability was also evaluated in terms of BOD 5 /COD values and results revealed that irradiation imparted no further enhancement in the biodegradability. Despite the highly biodegradable nature of wastewater, further experiments in sequencing batch reactors (SBR) revealed that the treatment operation was not possible due to sludge settleability problem observed beyond an influent COD value of 2000 mg dm -3 . Possible reasons for this problem were investigated, and the high molecular weight, large size and aromatic structure of the organic pollutants present in wastewater was thought to contribute to poor settleability. Initial efforts to solve this problem by modifying the operational conditions, such as SRT reduction, failed. However, further operational modifications including addition of phosphate buffer cured the settleability problem and influent COD was increased up to 5000 mg dm -3 . Significant COD removal efficiencies (>70%) were obtained in both SBRs fed with original and irradiated wastewaters (by 40 kGy). However, pre-irradiated wastewater provided complete thebain removal and a better settling sludge, which was thought due to degradation of complex structure by radiation application. Degradation of the structure was observed by GC/MS analyses and enhancement in filterability tests.

  5. Treatment of opium alkaloid containing wastewater in sequencing batch reactor (SBR)-Effect of gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bural, Cavit B.; Demirer, Goksel N. [Middle East Technical University, Department of Environmental Engineering, 06531 Ankara (Turkey); Kantoglu, Omer [Turkish Atomic Energy Authority, Saraykoy Nuclear Research and Training Center, 06982, Kazan, Ankara (Turkey); Dilek, Filiz B., E-mail: fdilek@metu.edu.t [Middle East Technical University, Department of Environmental Engineering, 06531 Ankara (Turkey)

    2010-04-15

    Aerobic biological treatment of opium alkaloid containing wastewater as well as the effect of gamma irradiation as pre-treatment was investigated. Biodegradability of raw wastewater was assessed in aerobic batch reactors and was found highly biodegradable (83-90% degradation). The effect of irradiation (40 and 140 kGy) on biodegradability was also evaluated in terms of BOD{sub 5}/COD values and results revealed that irradiation imparted no further enhancement in the biodegradability. Despite the highly biodegradable nature of wastewater, further experiments in sequencing batch reactors (SBR) revealed that the treatment operation was not possible due to sludge settleability problem observed beyond an influent COD value of 2000 mg dm{sup -3}. Possible reasons for this problem were investigated, and the high molecular weight, large size and aromatic structure of the organic pollutants present in wastewater was thought to contribute to poor settleability. Initial efforts to solve this problem by modifying the operational conditions, such as SRT reduction, failed. However, further operational modifications including addition of phosphate buffer cured the settleability problem and influent COD was increased up to 5000 mg dm{sup -3}. Significant COD removal efficiencies (>70%) were obtained in both SBRs fed with original and irradiated wastewaters (by 40 kGy). However, pre-irradiated wastewater provided complete thebain removal and a better settling sludge, which was thought due to degradation of complex structure by radiation application. Degradation of the structure was observed by GC/MS analyses and enhancement in filterability tests.

  6. Study on anaerobic treatment of wastewater containing hexavalent chromium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yan-bin; Xiao, Hua-hua; Sun, Shui-yu

    2005-06-01

    A self-made anaerobic bio-filter bed which was inoculated with special sludge showed high efficiency in removing hexavalent chromium. When pump flow was 47 ml/min and COD(Cr) of wastewater was about 140 mg/L, it took 4 h to decrease the Cr6+ concentrations from about 60 mg/L to under 0.5 mg/L, compared with 14 h without carbon source addition. Cr6+ concentrations ranged from 64.66 mg/L to 75.53 mg/L, the system efficiency was excellent. When Cr6+ concentration reached 95.47 mg/L, the treatment time was prolonged to 7.5 h. Compared with the contrast system, the system with trace metals showed clear superiority in that the Cr6+ removal rate increased by 21.26%. Some analyses also showed that hexavalent chromium could probably be bio-reduced to trivalent chromium, and that as a result, the chrome hydroxide sediment was formed on the surface of microorganisms.

  7. Study on anaerobic treatment of wastewater containing hexavalent chromium*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yan-bin; Xiao, Hua-hua; Sun, Shui-yu

    2005-01-01

    A self-made anaerobic bio-filter bed which was inoculated with special sludge showed high efficiency in removing hexavalent chromium. When pump flow was 47 ml/min and CODCr of wastewater was about 140 mg/L, it took 4 h to decrease the Cr6+ concentrations from about 60 mg/L to under 0.5 mg/L, compared with 14 h without carbon source addition. Cr6+ concentrations ranged from 64.66 mg/L to 75.53 mg/L, the system efficiency was excellent. When Cr6+ concentration reached 95.47 mg/L, the treatment time was prolonged to 7.5 h. Compared with the contrast system, the system with trace metals showed clear superiority in that the Cr6+ removal rate increased by 21.26%. Some analyses also showed that hexavalent chromium could probably be bio-reduced to trivalent chromium, and that as a result, the chrome hydroxide sediment was formed on the surface of microorganisms. PMID:15909347

  8. Mesophilic and thermophilic anaerobic digestion of sulphate-containing wastewaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colleran, E; Pender, S

    2002-01-01

    The effect of sulphate at an influent chemical oxygen demand (COD):sulphate ratio of 4 on the operational performance of anaerobic hybrid reactors treating molasses wastewater was investigated under mesophilic and thermophilic conditions in a long-term laboratory-scale study over a 1,081 day period. The presence of sulphate reduced the COD removal efficiency under both mesophilic and thermophilic conditions. At 55 degrees C, effluent acetate levels were consistently greater than 4000 mg l(-1) indicating that thermophilic acetate-utilising methane-producing bacteria (MPB) or sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) had not developed in the reactor under the conditions applied. At 37 degrees C, acetate was exclusively utilised by acetoclastic methanogens, whereas H2-utilising SRB predominated over H2-utilising MPB in the competition for hydrogen. By contrast, hydrogenotrophic MPB were shown to outcompete H2-utilising SRB during long-term thermophilic operation. 16SrDNA analysis of the seed sludge and reactor biomass on conclusion of the 37 degrees C and 55 degrees C trials illustrated that the dominant methanogen present on conclusion of the thermophilic trial in the absence of influent sulphate was related to Methanocorpusculum parvuum, and was capable of growth on both acetate and hydrogen. By contrast, an organism closely related to Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum was the dominant methanogen present in the sulphate-fed reactor on completion of the thermophilic trial.

  9. Production of methyl ester from oil in the wastewater pond of a palm oil factory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tongurai, C.

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available This research studied the suitable technique for the production of methyl ester from waste palm oil in the water pond of a palm oil mill. The composition of the waste palm oil was 73.82% fatty acid, 5.07% triglyceride, 3.39% diglyceride and 17.76% unknown compounds. The unknown compounds were separated via simple distillation carried out at a temperature range of 300-350oC.First, the experiments were carried out in screw capped bottles using filtrated as-received waste oil as the reactant. The esterification and transesterification process were conducted using sulfuric acid catalyst in a methanol solution. The key parameters studied were mole ratio of waste oil to methanol (1:1 to 1:72, amount of catalyst from 0.1-20 v/w% of the reactant, temperature range of 60-98oC and reaction time range of 15-180 minutes. Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC analysis showed 85-90% purity of methyl ester with 4-5% of mono-, di-, and triglycerides and fatty acids and about 5-10% of the unknown compounds for the best condition. The resulting yield of biodiesel was 84-88%. Eradication of contaminants by distillation gave about a 75% distillate yield. Distilled waste palm oil was esterified and transesterified using the previous optimum condition of as-received waste oil, but the reaction time and temperature were varied. The optimal result was obtained by using distilled waste palm oil to methanol molar ratio of 1:8, sulfuric acid of 1 v/w% of reactant, reaction temperature of 70oC and reaction time of 1 hour. TLC analysis indicated a biodiesel composition of methyl ester, free fatty acid, diglyceride and monoglyceride of 96.39%, 3.20%, 0.24% and 0.17%, respectively. The yield of biodiesel was 96-98% having physical fuel properties according to Thailand standard for methyl esterFinally, the distilled waste palm oil was esterified using a 3 liters continuous stirred-tank reactor (CSTR. Using the suitable condition for the batch process and an hour retention time, the

  10. Efficient treatment of aniline containing wastewater in bipolar membrane microbial electrolysis cell-Fenton system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaohu; Jin, Xiangdan; Zhao, Nannan; Angelidaki, Irini; Zhang, Yifeng

    2017-08-01

    Aniline-containing wastewater can cause significant environmental problems and threaten the humans's life. However, rapid degradation of aniline with cost-efficient methods remains a challenge. In this work, a novel microbial electrolysis cell with bipolar membrane was integrated with Fenton reaction (MEC-Fenton) for efficient treatment of real wastewater containing a high concentration (4460 ± 52 mg L -1 ) of aniline. In this system, H 2 O 2 was in situ electro-synthesized from O 2 reduction on the graphite cathode and was simultaneously used as source of OH for the oxidation of aniline wastewater under an acidic condition maintained by the bipolar membrane. The aniline was effectively degraded following first-order kinetics at a rate constant of 0.0166 h -1 under an applied voltage of 0.5 V. Meanwhile, a total organic carbon (TOC) removal efficiency of 93.1 ± 1.2% was obtained, revealing efficient mineralization of aniline. The applicability of bipolar membrane MEC-Fenton system was successfully demonstrated with actual aniline wastewater. Moreover, energy balance showed that the system could be a promising technology for removal of biorefractory organic pollutants from wastewaters. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Airlift bioreactor containing chitosan-immobilized Sphingobium sp. P2 for treatment of lubricants in wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khondee, Nichakorn; Tathong, Sitti; Pinyakong, Onruthai; Powtongsook, Sorawit; Chatchupong, Thawach; Ruangchainikom, Chalermchai; Luepromchai, Ekawan

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Sphingobium sp. P2 effectively degraded various lubricant samples. ► Efficiency of Sphingobium sp. P2 increased after immobilization on chitosan. ► High removal efficiency was due to both sorption and degradation processes. ► The immobilized bacteria (4 g L −1 ) were applied in internal loop airlift bioreactor. ► The bioreactor continuously removed lubricant from emulsified wastewater. - Abstract: An internal loop airlift bioreactor containing chitosan-immobilized Sphingobium sp. P2 was applied for the removal of automotive lubricants from emulsified wastewater. The chitosan-immobilized bacteria had higher lubricant removal efficiency than free and killed-immobilized cells because they were able to sorp and degrade the lubricants simultaneously. In a semi-continuous batch experiment, the immobilized bacteria were able to remove 80–90% of the 200 mg L −1 total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) from both synthetic and carwash wastewater. The internal loop airlift bioreactor, containing 4 g L −1 immobilized bacteria, was later designed and operated at 2.0 h HRT (hydraulic retention time) for over 70 days. At a steady state, the reactor continuously removed 85 ± 5% TPH and 73 ± 11% chemical oxygen demand (COD) from the carwash wastewater with 25–200 mg L −1 amended lubricant. The internal loop airlift reactor's simple operation and high stability demonstrate its high potential for use in treating lubricants in emulsified wastewater from carwashes and other industries.

  12. Electrochemical oxidation of ammonia-containing wastewater using Ti/RuO2-Pt electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-wu Hu

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The electrochemical oxidation degradation processes for artificial and actual wastewater containing ammonia were carried out with a Ti/RuO2-Pt anode and a Ti plate cathode. We studied the effects of different current densities, space sizes between the two electrodes, and amounts of added NaCl on ammonia-containing wastewater treatment. It was shown that, after a 30-min treatment under the optimal conditions, which were a current density of 20 mA/cm2, a space size between the two electrodes of 1 cm, and an added amount of 0.5 g/L of NaCl, the COD concentration in municipal wastewater was 40 mg/L, a removal rate of 90%; and the NH3-N concentration was 7 mg/L, a removal rate of 88.3%. The effluent of municipal wastewater qualified for Class A of the Discharge Standard of Pollutants for Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant (GB18918-2002.

  13. The containment of heavy oil in flowing water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, H.M.; Goodman, R.H.; Nicholson, P.

    1992-01-01

    Viscous bitumen from Alberta oil sand deposits is diluted with a gas condensate before pipeline transport. Because of its unique properties, the diluent/bitumen mix (dilbit) may require novel containment and recovery techniques in the case of an accidental spill. Preliminary experiments were conducted in a large flowing water channel to determine whether several conventional containment devices could be utilized to trap weathered and emulsified dilbit and bitumen. These devices included a conventional river boom, a nylon fine-weave net, and a low-pressure bubble barrier. The behavior of the oil samples during boom failure was noted in order to understand more completely the mechanisms of failure. The river boom failed to hold viscous floating oil by vortex shedding at flows of under 0.25 m/s. A fine mesh net successfully trapped both floating and mid-channel neutrally buoyant oil but the retention time depends on the oil viscosity. The bubble barrier was not successful in trapping either floating viscous oil or neutrally buoyant oil. At low water velocities, the barrier was able to divert some oils but in an inconsistent manner. The results indicate that conventional barriers need improvement to be effective at higher water velocities and suggest that new concepts in containment should be considered. 9 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  14. Preparation and application of magnetic superhydrophobic polydivinylbenzene nanofibers for oil adsorption in wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaobiao; Tian, Ye; Li, Feifei; Liu, Yapeng; Wang, Xiaohui; Hu, Xiang

    2018-06-01

    Superhydrophobic materials have an excellent performance in oil adsorption. In this study, a novel magnetic polydivinylbenzene (PDVB) nanofiber was synthesized by the method of cation polymerization to adsorb oil from water. The magnetic PDVB was hollow nanofiber with Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles embedded in its structure. The synthesis condition was optimized that the ratio of divinylbenzene (DVB) to boron fluoride ethyl ether (BFEE) was 10:1 (v/v), and the Fe 3 O 4 dosage was 0.175 g/g of DVB. The material showed an excellent oil adsorption performance in wastewater, and the oil concentration could be reduced from 2000 to 92.2 mg/L within 5 min. The magnetic PDVB had relatively high adsorption capacity (12 g/g) for oil, which could be attributed to its super hydrophobicity and one-dimensional nanostructure with high crosslinking degree. The isotherm study indicated that the magnetic PDVB adsorbed oil was an asymmetric or multilayer adsorption process. The material could be regenerated by simple squeeze and maintain its adsorption capacity after it has been used for 10 recycles. In real coking wastewater, the magnetic PDVB kept a good oil adsorption performance without the interference of various pollutants, indicating a wide prospect in practical use.

  15. Using Photocatalytic Oxidation and Analytic Techniques to Remediate Lab Wastewater Containing Methanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Qing; Luo, Mingliang; Bao, Xiaoming; Deng, Yurong; Qin, Song; Pu, Xuemei

    2018-01-01

    This experiment is dedicated to second-year and above undergraduates who are in their experimental session of the analytical chemistry course. Grouped students are required to use a TiO[subscript 2] photocatalytic oxidation process to treat the methanol-containing wastewater that resulted from their previous HPLC experiments. Students learn to…

  16. Characterization of Lipase from Bacillus subtilisI-4 and Its Potential Use in Oil Contaminated Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syeda Abeer Iqbal

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTA lipase producing bacterium was isolated from oil contaminated effluents of various industries from Sheikhupura Road, Pakistan, and, on the basis of biochemical and 16S rRNA ribotyping, was identified asBacillus subtilis. The optimum temperature and pH for the growth of the culture were 37ºC and 7.0, respectively.B. subtilis I-4 had a lag phase of 4 h in LB medium while this phase prolonged to 6 h in oil containing medium. The optimum temperature and pH for the enzyme activity were 50ºC and 7.0, respectively. Maximum lipase activity was found in the presence of Ca ions. Olive oil and Tween 80 induced lipase gene in the bacterium while concentration of oil greater than 2% retarded the growth of the organism. In addition to lipaseB. subtilis I-4 also produced alkane hydroxylase and biosurfactant which could make this bacterium potential candidate for lipase production as well as bioremediation of oil-contaminated wastewater.

  17. Kinetic study of treatment of wastewater contains food preservative agent by anaerobic baffled reactor : An overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumantri, Indro; Purwanto,; Budiyono

    2015-01-01

    The characteristic of wastewater of food industries with preservative substances is high content of organic substances, degradable and high total suspended solid. High organic content in this waste forced the treatment is biologically and pointed out to anaerobic treatment. Anaerobic showed the better performance of degradation than aerobic for high content organic and also for toxic materials. During that day the treatment of food wastewater is aerobically which is high consume of energy required and high volume of sludge produced. The advantage of anaerobic is save high energy, less product of sludge, less requirement of nutrients of microorganism and high efficiency reduction of organic load. The high efficiency of reduction will reduce the load of further treatment, so that, the threshold limit based on the regulation would be easy to achieve. Research of treatment of wastewater of food industries would be utilized by both big scale industries and small industries using addition of preservative substances. The type reactor of anaerobic process is anaerobic baffled reactor that will give better contact between wastewater and microorganism in the sludge. The variables conducted in this research are the baffled configuration, sludge height, preservative agent contents, hydralic retention time and influence of micro nutrients. The respons of this research are the COD effluent, remaining preservative agent, pH, formation of volatile fatty acid and total suspended solid. The result of this research is kinetic model of the anaerobic baffled reactor, reaction kinetic of preservative agent degradation and technology of treatment wastewater contains preservative agent. The benefit of this research is to solve the treatment of wastewater of food industries with preservative substance in order to achieve wastewater limit regulation and also to prevent the environmental deterioration

  18. Kinetic study of treatment of wastewater contains food preservative agent by anaerobic baffled reactor : An overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumantri, Indro; Purwanto, Budiyono

    2015-12-01

    The characteristic of wastewater of food industries with preservative substances is high content of organic substances, degradable and high total suspended solid. High organic content in this waste forced the treatment is biologically and pointed out to anaerobic treatment. Anaerobic showed the better performance of degradation than aerobic for high content organic and also for toxic materials. During that day the treatment of food wastewater is aerobically which is high consume of energy required and high volume of sludge produced. The advantage of anaerobic is save high energy, less product of sludge, less requirement of nutrients of microorganism and high efficiency reduction of organic load. The high efficiency of reduction will reduce the load of further treatment, so that, the threshold limit based on the regulation would be easy to achieve. Research of treatment of wastewater of food industries would be utilized by both big scale industries and small industries using addition of preservative substances. The type reactor of anaerobic process is anaerobic baffled reactor that will give better contact between wastewater and microorganism in the sludge. The variables conducted in this research are the baffled configuration, sludge height, preservative agent contents, hydralic retention time and influence of micro nutrients. The respons of this research are the COD effluent, remaining preservative agent, pH, formation of volatile fatty acid and total suspended solid. The result of this research is kinetic model of the anaerobic baffled reactor, reaction kinetic of preservative agent degradation and technology of treatment wastewater contains preservative agent. The benefit of this research is to solve the treatment of wastewater of food industries with preservative substance in order to achieve wastewater limit regulation and also to prevent the environmental deterioration.

  19. Kinetic study of treatment of wastewater contains food preservative agent by anaerobic baffled reactor : An overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sumantri, Indro; Purwanto,; Budiyono [Chemical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Diponegoro University Jl. Prof. H. Soedarto, SH, Kampus Baru Tembalang, Semarang (Indonesia)

    2015-12-29

    The characteristic of wastewater of food industries with preservative substances is high content of organic substances, degradable and high total suspended solid. High organic content in this waste forced the treatment is biologically and pointed out to anaerobic treatment. Anaerobic showed the better performance of degradation than aerobic for high content organic and also for toxic materials. During that day the treatment of food wastewater is aerobically which is high consume of energy required and high volume of sludge produced. The advantage of anaerobic is save high energy, less product of sludge, less requirement of nutrients of microorganism and high efficiency reduction of organic load. The high efficiency of reduction will reduce the load of further treatment, so that, the threshold limit based on the regulation would be easy to achieve. Research of treatment of wastewater of food industries would be utilized by both big scale industries and small industries using addition of preservative substances. The type reactor of anaerobic process is anaerobic baffled reactor that will give better contact between wastewater and microorganism in the sludge. The variables conducted in this research are the baffled configuration, sludge height, preservative agent contents, hydralic retention time and influence of micro nutrients. The respons of this research are the COD effluent, remaining preservative agent, pH, formation of volatile fatty acid and total suspended solid. The result of this research is kinetic model of the anaerobic baffled reactor, reaction kinetic of preservative agent degradation and technology of treatment wastewater contains preservative agent. The benefit of this research is to solve the treatment of wastewater of food industries with preservative substance in order to achieve wastewater limit regulation and also to prevent the environmental deterioration.

  20. Novel concepts for the containment of oil in flowing water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, H.M.; Nicholson, P.; Goodman, R.H.; Berry, B.A.; Hughes, B.R.

    1993-01-01

    Both a laboratory study of the hydrodynamic properties of variously shaped objects and a meso-scale flume study of several containment concepts have been undertaken to determine whether these can be used to contain oil in fast flowing water. The laboratory study showed that stable vortices are difficult to generate and that spilled oil is not easily trapped by them. Only two of the structures studied showed some promise of trapping oil in fast moving water: a partially submerged barrier with fins placed at an angle across the flume and a horizontal hydrofoil placed across the channel near the surface. Several filter materials were tested in an outdoor flowing channel with both floating and neutrally buoyant oil. Although some of these materials trapped and held heavy oil, they were not a significant improvement over nylon fishing nets which had been tested previously. The filter materials would not hold a medium gravity oil. A hydrofoil device which generated a horizontal eddy successfully trapped and held surface oil at water speeds up to 0.35 m/s. Neutrally buoyant oil was often caught by the eddy but was never held for more than 1-2 minutes. 9 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs

  1. Statistical modelling of Fat, Oil and Grease (FOG) deposits in wastewater pump sumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieuwenhuis, Eva; Post, Johan; Duinmeijer, Alex; Langeveld, Jeroen; Clemens, François

    2018-05-15

    The accumulation of FOG (Fat, Oil and Grease) deposits in sewer pumping stations results in an increase in maintenance costs, malfunctioning of pumps and, a potential increase of wastewater spills in receiving open water bodies. It is thought that a variety of parameters (e.g. geometry of the pump sump, pump operation, socioeconomic parameters of the catchment) influences the built-up of FOG. Based on a database containing data of 126 pumping stations located in five Dutch municipalities a statistical model was built. It is shown that 3 parameters are most significant in explaining the occurrence of FOG deposits: mean income of the population in a catchment, the amount of energy (kinetic and potential) per m 3 per day and the density of restaurants, bars and hotels in a catchment. Further it is shown that there are significant differences between municipalities that can be traced back to the local 'design paradigm'. For example, in Amsterdam, the design philosophy of discharging in the pump sump under the water surface (and hence maintaining a low level of turbulence in the pump sump) results in an increase of the probability of the formation of FOG. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. Using essential oils to control moss and liverwort in containers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabil Khadduri

    2011-01-01

    Liverwort and moss are economically significant weeds across a range of US container production sites, including forest seedling greenhouse culture in the Pacific Northwest. We have demonstrated the effectiveness of essential oils, or distilled plant extracts, in controlling liverwort and moss container weeds over three seasons of trials. When applied at the...

  3. Oxidative stability of pullulan electrospun fibers containing fish oil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    García Moreno, Pedro Jesús; Damberg, Cecilie; Chronakis, Ioannis S.

    2017-01-01

    The effect of oil content and addition of natural antioxidants on the morphology and oxidative stability of pullulan ultra-thin fibers loaded with fish oil and obtained by electrospinning was investigated. Pullulan sub-micron fibers containing 10 and 30wt% fish oil were prepared and both presented...... into food matrices. These results show the feasibility to encapsulate fish oil in pullulan ultra-thin fibers and to improve their oxidative stability by adding natural antioxidants such as δ-tocopherol and rosemary extract. Therefore, this study might open up new opportunities for further technological...... development in the production of omega-3 nanodelivery systems, which have potential applications in different types of fortified foods. Encapsulation of fish oil in electrospun pullulan fibers stabilized by natural antioxidants....

  4. Oxidative Stability of Nano-Microstructures containing fish oil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    García Moreno, Pedro Jesús; Özdemir, N.; Boutrup Stephansen, Karen

    investigated. For that purpose, three different biopolymers namely pullulan, dextran and whey protein concentrate (WPC) were evaluated as encapsulating materials. First, the influence of biopolymer concentration on the physical properties (e.g. viscosity, conductivity and surface tension) of the biopolymer...... solutions and on the morphology of NMS was assayed. Secondly, the oxidative stability of the biopolymer solutions containing emulsified fish oil during storage (14 days at 40 °C) and of NMS loaded with fish oil (e.g. pullulan fibers and dextran and WPC capsules) was determined. Finally, to improve...... the oxidative status of the NMS, pullulan fibers, dextran capsules and WPC capsules were produced by adding neat fish oil instead of emulsified fish oil to the biopolymer solutions. These latter NMS presented a higher oxidative stability, which may be due to a better entrapment of the fish oil into biopolymer...

  5. Treatment of Mineral Oil Refinery Wastewater in Microbial Fuel Cells Using Ionic Liquid Based Separators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasna Addi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Microbial fuel cells (MFCs are an environmentally friendly technology that can recover electricity directly from several wastes at ambient temperatures. This work explores the use of mineral oil refinery wastewater as feedstock in single-chamber air-cathode MFC devices. A polymer inclusion membrane based on the ionic liquid methyltrioctylammonium chloride, [MTOA+][Cl−], at a concentration of 70% w/w, was used as separator, showing a good efficiency in power production and chemical oxygen demand (COD removal. The power and the chemical oxygen demand removal reached values of 45 mW/m3 and over 80%, respectively. The evolution of other parameters of the wastewater including nitrites, phosphates and sulphates were also studied. Kjeldahl nitrogen and sulphates were significantly reduced during MFC operation. The results show that mineral oil refinery wastewater can be used as feedstock in air breathing cathode-microbial fuel cells based on polymer ionic liquid inclusion membranes. This configuration could represent a good alternative for wastewater depuration while producing energy during the process.

  6. Color removal from dye-containing wastewater by magnesium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Bao-Yu; Yue, Qin-Yan; Wang, Yan; Zhou, Wei-Zhi

    2007-01-01

    Color removal by MgCl(2) when treating synthetic waste containing pure dyes was studied. The color removal efficiency of MgCl(2)/Ca(OH)(2) was compared with that of Al(2)(SO(4))(3), polyaluminum chloride (PAC) and FeSO(4)/Ca(OH)(2). The mechanism of color removal by MgCl(2) was also investigated. The experimental results show that the color removal efficiency of MgCl(2) is related to the type of dye and depends on the pH of the waste and the dosage of the coagulants used. Treatment of waste containing reactive dye or dispersed dye with MgCl(2) yielded an optimum color removal ratio when the pH of the solution was equal to or above 12.0. For both the reactive and dispersed dye waste, MgCl(2)/Ca(OH)(2) was shown to be superior to MgCl(2)/NaOH, Al(2)(SO(4))(3), PAC and FeSO(4)/Ca(OH)(2) for color removal. A magnesium hydroxide precipitate formed at pH values greater than 12.0, which provided a large adsorptive surface area and a positive electrostatic surface charge, enabling it to remove the dyes through charge neutralization and an adsorptive coagulating mechanism. So, the MgCl(2)/Ca(OH)(2) system is a viable alternative to some of the more conventional forms of chemical treatment, especially for treating actual textile waste with high natural pH.

  7. Acaricidal Effect of Foam Soap Containing Essential Oil of Ocimum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acaricidal effect of foam soap containing essential oil of Ocimum gratissimum leaves was tested on Rhipicephalus lunulatus in western highland of Cameroon. Five doses of essential oil (0.00; 0.04; 0.06; 0.08; 0.10 μl/g) with four replications for each dose were tested in vitro. Each replication consisted of 10 ticks in Petri dish ...

  8. Efficiency of sugarcane bagasse-based sorbents for oil removal from engine washing wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilharduci, Viviane Vasques da Silva; Martelli, Patrícia Benedini; Gorgulho, Honória de Fátima

    2017-01-01

    This work evaluates the efficiency of sugarcane bagasse-based sorbents in the sorption of oil from engine washing wastewater. The sorbents were obtained from sugarcane bagasse in the natural form (SB-N) and modified with either acetic anhydride (SB-Acet) or 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (SB-APTS). The results showed that the sorption capacity of these materials decreased in the following order: SB-APTS > SB-N > SB-Acet. The superior oil sorption capacity observed for SB-APTS was attributed to the polar amino end groups in the silane structure, which acted to increase the hydrophilic character of the fibers. However, all the sorbents obtained in this study were able to clean a real sample of wastewater from engine washing, leading to significant reductions in suspended matter, sediment, anionic surfactants, and turbidity.

  9. Preparation and characterization of polyurethane microcapsules containing functional oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, I.H.; Seo, J.B.; Kim, Y.J. [Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon (Korea)

    2002-05-01

    Polyurethane microcapsules containing functional oil (citronella oil) were successfully prepared by conventional interfacial polymerization of tolulene 2,4-diisocyanate (TDI) and ethylene glycol (EG) and characterized by Fourier transform (FT-IR) spectroscopy, Ultraviolet spectroscopy, particle size analysis, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The effects of polymerization variables such as surfactant concentration and agitation speed, on the particle size and particle size distribution were investigated. FT-IR spectroscopic data showed that citronella oil was successfully encapsulated in the microcapsule. Thermogravimetric analysis data showed that the microcapsule was thermally stable up to 220 deg. C. The controlled release of the citronella oil present in the microcapsule core in a methanol medium was demonstrated by ultraviolet spectroscopy, showing that the amount of released citronella oil was increased with increasing time. It was observed that the amount of released citronella oil was increased with increasing stirring speed and emulsifier concentration in the microcapsule preparation step. Polyurethane microcapsules containing citronella oil showed excellent anti-moth property. (author). 28 refs., 1 tab., 12 figs.

  10. Anti-dandruff Hair Tonic Containing Lemongrass (Cymbopogon flexuosus) Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaisripipat, Wannee; Lourith, Nattaya; Kanlayavattanakul, Mayuree

    2015-01-01

    Natural remedies for treating dandruff are becoming popular. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, split-head efficacy evaluation was conducted 30 Thai volunteers aged 20-60 years experiencing dandruff measured at level 3 on D-Squame® scale. An easy to use hair tonic containing essential oil of lemongrass (Cymbopogon flexuosus) active against lipophilic yeasts was developed and then evaluated for efficacy and preference. The base formulation with the significantly highest preference (p lemongrass oil hair tonics with 5, 10, or 15% reduced dandruff significant (p lemongrass oil seems to be the most effective preparation. © 2015 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

  11. Treatment of Oily Wastewater Produced From Old Processing Plant of North Oil Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Faris Hammoodi Al-Ani

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The main objectives of this research were to study and analyses oily wastewater characteristics originating from old-processing plant of North Oil Company and to find a suitable and simple method to treat the waste so it can be disposed off safely. The work consists of two stages; the first was the study of oily wastewater characteristics and its negative impacts. The results indicated that oil and grease were the most dominant pollutant with concentration range between 1069 – 3269.3 mg/l that must be removed; other pollutants were found to be within Iraqi and EPA standards. The next stage was the use of these characteristics to choose the proper technology to treat that wastewater. This stage was divided into two stages: the first stage was a jar tests to find the optimum doses of alum, lime and powdered activated carbon (PAC. The second stage was the treatment by a batch pilot plant constructed for this purpose employing the optimum doses as determined from the first stage to treat the waste using a flotation unit followed by a filtration-adsorption unit. The removal efficiencies of flotation unit for oil and grease, COD, and T.S.S found to be 0.9789, 0.974, and 0.9933, respectively, while the removal efficiency for T.D.S was very low 0.0293. From filtration – adsorption column the removal efficiencies of oil and grease, T.D.S, COD, and T.S.S were found to be 0.9486, 0.8908, 0.6870, and 0.7815, respectively. The overall removal efficiencies of pilot plant were 0.9986, 0.8939, 0.9921, and 0.9950, respectively. The results indicated that this type of treatment was the simplest and most effective method that can be used to treat produced oily wastewater before disposal

  12. Rhizofiltration of a Heavy metal (lead) containing wastewater using the wetland plant carex pendula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yadav, Brijesh K. [Environmental Hydrogeology Group, Department of Earth Sciences, Faculty of Geosciences, University of Utrecht, Utrecht (Netherlands); Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, Department of Civil Engineering, New Delhi (India); Siebel, Maarten A.; Bruggen, Johan J.A. van [Department of Environmental Resources, UNESCO-IHE Institute for Water Education, Delft (Netherlands)

    2011-05-15

    Rhizofiltration is a subset technique of phytoremediation which refers to the approach of using plant biomass for removing contaminants, primarily toxic metals, from polluted water. The effective implementation of this in situ remediation technology requires experimental as well as conceptual insight of plant-water interactions that control the extraction of targeted metal from polluted water resources. Therefore, pot and simulation experiments are used in this study to investigate the rhizofiltration of a lead containing wastewater using plants of Carex pendula, a common wetland plant found in Europe. The metal contaminant extraction along with plant growth and water uptake rates from a wastewater having varying Pb concentration is studied experimentally for 2 wk. The temporal distribution of the metal concentration in the wastewater and the accumulated metal in different compartments of C. pendula at the end are analyzed using atomic absorption spectrometry. Parameters of the metal uptake kinetics are deduced experimentally for predicting the metal removal by root biomass. Further, mass balance equations coupled with the characterized metal uptake kinetics are used for simulating the metal partitioning from the wastewater to its accumulation in the plant biomass. The simulated metal content in wastewater and plant biomass is compared with the observed data showing a good agreement with the later. Results show that C. pendula accumulates considerable amounts of lead, particularly in root biomass, and can be considered for the cleanup of lead contaminated wastewaters in combination with proper biomass disposal alternatives. Also, the findings can be used for performing further non-hydroponics experiment to mimic the real wetland conditions more closely. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  13. Treatability and kinetics studies of mesophilic aerobic biodegradation of high oil and grease pet food wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Victor Lei; Nakhla, G.; Bassi, A.

    2004-01-01

    In this work, batch activated sludge studies were investigated for the treatment of raw pet food wastewater characterized by oil and grease concentrations of 50,000-66,000 mg/L, COD and BOD concentrations of 100,000 and 80,000 mg/L, respectively, as well as effluent from an existing anaerobic digester treating the aforementioned wastewater. A pre-treatment process, dissolved air flotation (DAF) achieved 97-99% reduction in O and G to about 400-800 mg/L, which is still atypically high for AS. The batch studies were conducted using a 4-L bioreactor at room temperature (21 deg. C) under different conditions. The experimental results showed for the DAF pretreated effluent, 92% COD removal efficiency can be achieved by using conventional activated sludge system at a 5 days contact time and applied initial soluble COD to biomass ratio of 1.17 mg COD/mg VSS. Similarly for the digester effluent at average oil and grease concentrations of 13,500 mg/L, activated sludge affected 63.7-76.2% soluble COD removal at 5 days. The results also showed that all kinetic data best conformed to the zero order biodegradation model with a low biomass specific maximum substrate utilization rate of 0.168 mg COD/mg VSS day reflecting the slow biodegradability of the wastewater even after 99% removal of oil and grease

  14. Airlift bioreactor containing chitosan-immobilized Sphingobium sp. P2 for treatment of lubricants in wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khondee, Nichakorn; Tathong, Sitti [International Postgraduate Programs in Environmental Management, Graduate School, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok (Thailand); Bioremediation Research Unit, Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok (Thailand); Pinyakong, Onruthai [Bioremediation Research Unit, Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok (Thailand); National Center of Excellence for Environmental and Hazardous Waste Management (NCE-EHWM), Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok (Thailand); Powtongsook, Sorawit [Center of Excellence for Marine Biotechnology (c/o Department of Marine Science, Chulalongkorn University), National Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Pathum Thani (Thailand); Chatchupong, Thawach; Ruangchainikom, Chalermchai [Environmental Research and Management Department, PTT Research and Technology Institute, Ayutthaya (Thailand); Luepromchai, Ekawan, E-mail: ekawan.l@chula.ac.th [Bioremediation Research Unit, Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok (Thailand); National Center of Excellence for Environmental and Hazardous Waste Management (NCE-EHWM), Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok (Thailand)

    2012-04-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sphingobium sp. P2 effectively degraded various lubricant samples. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Efficiency of Sphingobium sp. P2 increased after immobilization on chitosan. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High removal efficiency was due to both sorption and degradation processes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The immobilized bacteria (4 g L{sup -1}) were applied in internal loop airlift bioreactor. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The bioreactor continuously removed lubricant from emulsified wastewater. - Abstract: An internal loop airlift bioreactor containing chitosan-immobilized Sphingobium sp. P2 was applied for the removal of automotive lubricants from emulsified wastewater. The chitosan-immobilized bacteria had higher lubricant removal efficiency than free and killed-immobilized cells because they were able to sorp and degrade the lubricants simultaneously. In a semi-continuous batch experiment, the immobilized bacteria were able to remove 80-90% of the 200 mg L{sup -1} total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) from both synthetic and carwash wastewater. The internal loop airlift bioreactor, containing 4 g L{sup -1} immobilized bacteria, was later designed and operated at 2.0 h HRT (hydraulic retention time) for over 70 days. At a steady state, the reactor continuously removed 85 {+-} 5% TPH and 73 {+-} 11% chemical oxygen demand (COD) from the carwash wastewater with 25-200 mg L{sup -1} amended lubricant. The internal loop airlift reactor's simple operation and high stability demonstrate its high potential for use in treating lubricants in emulsified wastewater from carwashes and other industries.

  15. Electrochemical Treatment of Wastewater Containing Mixed Reactive Dyes Using Carbon Nanotube Modified Cathode Electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nader Djafarzadeh

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, advanced electrochemical oxidation processes are promising methods for the treatment of wastewaters containing organic dyes. One of these methods is the Electro-Fenton (EF technique in which an electrical current is applied to the cathode and anode electrodes to promote electrochemical reactions that generate hydroxyl radicals which mineralize organic pollutants and remove them from wastewater. To carry out the Electro-Fenton process iIn this work, the carbon paper (CP electrode was initially modified with carbon nanotubes (CNT to produce the CP-CNT electrode which was used as the cathode to remove a mixture of organic dyestuff (containing Reactive Blue 69, Reactive Red 195, and Reactive Yellow 84 from wastewaters. Comparison of the two types of cathode electrodes (i.e., CNT and the modified CP-CNT showed that the CP-CNT outperformed the CP electrode. The EF process was employed to treat 500 ml of a mixture of dyes (50 mg/L of each dye containing sodium soulfate and Fe+3 ions. The results revealed that the highest color removal efficiency was achieved when a current of 300 mA was applied for 210 min. COD measurments were used to calculate the effective current and power consumption. It was found that the 300 mA current applied over a period of 210 min yielded the highest effective current and the lowest power consumption. The amount of dyes mineralized by the EF process in the dye solution indicated that 78% of the initial COD had been removed under the above conditions. It may be concluded that the Electro-Fenton process can be successfully used for the treatment of wastewaters containing mixtures of dye pollutants. Cathode electrode type, electrical current, and electrolysis duration were identified as the parameters affecting the process.

  16. Absorption difference between diacylglycerol oil and butter blend containing diacylglycerol oil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Janni Brogaard; Jørgensen, Henry; Mu, Huiling

    2012-01-01

    butter blend (BDAG), triacylglycerol (TAG) butter blend (BTAG), DAG oil (ODAG) or TAG oil (OTAG) were prepared, and each was fed to a group of 8 male Wistar rats. The design of the experiment was a combined balance and feeding experiment. The rats fed the BTAG and ODAG‐diets had a significantly higher......This study aims at investigating whether the intake of butter blends containing diacylglycerol (DAG) oil may result in reduced fat accumulation, in similarity to DAG oil, and the potential metabolic differences between butter blends and DAG oil. Four experimental diets containing either 10 wt% DAG...... protein content than rats fed the BDAG and OTAG‐diets, and the fat content was significantly lower in rats fed the ODAG‐diet as compared to rats fed the OTAG and BDAG‐diets. A significantly higher content of ash was observed in rats fed the two TAG diets. The ratio of abdominal fat weight/body weight...

  17. Contained controlled burning of spilled oil during the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, A.A.

    1990-01-01

    During the evening of the second day following the Exxon Valdez oil spill, an estimated 57,000-114,000 liters of North Slope crude oil were eliminated using in-situ combustion. The oil was collected with 3M's Fire Boom towed in a U-shaped configuration behind two fishing boats. Working with 152 m long tow lines, a 137 m boom was moved at ca 0.26-5.2 m/s through slightly emulsified oil patches in the downwind region of the spill. A gelled fuel ignitor was used to ignite the captured oil, and the size and intensity of the blaze was controlled by adjusting the speed of the vessels. Total burn time was ca 1.25 h, however the intense part of the burn lasted for ca 45 minutes. Using several methods to estimate the total volume of oil collected, the volume resulted in ca 1136 liters of stiff, taffy-like burn residue that could be picked up easily on completion of the burn. The controlled burn thus resulted in an estimated 98% or better elimination of crude oil. It had been planned to use a helitorch to ignite the captured oil, however darkness required the use of the gelled ignitor. Had the helitorch been used, numerous ignition points could have been spread througout the contained oil, providing a much more efficient heating and ultimate ignition of the oil. 5 figs

  18. Optimization and performance evaluation for nutrient removal from palm oil mill effluent wastewater using microalgae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Raheek I.; Wong, Z. H.; Mohammad, A. W.

    2015-04-01

    Palm oil mill effluent (POME) wastewater was produced in huge amounts in Malaysia, and if it discharged into the environment, it causes a serious problem regarding its high content of nutrients. This study was devoted to POME wastewater treatment with microalgae. The main objective was to find the optimum conditions (retention time, and pH) in the microalgae treatment of POME wastewater considering retention time as a most important parameter in algae treatment, since after the optimum conditions there is a diverse effect of time and pH and so, the process becomes costly. According to our knowledge, there is no existing study optimized the retention time and pH with % removal of nutrients (ammonia nitrogen NH3-N, and orthophosphorous PO43-) for microalgae treatment of POME wastewater. In order to achieve with optimization, a central composite rotatable design with a second order polynomial model was used, regression coefficients and goodness of fit results in removal percentages of nutrients (NH3-N, and PO43-) were estimated.WinQSB technique was used to optimize the surface response objective functionfor the developed model. Also experiments were done to validate the model results.The optimum conditions were found to be 18 day retention time for ammonia nitrogen, and pH of 9.22, while for orthophosphorous, 15 days were indicated as the optimum retention time with a pH value of 9.2.

  19. Bioremediation of wastewater from edible oil refinery factory using oleaginous microalga Desmodesmus sp. S1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mar, Cho Cho; Fan, Yong; Li, Fu-Li; Hu, Guang-Rong

    2016-12-01

    Edible oil industry produced massive wastewater, which requires extensive treatment to remove pungent smell, high phosphate, carbon oxygen demand (COD), and metal ions prior to discharge. Traditional anaerobic and aerobic digestion could mainly reduce COD of the wastewater from oil refinery factories (WEORF). In this study, a robust oleaginous microalga Desmodesmus sp. S1 was adapted to grow in WEORF. The biomass and lipid content of Desmodesmus sp. S1 cultivated in the WEORF supplemented with sodium nitrate were 5.62 g·L(-1) and 14.49%, whereas those in the WEORF without adding nitrate were 2.98 g·L(-1) and 21.95%. More than 82% of the COD and 53% of total phosphorous were removed by Desmodesmus sp. S1. In addition, metal ions, including ferric, aluminum, manganese and zinc were also diminished significantly in the WEORF after microalgal growth, and pungent smell vanished as well. In comparison with the cells grown in BG-11 medium, the cilia-like bulges and wrinkles on the cell surface of Desmodesmus sp. S1 grown in WEORF became out of order, and more polyunsaturated fatty acids were detected due to stress derived from the wastewater. The study suggests that growing microalgae in WEORF can be applied for the dual roles of nutrient removal and biofuel feedstock production.

  20. Bioremediation potential of the Sava river water polluted by oil refinery wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaksic, B.; Matavulj, M.; Vukic, Lj.; Radnovic, D.

    2002-01-01

    Microbial enumeration is a screening-level tool which can be used to evaluate in-situ response of water microorganisms to petroleum hydrocarbon contamination as well as for evaluating enhanced bioremediation potential of petroleum hydrocarbon contamination. In this investigations the increase between 17- and 44-fold of number of heterotrophs in hydrocarbon contaminated the Sava River water when compared with the no contaminated river water have been recorded. The significant increase of number of facultative oligotrophs in the river Sava water downstream of wastewater discharge (between 70- and almost 100-fold higher number) direct to the conclusion that oligotrophic bacteria (adapted to the environments with low amount of easy-to-degrade nutrients, oligocarbophilic microorganisms) could be better indicator of water bioremediation potential than number of heterotrophic (THR) bacteria. Quantitative composition of heterotrophic, facultative oligotrophic, crude oil degrading, and other physiological groups of bacteria, being, as a rule, higher in samples taken downstream of the waste-water discharge, testify about high biodegradative potential of the River Sava microbial community, if the oil refinery wastewater is taken into consideration. (author)

  1. Research on treatment of wastewater containing heavy metal by microbial fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zixuan; Lu, Xun; Yin, Ruixia; Luo, Yunyi; Mai, Hanjian; Zhang, Nan; Xiong, Jingfang; Zhang, Hongguo; Tang, Jinfeng; Luo, Dinggui

    2018-02-01

    With rapid development of social economy, serious problem has been caused by wastewater containing heavy metals, which was difficult to be treated by many kinds of traditional treatment methods, such as complex processes, high cost or easy to cause secondary pollution. As a novel biological treatment technology, microbial fuel cells (MFC) can generate electric energy while dealing with wastewater, which was proposed and extensively studied. This paper introduced the working principle of MFC, the classification of cathode, and the research progress on the treatment of wastewater containing Cr(VI), Cu(II), Ag(I), Mn(II) and Cd(II) by MFC. The study found that different cathode, different heavy metals anddifferent hybrid systems would affect the performance of the system and removal effect for heavy metal in MFC. MFC was a highly potential pollution control technology. Until now, the research was still in the laboratory stage. Its industrial application for recovery of heavy metal ion, improving the energy recovery rate and improvement or innovation of system were worthy of further research.

  2. Advanced Treatment of Pesticide-Containing Wastewater Using Fenton Reagent Enhanced by Microwave Electrodeless Ultraviolet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gong Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The photo-Fenton reaction is a promising method to treat organic contaminants in water. In this paper, a Fenton reagent enhanced by microwave electrodeless ultraviolet (MWEUV/Fenton method was proposed for advanced treatment of nonbiodegradable organic substance in pesticide-containing biotreated wastewater. MWEUV lamp was found to be more effective for chemical oxygen demand (COD removal than commercial mercury lamps in the Fenton process. The pseudo-first order kinetic model can well describe COD removal from pesticide-containing wastewater by MWEUV/Fenton, and the apparent rate constant (k was 0.0125 min−1. The optimal conditions for MWEUV/Fenton process were determined as initial pH of 5, Fe2+ dosage of 0.8 mmol/L, and H2O2 dosage of 100 mmol/L. Under the optimal conditions, the reaction exhibited high mineralization degrees of organics, where COD and dissolved organic carbon (DOC concentration decreased from 183.2 mg/L to 36.9 mg/L and 43.5 mg/L to 27.8 mg/L, respectively. Three main pesticides in the wastewater, as Dimethoate, Triazophos, and Malathion, were completely removed by the MWEUV/Fenton process within 120 min. The high degree of pesticides decomposition and mineralization was proved by the detected inorganic anions.

  3. Comparison of Fenton process and adsorption method for treatment of industrial container and drum cleaning industry wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güneş, Elçin; Çifçi, Deniz İzlen; Çelik, Suna Özden

    2018-04-01

    The present study aims to explore the characterization of industrial container and drum cleaning (ICDC) industry wastewater and treatment alternatives of this wastewater using Fenton and adsorption processes. Wastewater derived from ICDC industry is usually treated by chemical coagulation and biological treatment in Turkey and then discharged in a centralized wastewater treatment facility. It is required that the wastewater COD is below 1500 mg/L to treat in a centralized wastewater treatment facility. The wastewater samples were characterized for parameters of pH, conductivity, COD, BOD 5 , TSS, NH 3 -N, TN, TOC, TP, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, Zn, and Hg. Initial COD values were in the range of 11,300-14,200 mg/L. The optimum conditions for Fenton treatment were 35-40 g/L for H 2 O 2 , 2-5 g/L for Fe 2+ , and 13-36 for H 2 O 2 /Fe 2+ molar ratio. The optimum conditions of PAC doses and contact times in adsorption studies were 20-30 g/L and 5-12 h, respectively. Removal efficiencies of characterized parameters for the three samples were compared for both Fenton and adsorption processes under optimum conditions. The results suggest that these wastewaters are suitable for discharge to a centralized wastewater treatment plant.

  4. Adsorption of boron from boron-containing wastewaters by ion exchange in a continuous reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yilmaz, A. Erdem; Boncukcuoglu, Recep; Yilmaz, M. Tolga; Kocakerim, M. Muhtar

    2005-01-01

    In this study, boron removal from boron-containing wastewaters prepared synthetically was investigated. The experiments in which Amberlite IRA 743, boron specific resin was used were carried out in a column reactor. The bed volume of resin, boron concentration, flow rate and temperature were selected as experimental parameters. The experimental results showed that percent of boron removal increased with increasing amount of resin and with decreasing boron concentration in the solution. Boron removal decreased with increasing of flow rate and the effect of temperature on the percent of total boron removal increased the boron removal rate. As a result, it was seen that about 99% of boron in the wastewater could be removed at optimum conditions

  5. Oxidative Degradation of Phenol containing Wastewater using Fenton Reagent, Permanganate and Ultraviolet Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd El-Rahman, N.M.; Talaat, H.A.; Sorour, M.H.

    1999-01-01

    Phenol containing wastewaters are generated by numerous industrial units including integrated steel mills, textile mills, plastic production, etc. The present work is targeted to explore the viable oxidation techniques for degradation of phenolic wastewater. Three modes of treatment have been adopted in this study, namely, sole oxidant mode using Fenton reagent or permanganate, UV-assisted oxidation and two consequent chemical oxidation steps. Results indicated the superiority of fenton reagent over KMnO 4 oxidation in the sole oxidant mode. On the other hand, UV-assisted KMnO 4 oxidation enables almost complete COD reduction. Dual chemical oxidation mode employing KMnO 4 oxidation followed by Fenton reagent is also an efficient oxidative degradation system

  6. Pesticide interactions with soils affected by olive oil mill wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keren, Yonatan; Bukhanovsky, Nadezhda; Borisover, Mikhail

    2013-04-01

    Soil pesticide sorption is well known to affect the fate of pesticides, their bioavailability and the potential to contaminate air and water. Soil - pesticide interactions may be strongly influenced by soil organic matter (SOM) and organic matter (OM)-rich soil amendments. One special OM source in soils is related to olive oil production residues that may include both solid and liquid wastes. In the Mediterranean area, the olive oil production is considered as an important field in the agricultural sector. Due to the significant rise in olive oil production, the amount of wastes is growing respectively. Olive oil mill waste water (OMWW) is the liquid byproduct in the so-called "three phase" technological process. Features of OMWW include the high content of fatty aliphatic components and polyphenols and their often-considered toxicity. One way of OMWW disposal is the land spreading, e.g., in olive orchards. The land application of OMWW (either controlled or not) is supposed to affect the multiple soil properties, including hydrophobicity and the potential of soils to interact with pesticides. Therefore, there is both basic and applied interest in elucidating the interactions between organic compounds and soils affected by OMWW. However, little is known about the impact of OMWW - soil interactions on sorption of organic compounds, and specifically, on sorption of agrochemicals. This paper reports an experimental study of sorption interactions of a series of organic compounds including widely used herbicides such as diuron and simazine, in a range of soils that were affected by OMWW (i) historically or (ii) in the controlled land disposal experiments. It is demonstrated that there is a distinct increase in apparent sorption of organic chemicals in soils affected by OMWW. In selected systems, this increase may be explained by increase in SOM content. However, the SOM quality places a role: the rise in organic compound - soil interactions may both exceed the SOM

  7. Treatment of hydrocarbon-rich wastewater using oil degrading bacteria and phototrophic microorganisms in rotating biological contactor: Effect of N:P ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chavan, Anal; Mukherji, Suparna

    2008-01-01

    Treatment of hydrocarbon-rich industrial wastewater in bioreactors using heterotrophic microorganisms is often associated with various operational problems. In this study, a consortium of phototrophic microorganisms and a bacterium is developed on the discs of a rotating biological contactor (RBC) for treatment of wastewater containing diesel oil. The reactor was fed with oil degrading bacterium, Burkholderia cepacia and oil tolerant phototrophic microorganisms. After biofilm formation and acclimatization to 0.6% (v/v) diesel, continuous-mode operation was initiated at 21 h hydraulic retention time (HRT). Residual diesel in the effluent was 0.003%. Advantages of this system include good total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) removal, no soluble carbon source requirement and good settleability of biosolids. Biofilm observations revealed the predominance of B. cepacia and cyanobacteria (Phormidium, Oscillatoria and Chroococcus). The N:P ratio affected the relative dominance of the phototrophic microorganisms and bacterial culture. This ratio was a critical factor in determining the performance efficiency of the reactor. At 21 h HRT and organic loading of 27.33 g TPH/m 2 d, the N:P ratio 28.5:1 and 38:1 both yielded high and almost comparable TPH and COD removal efficiencies. This study presents a feasible technology for the treatment of hydrocarbon-rich wastewater from petrochemical industries and petroleum refineries

  8. Enrichment of bio-oil after hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) of microalgae C. vulgaris grown in wastewater: Bio-char and post HTL wastewater utilization studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arun, Jayaseelan; Varshini, Padmanabhan; Prithvinath, P Kamath; Priyadarshini, Venkataramani; Gopinath, Kannappan Panchamoorthy

    2018-08-01

    In this study, bio-oil was produced through hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) of C. vulgaris biomass cultivated in wastewater and was enriched into transportation fuels. Bio-oil yield was 29.37% wt at 300 °C, 60 min, at 15 g/200 mL biomass loading rate with 3% wt nano ZnO catalyst loading. Applying catalyst reduced oxygen and nitrogen content in bio-oil and increased its calorific value (19.6 ± 0.8 MJ/Kg). Bio-oil was enriched through liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) and higher yield was obtained at 30 °C for dichloromethane solvent (18.2% wt). Compounds of enriched oil were within the petro-diesel range (C 8 -C 21 ). Bio-char after HTL process was activated and used as adsorbent in wastewater treatment process to remove organic pollutants (COD, NO 3 , NH 3 and PO 4 ). Treated wastewater can be supplied as growth medium for microalgae cultivation in further experiments. Nearly 3-4 times the nanocatalyst can be reused in the HTL process. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Risks and mitigation options for on-site storage of wastewater from shale gas and tight oil development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuwayama, Yusuke; Roeshot, Skyler; Krupnick, Alan; Richardson, Nathan; Mares, Jan

    2017-01-01

    We provide a critical review of existing research and information regarding the sources of risk associated with on-site shale gas and tight oil wastewater storage in the United States, the gaps that exist in knowledge regarding these risks, policy and technology options for addressing the risks, and the relative merits of those options. Specifically, we (a) identify the potential risks to human and ecological health associated with on-site storage of shale gas and tight oil wastewater via a literature survey and analysis of data on wastewater spills and regulatory violations, (b) provide a detailed description of government regulations or industry actions that may mitigate these risks to human and ecological health, and (c) provide a critical review of this information to help generate progress toward concrete action to make shale gas and tight oil development more sustainable and more acceptable to a skeptical public, while keeping costs down. - Highlights: • We review current research/information on shale gas and tight oil wastewater storage. • Pit overflows, tank overfills, and liner malfunctions are common spill causes. • Tanks lead to smaller and less frequent spills than pits, but are not a magic bullet. • State regulations for on-site oil and gas wastewater storage are very heterogeneous.

  10. Oil refinery wastewater treatment using coupled electrocoagulation and fixed film biological processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Laura S.; Rodriguez, Oscar M.; Reyna, Silvia; Sánchez-Salas, José Luis; Lozada, J. Daniel; Quiroz, Marco A.; Bandala, Erick R.

    2016-02-01

    Oil refinery wastewater was treated using a coupled treatment process including electrocoagulation (EC) and a fixed film aerobic bioreactor. Different variables were tested to identify the best conditions using this procedure. After EC, the effluent was treated in an aerobic biofilter. EC was capable to remove over 88% of the overall chemical oxygen demand (COD) in the wastewater under the best working conditions (6.5 V, 0.1 M NaCl, 4 electrodes without initial pH adjustment) with total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) removal slightly higher than 80%. Aluminum release from the electrodes to the wastewater was found an important factor for the EC efficiency and closely related with several operational factors. Application of EC allowed to increase the biodegradability of the sample from 0.015, rated as non-biodegradable, up to 0.5 widely considered as biodegradable. The effluent was further treated using an aerobic biofilter inoculated with a bacterial consortium including gram positive and gram negative strains and tested for COD and TPH removal from the EC treated effluent during 30 days. Cell count showed the typical bacteria growth starting at day three and increasing up to a maximum after eight days. After day eight, cell growth showed a plateau which agreed with the highest decrease on contaminant concentration. Final TPHs concentration was found about 600 mgL-1 after 30 days whereas COD concentration after biological treatment was as low as 933 mgL-1. The coupled EC-aerobic biofilter was capable to remove up to 98% of the total TPH amount and over 95% of the COD load in the oil refinery wastewater.

  11. Removal of colour, turbidity, oil and grease for slaughterhouse wastewater using electrocoagulation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusoff, Mohd Suffian; Azwan, Azlyza Mohd; Zamri, Mohd Faiz Muaz Ahmad; Aziz, Hamidi Abdul

    2017-10-01

    In this study electrocoagulation method is used to treat slaughterhouse wastewaters. The aim of this study is to determine the efficiency of electrocoagulation method for the removal of colour, turbidity, oil and grease of slaughterhouse wastewaters. The factors of electrode types, and voltage applied during treatment are the study parameters. The types of electrode used are Aluminium (Al) grade 6082 and Iron (Fe) grade 1050. Meanwhile, the ranges of voltage applied are 2, 4, 6, 8 volts at a time interval of 10, 20 and 30 minutes respectively. The effect of these factors on the removal of fat oil and grease (FOG), colour and turbidity are analyzed. The results show maximum removal of FOG, colour and turbidity are recorded using Fe electrode at 8 V of applied voltage with 30 minutes of treatment time. The increase in treatment time of the cell will also increase the amount of hydrogen bubbles at the cathode which results in a greater upwards flux and a faster removal of FOG,, turbidity and colour. The removal of FOG, colour and turbidity are 98%, 92% and 91 % respectively. Meanwhile, by using Al electrodes in the same condition, the removal of FOG, colour and turbidity are 91%, 85% and 87 % respectively. Whereas by using Fe-Al as electrodes pairs, the removal of FOG, colour and turbidity are found to be at 90%, 87% and 76 % respectively. In this case, the Fe-Fe pair electrodes have been proven to provide better performance for FOG, colour and turbidity removals of slaughterhouse wastewaters. Therefore, it is feasible to be considered as an alternative method for wastewater treatment.

  12. Antioxidant activity of olive oil mill wastewater obtained from different thermal treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuffrè, A. M.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In food industry, Olive Oil Mill Wastewater (OOMWW is considered a by-product because of the presence of biostatic compounds with a high polluting rate, in particular phenols. Moreover, during olive oil processing, a large amount of this by-product constitutes an ecological and economical problem for the producers. To reevaluate this by-product, the reuse of this wastewater to obtain useful compounds appears to be very important. In order to purify the wastewater, the development of operations that modify its organic content seems necessary for obtaining of eventual fertilizing agents and/or to recover substances with a high added value such as phenolic compounds, which are currently recognized scientifically as molecules with a high antioxidant activity. A chromatographic analysis of these compounds was conducted to characterize different concentrations of wastewater and the reducing power of the extracts was measured. The thermal treatment of olive oil mill wastewater in a rotary evaporator and in an oven involved an increase in radical scavenging efficiency. These results could be correlated with the possibility of recovering and reusing this type of waste for its antioxidant properties.

    En la industria alimentaria, el alpechín se considera un subproducto debido a la presencia de compuestos bioestáticos, con una alta tasa de contaminación, particularmente los fenoles. Además, durante el procesado de la aceituna, la generación de una gran cantidad de este subproducto supone un problema ecológico y económico para los productores. Es importante la reutilización de este agua de desecho para obtener compuestos útiles. Para purificar el agua de desecho es necesario el desarrollo de operaciones que modifiquen su contenido orgánico, para poder obtener agentes fertilizantes y/o recuperar sustancias con un alto valor añadido como los compuestos fenólicos, que actualmente están reconocidos científicamente como moléculas con una

  13. Importance of Electrode Material in the Electrochemical Treatment of Wastewater Containing Organic Pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panizza, Marco

    Electrochemical oxidation is a promising method for the treatment of wastewaters containing organic compounds. As a general rule, the electrochemical incineration of organics at a given electrode can take place at satisfactory rates and without electrode deactivation only at high anodic potentials in the region of the water discharge due to the participation of the intermediates of oxygen evolution. The nature of the electrode material strongly influences both the selectivity and the efficiency of the process. In particular, anodes with low oxygen evolution overpotential (i.e., good catalysts for oxygen evolution reactions), such as graphite, IrO2, RuO2, and Pt only permit the partial oxidation of organics, while anodes with high oxygen evolution overpotential (i.e., anodes that are poor catalysts for oxygen evolution reactions), such as SnO2, PbO2, and boron-doped diamond (BDD) favor the complete oxidation of organics to CO2 and so are ideal electrodes for wastewater treatment.However, the application of SnO2 and PbO2 anodes may be limited by their short service life and the risk of lead contamination, while BDD electrodes exhibit good chemical and electrochemical stability, a long life, and a wide potential window for water discharge, and are thus promising anodes for industrial-scale wastewater treatment.

  14. Annealing optimization in the process of making membrane PSF19%DMFEVA2 for wastewater treatment of palm oil mill effluent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Said, A. A.; Mustafa

    2018-02-01

    A small proportion of the Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) treatment has used its wastewater to converted to methane gas which will then be converted again into electrical energy. However, for Palm Oil Mill whose has a value of Chemical Oxygen Demand in its wastewater is less than 60.000 mg / L this can’t so that the purpose wastewater treatment only to reach the standard that can be safe to dispose into the environment. Wastewater treatment systems that are general applied by Palm Oil Mill especially in North Sumatera are aerobic and anaerobic, this method takes a relatively long time due to very dependent on microbial activity. An alternative method for wastewater treatment offered is membrane technology because the process is much more effective, the time is relatively short, and expected to give more optimal result. The optimum membrane obtained is PSF19%DMFEVA2T75 membrane,while the parameter condition of the permeate analysis produced in the treatment of POME wastewater with membrane PSF19%DMFEVA2T75 obtained at pH = 7.0; TSS = 148 mg / L; BOD = 149 mg / L; And COD = 252 mg / L. The results obtained is accordance with the standard of the quality of POME.

  15. Removal of boron from ceramic industry wastewater by adsorption-flocculation mechanism using palm oil mill boiler (POMB) bottom ash and polymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Mei Fong; Lee, Kah Peng; Chieng, Hui Jiun; Syazwani Binti Ramli, Ili Izyan

    2009-07-01

    Boron is extensively used in the ceramic industry for enhancing mechanical strength of the tiles. The discharge of boron containing wastewater to the environment causes severe pollution problems. Boron is also dangerous for human consumption and causes organisms' reproductive impediments if the safe intake level is exceeded. Current methods to remove boron include ion-exchange, membrane filtration, precipitation-coagulation, biological and chemical treatment. These methods are costly to remove boron from the wastewater and hence infeasible for industrial wastewater treatment. In the present research, adsorption-flocculation mechanism is proposed for boron removal from ceramic wastewater by using Palm Oil Mill Boiler (POMB) bottom ash and long chain polymer or flocculant. Ceramic wastewater is turbid and milky in color which contains 15 mg/L of boron and 2000 mg/L of suspended solids. The optimum operating conditions for boron adsorption on POMB bottom ash and flocculation using polymer were investigated in the present research. Adsorption isotherm of boron on bottom ash was also investigated to evaluate the adsorption capacity. Adsorption isotherm modeling was conducted based on Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The results show that coarse POMB bottom ash with particle size larger than 2 mm is a suitable adsorbent where boron is removed up to 80% under the optimum conditions (pH=8.0, dosage=40 g bottom ash/300 ml wastewater, residence time=1h). The results also show that KP 1200 B cationic polymer is effective in flocculating the suspended solids while AP 120 C anionic polymer is effective in flocculating the bottom ash. The combined cationic and anionic polymers are able to clarify the ceramic wastewater under the optimum conditions (dosage of KP 1200 B cationic polymer=100 mg/L, dosage of AP 120 C anionic polymer=50 mg/L, mixing speed=200 rpm). Under the optimum operating conditions, the boron and suspended solids concentration of the treated wastewater were

  16. Ligh oil-gas cracking on zeolite-containing catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koval' chuk, L V; Takhmarova, G M; Topchieva, K V

    1977-01-01

    A comparative study was made of the activity of cation-decationized forms of zeolite-containing catalysts in the cracking of the kerosene-gas oil fraction. The greatest benzene yield was obtained at 400/sup 0/. Temperatures greater than that lead to a more intense cracking and to changes in the redistributive ability of the catalysts. An increase in the polyvalent cations was shown to have little effect on the activity of the thermally processed zeolite-containing catalysts but did lead to a reduction in the activity of the thermally processed samples. 5 tables, 6 references.

  17. The carbonaceous sorbent based on the secondary silica-containing material from oil extraction industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starostina, I. V.; Stolyarov, D. V.; Anichina, Ya N.; Porozhnyuk, E. V.

    2018-01-01

    The object of research in this work is the silica-containing waste of oil extraction industry - the waste kieselghur (diatomite) sludge from precoat filtering units, used for the purification of vegetable oils from organic impurities. As a result of the thermal modification of the sludge, which contains up to 70% of organic impurities, a finely-dispersed low-porous carbonaceous mineral sorption material is formed. The modification of the sludge particles surface causes the substantial alteration of its physical, chemical, adsorption and structural properties - the organic matter is charred, the particle size is reduced, and on the surface of diatomite particles a carbon layer is formed, which deposits in macropores and partially occludes them. The amount of mesopores is increased, along with the specific surface of the obtained product. The optimal temperature of sludge modification is 500°C. The synthesized carbonaceous material can be used as an adsorbing agent for the purification of wastewater from heavy metal ions. The sorption capacity of Cu2+ ions amounted to 14.2 mg·g-1 and for Ni2+ ions - 17.0 mg·g-1. The obtained values exceed the sorption capacity values of the initial kieselghur, used as a filtering charge, for the researched metal ions.

  18. Treatment of wastewater contaminated with detergents and mineral oils using effective and scalable technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelmoez, Wael; Barakat, Nasser A M; Moaz, Asmaa

    2013-01-01

    In this work, effective, cheap and scalable methodology is introduced to treat oily wastewater. The water produced from car-wash processes was utilized as a model because it has various pollutants - oil, lubricants, detergents, solid particles, etc. The results showed that the turbidity and chemical oxygen demand (COD) values dramatically decrease by using the proposed treatment process, which consists of coagulation, flocculation, sand filtration, and oxidation followed by sand as well as activated carbon filtration. Moreover, the operating conditions were optimized. Without adjustment of the pH value of car-wash wastewater, it was found that 200 ppm of ferric chloride, as a coagulant, and 1 ppm of potassium permanganate, as an oxidant, are the optimum doses. The COD and turbidity values of the final treated wastewater were reduced by almost 88 and 100%, respectively. A prototype with 15 L capacity was designed and fabricated to investigate the scaling up and continuity of the proposed treatment strategy. The results were very promising and indicated that the introduced methodology can be industrially applied.

  19. Combined two-stage xanthate processes for the treatment of copper-containing wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Y.K. [Department of Safety Health and Environmental Engineering, Central Taiwan University of Sciences and Technology, Taichung (Taiwan); Leu, M.H. [Department of Environmental Engineering, Kun Shan University of Technology, Yung-Kang City (Taiwan); Chang, J.E.; Lin, T.F.; Chen, T.C. [Department of Environmental Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan City (Taiwan); Chiang, L.C.; Shih, P.H. [Department of Environmental Engineering and Science, Fooyin University, Kaohsiung County (Taiwan)

    2007-02-15

    Heavy metal removal is mainly conducted by adjusting the wastewater pH to form metal hydroxide precipitates. However, in recent years, the xanthate process with a high metal removal efficiency, attracted attention due to its use of sorption/desorption of heavy metals from aqueous solutions. In this study, two kinds of agricultural xanthates, insoluble peanut-shell xanthate (IPX) and insoluble starch xanthate (ISX), were used as sorbents to treat the copper-containing wastewater (Cu concentration from 50 to 1,000 mg/L). The experimental results showed that the maximum Cu removal efficiency by IPX was 93.5 % in the case of high Cu concentrations, whereby 81.1 % of copper could rapidly be removed within one minute. Moreover, copper-containing wastewater could also be treated by ISX over a wide range (50 to 1,000 mg/L) to a level that meets the Taiwan EPA's effluent regulations (3 mg/L) within 20 minutes. Whereas IPX had a maximum binding capacity for copper of 185 mg/g IPX, the capacity for ISX was 120 mg/g ISX. IPX is cheaper than ISX, and has the benefits of a rapid reaction and a high copper binding capacity, however, it exhibits a lower copper removal efficiency. A sequential IPX and ISX treatment (i.e., two-stage xanthate processes) could therefore be an excellent alternative. The results obtained using the two-stage xanthate process revealed an effective copper treatment. The effluent (C{sub e}) was below 0.6 mg/L, compared to the influent (C{sub 0}) of 1,001 mg/L at pH = 4 and a dilution rate of 0.6 h{sup -1}. Furthermore, the Cu-ISX complex formed could meet the Taiwan TCLP regulations, and be classified as non-hazardous waste. The xanthatilization of agricultural wastes offers a comprehensive strategy for solving both agricultural waste disposal and metal-containing wastewater treatment problems. (Abstract Copyright [2007], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  20. Life Cycle Assessment of Lubricant Oil Plastic Containers in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Clara Oliveira

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Brazil, like many emerging countries, has experienced a fast growth in the demand for automobiles in recent decades. This has produced a significant increase in the amount of hazardous waste to be disposed of, including used lubricant oil. Restrictive regulations are being used by many nations to deal with this problem, focusing on treatments, such as recycling, to avoid resource depletion. Specific rules for disposal of used lubricant oil already exist in various countries, including Brazil, but not for its containers. Using the life cycle assessment methodology, this article evaluates different management options for the destination of Lubricant Oil Plastic Containers (LOPCs, comparing recycling and incineration to disposal in an industrial landfill. Results show that reducing the proportion of LOPCs destined to the landfill has positive impacts in lowering the burdens caused in the life cycle of LOPCs. Incineration, which is not a technology used for destination of LOPCs in Brazil, proved to be a promising option when combined with recycling for treatment of this kind of waste. Combining different destinations is also a good option as long as economic, logistics and the environment are taken into consideration. The present paper concludes that emerging countries are able to manage hazardous waste provided that there is adequate legislation and political will along with cooperation from the private sector. This study can be helpful to the decision-making processes concerning hazardous waste, especially for industrial strategies and policy makers.

  1. UV/Fenton photo-oxidation of Drimarene Dark Red (DDR) containing textile-dye wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudaya, T.; Anthonios, J.; Septianto, E.

    2016-11-01

    Textile dye wastewater contains organic pollutants which are non-biodegradable, characterized by low BOD/COD ratio of typically Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOPs). One of the AOPs method which is the UV/H2O2/Fe2+ (or UV/Fenton) offers not only relatively low cost but also quite effective (in terms of color removal and reaction time) treatment. This particular research aimed to optimize the conditions of UV/Fenton photo-oxidation process for Drimarene Dark Red containing textile- dye wastewater. The two main operating conditions to be optimized were the initial concentration of H2O2 ranged between 0.022-0.078 %-w and the mol ratio of Fe2+: H2O2 was varied from 1: 13 up to 1: 45, using the Central Composite Design experimental matrix. The photo-oxidation was carried out at the optimum pH of 3 from some previous experiments. The best processing conditions of the photo-oxidation of Drimarene Dark Red (DDR) were found at the initial concentration of H2O2 at 0.050%-w and the mole ratio Fe2+: H2O2 of 1: 22. Under these conditions, the measured 2nd order pseudo-rate constantwas 0.021 M-1.min-1. The DDR color removal of 90% was surprisingly achievable within only 10 minutes reaction time.

  2. Polymer nanoparticles containing essential oils: new options for mosquito control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werdin González, Jorge Omar; Jesser, Emiliano Nicolás; Yeguerman, Cristhian Alan; Ferrero, Adriana Alicia; Fernández Band, Beatriz

    2017-07-01

    Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) are vectors of important parasites and pathogens causing death, poverty and social disability worldwide. The overuse of synthetic insecticides to control mosquito vectors lead to resistance, adverse environmental effects and high operational costs. Therefore, the development of eco-friendly control tools is an important public health challenge. In this study, two different essential oils (EO) (geranium, Geranium maculatum, and bergamot, Citrus bergamia) loaded polymeric nanoparticle (PN) were elaborated using polyethylene glycol (PEG) and chitosan (Qx) as the polymeric matrix/coating. In addition, the mosquito larvicidal acute and residual activity of the PN was evaluated on Culex pipiens pipiens. The physicochemical characterization of PN revealed that PEG-PN had sizes nanoparticles containing essential oil are a promising source of eco-friendly mosquito larvicidal products.

  3. WATER PINCH TECHNOLOGY APPLICATION TO MINIMIZE SULPHUROUS WASTEWATER IN AN OIL REFINERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Orlando Lobelles Sardiñas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In oil refining industries there is a high water consumption, which influences the high production costs and impacts the environment due to the discharge of their wastes. It is known that there are no technological conditions for the reuse of industrial water at the oil refineries, based on hydroskimming processes. The objective of this study is to implement the process integration methodology, Water Pinch, to a sour water stripper unit, as a unitary process of an oil refinery, to minimize the amount of sulphurous waste water and reduce contamination of the bay that receives these wastes. The technology is applied to evaluate the volume of sulphurous wastewater generated in the Cienfuegos oil refinery. This technology allows identifying opportunities for recovery and reuse of water, based on concentration ranges of contaminants. To achieve this purpose, a sour water stripper tower was assessed with the help of Water Pinch software, which provided an optimized distribution network, as a proposed technological improvement. This facilitated to recover and reuse 667 757, 28 m3 of water per year, and 1 035 023, 78 CUC were saved, at the same time the amount of polluting effluents decreased in approximately 2 % of non-reusable treated water.

  4. Study on treatment of wastewater containing plutonium in CIAE (China Institute of Atomic Energy)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng Jishu; Su Xiguang; Xia Deying; Zhou Hongping

    1993-09-01

    The wastewater containing plutonium in China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE) is a kind of specific decontamination liquid waste containing 239,240 Pu, 241 Am etc, its alpha-radioactivity is about 1 x 10 5 Bq/L. It is not suitable for treatment in Low-Level Radwaste Treatment Plant (LLRTP) due to its high alpha-radioactivity level and has been stored for 17 years. In view of safe management of radioactive waste, a conceptual treatment process for this liquid waste is presented. and the methods in the process are demonstrated. The results obtained show that any method of chemical coagulation precipitation, adsorption by P301 absorbent and ion exchange by macro porous cation exchange resin (D001-CC) can drop the alpha-radioactivity level below 3.7 x 10 3 Bq/L which could meet the acceptable requirements of LLRTP

  5. A GIS based national assessment of algal bio-oil production potential through flue gas and wastewater co-utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orfield, Nolan D.; Keoleian, Gregory A.; Love, Nancy G.

    2014-01-01

    The high theoretical productivity of microalgae makes it a promising energy crop, but economically viable large-scale production facilities have yet to emerge. Coupling algae cultivation ponds with flue gas emissions from power utilities to provide carbon dioxide and municipal wastewater to provide nutrients has been recommended as a solution. This flue gas and wastewater co-utilization (FWC) strategy not only reduces the upstream impacts and costs associated with providing inputs, but also provides a credit for wastewater treatment, a service currently required to reduce production costs to a viable level. This study provides the first national assessment of the potential for producing algal bio-oil in the United States using FWC. Spatial-temporal algae growth was simulated using solar radiation and temperature data to calculate the average annual algae yield for any location, which significantly impacts feasibility. The results of this model were integrated into a geospatial analysis which establishes the economically viable bio-oil production potential of FWC by accounting for the relative abundance of the input resources and their proximity. At most, 1.7 billion liters of bio-oil could be produced annually in a manner economically competitive with crude oil prices of $80 per barrel. The amount of nutrients in wastewater limits yields to 20.5 L of bio-oil per capita annually, and climatic constraints further reduce this potential by nearly 60%. Carbon dioxide constraints play a negligible role. Although the bio-oil production potential of FWC is relatively small, it does provide an opportunity to increase national biofuel output while providing a needed service. - Highlights: • Spatial-temporal algae growth was simulated using historical climate data. • A geospatial overlay analysis was used to assess national production potential. • Nutrient availability in wastewater is most limiting. • At most, 1.7 billion liters of algal biofuel per year could be

  6. Report of the 2nd RCM on Radiation Treatment of Wastewater for Reuse with Particular Focus on Wastewaters Containing Organic Pollutants. Working Material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    Chronic shortages of water in arid and semi-arid regions of the world and environmental policy regulations have stimulated the search for appropriate technologies capable of treating wastewater for reuse or safe discharge. Industrial effluents often carry chemical contaminants such as organics, petrochemicals, pesticides, dyes and heavy metal ions. The standard biological treatment processes commonly used for wastewater treatment are not capable of treating some of these complex organic chemicals that are found in varying quantities in the wastewaters. Another emerging problem is the increasing presence of pharmaceuticals and endocrine disruptor compounds in municipal wastewater entering into the receiving stream, for which new treatment techniques and procedures are needed to remove excreted drugs before releasing the effluent into public waterways or reuse. Radiation-initiated degradation of organics helps to transform various pollutants into less harmful substances or reduced to the levels below the permissible concentrations. Studies in several Member States (MS) have demonstrated the usefulness and efficiency of radiation technology for treatment of different organic pollutants. The lack of comparative data in pilot scale studies using radiation technique (alone or in combination with other methods) has been a major issue in further utilization of this method for wastewater treatment. There is a need to study further the radiation effects, evaluate reliability and cost of treating specific group of organic pollutants in cooperation with other stakeholders who are involved in using other technologies. The Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP) on “Radiation treatment of wastewater for reuse with particular focus on wastewaters containing organic pollutants” has been launched with the objective to study the effectiveness, reliability and economics of radiation processing technology to treat wastewater contaminated with low and high concentration of organic

  7. Report of the 2nd RCM on Radiation Treatment of Wastewater for Reuse with Particular Focus on Wastewaters Containing Organic Pollutants. Working Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    Chronic shortages of water in arid and semi-arid regions of the world and environmental policy regulations have stimulated the search for appropriate technologies capable of treating wastewater for reuse or safe discharge. Industrial effluents often carry chemical contaminants such as organics, petrochemicals, pesticides, dyes and heavy metal ions. The standard biological treatment processes commonly used for wastewater treatment are not capable of treating some of these complex organic chemicals that are found in varying quantities in the wastewaters. Another emerging problem is the increasing presence of pharmaceuticals and endocrine disruptor compounds in municipal wastewater entering into the receiving stream, for which new treatment techniques and procedures are needed to remove excreted drugs before releasing the effluent into public waterways or reuse. Radiation-initiated degradation of organics helps to transform various pollutants into less harmful substances or reduced to the levels below the permissible concentrations. Studies in several Member States (MS) have demonstrated the usefulness and efficiency of radiation technology for treatment of different organic pollutants. The lack of comparative data in pilot scale studies using radiation technique (alone or in combination with other methods) has been a major issue in further utilization of this method for wastewater treatment. There is a need to study further the radiation effects, evaluate reliability and cost of treating specific group of organic pollutants in cooperation with other stakeholders who are involved in using other technologies. The Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP) on “Radiation treatment of wastewater for reuse with particular focus on wastewaters containing organic pollutants” has been launched with the objective to study the effectiveness, reliability and economics of radiation processing technology to treat wastewater contaminated with low and high concentration of organic

  8. Canadian firm contains huge oil spill in Northern Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, B.

    1997-01-01

    The Kharyaga-Usink pipeline, 1400 km northeast of Moscow, suffered a major failure in the fall of 1994, releasing some 100,000 tonnes of oil (three times more than the Exxon Valdez) into the frozen tundra. It was considered by environmental groups as one of the worst disasters of its kind. The oil threatened to seep into the nearby rivers and eventually into the Barents Sea. After a delay of some three months AGRA Earth and Environmental of Calgary, an engineering consulting firm, was called in to inspect the damage and to make recommendations for a successful cleanup operation. A multi-disciplinary emergency response team was formed to assess the environmental and socio-economic impacts of the spill, the state of the existing pipeline, and the Russian plans for spill containment and recovery. Community consultation, probably the first in Russia, was part of the evaluation, culminating in a three-volume appraisal report containing detailed recommendation on how to properly contain the spill. On the strength of the report the World Bank and the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development approved loans to the Russian Federation totaling 145 million dollars to undertake the work of pipeline restoration. Construction of the uniquely-designed dams as well as the Russian-pioneered siphon-dams was done by international contractors and maintained throughout the breakup period. A new pipeline is also being constructed to prevent future leaks

  9. Secondary containment systems for bulk oil storage facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, B.A.

    1996-01-01

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency has conducted site inspections at several onshore bulk oil above ground storage facilities, to ensure that owners follow the spill prevention, control and countermeasure regulations. The four violations which were most frequently cited at these facilities were: (1) lack of a spill prevention plan, (2) lack of appropriate containment equipment to prevent discharged oil from reaching a navigable water course, (3) inadequate secondary containment structures, and (4) lack of an adequate quick drainage system in the facility tank loading/unloading area. Suggestions for feasible designs which would improve the impermeability of secondary containment for above ground storage tanks (AST) included the addition of a liner, retrofitting the bottom of an AST with a second steel plate, using a geosynthetic liner on top of the original bottom, installing a leak detection system in the interstitial space between the steel plates, or installing an under-tank liner with a leak detection system during construction of a new AST. 2 refs

  10. Treatment of Ni-EDTA containing wastewater by electrocoagulation using iron scraps packed-bed anode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xiaokun; Zhang, Junya; Zhang, Yan; Lv, Yuancai; Dou, Rongni; Wen, Shulong; Li, Lianghao; Chen, Yuancai; Hu, YongYou

    2016-12-01

    The unique electrocoagulator proposed in this study is highly efficient at removing Ni-EDTA, providing a potential remediation option for wastewater containing lower concentrations of Ni-EDTA (Ni ≤ 10 mg L -1 ). In the electrocoagulation (EC) system, cylindrical graphite was used as a cathode, and a packed-bed formed from iron scraps was used as an anode. The results showed that the removal of Ni-EDTA increased with the application of current and favoured acidic conditions. We also found that the iron scrap packed-bed anode was superior in its treatment ability and specific energy consumption (SECS) compared with the iron rod anode. In addition, the packed density and temperature had a large influence on the energy consumption (ECS). Over 94.3% of Ni and 95.8% of TOC were removed when conducting the EC treatment at an applied current of 0.5 A, initial pH of 3, air-purged rate 0.2 L min -1 , anode packed density of 400 kg m -3 temperature of 313 K and time of 30 min. SEM analysis of the iron scraps indicated that the specific area of the anode increased after the EC. The XRD analysis of flocs produced during EC revealed that hematite (α-Fe 2 O 3 ) and magnetite (Fe 3 O 4 ) were the main by-products under aerobic and anoxic conditions, respectively. A kinetic study demonstrated that the removal of Ni-EDTA followed a first-order model with the current parameters. Moreover, the removal efficiency of real wastewater was essentially consistent with that of synthetic wastewater. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Treatment of marine sewage pumpout and RV park pumpout wastewater containing high strength concentrations of formaldehyde

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salonich, J.

    2002-01-01

    'Full text:' A consortium of companies has developed an integrated 'on-site' wastewater treatment technology that is capable of handling and degrading RV Park and Marine Sewage Pumpout Wastes which contain formaldehyde [35 - 80 mg/L]. Boat and RV owners add formaldehyde to their toilets to eliminate odors. When these materials are pumped out they are high in solids content and have high concentrations of HCHO, which makes them difficult to degrade at POTWs. At the heart of this process is 1. An aeration tank with a Venturi Aerator totally external to the tank and 2. The addition of a blend of cultured bacteria that have selected for their ability to degrade formaldehyde. For a complete 'on-site' treatment system Bioclere Trickling Filters can follow this aeration/bacterial treatment system. This is an ideal system configuration for remote locations (RV Parks) or for fresh water lake Marinas looking to reduce their disposal costs and for groundwater discharge with no adverse effect on water quality. Until the development of the formaldehyde degrading bacteria for an industrial wastewater process there were no cultures commercially available specifically for degrading formaldehyde. The most commonly used bacteria were pseudomonas strains for carbohydrate or hydrocarbon wastewater extracted from activated sludge plants. And since formaldehyde is infinitely soluble in a liquid it is difficult to degrade or mineralize. The process in an activated sludge WWTP plant took over 72 hours. With the newly selected consortia of cultures, HCHO can be degraded in 12-14 hours on a batch basis. This is accomplished in a uniquely configured aeration tank where the 'environment' of the tank is constantly conditioned by a Venturi Aerator which strips carbon dioxide generated by the aerobes to maintain a neutral pH, and provide high levels of DO (>5.0 mg/L) to keep the process aerobic. (author)

  12. Aerobic decolourization of the indigo dye-containing textile wastewater using continuous combined bioreactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khelifi, Eltaief; Gannoun, Hana; Touhami, Youssef; Bouallagui, Hassib; Hamdi, Moktar

    2008-01-01

    An aerobic bioprocess was applied to Indigo dye-containing textile wastewater treatment aiming at the colour elimination and biodegradation. A combined aerobic system using continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) and fixed film bioreactor (FFB) was continuously operated at constant temperature and fed with the textile wastewater (pH: 7.5 and total chemical oxygen demand (COD): 1185 mg l -1 ). The CSTR is a 1 l continuous flow stirred tank reactor with a 700 ml working volume, and operated with a variable wastewater loading rate (WLR) from 0.92 to 3.7 g l -1 d -1 . The FFB is a 1.5 l continuous flow with three compartments packed with a rippled cylindrical polyethylene support, operated with a variable WLR between 0.09 and 0.73 g l -1 d -1 . The combined two bioreactors were inoculated by an acclimated microbial consortium and continuously operated with four total WLR. This system presented high COD elimination and colour removal efficiencies of 97.5% and 97.3%, respectively, obtained with a total hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 4 days and total WLR of 0.29 g l -1 d -1 . The effects of WLR on absorption phenomena on the yield of conversion of substrate on biomass (R TSS/COD ) and on the yield of conversion of substrate on active biomass (R VVS/COD ) are discussed. The increase of WLR and the decrease of HRT diminished the performances of this system in terms of decolourization and COD removal explained by the sloughing of biofilm, and the washout phenomena

  13. Antioxidant activity of oregano, parsley, and olive mill wastewaters in bulk oils and oil-in-water emulsions enriched in fish oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez-Alvarez, D; Giuffrida, F; Golay, P A; Cotting, C; Lardeau, A; Keely, Brendan J

    2008-08-27

    The antioxidant activity of oregano, parsley, olive mill wastewaters (OMWW), Trolox, and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) was evaluated in bulk oils and oil-in-water (o/w) emulsions enriched with 5% tuna oil by monitoring the formation of hydroperoxides, hexanal, and t-t-2,4-heptadienal in samples stored at 37 degrees C for 14 days. In bulk oil, the order of antioxidant activity was, in decreasing order (p oregano > parsley > EDTA > Trolox. The antioxidant activity in o/w emulsion followed the same order except that EDTA was as efficient an antioxidant as OMWW. In addition, the total phenolic content, the radical scavenging properties, the reducing capacity, and the iron chelating activity of OMWW, parsley, and oregano extracts were determined by the Folin-Ciocalteau, oxygen radical absorbance capacity, ferric reducing antioxidant power, and iron(II) chelating activity assays, respectively. The antioxidant activity of OMWW, parsley, and oregano in food systems was related to their total phenolic content and radical scavenging capacity but not to their ability to chelate iron in vitro. OMWW was identified as a promising source of antioxidants to retard lipid oxidation in fish oil-enriched food products.

  14. Advanced oxidation process-biological system for wastewater containing a recalcitrant pollutant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oller, I; Malato, S; Sánchez-Pérez, J A; Maldonado, M I; Gernjak, W; Pérez-Estrada, L A

    2007-01-01

    Two advanced oxidation processes (AOPs), ozonation and photo-Fenton, combined with a pilot aerobic biological reactor at field scale were employed for the treatment of industrial non-biodegradable saline wastewater (TOC around 200 mgL(-1)) containing a biorecalcitrant compound, alpha-methylphenylglycine (MPG), at a concentration of 500 mgL(-1). Ozonation experiments were performed in a 50-L reactor with constant inlet ozone of 21.9 g m(-3). Solar photo-Fenton tests were carried out in a 75-L pilot plant made up of four compound parabolic collector (CPC) units. The catalyst concentration employed in this system was 20 mgL(-1) of Fe2+ and the H2O2 concentration was kept in the range of 200-500mgL(-1). Complete degradation of MPG was attained after 1,020 min of ozone treatment, while only 195 min were required for photo-Fenton. Samples from different stages of both AOPs were taken for Zahn-Wellens biocompatibility tests. Biodegradability enhancement of the industrial saline wastewater was confirmed (>70% biodegradability). Biodegradable compounds generated during the preliminary oxidative processes were biologically mineralised in a 170-L aerobic immobilised biomass reactor (IBR). The global efficiency of both AOP/biological combined systems was 90% removal of an initial TOC of over 500 mgL(-1).

  15. Treatment of wastewater containing phenol using a tubular ceramic membrane bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ersu, C B; Ong, S K

    2008-02-01

    The performance of a membrane bioreactor (MBR) with a tubular ceramic membrane for phenol removal was evaluated under varying hydraulic retention times (HRT) and a fixed sludge residence time (SRT) of 30 days. The tubular ceramic membrane was operated with a mode of 15 minutes of filtration followed by 15 seconds of permeate backwashing at a flux of 250 l m(-2)hr(-1) along with an extended backwashing of 30 seconds every 3 hours of operation, which maintained the transmembrane pressure (TMP) below 100 kPa. Using a simulated municipal wastewater with varying phenol concentrations, the chemical oxygen demand (COD) and phenol removals observed were greater than 88% with excellent suspended solids (SS) removal of 100% at low phenol concentrations (approx. 100 mg l(-1) of phenol). Step increases in phenol concentration showed that inhibition was observed between 600 to 800 mg l(-1) of phenol with decreased sludge production rate, mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS) concentration, and removal performance. The sludge volume index (SVI) of the biomass increased to about 450 ml g(-1) for a phenol input concentration of 800 mg l(-1). When the phenol concentration was decreased to 100 mg l(-1), the ceramic tubular MBR was found to recover rapidly indicating that the MBR is a robust system retaining most of the biomass. Experimental runs using wastewater containing phenol indicated that the MBR can be operated safely without upsets for concentrations up to 600 mg l(-1) of phenol at 2-4 hours HRT and 30 days SRT.

  16. A study of aeration treatment of uranium-contained wastewater by saccharomyces cerevisiae-activated sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Liangshu; Chen Zhongqing

    2006-01-01

    Experiments of the aeration treatment of uranium-contained wastewater by saccharomyces cerevisiae-activated sludge were carried out. The experimental results indicate that, saccharomyces cerevisiae (S.C) can accumulate UO 2 2+ effectively from aqueous solution: the removal ratio of 100 mg·L -1 UO 2 2+ is 78.2% when S.C dosage is 10 g·L -1 , while with 8 g·L -1 activated sludge (A.S.) added in the solution the ratio has increased to 96.3%; then, 5-10 min effluent settling is clarified as a result of sludge flocculation; the optimum conditions of biosorption of U from wastewater by S.C.-A.S. are at pH 5, A.S concentration=8 g·L -1 , added dry weight of S.C.=10 g·L -1 , granularity of S.C=100-120 mesh; the quantity of U increases with the enhanced initial concentration of UO 2 2+ in the process of biosorption by S.C.-A.S., but the removal ratio decreases. The uptake of U could be described by the Freundlich and the Langmuir adsorption isotherms, which demonstrated that the adsorption was regarded as a physical adsorption. (authors)

  17. Removal of colour and COD from wastewater containing acid blue 22 by electrochemical oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panizza, Marco [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Chimica e di Processo ' G.B. Bonino' , Universita degli Studi di Genova, p.le J.F. Kennedy 1, 16129 Genova (Italy)], E-mail: marco.panizza@unige.it; Cerisola, Giacomo [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Chimica e di Processo ' G.B. Bonino' , Universita degli Studi di Genova, p.le J.F. Kennedy 1, 16129 Genova (Italy)

    2008-05-01

    Electrochemical oxidation of synthetic wastewater containing acid blue 22 on a boron-doped diamond electrode (BDD) was studied, using cyclic voltammetry and bulk electrolysis. The influence of current density, dye concentration, flow rate, and temperature was investigated, in order to find the best conditions for COD and colour removal. It was found that, during oxidation, a polymeric film, causing BDD deactivation, was formed in the potential region of water stability, and that it was removed by anodic polarisation at high potentials in the region of O{sub 2} evolution. Bulk electrolysis results showed that the electrochemical process was suitable for completely removing COD and effectively decolourising wastewaters, due to the production of hydroxyl radicals on the diamond surface. In particular, under optimal experimental conditions of flow rates (i.e. 300 dm{sup 3} h{sup -1}) and current density (i.e. 20 mA cm{sup -2}), 97% of COD was removed in 12 h electrolysis, with 70 kWh m{sup -3}energy consumption.

  18. Removal of colour and COD from wastewater containing acid blue 22 by electrochemical oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panizza, Marco; Cerisola, Giacomo

    2008-01-01

    Electrochemical oxidation of synthetic wastewater containing acid blue 22 on a boron-doped diamond electrode (BDD) was studied, using cyclic voltammetry and bulk electrolysis. The influence of current density, dye concentration, flow rate, and temperature was investigated, in order to find the best conditions for COD and colour removal. It was found that, during oxidation, a polymeric film, causing BDD deactivation, was formed in the potential region of water stability, and that it was removed by anodic polarisation at high potentials in the region of O 2 evolution. Bulk electrolysis results showed that the electrochemical process was suitable for completely removing COD and effectively decolourising wastewaters, due to the production of hydroxyl radicals on the diamond surface. In particular, under optimal experimental conditions of flow rates (i.e. 300 dm 3 h -1 ) and current density (i.e. 20 mA cm -2 ), 97% of COD was removed in 12 h electrolysis, with 70 kWh m -3 energy consumption

  19. Treatment of Synthetic Wastewater Containing Reactive Red 198 by Electrocoagulation Process

    OpenAIRE

    N.M Mahmoodi; A Ameri; M Gholami; A Jonidi jafari; A Dalvand

    2011-01-01

    "nBackground and Objectives: Discharge of textile colored wastewater industries without providing enough treatment in water bodies, is harmful for human and aquatic organisms and poses serious damages to the environment. Most of conventional wastewater treatment methods don't have enough efficiency to remove textile dyes from colored wastewater; thus in this research the efficiency of electrocoagulation treatment process with aluminum electrodes for treatment of a synthetic wastewater co...

  20. Combustion of crude oil sludge containing naturally occurring radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamad Puad Abu; Muhd Noor Muhd Yunus; Shamsuddin, A.H.; Sopian, K.

    2000-01-01

    The characteristics of crude oil sludge fi-om the crude oil terminal are very unique because it contains both heavy metals and also Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (NORM). As a result, the Department of Environmental (DOE) and the Atomic Energy Licensing Board (AELB) considered it as Scheduled Wastes and Low Level Radioactive Waste (LLRW) respectively. As a Scheduled Wastes, there is no problem in dealing with the disposal of it since there already exist a National Center in Bukit Nanas to deal with this type of waste. However, the Center could not manage this waste due to the presence of NORM by which the policy regarding the disposal of this kind of waste has not been well established. This situation is unclear to certain parties, especially with respect to the relevant authorities having final jurisdiction over the issue as well as the best practical method of disposal of this kind of waste. Existing methods of treatment viewed both from literature and current practice include that of land farming, storing in plastic drum, re-injection into abandoned oil well, recovery, etc., found some problems. Due to its organic nature, very low level in radioactivity and the existence of a Scheduled Waste incineration facility in Bukit Nanas, there is a potential to treat this sludge by using thermal treatment technology. However, prior to having this suggestion to be put into practice, there are issues that need to be addressed. This paper attempts to discuss the potentials and the related issues of combusting crude oil sludge based on existing experimental data as well as mathematical modeling

  1. Ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) induction in rainbow trout exposed to diluted oil sand wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verbeek, A.; Mackay, W.; Birkholz, D.

    1995-01-01

    Toxic industrial wastewaters, such as those from oil sands extraction, must be assessed for their potential sublethal effects before they can be safely disposed in the environment. The induction of ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activity was assessed as a potential bioindicator of sublethal stress in rainbow trout exposed to sublethal concentrations of oil sands tailings water. The mixed-function oxygenase system in rainbow trout responded rapidly following a definable concentration-response relationship; however, it proved to be a relatively insensitive indicator of sublethal exposure to oil sands tailings water. Increased activity and maximal induction, as a result of exposure to 0.3 and 0.6 times the LC 50 (Toxic Units), occurred rapidly within 24 hours of exposure. The linearity of the relationship between the concentration of oil sands tailings pond water and ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activity, expressed by the following regression equation, In EROD = 3.68 (conc.) + 3.20, had an r 2 value of 0.593. Maximal induction required 0.4--0.8 Toxic Units. The absolute level of maximal induction was only one-fifth to one-sixth of the potential induction as found in response to the positive control, 0.5 mg/kg β-naphthoflavone (i.p.). The authors also present data that suggests that the different levels of induction observed in trout exposed to tailings pond water vs those injected with 0.5 mg/kg β-naphthoflavone (i.p.) may be indicative of two different P450 isoforms, the CYP4Al isoform responding to the organic acidic surfactants in oil sands tailings pond water and the CYP1A1 isoform, the isoform generally associated with most xenobiotic transformation in fish, responding to β-naphthoflavone

  2. Quality and Trace Element Profile of Tunisian Olive Oils Obtained from Plants Irrigated with Treated Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinzia Benincasa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present work the use of treated wastewater (TWW to irrigate olive plants was monitored. This type of water is characterized by high salinity and retains a substantial amount of trace elements, organic and metallic compounds that can be transferred into the soil and into the plants and fruits. In order to evaluate the impact of TWW on the overall quality of the oils, the time of contact of the olives with the soil has been taken into account. Multi-element data were obtained using ICP-MS. Nineteen elements (Li, B, Na, Mg, Al, K, Ca, Sc, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Sr, Mo, Ba and La were submitted for statistical analysis. Using analysis of variance, linear discriminant analysis and principal component analysis it was possible to differentiate between oils produced from different batches of olives whose plants received different types of water. Also, the results showed that there was correlation between the elemental and mineral composition of the water used to irrigate the olive plots and the elemental and mineral composition of the oils.

  3. Electrocoagulation of palm oil mill effluent as wastewater treatment and hydrogen production using electrode aluminum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasution, M Ansori; Yaakob, Z; Ali, Ehsan; Tasirin, S M; Abdullah, S R S

    2011-01-01

    Palm oil mill effluent (POME) is highly polluting wastewater generated from the palm oil milling process. Palm oil mill effluent was used as an electrolyte without any additive or pretreatment to perform electrocoagulation (EC) using electricity (direct current) ranging from 2 to 4 volts in the presence of aluminum electrodes with a reactor volume of 20 L. The production of hydrogen gas, removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD), and turbidity as a result of electrocoagulation of POME were determined. The results show that EC can reduce the COD and turbidity of POME by 57 and 62%, respectively, in addition to the 42% hydrogen production. Hydrogen production was also helpful to remove the lighter suspended solids toward the surface. The production of Al(OH)XHO at the aluminum electrode (anode) was responsible for the flocculation-coagulation process of suspended solids followed by sedimentation under gravity. The production of hydrogen gas from POME during EC was also compared with hydrogen gas production by electrolysis of tap water at pH 4 and tap water without pH adjustment under the same conditions. The main advantage of this study is to produce hydrogen gas while treating POME with EC to reduce COD and turbidity effectively. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  4. Harvesting, oil extraction, and conversion of local filamentous algae growing in wastewater into biodiesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grayburn, W.S.; Holbrook, G.P. [Department of Biological Sciences, Northern Illinois University, DeKalb, IL 60115 (United States); Tatara, R.A. [Department of Technology, Northern Illinois University, DeKalb, IL 60115 (United States); Rosentrater, K.A. [Department of Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Algae are known to be a potential feedstock in the production of biodiesel fuel. Although much of the focus has been on microalgal species, macroalgae are also suitable as a source of lipids. In this study, a locally abundant (central Illinois) filamentous algae has been harvested from a water treatment plant; dried to about 10% of its initial weight; pulverized in a hammermill; and treated with methanol to extract the oil. The algae are a combination of several coexisting species including Cladophora sp. and Rhizoclonium. Oil yields ranged from 3% to 6%, by weight, of the dried mass. This oil was reacted by transesterification to yield fatty acid methyl esters (biodiesel fuel) with an overall mass conversion efficiency of 68%. A B5 blend of this algal biodiesel and petrodiesel was run in a 13.4-kW test engine. Measurements indicated similar performance compared to pure petrodiesel in terms of fuel efficiency and carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide exhaust emissions. Significantly, there was a 22% reduction in nitrogen oxides when using the B5 fuel. It has been demonstrated that filamentous macroalgae may be cultivated as biodiesel feedstock and have inherent advantages such as an ability to remove phosphorus and nitrogen compounds from wastewater, simplicity of harvesting, and natural resistance to local aquatic grazers and competing organisms.

  5. Hydrogen recovery from the electrocoagulation treatment of dye-containing wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phalakornkule, Chantaraporn [The Research and Technology Center for Renewable Products and Energy, King Mongkut' s University of Technology North Bangkok, Bangkok 10800 (Thailand); Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, King Mongkut' s University of Technology North Bangkok, Bangkok 10800 (Thailand); Sukkasem, Pisut; Mutchimsattha, Chinnarat [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, King Mongkut' s University of Technology North Bangkok, Bangkok 10800 (Thailand)

    2010-10-15

    In this paper, a technique of hydrogen recovery from an electrocoagulation process treating dye-containing wastewater is presented. The electrocoagulation system used consists of a continuous-mode electrocoagulator connected with a gas separation tank and two sedimenters. It is shown that a significant amount of hydrogen can be harvested using the gas separation tank whose configuration follows that of a conventional upflow anaerobic sludge bed. The experimental hydrogen yields obtained were comparable with those calculated from theory. The electrical energy demand of the electrocoagulation process for treating Reactive Blue 140 and Direct Red 23 was 1.42 and 0.69 kWh{sub e} m{sup -3}, respectively, while the energy yield of harvested hydrogen was 0.2 kWh m{sup -3}. The quality of water treated by the electrocoagulation system was satisfactory, i.e., the color, COD and TS removal were 99%, 93% and 89%, respectively. (author)

  6. Cyanide Containing Wastewater Treatment by Ozone Enhanced Catalytic Oxidation over Diatomite Catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Mingguo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Cyanide containing wastewater that discharged from gold mining process creates environmental problems due to the toxicity of cyanide. As one of the promising advanced oxidation process, catalytic oxidation with ozone is considered to be effective on the purification of cyanide. Diatomite, a natural mineral, was used as catalyst in this study. The effect of O3 dosage, salinity, initial cyanide concentration and initial pH condition were investigated. It was observed that the removal rate of cyanide was much higher in the catalytic oxidation with ozone process than the one in zone alone process. Alkaline condition was especially favorable for cyanide in catalytic oxidation with ozone. The ozone and catalytic oxidation with ozone were simulated by pseudo-first-order kinetics model. The apparent first-order rate constant contribution of the diatomite catalyst was 0.0757 min-1, and the contribution percentage was 65.77%.

  7. A study on the treatment of industrial wastewater containing heavy metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Myung Hwan; Chang, In Soon; Choi, Chang Shik; Lee, Yoon Hwan; Hwang, Doo Sung; Shin, Jin Myung; Jung, Young Won; Ko, Yong Sang; Han, Phil Soon

    1991-07-01

    The main R.T.=28,29,30 min. components of acornic acid are separated by column chromatography and analyzed by HPLC. According to the precipitation effects of each component of acornic acid in the U.N.H.-U solution, it is considered that the main R.T.=28,29,30 min. components play an important role in the U.N.H.-U precipitation. Meanwhile, as a result of the treatment of the wastewater containing lead, cadmium and mercury, respectively by using acornic acid, the optimum pH for mixing sequence shows pH=10, and it is possible to treat lead and cadmium near upon the effluent limitations by using acornic acid. (Author)

  8. Discharges of produced waters from oil and gas extraction via wastewater treatment plants are sources of disinfection by-products to receiving streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hladik, Michelle; Focazio, Michael J.; Engle, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Fluids co-produced with oil and gas production (produced waters) are often brines that contain elevated concentrations of bromide. Bromide is an important precursor of several toxic disinfection by-products (DBPs) and the treatment of produced water may lead to more brominated DBPs. To determine if wastewater treatment plants that accept produced waters discharge greater amounts of brominated DBPs, water samples were collected in Pennsylvania from four sites along a large river including an upstream site, a site below a publicly owned wastewater treatment plant (POTW) outfall (does not accept produced water), a site below an oil and gas commercial wastewater treatment plant (CWT) outfall, and downstream of the POTW and CWT. Of 29 DBPs analyzed, the site at the POTW outfall had the highest number detected (six) ranging in concentration from 0.01 to 0.09 μg L− 1 with a similar mixture of DBPs that have been detected at POTW outfalls elsewhere in the United States. The DBP profile at the CWT outfall was much different, although only two DBPs, dibromochloronitromethane (DBCNM) and chloroform, were detected, DBCNM was found at relatively high concentrations (up to 8.5 μg L− 1). The water at the CWT outfall also had a mixture of inorganic and organic precursors including elevated concentrations of bromide (75 mg L− 1) and other organic DBP precursors (phenol at 15 μg L− 1). To corroborate these DBP results, samples were collected in Pennsylvania from additional POTW and CWT outfalls that accept produced waters. The additional CWT also had high concentrations of DBCNM (3.1 μg L− 1) while the POTWs that accept produced waters had elevated numbers (up to 15) and concentrations of DBPs, especially brominated and iodinated THMs (up to 12 μg L− 1 total THM concentration). Therefore, produced water brines that have been disinfected are potential sources of DBPs along with DBP precursors to streams wherever these wastewaters are discharged.

  9. Novel approaches based on ultrasound for treatment of wastewater containing potassium ferrocyanide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jawale, Rajashree H; Tandale, Akash; Gogate, Parag R

    2017-09-01

    Industrial wastewaters containing biorefractory compounds like cyanide offer significant environmental problems attributed to the fact that the conventional methods have limited effectiveness and hence developing efficient treatment approaches is an important requirement. The present work investigates the use of novel treatment approach of ultrasound (US) combined with advanced oxidation techniques for the degradation of potassium ferrocyanide (KFC) for the first time. An ultrasonic bath equipped with longitudinal horn (1kW rated power and 25kHz frequency) has been used. The effect of initial pH (2-9) on the progress of degradation has been investigated initially and subsequently using the optimized pH, effect of addition of hydrogen peroxide (ratio of KFC:H 2 O 2 varied over the range of 1:0.5-1:5) and TiO 2 in the presence of H 2 O 2 (1:1 ratio by weight of TiO 2 ) as process intensifying approach has been studied. Combination of ultrasonic irradiation with ozone (O 3 ) (100-400mg/h) and ultraviolet irradiation (UV) has also been investigated. Use of combination of US with H 2 O 2, H 2 O 2 +TiO 2 and ozone resulted in extent of KFC degradation as 54.2%, 74.82% and 82.41% respectively. Combination of US with both UV and ozone was established to be the best approach yielding 92.47% degradation. The study also focused on establishing kinetic rate constants for all the treatment approaches which revealed that all the approaches followed first order kinetic mechanism with higher rate constants for the combination approaches. Overall, it has been conclusively established that ultrasound based combined treatment schemes are very effective for the treatment of KFC containing wastewaters. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Microbial Assisted Phyto remediation Of Palm Oil Mill Final Discharge (POMFD) Wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Faizal Hamzah; Norjan Yusof; Hasimah Alimon

    2016-01-01

    This study assesses microbial assisted phyto remediation of palm oil mill final discharge (POMFD) wastewater using three local macrophyte species: Leersia oryzoides, Pistia stratiotes and Ludwigia peploides. It was found respectively that BOD 5 , COD, NH 3 -N removal efficiencies of 84.7 %, 22.3 %, and 73.5 % were achieved for P. stratiotes; 88.1 %, 18 % and 69.2 % for L. peploides; and 86.1 %, 11.7 % and 69.3 % for L. oryzoides. The level of C, H and N in the tissue were influenced by macrophyte species and organs (p < 0.05). The bioconcentration factors (BCF) of various metals such as Mg, Ca, K, Na, Fe and Zn of the three macrophyte were 10 -1 to 10 0 with Fe being highly accumulated in roots of all the macrophyte (BCF=10 2 ). The translocation factors (TF) of most metals from root to shoot tissues were in a range of 10 -3 to 10 0 . In comparison with other metals, K was capable to be efficiently translocated from root to shoots in all the macrophyte species (TF=10 0 ). In this study, Bacillus megaterium, Pseudomonas spp. and Bacillus cereus that are usually involved in denitrification were identified in P. stratiotes, L. pepoides and L. oryzoides roots respectively. This confirms the macrophyte-microorganism interaction in remediation of POMFD wastewater. (author)

  11. ALTERNATIVE FOR PHENOL BIODEGRADATION IN OIL CONTAMINATED WASTEWATERS USING AN ADAPTED BACTERIAL BIOFILM LAYER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Kopytko

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The project studied the biodegradation potential of phenols in an industrial wastewater from an oil field in the province of Santander, Colombia. An elevated potential was established, according to three important factors: the great abundance of microorganisms found in the wastewater and sludge samples collected, the bacterial adaptation to high phenol concentrations (10 mg/l and the elevated elimination efficiencies (up to 86% obtained in the laboratory tests. The laboratory scale treatment system, which consisted of fixed-bed bioreactors with adapted bacterial biofilm, was optimized using a 22 factorial experimental design. The selected variables, studied in their maximum and minimum level were: HRT (hydraulic retention time and the presence or absence of GAC (granular activated carbon layer. The response variable was phenol concentration. The optimum treatment conditions for low and high phenol concentrations (2.14 y 9.30 mg/l, were obtained with the presence of GAC and 18 hours of HRT. The best result for the intermediate phenol concentration (6.13 mg/l was obtained with a 24 hour HRT and the presence of GAC. Nevertheless, the presence of the GAC layer was not significantly important in terms of phenol removal. Moreover, the increase of HRT from 18 to 24 hours, showed no significant improvement in phenol removal.

  12. Molecular assessment of microbiota structure and dynamics along mixed olive oil and winery wastewaters biotreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eusébio, Ana; Tacão, Marta; Chaves, Sandra; Tenreiro, Rogério; Almeida-Vara, Elsa

    2011-07-01

    The major parcel of the degradation occurring along wastewater biotreatments is performed either by the native microbiota or by added microbial inocula. The main aim of this study was to apply two fingerprinting methods, temperature gradient gel electrophoresis (TGGE) and length heterogeneity-PCR (LH-PCR) analysis of 16S rRNA gene fragments, in order to assess the microbiota structure and dynamics during mixed olive oil and winery wastewaters aerobic biotreatment performed in a jet-loop reactor (JLR). Sequence homology analysis showed the presence of bacterial genera Gluconacetobacter, Klebsiella, Lactobacillus, Novosphingobium, Pseudomonas, Prevotella, Ralstonia, Sphingobium and Sphingomonas affiliated with five main phylogenetic groups: alpha-, beta- and gamma-Proteobacteria, Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes. LH-PCR analysis distinguished eight predominant DNA fragments correlated with the samples showing highest performance (COD removal rates of 67 up to 75%). Cluster analysis of both TGGE and LH-PCR fingerprinting profiles established five main clusters, with similarity coefficients higher than 79% (TGGE) and 62% (LH-PCR), and related with hydraulic retention time, indicating that this was the main factor responsible for the shifts in the microbiota structure. Canonical correspondence analysis revealed that changes observed on temperature and O(2) level were also responsible for shifts in microbiota composition. Community level metabolic profile analysis was used to test metabolic activities in samples. Integrated data revealed that the microbiota structure corresponds to bacterial groups with high degradative potential and good suitability for this type of effluents biotreatments.

  13. Treatment of opium alkaloid containing wastewater in sequencing batch reactor (SBR)—Effect of gamma irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bural, Cavit B.; Demirer, Goksel N.; Kantoglu, Omer; Dilek, Filiz B.

    2010-04-01

    Aerobic biological treatment of opium alkaloid containing wastewater as well as the effect of gamma irradiation as pre-treatment was investigated. Biodegradability of raw wastewater was assessed in aerobic batch reactors and was found highly biodegradable (83-90% degradation). The effect of irradiation (40 and 140 kGy) on biodegradability was also evaluated in terms of BOD 5/COD values and results revealed that irradiation imparted no further enhancement in the biodegradability. Despite the highly biodegradable nature of wastewater, further experiments in sequencing batch reactors (SBR) revealed that the treatment operation was not possible due to sludge settleability problem observed beyond an influent COD value of 2000 mg dm -3. Possible reasons for this problem were investigated, and the high molecular weight, large size and aromatic structure of the organic pollutants present in wastewater was thought to contribute to poor settleability. Initial efforts to solve this problem by modifying the operational conditions, such as SRT reduction, failed. However, further operational modifications including addition of phosphate buffer cured the settleability problem and influent COD was increased up to 5000 mg dm -3. Significant COD removal efficiencies (>70%) were obtained in both SBRs fed with original and irradiated wastewaters (by 40 kGy). However, pre-irradiated wastewater provided complete thebain removal and a better settling sludge, which was thought due to degradation of complex structure by radiation application. Degradation of the structure was observed by GC/MS analyses and enhancement in filterability tests.

  14. Conventional methods and emerging wastewater polishing technologies for palm oil mill effluent treatment: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liew, Wai Loan; Kassim, Mohd Azraai; Muda, Khalida; Loh, Soh Kheang; Affam, Augustine Chioma

    2015-02-01

    The Malaysian palm oil industry is a major revenue earner and the country is ranked as one of the largest producers in the world. However, growth of the industry is synonymous with a massive production of agro-industrial wastewater. As an environmental protection and public health concern, the highly polluting palm oil mill effluent (POME) has become a major attention-grabber. Hence, the industry is targeting for POME pollution abatement in order to promote a greener image of palm oil and to achieve sustainability. At present, most palm oil mills have adopted the ponding system for treatment. Due to the successful POME pollution abatement experiences, Malaysia is currently planning to revise the effluent quality standards towards a more stringent discharge limits. Hence, the current trend of POME research focuses on developing tertiary treatment or polishing systems for better effluent management. Biotechnologically-advanced POME tertiary (polishing) technologies as well as other physicochemical methods are gaining much attention as these processes are the key players to push the industry towards the goal of environmental sustainability. There are still ongoing treatment technologies being researched and the outcomes maybe available in a while. However, the research completed so far are compiled herein and reported for the first time to acquire a better perspective and insight on the subject with a view of meeting the new standards. To this end, the most feasible technology could be the combination of advanced biological processes (bioreactor systems) with extended aeration, followed by solids separation prior to discharge. Chemical dosing is favoured only if effluent of higher quality is anticipated. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Endocrine disrupting activities of surface water associated with a West Virginia oil and gas industry wastewater disposal site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kassotis, Christopher D., E-mail: christopher.kassotis@duke.edu [Nicholas School of the Environment, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); Iwanowicz, Luke R. [U.S. Geological Survey, Leetown Science Center, Fish Health Branch, 11649 Leetown Road, Kearneysville, WV 25430 (United States); Akob, Denise M.; Cozzarelli, Isabelle M.; Mumford, Adam C. [U.S. Geological Survey, National Research Program, 12201 Sunrise Valley Drive, MS 430, Reston, VA 20192 (United States); Orem, William H. [U.S. Geological Survey, Eastern Energy Resources Science Center, 12201 Sunrise Valley Drive, MS 956, Reston, VA 20192 (United States); Nagel, Susan C., E-mail: nagels@health.missouri.edu [Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Women' s Health, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States)

    2016-07-01

    Currently, > 95% of end disposal of hydraulic fracturing wastewater from unconventional oil and gas operations in the US occurs via injection wells. Key data gaps exist in understanding the potential impact of underground injection on surface water quality and environmental health. The goal of this study was to assess endocrine disrupting activity in surface water at a West Virginia injection well disposal site. Water samples were collected from a background site in the area and upstream, on, and downstream of the disposal facility. Samples were solid-phase extracted, and extracts assessed for agonist and antagonist hormonal activities for five hormone receptors in mammalian and yeast reporter gene assays. Compared to reference water extracts upstream and distal to the disposal well, samples collected adjacent and downstream exhibited considerably higher antagonist activity for the estrogen, androgen, progesterone, glucocorticoid and thyroid hormone receptors. In contrast, low levels of agonist activity were measured in upstream/distal sites, and were inhibited or absent at downstream sites with significant antagonism. Concurrent analyses by partner laboratories (published separately) describe the analytical and geochemical profiling of the water; elevated conductivity as well as high sodium, chloride, strontium, and barium concentrations indicate impacts due to handling of unconventional oil and gas wastewater. Notably, antagonist activities in downstream samples were at equivalent authentic standard concentrations known to disrupt reproduction and/or development in aquatic animals. Given the widespread use of injection wells for end-disposal of hydraulic fracturing wastewater, these data raise concerns for human and animal health nearby. - Highlights: • Oil and gas wastewater disposal may increase endocrine disrupting activity in water. • Tested EDC activity in surface water near oil and gas wastewater injection site. • Water downstream had significantly

  16. Endocrine disrupting activities of surface water associated with a West Virginia oil and gas industry wastewater disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kassotis, Christopher D.; Iwanowicz, Luke R.; Akob, Denise M.; Cozzarelli, Isabelle M.; Mumford, Adam C.; Orem, William H.; Nagel, Susan C.

    2016-01-01

    Currently, > 95% of end disposal of hydraulic fracturing wastewater from unconventional oil and gas operations in the US occurs via injection wells. Key data gaps exist in understanding the potential impact of underground injection on surface water quality and environmental health. The goal of this study was to assess endocrine disrupting activity in surface water at a West Virginia injection well disposal site. Water samples were collected from a background site in the area and upstream, on, and downstream of the disposal facility. Samples were solid-phase extracted, and extracts assessed for agonist and antagonist hormonal activities for five hormone receptors in mammalian and yeast reporter gene assays. Compared to reference water extracts upstream and distal to the disposal well, samples collected adjacent and downstream exhibited considerably higher antagonist activity for the estrogen, androgen, progesterone, glucocorticoid and thyroid hormone receptors. In contrast, low levels of agonist activity were measured in upstream/distal sites, and were inhibited or absent at downstream sites with significant antagonism. Concurrent analyses by partner laboratories (published separately) describe the analytical and geochemical profiling of the water; elevated conductivity as well as high sodium, chloride, strontium, and barium concentrations indicate impacts due to handling of unconventional oil and gas wastewater. Notably, antagonist activities in downstream samples were at equivalent authentic standard concentrations known to disrupt reproduction and/or development in aquatic animals. Given the widespread use of injection wells for end-disposal of hydraulic fracturing wastewater, these data raise concerns for human and animal health nearby. - Highlights: • Oil and gas wastewater disposal may increase endocrine disrupting activity in water. • Tested EDC activity in surface water near oil and gas wastewater injection site. • Water downstream had significantly

  17. Design and hydrodynamic testing of an oil slick containment system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen-Jones, J.

    1997-01-01

    Aspects of mechanical containment of spilled oil were studied. The focus was on design problems and the development of a model for global loading on a horizontal catenary of a previously defined form. The result is then compared with existing theoretical formulations and an approximate model is developed for the effect of flow through the system in deep water. The modified result is again compared with accepted formulations and with sea-trial data. The leading edge of the skirt was observed to oscillate sinusoidally. Experimental results obtained from pressure transducer data and calibrated underwater video measurements show that the oscillation period diminishes with increases in tow speed. In contrast, the magnitude of the oscillation increases while mean deviation from datum draught returns to zero. 14 refs., 5 tabs., 31 figs

  18. In vitro fermentation of olive oil mill wastewaters using sheep rumen liquor as inoculum: Olive mill wastewaters an alternative for ruminant's nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moufida Aggoun

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Olive oil mill wastewaters (OMWW are the main liquid effluents generated by the olive oil production industry. This liquid, considered pollutant and toxic, is characterised by its high content of organic matter including mainly sugars and fats, and phenols compounds, which can be used in ruminants feeding. The purpose of this study is to valorise this agricultural by-product in ruminant feeding by estimation its in vitro degradability in presence of ovine ruminale microbiota comparatively to vetch-oat hay, using in vitro gas production technique coupled with NH3-N and protozoa measurements. Cumulative gas production was recorded at 3, 6, 9, 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours of incubation. The determination of gazes produced (carbon dioxide and methane was recorded at 6, 9, 24, 48 and 96 hours. However, Ammonia and protozoa number were recorded after 24 hours of incubation. Fermentation profile was fitted to the exponential model y = a + b (1 – e-kt. The OMWW are characterized by their high sugars content (39.91% and their low content in ash (1.99% and crude protein (2.70%. This by-product is also characterized by its high concentration in total phenols (7.2% and tannins (4.5%. However, they contain a very small amount of condensed tannins (0.89%. Comparatively to vetch-oat hay, OMWW produced low amount of gas (-23.6 units. Furthermore, its in vitro fermentation generates low volume of methane (9.83%, V/V, suggesting that the OMWW nature enhanced the efficiency of ruminale microbiota towards microbial biomass production and inhibition of ruminale methanogenesis pathway. This result is reinforced by the reduction of ammonia production (-0.35 units and protozoa proliferation (-1 unit comparatively to vetch-oat hay. The anaerobic biodegradation of OMWW reveal their significant use by the rumen microbiota, allowing us to strongly recommend its use as a supplement in feed ruminant. In addition, it allows considering using this residue as a feed additive in

  19. Method for extraction of neutral substances containing oxygen from oils containing them, for example, from oils obtained by means of thermic treatment of combustible and bituminous substances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1942-01-05

    A method is described for the production of neutral substances containing oxygen from the oils containing them and which boil below about 180/sup 0/C and particularly between about 30 and 150/sup 0/C characterized by the fact that the oils are treated with an alkaline solution of alkaline phenolate and that from alkaline solutions are recovered by means of distillation or extraction the neutral substances containing oxygen which they had absorbed.

  20. Complex use of waste in wastewater and circulating water treatment from oil in heat power stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaeva, L. A.; Iskhakova, R. Ya.

    2017-06-01

    efficient wastewater treatment from oil as well as reduction of anthropogenic pressure on the environment and economic costs of the station for nature protection measures.

  1. Reuse of drinking water treatment sludge for olive oil mill wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragoso, R A; Duarte, E A

    2012-01-01

    Olive mill wastewater (OMW) results from the production of olive oil, which is an important traditional agro-industry in Mediterranean countries. In continuous three-phase centrifugation 1.0-1.2 m(3) of OMW are produced per ton of processed olives. Discharge of OMW is of serious environmental concern due to its high content of organic matter with phytotoxic properties, namely phenolic compounds. Meanwhile, drinking water treatment sludge (DWTS) is produced in high amounts and has long been considered as a waste for landfill. The aim of this work was the assessment of reusing DWTS for OMW treatment. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis was carried out to determine the phenolic compounds present and to evaluate if they are recalcitrant. Treatability assays were performed using a dosage of DWTS from 50 to 300 g L(-1). Treatment efficiency was evaluated based on the removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), total solids (TS), total suspended solids (TSS), total volatile solids (TVS), oil and grease (OG), phenols (total phosphorous (TP) and HPLC fraction). Results from OMW HPLC characterization identified a total of 13 compounds; the major ones were hydroxytyrosol, tyrosol, caffeic acid, p-cumaric acid and oleuropein. Treatability assays led to a maximum reduction of about 90% of some of the phenolic compounds determined by HPLC. Addition of 200-300 g L(-1) of DWTS reduced 40-50% of COD, 45-50% of TP, a maximum of nearly 70% TSS and 45% for TS and TVS. The OG fraction showed a reduction of about 90%, achieved adding 300 g L(-1) od DWTS. This study points out the possibility of establishing an integrated management of OMW and DWTS, contributing to a decrease in the environmental impact of two industrial activities, olive oil production and drinking water treatment.

  2. Evaluation and Optimization of Electrode Configuration of Multi-Channel Corona Discharge Plasma for Dye-Containing Wastewater Treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren Jingyu; Qu Guangzhou; Liang Dongli; Hu Shibin; Wang Tiecheng

    2015-01-01

    A discharge plasma reactor with a point-to-plane structure was widely studied experimentally in wastewater treatment. In order to improve the utilization efficiency of active species and the energy efficiency of this kind of discharge plasma reactor during wastewater treatment, the electrode configuration of the point-to-plane corona discharge reactor was studied by evaluating the effects of discharge spacing and adjacent point distance on discharge power and discharge energy density, and then dye-containing wastewater decoloration experiments were conducted on the basis of the optimum electrode configuration. The experimental results of the discharge characteristics showed that high discharge power and discharge energy density were achieved when the ratio of discharge spacing to adjacent point distance (d/s) was 0.5. Reactive Brilliant Blue (RBB) wastewater treatment experiments presented that the highest RBB decoloration efficiency was observed at d/s of 0.5, which was consistent with the result obtained in the discharge characteristics experiments. In addition, the biodegradability of RBB wastewater was enhanced greatly after discharge plasma treatment under the optimum electrode configuration. RBB degradation processes were analyzed by GC-MS and IC, and the possible mechanism for RBB decoloration was also discussed. (paper)

  3. Biotransformation of nitrogen- and sulfur-containing pollutants during coking wastewater treatment: Correspondence of performance to microbial community functional structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Dev Raj; Zhang, Yu; Gao, Yinxin; Liu, Yuan; Yang, Min

    2017-09-15

    Although coking wastewater is generally considered to contain high concentration of nitrogen- and sulfur-containing pollutants, the biotransformation processes of these compounds have not been well understood. Herein, a high throughput functional gene array (GeoChip 5.0) in combination with Illumina MiSeq sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene were used to identify microbial functional traits and their role in biotransformation of nitrogen- and sulfur-containing compounds in a bench-scale aerobic coking wastewater treatment system operated for 488 days. Biotransformation of nitrogen and sulfur-containing pollutants deteriorated when pH of the bioreactor was increased to >8.0, and the microbial community functional structure was significantly associated with pH (Mantels test, P functional microbial community structure (P functional genes for biotransformation of nitrogen- and sulfur-containing pollutants. Functional characterization of taxa and network analysis suggested that Burkholderiales, Actinomycetales, Rhizobiales, Pseudomonadales, and Hydrogenophiliales (Thiobacillus) were key functional taxa. Variance partitioning analysis showed that pH and influent ammonia nitrogen jointly explained 25.9% and 35.5% of variation in organic pollutant degrading genes and microbial community structure, respectively. This study revealed a linkage between microbial community functional structure and the likely biotransformation of nitrogen- and sulfur-containing pollutants, along with a suitable range of pH (7.0-7.5) for stability of the biological system treating coking wastewater. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Potential for beneficial application of sulfate reducing bacteria in sulfate containing domestic wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Brand, T P H; Roest, K; Chen, G H; Brdjanovic, D; van Loosdrecht, M C M

    2015-11-01

    The activity of sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) in domestic wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) is often considered as a problem due to H2S formation and potential related odour and corrosion of materials. However, when controlled well, these bacteria can be effectively used in a positive manner for the treatment of wastewater. The main advantages of using SRB in wastewater treatment are: (1) minimal sludge production, (2) reduction of potential pathogens presence, (3) removal of heavy metals and (4) as pre-treatment of anaerobic digestion. These advantages are accessory to efficient and stable COD removal by SRB. Though only a few studies have been conducted on SRB treatment of domestic wastewater, the many studies performed on industrial wastewater provide information on the potential of SRB in domestic wastewater treatment. A key-parameter analyses literature study comprising pH, organic substrates, sulfate, salt, temperature and oxygen revealed that the conditions are well suited for the application of SRB in domestic wastewater treatment. Since the application of SRB in WWTP has environmental benefits its application is worth considering for wastewater treatment, when sulfate is present in the influent.

  5. The treatment of oily brines containing waste oils using membrane technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, H.; Tremblay, A.Y. [Ottawa Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Veinot, D.E. [Defence R and D Canada, Halifax, NS (Canada). Atlantic Dockyard Laboratory

    2004-07-01

    Bilge water is an oily wastewater from ships that must be treated before it is discharged to coastal waters. It is difficult to treat because it contains seawater, particulates, used oils and detergents. This paper presents the results of a study which examined a cascaded membrane system comprised of a backflushed microfiltration membrane used for pretreatment of bilge water. It also examined an ultrafiltration membrane used in the final polishing step. Membrane pore size, materials and support structures were examined for single tube carbon membrane and multilumen ceramic membranes. Results indicate that membranes with a pore size less than 0.2 microns can treat bilge water directly. The performance of the membrane depends on its pore size and on the particle size distribution of the bilge water. Backflushing improved the flux in single tube carbon membranes but not in the multilumen ceramic membranes. Another important factor in bilge water treatment was the clearance of the support structure with respect to particulates. Heating, air and steam methods were all found to be suitable for membrane flux regeneration. A hybrid microfiltration and ultrafiltration membrane proved to be very effective in treating bilge water.

  6. A Survey on the Removal Efficiency of Fat, Oil and Grease in Shiraz Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dehghani

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background Fat, oil and grease (FOG in municipal wastewater treatment plant (MWWTP caused many problems. Objectives This study aimed to determine the removal efficiency of FOG in Shiraz MWWTP. Materials and Methods The removal efficiencies of FOG in the MWWTP were studied from June 2011 to September 2011 in Shiraz (Iran. The influent and effluent wastewater samples were collected in a volume of one liter (4 samples per week and analyzed according to the standard methods. Samples are transferred to the laboratory immediately. The concentration of FOG was determined using the solvent extraction and separating funnel and then compared with the effluent standards. To analyze the data, SPSS (version 11.5, Chi-square test and t test were used. Results The results showed that the FOG amount in input raw sewage in the MWWTP from June 2011 to September 2011 was around 25.5 mg/L and the amount in treated wastewater was about 8.1 mg/L. The FOG removal efficiency in this refinery was about 70% and met the environmental standards for the discharge (less than 10 mg/L (P < 0.05. Conclusions The effluent can be discharged to surface waters or used for irrigation. In order to the FOG concentration met the effluent standards, it is very crucial to control the entrance of industrial wastewater to the municipal wastewater collection networks. Otherwise, the MWWTP should be upgraded and the special techniques used to reduce FOG.

  7. Nano porous Adsorbent from Chitosan Interacted Montmorillonite for Dye-containing Wastewater Treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siriphannon, P.; Monvisade, P.

    2011-01-01

    Chitosan intercalated montmorillonite (Chi-MMT) was prepared by mixing 2 wt% of chitosan solution with sodium mont-morillonite (Na + -MMT) suspension at 60 degree Celsius for 24 hours. The Na + ions in Na + -MMT were completely exchanged with -NH 3 + ions of chitosan, resulting in the intercalation of chitosan into the MMT layer. The chitosan intercalation brought about the expansion of d 001 of Na + -MMT from 1.23 nm to 1.42 - >2.21 nm of the Chi-MMT. The existence of the intercalated-chitosan and large pore size could significantly increase the adsorption capacity of Chi-MMT from those of the starting materials, for example Na + -MMT and chitosan. The adsorption capacity of Chi-MMT adsorbent was equal to 4.9 mg/ g for acid red 91 (AR91) with initial dye concentration of 50 mg/ L, 45.9 mg/ g for basic yellow 1 (BY1) and 15.0 mg/ g for reactive orange 16 (RO16) with initial dye concentration of 500 mg/ L. These results indicated the competency of Chi-MMT nano porous adsorbent for treatment of wastewater containing various kinds of dyestuffs. (author)

  8. Evaluation of an alternative method for wastewater treatment containing pesticides using solar photocatalytic oxidation and constructed wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berberidou, Chrysanthi; Kitsiou, Vasiliki; Lambropoulou, Dimitra A; Antoniadis, Αpostolos; Ntonou, Eleftheria; Zalidis, George C; Poulios, Ioannis

    2017-06-15

    The present study proposes an integrated system based on the synergetic action of solar photocatalytic oxidation with surface flow constructed wetlands for the purification of wastewater contaminated with pesticides. Experiments were conducted at pilot scale using simulated wastewater containing the herbicide clopyralid. Three photocatalytic methods under solar light were investigated: the photo-Fenton and the ferrioxalate reagent as well as the combination of photo-Fenton with TiO 2 P25, which all led to similar mineralization rates. The subsequent treatment in constructed wetlands resulted in further decrease of DOC and inorganic ions concentrations, especially of NO 3 - . Clopyralid was absent in the outlet of the wetlands, while the concentration of the detected intermediates was remarkably low. These findings are in good agreement with the results of phytotoxicity of the wastewater, after treatment with the ferrioxalate/wetlands process, which was significantly reduced. Thus, this integrated system based on solar photocatalysis and constructed wetlands has the potential to effectively detoxify wastewater containing pesticides, producing a purified effluent which could be exploited for reuse applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of organic load on decolourization of textile wastewater containing acid dyes in upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wijetunga, Somasiri, E-mail: swije2001@yahoo.com [Laboratory of Environmental Biotechnology, School of Biotechnology, Southern Yangtze University, 170 Huihe Road, Wuxi 214036 (China); Li Xiufen [Laboratory of Environmental Biotechnology, School of Biotechnology, Southern Yangtze University, 170 Huihe Road, Wuxi 214036 (China); Jian Chen, E-mail: jchen@sytu.edu.cn [Laboratory of Environmental Biotechnology, School of Biotechnology, Southern Yangtze University, 170 Huihe Road, Wuxi 214036 (China)

    2010-05-15

    Textile wastewater (TW) is one of the most hazardous wastewater for the environment when discharged without proper treatment. Biological treatment technologies have shown encouraging results over the treatment of recalcitrant compounds containing wastewaters. Upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor (UASB) was evaluated in terms of colour and the reduction of chemical oxygen demand (COD) with different organic loads using TW containing dyes belonging to different chemical groups. The study was performed using six different dye concentrations (10 mg/L, 25 mg/L, 50 mg/L, 100 mg/L, 150 mg/L, 300 mg/L) with three COD levels ({approx}1000 mg/L, {approx}2000 mg/L, {approx}3000 mg/L). Decolourization, COD removal and reactor stability were monitored. Over 85% of colour removal was observed with all dye concentrations with three organic loads. Acid Red 131 and Acid Yellow 79 were decolourized through biodegradation while Acid Blue 204 was decolourized due to adsorption onto anaerobic granules. COD removal was high in all dye concentrations, regardless of co-substrate levels. The reactor did not show any instability during the study. The activity of granules was not affected by the dyes. Methanothrix like bacteria were the dominant group in granules before introducing TW, however, they were reduced and cocci-shape microorganism increased after the treatment of textile wastewater.

  10. Effect of organic load on decolourization of textile wastewater containing acid dyes in upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wijetunga, Somasiri; Li Xiufen; Jian Chen

    2010-01-01

    Textile wastewater (TW) is one of the most hazardous wastewater for the environment when discharged without proper treatment. Biological treatment technologies have shown encouraging results over the treatment of recalcitrant compounds containing wastewaters. Upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor (UASB) was evaluated in terms of colour and the reduction of chemical oxygen demand (COD) with different organic loads using TW containing dyes belonging to different chemical groups. The study was performed using six different dye concentrations (10 mg/L, 25 mg/L, 50 mg/L, 100 mg/L, 150 mg/L, 300 mg/L) with three COD levels (∼1000 mg/L, ∼2000 mg/L, ∼3000 mg/L). Decolourization, COD removal and reactor stability were monitored. Over 85% of colour removal was observed with all dye concentrations with three organic loads. Acid Red 131 and Acid Yellow 79 were decolourized through biodegradation while Acid Blue 204 was decolourized due to adsorption onto anaerobic granules. COD removal was high in all dye concentrations, regardless of co-substrate levels. The reactor did not show any instability during the study. The activity of granules was not affected by the dyes. Methanothrix like bacteria were the dominant group in granules before introducing TW, however, they were reduced and cocci-shape microorganism increased after the treatment of textile wastewater.

  11. Modeling of Electrochemical Process for the Treatment of Wastewater Containing Organic Pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigo, Manuel A.; Cañizares, Pablo; Lobato, Justo; Sáez, Cristina

    Electrocoagulation and electrooxidation are promising electrochemical technologies that can be used to remove organic pollutants contained in wastewaters. To make these technologies competitive with the conventional technologies that are in use today, a better understanding of the processes involved must be achieved. In this context, the development of mathematical models that are consistent with the processes occurring in a physical system is a relevant advance, because such models can help to understand what is happening in the treatment process. In turn, a more detailed knowledge of the physical system can be obtained, and tools for a proper design of the processes, or for the analysis of operating problems, are attained. The modeling of these technologies can be carried out using single-variable or multivariable models. Likewise, the position dependence of the model species can be described with different approaches. In this work, a review of the basics of the modeling of these processes and a description of several representative models for electrochemical oxidation and coagulation are carried out. Regarding electrooxidation, two models are described: one which summarizes the pollution of a wastewater in only one model species and that considers a macroscopic approach to formulate the mass balances and other that considers more detailed profile of concentration to describe the time course of pollutants and intermediates through a mixed maximum gradient/macroscopic approach. On the topic of electrochemical coagulation, two different approaches are also described in this work: one that considers the hydrodynamic conditions as the main factor responsible for the electrochemical coagulation processes and the other that considers the chemical interaction of the reagents and the pollutants as the more significant processes in the description of the electrochemical coagulation of organic compounds. In addition, in this work it is also described a multivariable model

  12. 21 CFR 201.303 - Labeling of drug preparations containing significant proportions of wintergreen oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... proportions of wintergreen oil. (a) Because methyl salicylate (wintergreen oil) manifests no toxicity in the... poisoning. (c) This statement of interpretation in no way exempts methyl salicylate (wintergreen oil) or its... provisions of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act any drug containing more than 5 percent methyl...

  13. Selection of fragrance for cosmetic cream containing olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parente, María Emma; Gámbaro, Adriana; Boinbaser, Lucía; Roascio, Antonella

    2014-01-01

    Perceptions of essences for potential use in the development of a line of cosmetic emulsions containing olive oil were studied. Six cream samples prepared with six essences selected in a preliminary study were evaluated for overall liking and intention to purchase by a 63-women sample. A check-all-that-apply (CATA) question consisting of 32 terms was used to gather information about consumer perceptions of fragrance, affective associations, effects on the skin, price, target market, zones of application, and occasions of use. Hierarchical cluster analysis led to the identification of two consumer clusters with different frequency of use of face creams. The two clusters assigned different overall liking scores to the samples and used the CATA terms differently to describe them. A fragrance with jasmine as its principal note was selected for further development of cosmetic creams, as it was awarded the highest overall liking scores by respondents of the two clusters, and was significantly associated with cosmetic features including nourishing, moisturizing, softening, with a delicious and mild smell, and with a natural image, as well as being considered suitable for face and body creams. The use of CATA questions enabled the rapid identification of attributes associated by respondents with a cosmetic cream's fragrance, in addition to contributing relevant information for the definition of marketing and communication strategies.

  14. Characterization of Barnyard Millet Starch Films Containing Borage Seed Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thi Luyen Cao

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, barnyard millet starch (BMS was used to prepare edible films. Antioxidant activity was conferred to the BMS film by incorporating borage seed oil (BO. The physical, optical, and thermal properties as well as antioxidant activities of the films were evaluated. The incorporation of BO into the BMS films decreased the tensile strength from 9.46 to 4.69 MPa and increased the elongation at break of the films from 82.49% to 103.87%. Water vapor permeability, water solubility, and moisture content of the BMS films decreased with increasing BO concentration, whereas Hunter b value and opacity increased, L and a values of the films decreased. The BMS films containing BO exhibited antioxidant activity that increased proportionally with increased BO concentration. In particular, the BMS film with 1.0% BO exhibited the highest antioxidant activity and light barrier properties among the BMS films. Therefore, the BMS films with added BO can be used as an antioxidant packaging material.

  15. Packed bed reactor for degradation of simulated cyanide-containing wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Virender; Kumar, Vijay; Bhalla, Tek Chand

    2015-10-01

    The discharge of cyanide-containing effluents into the environment contaminates water bodies and soil. Effective methods of treatment which can detoxify cyanide are the need of the hour. The aim of the present study is to develop a bioreactor for complete degradation of cyanide using immobilized cells of Serratia marcescens RL2b. Alginate-entrapped cells of S. marcescens RL2b were used for complete degradation of cyanide in a packed bed reactor (PBR). Cells grown in minimal salt medium (pH 6.0) were harvested after 20 h and exhibited 0.4 U mg -1  dcw activity and 99 % cyanide degradation in 10 h. These resting cells were entrapped using 3 % alginate beads and packed in a column reactor (20 × 1.7 cm). Simulated cyanide (12 mmol l -1 )-containing wastewater was loaded and fractions were collected after different time intervals at various flow rates. Complete degradation of 12 m mmol l -1 (780 mg l -1 ) cyanide in 10 h was observed at a flow rate of 1.5 ml h -1 . The degradation of cyanide in PBR showed direct dependence on retention time. The retention time of cyanide in the reactor was 9.27 h. The PBR can degrade 1.2 g of cyanide completely in 1 day.

  16. Physical and nutritional properties of baby food containing added red salmon oil (Oncorhynchus nerka) and microencapsulated red salmon oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unpurified red salmon oil (UPSO) was purified (PSO) using chitosan. Both unpurified and purified oils were evaluated for peroxide value (PV), free fatty acids (FFA), fatty acid methyl esters (FAME), moisture, and color. An emulsion system containing PSO (EPSO) was prepared: system was analyzed for c...

  17. Electrochemical pretreatment of heavy oil refinery wastewater using a three-dimensional electrode reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei Lingyong [State Key Laboratory of Heavy Oil Processing, China University of Petroleum, Beijing 102249 (China); Guo Shaohui, E-mail: cupgsh@163.co [State Key Laboratory of Heavy Oil Processing, China University of Petroleum, Beijing 102249 (China); Yan Guangxu; Chen Chunmao [State Key Laboratory of Heavy Oil Processing, China University of Petroleum, Beijing 102249 (China); Jiang Xiaoyan [Liaohe Petrochemical Branch Company, PetroChina, Panjin 124022 (China)

    2010-12-01

    The pretreatment of heavy oil refinery wastewater (HORW) was experimentally investigated using a three-dimensional electrode reactor (TDER) with granular activated carbon (GAC) and porous ceramsite particle (PCP) as the combination particle electrode and DSA type anodes as the anode. The results showed that higher chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal was obtained in TDER comparing with the two-dimensional electrode reactor (without particle electrodes packed), and combination particle electrode was favorable to improve the COD removal efficiency and reduce the energy consumption. The treated HORW under the optimal experimental condition (GAC percentage = 75%, current density = 30 mA/cm{sup 2}, pH not adjusted and treatment time = 100 min) presented that the removal efficiencies of COD, total organic carbon and toxicity units were 45.5%, 43.3% and 67.2%, respectively, and the ratio of 5-day biochemical oxygen demand to COD was increased from 0.10 to 0.29, which is beneficial for further biological treatment. Furthermore, the application of electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry to characterize polar compounds in HORW and their oxidation products was well demonstrated to reveal the composition variation.

  18. Electrochemical pretreatment of heavy oil refinery wastewater using a three-dimensional electrode reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Lingyong; Guo Shaohui; Yan Guangxu; Chen Chunmao; Jiang Xiaoyan

    2010-01-01

    The pretreatment of heavy oil refinery wastewater (HORW) was experimentally investigated using a three-dimensional electrode reactor (TDER) with granular activated carbon (GAC) and porous ceramsite particle (PCP) as the combination particle electrode and DSA type anodes as the anode. The results showed that higher chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal was obtained in TDER comparing with the two-dimensional electrode reactor (without particle electrodes packed), and combination particle electrode was favorable to improve the COD removal efficiency and reduce the energy consumption. The treated HORW under the optimal experimental condition (GAC percentage = 75%, current density = 30 mA/cm 2 , pH not adjusted and treatment time = 100 min) presented that the removal efficiencies of COD, total organic carbon and toxicity units were 45.5%, 43.3% and 67.2%, respectively, and the ratio of 5-day biochemical oxygen demand to COD was increased from 0.10 to 0.29, which is beneficial for further biological treatment. Furthermore, the application of electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry to characterize polar compounds in HORW and their oxidation products was well demonstrated to reveal the composition variation.

  19. Nutritional evaluation of structured lipid containing omega 6 fatty acid synthesized from coconut oil in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Reena; Lokesh, Belur R

    2003-06-01

    Coconut oil is rich in medium chain fatty acids, but deficient in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). Structured lipids (SL) enriched with omega 6 PUFA were synthesized from coconut oil triglycerides by employing enzymatic acidolysis with free fatty acids obtained from safflower oil. Rats were fed a diet containing coconut oil, coconut oil-safflower oil blend (1:0.7 w/ w) or structured lipid at 10% levels for a period of 60 days. The SL lowered serum cholesterol levels by 10.3 and 10.5% respectively in comparison with those fed coconut oil and blended oil. Similarly the liver cholesterol levels were also decreased by 35.9 and 26.6% respectively in animals fed structured lipids when compared to those fed on coconut oil or the blended oil. Most of the decrease observed in serum cholesterol levels of animals fed structured lipids was found in LDL fraction. The triglyceride levels in serum showed a decrease by 17.5 and 17.4% while in the liver it was reduced by 45.8 and 23.5% in the structured lipids fed animals as compared to those fed coconut oil or blended oil respectively. Differential scanning calorimetric studies indicated that structured lipids had lower melting points and solid fat content when compared to coconut oil or blended oils. These studies indicated that enrichment of coconut oil triglycerides with omega 6 fatty acids lowers its solid fat content. The omega 6 PUFA enriched structured lipids also exhibited hypolipidemic activity.

  20. Using mushroom farm and anaerobic digestion wastewaters as supplemental fertilizer sources for growing container nursery stock in a closed system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, C; Purvis, P; Lumis, G; Holbein, B E; Voroney, R P; Zhou, H; Liu, H-W; Alam, M Z

    2008-04-01

    Wastewaters from farm and composting operations are often rich in select nutrients that potentially can be reutilized in crop production. Liners of silverleaf dogwood (Cornus alba L. 'Argenteo-marginata'), common ninebark [Physocarpus opulifolius (L.) Maxim.], and Anthony Waterer spirea (Spiraeaxbumalda Burvénich 'Anthony Waterer') were grown in 6L containers filled with a bark-based commercial mix. Plants were fertigated daily via a computer-controlled multi-fertilizer injector with three recirculated fertilizer treatments: (1) a stock (control) solution with complete macro- and micro-nutrients, electrical conductivity (EC) 2.2 dS m(-1); (2) wastewater from a mushroom farm; and (3) process wastewater from anaerobic digestion of municipal solid waste. The wastewaters used in both treatments 2 and 3 were diluted with tap water, and the computer was programmed to amend, dispense and recirculate nutrients based on the same target EC as in treatment 1. For comparison, there was a traditional controlled-release fertilizer treatment [Nutryon 17-5-12 (17N-2P-10K) plus micro-nutrients topdressed at a rate of 39 g/plant, nutrients not recirculated]. All three species responded similarly to the three recirculated fertilizer treatments. Growth with the recirculated treatments was similar and significantly higher than that obtained with controlled-release fertilizer. Throughout the study, the EC measured in wastewater-derived nutrient solutions, and also in the container substrate, were similar or close to those of the control treatment, although there were small to large differences among individual major nutrients. There was no sign of nutrient deficiency or toxicity symptoms to the plants. Small to moderate excesses in concentrations of SO(4), Na, and/or Cl were physiologically tolerable to the species.

  1. Bioremediation of Petrochemical Wastewater Containing BTEX Compounds by a New Immobilized Bacterium Comamonas sp. JB in Magnetic Gellan Gum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Bei; Zhou, Zunchun; Dong, Ying; Wang, Bai; Jiang, Jingwei; Guan, Xiaoyan; Gao, Shan; Yang, Aifu; Chen, Zhong; Sun, Hongjuan

    2015-05-01

    In this study, we investigated the bioremediation of petrochemical wastewater containing BTEX compounds by immobilized Comamonas sp. JB cells. Three kinds of magnetic nanoparticles were evaluated as immobilization supports for strain JB. After comparison with Fe3O4 and a-Fe2O3 nanoparticles, r-Fe2O3 nanoparticle was selected as the optimal immobilization support. The highest biodegradation activity of r-Fe2O3-magnetically immobilized cells was obtained when the concentration of r-Fe2O3 nanoparticle was 120 mg L(-1). Additionally, the recycling experiments demonstrated that the degradation activity of r-Fe2O3-magnetically immobilized cells was still high and led to less toxicity than untreated wastewater during the eight recycles. qPCR suggested the concentration of strain JB in r-Fe2O3-magnetically immobilized cells was evidently increased after eight cycles of degradation experiments. These results supported developing efficient biocatalysts using r-Fe2O3-magnetically immobilized cells and provided a promising technique for improving biocatalysts used in the bioremediation of not only petrochemical wastewater but also other hazardous wastewater.

  2. Effect of purified wastewater from the city of Settat (Morocco on the quality of Lippia citriodora essential oil and infusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatima Bensabah

    2015-06-01

    The infusion of L. citriodora prepared by the fresh and dried leaves irrigated with wastewater contains a high concentration of NH4+, Ca2+, Mg2+, and the concentration of NO2–N (mg/L exceeds 100% of the concentration of waste water.

  3. Endocrine disrupting activities of surface water associated with a West Virginia oil and gas industry wastewater disposal site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassotis, Christopher D.; Iwanowicz, Luke R.; Akob, Denise M.; Cozzarelli, Isabelle M.; Mumford, Adam; Orem, William H.; Nagel, Susan C.

    2016-01-01

    Currently, >95% of end disposal of hydraulic fracturing wastewater from unconventional oil and gas operations in the US occurs via injection wells. Key data gaps exist in understanding the potential impact of underground injection on surface water quality and environmental health. The goal of this study was to assess endocrine disrupting activity in surface water at a West Virginia injection well disposal site. Water samples were collected from a background site in the area and upstream, on, and downstream of the disposal facility. Samples were solid-phase extracted, and extracts assessed for agonist and antagonist hormonal activities for five hormone receptors in mammalian and yeast reporter gene assays. Compared to reference water extracts upstream and distal to the disposal well, samples collected adjacent and downstream exhibited considerably higher antagonist activity for the estrogen, androgen, progesterone, glucocorticoid and thyroid hormone receptors. In contrast, low levels of agonist activity were measured in upstream/distal sites, and were inhibited or absent at downstream sites with significant antagonism. Concurrent analyses by partner laboratories (published separately) describe the analytical and geochemical profiling of the water; elevated conductivity as well as high sodium, chloride, strontium, and barium concentrations indicate impacts due to handling of unconventional oil and gas wastewater. Notably, antagonist activities in downstream samples were at equivalent authentic standard concentrations known to disrupt reproduction and/or development in aquatic animals. Given the widespread use of injection wells for end-disposal of hydraulic fracturing wastewater, these data raise concerns for human and animal health nearby.

  4. Problems in waterflooding fields containing paraffinic crude oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovalev, A G; Lyutin, L V; Perevalov, V G

    1968-11-01

    When Caspian seawater is injected into the Uzen field reservoir, the temperature of the reservoir oil can be lowered 10/sup 0/ to 20/sup 0/C below initial reservoir temperature. Because Uzen crude oil is saturated with paraffin, the cold injection water can deposit paraffin in the formation and reduce oil recovery. In a related study, it was shown that the lower temperature should not adversely affect capillary and wettability behavior of the crude oil in the reservoir. Oil recovery was found to be essentially independent of water composition. However, fresh water is easier to handle in injection systems than brines. Several studies have shown that oil recovery from Uzen field should be increased by use of hot injection water. Various methods of heating the water are discussed. To reduce corrosivity and scaling of hot brine, sodium hexametaphosphate is added in concentrations of 2 to 15 mg/liter. It is concluded that it would be practical to use hot injection water in this field.

  5. Storage quality of walnut oil containing lycopene during accelerated oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Chaonan; Ma, Zheng Feei; Li, Fang; Zhang, Hongxia; Kong, Lingming; Yang, Zhipan; Xie, Weifeng

    2018-04-01

    The purpose of investigation was to assess the effect of lycopene on the peroxide value, acid value, fatty acids, total phenolic content and ferric-reducing antioxidant power of walnut oil. Walnut oil was extracted from Xinjiang walnut variety using cold pressing method. Our study reported that after 45 days of accelerated oxidation at 60 °C (Schaal oven test), 0.005% lycopene exhibited the greatest antioxidant effect than other addition levels of lycopene. Therefore, under ambient storage conditions, the shelf-life of walnut oil could be extended up to 16 months by 0.005% lycopene. Moreover, 0.005% lycopene added to walnut oil had a significantly higher content of saturated fatty acid, unsaturated fatty acid, total phenol, reducing ability of the polar and non-polar components than the blank sample (walnut oil without any addition of lycopene). In conclusion, lycopene improved the quality of walnut oil because of its antioxidant effect against lipid oxidation.

  6. Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOPs for Refinery Wastewater Treatment Contains High Phenol Concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azizah Alif Nurul

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Petroleum Refinery wastewater is characterized by a high phenol content. Phenol is toxic and resistant to biological processes for treatment of the petroleum refinery wastewater. The combination of an AOP and a biological process can be used for treatment of the refinery wastewater. It is necessary to conduct a study to determine the appropriate condition of AOP to meet the phenol removal level. Two AOP configurations were investigated: H2O2 / UV and H2O2 / UV / O3. From each process samples, COD, phenol and pH were measured. The oxidation was carried out until the targeted phenol concentration of treated effluent were obtained. The better result obtained by using process H2O2 / UV / O3 with the H2O2 concentration 1000 ppm. After 120 minutes, the final target has been achieved in which phenol concentration of 37.5 mg/L or phenol degradation of 93.75%.

  7. A Study on the Preparation of Regular Multiple Micro-Electrolysis Filler and the Application in Pretreatment of Oil Refinery Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruihong Yang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Through a variety of material screening experiments, Al was selected as the added metal and constituted a multiple micro-electrolysis system of Fe/C/Al. The metal proportion of alloy-structured filler was also analyzed with the best Fe/C/Al ratio of 3:1:1. The regular Fe/C/Al multiple micro-electrolysis fillers were prepared using a high-temperature anaerobic roasting method. The optimum conditions for oil refinery wastewater treated by Fe/C/Al multiple micro-electrolysis were determined to be an initial pH value of 3, reaction time of 80 min, and 0.05 mol/L Na2SO4 additive concentration. The reaction mechanism of the treatment of oil refinery wastewater by Fe/C/Al micro-electrolysis was investigated. The process of the treatment of oil refinery wastewater with multiple micro-electrolysis conforms to the third-order reaction kinetics. The gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS used to analyze the organic compounds of the oil refinery wastewater before and after treatment and the Ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy (UV–VIS absorption spectrum analyzed the degradation process of organic compounds in oil refinery wastewater. The treatment effect of Fe/C/Al multiple micro-electrolysis was examined in the continuous experiment under the optimum conditions, which showed high organic compound removal and stable treatment efficiency.

  8. A Study on the Preparation of Regular Multiple Micro-Electrolysis Filler and the Application in Pretreatment of Oil Refinery Wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ruihong; Zhu, Jianzhong; Li, Yingliu; Zhang, Hui

    2016-04-29

    Through a variety of material screening experiments, Al was selected as the added metal and constituted a multiple micro-electrolysis system of Fe/C/Al. The metal proportion of alloy-structured filler was also analyzed with the best Fe/C/Al ratio of 3:1:1. The regular Fe/C/Al multiple micro-electrolysis fillers were prepared using a high-temperature anaerobic roasting method. The optimum conditions for oil refinery wastewater treated by Fe/C/Al multiple micro-electrolysis were determined to be an initial pH value of 3, reaction time of 80 min, and 0.05 mol/L Na₂SO₄ additive concentration. The reaction mechanism of the treatment of oil refinery wastewater by Fe/C/Al micro-electrolysis was investigated. The process of the treatment of oil refinery wastewater with multiple micro-electrolysis conforms to the third-order reaction kinetics. The gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) used to analyze the organic compounds of the oil refinery wastewater before and after treatment and the Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-VIS) absorption spectrum analyzed the degradation process of organic compounds in oil refinery wastewater. The treatment effect of Fe/C/Al multiple micro-electrolysis was examined in the continuous experiment under the optimum conditions, which showed high organic compound removal and stable treatment efficiency.

  9. Treatability studies with granular activated carbon (GAC) and sequencing batch reactor (SBR) system for textile wastewater containing direct dyes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sirianuntapiboon, Suntud; Sansak, Jutarat

    2008-01-01

    The GAC-SBR efficiency was decreased with the increase of dyestuff concentration or the decrease of bio-sludge concentration. The system showed the highest removal efficiency with synthetic textile wastewater (STWW) containing 40 mg/L direct red 23 or direct blue 201 under MLSS of 3000 mg/L and hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 7.5 days. But, the effluent NO 3 - was higher than that of the influent. Direct red 23 was more effective than direct blue 201 to repress the GAC-SBR system efficiency. The dyes removal efficiency of the system with STWW containing direct red 23 was reduced by 30% with the increase of direct red 23 from 40 mg/L to 160 mg/L. The system with raw textile wastewater (TWW) showed quite low BOD 5 TKN and dye removal efficiencies of only 64.7 ± 4.9% and 50.2 ± 6.9%, respectively. But its' efficiencies could be increased by adding carbon sources (BOD 5 ). The dye removal efficiency with TWW was increased by 30% and 20% by adding glucose (TWW + glucose) or Thai rice noodle wastewater (TWW + TRNWW), respectively. SRT of the systems were 28 ± 1 days and 31 ± 2 days with TWW + glucose and TWW + TRNWW, respectively

  10. Treatability studies with granular activated carbon (GAC) and sequencing batch reactor (SBR) system for textile wastewater containing direct dyes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sirianuntapiboon, Suntud [Department of Environmental Technology, School of Energy Environment and Materials, King Mongkut' s University of Technology, Thonburi, Bangmod, Thung-kru, Bangkok 10140 (Thailand)], E-mail: suntud.sir@kmutt.ac.th; Sansak, Jutarat [Department of Environmental Technology, School of Energy Environment and Materials, King Mongkut' s University of Technology, Thonburi, Bangmod, Thung-kru, Bangkok 10140 (Thailand)

    2008-11-30

    The GAC-SBR efficiency was decreased with the increase of dyestuff concentration or the decrease of bio-sludge concentration. The system showed the highest removal efficiency with synthetic textile wastewater (STWW) containing 40 mg/L direct red 23 or direct blue 201 under MLSS of 3000 mg/L and hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 7.5 days. But, the effluent NO{sub 3}{sup -} was higher than that of the influent. Direct red 23 was more effective than direct blue 201 to repress the GAC-SBR system efficiency. The dyes removal efficiency of the system with STWW containing direct red 23 was reduced by 30% with the increase of direct red 23 from 40 mg/L to 160 mg/L. The system with raw textile wastewater (TWW) showed quite low BOD{sub 5} TKN and dye removal efficiencies of only 64.7 {+-} 4.9% and 50.2 {+-} 6.9%, respectively. But its' efficiencies could be increased by adding carbon sources (BOD{sub 5}). The dye removal efficiency with TWW was increased by 30% and 20% by adding glucose (TWW + glucose) or Thai rice noodle wastewater (TWW + TRNWW), respectively. SRT of the systems were 28 {+-} 1 days and 31 {+-} 2 days with TWW + glucose and TWW + TRNWW, respectively.

  11. Treatability studies with granular activated carbon (GAC) and sequencing batch reactor (SBR) system for textile wastewater containing direct dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirianuntapiboon, Suntud; Sansak, Jutarat

    2008-11-30

    The GAC-SBR efficiency was decreased with the increase of dyestuff concentration or the decrease of bio-sludge concentration. The system showed the highest removal efficiency with synthetic textile wastewater (STWW) containing 40 mg/L direct red 23 or direct blue 201 under MLSS of 3,000 mg/L and hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 7.5 days. But, the effluent NO(3)(-) was higher than that of the influent. Direct red 23 was more effective than direct blue 201 to repress the GAC-SBR system efficiency. The dyes removal efficiency of the system with STWW containing direct red 23 was reduced by 30% with the increase of direct red 23 from 40 mg/L to 160 mg/L. The system with raw textile wastewater (TWW) showed quite low BOD(5) TKN and dye removal efficiencies of only 64.7+/-4.9% and 50.2+/-6.9%, respectively. But its' efficiencies could be increased by adding carbon sources (BOD(5)). The dye removal efficiency with TWW was increased by 30% and 20% by adding glucose (TWW+glucose) or Thai rice noodle wastewater (TWW+TRNWW), respectively. SRT of the systems were 28+/-1 days and 31+/-2 days with TWW+glucose and TWW+TRNWW, respectively.

  12. Treatment of petroleum refinery wastewater containing heavily polluting substances in an aerobic submerged fixed-bed reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vendramel, S; Bassin, J P; Dezotti, M; Sant'Anna, G L

    2015-01-01

    Petroleum refineries produce large amount of wastewaters, which often contain a wide range of different compounds. Some of these constituents may be recalcitrant and therefore difficult to be treated biologically. This study evaluated the capability of an aerobic submerged fixed-bed reactor (ASFBR) containing a corrugated PVC support material for biofilm attachment to treat a complex and high-strength organic wastewater coming from a petroleum refinery. The reactor operation was divided into five experimental runs which lasted more than 250 days. During the reactor operation, the applied volumetric organic load was varied within the range of 0.5-2.4 kgCOD.m(-3).d(-1). Despite the inherent fluctuations on the characteristics of the complex wastewater and the slight decrease in the reactor performance when the influent organic load was increased, the ASFBR showed good stability and allowed to reach chemical oxygen demand, dissolved organic carbon and total suspended solids removals up to 91%, 90% and 92%, respectively. Appreciable ammonium removal was obtained (around 90%). Some challenging aspects of reactor operation such as biofilm quantification and important biofilm constituents (e.g. polysaccharides (PS) and proteins (PT)) were also addressed in this work. Average PS/volatile attached solids (VAS) and PT/VAS ratios were around 6% and 50%, respectively. The support material promoted biofilm attachment without appreciable loss of solids and allowed long-term operation without clogging. Microscopic observations of the microbial community revealed great diversity of higher organisms, such as protozoa and rotifers, suggesting that toxic compounds found in the wastewater were possibly removed in the biofilm.

  13. Environmental signatures and effects of an oil and gas wastewater spill in the Williston Basin, North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozzarelli, Isabelle M.; Skalak, Katherine; Kent, D.B.; Engle, Mark A.; Benthem, Adam J.; Mumford, Adam; Haase, Karl B.; Farag, Aïda M.; Harper, David; Nagel, S. C.; Iwanowicz, Luke R.; Orem, William H.; Akob, Denise M.; Jaeschke, Jeanne B.; Galloway, Joel M.; Kohler, Matthias; Stoliker, Deborah L.; Jolly, Glenn D.

    2017-01-01

    Wastewaters from oil and gas development pose largely unknown risks to environmental resources. In January 2015, 11.4 M L (million liters) of wastewater (300 g/L TDS) from oil production in the Williston Basin was reported to have leaked from a pipeline, spilling into Blacktail Creek, North Dakota. Geochemical and biological samples were collected in February and June 2015 to identify geochemical signatures of spilled wastewaters as well as biological responses along a 44-km river reach. February water samples had elevated chloride (1030 mg/L) and bromide (7.8 mg/L) downstream from the spill, compared to upstream levels (11 mg/L and < 0.4 mg/L, respectively). Lithium (0.25 mg/L), boron (1.75 mg/L) and strontium (7.1 mg/L) were present downstream at 5–10 times upstream concentrations. Light hydrocarbon measurements indicated a persistent thermogenic source of methane in the stream. Semi-volatile hydrocarbons indicative of oil were not detected in filtered samples but low levels, including tetramethylbenzenes and di-methylnaphthalenes, were detected in unfiltered water samples downstream from the spill. Labile sediment-bound barium and strontium concentrations (June 2015) were higher downstream from the Spill Site. Radium activities in sediment downstream from the Spill Site were up to 15 times the upstream activities and, combined with Sr isotope ratios, suggest contributions from the pipeline fluid and support the conclusion that elevated concentrations in Blacktail Creek water are from the leaking pipeline. Results from June 2015 demonstrate the persistence of wastewater effects in Blacktail Creek several months after remediation efforts started. Aquatic health effects were observed in June 2015; fish bioassays showed only 2.5% survival at 7.1 km downstream from the spill compared to 89% at the upstream reference site. Additional potential biological impacts were indicated by estrogenic inhibition in downstream waters. Our findings demonstrate that

  14. Environmental signatures and effects of an oil and gas wastewater spill in the Williston Basin, North Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozzarelli, I M; Skalak, K J; Kent, D B; Engle, M A; Benthem, A; Mumford, A C; Haase, K; Farag, A; Harper, D; Nagel, S C; Iwanowicz, L R; Orem, W H; Akob, D M; Jaeschke, J B; Galloway, J; Kohler, M; Stoliker, D L; Jolly, G D

    2017-02-01

    Wastewaters from oil and gas development pose largely unknown risks to environmental resources. In January 2015, 11.4ML (million liters) of wastewater (300g/L TDS) from oil production in the Williston Basin was reported to have leaked from a pipeline, spilling into Blacktail Creek, North Dakota. Geochemical and biological samples were collected in February and June 2015 to identify geochemical signatures of spilled wastewaters as well as biological responses along a 44-km river reach. February water samples had elevated chloride (1030mg/L) and bromide (7.8mg/L) downstream from the spill, compared to upstream levels (11mg/L and <0.4mg/L, respectively). Lithium (0.25mg/L), boron (1.75mg/L) and strontium (7.1mg/L) were present downstream at 5-10 times upstream concentrations. Light hydrocarbon measurements indicated a persistent thermogenic source of methane in the stream. Semi-volatile hydrocarbons indicative of oil were not detected in filtered samples but low levels, including tetramethylbenzenes and di-methylnaphthalenes, were detected in unfiltered water samples downstream from the spill. Labile sediment-bound barium and strontium concentrations (June 2015) were higher downstream from the Spill Site. Radium activities in sediment downstream from the Spill Site were up to 15 times the upstream activities and, combined with Sr isotope ratios, suggest contributions from the pipeline fluid and support the conclusion that elevated concentrations in Blacktail Creek water are from the leaking pipeline. Results from June 2015 demonstrate the persistence of wastewater effects in Blacktail Creek several months after remediation efforts started. Aquatic health effects were observed in June 2015; fish bioassays showed only 2.5% survival at 7.1km downstream from the spill compared to 89% at the upstream reference site. Additional potential biological impacts were indicated by estrogenic inhibition in downstream waters. Our findings demonstrate that environmental signatures

  15. Wastewater reuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan R. Radosavljević

    2013-12-01

    irrigation for years, and studies have shown that its use does not cause health problems. Reuse of gray water means less energy consumption and less chemicals in wastewater treatment plants, which is good for the community, i.e. households will be spending significantly less money on water bills. Reuse of wastewater from industry In industry, water is used in refrigeration, industrial process and power boilers. In the  purification of industrial wastewater two approaches are generally distinguished: a pretreatment of wastewater that must be implemented to meet the criteria for its   discharge  into public sewers and a singular wastewater treatment (without interference from household waste to meet the criteria for effluent to be discharged. More and more freguently companies release their waste into urban sewage,having previously partially refined it to the level where it is mixed with wastewater from households and then finally purified in the same installation. The composition of water for steam boilers is of very great importance, because the slightest disturbance in the steam boiler can cause a disturbance in the entire industrial process. The quality of water for steam boilers depends on the type of a plant, steam pressure and the purpose for which steam is used. Water should be of such quality that it does not leave residues and deposits and it should not have a corroding effect. The purity of produced steam should correspond to the purpose of the steam in question. Water should not contain substances that could cause foaming (fats, oils and other organic substances and should be slightly alkaline (pH = 7 to 9.5. Industrial water, depending on the processes in the industry, can be purified up to a certain degree. When discharged into natural water systems, it must meet the principles underpinning the system of the limit  values of major wastewater parameters, developed by The Association for wastewater from the Federal Republic of Germany and presented in Table 6

  16. Thermal oil recovery method using self-contained windelectric sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belsky, A. A.; Korolyov, I. A.

    2018-05-01

    The paper reviews challenges associated with questions of efficiency of thermal methods of impact on productive oil strata. The concept of using electrothermal complexes with WEG power supply for the indicated purposes was proposed and justified, their operating principles, main advantages and disadvantages, as well as a schematechnical solution for the implementation of the intensification of oil extraction, were considered. A mathematical model for finding the operating characteristics of WEG is presented and its main energy parameters are determined. The adequacy of the mathematical model is confirmed by laboratory simulation stand tests with nominal parameters.

  17. Efficient treatment of aniline containing wastewater in bipolar membrane microbial electrolysis cell-Fenton system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xiaohu; Jin, Xiangdan; Zhao, Nannan

    2017-01-01

    wastewater under an acidic condition maintained by the bipolar membrane. The aniline was effectively degraded following first-order kinetics at a rate constant of 0.0166 h−1 under an applied voltage of 0.5 V. Meanwhile, a total organic carbon (TOC) removal efficiency of 93.1 ± 1.2% was obtained, revealing...

  18. Formulation and stability of topical water in oil emulsion containing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To formulate the water in oil (W/O) emulsion of corn silk (CS) extract and to evaluate its stability at various storage conditions. Methods: Ethanol CS extract was prepared using maceration (cold) technique. A 4 % CS emulsion was prepared using varying concentrations of liquid paraffin, ABIL EM90 and water.

  19. Depuration of olive oil mill wastewater by an activated sludge system; Depuracion de alpechin mediante us sistema de fangos activados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beltran de Heredia, J.; Torregrosa Anton, J.; Ramos Viscas, M. P.; Garcia Rodriguez, J.; Dominguez Vargas, R. [Universidad de Extremadura. Badajoz (Spain)

    1999-07-01

    In the present work, the degradation of alpechin (olive oil mill wastewaters) have been studied by an activated sludge treatment. The substrate evolution (based on COD and BOD{sub 5}), nitrogen Kjeldahl, phosphorus, biomass, aromaticity and total polyphenolic contents was followed during each experiment. A kinetic study is performed by using the Contois model, which applied to the experimental data, provides the specific kinetic parameters of this model. Moreover, others interesting biological parameters like the cellular yield and the kinetics of endogenous metabolism were determined. (Author) 17 refs.

  20. The use of treated wastewater for chemlali olive tree irrigation: effects on soil properties, growth and oil quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben Rouina, B.; Bedbabis, S.; Ben Ahmed, C.; Boukhris, M.

    2009-07-01

    Olive tree (Olea european L.) cultivation, the major tree crops in Mediterranean countries is being extended to irrigated lands. However, the limited water availability, the severe climatic conditions and the increased need for good water quality for urban and industrial sector uses are leading to the urgent use of less water qualities (brackish water and recycled wastewater) for olive tree irrigation. The aim of this work was to asses the effects of long term irrigation with treated waste water (TWW) on the soil chemical properties, on olive tree growth and on oil quality characteristics. (Author)

  1. The use of treated wastewater for chemlali olive tree irrigation: effects on soil properties, growth and oil quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben Rouina, B.; Bedbabis, S.; Ben Ahmed, C.; Boukhris, M.

    2009-01-01

    Olive tree (Olea european L.) cultivation, the major tree crops in Mediterranean countries is being extended to irrigated lands. However, the limited water availability, the severe climatic conditions and the increased need for good water quality for urban and industrial sector uses are leading to the urgent use of less water qualities (brackish water and recycled wastewater) for olive tree irrigation. The aim of this work was to asses the effects of long term irrigation with treated waste water (TWW) on the soil chemical properties, on olive tree growth and on oil quality characteristics. (Author)

  2. Oxidative Stability and Shelf Life of Foods Containing Oils and Fats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    and oils and fats-containing foods in the food and pet food industries. Discusses oxidative stability and shelf life of low-moisture (dry) food, including dry pet food. Discusses lipid co-oxidation with protein because a number of food products contain both lipids and proteins. Directed mainly toward......Oxidative Stability and Shelf Life of Foods Containing Oils and Fats focuses on food stability and shelf life, both important factors in the improvement and development of food products. This book, relevant for professionals in the food and pet food industries, presents an evaluation of methods...... for studies on the oxidative stability and shelf life of bulk oils/fats, fried oils and foods, food emulsions, dried foods, meat and meat products, and seafood in food and pet food. Focuses on the application of various evaluation methods to studies of oxidative stability and shelf life in oils and fats...

  3. Development and characterization of emulsions containing purple rice bran and brown rice oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    The aims of this study were to characterize purple rice bran oil (PRBO) as extracted from the bran, and to produce and characterize a nano-emulsion containing purple rice bran oil. An emulsion was prepared using PRBO (10%), sodium caseinate (5%) and water (85%). The mixture was sonicated followed ...

  4. Combined performance of biochar sorption and magnetic separation processes for treatment of chromium-contained electroplating wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sheng-ye; Tang, Yan-kui; Li, Kun; Mo, Ya-yuan; Li, Hao-feng; Gu, Zhan-qi

    2014-12-01

    Magnetic biochar was prepared with eucalyptus leaf residue remained after essential oil being extracted. Batch experiments were conducted to examine the capacity of the magnetic biochar to remove Cr (VI) from electroplating wastewater and to be separated by an external magnetic field. The results show that the initial solution pH plays an important role on both sorption and separation. The removal rates of Cr (VI), total Cr, Cu (II), and Ni (II) were 97.11%, 97.63%, 100% and 100%, respectively. The turbidity of the sorption-treated solution was reduced to 21.8NTU from 4075NTU after 10min magnetic separation. The study also confirms that the magnetic biochar still retains the original magnetic separation performance after the sorption process. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Evaluation of toxicity to the biological treatment and removal of recalcitrant organic compounds from oil refineries wastewaters; Avaliacao da toxicidade ao tratamento biologico e remocao de compostos organicos recalcitrantes existentes em efluentes de refinarias de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barros Junior, Laerte M.; Macedo, Gorete R.; Bezerra, Marcio S.; Pereira, Franklin M.S. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica; Schmidell, Willibaldo [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    Oil industry waste water usually contains recalcitrant chemical compounds, like phenol, benzene, toluene, xylene, naphthalene and acenaphthene. The respirometry, determination of respiration rate of an active biomass, is an adequate methodology for quantification of aerobic activity biological. This study aims evaluate the inhibition effect of phenol in the oxidation capacity of an industrial sludge. This work also intends to study the phenol removal through biological and photochemical-biological processes. The respirometry was carried out with synthetic solution, using sludge from an oil processing industry. The phenol degradation experiments were carried out in an activated sludge unit and in a photochemical reactor. This work suggests the potential of photochemical-biological treatment use, in relation to the biological process with a no-acclimated sludge, in the removal of refractory organic compounds from oil industry wastewaters. The characterization of biomass using the respirometry methodology showed which is a useful tool in evaluation of phenol toxicity to biological treatment. (author)

  6. Fatty acid profile of eggs of semi-heavy layers fed feeds containing linseed oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JG Souza

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The incorporation of polyunsaturated fatty acids in chicken eggs by adding oils to the diets has been extensively studied. This experiment aimed at evaluating possible changes in the fatty acid profile of the eggs of layers fed diets supplemented with linseed and soybean oils. The experiment was performed using 192 29 week-old laying hens, distributed in a completely randomized design, into six treatments with four replicates of eight birds each. Treatments consisted of a control diet (no vegetable oil and diets including 2% of vegetable oil. Linseed oil replaced 0, 25, 50, 75, and 100% soybean oil in the diets, corresponding to 0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0% of linseed oil in the diet. A pool of two egg yolks from each treatment was submitted to lipid extraction and fatty acid methylation, and subsequent gas chromatography (GC analysis to detect seven fatty acids. Saturated (myristic and palmitic fatty acids concentration was affected by lipid dietary source, with the lowest concentration in birds were fed feeds containing linseed oil. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA concentration in the eggs was influenced by different levels of linseed oil inclusion. Linoleic acid egg content increased when linseed oil was used on diet as compared to the control diet. Linseed oil was considered an excellent source of linolenic acid incorporation in the eggs.

  7. Palm oil mill effluent and municipal wastewater co-treatment by zeolite augmented sequencing batch reactors: Turbidity removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farraji, Hossein; Zaman, Nastaein Qamaruz; Aziz, Hamidi Abdul; Sa'at, Siti Kamariah Md

    2017-10-01

    Palm oil mill effluent (POME) is the largest wastewater in Malaysia. Of the 60 million tons of POME produced annually, 2.4-3 million tons are total solids. Turbidity is caused by suspended solids, and 75% of total suspended solids are organic matter. Coagulation and flocculation are popular treatments for turbidity removal. Traditional commercial treatments do not meet discharge standards. This study evaluated natural zeolite and municipal wastewater (MWW)-augmented sequencing batch reactor as a microbiological digestion method for the decontamination of POME in response surface methodology. Aeration, contact time, and MWW/POME ratio were selected as response factors for turbidity removal. Results indicated that turbidity removal varied from 96.7% (MWW/POME ratio=50 %, aeration flow=0.5 L/min, and contact time=12) to 99.31% (MWW/POME ratio=80%, aeration flow 4L/min, and contact time 12 h). This study is the first to present MWW augmentation as a suitable microorganism supplier for turbidity biodegradation in high-strength agroindustrial wastewater.

  8. Shifts in microbial community structure and function in surface waters impacted by unconventional oil and gas wastewater revealed by metagenomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahrenfeld, N.L.; Reyes, Hannah Delos; Eramo, Alessia; Akob, Denise M.; Mumford, Adam; Cozzarelli, Isabelle M.

    2017-01-01

    Unconventional oil and gas (UOG) production produces large quantities of wastewater with complex geochemistry and largely uncharacterized impacts on surface waters. In this study, we assessed shifts in microbial community structure and function in sediments and waters upstream and downstream from a UOG wastewater disposal facility. To do this, quantitative PCR for 16S rRNA and antibiotic resistance genes along with metagenomic sequencing were performed. Elevated conductivity and markers of UOG wastewater characterized sites sampled downstream from the disposal facility compared to background sites. Shifts in overall high level functions and microbial community structure were observed between background sites and downstream sediments. Increases in Deltaproteobacteria and Methanomicrobia and decreases in Thaumarchaeota were observed at downstream sites. Genes related to dormancy and sporulation and methanogenic respiration were 18–86 times higher at downstream, impacted sites. The potential for these sediments to serve as reservoirs of antimicrobial resistance was investigated given frequent reports of the use of biocides to control the growth of nuisance bacteria in UOG operations. A shift in resistance profiles downstream of the UOG facility was observed including increases in acrB and mexB genes encoding for multidrug efflux pumps, but not overall abundance of resistance genes. The observed shifts in microbial community structure and potential function indicate changes in respiration, nutrient cycling, and markers of stress in a stream impacted by UOG waste disposal operations.

  9. Effect of containers on the quality of Chemlali olive oil during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gargouri, Boutheina; Zribi, Akram; Bouaziz, Mohamed

    2015-04-01

    This study is undertaken to determine the storage stability of Chemlali extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO) in different containers such as clear and dark glass bottles, polyethylene (PE) and tin containers. The different oil samples were stored under light at room temperature. Quality parameters monitored during a 6-month-storage period included: acidity, peroxide value (PV), spectrophotometric indices (K232 and K270), chlorophyll and carotene pigments, fatty acids and sterol compositions, total phenols, Rancimat induction time as well as sensory evaluation. Tin containers and dark glass bottles recorded the lowest oxidation values. In addition, oil packed in tin containers and dark glass bottles showed better physicochemical and organoleptic characteristics than that stored in clear glass bottles and PE containers. A significant decrease (p containers. Such results proved that the storage of oil in tin containers and dark glass bottles appeared most adequate, and showed a gradual loss of quality during storage, especially in PE containers and clear glass bottles. This study has shown that the best packaging materials for the commercial packing of Chemlali extra-virgin olive oil are tin containers and dark glass bottles.

  10. 27 CFR 20.119 - Toilet preparations containing not less than 10% essential oils general-use formula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... containing not less than 10% essential oils general-use formula. 20.119 Section 20.119 Alcohol, Tobacco....119 Toilet preparations containing not less than 10% essential oils general-use formula. This general-use formula shall consist of an article containing not less than 10% essential oils by volume made...

  11. Chemical Modifications of Hollow Silica Microspheres for the Removal of Organic Pollutants in Simulated Wastewater

    KAUST Repository

    Torano, Aniela Zarzar

    2017-01-01

    Aqueous industrial effluents containing organic pollutants, such as textile dyes and crude oil, represent environmental and human health concerns due to their toxicity and possible carcinogenic effects. Adsorption is the most promising wastewater

  12. Neural networks applied to characterize blends containing refined and extra virgin olive oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aroca-Santos, Regina; Cancilla, John C; Pariente, Enrique S; Torrecilla, José S

    2016-12-01

    The identification and quantification of binary blends of refined olive oil with four different extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) varietals (Picual, Cornicabra, Hojiblanca and Arbequina) was carried out with a simple method based on combining visible spectroscopy and non-linear artificial neural networks (ANNs). The data obtained from the spectroscopic analysis was treated and prepared to be used as independent variables for a multilayer perceptron (MLP) model. The model was able to perfectly classify the EVOO varietal (100% identification rate), whereas the error for the quantification of EVOO in the mixtures containing between 0% and 20% of refined olive oil, in terms of the mean prediction error (MPE), was 2.14%. These results turn visible spectroscopy and MLP models into a trustworthy, user-friendly, low-cost technique which can be implemented on-line to characterize olive oil mixtures containing refined olive oil and EVOOs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Integration of biofiltration and advanced oxidation processes for tertiary treatment of an oil refinery wastewater aiming at water reuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, A A; Bassin, J P; Cerqueira, A C; Dezotti, M

    2016-05-01

    The combination of biological and chemical oxidation processes is an interesting approach to remove ready, poor, and non-biodegradable compounds from complex industrial wastewaters. In this study, biofiltration followed by H2O2/UV oxidation (or microfiltration) and final reverse osmosis (RO) step was employed for tertiary treatment of an oil refinery wastewater. Biofiltration alone allowed obtaining total organic carbon (TOC), chemical oxygen demand (COD), UV absorbance at 254 nm (UV254), ammonium, and turbidity removal of around 46, 46, 23, 50, and 61 %, respectively. After the combined biological-chemical oxidation treatment, TOC and UV254 removal amounted to 88 and 79 %, respectively. Whereas, the treatment performance achieved with different UV lamp powers (55 and 95 W) and therefore distinct irradiance levels (26.8 and 46.3 mW/cm(2), respectively) were very similar and TOC and UV254 removal rates were highly affected by the applied C/H2O2 ratio. Silt density index (SDI) was effectively reduced by H2O2/UV oxidation, favoring further RO application. C/H2O2 ratio of 1:4, 55 W UV lamp, and 20-min oxidation reaction corresponded to the experimental condition which provided the best cost/benefit ratio for TOC, UV254, and SDI reduction from the biofilter effluent. The array of treatment processes proposed in this study has shown to be adequate for tertiary treatment of the oil refinery wastewater, ensuring the mitigation of membrane fouling problems and producing a final effluent which is suitable for reuse applications.

  14. Endocrine disrupting activities of surface water associated with a West Virginia oil and gas industry wastewater disposal site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassotis, Christopher D; Iwanowicz, Luke R; Akob, Denise M; Cozzarelli, Isabelle M; Mumford, Adam C; Orem, William H; Nagel, Susan C

    2016-07-01

    Currently, >95% of end disposal of hydraulic fracturing wastewater from unconventional oil and gas operations in the US occurs via injection wells. Key data gaps exist in understanding the potential impact of underground injection on surface water quality and environmental health. The goal of this study was to assess endocrine disrupting activity in surface water at a West Virginia injection well disposal site. Water samples were collected from a background site in the area and upstream, on, and downstream of the disposal facility. Samples were solid-phase extracted, and extracts assessed for agonist and antagonist hormonal activities for five hormone receptors in mammalian and yeast reporter gene assays. Compared to reference water extracts upstream and distal to the disposal well, samples collected adjacent and downstream exhibited considerably higher antagonist activity for the estrogen, androgen, progesterone, glucocorticoid and thyroid hormone receptors. In contrast, low levels of agonist activity were measured in upstream/distal sites, and were inhibited or absent at downstream sites with significant antagonism. Concurrent analyses by partner laboratories (published separately) describe the analytical and geochemical profiling of the water; elevated conductivity as well as high sodium, chloride, strontium, and barium concentrations indicate impacts due to handling of unconventional oil and gas wastewater. Notably, antagonist activities in downstream samples were at equivalent authentic standard concentrations known to disrupt reproduction and/or development in aquatic animals. Given the widespread use of injection wells for end-disposal of hydraulic fracturing wastewater, these data raise concerns for human and animal health nearby. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Development of an energy-saving anaerobic hybrid membrane bioreactors for 2-chlorophenol-contained wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yun-Kun; Pan, Xin-Rong; Sheng, Guo-Ping; Li, Wen-Wei; Shi, Bing-Jing; Yu, Han-Qing

    2015-12-01

    A novel energy-saving anaerobic hybrid membrane bioreactor (AnHMBR) with mesh filter, which takes advantage of anaerobic membrane bioreactor and fixed-bed biofilm reactor, is developed for low-strength 2-chlorophenol (2-CP)-contained wastewater treatment. In this system, the anaerobic membrane bioreactor is stuffed with granular activated carbon to construct an anaerobic hybrid fixed-bed biofilm membrane bioreactor. The effluent turbidity from the AnHMBR system was low during most of the operation period, and the chemical oxygen demand and 2-CP removal efficiencies averaged 82.3% and 92.6%, respectively. Furthermore, a low membrane fouling rate was achieved during the operation. During the AnHMBR operation, the only energy consumption was for feed pump. And a low energy demand of 0.0045-0.0063kWhm(-3) was estimated under the current operation conditions. All these results demonstrated that this novel AnHMBR is a sustainable technology for treating 2-CP-contained wastewater. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Modified kinetic-hydraulic UASB reactor model for treatment of wastewater containing biodegradable organic substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Seddik, Mostafa M; Galal, Mona M; Radwan, A G; Abdel-Halim, Hisham S

    2016-01-01

    This paper addresses a modified kinetic-hydraulic model for up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor aimed to treat wastewater of biodegradable organic substrates as acetic acid based on Van der Meer model incorporated with biological granules inclusion. This dynamic model illustrates the biomass kinetic reaction rate for both direct and indirect growth of microorganisms coupled with the amount of biogas produced by methanogenic bacteria in bed and blanket zones of reactor. Moreover, the pH value required for substrate degradation at the peak specific growth rate of bacteria is discussed for Andrews' kinetics. The sensitivity analyses of biomass concentration with respect to fraction of volume of reactor occupied by granules and up-flow velocity are also demonstrated. Furthermore, the modified mass balance equations of reactor are applied during steady state using Newton Raphson technique to obtain a suitable degree of freedom for the modified model matching with the measured results of UASB Sanhour wastewater treatment plant in Fayoum, Egypt.

  17. Application of Gamma Radiation and Adsorption Treatment to the Remediation of Wastewater Containing Toxic Detergents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dessouki, A.M.; EI-Boohy, H.A.; Eid, M.; Ismail, H.A.

    2005-01-01

    The possibility of gamma radiation induced destruction of anionic detergents (UN-ET and Comperlan) and non-ionic detergent (Tween-60) present in wastewater was investigated. Irradiation dose concentration and ph were studied as factors affecting the degradation process. It was found that anionic detergents are more destruct at a lower dose than the non-ionic one. In solutions of equal concentration , a dose of 35 kGy caused higher degree of destruction in the anionic detergents than a dose of 100 kGy does in the nonionic detergent. Radiation treatment of wastewater in the presence of oxygen and hydrogen peroxide showed an enhancement in the radiation degradation, while nitrogen showed no change. Adsorption and exchange purification of detergents onto GAC, agricultural by-products, ion exchange resins and polymeric membranes were carried out. The results showing that, GAC oxidized with H 2 O 2 and the anion exchanger Merck III having the highest adsorption capacity. The combined treatment of gamma irradiation followed by adsorption was the best method for the total removal of these toxic pollutants as well as their radiolysis products

  18. Microbial characterization and degradation of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate in an anaerobic reactor treating wastewater containing soap powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carosia, Mariana Fronja; Okada, Dagoberto Yukio; Sakamoto, Isabel Kimiko; Silva, Edson Luiz; Varesche, Maria Bernadete Amâncio

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the removal of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) in an anaerobic fluidized bed reactor (AFBR) treating wastewater containing soap powder as LAS source. At Stage I, the AFBR was fed with a synthetic substrate containing yeast extract and ethanol as carbon sources, and without LAS; at Stage II, soap powder was added to this synthetic substrate obtaining an LAS concentration of 14 ± 3 mg L(-1). The compounds of soap powder probably inhibited some groups of microorganisms, increasing the concentration of volatile fatty acids (VFA) from 91 to 143 mg HAc L(-1). Consequently, the LAS removal rate was 48 ± 10% after the 156 days of operation. By sequencing, 16S rRNA clones belonging to the phyla Proteobacteria and Synergistetes were identified in the samples taken at the end of the experiment, with a remarkable presence of Dechloromonas sp. and Geobacter sp. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. High internal phase emulsion (HIPE)-templated biopolymeric oleofilms containing an ultra-high concentration of edible liquid oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijaya, Wahyu; Van der Meeren, Paul; Dewettinck, Koen; Patel, Ashok R

    2018-04-25

    We report, for the first time, the fabrication of oleofilms (containing more than 97 wt% edible liquid oil) using high internal phase emulsions (with oil volume fraction φoil = 0.82) as templates. Advanced microscopy studies revealed an interesting microstructure of these films where jammed oil droplets were embedded in a dried matrix of biopolymeric complexes.

  20. A new concept for improved oil spill containment in open waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sethness, E.D. Jr.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper a new concept for improved oil spill containment in open waters is presented. The proposed system is a combination oil boom and wave barrier. Waveguard International has taken its extensive experience as a designer of floating breakwaters and applied this knowledge into the design of a readily transportable, readily deployable floating oil boom with integrated wave attenuation capabilities as well. The new concept is based on the attenuation of the two major natural causes of oil spill dispersion; first, horizontal dispersion caused by wind shear effects; and second, vertical entrainment into the water column caused by the mixing action of wave motion. The physical encirclement of an oil spill with a floating boom to contain horizontal dispersion is not a new concept. Existing systems, however, work best in calm water and rapidly loose efficiency as waves increase. The proposed system can not only physically surround the spill area, but is as much as 90% effective in stopping the transmission of wave energy. The oil boom thus minimizes vertical mixing of the contained oil slick

  1. Wastewater Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Wastewater districts layer is part of a larger dataset that contains administrative boundaries for Vermont's Agency of Natural Resources. The dataset includes...

  2. Mass spectrometry of the lithium adducts of diacylglycerols containing hydroxy FA in castor oil and two normal FA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castor oil can be used in industry. The molecular species of triacylglycerols containing hydroxy fatty acids (FA) in castor oil have been identified. We report here the identification of twelve diacylglycerols (DAG) containing hydroxy FA in castor oil using positive ion electrospray ionization mass ...

  3. Autos, tires, aluminum, oil--and cost containment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, E

    1978-09-01

    Faced with massive increases in the costs of the health care benefits they provide for their employees, many large U.S. corporations are becoming increasingly involved in efforts to contain health care costs. Often seeing their efforts as posing an alternative to direct federal government intervention, business leaders are implementing a wide range of programs, including specific arrangements with providers, education of hospital trustees who are also employees, and fitness and preventive medicine programs.

  4. Application of Recycled Zero-Valent Iron Nanoparticle to the Treatment of Wastewater Containing Nitrobenzene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heon Lee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Zero-valent iron (ZVI was synthesized using iron oxide, a byproduct of pickling line at a steel work. ZVI with a mean particle size of 500 nm was synthesized. The reaction activity of the synthesized ZVI was much higher than commercial ZVI. When applied to the decomposition of nitrobenzene (NB, the ZVI particles underwent corrosion and passivation oxide film formation, resulting in particle size decrease. The NB decomposition rate increased with increasing ZVI dosage level and with decreasing pH. The solution pH increased monotonously with increasing reaction duration, whereas the aniline concentration showed a maximum at 50 min. Based on the GC/MS analysis, NB is presumed to be reduced into aniline via reductive intermediates such as azobenzene and azoxybenzene. When combined with a subsequent biological process, the synthesized ZVI will be able to decompose NB in wastewater effectively.

  5. Modeling of acetate-type fermentation of sugar-containing wastewater under acidic pH conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Liang; Pan, Xin-Rong; Wang, Ya-Zhou; Li, Chen-Xuan; Chen, Chang-Bin; Zhao, Quan-Bao; Mu, Yang; Yu, Han-Qing; Li, Wen-Wei

    2018-01-01

    In this study, a kinetic model was developed based on Anaerobic Digestion Model No. 1 to provide insights into the directed production of acetate and methane from sugar-containing wastewater under low pH conditions. The model sufficiently described the dynamics of liquid-phase and gaseous products in an anaerobic membrane bioreactor by comprehensively considering the syntrophic bioconversion steps of sucrose hydrolysis, acidogenesis, acetogenesis and methanogenesis under acidic pH conditions. The modeling results revealed a significant pH-dependency of hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis and ethanol-producing processes that govern the sucrose fermentative pathway through changing the hydrogen yield. The reaction thermodynamics of such acetate-type fermentation were evaluated, and the implications for process optimization by adjusting the hydraulic retention time were discussed. This work sheds light on the acid-stimulated acetate-type fermentation process and may lay a foundation for optimization of resource-oriented processes for treatment of food wastewater. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Biotreatment of zinc-containing wastewater in a sulfidogenic CSTR: Performance and artificial neural network (ANN) modelling studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahinkaya, Erkan

    2009-01-01

    Sulfidogenic treatment of sulfate (2-10 g/L) and zinc (65-677 mg/L) containing simulated wastewater was studied in a mesophilic (35 deg. C) CSTR. Ethanol was supplemented (COD/sulfate = 0.67) as carbon and energy source for sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). The robustness of the system was studied by increasing Zn, COD and sulfate loadings. Sulfate removal efficiency, which was 70% at 2 g/L feed sulfate concentration, steadily decreased with increasing feed sulfate concentration and reached 40% at 10 g/L. Over 99% Zn removal was attained due to the formation of zinc-sulfide precipitate. COD removal efficiency at 2 g/L feed sulfate concentration was over 94%, whereas, it steadily decreased due to the accumulation of acetate at higher loadings. Alkalinity produced from acetate oxidation increased wastewater pH remarkably when feed sulfate concentration was 5 g/L or lower. Electron flow from carbon oxidation to sulfate reduction averaged 83 ± 13%. The rest of the electrons were most likely coupled with fermentative reactions as the amount of methane production was insignificant. The developed ANN model was very successful as an excellent to reasonable match was obtained between the measured and the predicted concentrations of sulfate (R = 0.998), COD (R = 0.993), acetate (R = 0.976) and zinc (R = 0.827) in the CSTR effluent

  7. Polyamide microcapsules containing jojoba oil prepared by inter-facial polymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persico, P; Carfagna, C; Danicher, L; Frere, Y

    2005-08-01

    Jojoba oil containing polyamide microcapsules having diameter of approximately 5 microm were prepared by inter-facial polycondensation by direct method (oil-in-water). Qualitative effects of both the formulation and the process parameters on microcapsules characteristics were investigated by SEM observations. Morphological analysis showed the dependence of the external membrane compactness on the chemical nature of the water-soluble polyamine and the oil-soluble acid polychloride: 1,6-hexamethylenediamine (HMDA) and terephthaloyl dichloride (TDC) were found to favour the production of smooth and dense surfaces. The use of ultrasonic irradiations during the dispersion step to get a further reduction of microcapsules size was also evaluated.

  8. Comparison between different liquid-liquid and solid phase methods of extraction prior to the identification of the phenolic fraction present in olive oil washing wastewater from the two-phase olive oil extraction system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Jiménez-Herrera

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic compounds from olive mill wastewater (OMW, are characterized by a strong antioxidant activity. At the same time, they represent an environmental problem because they are difficult to degrade. The purpose of this work was to identify these biologically active compounds in the OMW from two-phase olive oil production in order to convert a polluting residue into a source of natural antioxidants. After optimizing the extraction process of phenolic compounds using liquid-liquid extraction (LLE and solid phase extraction (SPE methods, it was determined that the most appropriate sequence comprised a previous centrifugation to remove the lipid fraction, followed by liquid extraction with ethyl acetate or SPE. The most important compounds identified in olive oil washing wastewater (OOWW were tyrosol, hydroxytyrosol and succinic acid; whereas the ones in the wastewater derived from the washing of the olives (OWW were cresol, catechol, 4-methylcatechol, hydrocinnamic acid and p-hydroxy-hydrocinnamic acid.

  9. Comparison between different liquid-liquid and solid phase methods of extraction prior to the identification of the phenolic fraction present in olive oil washing wastewater from the two-phase olive oil extraction system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiménez-Herrera, S.; Ochando-Pulido, J.M.; Martínez-Ferez, A.

    2017-01-01

    Phenolic compounds from olive mill wastewater (OMW), are characterized by a strong antioxidant activity. At the same time, they represent an environmental problem because they are difficult to degrade. The purpose of this work was to identify these biologically active compounds in the OMW from two-phase olive oil production in order to convert a polluting residue into a source of natural antioxidants. After optimizing the extraction process of phenolic compounds using liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) and solid phase extraction (SPE) methods, it was determined that the most appropriate sequence comprised a previous centrifugation to remove the lipid fraction, followed by liquid extraction with ethyl acetate or SPE. The most important compounds identified in olive oil washing wastewater (OOWW) were tyrosol, hydroxytyrosol and succinic acid; whereas the ones in the wastewater derived from the washing of the olives (OWW) were cresol, catechol, 4-methylcatechol, hydrocinnamic acid and p-hydroxy-hydrocinnamic acid. [es

  10. Using Oil and Gas Well Log Records to Understand Possible Connections Between Wastewater Injection Zones and Usable Groundwater Aquifers in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimabukuro, D.; Haugen, E. A.; Battistella, C.; Treguboff, E. W.; Kale, J. M.

    2015-12-01

    Although the disposal of produced water in wastewater injection wells has been occurring in California for decades, it is not clear whether injected fluids may be migrating into usable groundwater aquifers. One problem is the poor characterization of federally-protected (oil and gas well records collected by the California Division of Oil, Gas, and Geothermal Resources (DOGGR). These scanned records contain two useful sources of information. First, geophysical well logs, such those measuring resistivity and porosity, can be used to determine aquifer salinity. This allows a three-dimensional understanding of the distribution of protected groundwater. Second, driller's logs contain lithological descriptions at depth. These lithologies can be used to construct a three-dimensional texture model, which can then be used in a groundwater flow model. A large number of undergraduate researchers at CSU Sacramento and CSU Long Beach have been collecting information on well records in the Ventura Basin and the Southern San Joaquin Valley. Each well record is examined with basic metadata entered into an online database in an effort to identify appropriate geophysical well logs and driller's logs. High-quality driller's logs are coded and used to create three-dimensional framework models for each well field. The geophysical logs are digitized and will be used to determine aquifer salinity. In addition, we are using information from the DOGGR well records to investigate wellbore integrity, waste disposal and waterflood injection volumes, and the possibility of induced seismicity. This project is part of the broader effort of the California State Water Resources Control Board to implement Senate Bill 4.

  11. Analysis of denitrifier community in a bioaugmented sequencing batch reactor for the treatment of coking wastewater containing pyridine and quinoline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai, Yaohui; Xing, Rui; Wen, Donghui; Tang, Xiaoyan [Peking Univ., Beijing (CN). Key Lab. of Water and Sediment Sciences (Ministry of Education); Sun, Qinghua [Peking Univ., Beijing (CN). Key Lab. of Water and Sediment Sciences (Ministry of Education); Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing (China). Inst. of Environmental Health and Related Product Safety

    2011-05-15

    The denitrifier community and associated nitrate and nitrite reduction in the bioaugmented and general sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) during the treatment of coking wastewater containing pyridine and quinoline were investigated. The efficiency and stability of nitrate and nitrite reduction in SBR was considerably improved after inoculation with four pyridine- or quinoline-degrading bacterial strains (including three denitrifying strains). Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) based on the nosZ gene revealed that the structures of the denitrifier communities in bioaugmented and non-bioaugmented reactors were distinct and varied during the course of the experiment. Bioaugmentation protected indigenous denitrifiers from disruptions caused by pyridine and quinoline. Clone library analysis showed that one of the added denitrifiers comprised approximately 6% of the denitrifier population in the bioaugmented sludge. (orig.)

  12. Decontamination flowsheet development for a waste oil containing mixed radioactive contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vijayan, S.; Buckley, L.P.

    1993-01-01

    The majority of waste oils contaminated with both radioactive and hazardous components are generated in nuclear power plant, research lab. and uranium-refinery operations. The waste oils are complex, requiring a detailed examination of the waste management strategies and technology options. It may appear that incineration offers a total solution, but this may not be true in all cases. An alternative approach is to decontaminate the waste oils to very low contaminant levels, so that the treated oils can be reused, burned as fuel in boilers, or disposed of by commercial incineration. This paper presents selected experimental data and evaluation results gathered during the development of a decontamination flowsheet for a specific waste oil stores at Chalk River Labs. (CRL). The waste oil contains varying amounts of lube oils, grease, paint, water, particulates, sludge, light chloro- and fluoro-solvents, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), complexing chemicals, uranium, chromium, iron, arsenic and manganese. To achieve safe management of this radioactive and hazardous waste, several treatment and disposal methods were screened. Key experiments were performed at the laboratory-scale to confirm and select the most appropriate waste-management scheme based on technical, environmental and economic criteria. The waste-oil-decontamination flowsheet uses a combination of unit operations, including prefiltration, acid scrubbing, and aqueous-leachage treatment by precipitation, microfiltration, filter pressing and carbon adsorption. The decontaminated oil containing open-quotes de minimisclose quotes levels of contaminants will undergo chemical destruction of PCBs and final disposal by incineration. The recovered uranium will be recycled to a uranium milling process

  13. Surfactant/detergent titration analysis method and apparatus for machine working fluids, surfactant-containing wastewater and the like

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Douglas D.; Hiller, John M.

    1998-01-01

    The present invention is an improved method and related apparatus for quantitatively analyzing machine working fluids and other aqueous compositions such as wastewater which contain various mixtures of cationic, neutral, and/or anionic surfactants, soluble soaps, and the like. The method utilizes a single-phase, non-aqueous, reactive titration composition containing water insoluble bismuth nitrate dissolved in glycerol for the titration reactant. The chemical reaction of the bismuth ion and glycerol with the surfactant in the test solutions results in formation of micelles, changes in micelle size, and the formation of insoluble bismuth soaps. These soaps are quantified by physical and chemical changes in the aqueous test solution. Both classical potentiometric analysis and turbidity measurements have been used as sensing techniques to determine the quantity of surfactant present in test solutions. This method is amenable to the analysis of various types of new, in-use, dirty or decomposed surfactants and detergents. It is a quick and efficient method utilizing a single-phase reaction without needing a separate extraction from the aqueous solution. It is adaptable to automated control with simple and reliable sensing methods. The method is applicable to a variety of compositions with concentrations from about 1% to about 10% weight. It is also applicable to the analysis of waste water containing surfactants with appropriate pre-treatments for concentration.

  14. Surfactant/detergent titration analysis method and apparatus for machine working fluids, surfactant-containing wastewater and the like

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D.D.; Hiller, J.M.

    1998-02-24

    The present invention is an improved method and related apparatus for quantitatively analyzing machine working fluids and other aqueous compositions such as wastewater which contain various mixtures of cationic, neutral, and/or anionic surfactants, soluble soaps, and the like. The method utilizes a single-phase, non-aqueous, reactive titration composition containing water insoluble bismuth nitrate dissolved in glycerol for the titration reactant. The chemical reaction of the bismuth ion and glycerol with the surfactant in the test solutions results in formation of micelles, changes in micelle size, and the formation of insoluble bismuth soaps. These soaps are quantified by physical and chemical changes in the aqueous test solution. Both classical potentiometric analysis and turbidity measurements have been used as sensing techniques to determine the quantity of surfactant present in test solutions. This method is amenable to the analysis of various types of new, in-use, dirty or decomposed surfactants and detergents. It is a quick and efficient method utilizing a single-phase reaction without needing a separate extraction from the aqueous solution. It is adaptable to automated control with simple and reliable sensing methods. The method is applicable to a variety of compositions with concentrations from about 1% to about 10% weight. It is also applicable to the analysis of waste water containing surfactants with appropriate pre-treatments for concentration. 1 fig.

  15. Combined electrochemical degradation and activated carbon adsorption treatments for wastewater containing mixed phenolic compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajkumar, D.; Palanivelu, K.; Balasubramanian, N. [Anna University, Madras (India). Center for Environmental Studies

    2005-01-01

    Electrochemical degradation of mixed phenolic compounds present in coal conversion wastewater was investigated in the presence of chloride as supporting electrolyte. Initially, the degradation experiments were conducted separately with 300 mg/L of individual phenolic compound in the presence of 2500 mg/L chloride using Ti/TiO{sub 2}-RuO{sub 2}-IrO{sub 2} anode at 5.4 A/dm{sup 2} current density. Comparison of the experimental results of the chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal versus charge indicated that the order of decreasing COD removal for various phenolic compounds as catechol {gt} resorcinol {gt} m-cresol {gt} o-cresol {gt} phenol {gt} p-cresol. Degradation of the mixture of phenolic compounds and high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) determinations at various stages of electrolysis showed that phenolic compounds were initially converted into benzoquinone and then to lower molecular weight aliphatic compounds. The COD and the total organic carbon (TOC) removal were 83 and 58.9% after passing 32 Ah/L with energy consumption of 191.6 kWh/kg of COD removal. Experiments were also conducted to remove adsorbable organic halogens (AOX) content in the treated solution using granular activated carbon. The optimum conditions for the removal of AOX was at pH 3.0, 5 mL/min flow rate and 31.2 cm bed height. Based on the investigation, a general scheme of treatment of mixed phenolic compounds by combined electrochemical and activated carbon adsorption treatment is proposed.

  16. The Potential for the Treatment of Antimony-Containing Wastewater by Iron-Based Adsorbents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ren-Jian Deng

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Antimony (Sb and its compounds are considered as global priority pollutants. Elevated concentrations of antimony in natural and industrial process wastewater are of global concern, particularly given interest in the potential toxicity and harm to the environment from aquatic exposure. Iron-based materials for treatment by adsorption are widely regarded to have potential merit for the removal of trace contaminants from water and especially in the search for efficient and low-cost techniques. In this paper, we review the application of iron-based materials in the sorption treatment of antimony contaminated water. The interaction of Sb is discussed in relation to adsorption performance, influencing factors, mechanism, modelling of adsorption (isotherm, kinetic and thermodynamic models, advantages, drawbacks and the recent achievements in the field. Although iron-based adsorbents show promise, the following three aspects are in need of further study. Firstly, a select number of iron based binary metal oxide adsorbents should be further explored as they show superior performance compared to other systems. Secondly, the possibility of redox reactions and conversion between Sb(III and Sb(V during the adsorption process is unclear and requires further investigation. Thirdly, in order to achieve optimized control of preferential adsorption sites and functional groups, the mechanism of antimony removal has to be qualitatively and quantitatively resolved by combining the advantages of advanced characterization techniques such as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy(FTIR, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, Atomic force microscope(AFM, X-ray absorption near edge structure(XANES, and other spectroscopic methods. We provide details on the achievements and limitations of each of these stages and point to the need for further research.

  17. Microphase Separation in Oil-Water Mixtures Containing Hydrophilic and Hydrophobic Ions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tasios, Nikos; Samin, Sela; van Roij, Rene; Dijkstra, Marjolein

    2017-01-01

    We develop a lattice-based Monte Carlo simulation method for charged mixtures capable of treating dielectric heterogeneities. Using this method, we study oil-water mixtures containing an antagonistic salt, with hydrophilic cations and hydrophobic anions. Our simulations reveal several phases with a

  18. Characterization of Lipase from Bacillus subtilisI-4 and Its Potential Use in Oil Contaminated Wastewater

    OpenAIRE

    Iqbal, Syeda Abeer; Rehman, Abdul

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACTA lipase producing bacterium was isolated from oil contaminated effluents of various industries from Sheikhupura Road, Pakistan, and, on the basis of biochemical and 16S rRNA ribotyping, was identified asBacillus subtilis. The optimum temperature and pH for the growth of the culture were 37ºC and 7.0, respectively.B. subtilis I-4 had a lag phase of 4 h in LB medium while this phase prolonged to 6 h in oil containing medium. The optimum temperature and pH for the enzyme activity were 5...

  19. A Verhulst model for microalgae Botryococcus sp. growth and nutrient removal in wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamaian, Siti Suhana; Bakeri, Noorhadila Mohd; Sunar, Norshuhaila Mohamed; Gani, Paran

    2017-08-01

    Microalgae Botryococcus sp. is a colonial green alga found in lakes and reservoirs in Malaysia. Previous studies reported that the potential of Botryococcus sp. photosynthesis as a source of fuel. The Botryococcus sp. contains hydrocarbon up to 75% of dry weight, which can be converted into petrol, diesel or turbine fuel or other liquid or gaseous hydrocarbons. Recently, an experimental study was conducted on phycoremediation technology for wastewater using Botryococcus sp. The phycoremediation technology is useful to remove the excess of nutrients such as nitrogen, phosphorus and also have the ability to remove various pollutants from wastewater. This research implements the Verhulst model to estimate the nutrient removal by microalgae Botryococcus sp. from the wastewater. This model has been validated with the experiments of microalgae Botryococcus sp. grown in domestic and palm oil wastewater. The results suggested that microalgae Botryococcus sp. could be cultured in domestic and palm oil wastewater while nutrients are reduced from these wastewaters.

  20. Potential application of oxygen containing gases to enhance gravity drainage in heavy oil bearing reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lakatos, I. [Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Miscolc (Hungary). Lab. for Mining Chemistry; Bauer, K. [Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Miscolc (Hungary). Lab. for Mining Chemistry; Lakatos-Szabo, J. [Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Miscolc (Hungary). Lab. for Mining Chemistry

    1997-06-01

    In the frame of laboratory studies the effect of air/natural CO{sub 2} mixtures on chemical composition of crude oil and gas phase, the rheological and interfacial properties, the flow mechanism and the safety measures were analyzed. The tests were performed at reservoir conditions (200 bar and 109 C) using natural rock, oil and gas samples. The oxygen content of the gas phase and the gas/oil ratio varied within wide limits. Both crude and asphaltene-free oil were used to determine the consequences of the low temperature oxidation. On the basis of the experimental results it was found that the oxygen content of the cap gas had been completely consumed by the chemical reactions (oxidation, condensation and water formation) before the asphaltene content set in equilibrium. Nearly 9% excess asphaltene formation was observed in both the crude and the asphaltene-free oils. The substantial increase in asphaltene content and the presence of colloidal water results in a measurable change in rheological and interfacial properties. Despite these factors the flow and displacement mechanism is only slightly influenced if the reservoir is of fractured character. On the other hand the in-situ oxidation of this heavy crude oil improves the efficiency of bitumen production and the quality of product used mostly for road construction. As a final statement, it was concluded that replacing the CO{sub 2} with oxygen containing inert gas, the chemical reactions can be in-situ regulated without jeopardizing the recovery efficiency. Application of the artificial gas cap concept opens new perspectives in EOR technology of karstic and fractured reservoirs containing medium and heavy crude oils in those cases where CO{sub 2} or CH gas is not available. (orig./MSK)

  1. Wastewater treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranđel N. Kitanović

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Quality of life on Earth in the future will largely depend on the amount of safe water. As the most fundamental source of life, water is relentlessly consumed and polluted. To halt this trend, many countries are taking extensive measures and investing substantial resources in order to stop the contamination of water and return at least tolerably good water quality to nature. The goal of water purification is to obtain clean water with the sewage sludge as a by-product. Clean water is returned to nature, and further treatment of sludge may be subject to other procedures. The conclusion of this paper is simple. The procedure with purified water is easily achievable, purified water is discharged into rivers, lakes and seas, but the problem of further treatment of sludge remains. This paper presents the basic methods of wastewater treatment and procedures for processing the products from contaminated water. The paper can serve as a basis for further elaboration. Water Pollution In order to ensure normal life of living creatures, the water in which they live or the water they use must have a natural chemical composition and natural features. When, as a result of human activities, the chemical composition of water and the ratio of its chemical elements significantly change, we say that water is polluted. When the pollutants come from industrial plants, we are talking about industrial wastewater, and when they come from households and urban areas, we are talking about municipal wastewater. Both contain a huge amount of pollutants that eventually end up in rivers. Then, thousands of defenseless birds, fish and other animals suffer, and environmental consequences become immeasurable. In addition, the waste fed to the water often ends up in the bodies of marine animals, so they can return to us as food. Thermal water pollution also has multiple effects on the changes in the wildlife composition of aquatic ecosystems. Polluted water can be purified by

  2. Bioproducts for Sludge Reduction in Activated Sludge Systems Treating Oil Refinery Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre V.M.F.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of bioproducts that change the cellular metabolism and reduce microbial growth without affecting the organic matter removal is very promising for reducing the amount of sludge in wastewater treatment systems. In this study, two bioproducts were evaluated and compared with a well-known chemical (2,4-DiNitroPhenol – DNP in activated sludge treating petroleum refinery wastewater. In batch experiments, 10 mg/L of DNP, 0.8 mg/L of a bioproduct based on Folic Acid (FA and 10 mg/L of a bioproduct based on Stress Proteins (SP led to 30.6%, 43.2% and 29.8% lower disposal of total solids, respectively. Operating on a continuous regimen, the addition of 10 mg/L of the bioproduct based on SP led to 45.7% lower disposal for 50 days. In all cases, no loss of efficiency in the Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD removal was observed.

  3. Hydrologic-information needs for oil-shale development, northwestern Colorado. [Contains glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, O.J. (comp.)

    1982-04-01

    The Piceance basin of northwestern Colorado contains large reserves of oil shale. Expected development of oil shale will affect the regional hydrologic systems because most oil-shale mines will require drainage; industrial requirements for water may be large; and oil-shale mines, wastes, and retorts may affect the quantity and quality of surface water and ground water. In addition, the oil-shale industry may discharge particles and gases to the atmosphere that could alter the quality of high-altitude lakes and surface-water reservoirs. Hydrologic data need to be collected in order to plan for oil-shale development and to estimate the effects of development. Test-well drilling and aquifer testing are needed to provide a better understanding of the local and regional flow system, to furnish additional data for a model that simulates mine drainage, and to explore for water supplies in aquifers of Paleozoic and Mesozoic age. Much of the ground water in the bedrock aquifers discharges through springs, and a systematic study of the springs will help to predict the effects of mine drainage on spring discharge and quality. Surface runoff, dissolved and suspended loads in streams, and the aquatic environment in streams would be highly susceptible to the disruptions in the land surface and will require additional study in order to estimate the effects of development. A water-quality assessment is proposed for the White River basin because it is a possible source of water and a region likely to be affected by development. The effects of emissions to the atmosphere from oil-shale plants require study because these emissions may affect the quality of water in lakes downwind. Spoil piles of retorted oil shale may be very large and require study to anticipate any problems caused by leaching and erosion. Processing wastes resulting from in-situ retorts and other waste materials need to be studied in greater detail. 71 refs., 30 figs., 5 tabs.

  4. Development of high temperature resistant geomembranes for oil sands secondary containments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, A. [Layfield Environmental Systems Ltd., Edmonton, AB (Canada); Martin, D. [Layfield Geosynthetics and Industrial Fabrics Ltd., Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    Plastic liner materials are often adversely impacted by chemicals at elevated temperatures. Heat accelerates the oxidation of the polymeric chains, which in turn accelerates the degradation of the plastic. This paper discussed geomembrane containment systems placed under heated petroleum storage tanks at an oil sands processing plant. Various high temperature-resistant geomembrane materials were tested. Compatibility testing procedures for the various fluids contained by the systems were outlined. Installation procedures for the membranes were also discussed. The membrane systems were designed for use with heavy gas oil; light gas oil; and naphtha. Temperatures in the ground below the tanks were approximately 79 degrees C. Testing was done using sealed containers held in an oil bath at temperatures of 105 degrees C. Heat applied to the chemicals during the tests pressurized the test vessels. Liner materials used in the initial tests included an ester-based thermoplastic polyurethane liner; high density polyethylene (HDPE); linear low-density polyethylene (LLDPE), polypropylene (PP) olefins; polyvinyl chloride (PVC); and polyvinylidene (PVDF) materials. A second set of tests was then conducted using alloy materials and PVC. Heat stability tests demonstrated that the blue 0.75 mm alloy showed a tensile strength ratio within the industry's 15 per cent pass criteria. The samples were then tested with diluted bitumen and diluents at 65, 85 and 100 degrees C. The developed liners were installed underneath petroleum tanks with leak detection chambers. It was concluded that the geomembrane liners prevented the hot liquids from leaking. 4 refs., 8 tabs.

  5. Application of Edible Films Containing Oregano (Origanum vulgare) Essential Oil on Queso Blanco Cheese Prepared with Flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum) Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurdian, Cristhiam; Chouljenko, Alexander; Solval, Kevin Mis; Boeneke, Charles; King, Joan M; Sathivel, Subramaniam

    2017-06-01

    Fortification of queso blanco (QB) with flaxseed oil (FO) containing omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids may provide a functional food with health benefits such as improved cell, brain, and retina functionality, and protection against cardiovascular and immune-inflammatory diseases. However, QB experiences a short shelf life because of the early development of yeasts and molds and addition of FO may increase susceptibility to lipid oxidation. Oregano essential oil (OEO) is known for its antimicrobial and antioxidant properties, but due to its intense flavor compounds it may not be suitable for direct incorporation into QB. Thus, incorporation of OEO into an edible film prepared with whey protein isolate (WPI) may improve the shelf life of QB. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) micrographs revealed that FO was successfully retained by the cheese after homogenization. The thiobarbituric-acid-reactive-substances (TBARS) and yeast and mold counts (YMC) of the wrapped cheeses were analyzed during 60 d of refrigerated storage. The oxidation rate increased significantly for nonwrapped QB containing FO (QBFO) during storage, however wrapping with WPI edible films containing OEO (WOF) significantly limited lipid oxidation and prevented growth of yeasts and molds. This study demonstrated the antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of WOF for preservation of QBFO during refrigerated storage. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  6. Treatment of simulated plutonium-containing wastewater by ultrafiltration-reverse osmosis technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong Zhonghua; Fan Xianhua; Luo Deli; Wang Tuo; Chen Qi

    2008-01-01

    Ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis were employed for the treatment of low level radioactive water containing plutonium. The system consists of ultrafiltration module with hollow fibre membrane and reverse osmosis module with spiral membrane. The decontamination efficiency and volume concentration ratio affected by technical parameters were explored in the experiment. The results show that the decontamination efficiency achieves 99.94% and the volume concentration ratio achieves 12.5 at pH=10 for solution fed into the membrane separation system. This technology will be applied in radioactive waste minimization as a new treatment method. (authors)

  7. Packed bed reactor for degradation of simulated cyanide-containing wastewater

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Virender; Kumar, Vijay; Bhalla, Tek Chand

    2014-01-01

    The discharge of cyanide-containing effluents into the environment contaminates water bodies and soil. Effective methods of treatment which can detoxify cyanide are the need of the hour. The aim of the present study is to develop a bioreactor for complete degradation of cyanide using immobilized cells of Serratia marcescens RL2b. Alginate-entrapped cells of S. marcescens RL2b were used for complete degradation of cyanide in a packed bed reactor (PBR). Cells grown in minimal salt medium (pH 6....

  8. Codigestion of olive oil mill wastewaters with manure, household waste or sewage sludge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelidaki, I.; Ahring, B.K.

    1997-01-01

    Combined anaerobic digestion of oil mill effluent (OME) together with manure, household waste (HHW) or sewage sludge was investigated. In batch experiments it was shown that OME could be degraded into biogas when codigested with manure. In codigestion with HHW or sewage sludge, OME dilution...

  9. Essential oil production of lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus under organic compost containing sewage sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlia V. d'Ávila

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT One of the main urban polluting agents are the sewers, which even with proper treatment end up generating a polluting waste, the sewage sludge. One of the options for the disposal of this sludge is the use in agriculture, due to its high content of organic matter and nutrients. This study aimed to use urban sewage sludge for lemongrass cultivation and essential oil production. The plants were grown in soil containing different organic compost doses (0, 5, 10, 20, 40 and 60 t ha-1, formed from the sewage sludge composting process and waste of urban vegetation pruning. At harvest, plants were analyzed for the concentration of nutrients, chlorophyll content, number of tillers, biomass production, essential oil content and the microbiological quality of the leaves. The results showed that the addition of the compost increased the levels of nutrients in the plants, mainly nitrogen, positively influencing the production of tillers, biomass, chlorophyll contents, yield and essential oil content.

  10. Novel porous fly-ash containing geopolymer monoliths for lead adsorption from wastewaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novais, Rui M., E-mail: ruimnovais@ua.pt; Buruberri, L.H.; Seabra, M.P.; Labrincha, J.A.

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • Porous fly ash containing-geopolymer monoliths for lead adsorption were developed. • Geopolymers’ porosity and pH of the ion solution controls the adsorption capacity. • Lead adsorption by the geopolymer monoliths up to 6.34 mg/g was observed. • These novel adsorbents can be used in packed beds that are easily collected. • The reuse of biomass fly ash wastes as raw material ensures waste valorization. - Abstract: In this study novel porous biomass fly ash-containing geopolymer monoliths were produced using a simple and flexible procedure. Geopolymers exhibiting distinct total porosities (ranging from 41.0 to 78.4%) and low apparent density (between 1.21 and 0.44 g/cm{sup 3}) were fabricated. Afterwards, the possibility of using these innovative materials as lead adsorbents under distinct conditions was evaluated. Results demonstrate that the geopolymers’ porosity and the pH of the ion solution strongly affect the lead adsorption capacity. Lead adsorption by the geopolymer monoliths ranged between 0.95 and 6.34 mg{sub lead}/g{sub geopolymer}. More porous geopolymers presented better lead removal efficiency, while higher pH in the solution reduced their removal ability, since metal precipitation is enhanced. These novel geopolymeric monoliths can be used in packed beds that are easily collected when exhausted, which is a major advantage in comparison with the use of powdered adsorbents. Furthermore, their production encompasses the reuse of biomass fly-ash, mitigating the environmental impact associated with this waste disposal, while decreasing the adsorbents production costs.

  11. Indirect anodic oxidation applied for treatment of simulated wastewater containing Cationic Red X-GRL and Disperse Red 3B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Yang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The treatment of simulated wastewater containing Cationic Red X-GRL (X-GRL or Disperse Red 3B (DR-3B dye was carried out by indirect anodic oxidation, using Ti/SnO2 electrodes as the anode. The influences of pH value, voltage, electrolysis time and sodium chloride dosage on the degradation performance were studied by single factor experiment. Furthermore the nitrogen states and UV-Vis spectra in dyes degradation were analyzed. The results showed that under the optimum condition (pH = 3, voltage = 20 V, NaCl = 2.5 g/L, the decolorization and chemical oxygen demand removal of X-GRL were 98% and 67%, respectively; and those of DR-3B were 51% and 61%, respectively. The azo double bond conjugated system in X-GRL is much more easily destroyed than the anthraquinone conjugated system in DR-3B; the aryl ring structures of them can be partially degraded.

  12. Separation Properties of Wastewater Containing O/W Emulsion Using Ceramic Microfiltration/Ultrafiltration (MF/UF Membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanji Matsumoto

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Washing systems using water soluble detergent are used in electrical and mechanical industries and the wastewater containing O/W emulsion are discharged from these systems. Membrane filtration has large potential for the efficient separation of O/W emulsion for reuses of treated water and detergent. The separation properties of O/W emulsions by cross-flow microfiltration and ultrafiltration were studied with ceramic MF and UF membranes. The effects of pore size; applied pressure; cross-flow velocity; and detergent concentration on rejection of O/W emulsion and flux were systematically studied. At the condition achieving complete separation of O/W emulsion the pressure-independent flux was observed and this flux behavior was explained by gel-polarization model. The O/W emulsion tended to permeate through the membrane at the conditions of larger pore size; higher emulsion concentration; and higher pressure. The O/W emulsion could permeate the membrane pore structure by destruction or deformation. These results imply the stability of O/W emulsion in the gel-layer formed on membrane surface play an important role in the separation properties. The O/W emulsion was concentrated by batch cross-flow concentration filtration and the flux decline during the concentration filtration was explained by the gel- polarization model.

  13. Separation Properties of Wastewater Containing O/W Emulsion Using Ceramic Microfiltration/Ultrafiltration (MF/UF) Membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Kazuho; Matsumoto, Kanji

    2013-01-01

    Washing systems using water soluble detergent are used in electrical and mechanical industries and the wastewater containing O/W emulsion are discharged from these systems. Membrane filtration has large potential for the efficient separation of O/W emulsion for reuses of treated water and detergent. The separation properties of O/W emulsions by cross-flow microfiltration and ultrafiltration were studied with ceramic MF and UF membranes. The effects of pore size; applied pressure; cross-flow velocity; and detergent concentration on rejection of O/W emulsion and flux were systematically studied. At the condition achieving complete separation of O/W emulsion the pressure-independent flux was observed and this flux behavior was explained by gel-polarization model. The O/W emulsion tended to permeate through the membrane at the conditions of larger pore size; higher emulsion concentration; and higher pressure. The O/W emulsion could permeate the membrane pore structure by destruction or deformation. These results imply the stability of O/W emulsion in the gel-layer formed on membrane surface play an important role in the separation properties. The O/W emulsion was concentrated by batch cross-flow concentration filtration and the flux decline during the concentration filtration was explained by the gel- polarization model. PMID:24958621

  14. An empirical model for parameters affecting energy consumption in boron removal from boron-containing wastewaters by electrocoagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, A Erdem; Boncukcuoğlu, Recep; Kocakerim, M Muhtar

    2007-06-01

    In this study, it was investigated parameters affecting energy consumption in boron removal from boron containing wastewaters prepared synthetically, via electrocoagulation method. The solution pH, initial boron concentration, dose of supporting electrolyte, current density and temperature of solution were selected as experimental parameters affecting energy consumption. The obtained experimental results showed that boron removal efficiency reached up to 99% under optimum conditions, in which solution pH was 8.0, current density 6.0 mA/cm(2), initial boron concentration 100mg/L and solution temperature 293 K. The current density was an important parameter affecting energy consumption too. High current density applied to electrocoagulation cell increased energy consumption. Increasing solution temperature caused to decrease energy consumption that high temperature decreased potential applied under constant current density. That increasing initial boron concentration and dose of supporting electrolyte caused to increase specific conductivity of solution decreased energy consumption. As a result, it was seen that energy consumption for boron removal via electrocoagulation method could be minimized at optimum conditions. An empirical model was predicted by statistically. Experimentally obtained values were fitted with values predicted from empirical model being as following; [formula in text]. Unfortunately, the conditions obtained for optimum boron removal were not the conditions obtained for minimum energy consumption. It was determined that support electrolyte must be used for increase boron removal and decrease electrical energy consumption.

  15. Effect of an essential oil-containing dentifrice on dental plaque microbial composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, C H; Vincent, J W; Borycheski, L; Amatnieks, Y; Sarina, M; Qaqish, J; Proskin, H M

    2000-09-01

    To determine the effect of 6 months use of an essential oil-containing (EO) antiplaque/antigingivitis fluoride dentifrice on the balance of the oral microbial flora and on the emergence of resistant microbial forms by analysis of dental plaque and saliva. The dentifrice essential oils consisted of a fixed combination of thymol, menthol, methyl salicylate, and eucalyptol. An identical fluoride-containing dentifrice without the essential oils served as the control. A subgroup of 66 subjects from a clinical trial population of 321 was randomly selected for characterization of their dental plaque microflora. Saliva was also cultured to monitor for the emergence of opportunistic pathogens. Supragingival plaque and saliva were harvested at baseline, after which subjects received a dental prophylaxis. Subjects were sampled again after 3 and 6 months of product use prior to clinical examination. Plaque was characterized for microbial content by phase contrast microscopy for recognizable cellular morphotypes and by cultivation on nonselective and selective culture media. Determination of the minimum inhibitory concentrations of the test agent against selected Actinomyces and Veillonella isolated bacterial species was conducted at all time points to monitor for the potential development of bacterial resistance. There were no statistically significant differences between the microbial flora obtained from subjects using the essential oil-containing dentifrice and the vehicle control for all parameters and time periods except for the percentage of spirochetes at 6 months and for percentage of "other" microorganisms at 3 months. The EO group exhibited a lower adjusted mean for both parameters. Additionally, there was no evidence of the development of bacterial resistance to the antimicrobial activity of the essential oils or the emergence of opportunistic pathogens.

  16. Evaluation of potential mixed wastes containing lead, chromium, or used oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siskind, B.; MacKenzie, D.R.; Bowerman, B.S.; Kempf, C.R.; Piciulo, P.L.

    1987-01-01

    This paper presents the results of follow-on studies conducted by Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) on certain kinds of low-level waste (LLW) which could also be classified as hazardous waste subject to regulation by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Such LLW is termed ''mixed waste.'' Additional data have been collected and evaluated on two categories of potential mixed waste, namely LLW containing metallic lead and LLW containing chromium. Additionally, LLW with organic liquids, especially liquid scintillation wastes, are reviewed. In light of a proposed EPA rule to list used oil as hazardous waste, the potential mixed waste hazard of used oil contaminated with radionuclides is discussed. It is concluded that the EPA test for determining whether a solid waste exhibits the hazardous characteristic of extraction procedure toxicity does not adequately simulate the burial environment at LLW disposal sites, and in particular, does not adequately assess the potential for dissolution and transport of buried metallic lead. Also, although chromates are, in general, not a normal or routine constitutent in commercial LLW (with the possible exception of chemical decontamination wastes), light water reactors which do use chromates might find it beneficial to consider alternative corrosion inhibitors. In addition, it is noted that if used oil is listed by the EPA as hazardous waste, LLW oil may be managed by a scheme including one or more of the following processes: incineration, immobilization, sorption, aqueous extraction and glass furnace processing

  17. Breads Fortified with Freeze-Dried Vegetables: Quality and Nutritional Attributes. Part II: Breads Not Containing Oil as an Ingredient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viren Ranawana

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The present article describes the second part of a study investigating the effect of adding vegetables on the nutritional, physico-chemical, and oxidative properties of wheat bread, and specifically focuses on bread that does not contain oil as an added ingredient. Wheat flour breads fortified with freeze-dried carrot, tomato, beetroot or broccoli were developed and assessed for their nutritional composition, antioxidant potential, oxidative stability, and storage properties. Using a simulated in vitro model, the study also examined the impact of vegetable addition on the oxidative stability of macronutrients during gastro-intestinal digestion. Adding vegetables improved the nutritional and functional attributes of the oil-free breads. However, they demonstrated a lower antioxidant potential compared to their oil-containing counterparts. Similarly, the textural and storage properties of the oil-free vegetable breads were poorer compared to the oil-containing breads. As expected, in the absence of oil the oil-free breads were associated with lower lipid oxidation both in their fresh form and during gastro-intestinal digestion. Adding vegetables reduced protein oxidation in the fresh oil-free breads but had no effect during gastro-intestinal digestion. The impact of vegetables on macronutrient oxidation in the oil-free breads during digestion appears to be vegetable-specific with broccoli exacerbating it and the others having no effect. Of the evaluated vegetables, beetroot showed the most promising nutritional and physico-chemical benefits when incorporated into bread that does not contain added oil.

  18. Anaerobic treatment of an industrial wastewater containing acetic acid, furfural and sulphite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brune, G.; Schoberth, S.M.; Sahm, H.

    1982-05-01

    The continuous anaerobic digestion of an acid waste water from a cellulose factory was examined. This special effluent (vapour condensate) arises in the acidic sulphite cooking process: about 1000 cubic meters is produced per day by this factory during concentration of sulphite spent liquor. The vapour condensate (about 20,000 gCOD/cubic meters) contained acetic acid (100-400mM), furfural (up to 30mM) and sulphur acids (up to 40mM). Using carefully planned start-up procedures (running of digesters as pH-auxostats), a high COD reduction (85%) and stable methane production rates could be achieved both at 37 degrees and at 60 degrees. The Ks values for acetate were 5.9mM or 15.9mM respectively. Liquid retention times of 12 to 14 days could be considerably decreased to less than 3 days with organism recycle. The gas yields were 0.35-0.4 cubic meters methane/kg COD converted. The predominant organisms responsible for this conversion were methanogens absorbed into floc-like cell aggregates. (Refs. 25).

  19. Long-Term Effects of Olive oil Mill wastewater spreading on soil and olive trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben rouina, B.; Ben Ahmed, C.; Boukhris, M.

    2009-07-01

    The olive oil extraction process produces huge amounts of liquid waste called olive mill waste water (OMWW). Large amounts of OMWW (30 million m{sup 3}) are produced in the Mediterranean regions that accounts for 95% of the total olive oil production worldwide. In Tunisia, OMWW constitutes a serious environmental problem due to the features associated with this type of agro-waste and to its diverse organic load which may reach values as high as 100 g/L and is mained with this type of agro-waste and to its diverse organic load which may reach values as high as 100 g/L is mainly due to sugars. lipids, phenols, and tannins. (Author)

  20. Long-Term Effects of Olive oil Mill wastewater spreading on soil and olive trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben rouina, B.; Ben Ahmed, C.; Boukhris, M.

    2009-01-01

    The olive oil extraction process produces huge amounts of liquid waste called olive mill waste water (OMWW). Large amounts of OMWW (30 million m 3 ) are produced in the Mediterranean regions that accounts for 95% of the total olive oil production worldwide. In Tunisia, OMWW constitutes a serious environmental problem due to the features associated with this type of agro-waste and to its diverse organic load which may reach values as high as 100 g/L and is mained with this type of agro-waste and to its diverse organic load which may reach values as high as 100 g/L is mainly due to sugars. lipids, phenols, and tannins. (Author)

  1. Detection of Adulterated Vegetable Oils Containing Waste Cooking Oils Based on the Contents and Ratios of Cholesterol, β-Sitosterol, and Campesterol by Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Haixiang; Wang, Yongli; Xu, Xiuli; Ren, Heling; Li, Li; Xiang, Li; Zhong, Weike

    2015-01-01

    A simple and accurate authentication method for the detection of adulterated vegetable oils that contain waste cooking oil (WCO) was developed. This method is based on the determination of cholesterol, β-sitosterol, and campesterol in vegetable oils and WCO by GC/MS without any derivatization. A total of 148 samples involving 12 types of vegetable oil and WCO were analyzed. According to the results, the contents and ratios of cholesterol, β-sitosterol, and campesterol were found to be criteria for detecting vegetable oils adulterated with WCO. This method could accurately detect adulterated vegetable oils containing 5% refined WCO. The developed method has been successfully applied to multilaboratory analysis of 81 oil samples. Seventy-five samples were analyzed correctly, and only six adulterated samples could not be detected. This method could not yet be used for detection of vegetable oils adulterated with WCO that are used for frying non-animal foods. It provides a quick method for detecting adulterated edible vegetable oils containing WCO.

  2. KINETIC STUDIES ON BIODEGRADATION OF LIPIDS FROM OLIVE OIL MILL WASTEWATERS WITH FREE AND IMMOBILIZED Bacillus sp. CELLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca-Irina Galaction

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The studies on the biodegradation of lipids from olive oil mill wastewater with free and immobilized Bacillus sp. cells indicated that the maximum specific rate of the process is reached at pH = 8. The use of immobilized cells allows to increasing the number of biodegradation process cycles, but reduces the rate of the process. In this case, the process rate depends on the biocatalysts size and cells concentration inside them. Thus, at bacterial cells concentration of 9 g d.w./100 mL biocatalyst, the apparent specific rate varied from 4.65 to 1.46×10-2 h-1 by increasing the biocatalyst particles diameter from 3 to 4.2 mm.The cumulated influences of the particles size and cells concentration have been included in a mathematical model for the apparent specific rate of lipids biodegradation. The model offers a good concordance with the experimental data, the average deviation being of +/- 7.38%.

  3. Effect of heating oils and fats in containers of different materials on their trans fatty acid content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kala, A L Amrutha; Joshi, Vishal; Gurudutt, K N

    2012-08-30

    The nature of the container material and temperature employed for deep-frying can have an influence on the development of trans fatty acids (TFAs) in the fat used. The present study was undertaken to determine the effect of heating vegetable oils and partially hydrogenated vegetable fats with different initial TFA content in stainless steel, Hindalium (an aluminium alloy), cast iron and glass containers. Ground nut oil (oil 1), refined, bleached and deodorised (RBD) palmolein (oil 2) and two partially hydrogenated vegetable oils with low (fat 1) and high (fat 2) TFA content were uniformly heated at 175-185 °C over a period of 12 h. An increase in TFA content to 20 g kg⁻¹ was observed in oil 2 in the cast iron container, while a decrease in TFA content of 20-30 g kg⁻¹ was observed in fat 2 in all containers. The heating process of fats and oils also led to an increase in Butyro refractometer reading and colour values. This study showed that the TFA 18:1t content of oil 1, oil 2 and fat 1 increased with repeated or prolonged heating. The cast iron container showed the highest increase in TFA 18:1t for RBD palmolein (oil 2). The amount of linoleic acid trans isomers formed in the heating process was negligible. Fat 2 with high initial TFA content showed a decrease in TFA 18:1 and 18:2 on heating in all containers. Oils heated in glass and stainless steel containers showed less TFA 18:1t formation. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Feed supplemented with byproducts from olive oil mill wastewater processing increases antioxidant capacity in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerasopoulos, Konstantinos; Stagos, Dimitrios; Kokkas, Stylianos; Petrotos, Konstantinos; Kantas, Dimitrios; Goulas, Panagiotis; Kouretas, Dimitrios

    2015-08-01

    In the present study, a ceramic membrane microfiltration method was used for the separation of two liquid products, the downstream permeate and the upstream retentate, from olive mill wastewater (OMWW). These liquid products were examined for their antioxidant activity by incorporating them into broilers' feed. Twenty four broilers 13 d old were divided into two feeding groups receiving supplementation with OMWW retentate or permeate for 37 d. Blood was drawn at 17, 27 and 37 d, while tissues (muscle, heart, liver) were collected at 37 d. The antioxidant effects were assessed by measuring oxidative stress biomarkers in blood and tissues. The results showed that broilers given feed supplemented with OMWW retentate or permeate had significantly lower protein oxidation and lipid peroxidation levels and higher total antioxidant capacity in plasma and tissues compared to control group. In both OMWW groups, catalase activity in erythrocytes and tissues was significantly increased compared to control group. OMWW retentate administration increased significantly GSH in erythrocytes in broilers with low GSH, although both OMWW products significantly reduced GSH in broilers with high GSH. Thus, it has been demonstrated for the first time that supplementation with OMWW processing residues could be used for enhancing broilers' redox status. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Determination of total solutes in synfuel wastewaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallace, J.R.; Bonomo, F.S.

    1984-03-01

    Efforts to investigate both lyophilization and the measurement of colligative properties as an indication of total solute content are described. The objective of the work described is to develop a method for measuring total dissolved material in retort wastewaters which is simple and rugged enough to be performed in a field laboratory in support of pollution control tests. The analysis should also be rapid enough to provide timely and pertinent data to the pollution control plant operator. To be of most value, the technique developed also should be applicable to other synfuel wastewaters, most of which contain similar major components as oil shale retort waters. 4 references, 1 table.

  6. Compressive and flexural strength of concrete containing palm oil biomass clinker and polypropylene fibres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, M. H. Wan; Mangi, Sajjad Ali; Burhanudin, M. K.; Ridzuan, M. B.; Jamaluddin, N.; Shahidan, S.; Wong, YH; Faisal, SK; Fadzil, M. A.; Ramadhansyah, P. J.; Ayop, S. S.; Othman, N. H.

    2017-11-01

    This paper presents the effects of using palm oil biomass (POB) clinker with polypropylene (PP) fibres in concrete on its compressive and flexural strength performances. Due to infrastructural development works, the use of concrete in the construction industry has been increased. Simultaneously, it raises the demand natural sand, which causes depletion of natural resources. While considering the environmental and economic benefits, the utilization of industrial waste by-products in concrete will be the alternative solution of the problem. Among the waste products, one of such waste by-product is the palm oil biomass clinker, which is a waste product from burning processes of palm oil fibres. Therefore, it is important to utilize palm oil biomass clinker as partial replacement of fine aggregates in concrete. Considering the facts, an experimental study was conducted to find out the potential usage of palm oil fibres in concrete. In this study, total 48 number of specimens were cast to evaluate the compressive and flexural strength performances. Polypropylene fibre was added in concrete at the rate of 0.2%, 0.4% and 0.6%, and sand was replaced at a constant rate of 10% with palm oil biomass clinker. The flexural strength of concrete was noticed in the range of 2.25 MPa and 2.29 MPa, whereas, the higher value of flexural strength was recorded with 0.4% polypropylene fibre addition. Hence, these results show that the strength performances of concrete containing POB clinker could be improved with the addition of polypropylene fibre.

  7. Myths and facts on wastewater injection, hydraulic fracturing, enhanced oil recovery, and induced seismicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubinstein, Justin L.; Mahani, Alireza Babaie

    2015-01-01

    The central United States has undergone a dramatic increase in seismicity over the past 6 years (Fig. 1), rising from an average of 24 M≥3 earthquakes per year in the years 1973–2008 to an average of 193 M≥3 earthquakes in 2009–2014, with 688 occurring in 2014 alone. Multiple damaging earthquakes have occurred during this increase including the 2011 M 5.6 Prague, Oklahoma, earthquake; the 2011 M 5.3 Trinidad, Colorado, earthquake; and the 2011M 4.7 Guy‐Greenbrier, Arkansas, earthquake. The increased seismicity is limited to a few areas and the evidence is mounting that the seismicity in many of these locations is induced by the deep injection of fluids from nearby oil and gas operations. Earthquakes that are caused by human activities are known as induced earthquakes. Most injection operations, though, do not appear to induce earthquakes. Although the message that these earthquakes are induced by fluid injection related to oil and gas production has been communicated clearly, there remains confusion in the popular press beyond this basic level of understanding.

  8. Water/oil type microemulsion systems containing lidocaine hydrochloride: in vitro and in vivo evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogrul, Ahmet; Arslan, Seyda Akkus; Tirnaksiz, Figen

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a water/oil microemulsion containing lidocaine hydrochloride (4%) and to compare its local anaesthetic efficacy with commercial products. A pseudoternary diagram (Km:1/1 or 1/2) was constructed using lecithin/ethanol/oil/water. The droplet size, viscosity and release of the microemulsions were evaluated. Tail flick tests were conducted for in vivo effectiveness; the initiation time of effect, maximum effect, time to reach maximum effect, and relative efficacy were evaluated. The drug caused a significant increase in droplet size. The use of olive oil resulted in a decrease in the solubilisation parameter, as well as a reduction in the release. The droplet size and viscosity of the microemulsion composed of Miglyol/lecithin/ethanol/water/drug (Km:1/2) was lower than other microemulsions (8.38 nm, 6.9 mPa), and its release rate (1.61 mg/h) was higher. This system had a faster and more efficient anaesthetic effect than the other microemulsions and commercial products. Results indicate that a water/oil type microemulsion (Miglyol/lecithin/ethanol/water) has promising potential to increase the local anaesthetic effect.

  9. Characteristics of waterflooding of oil pools with clay-containing reservoir rocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheltov, Yu V; Stupochenko, V E; Khavkin, A Ya; Martos, V N

    1981-01-01

    When planning the development of oil fields with reservoir pressure maintenance by the injection of water or activated solutions (surfactants, alkali, etc.), it is necessary to take into account the consequences of phenomena related to clay swelling. For this purpose, it is necessary to measure on a core the parameters characterizing the change and hysteresis of the filtration and storage properties of the reservoir rocks. Swelling of the clay component of the rock along with reducing these properties in the sweep zone can promote an increase of the efficiency of displacing oil by water. Theoretical investigations showed that the maximum displacement efficiency in homogeneous clay-containing rocks does not depend on the time of starting stimulation by demineralized waters. The efficiency from changing the mineralization of the stimulating agent increases with increase of viscosity of the oil. Under certain physical and geologic conditions, a purposeful change of the filtration and storage properties by increasing or decreasing clay swelling can increase the efficiency of developing the field and can increase oil recovery.

  10. Rheological and tribological behaviour of lubricating oils containing platelet MoS2 nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Qingming; Jin, Yi; Sun, Pengcheng; Ding, Yulong

    2014-05-01

    This work concerns rheological and frictional behaviour of lubricating oils containing platelet molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) nanoparticles (average diameter 50 nm; single layer thickness 3 nm). Stable nano-MoS2 lubricants were formulated and measured for their rheological behaviour and tribological performance. Rheological experiments showed that the nano-MoS2 oils were non-Newtonian following the Bingham plastic fluid model. The viscosity data fitted the classic Hinch-Leal (H-L) model if an agglomeration factor of 1.72 was introduced. Tribological experiments indicated that the use of MoS2 nanoparticles could enhance significantly the tribological performance of the base lubricating oil (reduced frictional coefficient, reduced surface wear and increased stability). Scanning electron microscopy, laser confocal microscope and x-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy analyses suggested that the reduced frictional coefficient and surface wear be associated with surface patching effects. Such patching effects were shown to depend on the concentration of MoS2 nanoparticles, and an effective patching required a concentration over approximately 1 wt%. The increased stability could be attributed to the enhanced heat transfer and lubricating oil film strength due to the presence of nanoparticles.

  11. Performance and model of a full-scale up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) to treat the pharmaceutical wastewater containing 6-APA and amoxicillin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhiqiang; Wang, Hongcheng; Chen, Zhaobo; Ren, Nanqi; Wang, Aijie; Shi, Yue; Li, Xiaoming

    2011-01-30

    A full-scale test was conducted with an up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) pre-treating pharmaceutical wastewater containing 6-aminopenicillanic acid (6-APA) and amoxicillin. The aim of the study is to investigate the performance of UASB in the condition of a high chemical oxygen demand (COD) loading rate from 12.57 to 21.02 kgm(-3)d(-1) and a wide pH from 5.57 to 8.26, in order to provide a reference for treating the similar chemical synthetic pharmaceutical wastewater containing 6-APA and amoxicillin. The results demonstrated that the UASB average percentage reduction in COD, 6-APA and amoxicillin were 52.2%, 26.3% and 21.6%, respectively. In addition, three models, built on the back propagation neural network (BPNN) theory and linear regression techniques were developed for the simulation of the UASB system performance in the biodegradation of pharmaceutical wastewater containing 6-APA and amoxicillin. The average error of COD, 6-APA and amoxicillin were -0.63%, 2.19% and 5.40%, respectively. The results indicated that these models built on the BPNN theory were well-fitted to the detected data, and were able to simulate and predict the removal of COD, 6-APA and amoxicillin by UASB. Crown Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. An empirical model for parameters affecting energy consumption in boron removal from boron-containing wastewaters by electrocoagulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yilmaz, A. Erdem; Boncukcuoglu, Recep; Kocakerim, M. Muhtar

    2007-01-01

    In this study, it was investigated parameters affecting energy consumption in boron removal from boron containing wastewaters prepared synthetically, via electrocoagulation method. The solution pH, initial boron concentration, dose of supporting electrolyte, current density and temperature of solution were selected as experimental parameters affecting energy consumption. The obtained experimental results showed that boron removal efficiency reached up to 99% under optimum conditions, in which solution pH was 8.0, current density 6.0mA/cm 2 , initial boron concentration 100mg/L and solution temperature 293K. The current density was an important parameter affecting energy consumption too. High current density applied to electrocoagulation cell increased energy consumption. Increasing solution temperature caused to decrease energy consumption that high temperature decreased potential applied under constant current density. That increasing initial boron concentration and dose of supporting electrolyte caused to increase specific conductivity of solution decreased energy consumption. As a result, it was seen that energy consumption for boron removal via electrocoagulation method could be minimized at optimum conditions. An empirical model was predicted by statistically. Experimentally obtained values were fitted with values predicted from empirical model being as following;[ECB]=7.6x10 6 x[OH] 0.11 x[CD] 0.62 x[IBC] -0.57 x[DSE] -0.04 x[T] -2.98 x[t] Unfortunately, the conditions obtained for optimum boron removal were not the conditions obtained for minimum energy consumption. It was determined that support electrolyte must be used for increase boron removal and decrease electrical energy consumption.

  13. Effect of influent COD/SO4(2-) ratios on UASB treatment of a synthetic sulfate-containing wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yong; Jing, Zhaoqian; Sudo, Yuta; Niu, Qigui; Du, Jingru; Wu, Jiang; Li, Yu-You

    2015-07-01

    The effect of the chemical oxygen demand/sulfate (COD/SO4(2-)) ratio on the anaerobic treatment of synthetic chemical wastewater containing acetate, ethanol, and sulfate, was investigated using a UASB reactor. The experimental results show that at a COD/SO4(2-) ratio of 20 and a COD loading rate of 25.2gCODL(-1)d(-1), a COD removal of as high as 87.8% was maintained. At a COD/SO4(2-) ratio of 0.5 (sulfate concentration 6000mgL(-1)), however, the COD removal was 79.2% and the methane yield was 0.20LCH4gCOD(-1). The conversion of influent COD to methane dropped from 80.5% to 54.4% as the COD/SO4(2-) ratio decreased from 20 to 0.5. At all the COD/SO4(2-) ratios applied, over 79.4% of the total electron flow was utilized by methane-producing archaea (MPA), indicating that methane fermentation was the predominant reaction. The majority of the methane was produced by acetoclastic MPA at high COD/SO4(2-) ratios and both acetoclastic and hydrogenthrophic MPA at low COD/SO4(2-) ratios. Only at low COD/SO4(2-) ratios were SRB species such as Desulfovibrio found to play a key role in ethanol degradation, whereas all the SRB species were found to be incomplete oxidizers at both high and low COD/SO4(2-) ratios. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. An empirical model for parameters affecting energy consumption in boron removal from boron-containing wastewaters by electrocoagulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yilmaz, A. Erdem [Atatuerk University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Environmental Engineering, 25240 Erzurum (Turkey)]. E-mail: aerdemy@atauni.edu.tr; Boncukcuoglu, Recep [Atatuerk University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Environmental Engineering, 25240 Erzurum (Turkey); Kocakerim, M. Muhtar [Atatuerk University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Chemical Engineering, 25240 Erzurum (Turkey)

    2007-06-01

    In this study, it was investigated parameters affecting energy consumption in boron removal from boron containing wastewaters prepared synthetically, via electrocoagulation method. The solution pH, initial boron concentration, dose of supporting electrolyte, current density and temperature of solution were selected as experimental parameters affecting energy consumption. The obtained experimental results showed that boron removal efficiency reached up to 99% under optimum conditions, in which solution pH was 8.0, current density 6.0mA/cm{sup 2}, initial boron concentration 100mg/L and solution temperature 293K. The current density was an important parameter affecting energy consumption too. High current density applied to electrocoagulation cell increased energy consumption. Increasing solution temperature caused to decrease energy consumption that high temperature decreased potential applied under constant current density. That increasing initial boron concentration and dose of supporting electrolyte caused to increase specific conductivity of solution decreased energy consumption. As a result, it was seen that energy consumption for boron removal via electrocoagulation method could be minimized at optimum conditions. An empirical model was predicted by statistically. Experimentally obtained values were fitted with values predicted from empirical model being as following;[ECB]=7.6x10{sup 6}x[OH]{sup 0.11}x[CD]{sup 0.62}x[IBC]{sup -0.57}x[DSE]{sup -0.}= {sup 04}x[T]{sup -2.98}x[t] Unfortunately, the conditions obtained for optimum boron removal were not the conditions obtained for minimum energy consumption. It was determined that support electrolyte must be used for increase boron removal and decrease electrical energy consumption.

  15. Characterization of soluble microbial products (SMPs) in a membrane bioreactor (MBR) treating synthetic wastewater containing pharmaceutical compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dongqing; Trzcinski, Antoine Prandota; Kunacheva, Chinagarn; Stuckey, David C; Liu, Yu; Tan, Soon Keat; Ng, Wun Jern

    2016-10-01

    This study investigated the behaviour and characteristics of soluble microbial products (SMP) in two anoxic-aerobic membrane bioreactors (MBRs): MBRcontrol and MBRpharma, for treating municipal wastewater. Both protein and polysaccharides measured exhibited higher concentrations in the MBRpharma than the MBRcontrol. Molecular weight (MW) distribution analysis revealed that the presence of pharmaceuticals enhanced the accumulation of SMPs with macro- (13,091 kDa and 1587 kDa) and intermediate-MW (189 kDa) compounds in the anoxic MBRpharma, while a substantial decrease was observed in both MBR effluents. Excitation emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence contours indicated that the exposure to pharmaceuticals seemed to stimulate the production of aromatic proteins containing tyrosine (10.1-32.6%) and tryptophan (14.7-43.1%), compared to MBRcontrol (9.9-29.1% for tyrosine; 11.8-42.5% for tryptophan). Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis revealed aromatics, long-chain alkanes and esters were the predominant SMPs in the MBRs. More peaks were present in the aerobic MBRpharma (196) than anoxic MBRpharma (133). The SMPs identified exhibited both biodegradability and recalcitrance in the MBR treatment processes. Only 8 compounds in the MBRpharma were the same as in the MBRcontrol. Alkanes were the most dominant SMPs (51%) in the MBRcontrol, while aromatics were dominant (40%) in the MBRpharma. A significant decrease in aromatics (from 16 to 7) in the MBRpharma permeate was observed, compared to the aerobic MBRpharma. Approximately 21% of compounds in the aerobic MBRcontrol were rejected by membrane filtration, while this increased to 28% in the MBRpharma. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Nano-Structured Magnesium Oxide Coated Iron Ore: Its Application to the Remediation of Wastewater Containing Lead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagarajah, Ranjini; Jang, Min; Pichiah, Saravanan; Cho, Jongman; Snyder, Shane A

    2015-12-01

    Magnetically separable nano-structured magnesium oxide coated iron ore (IO(MgO)) was prepared using environmentally benign chemicals, such as iron ore (IO), magnesium(II) nitrate hexahydrate [Mg(NO3)2 x 6H2O] and urea; via an easy and fast preparation method. The lO(MgO) was characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and alternating gradient magnetometer (AGM) analyses. The isotherm and kinetic studies indicated that lO(MgO) has a comparably higher Langmuir constant (K(L), 1.69 L mg(-1)) and maximum sorption capacity (33.9 mg g(-1)) for lead (Pb) than other inorganic media. Based on MgO amount, the removal capacity of Pb by IO(MgO) was 2,724 mg Pb (g MgO)(-1), which was higher than that (1,980 mg g(-1)) for flowerlike magnesium oxide nanostructures reported by Cao et al. The kinetics, FE-SEM, elemental mapping and XRD results revealed that the substitution followed by precipitation was identified as the mechanism of Pb removal and plumbophyllite (Pb2Si4O10 x H2O) was the precipitated phase of Pb. A leaching test revealed that IOMgO) had negligible concentrations of leached Fe at pH 4-9. Since the base material, IO, is cheap and easily available, lO(MgO) could be produced in massive amounts and used for remediation of wastewater containing heavy metals, applying simple and fast magnetic separation.

  17. Kinetic Study of the Catalytic Pyrolysis of Oil-Containing Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirill Chalov

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Basing on the experimental data the optimal parameters of the pyrolysis of heavy and residual hydrocarbons of oil were defined as follows: temperature of 500 °С; catalyst  of CoCl2 with the catalyst loading 5% (wt. of the substrate weight. Under the optimal conditions the kinetic investigation of the pyrolysis process was carried out using the thermogravimetric method. According to the investigation, it was found that the activation energy of the catalytic pyrolysis of oil-containing waste decreased by 20-30 kJ/mol in comparison to non-catalytic process. Copyright © 2016 BCREC GROUP. All rights reserved Received: 13th July 2015; Revised: 25th March 2016; Accepted: 1st April 2016 How to Cite: Chalov, K., Lugovoy, Y., Kosivtsov, Y., Sulman, M., Sulman, E., Matveeva, V., Stepacheva, A. (2016. Kinetic Study of the Catalytic Pyrolysis of Oil-Containing Waste. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 11 (3: 330-338 (doi:10.9767/bcrec.11.3.572.330-338 Permalink/DOI: http://doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.11.3.572.330-338

  18. [Fish oil containing lipid emulsions in critically ill patients: Critical analysis and future perspectives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzanares, W; Langlois, P L

    2016-01-01

    Third-generation lipid emulsions (LE) are soybean oil sparing strategies with immunomodulatory and antiinflammatory effects. Current evidence supporting the use of intravenous (i.v) fish oil (FO) LE in critically ill patients requiring parenteral nutrition or receiving enteral nutrition (pharmaconutrient strategy) mainly derives from small phase ii clinical trials in heterogenous intensive care unit patient's population. Over the last three years, there have been published different systematic reviews and meta-analyses evaluating the effects of FO containing LE in the critically ill. Recently, it has been demonstrated that i.v FO based LE may be able to significantly reduce the incidence of infections as well as mechanical ventilation days and hospital length of stay. Nonetheless, more robust evidence is required before giving a definitive recommendation. Finally, we strongly believe that a dosing study is required before new phase iii clinical trials comparing i.v FO containing emulsions versus other soybean oil strategies can be conducted. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  19. Castor oil polyurethane containing silica nanoparticles as filling material of bone defect in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nacer, Renato Silva; Poppi, Rodrigo Ré; Carvalho, Paulo de Tarso Camilo de; Silva, Baldomero Antonio Kato da; Odashiro, Alexandre Nakao; Silva, Iandara Schettert; Delben, José Renato Jurkevicz; Delben, Angela Antonia Sanches Tardivo

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the biologic behavior of the castor polymer containing silica nanoparticles as a bone substitute in diafisary defect. Twenty seven male Rattus norvegicus albinus Wistar lineage were submitted to bone defect filled with castor oil polymer. Three experimental groups had been formed with nine animals each: (1) castor oil polymer containing only calcium carbonate; (2) castor oil polymer with calcium carbonate and doped with 5% of silica nanoparticles; (3) castor polymer with calcium carbonate doped with 10% of silica nanoparticles; 3 animals of each group were submitted to euthanasia 15, 30 and 60 days after experimental procedure, and their femurs were removed to histological evaluation. there was bone growth in all the studied groups, with a greater tendency of growth in the group 1. After 30 days all the groups presented similar results. After 60 days a greater amount of fibroblasts, osteoblasts, osteocytes and osteoclasts in group 3 was observed, with integrated activity of 3 kinds of cells involved in the bone activation-reabsorption-formation. The castor polymer associated to the silica nanoparticles is biocompatible and allows osteoconduction. The presence of osteoprogenitors cells suggests silica osteoinduction capacity.

  20. Evaluating a protocol for testing fire-resistant oil-spill containment boom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walton, W.D.; Twilley, W.H.; Hiltabrand, R.R.; Mullin, J.V.

    1998-01-01

    A series of experiments were conducted to evaluate a protocol for testing the ability of fire-resistant booms to withstand both fire and waves. Most response plans for in situ burning of oil at sea require the use of a fire-resistant boom to contain the oil during a burn. For this study, a wave tank was designed and constructed to assess the capabilities of a 15 m section of a boom subjected to a 5 m diameter fire with 0.15 m high waves. Five typical fire-resistant oil-spill containment booms were tested. The purpose of the project was to evaluate the test procedure, therefore the overall performance of the boom was not evaluated on a pass-fail criterion. The two most important aspects of the test method were repeatability and reproducibility. Some of the parameters tested included the effect of wind, waves, fire size, and fire duration. Methods to constrain the booms were also tested. 7 refs., 6 tabs., 7 figs

  1. Determination of aromatic and PAH content of oily wastewaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lysyj, I. (Rockwell International, Canoga Park, CA); Russell, E.C.

    1978-08-01

    A method for analysis of oil and grease in water is described. The method is used to provide data on total, dissolved, and suspended organic content of wastewater sample and the concentration of hydrocarbons. Additionally, volatile and water soluble fractions which contain many organic compounds critical to the environment are characterized both qualitatively and quantitatively. A number of real-life treated and untreated bilge waste samples were collected at the U.S. Army Fort Eustis facility and analyzed using this method. It was found that untreated bilge wastewater contained both suspended and dissolved organic matter. The suspended organics ranged between 10 and 300 ppM, while the dissolved organics were in the 10 to 150 ppM range. Treated bilge wastewater usually contained no suspended organics but did contain rather high levels of dissolved organic matter 700 to 200 ppM). Up to 70% of the dissolved organics in untreated bilge wastewater were chloroform extractable, while less than 10% of the dissolved organis in treated bilge wastewater were extractable into chloroform. It is believed that the bulk of organic matter in treated bilge wastewater were extractable into chloroform. It is believed that the bulk of organic matter in treated bilge wastewater is biologically derived from the degradation of petroleum, while smaller portions consist of refractory, petroleum derived, water-soluble organic compounds.

  2. Contamination of the transformer oil of power transformers and shunting reactors by metal-containing colloidal particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    L’vov, S. Yu.; Komarov, V. B.; Bondareva, V. N.; Seliverstov, A. F.; Lyut’ko, E. O.; L’vov, Yu. N.; Ershov, B. G.

    2011-01-01

    The results of a measurement of the contamination of the oil in 66 transformers by metal-containing colloidal particles, formed as a result of the interaction of the oil with the structural materials (the copper of the windings, the iron of the tank and core etc.), and also the results of measurements of the optical turbidity of the oil in 136 transformers when they were examined at the Power Engineering Research and Development Center Company are presented. Methods of determining the concentration of copper and iron in transformer oil are considered. The limiting values of the optical turbidity factors, the copper and iron content are determined. These can serve as a basis for taking decisions on whether to replace the silica gel of the filters for continuously purifying the oil of power transformers and the shunting reactors in addition to the standardized oil contamination factors, namely, the dielectric loss tangent and the acidity number of the oil.

  3. Secondary Containment Design for the LLNL B801 Diala Oil Tank

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mertesdorf, E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-12-14

    Design is to add an extension to the secondary containment of tank T1-A3 at building 801. Piping from the inner tank penetrates the secondary containment tank below the liquid level of the primary tank. To meet Oil Pollution Prevention Regulation 40 CFR 120.7 the single wall piping needs to be provided with secondary containment. Steel Tank Institute (STI) conference publication states: §112.3(d)(1)(iii) –SPCC Plan requirements- Systems shall be designed in accordance with good engineering practice, including consideration of applicable industry standards and that procedures for required inspections and testing have been established. Section 112.7(a)(2) allows for deviations from specific rule requirements, provided the Owner/operator responsible to select, document and implement alternate measure and a PE certifies the SPCC Plan in accordance with good engineering practices, including consideration of industry standards

  4. Steam reforming as an alternative technique for treatment of oil sludge containing naturally occurring radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norasalwa Zakaria; Muhd Noor Muhd Yunus; Mohd Khairi Muhd Said; Mohamad Azman Che Mat Isa; Mohd Puad Abu

    2004-01-01

    Steam reforming treatment system is an innovative technology that holds a potential to treat mixed waste containing radioactive material. The system is utilizing the thermal heat of the superheated steam at 500 degree C to produce combustible gases and integrates it with ash melting at 1400 degree C for final destruction. In this system, liquids are evaporated, organics are converted into a hydrogen-rich gas, chlorinated compounds are converted in hydrochloric acid, and reactive chemicals in the waste containing radionuclide and heavy metals are converted into the stable product through ash melting dioxins and furans are not formed, but instead are destroyed in the reducing environment of the system. No secondary pollutants are produced from the system that requires subsequent treatment. The system is divided into three development stages, and currently the project is progressing at development stage 1. This project is an entailment of a concentrated effort to solve oil sludge containing radioactive material treatment issue. (Author)

  5. Sulphur-containing compounds in sulphur-rich crude oils from hypersaline lake sediments and their geochemical implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Guoying, S.; Jiamo, F.; Brassell, S.C.; Gowar, A.P.; Eglinton, G.; Leeuw, J.W. de; Schenck, P.A.

    1987-01-01

    Three sulphur-rich commercial crude oils have been studied, which contain sulphur as high as up to 4 —12 %. These samples were collected from Tertiary hypersaline lake sediments of the Jianghan Basin, Hubei Province at different depths, but above the oil generation threshold (2200m). FPD-GC and

  6. DHA-Containing Oilseed: A Timely Solution for the Sustainability Issues Surrounding Fish Oil Sources of the Health-Benefitting Long-Chain Omega-3 Oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitessa, Soressa M.; Abeywardena, Mahinda; Wijesundera, Chakra; Nichols, Peter D.

    2014-01-01

    Benefits of long-chain (≥C20) omega-3 oils (LC omega-3 oils) for reduction of the risk of a range of disorders are well documented. The benefits result from eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA); optimal intake levels of these bioactive fatty acids for maintenance of normal health and prevention of diseases have been developed and adopted by national and international health agencies and science bodies. These developments have led to increased consumer demand for LC omega-3 oils and, coupled with increasing global population, will impact on future sustainable supply of fish. Seafood supply from aquaculture has risen over the past decades and it relies on harvest of wild catch fisheries also for its fish oil needs. Alternate sources of LC omega-3 oils are being pursued, including genetically modified soybean rich in shorter-chain stearidonic acid (SDA, 18:4ω3). However, neither oils from traditional oilseeds such as linseed, nor the SDA soybean oil have shown efficient conversion to DHA. A recent breakthrough has seen the demonstration of a land plant-based oil enriched in DHA, and with omega-6 PUFA levels close to that occurring in marine sources of EPA and DHA. We review alternative sources of DHA supply with emphasis on the need for land plant oils containing EPA and DHA. PMID:24858407

  7. DHA-Containing Oilseed: A Timely Solution for the Sustainability Issues Surrounding Fish Oil Sources of the Health-Benefitting Long-Chain Omega-3 Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soressa M. Kitessa

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Benefits of long-chain (≥C20 omega-3 oils (LC omega-3 oils for reduction of the risk of a range of disorders are well documented. The benefits result from eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; optimal intake levels of these bioactive fatty acids for maintenance of normal health and prevention of diseases have been developed and adopted by national and international health agencies and science bodies. These developments have led to increased consumer demand for LC omega-3 oils and, coupled with increasing global population, will impact on future sustainable supply of fish. Seafood supply from aquaculture has risen over the past decades and it relies on harvest of wild catch fisheries also for its fish oil needs. Alternate sources of LC omega-3 oils are being pursued, including genetically modified soybean rich in shorter-chain stearidonic acid (SDA, 18:4ω3. However, neither oils from traditional oilseeds such as linseed, nor the SDA soybean oil have shown efficient conversion to DHA. A recent breakthrough has seen the demonstration of a land plant-based oil enriched in DHA, and with omega-6 PUFA levels close to that occurring in marine sources of EPA and DHA. We review alternative sources of DHA supply with emphasis on the need for land plant oils containing EPA and DHA.

  8. DHA-containing oilseed: a timely solution for the sustainability issues surrounding fish oil sources of the health-benefitting long-chain omega-3 oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitessa, Soressa M; Abeywardena, Mahinda; Wijesundera, Chakra; Nichols, Peter D

    2014-05-22

    Benefits of long-chain (≥C20) omega-3 oils (LC omega-3 oils) for reduction of the risk of a range of disorders are well documented. The benefits result from eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA); optimal intake levels of these bioactive fatty acids for maintenance of normal health and prevention of diseases have been developed and adopted by national and international health agencies and science bodies. These developments have led to increased consumer demand for LC omega-3 oils and, coupled with increasing global population, will impact on future sustainable supply of fish. Seafood supply from aquaculture has risen over the past decades and it relies on harvest of wild catch fisheries also for its fish oil needs. Alternate sources of LC omega-3 oils are being pursued, including genetically modified soybean rich in shorter-chain stearidonic acid (SDA, 18:4ω3). However, neither oils from traditional oilseeds such as linseed, nor the SDA soybean oil have shown efficient conversion to DHA. A recent breakthrough has seen the demonstration of a land plant-based oil enriched in DHA, and with omega-6 PUFA levels close to that occurring in marine sources of EPA and DHA. We review alternative sources of DHA supply with emphasis on the need for land plant oils containing EPA and DHA.

  9. Castor oil polyurethane as a coating option for spent nuclear fuel disposal containment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mortley, A.; Bonin, H.W.; Bui, V.T. [Dept. of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Royal Military College of Canada, Kingston, Ontario (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    Castor oil polyurethane (COPU) coatings are being proposed as an additional barrier in the design of the copper containers to store spent nuclear fuel in Canada. The present work investigates the variation in the physicomechanical properties of two COPUs, based on an aliphatic and aromatic diisocyanate, as a function of ionizing radiation dose and dose rate. The changes in physicomechanical properties have shown that radiation, regardless of dose rate and isocyanate structure, increases the values of the modulus and the ultimate tensile strength when compared with those of the unirradiated samples, with aromatic based polyurethanes being more susceptible to variation than aliphatic based ones. (author)

  10. Epoxide resin coatings of cans - substance transfer to oil-containing foods possible

    OpenAIRE

    German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment

    2016-01-01

    Oily foods in cans can contain levels of Cyclo-di-BADGE (CdB) that present a health risk for high consumers. This is the result of a health risk assessment of the Federal Institute for Risk Assessment (BfR) in which the institute analysed data on the CdB content of canned fish preserved in oil. CdB is a molecule consisting of Bisphenol A (BPA) and Bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE). It is formed as a by-product during the production of epoxide resins which are, for example, used for the int...

  11. Castor oil polyurethane as a coating option for spent nuclear fuel disposal containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mortley, A.; Bonin, H.W.; Bui, V.T.

    2009-01-01

    Castor oil polyurethane (COPU) coatings are being proposed as an additional barrier in the design of the copper containers to store spent nuclear fuel in Canada. The present work investigates the variation in the physicomechanical properties of two COPUs, based on an aliphatic and aromatic diisocyanate, as a function of ionizing radiation dose and dose rate. The changes in physicomechanical properties have shown that radiation, regardless of dose rate and isocyanate structure, increases the values of the modulus and the ultimate tensile strength when compared with those of the unirradiated samples, with aromatic based polyurethanes being more susceptible to variation than aliphatic based ones. (author)

  12. Detection of arsenic-containing hydrocarbons in a range of commercial fish oils by GC-ICPMS analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sele, Veronika; Amlund, Heidi; Berntssen, Marc H. G.

    2013-01-01

    The present study describes the use of a simple solid-phase extraction procedure for the extraction of arsenic-containing hydrocarbons from fish oil followed by analysis using gas chromatography (GC) coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS). The procedure permitted the anal......The present study describes the use of a simple solid-phase extraction procedure for the extraction of arsenic-containing hydrocarbons from fish oil followed by analysis using gas chromatography (GC) coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS). The procedure permitted...... the analysis of a small sample amount, and the method was applied on a range of different commercial fish oils, including oils of anchovy (Engraulis ringens), Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus), sand eel (Ammodytes marinus), blue whiting (Micromesistius poutassou) and a commercial mixed fish oil (mix of oils...... of Atlantic herring, Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) and saithe (Pollachius virens)). Total arsenic concentrations in the fish oils and in the extracts of the fish oils were determined by microwave-assisted acid digestion and ICPMS. The arsenic concentrations in the fish oils ranged from 5.9 to 8.7 mg kg-1. Three...

  13. A Study on the Preparation of Regular Multiple Micro-Electrolysis Filler and the Application in Pretreatment of Oil Refinery Wastewater

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Ruihong; ZHU, Jianzhong; Li, Yingliu; Zhang, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Through a variety of material screening experiments, Al was selected as the added metal and constituted a multiple micro-electrolysis system of Fe/C/Al. The metal proportion of alloy-structured filler was also analyzed with the best Fe/C/Al ratio of 3:1:1. The regular Fe/C/Al multiple micro-electrolysis fillers were prepared using a high-temperature anaerobic roasting method. The optimum conditions for oil refinery wastewater treated by Fe/C/Al multiple micro-electrolysis were determined to b...

  14. Effect of resins of heat exchanger fouling by asphaltene-containing oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Atar, E.; Watkinson, A.P. [British Columbia Univ., Dept. of Chemical and Bio-Resource Engineering, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    1999-07-01

    The effects of resins on the thermal fouling of asphaltene containing oils in heat exchangers was investigated as well as the nature of the deposits. Building on previous research, a sample of de-asphalted vacuum bottoms (DAO), serving as a source of natural resins, heavy oil (HO) and fuel oil was used to investigate the effects of resin concentration on the rate of thermal fouling. The conditions of the study included: fluid circulation through the UBC annular fouling test section for up to 30 hour periods, monitoring of thermal fouling by measurement, and nitrogen atmospheres at a bulk temperature of 85 degrees C, a bulk velocity of 0.85 am/s, and a pressure of 410 kPa. Physical and chemical characterization of the deposits was affected, and filtration at the bulk temperature before and after a run was used to determine the occurrence of fine solids in the fluid. The rate of fouling generally decreased tending generally towards asymptotic behavior in the limit, and after one day Rf values up to 0.3 m2K/kW occurred with severe fouling. An increase in the fouling rate occurred with increased DAO concentration in the mixture, at a fixed heavy oil concentration of 5 weight percent, and the relation between Asomaning's colloidal instability index and the trends in fouling rate was not observed, although there were some indications of reduced fouling as there was an increase in the ratio of resins to asphaltenes, however, blends of the DAO-HO-FO helped to control the concentration of asphaltenes and resins that are possible. (Abstract only).

  15. Application of Starch Foams Containing Plant Essential Oils to Prevent Mold Growth and Improve Shelf Life of Packaged Bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Lotfinia

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In the recent years, considerable attention has been allocated in the area of using natural preservatives in foods, especially vegetable oils. Starch foams prepared from high amylose starch are useful for encapsulation of substances such as chemicals, liquids or solids, including flavor compounds, pharmaceuticals and essential oils. The foams have the ability to trap the active material and subsequently release the activity. Cinnamon oil is absorbed to foam starch microparticles and acts as an antimicrobial agent. This study was designed and implemented to evaluate the use of starch foam containing vegetable oil to prevent mold growth and improve packaged bread shelf life. For this purpose, first cinnamon essential oil was extracted with water by distillation method then, 250 groups of bread were prepared within polypropylene plastic bags. Various amounts of cinnamon essential oil (500, 750, 1000and1500ppm with 1 g of starch foam powder inside sterilized filter paper were added to these packages.The obtained results of multi-way and intergroup repeated tests indicated that there was a significant difference (P <0/05 between the control groups and various groups containing cinnamon essential oil in terms of microbial load. In the groups containing essential oils, less increase was showed in microbial load and with increasing concentrations of cinnamon essential oil, mold and yeast growth rate decreased. It concluded that by using starch foam containing cinnamon essential oil in bulky bread packing at ambient temperature (25°C, the spoilage process of bulky bread can be postponed 3 to 6 days, and it can be used as an appropriate natural and antifungal preservative in packaging of bread.

  16. Application of Starch Foams Containing Plant Essential Oils to Prevent Mold Growth and Improve Shelf Life of Packaged Bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Lotfinia

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In the recent years, considerable attention has been allocated in the area of using natural preservatives in foods, especially vegetable oils.  Starch foams prepared from high amylose starch are useful for encapsulation of substances such as chemicals, liquids or solids, including flavor compounds, pharmaceuticals and essential oils. The foams have the ability to trap the active material and subsequently release the activity. Cinnamon oil is absorbed to foam starch microparticles and acts as an antimicrobial agent. This study was designed and implemented to evaluate the use of starch foam containing vegetable oil to prevent mold growth and improve packaged bread shelf life. For this purpose, first cinnamon essential oil was extracted with water by distillation method then, 250 groups of bread were prepared within polypropylene plastic bags. Various amounts of cinnamon essential oil (500, 750, 1000and1500ppm with 1 g of starch foam powder inside sterilized filter paper were added to these packages.The obtained results of multi-way and intergroup repeated tests indicated that there was a significant difference (P <0/05 between the control groups and various groups containing cinnamon essential oil in terms of microbial load. In the groups containing essential oils, less increase was showed in microbial load and with increasing concentrations of cinnamon essential oil, mold and yeast growth rate decreased. It concluded that by using starch foam containing cinnamon essential oil in bulky bread packing at ambient temperature (25°C, the spoilage process of bulky bread can be postponed 3 to 6 days, and it can be used as an appropriate natural and antifungal preservative in packaging of bread.

  17. Organic constituents in sour condensates from shale-oil and petroleum-crude runs at Sohio's Toledo refinery: identification and wastewater-control-technology considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wingender, R J; Harrison, W; Raphaelian, L A

    1981-02-01

    Samples of sour condensate generated from the continuous processing of both crude shale oil and petroleum crude were collected and extracted with methylene chloride. The extracts were analyzed using capillary-column gas chromatography/mass spectrometry at Argonne National Laboratory and Radian Corporation. Qualitatively, the predominant types of organic compounds present in the shale-oil sour condensate were pyridines and anilines; semiquantitatively, these compounds were present at a concentration of 5.7 ppM, or about 78% of the total concentration of components detected. In contrast, straight-chain alkanes were the predominant types of compounds found in the sour condensate produced during isocracking of conventional crude oil. The approximate concentration of straight-chain alkanes, 8.3 ppM, and of other branched and/or unsaturated hydrocarbons, 6.8 ppM, amounted to 88% of the total concentration of components detected in the sour condensate from the petroleum-crude run. Nitrogen compounds in the shale-oil sour condensate may necessitate alterations of the sour water and refinery wastewater-treatment facilities to provide for organics degradation and to accommodate the potentially greater ammonia loadings. This would include use of larger amounts of caustic to enhance ammonia removal by steam stripping. Possible problems associated with biological removal of organic-nitrogen compounds should be investigated in future experimental shale-oil refining runs.

  18. An evaluation of propane as a fuel for testing fire-resistant oil spill containment booms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walton, W. D.; Twilley, W. H.

    1997-01-01

    A series of experiments have been conducted to measure and compare the thermal exposure to a fire-resistant boom from liquid hydrocarbon fuel and propane fires. The objective was to test the potential of propane fueled fires as a fire source for testing fire-resistant oil spill containment booms.Thermal exposure from propane fires have been measured with and without waves. Results indicated that although propane diffusion flames on water look like liquid hydrocarbon fuel flames and produce very little smoke, the heat flux at the boom location from propane fires is about 60 per cent of that from liquid hydrocarbon fuel fires. Despite the attractive features in terms of ease of application, control and smoke emissions, it was concluded that the low heat flux would preclude the application of propane as a fuel for evaluating fire resistant containment booms. 2 refs., 7 figs

  19. Nanostructured systems containing babassu (Orbignya speciosa oil as a potential alternative therapy for benign prostatic hyperplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Sousa VP

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Valeria Pereira de Sousa,1 Joanne Crean,2 Vinícius Raphael de Almeida Borges,1 Carlos Rangel Rodrigues,1 Lidia Tajber,2 Fabio Boylan,2 Lucio Mendes Cabral1 1Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; 2School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences and Trinity Biomedical Sciences Institute, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland Abstract: The oil of babassu tree nuts (Orbignya speciosa is a potential alternative for treatment and prophylaxis of benign prostatic hyperplasia. Improved results can be obtained by drug vectorization to the hyperplastic tissue. The main objective of this work was the preparation and characterization of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA nanoparticle and clay nanosystems containing babassu oil (BBS. BBS was extracted from the kernels of babassu tree nuts and characterized by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry as well as 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance. BBS-clay nanosystems were obtained by adding polyvinylpyrrolidone, Viscogel B8®, and BBS at a 2:1:1 mass ratio and characterized by X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis, infrared spectroscopy, and laser diffraction. The PLGA-BBS nanoparticles were prepared by the precipitation-solvent evaporation method. Mean diameter, polydispersity, zeta potential, and scanning electron microscopic images of the nanosystems were analyzed. Thermogravimetric analysis showed successful formation of the nanocomposite. PLGA nanoparticles containing BBS were obtained, with a suitable size that was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy. Both nanostructured systems showed active incorporation yields exceeding 90%. The two systems obtained represent a new and potentially efficient therapy for benign prostatic hyperplasia. Keywords: babassu oil, nanocomposite, poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid, nanoparticles, benign prostatic hyperplasia, treatment, nanotechnology

  20. LIQUID-LIQUID EQUILIBRIUM FOR TERNARY SYSTEMS CONTAINING ETHYLIC BIODIESEL + ANHYDROUS ETHANOL + REFINED VEGETABLE OIL (SUNFLOWER OIL, CANOLA OIL AND PALM OIL): EXPERIMENTAL DATA AND THERMODYNAMIC MODELING

    OpenAIRE

    Dias, T. P. V. B.; Mielke Neto, P.; Ansolin, M.; Follegatti-Romero, L. A.; Batista, E. A. C.; Meirelles, A. J. A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Phase equilibria of the reaction components are essential data for the design and process operations of biodiesel production. Despite their importance for the production of ethylic biodiesel, the reaction mixture, reactant (oil and ethanol) and the product (fatty acid ethyl esters) up to now have received less attention than the corresponding systems formed during the separation and purification phases of biodiesel production using ethanol. In this work, new experimental measurements...

  1. LIQUID-LIQUID EQUILIBRIUM FOR TERNARY SYSTEMS CONTAINING ETHYLIC BIODIESEL + ANHYDROUS ETHANOL + REFINED VEGETABLE OIL (SUNFLOWER OIL, CANOLA OIL AND PALM OIL): EXPERIMENTAL DATA AND THERMODYNAMIC MODELING

    OpenAIRE

    T. P. V. B. Dias; P. Mielke Neto; L. A. Follegatti-Romero; E. A. C. Batista; A. J. A. Meirelles

    2015-01-01

    AbstractPhase equilibria of the reaction components are essential data for the design and process operations of biodiesel production. Despite their importance for the production of ethylic biodiesel, the reaction mixture, reactant (oil and ethanol) and the product (fatty acid ethyl esters) up to now have received less attention than the corresponding systems formed during the separation and purification phases of biodiesel production using ethanol. In this work, new experimental measurements ...

  2. Forskolin- and dihydroalprenolol (DHA) binding sites and adenylate cyclase activity in heart of rats fed diets containing different oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alam, S.Q.; Ren, Y.F.; Alam, B.S.

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of the present investigation was to determine if dietary lipids can induce changes in the adenylate cyclase system in rat heart. Three groups of male young Sprague-Dawley rats were fed for 6 weeks diets containing 10% corn oil (I), 8% coconut oil + 2% corn oil (II) or 10% menhaden oil (III). Adenylate cyclase activity (basal, fluoride-, isoproterenol-, and forskolin-stimulated) was higher in heart homogenates of rats in group III than in the other two groups. Concentration of the [ 3 H]-forskolin binding sites in the cardiac membranes were significantly higher in rats fed menhaden oil. The values (pmol/mg protein) were 4.8 +/- 0.2 (I), 4.5 +/- 0.7 (II) and 8.4 +/- 0.5 (III). There was no significant difference in the affinity of the forskolin binding sites among the 3 dietary groups. When measured at different concentrations of forskolin, the adenylate cyclase activity in cardiac membranes of rats fed menhaden oil was higher than in the other 2 groups. Concentrations of the [ 3 H]DHA binding sites were slightly higher but their affinity was lower in cardiac membranes of rats fed menhaden oil. The results suggest that diets containing fish oil increase the concentration of the forskolin binding sites and may also affect the characteristics of the β-adrenergic receptor in rat heart

  3. Application of Lemongrass Oil-Containing Polylactic Acid Films to the Packaging of Pork Sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hyun-Ju; Song, Kyung Bin

    2016-01-01

    Polylactic acid (PLA) is a biodegradable and renewable polymer, which represents a valuable alternative to plastic packaging films, often associated with environmental problems. In this study, we tested the suitability of PLA as a biodegradable packaging film and assessed the antimicrobial activity of lemongrass oil (LO), incorporated into the PLA film in different concentrations. To obtain the optimal physical properties for PLA films, tensile strength, elongation at break, and water vapor permeability were measured under different preparation conditions. In addition, the antimicrobial activity of the LO contained in the PLA film against Listeria monocytogenes was investigated by disc diffusion and viable cell count. Among all concentrations tested, 2% LO was the most suitable in terms of antimicrobial activity and physical properties of the PLA film. Based on these results, we used the PLA film containing 2% LO to pack pork sausages; after 12 d of storage at 4℃, the population of inoculated L. monocytogenes in the sausage samples wrapped with the PLA film containing 2% LO was reduced by 1.47 Log CFU/g compared with the control samples. Our data indicate that PLA films containing 2% LO represent a valuable means for antimicrobial sausage packaging.

  4. Application of Lemongrass Oil-Containing Polylactic Acid Films to the Packaging of Pork Sausages

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Polylactic acid (PLA) is a biodegradable and renewable polymer, which represents a valuable alternative to plastic packaging films, often associated with environmental problems. In this study, we tested the suitability of PLA as a biodegradable packaging film and assessed the antimicrobial activity of lemongrass oil (LO), incorporated into the PLA film in different concentrations. To obtain the optimal physical properties for PLA films, tensile strength, elongation at break, and water vapor permeability were measured under different preparation conditions. In addition, the antimicrobial activity of the LO contained in the PLA film against Listeria monocytogenes was investigated by disc diffusion and viable cell count. Among all concentrations tested, 2% LO was the most suitable in terms of antimicrobial activity and physical properties of the PLA film. Based on these results, we used the PLA film containing 2% LO to pack pork sausages; after 12 d of storage at 4℃, the population of inoculated L. monocytogenes in the sausage samples wrapped with the PLA film containing 2% LO was reduced by 1.47 Log CFU/g compared with the control samples. Our data indicate that PLA films containing 2% LO represent a valuable means for antimicrobial sausage packaging. PMID:27433114

  5. Hydrogen photo-evolution by Rhodopseudomonas palustris 6A using pre-treated olive mill wastewater and a synthetic medium containing sugars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pintucci, Cristina; Padovani, Giulia; Giovannelli, Alessio; Traversi, Maria Laura; Ena, Alba; Pushparaj, Benjamin; Carlozzi, Pietro

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Adsorbent matrices to convert fresh olive mill wastewater (OMW F ) in feedstock. • Dry-Azolla and granular active carbon for adsorbing polyphenols from OMW F . • Photofermentative processes for biohydrogen production. • Culture mixing by means of an impeller or a magnetic stir bar. • A 30% of dephenolised OMW containing medium suits the photofermentative process. - Abstract: Increasing costs of petroleum, associated with the escalating problems of global climate change, require always greater efforts in order to produce an energy carrier as bioH 2 . In this study, bioH 2 production using photofermentative process was investigated. Two culture broths were used: (a) a synthetic medium rich in sugars (glucose and fructose) and (b) a pre-treated fresh olive-mill wastewater (OMW F ) diluted with water (30%, v:v). The pre-treatment was carried out using two different vegetable matrices (dry-Azolla and granular active carbon) to decrease both the content of polyphenols and the dark colour of wastewater. Rhodopseudomonas palustris 6A isolated from soil spread with OMW was utilized for batch growth experiments, carried out indoors under continuous light (200 μE/m 2 /s). When synthetic medium was used, the culture mixing was performed using either (i) a magnetic stir bar, and (ii) an impeller equipped with five turbines. The latter system made it possible to increase the bioH 2 photo-evolution by 1.4 times. The specific hydrogen photo-evolution rate was 13.5 mL/g(dw)/h in the broth containing diluted OMW F and 11.8 mL/g(dw)/h in the synthetic medium containing sugars (glucose and fructose)

  6. Sulphur-containing compounds in the essential oil of Ferula alliacea roots and their mass spectral fragmentation patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasaian, Jamal; Asili, Javad; Iranshahi, Mehrdad

    2016-10-01

    Context GC-MS analysis is the best way to characterize volatile sulphur-containing compounds. Ferula (Apiaceae) is a genus of perennial herbs. Due to the occurrence of essential oils or oleoresins in the Ferula species, these plants usually possess strong aromatic scent. Terpenoid compounds were the most abundant constituents of Ferula oils, however, in some of Ferula species, the essential oils were dominated by volatile sulphur-containing compounds. Objectives Ferula alliacea Boiss. is considered one of the sources of the oleo-gum-resin asafoetida. In this study, we analyzed the hydrodistilled essential oil from its dried roots and provide new data about retention indices and mass fragmentation patterns of some volatile sulphur-containing compounds that are useful for future studies on this class of compounds. Materials and methods The roots of F. alliacea were collected during the flowering stage of plant, from Bezgh, Kashmar to Neishabour road, Khorasan-Razavi province, Iran, in June 2012. The oil was obtained by hydrodistillation using a Clevenger apparatus and analyzed by GC-MS. Results This is the first report on phytochemical analysis of F. alliacea roots. Seventy-six components, representing 99.5% of the oil, were characterized. The major components were 10-epi-γ-eudesmol (22.3%), valerianol (12.5%), hinesol (8.3%), guaiol (7.3%) and Z-propenyl-sec-butyl trisulphide (6.5%). Predominant mass fragment ions of the identified sulphur-containing compounds are explained in this paper. Conclusion The volatile oil of F. alliacea mostly contains oxygenated sesquiterpenes, however, its odour was dominated by sulphur-containing compounds. The most abundant sulphur-containing compound includes Z-propenyl-sec-butyl trisulphide (6.5%).

  7. Emulsions and rectal formulations containing myrrh essential oil for better patient compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etman, M; Amin, M; Nada, A H; Shams-Eldin, M; Salama, O

    2011-06-01

    Myrrh has long been used for its circulatory, disinfectant, analgesic, antirheumatic, antidiabetic, and schistosomicidal properties. Myrrh essential oil (MEO) was extracted from the oleo-gum resin of Commiphora molmol and formulated into emulsions and suppositories to mask/avoid its bitter taste. Three oil-in-water emulsions (E1-E3) were formulated and taste was evaluated by 10 volunteers. Particle size distribution was measured and correlated with excipients and the method of preparation. Physical and chemical stability testing was carried out for the optimum formulation (E2). Seven suppository formulations were investigated (F1-F7). Suppocire AML (F1) and Suppocire CM (F2) were chosen as fatty bases, and polyethylene glycol (PEG) 1500 (F3), PEG 4000 (F4), and a PEG blend (50% PEG 6000 + 30% PEG 1500 + 20% PEG 400) (F5) were chosen as water-soluble bases. A blend of PEG 1500 and Suppocire CM was also used (F7). Camphor (5%) was added to PEG 1500 (F6). Disintegration time, release rate, DSC, fracture points, and weight uniformity were evaluated. The overall average bitterness for formulations E1, E2, and E3 was 6.44, 4.15, and 3.45, respectively. Suppositories containing Suppocire AML had the fastest disintegration time (1.5 min) with dissolution efficiency (DE) of 56.8%. F3 containing PEG 1500 had a fast disintegration time of 2.5 min and maximum DE of 93.5%. The PEG blend had satisfactory release: (DE = 90.9%). A mixed fatty and water-soluble base (F7) had a disintegration time of 5 min and low DE (33.4%). A stable MEO emulsion with acceptable taste was formulated to improve patient acceptance and compliance. F3 suppositories yielded satisfactory results, while formulations containing fatsoluble bases exhibited poor release.

  8. Response surface modeling for optimization heterocatalytic Fenton oxidation of persistence organic pollution in high total dissolved solid containing wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekaran, G; Karthikeyan, S; Boopathy, R; Maharaja, P; Gupta, V K; Anandan, C

    2014-01-01

    The rice-husk-based mesoporous activated carbon (MAC) used in this study was precarbonized and activated using phosphoric acid. N2 adsorption/desorption isotherm, X-ray powder diffraction, electron spin resonance, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, (29)Si-NMR spectroscopy, and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy were used to characterize the MAC. The tannery wastewater carrying high total dissolved solids (TDS) discharged from leather industry lacks biodegradability despite the presence of dissolved protein. This paper demonstrates the application of free electron-rich MAC as heterogeneous catalyst along with Fenton reagent for the oxidation of persistence organic compounds in high TDS wastewater. The heterogeneous Fenton oxidation of the pretreated wastewater at optimum pH (3.5), H2O2 (4 mmol/L), FeSO4[Symbol: see text]7H2O (0.2 mmol/L), and time (4 h) removed chemical oxygen demand, biochemical oxygen demand, total organic carbon and dissolved protein by 86, 91, 83, and 90%, respectively.

  9. The effects of diets containing standard soybean oil, soybean oil enhanced with conjugated linoleic acids, menhaden fish oil, or an algal docosahexaenoic acid supplement on juvenile channel catfish performance, hematology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Current commercial diets for Channel Catfish contain little or no marine fish oil to reduce diet cost and address environmental concerns. However, there is conflicting data on the effects of fish oil and other lipid sources in juvenile Channel Catfish, and some novel lipids have not been tested agai...

  10. Performance of Ceriporiopsis sp. in the Treatment of Black Liquor Wastewater

    OpenAIRE

    Sari, Ajeng Arum

    2016-01-01

    High amounts of black liquor wastewater are generated from bioethanol production by using oil palm empty fruit bunches. It contains an alkaline solution (NaOH), so it is quite toxic for aquatic ecosystems if discharged directly into waters. Black liquor has been treated by coagulation method, and it still needs additional treatment. This study aimed to determine degradation of black liquor wastewater by selected white-rot fungi (WRF). Five different strains of WRF have been tested for their a...

  11. Study of electroflotation method for treatment of wastewater from washing soil contaminated by heavy metals

    OpenAIRE

    de Oliveira da Mota, Izabel; de Castro, José Adilson; de Góes Casqueira, Rui; de Oliveira Junior, Angelo Gomes

    2015-01-01

    Electroflotation method (EFM) for treatment of synthetic solutions simulating wastewater from washing soil contaminated by drilling fluids from oil wells was investigated in this paper. Experiments were carried out to examine the effects of the operating conditions on the removal of lead, barium and zinc from solutions containing 15 mg dm−3 for each metal representing a typical concentration of wastewater generated in the washing soil in this treatment. The experimental results showed that it...

  12. Identification of diacylglycerol and triacylglycerols containing 11,12,13-trihydroxy-9,14-octadecadienoic acid in castor oil by mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castor oil has many industrial uses. Molecular species of acylglycerols containing monohydroxy, dihydroxy and trihydroxy fatty acids in castor oil have been reported. The identification of acylglycerols containing a triOH18:2 fatty acid in castor oil is reported here. The structure of this novel fat...

  13. Identification of diacylglycerol and triacylglycerol containing 11,12,13-trihydroxy-9,14-octadecadienoic acid in castor oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jiann-Tsyh; Chen, Grace Q

    2011-02-28

    Castor oil has many industrial uses. Molecular species of acylglycerols containing monohydroxy, dihydroxy and trihydroxy fatty acids in castor oil have been reported. We report here the identification of acylglycerols containing a triOH18:2 fatty acid in castor oil. The structure of this novel fatty acid was proposed as 11,12,13-trihydroxy-9,14-octadecadienoic acid by the mass spectrometry of the lithiated adducts of acylglycerols in the HPLC fractions of castor oil. The fragmentation pathways of the lithiated adduct of 11,12,13-trihydroxy-9,14-octadecadienoic acid were proposed. We also proposed the biosynthetic pathways of polyhydroxy fatty acids in castor. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Antimicrobial wound dressing films containing essential oils and oleoresins of pepper encapsulated in sodium alginate films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Miranda Rosa

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Medicated wound dressings are important barriers to avoid contamination and, when they contain antimicrobial additives, can be used as treatment for infected wounds. There are several types of polysaccharide materials that serve as matrices for medicated wound dressings, among them, sodium alginate. For the preparation of the films studied in this paper, sodium alginate was employed in combination with essential oils/oleoresins (EO/OL of six peppers that are commonly used in cooking. The EO/OL were incorporated at three different concentrations (low, intermediate and high. Most of the films prepared had better dispersion of the EO/OL at the intermediate concentration. All films studied in this research were dissolved in water at different rates. The antibacterial activity of the prepared films showed significant results against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus, and demonstrated that the films studied may be a new alternative for medicated wound dressings.

  15. Oxidative stability of milk drinks containing structured lipids produced from sunflower oil and caprylic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timm Heinrich, Maike; Xu, Xuebing; Nielsen, Nina Skall

    2003-01-01

    Milk drinks containing 5% traditional sunflower oil (SO), randomized lipid (RL) or specific structured lipid (SL) (both produced from SO and tricaprylin/caprylic acid) were compared with respect to their particle size, viscosity and oxidative stability during storage. Furthermore, the effect...... drink could not be ascribed was most likely influenced by the structure of the lipid and to a single factor, differences in the process applied to produce and purify the lipids. EDTA was a strong antioxidant, while gallic acid did not exert a distinct antioxidative effect in the milk drink based on SL....... of adding potential antioxidants EDTA or gallic acid to the milk drink based on SL was investigated. The lipid type significantly affected the oxidative stability of the milk drinks: Milk drink based on SL oxidized faster than milk drink based on RL or SO. The reduced oxidative stability in the SL milk...

  16. Corn fiber oil lowers plasma cholesterol levels and increases cholesterol excretion greater than corn oil and similar to diets containing soy sterols and soy stanols in hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, T A; DeSimone, A P; Romano, C A; Nicolosi, R J

    2000-09-01

    The aims of this study were to compare the cholesterol-lowering properties of corn fiber oil (CFO) to corn oil (CO), whether the addition of soy stanols or soy sterols to CO at similar levels in CFO would increase CO's cholesterol-lowering properties, and the mechanism(s) of action of these dietary ingredients. Fifty male Golden Syrian hamsters were divided into 5 groups of 10 hamsters each, based on similar plasma total cholesterol (TC) levels. The first group of hamsters was fed a chow-based hypercholesterolemic diet containing either 5% coconut oil + 0.24% cholesterol (coconut oil), 5% CO, 5% CFO, 5% CO + 0.6% soy sterols (sterol), or 5% CO + 0.6% soy stanols (stanol) in place of the coconut oil for 4 weeks. The stanol diet significantly inhibited the elevation of plasma TC compared to all other dietary treatments. Also, the CFO and sterol diets significantly inhibited the elevation of plasma TC compared to the CO and coconut oil diets. The CFO, sterol, and stanol diets significantly inhibited the elevation of plasma non-high density lipoprotein cholesterol compared to the CO and coconut oil diets. The stanol diet significantly inhibited the elevation of plasma high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) compared to all other dietary treatments. The sterol diet significantly inhibited the elevation of plasma HDL-C compared to the CO and coconut oil diets, whereas the CFO diet significantly inhibited the elevation of plasma HDL-C compared to the coconut oil diet only. No differences were observed between the CFO and CO for plasma HDL-C. There were no differences observed between groups for plasma triglycerides. The CO and CFO diets had significantly less hepatic TC compared to the coconut oil, sterol, and stanol diets. The CO and CFO diets had significantly less hepatic free cholesterol compared to the sterol and stanol diets but not compared to the coconut oil diet; whereas the coconut oil and sterol diets had significantly less hepatic free cholesterol

  17. Study on concentrating treatment test of simulated radioactive wastewater containing boron by reverse osmosis membrane in PWR NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye Xinnan; Jiang Baihua; Fan Wenwen; Zhang Zhiyin; Yang Cangsheng

    2015-01-01

    The reverse osmosis membrane equipment in PWR NPP was employed to investigate the application of pilot scale system in the radioactive wastewater treatment at the full recirculation operation. The removal performance of the equipment for the boron and the radioactivity nuclide were studied, respectively. The experimental results show that the removal efficiency of the aromatic polyamide composite reverse osmosis membrane for boron is over 83.3% and the concentration of boron in concentrate is over 10000 mg/L. The experimental results also show that the removal efficiency of two nuclides including cobalt and cesium is over 97.9%. (authors)

  18. Disposal of olive mill wastewater with DC arc plasma method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahimoglu, Beycan; Yilmazoglu, M Zeki

    2018-07-01

    Olive mill wastewater is an industrial waste, generated as a byproduct of olive oil production process and generally contains components such as organic matter, suspended solids, oil, and grease. Although various methods have been developed to achieve the disposal of this industrial wastewater, due to the low cost, the most common disposal application is the passive storage in the lagoons. The main objective of this study is to reduce pollution parameters in olive mill wastewater and draw water to discharge limits by using plasma technology. Plasma-assisted disposal of olive mill wastewater method could be an alternative disposal technique when considering potential utilization of treated water in agricultural areas and economic value of flammable plasma gas which is the byproduct of disposal process. According to the experimental results, the rates of COD (chemical oxygen demand) and BOD (biological oxygen demand) of olive mill wastewater are decreased by 94.42% and 95.37%, respectively. The dissolved oxygen amount is increased from 0.36 to 6.97 mg/l. In addition, plasma gas with high H 2 content and treated water that can be used in agricultural areas for irrigation are obtained from non-dischargeable wastewater. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The Optimization of the Oiling Bath Cosmetic Composition Containing Rapeseed Phospholipids and Grapeseed Oil by the Full Factorial Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Górecki

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The proper condition of hydrolipid mantle and the stratum corneum intercellular matrix determines effective protection against transepidermal water loss (TEWL. Some chemicals, improper use of cosmetics, poor hygiene, old age and some diseases causes disorder in the mentioned structures and leads to TEWL increase. The aim of this study was to obtain the optimal formulation composition of an oiling bath cosmetic based on rapeseed phospholipids and vegetable oil with high content of polyunsaturated fatty acids. In this work, the composition of oiling bath form was calculated and the degree of oil dispersion after mixing the bath preparation with water was selected as the objective function in the optimizing procedure. The full factorial design 23 in the study was used. The concentrations of rapeseed lecithin ethanol soluble fraction (LESF, alcohol (E and non-ionic emulsifier (P were optimized. Based on the calculations from our results, the optimal composition of oiling bath cosmetic was: L (LESF 5.0 g, E (anhydrous ethanol 20.0 g and P (Polysorbate 85 1.5 g. The optimization procedure used in the study allowed to obtain the oiling bath cosmetic which gives above 60% higher emulsion dispersion degree 5.001 × 10−5 cm−1 compared to the initial formulation composition with the 3.096 × 10−5 cm−1.

  20. Effect of pH on Separation of Solid Content from Paint Contained Wastewater by a Coagulant-flocculant Compound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Semnani Rahbar

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Chemical wastewater treatment is one of the attracting and common methods for wastewater treatment among the currently employed chemical unit processes. The use of coagulant-flocculant compound is one of the efficient methods for separating of paint and recovery of water. In this research, it was introduced and the effect of pH on removal of solid content from solution was studied experimentally. For this purpose, sludge and suspended solid content of the solution were determined in a jar test by measurement of UV absorption of treated solution and solid separation percentage. The results showed that in pH range 9.5-10.5, maximum efficiency of solid content removal was up to 95%. Consequently, maximum paint removal was obtained in this range of pH. The separation of solid content of the solution was due to formation of aluminum hydroxide. As shown by the results, the reduction of potassium hydroxide as pH adjuster caused decrease of pH and consequently decreases of aluminum hydroxide and solid content removal.  

  1. Development of Burdock Root Inulin/Chitosan Blend Films Containing Oregano and Thyme Essential Oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Thi Luyen; Yang, So-Young; Song, Kyung Bin

    2018-01-03

    In this study, inulin (INU) extracted from burdock root was utilized as a new film base material and combined with chitosan (CHI) to prepare composite films. Oregano and thyme essential oils (OT) were incorporated into the INU-CHI film to confer the films with bioactivities. The physical and optical properties as well as antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the films were evaluated. INU film alone showed poor physical properties. In contrast, the compatibility of INU and CHI demonstrated by the changes in attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transformation infrared spectrum of the INU-CHI film increased tensile strength and elongation at break of the INU film by 8.2- and 3.9-fold, respectively. In addition, water vapor permeability, water solubility, and moisture content of the films decreased proportionally with increasing OT concentration in the INU-CHI film. Incorporation of OT also increased the opacity of a and b values and decreased the L value of the INU-CHI films. All INU-CHI films containing OT exhibited antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. Particularly, the INU-CHI film with 2.0% OT exhibited the highest 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging, and antimicrobial activities against four pathogens. Thus, the INU-CHI film containing OT developed in this study might be utilized as an active packaging material in the food industry.

  2. Development of Burdock Root Inulin/Chitosan Blend Films Containing Oregano and Thyme Essential Oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Thi Luyen; Yang, So-Young; Song, Kyung Bin

    2018-01-01

    In this study, inulin (INU) extracted from burdock root was utilized as a new film base material and combined with chitosan (CHI) to prepare composite films. Oregano and thyme essential oils (OT) were incorporated into the INU-CHI film to confer the films with bioactivities. The physical and optical properties as well as antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the films were evaluated. INU film alone showed poor physical properties. In contrast, the compatibility of INU and CHI demonstrated by the changes in attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transformation infrared spectrum of the INU-CHI film increased tensile strength and elongation at break of the INU film by 8.2- and 3.9-fold, respectively. In addition, water vapor permeability, water solubility, and moisture content of the films decreased proportionally with increasing OT concentration in the INU-CHI film. Incorporation of OT also increased the opacity of a and b values and decreased the L value of the INU-CHI films. All INU-CHI films containing OT exhibited antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. Particularly, the INU-CHI film with 2.0% OT exhibited the highest 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging, and antimicrobial activities against four pathogens. Thus, the INU-CHI film containing OT developed in this study might be utilized as an active packaging material in the food industry. PMID:29301339

  3. Antibacterial hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose edible films containing nanoemulsions of Thymus daenensis essential oil for food packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghimi, Roya; Aliahmadi, Atousa; Rafati, Hasan

    2017-11-01

    Edible films containing essential oils (EO) as natural antibacterial agents are promising systems for food preservation. In this work, nanoemulsions of Thymus daenensis EO (wild; F1 and cultivated; F2) were loaded in hydroxyl propyl methyl cellulose (HPMC) films and the effect of different parameters (polymer, plasticizer, and EO concentration) on the film properties were analyzed and optimized. Prepared HPMC films were characterized in terms of EO loading, morphology, mechanical properties, and the antibacterial activity. The results of SEM showed uniform incorporation of nanoemulsions into the edible film. Investigation of the mechanical properties of two edible films revealed a plasticizing effect of T. daenensis EO on the films. Also, edible films had noticeable antimicrobial activity against selected microorganisms, i.e. 47.0±2.5mm and 22.6±0.5mm zone of inhibition against S. aureus for films containing F1 and F2, respectively. Incorporation of nanoemulsions into the HPMC films can be used for active food preservation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Purification of water polluted with oil and sulfurous closed-ring and aromatic compounds contained in oil and oil products using bacteria relating to thiosphaera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurashov, V.M.; Sakhno, T.V.; Gavrilov, V.S.; Zijatdinov, R.N.

    2005-01-01

    The intensity of natural purification (self-purification) of reservoirs polluted with oil and oil products is determined by microorganisms. Hydrocarbon-oxidizing microorganisms are constant natural constituent of biocenose in reservoirs. However, as a result of outflows, the oil and oil products concentration exceeds maximum values allowing normal vital functions of microorganisms resulting in breaking micro-biocenose suppression of vital functions of bacteria. In this regard, elective anaerobic microorganisms of Thiosphaera are worthy of notice. We found out that bacteria belonging to Thiosphaera pantotropha decomposed oil at high oil concentrations in water (at oil concentration like 1 liter of oil in 1 liter of water). And this is when aerobic microorganisms lose their vital functions at maximum concentration of 20 g of oil in 1 liter of water. To intensify the process of oil decomposition we emulsified oil with aqueous solutions of salts. Thiosphaera pantotropha are found out to decompose oil in a wide range of ratio between oil and aqueous solutions of salts: from 1:10 to 10:1. The water solutions salinity made from 20 g/l to 80 g/l. It must be noticed that, since the Thiosphaera pantotropha are elective anaerobes and decompose oil both in presence and in absence of oxygen, it is not necessary anymore to conduct the process under strictly anaerobic conditions and to supply additional oxygen. This makes it possible to simplify the process of biodegradation of oil and to make this process practically more feasible and economically more profitable being compared to the processes based on the use of other species of bacteria. We found out that Thiosphaera decompose sulfurous closed-ring and aromatic compounds in oil which are chemically and thermally stable and can be hardly decomposed, and possess extremely poisonous properties, as well. The use of microorganisms of Thiosphaera pantotropha allows to purify waters polluted with oil and oil products both during

  5. Characteristics of grey wastewater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Eva; Auffarth, Karina Pipaluk Solvejg; Henze, Mogens

    2002-01-01

    The composition of grey wastewater depends on sources and installations from where the water is drawn, e.g. kitchen, bathroom or laundry. The chemical compounds present originate from household chemicals, cooking, washing and the piping. In general grey wastewater contains lower levels of organic...

  6. Oxidative stability of fish and algae oils containing long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in bulk and in oil-in-water emulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frankel, E.N.; Satue-Gracia, T.; Meyer, Anne Boye Strunge

    2002-01-01

    from algae are unusually stable to oxidation, Addition of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) prevented oxidation of both fish and algal oil emulsions without added iron and at low iron:EDTA molar concentrations. EDTA, however, promoted the oxidation of the corresponding emulsions that contained...... high iron:EDTA ratios. Therefore, to be effective as a metal chelator, EDTA must be added at molar concentrations higher than that of iron to inhibit oxidation of foods containing long-chain PUFA from either fish or algae and fortified with iron.......The oxidative stability of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-containing fish and algae oils varies widely according to their fatty acid composition, the physical and colloidal states of the lipids, the contents of tocopherols and other antioxidants...

  7. Treatment of simulated wastewater containing Reactive Red 195 by zero-valent iron/activated carbon combined with microwave discharge electrodeless lamp/sodium hypochlorite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Jie; Xu, Zhen; Li, Qing-Shan; Chen, Song; An, Shu-Qing; Zeng, Qing-Fu; Zhu, Hai-Liang

    2010-01-01

    A comparative study of treatment of simulated wastewater containing Reactive Red 195 using zero-valent iron/activated carbon (ZVI/AC), microwave discharge electrodeless lamp/sodium hypochlorite (MDEL/NaClO) and the combination of ZVI/AC-MDEL/NaClO was conducted. The preliminary results showed the two steps method of ZVI/AC-MDEL/NaClO had much higher degradation efficiency than both single steps. The final color removal percentage was nearly up to 100% and the chemical oxygen demand reduction percentage was up to approximately 82%. The effects of operational parameters, including initial pH value of simulated wastewater, ZVI/AC ratio and particle size of ZVI were also investigated. In addition, from the discussion of synergistic effect between ZVI/AC and MEDL/NaClO, we found that in the ZVI/AC-MEDL/NaClO process, ZVI/AC could break the azo bond firstly and then MEDL/NaClO degraded the aromatic amine products effectively. Reversing the order would reduce the degradation efficiency.

  8. High flux MWCNTs-interlinked GO hybrid membranes survived in cross-flow filtration for the treatment of strontium-containing wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Lin; Lu, Ying; Liu, Ying-Ling; Li, Ming; Zhao, Hai-Yang; Hou, Li-An

    2016-01-01

    Graphene oxide (GO)-based membranes provide an encouraging opportunity to support high separation efficiency for wastewater treatment. However, due to the relatively weak interaction between GO nanosheets, it is difficult for bare GO-based membranes to survive in cross-flow filtration. In addition, the permeation flux of the bare GO membrane is not high sufficiently due to its narrow interlayer spacing. In this study, GO membranes interlinked with multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) via covalent bonds were fabricated on modified polyacrylonitrile (PAN) supports by vacuum filtration. Due to the strong bonds between GO, MWCNTs and the PAN membrane, the membranes could be used for the treatment of simulated nuclear wastewater containing strontium via a cross-flow process. The result showed a high flux of 210.7 L/(m"2 h) at 0.4 MPa, which was approximately 4 times higher than that of commercial nanofiltration membranes. The improved water permeation was attributed to the nanochannels created by the interlinked MWCNTs in the GO layers. In addition, the hybrid membrane exhibited a high rejection of 93.4% for EDTA-chelated Sr"2"+ in an alkaline solution, and could also be used to separate Na"+/Sr"2"+ mixtures. These results indicate that the MWCNTs-interlinked GO membrane has promising prospects for application in radioactive waste treatment.

  9. The Effect of Ozone and Zeolite Concentration to the Performance of the Treatment of Wastewater Containing Heavy Metal Using Flotation Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Karamah

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Industrial wastewater which contains heavy metal cannot be disposed to the environment directly, due to its toxicity. In this research, separation of metal from wastewater was conducted by sorptive flotation method, using Lampung natural zeolite as bonding agent. The most common diffuser used in the flotation process is air or oxygen. In this research, ozone is used as diffuser because it is a stronger oxidant and more dissolvable in water than oxygen. Besides, ozone is a coagulant aid and disinfectant. With ozone as diffuser, it is expected that the process become faster with higher efficiency. This research was conducted to determine ozone effectiveness as diffuser, compared with other diffuser, and also to determine optimum concentration and effectiveness of zeolite in flotation of iron, nickel and copper. The research result shows that separation of iron with air diffuser is 90.8%, air-oxygen diffuser is 95.7%, air-ozone (from air diffuser is 99.7%, and air-ozone (from oxygen diffuser is 99.7%. Natural zeolite is effective as bonding agent with optimum concentration equal to 2 gram/liter, producing separation percentage for iron equal to 99.70%, copper equal to 88.98% and Nickel equal to 98.46%.

  10. High flux MWCNTs-interlinked GO hybrid membranes survived in cross-flow filtration for the treatment of strontium-containing wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Lin; Lu, Ying [Key Laboratory of Biomass Chemical Engineering, Ministry of Education, College of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Liu, Ying-Ling [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Li, Ming [Xi' an High-Tech Institute, Xi' an 710025 (China); Zhao, Hai-Yang [Key Laboratory of Biomass Chemical Engineering, Ministry of Education, College of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Hou, Li-An, E-mail: houla@cae.cn [Key Laboratory of Biomass Chemical Engineering, Ministry of Education, College of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Xi' an High-Tech Institute, Xi' an 710025 (China)

    2016-12-15

    Graphene oxide (GO)-based membranes provide an encouraging opportunity to support high separation efficiency for wastewater treatment. However, due to the relatively weak interaction between GO nanosheets, it is difficult for bare GO-based membranes to survive in cross-flow filtration. In addition, the permeation flux of the bare GO membrane is not high sufficiently due to its narrow interlayer spacing. In this study, GO membranes interlinked with multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) via covalent bonds were fabricated on modified polyacrylonitrile (PAN) supports by vacuum filtration. Due to the strong bonds between GO, MWCNTs and the PAN membrane, the membranes could be used for the treatment of simulated nuclear wastewater containing strontium via a cross-flow process. The result showed a high flux of 210.7 L/(m{sup 2} h) at 0.4 MPa, which was approximately 4 times higher than that of commercial nanofiltration membranes. The improved water permeation was attributed to the nanochannels created by the interlinked MWCNTs in the GO layers. In addition, the hybrid membrane exhibited a high rejection of 93.4% for EDTA-chelated Sr{sup 2+} in an alkaline solution, and could also be used to separate Na{sup +}/Sr{sup 2+} mixtures. These results indicate that the MWCNTs-interlinked GO membrane has promising prospects for application in radioactive waste treatment.

  11. Research on heavy oil degradation by four thermophilic bacterial strains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bao, M.; Chen, Q.; Liu, Z.; Li, Y. [Ocean Univ. of China, Qingdao, Shandong (China)

    2009-07-01

    The Shengli oilfield is the second largest onshore oil field in China, with a crude oil output of approximately 30 million tons per year. The large quantities of wastewater that are produced during thermal recovery methods have posed a challenge in terms of water reuse, reinjection and discharge. The important aspect of wastewater treatment is the removal of residual heavy oil. Biological methods are considered to be efficient in solving this problem. This paper reported on a study in which 4 thermophilic microorganisms which had the ability to biodegrade heavy oil were screened from heavy oil wastewater in the Shengli oilfield. Their degradation to heavy oil was discussed and the suitable biodegradation conditions of these bacteria were investigated. The study showed that the degrading efficiency of heavy oil by the 4 bacteria was up to 42.0, 47.6, 55.6 and 43.4 per cent in the wastewater which contained 500 mg per litre of heavy oil, respectively. The crude oil samples were analyzed using gas chromatography/flame ionization detection (GC/FID) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) before and after degradation. The single 4 strains demonstrated strong biodegradability to normal alkanes and aromatics, and the average degrading efficiency was about 50 and 35 per cent. The degrading efficiency of the mixed 4 strains was better than the single ones, particularly for the poor biodegradable hydrocarbons such as phenanthrenes and fluorines. 21 refs., 2 tabs., 17 figs.

  12. Process for treating the dialyzed spent liquor from sulphonic acid containing sulfur minerals or tar oils or ammonium salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wernicke, E A

    1936-08-09

    Process for working up the dialyzate from sulfonic acid, sulfur-containing mineral or tar oils, or their ammonium salts, characterized by the combination of known steps, in the dialyzate being reacted with alkaline-earth oxide, hydroxide, or carbonate, and the resulting slightly soluble sulfate being filtered off and evaporated if necessary.

  13. Physical properties of a frozen yogurt fortified with a nano-emulsion containing purple rice bran oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objectives of this study were to develop and evaluate a frozen yogurt (FY) fortified with a nano-emulsion containing purple rice bran oil (NPRBO). A nano-emulsion with a droplet size range of 150-300 nm was produced by sonication followed by ultra-shear homogenization. The nano-emulsion was mi...

  14. The Wound Healing Effects of Herbal Cream Containing Oliveria Decumbens and Pelargonium Graveolens Essential Oils in Diabetic Foot Ulcer Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahboubi, Mohaddese; Taghizadeh, Mohsen; Khamechian, Tahereh; Tamtaji, Omid Reza; Mokhtari, Rasoul; Talaei, Sayyed Alireza

    2018-01-01

    The number of diabetic patients in adult population is increasing. All this population are at risk of developing diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs) that are associated with unwanted ailments and high mortality. In spite of current therapies for DFUs, further therapies are needed to help the patients. The efficacy of herbal cream containing Pelargonium graveolens and Oliveria decombens essential oils was evaluated topically for treatment of DFUs in rat animal model in comparison with two other herbal formulas containing each essential oil alone, placebo (the basic formula without active ingredients) and normal saline as control groups. After anesthesia of diabetic rats (n=75) induced by streptozotocin (STZ), diabetic wounds were visible on the hind dorsal surface of the foot . The treatments were initiated on Day 1 and repeated 3 times a day for thirteen consecutive days. On day 1, 3, 5, 8 and 13, the wound sizes were determined and assessed histologically. Three herbal formulations reduced the size of wounds in rats with DFUs, while the cream containing combined herbals of O. decumbens and P. graveolens essential oils had the highest tissue repair in DFU rat models. Due to better wound healing effects of combined herbal cream containing O. decumbens and P. graveolens essential oils, it can be recommended in treatment of DFUs.

  15. Formation and stability of oil-in-water nanoemulsions containing rice bran oil: in vitro and in vivo assessments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocha-Filho Pedro A

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nanoemulsions have practical application in a multitude of commercial areas, such as the chemical, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. Cosmetic industries use rice bran oil in sunscreen formulations, anti ageing products and in treatments for skin diseases. The aim of this study was to create rice bran oil nanoemulsions using low energy emulsification methods and to evaluate their physical stability, irritation potential and moisturising activity on volunteers with normal and diseased skin types. Results The nanoemulsion developed by this phase diagram method was composed of 10% rice bran oil, 10% surfactants sorbitan oleate/PEG-30 castor oil, 0.05% antioxidant and 0.50% preservatives formulated in distilled water. The nanoemulsion was stable over the time course of this study. In vitro assays showed that this formulation has a low irritation potential, and when applied to human skin during in vivo studies, the nanoemulsion improved the skin's moisture and maintained normal skin pH values. Conclusion The results of irritation potential studies and in vivo assessments indicate that this nanoemulsion has potential to be a useful tool to treat skin diseases, such as atopic dermatitis and psoriasis.

  16. Wastewater Outfalls

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Outfalls which discharge wastewater from wastewater treatment facilities with individual NPDES permits. It does not include NPDES general permits.

  17. Tribological study of a highly hydrolytically stable phenylboronic acid ester containing benzothiazolyl in mineral oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Zhipeng; Li, Xiufeng; Zhang, Yawen; Ren, Tianhui; Zhao, Yidong; Zeng, Xiangqiong; Heide, E. van der

    2014-01-01

    A novel long chain alkyl phenylboronic acid ester containing heterocyclic compound, bis (1-(benzothiazol-2-ylthio) propan-2-yl)-4-dodecylphenylboronic acid ester (DBBMT), was synthesized and characterized. The hydrolytic stability of the DBBMT was evaluated and the results show that DBBMT is of outstanding hydrolytic stability compared with normal borate esters, which indicates that the designed molecular structure, by introducing benzene ring to conjugate with the electron-deficient boron and the benzothiazole as a hinder group, is effective on obtaining a hydrolytically stable long chain alkyl phenylboronic acid ester. The tribological properties of DBBMT and ZDDP in mineral base oil were evaluated using a four-ball tribometer, which suggests that the DBBMT possesses comprehensive tribological properties and could be a potential candidate for the replacement of ZDDP. Furthermore, in order to understand the tribological behaviors, the worn surface was analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy. The results indicate that the elements S, B, O and Fe perform complicated tribochemical reactions to form the compact tribological film composed of B 2 O 3 , FeS, Fe 3 O 4 and FeSO 4 .

  18. Preliminary Investigation of Acoustical Properties of Concrete Containing Oil Palm Shell as an Aggregate Replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanariah, J.; Zaiton, H.; Musli Nizam, Y.; Khairulzan, Y.; Dianah, M.; Nadirah, D.; Hanifi, O. Mohd

    2018-03-01

    Research has been so far focused extensively on mechanical properties of oil palm shell (OPS) concrete but less on sound properties. Thus, the objective of this study is to investigate whether concrete containing OPS can be applied in the field of road noise barrier. The acoustic properties of the samples were determined by using an impedance tube connected to a sound source. The noise reduction coefficient (NRC) and weighted sound absorption coefficient (αw) which is more commonly use in the road traffic noise barrier field were calculated according to BS EN ISO 11654:1997. Compressive strengths of samples were also determined by using compressive test. The results presented that the compressive strength of the OPS composites decreased as increased in w/c wit minimum of 20.44 N/mm2 at 28 days for w/c = 0.6 but still satisfactory for structural use. The sound absorption coefficient demonstrated that they were decreased as the w/c are higher with typical curve of two peaks at 315Hz and 1000Hz. All samples were then can be classified as class E as 0.5< αw < 0.25 and should be classified as L due to favourable deviation higher than 0.25 for 250 Hz.

  19. Application of carboxymethyl cellulose and chitosan coatings containing Mentha spicata essential oil in fresh strawberries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahbazi, Yasser

    2018-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) and chitosan (CH) coatings containing Mentha spicata essential oil (MSO 0.1 and 0.2%) on survival of Listeria monocytogenes, and physicochemical (weight loss, titratable acidity and pH), microbial (total viable count, psychrotrophic bacteria as well as yeasts and molds) and sensory (appearance, color, texture and overall acceptability) properties of fresh strawberries during refrigerated storage. The treatments of fruits with CH+MSO 0.2% and CMC+MSO 0.2% resulted in the best microbial, physicochemical and organoleptic properties after 12days storage. The final population of L. monocytogenes in treated samples was decreased by 3.92-3.69 compared to control groups. It can be concluded that CH and CMC coatings enriched with MSO can be used as appropriate active packaging materials to preserve fresh strawberries in the food industry. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Evaluation of the sensory properties of a cosmetic formulation containing green coffee oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tais A. L. Wagemaker

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Green coffee oil (GCO is a well-known ingredient with cosmetic properties such as: maintaining skin hydration, improving the sun protection factor and maintaining the skin barrier function. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of the addition of a considerable amount of GCO (15% on the sensory properties of a cosmetic formulation. The sensory panel consisted of nineteen volunteers aged between 19 and 43 years old. Sensory attributes were assessed on a 25 cm2 defined region on the internal side of the forearm. The volunteers were instructed to evaluate the sensory properties that they felt each formulation demonstrated, immediately after application and then after a further 5 minutes. The formulations had almost the same perceived effect among the volunteers. The majority of volunteers noted their skin as soft and moisturized after application of the formulations. However, the perception of an oily residue on the skin was the main effect of the formulation containing GCO. Thus, we can conclude that the total amount of GCO used, revealed interesting properties for use in dry skin or night creams, since it was able to leave an oily film on skin.

  1. An Innovative Oil Pollution Containment Method for Ship Wrecks Proposed for Offshore Well Blow-outs

    OpenAIRE

    ANDRITSOS Fivos; COJINS Hans

    2011-01-01

    In the aftermath of the PRESTIGE disaster, an innovative system for the prompt intervention on oil pollution sources (primarily ship wrecks) at great depths was conceived at the Joint Research Center of the European Commission. This system, with some re-engineering, could also serve for collecting oil and gas leaking after an offshore well blow-out and could constitute a reference method for prompt intervention on deep water oil pollution sources like ship wrecks and blown-out offshore wells....

  2. Processing needs and methodology for wastewaters from the conversion of coal, oil shale, and biomass to synfuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-05-01

    The workshop identifies needs to be met by processing technology for wastewaters, and evaluates the suitability, approximate costs, and problems associated with current technology. Participation was confined to DOE Environmental Control Technology contractors to pull together and integrate past wastewater-related activities, to assess the status of synfuel wastewater treatability and process options, and to abet technology transfer. Particular attention was paid to probable or possible environmental restrictions which cannot be economically met by present technology. Primary emphasis was focussed upon process-condensate waters from coal-conversion and shale-retorting processes. Due to limited data base and time, the workshop did not deal with transients, upsets, trade-offs and system optimization, or with solids disposal. The report is divided into sections that, respectively, survey the water usage and effluent situation (II); identify the probable and possible water-treatment goals anticipated at the time when large-scale plants will be constructed (III); assess the capabilities, costs and shortcomings of present technology (IV); explore particularly severe environmental-control problems (V); give overall conclusions from the Workshop and recommendations for future research and study (VI); and, finally, present Status Reports of current work from participants in the Workshop (VII).

  3. Nickel-graphene nanocomposite as a novel supplement for enhancement of biohydrogen production from industrial wastewater containing mono-ethylene glycol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elreedy, Ahmed; Ibrahim, Eman; Hassan, Nazly; El-Dissouky, Ali; Fujii, Manabu; Yoshimura, Chihiro; Tawfik, Ahmed

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Ni-graphene nanocomposite (Ni-Gr NC) showed superiority in biohydrogenation process. • Ni-Gr NC dose of 60 mg/L exhibited the highest improvement (105%) in H_2 production. • H_2 production was improved by 67% compared with supplementation of Ni nanoparticles. • Graphene presence in Ni-Gr NC didn’t show additional inhibition at the higher doses. • Net profit from energy recovery, including nanomaterials cost, was improved by 21%. - Abstract: The impact of Ni nanoparticles (NPs) and Ni-graphene nanocomposite (Ni-Gr NC) on hydrogen production from industrial wastewater containing mono-ethylene glycol (MEG) via anaerobic digestion was investigated. Batch reactors were supplemented with different dosages of Ni NPs and Ni-Gr NC ranging from 0 to 100 mg/L. Maximum hydrogen yields (HYs) of 24.73 ± 1.12 and 41.28 ± 1.69 mL/gCOD_i_n_i_t_i_a_l were achieved at a dosage of 60 mg/L for Ni NPs and Ni-Gr NC, respectively. Substantial improvements of 23% and 105% in hydrogen production were registered at an optimum dosage of 60 mg/L for Ni NPs and Ni-Gr NC, respectively, compared with the control without nanomaterials addition. However, increasing the dosage of Ni NPs and Ni-Gr NC to 100 mg/L resulted in a significant decrease in HY to 20.80 ± 1.12 and 24.24 ± 1.13 mL/gCOD_i_n_i_t_i_a_l, respectively. A non-linear regression model revealed that the higher maximum hydrogen production (129% improvement) could be achieved at a dosage of 50 mg/L Ni-Gr NC and an initial pH of 5.0. Economic and environmental revenues due to bioenergy recovery from MEG-containing wastewater were also estimated.

  4. Treatment of Cr(VI)-containing wastewaters with exopolysaccharide-producing cyanobacteria in pilot flow through and batch systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colica, Giovanni; Mecarozzi, Pier Cesare; De Philippis, Roberto [Florence Univ., Firenze (Italy). Dept. of Agricultural Biotechnology

    2010-08-15

    Seven exopolysaccharide-producing cyanobacteria were tested with regard to their capability to remove Cr(VI) from the wastewater of a plating industry. The cyanobacterium which showed, under lab conditions, the most promising features with regard to both Cr(VI) removal (about 12 mg of Cr(VI) removed per gram of dry biomass) and growth characteristics (highest growth rate and simplest culture medium) was Nostoc PCC7936. Furthermore, in lab experiments, it was also found that a HCl pretreatment is essential to abate the concentration of Cr(VI) in solution and that the viability of the biomass is not necessary. Subsequently, three pilot devices were tested, one batch (a dialysis cell) and two flow-through systems (a filter press and a column filled with quartz grain). The best performances were obtained with the filter press, where it was observed a sharp decrease in the concentration of Cr(VI), partly due to the adsorption of the metal by the biomass (about 50%) and partly due to its reduction to Cr(III). The results are discussed in terms of the role played by the different components (biomass and polysaccharide) of the cyanobacterial cultures in the removal of Cr(VI). (orig.)

  5. Soil amendement with olive mill wastewater: impact of storage before spreading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kachouri, S.; Ayed, L.; Assas, N.; Marouani, L.; Macarie, H.; Hamdi, M.

    2009-01-01

    The olive oil production performed by the traditional three-phase process generates considerable amounts of olive mill wastewater (OMW) that is a liquid effluent, red to dark coloured depending on its level of oxidation. OMW is well known for the ecological problems it causes owing to the highly toxic polyphenolic compounds it contains. (Author)

  6. Simulation of Constructed Wetland in treating Wastewater using Fuzzy Logic Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudarsan, J. S.; Subramani, Sheekha; Rajan, Rajitha J.; Shah, Isha; Nithiyanantham, S.

    2018-04-01

    Constructed wetlands act as a natural alternative to conventional methods of wastewater treatment. CW are found effective in wastewater containing inorganic matter, organic matter, toxic compounds, metals, nitrogen, phosphorous, heavy metals, organic chemicals, and pathogens. The treatment efficiency by the adaptation of CWs in treatment process is achieved by a complex interaction between plants, microorganisms, soil matrix and substances in the wastewater. Constructed wetland treatment systems are engineered systems designed in such a manner that it could take advantages of those processes occurring in natural wetlands in treating the wastewater concerned, but in a more controlled environment. Petrochemical wastewater was the type of wastewater taken for the study. Characteristics of petrochemical wastewater mainly oil, Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD) and Chemical oxygen demand (COD) were selected for treatment in constructed wetland as they are predominant in petrochemical wastewater. The conventional methods followed in the treatment are chemical and biological treatment. In this study, a fuzzy model for water quality assessment has been developed and water quality index value was obtained. The experiment conducted and further analysis using fuzzy logic indicated that interpretation of certain imprecise data can be improved within fuzzy inference system (FIS). Based on the analysis, we could observe that Typha sp contained wetland cell showed greater efficiency in removal of parameters such as COD and BOD than Phragmites sp. wetland cell.

  7. Intravenous microemulsion of docetaxel containing an anti-tumor synergistic ingredient (Brucea javanica oil): formulation and pharmacokinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Shilin; Chen, Fen; Ye, Xiaohui; Dong, Yingjie; Xue, Yingna; Xu, Heming; Zhang, Wenji; Song, Shuangshuang; Ai, Li; Zhang, Naixian; Pan, Weisan

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a docetaxel microemulsion containing an anti-tumor synergistic ingredient (Brucea javanica oil) and to investigate the characteristics of the microemulsion. Brucea javanica oil contains oleic acid and linoleic acids that have been shown by animal and human studies to inhibit tumor formation. The microemulsion containing Brucea javanica oil, medium-chain triglyceride, soybean lecithin, Solutol®HS 15, PEG 400, and water was developed for docetaxel intravenous administration. A formulation with higher drug content, lower viscosity, and smaller particle size was developed. The droplet size distribution of the dispersed phase of the optimized microemulsion was 13.5 nm, determined using a dynamic light scattering technique. The small droplet size enabled the microemulsion droplets to escape from uptake and phagocytosis by the reticuloendothelial system and increased the circulation time of the drug. The zeta potential was -41.3 mV. The optimized microemulsion was pale yellow, transparent, and non-opalescent in appearance. The value of the combination index was 0.58, showing that there was a synergistic effect when docetaxel was combined with Brucea javanica oil. After a single intravenous infusion dose (10 mg/kg) in male Sprague Dawley rats, the area under the curve of the microemulsion was higher and the half-time was longer compared with that of docetaxel solution alone, and showed superior pharmacokinetic characteristics. These results indicate that this preparation of docetaxel in emulsion is likely to provide an excellent prospect for clinical tumor treatment.

  8. Containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    The primary mission of the Containment Group is to ensure that underground nuclear tests are satisfactorily contained. The main goal is the development of sound technical bases for containment-related methodology. Major areas of activity include siting, geologic description, emplacement hole stemming, and phenomenological predictions. Performance results of sanded gypsum concrete plugs on the Jefferson, Panamint, Cornucopia, Labquark, and Bodie events are given. Activities are also described in the following areas: computational capabilities site description, predictive modeling, and cavity-pressure measurement. Containment publications are listed. 8 references

  9. Method for the production of solid hydroxides contained in mineral oils, mineral oil-like materials or mineral oil-containing materials and uses of products thus obtained. Verfahren zur Herstellung von Mineraloele, mineraloelaehnliche Stoffe oder mineraloelhaltige Stoffe enthaltenden festen Hydroxiden sowie die Verwendung danach erhaltener Produkte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boelsing, F

    1975-07-29

    A method has been developed which permits mineral oils, mineral oil-like substances or mineral oil-containing substances (eg waste oil) to be separated in powder form, even when these substance are present in a continuous phase with water (for example, oil slurries). A compound (eg. line) which forms a hydroxide with water is added, the formed hydroxide then acts as carrier substance. Prerequisite for obtaining the end-product in powdered form is that the homogeneous mixing of the oil-containing substance and hydroxide-forming substance takes place at a faster rate than the necessary auxilliary reaction, namely hydroxide formation, and further that water in present in at least stoichiometric quantities. The powdered end-product finds numerous applications eg. road construction, soil conditioning and compacting, recultivation measures in cement manufacture, and others.

  10. Process development for the removal and recovery of hazardous dye erythrosine from wastewater by waste materials-Bottom Ash and De-Oiled Soya as adsorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mittal, Alok [Department of Applied Chemistry, Maulana Azad National Institute of Technology, Bhopal 462007 (India)]. E-mail: aljymittal@yahoo.co.in; Mittal, Jyoti [Department of Applied Chemistry, Maulana Azad National Institute of Technology, Bhopal 462007 (India); Kurup, Lisha [Department of Applied Chemistry, Maulana Azad National Institute of Technology, Bhopal 462007 (India); Singh, A.K. [Department of Applied Chemistry, University Institute of Technology, RGPV, Bhopal 462036 (India)

    2006-11-02

    Erythrosine is a water-soluble xanthene class of dye. It is widely used as colorant in foods, textiles, drugs and cosmetics. It is highly toxic, causes various types of allergies, thyroid activities, carcinogenicity, DNA damage behaviour, neurotoxicity and xenoestrogen nature in the humans and animals. The photochemical and biochemical degradation of the erythrosine is not recommended due to formation of toxic by-products. The present paper is an attempt to remove erythrosine from wastewater using adsorption over Bottom Ash-a power plant waste and De-Oiled Soya-an agricultural waste. Under the batch studies, effect of concentration of dye, temperature, pH of the solution, dosage of adsorbents, sieve size of adsorbents, etc., have been studied for the uptake of the dye over both adsorbents. The adsorption process verifies Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherms in both the cases and based on the data different thermodynamic parameters have been evaluated. Batch studies also include kinetic measurements, rate constant study, mass transfer behaviour and establishment of mechanistic pathway for both the cases. For the bulk removal of the dye column operations have been carried out and breakthrough capacities of the Bottom Ash and De-Oiled Soya columns have been calculated. Attempts have also been made for the recovery of the adsorbed dye from exhausted columns by eluting dilute NaOH and more than 90% of the dye was recovered.

  11. Process development for the removal and recovery of hazardous dye erythrosine from wastewater by waste materials-Bottom Ash and De-Oiled Soya as adsorbents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mittal, Alok; Mittal, Jyoti; Kurup, Lisha; Singh, A.K.

    2006-01-01

    Erythrosine is a water-soluble xanthene class of dye. It is widely used as colorant in foods, textiles, drugs and cosmetics. It is highly toxic, causes various types of allergies, thyroid activities, carcinogenicity, DNA damage behaviour, neurotoxicity and xenoestrogen nature in the humans and animals. The photochemical and biochemical degradation of the erythrosine is not recommended due to formation of toxic by-products. The present paper is an attempt to remove erythrosine from wastewater using adsorption over Bottom Ash-a power plant waste and De-Oiled Soya-an agricultural waste. Under the batch studies, effect of concentration of dye, temperature, pH of the solution, dosage of adsorbents, sieve size of adsorbents, etc., have been studied for the uptake of the dye over both adsorbents. The adsorption process verifies Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherms in both the cases and based on the data different thermodynamic parameters have been evaluated. Batch studies also include kinetic measurements, rate constant study, mass transfer behaviour and establishment of mechanistic pathway for both the cases. For the bulk removal of the dye column operations have been carried out and breakthrough capacities of the Bottom Ash and De-Oiled Soya columns have been calculated. Attempts have also been made for the recovery of the adsorbed dye from exhausted columns by eluting dilute NaOH and more than 90% of the dye was recovered

  12. The examination of the seasonal influence on the efficiency in oil and fats removal through primary treatment from the wastewater of edible oil industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolin Tatjana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the influence of the seasonal change of the air temperature, chemical oxygen demand as well as efficiency of suspended matter removal on the efficiency of oil and fats removal (h, % during primary treatment. The parameters are monitored in the period of time from 2006 to 2011. The efficiency of oil and fats removal in the first and in the fourth quartal is proportional to the efficiency of the removal of suspended matter and of total organic matter, measured as chemical oxygen demand (COD. The measured values for oil and fat are: η (IV quartal = 0.96 % - 50.8 % and η (I quartal = 5.06 % - 95.97 %. The efficiency of oil and fats removal in the second and third quartal is proportional to air temperature so the measured efficiency of fat and oil removal are, η (II quartal = 3.93 % - 82.86 % and η (III quartal = 6.82% - 71.51%. The results of investigation have shown the existence of the correlation between the air temperature during various seasons and the efficiency of the oil and fats removal (h, % as well as the removal of the suspended matter and chemical oxygen demand (COD.

  13. Postprandial lipid responses of butter blend containing fish oil in a single-meal study in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Julie; Porsgaard, Trine; Guo, Zheng

    2008-01-01

    blend with fish oil (352 mg n-3 long-chain PUFA (LCPUFA)) or the commercial butter blend. Blood samples were collected after the meals and in the fasting condition on the test day and the following morning, and were analysed for cholesterol absorption, plasma lipid profile and fatty acid composition....... No significant difference in the postprandial plasma fatty acid composition was observed between the groups, neither difference in cholesterol absorption, plasma cholesterol or the cholesterol contents of plasma lipoproteins. The incorporation of fish oil in the butter resulted in a significant lower......The postprandial effects of a butter product containing fish oil were investigated in a single-meal, randomized crossover study with a commercial butter product as the control. Twelve healthy males consumed two test meals with (13)C-labelled cholesterol (45 mg) and either an interesterified butter...

  14. Calibration and verification of models of organic carbon removal kinetics in Aerated Submerged Fixed-Bed Biofilm Reactors (ASFBBR): a case study of wastewater from an oil-refinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trojanowicz, Karol; Wójcik, Włodzimierz

    2011-01-01

    The article presents a case-study on the calibration and verification of mathematical models of organic carbon removal kinetics in biofilm. The chosen Harremöes and Wanner & Reichert models were calibrated with a set of model parameters obtained both during dedicated studies conducted at pilot- and lab-scales for petrochemical wastewater conditions and from the literature. Next, the models were successfully verified through studies carried out utilizing a pilot ASFBBR type bioreactor installed in an oil-refinery wastewater treatment plant. During verification the pilot biofilm reactor worked under varying surface organic loading rates (SOL), dissolved oxygen concentrations and temperatures. The verification proved that the models can be applied in practice to petrochemical wastewater treatment engineering for e.g. biofilm bioreactor dimensioning.

  15. Treatment of simulated wastewater containing n-phenyl-n-isopropyl-p-phenylenediamine using electrolysis system with Ti/TiRuO2 electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thelma Helena Inazaki

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effects of the electrolytic treatment in the simulated wastewater with aromatic amine n-phenyl-n-isopropyl-p-phenylenediamine (Flexzone 3P® using Ti/TiRuO2 electrodes under 0.025 A/cm² (DC for different electrolysis durations (5; 15; 30; 45 and 60 min. Conductivity, pH, UV-visible spectra, gas chromatograms, toxicity and biodegradation tests were carried out. During the electrolytic treatment the pH decreased and conductivity increased slightly. After 60 min of electrolysis, the concentration of Flexzone 3P decreased by 65.1%. UV-vis spectra and chromatograms of simulated wastewater showed changes in the molecular structure of the aromatic amine. After 5 and 15 min of electrolysis, the simulated wastewater containing the Flexzone 3P showed detoxification by Saccharomyces cerevisiae toxicity test. The electrolysis of 5 min improved the biodegradation of the simulated wastewater containing Flexzone 3P.O presente trabalho apresenta os resultados dos tratamentos eletrolíticos (05; 15; 30; 45 e 60 min no efluente simulado com o composto Flexzone 3P, utilizando-se eletrodos de Ti/TiRuO2, sob 0,025 A cm-2. Após as eletrólises, foram feitas análises de pH, condutividade, espectrofotometria no UV-vis, análise por cromatografia gasosa, ensaios de toxicidade utilizando Saccharomyces cerevisiae e ensaio de respirometria de Bartha. O pH dos efluentes foi diminuindo à medida que aumentou- se o tempo de eletrólise, ao contrário da condutividade, a qual apresentou pequeno aumento. Verificou-se que após 60 min de tratamento foi obtida diminuição da concentração do composto Flexzone 3P em 65,1%. Analisando-se os espectros de UV-vis e cromatogramas do efluente após realização do tratamento eletrolítico, concluiu-se que ocorreram oxidações e transformações de funções orgânicas do composto, durante os tratamentos. Após a realização do tratamento eletrolítico, o efluente simulado apresentou diminuição da

  16. Oxidative stability of mayonnaise containing structured lipids produced from sunflower oil and caprylic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Charlotte; Xu, Xuebing; Nielsen, Nina Skall

    2003-01-01

    Mayonnaise based on enzymatically produced specific structured lipid (SL) from sunflower oil and caprylic acid was compared with mayonnaise based on traditional sunflower oil (SO) or chemically randomized lipid (RL) with respect to their oxidative stability, sensory and rheological properties......, but was most likely influenced by the structure of the lipid, the lower tocopherol content and the higher initial levels of lipid hydroperoxides and secondary volatile oxidation compounds in the SL itself compared with the RL and traditional sunflower oil employed. EDTA was a strong antioxidant, while propyl...

  17. Progress in Treatment of Oily Wastewater by Inorganic Porous Ceramic Membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dai Xiaoyuan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The composition and complexity of oily wastewater contains many solid particles, free oil, emulsified oil and so on.It brought about a series of environmental pollution problems when oily wastewater was directly discharged into rivers, lakes and other water bodies. Therefore, researchers are committed to study how to deal with oily wastewater to deal with oily wastewater to apply it to meet the requirements of water injection.Inorganic porous ceramic membrane has excellent properties among many filtering methods. For example, high temperature and high pressure resistance, resistance to acid and alkali, low energy consumption, no pollution to the environment and has a good prospect in the field of oily wastewater treatment, which has attracted the attention of many scholars not only at home but also on abroad. This article describes the present situation of the research on the treatment of oily wastewater by ceramic membrane in recent years, and expounded the significance of the treatment of oily wastewater to people’s lives and makes an expectation for the development of inorganic porous ceramic membrane in the future.

  18. Enhancement of Treatment Efficiency of Recalcitrant Wastewater Containing Textile Dyes Using a Newly Developed Iron Zeolite Socony Mobil-5 Heterogeneous Catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Mushtaq; Asghar, Anam; Abdul Raman, Abdul Aziz; Wan Daud, Wan Mohd Ashri

    2015-01-01

    Fenton oxidation, an advanced oxidation process, is an efficient method for the treatment of recalcitrant wastewaters. Unfortunately, it utilizes H2O2 and iron-based homogeneous catalysts, which lead to the formation of high volumes of sludge and secondary pollutants. To overcome these problems, an alternate option is the usage of heterogeneous catalyst. In this study, a heterogeneous catalyst was developed to provide an alternative solution for homogeneous Fenton oxidation. Iron Zeolite Socony Mobile-5 (Fe-ZSM-5) was synthesized using a new two-step process. Next, the catalyst was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller analysis and tested against a model wastewater containing the azo dye Acid Blue 113. Results showed that the loading of iron particles reduced the surface area of the catalyst from 293.59 to 243.93 m2/g; meanwhile, the average particle size of the loaded material was 12.29 nm. Furthermore, efficiency of the developed catalyst was evaluated by performing heterogeneous Fenton oxidation. Taguchi method was coupled with principal component analysis in order to assess and optimize mineralization efficiency. Experimental results showed that under optimized conditions, over 99.7% degradation and 77% mineralization was obtained, with a 90% reduction in the consumption of the developed catalyst. Furthermore, the developed catalyst was stable and reusable, with less than 2% leaching observed under optimized conditions. Thus, the present study proved that newly developed catalyst has enhanced the oxidation process and reduced the chemicals consumption.

  19. Enhancement of Treatment Efficiency of Recalcitrant Wastewater Containing Textile Dyes Using a Newly Developed Iron Zeolite Socony Mobil-5 Heterogeneous Catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Mushtaq; Asghar, Anam; Abdul Raman, Abdul Aziz; Wan Daud, Wan Mohd Ashri

    2015-01-01

    Fenton oxidation, an advanced oxidation process, is an efficient method for the treatment of recalcitrant wastewaters. Unfortunately, it utilizes H2O2 and iron-based homogeneous catalysts, which lead to the formation of high volumes of sludge and secondary pollutants. To overcome these problems, an alternate option is the usage of heterogeneous catalyst. In this study, a heterogeneous catalyst was developed to provide an alternative solution for homogeneous Fenton oxidation. Iron Zeolite Socony Mobile-5 (Fe-ZSM-5) was synthesized using a new two-step process. Next, the catalyst was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller analysis and tested against a model wastewater containing the azo dye Acid Blue 113. Results showed that the loading of iron particles reduced the surface area of the catalyst from 293.59 to 243.93 m2/g; meanwhile, the average particle size of the loaded material was 12.29 nm. Furthermore, efficiency of the developed catalyst was evaluated by performing heterogeneous Fenton oxidation. Taguchi method was coupled with principal component analysis in order to assess and optimize mineralization efficiency. Experimental results showed that under optimized conditions, over 99.7% degradation and 77% mineralization was obtained, with a 90% reduction in the consumption of the developed catalyst. Furthermore, the developed catalyst was stable and reusable, with less than 2% leaching observed under optimized conditions. Thus, the present study proved that newly developed catalyst has enhanced the oxidation process and reduced the chemicals consumption. PMID:26517827

  20. Treatment of Electroplating Wastewater Containing Heavy Metal%浅谈含重金属电镀废水的治理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王洪奎

    2013-01-01

    Electroplating wastewater containing heavy metal is extremely serious harmful to ecological environment due to its large quantity and complex composition. Accumulation of the heavy metal ions inside human body could cause cancer,distortion and chromosomal anomaly. Now,heavy metal pollution control has been listed in the National " 12th Five-Year Plan". Source controlling,process blocking and discharging up to standard through end treatment are effective means of heavy metal pollution control. Take a long view of this matter, innovation of pollution control technology, cleaner production and recycling economy, minimization of wastewater quantity and its pollution are very important issue, in so doing, the recycling target could be achieved.%电镀加工产生的含重金属离子废水数量大,成分复杂.重金属废水对生态环境危害极大.重金属离子富集在人体内可致癌、致畸和致染色体异常.重金属的治理已列入国家“十二五”规划.源头控制,过程阻断,末端治理达标排放是治理重金属污染有效手段;从長远考虑,应创新重金属废水的整治技术;开展清洁生产和循环经济,使电镀产生的重金属废水数量和危害最小化,最终实现回收利用的目标.

  1. CONTAINER DISTRIBUTION AND SLOW RELEASE FERTILIZERS APPLICATION ALONG THE PRE-NURSERY INFLUENCING OIL PALM SEEDLINGS GROWTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo César Teixeira

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This research had as objective to verify the influence in growth, nutrition and dry matter partition in oil palm seedling by type and dosages of slow release fertilizers (SRF and percentage of tray occupation by plastic containers during pre-nursery. The experiment consisted of 16 treatments, in factorial scheme: two types of SRF (Osmocote® e Basacote mini, two dosages (0 and 3 kg/m3 and four schemes for the container distribution used to attain 100%, 66%, 50% and 25% of tray occupation. An additional treatment composed of 15 x 15 cm plastic bags filled with soil was added. Pre-germinated seeds of oil palm were put in plastic containers of 120 cm3 containing substratum and in plastic bags containing soil. After three months, the seedlings were transplanted to 40 x 40 cm plastic bags containing soil. At this time, height, diameter, dry matter and concentration of N, P, K, Ca and Mg were evaluated. After 10 months, seedlings were evaluated for height and diameter and after 16 months, seedlings had the height, diameter and dry matter weight evaluated. Addition of SRF was fundamental for seedlings development. Different percentages of tray occupation by containers during pre-nursery did not influence height and diameter of oil palm seedlings at 10 and 16 months old. The evaluation after 10 months showed that plants fertilized with Osmocote® were higher than those fertilized with Basacote mini. The evaluations after 16 months showed that plants fertilized during the pre-nursery had higher height, diameter and leaflets, leaf, aboveground and total dry matter than plants not fertilized.

  2. Enantiomeric Distribution of Some Linalool Containing Essential Oils and Their Biological Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Hüsnü Can Başer

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The enantiomeric composition of linalool was determined in 42 essential oils using chiral columns. Essential oils were analyzed by multidimentional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry using a non-chiral and chiral FSC columns combination with modified g -cyclodextrine (Lipodex E as the chiral stationary phase without previous isolation of the compound from the mixture. The essential oils of Achillea, Ballota, Calamintha, Micromeria, Hedychium, Tanacetum, Coriandrum, Xanthoxylum, Ocimum, Thymus, Lavandula, Elettaria, Cinnamomum, Salvia, Origanum, Satureja, Nepeta, Stachys were used as source material for enantiomeric separation of linalool. Enantiomeric distribution of linalool showed (--linalool was much more common than the (+-linalool in the essential oils in this study. (-- and (+-linalool enantiomers were evaluated for antimicrobial, antifungal and antimalarial activities. Both enantiomers demonstrated approximately 50% growth inhibition of Botrytis cinerea at 48 hrs.

  3. The Effect of Inhalation of Aromatherapy Blend containing Lavender Essential Oil on Cesarean Postoperative Pain

    OpenAIRE

    Olapour, Alireza; Behaeen, Kaveh; Akhondzadeh, Reza; Soltani, Farhad; al Sadat Razavi, Forough; Bekhradi, Reza

    2013-01-01

    Background Pain is a major problem in patients after cesarean and medication such as aromatherapy which is a complementary therapy, in which the essences of the plants oils are used to reduce such undesirable conditions. Objectives In this study, the effect of aromatherapy using Lavender (Lavandula) essential oil on cesarean postoperative pain was assessed. Materials and Methods In a triple blind, randomized placebo-controlled trial study, 60 pregnant women who were admitted to a general hosp...

  4. Properties of palm oil fuel ash cement sand brick containing pulverized cockle shell as partial sand replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mat Aris, S.; Muthusamy, K.; Uzer, A.; Ahmad, S. Wan

    2018-04-01

    Environmental pollution caused by the disposal of solid wastes generated from both palm oil industry and cockle shell trade has motivated researches to explore the potential of these wastes. Integrating these wastes in production of construction material is one of the ways to reduce amount of waste thrown at dumping area. Thus, the present investigation investigates the performance of palm oil fuel ash (POFA) cement sand brick containing pulverized cockle shell as partial fine aggregate replacement. All mixes used contain 20% of POFA as partial cement replacement. Total of six mixes were prepared by adding a range of pulverized cockle shell that is 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% and 50% as partial sand replacement. The mixes were prepared in form of brick. All the water cured samples were tested for compressive strength and flexural strength until 28 days. Findings show that brick produced using 20% pulverized cockle shell exhibit the highest compressive strength and flexural strength also the lowest water absorption value.

  5. Upgrading of technology of absorptive cleaning of oily wastewaters

    OpenAIRE

    Pavluh, L. I .

    2013-01-01

    Oily wastewater treatment technology is improved through the improvement of the absorptive properties of sorbents based on plant waste. The cost of flowsheets for treatment of wastewaters contaminated with oil products is presented.

  6. Effects of oil drops containing Lactobacillus salivarius WB21 on periodontal health and oral microbiota producing volatile sulfur compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Nao; Tanabe, Kazunari; Takeshita, Toru; Yoneda, Masahiro; Iwamoto, Tomoyuki; Oshiro, Sueko; Yamashita, Yoshihisa; Hirofuji, Takao

    2012-03-01

    The objective of this paper is to evaluate the effects of oil drops containing Lactobacillus salivarius WB21 on periodontal health and oral microbiota producing volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs). For this study, 42 subjects were randomly assigned to receive oil samples containing L. salivarius WB21 or a placebo for two weeks. Oral assessment and saliva collection were performed on days 1 and 15. Bacterial analysis was performed using the real-time polymerase chain reaction and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP). In both the experimental and placebo groups, the average probing depth, number of periodontal pockets, and the percentage of bleeding on probing (BOP) decreased while stimulated salivary flow increased on day 15. BOP was reduced in the experimental group compared with the placebo group (P = 0.010). In the experimental group, total bacterial numbers decreased, and the number of L. salivarius increased. The number of Prevotella intermedia, which is correlated with hydrogen sulfide concentration in mouth air, increased in the placebo group and did not change in the experimental group. T-RFLP analysis found that the peak area proportions representing Porphyromonas gingivalis, P. intermedia, Tannerella forsythensis, and Fusobacterium nucleatum decreased in the experimental group, although there was no significant change in the bacterial composition. Thus we observed oil drops containing L. salivarius WB21 improved BOP and inhibited the reproduction of total and VSC-producing periodontopathic bacteria compared with the placebo group, but also showed the limit of its efficacy in controlling VSCs producing and periodontal pathogens.

  7. Optimization of biogas production from olive-oil mill wastewater, by codigesting with diluted poultry-manure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelegenis, John; Georgakakis, Dimitris; Angelidaki, Irini; Christopoulou, Nicholetta; Goumenaki, Maria

    2007-01-01

    Optimization of biogas production from olive-mill wastewater (OMW) was attempted by codigesting with diluted poultry-manure (DPM) at mesophilic conditions. A series of laboratory experiments were performed in continuously-operating reactors, fed with mixtures of OMW and DPM at various concentrations. It was concluded that codigestion of OMW with DPM is possible without any dilution of OMW or addition of any chemicals. Biogas production was slightly higher when OMW was added to DPM up to a critical concentration (about 40%, expressed as contribution of OMW to the volatile solids of the mixture), after which production is decreased. The results were further verified by scaling up to a continuously-operating pilot-plant reactor digesting DPM, and confirmed that no negative impact was imposed by adding OMW up to the above critical value

  8. Intravenous microemulsion of docetaxel containing an anti-tumor synergistic ingredient (Brucea javanica oil: formulation and pharmacokinetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma S

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Shilin Ma,1 Fen Chen,1 Xiaohui Ye,2 Yingjie Dong,2 Yingna Xue,1 Heming Xu,1 Wenji Zhang,1 Shuangshuang Song,1 Li Ai,2 Naixian Zhang,2 Weisan Pan1 1School of Pharmacy, Shenyang Pharmaceutical University, Shenyang, 2Liaoning Institute of Pharmaceutical Industry, Liaoning, The People's Republic of China Abstract: The purpose of this study was to develop a docetaxel microemulsion containing an anti-tumor synergistic ingredient (Brucea javanica oil and to investigate the characteristics of the microemulsion. Brucea javanica oil contains oleic acid and linoleic acids that have been shown by animal and human studies to inhibit tumor formation. The microemulsion containing Brucea javanica oil, medium-chain triglyceride, soybean lecithin, Solutol®HS 15, PEG 400, and water was developed for docetaxel intravenous administration. A formulation with higher drug content, lower viscosity, and smaller particle size was developed. The droplet size distribution of the dispersed phase of the optimized microemulsion was 13.5 nm, determined using a dynamic light scattering technique. The small droplet size enabled the microemulsion droplets to escape from uptake and phagocytosis by the reticuloendothelial system and increased the circulation time of the drug. The zeta potential was -41.3 mV. The optimized microemulsion was pale yellow, transparent, and non-opalescent in appearance. The value of the combination index was 0.58, showing that there was a synergistic effect when docetaxel was combined with Brucea javanica oil. After a single intravenous infusion dose (10 mg/kg in male Sprague Dawley rats, the area under the curve of the microemulsion was higher and the half-time was longer compared with that of docetaxel solution alone, and showed superior pharmacokinetic characteristics. These results indicate that this preparation of docetaxel in emulsion is likely to provide an excellent prospect for clinical tumor treatment. Keywords: microemulsion, docetaxel

  9. Intravenous microemulsion of docetaxel containing an anti-tumor synergistic ingredient (Brucea javanica oil): formulation and pharmacokinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Shilin; Chen, Fen; Ye, Xiaohui; Dong, Yingjie; Xue, Yingna; Xu, Heming; Zhang, Wenji; Song, Shuangshuang; Ai, Li; Zhang, Naixian; Pan, Weisan

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a docetaxel microemulsion containing an anti-tumor synergistic ingredient (Brucea javanica oil) and to investigate the characteristics of the microemulsion. Brucea javanica oil contains oleic acid and linoleic acids that have been shown by animal and human studies to inhibit tumor formation. The microemulsion containing Brucea javanica oil, medium-chain triglyceride, soybean lecithin, Solutol®HS 15, PEG 400, and water was developed for docetaxel intravenous administration. A formulation with higher drug content, lower viscosity, and smaller particle size was developed. The droplet size distribution of the dispersed phase of the optimized microemulsion was 13.5 nm, determined using a dynamic light scattering technique. The small droplet size enabled the microemulsion droplets to escape from uptake and phagocytosis by the reticuloendothelial system and increased the circulation time of the drug. The zeta potential was −41.3 mV. The optimized microemulsion was pale yellow, transparent, and non-opalescent in appearance. The value of the combination index was 0.58, showing that there was a synergistic effect when docetaxel was combined with Brucea javanica oil. After a single intravenous infusion dose (10 mg/kg) in male Sprague Dawley rats, the area under the curve of the microemulsion was higher and the half-time was longer compared with that of docetaxel solution alone, and showed superior pharmacokinetic characteristics. These results indicate that this preparation of docetaxel in emulsion is likely to provide an excellent prospect for clinical tumor treatment. PMID:24179332

  10. Reducing the Risks. In the aftermath of a terrorist attack, wastewater utilities may have to contend with decontamination water containing chemical, biological, or radiological substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warren, Linda P.; Hornback, Chris; Strom, Daniel J.

    2006-01-01

    In the aftermath of a chemical, biological, or radiological (CBR) attack, decontamination of people and infrastructure will be needed. Decontamination inevitably produces wastewater, and wastewater treatment plants (WTPs) need to know how to handle decontamination wastewater. This article describes CBR substances; planning, coordinating, and communicating responses across agencies; planning within a utility; coordination with local emergency managers and first responders; mitigating effects of decontamination wastewater; and mitigating effects on utility personnel. Planning for Decontamination Wastewater: A Guide for Utilities, the document on which this article is based, was developed under a cooperative agreement from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency by the National Association of Clean Water Agencies (NACWA) and its contractor, CH2MHILL, Inc.

  11. Maximizing heavy-oil recovery by containing steam through optimized cementing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravi, K.; Hunter, B.; Kulakofsky, D [Halliburton Energy Services, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2008-10-15

    As the world's oil and gas reserves decline, interest in unconventional sources, such as heavy oil, is increasing in response to global energy demand. Conventional methods are not sufficient to produce highly viscous heavy oil, and measures must be taken to decrease its viscosity. Although steam injection is an option, steam heats the casing and the cement sheath posing considerable thermal stress on the casing and the cement sheath. This paper described the design procedures that are required for evaluating the properties needed in the cement sheath in order to assist in withstanding thermal stresses. The steps needed to deliver an optimized cement system were presented. The paper presented an illustration of a typical wellbore for heavy-oil application and listed the parameters responsible for the extent of heat loss. These included formation properties; cement sheath thermal conductivity; steam-injection rate; and steam quality. The paper also described the Zhang unified mechanistic model which involved the temperature, pressure, steam quality, and heat loss changes as a function of the depth and the surroundings. Recommendations for withstanding well operations, hole cleaning, and slurry placement were also presented. Insurance for incomplete drilling fluid displacement and cement with the ability to react and respond were also proposed. It was concluded that in thermal recovery wells, energy loss to the surroundings could be reduced by lowering the thermal conductivity of the cement sheath. This could greatly improve the economics of such wells. 9 refs., 5 figs.

  12. Wastewater Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... day before releasing it back to the environment. Treatment plants reduce pollutants in wastewater to a level nature can handle. Wastewater is used water. It includes substances such as human waste, food ...

  13. Monitoring of TiO2-catalytic UV-LED photo-oxidation of cyanide contained in mine wastewater and leachate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seong Hee; Lee, Sang Woo; Lee, Gye Min; Lee, Byung-Tae; Yun, Seong-Taek; Kim, Soon-Oh

    2016-01-01

    A photo-oxidation process using UV-LEDs and TiO2 was studied for removal of cyanide contained in mine wastewater and leachates. This study focused on monitoring of a TiO2-catalyzed LED photo-oxidation process, particularly emphasizing the effects of TiO2 form and light source on the efficiency of cyanide removal. The generation of hydroxyl radicals was also examined during the process to evaluate the mechanism of the photo-catalytic process. The apparent removal efficiency of UV-LEDs was lower than that achieved using a UV-lamp, but cyanide removal in response to irradiation as well as consumption of electrical energy was observed to be higher for UV-LEDs than for UV-lamps. The Degussa P25 TiO2 showed the highest performance of the TiO2 photo-catalysts tested. The experimental results indicate that hydroxyl radicals oxidize cyanide to OCN(-), NO2(-), NO3(-), HCO3(-), and CO3(2-), which have lower toxicity than cyanide. In addition, the overall efficacy of the process appeared to be significantly affected by diverse operational parameters, such as the mixing ratio of anatase and rutile, the type of gas injected, and the number of UV-LEDs used. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of bacterially produced precipitates on the metabolism of sulfate reducing bacteria during the bio-treatment process of copper-containing wastewater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    A large volume of bacterially produced precipitates are generated during the bio-treatment of heavy metal wastewater.The composition of the bacterially produced precipitates and its effects on sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) in copper-containing waste stream were evaluated in this study.The elemental composition of the microbial precipitate was studied using electrodispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX),and it was found that the ratio of S:Cu was 1.12.Combining with the results of copper distribution in the SRB metabolism culture,which was analyzed by the sequential extraction procedure,copper in the precipitates was determined as covellite (CuS).The bacterially produced precipitates caused a decrease of the sulfate reduction rate,and the more precipitates were generated,the lower the sulfate reduction rate was.The particle sizes of bacterially generated covellite were ranging from 0.03 to 2 m by particles size distribution (PSD) analysis,which was smaller than that of the SRB cells.Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis showed that the microbial covellite was deposited on the surface of the cell.The effects of the microbial precipitate on SRB metabolism were found to be weakened by increasing the precipitation time and adding microbial polymeric substances in later experiments.These results provided direct evidence that the SRB activity was inhibited by the bacterially produced covellite,which enveloped the bacterium and thus affected the metabolism of SRB on mass transfer.

  15. Efficient treatment of an electroplating wastewater containing heavy metal ions, cyanide, and organics by H2O2 oxidation followed by the anodic Fenton process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xu; Wang, Haidong; Chen, Fayuan; Mao, Ran; Liu, Huijuan; Qu, Jiuhui

    2013-01-01

    A real electroplating wastewater, containing heavy metals, cyanide, and organic contaminants, was treated by electrocoagulation (EC), H2O2 oxidation, H2O2 pre-oxidation followed by EC, and the anodic Fenton process and the efficacy of the processes was compared. Concentration of cyanide, Cu, Ni, Zn, and Cr was largely decreased by EC within 5 min. When the reaction time was extended, removal of residual cyanide, Cu, and Ni was limited. In H2O2 oxidation, the concentration of cyanide decreased from initial 75 to 12 mg L(-1) in 30 min. The effluents from the H2O2 oxidation were further treated by EC or anodic Fenton. In EC, the concentration of total cyanide, Ni, and Cu decreased to below 0.3, 0.5, and 1.5 mg L(-1), respectively. Removal efficiency of chemical oxygen demand by EC was less than 20.0%. By contrast, there was 73.5% reduction by the anodic Fenton process with 5 mM H2O2 at 30 min; this can be attributed to the oxidation induced by hydroxyl radicals generated by the reaction of H2O2 with the electrogenerated Fe(2+). Meanwhile, residual cyanide, Cu, and Ni can also be efficiently removed. Transformation of organic components in various processes was analyzed using UV-visible and fluorescence excitation-emission spectra.

  16. Optimized coupling of a submerged membrane electro-bioreactor with pre-anaerobic reactors containing anode electrodes for wastewater treatment and fouling reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nader Taghipour

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the performance of a submerged membrane electro-bioreactor with pre-anaerobic reactors containing anode electrodes (SMEBR+ was compared with that of a membrane bioreactor (MBR in municipal wastewater treatment. The new design idea of the SMEBR+ was based on applications of direct current (DC on the anode and cathode electrodes. The pilot study was divided into 2 stages and operated for 48 days. In Stage I, the MBR was continuously operated for 24 days without the application of electrodes. In Stage II, the SMEBR+ was continuously operated for 24 days, while aluminum electrodes and an intermittent DC were working with an operational mode of 2 min ON/4 min OFF at a constant voltage of 1.4 V. The results indicated that membrane fouling was reduced by nearly 22.02% in the SMEBR+ compared to the MBR. The results also showed that the SMEBR+ increased the quality of effluent to the extent that high removals of NH3+-N, PO43−-P, and chemical oxygen demand (COD were 98%, 76%, and 90%, respectively. This system, in comparison with those proposed in other studies, showed a suitable improvement in biological treatments, considering the high removal of NH3+-N. Therefore, SMEBR+ can be considered as a promising treatment alternative to the conventional MBR.

  17. Effects of C/N ratio on nitrate removal and floc morphology of autohydrogenotrophic bacteria in a nitrate-containing wastewater treatment process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Tran Ngoc Phu; Chao, Shu-Ju; Chen, Pei-Chung; Huang, Chihpin

    2018-07-01

    The effects of C/N ratio of a nitrate-containing wastewater on nitrate removal performed by autohydrogenotrophic bacteria as well as on the morphological parameters of floc such as floc morphology, floc number distribution, mean particle size (MPS), aspect ratio and transparency were examined in this study. The results showed that the nitrate reduction rate increased with increasing C/N ratio from 0.5 to 10 and that the nitrogen removal of up to 95% was found at the C/N ratios of higher than 5 (between 0.5-10). Besides, high C/N ratio values reflected a corresponding high nitrite accumulation after 12-hr operation, and a fast decreasing rate of nitrite in the rest of operational time. The final pH values increased with the C/N ratio increasing from 0.5 to 2.5, but decreased with the C/N ratio increasing from 2.5 to 10. There were no significant changes in floc morphology with the MPSs ranging from 35 to 40μm. Small and medium-sized flocs were dominant in the sludge suspension, and the number of flocs increased with the increasing C/N ratios. Furthermore, the highest apparent frequency of 10% was observed at aspect ratios of 0.5 and 0.6, while the transparency of flocs changed from 0.1 to 0.7. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Modeling and Multiresponse Optimization for Anaerobic Codigestion of Oil Refinery Wastewater and Chicken Manure by Using Artificial Neural Network and the Taguchi Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmaeil Mehryar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To study the optimum process conditions for pretreatments and anaerobic codigestion of oil refinery wastewater (ORWW with chicken manure, L9 (34 Taguchi’s orthogonal array was applied. The biogas production (BGP, biomethane content (BMP, and chemical oxygen demand solubilization (CODS in stabilization rate were evaluated as the process outputs. The optimum conditions were obtained by using Design Expert software (Version 7.0.0. The results indicated that the optimum conditions could be achieved with 44% ORWW, 36°C temperature, 30 min sonication, and 6% TS in the digester. The optimum BGP, BMP, and CODS removal rates by using the optimum conditions were 294.76 mL/gVS, 151.95 mL/gVS, and 70.22%, respectively, as concluded by the experimental results. In addition, the artificial neural network (ANN technique was implemented to develop an ANN model for predicting BGP yield and BMP content. The Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm was utilized to train ANN, and the architecture of 9-19-2 for the ANN model was obtained.

  19. A comparative study between chemical and enzymatic transesterification of high free fatty acid contained rubber seed oil for biodiesel production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jilse Sebastian

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The choice of a paramount method for biodiesel production has significance as the demand of alternative fuels like biodiesel is growing rapidly. In the present study, experimental results from chemical-catalysed as well as enzyme-catalysed methods were compared using common influencing parameters such as oil/alcohol molar ratio, catalyst concentration and reaction duration. Requirement of certain solvents to enhance the reaction rate was explained in the enzyme-catalysed transesterification reaction. Biodiesel conversion of more than 90% was attained for chemical-catalysed transesterification, whereas the conversion rate was 85% for enzyme-catalysed method. This gives the indication of further refinement in the enzyme-catalysed transesterification process. The influencing parameters and absolute results of the analysis give the impression of superiority of enzymatic transesterification method for biodiesel production from high free fatty acid-contained rubber seed oil.

  20. Preparation of poly(Urethane-urea) nanoparticles containing acai oil by mini emulsion polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valerio, Alexsandra; Araujo, Pedro H.H.; Sayer, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    Polyurethane nanoparticles (NPs) are promising candidates for the controlled and targeted delivery of therapeutics in a variety of biomedical applications. In this work, a report is made of NPs produced by mini emulsion polymerization with isophorone diisocyanate (IPDI) and castor oil, glycerol, and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) with molar masses 400 and 1000 as monomers and Tween 80, Span 80 and Lutensol AT 25 as surfactant and acai oil as costabilizer. Stable dispersions with sizes between 100 - 500 nm were achieved. The effects from polyol, types and concentration of surfactant and reaction temperature on the size of the NPs and weight average molar mass were evaluated. Morphological characterization was accomplished using images from Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). (author)

  1. Preparation of poly(Urethane-urea) nanoparticles containing acai oil by mini emulsion polymerization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valerio, Alexsandra; Araujo, Pedro H.H.; Sayer, Claudia, E-mail: csayer@enq.ufsc.br [Universidade Federal de Santa catarina (UFSC), SC (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica e Engenharia de Alimentos

    2013-07-01

    Polyurethane nanoparticles (NPs) are promising candidates for the controlled and targeted delivery of therapeutics in a variety of biomedical applications. In this work, a report is made of NPs produced by mini emulsion polymerization with isophorone diisocyanate (IPDI) and castor oil, glycerol, and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) with molar masses 400 and 1000 as monomers and Tween 80, Span 80 and Lutensol AT 25 as surfactant and acai oil as costabilizer. Stable dispersions with sizes between 100 - 500 nm were achieved. The effects from polyol, types and concentration of surfactant and reaction temperature on the size of the NPs and weight average molar mass were evaluated. Morphological characterization was accomplished using images from Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). (author)

  2. Compressive strength, flexural strength and water absorption of concrete containing palm oil kernel shell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noor, Nurazuwa Md; Xiang-ONG, Jun; Noh, Hamidun Mohd; Hamid, Noor Azlina Abdul; Kuzaiman, Salsabila; Ali, Adiwijaya

    2017-11-01

    Effect of inclusion of palm oil kernel shell (PKS) and palm oil fibre (POF) in concrete was investigated on the compressive strength and flexural strength. In addition, investigation of palm oil kernel shell on concrete water absorption was also conducted. Total of 48 concrete cubes and 24 concrete prisms with the size of 100mm × 100mm × 100mm and 100mm × 100mm × 500mm were prepared, respectively. Four (4) series of concrete mix consists of coarse aggregate was replaced by 0%, 25%, 50% and 75% palm kernel shell and each series were divided into two (2) main group. The first group is without POF, while the second group was mixed with the 5cm length of 0.25% of the POF volume fraction. All specimen were tested after 7 and 28 days of water curing for a compression test, and flexural test at 28 days of curing period. Water absorption test was conducted on concrete cube age 28 days. The results showed that the replacement of PKS achieves lower compressive and flexural strength in comparison with conventional concrete. However, the 25% replacement of PKS concrete showed acceptable compressive strength which within the range of requirement for structural concrete. Meanwhile, the POF which should act as matrix reinforcement showed no enhancement in flexural strength due to the balling effect in concrete. As expected, water absorption was increasing with the increasing of PKS in the concrete cause by the porous characteristics of PKS

  3. Effectiveness of a model constructed wetland system containing Cyperus papyrus in degrading diesel oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harbowo, Danni Gathot; Choesin, Devi Nandita

    2014-03-01

    Synergism between wetland systems and the provision of degrading bacterial inoculum is now being developed for the recovery of areas polluted waters of pollutants. In connection with the frequent cases of diesel oil pollution in the waters of Indonesia, we need a way of water treatment as an efficient. In this study conducted a series of tests to develop an construcred wetland design that can effectively degrade diesel oil. Tested five systems: blanko (A), substrated, without bacterial inoculums, and vegetation (B); with the addition of inoculum (C); subsrated and vegetated (D); substrated and vegetated with the addition of inoculum (E). Vegetation used in this study is Cyperus papyrus because it has the ability to absorb pollutants. Inoculum used was Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterobacter aerogenes which is a bacteria degrading organic compounds commonly found in water. To measure the effectiveness of the system, use several indicators to see the degradation of pollutants, namely changes in viscosity, surface tension of pollutants, and the emergence of compound degradation. Based on the results of the study can be determined that the substrated and vegetated system with Cyperus papyrus inoculum (E) was considered the most capable of degrading diesel oil due to the large changes in all parameters. In the system E, 40.6% increase viscosity, surface tension decreased 32.7%, the appearance of degradation compounds with relatively 3614.7 points, and increased to 227.8% TDS. In addition the environmental conditions in the system E also supports the growth of vegetation and degrading microbes.

  4. A DEVICE FOR PURIFICATION OF OIL- AND FAT-CONTAINING GRAY WATERS FOR THE USE AT AUTOMOBILE LAUNDRIES AND PUBLIC CATERING ESTABLISHMENTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makharoblidze, N.

    2007-01-01

    There is proposed a device (a filter) for the use at automobile lauundries and public catering establishments for local purification of waste waters containing oil products and/or fats before their draining into the municipal sewage system. (author)

  5. Analysis of the ecological parameters of the diesel engine powered with biodiesel fuel containing methyl esters from Camelina sativa oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Lebedevas

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The article explores the possibilities of using fatty acid methyl esters derived from the oil of a new species of oily plant Camelina sativa not demanding on soil. The performed research on the physical and chemical properties of pure methyl esters from Camelina sativa show that biofuels do not meet requirements for the biodiesel fuel standard (LST EN 14214:2009 of a high iodine value and high content of linoleic acid methyl ester, so they must be mixed with methyl esters produced from pork lard the content of which in the mixture must be not less than 32%. This article presents the results of tests on combustion emission obtained when three-cylinder diesel engine VALMET 320 DMG was fuelled with a mixture containing 30% of this new kind of fuel with fossil diesel fuel comparing with emissions obtained when the engine was fuelled with a fuel mixture containing 30% of conventional biodiesel fuel (rapeseed oil methyl esters with fossil diesel fuel. The obtained results show that using both types of fuel, no significant differences in CO and NOx concentrations were observed throughout the tested load range. When operating on fuels containing methyl esters from Camelina sativa, HC emissions decreased by 10 to 12% and the smokeness of exhaust gas by 12 to 25%.

  6. Magnetic Amphiphilic Composites Applied for the Treatment of Biodiesel Wastewaters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno R. S. Lemos

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In this work, new magnetic amphiphilic composites were prepared by chemical vapor deposition with ethanol on the surface of hydrophilic natural chrysotile matrix containing Fe catalyst. XRD, Raman, Mössbauer and SEM analyses suggest the formation of a complex nanostructured material composed of hydrophobic carbon nanotubes/nanofibers grown on the hydrophilic surface of the MgSi fiber mineral and the presence of Fe metallic nanoparticles coated by carbon. These nanostructured particles show amphiphilic properties and interact very well with both oil and aqueous phases. When added to emulsions the amphiphilic particles locate on the oil/water interface and, under a magnetic field, the oil droplets collapsed leading to the separation of the aqueous and oil phases. Preliminary work showed excellent results on the use of these particles to break wastewater emulsions in the biodiesel process.

  7. Effect of Grape Seeds Oil Extracted from Radiation Processed Seeds on Lipid Metabolism and on Antioxidant Activity in Rats Fed Diets Containing Cholesterol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Neily, H.F.G.; El-Shennawy, H.M.

    2011-01-01

    Grape seeds were separated from fresh grape pomace and dried at room temperature then packed in polyethylene bags and subjected to gamma rays at dose level of 10 kGy. The grape seeds oil was extracted from non and irradiated seeds. The oil quality, fatty acid composition and total phenolic compounds of oil extracted from non or irradiated seeds have been studied. The results indicated that there were significant increases in the acid value, saponification value and peroxide value of oil extracted from irradiated seeds at 10 kGy by 46.2%, 2.5% and 95.2%, respectively, and the total phenolic compounds and total radical trapping antioxidant potential (TRAP) were reduced by 22.13% and 10%, respectively, as compared to those of oil extracted from non-irradiated seeds. No degradation of the fatty acids; palmitic, linoleic, linolenic and arachidic acids, were observed for oil extracted from irradiated seeds at 10 kGy. However, significant decrease in oleic acid by 11.35% and increase in stearic acid by 26.22% were recorded corresponding to those for oil extracted from non-irradiated seeds. The effect of grape seeds oils extracted from non or irradiated seeds on lipid metabolism and antioxidant activity was investigated using 60 male Albino rats divided into six groups: (1) Control group: animals fed casein diet. (2) Ch group: animals received casein diet contains 10 g cholesterol per kg diet. (3) RGSO group: animals received diet contains grape seeds oil extracted from non-irradiated seeds (100 g oil per kg diet). (4) RGSO + Ch group: rats received diet contains grape seeds oil extracted from non-irradiated seeds (100 g oil per kg diet) + 100 g cholesterol per kg diet. (5) IGSO group: rats received diet contains grape seeds oil extracted from irradiated seeds at 10 kGy (100 g oil per kg diet). (6) IGSO + Ch group: rats received diet contains grape seeds oil extracted from irradiated seeds at 10 kGy (100 g oil per kg diet) + 10 g cholesterol per kg diet. Animals received

  8. Recycling phosphorus from wastewater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemming, Camilla Kjærulff

    wastewater-derived products, and to relate this to the availability from other P-containing waste products and mineral P fertiliser. This included aspects of development over time and soil accumulation, as well as effects of soil pH and the spatial distribution in soil. The P sources applied in this PhD work...... reserves. Wastewater represents the largest urban flow of P in waste. Hence, knowledge about plant P availability of products from the wastewater treatment system, and also comparison to other waste P sources and mineral P is essential to obtain an efficient recycling and to prioritise between different P...... recycling options. The work of this PhD focused on the plant P availability of sewage sludge, a P-rich residue from wastewater treatment which is commonly applied to agricultural soil in Denmark. The overall objective of the PhD work was to evaluate the plant availability of P in sewage sludge and other...

  9. Biodiesel Production from Residual Palm Oil Contained in Spent Bleaching Earth by In Situ Trans-Esterification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A S Fahmil QRM

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Spent Bleaching Earth (SBE is an industrial solid waste of vegetable oil industry that has a high residual oil to be potentialy converted to biodiesel. This study aims at developing a biodiesel production process technology by utilizing residual palm oil contained in SBE and to test the use of hexane in the trans-esterification process. Optimization process was done by using the Response Surface Method (RSM. The variables studied included catalyst concentration and reaction time. On the other hand, the deoiled SBE resulted from biodiesel production was tested as an adsorbent on biodiesel purification after being reactivated. The method used in the biodiesel production included an in situ acid catalysed esterification followed by in situ base catalysed trans-esterification. The results of RSM showed that the optimum process was obtained at NaOH concentration of 1.8% and reaction time of 104.73 minutes, with a predicted response rate of 97.18% and 95.63% for validation results. The use of hexane could also increase the yield of biodiesel which was obtained on the ratio of hexane to methanol of 0.4:1 (volume of hexane: volume of methanol. On the other hand, the reactivated bleaching earth was effective as an adsorbent in biodiesel production, which was still conform with the Indonesian National Standard.

  10. The Effect of Inhalation of Aromatherapy Blend containing Lavender Essential Oil on Cesarean Postoperative Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olapour, Alireza; Behaeen, Kaveh; Akhondzadeh, Reza; Soltani, Farhad; Al Sadat Razavi, Forough; Bekhradi, Reza

    2013-01-01

    Pain is a major problem in patients after cesarean and medication such as aromatherapy which is a complementary therapy, in which the essences of the plants oils are used to reduce such undesirable conditions. In this study, the effect of aromatherapy using Lavender (Lavandula) essential oil on cesarean postoperative pain was assessed. In a triple blind, randomized placebo-controlled trial study, 60 pregnant women who were admitted to a general hospital for cesarean section, were divided randomly into two groups. After cesarean, the Lavender group inhaled about 3 drops of 10% Lavender oil essence and the placebo group inhaled 3 drops of placebo after the start of postoperative pain, four, eight and 12 hours later, for 5 minutes from the 10 cm distance. Patient's pain was measured by the VAS (Visual Analog Scale) score before and after each intervention, and vital sign, complications and level of satisfaction of every patient were recorded before and after aromatherapy. There was no statistically significant difference between groups in age, height, weight, and time to the first analgesic requirement. Patients in the Lavender group had less postoperative pain in four (P = 0.008), eight (P = 0.024) and 12 (P = 0.011) hours after first medication than the placebo group. The decreased heart rate and patients' level of satisfaction with analgesia were significantly higher in the Lavender group (P = 0.001). In the placebo group, the use of diclofenac suppositories for complete analgesia was also significantly higher than the Lavender group (P = 0.008). The inhaled Lavender essence may be used as a part of the multidisciplinary treatment of pain after cesarean section, but it is not recommended as the sole pain management.

  11. The effect of anethole containing essentials oils on nutrients digestibility of pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladislav Zeman

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The plant additives and their functional components can selectively influence the intestinal microorganism growth in positive or negative direction. If the growth promotion relates with positive microorganisms and growth elimination is connected with pathogens the results is nutrients utilization improvement, stimulation of immunologic system or positive influence of intermedial metabolism. Anethole is one of these important plant metabolites. There are described following positive effects of anethole in human medicine: vasorelaxant, antithrombotic, releasing of heart function, fytoestrogenic (it mean improving of milk secretion, menstruation, promotion of menses, birth improvement, men’s hormonal changes improving, sexual libido improving, antioxidative, antifungal, improvement of derma permeability, antihelmintic, insecticidal, yeast elimination, antibacterial, antipyretic.In our work the effect of anise and fennel essential oils on nutrients utilization in pig experiment was evaluated. The trial was organized in accredited experimental stable Žabčice of Mendel University of Agriculture and Forestry Brno. The high level efficiency of experimental animals is mentioned through general parameters (average daily gain, feed intake and feed conversion. The results of nutrients utilization rate show slightly higher digestibility of nutrients in treatment with anise oil, this improvement is not higher then 1.0 %. We can see also improvement of nitrogen retention in body mass on level of 5.6 % (anise treatment compared with control group. There is low variability between experimental animals (except nitrogen retention coefficient but we can not see any statistical significance. On base of these results we can say the used phytogenic additives do not affect negatively the nutrient utilization in used concentration (0.1 % of essential oil in feed mixture and are fully eligible for animal nutrition. These results are also supported by few

  12. A review of the nature of naphthenic acid occurrence, toxicity, and fate in refinery and oil sands extraction wastewaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eickhoff [Maxxam, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This PowerPoint presentation evaluated the occurrence, toxicity and fate of naphthenic acids (NA) in refinery and oil sands extraction waste waters. The chemistry of NA was reviewed. Factors affecting the aquatic toxicity of NA were discussed, and modes of toxicity were outlined. NA residues in fish were evaluated. Issues concerning the biodegradation, photolysis, and phytodegradation of NA were reviewed. Various phytoremediation techniques were presented. Results of the study indicated that acute toxicity to aquatic organisms was caused by narcosis. Sublethal impacts of NA included changes to growth, fertilization, reproduction, development, and hormone modifications. Varying rates of toxicity were observed in different NA, based on their size and molecular structure. While biodegradation can reduce the toxicity of NA, higher molecular weight NA can resist degradation and cause toxicity. tabs., figs.

  13. pH-Sensitive self-propelled motion of oil droplets in the presence of cationic surfactants containing hydrolyzable ester linkages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banno, Taisuke; Kuroha, Rie; Toyota, Taro

    2012-01-17

    Self-propelled oil droplets in a nonequilibrium system have drawn much attention as both a primitive type of inanimate chemical machinery and a dynamic model of the origin of life. Here, to create the pH-sensitive self-propelled motion of oil droplets, we synthesized cationic surfactants containing hydrolyzable ester linkages. We found that n-heptyloxybenzaldehyde oil droplets were self-propelled in the presence of ester-containing cationic surfactant. In basic solution prepared with sodium hydroxide, oil droplets moved as molecular aggregates formed on their surface. Moreover, the self-propelled motion in the presence of the hydrolyzable cationic surfactant lasted longer than that in the presence of nonhydrolyzable cationic surfactant. This is probably due to the production of a fatty acid by the hydrolysis of the ester-containing cationic surfactant and the subsequent neutralization of the fatty acid with sodium hydroxide. A complex surfactant was formed in the aqueous solution because of the cation and anion combination. Because such complex formation can induce both a decrease in the interfacial tension of the oil droplet and self-assembly with n-heptyloxybenzaldehyde and lauric acid in the aqueous dispersion, the prolonged movement of the oil droplet may be explained by the increase in heterogeneity of the interfacial tension of the oil droplet triggered by the hydrolysis of the ester-containing surfactant. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  14. Lipid and protein oxidation in the internal part of italian type salami containing basil essential oil (Ocimum basilicum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre José Cichoski

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Different concentrations of basil essential oil (Ocimum basilicum L. (0.19; 0.38; 0.75; 1.87; 3.75 and 6.00 mg.g-1 were evaluated in relation to their antioxidant activity using the DPPH● radical methodology. From the IC50 obtained data, the concentrations of 0.19; 0.38; 0.75; 1.87; 3.75; 6.00 and 12.00 mg.mL-1 were applied directly to the product and these were sensorially evaluated by the test of control difference. The concentrations related to the highest acceptability (0.19; 0.38 and 0.75 mg.g-1 were tested for antioxidant activity in the internal part of Italian type salami - during the processing and after 30 days of storage, in terms of lipid and protein oxidation. The oxidation of lipids was determined using the method of TBARS. The method of carbonyl compounds was employed for proteins oxidation. Five different formulations of salami were elaborated: blank (without the use of antioxidant; control (using sodium eritorbate as antioxidant; and adding 0.19; 0.38 and 0.75 mg.g-1 of basil essential oil. The product was kept between 25 ºC and 18 ºC and UR between 95% and 70%, for 28 days. Analyses were carried out on the processing day and after 2, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days, and also following 30 days of storage. The basil essential oil in vitro presented an antioxidant activity of IC50 12 mg.mL-1. In the internal part of the Italian type salami the commercial antioxidant (control and the formulation containing 0.75 mg.g-1 of basil essential oil presented antioxidant activity in relation to the lipids, but not to the proteins - during processing and storage.

  15. A comparative study of antiplaque and antigingivitis effects of herbal mouthrinse containing tea tree oil, clove, and basil with commercially available essential oil mouthrinse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaila V. Kothiwale

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The relatively safe nature and cost-effectiveness of herbal extracts have led to a resurgent interest in their utility as therapeutic agents. Therefore, this prospective, double-blind, randomly controlled clinical trial was designed to compare the antiplaque and antigingivitis effects of newly formulated mouthrinse containing tea tree oil (TTO, clove, and basil with those of commercially available essential oil (EO mouthrinse. Materials and Methods: Forty patients were selected for a 21-day study period and randomly divided into two groups. The test group patients were given newly formulated herbal mouthrinse and the control group patients were given commercially available EO mouthrinse. The Plaque Index (PI, Gingival Index (GI, and Papillary Marginal Attachment (PMA Index were recorded at baseline, 14 days, and 21 days. The microbial colony forming units (CFU were assessed at baseline and 21 days. Results: Test group patients using herbal mouthrinse showed significant improvement in GI (0.16, PI (0.57, and PMA (0.02 scores. These improvements were comparable to those achieved with commercially available EO mouthrinse. However, the aerobic and anaerobic CFU of microbiota were reduced with the herbal mouthrinse (P = 0.0000. Conclusion: The newly formulated herbal mouthrinse and commercially available mouthrinse were beneficial clinically as antiplaque and antigingivitis agents. Newly formulated mouthrinses showed significant reduction in microbial CFU at 21 days. So, our findings support the regular use of herbal mouthrinse as an antiplaque, antigingivitis, and antimicrobial rinse for better efficacy.

  16. Wetting Resistance of Commercial Membrane Distillation Membranes in Waste Streams Containing Surfactants and Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lies Eykens

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Water management is becoming increasingly challenging and several technologies, including membrane distillation (MD are emerging. This technology is less affected by salinity compared to reverse osmosis and is able to treat brines up to saturation. The focus of MD research recently shifted from seawater desalination to industrial applications out of the scope of reverse osmosis. In many of these applications, surfactants or oil traces are present in the feed stream, lowering the surface tension and increasing the risk for membrane wetting. In this study, the technological boundaries of MD in the presence of surfactants are investigated using surface tension, contact angle and liquid entry pressure measurements together with lab-scale MD experiments to predict the wetting resistance of different membranes. Synthetic NaCl solutions mixed with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS were used as feed solution. The limiting surfactant concentration was found to be dependent on the surface chemistry of the membrane, and increased with increasing hydrophobicity and oleophobicity. Additionally, a hexadecane/SDS emulsion was prepared with a composition simulating produced water, a waste stream in the oil and gas sector. When hexadecane is present in the emulsion, oleophobic membranes are able to resist wetting, whereas polytetrafluoretheen (PTFE is gradually wetted by the feed liquid.

  17. Formulation development and optimization of palm kernel oil esters-based nanoemulsions containing sodium diclofenac.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaee, Malahat; Basri, Mahiran; Rahman, Raja Noor Zaliha Raja Abdul; Salleh, Abu Bakar; Chaibakhsh, Naz; Karjiban, Roghayeh Abedi

    2014-01-01

    Response surface methodology was employed to study the effect of formulation composition variables, water content (60%-80%, w/w) and oil and surfactant (O/S) ratio (0.17-1.33), as well as high-shear emulsification conditions, mixing rate (300-3,000 rpm) and mixing time (5-30 minutes) on the properties of sodium diclofenac-loaded palm kernel oil esters-nanoemulsions. The two response variables were droplet size and viscosity. Optimization of the conditions according to the four variables was performed for preparation of the nanoemulsions with the minimum values of particle size and viscosity. The results showed that the experimental data could be sufficiently fitted into a third-order polynomial model with multiple regression coefficients (R(2) ) of 0.938 and 0.994 for the particle size and viscosity, respectively. Water content, O/S ratio and mixing time, quadrics of all independent variables, interaction between O/S ratio and mixing rate and between mixing time and rate, as well as cubic term of water content had a significant effect (Pdiclofenac nanoemulsions were predicted to be: 71.36% water content; 0.69 O/S ratio; 950 rpm mixing rate, and 5 minute mixing time. The optimized formulation showed good storage stability in different temperatures.

  18. Development of PLA films containing oregano essential oil (Origanum vulgare L. virens) intended for use in food packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llana-Ruiz-Cabello, M; Pichardo, S; Bermúdez, J M; Baños, A; Núñez, C; Guillamón, E; Aucejo, S; Cameán, A M

    2016-08-01

    Consumers' concerns about the environment and health have led to the development of new food packaging materials avoiding petroleum-based matrices and synthetic additives. The present study has developed polylactic acid (PLA) films containing different concentrations of essential oil from Origanum vulgare L. virens (OEO). The effectiveness of this new active packaging was checked for use in ready-to-eat salads. A plasticising effect was observed when OEO was incorporated in PLA films. The rest of the mechanical and physical properties of developed films did not show much change when OEO was included in the film. An antioxidant effect was recorded only for films containing the highest percentages of the active agent (5% and 10%). In addition, films exhibited in vitro antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Yersinia enterocolitica, Listeria monocytogenes, Enterococcus faecalis and Staphylococcus carnosus. Moreover, in ready-to-eat salads, antimicrobial activity was only observed against yeast and moulds, where 5% and 10% of OEO was the most effective.

  19. Development of lamellar gel phase emulsion containing marigold oil (Calendula officinalis) as a potential modern wound dressing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuma, C H; Andrade, T A M; Caetano, G F; Finci, L I; Maciel, N R; Topan, J F; Cefali, L C; Polizello, A C M; Carlo, T; Rogerio, A P; Spadaro, A C C; Isaac, V L B; Frade, M A C; Rocha-Filho, P A

    2015-04-25

    Appropriate therapeutics for wound treatments can be achieved by studying the pathophysiology of tissue repair. Here we develop formulations of lamellar gel phase (LGP) emulsions containing marigold (Calendula officinalis) oil, evaluating their stability and activity on experimental wound healing in rats. LGP emulsions were developed and evaluated based on a phase ternary diagram to select the best LGP emulsion, having a good amount of anisotropic structure and stability. The selected LGP formulation was analyzed according to the intrinsic and accelerated physical stability at different temperatures. In addition, in vitro and in vivo studies were carried out on wound healing rats as a model. The LGP emulsion (15.0% marigold oil; 10.0% of blend surfactants and 75.0% of purified water [w/w/w]) demonstrated good stability and high viscosity, suggesting longer contact of the formulation with the wound. No cytotoxic activity (50-1000 μg/mL) was observed in marigold oil. In the wound healing rat model, the LGP (15 mg/mL) showed an increase in the leukocyte recruitment to the wound at least on days 2 and 7, but reduced leukocyte recruitment after 14 and 21 days, as compared to the control. Additionally, collagen production was reduced in the LGP emulsion on days 2 and 7 and further accelerated the process of re-epithelialization of the wound itself. The methodology utilized in the present study has produced a potentially useful formulation for a stable LGP emulsion-containing marigold, which was able to improve the wound healing process. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Mechanical Properties of High Strength Concrete Containing Coal Bottom Ash and Oil-Palm Boiler Clinker as Fine Aggregates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soofinajafi Mahmood

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to utilize Coal Furnace Bottom ash (CBA and Oil-Palm Boiler Clinker (OPBC as fine aggregate in concrete mix proportions. They are solid wastes from power plant and Oil Palm industry, respectively. Since these by-products do not have any primary use and are pure waste, an opportunity to use them as aggregate in concrete industry not only is economical but also will be an environmental friendly opportunity leading towards a more sustainable production chain. CBA and OPBC sands had similar grading to normal sand but have lower density and higher water absorption. In a high strength concrete, normal sand was replaced up to 25% with either CBA or OPBC. Test results showed that although water absorption of these wastes was more than normal sand but the slump value of concrete containing each of these wastes showed that these concretes had good workability. All mixes containing these wastes had slightly lower compressive strength at early ages and equivalent or higher compressive strength at later ages compared to control mix. The 28-day compressive strength of these concretes was in the range of 69–76 MPa which can be categorized as high strength concrete. In general, the performance of OPBC was better than CBA at 25% replacement level. However, it is recommended that at least 12.5% of total volume of fine aggregate in a high strength concrete is used of CBA or OPBC.

  1. EVALUATION OF PHYSICAL PROPERTIES AND IRRITATION INDEX OF LOTION CONTAINING SYZIGIUM AROMATICUM CLOVE ESSENTIAL OIL AT VARIOUS CONCENTRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadzil Latifah

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the lotion contained essential oil of clove Syzigium a romaticum which contained eugenol as the active ingredient. Eugenol has been scientifically proven as anti-inflammatory. Because its activity, the study about development of dosage form is needed. Aims of this study was to know the physical properties of spreadibility, adhesivity, pH, viscosity and irritation index of lotion with variation concentration of essential oil.Thisstudywasstartedwithaformulationoflotionwith variationconcentrationofessentialoil5%(FI; 10% (FII; 15% (FIII. Lotion was evaluated physical properties with parameters spreadibility, adhesivity, viscosity and pH. The evaluation of iritation index was done using guinea pig test animals. Data were analyzed statistically with One Way Anova at confidence level of 95% to detect a significant difference between the treatment groups. The results of the study showed the variation consentration did not influence pH the increasing concentration caused a decreasing spredibility P<0.05 and increasing adhesivity P<0.05. The all of concentration did not irritated the skin of guinea pigs.

  2. Polymeric polyelectrolytes obtained from renewable sources for biodiesel wastewater treatment by dual-flocculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. M. Ribeiro

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel wastewater generally contains high levels of oils, soaps and glycerol residues. This needs wastewater treatment. In this study, the biodiesel wastewater treatment was tested (industrial wastewater (EFID and laboratory wastewater (EFLB from biodiesel by performing flocculation and dual-flocculation with renewable polymers. Tannin and cationic hemicellulose (CH were used as cationic flocculant, and cellulose acetate sulfate (CAS was used as an anionic flocculant. Polyacrylamide (PAM was used as a reference anionic flocculant for result efficiencies analysis obtained with CAS (renewable source flocculant. The treatment efficacy in wastewater was evaluated by: turbidity removal, sludge volume formed, chemical oxygen demand (COD and total suspended solids (TSS. The obtained sludge was studied using thermogravimetric analysis (TG. The dual-flocculation application condition of the 25% proportion of tannin (T and 75% proportion of cationic hemicelluloses (i.e., T25/CH75 showed EFLB turbidity removal of 89.1% and 89.5% for CAS and PAM additions respectively, and for EFID of 67% and 41% for CAS and PAM additions respectively. The dual-flocculation performance suggested that the polyelectrolytes obtained from renewable sources can be used for treating biodiesel wastewater.

  3. Sustainable water recovery from oily wastewater via forward osmosis-membrane distillation (FO-MD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Sui; Wang, Peng; Fu, Xiuzhu; Chung, Tai-Shung

    2014-04-01

    This study proposed and investigated a hybrid forward osmosis - membrane distillation (FO-MD) system for sustainable water recovery from oily wastewater by employing lab-fabricated FO and MD hollow fiber membranes. Stable oil-in-water emulsions of different concentrations with small droplet sizes (oil droplets and partial permeation of acetic acid could be achieved. Finally, an integrated FO-MD system was developed to treat the oily wastewater containing petroleum, surfactant, NaCl and acetic acid at 60 °C in the batch mode. The water flux in FO undergoes three-stage decline due to fouling and reduction in osmotic driving force, but is quite stable in MD regardless of salt concentration. Oily wastewater with relatively high salinity could be effectively recovered by the FO-MD hybrid system while maintaining large water flux, at least 90% feed water recovery could be readily attained with only trace amounts of oil and salts, and the draw solution was re-generated for the next rounds of FO-MD run. Interestingly, significant amount of acetic acid was also retained in the permeate for further reuse as a chemical additive during the production of crude oil. The work has demonstrated that not only water but also organic additives in the wastewater could be effectively recovered by FO-MD systems for reuse or other utilizations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Cultivation of three medicinal mushroom species on olive oil press cakes containing substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej GREGORI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Olive oil press cakes (OOPC represent a waste that has a negative impact on environment. OOPC have little or no use and because of that solutions for their alternative use are sought after. In our experiments we investigated substrate mixtures composed of different proportions of OOPC, wheat bran, crushed corn seeds and beech sawdust for cultivation of Ganoderma lucidum, Lentinula edodes and Grifola frondosa fruiting bodies. The increasing amount of OOPC in fruiting bodies cultivation substrates resulted in decreasing production of fruiting bodies. Results show, that although OOPC in small portion can be successfully used as a medicinal mushroom fruiting bodies cultivating substrate, their use is rational only, if no other substrate composing materials can be found or when OOPC usage solves the problem of its deposition.

  5. Detoxification of Pesticide-Containing Wastewater with FeIII, Activated Carbon and Fenton Reagent and Its Control Using Three Standardized Bacterial Inhibition Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduard Rott

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Discharge of toxic industrial wastewaters into biological wastewater treatment plants may result in inhibition of activated sludge bacteria (ASB. In order to find an appropriate method of detoxification, the wastewater of a pesticide-processing plant in Vietnam was treated with three different methods (FeIII, powdered activated carbon (PAC, Fenton (FeII/H2O2 analyzing the detoxification effect with the nitrification inhibition test (NIT, respiration inhibition test (RIT and luminescent bacteria test (LBT. The heterotrophic ASB were much more resistant to the wastewater than the autotrophic nitrificants. The NIT turned out to be more suitable than the RIT since the NIT was less time-consuming and more reliable. In addition, the marine Aliivibrio fischeri were more sensitive than the nitrificants indicating that a lack of inhibition in the very practical and time-efficient LBT correlates with a lack of nitrification inhibition. With 95%, the Fenton method showed the highest efficiency regarding the chemical oxygen demand (COD removal. Although similar COD removal (60–65% was found for both the FeIII and the PAC method, the inhibitory effect of the wastewater was reduced much more strongly with PAC. Both the NIT and the LBT showed that the PAC and Fenton methods led to a similar reduction in the inhibitory effect.

  6. An oil containing EPA and DHA from transgenic Camelina sativa to replace marine fish oil in feeds for Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.: Effects on intestinal transcriptome, histology, tissue fatty acid profiles and plasma biochemistry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica B Betancor

    Full Text Available New de novo sources of omega 3 (n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA are required as alternatives to fish oil in aquafeeds in order to maintain adequate levels of the beneficial fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic (EPA and DHA, respectively. The present study investigated the use of an EPA+DHA oil derived from transgenic Camelina sativa in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar feeds containing low levels of fishmeal (35% and fish oil (10%, reflecting current commercial formulations, to determine the impacts on tissue fatty acid profile, intestinal transcriptome, and health of farmed salmon. Post-smolt Atlantic salmon were fed for 12-weeks with one of three experimental diets containing either a blend of fish oil/rapeseed oil (FO, wild-type camelina oil (WCO or transgenic camelina oil (DCO as added lipid source. The DCO diet did not affect any of the fish performance or health parameters studied. Analyses of the mid and hindgut transcriptomes showed only mild effects on metabolism. Flesh of fish fed the DCO diet accumulated almost double the amount of n-3 LC-PUFA than fish fed the FO or WCO diets, indicating that these oils from transgenic oilseeds offer the opportunity to increase the n-3 LC-PUFA in farmed fish to levels comparable to those found a decade ago.

  7. Quantification of the molecular species of acylglycerols containing hydroxy fatty acids in lesquerella oils using high-performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ten molecular species of diacylglycerols (DAG), 54 of triacylglycerols (TAG) and 13 of tetraacylglycerols (tetraAG, triacylglycerol estolides) containing hydroxy fatty acids (FA) as well as 20 of TAG containing three normal FA (non-hydroxylated) in lesquerella oil were quantified by a newly improved...

  8. Halloysite Nanocapsules Containing Thyme Essential Oil: Preparation, Characterization, and Application in Packaging Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Si-Hoon; Jang, So-Ri; Lee, Gyeong-Min; Ryu, Jee-Hoon; Park, Su-Il; Park, No-Hyung

    2017-09-01

    Halloysite nanotubes (HNTs), which are natural nanomaterials, have a hollow tubular structure with about 15 nm inner and 50 nm outer diameters. Because of their tubular shape, HNTs loaded with various materials have been investigated as functional nanocapsules. In this study, thyme essential oil (TO) was encapsulated successfully in HNTs using vacuum pulling methods, followed by end-capping or a layer-by-layer surface coating process for complete encapsulation. Nanocapsules loaded with TO were mixed with flexographic ink and coated on a paper for applications as food packaging materials. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy were used to characterize the morphology of the nanocapsules and to confirm the TO loading of the nanocapsules. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analyses analysis were used to complement the structural information. In addition, the controlled release of TO from the nanocapsules showed sustained release properties over a period of many days. The results reveal that the release properties of TO in these nanocapsules could be controlled by surface modifications such as end-capping and/or surface coating of bare nanocapsules. The packaging paper with TO-loaded HNT capsules was effective in eliminating against Escherichia coli during the first 5 d and showed strong antibacterial activity for about 10 d. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  9. Quality of life in patients with recurrent aphthous stomatitis treated with a mucoadhesive patch containing citrus essential oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kürklü-Gürleyen E

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Esma Kürklü-Gürleyen,1 Merve Öğüt-Erişen,1 Onur Çakır,1 Ömer Uysal,2 Gülsüm Ak1 1Department of Oral Surgery, Faculty of Dentistry, Istanbul University, 2Department of Biostatistics and Medical Informatics, Faculty of Medicine, BezmiÂlem Vakif University, Istanbul, Turkey Purpose: To assess 1 patient satisfaction of a mucoadhesive biopatch with citrus essential oil and 2 the change in pain severity and the oral health-related quality of life in patients with recurrent aphthous stomatitis. Patients and methods: Thirty-seven patients with recurrent aphthous stomatitis participated in the study. Baseline records of personal data, ulcer assessment, visual analog scale, and Oral Health Impact Profile-14 were documented. A mucoadhesive patch was applied over the ulcer. Patients were recommended more applications if pain continued. On the fifth day, a post-therapy assessment was made. Results: The mean visual analog scale scores at baseline and posttreatment were significantly different (7.3±2.11 and 4.9±2.6, respectively; P=0.001. The mean duration of pain reduced after patch application. The mean total Oral Health Impact Profile-14 scores before and after treatment showed a statistically significant difference (P=0.001. In total, 78.4% of patients reported a considerable improvement in oral functions after treatment (P=0.008. Conclusion: The mucoadhesive biopatch containing citrus essential oil resulted in satisfying pain alleviation and restoration of oral functions with a significant improvement in the oral health-related quality of life. Keywords: recurrent aphthous stomatitis, pain, quality of life, essential oil, biopatch, local therapy 

  10. Evaluation of nano emulsion containing asphaltenes dispersant additive in dehydration of oil; Avaliacao de nanoemulsoes contendo aditivo dispersante de asfaltenos na desidratacao de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Priscila F. de; Rodrigues, Jessica S.; Mansur, Claudia R.E. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro/ Instituto de Macromoleculas/ Laboratorio de Macromoleculas e Coloides na Industria de Petroleo, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], e-mail: prisfrias@hotmail.com

    2011-07-01

    Due to the problem of the formation of emulsions type water-oil during oil production, new alternatives of the breakdown of these emulsions have been proposed over the years. Several polymers have been used to destabilize these emulsions and among them are those based on polyphenylene ether. The aim of this study was to develop nanoemulsions type oil / water, where an asphaltenes dispersant additive was dissolved in dispersed phase in order to evaluate them as a new alternative in the breakdown of oil emulsions. The nanoemulsions were prepared in the presence of surfactant based on polyoxide using a high pressure homogenizer (HPH). We obtained stable nanoemulsions for more than 30 days in the presence or absence of additive. These nanoemulsions were effective in water /oil phase separation, and the nanoemulsion containing the dispersant additive provided a faster separation of these phases. (author)

  11. Compromised development and survival in amphibians in reclaimed wetlands' water containing oil sands process-affected material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smits, J.; Schock, D.

    2010-01-01

    When closing a mine, operators must comply with government regulations to ensure that the sites are ecologically sustainable to support endemic flora and fauna. Creating wetlands in order to age and detoxify oil sands process-affected materials (OSPM) is a common reclamation strategy. In this study, amphibians indigenous to the boreal forest ecosystem were examined to determine if they can complete their lifecycle in water from reclaimed wetlands. Wood frog (Lithobates sylvaticus) eggs were collected from a natural pond 60 km south of an oil sand mining site. Tadpoles were raised in 1 of 6 water treatments refreshed every two days. The 2 reference water treatments included aged tap water and water from natural wetlands. The remaining 4 water treatments were from research wetlands on Syncrude and Suncor lease sites. Of the 120 tadpoles raised per water treatment, there was no significant difference in growth, development, or survival rates between the aged tap water and reference wetland water, but the fastest growth, development, and highest survival rates occurred in the two reference groups. There was a pronounced difference among the 4 treatment groups from Suncor and Syncrude reclamation sites. Survival was high in 3 of the water treatments from Syncrude and Suncor sites, but development rates were considerably reduced. Tadpoles that do not metamorphose before winter do not survive. It was therefore concluded that delayed development in tadpoles poses a serious risk to population stability in OSPM-containing wetlands.

  12. Method for removing hydrogen sulphide from oil-containing water and equipment therefore; Fremgangsmaate for aa fjerne hydrogensulfid fra oljeholdig vann

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeyvik, H; Hovland, J; Eskilt, J P

    1995-02-27

    The invention relates to an method for removing hydrogen sulphide (H{sub 2}S) from oil-containing water and equipment therefore. Oil-containing water and nitrate is conducted through a bioreactor to remove H{sub 2}S. Nitrate is added to the oil-containing water in a dose ratio (sulphide:nitrate) of 1:10 to 1:40. The retention time in the reactor tank is for 10-60 minutes. After this treatment, purified water, where >90% of the H{sub 2}S-amount is removed, is let out of the tank. The equipment for performing the above mentioned method, is based on a bioreactor having large density of denitrifying bacteria. The reactor tank, is filled with carrying material providing large contact area. Even distribution of oil-containing water and nitrate over the carrying material which already may be covered by septic mud, forms an active sulphide oxidizing biofilm having large surface. This biofilm makes an extremely effective equipment for removing sulphide from oil-containing water. 3 figs.

  13. Treatment and electricity harvesting from sulfate/sulfide-containing wastewaters using microbial fuel cell with enriched sulfate-reducing mixed culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Duu-Jong; Lee, Chin-Yu; Chang, Jo-Shu

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We started up microbial fuel cell (MFC) using enriched sulfate-reducing mixed culture. ► Sulfate-reducing bacteria and anode-respiring bacteria were enriched in anodic biofilms. ► The MFC effectively remove sulfate to elementary sulfur in the presence of lactate. ► The present device can treat sulfate laden wastewaters with electricity harvesting. - Abstract: Anaerobic treatment of sulfate-laden wastewaters can produce excess sulfide, which is corrosive to pipelines and is toxic to incorporated microorganisms. This work started up microbial fuel cell (MFC) using enriched sulfate-reducing mixed culture as anodic biofilms and applied the so yielded MFC for treating sulfate or sulfide-laden wastewaters. The sulfate-reducing bacteria in anodic biofilm effectively reduced sulfate to sulfide, which was then used by neighboring anode respiring bacteria (ARB) as electron donor for electricity production. The presence of organic carbons enhanced MFC performance since the biofilm ARB were mixotrophs that need organic carbon to grow. The present device introduces a route for treating sulfate laden wastewaters with electricity harvesting.

  14. Simultaneous photocatalytic and microbial degradation of dye-containing wastewater by a novel g-C3N4-P25/photosynthetic bacteria composite.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinying Zhang

    Full Text Available Azo dyes are very resistant to light-induced fading and biodegradation. Existing advanced oxidative pre-treatment methods based on the generation of non-selective radicals cannot efficiently remove these dyes from wastewater streams, and post-treatment oxidative dye removal is problematic because it may leave many byproducts with unknown toxicity profiles in the outgoing water, or cause expensive complete mineralization. These problems could potentially be overcome by combining photocatalysis and biodegradation. A novel visible-light-responsive hybrid dye removal agent featuring both photocatalysts (g-C3N4-P25 and photosynthetic bacteria encapsulated in calcium alginate beads was prepared by self-assembly. This system achieved a removal efficiency of 94% for the dye reactive brilliant red X-3b and also reduced the COD of synthetic wastewater samples by 84.7%, successfully decolorized synthetic dye-contaminated wastewater and reduced its COD, demonstrating the advantages of combining photocatalysis and biocatalysis for wastewater purification. The composite apparently degrades X-3b by initially converting the dye into aniline and phenol derivatives whose aryl moieties are then attacked by free radicals to form alkyl derivatives, preventing the accumulation of aromatic hydrocarbons that might suppress microbial activity. These alkyl intermediates are finally degraded by the photosynthetic bacteria.

  15. Treatment and electricity harvesting from sulfate/sulfide-containing wastewaters using microbial fuel cell with enriched sulfate-reducing mixed culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Duu-Jong, E-mail: cedean@mail.ntust.edu.tw [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Chemical Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Lee, Chin-Yu [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chang, Jo-Shu [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Center for Bioscience and Biotechnology, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Research Center for Energy Technology and Strategy, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China)

    2012-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We started up microbial fuel cell (MFC) using enriched sulfate-reducing mixed culture. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sulfate-reducing bacteria and anode-respiring bacteria were enriched in anodic biofilms. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The MFC effectively remove sulfate to elementary sulfur in the presence of lactate. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The present device can treat sulfate laden wastewaters with electricity harvesting. - Abstract: Anaerobic treatment of sulfate-laden wastewaters can produce excess sulfide, which is corrosive to pipelines and is toxic to incorporated microorganisms. This work started up microbial fuel cell (MFC) using enriched sulfate-reducing mixed culture as anodic biofilms and applied the so yielded MFC for treating sulfate or sulfide-laden wastewaters. The sulfate-reducing bacteria in anodic biofilm effectively reduced sulfate to sulfide, which was then used by neighboring anode respiring bacteria (ARB) as electron donor for electricity production. The presence of organic carbons enhanced MFC performance since the biofilm ARB were mixotrophs that need organic carbon to grow. The present device introduces a route for treating sulfate laden wastewaters with electricity harvesting.

  16. Extra-virgin olive oil contains a metabolo-epigenetic inhibitor of cancer stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corominas-Faja, Bruna; Cuyàs, Elisabet; Lozano-Sánchez, Jesús; Cufí, Sílvia; Verdura, Sara; Fernández-Arroyo, Salvador; Borrás-Linares, Isabel; Martin-Castillo, Begoña; Martin, Ángel G; Lupu, Ruth; Nonell-Canals, Alfons; Micol, Vicente; Joven, Jorge; Segura-Carretero, Antonio; Menendez, Javier A

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Targeting tumor-initiating, drug-resistant populations of cancer stem cells (CSC) with phytochemicals is a novel paradigm for cancer prevention and treatment. We herein employed a phenotypic drug discovery approach coupled to mechanism-of-action profiling and target deconvolution to identify phenolic components of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) capable of suppressing the functional traits of CSC in breast cancer (BC). In vitro screening revealed that the secoiridoid decarboxymethyl oleuropein aglycone (DOA) could selectively target subpopulations of epithelial-like, aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH)-positive and mesenchymal-like, CD44+CD24−/low CSC. DOA could potently block the formation of multicellular tumorspheres generated from single-founder stem-like cells in a panel of genetically diverse BC models. Pretreatment of BC populations with noncytotoxic doses of DOA dramatically reduced subsequent tumor-forming capacity in vivo. Mice orthotopically injected with CSC-enriched BC-cell populations pretreated with DOA remained tumor-free for several months. Phenotype microarray-based screening pointed to a synergistic interaction of DOA with the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin and the DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) inhibitor 5-azacytidine. In silico computational studies indicated that DOA binds and inhibits the ATP-binding kinase domain site of mTOR and the S-adenosyl-l-methionine (SAM) cofactor-binding pocket of DNMTs. FRET-based Z-LYTE™ and AlphaScreen-based in vitro assays confirmed the ability of DOA to function as an ATP-competitive mTOR inhibitor and to block the SAM-dependent methylation activity of DNMTs. Our systematic in vitro, in vivo and in silico approaches establish the phenol-conjugated oleoside DOA as a dual mTOR/DNMT inhibitor naturally occurring in EVOO that functionally suppresses CSC-like states responsible for maintaining tumor-initiating cell properties within BC populations. PMID:29452350

  17. Pilot scale hybrid processes for olive mill wastewater treatment, energy production and water reuse: comparison between fungal and electro-coagulation pre-treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sayadi, S.

    2009-01-01

    Olive oil mill wastewaters (OMW) cause disposal problems because they contain powerful pollutants such as phenolic compounds. Complete biodegradation or removal of these compounds is hardly achieved by a single treatment method. In this work, we investigated 2 integrated technologies for the treatment of the recalcitrant contaminants of OMW, allowing water recovery and reuse for agricultural purposes. (Author)

  18. Pilot scale hybrid processes for olive mill wastewater treatment, energy production and water reuse: comparison between fungal and electro-coagulation pre-treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sayadi, S.

    2009-07-01

    Olive oil mill wastewaters (OMW) cause disposal problems because they contain powerful pollutants such as phenolic compounds. Complete biodegradation or removal of these compounds is hardly achieved by a single treatment method. In this work, we investigated 2 integrated technologies for the treatment of the recalcitrant contaminants of OMW, allowing water recovery and reuse for agricultural purposes. (Author)

  19. A solid dietary fat containing fish oil redistributes lipoprotein subclasses without increasing oxidative stress in men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tholstrup, T.; Hellgren, Lars; Petersen, M.

    2004-01-01

    , a solid dietary fat containing (n-3) PUFA decreased plasma TAG, VLDL, and IDL cholesterol, and redistributed lipoprotein subclasses in LDL and HDL, with a higher concentration of the larger and less atherogenic subfractions. These changes took place without an increase in oxidative stress as measured...... of F than O fat (P oxidation measured as the ratio of plasma isoprostanes F-2 to arachidonic acid and urinary isoprostanes, whereas the vitamin E activity/plasma total lipids ratio was higher after intake of F than O (P = 0.008). In conclusion...

  20. An automated medium scale prototype for anaerobic co-digestion of olive mill wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Bernardi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Olive oil production constitutes one of the most important agro-industrial business for Mediterranean countries, where 97% of the international production is focused. Such an activity, mainly carried out through three phase olive oil mill plants, generates huge amounts of solid and liquid by-products further than olive oil. Physico-chemical features of these by-products depend on various factors such as soil and climatic conditions, agricultural practices and processing. As currently carried out, the disposal of these by-products may lead to numerous problems taking into account management, economic and particularly environmental aspects. Indeed, olive mill wastewater is not easily biodegradable due to its high chemical and biochemical oxygen demand, its high content in phenolic compounds, high ratio C/N and low pH, leading consequently to soil and water source pollution. Considering, the above-mentioned statements, olive mill waste disposal constitutes nowadays a challenge for oil industry stakeholders. It becomes necessary to look for alternative solutions in order to overcome environmental problems and ensure the sustainability of oil industry. Anaerobic co-digestion of olive mill wastewater with other agro-industrial matrices could be one of these solutions; since it offers the possibility to produce green energy and break down toxicological compounds contained in these wastewater for a better disposal of the digested matrices as soil conditioner. In this contest, this note reports the functioning principle of an automated medium scale plant for anaerobic co-digestion of olive mill wastewater. Keywords: Medium scale prototype, Olive mill wastewater (OMWW, Anaerobic co-digestion (AcoD, Automatic process

  1. A castor oil-containing dental luting agent: effects of cyclic loading and storage time on flexural strength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana dos Reis DERCELI

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Favorable results in the use of castor oil polyurethane (COP as pulp capping, membrane material, sealer, mouthwash and in bone repair, associated with the fact that Ricinus communis is not derived from petroleum and it is abundant in Brazil, encourage researches in the development of luting agents. Objectives This study compared the flexural strength (FS of a castor oil-containing dental luting agent with a weight percentage of 10% (wt% of calcium carbonate (COP10 with RelyX ARC (RX after mechanical cycling (MC and distilled water storage. Material and Methods Sixty-four specimens (25x2x2 mm were fabricated and divided into two groups, COP10 and RX (control. Each group was divided into 4 subgroups (n=8 according to the storage time, 24 hours (24 h or 60 days (60 d, and the performance (MC+FS or not (only FS of the mechanical cycling test. The FS (10 kN; 0.5 mm/min and MC tests (10,000 cycles, 5 Hz, 0.5 mm/min were carried out using an MTS-810 machine. The data were analyzed using ANOVA (α=0.05. Results The obtained FS (MPa values were: COP10 24h- 19.04±2.41; COP10 60d- 17.92±3.54; RX 24h- 75.19±3.43; RX 60d- 88.77±6.89. All the RX specimens submitted to MC fractured, while the values for COP10 after MC were as follows: COP10 24h- 17.90±1.87 and COP10 60d- 18.60±1.60. Conclusions A castor oil-containing dental luting agent with a weight percentage of 10% (wt% of calcium carbonate is resistant to mechanical cycling without decreases in flexural strength. However, mean COP10 showed only about 25% of the RelyX ARC mean flexural strength.

  2. Reproductive and health assessment of fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) inhabiting a pond containing oil sands process-affected water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kavanagh, Richard J.; Frank, Richard A.; Solomon, Keith R.; Van Der Kraak, Glen

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Fish were collected from a pond containing oil sands process-affected water (OSPW). ► They were compared to fish from two reference sites within the oil sands region. ► Differences in GSIs and tubercle numbers were observed in fish from the OSPW pond. ► Opercula, gills, and 11-KT concentrations also differed in fish from the OSPW pond. ► Black spot and tapeworms were not observed in any of the fish from the OSPW pond. -- Abstract: Previous laboratory based studies have shown that oil sands process-affected waters (OSPWs) containing high concentrations of naphthenic acids (>25 mg/l) have adverse effects on the reproductive physiology of fish. The purpose of this study was to assess the reproductive development and health of a wild population of fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) inhabiting an OSPW pond that has moderate concentrations of naphthenic acids (∼10 mg/l). Fathead minnows were collected at various times during the period of 2006 through 2008 from Demonstration Pond (OSPW) located at Syncrude Canada Ltd., and two reference sites, Beaver Creek reservoir and Poplar Creek reservoir, which are all north of Fort McMurray, AB, Canada. Condition factor, gill histopathology, gonadosomatic indices, liver somatic indices, male secondary sexual characteristics, and plasma sex steroids were examined. Depending on the time of year that fathead minnows were collected, there were differences in the condition factor, gonadosomatic indices, liver somatic indices, and secondary sexual characteristics of fathead minnows (in males) from Demonstration Pond when compared to the fathead minnows from the reference sites. In comparison to reference fish, lower concentrations of 11-ketotestosterone were measured in the plasma of male fathead minnows collected from Demonstration Pond in June 2006 and July 2007. Black spot disease and Ligula intestinalis were prevalent in fathead minnows from the reference sites but were not observed in fathead minnows

  3. Reproductive and health assessment of fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) inhabiting a pond containing oil sands process-affected water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kavanagh, Richard J., E-mail: rkavanag@uoguelph.ca [Department of Integrative Biology, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, Canada N1G 2W1 (Canada); Frank, Richard A.; Solomon, Keith R. [Centre for Toxicology, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, Canada N1G 2W1 (Canada); Van Der Kraak, Glen [Department of Integrative Biology, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, Canada N1G 2W1 (Canada)

    2013-04-15

    Highlights: ► Fish were collected from a pond containing oil sands process-affected water (OSPW). ► They were compared to fish from two reference sites within the oil sands region. ► Differences in GSIs and tubercle numbers were observed in fish from the OSPW pond. ► Opercula, gills, and 11-KT concentrations also differed in fish from the OSPW pond. ► Black spot and tapeworms were not observed in any of the fish from the OSPW pond. -- Abstract: Previous laboratory based studies have shown that oil sands process-affected waters (OSPWs) containing high concentrations of naphthenic acids (>25 mg/l) have adverse effects on the reproductive physiology of fish. The purpose of this study was to assess the reproductive development and health of a wild population of fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) inhabiting an OSPW pond that has moderate concentrations of naphthenic acids (∼10 mg/l). Fathead minnows were collected at various times during the period of 2006 through 2008 from Demonstration Pond (OSPW) located at Syncrude Canada Ltd., and two reference sites, Beaver Creek reservoir and Poplar Creek reservoir, which are all north of Fort McMurray, AB, Canada. Condition factor, gill histopathology, gonadosomatic indices, liver somatic indices, male secondary sexual characteristics, and plasma sex steroids were examined. Depending on the time of year that fathead minnows were collected, there were differences in the condition factor, gonadosomatic indices, liver somatic indices, and secondary sexual characteristics of fathead minnows (in males) from Demonstration Pond when compared to the fathead minnows from the reference sites. In comparison to reference fish, lower concentrations of 11-ketotestosterone were measured in the plasma of male fathead minnows collected from Demonstration Pond in June 2006 and July 2007. Black spot disease and Ligula intestinalis were prevalent in fathead minnows from the reference sites but were not observed in fathead minnows

  4. A castor oil-containing dental luting agent: effects of cyclic loading and storage time on flexural strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derceli, Juliana Dos Reis; Fais, Laiza Maria Grassi; Pinelli, Lígia Antunes Pereira

    2014-01-01

    Favorable results in the use of castor oil polyurethane (COP) as pulp capping, membrane material, sealer, mouthwash and in bone repair, associated with the fact that Ricinus communis is not derived from petroleum and it is abundant in Brazil, encourage researches in the development of luting agents. Objectives This study compared the flexural strength (FS) of a castor oil-containing dental luting agent with a weight percentage of 10% (wt%) of calcium carbonate (COP10) with RelyX ARC (RX) after mechanical cycling (MC) and distilled water storage. Material and Methods Sixty-four specimens (25x2x2 mm) were fabricated and divided into two groups, COP10 and RX (control). Each group was divided into 4 subgroups (n=8) according to the storage time, 24 hours (24 h) or 60 days (60 d), and the performance (MC+FS) or not (only FS) of the mechanical cycling test. The FS (10 kN; 0.5 mm/min) and MC tests (10,000 cycles, 5 Hz, 0.5 mm/min) were carried out using an MTS-810 machine. The data were analyzed using ANOVA (α=0.05). Results The obtained FS (MPa) values were: COP10 24h- 19.04±2.41; COP10 60d- 17.92±3.54; RX 24h- 75.19±3.43; RX 60d- 88.77±6.89. All the RX specimens submitted to MC fractured, while the values for COP10 after MC were as follows: COP10 24h- 17.90±1.87 and COP10 60d- 18.60±1.60. Conclusions A castor oil-containing dental luting agent with a weight percentage of 10% (wt%) of calcium carbonate is resistant to mechanical cycling without decreases in flexural strength. However, mean COP10 showed only about 25% of the RelyX ARC mean flexural strength.

  5. Oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabbri, S

    1909-11-29

    Mineral, shale, and like oils are treated successively with sulfuric acid, milk of lime, and a mixture of calcium oxide, sodium chloride, and water, and finally a solution of naphthalene in toluene is added. The product is suitable for lighting, and for use as a motor fuel; for the latter purpose, it is mixed with a light spirit.

  6. Valorization of Waste Obtained from Oil Extraction in Moringa Oleifera Seeds: Coagulation of Reactive Dyes in Textile Effluents

    OpenAIRE

    Vilaseca, Merc?; L?pez-Grimau, V?ctor; Guti?rrez-Bouz?n, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    Moringa oleifera seeds contain about 40% of highly valued oil due to its wide range of applications, from nutritional issues to cosmetics or biodiesel production. The extraction of Moringa oil generates a waste (65%–75% of seeds weight) which contains a water soluble protein able to be used either in drinking water clarification or wastewater treatment. In this paper, the waste of Moringa oleifera extraction was used as coagulant to remove five reactive dyes from synthetic textile effluents. ...

  7. Preparation of microcapsules containing different contents of different kinds of oils by a segregative coacervation method and their characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIDIJA B. PETROVIĆ

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Microencapsulation of different oils was performed using a segregative coacervation method. In order to microencapsulate, 20 % oil-in-water (O/W emulsions were prepared in a continuous phase consisting of a 1 % mixture of hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC/sodium carboxymethylcellulose (NaCMC mass ratio (0.7/0.3 and various concentrations (0, 0.35 and 1 % of the anionic surfactant sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS. Various interactions between the components occur in the continuous phase of emulsions, which influence the structure and properties of the adsorption layer around the oil droplets. The formed HPMC/SDS complexes in the presence of NaCMC molecules undergo segregative phase separation and form a coacervate which adsorbs onto the oil droplets, forming the wall of the microcapsules. Sunflower oil, pumpkin seed oil and a mixture of sunflower and linseed oil were used as the core material. Microcapsules in the solid form were obtained by spray drying the emulsions. The stability of the emulsions, the particle size and particle size distribution of the emulsions and suspensions of microcapsules and the oil content of the microcapsules were determined. The influence of the oil kind on the properties of the microcapsules was also investigated. It was found that at 0.35 % SDS, a coacervate layer around the oil droplets forms a stabile, compact microcapsules wall, which prevents oil extraction. The kind of oil influences the properties of the emulsions and microcapsules, which is important in the selection of oils for microencapsulation by this method.

  8. Characteristics and Biodegradability of Wastewater Organic Matter in Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plants Collecting Domestic Wastewater and Industrial Discharge

    OpenAIRE

    Yun-Young Choi; Seung-Ryong Baek; Jae-In Kim; Jeong-Woo Choi; Jin Hur; Tae-U Lee; Cheol-Joon Park; Byung Joon Lee

    2017-01-01

    Municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Korea collect and treat not only domestic wastewater, but also discharge from industrial complexes. However, some industrial discharges contain a large amount of non-biodegradable organic matter, which cannot be treated properly in a conventional biological WWTP. This study aimed to investigate the characteristics and biodegradability of the wastewater organic matter contained in the industrial discharges and to examine the fate of the industri...

  9. Shale gas wastewater management under uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaodong; Sun, Alexander Y; Duncan, Ian J

    2016-01-01

    This work presents an optimization framework for evaluating different wastewater treatment/disposal options for water management during hydraulic fracturing (HF) operations. This framework takes into account both cost-effectiveness and system uncertainty. HF has enabled rapid development of shale gas resources. However, wastewater management has been one of the most contentious and widely publicized issues in shale gas production. The flowback and produced water (known as FP water) generated by HF may pose a serious risk to the surrounding environment and public health because this wastewater usually contains many toxic chemicals and high levels of total dissolved solids (TDS). Various treatment/disposal options are available for FP water management, such as underground injection, hazardous wastewater treatment plants, and/or reuse. In order to cost-effectively plan FP water management practices, including allocating FP water to different options and planning treatment facility capacity expansion, an optimization model named UO-FPW is developed in this study. The UO-FPW model can handle the uncertain information expressed in the form of fuzzy membership functions and probability density functions in the modeling parameters. The UO-FPW model is applied to a representative hypothetical case study to demonstrate its applicability in practice. The modeling results reflect the tradeoffs between economic objective (i.e., minimizing total-system cost) and system reliability (i.e., risk of violating fuzzy and/or random constraints, and meeting FP water treatment/disposal requirements). Using the developed optimization model, decision makers can make and adjust appropriate FP water management strategies through refining the values of feasibility degrees for fuzzy constraints and the probability levels for random constraints if the solutions are not satisfactory. The optimization model can be easily integrated into decision support systems for shale oil/gas lifecycle

  10. The use of bitumen for storing radioactive waste resulting from oil industry containing Ra-226

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takriti, S.; Shweikani, R.; Abdulhafiz, M.; Salman, M.

    2009-12-01

    The releases of radon gas from NORM waste contained in two different forms of bitumen samples have been investigated. The artificial NORM source samples were made by mixing NORM with bitumen. The sources surrounded by different thickness of bitumen layers to prepare the first form of samples. While, the NORM powder was put inside bitumen samples prepared as a cylindrical shape with different thickness. The results showed that the release of radon from the bitumen samples was different in case of sources and powder. The results illustrated that the release of radon from the bitumen samples was decrees linearly with the samples thicknesses (in both cases source and powder). On the other hand, the release from the cement samples was proportional inversely with the different thickness (for comparison). In addition, many other supporting experiments were performed, as γ-ray spectroscopy measurements showed that the cement is better than the bitumen in shielding process, while the bitumen is better than cement to prevent the releases of radon. (authors)

  11. Synthesis, characterization and catalytic performance of ZnO-CeO2 nanoparticles in wet oxidation of wastewater containing chlorinated compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anushree; Kumar, S.; Sharma, C.

    2017-11-01

    Here we report the catalytic property of ZnO-CeO2 nanoparticles towards oxidative degradation of organic pollutants present in industrial wastewater. The catalysts were prepared by co-precipitation method without using any surfactant. The physicochemical properties of catalysts were studied by XRD, Raman, XPS, N2-sorption, FE-SEM, TEM and EDX techniques. The characterization results confirmed the formation of porous ZnO-CeO2 nanocatalysts with high surface area, pore volume and oxygen vacancies. ZnO-CeO2 nanocatalysts exhibited appreciable efficiency in CWAO of industrial wastewater under mild conditions. The Ce40Zn60 catalyst was found to be most efficient with 72% color, 64% chemical oxygen demand (COD) and 63% total organic carbon (TOC) removal. Efficient removal of chlorophenolics (CHPs, 59%) and adsorbable organic halides (AOX, 54%) indicated the feasibility of using ZnO-CeO2 nanocatalysts in degradation of non-biodegradable and toxic chlorinated compounds.

  12. Post-treatment of biologically treated wastewater containing organic contaminants using a sequence of H2O2 based advanced oxidation processes: photolysis and catalytic wet oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueda-Márquez, J J; Sillanpää, M; Pocostales, P; Acevedo, A; Manzano, M A

    2015-03-15

    In this paper the feasibility of a multi-barrier treatment (MBT) for the regeneration of synthetic industrial wastewater (SIWW) was evaluated. Industrial pollutants (orange II, phenol, 4-chlorophenol and phenanthrene) were added to the effluent of municipal wastewater treatment plant. The proposed MBT begins with a microfiltration membrane pretreatment (MF), followed by hydrogen peroxide photolysis (H2O2/UVC) and finishing, as a polishing step, with catalytic wet peroxide oxidation (CWPO) using granular activated carbon (GAC) at ambient conditions. During the microfiltration step (0.7 μm) the decrease of suspended solids concentration, turbidity and Escherichia coli in treated water were 88, 94 and 99%, respectively. Also, the effluent's transmittance (254 nm) was increased by 14.7%. Removal of more than 99.9% of all added pollutants, mineralization of 63% of organic compounds and complete disinfection of total coliforms were reached during the H2O2/UVC treatment step (H2O2:TOC w/w ratio = 5 and an UVC average dose accumulated by wastewater 8.80 WUVC s cm(-2)). The power and efficiency of the lamp, the water transmittance and photoreactor geometry are taken into account and a new equation to estimate the accumulated dose in water is suggested. Remaining organic pollutants with a higher oxidation state of carbon atoms (+0.47) and toxic concentration of residual H2O2 were present in the effluent of the H2O2/UVC process. After 2.3 min of contact time with GAC at CWPO step, 90 and 100% of total organic carbon and residual H2O2 were removed, respectively. Also, the wastewater toxicity was studied using Vibrio fischeri and Sparus aurata larvae. The MBT operational and maintenance costs (O&M) was estimated to be 0.59 € m(-3). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Comparison of linoleic acid-containing water-in-oil emulsion with urea-containing water-in-oil emulsion in the treatment of atopic dermatitis: a randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrohalli SA

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Saman Ahmad Nasrollahi,1 Azin Ayatollahi,1 Taraneh Yazdanparast,1,2 Aniseh Samadi,1 Hamed Hosseini,3 Mansour Shamsipour,4 Ali Asghar Akhlaghi,5 Somayeh Yadangi,1 Christoph Abels,6 Alireza Firooz1,2 1Center for Research and Training in Skin Diseases and Leprosy, 2Telemedicine Research Center, National Research Institute of Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases (NRITLD, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, 3Clinical Trial Center, 4Department of Research Methodology and Data Analysis, Institute for Environmental Research, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, 5Department of Epidemiology and Reproductive Health, Reproductive Epidemiology Research Center, Royan Institute for Reproductive Biomedicine, ACECR, Tehran, Iran; 6Dr. August Wolff GmbH & Co. KG Arzneimittel, Bielefeld, Germany Background: Application of topical moisturizers is an essential part of the management of atopic dermatitis (AD. Linoleic acid (LA, the most abundant fatty acid in the epidermis, and its derivatives have an essential role in the structure and function of the epidermal barrier, and their defects are prominent in AD. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy and safety of two cosmetic products containing either LA or urea in patients with AD.Patients and methods: A total of 20 patients with AD who met the eligibility criteria and provided written informed consents were enrolled in this randomized, intra-individual split-body, single-center trial. Symmetrical lesions of patients were randomized for treatment with LA- or urea-containing water-in-oil (w/o emulsions applied two to three times daily for 4 weeks. The efficacy of the two products was evaluated by local Scoring Atopic Dermatitis (SCORAD of both lesions and also patient (or guardian satisfaction. In addition, trans-epidermal water loss (TEWL, stratum corneum (SC hydration, pH, sebum, temperature, erythema, melanin content, and ultrasonographic thickness and echo density of epidermis and dermis were

  14. Recovery of synthetic dye from simulated wastewater using emulsion liquid membrane process containing tri-dodecyl amine as a mobile carrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Othman, N., E-mail: norasikin@cheme.utm.my [Faculty of Chemical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Skudai, Johor (Malaysia); Zailani, S.N.; Mili, N. [Faculty of Chemical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Skudai, Johor (Malaysia)

    2011-12-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The emulsion liquid membrane process for synthetic reactive dyes recovery was examined. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mobile carriers of tri-dodycylamine and salicyclic acid was used in formulation to remove the reactive dyes from simulated wastewater. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Almost 100% of dye was extracted and recovered in receiving phase. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An electrical field was used to breakdown the emulsion to separate the liquid membrane and receiving/recovery phase. - Abstract: The extraction of Red 3BS reactive dye from aqueous solution was studied using emulsion liquid membrane (ELM). ELM is one of the processes that have very high potential in treating industrial wastewater consisting of dyes. In this research, Red 3BS reactive dye was extracted from simulated wastewater using tridodecylamine (TDA) as the carrier agent, salicyclic acid (SA) to protonate TDA, sodium chloride as the stripping agent, kerosene as the diluent and SPAN 80 as emulsifier. Experimental parameters investigated were salicyclic acid concentration, extraction time, SPAN 80 concentration, sodium chloride concentration, TDA concentration, agitation speed, homogenizer speed, emulsifying time and treat ratio. The results show almost 100% of Red 3BS was removed and stripped in the receiving phase at the optimum condition in this ELM system. High voltage coalesce was applied to break the emulsion hence, enables recovery of Red 3BS in the receiving phase.

  15. On the role of salts for the treatment of wastewaters containing pharmaceuticals by electrochemical oxidation using a boron doped diamond anode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lan, Yandi; Coetsier, Clémence; Causserand, Christel; Groenen Serrano, Karine

    2017-01-01

    Refractory pharmaceuticals remain in biologically treated wastewater and are continuously discharged into aquatic systems due to their limited biodegradability. Electrochemical oxidation is promising for the treatment of such refractory compounds, in particular using a boron doped diamond (BDD) anode. This study investigates the role of salts, such as sulfates and chlorides in the electrochemical treatment of wastewater. The presence of sulfates accelerated the removal of ciprofloxacin and sulfamethoxazole, but had no effect on the oxidation of salbutamol. This comparison highlights the selectivity of the reaction between organics and sulfate radicals. The addition of chlorides into the solution led to a remarkably-faster degradation of ciprofloxacin. However, incomplete mineralization was observed at high current densities due to the significant formation of halogenated organic compounds (AOX). The formation of refractory and toxic compounds such as ClO_4"− and AOX can be limited under the control of (i) applied current intensity and (ii) duration of electrolysis. Electrochemical oxidation of concentrated biologically-treated hospital wastewater investigated the excellent removal of biorefractory pharmaceuticals and confirmed the acceleration effect of salts on pharmaceutical degradation.

  16. Antioxidant status, lipoprotein profile and liver lipids in rats fed on high-cholesterol diet containing currant oil rich in n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecera, R; Skottová, N; Vána, P; Kazdová, L; Chmela, Z; Svagera, Z; Walterá, D; Ulrichová, J; Simánek, V

    2003-01-01

    Plant-based n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) possess a prospective antiatherogenic potential. Currant oil from Ribes nigrum L. is one of the few plant oils containing PUFAn-3 (15.3 mol%) in addition to PUFAn-6 (60.5 mol%). This study was aimed at comparing the effects of currant oil with those of lard fat, rich in saturated (43.8 mol%) and monounsaturated (47.0 mol%) fatty acids, on antioxidant parameters, the lipoprotein profile and liver lipids in rats fed on 1 % (w/w) cholesterol diets containing either 10 % of currant oil (COD) or lard fat (LFD). After 3 weeks of feeding, the COD induced a significant decrease in blood glutathione (GSH) and an increase in Cu(2+) induced oxidizability of serum lipids, but did not affect liver GSH and t-butyl hydroperoxide-induced lipoperoxidation of liver microsomes. Although the COD did not cause accumulation of liver triacylglycerols as LFD, the lipoprotein profile (VLDL, LDL, HDL) was not significantly improved after COD. The consumption of PUFAn-3 was reflected in LDL as an increase in eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid. These results suggest that currant oil affects positively the lipid metabolism in the liver, above all it does not cause the development of a fatty liver. However, adverse effects of currant oil on the antioxidant status in the blood still remain of concern.

  17. Evaluation of In Vivo Acaricidal Effect of Soap Containing Essential Oil of Chenopodium ambrosioides Leaves on Rhipicephalus lunulatus in the Western Highland of Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc K. Kouam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A study on the acaricidal properties of foam soap containing the essential oil of Chenopodium ambrosioides leaves was carried out on Rhipicephalus lunulatus. Four doses (0.03, 0.06, 0.09, and 0.12 µL of essential oil per gram of soap and a control (soap without essential oil with four replications for each treatment were used for in vitro trial. Each replication consisted of 10 ticks in a Petri dish with filter paper impregnated with the foam soap on the bottom. Following in vitro trials, three doses (0.06, 0.09, and 0.12 µL/g and the control in two replications were selected for in vivo test based on mortality rate recorded from the in vitro trial. Each replication was made up of 10 goats naturally infested with ticks. Results show that soap containing essential oil is toxic to R. lunulatus. The in vivo mortality rate in the control on day 8 was 22.69% whereas the highest dose (0.12 µL/g killed 96.29% of the ticks on day 8. The LD50 of the foam soap containing essential oil was 0.037 and 0.059 µL/g on day 2 in the laboratory and on the farm, respectively. This indicates the potentially high efficiency of this medicated soap on this parasite.

  18. Organic compounds in hydraulic fracturing fluids and wastewaters: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luek, Jenna L; Gonsior, Michael

    2017-10-15

    High volume hydraulic fracturing (HVHF) of shale to stimulate the release of natural gas produces a large quantity of wastewater in the form of flowback fluids and produced water. These wastewaters are highly variable in their composition and contain a mixture of fracturing fluid additives, geogenic inorganic and organic substances, and transformation products. The qualitative and quantitative analyses of organic compounds identified in HVHF fluids, flowback fluids, and produced waters are reviewed here to communicate knowledge gaps that exist in the composition of HVHF wastewaters. In general, analyses of organic compounds have focused on those amenable to gas chromatography, focusing on volatile and semi-volatile oil and gas compounds. Studies of more polar and non-volatile organic compounds have been limited by a lack of knowledge of what compounds may be present as well as quantitative methods and standards available for analyzing these complex mixtures. Liquid chromatography paired with high-resolution mass spectrometry has been used to investigate a number of additives and will be a key tool to further research on transformation products that are increasingly solubilized through physical, chemical, and biological processes in situ and during environmental contamination events. Diverse treatments have been tested and applied to HVHF wastewaters but limited information has been published on the quantitative removal of individual organic compounds. This review focuses on recently published information on organic compounds identified in flowback fluids and produced waters from HVHF. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Wastewater reuse

    OpenAIRE

    Milan R. Radosavljević; Vanja M. Šušteršič

    2013-01-01

    Water scarcity and water pollution are some of the crucial issues that must be addressed within local and global perspectives. One of the ways to reduce the impact of water scarcity  and to minimizine water pollution is to expand water and wastewater reuse. The local conditions including regulations, institutions, financial mechanisms, availability of local technology and stakeholder participation have a great influence on the decisions for wastewater reuse. The increasing awareness of food s...

  20. Oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cobbett, G T.B.

    1907-07-08

    Crude petroleum having a density of 850 to 900 is purified with sulfuric acid, decanted, mixed with benzine or petrol, and again treated with sulfuric acid and decanted. The remaining acid and coloring-matter are removed by washing with water, or treating with oxalic acid, zinc carbonate, lead carbonate, calcium carbonate, or oxide of zinc. The product is used as a fuel for internal-combustion engines. Specifications No. 28,104, A.D. 1906, and No. 12,606, A.D. 1907, are referred to. According to the Provisional Specification, the process is applicable to shale or schist oil.

  1. The clinical application of ultrasonography-guided percutaneous transhepatic injection of iodized oil containing chemotherapeutic agent for the treatment of hilar lymphatic metastasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Guangsheng; Zhang Yuewei; Yang Xiaohong; Li Chuang; Zhao Mu; Wang Wenqing; Wang Ruoyu

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To discuss the technique and the clinical effect of ultrasonography-guided percutaneous transhepatic injection of iodized oil containing chemotherapeutic agent for the treatment of hepatic hilar lymphatic metastasis. Methods: Under ultrasonographic guidance,percutaneous transhepatic injection of iodized oil containing chemotherapeutic agent, so-called chemo-ablation, into the diseased lymph nodes was performed in thirteen patients with hepatic hilar lymphatic metastasis. The therapeutic results were evaluated based on the post-operative imaging examinations as well as the alleviation of the clinical symptoms. Results: Percutaneous transhepatic injection of iodized oil containing chemotherapeutic agent into the diseased lymph nodes was successfully carried out in all thirteen patients. After the procedure,the patients were followed up for a mean period of 13.5 months. The therapeutic effectiveness was 100%, while the regression rate of the lesions was 76.9%. No operation-related complications occurred. Conclusion: Percutaneous transhepatic injection of iodized oil containing chemotherapeutic agent into the diseased lymph nodes under ultrasonographic guidance is an effective and safe treatment for hepatic hilar lymphatic metastasis with reliable effectiveness. (authors)

  2. Arsenic-containing fatty acids and hydrocarbons in marine oils - determination using reversed-phase HPLC-ICP-MS and HPLC-qTOF-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sele, Veronika; Sloth, Jens J; Holmelid, Bjarte; Valdersnes, Stig; Skov, Kasper; Amlund, Heidi

    2014-04-01

    Arsenolipids are the major arsenic species present in marine oils. Several structures of arsenolipids have been elucidated the last 5 years, demonstrating the chemical complexity of this trace element in the marine environment. Several commercial fish oils and marine oils, ranging in total arsenic concentrations from 1.6 to 12.5 mg kg(-1) oil, were analyzed for arsenolipids using reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography coupled with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICP-MS). The arsenolipids were quantified using three different arsenic-containing calibration standards; dimethylarsinate (DMA), triphenylarsinoxide (Ph₃AsO) and a synthesized arsenic-containing hydrocarbon (AsHC) (dimethylarsinoyl nonadecane; C₂₁H₄₃AsO). The observed variation in signal intensity for arsenic during the gradient elution profile in reversed-phase HPLC was compensated for by determining the time-resolved response factors for the arsenolipids. Isotopes of germanium ((74)Ge) and indium ((115)In) were suited as internal standards for arsenic, and were used for verification of the arsenic signal response factors during the gradient elution. Dimethylarsinate was the most suitable calibration standard for the quantification of arsenolipids, with recoveries between 91% and 104% compared to total arsenic measurements in the same extracts. A range of marine oils was investigated, including oils of several fish species, cod liver and seal, as well as three commercial fish oils. The AsHCs - C₁₇H₃₈AsO, C₁₉H₄₂AsO and C₂₃H₃₈AsO - were identified as the major arsenolipids in the extracts of all oils by HPLC coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (qTOF-MS). Minor amounts of two arsenic-containing fatty acids (AsFAs) (C₂₃H₃₈AsO₃ and C₂₄H₃₈AsO₃) were also detected in the oils. The sum of the AsHCs and the AsFAs determined in the present study accounted for 17-42% of the total arsenic in the oils

  3. An integrated (electro- and bio-oxidation) approach for remediation of industrial wastewater containing azo-dyes: Understanding the degradation mechanism and toxicity assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aravind, Priyadharshini; Selvaraj, Hosimin; Ferro, Sergio; Sundaram, Maruthamuthu

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Firstly, the mediated electro-oxidation allows rapid discoloration of the effluent. • Cost effective sunlight-mediated removal of bio-toxic active chlorine species. • Electrochemical pretreatment enhances the biodegradability of textile wastewater. • About 90% COD removal was achieved by a subsequent biodegradation. • By-products from degradation of dyes have shown to be ecofriendly and non-toxic. - Abstract: A hybrid approach for the remediation of recalcitrant dye wastewater is proposed. The chlorine-mediated electrochemical oxidation of real textile effluents and synthetic samples (using Ti/IrO_2-RuO_2-TiO_2 anodes), lead to discoloration by 92% and 89%, respectively, in 100 min, without significant mineralization. The remediation was obtained through biodegradation, after removing the residual bio-toxic active chlorine species via sunlight exposition. Results show that the electrochemical discoloration enhances the effluent biodegradability with about 90% COD removal employing acclimatized naphthalene-degrading bacterial consortia, within 144 h. Based on results obtained through FT-IR and GC–MS, it is likely that azo group stripping and oxidative cleavage of dyes occur due to the nucleophilic attack of active chlorine species during electro-oxidation. This leads to generation of aromatic intermediates which are further desulfonated, deaminated or oxidized only at their functional groups. These aromatic intermediates were mineralized into simpler organic acids and aldehydes by bacterial consortia. Phyto-toxicity trials on Vigna radiata confirmed the toxic nature of the untreated dye solutions. An increase in root and shoot development was observed with the electrochemically treated solutions, the same was higher in case of bio-treated solutions. Overall, obtained results confirm the capability of the proposed hybrid oxidation scheme for the remediation of textile wastewater.

  4. Some properties of a granular activated carbon-sequencing batch reactor (GAC-SBR) system for treatment of textile wastewater containing direct dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirianuntapiboon, Suntud; Sadahiro, Ohmomo; Salee, Paneeta

    2007-10-01

    Resting (living) bio-sludge from a domestic wastewater treatment plant was used as an adsorbent of both direct dyes and organic matter in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) system. The dye adsorption capacity of the bio-sludge was not increased by acclimatization with direct dyes. The adsorption of Direct Red 23 and Direct Blue 201 onto the bio-sludge was almost the same. The resting bio-sludge showed higher adsorption capacity than the autoclaved bio-sludge. The resting bio-sludge that was acclimatized with synthetic textile wastewater (STWW) without direct dyes showed the highest Direct Blue 201, COD, and BOD(5) removal capacities of 16.1+/-0.4, 453+/-7, and 293+/-9 mg/g of bio-sludge, respectively. After reuse, the dye adsorption ability of deteriorated bio-sludge was recovered by washing with 0.1% sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) solution. The direct dyes in the STWW were also easily removed by a GAC-SBR system. The dye removal efficiencies were higher than 80%, even when the system was operated under a high organic loading of 0.36kgBOD(5)/m(3)-d. The GAC-SBR system, however, showed a low direct dye removal efficiency of only 57+/-2.1% with raw textile wastewater (TWW) even though the system was operated with an organic loading of only 0.083kgBOD(5)/m(3)-d. The dyes, COD, BOD(5), and total kjeldalh nitrogen removal efficiencies increased up to 76.0+/-2.8%, 86.2+/-0.5%, 84.2+/-0.7%, and 68.2+/-2.1%, respectively, when 0.89 g/L glucose (organic loading of 0.17kgBOD(5)/m(3)-d) was supplemented into the TWW.

  5. An integrated (electro- and bio-oxidation) approach for remediation of industrial wastewater containing azo-dyes: Understanding the degradation mechanism and toxicity assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aravind, Priyadharshini, E-mail: priya.bdu07@gmail.com [Corrosion and Materials Protection Division (CMPD), CSIR—Central electrochemical research institute (CECRI), Karaikudi 630 003 (India); Selvaraj, Hosimin [Corrosion and Materials Protection Division (CMPD), CSIR—Central electrochemical research institute (CECRI), Karaikudi 630 003 (India); Ferro, Sergio [Ecas4 Australia, Unit 8, 1 London Road, Mile End, South Australia 5031 (Australia); Sundaram, Maruthamuthu [Corrosion and Materials Protection Division (CMPD), CSIR—Central electrochemical research institute (CECRI), Karaikudi 630 003 (India)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • Firstly, the mediated electro-oxidation allows rapid discoloration of the effluent. • Cost effective sunlight-mediated removal of bio-toxic active chlorine species. • Electrochemical pretreatment enhances the biodegradability of textile wastewater. • About 90% COD removal was achieved by a subsequent biodegradation. • By-products from degradation of dyes have shown to be ecofriendly and non-toxic. - Abstract: A hybrid approach for the remediation of recalcitrant dye wastewater is proposed. The chlorine-mediated electrochemical oxidation of real textile effluents and synthetic samples (using Ti/IrO{sub 2}-RuO{sub 2}-TiO{sub 2} anodes), lead to discoloration by 92% and 89%, respectively, in 100 min, without significant mineralization. The remediation was obtained through biodegradation, after removing the residual bio-toxic active chlorine species via sunlight exposition. Results show that the electrochemical discoloration enhances the effluent biodegradability with about 90% COD removal employing acclimatized naphthalene-degrading bacterial consortia, within 144 h. Based on results obtained through FT-IR and GC–MS, it is likely that azo group stripping and oxidative cleavage of dyes occur due to the nucleophilic attack of active chlorine species during electro-oxidation. This leads to generation of aromatic intermediates which are further desulfonated, deaminated or oxidized only at their functional groups. These aromatic intermediates were mineralized into simpler organic acids and aldehydes by bacterial consortia. Phyto-toxicity trials on Vigna radiata confirmed the toxic nature of the untreated dye solutions. An increase in root and shoot development was observed with the electrochemically treated solutions, the same was higher in case of bio-treated solutions. Overall, obtained results confirm the capability of the proposed hybrid oxidation scheme for the remediation of textile wastewater.

  6. Myristica oil poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutmeg oil; Myristicin ... Myristica oil ( Myristica fragrans ) can be harmful. It comes from the seed of a nutmeg. ... Myristica oil is found in: Aromatherapy products Mace Nutmeg Other products may also contain myristica oil.

  7. Improvement of stability of oil-in-water emulsions containing caseinate-coated droplets by addition of sodium alginate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallandre, S; Decker, E A; McClements, D J

    2007-11-01

    The potential of sodium alginate for improving the stability of emulsions containing caseinate-coated droplets was investigated. One wt% corn oil-in-water emulsions containing anionic caseinate-coated droplets (0.15 wt% sodium caseinate) and anionic sodium alginate (0 to 1 wt%) were prepared at pH 7. The pH of these emulsions was then adjusted to 3.5, so that the anionic alginate molecules adsorbed to the cationic caseinate-coated droplets. Extensive droplet aggregation occurred when there was insufficient alginate to completely saturate the droplet surfaces due to bridging flocculation, and when the nonadsorbed alginate concentration was high enough to induce depletion flocculation. Emulsions with relatively small particle sizes could be formed over a range of alginate concentrations (0.1 to 0.4 wt%). The influence of pHs (3 to 7) and sodium chloride (0 to 500 mM) on the properties of primary (0 wt% alginate) and secondary (0.15 wt% alginate) emulsions was studied. Alginate adsorbed to the droplet surfaces at pHs 3, 4, and 5, but not at pHs 6 and 7, due to electrostatic attraction between anionic groups on the alginate and cationic groups on the adsorbed caseinate. Secondary emulsions had better stability than primary emulsions at pH values near caseinate's isoelectric point (pHs 4 and 5). In addition, secondary emulsions were stable up to higher ionic strengths (< 300 mM) than primary emulsions (<50 mM). The controlled electrostatic deposition method utilized in this study could be used to extend the range of application of dairy protein emulsifiers in the food industry.

  8. Synthesis and Performance of an Acrylamide Copolymer Containing Nano-SiO2 as Enhanced Oil Recovery Chemical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongbin Ye

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel copolymer containing nano-SiO2 was synthesized by free radical polymerization using acrylamide (AM, acrylic acid (AA, and nano-SiO2 functional monomer (NSFM as raw materials under mild conditions. The AM/AA/NSFM copolymer was characterized by infrared (IR spectroscopy, 1H NMR spectroscopy, elemental analysis, and scanning electron microscope (SEM. It was found that the AM/AA/NSFM copolymer exhibited higher viscosity than the AM/AA copolymer at 500 s−1 shear rate (18.6 mPa·s versus 8.7 mPa·s. It was also found that AM/AA/NSFM could achieve up to 43.7% viscosity retention rate at 95°C. Mobility control results indicated that AM/AA/NSFM could establish much higher resistance factor (RF and residual resistance factor (RRF than AM/AA under the same conditions (RF: 16.52 versus 12.17, RRF: 3.63 versus 2.59. At last, the enhanced oil recovery (EOR of AM/AA/NSFM was up to 20.10% by core flooding experiments at 65°C.

  9. Breads Fortified with Freeze-Dried Vegetables: Quality and Nutritional Attributes. Part 1: Breads Containing Oil as an Ingredient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viren Ranawana

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing emphasis on reformulating processed foods to make them healthier. This study for the first time comprehensively investigated the effects of fortifying bread (containing oil as an ingredient with freeze-dried vegetables on its nutritional and physico-chemical attributes. Breads fortified with carrot, tomato, beetroot or broccoli were assessed for nutrition, antioxidant potential, storage life, shelf stability, textural changes and macronutrient oxidation. Furthermore, using an in vitro model the study for the first time examined the impact of vegetable addition on the oxidative stability of macronutrients during human gastro-intestinal digestion. As expected, adding vegetables improved the nutritional and antioxidant properties of bread. Beetroot and broccoli significantly improved bread storage life. None of the vegetables significantly affected bread textural changes during storage compared to the control. Lipid oxidation in fresh bread was significantly reduced by all four types of vegetables whilst protein oxidation was lowered by beetroot, carrot and broccoli. The vegetables demonstrated varying effects on macronutrient oxidation during gastro-intestinal digestion. Beetroot consistently showed positive effects suggesting its addition to bread could be particularly beneficial.

  10. Experimental Studies on the Synthesis and Performance of Boron-containing High Temperature Resistant Resin Modified by Hydroxylated Tung Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J. X.; Y Ren, Z.; Zheng, G.; Wang, H. F.; Jiang, L.; Fu, Y.; Yang, W. Q.; He, H. H.

    2017-12-01

    In this work, hydroxylated tung oil (HTO) modified high temperature resistant resin containing boron and benzoxazine was synthesized. HTO and ethylenediamine was used to toughen the boron phenolic resin with specific reaction. The structure of product was studied by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy(FTIR), and the heat resistance was tested by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Thermogravimetric Analysis(TGA). The results indicated that the conjugated triene structure of HTO was involved in the crosslinking of the heating curing progress, and in addition, the open-loop polymerization reaction of benzoxazine resin during heating can effectively reduce the curing temperature of the resin and reduce the release of small molecule volatiles, which is advantageous to follow-up processing. DSC data showed that the initial decomposition temperature of the resin is 350-400 °C, the carbon residue rate under 800 °C was 65%. It indicated that the resin has better heat resistance than normal boron phenolic resin. The resin can be used as an excellent ablative material and anti-friction material and has a huge application market in many fields.

  11. Oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1927-12-21

    The abstract describes a process for obtaining liquids from solid carbonaceous materials. The treatment, which involves heating them under pressures of 10 to 1000 atm with high-boiling hydrocarbons or their derivatives containing no constituent which boils below 300/sup 0/C, can be performed in the presence of gases containing nitrogen, carbon dioxide, or carbon monoxide, and excluding hydrogen. Catalytic substances used are sulfides of alkali or alkaline earth metals or other substances which have an alkaline reaction.

  12. Chemical composition - Sustainable aquafeeds for marine finfish: Effects of vegetable oil replacement feeds containing novel microalgal and fungal oils on growth performance of juvenile sablefish

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The concomitant replacement of fish meal and fish oil in carnivorous marine fish feeds by more sustainable terrestrial alternatives is problematic due to the limited...

  13. Lipid composition - Sustainable aquafeeds for marine finfish: Effects of vegetable oil replacement feeds containing novel microalgal and fungal oils on growth performance of juvenile sablefish

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The concomitant replacement of fish meal and fish oil in carnivorous marine fish feeds by more sustainable terrestrial alternatives is problematic due to the limited...

  14. Growth - Sustainable aquafeeds for marine finfish: Effects of vegetable oil replacement feeds containing novel microalgal and fungal oils on growth performance of juvenile sablefish

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The concomitant replacement of fish meal and fish oil in carnivorous marine fish feeds by more sustainable terrestrial alternatives is problematic due to the limited...

  15. Diagnosis by acetone for deterioration of breathing transformers containing an adsorbent in the insulating oil; Acetone ni yoru kyuchakuzai iri kaihogata hen`atsuki no keinen rekkado shindan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Awata, M.; Mizuno, K.; Ueda, T. [Chubu Electric Power Co. Ltd., Nagoya (Japan); Ota, N.; Ishii, T.; Tsukioka, H.

    1997-04-20

    The high-precision diagnosis for deterioration of a breathing transformer containing an adsorbent was investigated. An adsorbent (activated alumina) may be contained in oil to eliminate the deterioration product in insulating oil or the moisture. In this case, the deterioration component furfural in insulating paper is adsorbed. The concentration in furfural oil cannot be thus used for deterioration diagnosis. Acetone and furan with good relation between the adsorption characteristics for activated alumina and the insulating paper deterioration in an accelerated deterioration test can be effectively used as a new deterioration index component of insulating paper. The disassembly survey showed that acetone is valid as the index component of deterioration diagnosis. Furan is not detected in a breathing transformer, but effective in diaphragm-type and nitrogen-sealed transformers. The adsorption of acetone by activated alumina requires no correction for the change in oil temperature at about 10{degree}C. The solubility of acetone for insulating oil is 60 times at 20{degree}C as high as CO2, and the discharge rate from a breather is little (1/25). Therefore, acetone is much more excellent than CO2 as the precision of a deterioration index. 21 refs., 15 figs., 4 tabs.

  16. DRYING TEMPERATURE EFFECT OF GRANULE CONTAINING OIL COMBINATION OF LEMONGRASS-KAFFIR LIME LEAVES ON TOTAL LOSS OF OIL AND LARVICIDE ACTIVITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Mulyani

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Granules of lemongrass and kaffir lime oil are reported to have larvicidal activity against the mosquito Aedes aegypti, with LC50 of 38.30ppm and 39.58ppm, while LC90 of 51.57ppm and 79.43ppm respectively. During the manufacture of granules, loss of oil are reported by 64.20% to 65.91% for lemongrass and kaffir lime oil. This research aims to make granules combination from lemongrass and kaffir lime oils by varying the temperature of the drying granules and testing its larvicidal activity against Ae. aegypti. Oil combination is selected by using analysis simplex lattice design, and the combination chosen is made of granules, in drying room temperature for 24h, a temperature of 50°C for 2h 30min and a temperature of 70°C for 1h. Larvicidal activity testing against larvae of Ae. aegypti is done by using the third instar larvae 20 for each granule solution made in 5 series of concentration, and left exposed for 24h. The number of deaths of larvae is calculated and analyzed by modified probit analysis Finney to determine LC50 and LC90. The results showed the combination lemongrass-kaffir lime oil is selected ratio of 9:1, and drying the granules with a temperature of 70°C for 1h produces the greatest larvicidal activity with 63.17ppm LC50 and LC90 of 85.04ppm.

  17. An integrated (electro- and bio-oxidation) approach for remediation of industrial wastewater containing azo-dyes: Understanding the degradation mechanism and toxicity assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aravind, Priyadharshini; Selvaraj, Hosimin; Ferro, Sergio; Sundaram, Maruthamuthu

    2016-11-15

    A hybrid approach for the remediation of recalcitrant dye wastewater is proposed. The chlorine-mediated electrochemical oxidation of real textile effluents and synthetic samples (using Ti/IrO2-RuO2-TiO2 anodes), lead to discoloration by 92% and 89%, respectively, in 100min, without significant mineralization. The remediation was obtained through biodegradation, after removing the residual bio-toxic active chlorine species via sunlight exposition. Results show that the electrochemical discoloration enhances the effluent biodegradability with about 90% COD removal employing acclimatized naphthalene-degrading bacterial consortia, within 144h. Based on results obtained through FT-IR and GC-MS, it is likely that azo group stripping and oxidative cleavage of dyes occur due to the nucleophilic attack of active chlorine species during electro-oxidation. This leads to generation of aromatic intermediates which are further desulfonated, deaminated or oxidized only at their functional groups. These aromatic intermediates were mineralized into simpler organic acids and aldehydes by bacterial consortia. Phyto-toxicity trials on Vigna radiata confirmed the toxic nature of the untreated dye solutions. An increase in root and shoot development was observed with the electrochemically treated solutions, the same was higher in case of bio-treated solutions. Overall, obtained results confirm the capability of the proposed hybrid oxidation scheme for the remediation of textile wastewater. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Evaluation of an up-flow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) reactor containing diatomite and maifanite for the improved treatment of petroleum wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chunmao; Liang, Jiahao; Yoza, Brandon A; Li, Qing X; Zhan, Yali; Wang, Qinghong

    2017-11-01

    Novel diatomite (R1) and maifanite (R2) were utilized as support materials in an up-flow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) reactor for the treatment of recalcitrant petroleum wastewater. At high organic loadings (11kg-COD/m 3 ·d), these materials were efficient at reducing COD (92.7% and 93.0%) in comparison with controls (R0) (88.4%). Higher percentages of large granular sludge (0.6mm or larger) were observed for R1 (30.3%) and R2 (24.6%) compared with controls (22.6%). The larger portion of granular sludge provided a favorable habitat that resulted in greater microorganism diversity. Increased filamentous bacterial communities are believed to have promoted granular sludge formation promoting a conductive environment for stimulation methanogenic Archaea. These communities had enhanced pH tolerance and produced more methane. This study illustrates a new potential use of diatomite and maifanite as support materials in UASB reactors for increased efficiency when treating refractory wastewaters. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Oil from transgenic Camelina sativa containing over 25 % n-3 long-chain PUFA as the major lipid source in feed for Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancor, Mónica B; Li, Keshuai; Bucerzan, Valentin S; Sprague, Matthew; Sayanova, Olga; Usher, Sarah; Han, Lihua; Norambuena, Fernando; Torrissen, Ole; Napier, Johnathan A; Tocher, Douglas R; Olsen, Rolf E

    2018-06-01

    Facing a bottleneck in the growth of aquaculture, and a gap in the supply and demand of the highly beneficial n-3 long-chain PUFA (LC-PUFA), sustainable alternatives to traditional marine-based feeds are required. Therefore, in the present trial, a novel oil obtained from a genetically engineered oilseed crop, Camelina sativa, that supplied over 25 % n-3 LC-PUFA was tested as a sole dietary-added lipid source in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) feed. Three groups of fish were fed three experimental diets for 12 weeks with the same basal composition and containing 20 % added oil supplied by either a blend of fish oil and rapeseed oil (1:3) (COM) reflecting current commercial formulations, wild-type Camelina oil (WCO) or the novel transgenic Camelina oil (TCO). There were no negative effects on the growth, survival rate or health of the fish. The whole fish and flesh n-3 LC-PUFA levels were highest in fish fed TCO, with levels more than 2-fold higher compared with those of fish fed the COM and WCO diets, respectively. Diet TCO had no negative impacts on the evaluated immune and physiological parameters of head kidney monocytes. The transcriptomic responses of liver and mid-intestine showed only mild effects on metabolism genes. Overall, the results clearly indicated that the oil from transgenic Camelina was highly efficient in supplying n-3 LC-PUFA providing levels double that obtained with a current commercial standard, and similar to those a decade ago before substantial dietary fishmeal and oil replacement.

  20. Chemical oxidation of carwash industry wastewater as an effort to decrease water pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatti, Zulfiqar Ahmad; Mahmood, Qaisar; Raja, Iftikhar Ahmad; Malik, Amir Haider; Khan, Muhammad Suleman; Wu, Donglei

    Car wash wastewater (CWW) contains petroleum, hydrofluoric acid, ammonium bifluoride products, paint residues, rubber, phosphates, oil, grease and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The present study dealt with various investigations conducted for the treatment of CWW. A treatment system of 5 L capacity was designed in the laboratory. Due to high load of oil and grease, CWW was aerated and scum was removed. Alum was used as coagulant in primary treatment which resulted 93% and 97% reduction in COD and turbidity. During secondary treatment CWW was further treated with waste hydrogen peroxide which resulted in further 71% and 83% reduction in COD and turbidity, respectively. Other desirable changes were also observed in pH, total dissolved solids (TDS), conductivity and dissolved oxygen contents. It was concluded that designed system could be effectively used to treat carwash wastewater that could be reused in the same station.

  1. A full-scale UASB reactor for treatment of pig and cattle slaughterhouse wastewater with a high oil and grease content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. S. Miranda

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the performance of an 800m³ full-scale UASB reactor in treating meat-packing plant and slaughterhouse effluents containing high concentrations of oil and grease (O&G (413-645 mg/L, resulting in a COD/O&G ratio of 26-32%. Those macromolecules were considered responsible for the unbalance of the system resulting in a total washout of the biomass. The removal of O&G from the influent using a physicochemical system (coagulation-flocculation improved the physical characteristics of the anaerobic sludge, controlling the biomass washout. Reactor performance was significantly improved when the COD/O&G ratio influent was maintained in the 10%. The COD and O&G removal rates obtained after implantation of the physicochemical system were 70-92% and 27-58%, respectively. The specific methanogenic activity (SMA of the biomass shows towards a tendency stabilisation and adaptation to the substrate influent. Pretreatment of the influent allowed the maximum organic load to be increased (1.46 to 2.43 Kg COD/m³.d and improved the quality of the effluent.

  2. Properties and Antioxidant Capacity of Anchovy (Engraulis encrasicholus) By-Product Protein Films Containing Thyme Essential Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tural, Serpil; Turhan, Sadettin

    2017-03-01

    In this study, some properties and antioxidant capacity of anchovy ( Engraulis encrasicholus ) by-product protein films with added 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5% of thyme essential oil were investigated. The films with thyme essential oil had higher elongation at break, water vapour permeability and oxygen permeability, lower solubility and tensile strength than control film (p<0.05). The incorporation of thyme essential oil affected transparency values of the films, but only the addition of 1.5% of thyme essential oil significantly reduced the transparency (p<0.05). In the film matrix, molecular organisation and intermolecular interaction were changed by thyme essential oil addition. The films with thyme essential oil had a heterogeneous surface and a relatively smooth cross-section structure. Slightly higher phase transition and lower glass transition temperatures were observed in films with thyme essential oil. The antioxidant capacity of the films was improved by incorporating thyme essential oil depending on its volume fraction.

  3. Treatment and Reuse of Wastewaters Discharged by Petroleum Industries (HMD/Algeria)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sellami, MH, E-mail: sellami2000dz@gmail.com [Process Engineering Department, Laboratory of Process Engineering, Ouargla University (Algeria); Loudiyi, K [Renewable Energies Laboratory (REL) Al Akhawayne University, Ifrane (Morocco); Boubaker, MC; Habbaz, H [Process Engineering Department, Laboratory of Process Engineering, Ouargla University (Algeria)

    2015-12-23

    Industrial wastewaters discharged by petroleum industries contains: oil, heavy metals and chemicals used in the process of oil separation and treatment. These waters are a source of soil, water and air pollution, and lead a mortal danger to the ecosystem. Our aim in this work has an aspect that can contribute to the collective effort to address the enormous amount of water purges storage bins and reuse them to avoid any environmental damage. This was achieved by chemical treating of these wastewaters discharged from three different locations of Hassi Messaoud (HMD) petroleum field by flocculation with (C-5563) followed by coagulation with (C-2061) using two different acids as sequestering namely: Ascorbic and Citric acid. After experiments, the results showed that the wastewater can be treated without sequestering by adding 40 ppm of activated silicates. The best result was obtained by addition of 160 ppm of Ascorbic acid as sequestering agent and 20 ppm of activated silicates; resulting in removal of 92.81 % of suspended matter and 95.53 % of turbidity. Finally we concluded that this wastewater was satisfactorily treated and we recommend either inject it for enhanced oil recovery in industrial closest field (North field) to maintain the reservoir pressure and the improved rate recovery of oil reserves or reuse it in garden irrigation. In order to see the impact of the treated water on plants, irrigation tests have conducted on two types of plants (date palm and shaft apocalyptic) for one year. The tests showed that the thick layer of 5 cm and 0.08mm of particles diameter of dune sand removes most of remaining oil. The sand layer that fills the basin surrounding the shaft is removed and replaced every 06 months. So, Dune sand plays the role of natural filter. The garden plants appear and grow normally.

  4. Treatment and Reuse of Wastewaters Discharged by Petroleum Industries (HMD/Algeria)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sellami, MH; Loudiyi, K; Boubaker, MC; Habbaz, H

    2015-01-01

    Industrial wastewaters discharged by petroleum industries contains: oil, heavy metals and chemicals used in the process of oil separation and treatment. These waters are a source of soil, water and air pollution, and lead a mortal danger to the ecosystem. Our aim in this work has an aspect that can contribute to the collective effort to address the enormous amount of water purges storage bins and reuse them to avoid any environmental damage. This was achieved by chemical treating of these wastewaters discharged from three different locations of Hassi Messaoud (HMD) petroleum field by flocculation with (C-5563) followed by coagulation with (C-2061) using two different acids as sequestering namely: Ascorbic and Citric acid. After experiments, the results showed that the wastewater can be treated without sequestering by adding 40 ppm of activated silicates. The best result was obtained by addition of 160 ppm of Ascorbic acid as sequestering agent and 20 ppm of activated silicates; resulting in removal of 92.81 % of suspended matter and 95.53 % of turbidity. Finally we concluded that this wastewater was satisfactorily treated and we recommend either inject it for enhanced oil recovery in industrial closest field (North field) to maintain the reservoir pressure and the improved rate recovery of oil reserves or reuse it in garden irrigation. In order to see the impact of the treated water on plants, irrigation tests have conducted on two types of plants (date palm and shaft apocalyptic) for one year. The tests showed that the thick layer of 5 cm and 0.08mm of particles diameter of dune sand removes most of remaining oil. The sand layer that fills the basin surrounding the shaft is removed and replaced every 06 months. So, Dune sand plays the role of natural filter. The garden plants appear and grow normally

  5. Biotechnological potential of Bacillus salmalaya 139SI: a novel strain for remediating water polluted with crude oil waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Salmah; Dadrasnia, Arezoo

    2015-01-01

    Environmental contamination by petroleum hydrocarbons, mainly crude oil waste from refineries, is becoming prevalent worldwide. This study investigates the bioremediation of water contaminated with crude oil waste. Bacillus salamalaya 139SI, a bacterium isolated from a private farm soil in the Kuala Selangor in Malaysia, was found to be a potential degrader of crude oil waste. When a microbial population of 108 CFU ml-1 was used, the 139SI strain degraded 79% and 88% of the total petroleum hydrocarbons after 42 days of incubation in mineral salt media containing 2% and 1% of crude oil waste, respectively, under optimum conditions. In the uninoculated medium containing 1% crude oil waste, 6% was degraded. Relative to the control, the degradation was significantly greater when a bacteria count of 99 × 108 CFU ml-1 was added to the treatments polluted with 1% oil. Thus, this isolated strain is useful for enhancing the biotreatment of oil in wastewater.

  6. Biotechnological potential of Bacillus salmalaya 139SI: a novel strain for remediating water polluted with crude oil waste.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salmah Ismail

    Full Text Available Environmental contamination by petroleum hydrocarbons, mainly crude oil waste from refineries, is becoming prevalent worldwide. This study investigates the bioremediation of water contaminated with crude oil waste. Bacillus salamalaya 139SI, a bacterium isolated from a private farm soil in the Kuala Selangor in Malaysia, was found to be a potential degrader of crude oil waste. When a microbial population of 108 CFU ml-1 was used, the 139SI strain degraded 79% and 88% of the total petroleum hydrocarbons after 42 days of incubation in mineral salt media containing 2% and 1% of crude oil waste, respectively, under optimum conditions. In the uninoculated medium containing 1% crude oil waste, 6% was degraded. Relative to the control, the degradation was significantly greater when a bacteria count of 99 × 108 CFU ml-1 was added to the treatments polluted with 1% oil. Thus, this isolated strain is useful for enhancing the biotreatment of oil in wastewater.

  7. Adverse reactions from essential oil-containing natural flea products exempted from Environmental Protection Agency regulations in dogs and cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genovese, Allison G; McLean, Mary Kay; Khan, Safdar A

    2012-08-01

    To describe adverse effects in dogs and cats exposed to Environmental Protection Agency exempted plant-derived flea preventatives containing mixtures of essential oils. Retrospective study from 2006 to 2008. Records of dog and cat cases were reviewed from the American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals, Animal Poison Control Center database. Thirty-nine cats and 9 dogs with history of exposure to natural flea preventatives. The following information was retrieved from each incident: number of animals, species involved, frequency, types, onset time, duration of clinical signs, exposure appropriateness, final outcome, and treatment information. Ninety-two percent of animals (n = 44) showed presence of one or more adverse effects. The frequency of adverse effects in dogs (n = 8; 89%) and cats (n = 36; 92%) was similar. Onset time of adverse effects in 39 of 44 animals occurred within 24 hours. The duration of signs in 24 animals ranged from 30 minutes to 149 hours. The products were used as per label in 77% animals (n = 37). Of 28 animals with known outcome, 50% (n = 14) recovered with bathing alone while others received intravenous fluids, muscle relaxants, and anticonvulsive medications. Death (1 cat; n = 1/28; 4%) or euthanasia (1 cat and 1 dog; n = 2/28; 7%) was reported in 3 animals. Dogs and cats can experience significant adverse effects when exposed to plant-derived flea preventatives even when used according to label directions. The number of reports of exposure in cats was higher than dogs, but the frequency of reported adverse effects was similar between the 2 species. Agitation and hypersalivation were common in cats, whereas lethargy and vomiting were common in dogs. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2012.

  8. Removal of color and chemical oxygen demand using a coupled coagulation-electrocoagulation-ozone treatment of industrial wastewater that contains offset printing dyes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roa M, G.; Barrera D, C.; Balderas H, P.; Zaldumbide O, F.; Reyes P, H.; Bilyeu, B.

    2014-01-01

    Industrial offset printing processes generate wastewater with highly colored obtaining values of 5 x 10 6 Pt-Co units and great values of chemical oxygen demand (COD) 5.3 x 10 -5 mg L -1 . Thus, conventional technologies such as biologicals treatment fail in reaching the discharge limits. In this research, a sequential treatment was applied: coagulation with aluminum hydroxychloride (AHC), electrocoagulation with Al anodes and finally ozonation. Optimal conditions are found when adding 20 mg L -1 AHC, followed by electrocoagulation at 4 A for 50 min, and finally alkaline ozonation for 15 min, resulting in an overall color removal of 99.99% color and 99.35 COD. The sludge generated by the coagulation process was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) microanalysis. (Author)

  9. Removal of color and chemical oxygen demand using a coupled coagulation-electrocoagulation-ozone treatment of industrial wastewater that contains offset printing dyes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roa M, G.; Barrera D, C.; Balderas H, P.; Zaldumbide O, F. [Centro Conjunto de Investigacion en Quimica Sustentable UAEM-UNAM, Km 14.5 Carretera Toluca-Atlacomulco, 50200 San Cayetano-Toluca, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Reyes P, H. [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico, Facultad de Quimica, Paseo Colon y Paseo Tollocan s/n, 50120 Toluca, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Bilyeu, B., E-mail: groam@uaemex.mx [Xavier University of Louisiana, Department of Chemistry, 1 Drexel Drive, New Orleans, LA 70125 (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Industrial offset printing processes generate wastewater with highly colored obtaining values of 5 x 10{sup 6}Pt-Co units and great values of chemical oxygen demand (COD) 5.3 x 10{sup -5} mg L{sup -1}. Thus, conventional technologies such as biologicals treatment fail in reaching the discharge limits. In this research, a sequential treatment was applied: coagulation with aluminum hydroxychloride (AHC), electrocoagulation with Al anodes and finally ozonation. Optimal conditions are found when adding 20 mg L{sup -1} AHC, followed by electrocoagulation at 4 A for 50 min, and finally alkaline ozonation for 15 min, resulting in an overall color removal of 99.99% color and 99.35 COD. The sludge generated by the coagulation process was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) microanalysis. (Author)

  10. Using oily wastewater emulsified fuel in boiler: energy saving and reduction of air pollutant emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chun-Chi; Lee, Wen-Jhy

    2008-01-01

    The limited data for using emulsified oil have demonstrated its effectiveness in reducing flue gas pollutant emissions. The presence of a high concentration of toxic organic compounds in industrial wastewaters always presents significant problems. Therefore, this study was undertaken by using wastewater with COD of 9600 mg/L and total petroleum hydrocarbons-gasoline 440 mg/L for making an emulsified oil (wastewater content 20% with 0.1% surfactant) to evaluate the extent of reductions in both criteria pollutants and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. For comparison, two other systems (heavy oil fuel and water-emulsified oil) were also conducted. The wastewater-emulsified oil fuel results in significant reductions in particulate matter (PM), NO(x), SO2, and CO as compared to heavy oil fuel and similar to those from water/oil emulsified fuel; for PM, it is better in wastewater-emulsified oil. The reductions of total PAH flue gas emissions are 38 and 30% for wastewater- and water-emulsified fuel, respectively; they are 63 and 44% for total BaP(eq), respectively. In addition to reducing flue gas pollutant emissions, the results also demonstrate that the use of wastewater-emulsified fuel in boiler operation provides several advantages: (1) safe disposal of industrial wastewater; and (2) energy savings of about 13%. Thus, wastewater/oil-emulsified fuel is highly suitable for use in boilers.

  11. Utilization of struvite recovered from high-strength ammonium-containing simulated wastewater as slow-release fertilizer and fire-retardant barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yetilmezsoy, Kaan; Kocak, Emel; Akbin, Havva Melda; Özçimen, Didem

    2018-06-28

    Sustainable uses of the struvite (magnesium ammonium phosphate hexahydrate, MgNH 4 PO 4 ·6H 2 O, MAP) recovered from the synthetic wastewater, as a high-quality slow-release fertilizer for the growth of nine medicinal plants and a fire-retardant barrier on the flammability of cotton fabric and wooden plate, were explored in this study. The previous experimental results demonstrated that under the optimal conditions, about 98.7% of [Formula: see text] (initial [Formula: see text] = 1000 mg/L) could be effectively and successfully recovered from simulated wastewater in the form of MAP precipitate. Rates of increase in total fresh weights, total dry weights, and fresh heights of plants grown in soil fertilized with the struvite were determined as 67%, 52%, and 12% for valerian; 121%, 75%, and 18% for cucumber; 421%, 260%, and 47% for dill; 314%, 318%, and 27% for coriander; 432%, 566%, and 30% for tomato; 285%, 683%, and 26% for parsley; 200%, 225%, and 9% for basil; 857%, 656%, and 92% for rocket; and 146%, 115%, and 28% for cress, respectively, compared to the control pots. The microstructure, elemental composition, surface area, thermal behaviour, and functional groups of the grown crystals were characterized using SEM, EDS, BET, TGA-DTG-DSC, and FTIR analyses, respectively. Flammability tests and thermal analyses concluded that the dried and crumbled/implanted form of struvite used as a fire-retardant barrier demonstrated a remarkable flame-resistant behaviour for both cotton fabric and wooden plate. Findings of this experimental study clearly corroborated the versatility of struvite as non-polluting and environmentally friendly clean product for the sustainable usage in different fields.

  12. Comparative transcriptome analysis of oil palm flowers reveals an EAR-motif-containing R2R3-MYB that modulates phenylpropene biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ran; Reddy, Vaishnavi Amarr; Jin, Jingjing; Rajan, Chakaravarthy; Wang, Qian; Yue, Genhua; Lim, Chin Huat; Chua, Nam-Hai; Ye, Jian; Sarojam, Rajani

    2017-11-23

    Oil palm is the most productive oil crop and the efficiency of pollination has a direct impact on the yield of oil. Pollination by wind can occur but maximal pollination is mediated by the weevil E. kamerunicus. These weevils complete their life cycle by feeding on male flowers. Attraction of weevils to oil palm flowers is due to the emission of methylchavicol by both male and female flowers. In search for male flowers, the weevils visit female flowers by accident due to methylchavicol fragrance and deposit pollen. Given the importance of methylchavicol emission on pollination, we performed comparative transcriptome analysis of oil palm flowers and leaves to identify candidate genes involved in methylchavicol production in flowers. RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) of male open flowers, female open flowers and leaves was performed using Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform. Analysis of the transcriptome data revealed that the transcripts of methylchavicol biosynthesis genes were strongly up-regulated whereas transcripts encoding genes involved in lignin production such as, caffeic acid O-methyltransferase (COMT) and Ferulate-5-hydroxylase (F5H) were found to be suppressed in oil palm flowers. Among the transcripts encoding transcription factors, an EAR-motif-containing R2R3-MYB transcription factor (EgMYB4) was found to be enriched in oil palm flowers. We determined that EgMYB4 can suppress the expression of a monolignol pathway gene, EgCOMT, in vivo by binding to the AC elements present in the promoter region. EgMYB4 was further functionally characterized in sweet basil which also produces phenylpropenes like oil palm. Transgenic sweet basil plants showed significant reduction in lignin content but produced more phenylpropenes. Our results suggest that EgMYB4 possibly restrains lignin biosynthesis in oil palm flowers thus allowing enhanced carbon flux into the phenylpropene pathway. This study augments our understanding of the diverse roles that EAR-motif-containing MYBs play to

  13. Biogeochemical anomaly above oil-containing structures in an arid zone. [Growth stimulation of plants by sodium naphthenate used for prospecting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grishchenko, O.M.

    1983-01-01

    Visual biological anomalies above the oil-containing structures are characterized by bright green coloring of the vegetation cover, gigantism of the plants, extended vegetation period of the plants, deformity of the plants, etc. Biological anomalies are associated with geological features and are observed only above the zone of fault disorders of the earth's crust, above deep faults. A conclusion is drawn about the presence above the oil-bearing structures in the arid zone of a biogeochemical anomaly whose origin is explained by the biological activity of oil and its derivatives. The petroleum growth matter is the sodium salt of naphthene acid, a growth stimulator of plants and animals. The oils of the USSR contain 0.8-4.8% naphthene acids, which effuse through the faults into the root area levels of the soil. As a result of stimulation of growth and development by the petroleum growth matter, the vegetation period of the plants is prolonged. Under the influence of natural petroleum growth substances, the height and productivity of the anomalous plants increases 2-3-fold. Formation and manifestation of signs of biogeochemical anomalies above the oil-bearing structures in the arid zone predetermine the following conditions: presence of fault disorders of the earth's crust; salinity of the root area of the soil layer necessary for neutralization of the naphthene acids with subsequent formation of the biologically active naphthenates; aridity of the desert landscape; plain relief excluding color diversity in vegetation cover because of nonuniform wetting, etc. The established biogeochemical anomaly can be used in prospecting and exploration of oil, gas and bitumen, and also in determining the fault disorders of the earth's crust.

  14. Topical application of a cleanser containing extracts of Diospyros kaki folium, Polygonum cuspidatum and Castanea crenata var. dulcis reduces skin oil content and pore size in human skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bo Mi; An, Sungkwan; Kim, Soo-Yeon; Han, Hyun Joo; Jeong, Yu-Jin; Lee, Kyoung-Rok; Roh, Nam Kyung; Ahn, Kyu Joong; An, In-Sook; Cha, Hwa Jun

    2015-05-01

    The effects of skin pores on skin topographic features can be reduced by decreasing excessive production and accumulation of sebum and elimination of comedones. Therefore, a cosmetic cleanser that regulates sebum homeostasis is required. In the present study, the effects of a cosmetic cleanser that contained Diospyros kaki folium, Polygonum cuspidatum and Castanea crenata var. dulcis (DPC) was examined on the removal of sebum and on skin pore size. Healthy volunteers (n=23) aged 20-50 years were asked to apply the test materials to the face. Skin oil content, pore size, pore number and extracted sebum surface area were measured using various measurement methods. All the measurements were performed at pre- and post-application of the test materials. When the cosmetic cleanser containing DPC was applied to the skin, the oil content decreased by 77.3%, from 6.19 to 1.40. The number of skin pores decreased by 24.83%, from 125.39 to 94.23. Skin pore size decreased from 0.07 to 0.02 µm 3 (71.43% decrease). The amount of extracted sebum increased by 335% when the DPC cleanser was used. Compared to the control cleanser, skin oil content was significantly decreased when the cleanser that contained DPC was used. The cleanser containing DPC also decreased pore size and number. Finally, the DPC cleanser easily removed solidified sebum from the skin.

  15. Growth enhancement of effective microorganisms for bioremediation of crude oil contaminated waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukred, Abdualdaim Mohammed; Abd-Hamid, Aidil; Hamzah, Ainon; Yusoff, Wan Mohtar Wan

    2008-07-01

    The bioremediation of polluted groundwater, wastewater aeration pond and biopond sites was investigated using bacteria isolated from these sites located at the oil refinery Terengganu Malaysia. Out of 62 isolates, only 16 isolates from groundwater (8) and wastewater aeration pond (3) and biopond (5) were chosen based on growth medium containing 1% (v/v) Tapis crude oil. Only four isolates; Acinetobacter faecalis, Staphylococcus sp., Pseudomonas putida and Neisseria elongata showed percentage biodegradation of crude oil more than 50% after 5 days using Mineral Salts Medium (MSM). The effect of physical parameters (temperature, pH and agitation) on growth by all four strains showed a maximum growth in MSM medium with 1% Tapis crude oil at 37 degrees C with pH 7 and agitation of 130 rpm.

  16. Industrial detergent wastewater treatment via fenton reagent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Zairie Mohd Yusuff; Mohd Zulkifli Mohamad Noor; Izirwan Izhab

    2010-01-01

    Production of detergent can generates wastewater containing an organic matter with will consume an oxidation demand, surfactants, suspended solids, fat and oil. Besides, sulfate concentration is high in the most detergent plant effluent because of the sulphonation process that has physiological and toxic effects on marine organisms. Therefore, a research must be conducted to find the solution for this problem. The feasibility of Fentons reagent to treat detergent waste was investigated in this study. The sample of detergent wastewater was taken from FPG Oleo chemicals Sdn. Bhd. This experiment studied the effect of temperature towards the feasibility of Fentons reagent process besides the dosage between hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) and ferrous ion (Fe 2+ ) in the reagent. While, evaluated efficiency of Fentons reagent in term of chemical oxygen demand (COD), total suspended solid (TSS) and the turbidity reduction within the experimental design. The result found that overall removal was achieved until 96.2 % in term of COD, 98.1 % in term of TSS and 99.6 % in term of turbidity using Fentons reagent process. Besides, also found that this process is optimum at temperature 35 degree Celsius are able to achieve the Standard A of Parameter Limit of Effluent of Standard A and Standard B were outlined by Department of Environment Malaysia (DOE) based on Environment Quality Act 1974. (author)

  17. Plasma fatty acid changes following consumption of dietary oils containing n-3, n-6, and n-9 fatty acids at different proportions: preliminary findings of the Canola Oil Multicenter Intervention Trial (COMIT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senanayake, Vijitha K; Pu, Shuaihua; Jenkins, David A; Lamarche, Benoît; Kris-Etherton, Penny M; West, Sheila G; Fleming, Jennifer A; Liu, Xiaoran; McCrea, Cindy E; Jones, Peter J

    2014-04-23

    The Canola Oil Multicenter Intervention Trial (COMIT) was a randomized controlled crossover study designed to evaluate the effects of five diets that provided different oils and/or oil blends on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in individuals with abdominal obesity. The present objective is to report preliminary findings on plasma fatty acid profiles in volunteers with abdominal obesity, following the consumption of diets enriched with n-3, n-6 and n-9 fatty acids. COMIT was conducted at three clinical sites, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada, Québec City, Québec, Canada and University Park, Pennsylvania, United States. Inclusion criteria were at least one of the followings: waist circumference (≥90 cm for males and ≥84 cm for females), and at least one other criterion: triglycerides ≥1.7 mmol/L, high density lipoprotein cholesterol safflower oil blend, and corn oil and safflower oil blend. A per protocol approach with a mixed model analysis was decided to be appropriate for data analysis. One hundred and seventy volunteers were randomized and 130 completed the study with a dropout rate of 23.5%. The mean plasma total DHA concentrations, which were analyzed among all participants as a measure of adherence, increased by more than 100% in the DHA-enriched phase, compared to other phases, demonstrating excellent dietary adherence. Recruitment and retention strategies were effective in achieving a sufficient number of participants who completed the study protocol to enable sufficient statistical power to resolve small differences in outcome measures. It is expected that the study will generate important data thereby enhancing our understanding of the effects of n-3, n-6, and n-9 fatty acid-containing oils on CVD risks. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01351012.

  18. Researching the technology of tar removal from coke-chemical plants’ wastewater by reagent flotation method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna V. Ivanchenko

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to identify process patterns of tars and oils removal from phenolic wastewater by reagent flotation with bringing those components’ content to acceptable concentrations. For the first time established is the effect of Al2(SO43, AlCl3, FeSO4, Fe2(SO43, Al2(OH5Cl and FeCl3 doses onto residual tar content in phenolic wastewater. Results obtained give the possibility to prevent air pollution resulting from the toxic substances emission at the wet quenching with water containing excessive oils and to increase the quality of wastewater biological treatment. It is shown experimentally that the most efficient are Fe2(SO43, FeCl3 and Al2(OH5Cl at optimum concentrations of 50, 30 and 30 mg/dm3 respectively. The Al2(OH5Cl can be recommended for implementation at industry on existing coking plants and municipal wastewater treatment plants to improve the environmental air and water resources condition in Ukraine.

  19. Innovative physico-chemical treatment of wastewater incorporating Moringa oleifera seed coagulant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuptawat, Hitendra; Folkard, G K; Chaudhari, Sanjeev

    2007-04-02

    Moringa oleifera is a pan tropical, multipurpose tree whose seeds contain a high quality edible oil (up to 40% by weight) and water soluble proteins that act as effective coagulants for water and wastewater treatment. The use of this natural coagulant material has not yet realised its potential. A water extract of M. oleifera seed was applied to a wastewater treatment sequence comprising coagulation-flocculation-sedimentation-sand filtration. The study was laboratory based using an actual wastewater. Overall COD removals of 50% were achieved at both 50 and 100mg/l M. oleifera doses. When 50 and 100mg/l seed doses were applied in combination with 10mg/l of alum, COD removal increased to 58 and 64%, respectively. The majority of COD removal occurred during the filtration process. In the tests incorporating alum, sludge generation and filter head loss increased by factors of 3 and 2, respectively. These encouraging treatment results indicate that this may be the first treatment application that can move to large scale adoption. The simple water extract may be obtained at minimal cost from the presscake residue remaining after oil extraction from the seed. The regulatory compliance issues of adopting 'new materials' for wastewater treatment are significantly less stringent than those applying to the production of potable water.

  20. Butter blend containing fish oil improves the level of n-3 fatty acids in biological tissues of hamster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Porsgaard, Trine; Overgaard, Jesper; Krogh, Anne Louise

    2007-01-01

    Many studies have shown beneficial effects of long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) on human health. Regardless of the positive effects of n-3 PUFA, the intake of these fatty acids remains low. An approach to increase the intake of n-3 PUFA in the population is to incorporate fish oil...... Syrian hamsters received hamster feed blended with one of the three butter products. After 6 weeks of feeding, the fatty acid compositions of plasma, erythrocytes, liver, brain, and visceral fat were determined. The intake of butter product with fish oil resulted in a higher level of n-3 PUFA in plasma...... into food. In the present study, fish oil was incorporated into butter blends by enzymatic interesterification. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of this butter product in comparison with a commercial butter blend and a product produced by interesterification but without fish oil. Golden...

  1. Selenite and selenate affect the fatty acid profile in in vitro incubated ovine ruminal fluid containing linseed oil

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Czauderna, M.; Kowalczyk, J.; Marounek, Milan

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 58, č. 7 (2013), s. 328-341 ISSN 1212-1819 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : vegetable oil * selenium * biohydrogenation * bacterial isomerization Subject RIV: GH - Livestock Nutrition Impact factor: 0.871, year: 2013

  2. Toxic essential oils. Part V: Behaviour modulating and toxic properties of thujones and thujone-containing essential oils of Salvia officinalis L., Artemisia absinthium L., Thuja occidentalis L. and Tanacetum vulgare L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radulović, Niko S; Genčić, Marija S; Stojanović, Nikola M; Randjelović, Pavle J; Stojanović-Radić, Zorica Z; Stojiljković, Nenad I

    2017-07-01

    Neurotoxic thujones (α- and β-diastereoisomers) are common constituents of plant essential oils. In this study, we employed a statistical approach to determine the contribution of thujones to the overall observed behaviour-modulating and toxic effects of essential oils (Salvia officinalis L., Artemisia absinthium L., Thuja occidentalis L. and Tanacetum vulgare L.) containing these monoterpene ketones. The data from three in vivo neuropharmacological tests on rats (open field, light-dark, and diazepam-induced sleep), and toxicity assays (brine shrimp, and antimicrobial activity against a panel of microorganisms), together with the data from detailed chemical analyses, were subjected to a multivariate statistical treatment to reveal the possible correlation(s) between the content of essential-oil constituents and the observed effects. The results strongly imply that the toxic and behaviour-modulating activity of the oils (hundreds of constituents) should not be associated exclusively with thujones. The statistical analyses pinpointed to a number of essential-oil constituents other than thujones that demonstrated a clear correlation with either the toxicity, antimicrobial effect or the activity on CNS. Thus, in addition to the thujone content, the amount and toxicity of other constituents should be taken into consideration when making risk assessment and determining the regulatory status of plants in food and medicines. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Comparison of Separation of Seed Oil Triglycerides Containing Isomeric Conjugated Octadecatrienoic Acid Moieties by Reversed-Phase HPLC

    OpenAIRE

    Anh Van Nguyen; Victor Deineka; Lumila Deineka; Anh Vu Thi Ngoc

    2017-01-01

    Relative retention analysis and increment approach were applied for the comparison of triglycerides (TGs) retention of a broad set of plant seed oils with isomeric conjugated octadecatrienoic acids (CLnA) by reversed-phase HPLC for “propanol-2-acetonitrile” mobile phases and Kromasil 100-5C18 stationary phase with diode array detection (DAD) and mass spectrometric (MS) detection. The subjects of investigation were TGs of seed oils: Calendula officinalis, Catalpa ovata, Jacaranda mimosifolia, ...

  4. Dual application of duckweed and azolla plants for wastewater treatment and renewable fuels and petrochemicals production

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Shortages in fresh water supplies today affects more than 1 billion people worldwide. Phytoremediation strategies, based on the abilities of aquatic plants to recycle nutrients offer an attractive solution for the bioremediation of water pollution and represents one of the most globally researched issues. The subsequent application of the biomass from the remediation for the production of fuels and petrochemicals offers an ecologically friendly and cost-effective solution for water pollution problems and production of value-added products. Results In this paper, the feasibility of the dual application of duckweed and azolla aquatic plants for wastewater treatment and production of renewable fuels and petrochemicals is explored. The differences in absorption rates of the key wastewater nutrients, ammonium and phosphorus by these aquatic macrophytes were used as the basis for optimization of the composition of wastewater effluents. Analysis of pyrolysis products showed that azolla and algae produce a similar range of bio-oils that contain a large spectrum of petrochemicals including straight-chain C10-C21 alkanes, which can be directly used as diesel fuel supplement, or a glycerin-free component of biodiesel. Pyrolysis of duckweed produces a different range of bio-oil components that can potentially be used for the production of “green” gasoline and diesel fuel using existing techniques, such as catalytic hydrodeoxygenation. Conclusions Differences