WorldWideScience

Sample records for oil vehicle characteristics

  1. The influence of oil leak in modern vehicle shock absorber on its dumping characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafał BURDZIK

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents results of the modern vehicle shock absorbers’ researches on indicator test stand. On this stand can be determined the diagrams of force versus displacement and force versus velocity. These diagrams can be determined for changeable strokes and constant velocities or the opposite way round. In researches the modern hydraulic twin-tube vehicle shock absorber was modificated and the changes of oil volume were possible. There was determined the influence of oil volume changes on force versus displacement and force versus velocity diagrams. On the basis of force versus velocity diagrams, the dumping characteristics were determined (value of force for maximum velocity on this diagram. The influence of oil volume changes on dumping characteristics was determined too. The results of this investigation can be used in simulation researches of vehicle suspension dynamic.

  2. Study on Oil Pressure Characteristics and Trajectory Tracking Control in Shift Process of Wet-Clutch for Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junqiu Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate control of oil pressure of wet-clutch is of great importance for improving shift quality. Based on dynamic models of two-gear planetary transmission and hydraulic control system, a trajectory tracking model of oil pressure was built by sliding mode control method. An experiment was designed to verify the validity of hydraulic control system, through which the relationship between duty cycle of on-off valve and oil pressure of clutch was determined. The tracking effect was analyzed by simulation. Results showed that oil pressure could follow well the optimal trajectory and the shift quality was effectively improved.

  3. Tribological Characteristics Evaluation of Mustard Oil Blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Hassan Jabal

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A progressive increase in the desire for environmentally friendly lubricants by users and strict government regulations for the use of these lubricants has provided an opportunity to use plant oils as biodegradable lubricants, therefore vegetable oils have been investigated to replace oil lubricants because of their maintaining the conditions of nature (environment properties. In this paper, the influences of the blending ratio of mustard seeds oil with commercial mineral oil (SAE40 on the tribological characteristics were investigated and compared with mineral oil using the four-ball tribotester. Mustard seeds oil was blended with mineral oil at a volumetric ratio ranging from 22.5 to 90%. All experimental works were confirmed to ASTM D4172-B standard. The results exhibit that some blends of mustard seeds oil with mineral oil have lower wear scar diameter, friction torque, Friction coefficient and a higher parameter of flash temperature value compared to mineral oil and neat mustard seed oil. In conclusion, the mustard seed oil blend (MU22.5 shows a better anti-wear and anti-friction performance compared to oil samples. Therefore, mustard seeds oil has the potential to be used as a lubricant of mating surfaces.

  4. Experimental Investigation of Performance and Emission Characteristics of Blends of Jatropha Oil Methyl Ester and Ethanol in Light Duty Diesel Vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Mr. S.K.Sinha,; Vipul Vibhanshu

    2014-01-01

    Diesel engine are most versatile engine which are mostly use as main prime movers in transportation , decentralized electric generation and agricultures sector. The current growth in environmental degradation and limited availability of fossil fuels has been a matter of concern throughout the world. In view of this fact it has become necessary to explore renewable alternative fuel from resources available locally, such as vegetable oils alcohol, animal fats etc. whose properti...

  5. Nonlinear Dynamic Characteristics of the Railway Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uyulan, Çağlar; Gokasan, Metin

    2017-06-01

    The nonlinear dynamic characteristics of a railway vehicle are checked into thoroughly by applying two different wheel-rail contact model: a heuristic nonlinear friction creepage model derived by using Kalker 's theory and Polach model including dead-zone clearance. This two models are matched with the quasi-static form of the LuGre model to obtain more realistic wheel-rail contact model. LuGre model parameters are determined using nonlinear optimization method, which it's objective is to minimize the error between the output of the Polach and Kalker model and quasi-static LuGre model for specific operating conditions. The symmetric/asymmetric bifurcation attitude and stable/unstable motion of the railway vehicle in the presence of nonlinearities which are yaw damping forces in the longitudinal suspension system are analyzed in great detail by changing the vehicle speed. Phase portraits of the lateral displacement of the leading wheelset of the railway vehicle are drawn below and on the critical speeds, where sub-critical Hopf bifurcation take place, for two wheel-rail contact model. Asymmetric periodic motions have been observed during the simulation in the lateral displacement of the wheelset under different vehicle speed range. The coexistence of multiple steady states cause bounces in the amplitude of vibrations, resulting instability problems of the railway vehicle. By using Lyapunov's indirect method, the critical hunting speeds are calculated with respect to the radius of the curved track parameter changes. Hunting, which is defined as the oscillation of the lateral displacement of wheelset with a large domain, is described by a limit cycle-type oscillation nature. The evaluated accuracy of the LuGre model adopted from Kalker's model results for prediction of critical speed is higher than the results of the LuGre model adopted from Polach's model. From the results of the analysis, the critical hunting speed must be resolved by investigating the track tests

  6. Analysis of physical characteristics of vegetable oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piamba Tulcan, Oscar Edwin [Universidade Nacional da Colombia (UNAL), Bogota (Colombia). Fac. de Ingenieria; Universidade Federal Fluminense (PGMEC/UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia Mecanica], E-mail: oepiambat@unal.edu.co; Andrade, Danielle Oliveira de; Andrade, Ednilton Tavares de [Universidade Federal Fluminense (TER/UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Agricola e do Meio Ambiente; Pereira, Roberto Guimaraes [Universidade Federal Fluminense (TER/UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica

    2008-07-01

    Different vegetable oils were characterized using standardized methods. The evaluated characteristics were density, viscosity, flow point, cloud point and corrosion. The obtained data was tabulated and compared with average composition values of oils in percentage of fatty acids and iodine number for each oil. In this analysis it is shown that viscosity decreases with the increase of the iodine number, and density decrease. The cloud and flow point have greater relation with the presence of saturated or highly unsaturated fatty acids, respectively. The index of corrosion is greater when oil saturation or its iodine number are increased. (author)

  7. Studies on the lipophilicity of vehicles (or co-vehicles) and botanical oils used in cosmetic products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbah, C J

    2007-05-01

    The lipophilic character of five vehicles (or co-vehicles): diethylhexylmaleate, dimethicone, light mineral oil, octyldodecanol and oleyl alcohol and eight botanical oils: Aloe vera oil, coconut oil, extra virgin olive oil, grape leaf oil, grape seed oil, hazelnut oil, jojoba oil and safflower oil was determined by partitioning esters of p-hydroxybenzoic acid (parabens) between them and phosphate buffer (pH 7.4). The results were compared to those obtained with 1-octanol. The most lipophilic effects were observed with octyldodecanol and oleyl alcohol for the vehicles (or co-vehicles), coconut oil, jojoba oil and safflower oil for botanical oils. Light mineral oil showed the least lipophilic effect. With butylparaben, it was observed that oleyl alcohol, octyldodecanol, coconut oil and jojoba oil were 0.94, 0.91, 0.74 and 0.68 times as lipophilic as 1-octanol respectively. The study indicates that octyldodecanol and oleyl alcohol could be good substitutes for 1-octanol in partition coefficient determination. The estimated permeability coefficients of the parabens suggest that octyldodecanol, oleyl alcohol, coconut oil and jojoba oil could be potential dermal permeation enhancers.

  8. Effect of Vehicle Characteristics on Unpaved Road Dust Emissions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gillies, J. A; Etyemezian, V; Kuhns, H; Nikolic, D; Gillette, D. A

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents PM10 fugitive dust emission factors for a range of vehicles types and examines the influence of vehicle and wake characteristics on the strength of emissions from an unpaved road...

  9. Physical characteristics of cinnamon oil microcapsule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermanto, R. F.; Khasanah, L. U.; Kawiji; Atmaka, W.; Manuhara, G. J.; Utami, R.

    2016-02-01

    Cinnamon (Cinnamomum burmanii) oil products can be obtained from the bark by steam distillation. Essential oils are susceptible to high temperatures, oxidation, UV light, and humidity. Microencapsulation may change essential oils into powder, protect the sensitive core material and reduce the amount of flavor which lost during storage. In the microencapsulation, one of the important factors is the type of coating agent. The objective of this work was to characterize the cinnamon oil microcapsule. Ratio variations of coating agent maltodextrin and gum arabic were (1:0); (0:1); (1:1); (2:3). Physical characteristics such as water content, solubility, bulk density, surface oil, and microencapsulation efficiency of samples were investigated. Results showed that the ratio variations of the coating agent significantly affected the water content, bulk density, surface oil and microencapsulation efficiency but significantly affected the water solubility. Characteristics of selected microcapsule were 6.13% water content; 96.33% solubility; 0.46 g/cm3 bulk density; 2.68% surface oil; 70.68% microencapsulation efficiency and microstructures were rather good.

  10. Light and Heavy Tactical Wheeled Vehicle Fuel Consumption Evaluations Using Fuel Efficient Gear Oils (FEGO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    UNCLASSIFIED LIGHT AND HEAVY TACTICAL WHEELED VEHICLE FUEL CONSUMPTION EVALUATIONS USING FUEL EFFICIENT GEAR OILS (FEGO) FINAL... HEAVY TACTICAL WHEELED VEHICLE FUEL CONSUMPTION EVALUATIONS USING FUEL EFFICIENT GEAR OILS (FEGO) FINAL REPORT TFLRF No. 477 by Adam C...August 2014 – March 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE LIGHT AND HEAVY TACTICAL WHEELED VEHICLE FUEL CONSUMPTION EVALUATIONS USING FEUL EFFICIENT GEAR OILS

  11. Oil Characteristics of Four Palestinian Olive Varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodolini, Enrico Maria; Polverigiani, Serena; Ali, Saed; Mutawea, Mohammed; Qutub, Mayyada; Arabasi, Taysir; Pierini, Fabio; Abed, Mohammed; Neri, Davide

    2017-05-01

    Olive oil represents an important source of income for Palestinian farmers in local, national and international markets. Sometimes, olive oil produced in local climatic conditions, does not achieve the International Olive Council (IOC) trade standards so that international markets are precluded. The oil chemical composition and sensory profile of four Palestinian olive varieties (Nabali Baladi, Nabali Mohassan, Souri and K18) were characterized in 2010 throughout an in situ evaluation. Most of the physicchemical characteristics and the fatty acid composition of the varieties met the International Olive Council trade standards (IOC-TS) for extra virgin olive oils. Values of K 270 for Nabali Baladi and linolenic acid for Souri slightly exceeded the limit. Eicosanoic acid exceeded the IOC-TS limits in the oils of all considered varieties. Among the sterols, the Δ-7-stigmastenol resulted too high for Nabali Baladi and Souri. Sensory profile for the tested varieties showed a reminiscence of tomato or artichoke and light to medium bitter and pungent sensations. Results represent an important baseline reference for further studies about oil composition and quality of the main Palestinian olive germplasm and provide indication of potential critical points to be controlled in order to ensure the full achievement of IOC-TS and access international markets.

  12. Characteristics and trends of China's oil demand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Haibo

    2010-09-15

    Based on historical analysis of Chinese oil consumption from 1980 to 2008, the author develops an econometric modeling - Medium and Long-term Chinese Oil Demand Forecast Model. Results shows that, Chinese oil demand will be 632 MT in 2020 without consideration of substitutions, and the annual growth rate will be 4.2%, much slower than before. The demand ratio of diesel to gasoline will decline, while kerosene demand will grow faster. If new energy vehicles (NGV and electric vehicles, etc.) develop rapidly and industrial fuel-oil demand is substituted effectively, about 23 million tons of oil could be saved.

  13. Projection of Chinese motor vehicle growth, oil demand, and CO2 emissions through 2050

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    During this study a methodology was developed to project growth trends of the motor vehicle population and associated oil demand and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions in China through 2050. In particular, the numbers of highway vehicles, motorcycles, an...

  14. Analysis of Vehicle Steering and Driving Bifurcation Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianbin Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The typical method of vehicle steering bifurcation analysis is based on the nonlinear autonomous vehicle model deriving from the classic two degrees of freedom (2DOF linear vehicle model. This method usually neglects the driving effect on steering bifurcation characteristics. However, in the steering and driving combined conditions, the tyre under different driving conditions can provide different lateral force. The steering bifurcation mechanism without the driving effect is not able to fully reveal the vehicle steering and driving bifurcation characteristics. Aiming at the aforementioned problem, this paper analyzed the vehicle steering and driving bifurcation characteristics with the consideration of driving effect. Based on the 5DOF vehicle system dynamics model with the consideration of driving effect, the 7DOF autonomous system model was established. The vehicle steering and driving bifurcation dynamic characteristics were analyzed with different driving mode and driving torque. Taking the front-wheel-drive system as an example, the dynamic evolution process of steering and driving bifurcation was analyzed by phase space, system state variables, power spectral density, and Lyapunov index. The numerical recognition results of chaos were also provided. The research results show that the driving mode and driving torque have the obvious effect on steering and driving bifurcation characteristics.

  15. The effect of vehicle characteristics on road accidents

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, I S

    2016-01-01

    The Effect of Vehicle Characteristics on Road Accidents investigates whether vehicle characteristics related to handling and stability contribute to road accidents. Using multiple regression analysis, this book addresses driver and vehicle effects separately in order to define both the magnitude of the handling/accident causation problem as well as the relative importance of the various performance measures. This monograph is comprised of six chapters and begins with detailed studies of accidents to determine the circumstances which lead to loss of control or overturning of a car on the road, and which accidents are likely to be influenced by the handling and stability characteristics of cars. Accident rates for these types of accident are then examined for the more popular models of car. Measures of vehicle handling and stability related to accident rates are also discussed. This text will be a useful resource for motorists and road engineers as well as transportation officials.

  16. A review of dynamic characteristics of magnetically levitated vehicle systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Y.; Chen, S.S.

    1995-11-01

    The dynamic response of magnetically levitated (maglev) ground transportation systems has important consequences for safety and ride quality, guideway design, and system costs. Ride quality is determined by vehicle response and by environmental factors such as humidity and noise. The dynamic response of the vehicles is the key element in determining ride quality, while vehicle stability is an important safety-related element. To design a guideway that provides acceptable ride quality in the stable region, vehicle dynamics must be understood. Furthermore, the trade-off between guideway smoothness and levitation and control systems must be considered if maglev systems are to be economically feasible. The link between the guideway and the other maglev components is vehicle dynamics. For a commercial maglev system, vehicle dynamics must be analyzed and tested in detail. This report, which reviews various aspects of the dynamic characteristics, experiments and analysis, and design guidelines for maglev systems, discusses vehicle stability, motion dependent magnetic force components, guideway characteristics, vehicle/ guideway interaction, ride quality, suspension control laws, aerodynamic loads and other excitations, and research needs.

  17. Heat transfer characteristics of some oils used for engine cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abou-Ziyan, Hosny Z.

    2004-01-01

    This paper reports the results of an experimental investigation of heat transfer from a cast iron test specimen to engine oils under boiling conditions. The work is aimed at evaluating the thermal characteristics of some engine oils in contact with high temperature parts in internal combustion engines. Three mono-grade oils and two multi-grade oils are examined at heat fluxes from about 30 to more than 400 kW/m 2 for bulk temperatures of 40, 60, 80, 100, 125, 150 and 175 deg. C. The considered oils are analyzed and tested according to some ASTM standards to determine their additives concentration and to obtain some of their thermophysical properties. The results indicated that oil additives, oil properties and bulk temperatures have substantial effects on the oil characteristics. The boiling heat flux, for the best oil, rises by a factor of 1.65 as the bulk temperature decreases from 175 to 40 deg. C. The mono-grade oils produce superior heat transfer characteristics compared to those produced by multi-grade oils. The oil with the best additive concentrations produces boiling heat fluxes up to 4.44 times higher than those produced by some other oils. Comparing the results of the tested oils revealed that the oil that has the largest concentrations of boron, magnesium, phosphorus and zinc with low concentration of calcium yields the best heat transport characteristics among the other tested oils. These additives provide superior detergent and dispersant characteristics, reflected in the large alkalinity and low corrosivity of the oil. On the other side, calcium has a negative interaction with other additives and yields an adverse effect on heat transfer characteristics even when it exists in oil with large concentrations of boron, magnesium, phosphorus and zinc

  18. The contribution of air cushioned vehicles in oil spill response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCarthy, M.W.; McGrath, J.

    1993-01-01

    On July 22, 1991, the Tuo Hai, a 46,500 ton Chinese grain carrier, collided with the Tenyo Maru, a 4,800 ton Japanese fish processing ship, off the coast of Washington State. The Tenyo Maru sank, creating an oil spill that cost upwards of $4 million (US) to clean up. The incident initiated a joint response from the US and Canadian governments. As part of this response, the Canadian Coast Guard mobilized an SRN-6 hovercraft. This air cushioned vehicle (ACV) provided logistical support to responders on both sides of the international boundary. The response operation along the Pacific Coast was extensive. Dense fog and the remote location of the impacted area provided formidable challenges to the cleanup effort. It was the mission scenario of the Canadian SRN-6 hovercraft to provide logistical support-as an experiment in ACV utility-to the organizations responding to this incident. Based on this experience, it can be argued that the hovercraft offers great potential value in responding to marine oil spills. Appropriate application of ACV technology can enhance oil spill response work, spill waste management, and incident surveillance. This paper discusses the contribution of the SRN-6 hovercraft to the Tenyo Maru response, briefly examines the use of another, very different hovercraft, during a response in the Gulf of St. Lawrence, and reviews a new hovercraft design and discusses its potential contributions

  19. Battery Electric Vehicles: characteristics and research projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besselink, I.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    This presentation discusses briefly the history of the electric car and its main characteristics. Two projects introduced: the battery electric VW Lupo EL and URE05e electric Formula Student racecar. Presentation slides.

  20. Investigating impact of motor oil quality on vehicles engine induced noise level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Arefian

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Vehicle engine id one of the main sources of noise which its level is influenced by various parameters. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of motor oils quality before and after oil change on the variability of vehicle engine induced noise level. In this study it is tried to follow-up the efficacy of motor oil quality on engines sound level. Material and Method: First, engine noise of 94 vehicles were recorded for 30 seconds before and after oil change and all the vehicles technical information including mileage, type of motor oil, and type of vehicle were registered. Following, the recorded noises were calibrated in semi-anechoic chamber and the sound pressure levels were measured with A and C-weighting network and main octav bands, using a sound level meters. The obtained results analyzed using SPSS software version 17. Results: The effects of motor oil quality on different noise levels of engines were determined and a significant reduction in noise level of vehicles engine was observed. Investigation of the relationship between mileage and motor oil quality on various engines sound level manifested that vehicles with mileage ranged 100000-150000 miles had significant reduction in their sound pressure levels in comparison with other vehicles. Conclusion: The results revealed that engine oil is among factors reducing the vehicle engine induced noise level. Moreover, the engine oil type and the vehicle mileage are key variables which determine the impact of engine oil quality on reduction of the sound level of vehicles engine.

  1. Tribological Characteristics Evaluation of Mustard Oil Blends

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed Hassan Jabal; Muhannad Zaidan Khalefa

    2018-01-01

    A progressive increase in the desire for environmentally friendly lubricants by users and strict government regulations for the use of these lubricants has provided an opportunity to use plant oils as biodegradable lubricants, therefore vegetable oils have been investigated to replace oil lubricants because of their maintaining the conditions of nature (environment) properties. In this paper, the influences of the blending ratio of mustard seeds oil with commercial mineral oil (SAE40) on the ...

  2. Influence of oil and mineral characteristics on oil-mineral interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, P.A.; Lunel, T.; Daniel, F.; Swannell, R.; Lee, K.; Stoffyn-Egli, P.

    1998-01-01

    A laboratory study was conducted to simulate the process of oil-mineral interaction in seawater. Thirteen different crudes, emulsions and oil products were used in the study. The objective was to improve the fundamental understanding of the characteristics of oils and minerals that influence the process. The findings of an initial phase of studies based on the swirling flask and marine simulation procedures were also described. Oil content associated with flocs to oil and mineral characteristics were discussed. Emulsions were prepared at 10 degrees C by vigorously mixing the oil with excess artificial seawater in a Kilner jar using a high shear homogenizer. Topped oils were prepared by distillation to 250 degrees C. The biodegraded oil was prepared from the topped crude oil. Biodegradation was achieved over a 28 day period using natural seawater and naturally occurring hydrocarbon degraders. The relationships between oil concentration, oil density and mineral exchange capacity were determined. The study showed that greater oil concentrations in the water column could be expected with (1) the presence of mineral fines, (2) minerals with greater cation exchange rates, (3) minerals with finer sizes, and (4) oils of lower viscosity and density. It was determined that in coastal waters the viscosity of the oil/emulsion will likely be the main factor affecting oil-mineral interactions. The viscosity limit for allowing oil fines interaction is likely to be dependent on the energy in the coastal zone affected by the oil pollution. 18 refs., 5 tabs., 13 figs

  3. [Laser induced fluorescence spectrum characteristics of common edible oil and fried cooking oil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Tao-tao; Chen, Si-ying; Zhang, Yin-chao; Chen, He; Guo, Pan; Ge, Xian-ying; Gao, Li-lei

    2013-09-01

    In order to detect the trench oil the authors built a trench oil rapid detection system based on laser induced fluorescence detection technology. This system used 355 nm laser as excitation light source. The authors collected the fluorescence spectrum of a variety of edible oil and fried cooking oil (a kind of trench oil) and then set up a fluorescence spectrum database by taking advantage of the trench oil detection system It was found that the fluorescence characteristics of fried cooking oil and common edible oil were obviously different. Then it could easily realize the oil recognition and trench oil rapid detection by using principal component analysis and BP neural network, and the overall recognition rate could reach as high as 97.5%. Experiments showed that laser induced fluorescence spectrum technology was fast, non-contact, and highly sensitive. Combined with BP neural network, it would become a new technique to detect the trench oil.

  4. Biofuel characteristics of beniseed (Sesanum indicum) oil

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-11-05

    Nov 5, 2007 ... Local method was used to extract oil from beniseed (Sesanum indicum). ... fuel properties similar to common biofuels, hence beniseed could be utilized as an .... industries for the manufacture of soap and vegetable oil –.

  5. Quality characteristics of edible linseed oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. NYKTER

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In this review the quality properties of linseed oil for food uses are discussed as well as factors affecting this quality. Linseed oil has a favourable fatty acid composition with a high linolenic acid content. Linseed oil contains nearly 60% á-linolenic acid, compared with 25% for plant oils generally. The content of linolenic acid and omega-3 fatty acids is reported to be high in linseed grown in northern latitudes. The composition of fatty acids, especially unsaturated fatty acids, reported in different studies varies considerably for linseed oil. This variation depends mainly on differences in the examined varieties and industrial processing treatments. The fatty acid composition leads also to some problems, rancidity probably being the most challenging. Some information has been published concerning oxidation and taste, whereas only a few studies have focused on colour or microbiological quality. Rancidity negatively affects the taste and odour of the oil. There are available a few studies on effects of storage on composition of linseed oil. In general, storage and heat promote auto-oxidation of fats, as well as decrease the amounts of tocopherols and vitamin E in linseed oil. Several methods are available to promote the quality of the oil, including agronomic methods and methods of breeding as well as chemical, biotechnological and microbiological methods. Time of harvesting and weather conditions affect the quality and yield of the oil.;

  6. A Review of the Characteristics of Modern Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hristov Georgi Valentinov

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this article is to present the modern unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs and the possibilities for real-time remote monitoring of flight parameters and payload data. In the introduction section of the paper we briefly present the characteristics of the UAVs and which are their major application areas. Later, the main parameters and the various data types for remote control and monitoring of the unmanned aerial vehicles are presented and discussed. The paper continues with the methods and the technologies for transmission of these parameters and then presents a general hardware model for data transmission and a software model of a communication system suitable for UAVs.

  7. Investigation of the Link Between Macroscopic Traffic Flow Characteristics and Individual Vehicle Fuel Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    This project investigated the factors impacting individual vehicle energy consumption, including vehicle characteristics, ambient temperature, season, speed, driving behavior, and traffic flow. A fleet of 18 vehicles with a variety of ownership, size...

  8. Heavy Vehicle Crash Characteristics in Oman; 2009–2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Islam Al-Bulushi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, Oman has seen a shift in the burden of diseases towards road accidents. The main objective of this paper, therefore, is to describe key characteristics of heavy vehicle crashes in Oman and identify the key driving behaviours that influence fatality risks. Crash data from January 2009 to December 2011 were examined and it was found that, of the 22,543 traffic accidents that occurred within this timeframe, 3,114 involved heavy vehicles. While the majority of these crashes were attributed to driver behaviours, a small proportion was attributed to other factors. The results of the study indicate that there is a need for a more thorough crash investigation process in Oman. Future research should explore the reporting processes used by the Royal Oman Police, cultural influences on heavy vehicle operations in Oman and improvements to the current licensing system.

  9. Biodiesel's Characteristics Preparation from Palm Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tilani Hamid

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Using vegetable oils directly as an alternative diesel fuel has presented engine problems. The problems have been attributed to high viscosity of vegetable oil that causes the poor atomization of fuel in the injector system and pruduces uncomplete combustion. Therefore, it is necessary to convert the vegetable oil into ester (metil ester by tranesterification process to decrease its viscosity. In this research has made biodiesel by reaction of palm oil and methanol using lye (NaOH as catalyst with operation conditions: constant temperature at 60 oC in atmosferic pressure, palm oil : methanol volume ratio = 5 : 1, amount of NaOH used as catalyst = 3.5 gr, 4.5 gr, 5 gr and 5.5 gr and it takes about one hour time reaction. The ester (metil ester produced are separated from glycerin and washed until it takes normal pH (6-7 where more amount of catalyst used will decrease the ester (biodiesel produced. The results show that biodiesels' properties made by using 3.5 (M3.5 gr, 4.5 gr (M4.5 and 5 (M5.0 gr catalyst close to industrial diesel oil and the other (M5.5 closes to automotive diesel oil, while blending diesel oil with 20 % biodiesel (B20 is able to improve the diesel engine performances.

  10. Characteristics of small-scale palm oil production enterprise in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined characteristics of small-scale palm oil production enterprise in Anambra State, Nigeria. All the palm oil producers in Anambra State formed the population of the study. Multi-stage sampling technique was used to select 120 respondents for the study. Data were collected from primary source through ...

  11. Conversion characteristics of 10 selected oil shales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miknis, F.P.

    1989-08-01

    The conversion behavior of 10 oil shale from seven foreign and three domestic deposits has been studied by combining solid- and liquid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) measurements with material balance Fischer assay conversion data. The extent of aromatization of aliphatic carbons was determined. Between zero and 42% of the raw shale aliphatic carbon formed aromatic carbon during Fischer assay. For three of the shales, there was more aromatic carbon in the residue after Fisher assay than in the raw shale. Between 10 and 20% of the raw shale aliphatic carbons ended up as aliphatic carbons on the spent shale. Good correlations were found between the raw shale aliphatic carbon and carbon in the oil and between the raw shale aromatic carbon and aromatic carbon on the spent shale. Simulated distillations and molecular weight determinations were performed on the shale oils. Greater than 50% of the oil consisted of the atmospheric and vacuum gas oil boiling fractions. 14 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab.

  12. The characteristics of palm oil plantation solid biomass wastes as raw material for bio oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanti, RN; Hambali, E.; Pari, G.; Suryani, A.

    2018-03-01

    Indonesia is the largest palm oil plantations estate in the world. It reached 11,30 million hectares in 2015 and increased up to 11,67 million hectares in 2016. The advancement of technology recent, the solid waste of palm oil plantation can be re-produced become bio oil through pyrolysis hydrothermal process and utilized for biofuel. The purpose of this research was to analyze the characteristics of feedstock of bio oil of solid waste of palm oil plantations estate. The feedstock used was derived from solid waste of palm oil plantations in Riau Province. Characteristic analysis of waste oil included chemical compound content (cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin), ultimate analysis (C, H, N, O, S) to know height heating value (HHV). The result of analysis of chemical content showed that solid waste of palm cellulose 31,33 – 66,36 %, hemicellulose 7,54 – 17,94 %, lignin 21,43 - 43,1. The HHV of hydrothermal pyrolysis feedstock was 15,18 kJ/gram - 19,57 kJ/gram. Generally, the solid waste of palm oil plantations estate containing lignocellulose can be utilized as bio oil through hydrothermal pyrolysis. The CG-MS analysis of bio oil indicated hydrocarbon contents such as pentadecane, octadecane, hexadecane and benzene.

  13. Vehicle Unsteady Dynamics Characteristics Based on Tire and Road Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Ma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available During automotive related accidents, tire and road play an important role in vehicle unsteady dynamics as they have a significant impact on the sliding friction. The calculation of the rubber viscoelastic energy loss modulus and the true contact area model is improved based on the true contact area and the rubber viscoelastic theory. A 10 DOF full vehicle dynamic model in consideration of the kinetic sliding friction coefficient which has good accuracy and reality is developed. The stability test is carried out to evaluate the effectiveness of the model, and the simulation test is done in MATLAB to analyze the impact of tire feature and road self-affine characteristics on the sport utility vehicle (SUV unsteady dynamics under different weights. The findings show that it is a great significance to analyze the SUV dynamics equipped with different tire on different roads, which may provide useful insights into solving the explicit-implicit features of tire prints in systematically and designing active safety systems.

  14. Characteristic odor components of essential oil from Scutellaria laeteviolacea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazawa, Mitsuo; Nomura, Machi; Marumoto, Shinsuke; Mori, Kiyoshige

    2013-01-01

    The essential oils from aerial parts of Scutellaria laeteviolacea was analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The characteristic odor components were also detected in the oil using gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) analysis and aroma extraction dilution analysis (AEDA). As a result, 100 components (accounting for 99.11 %) of S. laeteviolacea, were identified. The major components of S. laeteviolacea oil were found to be 1-octen-3-ol (27.72 %), germacrene D (21.67 %),and β-caryophyllene (9.18 %). The GC-O and AEDA results showed that 1-octen-3-ol, germacrene D, germacrene B, and β-caryophyllene were the most characteristic odor components of the oil. These compounds are thought to contribute to the unique flavor of this plant.

  15. Research on Dynamic Coupled Characteristics of A Tracked Vehicle Gearbox

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Liu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A tracked vehicle gearbox is divided into two subsystems-housing and gear train. Dynamic behaviors of the two subsystems are coupled practically. And the coupled characteristics describe the integrative dynamic behaviors of gearbox. This study proposes a coupled simulation model to investigate the interrelationship between dynamics of two subsystems. Multi-source excitations are numerically calculated to provide boundary conditions. The flexibility of transmission shafts and housing is mathematically described based on mode superposition. The coupled dynamic characteristics are analyzed with dynamics simulation computation. The flexibility of housing is one of the main causes to induce the fluctuation of dynamic responses of transmission shafts. The experimental results show that the proposed method is accurate through comparison of simulation results and test data.

  16. Some Problems of Rocket-Space Vehicles' Characteristics co- ordination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergienko, Alexander A.

    2002-01-01

    of the XX century suffered a reverse. The designers of the United States' firms and enterprises of aviation and rocket-space industry (Boeing, Rocketdyne, Lockheed Martin, McDonnell Douglas, Rockwell, etc.) and NASA (Marshall Space Flight Center, Johnson Space Center, Langley Research Center and Lewis Research Center and others) could not correctly co-ordinate the characteristics of a propulsion system and a space vehicle for elaboration of the "Single-Stage-To-Orbit" reusable vehicle (SSTO) as an integral whole system, which is would able to inject a payload into an orbit and to return back on the Earth. jet nozzle design as well as the choice of propulsion system characteristics, ensuring the high ballistic efficiency, are considered in the present report. The efficiency criterions for the engine and launch system parameters optimization are discussed. The new methods of the nozzle block optimal parameters' choice for the satisfaction of the object task of flight are suggested. The family of SSTO with a payload mass from 5 to 20 ton and initial weight under 800 ton is considered.

  17. Study on Dynamic Characteristics of Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yang; Shi, Fang; Qin, Wuying; Yan, Jing

    2018-01-01

    With the rapid development of economy, the demand for oil is increasing day by day. MEOR has the advantages of low cost and no pollution to the environment, attracted widespread attention. In this paper, the dynamic characteristics of microbial enhanced oil recovery were studied by laboratory experiments. The result showed that all the microbial flooding recovery rate could reach more than 5%, and the total recovery could reach more than 35% and if the injection period of microbial composite system was advanced, the whole oil displacement process could be shortened and the workload would be reduced.

  18. Characteristic of oil palm residue for energy conversion system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muharnif; Zainal, Z.A.

    2006-01-01

    Malaysia is the major producer of palm oil in the world. It produces 8.5 tones per year (8.5 x 10 6 ty -1 ) of palm oil from 38.6 x 10 6 ty - 1 of fresh fruit bunches. Palm oil production generates large amounts of process residue such as fiber (5.4 x 10 6 ty - 1 ), shell (2.3 x 10 6 ty - 1 ), and empty fruit bunches (8.8 x 10 6 ty - 1 ). A large fraction of the fiber and much of the shell are used as fuel to generate process steam and electricity. The appropriate energy conversion system depends on the characteristic of the oil palm residue. In this paper, a description of characteristic of the oil palm residue is presented. The types of the energy conversion system presented are stoker type combustor and gasified. The paper focuses on the pulverized biomass material and the use of fluidized bed gasified. In the fluidized bed gasified, the palm shell and fiber has to be pulverized before feeding into gasified. For downdraft gasified and furnace, the palm shell and fiber can be used directly into the reactor for energy conversion. The heating value, burning characteristic, ash and moisture content of the oil palm residue are other parameters of the study

  19. Hybrid Vehicle Technologies and their potential for reducing oil use

    Science.gov (United States)

    German, John

    2006-04-01

    Vehicles with hybrid gasoline-electric powertrains are starting to gain market share. Current hybrid vehicles add an electric motor, battery pack, and power electronics to the conventional powertrain. A variety of engine/motor configurations are possible, each with advantages and disadvantages. In general, efficiency is improved due to engine shut-off at idle, capture of energy during deceleration that is normally lost as heat in the brakes, downsizing of the conventional engine, and, in some cases, propulsion on the electric motor alone. Ongoing increases in hybrid market share are dependent on cost reduction, especially the battery pack, efficiency synergies with other vehicle technologies, use of the high electric power to provide features desired by customers, and future fuel price and availability. Potential barriers include historically low fuel prices, high discounting of the fuel savings by new vehicle purchasers, competing technologies, and tradeoffs with other factors desired by customers, such as performance, utility, safety, and luxury features.

  20. Management of vehicle waste oil in pakistan: a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durrani, H.A.; Panhwar, M.I.; Kazi, R.A.

    2008-01-01

    Oil is a primary source of energy in developed nations. The petroleum industry has grown at a very fast rate since its inception and became an indispensable element of society particularly in urban communities. However, the world oil sources and reserves are limited and are not inexhaustible resources. Lubricating oils are widely used to reduce friction and wear by interposing a film of material between rubbing surfaces and becomes contaminated with a number of substances that are hazardous to human health and the environment. It requires proper collection and treatment before it can be discharged to the environment. Therefor, proper waste oil management is necessary to prevent its adverse impacts. This paper describes current waste oil management practice in Pakistan and identifies the extent of potential adverse environmental impacts associated with these practices. Proper waste oil management options are discussed with proposed re-cycling option in the circumstance of prevailing public perception and environmental awareness. The 12 Re-generation facility locations have been identified throughout Pakistan to minimize the transportation cost and create the maximum job opportunities for the local people. (author)

  1. Levitation characteristics in an HTS maglev launch assist test vehicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Wenjiang; Qiu Ming; Liu Yu; Wen Zheng; Duan Yi; Chen Xiaodong

    2007-01-01

    With the aim of finding a low-cost, safe, and reliable way to reduce costs of space launch, a maglev launch assist vehicle (Maglifter) is proposed. We present a permanent magnet-high temperature superconductor (PM-HTS) interaction maglev system for the Maglifter, which consists of a cryostat with multi-block YBaCuO bulks and a flux-collecting PM guideway. We obtain an optimum bulk arrangement by measuring and analysing the typical locations of HTSs above the PM guideway. We also measure the levitation abilities of the arrangement at different field cooled heights (FCHs) and different measuring distances (MDs), and find that the lower FCH and the lower MD both cause more magnetic flux to penetrate the HTSs, and then cause stronger lateral stability. A demonstration PM-HTS maglev test vehicle is built with four maglev units and two PM guideways with the length of 7 m. Its levitation characteristics in different FC and loading conditions are demonstrated. By analysing the maglev launch assist process, we assess that the low FC is useful for increasing the lateral stability of the Maglifter

  2. 40 CFR 80.522 - May used motor oil be dispensed into diesel motor vehicles or nonroad diesel engines?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... diesel motor vehicles or nonroad diesel engines? 80.522 Section 80.522 Protection of Environment... vehicles or nonroad diesel engines? No person may introduce used motor oil, or used motor oil blended with... later nonroad diesel engines (not including locomotive or marine diesel engines), unless both of the...

  3. Performance characteristics of rubber seed oil biodiesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, P.; Qin, M.; Wu, J.; Chen, B. S.

    2018-01-01

    The lubricity, ignition quality, oxidative stability, low temperature flow property and elastomeric compatibility of rubber seed oil biodiesel(RSM) were evaluated and compared with conventional petro-diesel. The results indicated that RSM and its blends with petro-diesel possessed outstanding lubricity manifested by sharp decrease in wear scar diameters in the high-frequency reciprocating rig(HFRR) testing. They also provided acceptable flammability and cold flow property,although the cetane numbers (CN) and cold filter plugging points(CFPP) of biodiesel blends slightly decreased with increasing contents of petro-diesel. However, RSM proved to be very susceptible to oxidation at elevated temperatures during prolonged oxidation durations, characterized by increased peroxide values, viscosity, acid values and isooctane insolubles. The oxidation stability of RSM could be significantly improved by antioxidants such as BD100, a phenol antioxidant produced by Ciba corporation. Furthermore, RSM provided poor compatibility with some elastomeric rubbers such as polyacrylate, nitrile-butadiene and chloroprene, but was well compatible with the hydrogenated nitrile-butadiene elastomer.

  4. Vehicle operation characteristic under different ramp entrance conditions in underground road: Analysis, simulation and modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Qiming; Liu, Shuo; Liu, Yang

    2018-05-01

    An experimental design was used to study the vehicle operation characteristics of different ramp entrance conditions in underground road. With driving simulator, the experimental scenarios include left or right ramp with first, second and third service level, respectively, to collect vehicle speed, acceleration, lateral displacement and location information at the ramp entrance section. By using paired t-test and ANOVA, the influence factors of vehicle operating characteristics are studied. The result shows that effects of ramp layout and mainline traffic environment on vehicle operation characteristics are significant. The regression model of vehicle traveling distance on acceleration lane is established. Suggestions are made for ramp entrance design of underground road.

  5. Projection of Chinese motor vehicle growth, oil demand, and CO{sub 2}emissions through 2050.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, M.; Huo, H.; Johnson, L.; He, D.

    2006-12-20

    As the vehicle population in China increases, oil consumption and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions associated with on-road transportation are rising dramatically. During this study, we developed a methodology to project trends in the growth of the vehicle population, oil demand, and CO{sub 2} emissions associated with on-road transportation in China. By using this methodology, we projected--separately--the number of highway vehicles, motorcycles, and rural vehicles in China through 2050. We used three scenarios of highway vehicle growth (high-, mid-, and low-growth) to reflect patterns of motor vehicle growth that have occurred in different parts of the world (i.e., Europe and Asia). All are essentially business-as-usual scenarios in that almost none of the countries we examined has made concerted efforts to manage vehicle growth or to offer serious alternative transportation means to satisfy people's mobility needs. With this caveat, our projections showed that by 2030, China could have more highway vehicles than the United States has today, and by 2035, it could have the largest number of highway vehicles in the world. By 2050, China could have 486-662 million highway vehicles, 44 million motorcycles, and 28 million rural vehicles. These numbers, which assume essentially unmanaged vehicle growth, would result in potentially disastrous effects on the urban infrastructure, resources, and other social and ecological aspects of life in China. We designed three fuel economy scenarios, from conservative to aggressive, on the basis of current policy efforts and expectations of near-future policies in China and in developed countries. It should be noted that these current and near-future policies have not taken into consideration the significant potential for further fuel economy improvements offered by advanced technologies such as electric drive technologies (e.g., hybrid electric vehicles and fuel-cell vehicles). By using vehicle growth projections and

  6. US military expenditures to protect the use of Persian Gulf oil for motor vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delucchi, Mark A.; Murphy, James J.

    2008-01-01

    Analyses of the full social cost of motor vehicle use in the US often estimate an 'oil import premium' that includes the military cost of defending oil supplies from the Persian Gulf. Estimates of this cost have ranged from essentially zero to upwards of a $1 per gallon (about $0.25 per liter). In this paper, we attempt to narrow this range, by carefully answering the question: 'If the US highway transportation sector did not use oil, how much would the US federal government reduce its military commitment in the Persian Gulf?' We work towards our answer in five steps, accounting for interests not related to oil, the interests of other oil-consuming countries, the interests of producers apart from the interests of consumers, and the interests of non-highway users of oil. We estimate that were there no oil in the Persian Gulf, then US combined peacetime and wartime defense expenditures might be reduced in the long run by roughly $27-$73 billion per year (in 2004 dollars), of which roughly $6-$25 billion annually ($0.03-$0.15 per gallon or $0.01-$0.04 per liter) is attributable to motor-vehicle use

  7. US military expenditures to protect the use of Persian Gulf oil for motor vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delucchi, Mark A. [Institute of Transportation Studies, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Murphy, James J. [Department of Economics, University of Alaska-Anchorage, Anchorage, AK 99501 (United States)

    2008-06-15

    Analyses of the full social cost of motor vehicle use in the US often estimate an 'oil import premium' that includes the military cost of defending oil supplies from the Persian Gulf. Estimates of this cost have ranged from essentially zero to upwards of a $1 per gallon (about $0.25 per liter). In this paper, we attempt to narrow this range, by carefully answering the question: ''If the US highway transportation sector did not use oil, how much would the US federal government reduce its military commitment in the Persian Gulf?'' We work towards our answer in five steps, accounting for interests not related to oil, the interests of other oil-consuming countries, the interests of producers apart from the interests of consumers, and the interests of non-highway users of oil. We estimate that were there no oil in the Persian Gulf, then US combined peacetime and wartime defense expenditures might be reduced in the long run by roughly $27-$73 billion per year (in 2004 dollars), of which roughly $6-$25 billion annually ($0.03-$0.15 per gallon or $0.01-$0.04 per liter) is attributable to motor-vehicle use. (author)

  8. Comparative Analysis of Flame Characteristics of Castor Oil and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The flame characteristics of castor oil based foam and that of polyether foam impregnated with inorganic flame retardants (FR) were investigated. The polyether foams were impregnated with measured concentration of Antimony trioxide and Sodium bromide, Ammonium dihydrogen orthophosphate, Diammonium hydrogen ...

  9. Physicochemical Characteristics and Microbial Quality of an Oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MICHAEL

    J. Appl. Sci. Environ. Manage. September, 2009. Vol. 13(3) 99 - 103. Full-text Available Online at www.bioline.org.br/ja. Physicochemical Characteristics and Microbial Quality of an Oil Polluted Site in. Gokana, Rivers State. 1JOEL, OGBONNA F.; 2AMAJUOYI, CHINOMSO A. 1Department of Petroleum and Gas Engineering,.

  10. Navigation of autonomous vehicles for oil spill cleaning in dynamic and uncertain environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xin; Ray, Asok

    2014-04-01

    In the context of oil spill cleaning by autonomous vehicles in dynamic and uncertain environments, this paper presents a multi-resolution algorithm that seamlessly integrates the concepts of local navigation and global navigation based on the sensory information; the objective here is to enable adaptive decision making and online replanning of vehicle paths. The proposed algorithm provides a complete coverage of the search area for clean-up of the oil spills and does not suffer from the problem of having local minima, which is commonly encountered in potential-field-based methods. The efficacy of the algorithm is tested on a high-fidelity player/stage simulator for oil spill cleaning in a harbour, where the underlying oil weathering process is modelled as 2D random-walk particle tracking. A preliminary version of this paper was presented by X. Jin and A. Ray as 'Coverage Control of Autonomous Vehicles for Oil Spill Cleaning in Dynamic and Uncertain Environments', Proceedings of the American Control Conference, Washington, DC, June 2013, pp. 2600-2605.

  11. Energy security and climate change: How oil endowment influences alternative vehicle innovation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jung Eun

    2014-01-01

    Fast growing global energy needs raise concerns on energy supply security and climate change. Although policies addressing the two issues sometimes benefit one at the expense of the other, technology innovation, especially in alternative energy, provides a win–win solution to tackle both issues. This paper examines the effect of oil endowment on the patterns of technology innovation in the transportation sector, attempting to identify drivers of technology innovation in alternative energy. The analysis employs panel data constructed from patent data on five different types of automobile-related technologies from 1990 to 2002: oil extraction, petroleum refining, fuel cells, electric and hybrid vehicles (EHV) and vehicle energy efficiency. I find that countries with larger oil endowments perform less innovation on refining and alternative technologies. Conversely, higher gasoline prices positively impact the patent counts of alternative technologies and energy efficiency technology. The findings highlight the challenges and importance of policy designs in international climate change agreements. - Highlights: • I examine the effect of oil endowment on technology innovation in the transportation sector. • An empirical model was developed for a cross-country analysis of oil endowments. • A country's oil endowment is a negative driver of alternative technologies. • Energy price is a positive driver of alternative technologies and energy efficiency technology. • Implications for domestic and international climate policy are discussed

  12. Dimensionless Energy Conversion Characteristics of an Air-Powered Hydraulic Vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Dongkai Shen; Qilong Chen; Yixuan Wang

    2018-01-01

    Due to the advantages of resource conservation and less exhaust emissions, compressed air-powered vehicle has attracted more and more attention. To improve the power and efficiency of air-powered vehicle, an air-powered hydraulic vehicle was proposed. As the main part of the air-powered hydraulic vehicles, HP transformer (short for Hydropneumatic transformer) is used to convert the pneumatic power to higher hydraulic power. In this study, to illustrate the energy conversion characteristics of...

  13. Performance and emissions characteristics of biodiesel from soybean oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canakci, M. [Kocaeli University, Izmit (Turkey). Faculty of Technical Education

    2005-07-15

    Biodiesel is an alternative diesel fuel that can be produced from renewable feedstocks such as vegetable oils, waste frying oils, and animal fats. It is an oxygenated, non-toxic, sulphur-free, biodegradable, and renewable fuel. Many engine manufacturers have included this fuel in their warranties since it can be used in diesel engines without significant modification. However, the fuel properties such as cetane number, heat of combustion, specific gravity, and kinematic viscosity affect the combustion, engine performance and emission characteristics. In this study, the engine performance and emissions characteristics of two different petroleum diesel fuels (No. 1 and No. 2 diesel fuels) and biodiesel from soybean oil and its 20 per cent blends with No. 2 diesel fuel were compared. The results showed that the engine performance of the neat biodiesel and its blend was similar to that of No. 2 diesel fuel with nearly the same brake fuel conversion efficiency, and slightly higher fuel consumption. CO{sub 2} emission for the biodiesel was slightly higher than for the No. 2 diesel fuel. Compared with diesel fuels, biodiesel produced lower exhaust emissions, except NO{sub x}. (author)

  14. Improvement of the environmental and operational characteristics of vehicles through decreasing the motor fuel density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magaril, Elena

    2016-04-01

    The environmental and operational characteristics of motor transport, one of the main consumers of motor fuel and source of toxic emissions, soot, and greenhouse gases, are determined to a large extent by the fuel quality which is characterized by many parameters. Fuel density is one of these parameters and it can serve as an indicator of fuel quality. It has been theoretically substantiated that an increased density of motor fuel has a negative impact both on the environmental and operational characteristics of motor transport. The use of fuels with a high density leads to an increase in carbonization within the engine, adversely affecting the vehicle performance and increasing environmental pollution. A program of technological measures targeted at reducing the density of the fuel used was offered. It includes a solution to the problem posed by changes in the refining capacities ratio and the temperature range of gasoline and diesel fuel boiling, by introducing fuel additives and adding butanes to the gasoline. An environmental tax has been developed which allows oil refineries to have a direct impact on the production of fuels with improved environmental performance, taking into account the need to minimize the density of the fuel within a given category of quality.

  15. Oil characteristics and fatty acid profile of seeds from three varieties ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Oil characteristics and fatty acid profile of seeds from three varieties of date palm ... of oils, as indicators of the quality and safety, and oxidative status of edible oils, ... industry, these data suggest that the potential applications of date seed oil for ...

  16. [Research on Oil Sands Spectral Characteristics and Oil Content by Remote Sensing Estimation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Jin-feng; Xing, Li-xin; Pan, Jun; Shan, Xuan-long; Liang, Li-heng; Fan, Rui-xue

    2015-04-01

    Visible and near infrared spectroscopy is a proven technology to be widely used in identification and exploration of hydrocarbon energy sources with high spectral resolution for detail diagnostic absorption characteristics of hydrocarbon groups. The most prominent regions for hydrocarbon absorption bands are 1,740-1,780, 2,300-2,340 and 2,340-2,360 nm by the reflectance of oil sands samples. These spectral ranges are dominated by various C-H overlapping overtones and combination bands. Meanwhile, there is relatively weak even or no absorption characteristics in the region from 1,700 to 1,730 nm in the spectra of oil sands samples with low bitumen content. With the increase in oil content, in the spectral range of 1,700-1,730 nm the obvious hydrocarbon absorption begins to appear. The bitumen content is the critical parameter for oil sands reserves estimation. The absorption depth was used to depict the response intensity of the absorption bands controlled by first-order overtones and combinations of the various C-H stretching and bending fundamentals. According to the Pearson and partial correlation relationships of oil content and absorption depth dominated by hydrocarbon groups in 1,740-1,780, 2,300-2,340 and 2,340-2,360 nm wavelength range, the scheme of association mode was established between the intensity of spectral response and bitumen content, and then unary linear regression(ULR) and partial least squares regression (PLSR) methods were employed to model the equation between absorption depth attributed to various C-H bond and bitumen content. There were two calibration equations in which ULR method was employed to model the relationship between absorption depth near 2,350 nm region and bitumen content and PLSR method was developed to model the relationship between absorption depth of 1,758, 2,310, 2,350 nm regions and oil content. It turned out that the calibration models had good predictive ability and high robustness and they could provide the scientific

  17. Loading Deformation Characteristic Simulation Study of Engineering Vehicle Refurbished Tire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiang, Wang; Xiaojie, Qi; Zhao, Yang; Yunlong, Wang; Guotian, Wang; Degang, Lv

    2018-05-01

    The paper constructed engineering vehicle refurbished tire computer geometry model, mechanics model, contact model, finite element analysis model, did simulation study on load-deformation property of engineering vehicle refurbished tire by comparing with that of the new and the same type tire, got load-deformation of engineering vehicle refurbished tire under the working condition of static state and ground contact. The analysis result shows that change rules of radial-direction deformation and side-direction deformation of engineering vehicle refurbished tire are close to that of the new tire, radial-direction and side-direction deformation value is a little less than that of the new tire. When air inflation pressure was certain, radial-direction deformation linear rule of engineer vehicle refurbished tire would increase with load adding, however, side-direction deformation showed linear change rule, when air inflation pressure was low; and it would show increase of non-linear change rule, when air inflation pressure was very high.

  18. CARWASH WASTEWATERS: CHARACTERISTICS, VOLUMES, AND TREATABILITY BY GRAVITY OIL SEPARATION

    OpenAIRE

    C. Fall

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this research was to determine the characteristics, volumes and treatability of Full-service carwash wastewaters in Toluca (Mexico State). The average water use for Exterior-only wash was 50 L per small-size car and 170 L per medium-size vehicle (pick up, van or light truck). The Full-service wash (exterior, engine and chassis) required 170 L per small-size car and 300 L per light truck. Wastewaters were generally emulsified and contained high contaminant loads (in average, 1100 mg...

  19. Analysis of crashes using FE vehicle models. Relations between vehicle types and crash characteristics; Yugen yoso model wo mochiita sharyo no shototsu kaiseki. Sharyo type to shototsu tokusei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takatori, O. [Japan Automobile Research Institute Inc., Tsukuba (Japan)

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this study is to analyze the crash characteristics of vehicles under the condition of real-world accidents. This paper pays attention to the differences in the crash characteristics of a vehicle colliding with a vehicle which is a different type. Vehicles on the market can be divided broadly into two vehicle structures, monocoque structure and frame structure. Monocoque structure is mainly used for passenger vehicles and frame structure is for recreational vehicles (RV). In recent years, RV has been a large seller on the market. So accidents between passenger vehicles and a RVs occur frequently. The analysis of experimental data and computer simulation, which is predicated on the experimental data, was carried out for this study. In the analysis of experimental data, barrier force data from the New Car Assessment Program (NCAP) were analyzed. The FE passenger vehicle model which is based on systematic validation tests was used for the computer simulation of car-to-car collisions. (author)

  20. Impact of operating variables on re-refining of vehicle waste oil to base-oil by acid-clay process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durrani, H.A.; Panhwar, M.I.; Kazi, R.A.

    2009-01-01

    A large volume of waste oil is generated each year as the number of vehicles in the country is increasing every day. This used lubricant oil constitutes a serious pollution problem. It easily be converted as a resource depending on the manners of utilization and management. This paper compares various end uses of waste oil and develops technology by which basic properties of the base oil can be regained. An experimental setup (Experimental rig) of acid-clay method was used to regain waste oil collected and number of experiments were conducted by varying different process variables. The impacts of the operating variables on the quality of re-refined oil are also discussed. The recovery of re-refined base oil was found in between 44-49%. (author)

  1. Variations of quality characteristics among oils of different soybean varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farooq Anwar

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A study was carried out to evaluate the variation of quality attributes among oils from different soybean varieties (Bovender special, Foster and F-8827.Oils were extracted using n-hexane as solvent. Results indicated that contents of seed oil among the tested varieties varied from 15.85% to 19.49%, moisture 8.4–10.2%, protein 41.67–45.64%, fiber 6.6–7.6% while ash 5.5–6.9%. The physical and chemical characteristics among the tested oils varied as: color (4.2–5.3R + 40–50Y, iodine value (119–128 g of I/100 g of oil, refractive index (1.4590–1.468, density (0.8698–0.8712 g/cm3 at 36 °C, free fatty acid content (0.39–0.67% as oleic acid, saponification value (181–187 mg KOH/g and unsaponifiable matter (0.42–0.74%. The oxidation parameters including peroxide value, conjugated dienes and conjugated triene were recorded as 1.80–2.64 meq/kg, 0.41–0.65 and 1.50–1.91, respectively. The fatty acid composition showed the presence of palmitic acid (11.00–13.50%, stearic acid (3.02–4.90%, oleic acid (22.60–24.00%, linoleic acid (49.03–53.00% and linolenic acid (6.50–8.00%. The amounts of α, γ and δ-tocopherols ranged from 66.5 to 90.7 mg/kg, 907.5–1011.9 mg/kg and 399.8–411.5 mg/kg, respectively. Results indicated a significant variation for most of the physicochemical parameters among three soybean oils which can be mainly linked to the specific genetic makeup of each variety as well as the agro-climatic conditions of the harvest.

  2. Oil content and physicochemical characteristics of some wild oilseed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The plant seed oils content reported in this study are comparatively higher than some food crop plants such as soybean and olive. Five of these oils have oil melting range as that of edible oils. C. grandiflora, C. halicacabum, M. eminii and the two species of Myrianthus are in the range of common cooking oils by their ...

  3. Vehicle steering by side stick: optimising steering characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuurbier, J.; Hogema, J.H.; Brekelmans, J.A.W.J.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes a study that was conducted to investigate the possibilities for optimizing task performance when driving a side stick-steered vehicle. Using steer-by-wire technology, a conventional steering system was mimicked, thus yielding the possibility to modify the steering

  4. Innovation Ecosystem of CNG Vehicles: A Case Study of Its Cultivation and Characteristics in Sichuan, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Ding

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Under the constraints of resources and environment, China is eager to cultivate a new industrial system with ecological characteristics in light of local circumstances. This paper selects the innovation ecosystem of Compressed Natural Gas (CNG vehicles in Sichuan, China as the objective of the case study to explore its cultivation and characteristics. The theoretical significance lies in three areas. Firstly, the cultivation path of the CNG vehicle innovation ecosystem is manifested. Secondly, the symbiotic process model among the communities within the CNG vehicle innovation ecosystem is found. Thirdly, the substitutive process model of the CNG vehicle innovation ecosystem is discovered, which reveals the substitutability among innovation ecosystems, the communities of similar products, and the enterprises of similar products. This paper is of theoretical, practical, and political significance for the development of a CNG vehicle innovation ecosystem in emerging markets in terms of regional energy security and emission reduction.

  5. Effect of hydrothermal pretreatment on product distribution and characteristics of oil produced by the pyrolysis of Huadian oil shale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Haifeng; Deng, Sunhua; Chen, Jie; Zhang, Mingyue; Li, Shu; Shao, Yifei; Yang, Jiaqi; Li, Junfeng

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The maximum yield of pyrolysis oil is obtained at the pretreatment time of 2.0 h. • The higher H/C ratio of oil is obtained after hydrothermal pretreatment. • Hydrothermal treatment promotes the formation of aliphatic hydrocarbons in the oil. • Long pretreatment time causes the increase of heavier oil fraction in the oil. - Abstract: In this work, Huadian oil shale from China was treated by hydrothermal pretreatment at 200 °C with 1.0–2.5 h in order to investigate the effect of hydrothermal pretreatment on pyrolysis product distribution and characteristics of oil. The differences in the elemental composition and thermal behavior between the untreated and treated oil shale were analyzed and compared. The hydrothermal treatment process could decompose oxygen functional groups and remove some water soluble inorganics in oil shale, which decreased the formation of gas and water during the pyrolysis. However, hydrothermal pretreatment was conducive to increasing shale oil yield. The maximum of oil yield was obtained at the pretreatment time of 2.0 h. The enhancement of the free-radical reactions during the pyrolysis and the reduction of the secondary cracking reactions of the generated oil vapors were considered as the main reasons. The oil obtained by the treated oil shale had a higher H/C ratio, indicating it had high energy content. The analysis results of chemical compositions in oils showed that the relative content of aliphatic hydrocarbons significantly increased after hydrothermal pretreatment. The further analysis demonstrated that the increase in the pretreatment time caused the generated long chain hydrocarbons tended to be directly released from oil shale particles, and were condensed into the oil.

  6. Performance characteristics of mix oil biodiesel blends with smoke emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Mohite

    2016-08-01

    July 10th 2016; Available online How to Cite This Article: Mohite. S, Kumar, S. &  Maji, S.  (2016 Performance  characteristics of mix oil biodiesel blends with smoke emissions. Int. Journal of Renewable Energy Development, 5(2, 163-170. http://dx.doi.org/10.14710/ijred.5.2.163-170 

  7. The influence of vehicle aerodynamic and control response characteristics on driver-vehicle performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandridis, A. A.; Repa, B. S.; Wierwille, W. W.

    1978-01-01

    The effects of changes in understeer, control sensitivity, and location of the lateral aerodynamic center of pressure (c.p.) of a typical passenger car on the driver's opinion and on the performance of the driver-vehicle system were studied in a moving-base driving simulator. Twelve subjects with no prior experience on the simulator and no special driving skills performed regulation tasks in the presence of both random and step wind gusts.

  8. Geochemical characteristics of oil sands fluid petroleum coke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nesbitt, Jake A.; Lindsay, Matthew B.J.; Chen, Ning

    2017-01-01

    The geochemical characteristics of fluid petroleum coke from the Athabasca Oil Sands Region (AOSR) of northern Alberta, Canada were investigated. Continuous core samples were collected to 8 m below surface at several locations (n = 12) from three coke deposits at an active oil sands mine. Bulk elemental analyses revealed the coke composition was dominated by C (84.2 ± 2.3 wt%) and S (6.99 ± 0.26 wt%). Silicon (9210 ± 3000 mg kg"−"1), Al (5980 ± 1200 mg kg"−"1), Fe (4760 ± 1200 mg kg"−"1), and Ti (1380 ± 430 mg kg"−"1) were present in lesser amounts. Vanadium (1280 ± 120 mg kg"−"1) and Ni (230 ± 80 mg kg"−"1) exhibited the highest concentrations among potentially-hazardous minor and trace elements. Sequential extractions revealed potential for release of these metals under field-relevant conditions. Synchrotron powder X-ray diffraction revealed the presence of Si and Ti oxides, organically-complexed V and hydrated Ni sulfate, and provided information about the asphaltenic carbon matrix. X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy at the V and Ni K-edges revealed that these metals were largely hosted in porphyrins and similar organic complexes throughout coke grains. Minor differences among measured V and Ni K-edge spectra were largely attributed to slight variations in local coordination of V(IV) and Ni(II) within these organic compounds. However, linear combination fits were improved by including reference spectra for inorganic phases with octahedrally-coordinated V(III) and Ni(II). Sulfur and Fe K-edge XANES confirmed that thiophenic coordination and pyritic-ilmenitic coordination are predominant, respectively. These results provide new information on the geochemical and mineralogical composition of oil sands fluid petroleum coke and improve understanding of potential controls on associated water chemistry. - Highlights: • Oil sands fluid petroleum coke contains wide range of major, minor and

  9. Engagement characteristics of a friction pad for commercial vehicle ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Clutch; friction; wear; failure analysis. 1. ... There are two main types of clutches: Wet ... material is followed by study on engagement characteristics and failure analysis of .... qualitative indication for assessment of tribological behaviour of ...

  10. Determination of Component Contents of Blend Oil Based on Characteristics Peak Value Integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jing; Hou, Pei-guo; Wang, Yu-tian; Pan, Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Edible blend oil market is confused at present. It has some problems such as confusing concepts, randomly named, shoddy and especially the fuzzy standard of compositions and ratios in blend oil. The national standard fails to come on time after eight years. The basic reason is the lack of qualitative and quantitative detection of vegetable oils in blend oil. Edible blend oil is mixed by different vegetable oils according to a certain proportion. Its nutrition is rich. Blend oil is eaten frequently in daily life. Different vegetable oil contains a certain components. The mixed vegetable oil can make full use of their nutrients and make the nutrients more balanced in blend oil. It is conducive to people's health. It is an effectively way to monitor blend oil market by the accurate determination of single vegetable oil content in blend oil. The types of blend oil are known, so we only need for accurate determination of its content. Three dimensional fluorescence spectra are used for the contents in blend oil. A new method of data processing is proposed with calculation of characteristics peak value integration in chosen characteristic area based on Quasi-Monte Carlo method, combined with Neural network method to solve nonlinear equations to obtain single vegetable oil content in blend oil. Peanut oil, soybean oil and sunflower oil are used as research object to reconcile into edible blend oil, with single oil regarded whole, not considered each oil's components. Recovery rates of 10 configurations of edible harmonic oil is measured to verify the validity of the method of characteristics peak value integration. An effective method is provided to detect components content of complex mixture in high sensitivity. Accuracy of recovery rats is increased, compared the common method of solution of linear equations used to detect components content of mixture. It can be used in the testing of kinds and content of edible vegetable oil in blend oil for the food quality detection

  11. Investigation of the Link Between Macroscopic Traffic Flow Characteristics and Individual Vehicle Fuel Consumption : Tech Transfer Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    The objective of this project was to investigate the impacts of several factors, including vehicle characteristics, ambient temperature, season, speed, driving behavior, and traffic flow, on individual vehicle energy consumption.

  12. Numerical calculation on infrared characteristics of the special vehicle exhaust system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yun-song; Li, Xiao-xia; Jin, Wei

    2017-10-01

    For mastery of infrared radiation characteristics and flow field of the special vehicle exhaust system, first, a physical model of the special vehicle exhaust system is established with the Gambit, and the mathematical model of flow field is determined. Secondly, software Fluent6.3 is used to simulated the 3-D exterior flow field of the special vehicle exhaust system, and the datum of flow field, such as temperature, pressure and density, are obtained. Thirdly, based on the plume temperature, the special vehicle exhaust space is divided. The exhaust is equivalent to a gray-body. A calculating model of the vehicle exhaust infrared radiation is established, and the exhaust infrared radiation characteristics are calculated by the software MATLAB, then the spatial distribution curves are drawn. Finally, the numerical results are analyzing, and the basic laws of the special vehicle exhaust infrared radiation are explored. The results show that with the increase of the engine speed, the temperature of the exhaust pipe wall of the special vehicle increases, and the temperature and pressure of the exhaust gas flow field increase, which leads to the enhancement of the infrared radiation intensity

  13. Emission characteristics of petrol and diesel driven vehicles in Rewa town

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, R.M.; Gupta, A.K.; Parihar, Sarita

    1993-01-01

    Air pollution by road traffic is likely to be severe in most of the major cities of India, in near future. An emission survey was conducted in Rewa town to obtain the basic data on emission characteristics of inservice vehicles. About 250 two wheelers, 110 cars and 350 diesel vehicles were tested for the emissions of carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons. Present paper summarizes the data of vehicular emissions observed in this survey and discusses the emission level of different categories of vehicles, in the light of the proposed national standards and the emission standards enforced in developed countries. (author). 9 refs., 4 tabs

  14. Physicochemical and sensory characteristics of milk from goats supplemented with castor or licuri oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, R A G; Oliveira, C J B; Medeiros, A N; Costa, R G; Bomfim, M A D; Queiroga, R C R E

    2010-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of castor and licuri palm oils supplemented to milking goats on the physical, chemical, and sensory characteristics of milk. A double Latin square experimental design (5x5) using 10 confined crossbred Moxotó-Alpine goats was performed according to the following treatments: nonsupplemented (control), 3% castor oil, 5% castor oil, 3% licuri oil, and 5% licuri oil. Oils in each treatment were supplemented in the dry matter. Castor oil supplementation reduced the fat content and increased the lactose and density of milk. Considering the sensory analysis, a lower acceptability was observed for milk from goats supplemented with castor oil. On the other hand, licuri oil supplementation led to higher acceptability scores for flavor and odor of goat milk. Copyright 2010 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Physicochemical characteristics of commercial coconut oils produced in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasanth Kumar, P. K.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The physico-chemical characteristics and phytonutrient compositions of commercially available coconut oils [prepared from either copra (unrefined coconut oil- UCNO; Refined Bleached and Deodorized coconut oil- RBDCNO or from milk extracted from wet mature coconut (virgin coconut oil- VCNO] were analyzed and compared with the quality of VCNO. The color (2.6, 0.0, 1.6 lovibond units, free fatty acid value (0.61, 0.58, 0.53%, and peroxide value (1.35, 0.0, 0.0 meq.O2Kg−1 of UCNOs, VCNOs, and RBDCNOs, respectively, indicated higher units of color and peroxide value for UCNOs, and similar free fatty acid values to the other two oils. The UCNOs showed a slightly lower saponification value and higher iodine value as compared to VCNO. The composition of lauric acid (55.8%, medium chain fatty acids (69.65% and medium chain triglycerides (59.27% mainly dicapricmonolaurin (14.32%, dilauricmonocaprin (18.89% and trilaurin (21.88% were significantly higher in VCNO. The % phytosterol, phenolics and tocopherol + tocotrienol contents of UCNOs, VCNO and RBDCNO were 83.7, 54.9 and 81.4 mg; 9.4, 1.8 and 2.1 mg; 4.9, 2.8 and 4 mg, respectively. In UCNOs the values were significantly higher than in VCNO and RBDCNO. These results showed that UCNOs have more phytonutrients compared to VCNO and RBDCNO.Se analizaron y compararon las características físico-químicas y la composición de fitonutrientes de aceites de coco disponibles comercialmente preparados a partir de copra [aceite de coco sin refinar, UCNO; aceite de coco decolorado, y desodorizado (RBDCNO] y de la leche extraída de coco húmedo madurado [aceite de coco virgen (VCNO]. El color (2,6; 0,0; 1,6 unidades lovibond, los ácidos grasos libres (0,61; 0,58; 0,53% y el índice de peróxidos (1,35; 0,0; 0,0 meq·O2Kg−1 para UCNOs, VCNOs y RBDCNOs respectivamente, indican valores superiores de color y PV para UCNOs y FFA similar que para los otros dos aceites. Los aceites UCNOs mostraron valores de

  16. Characteristics of Reduction Gear in Electric Agricultural Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, W. S.; Pratama, P. S.; Supeno, D.; Jeong, S. W.; Byun, J. Y.; Woo, J. H.; Lee, E. S.; Park, C. S.

    2018-03-01

    In electric agricultural machine a reduction gear is needed to convert the high speed rotation motion generated by DC motor to lower speed rotation motion used by the vehicle. The reduction gear consists of several spur gears. Spur gears are the most easily visualized gears that transmit motion between two parallel shafts and easy to produce. The modelling and simulation of spur gears in DC motor reduction gear is important to predict the actual motion behaviour. A pair of spur gear tooth in action is generally subjected to two types of cyclic stress: contact stress and bending stress. The stress may not attain their maximum values at the same point of contact fatigue. These types of failure can be minimized by analysis of the problem during the design stage and creating proper tooth surface profile with proper manufacturing methods. To improve its life expectation in this study modal and stress analysis of reduction gear is simulated using ANSYS workbench based on finite element method (FEM). The modal analysis was done to understand reduction gear deformation behaviour when vibration occurs. FEM static stress analysis is also simulated on reduction gear to simulate the gear teeth bending stress and contact stress behaviour.

  17. Study on the Rollover Characteristic of In-Wheel-Motor-Driven Electric Vehicles Considering Road and Electromagnetic Excitation

    OpenAIRE

    Di Tan; Haitao Wang; Qiang Wang

    2016-01-01

    For in-wheel-motor-driven electric vehicles, the motor is installed in the wheel directly. Tyre runout and uneven load can cause magnet gap deformation in the motor, which will produce electromagnetic forces that further influence the vehicle rollover characteristics. To study the rollover characteristics, a verified 16-degree-of-freedom rollover dynamic model is introduced. Next, the vehicle rollover characteristics both with and without electromagnetic force are analyzed under conditions of...

  18. Characteristics of bicyclic sesquiterpanes in crude oils and petroleum products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chun; Wang, Zhendi; Hollebone, Bruce P; Brown, Carl E; Landriault, Mike

    2009-05-15

    This study presents a quantitative gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of bicyclic sesquiterpanes (BSs) in numerous crude oils and refined petroleum products including light and mid-range distillate fuels, residual fuels, and lubricating oils collected from various sources. Ten commonly recognized bicyclic sesquiterpanes were determined in all the studied crude oils and diesel range fuels with principal dominance of BS3 (C(15)H(28)), BS5 (C(15)H(28)) and BS10 (C(16)H(30)), while they were generally not detected or in trace in light fuel oils like gasoline and kerosene and most lubricating oils. Laboratory distillation of crude oils demonstrated that sesquiterpanes were highly enriched in the medium distillation fractions of approximately 180 to 481 degrees C and were generally absent or very low in the light distillation fraction (boiling point to approximately 180 degrees C) and the heavy residual fraction (>481 degrees C). The effect of evaporative weathering on a series of diagnostic ratios of sesquiterpanes, n-alkanes, and biomarkers was evaluated with two suites of weathered oil samples. The change of abundance of sesquiterpanes was used to determine the extent of weathering of artificially evaporated crude oils and diesel. In addition to the pentacyclic biomarker C(29) and C(30) alphabeta-hopane, C(15) and C(16) sesquiterpanes might be alternative internal marker compounds to provide a direct way to estimate the depletion of oils, particularly diesels, in oil spill investigations. These findings may offer potential applications for both oil identification and oil-source correlation in cases where the tri- to pentacyclic biomarkers are absent due to refining or environmental weathering of oils.

  19. Dimensionless Energy Conversion Characteristics of an Air-Powered Hydraulic Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongkai Shen

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Due to the advantages of resource conservation and less exhaust emissions, compressed air-powered vehicle has attracted more and more attention. To improve the power and efficiency of air-powered vehicle, an air-powered hydraulic vehicle was proposed. As the main part of the air-powered hydraulic vehicles, HP transformer (short for Hydropneumatic transformer is used to convert the pneumatic power to higher hydraulic power. In this study, to illustrate the energy conversion characteristics of air-powered hydraulic vehicle, dimensionless mathematical model of the vehicle’s working process was set up. Through experimental study on the vehicle, the dimensionless model was verified. Through simulation study on the vehicle, the following can be obtained: firstly, the increase of the hydraulic chamber orifice and the area ratio of the pistons can lead to a higher output power, while output pressure is just the opposite. Moreover, the increase of the output pressure and the aperture of the hydraulic chamber can lead to a higher efficiency, while area ratio of the pistons played the opposite role. This research can be referred to in the performance and design optimization of the HP transformers.

  20. Single-vehicle and Multi-vehicle Accidents Involving Motorcycles in a Small City in China: Characteristics and Injury Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Xiong

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There is a gap that involves examining differences between patients in single-vehicle (SV versus multi-vehicle (MV accidents involving motorcycles in Shantou, China, regarding the injury patterns and mortality the patients sustained. This study aims to address this gap and provide a basis and reference for motorcycle injury prevention. Method: Medical record data was collected between October 2002 and June 2012 on all motorcycle injury patients admitted to a hospital in the city of Shantou of the east Guangdong province in China. Comparative analysis was conducted between patients in SV accidents and patients in MV accidents regarding demographic and clinic characteristics, mortality, and injury patterns. Results: Approximately 48% (n = 1977 of patients were involved in SV accidents and 52% (n = 2119 were involved in MV accidents. The average age was 34 years. Collision of a motorcycle with a heavy vehicle/bus (4% was associated with a 34 times greater risk of death (RR: 34.32|95% CI: 17.43–67.57. Compared to patients involved in MV accidents, those involved in SV accidents were more likely to sustain a skull fracture (RR: 1.47|95% CI: 1.22–1.77, an open head wound (RR: 1.46|95% CI: 1.23–1.74, an intracranial injury (RR: 1.39|95% CI: 1.26–1.53, a superficial head injury (RR: 1.37|95% CI: 1.01–1.86, an injury to an organ (RR: 2.01|95% CI: 1.24–3.26, and a crushing injury (RR: 1.98|95% CI: 1.06–3.70 to the thorax or abdomen. However, they were less likely to sustain a spinal fracture (RR: 0.58|95% CI: 0.39–0.85, a pelvic fracture (RR: 0.22|95% CI: 0.11–0.46, an upper extremity fracture (RR: 0.75|95% CI: 0.59–0.96, or injuries to their lower extremities, except for a dislocation, sprain, or injury to a joint or ligament (RR: 0.82|95% CI: 0.49–1.36. Conclusion: The relative risk of death is higher for patients involved in multi-vehicle accidents than patients in single-vehicle accidents, especially when a

  1. Characteristic odor components of essential oils from Eurya japonica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motooka, Ryota; Usami, Atsushi; Nakahashi, Hiroshi; Koutari, Satoshi; Nakaya, Satoshi; Shimizu, Ryoyu; Tsuji, Kaoru; Marumoto, Shinsuke; Miyazawa, Mitsuo

    2015-01-01

    The chemical compositions of essential oils from the flower and aerial parts (i.e., leaf and branch) of Eurya japonica were determined and quantified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A total of 87 and 50 compounds were detected in the oils from the flower and aerial parts, respectively. The main compounds of the flower oil were linalool (14.0%), (9Z)-tricosene (12.0%), and nonanal (7.4%). In the oil from the aerial parts, linalool (37.7%), α-terpineol (13.5%), and geraniol (9.6%) were detected. In the oils from the flower and aerial parts, 13 and 8 aroma-active compounds were identified by GC-olfactometry (GC-O) analysis, respectively. The key aroma-active compounds of the flower oil were heptanal [fatty, green, flavor dilution (FD) = 128, odor activity value (OAV) = 346], nonanal (sweet, citrus, FD = 128, OAV = 491), and eugenol (sweet, spicy, FD = 64, OAV = 62): in the oil from the aerial parts, the key aroma-active compounds were linalool (sweet, citrus, FD = 64, OAV = 95), (E)-β-damascenone (sweet, FD = 256, OAV = 4000), and (E)-β-ionone (floral, violet, FD = 128, OAV = 120). This study revealed that nonanal and eugenol impart the sweet, citrus, and spicy odor of the flower oil, while (E)-β-damascenone and (E)-β-ionone contribute the floral and sweet odor of the oil from the aerial parts.

  2. A study on the oil flow characteristics in the inverter rotary compressor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, H J; Kim, Y J

    2013-01-01

    In order to secure the reliability of the oil in the inverter rotary compressor used in the system multi-air conditioners in heating and cooling modes, it is necessary to study the oil flow characteristics which affect to the compressor efficiency. In this study, sight glasses were installed at the compressor and accumulator for oil flow measurements, and various experiments were performed to measure the amount of discharged oil for different refrigerant pipe lengths. On the basis of the experimental measurements, we compared the OCR (Oil Circulation Rate) results of the system multi-air conditioner for various operating conditions. The results are graphically depicted

  3. Yield and characteristics of shale oil from the retorting of oil shale and fine oil-shale ash mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niu, Mengting; Wang, Sha; Han, Xiangxin; Jiang, Xiumin

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • The whole formation process of shale oil might be divided into four stages. • Higher ash/shale mass ratio intensified the cracking and coking of shale oil. • Ash/shale ratio of 1:2 was recommended for oil shale fluidized bed retort with fine oil-shale ash as solid heat carrier. - Abstract: For exploring and optimizing the oil shale fluidized bed retort with fine oil-shale ash as a solid heat carrier, retorting experiments of oil shale and fine oil-shale ash mixtures were conducted in a lab-scale retorting reactor to investigate the effects of fine oil-shale ash on shale oil. Oil shale samples were obtained from Dachengzi Mine, China, and mixed with fine oil-shale ash in the ash/shale mass ratios of 0:1, 1:4, 1:2, 1:1, 2:1 and 4:1. The experimental retorting temperature was enhanced from room temperature to 520 °C and the average heating rate was 12 °C min −1 . It was found that, with the increase of the oil-shale ash fraction, the shale oil yield first increased and then decreased obviously, whereas the gas yield appeared conversely. Shale oil was analyzed for the elemental analysis, presenting its atomic H/C ratio of 1.78–1.87. Further, extraction and simulated distillation of shale oil were also conducted to explore the quality of shale oil. As a result, the ash/shale mixing mass ratio of 1:2 was recommended only for the consideration of increasing the yield and quality of shale oil

  4. CALCULATION OF A MECHANICAL CHARACTERISTIC OF ELECTRIC TRACTION MOTOR OF ELECTRIC VEHICLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phuong Le Ngo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The traction characteristic of an electric vehicle is the main characteristic of mechanical system that reflects its key performance indicators. Implementation of the traction characteristic is based on controlling angular speed and torque of electric traction motor in an automatic control system. The static mechanical characteristic of an electric traction motor in an automatic control system is the most important characteristic that determines weight, size and operating characteristics of an electric traction motor and serves as the basis for design. The most common variants of constructive implementation of a traction electric drive are analyzed, and a scheme is chosen for further design. Lagrange’s equation for electric mechanical system with one degree of freedom is written in generalized coordinates. In order to determine the generalized forces, elementary operation of all moments influencing on a moving car has been calculated. The resulting equation of motion of the electric vehicle corresponding to the design scheme, as well as the expressions for calculation of characteristic points of static mechanical characteristics of traction motor (i.e. the maximum and minimum time, minimum power are obtained. In order to determine the nominal values of the angular velocity and the power of electric traction motor, a method based on ensuring the movement of the vehicle in the standard cycle has been developed. The method makes it possible to calculate characteristic points of the mechanical characteristic with the lowest possible power rating. The algorithm for calculation of mechanical characteristics of the motor is presented. The method was applied to calculate static mechanical characteristic of an electric traction motor for a small urban electric truck.

  5. Modernisation of a test rig for determination of vehicle shock absorber characteristics by considering vehicle suspension elements and unsprung masses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maniowski, M.; Para, S.; Knapczyk, M.

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents a modernization approach of a standard test bench for determination of damping characteristics of automotive shock absorbers. It is known that the real-life work conditions of wheel-suspension dampers are not easy to reproduce in laboratory conditions, for example considering a high frequency damper response or a noise emission. The proposed test bench consists of many elements from a real vehicle suspension. Namely, an original tyre-wheel with additional unsprung mass, a suspension spring, an elastic top mount, damper bushings and a simplified wheel guiding mechanism. Each component was tested separately in order to identify its mechanical characteristics. The measured data serve as input parameters for a numerical simulation of the test bench behaviour by using a vibratory model with 3 degrees of freedom. Study on the simulation results and the measurements are needed for further development of the proposed test bench.

  6. Levitation characteristics of a high-temperature superconducting Maglev system for launching space vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Wenjiang; Liu Yu; Chen Xiaodong; Wen Zheng; Duan Yi; Qiu Ming

    2007-01-01

    Maglev launch assist is viewed as an effective method to reduce the cost of space launch. The primary aerodynamic characteristics of the Maglev launch vehicle and the space vehicle are discussed by analyzing their aerodynamic shapes and testing a scale mode in a standard wind tunnel. After analyzing several popular Maglev systems, we present a no-controlling Maglev system with bulk YBaCuO high-temperature superconductors (HTSs). We tested a HTS Maglev system unit, and obtained the levitation force density of 3.3 N/cm 2 and the lateral force density of 2.0 N/cm 2 . We also fabricated a freely levitated test platform to investigate the levitation characteristics of the HTS Maglev system in load changing processes. We found that the HTS system could provide the strong self-stable levitation performance due to the magnetic flux trapped in superconductors. The HTS Maglev system provided feasibility for application in the launch vehicle

  7. Experimental Study on Characteristics of Oil Particle Distribution in Water-Gelled Crude Oil Two-Phase Flow System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Xiaoyan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The conventional gathering and transportation mode of heating the produced fluid of oil wells with hot water or steam may result in excessive energy consumption. In order to perform the unheated transportation, the idea of hydraulic suspension transport of the gelled crude oil is proposed based on the actual production of Daqing Oilfield, and the experimental system is established to test characteristics of oil particle distribution which have an important effect on the hydraulic suspension transportation. In the experiment, the image of gelled crude oil particle distribution was obtained in a horizontal pipe with inner diameter of 0.053 m, and then the law of particle distribution was investigated by the theoretical model. The results showed that the gelled crude oil hydraulic suspension transport could be achieved without any chemical reagent when the gelled crude oil was transformed into particles and dispersedly suspended in water. The results also showed that the gelled oil particles of 0–4 mm in size accounted for 92% or more of all particles, and the percentage of gelled crude oil particles of a size of 4 mm gradually increased with the increasing mixed flow rate.

  8. Physicochemical Characteristics and Microbial Quality of an Oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    kg and the lowest value from the river shore sand (620) mg/kg. The high level of oil and grease contamination poses a concern. This therefore, validates the concern that releases of large quantities of oil to aquatic and terrestrial environments ...

  9. Characteristics and composition of cucumis melo seed oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mushtaq, S.; Batool, F.; Akhtar, T.; Tariq, M.I.

    2011-01-01

    A comprehensive characterization study was carried out on Cucumis melo seed oil, in order to evaluate its suitability as an edible vegetable oil. The oil was extracted by sohxlet apparatus using n-hexane as solvent that produced a yield of 47.33% (w/w). The oil was found to have light yellow colour and an agreeable odour, showing density up to 0.728 g/cm/sup 3/. The values of refractive index, iodine number and saponification number came out to be 1.466 (at 25 deg. C), 135.6 g/100 g and 301.6 mg KOH/100 g, respectively. GC-analysis gave total unsaturation content of 64.9% with linolenic acid (C18:3) being the predominant showing a proportion of 43.4%, followed by heptadecanoic acid (C17:0) with 23.1% and palmitic acid (C16:0) with 8.7%. The physicochemical properties of this oil are highly comparable to those of soybean and sunflower oils. Therefore, the test melon seed-oil could be developed into different commercial products to serve as an alternate vegetable oil in region like Pakistan, where this melon grows abundantly. (author)

  10. Physico-chemical characteristics of Mesua ferrea seed oil and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Saturated and unsaturated fatty acids present in the oils were separated and amounted to be (27.40-29.11 %) and (65.85- 68.31 %), respectively, depending upon the areas from where the seeds were collected. GLC analysis of the oil indicated the presence of palmitic acid (10.87%), linoleic acid (13.68%), oleic acid ...

  11. Identifying the Entrepreneurship Characteristics of the Oil Palm Community Plantation Farmers in the Riau Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brilliant Asmit

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Oil palm is an essential and strategic commodity in the Riau area because of its considerable role in supporting the peoples’ economy, especially for plantation farmers. Oil palm plantation activities have brought economic impacts to society there, both for the people who are directly involved with the plantations and for their surrounding communities. This regional advantage is a facility for farmers to be able to develop their farms as plantations. The aims of this research are to identify the entrepreneurship characteristics of the oil palm farmers, and also to identify the entrepreneurship characteristics that differentiate the farmers, as seen from their business’ achievements. The research used a grounded theory approach to identify the characteristics of oil palm farmers systematically. The sampling method used for the research was theoretical sampling, which is data gathering driven by the concepts derived from the theory of previous entrepreneurship characteristics studies. The research object is the oil palm farmers in Riau, Indonesia. The results of the analysis identified the entrepreneurship characteristics of the oil palm farmers, they are growth oriented, risk-taking, innovative, with a sense of personal control, self confident, and cooperative. But, among the characteristics, only the characteristic of their cooperation did not differentiate the oil palm farmers in the achievement of their business activities.

  12. Geochemical characteristics of crude oil from a tight oil reservoir in the Lucaogou Formation, Jimusar Sag, Junggar Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Z.

    2015-12-01

    Jimusar Sag, which lies in the Junggar Basin,is one of the most typical tight oil study areas in China. However, the properties and origin of the crude oil and the geochemical characteristics of the tight oil from the Lucaogou Formation have not yet been studied. In the present study, 23 crude oilsfrom the Lucaogou Formation were collected for analysis, such as physical properties, bulk composition, saturated hydrocarbon gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and the calculation of various biomarker parameters. In addition,source rock evaluation and porosity permeability analysis were applied to the mudstones and siltstones. Biomarkers of suitable source rocks (TOC>1, S1+S2>6mg/g, 0.7%oil-source correlation. To analyze the hydrocarbon generation history of the Lucaogou source rock, 1D basin modeling was performed. The oil-filling history was also defined by means of basin modeling and microthermometry. The results indicated the presence of low maturity to mature crude oils originating from the burial of terrigenous organic matter beneath a saline lake in the source rocks of mainly type II1kerogen. In addition, a higher proportion of bacteria and algae was shown to contribute to the formation of crude oil in the lower section when compared with the upper section of the Lucaogou Formation. Oil-source correlations demonstrated that not all mudstones within the Lucaogou Formation contributed to oil accumulation.Crude oil from the upper and lower sections originated from thin-bedded mudstones interbedded within sweet spot sand bodies. A good coincidence of filling history and hydrocarbon generation history indicated that the Lucaogou reservoir is a typical in situ reservoir. The mudstones over or beneath the sweet spot bodies consisted of natural caprocks and prevented the vertical movement of oil by capillary forces. Despite being thicker, the thick-bedded mudstone between the upper and lower sweet spots had no obvious contribution to

  13. Volatile characteristic of trace elements during microwave pyrolysis of oil shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai, Jing-ru; Wang, Qing; Kong, Ling-wen; Bai, Zhang [Northeast Dianli Univ., Jilin (China). Engineering Research Centre

    2013-07-01

    Oil shale is abundant in the world. Today, the industry of oil shale retorting for producing shale oil is developing owing to high price of oil in the world. In order to study migratory behavior of trace elements in oil shale at microwave pyrolysis, tests were performed in laboratory with oil shale of the Huadian deposit of China at different powers from 400 to 700 W. The trace elements As, Cd, Hg, Mo, Pb, Se, Cr, Cu, Ni, V, Zn, Ba, Co, Mn present in oil shale and shale char were determined by the inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). By comparing the content of trace elements in oil shale and shale char, distribution characteristics of trace elements at retorting were studied. The overall trends of volatile ratio of trace elements are ascending with higher microwave power and higher than the conventional pyrolysis. The differences in the volatile ratio indicate that the trace elements investigated are bound with the oil shale kerogen and its mineral matter in different manner. So Float-sink experiments (FSE) were performed on oil shale. Huadian oil shale has more included mineral. The volatilization of organic matter is not the main reason for the volatilization of trace elements in oil shale. The trace elements combined with the mineral elements may be also certain volatility.

  14. Physicochemical Characteristics of Citrus Seed Oils from Kerman, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reazai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, there has been a great deal of attention on usage, byproducts, and wastes of the food industry. There have been many studies on the properties of citrus seeds and extracted oil from citrus grown in Kerman, Iran. The rate of oil content of citrus seeds varies between 33.4% and 41.9%. Linoleic acid (33.2% to 36.3% is the key fatty acid found in citrus seeds oil and oleic (24.8% to 29.3% and palmitic acids (23.5% to 29.4% are the next main fatty acids, respectively. There are also other acids found at trivial rates such as stearic, palmitoleic, and linolenic. With variation between 0.54 meg/kg and 0.77 mgq/kg in peroxide values of citrus seed oils, acidity value of the oil varies between 0.44% and 0.72%. The results of the study showed that citrus seeds under study (orange and sour lemon grown in Kerman province and the extracted oil have the potential of being used as the source of edible oil.

  15. Yellow passion fruit seed oil (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa: physical and chemical characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassia Roberta Malacrida

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the chemical composition -physico-chemical properties, fatty acid and tocopherol compositions and total phenolic compounds -and evaluate the radical-scavenging activity of crude oil extracted from passion fruit (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa seeds, aiming to use the agro-industrial by-products. The oil seed extraction was performed by Soxhlet method and the oil yield from the seeds was 30.39%. The oil showed high levels of unsaturated fatty acids (87.59%, including mainly linoleic (73.14% and oleic (13.83% acids, tocopherol (499.30 mg/kg and phenolic compounds (1,314.13 mg GAE/kg. The physico-chemical characteristics were similar to those of other edible oils and the oil showed significant antioxidant activity. Therefore, the potential utilization of the passion fruit seed oil as a raw material for food, chemical and pharmaceutical industries could be favorable.

  16. Characteristic of oil-shale in Achibo-Sombo area of Yayu coalfield in Ethiopia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, S.; Tang, Z. [Exploration Institute of Shandong Coal Geology Bureau, Taian (China)

    2001-02-01

    On the basis of introducing the location, condition of strata, and the development of the coal-bearing strata of Achibo-Sombo area of Yayu coal field in Ethiopia, the distributing regularities, thickness, physical and chemical characteristics of the oil-shale in this area which are of industrial utilization are studied. And the reserves of the oil-shale has been calculated. The various aspects of industrial utilization of oil-shale are outlined. 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. Vertical Vibration Characteristics of a High-Temperature Superconducting Maglev Vehicle System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jing; Li, Ke Cai; Zhao, Li Feng; Ma, Jia Qing; Zhang, Yong; Zhao, Yong

    2013-06-01

    The vertical vibration characteristics of a high-temperature superconducting maglev vehicle system are investigated experimentally. The displacement variations of the maglev vehicle system are measured with different external excitation frequency, in the case of a certain levitation gap. When the external vibration frequency is low, the amplitude variations of the response curve are small. With the increase of the vibration frequency, chaos status can be found. The resonance frequencies with difference levitation gap are also investigated, while the external excitation frequency range is 0-100 Hz. Along with the different levitation gap, resonance frequency is also different. There almost is a linear relationship between the levitation gap and the resonance frequency.

  18. COMBUSTION CHARACTERISTICS OF DIESEL ENGINE OPERATING ON JATROPHA OIL METHYL ESTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doddayaraganalu Amasegoda Dhananjaya

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Fuel crisis because of dramatic increase in vehicular population and environmental concerns have renewed interest of scientific community to look for alternative fuels of bio-origin such as vegetable oils. Vegetable oils can be produced from forests, vegetable oil crops, and oil bearing biomass materials. Non-edible vegetable oils such as jatropha oil, linseed oil, mahua oil, rice bran oil, karanji oil, etc., are potentially effective diesel substitute. Vegetable oils have reasonable energy content. Biodiesel can be used in its pure form or can be blended with diesel to form different blends. It can be used in diesel engines with very little or no engine modifications. This is because it has combustion characteristics similar to petroleum diesel. The current paper reports a study carried out to investigate the combustion, performance and emission characteristics of jatropha oil methyl ester and its blend B20 (80% petroleum diesel and 20% jatropha oil methyl ester and diesel fuel on a single-cylinder, four-stroke, direct injections, water cooled diesel engine. This study gives the comparative measures of brake thermal efficiency, brake specific energy consumption, smoke opacity, HC, NOx, ignition delay, cylinder peak pressure, and peak heat release rates. The engine performance in terms of higher thermal efficiency and lower emissions of blend B20 fuel operation was observed and compared with jatropha oil methyl ester and petroleum diesel fuel for injection timing of 20° bTDC, 23° bTDC and 26° bTDC at injection opening pressure of 220 bar.

  19. Determination of the physical characteristics of vegetable oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, Danielle Oliveira de; Andrade, Ednilton Tavares de; Pereira, Roberto Guimaraes [Universidade Federal Fluminense (TER/UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Agricola e do Meio Ambiente; Tulcan, Oscar Edwin Piamba [Universidade Nacional da Colombia (UNAL), Bogota (Colombia). Fac de Ingenieria

    2008-07-01

    The objective of this work was the characterization of vegetable oils of canola, sunflower, corn and soybean through corrosion, kinematic viscosity, density, cloud point and flow point tests. Vegetable oils are used as raw material for preparation of biofuels or as fuel diesel additive or substitute. The vegetable oils tested showed a low level of corrosion, kinematic viscosities are measured in the range of 31 to 36 mm{sup 2}.s{sup -1}, density was tested at 15 and 20 deg C and showed results varying in the third decimal order. For the oils tested, the cloud point is around 0 deg C and the flow point around -17 deg C. (author)

  20. Physicochemical characteristics of ozonated sunflower oils obtained by different procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz, M. F.; Sanchez, Y.; Gomez, M.; Hernandez, F.; Veloso, M. C.; Pereira, P. A.; Mangrich, A. S.; Andrade, J. B.

    2012-07-01

    Two ozonation procedures for sunflower oils at different applied ozone dosages were carried out. Ozone was obtained from medicinal oxygen and from air. Peroxide, acidity, and iodine indexes, along with density, viscosity and antimicrobial activity were determined. The fatty acid compositions of the samples were analyzed using GC. The content of oxygen was determined using an elemental analysis. Electronic Paramagnetic Resonance was used to measure the organic free radicals. The reactions were achieved up to peroxide index values of 658 and 675 mmolequiv kg1 using medicinal oxygen and air for 5 and 8 hours, respectively. The samples of ozonized sunflower oil did not present organic free radicals, which is a very important issue if these oils are to be used as drugs. The ozonation reaction is more rapid with medicinal oxygen (5 hours) than with air (8 hours). Ozonized sunflower oil with oxygen as an ozone source was obtained with high potential for antimicrobial activity. (Author) 34 refs.

  1. Comparison of chemical characteristics of high oleic acid fraction of moringa oleifera oil with some vegetable oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, F.; Nadeem, M.; Zahoor, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Chemical characteristics of High oleic acid fraction (HOF) of Moringa oleifera oil (MOO) was compared with sunflower, soybean and canola oils. HOF of MOO was obtained by dry fractionation at 0 degree C. Iodine value and C18:1 in HOF increased from 61.55 to 82.47 points and 70.29% to 81.15%, respectively. Cloud point of HOF was 1.1 degree C as compared to 10.2 degree C in MOO. The induction period of HOF was greater than all the vegetable oils tested in this investigation. HOF can be used as a source of edible oil with better health attributes and superior storage stability. (author)

  2. Breakdown Characteristic Analysis of Paper- Oil Insulation under AC and DC Voltage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anuar, N. F.; Jamail, N. A. M.; Rahman, R. A.; Kamarudin, M. S.

    2017-08-01

    This paper presents the study of breakdown characteristic of Kraft paper insulated with two different types of insulating fluid, which are Palm oil and Coconut oil. Palm oil and Coconut oil are chosen as the alternative fluid to the transformer oil because it has high potential and environmentally-friendly. The Segezha Kraft papers with various thicknesses (65.5 gsm, 75 gsm, 85gsm, 90 gsm) have been used in this research. High Voltage Direct Current (HVDC), High Voltage Alternating Current (HVAC) and carbon track and severity analysis is conducted to observe the sample of aging Kraft paper. These samples have been immersed using Palm oil and Coconut oil up to 90 days to observe the absorption rate. All samples started to reach saturation level at 70 days of immersion. HVDC and HVAC breakdown experiments have been done after the samples had reached the saturation level based on normal condition, immersed in Palm oil and immersed in Coconut oil. All samples immersed in liquid show different breakdown voltage reading compared to normal condition. The analysis of carbon track and severity on surface has been done using Analytical Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) Analysis. The results of the experiment show that the sample of Kraft paper immersed in Palm oil was better than Coconut oil immersed sample. Therefore the sample condition was the main factor that determines the value of breakdown voltage test. Introduction

  3. Study on the Rollover Characteristic of In-Wheel-Motor-Driven Electric Vehicles Considering Road and Electromagnetic Excitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Tan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available For in-wheel-motor-driven electric vehicles, the motor is installed in the wheel directly. Tyre runout and uneven load can cause magnet gap deformation in the motor, which will produce electromagnetic forces that further influence the vehicle rollover characteristics. To study the rollover characteristics, a verified 16-degree-of-freedom rollover dynamic model is introduced. Next, the vehicle rollover characteristics both with and without electromagnetic force are analyzed under conditions of the Fixed Timing Fishhook steering and grade B road excitation. The results show that the electromagnetic force has a certain effect on the load transfer and can reduce the antirollover performance of the vehicle. Therefore, the effect of the electromagnetic force on the rollover characteristic should be considered in the vehicle design. To this end, extensive analysis was conducted on the effect of the road level, vehicle speed, and the road adhesion coefficient on the vehicle rollover stability. The results indicate that vehicle rollover stability worsens when the above-mentioned factors increase, the most influential factor being the road adhesion coefficient followed by vehicle speed and road level. This paper can offer certain theory basis for the design of the in-wheel-motor-driven electric vehicles.

  4. Characteristic Analysis of Mixed Traffic Flow of Regular and Autonomous Vehicles Using Cellular Automata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yangzexi Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The technology of autonomous vehicles is expected to revolutionize the operation of road transport systems. The penetration rate of autonomous vehicles will be low at the early stage of their deployment. It is a challenge to explore the effects of autonomous vehicles and their penetration on heterogeneous traffic flow dynamics. This paper aims to investigate this issue. An improved cellular automaton was employed as the modeling platform for our study. In particular, two sets of rules for lane changing were designed to address mild and aggressive lane changing behavior. With extensive simulation studies, we obtained some promising results. First, the introduction of autonomous vehicles to road traffic could considerably improve traffic flow, particularly the road capacity and free-flow speed. And the level of improvement increases with the penetration rate. Second, the lane-changing frequency between neighboring lanes evolves with traffic density along a fundamental-diagram-like curve. Third, the impacts of autonomous vehicles on the collective traffic flow characteristics are mainly related to their smart maneuvers in lane changing and car following, and it seems that the car-following impact is more pronounced.

  5. Characteristic Model-Based Robust Model Predictive Control for Hypersonic Vehicles with Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Zhang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Designing robust control for hypersonic vehicles in reentry is difficult, due to the features of the vehicles including strong coupling, non-linearity, and multiple constraints. This paper proposed a characteristic model-based robust model predictive control (MPC for hypersonic vehicles with reentry constraints. First, the hypersonic vehicle is modeled by a characteristic model composed of a linear time-varying system and a lumped disturbance. Then, the identification data are regenerated by the accumulative sum idea in the gray theory, which weakens effects of the random noises and strengthens regularity of the identification data. Based on the regenerated data, the time-varying parameters and the disturbance are online estimated according to the gray identification. At last, the mixed H2/H∞ robust predictive control law is proposed based on linear matrix inequalities (LMIs and receding horizon optimization techniques. Using active tackling system constraints of MPC, the input and state constraints are satisfied in the closed-loop control system. The validity of the proposed control is verified theoretically according to Lyapunov theory and illustrated by simulation results.

  6. Characteristics of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) in the oil and gas industries: an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamad Puad Abu; Mohd Noor Mohd Yunus; Sopian, K.; Amran Abd Majid

    1999-01-01

    Activities and work practices in which radiation exposure of workers and members of the public is increased due to the presence of NORM are receiving increased attention from regulatory agencies and, to lesser extent, from the general public. In Malaysia the main sources of NORM are from the technological activities of tin mining, ore and heavy mineral processing, combustion of coal to generate power, and oil and gas extraction. The crude oil sludge that contains NORM arising from the oil and gas extraction activities lately has received special attention by the Malaysian regulatory authorities. These crude oil sludge are considered as Scheduled Waste (contains heavy metals) by Department of Environmental (DOE) and very low level radioactive waste which contains NORM by the Atomic Energy Licensing Board (AELB), and its cannot be disposed without permission and proper control. This paper reviewed the radiological behaviour and characteristic o NORM in the crude oil sludge from the oil and gas production activities in Malaysia. (Author)

  7. Chemical Characteristics of Mango (Mangifera Indica L.) Kernel Oil and Palm Oil Blends for Probable use as Vanaspati

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atta Muhammad Arif; Irman Javed; Muhammad Abdullah; Muhammad Irman; Athar Mahmud; Muhammad Nadeem; Muhammad Ayaz

    2016-01-01

    Chemical characteristics of blends of palm oil and mango kernel oil for their probable use as vanaspati was studied. Crude mango kernel oil was blended with refined, bleached and deodorised palm oil from 10 %, 20 %, 30 %, 40 % and 50 % (T 1 , T 2 , T 3 , T 4 and T 5 ) market vanaspati was used as control. Concentration of trans fatty acids in control was 22.7 %, whereas, all the vanaspati samples were virtually trans-free. Slip melting points (degree Celsius) of control, T 1 , T 2 , T 3 , T 4 and T 5 were 37.5, 37.3, 36.4, 35.6, 34.8 and 34. Free fatty acids of control and T5 were respectively 0.11, 0.12 %. Polymer contents of control, T 1 , T 2 , T 3 , T 4 and T 5 , after three heating cycles (18 degree Celsius, for 8 hr) were 21.55 %, 20.97 %, 18.66 %, 17.61 % and 10.22 %, respectively with lower solid fat index (p<0.05). Blends of mango kernel oil and palm oil can be used for the formulation of trans-free vanaspati. (author)

  8. Characterising vehicle emissions from the burning of biodiesel made from vegetable oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou, L.; Atkinson, S.

    2003-01-01

    Biodiesel manufactured from canola oil was blended with diesel and used as fuel in two diesel vehicles. This study aimed to test the emissions of diesel engines using blends of 100%, 80%, 60%, 40%, 20% biodiesel and 100% petroleum diesel, and characterise the particulate matter and gaseous emissions, with particular attention to levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) which are harmful to humans. A real time dust monitor was also used to monitor the continuous dust emissions during the entire testing cycle. The ECE(Euro 2) drive cycle was used for all emission tests. It was found that the particle concentration was up to 33% less when the engine burnt 100% biodiesel, compared to 100% diesel. Particle emission reduced with increased percentages of biodiesel in the fuel blends. Reductions of NOx, HC and CO were limited to about 10% when biodiesel was burned. Levels of CO, emissions from the use of biodiesel and diesel were similar. Eighteen EPA priority PAHs were targeted, with only 6 species detected in the gaseous phase from the samples. 9 PAHs were detected in particulate phases at much lower levels than gaseous PAHs. Some marked reductions were observed for less toxic gaseous PAHs such as naphthalene when burning 100% biodiesel, but the particulate PAH emissions, which have more implications to adverse health effects, were virtually unchanged and did not show a statistically significant reduction. These findings are useful to gain an understanding of the emissions and environmental impacts of biodiesel (Author)

  9. Rosemary Essential Oil-Loaded Lipid Nanoparticles: In Vivo Topical Activity from Gel Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Montenegro

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Although rosemary essential oil (EO shows many biological activities, its topical benefits have not been clearly demonstrated. In this work, we assessed the effects on skin hydration and elasticity of rosemary EO after topical application via gel vehicles in human volunteers. To improve its topical efficacy, rosemary EO was loaded into lipid nanoparticles (NLCs consisting of cetyl palmitate as a solid lipid, and non-ionic surfactants. Such NLCs were prepared using different ratios of EO/solid lipid and those containing EO 3% w/w and cetyl pamitate 7% w/w were selected for in vivo studies, showing the best technological properties (small particle size, low polydispersity index and good stability. Gels containing free EO or EO-loaded NLCs were applied on the hand skin surface of ten healthy volunteers twice a day for one week. Skin hydration and elasticity changes were recorded using the instrument Soft Plus. Gels containing EO-loaded NLCs showed a significant increase in skin hydration in comparison with gels containing free EO. Skin elasticity increased, as well, although to a lesser extent. The results of this study point out the usefulness of rosemary EO-loaded NLCs for the treatment of cutaneous alterations involving loss of skin hydration and elasticity.

  10. Emission characteristics of a diesel engine using waste cooking oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, the use of waste cooking oil (WCO) methyl ester as an alternative fuel in a four-stroke turbo diesel engine with four cylinders, direct injection and 85 HP was analyzed. A test was applied in which an engine was fueled with diesel and three different blends of diesel/biodiesel (B25, B50 and B75) made from WCO.

  11. Combustion characteristics of crude jatropha oil droplets using rhodium liquid as a homogeneous combustion catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanlohy, Hendry Y.; Wardana, I. N. G.; Hamidi, N.; Yuliati, L.

    2018-01-01

    Combustion characteristics of crude jatropha oil droplet at room temperature with and without catalyst have been studied experimentally. Its combustion characteristics have been observed by igniting the oil droplet on a junction of a thermocouple, and the combustion characteristics of oil droplets are observed using a high-speed camera. The results show that the uniqueness of crude jatropha oil as alternative fuel is evidenced by the different stages of combustion caused by thermal cracking in burning droplets. The results also show that the role of the catalyst is not only an accelerator agent, but there are other unique functions and roles as a stabilizer. Moreover, the results also found that the catalyst was able to shorten the ignition timing and burnout time. This phenomenon proves that the presence of catalysts alters and weakens the structure of the triglyceride geometry so that the viscosity and flash point is reduced, the fuel absorbs heat well and flammable.

  12. Identifying injuries and motor vehicle collision characteristics that together are suggestive of diaphragmatic rupture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiff, Donald A; McGwin, Gerald; Metzger, Jesse; Windham, Samuel T; Doss, Marilyn; Rue, Loring W

    2002-12-01

    Diaphragmatic rupture (DR) remains a diagnostic challenge because of the lack of an accurate test demonstrating the injury. Our purpose was to identify motor vehicle collision (MVC) characteristics and patient injuries that collectively could identify the presence of a DR. The National Automotive Sampling System was used to identify occupants involved in MVCs from 1995 to 1999 who sustained abdominal (Abbreviated Injury Scale score >or= 2) and/or thoracic injuries (Abbreviated Injury Scale score >or= 2). Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to quantify the association between patient injuries, vehicle collision characteristics, and DR. Sensitivity and specificity were also calculated to determine the ability of organ injury and MVC characteristics to correctly classify patients with and without DR. Overall, occupants sustaining a DR had a significantly higher delta-V (DeltaV) (49.8 kilometers per hour [kph] vs. 33.8 kph, por= 30 cm or DeltaV >or= 40 kph with specific organ injuries generated a sensitivity for indicating the likelihood of diaphragm injury ranging from 68% to 89%. Patients with any of the following characteristics had a sensitivity for detecting DR of 91%: splenic injury, pelvic fracture, DeltaV >or= 40 kph, or occupant compartment intrusion from any direction >or= 30 cm. Specific MVC characteristics combined with patient injuries have been identified that are highly suggestive of DR. For this subpopulation, additional invasive procedures including exploratory laparotomy, laparoscopy, or thoracoscopy may be warranted to exclude DR.

  13. National measures fostering alternative vehicles: electric, natural gas, liquefied oil gas vehicles; Dispositions nationales en faveur des vehicules alternatifs: vehicules electriques, au gaz naturel (GNv) et au gaz de petrole liquefie (GPLc)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-02-07

    This document, issued by the French Ministry of Economy, Finances and Industry, presents national measures fostering alternative vehicles, i.e., electric, natural gas and liquefied oil gas vehicles. Financial supports for studies aiming at optimizing the fleet and choosing the alternative vehicles as well as for purchasing vehicles both by counter procedure and for demonstration programmes are provided. Amount of subsidies, conditions of obtaining and categories of addressees are indicated. The document contains also two relating studies. The first one is titled 'the policy of developing alternative vehicles'. The following four items are addressed: - the present frame favouring the alternative vehicles; - the electric vehicles; - natural gas fuelled vehicles (GNV); - liquefied oil gas fuelled vehicles (GPLc). Although non-polluting the electric vehicles are not tempting because of their rather limited range (80 Km at a battery charging). So far only around 3,000 vehicles were sold. Fifty GNV buses were ordered by RATP and the figure raised at 70 in 1998 and 1999. The GPLc fleet amounts up to 70,000 vehicles and by the end of 2000 it is foreseen to reach the level of 300,000 vehicles. The second study addresses to the issue of natural gas for vehicles. It presents: - its advantages; - its peculiarities; - the action of public authorities; -the current state and trends of GNV vehicles. In a joint effort public authorities and partners of this option are aiming at a fleet of 2500 light service vehicles and 300 bus for urban transport by the end of 1999.

  14. U.S. Department of Energy FreedomCAR & Vehicle Technologies Program: Oil Bypass Filter Technology Evaluation Seventh Quarterly Report April - June 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larry Zirker; James Francfort; Jordan Fielding

    2004-08-01

    This Oil Bypass Filter Technology Evaluation quarterly report (April–June 2004) details the ongoing fleet evaluation of an oil bypass filter technology by the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) for the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) FreedomCAR & Vehicle Technologies Program. Eight INEEL four-cycle diesel engine buses used to transport INEEL employees on various routes and six INEEL Chevrolet Tahoes with gasoline engines are equipped with oil bypass filter systems from the puraDYN Corporation. The bypass filters are reported to have engine oil filtering capability of <1 micron and a built-in additive package to facilitate extended oil-drain intervals. This quarter, the eight diesel engine buses traveled 85,632 miles. As of the end of June 2004, the eight buses have accumulated 498,814 miles since the beginning of the test and 473,192 miles without an oil change. This represents an avoidance of 39 oil changes, which equates to 1,374 quarts (343 gallons) of new oil not consumed and, furthermore, 1,374 quarts of waste oil not generated. One bus had its oil changed due to the degraded quality of the engine oil. Also this quarter, the six Tahoe test vehicles traveled 48,193 miles; to date, the six Tahoes have accumulated 109,708 total test miles. The oil for all six of the Tahoes was changed this quarter due to low Total Base Numbers (TBN). The oil used initially in the Tahoe testing was recycled oil; the recycled oil has been replaced with Castrol virgin oil, and the testing was restarted. However, the six Tahoe’s did travel a total of 98,266 miles on the initial engine oil. This represents an avoidance of 26 oil changes, which equates to 130 quarts (32.5 gallons) of new oil not consumed and, consequently, 130 quarts of waste oil not generated. Based on the number of oil changes avoided by the test buses and Tahoes to date, the potential engine oil savings if an oil bypass filter system were used was estimated for the INEEL, DOE

  15. Rear seat safety: Variation in protection by occupant, crash and vehicle characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durbin, Dennis R; Jermakian, Jessica S; Kallan, Michael J; McCartt, Anne T; Arbogast, Kristy B; Zonfrillo, Mark R; Myers, Rachel K

    2015-07-01

    Current information on the safety of rear row occupants of all ages is needed to inform further advances in rear seat restraint system design and testing. The objectives of this study were to describe characteristics of occupants in the front and rear rows of model year 2000 and newer vehicles involved in crashes and determine the risk of serious injury for restrained crash-involved rear row occupants and the relative risk of fatal injury for restrained rear row vs. front passenger seat occupants by age group, impact direction, and vehicle model year. Data from the National Automotive Sampling System Crashworthiness Data System (NASS-CDS) and Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) were queried for all crashes during 2007-2012 involving model year 2000 and newer passenger vehicles. Data from NASS-CDS were used to describe characteristics of occupants in the front and rear rows and to determine the risk of serious injury (AIS 3+) for restrained rear row occupants by occupant age, vehicle model year, and impact direction. Using a combined data set containing data on fatalities from FARS and estimates of the total population of occupants in crashes from NASS-CDS, logistic regression modeling was used to compute the relative risk (RR) of death for restrained occupants in the rear vs. front passenger seat by occupant age, impact direction, and vehicle model year. Among all vehicle occupants in tow-away crashes during 2007-2012, 12.3% were in the rear row where the overall risk of serious injury was 1.3%. Among restrained rear row occupants, the risk of serious injury varied by occupant age, with older adults at the highest risk of serious injury (2.9%); by impact direction, with rollover crashes associated with the highest risk (1.5%); and by vehicle model year, with model year 2007 and newer vehicles having the lowest risk of serious injury (0.3%). Relative risk of death was lower for restrained children up to age 8 in the rear compared with passengers in the right

  16. Impact of nanoparticles and butanol on properties and spray characteristics of waste cooking oil biodiesel and pure rapeseed oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad K. H.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Renewable biofuels can offset greenhouse gases by replacing fossil fuels destined for internal combustion engines. However, biofuels have their own setbacks and may lead to poor combustion inside the engine cylinder. In this study, nanoparticles and butanol were blended either separately or together with waste cooking oil biodiesel and neat rape seed oil to investigate the impact of these additives on the properties and spray characteristics. The investigation comprised of three stages, with each having an effect on how the next stage of the investigation was conducted. Initially, the physicochemical characteristics of 25ppm, 50ppm, 75ppm and 100ppm concentrations of aluminium oxide and copper oxide nanoparticle blends with fossil diesel, waste cooking oil biodiesel and rapeseed oil were investigated. The results from first stage investigation showed that, in general, blends containing aluminium oxide nanoparticles gave better results for almost all the concentrations when compared with copper oxide nanoparticle blends with the same nanoparticle concentrations. Overall, waste cooking oil biodiesel blended with 100ppm aluminium oxide nanoparticle showed most promising results like the flash point of 159.3°C, kinematic viscosity @40°C of 4.66 cSt, and gross calorific value of 44.43 MJ/kg. These values were 61.6% higher, 51.3% higher and 3.2% lower than that of corresponding fossil diesel values. Subsequently, in the second stage of the study, the addition of butanol was investigated to assess its ability to enhance the emulsion of biofuel-nanoparticles blends. Four blends containing 90% biodiesel & 10% butanol, and 90% rapeseed oil & 10% butanol, with and without 100ppm Al2O3 were prepared. Results showed that the kinematic viscosity of the fuel blends containing 100ppm aluminium oxide nanoparticles were decreased by 0.4% and 3.3%, for 90% biodiesel & 10% butanol and 90% rapeseed oil & 10% butanol blends respectively, when compared to without

  17. Impact of nanoparticles and butanol on properties and spray characteristics of waste cooking oil biodiesel and pure rapeseed oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, K. H.; Hossain, A. K.

    2017-11-01

    Renewable biofuels can offset greenhouse gases by replacing fossil fuels destined for internal combustion engines. However, biofuels have their own setbacks and may lead to poor combustion inside the engine cylinder. In this study, nanoparticles and butanol were blended either separately or together with waste cooking oil biodiesel and neat rape seed oil to investigate the impact of these additives on the properties and spray characteristics. The investigation comprised of three stages, with each having an effect on how the next stage of the investigation was conducted. Initially, the physicochemical characteristics of 25ppm, 50ppm, 75ppm and 100ppm concentrations of aluminium oxide and copper oxide nanoparticle blends with fossil diesel, waste cooking oil biodiesel and rapeseed oil were investigated. The results from first stage investigation showed that, in general, blends containing aluminium oxide nanoparticles gave better results for almost all the concentrations when compared with copper oxide nanoparticle blends with the same nanoparticle concentrations. Overall, waste cooking oil biodiesel blended with 100ppm aluminium oxide nanoparticle showed most promising results like the flash point of 159.3°C, kinematic viscosity @40°C of 4.66 cSt, and gross calorific value of 44.43 MJ/kg. These values were 61.6% higher, 51.3% higher and 3.2% lower than that of corresponding fossil diesel values. Subsequently, in the second stage of the study, the addition of butanol was investigated to assess its ability to enhance the emulsion of biofuel-nanoparticles blends. Four blends containing 90% biodiesel & 10% butanol, and 90% rapeseed oil & 10% butanol, with and without 100ppm Al2O3 were prepared. Results showed that the kinematic viscosity of the fuel blends containing 100ppm aluminium oxide nanoparticles were decreased by 0.4% and 3.3%, for 90% biodiesel & 10% butanol and 90% rapeseed oil & 10% butanol blends respectively, when compared to without the nanoparticles. The

  18. Personal, place, and time characteristics of offshore accidents in five oil companies operating in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahardjo; Sudjoko; Sebayang

    1991-01-01

    This study is to determine personal, place and time characteristics of offshore accidents during the year of 1987, 1988 and 1989 of five oil companies operating in Indonesia. Age, length of service, employment status, job characteristics, work cycles, work schedules, marital status, citizenship, disability, anatomy and nature of accident

  19. Aerodynamic Characteristics of a Revised Target Drone Vehicle at Mach Numbers from 1.60 to 2.86

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, A. B., Jr.; Babb, C. Donald

    1968-01-01

    An investigation has been conducted in the Langley Unitary Plan wind tunnel to determine the aerodynamic characteristics of a revised target drone vehicle through a Mach number range from 1.60 to 2.86. The vehicle had canard surfaces and a swept clipped-delta wing with twin tip-mounted vertical tails.

  20. Nanoscale characteristics of triacylglycerol oils: phase separation and binding energies of two-component oils to crystalline nanoplatelets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDougall, Colin J; Razul, M Shajahan; Papp-Szabo, Erzsebet; Peyronel, Fernanda; Hanna, Charles B; Marangoni, Alejandro G; Pink, David A

    2012-01-01

    Fats are elastoplastic materials with a defined yield stress and flow behavior and the plasticity of a fat is central to its functionality. This plasticity is given by a complex tribological interplay between a crystalline phase structured as crystalline nanoplatelets (CNPs) and nanoplatelet aggregates and the liquid oil phase. Oil can be trapped within microscopic pores within the fat crystal network by capillary action, but it is believed that a significant amount of oil can be trapped by adsorption onto crystalline surfaces. This, however, remains to be proven. Further, the structural basis for the solid-liquid interaction remains a mystery. In this work, we demonstrate that the triglyceride liquid structure plays a key role in oil binding and that this binding could potentially be modulated by judicious engineering of liquid triglyceride structure. The enhancement of oil binding is central to many current developments in this area since an improvement in the health characteristics of fat and fat-structured food products entails a reduction in the amount of crystalline triacylglycerols (TAGs) and a relative increase in the amount of liquid TAGs. Excessive amounts of unbound, free oil, will lead to losses in functionality of this important food component. Engineering fats for enhanced oil binding capacity is thus central to the design of more healthy food products. To begin to address this, we modelled the interaction of triacylglycerol oils, triolein (OOO), 1,2-olein elaidin (OOE) and 1,2-elaidin olein (EEO) with a model crystalline nanoplatelet composed of tristearin in an undefined polymorphic form. The surface of the CNP in contact with the oil was assumed to be planar. We considered pure OOO and mixtures of OOO + OOE and OOO + EEO with 80% OOO. The last two cases were taken as approximations to high oleic sunflower oil (HOSO). The intent was to investigate whether phase separation on a nanoscale took place. We defined an "oil binding capacity" parameter, B

  1. Physicochemical Characteristics of the Seed and Seed Oil of the Potentially Medicinal Plant Ziziphus oenoplia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, Hosakatte Niranjana; Joseph, Kadanthottu Sebastian; Madiwal, Abhishek; Gerald, Dinesh Rajen; Badiger, Mahananda; Kolkar, Lakshmi; Hiremath, Reshma

    2017-11-02

    The proximate composition of seeds, physicochemical characteristics, and fatty acid profiles of Ziziphus oenoplia seed oil were determined in this study. The seeds possessed low moisture (4.54%) and high carbohydrate (42.96%) and protein content (40%), making the seed oil suitable for storage and consumption. The saponification value (197.80) of the seed oil makes it a promising source for the soap and shampoo industry. The iodine and saponification values are comparable to those of major edible seed oils such as groundnut and soybean. The high amount of monounsaturated fatty acids (53.41%), especially oleic acid (53.38%), present in the oil makes it a better source for a low-fat diet and may reduce the risk of various heart-related diseases.

  2. Study on Evaporation Characteristics of Bio-oil and its Compound Models

    OpenAIRE

    Tan Long; Ming Li; Yixin Chen; Xifeng Zhu

    2014-01-01

    In this study, bio-oil was analyzed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and the evaporation characteristics of bio-oil were studied at different heating rates (10, 20, and 30 °C/min) from 35 °C to 250 °C by a thermal analyzer (TG-DSC). The TG-DSC results of bio-oil showed that the heat requirement of bio-oil during the evaporation process ranged from 2.072103 to 2.299103 J/g, and the bio-oil activation energy ranged from 1.22×104 to 3.34×104 J/mol. Moreover, four models with fi...

  3. Performance Characteristics of a Modularized and Integrated PTC Heating System for an Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon Hyuk Shin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A modularized positive temperature coefficient heating system has controller-integrated heater modules. Such a heating system that uses a high-voltage power of 330 V was developed in the present study for use in electric vehicles. Four heater modules and one controller with an input power of 5.6 kW were integrated in the modularized system, which was designed for improved heating power density and light weight compared to the conventional heating system, in which the controller is separated. We experimentally investigated the performance characteristics, namely, the heating capacity, energy efficiency, and pressure drop, of a prototype of the developed heating system and found it to have satisfactory performance. The findings of this study will contribute to the development of heating systems for electric vehicles.

  4. Tribological characteristic enhancement effects by polymer thickened oil in lubricated sliding contacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratomo, Ariawan Wahyu; Muchammad, Tauviqirrahman, Mohammad; Jamari, Bayuseno, Athanasius P.

    2016-04-01

    Polymer thickened oils are the most preferred materials for modern lubrication applications due to their high shear. The present paper explores a lubrication mechanism in sliding contact lubricated with polymer thickened oil considering cavitation. Investigations are carried out by using a numerical method based on commercial CFD (computational fluid dynamic) software ANSYS for fluid flow phenomenon (Fluent) to assess the tribological characteristic (i.e. hydrodynamic pressure distribution) of lubricated sliding contact. The Zwart-Gerber-Belamri model for cavitation is adopted in this simulation to predict the extent of the full film region. The polymer thickened oil is characterized as non-Newtonian power-law fluid. The simulation results show that the cavitation lead lower pressure profile compared to that without cavitation. In addition, it is concluded that the characteristic of the lubrication performance with polymer thickened oil is strongly dependent on the Power-law index of lubricant.

  5. Effects of oil-water mixed frying and pure-oil frying on the quality characteristics of soybean oil and chicken chop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruixue MA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The effects of oil-water mixed frying (OWF and pure-oil frying (POF on changes in quality characteristics of soybean oil and chicken chop during six days of frying were comparatively investigated. The results showed that the changes in specific extinction coefficients, p-anisidine value, carbonyl value, viscosity and color of soybean oil were more pronounced in the case of POF, indicating that oil oxidative and polymeric degradation was retarded by OWF. Concerning fat content of chicken chop, lower (p<0.05 values were observed in the last three days in the case of OWF than POF. Meanwhile, OWF led to lower acrylamide formation in chops during the six days. Sensory evaluation showed that OWF provided chops with five attributes similar to those of chops fried by POF on the first day. As frying days increased, the decreases in scores for color, odor, flavor and overall acceptability were less in the case of OWF. In conclusion, OWF could be a worthwhile alternative for retarding oil deterioration and producing healthier and higher quality fried meat products.

  6. New fuel consumption standards for Chinese passenger vehicles and their effects on reductions of oil use and CO2 emissions of the Chinese passenger vehicle fleet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhao; Jin Yuefu; Wang Michael; Wei Wu

    2010-01-01

    A new fuel consumption standard for passenger vehicles in China, the so-called Phase 3 standard, was approved technically in 2009 and will take effect in 2012. This standard aims to introduce advanced energy-saving technologies into passenger vehicles and to reduce the average fuel consumption rate of Chinese new passenger vehicle fleet in 2015 to 7 L/100 km. The Phase 3 standard follows the evaluating system by specifying fuel consumption targets for sixteen individual mass-based classes. Different from compliance with the Phases 1 and 2 fuel consumption standards, compliance of the Phase 3 standard is based on corporate average fuel consumption (CAFC) rates for individual automobile companies. A transition period from 2012 to 2014 is designed for manufacturers to gradually adjust their production plans and introduce fuel-efficient technologies. In this paper, we, the designers of the Phase 3 standard, present the design of the overall fuel consumption reduction target, technical feasibility, and policy implications of the Phase 3 standard. We also explore several enforcement approaches for the Phase 3 standard with financial penalties of non-compliance as a priority. Finally, we estimate the overall effect of the Phase 3 standard on oil savings and CO 2 emission reductions.

  7. Changes in proximate composition and oil characteristics during flaxseed development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herchi, W.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric Pressure Photoionization-Mass Spectrometry (APPI-MS and High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC are the two analytical methods that were used to characterize Triacylglycerols (TAGs during flaxseed development. The HPLC method of the oils showed the presence of 15 TAG species. In contrast to the HPLC chromatograms, the APPI-MS showed 17 peaks of TAG. APPI-MS is more rapid than the HPLC method (11 min. The iodine value of the oils showed a gradual increase, while the oil stability continuously decreased. Proximate composition during flaxseed development revealed that flaxseed is potentially a good source of dietary energy and protein. At full maturity, flaxseed contained 37% oil and 24% protein on a dry-weight basis; albumin was the major storage protein (53% of total storage proteins followed by globulin (33% and glutelin fractions (11%. Prolamins had the lowest percentage with 3%. α-amylase activity was higher in the mature seeds than the young ones.Fotoionización a presión atmosférica-Espectrometría de masas (APPI-MS y cromatografía líquida de alta resolución (HPLC son dos métodos de análisis que se utilizaron para caracterizar triglicéridos (TAGs durante el desarrollo de semillas de linaza. El método HPLC mostró la presencia de 15 especies de TAG, en contraste, los cromatogramas de APPI-MS mostraron 17 picos de TAG siendo el método APPI-MS más rápido que el de HPLC (11 min. El índice de yodo de los aceites mostró un aumento gradual, mientras que la estabilidad disminuyó continuamente. El estudio de la composición proximal de la linaza durante su desarrollo, mostró que esta semilla es una fuente potencialmente buena de energía y de proteína para la dieta. Al final de la maduración, la linaza contenía 37 % de aceite y 24 % de proteína sobre peso seco; albúmina fue la principal proteína de almacenamiento (53% sobre el total de las proteínas de almacenamiento seguido de la globulina (33 % y glutelina

  8. Combustion characteristics of lemongrass (Cymbopogon flexuosus) oil in a partial premixed charge compression ignition engine

    OpenAIRE

    Avinash Alagumalai

    2015-01-01

    Indeed, the development of alternate fuels for use in internal combustion engines has traditionally been an evolutionary process in which fuel-related problems are met and critical fuel properties are identified and their specific limits defined to resolve the problem. In this regard, this research outlines a vision of lemongrass oil combustion characteristics. In a nut-shell, the combustion phenomena of lemongrass oil were investigated at engine speed of 1500 rpm and compression ratio of 17....

  9. Effect of pretreatment on the proximate composition, physicochemical characteristics and stability of Moringa peregrina oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulaiman, H.A.; Ahmad, E. E.M.; Mariod, A.A.; Mathäus, B.; Salaheldeen, M.

    2017-01-01

    The present research work was intended to study the influence of roasting and germination of the kernel seeds of Sudanese Moringa peregrina on the physicochemical characteristics and the oxidative stability of the extracted oil. Roasting was carried out at 180 °C for 25 minutes, whereas germination was done at ambient conditions in a wet jute bag for 5–7 days. The oil was extracted using n-hexane in a Soxhlet extraction apparatus. The results show that the oil contains α-tocopherols (152mg/kg) and oleic acid (above 70%) as the major tocols and fatty acids, respectively. Germination reduced the peroxide value and increased the acid value in a significant way (p < 0.05) whereas the opposite trend was noticed in the case of roasting. It is crucial to note that, with the exception of the acid value of the germinated sample, peroxide and acid values remained below one meq O2/Kg of oil and one mg KOH/g of oil, respectively. The oxidative stability of the oil from the roasted sample was increased almost by 80% compared to the raw one. Roasting of the kernels prior to oil extraction is imperative for improving its oxidation resistance and the physicochemical characteristics. [es

  10. Study on the spray characteristics of methyl esters from waste cooking oil at elevated temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Yung-Sung [Department of Mechanical and Automation Engineering, Da-Yeh University, 168 University Road, Dacun, Changhua 51591 (China); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Hsiuping Institute of Technology, No.11, Gongye Rd., Dali City, Taichung County 412-80 (China); Lin, Hai-Ping [Department of Mechanical and Automation Engineering, Da-Yeh University, 168 University Road, Dacun, Changhua 51591 (China)

    2010-09-15

    In Taiwan, millions of tons of waste cooking oil are produced each year, and less than 20% of it, about 150,000 ton/a, is reclaimed and reused. Most waste oil is flushed down the drain. Utilizing waste cooking oil to make biodiesel not only reduces engine exhaust gas pollution, but also replaces food-derived fuels, and reduces ecologic river pollution. This study employed two-stage transesterification to lower the high viscosity of waste oil, utilized emulsion to reduce the methyl ester NOx pollution, and used methanol to enhance the stability and viscosity of emulsified fuel. To further analyze spray characteristics of fuels, this experiment built a constant volume bomb under high temperature, used high speed photography to analyze spray tip penetration, spray angle, and the Sauter mean diameter (SMD) of fuel droplets, and compared the results with fossil diesel. The experimental results suggested that, two-stage transesterification can significantly lower waste oil viscosity to that which is close to fossil diesel viscosity. At a temperature above 300 C, waste cooking oil methyl esters had a water content of 20%, spray droplet characteristics were significantly improved, and NOx emission dropped significantly. The optimal fuel ratio suggested in this experiment was waste cooking oil methyl ester 74.5%, methanol 5%, water 20%, and composite surfactant Span-Tween 0.5%. (author)

  11. Study on Evaporation Characteristics of Bio-oil and its Compound Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Long

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, bio-oil was analyzed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS, and the evaporation characteristics of bio-oil were studied at different heating rates (10, 20, and 30 °C/min from 35 °C to 250 °C by a thermal analyzer (TG-DSC. The TG-DSC results of bio-oil showed that the heat requirement of bio-oil during the evaporation process ranged from 2.072103 to 2.299103 J/g, and the bio-oil activation energy ranged from 1.22×104 to 3.34×104 J/mol. Moreover, four models with five compounds (methanol, water, ethanol, furfural, and phenol were established to study the bio-oil evaporation process. By comparing the TG-DSC results of bio-oil and its models at 30 °C/min, it was shown that the optimal model was model 2, which has the following chemical composition: methanol (27.10 wt.%, water (44.96 wt.%, ethanol (16.24 wt.%, furfural (4.40 wt.%, and phenol (7.30 wt.%. Model 2 exhibited a minimal relative error in dynamic parameters and characteristic curve parameters. The errors for activation energy of the TG, activation energy of the DSC, maximum endothermic rates, and the total of the heat absorption were 3.04%, 5.88%, 2.49%, and 1.06%, respectively.

  12. Effect of pretreatment on the proximate composition, physicochemical characteristics and stability of Moringa peregrina oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. A. Sulaiman

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The present research work was intended to study the influence of roasting and germination of the kernel seeds of Sudanese Moringa peregrina on the physicochemical characteristics and the oxidative stability of the extracted oil. Roasting was carried out at 180 ˚C for 25 minutes, whereas germination was done at ambient conditions in a wet jute bag for 5–7 days. The oil was extracted using n-hexane in a Soxhlet extraction apparatus. The results show that the oil contains α-tocopherols (152mg/kg and oleic acid (above 70% as the major tocols and fatty acids, respectively. Germination reduced the peroxide value and increased the acid value in a significant way (p < 0.05 whereas the opposite trend was noticed in the case of roasting. It is crucial to note that, with the exception of the acid value of the germinated sample, peroxide and acid values remained below one meq O2/Kg of oil and one mg KOH/g of oil, respectively. The oxidative stability of the oil from the roasted sample was increased almost by 80% compared to the raw one. Roasting of the kernels prior to oil extraction is imperative for improving its oxidation resistance and the physicochemical characteristics.

  13. In situ evaluation of the fruit and oil characteristics of the main Lebanese olive germplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chehade, Ali; Bitar, Ahmad El; Kadri, Aline; Choueiri, Elia; Nabbout, Rania; Youssef, Hiyam; Smeha, Maha; Awada, Ali; Chami, Ziad Al; Dubla, Eustachio; Trani, Antonio; Mondelli, Donato; Famiani, Franco

    2016-05-01

    Very little information is available on the characteristics of the Lebanese olive germplasm. Therefore, the aim of this work was to evaluate the fruit and oil characteristics of the main Lebanese olive varieties (Aayrouni, Abou chawkeh, Baladi, Del and Soury) from two successive crop seasons (2010-2011). All of the genotypes had medium-high oil content in the fruit, indicating their suitability for oil production; Aayrouni had particularly high values. The variety Abou chawkeh also had a high pulp/pit ratio, which is a very desirable trait in table olives. For all the varieties the values of free fatty acids, peroxide values, absorbances in ultraviolet, fatty acid composition, sterol content and composition and erythrodiol + uvaol content of the oils were within the requirements of the International Olive Council's Trade Standard for extra virgin olive oil. The only exception was for the values of Δ-7-stigmastenol in 2011 in Soury and, especially, in Baladi, which were higher than 0.5%. In some cases, stearic and arachidic acids fluctuated around the maximum values allowed. The findings of this study provide a first picture of the main characteristics of olives and oils currently produced in Lebanon. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. 17 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone caproate vehicle, castor oil, enhances the contractile effect of oxytocin in human myometrium in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, Michael D; Hehir, Mark P; O'Brien, Yvonne M; Morrison, John J

    2010-05-01

    The possibility exists that the vehicle for 17-alpha-hydroxyprogesterone caproate, castor oil, exerts an effect on human uterine contractility. The aim of this study was to evaluate its effects on contractility of myometrial preparations that were obtained during pregnancy. Myometrial strips were suspended under isometric conditions. Contractility was induced with oxytocin. Strips were incubated in castor oil or physiologic salt solution and suspended for a further oxytocin challenge. Contractile integrals were compared between both groups. Strips that were exposed to castor oil demonstrated increased contractile activity that was elicited by oxytocin (mean contractility value, 165.53%+/-17.03%; n=8; P=.004), compared with control strips (mean contractility value, 72.57%+/-7.48%; n=8; P=.003). There was a significant increase in contractile activity of the castor oil-exposed strips, compared with those that were exposed to physiologic salt solution (n=8; Pcastor oil results in enhanced oxytocin-induced contractility. Copyright (c) 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Characteristics of Single Vehicle Crashes with a Teen Driver in South Carolina, 2005-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shults, Ruth A; Bergen, Gwen; Smith, Tracy J; Cook, Larry; Kindelberger, John; West, Bethany

    2017-09-22

    Teens' crash risk is highest in the first years of independent driving. Circumstances surrounding fatal crashes have been widely documented, but less is known about factors related to nonfatal teen driver crashes. This study describes single vehicle nonfatal crashes involving the youngest teen drivers (15-17 years), compares these crashes to single vehicle nonfatal crashes among adult drivers (35-44 years) and examines factors related to nonfatal injury producing crashes for teen drivers. Police crash data linked to hospital inpatient and emergency department data for 2005-2008 from the South Carolina Crash Outcomes Data Evaluation System (CODES) were analyzed. Nonfatal, single vehicle crashes involving passenger vehicles occurring on public roadways for teen (15-17 years) drivers were compared with those for adult (35-44 years) drivers on temporal patterns and crash risk factors per licensed driver and per vehicle miles traveled. Vehicle miles traveled by age group was estimated using data from the 2009 National Household Travel Survey. Multivariable log-linear regression analysis was conducted for teen driver crashes to determine which characteristics were related to crashes resulting in a minor/moderate injury or serious injury to at least one vehicle occupant. Compared with adult drivers, teen drivers in South Carolina had 2.5 times the single vehicle nonfatal crash rate per licensed driver and 11 times the rate per vehicle mile traveled. Teen drivers were nearly twice as likely to be speeding at the time of the crash compared with adult drivers. Teen driver crashes per licensed driver were highest during the afternoon hours of 3:00-5:59 pm and crashes per mile driven were highest during the nighttime hours of 9:00-11:59 pm. In 66% of the teen driver crashes, the driver was the only occupant. Crashes were twice as likely to result in serious injury when teen passengers were present than when the teen driver was alone. When teen drivers crashed while

  16. Performance and Combustion Characteristics Analysis of Multi-Cylinder CI Engine Using Essential Oil Blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Ashrafur Rahman

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils are derived from not-fatty parts of plants and are mostly used in aromatherapy, as well as cosmetics and perfume production. The essential oils market is growing rapidly due to their claimed health benefits. However, because only therapeutic grade oil is required in the medicinal sector, there is a substantial low-value waste stream of essential oils that can be used in the transportation and agricultural sectors. This study investigated the influence of orange, eucalyptus, and tea tree oil on engine performance and combustion characteristics of a multi-cylinder compression ignition engine. Orange, eucalyptus, and tea tree oil were blended with diesel at 10% by volume. For benchmarking, neat diesel and 10% waste cooking biodiesel-diesel blend were also tested. The selected fuels were used to conduct engine test runs with a constant engine speed (1500 RPM (revolutions per minute at four loads. As the load increased, frictional power losses decreased for all of the fuel samples and thus mechanical efficiency increased. At higher loads (75% and 100%, only orange oil-diesel blends produced comparable power to diesel and waste cooking biodiesel-diesel blends. Fuel consumption (brake and indicated for the essential oil-diesel blends was higher when compared to base diesel and waste cooking biodiesel-diesel blends. Thermal efficiency for the essential oil-diesel blends was comparable to base diesel and waste cooking biodiesel-diesel blends. At higher loads, blow-by was lower for essential oil blends as compared to base diesel and waste cooking biodiesel-diesel blends. At 50% and 100% load, peak pressure was lower for all of the essential oil-diesel blends when compared to base diesel and waste cooking biodiesel-diesel blends. From the heat release rate curve, the essential oil-diesel blends ignition delay times were longer because the oils have lower cetane values. Overall, the low-value streams of these essential oils were found to be

  17. Geochemical characteristics of Tertiary saline lacustrine oils in the Western Qaidam Basin, northwest China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Yangming; Weng Huanxin; Su Aiguo; Liang Digang; Peng Dehua

    2005-01-01

    Based on the systematic analyses of light hydrocarbon, saturate, aromatic fractions and C isotopes of over 40 oil samples along with related Tertiary source rocks collected from the western Qaidam basin, the geochemical characteristics of the Tertiary saline lacustrine oils in this region was investigated. The oils are characterized by bimodal n-alkane distributions with odd-to-even (C 11 -C 17 ) and even-to-odd (C 18 -C 28 ) predominance, low Pr/Ph (mostly lower than 0.6), high concentration of gammacerane, C 35 hopane and methylated MTTCs, reflecting the high salinity and anoxic setting typical of a saline lacustrine depositional environment. Mango's K 1 values in the saline oils are highly variable (0.99-1.63), and could be associated with the facies-dependent parameters such as Pr/Ph and gammacerane indexes. Compared with other Tertiary oils, the studied Tertiary saline oils are marked by enhanced C 28 sterane abundance (30% or more of C 27 -C 29 homologues), possibly derived from halophilic algae. It is noted that the geochemical parameters of the oils in various oilfields exhibit regular spatial changes, which are consistent with the depositional phase variations of the source rocks. The oils have uncommon heavy C isotopic ratios (-24%o to -26%o) and a flat shape of the individual n-alkane isotope profile, and show isotopic characteristics similar to marine organic matter. The appearance of oleanane and high 24/(24 + 27)-norcholestane ratios (0.57-0.87) in the saline oils and source rocks confirm a Tertiary organic source

  18. Characteristics Study of In-Situ Capacitive Sensor for Monitoring Lubrication Oil Debris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Zhibin; Wang, Yishou; Qing, Xinlin

    2017-12-08

    As an essential part of engine health monitoring (EHM), online lubrication oil debris monitoring has recently received great attention for the assessment of rotating and reciprocating parts in aero-engines, due to its high integration, low cost and safe characteristics. However, it is be a challenge to find a suitable sensor operating in such a complex environment. We present an unconventional novel approach, in which a cylinder capacitive sensor is designed and integrated with the pipeline of an engine lubrication system, so that the capacitive sensor can effectively detect changes in the lubrication oil condition. In this paper, an attempt to illustrate the performance characteristics of the developed cylinder capacitive sensor is made, through an experiment system that simulates a real scenario of a lubrication oil system. The main aim of the research was to qualitatively describe the relationship between the sensor parameter and the lubrication oil debris. In addition, the effect of the temperature and flow rate of the lubrication oil on capacitance change was performed by several experiments and we figured out a compensation method. The experimental results demonstrated that the cylinder capacitive sensor can potentially be used for lubrication oil debris monitoring of the health condition of an aero-engine.

  19. Characteristics and composition of watermelon, pumpkin, and paprika seed oils and flours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Adawy, T A; Taha, K M

    2001-03-01

    The nutritional quality and functional properties of paprika seed flour and seed kernel flours of pumpkin and watermelon were studied, as were the characteristics and structure of their seed oils. Paprika seed and seed kernels of pumpkin and watermelon were rich in oil and protein. All flour samples contained considerable amounts of P, K, Mg, Mn, and Ca. Paprika seed flour was superior to watermelon and pumpkin seed kernel flours in content of lysine and total essential amino acids. Oil samples had high amounts of unsaturated fatty acids with linoleic and oleic acids as the major acids. All oil samples fractionated into seven classes including triglycerides as a major lipid class. Data obtained for the oils' characteristics compare well with those of other edible oils. Antinutritional compounds such as stachyose, raffinose, verbascose, trypsin inhibitor, phytic acid, and tannins were detected in all flours. Pumpkin seed kernel flour had higher values of chemical score, essential amino acid index, and in vitro protein digestibility than the other flours examined. The first limiting amino acid was lysine for both watermelon and pumpkin seed kernel flours, but it was leucine in paprika seed flour. Protein solubility index, water and fat absorption capacities, emulsification properties, and foam stability were excellent in watermelon and pumpkin seed kernel flours and fairly good in paprika seed flour. Flour samples could be potentially added to food systems such as bakery products and ground meat formulations not only as a nutrient supplement but also as a functional agent in these formulations.

  20. Trauma history characteristics and subsequent PTSD symptoms in motor vehicle accident victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irish, Leah; Ostrowski, Sarah A; Fallon, William; Spoonster, Eileen; Dulmen, Manfred van; Sledjeski, Eve M; Delahanty, Douglas L

    2008-08-01

    The present study examined the relationship between trauma history characteristics (number and type of traumas, age at first trauma, and subjective responses to prior traumas) and the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms following a motor vehicle accident (MVA). One hundred eighty-eight adult MVA victims provided information about prior traumatization and were evaluated for PTSD symptoms 6 weeks and one year following the MVA. Results indicated that after controlling for demographics and depression, prior trauma history characteristics accounted for a small, but significant amount of the variance in PTSD symptoms. Distress from prior trauma and number of types of prior traumas were the most meaningful trauma history predictors. Results encourage further evaluation of trauma history as a multifaceted construct.

  1. Arbitrary vehicle steering characteristics with changing ratio rack and pinion transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    András G Bendefy

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to achieve arbitrary steering characteristics at vehicles, a steering mechanism was developed, in which changing ratio rack and pinion connections have been applied. In contrary to a regular steering mechanism where only a single rack is used, two racks were applied in order to make arbitrary characteristics possible. The turning wheel’s required motion functions had to be defined first, thereafter could we determine the changing ratio rack and pinion geometry which produces this motion. First, a simplified two-dimensional mockup was created in order to study the difficulties and possibilities of a real construction. Later, a fully functional assembly was designed and manufactured to make further experiments possible.

  2. Evaluation of emission characteristics and compliance of emission standards for in-use petrol driven vehicles in Delhi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarin, S M; Singh, A; Sharma, N; Sharma, K; Shanmugum, P

    2001-01-01

    The tail pipe CO (carbon monoxide) and HC (hydrocarbon) emission characteristics of in-use petrol driven vehicles were evaluated between November 1996 through September 1997 in Delhi. A total of 4300 vehicles were checked at CRRI Pollution Checking Centre. Approximately 90% of the total vehicles meet the prescribed CO emission standards even without following routine I/M practices. The age of the vehicles appeared to have influence on the emission characteristics. The non-compliance level was found to be higher for older vehicles. Insignificant correlation was observed between CO and HC emissions for all categories of in-use petrol driven vehicles. The emission reduction (gain) in CO and HC emissions was observed for two wheelers equipped with four-stroke engines and four wheelers fitted with catalytic converters over their respective conventional vehicles. The observed high compliance levels indicate that existing tail pipe emission standards are lenient and need to be reviewed. The emission standards are proposed for different categories of in-use petrol driven vehicles.

  3. Influence the Rubber Seed Type and Altitude on Characteristic of Seed, Oil and Biodiesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salni Salni

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This research studies the influence of the type of rubber seed that is superior and local, altitude plant in South Sumatra province to the characteristic of seed, oil and biodiesel (methyl ester. Rubber plants planted from local rubber seed by seeds seedlings and superior rubber seed by selected clones. In the study, rubber plants planted at a different altitude, namely in Banyuasin district (18 m above sea level, Prabumulih District (176 m above sea level and Lahat District (627 m above sea level. The results showed that the weight of the flour, the water content and ash content in the local rubber seeds larger than the superior rubber seed for all altitude, but oil content a large in the superior rubber seeds. The major of fatty acids in the rubber seed oil in all types and altitude are a linoleic acid with a different percentage except local rubber seed oil from Lahat district with the large percentage of octadecanoic acid. Free fatty acids in the oil from the superior seeds rubber of 13.897-15.494 % large than local rubber seed oil was found 9.786-10.399 % for all altitude. By esterification process using sulfuric acid catalyst, Free Fatty Acid (FFA can be reduced to ≤ 2 %. The methyl ester made from the transesterification process of rubber seed oil after esterification using methanol and sodium hydroxide as catalyst. Analysis of methyl esters includes cetane index, flash point, kinematic viscosity, carbon residue, density, moisture content, water and sediment content and distillation compared with SNI 7182 and ASTM 6751-02.  The result indicated that the quality of methyl ester from superior rubber seed oil in the Banyuasin and Prabumulih district better than another methyl ester. The types of rubber seed altitude affect the characteristics of the seed, oil and methyl ester  but the altitude are not significantly different. Keywords: rubber seed, type, altitude, oil, biodiesel Article History: Received March 21st 2017; Received in

  4. Physico-chemical characteristics and sensory acceptance of Italiantype salami with canola oil addition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelcindo Nascimento Terra

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of partial pork fat replacement with emulsified canola oil in Italian-type salami. Three treatments were done: Control (100% pork fat, without fat replacement, T1 (15% pork fat was replaced by emulsified canola oil and T2 (30% pork fat was replaced by emulsified oil canola. There were evaluated the salamis’ physicochemical characteristics (pH, water activity, weight loss, color and lipid oxidation during the manufacture and storage period, and sensory evaluation after the manufacture process. The emulsified canola oil addition at different levels did not change the pH and color during the manufacture process, even though significant differences were found in these parameters during the storage period. The water activity did not differ significantly among the treatments. However, the treatments with emulsified canola oil added have a lower weight loss than the control. It was possible to observe an elevation on lipid oxidation values in the T2 during manufacture and storage periods, while in the T1, the values did not differ from the control at the end of manufactures and remained lower than the control during the storage period. Even more, the partial replacement of pork fat by emulsified canola oil did not affect the acceptance of the product for aroma, flavor, color, texture and visual appearance. Thus, the 15% pork fat replacement by emulsified canola oil in Italian-type salami is a viable alternative for the product diversification.

  5. Pre-electrocoalescer unit adapted to the extra-heavy oil characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noik, C.; Dalmazzone, C. [IFP, Rueil-Malmaison (France); Glenat, P. [Total, Paris (France)

    2008-10-15

    This paper described a dehydration process that can break water oil emulsions to mobilize extra heavy oils and bitumen extra heavy oils. The dehydration process is based on solvent mixture with additives injection. It involves large amount of additives, fairly high operating temperatures, solvent addition, and long retention time inside the vessels. The process could be improved by electrocoalescence, thereby reducing the amount of additive and reducing the retention times of vessels to reach oil export specifications. However, commercial electrocoalescence processes are not suitable for extra heavy oils because of the presence of polar heavy components limiting the electrocoalescence effect and therefore, limiting the efficiency of electrostatic coalescer. This paper presented a study whose objective was to determine the most efficient electrocoalescence parameters considering the characteristics of two types of heavy crude oils issued from cold and thermal productions. The paper presented experimental results for electrocoalescence additive selection and for the optimization of electrical parameters. The paper described the materials and methods, including fluids characterization; viscosity; differential scanning calorimetry; dispersion rig; electrical stability tester; and electrocoalescer rig. It was concluded that crude oils produced by thermal production schemes seemed more sensitive to the temperature effect than crudes produced by cold production. 10 refs., 3 tabs., 23 figs.

  6. Computational Flow Dynamic Simulation of Micro Flow Field Characteristics Drainage Device Used in the Process of Oil-Water Separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangya Jin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aqueous crude oil often contains large amounts of produced water and heavy sediment, which seriously threats the safety of crude oil storage and transportation. Therefore, the proper design of crude oil tank drainage device is prerequisite for efficient purification of aqueous crude oil. In this work, the composition and physicochemical properties of crude oil samples were tested under the actual conditions encountered. Based on these data, an appropriate crude oil tank drainage device was developed using the principle of floating ball and multiphase flow. In addition, the flow field characteristics in the device were simulated and the contours and streamtraces of velocity magnitude at different nine moments were obtained. Meanwhile, the improvement of flow field characteristics after the addition of grids in crude oil tank drainage device was validated. These findings provide insights into the development of effective selection methods and serve as important references for oil-water separation process.

  7. Development and evaluation of tocopherol-rich argan oil-based nanoemulsions as vehicles possessing anticancer activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Melanie; Nayel, Amy; Brownlow, Bill; Elbayoumi, Tamer

    2012-12-01

    In recent years, diverse nanoemulsion vehicles (NEs) have been developed with vast potential for improving therapeutic index of clinically approved and experimental drugs. Using oils rich in omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), several promising nanoemulsion formulations have been developed recently for oral and systemic administration. The aim of our present work is to successfully develop and characterize optimized nanoemulsion platform, using the PUFA-rich argan oil that contain several important anti-inflammatory and antimitotic natural components. Using various emulsifying mixtures of polyethoxylated solutol HS-15 and polyethyleneglucol Vitamin E succinyl ester (TPGS), to form different NEs showing extended shelf-life stability. The physicochemical properties of prototype argan NEs were analyzed and utilizing a 32 full factorial design, followed by biocompatibility screen, using normal vascular myocytes and areolar fibroblasts. While 90-180 day stability of NEs correlated with TPGS:solutol surfactant blend ratios, adverse effects on integrity of test cultures were only noted at high TPGS content in the emulsifier system, exceeding 80%. Finally, the anti-proliferative efficacy of selected stable and acceptably biocompatible nanoscale TPGS-emulsified argan oil formulations was investigated using murine breast and colon carcinoma cells. The IC50 values of the combination of argan oil and TPGS (40-80% wt of emulsifiers) were 5-9 folds lower compared to TPGS-free and argan-oil free control NEs. Argan oil NE, stabilized with Vitamin E TPGS and solutol HS mixtures, demonstrated significant pro-apoptotic effect on both test cancer cell lines, indicating built-in anticancer properties for such NE platform, potentially enhancing overall antineoplastic effects of incorporated candidate chemotherapeutic agents.

  8. Pressure variation characteristics at trapping region in oil hydraulic piston pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong Ki; Jung, Jae Youn; Rho, Byung Joon; Song, Kyu Keun; Oh, Seok Hyung

    2003-01-01

    Pressure variation is one of the major sources on noise emission in the oil hydraulic piston pumps. Therefore, it is necessary to clarify about pressure variation characteristics of the oil hydraulic piston pumps to reduce noise. Pressure variations in a cylinder at trapping region were measured during pump working period with discharge pressures, rotational speeds. The effect of pre-compression of the discharge port with three types valve plates also investigated. It was found that the pressure variation characteristics of oil hydraulic piston pumps deeply related with pre-compression design of the discharge port. Also, it was found that the pressure overshoot at trapping region can reduce by use of pre-compression at the end of the discharge port in valve plate

  9. Prospective, Randomized, Double-Blind, Parallel-Group, Comparative Effectiveness Clinical Trial Comparing a Powder Vehicle Compound of Vitamin D With an Oil Vehicle Compound in Adults With Cystic Fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermes, Wendy A; Alvarez, Jessica A; Lee, Moon J; Chesdachai, Supavit; Lodin, Daud; Horst, Ron; Tangpricha, Vin

    2017-08-01

    There is little consensus on the most efficacious vehicle substance for vitamin D supplements. Fat malabsorption may impede the ability of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) to absorb vitamin D in an oil vehicle. We hypothesized that vitamin D contained in a powder vehicle would be absorbed more efficiently than vitamin D contained in an oil vehicle in patients with CF. In this double-blind, randomized controlled trial, hospitalized adults with CF were given a one-time bolus dose of 100,000 IU of cholecalciferol (D 3 ) in a powder-based or oil-based vehicle. Serum D 3 , 25-hydroxyvitamin D, and parathyroid hormone concentrations were analyzed at 0, 12, 24, and 48 hours posttreatment. The area under the curve for serum D 3 and the 12-hour time point were also assessed as indicators of D 3 absorption. This trial was completed by 15 patients with CF. The median (interquartile range) age, body mass index, and forced expiratory volume in 1 second were 23.7 (19.9-33.2) years, 19.9 (18.6-22.6) kg/m 2 , and 63% (37%-80%), respectively. The increase in serum D 3 and the area under the curve was greater in the powder group ( P = .002 and P = .036, respectively). Serum D 3 was higher at 12 hours in the powder group compared with the oil group ( P = .002), although levels were similar between groups by 48 hours. In adults with CF, cholecalciferol is more efficiently absorbed in a powder compared with an oil vehicle. Physicians should consider prescribing vitamin D in a powder vehicle in patients with CF to improve the absorption of vitamin D from supplements.

  10. Changes in the Characteristics of Water-in-Oil-based High Internal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Changes in the Characteristics of Water-in-Oil-based High Internal Phase Emulsion Containing Moringa Leaves Extract at Various Storage Conditions. ... Conclusion: Moringa HIPE showed stability and can be guided exclusively to protect skin against ultraviolet radiation-mediated oxidative damage. Keywords: Moringa ...

  11. Determination of the actual hydraulic characteristics of a main oil pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gubin, V V; Mironenko, N Ya; Titov, N S; Skovorodnikov, Yu A

    1976-01-01

    A method is presented for construction of hydraulic characteristics of sections of an oil pipeline by pattern recognition methods. In the theory of pattern recognition, the characteristics of a complex object are studied by means of adaptation algorithms. These algorithms allow the generation of models of processes, establishment of the relationships between their defining parameters and output characteristics on the basis of successive processing of information on the object (for example, dispatchers data on a pipeline sector). The analysis does not require analytic formalization of the processes. This work presents a solution of the problem of determination of the pressure loss to friction over the sections of a main pipeline on the basis of the following initial data: oil flowrate, diameter of pipeline, length of section, and viscosity of oil. The range of change of the pressure drop is divided into intervals (classes), and the task of determination of the continuous value is reduced to recognition of its membership in one of the classes with an accuracy equal to the size of an interval. The potential functions method from pattern recognition theory is used to perform the classification. The algorithm presented allows actual operational characteristics of main oil pipelines to be defined with an accuracy sufficient for practical application.

  12. Physicochemical characteristics, thermal stability and antioxidant characteristics of Trichosanthes kirilowii maxim seed oil as affected by different extraction methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou, Z.K.; Ji, Q.Z.; Yang, L.; Gao, Z.Q.; Wang, B.C.

    2017-01-01

    In conducting this study, the extraction of Trichosanthes kirilowii maxim seed oils (TSO) was carried out with the help of cold pressing (CP), hot pressing (HP) and soxhlet extraction (SE). Investigation, together with comparison, was carried out with respect to the physicochemical properties, thermal stability and antioxidant action of TSO. The key ingredients in the seeds consisted of fat, fiber and protein. The physicochemical characteristics of the oils brought to light the fact that CPTSO possessed top oil quality. The findings also suggested that linoleic acid, punicic acid and oleic acid were the leading unsaturated fatty acids in TSO. It was also discovered that TSO had an almost identical chemical composition regardless of the extraction method was used. It was demonstrated by TG/DTG curves that both HPTSO and CPTSO had more thermal stability in comparison with SETSO. Furthermore, the antioxidant activity assessments emphasized that CPTSO had better radical scavenging potential. CP had the ability to deliver an extract with higher quality as well as antioxidant activity in comparison with HP and SE methods and can be taken into consideration as a more suitable method in order to attain high quality oil. [es

  13. Modeling and Analysis of Static and Dynamic Characteristics of Nonlinear Seat Suspension for Off-Road Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Yan, Zhenhua; Zhu, Bing; Li, Xuefei; Wang, Guoqiang

    2015-01-01

    Low-frequency vibrations (0.5–5 Hz) that harm drivers occur in off-road vehicles. Thus, researchers have focused on finding methods to effectively isolate or control low-frequency vibrations. A novel nonlinear seat suspension structure for off-road vehicles is designed, whose static characteristics and seat-human system dynamic response are modeled and analyzed, and experiments are conducted to verify the theoretical solutions. Results show that the stiffness of this nonlinear seat suspension...

  14. Assessing rear-end crash potential in urban locations based on vehicle-by-vehicle interactions, geometric characteristics and operational conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitriou, Loukas; Stylianou, Katerina; Abdel-Aty, Mohamed A

    2018-03-01

    Rear-end crashes are one of the most frequently occurring crash types, especially in urban networks. An understanding of the contributing factors and their significant association with rear-end crashes is of practical importance and will help in the development of effective countermeasures. The objective of this study is to assess rear-end crash potential at a microscopic level in an urban environment, by investigating vehicle-by-vehicle interactions. To do so, several traffic parameters at the individual vehicle level have been taken into consideration, for capturing car-following characteristics and vehicle interactions, and to investigate their effect on potential rear-end crashes. In this study rear-end crash potential was estimated based on stopping distance between two consecutive vehicles, and four rear-end crash potential cases were developed. The results indicated that 66.4% of the observations were estimated as rear-end crash potentials. It was also shown that rear-end crash potential was presented when traffic flow and speed standard deviation were higher. Also, locational characteristics such as lane of travel and location in the network were found to affect drivers' car following decisions and additionally, it was shown that speeds were lower and headways higher when Heavy Goods Vehicles lead. Finally, a model-based behavioral analysis based on Multinomial Logit regression was conducted to systematically identify the statistically significant variables in explaining rear-end risk potential. The modeling results highlighted the significance of the explanatory variables associated with rear-end crash potential, however it was shown that their effect varied among different model configurations. The outcome of the results can be of significant value for several purposes, such as real-time monitoring of risk potential, allocating enforcement units in urban networks and designing targeted proactive safety policies. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  15. Influence of fish oil alone or in combination with hydrogenated palm oil on sensory characteristics and fatty acid composition of bovine cheese

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vargas-Bello-Pérez, Einar; Íñiguez-González, Gonzalo; Fehrmann-Cartes, Karen

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of dietary supplementation of fish oil (FO) alone or in combination with hydrogenated palm oil (FOPO) on the fatty acid (FA) profile of milk and cheese from dairy cows, and the sensory characteristics of cheese. Nine Holstein cows (173...

  16. Survey the Effect of Oil Pollution on Morphological Characteristics in Faba Vulgaris and Vicia Ervilia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Lorestani

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Pollution results when a change in the environment harmfully affects the quality of human life including effect on animals, microorganisms and plants. Among the broad range of organic pollutants contaminating soil-water environment, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are of great environment concern. Oil contaminated soil will affect germination, plant height, leaf area and biomass production. The aim of this research was to elucidate effects of oil pollution on morphological characteristics in Fabaceae family. For this purpose species of Faba vulgaris and Vicia ervilia were planted in different concentrations of oil in soil. For morphological studies, studied species were removed from polluted and non polluted soils separately and some morphological characters were studied in these species, then these characters were compared in plants, collected from polluted and non polluted soil. Finally, the level of significance of these differences was elucidated by using of SPSS. Obtained results showed that oil pollution can cause some abnormalities in structure of vegetative parts in plants grown on polluted soils. Decreasing of plant length and stem diameter and changing the leaf shape was among the most important effects of oil on morphological characteristics in Faba vulgaris and Vicia ervilia.

  17. Characteristics of carbonyl compounds in public vehicles of Beijing city: Concentrations, sources, and personal exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Xiaobing; Mu, Yujing

    The characteristics of carbonyl compounds (carbonyls) including concentrations, major sources, and personal exposure were investigated for 29 vehicles including taxi, bus and subway in Beijing. It was found that the taxis (Xiali, TA) and buses (Huanghe, BA) fueled by gasoline with longer service years had the higher indoor carbonyl levels (178±42.7 and 188±31.6 μg m -3) while subways energized by electricity without exhaust and the jingwa buses (BB) driven in the suburb had the lower levels with total concentrations of 98.5±26.3 and 92.1±20.3 μg m -3, respectively. Outdoor carbonyls of taxi cars and buses were nearly at the same level with their total concentrations varying from 80 to 110 μg m -3. The level of outdoor subways carbonyls was equal with the ambient air levels. Exhaust leakage, indoor material emissions, photochemical formation, and infiltration of outdoor air were considered to be the major sources to in-vehicle carbonyls. Personal exposures and cancer risk to formaldehyde and acetaldehyde were calculated for professional bus and taxi drivers, respectively. Taxi drivers had the highest cancer risk with personal exposure to formaldehyde and acetaldehyde of 212 and 243 μg day -1, respectively. The public concern should pay considerable attention to professional drivers' health.

  18. Tribological characteristics of monodispersed cerium borate nanospheres in biodegradable rapeseed oil lubricant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boshui, Chen, E-mail: boshuichen@163.com; Kecheng, Gu; Jianhua, Fang; Jiang, Wu; Jiu, Wang; Nan, Zhang

    2015-10-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Monodispersed stearic acid-capped cerium borate composite nanoparticles were prepared by hydrothermal method. Their morphologies, element compositions, size distributions, crystal and chemical structures, hydrophobic characteristics were also characterized. • The surface-capped cerium borate nanoparticles exhibited excellent dispersing stability in rapeseed oil. As new lubricating additives, they were also outstanding in enhancing friction-reducing and anti-wear capacities of rapeseed oil in biodegradable rapeseed oil. The results presented in this paper would be of important significance for developing green lubricants and lubricant additives. • The prominent tribological performances of SA/CeBO{sub 3} in rapeseed oil were investigated and attributed to the formation of a composite boundary lubrication film mainly composed of lubricous tribochemical species on the tribo-surfaces. - Abstract: Stearic acid-capped cerium borate composite nanoparticles, abbreviated as SA/CeBO{sub 3}, were prepared by hydrothermal method. The morphologies, element compositions, size distributions, crystal and chemical structures, hydrophobic characteristics, of SA/CeBO{sub 3} were characterized by scanning electron microscope, energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer, dynamic laser particle size analyzer, X-ray diffraction, and Fourier transform infrared spectrometer, respectively. The friction and wear performances of SA/CeBO{sub 3} as a lubricating additive in a rapeseed oil were evaluated on a four-ball tribo-tester. The tribochemical characteristics of the worn surfaces were investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The results showed that the hydrophobic SA/CeBO{sub 3} were monodispersed nanospheres with an average diameter of 8 nm, and exhibited excellent dispersing stability in rapeseed oil. Meanwhile, SA/CeBO{sub 3} nanospheres were outstanding in enhancing friction-reducing and anti-wear capacities of rapeseed oil. The prominent

  19. Effects of Coriander Essential Oil on the Performance, Blood Characteristics, Intestinal Microbiota and Histological of Broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Ghazanfari

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Present study was conducted to investigate the effects of the dietary supplementation of coriander oil on broiler performance, blood characteristics, microbiota, and small intestine morphology measurements. A number of one-day-old broiler chickens (Ross 308 were allocated to five treatments, with four replicates according to a completely randomized design (CRD. Birds were offered either a corn-soybean meal basal diet (control, or the basal diet supplemented with 600 mg/kg of a flavophospholipol antibiotic, 100, 200, or 300 mg/kg coriander essential oil. At 42 days of age, two birds per replicate were selected for blood collection, slaughtered, and its intestinal microbiota and morphology were investigated. The results indicated that weight gain, feed intake, and feed conversion ratio significantly improved by the dietary inclusion of the coriander oil and antibiotic compared with the control treatment (p0.05. Birds fed the coriander oil and antibiotic diets had lower populations of Escherichia coli than control group in cecum (p<0.05. The dietary treatments influenced the morphology of small intestinal villi. Birds fed antibiotic and coriander essential oil presented higher villus height and crypt depth compared with those in the control treatment (p<0.01. Coriander essential oil supplementation significantly decreased epithelial thickness and the number of goblet cell of the small intestinal compared with the control treatment (p<0.0001. In conclusion, coriander oil was shown to be an efficient growth promoter. The intestinal health improvement obtained with coriander oil was associated with improvements in broiler growth performance.

  20. A Comparative Study of Engine Performance and Exhaust Emissions Characteristics of Linseed Oil Biodiesel Blends with Diesel Fuel in a Direct Injection Diesel Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvi, B. L.; Jindal, S.

    2013-01-01

    This paper is aimed at study of the performance and emissions characteristics of direct injection diesel engine fueled with linseed oil biodiesel blends and diesel fuel. The comparison was done with base fuel as diesel and linseed oil biodiesel blends. The experiments were conducted with various blends of linseed biodiesel at different engine loads. It was found that comparable mass fraction burnt, better rate of pressure rise and BMEP, improved indicated thermal efficiency (8-11 %) and lower specific fuel consumption (3.5-6 %) were obtained with LB10 blend at full load. The emissions of CO, un-burnt hydrocarbon and smoke were less as compared to base fuel, but with slight increase in the emission of NOx. Since, linseed biodiesel is renewable in nature, so practically negligible CO2 is added to the environment. The linseed biodiesel can be one of the renewable alternative fuels for transportation vehicles and blend LB10 is preferable for better efficiency.

  1. Analysis of hydrodynamic characteristics of unmanned underwater vehicle moving close to the sea bottom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-xu Du

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The accurate research on the hydrodynamics of unmanned underwater vehicle (UUV, which moves close to the sea bottom, has a great significance for its maneuverability. The structured grid of the computational models with different distances to the sea bottom and attack angles is generated by Ansys ICEM, and the flow field near the sea bottom is simulated using CFX. The characteristics of the drag, lift, pitching moment influenced by the distance to sea bottom and the attack angle are studied. The result shows that the drag coefficient increases with the decrease of distance, while it increases with the increase of attack angle. There exists attraction force when UUV moves close to the sea bottom, and the attraction force increases with the decrease in distance. The lift coefficient increases with the increase in attack angle. The absolute value of the pitching moment coefficient increases with the decrease in distance and the increase in attack angle.

  2. The characteristics and use patterns of all-terrain vehicle drivers in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, G B

    1999-07-01

    The consent decrees between the US Consumer Product Safety Commission and the major distributors of all-terrain vehicles (ATV), which were designed to address ATV-related injuries and deaths, expired in April, 1998. While national estimates of nonfatal and fatal injuries involving ATVs declined after the consent decrees went into effect 10 years ago, the injury estimates have stabilized in recent years. To gain a better understanding of current ATV use patterns, the CPSC sponsored a national probability survey of ATV drivers in the fall of 1997. The survey was designed to collect information about the characteristics and use patterns of ATV drivers and to quantify the numbers and types of ATVs in use. It employed a single stage list-assisted random-digit-dial sample design. This article describes the results of the survey, and discusses long term ATV usage trends.

  3. Modeling Travel Time Reliability of Road Network Considering Connected Vehicle Guidance Characteristics Indexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiangfeng Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Travel time reliability (TTR is one of the important indexes for effectively evaluating the performance of road network, and TTR can effectively be improved using the real-time traffic guidance information. Compared with traditional traffic guidance, connected vehicle (CV guidance can provide travelers with more timely and accurate travel information, which can further improve the travel efficiency of road network. Five CV characteristics indexes are selected as explanatory variables including the Congestion Level (CL, Penetration Rate (PR, Compliance Rate (CR, release Delay Time (DT, and Following Rate (FR. Based on the five explanatory variables, a TTR model is proposed using the multilogistic regression method, and the prediction accuracy and the impact of characteristics indexes on TTR are analyzed using a CV guidance scenario. The simulation results indicate that 80% of the RMSE is concentrated within the interval of 0 to 0.0412. The correlation analysis of characteristics indexes shows that the influence of CL, PR, CR, and DT on the TTR is significant. PR and CR have a positive effect on TTR, and the average improvement rate is about 77.03% and 73.20% with the increase of PR and CR, respectively, while CL and DT have a negative effect on TTR, and TTR decreases by 31.21% with the increase of DT from 0 to 180 s.

  4. Characteristics and possibilities of some techniques for de-oiling of production water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    van den Broek, W.M.G.T.; Plat, R.

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses briefly a number of separation techniques for the treatment of water produced during oil production and gives some advantages and drawbacks. Plate separation and centrifugation are subject to investigation in our laboratory; these techniques are treated in more detail. The characteristic parameters critical oil droplet diameter and separator capacity are defined, and for both plate separation and centrifugation on example of a calculation with these parameters is given. Furthermore some results of laboratory experiments are presented. Finally, ideas for improving both the plate separation technique and the centrifugation technique are discussed. it is expected that critical oil droplet diameters of about 10 μm (plate separation) and less than 1 μm (centrifugation) are achievable

  5. Phytoremediation in the tropics--influence of heavy crude oil on root morphological characteristics of graminoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkl, Nicole; Schultze-Kraft, Rainer; Infante, Carmen

    2005-11-01

    When studying species for phytoremediation of petroleum-contaminated soils, one of the main traits is the root zone where enhanced petroleum degradation takes place. Root morphological characteristics of three tropical graminoids were studied. Specific root length (SRL), surface area, volume and average root diameter (ARD) of plants grown in crude oil-contaminated and uncontaminated soil were compared. Brachiaria brizantha and Cyperus aggregatus showed coarser roots in polluted soil compared to the control as expressed in an increased ARD. B. brizantha had a significantly larger specific root surface area in contaminated soil. Additionally, a shift of SRL and surface area per diameter class towards higher diameters was found. Oil contamination also caused a significantly smaller SRL and surface area in the finest diameter class of C. aggregatus. The root structure of Eleusine indica was not significantly affected by crude oil. Higher specific root surface area was related to higher degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons found in previous studies.

  6. Assessment of Thermal and Textural Characteristics and Consumer Preferences of Lemon and Strawberry Flavored Fish Oil Organogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yılmaz, Emin; Öǧütcü, Mustafa; Arifoglu, Nazan

    2015-01-01

    In this study, strawberry and lemon flavored fish oil organogels (FOO) were prepared with beeswax as the organogelator. The physical, thermal and textural characteristics as well as the consumer preferences of the flavored organogels were determined in comparison with fish oil and FOO containing no flavor. Furthermore, the stability of the organogels was evaluated during 90 day storage at 4°C. The results revealed that, structurally stable fish oil organogels as spreadable products might be formed and that flavoring of the gels enhances consumer preference. Thus, flavoring of fish oil organogels could be a challenge in increasing the consumption of fish oil.

  7. Animal performance and meat characteristics in steers reared in intensive conditions fed with different vegetable oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, T; Cabezas, A; De la Fuente, J; Isabel, B; Manso, T; Jimeno, V

    2016-03-01

    Enhancing the quality of beef meat is an important goal in terms of improving both the nutritional value for the consumer and the commercial value for producers. The aim of this work was to study the effects of different vegetable oil supplements on growth performance, carcass quality and meat quality in beef steers reared under intensive conditions. A total of 240 Blonde D' Aquitaine steers (average BW=293.7±38.88 kg) were grouped into 24 batches (10 steers/batch) and were randomly assigned to one of the three dietary treatments (eight batches per treatment), each supplemented with either 4% hydrogenated palm oil (PALM) or fatty acids (FAs) from olive oil (OLI) or soybean oil (SOY). No differences in growth performance or carcass quality were observed. For the meat quality analysis, a steer was randomly selected from each batch and the 6th rib on the left half of the carcass was dissected. PALM meat had the highest percentage of 16:0 (P<0.05) and the lowest n-6/n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) ratio (P<0.05), OLI had the highest content of t11-18:1 (P<0.01) and c9,t11-18:2 (P<0.05) and SOY showed the lowest value of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) (P<0.001), the highest percentage of PUFA (P<0.01) and a lower index of atherogenicity (P=0.07) than PALM. No significant differences in the sensory characteristics of the meat were noted. However, the results of the principal component analysis of meat characteristics enabled meat from those steers that consumed fatty acids from olive oil to be differentiated from that of steers that consumed soybean oil.

  8. Application of theoretical vehicle dynamic results for experimental validation of vehicle characteristics in autonomous vehicle guidance; Aehnlichkeitstheoretische Modelluebertragung zur experimentellen Eigenschaftsabsicherung in der autonomen Fahrzeugfuehrung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilgert, J.; Bertram, T. [Univ. Duisburg (Germany). Fachbereich Maschinenbau

    2002-07-01

    The validation and verification of theoretical vehicle dynamic results for autonomous driving can be seen as a major challenge. The main reasons are the high cost of driving tests and the risk of damaging or destroying the test vehicle and the involved persons. One possibility for avoiding these problems and simultaneously to ensure good experimental results lies in the use of scaled model vehicles. Of special relevance is the transfer of relevant parameters to the full size vehicle. In this paper a method based on similitude analysis is developed for validation and verification of driving tests for autonomous vehicles. This method is described for a lane change manoeuvre for a 1:5 scaled vehicle belonging to the Institute of Mechatronics and System Dynamics at the Gerhard-Mercator-Universitaet Duisburg. (orig.) [German] In der autonomen Fahrzeugfuehrung stellt die experimentelle Verifikation und Validierung von theoretischen Ergebnissen hinsichtlich fahrdynamischer Eigenschaften eine grosse Herausforderung dar. Die Ursachen hierfuer liegen zum einen in den hohen Kosten, welche bei Fahrversuchen entstehen, und zum anderen im Unfallrisiko fuer den Versuchstraeger und die am Versuch beteiligten Personen. Eine Moeglichkeit diese Nachteile zu umgehen und gleichzeitig experimentelle Ergebnisse zu bekommen, besteht in der Verwendung massstabgetreuer Modellfahrzeuge. Von besonderer Bedeutung ist hier die Uebertragung relevanter Parameter auf das reale Fahrzeug. In diesem Beitrag wird daher mit Hilfe von aehnlichkeitstheoretischen Ueberlegungen ein Konzept zur experimentellen Verifikation und Validierung von Fahrversuchen auf Basis eines am Institut fuer Mechatronik und Systemdynamik der Gerhard-Mercator-Universitaet Duisburg vorhandenen Fahrzeugmodells (Massstab 1:5) anhand eines Spurwechselmanoevers vorgestellt. (orig.)

  9. Study of ignition characteristics of microemulsion of coconut oil under off diesel engine conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahir H. Salmani

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The increasing awareness of the depletion of fossil fuel resources and the environmental benefits motivates the use of vegetable oils, however there is little known information about ignition and combustion characteristics of vegetable oil based fuels under off diesel engine conditions. These conditions are normally reached either during starting or when the engine is sufficiently worn out. A fuel was prepared by co-solvent blending of coconut oil with 20% butyl alcohol and was analysed. An experimental study of the measurement of ignition delay (ID characteristics of conical fuel sprays impinging on hot surface in cylindrical combustion chamber was carried out. The objective of the study was to investigate the effect of hot surface temperatures on ignition delays of microemulsion of coconut oil at various ambient air pressures and temperatures which would have reached under off diesel engine conditions. An experimental set-up was designed and developed for a maximum air pressure of 200 bar and a maximum temperature of 800 °C with the emphasis on optical method for the measurement of ignition delay. Hot surface temperature range chosen was 300–450 °C and ambient air pressure (inside the combustion chamber range chosen was 10–25 bar. Present study shows that at fixed injection pressure and fixed ambient (hot surface temperature, at higher ambient air pressure (25 bar inside the combustion chamber, ignition delay of diesel and microemulsion of coconut oil are comparable and therefore are having matching combustion characteristics. Although a pressure of 25 bar is much less than the precombustion pressure of most diesel engines but again conclusively establish that combustion characteristics are same despite lower air pressure, temperature and lower injection pressure. At higher injection pressure ignition delay of microemulsion of coconut oil and pure diesel attains the lower value at the same ambient air pressure inside the

  10. Phytoremediation in the tropics - influence of heavy crude oil on root morphological characteristics of graminoids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merkl, Nicole; Schultze-Kraft, Rainer; Infante, Carmen

    2005-01-01

    When studying species for phytoremediation of petroleum-contaminated soils, one of the main traits is the root zone where enhanced petroleum degradation takes place. Root morphological characteristics of three tropical graminoids were studied. Specific root length (SRL), surface area, volume and average root diameter (ARD) of plants grown in crude oil-contaminated and uncontaminated soil were compared. Brachiaria brizantha and Cyperus aggregatus showed coarser roots in polluted soil compared to the control as expressed in an increased ARD. B. brizantha had a significantly larger specific root surface area in contaminated soil. Additionally, a shift of SRL and surface area per diameter class towards higher diameters was found. Oil contamination also caused a significantly smaller SRL and surface area in the finest diameter class of C. aggregatus. The root structure of Eleusine indica was not significantly affected by crude oil. Higher specific root surface area was related to higher degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons found in previous studies. - Describing the effect of crude oil on root morphology of tropical graminoids the work assists in the selection of plant species for phytoremediation of oil-contaminated soils

  11. Phytoremediation in the tropics - influence of heavy crude oil on root morphological characteristics of graminoids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merkl, Nicole [Institute of Plant Production and Agroecology in the Tropics and Subtropics, Department of Biodiversity and Land Rehabilitation, University of Hohenheim, D-70593 Stuttgart (Germany) and PDVSA - Intevep, Centro de Investigacion y Apoyo Tecnologico de Petroleos de Venezuela S.A., Departamento de Ecologia y Ambiente, P.O. Box 76343, Caracas 1070-A (Venezuela)]. E-mail: nmerkl@uni-hohenheim.de; Schultze-Kraft, Rainer [Institute of Plant Production and Agroecology in the Tropics and Subtropics, Department of Biodiversity and Land Rehabilitation, University of Hohenheim, D-70593 Stuttgart (Germany)]. E-mail: rsk@uni-hohenheim.de; Infante, Carmen [PDVSA - Intevep, Centro de Investigacion y Apoyo Tecnologico de Petroleos de Venezuela S.A., Departamento de Ecologia y Ambiente, P.O. Box 76343, Caracas 1070-A (Venezuela) and Universidad Simon Bolivar (USB), FUNINDES, Unidad de Gestion Ambiental, Caracas (Venezuela)]. E-mail: luchoben@cantv.net

    2005-11-15

    When studying species for phytoremediation of petroleum-contaminated soils, one of the main traits is the root zone where enhanced petroleum degradation takes place. Root morphological characteristics of three tropical graminoids were studied. Specific root length (SRL), surface area, volume and average root diameter (ARD) of plants grown in crude oil-contaminated and uncontaminated soil were compared. Brachiaria brizantha and Cyperus aggregatus showed coarser roots in polluted soil compared to the control as expressed in an increased ARD. B. brizantha had a significantly larger specific root surface area in contaminated soil. Additionally, a shift of SRL and surface area per diameter class towards higher diameters was found. Oil contamination also caused a significantly smaller SRL and surface area in the finest diameter class of C. aggregatus. The root structure of Eleusine indica was not significantly affected by crude oil. Higher specific root surface area was related to higher degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons found in previous studies. - Describing the effect of crude oil on root morphology of tropical graminoids the work assists in the selection of plant species for phytoremediation of oil-contaminated soils.

  12. Chemical Composition and Characteristic Odor Compounds in Essential Oil from Alismatis Rhizoma (Tubers of Alisma orientale).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazawa, Mitsuo; Yoshinaga, Seiji; Kashima, Yusei; Nakahashi, Hiroshi; Hara, Nobuyuki; Nakagawa, Hiroki; Usami, Atsushi

    2016-01-01

    Chemical composition and potent odorants that contribute to the characteristic odor of essential oil from Alismatis Rhizoma (tubers of Alisma orientale) were investigated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), GC-olfactometry (GC-O), aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) and relative flavor activity (RFA) methods. Fifty components, representing 94.5% of the total oil, were identified. In this study, we newly identified thirty-nine compounds in the oil from tubers of A. orientale. The major constituents of the essential oil were khusinol (36.2%), δ-elemene (12.4%), germacron (4.1%), alismol (3.8%), β-elemene (3.1%), and α-bisabolol (1.9%). Through sensory analysis, sixteen aroma-active compounds were detected and the key contributing aroma-active compounds were δ-elemene (woody, flavor dilution (FD)-factor = 4, RFA = 0.3) β-elemene (spicy, FD = 5, RFA = 0.7), spathulenol (green, FD = 5, RFA = 1.0), γ-eudesmol (woody, FD = 6, RFA = 1.5), and γ-cadinol (woody, FD = 5, RFA = 1.0). These compounds are thought to contribute to the odor from tubers of A. orientale. These results imply that the essential oil from the tubers of A. orientale deserve further investigations in the phytochemical and medicinal fields.

  13. Chemical characteristics and fatty acid profile of butterfly tree seed oil (Bauhinia purpurea L)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soetjipto, H.; Riyanto, C. A.; Victoria, T.

    2018-04-01

    Butterfly tree (Kachnar) in Indonesia is only used as ornamental plants in garden, park, and roadsides. The seed of Butterfly tree was extracted with n-hexane and physicochemical properties were determined based on Standard Nasional Indonesia (SNI) 01-3555-1998 while the oil chemical composition was determined using GC-MS. The result showed that yield of the oil as 57.33±1.14 % (w/w) and the chemical characteristic of seed oil include acid value (13.7.8±0.23 mg KOH/g) saponification value (153.32±1.85 mg KOH/g), peroxide value (43.51±0.57. mg KOH/g). The butterfly tree seed oil showed that linoleic acid (28.11 %), palmitic acid (29.2%), oleic acid (19.82%) and stearic acid (10.7.4 %) were the main fatty acids in the crude seed oils. Minor amounts of neophytadiena and arachidic acid were also identified.

  14. Performance of maleated castor oil based plasticizer on rubber: rheology and curing characteristic studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indrajati, I. N.; Dewi, I. R.

    2017-07-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of maleated castor oil (MACO) as plasticizer on natural rubber (NR), ethylene propylene diene monomer (EPDM), and nitrile butadiene rubber (NBR). The parameter studied were involving rheological, curing and swelling properties. The MACOs were prepared by an esterification reaction between castor oil (CO) and maleic anhydride (MAH) with the help of xylene as water entrainer to improve water removal. Resulting oils then applied as a plasticizer in each of those rubbers within a fixed loading of 5 phr. Comparison has been made to evaluate the performance of MACO and conventional plasticizer (paraffinic oil for NR and EPDM, DOP for NBR) on each rubber. Rheology, curing characteristic and swelling of each rubber were studied. The results showed that rubber (NR/EPDM/NBR) plasticized with MACO had given similar flow characteristic to conventional plasticizers. MACO exhibited slow curing, confirmed by higher t90, but the scorch safety was of the same magnitude. MAH loading tended to decrease the flow properties and curing rate, while scorch time (ts2) was independent.

  15. [Investigation of emission characteristics for light duty vehicles with a portable emission measurement system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hai-Kun; Fu, Li-Xin; Zhou, Yu; Lin, Xin; Chen, Ai-Zhong; Ge, Wei-hu; Du, Xuan

    2008-10-01

    Emission from 7 typical light-duty vehicles under actual driving conditions was monitored using a portable emission measurement system to gather data for characterization of the real world vehicle emission in Shenzhen, including the effects of driving modes on vehicle emission, comparison of fuel consumption based emission factors (g x L(-1) with mileage based emission factors (g x km(-1)), and the average emission factors of the monitored vehicles. The acceleration and deceleration modes accounted for 66.7% of total travel time, 80.3% of traveling distance and 74.6%-79.2% of vehicle emission; the acceleration mode contributed more than other driving modes. The fuel based emission factors were less dependent on the driving speed; they may be utilized in building macro-scale vehicle emission inventory with smaller sensitivity to the vehicle driving conditions. The effect of vehicle technology on vehicle emission was significant; the emission factors of CO, HC and NO(x) of carbureted vehicles were 19.9-20.5, 5.6-26.1 and 1.8-2.0 times the more advanced vehicles of Euro II, respectively. Using the ECE + EUDC driving cycle would not produce the desired real-world emission rates of light duty vehicles in a typical Chinese city.

  16. Frequency and time domain characteristics of digital control of electric vehicle in-wheel drives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarzebowicz Leszek

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In-wheel electric drives are promising as actuators in active safety systems of electric and hybrid vehicles. This new function requires dedicated control algorithms, making it essential to deliver models that reflect better the wheel-torque control dynamics of electric drives. The timing of digital control events, whose importance is stressed in current research, still lacks an analytical description allowing for modeling its influence on control system dynamics. In this paper, authors investigate and compare approaches to the analog and discrete analytical modeling of torque control loop in digitally controlled electric drive. Five different analytical models of stator current torque component control are compared to judge their accuracy in representing drive control dynamics related to the timing of digital control events. The Bode characteristics and stepresponse characteristics of the analytical models are then compared with those of a reference model for three commonly used cases of motor discrete control schemes. Finally, the applicability of the presented models is discussed.

  17. Study on Spray Characteristics and Spray Droplets Dynamic Behavior of Diesel Engine Fueled by Rapeseed Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sapit Azwan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Fuel-air mixing is important process in diesel combustion. It directly affects the combustion and emission of diesel engine. Biomass fuel needs great help to atomize because the fuel has high viscosity and high distillation temperature. This study investigates the atomization characteristics and droplet dynamic behaviors of diesel engine spray fueled by rapeseed oil (RO. Optical observation of RO spray was carried out using shadowgraph photography technique. Single nano-spark photography technique was used to study the characteristics of the rapeseed oil spray while dual nano-spark shadowgraph technique was used to study the spray droplet behavior. The results show that RO has very poor atomization due to the high viscosity nature of the fuel. This is in agreement with the results from spray droplet dynamic behavior studies that shows due to the high viscosity, the droplets are large in size and travel downward, with very little influence of entrainment effect due to its large kinematic energy.

  18. Vehicle for removing pollutants, especially oil, from the surface of waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cornelissen, J

    1968-11-28

    A vessel for removing pollutants from the surface of water consists of wings extending transversally from the axis of the vessel. The wings are partially immersed in the water and are arranged at an angle, so that when the vessel is in motion, the oil is driven over the upper edge of the wing into a separation chamber. The chamber has a circular cross section and ends in an opening in the hull of the ship, where the polluting oil is collected. The opening and the channel have such a shape that the mixture of water and pollutant enters the opening in a turbulent stream. (8 claims)

  19. Morphological Characteristics and Somatic Incompatibility of Ganoderma from Infected Oil Palm from Three Inland Estates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latiffah, Z.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The morphological characteristics of Ganoderma basidiomata from infected oil palms from three inland estates showed some variations, but all fall within the description of G. boninense, based on Steyaert s classification system (1967, 1975. Pairings of G. boninense isolates from the same estate showed that there was somatic incompatibility among the isolates which indicated that the isolates were distinct individuals and not clones of single genotypes.

  20. Influence the Rubber Seed Type and Altitude on Characteristic of Seed, Oil and Biodiesel

    OpenAIRE

    Salni Salni; Poedji Loekitowati Hariani; Hanifa Marisa Hanifa

    2017-01-01

    This research studies the influence of the type of rubber seed that is superior and local, altitude plant in South Sumatra province to the characteristic of seed, oil and biodiesel (methyl ester). Rubber plants planted from local rubber seed by seeds seedlings and superior rubber seed by selected clones. In the study, rubber plants planted at a different altitude, namely in Banyuasin district (18 m above sea level), Prabumulih District (176 m above sea level) and Lahat District (627 m above s...

  1. Influence of the Rubber Seed Type and Altitude on Characteristic of Seed, Oil and Biodiesel

    OpenAIRE

    Salni, Salni; Hariani, Poedji Loekitowati; Hanifa, Hanifa Marisa

    2017-01-01

    This research studies the influence of the type of rubber seed that is superior and local, altitude plant in South Sumatra province to the characteristic of seed, oil and biodiesel (methyl ester). Rubber plants planted from local rubber seed by seeds seedlings and superior rubber seed by selected clones. In the study, rubber plants planted at a different altitude, namely in Banyuasin district (18 m above sea level), Prabumulih District (176 m above sea level) and Lahat District (627 m above s...

  2. Thermal characteristics analysis of microwaves reactor for pyrolysis of used cooking oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anis, Samsudin; Shahadati, Laily; Sumbodo, Wirawan; Wahyudi

    2017-03-01

    The research is objected to develop microwave reactor for pyrolysis of used cooking oil. The effect of microwave power as well as addition of char as absorber towards its thermal characteristic were investigated. Domestic microwave was modified and used to test the thermal characteristic of used cooking oil in the terms of temperature evolution, heating rate, and thermal efficiency. The samples were examined under various microwave power of 347W, 399W, 572W and 642W for 25 minutes of irradiation time. The char loading was tested in the level of 0, 50, and 100 g. Microwave reactor consists of microwave unit with a maximum power of 642W, a ceramic reactor, and a condenser equipped with temperature measurement system was successfully developed. It was found that microwave power and addition of absorber significantly influenced the thermal characteristic of microwave reactor. Under investigated condition, the optimum result was obtained at microwave power of 642W and 100 g of char. The condition was able to provide temperature of 480°C, heating rate of 18.2°C/min and thermal efficiency of 53% that is suitable to pyrolyze used cooking oil.

  3. KARAKTERISTIK MINYAK CAMPURAN RED PALM OIL DENGAN PALM KERNEL OLEIN (Characteristics of Oil Blends from Red Palm Oil and Palm Kernel Olein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Ulfah

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Characteristics of oil blends has been produced from red palm oil (RPO and palm kernel olein (PKOo with seven ratios with a total of 100, namely A (0:100, B (25:75, C (40:60, D (50:50, E (60:40, F (75:25 and G (100:0 v/v investigated with randomized complete block design. The result showed that different of ratio levels RPO and PKOo have some effects on peroxide value, saponification value, melting point, cloud point and β-carotene content from RPO-PKOo oil blends, but has not effect on free fatty acid content. Higher level of PKOo content on formulas oil blends were decreased of saponification value and melting point, but was increased of cloud point. The best of RPOPKOo oil blends has been obtained at ratio 50:50 (v/v, with 459.52 ppm β-carotene, 1.35 meq/kg peroxide value, 0.09 % free fatty acid, 202.60 saponification value, 24.15 oC melting point and 7.15 oC cloud point. Fatty acids composition were 1.24 % capric acid, 29.00 % lauric acid, 10.09 % miristic acid, 23.10 % palmitic acid, 5.84 linoleic acid, 27.30 % oleic acid and 3.43 % stearic acid. Keywords: Red palm oil, palm kernel olein, oil blends, chemical and physical properties ABSTRAK Sifat-sifat minyak campuran yang dihasilkan dari red palm oil (RPO dan palm kernel olein (PKOo dengan tujuh tingkat rasio yang totalnya 100, yaitu A (0:100, B (25:75, C (40:60, D (50:50, E (60:40, F (75:25 dan G (100:0 (v/v dikaji menggunakan rancangan acak lengkap kelompok. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa rasio RPO:PKOo mempengaruhi angka peroksida, angka penyabunan, melting point, cloud point dan kadar β-karoten dari minyak campuran RPO-PKOo yang dihasilkan, namun tidak mempengaruhi kadar asam lemak bebas. Peningkatan jumlah PKOo yang ditambahkan dalam minyak campuran RPO-PKOo, akan menurunkan angka penyabunan dan melting point, namun akan menaikkan cloud point. Produk minyak campuran RPO-PKOo terbaik diperoleh pada rasio 50:50 (v/v, dengan kadar β-karoten 459,52 ppm, angka peroksida 1,35 meq

  4. Study on zigzag maneuver characteristics of V-U very large crude oil (VLCC) tankers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaswar, Maimun, A.; Wahid, M. A.; Priyanto, A.; Zamani, Pauzi, Saman

    2012-06-01

    The Department of Marine Technology at the Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University Teknologi Malaysia has recently developed an Ship Maneuverability tool which intends to upgrade student's level understanding the application of fluid dynamic on interaction between hull, propeller, and rudder during maneuvering. This paper discusses zigzag maneuver for conventional Very Large Crude Oil (VLCC) ships with the same principal dimensions but different stern flame shape. 10/10 zigzag maneuver characteristics of U and V types of VLCC ships are investigated. Simulation results for U-type show a good agreement with the experimental data, but V-type not good agreement with experimental one. Further study on zigzag maneuver characteristics are required.

  5. [Chemical characteristics of the pulp and oil of the annona tree (Annona coriaceae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostini, T da S; Cecchi, H M; Barrera-Arellano, D

    1995-09-01

    Belonging to the Annonaceae family, marolo (Annona coriaceae) is a native species of the Brazilian "cerrado" región (Minas Gerais, Goiás and Distrito Federal) and can be found in South American tropical zones. Its fruits are highly consumed by local people and commercialized in markets or street stalls. There is, however, a tendency for the extinction of marolo due to deforestation and the large scale plantation of monocultures instead of native plants. The literature still offers no data on the chemical composition of the proximate composition and vitamin C, A and tannin contents were carried out on the yellow marolo pulp as well as the determination of the physico-chemical characteristics of the seed oil. Five batches of fruit from the Alfenas region--south of Minas Gerais State--were analysed in this work and their average composition were: humidity 77%, total sugar 15%, reducing sugar 11%, crude protein 1%, lipids 3%, fiber 5% and fixed mineral residue 1%. The contents of vitamin C and A were 8.2 mg/100g and 117.5 RE/100g, respectively, and the tannin content was 245 mg/100g. The results showed high fiber and lipid contents of marolo pulp in comparison with many other tropical fruit pulps. The vitamin C contents were equivalent to those found in avocado, pineapple and watermelon, while the vitamin A contents were equivalent to papaya, peach, guava and several other tropical fruits. Marolo seed contains 45% of oil on a dry basis. Its composition and physico-chemical characteristics showed the possibility of producing a good quality oil, with great potential for the fine oil market. However the presence of alkaloids in the oil needs to be further studied. Their elimination could be done by refining or extraction in a continuous press. The results exalt the high quality of marolo pulp, showing that the preservation of native species should be stimulated.

  6. A study on the performance and emission characteristics of esterified pinnai oil tested in VCR engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashok Kumar, T; Chandramouli, R; Mohanraj, T

    2015-11-01

    Biodiesel is a clean renewable fuel derived from vegetable oils and animal fats. It is biodegradable, oxygenated, non toxic and free from sulfur and aromatics. The biodiesel prepared from pinnai oil undergoes acid esterification followed by alkaline transesterification process. The fatty acid methyl esters components were identified using gas chromatography and compared with the standard properties. The properties of biodiesel are comparable with diesel. The yield of the biodiesel production depends upon the process parameters such as reaction temperature, pH, time duration and amount of catalyst. The yield of biodiesel by transesterification process was 73% at 55°C. This fuel was tested in a variable compression ratio engine with blend ratios of B10 and B20. During the test runs the compression ratio of the engine was varied from 15:1 to 18:1 and the torque is adjusted from zero to maximum value of 22Nm. The performance characteristics such as the brake thermal efficiency, brake specific energy consumption and exhaust gas temperature of the engine are analyzed. The combustion characteristics of biodiesel like ignition delay, combustion duration and maximum gas temperature and the emission characteristics are also analyzed. The performance characteristics, combustion characteristics and engine emission are effective in the variable compression ratio engine with biodiesel and it is compared with diesel. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Simulation and experimental research on trans-media vehicle water-entry motion characteristics at low speed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jian; Li, Yongli; Feng, Jinfu; Hu, Junhua; Liu, An

    2017-01-01

    The motion characteristics of trans-media vehicles during the water-entry process were explored in this study in an effort to obtain the optimal water-entry condition of the vehicle for developing a novel, single control strategy integrating underwater non-control and in-air control. A water-entry dynamics model is established by combining the water-entry motion characteristics of the vehicle in uncontrolled conditions at low speed with time-varying parameters (e.g. buoyancy, added mass). A water-entry experiment is designed to confirm the effectiveness of the established model. After that, by comparing the experimental results with the simulated results, the model is further modified to more accurately reflect water-entry motion. The change laws of the vehicle's attitude and position during the water-entry process are also obtained by analyzing the simulation of the modified model under different velocity, angle, and angle of attack conditions. The results presented here have guiding significance for the future realization of reaching the stable underwater navigation state of the vehicle after water-entry process.

  8. Simulation and experimental research on trans-media vehicle water-entry motion characteristics at low speed.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Yang

    Full Text Available The motion characteristics of trans-media vehicles during the water-entry process were explored in this study in an effort to obtain the optimal water-entry condition of the vehicle for developing a novel, single control strategy integrating underwater non-control and in-air control. A water-entry dynamics model is established by combining the water-entry motion characteristics of the vehicle in uncontrolled conditions at low speed with time-varying parameters (e.g. buoyancy, added mass. A water-entry experiment is designed to confirm the effectiveness of the established model. After that, by comparing the experimental results with the simulated results, the model is further modified to more accurately reflect water-entry motion. The change laws of the vehicle's attitude and position during the water-entry process are also obtained by analyzing the simulation of the modified model under different velocity, angle, and angle of attack conditions. The results presented here have guiding significance for the future realization of reaching the stable underwater navigation state of the vehicle after water-entry process.

  9. The vehicle routing game: An application of cost allocation in a gas and oil company

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engevall, Stefan; Goethe-Lundgren, Maud; Vaerbrand, Peter

    2000-12-01

    In this article we study a cost allocation problem that arises in a distribution planning situation at the Logistics department at Norsk Hydro Olje AB. The routes from one depot during one day are considered, for which the total distribution cost is to be divided among the customers that are visited. This cost allocation problem is formulated as a vehicle routing game, allowing the use of vehicles with different capacities. Cost allocation methods based on different concepts from cooperative game theory, such as the core and the nucleolus, are discussed. A procedure that can be used to investigate whether the core is empty or not is presented, as well as a procedure to compute the nucleolus. Computational results for the Norsk Hydro case are also presented and discussed.

  10. Performance Evaluation of 14 Neural Network Architectures Used for Predicting Heat Transfer Characteristics of Engine Oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ajmi, R. M.; Abou-Ziyan, H. Z.; Mahmoud, M. A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a comprehensive study that aimed at identifying best neural network architecture and parameters to predict subcooled boiling characteristics of engine oils. A total of 57 different neural networks (NNs) that were derived from 14 different NN architectures were evaluated for four different prediction cases. The NNs were trained on experimental datasets performed on five engine oils of different chemical compositions. The performance of each NN was evaluated using a rigorous statistical analysis as well as careful examination of smoothness of predicted boiling curves. One NN, out of the 57 evaluated, correctly predicted the boiling curves for all cases considered either for individual oils or for all oils taken together. It was found that the pattern selection and weight update techniques strongly affect the performance of the NNs. It was also revealed that the use of descriptive statistical analysis such as R2, mean error, standard deviation, and T and slope tests, is a necessary but not sufficient condition for evaluating NN performance. The performance criteria should also include inspection of the smoothness of the predicted curves either visually or by plotting the slopes of these curves.

  11. Effect of Gamma Irradiation Doses on Some Chemical Characteristics of Cotton Seed Oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleh, O.I.

    2011-01-01

    Cotton Seeds c.v. Giza 85 (Gossypium hirsutum L.) were exposed to gamma irradiation doses of 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 kGy to improve some chemical characteristics of cotton seed oil i.e. saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, gossypol and βsitosterol that were bound oil. The presented study showed that, the saturated fatty acids; lauric, palmitic and stearic increased when the cotton seeds were exposed to gamma irradiation doses of 0.5 up to 1.5 kGy, On the other hand, arachidic acid content decreased in all the irradiated treatments compared with untreated cotton seed. The unsaturated fatty acid oleic was increased in irradiated cotton seed samples compared with untreated one, while linoleic, the major unsaturated fatty acid decreased in irradiated cotton seed oil than untreated seeds. Gossypol and βsitosterol, bound oil, in irradiated cotton seeds increased gradually with gamma irradiated doses compared with untreated control samples

  12. Combustion characteristics of lemongrass (Cymbopogon flexuosus oil in a partial premixed charge compression ignition engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avinash Alagumalai

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Indeed, the development of alternate fuels for use in internal combustion engines has traditionally been an evolutionary process in which fuel-related problems are met and critical fuel properties are identified and their specific limits defined to resolve the problem. In this regard, this research outlines a vision of lemongrass oil combustion characteristics. In a nut-shell, the combustion phenomena of lemongrass oil were investigated at engine speed of 1500 rpm and compression ratio of 17.5 in a 4-stroke cycle compression ignition engine. Furthermore, the engine tests were conducted with partial premixed charge compression ignition-direct injection (PCCI-DI dual fuel system to profoundly address the combustion phenomena. Analysis of cylinder pressure data and heat-release analysis of neat and premixed lemongrass oil were demonstrated in-detail and compared with conventional diesel. The experimental outcomes disclosed that successful ignition and energy release trends can be obtained from a compression ignition engine fueled with lemongrass oil.

  13. Influence of injection timing on DI diesel engine characteristics fueled with waste transformer oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Prasanna Raj Yadav

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This research work targets on the effective utilization of WTO (waste transformer oil in a diesel engine, which would rather reduce environmental problems caused by disposing of it in the open land. The waste transformer oil was compared with the conventional diesel fuel and found that it can also be used as fuel in compression ignition engines since the WTO is also a derivative of crude oil. In this present work, the WTO has been subjected to traditional base-catalyzed trans-esterification process in order to reduce the high viscosity of the WTO which helps to effectively utilize WTO as a fuel in DI diesel engine. The objective of the work is to study the influence of injection timing on the performance, emission and combustion characteristics of a single cylinder, four stroke, direct injection diesel engine using TWTO (trans-esterified waste transformer oil as a fuel. Experiments were performed at four injection timings (23°, 22°, 21°, and 20° bTDC. The results indicate that the retarded injection timing of 20° bTDC resulted in decreased oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide and unburned hydrocarbon by 11.57%, 17.24%, and 10% respectively while the brake thermal efficiency and smoke increased under all the load conditions when compared to that of standard injection timing.

  14. Biodiesel production from waste cotton seed oil using low cost catalyst: Engine performance and emission characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duple Sinha

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Production of fatty acid methyl esters from waste cotton seed oil through transesterification was reported. The GC–MS analysis of WCCO oil was studied and the major fatty acids were found to be palmitic acid (27.76% and linoleic acid (42.84%. The molecular weight of the oil was 881.039 g/mol. A maximum yield of 92% biodiesel was reported when the reaction temperature, time, methanol/oil ratio and catalyst loading rate were 60 °C, 50 min, 12:1 and 3% (wt.%, respectively. The calcined egg shell catalyst was prepared and characterized. Partial purification of the fatty acid methyl esters was proposed for increasing the purity of the biodiesel and better engine performance. The flash point and the fire point of the biodiesel were found to be 128 °C and 136 °C, respectively. The Brake thermal efficiency of WCCO B10 biodiesel was 26.04% for maximum load, specific fuel consumption for diesel was 0.32 kg/kW h at maximum load. The use of biodiesel blends showed a reduction of carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon emissions and a marginal increase in nitrogen oxides (NOx emissions improved emission characteristics.

  15. PERFORMANCE AND EMISSION CHARACTERISTICS OF A CI ENGINE OPERATED ON VEGETABLE OILS AS ALTERNATIVE FUELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Rajagopal

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available An experimental analysis was done using a four-stroke, single cylinder, constant speed, water-cooled diesel engine, which was interfaced with Engine software. Performance and emission characteristics were evaluated for three non-edible vegetable oils, i.e. thumba, jojoba, neem oil, as well as jojoba methyl ester, to study the effect of injection pressure at 205, 220, 240 and 260 bar with a variation in injection timing at 23°bTDC and 28°bTDC. The performance of jojoba methyl ester improved with an increase in injection pressure. A maximum brake thermal efficiency of 29.72% was obtained with lower emissions compared to the other vegetable oils; this might be explained by low viscosity and better combustion. Further investigations were carried out with a new lubricant, SAE 5W-30, which improved the performance of the CI engine by 1.59%. All of the abovementioned investigations were fruitful and these results are expected to lead to substantial contributions in the development of a viable vegetable oil engine.

  16. Dynamic thermal characteristics of heat pipe via segmented thermal resistance model for electric vehicle battery cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Feifei; Lan, Fengchong; Chen, Jiqing

    2016-07-01

    Heat pipe cooling for battery thermal management systems (BTMSs) in electric vehicles (EVs) is growing due to its advantages of high cooling efficiency, compact structure and flexible geometry. Considering the transient conduction, phase change and uncertain thermal conditions in a heat pipe, it is challenging to obtain the dynamic thermal characteristics accurately in such complex heat and mass transfer process. In this paper, a ;segmented; thermal resistance model of a heat pipe is proposed based on thermal circuit method. The equivalent conductivities of different segments, viz. the evaporator and condenser of pipe, are used to determine their own thermal parameters and conditions integrated into the thermal model of battery for a complete three-dimensional (3D) computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation. The proposed ;segmented; model shows more precise than the ;non-segmented; model by the comparison of simulated and experimental temperature distribution and variation of an ultra-thin micro heat pipe (UMHP) battery pack, and has less calculation error to obtain dynamic thermal behavior for exact thermal design, management and control of heat pipe BTMSs. Using the ;segmented; model, the cooling effect of the UMHP pack with different natural/forced convection and arrangements is predicted, and the results correspond well to the tests.

  17. Performance and emission characteristics of a DI compression ignition engine operated on Honge, Jatropha and sesame oil methyl esters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banapurmath, N.R.; Tewari, P.G. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, B.V.B. College of Engineering and Technology, Vidyanagar, Poona-Bangalore Road, Hubli 580031 (India); Hosmath, R.S. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, K.L.E' s C.E.T., Belgaum (India)

    2008-09-15

    The high viscosity of vegetable oils leads to problem in pumping and spray characteristics. The inefficient mixing of vegetable oils with air contributes to incomplete combustion. The best way to use vegetable oils as fuel in compression ignition (CI) engines is to convert it into biodiesel. Biodiesel is a methyl or ethyl ester of fatty acids made from vegetable oils (both edible and non-edible) and animal fat. The main resources for biodiesel production can be non-edible oils obtained from plant species such as Pongamia pinnata (Honge oil), Jatropha curcas (Ratanjyot), Hevea brasiliensis (Rubber) and Calophyllum inophyllum (Nagchampa). Biodiesel can be used in its pure form or can be blended with diesel to form different blends. It can be used in CI engines with very little or no engine modifications. This is because it has properties similar to mineral diesel. This paper presents the results of investigations carried out on a single-cylinder, four-stroke, direct-injection, CI engine operated with methyl esters of Honge oil, Jatropha oil and sesame oil. Comparative measures of brake thermal efficiency, smoke opacity, HC, CO, NO{sub X}, ignition delay, combustion duration and heat release rates have been presented and discussed. Engine performance in terms of higher brake thermal efficiency and lower emissions (HC, CO, NO{sub X}) with sesame oil methyl ester operation was observed compared to methyl esters of Honge and Jatropha oil operation. (author)

  18. Review of Selected Army-Funded Research on Fog Oil Smoke Characteristics as Related to Clean Air Act Issues

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chester, Nancy

    1998-01-01

    The endurance of fog oil (FO) as a choice training smoke is credited to its advantageous characteristics, which lead to optimum obscuration of troops and mechanized equipment as well as its cost efficiency, safety, and ease of handling...

  19. Emissions Characteristics of Small Diesel Engine Fuelled by Waste Cooking Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid Amir

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel is an alternative, decomposable and biological-processed fuel that has similar characteristics with mineral diesel which can be used directly into diesel engines. However, biodiesel has oxygenated, more density and viscosity compared to mineral diesel. Despite years of improvement attempts, the key issue in using waste cooking oil-based fuels is oxidation stability, stoichiometric point, bio-fuel composition, antioxidants on the degradation and much oxygen with comparing to diesel gas oil. Thus, the improvement of emission exhausted from diesel engines fueled by biodiesel derived from waste cooking oil (WCO is urgently required to meet the future stringent emission regulations. The purpose of this research is to investigate the influences of WCO blended fuel and combustion reliability in small engine on the combustion characteristics and exhaust emissions. The engine speed was varied from 1500-2500 rpm and WCO blending ratio from 5-15 vol% (W5-W15. Increased blends of WCO ratio is found to influences to the combustion process, resulting in decreased the HC emissions and also other exhaust emission element. The improvement of combustion process is expected to be strongly influenced by oxygenated fuel in biodiesel content.

  20. Quality characteristics of alternative diesel from hydrotreatment of used frying oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karonis, Dimitrios; Chilari, Despina [National Technical Univ. of Athens (Greece). Lab. of Fuels Technology and Lubricants; Bezergianni, Stella [Center for Research and Technology Hellas (CERTH), Thessaloniki (Greece). Lab. of Environmental Fuels and Hydrocarbons (LEFH)

    2013-06-01

    This paper examines the properties of alternative diesel fuel that is derived from the hydrotreatment of used frying oils (UFO). Used frying oil is a difficult feedstock for biodiesel production. The hydrotreating of UFO converts triglycerides mainly into normal paraffins in the diesel fuel range. The results obtained show that the use of hydrotreated UFO has many advantages in comparison conventional diesel. Particularly, this renewable fuel has an excellent cetane number and cetane index (> 90) justified from its paraffinic character. Furthermore, this finding complies with the lower value of density in comparison to diesel, reinforcing the paraffinic nature of this fuel, comprising straight chain alkanes and negligible content of aromatic hydrocarbons in its composition. Due to the hydrotreating, these fuels do not contain olefinic bonds, therefore they are resistant to oxidation, permitting long term storage abilities. Despite these benefits, there are some considerations from the use of HFOs. Hydrotreating is a process which successfully removes heteroatoms such as S, N, O and eliminates the existence of double unstable bonds, rendering to fuel appreciable characteristics. Unfortunately, these high ignition quality oils suffer from lower lubricity and worse cold flow properties in comparison to diesel, making their use during winter period inevitable. These problems could be addressed by blending hydrotreated UFO with regular diesel. A compromise should be found in order to promote a renewable fuel with lower cetane number but with much better lubricity in order to meet the EN 590 European Standard regarding the main quality characteristics of the final fuel. (orig.)

  1. Volatile Compounds with Characteristic Odor of Essential Oil from Magnolia obovata Leaves by Hydrodistillation and Solvent-assisted Flavor Evaporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazawa, Mitsuo; Nakashima, Yoshimi; Nakahashi, Hiroshi; Hara, Nobuyuki; Nakagawa, Hiroki; Usami, Atsushi; Chavasiri, Warinthorn

    2015-01-01

    The present study focuses on the volatile compounds with characteristic odor of essential oil from the leaves of Magnolia obovata by hydrodistillation (HD) and solvent-assisted flavor evaporation (SAFE) method. Eighty-seven compounds, representing 98.0% of the total oil, were identified using HD. The major compounds of HD oil were (E)-β-caryophyllene (23.7%), α-humulene (11.6%), geraniol (9.1%), and borneol (7.0%). In SAFE oil, fifty-eight compounds, representing 99.7% of the total oil, were identified. The main compounds of SAFE oil were (E)-β-caryophyllene (48.9%), α-humulene (15.7%), and bicyclogermacrene (4.2%). In this study, we newly identified eighty-five compounds of the oils from M. obovata leaves. These oils were also subjected to aroma evaluation by gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) and aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA). As a result, twenty-four (HD) and twenty-five (SAFE) aroma-active compounds were detected. (E)-β-Caryophyllene, α-humulene, linalool, geraniol, 1,8-cineole, and bicyclogermacrene were found to impart the characteristic odor of M. obovata leaves. These results imply that the oils of M. obovata leaves must be investigated further to clarify their potential application in the food and pharmaceutical industries.

  2. Changes in Acylglycerols composition, quality characteristics and in vivo effects of dietary pumpkin seed oil upon thermal oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeb, Alam; Ahmad, Sultan

    2017-07-01

    This study was aimed to determine the acylglycerols composition, quality characteristics and protective role of dietary pumpkin seed oil in rabbits. Pumpkin seed oil was thermally oxidized and analyzed for quality characteristics and acylglycerols composition using reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection (HPLC-DAD). Oxidized and un-oxidized oil samples were fed to the rabbits in different doses for two weeks. The changes in the serum biochemistry, hematology, and liver histology were studied. The levels of quality parameters such peroxide value (PV), anisidine value (AV), total phenolic contents (TPC), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), conjugated dienes (CD) and conjugated trienes (CT) significantly increased with thermal treatment. HPLC analyses revealed ten individual triacylglycerols (TAGs), total di-acylglycerols (DAGs), mono-acylglycerols (MAGs), and total oxidized TAGs. Trilinolein (LLL), 1-oleoyl-2,3-dilinolinoyl glycerol (OLL), triolein (OOO) and 1,2-distearoyl-3-palmitoyl glycerol (SSP) were present in higher amounts and decreased with thermal treatment. Animal's studies showed that oxidized oils decreased the whole body weight, which was ameliorated by the co-administration of un-oxidized oils. The levels of serum biochemical parameters were improved by co-administration of pumpkin seed oils. There were no significant effects of both oxidized and un-oxidized pumpkin seed oil on the hematological and histological parameters of rabbits. In conclusion, nutritionally important triacylglycerols were present in pumpkin seed oil with protective role against the toxicity of its corresponding oxidized oils.

  3. Characteristics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in food oils in Beijing catering services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Xuewei; Yin, Yong; Feng, Sijie; Du, Xu; Yu, Jingyi; Yao, Zhiliang

    2016-12-01

    The concentrations and characteristics of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in 48 oil samples randomly collected from 30 catering services that employ six cooking methods were quantified via high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). These 16 PAHs were detected in almost all of the samples. The levels of Σ16PAHs, Σ4PAHs, benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), and total BaP equivalents (ΣBaP eq ) for the six cooking methods exceeded the legal limit. The concentrations of Σ4PAHs were approximately 9.5 to 16.4 times the legal limit proposed by the European Commission (Off J Eur Union 215:4-8, 2011), and the level of BaP exceeded the national standard in China by 4.7- to 10.6-fold, particularly in oil from fried foods. Low molecular weight PAHs (LMW PAHs) were predominant in fried food oil from different catering services and accounted for 94.8 % of these oils, and the ΣBaP eq of the high molecular weight PAHs (HMW PAHs) was 11.5-fold higher than that of the LMW PAHs. The concentrations of Σ16PAHs (3751.9-7585.8 μg/kg), Σ4PAHs (144.6-195.7 μg/kg), BaP (79.7-135.8 μg/kg), and ΣBaP eq (231.0-265.4 μg/kg) were highest in the samples from fast food restaurants/buffets (FB), followed by those from fried food stalls (FS) and then cooking restaurants/cafeterias (RC). The results of this study suggest that the government should strengthen control and supervision of PAH contamination in food and edible oils.

  4. Relationships between volatile compounds and sensory characteristics in virgin olive oil by analytical and chemometric approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procida, Giuseppe; Cichelli, Angelo; Lagazio, Corrado; Conte, Lanfranco S

    2016-01-15

    The volatile fraction of virgin olive oil is characterised by low molecular weight compounds that vaporise at room temperature. In order to obtain an aroma profile similar to natural olfactory perception, the composition of the volatile compounds was determined by applying dynamic headspace gas chromatography, performed at room temperature, with a cryogenic trap directly connected to a gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer system. Samples were also evaluated according to European Union and International Olive Council official methods for sensory evaluation. In this paper, the composition of the volatile fraction of 25 extra virgin olive oils from different regions of Italy was analysed and some preliminary considerations on relationships between chemical composition of volatile fraction and sensory characteristics are reported. Forty-two compounds were identified by means of the particular analytical technique used. All the analysed samples, classified as extra virgin by the panel test, never present peaks whose magnitude is important enough in defected oils. The study was focused on the evaluation of volatile compounds responsible for the positive impact on olive odour properties ('green-fruity' and 'sweet') and olfactory perception. Chemometric evaluation of data, obtained through headspace analysis and the panel test evaluation, showed a correlation between chemical compounds and sensory properties. On the basis of the results, the positive attributes of virgin olive oil are divided into two separated groups: sweet types or green types. Sixteen volatile compounds with known positive impact on odour properties were extracted and identified. In particular, eight compounds seem correlated with sweet properties whereas the green sensation appears to be correlated with eight other different substances. The content of the compounds at six carbon atoms proves to be very important in defining positive attributes of extra virgin olive oils and sensory evaluation. © 2015

  5. Acoustic characteristics of hybrid electric vehicles and the safety of pedestrians who are blind

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    Quieter cars such as electric vehicles (EVs) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) may reduce auditory cues used by pedestrians to assess the state of nearby traffic and, as a result, their use may have an adverse impact on pedestrian safety. In order ...

  6. Comparisons of the nanoparticle emission characteristics between GDI and PFI vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Jihwan; Lee, Jongtae; Kim, Jeongsoo; Park, Sungwook

    2015-01-01

    To compare the particle emissions of gasoline direct injection (GDI) and port fuel injection (PFI) vehicles in this study, the particulate matter of exhaust emissions was sampled from a constant volume sampler tunnel and tailpipe using a chassis dynamometer. Using the gravimetric method and a condensation particle counter, the particulate matter mass (PM) and particle number (PN) of the particle size according to the current regulations were measured. Nanometer-sized particle emissions, which are smaller than regulated particle emissions, were measured by an engine exhaust particle sizer. Four test vehicles, which included two GDI vehicles and two PFI vehicles, were tested in various driving modes. The test results show that the particle emissions from the GDI vehicles were higher than the particle emissions from the PFI vehicles. In addition, the test vehicles had the highest emissions in cold start conditions. In the GDI vehicles, the PM and PN satisfied the current regulations but PN did not satisfy the EURO 6c regulations that will be implemented in 2017. In all driving modes, the particle size distribution show that the most common particle size was approximately 50 nm, and the results according to the driving patterns of each mode were confirmed

  7. Comparisons of the nanoparticle emission characteristics between GDI and PFI vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Jihwan [Graduate School of Hanyang University (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jongtae; Kim, Jeongsoo [National Institute of Environmental Research (Korea, Republic of); Park, Sungwook, E-mail: parks@hanyang.ac.kr [Hanyang University, School of Mechanical Engineering (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    To compare the particle emissions of gasoline direct injection (GDI) and port fuel injection (PFI) vehicles in this study, the particulate matter of exhaust emissions was sampled from a constant volume sampler tunnel and tailpipe using a chassis dynamometer. Using the gravimetric method and a condensation particle counter, the particulate matter mass (PM) and particle number (PN) of the particle size according to the current regulations were measured. Nanometer-sized particle emissions, which are smaller than regulated particle emissions, were measured by an engine exhaust particle sizer. Four test vehicles, which included two GDI vehicles and two PFI vehicles, were tested in various driving modes. The test results show that the particle emissions from the GDI vehicles were higher than the particle emissions from the PFI vehicles. In addition, the test vehicles had the highest emissions in cold start conditions. In the GDI vehicles, the PM and PN satisfied the current regulations but PN did not satisfy the EURO 6c regulations that will be implemented in 2017. In all driving modes, the particle size distribution show that the most common particle size was approximately 50 nm, and the results according to the driving patterns of each mode were confirmed.

  8. Comparisons of the nanoparticle emission characteristics between GDI and PFI vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Jihwan; Lee, Jongtae; Kim, Jeongsoo; Park, Sungwook

    2015-12-01

    To compare the particle emissions of gasoline direct injection (GDI) and port fuel injection (PFI) vehicles in this study, the particulate matter of exhaust emissions was sampled from a constant volume sampler tunnel and tailpipe using a chassis dynamometer. Using the gravimetric method and a condensation particle counter, the particulate matter mass (PM) and particle number (PN) of the particle size according to the current regulations were measured. Nanometer-sized particle emissions, which are smaller than regulated particle emissions, were measured by an engine exhaust particle sizer. Four test vehicles, which included two GDI vehicles and two PFI vehicles, were tested in various driving modes. The test results show that the particle emissions from the GDI vehicles were higher than the particle emissions from the PFI vehicles. In addition, the test vehicles had the highest emissions in cold start conditions. In the GDI vehicles, the PM and PN satisfied the current regulations but PN did not satisfy the EURO 6c regulations that will be implemented in 2017. In all driving modes, the particle size distribution show that the most common particle size was approximately 50 nm, and the results according to the driving patterns of each mode were confirmed.

  9. ASSESSMENT OF THE GENERAL PSYCHOLOGICAL AND FUNCTIONAL CHARACTERISTICS CAUSED BY VIBRATIONS AT DRIVERS OF HEAVY MOTOR VEHICLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanela Čajlaković Kurtalić

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we presented a research that estimates general psychological and functional characteristics of motor vehicle drivers, with the goal of determining the adverse effects of noise and vibration on the drivers. The study was conducted on a sample of 56 participants, professional drivers of motor vehicles, randomly chosen from companies of various types operating in transport of passengers and goods. For the evaluation of the results,we used descriptive and correlational analysis. The results showed that there were significant negative side effects caused by the nature of work of drivers, especially those under the influence of noise and vibration, which are even more significant in older participants and those with more years of service and those who spend more time driving during the interval of 24 hours , as well as those who drive heavier vehicles.

  10. Research on the spatial structure of crude oil flow and the characteristics of its flow field in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Yuan; Hao, Li-Sha; Wan, Lu

    2007-01-01

    Crude oil flow is a sort of oil spatial movement, and in China, it is large scale and covers wide area with extensive social-economic effects. This paper analyses the spatial structure of crude oil flow in China, the characters of its flow field and the layout of its flow track. The results show that oil flow in China has a spatial characteristic of centralized output and decentralized input; its spatial structure is composed of Source System in the shape of right-angled triangle, Confluence System in the shape of right-angled trapezium and Multiplex System in the shape of obtuse-angled triangle, which are mutually nested, and on a whole, the presence of Multiplex System balances and optimizes the flow layout; oil flow field in China can be divided into four parts, i.e. the North, North-west, East and South Field, two or three of which overlap with each other, extending the oil flow and making the flow more flexible and maneuverable; oil flow track is a multi-objective decision-making route and in the decision-making process oil transportation cost is one of the essential factors, in China, oil flow track falls into the Northeast, North, East, Northwest and South five cluster regions, which connect with each other, and series-parallel connection between various kinds of transportation channels is widely seen in them, reinforcing the supply security of crude oil

  11. Stability and Control Characteristics of a Model of an Aerial Vehicle Supported by Four Ducted Fans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parlett, Lysle P.

    1961-01-01

    The stability and control characteristics of a simple, lightly loaded model approximately one-third the size of a full-scale vehicle have been investigated by a series of free-flight tests. The model is representative of a type of vertically rising aircraft which would utilize four ducted fans as its sole source of lift and propulsion. The ducts were arranged in a rectangular pattern and were fixed to the airframe so that their axes of revolution were vertical for hovering flight. Control moments were provided by remotely controlled compressed-air jets at the sides and ends of the model. In hovering, the model in its original configuration exhibited divergent oscillations about both the roll and pitch axes. Because these oscillations were of a rather short period., the model was very difficult to control by the use of remote controls only. The model could be completely stabilized by the addition of a sufficient amount of artificial damping. The pitching oscillation was made easier to control by increasing the distance between the forward and rearward pairs of ducts. In forward flight, with the model in its original configuration, the top speed was limited by the development of an uncontrollable pitch-up. Large forward tilt angles were required for trim at the highest speeds attained. With the model rotated so that the shorter axis became the longitudinal axis, the pitch trim problem was found to be less than with the longer axis as the longitudinal axis. The installation of a system of vanes in the slipstream of the forward ducts reduced the tilt angle but increased the power required.

  12. Fuel conversion characteristics of black liquor and pyrolysis oil mixture for efficient gasification with inherent catalyst

    OpenAIRE

    Bach Oller, Albert; Furusjö, Erik; Umeki, Kentaro

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the technical feasibility of a catalytic co-gasification process using a mixture of black liquor (BL) and pyrolysis oil (PO). A technical concern is if gasifiers can be operated at low temperature (~1000 ºC) without problems of tar, soot or char, as is the case for pure BL due to the catalytic effect of fuel alkali. Hence, we investigated fuel conversion characteristics of BL/PO mixture: conversion of single droplet in flame, and char gasification reactivity. 20wt.% (BP20...

  13. In Vitro Rumen Fermentation Characteristics and Fatty Acid Profiles Added with Calcium Soap of Canola/Flaxseed Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Suharti

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to assess the effect of adding canola oil and flaxseed oil which were protected with calcium soap (Ca-soap on the fermentation characteristics, rumen microbial population, and the profile of fatty acids in the rumen during 4 and 8 hours in the in vitro fermentation. The research design used in this study was a completely randomized block design with 3 treatments and 4 replications. The treatments consisted of control ration (Napier grass and concentrate at the ratio of 60 : 40, control + 6% of Ca-soap of canola oil, and control + 6% of Ca-soap of flaxseed oil. Variables observed were pH value, NH3 concentration, volatile fatty acid (VFA, dry matter and organic matter digestibility, and fatty acid profile.  The results showed that the addition of Ca-soap of canola or flaxseed oil did not affect the pH value, NH3 concentration, dry matter digestibility, organic matter digestibility, total population of bacteria and protozoa in the rumen. However, the total production of ruminal VFA was increased (P<0.05 with the addition of Ca soap of canola oil/flaxseed oil. The use of Ca-soap of flaxseed oil increased (P<0.05 the content of unsaturated fatty acids in the rumen at 4 h incubation. The addition of Ca-soap of flaxseed oil resulted the lowest (P<0.05 level of unsaturated fatty acids biohydrogenation compared to the other treatments at 4 h incubation. In conclusion, the addition of Ca soap of canola/flaxseed oil could improve VFA total production. Vegetable oils protected using calcium soap could inhibit unsaturated fatty acid biohidrogenation by rumen microbes. Ca-soap of flaxseed oil could survive from rumen biohydrogenation in the rumen better than Ca-soap of canola oil.

  14. Omega-3 fatty acids, phenolic compounds and antioxidant characteristics of chia oil supplemented margarine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeem, Muhammad; Imran, Muhammad; Taj, Imran; Ajmal, Muhammad; Junaid, Muhammad

    2017-05-31

    Chia (Salvia hispanica L.) is known as power house of omega fatty acids which has great health benefits. It contains up to 78% linolenic acid (ω-3) and 18% linoleic acid (ω-6), which could be a great source of omega-3 fatty acids for functional foods. Therefore, in this study, margarines were prepared with supplementation of different concentrations of chia oil to enhance omega-3 fatty acids, antioxidant characteristics and oxidative stability of the product. Margarines were formulated from non-hydrogenated palm oil, palm kernel and butter. Margarines were supplemented with 5, 10, 15 and 20% chia oil (T 1 , T 2 , T 3 and T 4 ), respectively. Margarine without any addition of chia oil was kept as control. Margarine samples were stored at 5 °C for a period of 90 days. Physico-chemical (fat, moisture, refractive index, melting point, solid fat index, fatty acids profile, total phenolic contents, DPPH free radical scavenging activity, free fatty acids and peroxide value) and sensory characteristics were studied at the interval of 45 days. The melting point of T 1 , T 2 , T 3 and T 4 developed in current investigation were 34.2, 33.8, 33.1 and 32.5 °C, respectively. The solid fat index of control, T 1 , T 2 , T 3 and T 4 were 47.21, 22.71, 20.33, 18.12 and 16.58%, respectively. The α-linolenic acid contents in T 1 , T 2 , T 3 and T 4 were found 2.92, 5.85, 9.22, 12.29%, respectively. The concentration of eicosanoic acid in T 2 , T 3 and T 4 was 1.82, 3.52, 6.43 and 9.81%, respectively. The content of docosahexanoic acid in T 2 , T 3 and T 4 was present 1.26, 2.64, 3.49 and 5.19%, respectively. The omega-3 fatty acids were not detected in the control sample. Total phenolic contents of control, T 1 , T 2 , T 3 and T 4 samples were 0.27, 2.22, 4.15, 7.23 and 11.42 mg GAE/mL, respectively. DPPH free radical scavenging activity for control, T 1 , T 2 , T 3 and T 4 was noted 65.8, 5.37, 17.82, 24.95, 45.42 and 62.8%, respectively. Chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid

  15. Improvement of the Physical and Oxidative Stability Characteristics of Ice Cream through Interesterified Moringa Oleifera Oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadeem, M.; Ullah, R.; Ullah, A.

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of high melting point interesterified M. oleifera oil (35.6 degree centigrade) with substantial amount of unsaturated fatty acids on physicochemical and oxidative stability characteristics of ice cream. Of the 10 percent fat in the ice cream, 30 percent was replaced by interesterified M. oleifera oil at three levels i.e. 10, 20 and 30 percent (T1, T2 and T3, respectively). Oleic acid increased from 26.55 percent to 31.69 percent, 36.94 percent and 42.15 percent in T1, T2 and T3 with no effect on melting time, compositional attributes and free fatty acid content of ice cream (P>0.05). Supplementation of ice cream with interesterified M. oleifera oil inhibited the autoxidation process in ice cream during 3 months storage period (P<0.05).The loss of oleic and linoleic acid in fresh and 3 months stored control and T2 was 26.55 percent, 24.15 percent, 26.39% percent and 1.93 percent, 1.24 percent and 1.79 percent, respectively. Peroxide value of three months stored control and T3 was 1.12 and 0.39 (meqO2/kg). The overall acceptability score of T2 was 80% of the total score (9). (author)

  16. PERFORMANCE AND EMISSION CHARACTERISTICS OF CI ENGINE FUELLED WITH NON EDIBLE VEGETABLE OIL AND DIESEL BLENDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. ELANGO

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates performance and emission characteristics of a diesel engine which is fuelled with different blends of jatropha oil and diesel (10–50%. A single cylinder four stroke diesel engine was used for the experiments at various loads and speed of 1500 rpm. An AVL 5 gas analyzer and a smoke meter were used for the measurements of exhaust gas emissions. Engine performance (specific fuel consumption SFC, brake thermal efficiency, and exhaust gas temperature and emissions (HC, CO, CO2, NOx and Smoke Opacity were measured to evaluate and compute the behaviour of the diesel engine running on biodiesel. The results showed that the brake thermal efficiency of diesel is higher at all loads. Among the blends maximum brake thermal efficiency and minimum specific fuel consumption were found for blends upto 20% Jatropha oil. The specific fuel consumption of the blend having 20% Jatropha oil and 80% diesel (B20 was found to be comparable with the conventional diesel. The optimum blend is found to be B20 as the CO2 emissions were lesser than diesel while decrease in brake thermal efficiency is marginal.

  17. Characteristics of antioxidant activity and composition of pumpkin seed oils in 12 cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawirska-Olszańska, Agnieszka; Kita, Agnieszka; Biesiada, Anita; Sokół-Łętowska, Anna; Kucharska, Alicja Z

    2013-08-15

    The objective of this study was to determine the antioxidant properties, and provide characteristics, of the oil obtained from the seeds of 12 pumpkin varieties belonging to the species Cucurbita maxima Duch. and Cucurbita pepo L. Another objective was to establish which of the two extracting agents, ethanol or methanol, is more effective. The seeds of the pumpkin varieties examined differ in chemical composition and antioxidant activity. The seeds of the cultivars belonging to the species C. maxima are characterised by a higher content of fatty acids than are the cultivars of the species C. pepo. In the seed oil, unsaturated acids are dominant (oleic and linoleic), and their proportion depends on the pumpkin variety. The highest content of unsaturated acids has been measured in the oil extracted from the seeds of the cultivar, Jet F1 (C. pepo). Antioxidant activity analysis has produced the following findings. The seeds of the pumpkin varieties that belong to the species C. pepo exhibit better antioxidant properties, regardless of the extraction solvent used. 50% ethanol is more efficient than 80% methanol when used as an extracting agent. The antioxidant activity values obtained with 50% ethanol are higher than those achieved with 80% methanol. Owing to the considerable differences in composition among the fatty acids examined, it is possible to choose the desired pumpkin variety for the intended use. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Physicochemical and antioxidant characteristics of gingerbread plum (Neocarya macrophylla) kernel oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaby, M.; Amza, T.; Onivogui, G.; Zou, X.Q.; Jin, Q.Z.

    2016-07-01

    This study examined the physicochemical characteristics and antioxidant activities of oils extracted from gingerbread plum kernels grown in two different areas (Niger and Guinea). The oil contents were found to be significantly different (P = 0.05); 56% and 60% for gingerbread plum kernels originated from Niger (GPKN) and guinea (GPKG), respectively. GPKG showed the highest levels for physical parameters such as iodine, saponification, free fatty acid, acid and peroxide values when compared with GPKN. The major monounsaturated fatty acid in both GPKN and GPKG was oleic acid (42.46 and 41.43%, respectively) while the polyunsaturated fatty acids consisted of linoleic and arachidonic acid. Arachidonic acid was at higher levels (17.67 and 21.72% in GPKN and GPKG, respectively) than those in common vegetable oils. Results from antioxidant activity essays showed that GPKG is more active than GPKN in DPPH radical scavenging, ß-carotene and phenolic contents while GPKN showed the highest values for reducing power and flavonoid. Of the 11 sterol compounds found in this study, 24-hydroxy-24-methyl cholesterol, clerosterol and sitosterol accounted for 68.5% and 66.33% in GPKN and GPKG, respectively. Finally, all tocopherol vitamers (except ?-tocopherol) were present in GPKN and GPKG with a-tocopherol being the main element in both samples. (Author)

  19. Characteristics of activated carbon resulted from pyrolysis of the oil palm fronds powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maulina, S.; Iriansyah, M.

    2018-02-01

    Activated carbon is the product of a charcoal impregnation process that has a higher absorption capacity and has more benefits than regular char. Therefore, this study aims to cultivate the powder of oil palm fronds into activated carbon that meets the requirements of Standard National Indonesia 06-3730-1995. To do so, the carbonization process of the powder of oil palm fronds was carried out using a pyrolysis reactor for 30 minutes at a temperature of 150 °C, 200 °C, and 250 °C in order to produce activated char. Then, the char was impregnated using Phosphoric Acid activator (H3PO4) for 24 hours. Characteristics of activated carbon indicate that the treatment of char by chemical activation of oil palm fronds powder has an effect on the properties of activated carbon. The activated carbons that has the highest absorption properties to Iodine (822.91 mg/g) were obtained from the impregnation process with 15% concentration of Phosphoric Acid (H3PO4) at pyrolysis temperature of 200 °C. Furthermore, the activation process resulted in activated carbon with water content of 8%, ash content of 4%, volatile matter 39%, and fixed carbon 75%, Iodine number 822.91 mg/g.

  20. Fatty acid composition and some physicochemical characteristics of Sterculia apetala seed oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herrera-Meza, S.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In the tropical rain forests of southeastern Mexico, the use of Sterculia mexicana and Sterculia apetala seed oils for human and animal nutrition is common. However, the seeds contain cyclopropene fatty acids, whose consumption is related with beneficial as well as detrimental physiological effects. The aim of this study was to determine the fatty acid profile and the physicochemical characteristics of S. apetala seed oil and to evaluate the effect of roasting on both aspects. Cyclopropenoic fatty acids, sterculic acid and malvalic acid were identified in the natural and roasted seed oils. The major component in the seed oil was sterculic acid, as has been reported for Sterculia mexicana and Sterculia foetida. The roasting process modified some physicochemical properties and the fatty acid composition of the seed oil, particularly by decreasing its content of sterculic acid. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the fatty acid composition of S. apetala seed oil.En zonas tropicales del sureste de México, el uso de semillas de Sterculia mexicana y Sterculia apetala es común para consumo humano y animal. Sin embargo, dichas semillas contienen ácidos grasos ciclopropenoicos, los cuales se les ha relacionado tanto con efectos fisiológicos beneficiosos como adversos para la salud. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar el perfil de ácidos grasos y las características fisicoquímicas de la especie S. apetala, así como la evaluación del aceite sometido a un proceso de tostado. Se identificaron ácidos grasos ciclopropenoicos como el ácido estercúlico y malválico, en el aceite natural y tostado. Para las especies S. mexicana y S. foetida, el componente mayoritario en las semillas fue el ácido estercúlico. El proceso de tostado modificó algunas propiedades fisicoquímicas y la composción de los ácidos grasos, especificamente disminuyó el contenido de ácido estercúlico. Para nuestro conocimiento, este es la primera informaci

  1. Characteristics of gas-liquid dynamics in operation of oil fields producing non-Newtonian crude oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirzadzhanzade, A Kh; Khasaev, A M; Gurbanov, R S; Akhmedov, Z M

    1968-08-01

    Experimental studies have shown that crude oils from Azerbaidzhan, Uzbekistan, Tataria, Kazakhstan and other areas have anomalous properties under reservoir conditions. Such crude oils are non-Newtonian and (1) obey Darcys Law at low velocities; (2) obey an exponential law at higher velocities; and (3) obey a modified Darcys Law at most velocities. A discussion is given of (1) flow of non-Newtonian crude oils together with gas or water; (2) flow of non-Newtonian crude oils in well tubing; (3) behavior of wells producing non-Newtonian crude oils; and (4) pumping of non-Newtonian oils in wells. Experiments have shown that a visco-plastic liquid does not fill pump inlets completely; as the diameter of the pump inlet decreases so also does the degree of liquid filling. A statistical analysis of production data from 160 fields with Newtonian oil and 129 fields with non- Newtonian oil has shown that much higher production is obtained from fields with Newtonian crude oils.

  2. Triacylglycerol composition, physico-chemical characteristics and oxidative stability of interesterified canola oil and fully hydrogenated cottonseed oil blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imran, Muhammad; Nadeem, Muhammad

    2015-10-29

    Partial hydrogenation process is used worldwide to produce shortening, baking, and pastry margarines for food applications. However, demand for such products is decreased during last decade due to their possible links to consumer health and disease. This has raised the need to replace hydrogenation with alternative acceptable interesterification process which has advantage in context of modifying the physico-chemical properties of edible fat-based products. Therefore, the main mandate of research was the development of functional fat through chemical interesterification of canola oil (CaO) and fully hydrogenated cottonseed oil (FHCSO) mixtures. Blends were prepared in the proportions of 75:25 (T1), 50:50 (T2) and 25:75 (T3) of CaO:FHCSO (w/w). Interesterification was performed using sodium methoxide (0.2 %) as catalyst at 120 °C, under reduced pressure and constant agitation for 60 minutes. The non-interesterified and interesterified CaO:FHCSO blends were evaluated for triacylglycerol (TAG) composition, physico-chemical characteristics, oxidative stability and consumer acceptability at 0, 30 and 60 days of storage interval. The oleic acid (58.3 ± 0.6 %) was predominantly present in CaO while the contents of stearic acid (72 ± 0.8 %) were significantly higher in FHCSO. Maximum trisaturated (S3) contents (63.9 ± 0.5 %) were found in T3 while monounsaturated (S2U), diunsaturated (U2S) and triunsaturated (U3) contents were quite low in T2 and T3 before interesterification. A marked reduction in S3 and U3 contents with concomitant increase in S2U and U2S contents was observed for all CaO:FHCSO blends on interesterification. During storage, the changes in S3, S2U and U2S contents were not found significant (p ≥ 0.05). However, maximum decrease 13 %, 7.5 and 5.6 % in U3 contents for T1, T2 and T3 was noted after 60-days of interesterification, respectively. The Lovibond color R, melting point, refractive index, specific gravity, peroxide and free

  3. Combustion, emission and engine performance characteristics of used cooking oil biodiesel - A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enweremadu, C.C. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Vaal University of Technology, Private Bag X021, Vanderbijlpark 1900 (South Africa); Rutto, H.L. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Vaal University of Technology, Private Bag X021, Vanderbijlpark 1900 (South Africa)

    2010-12-15

    As the environment degrades at an alarming rate, there have been steady calls by most governments following international energy policies for the use of biofuels. One of the biofuels whose use is rapidly expanding is biodiesel. One of the economical sources for biodiesel production which doubles in the reduction of liquid waste and the subsequent burden of sewage treatment is used cooking oil (UCO). However, the products formed during frying, such as free fatty acid and some polymerized triglycerides, can affect the transesterification reaction and the biodiesel properties. This paper attempts to collect and analyze published works mainly in scientific journals about the engine performance, combustion and emissions characteristics of UCO biodiesel on diesel engine. Overall, the engine performance of the UCO biodiesel and its blends was only marginally poorer compared to diesel. From the standpoint of emissions, NOx emissions were slightly higher while un-burnt hydrocarbon (UBHC) emissions were lower for UCO biodiesel when compares to diesel fuel. There were no noticeable differences between UCO biodiesel and fresh oil biodiesel as their engine performances, combustion and emissions characteristics bear a close resemblance. This is probably more closely related to the oxygenated nature of biodiesel which is almost constant for every biodiesel (biodiesel has some level of oxygen bound to its chemical structure) and also to its higher viscosity and lower calorific value, which have a major bearing on spray formation and initial combustion. (author)

  4. Influence of Chemical Blends on Palm Oil Methyl Esters’ Cold Flow Properties and Fuel Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obed M. Ali

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Alternative fuels, like biodiesel, are being utilized as a renewable energy source and an effective substitute for the continuously depleting supply of mineral diesel as they have similar combustion characteristics. However, the use of pure biodiesel as a fuel for diesel engines is currently limited due to problems relating to fuel properties and its relatively poor cold flow characteristics. Therefore, the most acceptable option for improving the properties of biodiesel is the use of a fuel additive. In the present study, the properties of palm oil methyl esters with increasing additive content were investigated after addition of ethanol, butanol and diethyl ether. The results revealed varying improvement in acid value, density, viscosity, pour point and cloud point, accompanied by a slight decrease in energy content with an increasing additive ratio. The viscosity reductions at 5% additive were 12%, 7%, 16.5% for ethanol, butanol and diethyl ether, respectively, and the maximum reduction in pour point was 5 °C at 5% diethyl ether blend. Engine test results revealed a noticeable improvement in engine brake power and specific fuel consumption compared to palm oil biodiesel and the best performance was obtained with diethyl ether. All the biodiesel-additive blend samples meet the requirements of ASTM D6751 biodiesel fuel standards for the measured properties.

  5. Fatty acids profile and quality characteristics of broiler chicken meat fed different dietary oil sources with some additives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engy Fayz Zaki

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out to investigate the effect of feeding broiler chicken on different vegetable oils with feed additives on the quality characteristics of chicken meat. A total of 216 one-day-old chicks of (Hubbard strain were randomly assigned to six dietary treatments as (2×3 factorial designs where two sources of dietary oil with three levels of commercial multi-enzyme feed additives. Treatments were: soybean oil only (T1, soybean oil+ ZAD (T2, soybean oil+ AmPhi-BACT (T3, palm oil only (T4, palm oil + ZAD (T5 and palm oil + AmPhi- BACT (T6.  Results showed that feeding broiler chicken on different types of dietary oils had significant effect on the fatty acid profile of broiler chicken meat. UFA/SFA ration of broiler chicken groups (T4, T5adT6 were significantly lower compared with (T1, T2 and T3 groups. Broiler fed on soybean oil had significantly higher n-6: n-3 ration compared with broiler fed on palm oil. Regardless of the source of dietary oil, significant differences were observed in the most of fatty acid profile in the chicken meat among levels of commercial multi- enzyme feed additives. Meat of T5and T6 had the higher pH value, followed by meat of T1and T3 groups, while the lowest pH value found in meat of T2 and T4. The higher cooking loss was found in meat of T4 while, meat of T5had the lowest value. Data of chilling loss indicated that the differences between dietary treatments were not significantly different except for meat of T6 which had the higher chilling loss. No significant differences were found in color measurements between dietary treatments.

  6. Modeling and Analysis of Static and Dynamic Characteristics of Nonlinear Seat Suspension for Off-Road Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenhua Yan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Low-frequency vibrations (0.5–5 Hz that harm drivers occur in off-road vehicles. Thus, researchers have focused on finding methods to effectively isolate or control low-frequency vibrations. A novel nonlinear seat suspension structure for off-road vehicles is designed, whose static characteristics and seat-human system dynamic response are modeled and analyzed, and experiments are conducted to verify the theoretical solutions. Results show that the stiffness of this nonlinear seat suspension could achieve real zero stiffness through well-matched parameters, and precompression of the main spring could change the nonlinear seat suspension performance when a driver’s weight changes. The displacement transmissibility curve corresponds with the static characteristic curve of nonlinear suspension, where the middle part of the static characteristic curve is gentler and the resonance frequency of the displacement transmissibility curve and the isolation minimum frequency are lower. Damping should correspond with static characteristics, in which the corresponding suspension damping value should be smaller given a flatter static characteristic curve to prevent vibration isolation performance reduction.

  7. Flow condensation pressure drop characteristics of R410A-oil mixture inside small diameter horizontal microfin tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Xiangchao; Ding, Guoliang; Hu, Haitao; Zhu, Yu [Institute of Refrigeration and Cryogenics, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Gao, Yifeng [International Copper Association Shanghai Office, Shanghai 200020 (China); Deng, Bin [Institute of Heat Transfer Technology, Golden Dragon Precise Copper Tube Group Inc., Shanghai 200135 (China)

    2010-11-15

    Flow condensation pressure drop characteristics of R410A-oil mixture inside small diameter (5.0 mm and 4.0 mm O.D.) horizontal microfin tubes were investigated experimentally covering nominal oil concentrations from 0% to 5%. The research results indicate that, comparing with the frictional pressure drop of pure R410A, the frictional pressure drop of R410A-oil mixture may decrease by maximum of 18% when the vapor quality is lower than 0.6, and increase by maximum of 13% when the vapor quality is higher than 0.6. A new frictional pressure drop correlation for R410A-oil mixture flow condensation inside microfin tubes is developed based on the refrigerant-oil mixture properties, and can agree with 94% of the experimental data within a deviation of -30% to +30%. (author)

  8. Potentials of enhancing the physicochemical and functional characteristics of Nigella sativa oil by using the screw pressing technique for extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamed, S.F.; Shaaban, H.A.; Ramadan, A.A.; Edris, A.E.

    2017-01-01

    In the current investigation the crude oil of Nigella sativa was extracted from seeds using hydraulic and screw pressing techniques. Different parameters were evaluated in order to find out the appropriate technique to enhance the physicochemical and functional-related characteristics of the extracted crude oil. Results showed that the acid and peroxide values were significantly lower in the screw pressed oil (SPO) than in the hydraulic pressed oil (HPO). The total phenolic content of the SPO was significantly higher than that of HPO. Evaluation of the oxidative stability using the Rancimat test showed that SPO recorded a much higher oxidative stability index (40.07 h) than HPO (0.51 h). The yield of the volatile oil fraction and its contents of thymoquinone isolated from the SPO were higher than that from the HPO. Biological evaluation revealed that the SPO had significantly higher antimicrobial activity than HPO against Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus at 40 μL/well. [es

  9. Fuel cell powered vehicles using supercapacitors-device characteristics, control strategies, and simulation results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, H.; Burke, A.F. [Institute of Transportation Studies, University of California (United States)

    2010-10-15

    The fuel cell powered vehicle is one of the most attractive candidates for the future due to its high efficiency and capability to use hydrogen as the fuel. However, its relatively poor dynamic response, high cost and limited life time have impeded its widespread adoption. With the emergence of large supercapacitors (also know as ultracapacitors, UCs) with high power density and the shift to hybridisation in the vehicle technology, fuel cell/supercapacitor hybrid fuel cell vehicles are gaining more attention. Fuel cells in conjunction with supercapacitors can create high power with fast dynamic response, which makes it well suitable for automotive applications. Hybrid fuel cell vehicles with different powertrain configurations have been evaluated based on simulations performed at the Institute of Transportation Studies, University of California-Davis. The following powertrain configurations have been considered: (a)Direct hydrogen fuel cell vehicles (FCVs) without energy storage (b)FCVs with supercapacitors directly connected in parallel with fuel cells (c)FCVs with supercapacitors coupled in parallel with fuel cells through a DC/DC converter (d)FCVs with fuel cells connected to supercapacitors via a DC/DC converter. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  10. On-road emission characteristics of heavy-duty diesel vehicles in Shanghai

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Changhong; Huang, Cheng; Jing, Qiguo; Wang, Haikun; Pan, Hansheng; Li, Li; Zhao, Jing; Dai, Yi; Huang, Haiying; Schipper, Lee; Streets, David G.

    On-road vehicle tests of nine heavy-duty diesel trucks were conducted using SEMTECH-D, an emissions measuring instrument provided by Sensors, Inc. The total length of roads for the tests was 186 km. Data were obtained for 37,255 effective driving cycles, including 17,216 on arterial roads, 15,444 on residential roads, and 4595 on highways. The impacts of speed and acceleration on fuel consumption and emissions were analyzed. Results show that trucks spend an average of 16.5% of the time in idling mode, 25.5% in acceleration mode, 27.9% in deceleration mode, and only 30.0% at cruise speed. The average emission factors of CO, total hydrocarbons (THC), and NO x for the selected vehicles are (4.96±2.90), (1.88±1.03) and (6.54±1.90) g km -1, respectively. The vehicle emission rates vary significantly with factors like speed and acceleration. The test results reflect the actual traffic situation and the current emission status of diesel trucks in Shanghai. The measurements show that low-speed conditions with frequent acceleration and deceleration, particularly in congestion conditions, are the main factors that aggravate vehicle emissions and cause high emissions of CO and THC. Alleviating congestion would significantly improve vehicle fuel economy and reduce CO and THC emissions.

  11. Color stability, radiopacity, and chemical characteristics of white mineral trioxide aggregate associated with 2 different vehicles in contact with blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, Bruno Martini; Tartari, Talita; Marciano, Marina Angélica; Vivan, Rodrigo Ricci; Mondeli, Rafael Francisco Lia; Camilleri, Josette; Duarte, Marco Antonio Hungaro

    2015-06-01

    Discoloration of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) can be exacerbated by the interaction of the cement with body fluids such as blood. This study aimed to analyze the color alteration, chemical characteristics, and radiopacity of MTA manipulated with 2 different vehicles after immersion in blood or distilled water (DW). MTA mixed with 100% DW or 80% DW/20% propylene glycol (PG) as vehicles were placed into rubber rings and incubated at 37°C and 100% relative humidity until set. Color assessment and scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive spectroscopy analysis were performed after setting and repeated after 7, 15, and 30 days after immersion in blood and DW. Statistical analysis for color alteration and radiopacity was performed using nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn tests (P vehicle, significantly lower color alterations were observed for all time periods compared with 100% DW when immersed in blood (P media because of loss of bismuth. A decrease in radiopacity was observed over time in all groups, with a statistically significant difference after 30 days for groups DW immersed in blood and 80% DW/20% immersed in both media (P vehicle for MTA results in a lower color alteration when in contact with blood. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Basic properties of crude rubber seed oil and crude palm oil blend as a potential feedstock for biodiesel production with enhanced cold flow characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yusup, Suzana; Khan, Modhar

    2010-01-01

    Research and development in the field of biodiesel showed that fatty acid methyl esters synthesized from agriculture or animal oils and fats, which exhibit qualifying properties, can replace diesel fuel used in internal combustion engine. However, the industry had some downfall recently with the fluctuating prices of edible oils and increasing demand for nutritional needs. Crude rubber seed oil (CRSO) and crude palm oil (CPO) were used in this study since both can be extracted and produced locally in Malaysia from their abundant plantations. The benefits of introducing such blend are that CRSO is considered a non-edible feedstock with no major industrial utilizations that has the potential to reduce the usage of CPO in biodiesel industry and was found to enhance the cold flow characteristics when blended with CPO by reducing the saturated fatty acids in the feedstock. The oils and blends were characterized for density, kinematic viscosity, heating value, acid value, free fatty acid content, refractive index, mono-, di- and triglycerides and sulphur content. Fatty acids composition and iodine value were established for an equivolume blend of the oils.

  13. Basic properties of crude rubber seed oil and crude palm oil blend as a potential feedstock for biodiesel production with enhanced cold flow characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yusup, Suzana; Khan, Modhar [Chemical Engineering Department, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar Seri Iskandar, 31750 Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia)

    2010-10-15

    Research and development in the field of biodiesel showed that fatty acid methyl esters synthesized from agriculture or animal oils and fats, which exhibit qualifying properties, can replace diesel fuel used in internal combustion engine. However, the industry had some downfall recently with the fluctuating prices of edible oils and increasing demand for nutritional needs. Crude rubber seed oil (CRSO) and crude palm oil (CPO) were used in this study since both can be extracted and produced locally in Malaysia from their abundant plantations. The benefits of introducing such blend are that CRSO is considered a non-edible feedstock with no major industrial utilizations that has the potential to reduce the usage of CPO in biodiesel industry and was found to enhance the cold flow characteristics when blended with CPO by reducing the saturated fatty acids in the feedstock. The oils and blends were characterized for density, kinematic viscosity, heating value, acid value, free fatty acid content, refractive index, mono-, di- and triglycerides and sulphur content. Fatty acids composition and iodine value were established for an equivolume blend of the oils. (author)

  14. Effect of drought stress on qualitative characteristics of olive oil of cv Koroneiki

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotsifaki, Fani

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Quality characteristics (acidity, peroxide values, K232, K270, oxidative stability and chemical compositional data (fatty acids, sterols and triacylglycerols were studied in virgin olive oil samples from olive trees, cv Koroneiki, subjected to different water regimes. Experimental trials were carried out using three-year old own-rooted olive trees (Olea europaea L variety Koroneiki. Plants were subjected to two irrigation treatments to maintain soil water potential to -0.03 MPa and -1.5 MPa. Results showed that irrigation significantly increased the fruit oil content and the oxidative stability and peroxide value of the resulting oil. Olive oil from fruits of irrigated trees showed significant higher values in total saturated fatty acids. Total sterols were also significantly influenced by irrigation. Acidity and specific absorption coefficients K232, K270, of olive oils were not significantly affected.Se han estudiado los valores de calidad reglamentada (acidez, índice de peróxido, los valores de absorbancia en UV (K270, K232, estabilidad oxidativa media en Rancimat 120ºC y características químicas (ácidos grasos, esteroles, triglicéridos en aceite de oliva virgen variedad Koroneiki sometidos a diferentes regímenes hídricos. El estudio se ha realizado en árboles adultos de 3 años cultivados en contenedor al aire libre. Los árboles se riegan con dos dosis tratando de mantener un potencial de agua en el suelo de unos -0,03 Mpa y -1,5 Mpa. Los resultados muestran en los olivos de riego un aumento significativo de la riqueza grasa y de la estabilidad del aceite. Los aceites producidos en olivos de riego presentan una mayor proporción de ácidos grasos saturados (palmítico-esteárico. Los esteroles totales se ven significativamente influenciados por el riego. Acidez y absorbancia K270, K232 no se han visto afectados por el riego.

  15. Coal Liquefaction characteristics and chemical structure of product oil; Sekitan ekika hanno tokusei to seiseibutsu no kagaku kozo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Endo, H.; Sato, M.; Chiba, T.; Hattori, H. [Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan). Center for Advanced Research of Energy Technology; Sasaki, M. [Hokkaido National Industrial Research Institute, Sapporo (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    Through the hydrogenolysis of Wandoan coal and Tanito Harum coal which are used for the NEDOL process, differences of liquefaction characteristics between them were found. The purpose of this study is to grasp these differences as differences of chemical structures of oil fractions. The compound type analysis was conducted for oil fractions obtained at varied reaction temperature for varied reaction time. Coal liquefaction characteristics of these coals were discussed by relating oil yields and chemical structures. For Tanito Harum coal, yields of gas and oil were considered to be lower than those for Wandoan coal, which reflected that the contents of partially hydrogenated hydroaromatics in oil fraction from the former were lower than those from the latter, and that the remarkable change of composition did not occur with the progress of the reaction. For both the coals, the remarkable changes in the average molecular weight of oil fraction were not observed with the progress of the reaction. While, the content of methane gradually increased with the progress of the reaction, which suggested that oil was gradually dealkylated. 5 figs.

  16. KARAKTERISTIK MIKROKAPSUL MINYAK ATSIRI LENGKUAS DENGAN MALTODEKSTRIN SEBAGAI ENKAPSULAN [Characteristics of Galangal Essential Oil Microencapsulation Using Maltodextrin Encapsulant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supriyadi*

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Research on encapsulation of galangal (Alpinia galanga essential oil using maltodextrin as a coating substance was aimed to determine the ideal proportion between the essential oil and coating material to produce microcapsules, and to determine its characteristics.The ratio of galangal essential oil and maltodextrin studied were 1:8, 1:10, and 1:12. Emulsification was performed using Turrax homogenizer at 11.500 rpm for 2 min. Microencapculation was performed by spray drying at inlet and outlet temperatures of 120 and 80°C, respectively, and feed flow rate of 15 mL/min. The optimum conditions for microcapsules were determined based on the water content, aw value, surface- and entrapped-oil, and volatile compounds profile (total volatile and volatile composition of the microcapsules. Microcapsules prepared by essential oil and maltodextrin at a ratio of 1:10 was found to have better characteristics. The microcapsules had a moisture content of 6.27%, aw of 0.49, surface oil of 1.22 and total volatile of 42.22%. Methyl cinnamate, 1.8-cineole, -pinene and -pinene were found as the main volatile constituents in both of essential oil and microcapsules. Methyl cinnamate was more stable than the other volatile compounds, even after encapsulation process.

  17. Oil field and freshwater isolates of Shewanella putrefaciens have lipopolysaccharide polyacrylamide gel profiles characteristic of marine bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickard, C.; Foght, J.M.; Pickard, M.A.; Westlake, D.W.S.

    1993-01-01

    The lipopolysaccharide structure of oil field and freshwater isolates of bacteria that reduce ferric iron, recently classified as strains of Shewanella putrefaciens, was analyzed using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and a lipopolysaccharide-specific silver-staining procedure. The results demonstrate that all the oil field and freshwater isolates examined exhibited the more hydrophobic R-type lipopolysaccharide, which has been found to be characteristic of Gram-negative marine bacteria. This hydrophobic lipopolysaccharide would confer an advantage on bacteria involved in hydrocarbon degradation by assisting their association with the surface of oil droplets. 15 refs., 1 fig

  18. Raman Spectral Characteristics of Oil-Paper Insulation and Its Application to Ageing Stage Assessment of Oil-Immersed Transformers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingxin Zou

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The aging of oil-paper insulation in power transformers may cause serious power failures. Thus, effective monitoring of the condition of the transformer insulation is the key to prevent major accidents. The purpose of this study was to explore the feasibility of confocal laser Raman spectroscopy (CLRS for assessing the aging condition of oil-paper insulation. Oil-paper insulation samples were subjected to thermal accelerated ageing at 120 °C for up to 160 days according to the procedure described in the IEEE Guide. Meanwhile, the dimension of the Raman spectrum of the insulation oil was reduced by principal component analysis (PCA. The 160 oil-paper insulation samples were divided into five aging stages as training samples by clustering analysis and with the use of the degree of polymerization of the insulating papers. In addition, the features of the Raman spectrum were used as the inputs of a multi-classification support vector machine. Finally, 105 oil-paper insulation testing samples aged at a temperature of 130 °C were used to further test the diagnostic capability and universality of the established algorithm. Results demonstrated that CLRS in conjunction with the PCA-SVM technique provides a new way for aging stage assessment of oil-paper insulation equipment in the field.

  19. Improving of technical characteristics of launch vehicles with liquid rocket engines using active onboard de-orbiting systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trushlyakov, V.; Shatrov, Ya.

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, the analysis of technical requirements (TR) for the development of modern space launch vehicles (LV) with main liquid rocket engines (LRE) is fulfilled in relation to the anthropogenic impact decreasing. Factual technical characteristics on the example of a promising type of rocket ;Soyuz-2.1.v.; are analyzed. Meeting the TR in relation to anthropogenic impact decrease based on the conventional design approach and the content of the onboard system does not prove to be efficient and leads to depreciation of the initial technical characteristics obtained at the first design stage if these requirements are not included. In this concern, it is shown that the implementation of additional active onboard de-orbiting system (AODS) of worked-off stages (WS) into the onboard LV stages systems allows to meet the TR related to the LV environmental characteristics, including fire-explosion safety. In some cases, the orbital payload mass increases.

  20. Fast pyrolysis of Miscanthus sinensis in fluidized bed reactors: Characteristics of product yields and biocrude oil quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bok, Jin Pil; Choi, Hang Seok; Choi, Joon Weon; Choi, Yeon Seok

    2013-01-01

    In the present work, fast pyrolysis of Miscanthus sinensis was performed and the product yields and properties of the resulting biocrude oil were determined for varying reactor configurations and pyrolysis temperatures. Two types of reactors (rectangular and cylindrical fluidized beds) were adopted, and pyrolysis temperature was increased from 400 °C to 550 °C. Based on the results, it was found that the reaction temperature greatly influenced the product yield and the characteristics of biocrude oil. The highest yield of biocrude oil for the rectangular reactor was 48.9 wt.%, produced at 500 °C, and the highest yield for the cylindrical reactor was 50.01 wt.%, produced at 450 °C. Additionally, the biocrude oil yield in the rectangular reactor sharply decreased when reaction temperature was increased to 550 °C, while only a slight decrease was observed in the cylindrical reactor. From GC/MS analysis, biocrude oil was found to contain various chemical components, such as nonaromatic ketones, furans, sugars, lignin-derived phenols, guaiacols and syringols. In particular, the sugar content of the biocrude oil produced in rectangular reactor (2.11–9.35 wt.%) was generally lower than that produced in the cylindrical reactor (7.93–10.79 wt.%). - Highlights: • Fast pyrolysis of Miscanthus sinensis was performed in two fluidized bed reactors to obtain biocrude oil. • The yield and characteristics of the biocrude oil were scrutinized with changing reaction temperature and reactor type. • The reaction temperature was found to be the most influencing parameter for the fast pyrolysis reaction. • The different heating rate caused by reactor type has an effect on the final product yield and characteristics

  1. A study on the fuel injection and atomization characteristics of soybean oil methyl ester (SME)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Su Han; Kim, Hyung Jun; Suh, Hyun Kyu; Lee, Chang Sik

    2009-01-01

    The spray atomization characteristics of an undiluted biodiesel fuel (soybean oil methyl ester, SME) in a diesel engine were investigated and compared with that of diesel fuel (ultra low sulfur diesel, ULSD). The experimental results were compared with numerical results predicted by the KIVA-3V code. The spray characteristics of the spray tip penetration, spray area, spray centroid and injection delay were analyzed using images obtained from a visualization system. The Sauter mean diameter (SMD) was analyzed using a droplet analyzer system to investigate the atomization characteristics. It was found that the peak injection rate increases and advances when the injection pressure increases due to the increase of the initial injection momentum. The injection rate of the SME, which has a higher density than diesel fuel, is higher than that of diesel fuel despite its low injection velocity. The high ambient pressure induces the shortening of spray tip penetration of the SME. Moreover, the predicted spray tip penetration pattern is similar to the pattern observed experimentally. The SMD of the SME decreases along the axial distance. The predicted local and overall SMD distribution patterns of diesel and SME fuels illustrate similar tendencies when compared with the experimental droplet size distribution patterns

  2. Preparation, characterisation, engine performance and emission characteristics of coconut oil based hybrid fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Pranil J.; Singh, Anirudh [Division of Physics, School of Engineering and Physics, Faculty of Science, Technology and Environment, University of the South Pacific, 325 Fletcher Road, Suva (Fiji); Khurma, Jagjit [Division of Chemistry, School of Biological, Chemical and Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Science, Technology and Environment, University of the South Pacific, Suva (Fiji)

    2010-09-15

    In this study, hybrid fuels consisting of coconut oil, aqueous ethanol and a surfactant (butan-1-ol) were prepared and tested as a fuel in a direct injection diesel engine. After determining fuel properties such as the density, viscosity and gross calorific values of these fuels, they were used to run a diesel engine. The engine performance and exhaust emissions were investigated and compared with that of diesel. The experimental results show that the efficiency of the hybrid fuels is comparable to that of diesel. As the viscosity of the hybrid fuels decreased and approached that of diesel, the efficiency increased progressively towards that of diesel. The exhaust emissions were lower than those for diesel, except carbon monoxide emissions, which increased. Hence, it is concluded that these hybrid fuels can be used successfully as an alternative fuel in diesel engines without any modifications. Their completely renewable nature ensures that they are environmentally friendly with regard to their emissions characteristics. (author)

  3. Structural Characteristics of Paleozoic and Geological Significance of Oil and Gas of Dongpu Depression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨世刚

    2003-01-01

    The Dongpu depression has experienced a complicated evolution of structure since Mesozoic. The Paleozoic carbonate rock has been strongly reformed and the buried hills with different characteristics of structure are developed in the depression. There exist lots of groups of fault structures with strikes of NNE(or NE),NW, near NS and EW etc., of which the faults with strikes of NNE and NW play an important controlling role on present-day structural framework of the depression. The faults with near NS-striking and EW-striking deeply affect the establishment of structural framework of basement of the depression. Although most of the fractures are filled by calcite and other minerals, under the action of later structural stress, the earlier fractures could change their features into tensional ones. Therefore, much attention should be paid to the exploration and exploitation of Paleozoic oil and gas in Dongpu depression.

  4. Some characteristics in operation of long exploited oil fields in Fergana depression. [USSR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordinskii, E V; Ovanesov, M G; Irmatov, E K

    1969-01-01

    A review of geological and oil production data from 3 Fergana fields is presented. The reservoirs are small, tectonically bounded, and are anticlines of Paleogenic carbonates. Reservoirs are heterogeneous with porosity ranging from 3 to 25% and permeability ranging from a few to 500 md. Some of the reservoirs have expanding gas caps, some are solution drive, and others have been waterflooded. All are now in the final stage of depletion. Production history and characteristics of each group are given. One way of increasing present production rate appears to be injection of gas or air into the reservoirs. This can be done inexpensively, since additional injection wells would not have to be drilled and some produced gas is available. Increased fluid withdrawal from present wells should also be beneficial.

  5. Characteristics and oxidative stability of bread fortified with encapsulated shrimp oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirima Takeungwongtrakul

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Characteristics and oxidative stability of bread fortified with micro-encapsulated shrimp oil (MSO were determined. The addition of MSO could improve the loaf volume of bread. Chewiness,gumminess and resilience of resulting bread were decreased. Bread crust and crumb showed higher redness and yellowness when MSO was incorporated (P<0.05. Microstructure study revealed that MSO remained intact with bread crumbs. The addition of MSO up to 3% had no adverse effect on bread quality and sensory acceptability. Oxidation took place in bread fortified with 5%MSO to a higher extent, compared with those with 1 or 3% MSO. Therefore, the bread could be fortified with MSO up to 3%.

  6. Physico-chemical characteristics of seed oils extracted from different apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) varieties from Pakistan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manzoor, M.; Anwar, F.; Ashraf, M.; Alkharfy, K. M.

    2012-11-01

    The fruit seed oils from four varieties of apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.), namely, Halmas, Nari, Travet and Charmagzi were analyzed for different physico-chemical characteristics. The oil yield from the apricot seeds (kernels) ranged from 32.23-42.51%, while the protein, fiber and ash contents ranged from 13.21-20.90%, 5.13-9.81% and 2.11-3.89%, respectively. The extracted oils had an average iodine value (g of I/100 g of oil) of 96.4-106.3; density at 24 degree centigrade 0.87-0.93 mg/mL; refractive index (40 degree centigrade), 1.4655-1.4790; saponification value, 189.1-199.4 mg of KOH/g oil; unsaponifiable matter, 0.59-0.88%; free fatty acid (mg of KOH/g oil), 0.41-1.28; and color (1-inch cell), 1.31-2.96R 1 14.8-29.8Y. With regard to the oxidation state, the tested oils showed values for specific extinction at 232 and 268 nm, 2.30-3.42 and 0.82-1.04, respectively, while the peroxide value was 1.0-2.32 meq O{sub 2}/kg and, p-anisidine was 1.22-1.90. The major fatty acid found in the oils was oleic acid (62.34-80.97%) followed by linoleic (13.13-30.33%), palmitic (3.35-5.93%), linolenic (0.73-1.03%) and stearic (1.10-1.68%) acids. The contents of {alpha}-, {gamma}-, and {delta}-, tocopherols in the oils ranged from 14.8-40.4, 330.8-520.8 and 28.5-60.2 mg/kg, respectively. The results of our present investigation revealed that apricot seed is a potential source of oil which can be used both for edible and oleo chemical applications. (Author) 55 refs.

  7. Electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-03-01

    Quiet, clean, and efficient, electric vehicles (EVs) may someday become a practical mode of transportation for the general public. Electric vehicles can provide many advantages for the nation's environment and energy supply because they run on electricity, which can be produced from many sources of energy such as coal, natural gas, uranium, and hydropower. These vehicles offer fuel versatility to the transportation sector, which depends almost solely on oil for its energy needs. Electric vehicles are any mode of transportation operated by a motor that receives electricity from a battery or fuel cell. EVs come in all shapes and sizes and may be used for different tasks. Some EVs are small and simple, such as golf carts and electric wheel chairs. Others are larger and more complex, such as automobile and vans. Some EVs, such as fork lifts, are used in industries. In this fact sheet, we will discuss mostly automobiles and vans. There are also variations on electric vehicles, such as hybrid vehicles and solar-powered vehicles. Hybrid vehicles use electricity as their primary source of energy, however, they also use a backup source of energy, such as gasoline, methanol or ethanol. Solar-powered vehicles are electric vehicles that use photovoltaic cells (cells that convert solar energy to electricity) rather than utility-supplied electricity to recharge the batteries. These concepts are discussed.

  8. Particle bed reactor propulsion vehicle performance and characteristics as an orbital transfer rocket

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horn, F.L.; Powell, J.R.; Lazareth, O.W.

    1986-01-01

    The particle bed reactor designed for 100 to 300 MW power output using hydrogen as a coolant is capable of specific impulses up to 1000 seconds as a nuclear rocket. A single space shuttle compatible vehicle can perform extensive missions from LEO to 3 times GEO and return with multi-ton payloads. The use of hydrogen to directly cool particulate reactor fuel results in a compact, lightweight rocket vehicle, whose duration of usefulness is dependent only upon hydrogen resupply availability. The LEO to GEO mission had a payload capability of 15.4 metric tons with 3.4 meters of shuttle bay. To increase the volume limitation of the shuttle bay, the use of ammonia in the initial boost phase from LEO is used to give greater payload volume with a small decrease in payload mass, 8.7 meters and 12.7 m-tons. 5 refs., 15 figs

  9. Changes in Acylglycerols Composition, Quality Characteristics and In vivo Effects of Dietary Pumpkin Seed Oil upon Thermal Oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alam Zeb

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to determine the acylglycerols composition, quality characteristics, and protective role of dietary pumpkin seed oil (PSO in rabbits. PSO was thermally oxidized and analyzed for quality characteristics and acylglycerols composition using reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection (HPLC-DAD. Oxidized and un-oxidized oil samples were fed to the rabbits in different doses for 2 weeks. The changes in the serum biochemistry, hematology, and liver histology were studied. The levels of quality parameters such peroxide value (PV, anisidine value (AV, total phenolic contents (TPC, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS, conjugated dienes (CD and conjugated trienes (CT significantly increased with thermal treatment. HPLC analyses revealed 10 individual triacylglycerols (TAGs, total di-acylglycerols (DAGs, mono-acylglycerols (MAGs, and total oxidized TAGs. Trilinolein (LLL, 1-oleoyl-2,3-dilinolinoyl glycerol (OLL, triolein (OOO and 1,2-distearoyl-3-palmitoyl glycerol (SSP were present in higher amounts and decreased with thermal treatment. Animal's studies showed that oxidized oils decreased the whole body weight, which was ameliorated by the co-administration of un-oxidized oils. The levels of serum biochemical parameters were improved by co-administration of pumpkin seed oils. There were no significant effects of both oxidized and un-oxidized PSO on the hematological and histological parameters of rabbits. In conclusion, nutritionally important triacylglycerols were present in PSO with protective role against the toxicity of its corresponding oxidized oils.

  10. Characteristics of propulsion system of the magnetic levitation vehicle named ML-100

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujiwara, S

    1975-07-01

    A running test of a vehicle suspended by a superconducting magnetic levitation system and driven by a fixed primary linear induction motor (LIM) system was carried out. The test results of the temperature rise of the reaction plate and apparent power of propulsion system are described. Experimental results agree fairly well with calculated values. The effect of appropriate location of several kinds of LIM stators corresponding to running speed pattern are presented.

  11. Method of Estimating the Principal Characteristics of an Infantry Fighting Vehicle from Basic Performance Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    in a linear scaling with vehicle weight. • Counter-examples to linear scaling, such as torsion rods , account only for a small fraction (< 10%) of...at the maximum cabin height comes out to be 61 cm which is consistent with previous designs. We wish to keep as much flexibility for the designer...the ground via the track shoe(s). If we assume the track is perfectly flexible , one can estimate the sinkage by:10 0 = 6 5 √

  12. Design Tool for Estimating Chemical Hydrogen Storage System Characteristics for Light-Duty Fuel Cell Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thornton, Matthew J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sprik, Samuel [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Brooks, Kriston P. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory; Tamburello, David A. [Savannah River National Laboratory

    2018-04-07

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) developed a vehicle Framework model to simulate fuel cell-based light-duty vehicle operation for various hydrogen storage systems. This transient model simulates the performance of the storage system, fuel cell, and vehicle for comparison to Technical Targets established by DOE for four drive cycles/profiles. Chemical hydrogen storage models have been developed for the Framework for both exothermic and endothermic materials. Despite the utility of such models, they require that material researchers input system design specifications that cannot be estimated easily. To address this challenge, a design tool has been developed that allows researchers to directly enter kinetic and thermodynamic chemical hydrogen storage material properties into a simple sizing module that then estimates system parameters required to run the storage system model. Additionally, the design tool can be used as a standalone executable file to estimate the storage system mass and volume outside of the Framework model. These models will be explained and exercised with the representative hydrogen storage materials exothermic ammonia borane (NH3BH3) and endothermic alane (AlH3).

  13. Characteristics of atmospheric ammonia and its relationship with vehicle emissions in a megacity in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ruyu; Ye, Xingnan; Liu, Yuxuan; Li, Haowen; Yang, Xin; Chen, Jianmin; Gao, Wei; Yin, Zi

    2018-06-01

    Atmospheric ammonia plays an important role in haze formation in East China. In this study, long-term measurements of NH3 concentrations were implemented at urban, suburban, and tunnel sites in Shanghai, the largest city in East China. The average monthly ammonia concentrations at the urban site varied from 3.7 ppb to 14.5 ppb and exhibited the highest levels in summer and lowest levels in winter, indicating that the biological emissions and agriculture in the surrounding areas are important contributors. The suburban NH3 levels were significantly higher in autumn compared to those at the urban site, indicating the important contribution of agricultural activities. Regardless of the season, the difference of NH3 concentrations between the tunnel and urban sites remained almost constant. On average, the tunnel NH3 level was three times higher than that of the nearby urban site, indicating strong vehicle NH3 emissions in the tunnel. The tunnel NH3 levels on weekdays were comparable to those on weekends, a result that was in agreement with the daily average traffic volume. It was estimated that the vehicle emissions contributed 12.6-24.6% of the atmospheric NH3 in the urban area and 3.8-7.5% for the whole area of Shanghai. Our results suggest that vehicle NH3 emissions should be considered, although agricultural emissions are still more important for mitigating severe haze pollution during wintertime in the megacities of China.

  14. Design Tool for Estimating Chemical Hydrogen Storage System Characteristics for Light-Duty Fuel Cell Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brooks, Kriston P.; Sprik, Sam; Tamburello, David; Thornton, Matthew

    2018-05-03

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has developed a vehicle framework model to simulate fuel cell-based light-duty vehicle operation for various hydrogen storage systems. This transient model simulates the performance of the storage system, fuel cell, and vehicle for comparison to DOE’s Technical Targets using four drive cycles/profiles. Chemical hydrogen storage models have been developed for the Framework model for both exothermic and endothermic materials. Despite the utility of such models, they require that material researchers input system design specifications that cannot be easily estimated. To address this challenge, a design tool has been developed that allows researchers to directly enter kinetic and thermodynamic chemical hydrogen storage material properties into a simple sizing module that then estimates the systems parameters required to run the storage system model. Additionally, this design tool can be used as a standalone executable file to estimate the storage system mass and volume outside of the framework model and compare it to the DOE Technical Targets. These models will be explained and exercised with existing hydrogen storage materials.

  15. Flow Characteristics of Ground Vehicle Wake and Its Response to Flow Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellappan, Prabu; McNally, Jonathan; Alvi, Farrukh

    2017-11-01

    Air pollution, fuel shortages, and cost savings are some of the many incentives for improving the aerodynamics of vehicles. Reducing wake-induced aerodynamic drag, which is dependent on flow topology, on modern passenger vehicles is important for improving fuel consumption rates which directly affect the environment. In this research, an active flow control technique is applied on a generic ground vehicle, a 25°Ahmed model, to investigate its effect on the flow topology in the near-wake. The flow field of this canonical bluff body is extremely rich, with complex and unsteady flow features such as trailing wake vortices and c-pillar vortices. The spatio-temporal response of these flow features to the application of steady microjet actuators is investigated. The responses are characterized independently through time-resolved and volumetric velocity field measurements. The accuracy and cost of volumetric measurements in this complex flow field through Stereoscopic- and Tomographic- Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) will also be commented upon. National Science Foundation PIRE Program.

  16. Error Estimate of the Ares I Vehicle Longitudinal Aerodynamic Characteristics Based on Turbulent Navier-Stokes Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdol-Hamid, Khaled S.; Ghaffari, Farhad

    2011-01-01

    Numerical predictions of the longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics for the Ares I class of vehicles, along with the associated error estimate derived from an iterative convergence grid refinement, are presented. Computational results are based on the unstructured grid, Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes flow solver USM3D, with an assumption that the flow is fully turbulent over the entire vehicle. This effort was designed to complement the prior computational activities conducted over the past five years in support of the Ares I Project with the emphasis on the vehicle s last design cycle designated as the A106 configuration. Due to a lack of flight data for this particular design s outer mold line, the initial vehicle s aerodynamic predictions and the associated error estimates were first assessed and validated against the available experimental data at representative wind tunnel flow conditions pertinent to the ascent phase of the trajectory without including any propulsion effects. Subsequently, the established procedures were then applied to obtain the longitudinal aerodynamic predictions at the selected flight flow conditions. Sample computed results and the correlations with the experimental measurements are presented. In addition, the present analysis includes the relevant data to highlight the balance between the prediction accuracy against the grid size and, thus, the corresponding computer resource requirements for the computations at both wind tunnel and flight flow conditions. NOTE: Some details have been removed from selected plots and figures in compliance with the sensitive but unclassified (SBU) restrictions. However, the content still conveys the merits of the technical approach and the relevant results.

  17. Effect of incorporation of nutraceutical capsule waste of safflower oil in the mechanical characteristics of corn starch films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila de CAMPO

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Biodegradable films blends made of safflower oil nutraceutical capsules waste corn starch (20:4, 30:4, 40:4 and 50:4 were prepared. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of addition of different concentrations of safflower oil nutraceutical capsule waste in the mechanical properties (tensile strength, elongation at break, Young’s modulus and thickness of corn starch films. A decrease in tensile strength and Young’s modulus and an increase in elongation at break were observed with the increase in the content of the nutraceutical capsule waste. The results showed that the blends of safflower oil capsules waste-corn starch films demonstrated promising characteristics to form biodegradable films with different mechanical characteristics.

  18. THE CHARACTERISTICS OF THE PRODUCTION AND PROCESSING OF OIL AND NATURAL GAS IN CROATIA FROM 2000 TO 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josipa Velić

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This research analyzes the characteristics of the production and processing of oil, condensates and natural gas in the Republic of Croatia starting from 2000, until the end of 2014. Amounts of balance sheet (exploitable reserves of oil and condensates ranges from 9330,92 × 103 m3 in 2005, to 13 471,08 × 103 m3 in 2013, while extracted amounts are gradually declining from 1332,61 × 103 m3 to 639,96 × 103 m3. The ratio of extracted amounts and reserves is gradually declining, meaning that a slight increase in reserves does not affect the extracted amounts. Exploitable reserves of natural gas during the observed period fluctuate greatly. Being peaked in 2007, at 40,919.70 × 106 m3, they reached a low in 2014, at 17,932.98 × 106 m3. Unlike liquid hydrocarbons, the ratio of extracted and exploitable amounts is growing and peaked in 2014. Overall energy demands for oil in Croatia (shown as total consumption of crude oil amounted to 3032,8 × 103 m3 in 2013, while demands for natural gas amounted to 2809,90 × 106 m3. It is interesting to note that the consumption of oil is rapidly declining, which is a favorable trend from the standpoint of reducing emissions of greenhouse gases. While needs are partly covered by domestic exploitation, the dependence on imports of oil and natural gas is still evident and ranges from 75% to 84% for oil and 28% to 46% for natural gas, without major changes to the trend. The amounts of processed hydrocarbons are declining gradually, especially motor gasoline and fuel oil, while diesel fuel amounts remain mostly the same. Further research as well as development of the exploitation of oil and natural gas is of paramount importance, especially by investing in cadre education and new technologies.

  19. Modification of Oil Palm Mesocarp Fiber Characteristics Using Superheated Steam Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subbian Karuppuchamy

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, oil palm mesocarp fiber (OPMF was treated with superheated steam (SHS in order to modify its characteristics for biocomposite applications. Treatment was conducted at temperatures 190–230 °C for 1, 2 and 3 h. SHS-treated OPMF was evaluated for its chemical composition, thermal stability, morphology and crystallinity. OPMF treated at 230 °C exhibited lower hemicellulose content (9% compared to the untreated OPMF (33%. Improved thermal stability of OPMF was found after the SHS treatment. Moreover, SEM and ICP analyses of SHS-treated OPMF showed that silica bodies were removed from OPMF after the SHS treatment. XRD results exhibited that OPMF crystallinity increased after SHS treatment, indicating tougher fiber properties. Hemicellulose removal makes the fiber surface more hydrophobic, whereby silica removal increases the surface roughness of the fiber. Overall, the results obtained herewith suggested that SHS is an effective treatment method for surface modification and subsequently improving the characteristics of the natural fiber. Most importantly, the use of novel, eco-friendly SHS may contribute to the green and sustainable treatment for surface modification of natural fiber.

  20. Characteristics of single-vehicle crashes with e-bikes in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertach, Patrizia; Uhr, Andrea; Niemann, Steffen; Cavegn, Mario

    2018-08-01

    In Switzerland, the usage and accident numbers of e-bikes have strongly increased in recent years. According to official statistics, single-vehicle accidents constitute an important crash type. Up to date, very little is known about the mechanisms and causes of these crashes. To gain more insight, a survey was conducted among 3658 e-cyclists in 2016. The crash risk and injury severity were analysed using logistic regression models. 638 (17%) e-cyclists had experienced a single-vehicle accident in road traffic since the beginning of their e-bike use. Risk factors were high riding exposure, male sex, and using the e-bike mainly for the purpose of getting to work or school. There was no effect of age on the crash risk. Skidding, falling while crossing a threshold, getting into or skidding on a tram/railway track and evasive actions were the most important accident mechanisms. The crash causes mentioned most often were a slippery road surface, riding too fast for the situation and inability to keep the balance. Women, elderly people, riders of e-bikes with a pedal support up to 45 km/h and e-cyclists who considered themselves to be less fit in comparison to people of the same age had an increased risk of injury. This study confirms the high relevance of single-vehicle crashes with e-bikes. Measures to prevent this type of accident could include the sensitisation of e-cyclists regarding the most common accident mechanisms and causes, a regular maintenance of bicycle pathways, improvements regarding tram and railway tracks and technological advancements of e-bikes. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. Prediction of vehicle crashes by drivers' characteristics and past traffic violations in Korea using a zero-inflated negative binomial model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dae-Hwan; Ramjan, Lucie M; Mak, Kwok-Kei

    2016-01-01

    Traffic safety is a significant public health challenge, and vehicle crashes account for the majority of injuries. This study aims to identify whether drivers' characteristics and past traffic violations may predict vehicle crashes in Korea. A total of 500,000 drivers were randomly selected from the 11.6 million driver records of the Ministry of Land, Transport and Maritime Affairs in Korea. Records of traffic crashes were obtained from the archives of the Korea Insurance Development Institute. After matching the past violation history for the period 2004-2005 with the number of crashes in year 2006, a total of 488,139 observations were used for the analysis. Zero-inflated negative binomial model was used to determine the incident risk ratio (IRR) of vehicle crashes by past violations of individual drivers. The included covariates were driver's age, gender, district of residence, vehicle choice, and driving experience. Drivers violating (1) a hit-and-run or drunk driving regulation at least once and (2) a signal, central line, or speed regulation more than once had a higher risk of a vehicle crash with respective IRRs of 1.06 and 1.15. Furthermore, female gender, a younger age, fewer years of driving experience, and middle-sized vehicles were all significantly associated with a higher likelihood of vehicle crashes. Drivers' demographic characteristics and past traffic violations could predict vehicle crashes in Korea. Greater resources should be assigned to the provision of traffic safety education programs for the high-risk driver groups.

  2. Characteristics of black carbon emissions from in-use light-duty passenger vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xuan; Zhang, Shaojun; Wu, Ye; Zhang, K Max; Wu, Xian; Li, Zhenhua; Hao, Jiming

    2017-12-01

    Mitigating black carbon (BC) emissions from various combustion sources has been considered an urgent policy issue to address the challenges of climate change, air pollution and health risks. Vehicles contribute considerably to total anthropogenic BC emissions and urban BC concentrations. Compared with heavy-duty diesel vehicles, there is much larger uncertainty in BC emission factors for light-duty passenger vehicles (LDPVs), in particular for gasoline LDPVs, which warrants further studies. In this study, we employed the dynamometer and the Aethalometer (AE-51) to measure second-by-second BC emissions from eight LDPVs by engine technology and driving cycle. The average BC emission factors under transient cycles (e.g., ECE-15, New European Driving Cycle, NEDC, Worldwide Harmonized Light Vehicles Test Cycle, WLTC) are 3.6-91.5 mg/km, 7.6 mg/km and 0.13-0.58 mg/km, respectively, for diesel (N = 3), gasoline direct injection (GDI) (N = 1) and gasoline port-fuel injection (PFI) engine categories (N = 4). For gasoline PFI LDPVs, the instantaneous emission profiles show a strong association of peak BC emissions with cold-start and high-speed aggressive driving. Such impacts lead to considerable BC emission contributions in cold-start periods (e.g., the first 47 s-94 s) over the entire cycle (e.g., 18-76% of the NEDC and 13-36% of the WLTC) and increased BC emission factors by 80-440% under the WLTC compared to the NEDC. For diesel BC emissions, the size distribution exhibits a typical unimodal pattern with one single peak appearing approximately from 120 to 150 nm, which is largely consistent with previous studies. Nevertheless, the average mass ratios of BC to particle mass (PM) range from 0.38 to 0.54 for three diesel samples, representing substantial impacts from both driving and engine conditions. The significant discrepancy between gasoline BC emission factors obtained from tailpipe exhaust versus ambient conditions suggest that more comparative

  3. Vehicle to Vehicle Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønsted, Jeppe Rørbæk

    2008-01-01

    location aware infotainment, increase safety, and lessen environmental strain. This dissertation is about service oriented architecture for pervasive computing with an emphasis on vehicle to vehicle applications. If devices are exposed as services, applications can be created by composing a set of services...... be evaluated. Service composition mechanisms for pervasive computing are categorized and we discuss how the characteristics of pervasive computing can be supported by service composition mechanisms. Finally, we investigate how to make pervasive computing systems capable of being noticed and understood...

  4. Physical and chemical characteristics of toilet soap made from apricot kernel oil and palm stearin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girgis, Adel Y.

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present work was to use apricot kernel oil with palm stearin in toilet soap-making. Apricot kernel oil was obtained from apricot kernel seed (Prunus armeniaca through hydraulic pressing (12000lb/in2. Kernel contained 43.3% oil. The fatty acids of apricot kernel oil had high oleic acid (81.73% while, the major of the fatty acid in palm stearin was palmitic acid (55.17%. Eight of the toilet soap samples were prepared from apricot kernel oil, palm kernel oil and palm stearin at different ratios. The structure of soap samples nº1 and 8 were sticky and with bad physical properties. On the other hand, the physical characteristics of blends nos 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 had firm consistency and creamy lather while, in soap nº 7, its were moderatement; i. e. medium hard makeup with fairly lather. After storage (6 months on a shelf at room temperature, all soaps (nº1-8 were declined in their moisture content. On contrary, the total fatty acids of the same samples were augmented at different ratios during storage. Physical characteristics of soap samples nos 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7 were increased after the storage time (6 months, their consistencies were very firm with creamy lather and reducement in their erosion from handwashing ratios was observed. It can be recommended that apricot kernel oil can be used in the manufacturing of toilet soap until ratio 50% of the fatty blend (the blend was bear palm stearin.

    El objetivo del presente trabajo fue el uso del aceite de semilla de albaricoque con estearina de palma en la fabricación de jabón de tocador. El aceite de semilla de albaricoque (Prunus armeniaca se obtuvo por presión hidráulica (12000lb/in2, y la semilla contenía el 43.3% de aceite. Los ácidos grasos del aceite de semilla de albaricoque tenían altos contenidos de ácido oleico (81.73% mientras, el ácido graso mayoritario en la estearina de palma fue el ácido palm

  5. Heat transfer characteristics of coconut oil as phase change material to room cooling application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irsyad, M.; Harmen

    2017-03-01

    Thermal comfort in a room is one of human needs in the workplace and dwellings, so that the use of air conditioning system in tropical countries is inevitable. This equipment has an impact on the increase of energy consumption. One method of minimizing the energy use is by using the phase change material (PCM) as thermal energy storage. This material utilizes the temperature difference between day and night for the storage and release of thermal energy. PCM development on application as a material for air cooling inlet, partitioning and interior needs to be supported by the study of heat transfer characteristics when PCM absorbs heat from ambient temperature. This study was conducted to determine the heat transfer characteristics on coconut oil as a phase change material. There are three models of experiments performed in this research. Firstly, an experiment was conducted to analyze the time that was needed by material to phase change by varying the temperature. The second experiment analyzed the heat transfer characteristics of air to PCM naturally convection. The third experiment analyzed the forced convection heat transfer on the surface of the PCM container by varying the air velocity. The data of experimental showed that, increasing ambient air temperature resulted in shorter time for phase change. At temperatures of 30°C, the time for phase change of PCM with the thickness of 8 cm was 1700 min, and it was stable at temperatures of 27°C. Increasing air temperature accelerated the phase change in the material. While for the forced convection heat transfer, PCM could reduce the air temperature in the range of 30 to 35°C at about 1 to 2°C, with a velocity of 1-3 m/s.

  6. Developing a Ballistic Software Kit to Estimate Vehicle Characteristics at the Draft Design Stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Maiorova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes a ballistic software kit to calculate a moving vehicle trajectory in atmosphere and space. Such software gives an opportunity to accelerate the acquisition of flying vehicle’s ballistic parameters at the stage of draft design. It contributes to improving collaboration efficiency between adjacent departments involved in the project. The developed software kit includes three different programs: Trajectory-LAND© (motion in atmosphere with possible correction of a trajectory, Trajectory-SPACE© (motion in the non-central gravity field with possible simulation of maneuvers, Trajectory-LAUNCH© (launch-vehicle’s insertion into the orbit with possible defining the impact points of separated stages. Each of the software concedes the addition of computational modules to use the solution results of the basic task. Implemented mathematical models permit to take into account the influence of main perturbations on the flying vehicle during the flight. For illustration purposes, the article gives some examples of using each of the programs and their block-diagrams.The developed software implements some algorithms, which allow attaining the convergence of numerical simulation of differential equations of motion. This problem arises, for example, while determining an attitude in case the stages have already separated from the launch vehicle. The mathematical conversion from Rodriguez-Hamilton parameters into Euler’s angles disables us to obtain reliable values of attitude angles due to the limitations for existing area of inverse trigonometric functions being used. Incorrect values of pitch lead to raw and roll channels divergences. Moreover, the mistakes in attitude determination lead to mistakes in obtained values of attack angle, which is included into the forms for aerodynamic forces and torques. As a result, the solution of system of differential equations is a failure when a flying vehicle enters the height of 30-35 km. The

  7. Characteristic chemical components of the essential oil from white kwao krua (Pueraria mirifica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagi, Nobuo; Nakahashi, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Tomohiro; Miyazawa, Mitsuo

    2013-01-01

    The components of the essential oil from the roots of Pueraria mirifica were analyzed by capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Eighty-two components, representing 88.5% of the total oil, were identified by GC-MS. The main component of the oil was 2-pentylfuran, followed by hexanal and hexadecanol. With regard to the odor components from the essential oil of P. mirifica as determined by gas chromatography-olfactometry and aroma extract dilution analysis, it was revealed that phenylacetaldehyde and (2E)-nonenal imparted the green odor of the oil, and geraniol contributed to the sweet odor.

  8. Oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabbri, S

    1909-11-29

    Mineral, shale, and like oils are treated successively with sulfuric acid, milk of lime, and a mixture of calcium oxide, sodium chloride, and water, and finally a solution of naphthalene in toluene is added. The product is suitable for lighting, and for use as a motor fuel; for the latter purpose, it is mixed with a light spirit.

  9. Influence of extraction techniques on physical-chemical characteristics and volatile compounds of extra virgin olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpe, Maria Grazia; De Cunzo, Fausta; Siano, Francesco; Paolucci, Marina; Barbarisi, Costantina; Cammarota, Giancarlo

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate three types of extraction methods of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) from the same cultivar (Ortice olive cultivar): traditional or pressing (T) system, decanter centrifugation (DC) system and a patented horizontal axis decanter centrifugation (HADC) system. Oil samples were subjected to chemical analyses: free acidity, peroxide value, ultraviolet light absorption K232 and K270, total polyphenols, antioxidant capacity, volatile compounds and olfactory characteristics by electronic nose. The two centrifugation systems showed better free acidity and peroxides value but total polyphenol content was particularly high in extra virgin olive oil produced by patented HADC system. Same volatile substances that positively characterize the oil aroma were found in higher amount in the two centrifugation systems, although some differences have been detected between DC and HADC system, other were found in higher amount in extra virgin olive oil produced by T system. The electronic nose analysis confirmed these results, principal component analysis (PCA) and correlation matrix showed the major differences between EVOO produced by T and HADC system. Taken together the results showed that DC and HADC systems produce EVOO with better characteristics than T system and patented HADC is the best extraction system.

  10. Stochastic analysis of uncertain thermal characteristic of foundation soils surrounding the crude oil pipeline in permafrost regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Tao; Zhou, Guoqing; Wang, Jianzhou; Zhao, Xiaodong

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The influence of stochastic properties and conditions on permafrost foundation was investigated. • A stochastic analysis for the uncertain thermal characteristic of crude oil pipe is presented. • The mean temperature and standard deviation of foundation soils are obtained and analyzed. • Average standard deviation and maximum standard deviation of foundation soils increase with time. - Abstract: For foundation soils surrounding the crude oil pipeline in permafrost regions, the soil properties and the upper boundary conditions are stochastic because of complex geological processes and changeable atmospheric environment. The conventional finite element analysis of thermal characteristics for crude oil pipeline is always deterministic, rather than taking stochastic parameters and conditions into account. This study investigated the stochastic influence of an underground crude oil pipeline on the thermal stability of the permafrost foundation on the basis of a stochastic analysis model and the stochastic finite element method. A stochastic finite element program is compiled by Matrix Laboratory (MATLAB) software, and the random temperature fields of foundation soils surrounding a crude oil pipeline in a permafrost region are obtained and analyzed by Neumann stochastic finite element method (NSFEM). The results provide a new way to predict the thermal effects of the crude oil pipeline in permafrost regions, and it shows that the standard deviations in temperature increase with time when considering the stochastic effect of soil properties and boundary conditions, which imply that the results of conventional deterministic analysis may be far from the true value, even if in different seasons. It can improve our understanding of the random temperature field of foundation soils surrounding the crude oil pipeline and provide a theoretical basis for actual engineering design in permafrost regions.

  11. Efficient wireless power charging of electric vehicle by modifying the magnetic characteristics of the medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmud, Mohammad Hazzaz

    There is a developing enthusiasm for electric vehicle (EV) innovations as a result of their lessened fuel utilization and greenhouse emission especially through wireless power transfer (WPT) due to the convenience and continuous charging. Numerous research initiatives target on wireless power transfer (WPT) system in the attempt to improve the transportation for last few decades. But several problems like less efficiency, high frequency, long distance energy transfer etc. were always been occupied by the wireless power transfer system. Two ideas have been developed in this research to resolve the two main problems of WPT for electric vehicles which are low efficiency due to large distance between the two coils and slow charging time. As the first phase of study, a proper model, including the coils and cores were required. The selected model was a finite element (FE) modeling. Another part of this study was to create a modified cement that will act as a semi-conductive material for covering the transmitting antenna area. A high frequency wide band gap switch will be used for transferring high amount of power in a very short time. More over this research also proves that, if cores could be added with the transmitter coil and receiver coil then the output efficiency dramatically increased comparing with without core model of transmitter and receiver. The wireless charging is not restricted to parking lot, since it's planned to be embedded into parking space concrete or roadway concrete or asphalt. Therefore, it can also be installed at junctions (behind red lights), stop signs or any spot that the vehicle might stop for several moments. This technology will become more feasible, if the charging time decreases. Therefore, a new model of for wireless power transfer has been proposed in this study which has shown significant improvement. Another motive of this study was to improve the conductivity and permeability in such a way that the medium that is on the top of the

  12. Non-Newtonian Flow Characteristics of Heavy Oil in the Bohai Bay Oilfield: Experimental and Simulation Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiankang Xin

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, physical experiments and numerical simulations were applied to systematically investigate the non-Newtonian flow characteristics of heavy oil in porous media. Rheological experiments were carried out to determine the rheology of heavy oil. Threshold pressure gradient (TPG measurement experiments performed by a new micro-flow method and flow experiments were conducted to study the effect of viscosity, permeability and mobility on the flow characteristics of heavy oil. An in-house developed novel simulator considering the non-Newtonian flow was designed based on the experimental investigations. The results from the physical experiments indicated that heavy oil was a Bingham fluid with non-Newtonian flow characteristics, and its viscosity-temperature relationship conformed to the Arrhenius equation. Its viscosity decreased with an increase in temperature and a decrease in asphaltene content. The TPG measurement experiments was impacted by the flow rate, and its critical flow rate was 0.003 mL/min. The TPG decreased as the viscosity decreased or the permeability increased and had a power-law relationship with mobility. In addition, the critical viscosity had a range of 42–54 mPa∙s, above which the TPG existed for a given permeability. The validation of the designed simulator was positive and acceptable when compared to the simulation results run in ECLIPSE V2013.1 and Computer Modelling Group (CMG V2012 software as well as when compared to the results obtained during physical experiments. The difference between 0.0005 and 0.0750 MPa/m in the TPG showed a decrease of 11.55% in the oil recovery based on the simulation results, which demonstrated the largely adverse impact the TPG had on heavy oil production.

  13. 1D and 3D anthropometric data application on public transport vehicle layout and on oil and gas laboratories work environment design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastura, F C H; Guimarães, C P; Zamberlan, M C P; Cid, G L; Santos, V S; Streit, P; Paranhos, A G; Cobbe, R T; Cobbe, K T; Batista, D S

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to present 1D and 3D anthropometric data applied to two distinct design situations: one related to the interior layout of a public transport vehicle and another one related to oil and gas laboratories work environment design. On this study, the 1D anthropometric data were extracted from the Brazilian anthropometric database developed by INT and the 3D anthropometric data were obtained using a Cyberware 3D whole body scanner. A second purpose of this paper is to present the 3D human scanning data as a tool that can help designers on decision making.

  14. Camouflage design and head measurement characteristic of Indonesian armoured vehicle helmet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sya'bana, Yukhi Mustaqim Kusuma; Sanjaya, K. H.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper discussed camouflage design helmet for armored vehicles with comparing head measurement of Indonesian anthropometric. Design process conduct with considering of design aspects involves function, materials, operational, technology, user, and appearance (camouflage). As an application of Indonesian National Army that qualifies factors needs: safety, comfort, practical and service. MIL-H-44099A Military Specification: Helmet, Ground Troops And Parachutists is minimum limitation standard of military helmet production. Head measurement for product design process guide is presented. Model simulation and helmet measurement using the design for ego and design for more types ergonomics concept. Appearance shape concept is engaging camouflage towards background and environment to deceive enemy viewpoint. Helmet prototype has tested ergonomically to an Indonesian National Army soldier and stated that the helmet size is a comfort and fitted on the head when in use.

  15. Materials towards carbon-free, emission-free and oil-free mobility: hydrogen fuel-cell vehicles--now and in the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirose, Katsuhiko

    2010-07-28

    In the past, material innovation has changed society through new material-induced technologies, adding a new value to society. In the present world, engineers and scientists are expected to invent new materials to solve the global problem of climate change. For the transport sector, the challenge for material engineers is to change the oil-based world into a sustainable world. After witnessing the recent high oil price and its adverse impact on the global economy, it is time to accelerate our efforts towards this change. Industries are tackling global energy issues such as oil and CO2, as well as local environmental problems, such as NO(x) and particulate matter. Hydrogen is the most promising candidate to provide carbon-free, emission-free and oil-free mobility. As such, engineers are working very hard to bring this technology into the real society. This paper describes recent progress of vehicle technologies, as well as hydrogen-storage technologies to extend the cruise range and ensure the easiness of refuelling and requesting material scientists to collaborate with industry to fight against global warming.

  16. Influences of Fuel Additive, Crude Palm and Waste Cooking Oil on Emission Characteristics of Small Diesel Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalid, Amir; Jaat, Norrizam; Manshoor, Bukhari; Zaman, Izzuddin; Sapit, Azwan; Razali, Azahari; Basharie, Mariam

    2017-08-01

    Major research has been conducted on the use of input products, such as rapeseed, canola, soybean, sunflower oil, waste cooking oil (WCO), crude palm oil (CPO) and crude jatropha oil as alternative fuels. Biodiesel is renewable, biodegradable and oxygenated, where it can be easily adopted by current existing conventional diesel engine without any major modification of the engine. To meet the future performance and emission regulations, is urged to improve the performance and exhaust emissions from biodiesel fuels. Hence, further investigation have been carried out on the emission characteristics of small diesel engine that fuelled by variant blending ratio of WCO and CPO with booster additive. For each of the biodiesel blends ratio from 5 to 15 percent volume which are WCO5, WCO10 and WCO15 for WCO biodiesel and CPO5, CPO10 and CPO15 for CPO biodiesel. The exhaust emissions were measured at engine speeds varied at 2000 rpm and 2500 rpm with different booster additive volume DRA (biodiesel without additive), DRB (0.2 ml) and DRC (0.4 ml). Emissions characteristics that had been measured were Hydrocarbon (HC), Carbon Monoxide (CO), Carbon Dioxide (CO2), Nitrogen Oxide (NOx), and smoke opacity. The results showed that increased of blending ratio with booster additive volume significantly decreased the CO emission, while increased in NOx and CO2 due to changes of fuel characteristics in biodiesel fuel blends.

  17. Initial geochemical characteristics of fluid fine tailings in an oil sands end pit lake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dompierre, Kathryn A. [Department of Civil and Geological Engineering, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada S7N 5A9 (Canada); Lindsay, Matthew B.J., E-mail: matt.lindsay@usask.ca [Department of Geological Sciences, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan S7N 5E2 (Canada); Cruz-Hernández, Pablo [Department of Geology, University of Huelva, Campus ‘El Carmen’, E-21071 Huelva (Spain); Halferdahl, Geoffrey M. [Environmental Research and Development, Syncrude Canada Limited, Edmonton, Alberta T6N 1H4 (Canada)

    2016-06-15

    Geochemical characteristics of fluid fine tailings (FFT) were examined in Base Mine Lake (BML), which is the first full-scale demonstration oil sands end pit lake (EPL) in northern Alberta, Canada. Approximately 186 Mm{sup 3} of FFT was deposited between 1994 and 2012, before BML was established on December 31, 2012. Bulk FFT samples (n = 588) were collected in July and August 2013 at various depths at 15 sampling sites. Temperature, solid content, electrical conductivity (EC), pH, Eh and alkalinity were measured for all samples. Detailed geochemical analyses were performed on a subset of samples (n = 284). Pore-water pH decreased with depth by approximately 0.5 within the upper 10 m of the FFT. Major pore-water constituents included Na (880 ± 96 mg L{sup −1}) and Cl (560 ± 95 mg L{sup −1}); Ca (19 ± 4.1 mg L{sup −1}), Mg (11 ± 2.0 mg L{sup −1}), K (16 ± 2.3 mg L{sup −1}) and NH{sub 3} (9.9 ± 4.7 mg L{sup −1}) were consistently observed. Iron and Mn concentrations were low within FFT pore water, whereas SO{sub 4} concentrations decreased sharply across the FFT–water interface. Geochemical modeling indicated that FeS{sub (s)} precipitation was favoured under SO{sub 4}-reducing conditions. Pore water was also under-saturated with respect to gypsum [CaSO{sub 4}·2H{sub 2}O], and near saturation with respect to calcite [CaCO{sub 3}], dolomite [CaMg(CO{sub 3}){sub 2}] and siderite [FeCO{sub 3}]. X-ray diffraction (XRD) suggested that carbonate-mineral dissolution largely depleted calcite and dolomite. X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy revealed the presence of FeS{sub (s)}, pyrite [FeS{sub 2}], and siderite. Carbonate-mineral dissolution and secondary mineral precipitation have likely contributed to FFT dewatering and settlement. However, the long-term importance of these processes within EPLs remains unknown. These results provide a reference for assessing the long-term geochemical evolution of oil sands EPLs, and offer

  18. Estimation of tire characteristics by concerning test data of vehicles; Jidosha no senkai shiken data ni yoru dire tokusei no suisan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, M; Sekine, T; Nagae, H [Nihon University, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    To study and/or develop the vehicle motion of a braking in turns theoretically, the cornering characteristics of the tire under the action of braking forces must be required. On the other hand, such data are very few to be published and also there be few tire testing machine to be able to use. The authors tried to derive such data from the vehicle behaviors in steady turns and braking in turns. Because each wheel loads are unknown factors, the two wheeled vehicle model are employed in analysis. The methodology of analysis and the reasonable results are presented in this paper. 5 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Experimental study of spray characteristics of biodiesel derived from waste cooking oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohan, Balaji; Yang, Wenming; Tay, Kun Lin; Yu, Wenbin

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • B20 and diesel exhibit similar spray tip penetration and angle. • Change in orientation of spray shapes observed with different fuels. • B100 shows poor air fuel mixing compared to B20 and diesel. • Diesel shows higher equivalence ratio compared to B20 and B100. - Abstract: In this study, the fuel spray characteristics and air-fuel mixing process of waste cooking oil biodiesel (B100) and its blend with diesel (B20) were investigated and compared with diesel fuel. Spray characteristics such as spray tip penetration, spray angle, spray velocity and spray morphology were investigated under high injection and ambient pressure conditions using a constant volume spray chamber. The air-fuel mixing process was analysed using empirical relations like fuel volume, mass of air entrained within the spray and equivalence ratio. The results shows that B100 has higher spray tip penetration and velocity but narrow spray angles due to high viscosity and large momentum possessed by B100 compared to B20 and diesel fuels. The deviation in spray tip penetration reduces under high ambient pressure. The spray angle shows no change under various injection pressures; however it increases significantly under high ambient pressure. The spray shape is affected by the cavitation inside the injector nozzle holes. The fuel volume and amount of air entrainment within the spray showed that B100 exhibits poor air-fuel mixing compared to B20 and diesel fuels. Nevertheless, the equivalence ratio along the axial direction of spray reveals that the B100 has lean equivalence ratio compared to B20 and diesel fuel due to the presence of inherent oxygen content in its structure. A numerical simulation was conducted using new hybrid spray model implemented in KIVA4 and found that the results obtained from the simulation were in good agreement with the empirical results calculated from the experiments

  20. User characteristics and effect profile of Butane Hash Oil: An extremely high-potency cannabis concentrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Gary C K; Hall, Wayne; Freeman, Tom P; Ferris, Jason; Kelly, Adrian B; Winstock, Adam

    2017-09-01

    Recent reports suggest an increase in use of extremely potent cannabis concentrates such as Butane Hash Oil (BHO) in some developed countries. The aims of this study were to examine the characteristics of BHO users and the effect profiles of BHO. Anonymous online survey in over 20 countries in 2014 and 2015. Participants aged 18 years or older were recruited through onward promotion and online social networks. The overall sample size was 181,870. In this sample, 46% (N=83,867) reported using some form of cannabis in the past year, and 3% reported BHO use (n=5922). Participants reported their use of 7 types of cannabis in the past 12 months, the source of their cannabis, reasons for use, use of other illegal substances, and lifetime diagnosis for depression, anxiety and psychosis. Participants were asked to rate subjective effects of BHO and high potency herbal cannabis. Participants who reported a lifetime diagnosis of depression (OR=1.15, p=0.003), anxiety (OR=1.72, pcannabis. BHO users also reported stronger negative effects and less positive effects when using BHO than high potency herbal cannabis (pcannabis. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Physicochemical Characteristics and Composition of Three Morphotypes of Cyperus esculentus Tubers and Tuber Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souleymane Bado

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tuber characteristics and nutrient composition of three morphotypes of Cyperus esculentus tubers and tuber oils were determined. The mean value for length and width of the tuber and one thousand dried tuber weights ranged from 0.98 to 1.31 cm, 0.90 to 1.19 cm, and 598 to 1044 g, respectively. Tubers displayed high level of starch (30.54–33.21 g 100 g−1, lipid (24.91–28.94 g 100 g−1, and sucrose (17.98–20.39 g 100 g−1. The yellow tubers had significantly higher content in lipid compared to black ones. Levels of ascorbic acid, tocopherol, and β-carotene of the three morphotypes differed significantly. Yellow ones (morphotypes 1 and 2 were the richest in tocopherol and the poorest in β-carotene. Saturated fatty acid content of morphotype 2 was significantly lower than that of morphotypes 1 and 3. Morphotype 3 had the significantly lowest PUFA content compared to morphotypes 1 and 2. Morphotype 1 was found to be richer in Ca, Cu, and Mn contents. Al, Mg, P, S, and Si were most abundant in morphotype 2. Morphotype 3 had the highest content of Cl, K, and Zn.

  2. Pathogenic characteristics of yeasts isolated from vaginal secretion preserved under mineral oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Severo Gomes

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the pathogenicity of yeasts isolated from vaginal secretion of pregnant and non-pregnant women - stored in mineral oil at the URM Mycology Collection, Department of Mycology, Federal University of Pernambuco - 30 samples belonging to the genera Candida, Rhodotorula, Trichosporon, and Kloeckera, were studied regarding their pathogenic characteristics, ability to grow at room temperature (28°C ± 1°C, 37°C, and 42°C for 72 hours, and production of both phospholipase and proteinase. Results showed that all 30 isolates (100% were able to grow at room temperature and 37°C, and that 17 samples (57% were able to grow at 42°C. Evaluation of enzymatic activity showed protease activity in only two isolates (7%, namely C. maritima and C. obtusa. Phospholipase activity was detected in 20 isolates (67% using soy lecithin as substrate at different temperatures. The characterization of yeasts isolated from vaginal secretion and determination of their enzymatic activity may contribute to understanding the epidemiology of vulvovaginitis and assist in the treatment of patients.

  3. Biscuits fortified with micro-encapsulated shrimp oil: characteristics and storage stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeungwongtrakul, Sirima; Benjakul, Soottawat

    2017-04-01

    Characteristics and storage stability of biscuits fortified with micro-encapsulated shrimp oil (MSO) were determined. The addition of MSO increased spread ratio, whilst decreased the thickness of biscuit. The highest hardness of biscuit was obtained with addition of 9 or 12% MSO. Biscuit surface showed higher redness and yellowness when MSO was incorporated ( p  < 0.05). The addition of MSO up to 6% had no adverse effect on biscuit quality and acceptability. When biscuits added with 6% MSO were stored under different illumination conditions (light and dark), lipid oxidation in all samples increased throughout the storage of 12 days. Light accelerated lipid oxidation of biscuits as evidenced by the increases in both peroxide values and abundance of volatile compounds. No marked change in EPA, DHA and astaxanthin contents were noticeable in biscuit fortified with MSO after 12 days of storage. Therefore, the biscuit could be fortified with MSO up to 6% and must be stored in dark to assure its oxidative stability.

  4. Geological characteristics and resource potentials of oil shale in Ordos Basin, Center China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yunlai, Bai; Yingcheng, Zhao; Long, Ma; Wu-jun, Wu; Yu-hu, Ma

    2010-09-15

    It has been shown that not only there are abundant oil, gas, coal, coal-bed gas, groundwater and giant uranium deposits but also there are abundant oil shale resources in Ordos basin. It has been shown also that the thickness of oil shale is, usually, 4-36m, oil-bearing 1.5%-13.7%, caloric value 1.66-20.98MJ/kg. The resource amount of oil shale with burial depth less than 2000 m is over 2000x108t (334). Within it, confirmed reserve is about 1x108t (121). Not only huge economic benefit but also precious experience in developing oil shale may be obtained in Ordos basin.

  5. Effects of Different Pretreatments to Fresh Fruit on Chemical and Thermal Characteristics of Crude Palm Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Minmin; Xia, Qiuyu; Holland, Brendan J; Wang, Hui; Zhang, Yufeng; Li, Rui; Cao, Hongxing

    2017-12-01

    This study selected 5 methods, including boiling, hot air drying, high-pressurized steam, freezing, and microwave radiation to pretreat fresh oil palm fruit before solvent extraction of the oil. Using fresh fruit as a control, the pretreatment methods were compared for the effects on the activity of the 2 main enzymes in the fruit and some physicochemical properties of the crude palm oil. The results indicated, although all the 5 pretreatments could inactivate lipase and peroxidase in the treated flesh significantly (P oils. The crude oil from frozen fruit contained significantly more vitamin E (37829.33 ppm) than previously reported. Microwave radiation was shown to significantly decrease the free fatty acid content and the peroxide value, while increasing the oxidative stability index. Thermal behaviors of the oils were significantly different to each other with the exception a few parameters (P < 0.05). © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  6. Comparison of Chemical and Enzymatic Interesterification of Fully Hydrogenated Soybean Oil and Walnut Oil to Produce a Fat Base with Adequate Nutritional and Physical Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariel Farfán

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The optimal physical, chemical and nutritional properties of natural lipids depend on the structure and composition of triacylglycerols. However, they are not always mutually compatible. Lipid modification is a good way to give them specific functionalities, increase their oxidative stability, or improve their nutritional value. As such, chemical and enzymatic interesterification may be used to modify them and produce structured lipids. In accordance, the aim of this study is to compare chemical and enzymatic interesterifi cation of binary blends of fully hydrogenated soybean oil and walnut oil, using sodium methoxide or Lipozyme TL IM, respectively, to produce a fat base with adequate nutritional and physical characteristics. Three different mass ratios of fully hydrogenated soybean oil and walnut oil blends (20:80, 40:60 and 60:40 were interesterified and evaluated. Total interesterification was determined by the stabilization of the solid fat content. Chemical reaction of the 20:80 blend was completed in 10 min and of the 40:60 and 60:40 blends in 15 min. Enzymatically interesterified blends were stabilized in 120 min at all of the mass ratios. Complete interesterification significantly reduced the solid fat content of the blends at any composition. Chemical and enzymatically interesterified fully hydrogenated blend of soybean and walnut oil at mass ratio of 40:60 showed the plastic curve of an all-purpose-type shortening rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids, with a high linolenic acid (C18:3n3 content and with zero trans-fatty acids.

  7. Transport characteristics of nanoscale zero-valent iron carried by three different "vehicles" in porous media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yan; Zhao, Yong S; Li, Lu L; Qin, Chuan Y; Wu, Fan; Geng, Nan N; Lei, Jian S

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the transport properties of nanoscale zero-valent iron (Fe(0)) (nZVI) carried by three vehicles: water, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) solution, and SDS foam. Batch experiments were conducted to assess the sedimentation capability of nZVI particles in these three vehicles. Column experiments were conducted to investigate the transport properties of nZVI in porous media formed with different sizes of sand (0.25 mm to 0.5 mm, 0.5 mm to 0.9 mm, and 0.9 mm to 1.4 mm). Three main results were obtained. First, the batch experiments revealed that the stabilities of nZVI particles in SDS solution and SDS foam were improved, compared with that of nZVI particles in water. Moreover, the sedimentation of nZVI in foam was closely associated with the foam drainage volume. The nZVI content in foam was similar to that in the original foaming suspension, and the nZVI particle distribution in foam became significantly more uniform at a stirring speed of 3000 r/min. Second, the transport of nZVI was enhanced by foam compared with water and SDS solution for 0.25 mm to 0.5 mm diameter sand. For sand with diameters of 0.5 mm to 0.9 mm and 0.9 mm to 1.4 mm, the mobility of nZVI carried by SDS solution was optimal, followed by that of nZVI carried by foam and water. Thus, the mobility of nZVI in finer sand was significantly enhanced by foam, compared with that in coarse sand. In contrast, compared with the bare nZVI suspension and nZVI-laden foam, the spatial distribution of nZVI particles carried by SDS solution was significantly uniform along the column length. Third, the SDS concentration significantly influenced the migration of nZVI in porous media. The enhancement in the migration of nZVI carried by SDS solution was greater at an SDS dose of 0.25% compared with that at the other three doses (0.2%, 0.5%, and 1%) for sand with a 0.25 mm to 0.5 mm diameter. Increased SDS concentrations positively affected the transport of nZVI by foam for sand with a

  8. Performance Characteristics of a 4 × 6 Oil-Free Twin-Screw Compressor

    OpenAIRE

    Sun-Seok Byeon; Jae-Young Lee; Youn-Jea Kim

    2017-01-01

    The screw compressor in the early stage of development is generally known as the oil-injection type. However, escalating environmental problems and advances in electronic components have spurred continuous R & D to minimize the oil content in compressed air. The oil-free twin-screw compressor is continuously compressed by inner volumetric change between rotors and casing. For this reason, in order to predict the overall performance of the screw compressor at the early stage of the design ...

  9. A study of relations between physicochemical properties of crude oils and microbiological characteristics of reservoir microflora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yashchenko, I. G.; Polishchuk, Yu. M.; Peremitina, T. O.

    2015-10-01

    The dependence of the population and activity of reservoir microflora upon the chemical composition and viscosity of crude oils has been investigated, since it allows the problem of improvement in the technologies and enhancement of oil recovery as applied to production of difficult types of oils with anomalous properties (viscous, heavy, waxy, high resin) to be solved. The effect of the chemical composition of the oil on the number, distribution, and activity of reservoir microflora has been studied using data on the microbiological properties of reservoir water of 16 different fields in oil and gas basins of Russia, Mongolia, China, and Vietnam. Information on the physicochemical properties of crude oils of these fields has been obtained from the database created at the Institute of Petroleum Chemistry, Siberian Branch on the physicochemical properties of oils throughout the world. It has been found that formation water in viscous oil reservoirs is char acterized by a large population of heterotrophic and sulfate reducing bacteria and the water of oil fields with a high paraffin content, by population of denitrifying bacteria.

  10. Maceral and geochemical characteristics of oil shale 2 from the Huangxian Basin, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Yuzhuang; Lin, Mingyue; Li, Haimei; Zhang, Hongjian; Li, Shifeng; Jin, Kankun [Hebei Architectural Science and Technology Inst., Handan, Hebei (China)

    2001-07-01

    Five samples of Oil Shale 2 from the Huangxian Basin have been analysed by coal petrographic and geochemical methods in order to study its formation environment. Higher alginite ratios and hopanes in Oil Shale 2 indicate a lower plants and anoxic environment. Two ternary diagrams of 'facies diagnostic' macerals and biomarkers were used to interpret the depositional environments of organic matter in Oil Shale 2. In both diagrams, Oil Shale 2 plots in a lower plant zone, and was deposited in a deeper water environment. (Author)

  11. Microencapsulation of borage oil with blends of milk protein, β-glucan and maltodextrin through spray drying: physicochemical characteristics and stability of the microcapsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ru-Yi; Shi, Yan

    2018-02-01

    Borage oil is a rich commercial source of γ-linolenic acid (18:3n-6). However, borage oil is rich in omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids and vulnerable to oxidation. Thus, selecting appropriate wall materials is critical to the encapsulation of borage oil. The present study investigated the influence of wall materials on the physicochemical characteristics and stability of microencapsulated borage oil by spray drying. Blends of milk protein [sodium caseinate (CAS) or whey protein concentrate], β-glucan (GLU) and maltodextrin (MD) were used as the wall materials for encapsulating borage oil. The microencapsulation of borage oil with different wall materials attained high encapsulation efficiencies. The microencapsulated borage oil prepared with CAS-MD achieved the optimal encapsulation efficiency of 96.62%. The oxidative stabilities of borage oil and microencapsulated borage oil were measured by accelerated storage test at 45 °C and 33% relative humidity for 30 days. The microencapsulated borage oil presented lower peroxide values than those of borage oil, and the microcapsules prepared with CAS-10GLU-MD (consisting of CAS 50 g kg -1 , GLU 100 g kg -1 and MD 475 g kg -1 of microencapsulation) conferred borage oil with high protection against lipid oxidation. The results of the present study demonstrate that the CAS-GLU-MD blend is appropriate for microencapsulating borage oil. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Performance Characteristics of PTC Elements for an Electric Vehicle Heating System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon Hyuk Shin

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A high-voltage positive temperature coefficient (PTC heater has a simple structure and a swift response. Therefore, for cabin heating in electric vehicles (EVs, such heaters are used either on their own or with a heat pump system. In this study, the sintering process in the manufacturing of PTC elements for an EV heating system was improved to enhance surface uniformity. The electrode production process entailing thin-film sputtering deposition was applied to ensure the high heating performance of PTC elements and reduce the electrode thickness. The allowable voltage and surface heat temperature of the high-voltage PTC elements with thin-film electrodes were 800 V and 172 °C, respectively. The electrode layer thickness was uniform at approximately 3.8 μm or less, approximately 69% less electrode materials were required compared to that before process improvement. Furthermore, a heater for the EV heating system was manufactured using the developed high-voltage PTC elements to verify performance and reliability.

  13. Experimental And Numerical Investigation Of Aerothermal Characteristics Of The IXV Hypersonic Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, S.; Charbonnier, D.; Tran, D.

    2011-05-01

    The main results of the aerothermodynamic hypersonic characterization of Intermediate eXperimental Vehicle (IXV), by means of both CFD simulations and wind tunnel measurements, have been reported and analyzed. In the framework of ESA FLPP Program, the VKI (Von Karman Institute) was in charge of an experimental test campaign for the consolidation of the aerothermal database in cold hypersonic regime. The tests campaign has been carried out at VKI Free Piston Longshot wind tunnel at mach 14. The numerical simulations have been performed for VKI wind tunnel conditions by CFSE with the in-house NSMB flow solver (Navier-Stokes Multi-Blocks 3D), the goal being to support the procedure of extrapolation-to-flight of the measurements and the general aerothermal characterization. Laminar, transitional and fully turbulent flows have been computed, with air considered as an ideal gas, for the wind tunnel tests numerical rebuilding. A detailed comparison of all measured and predicted hypersonic relevant phenomena and parameters (surface pressure and heat flux) is reported in the paper, together with a detailed description of configuration, freestream conditions, model attitude effects and flap deflection effect. The detailed analyze of the experimental and numerical data gives information on the nature of the flow on the body and on the flaps for the most critical configuration

  14. Thermal Characteristics of an Oscillating Heat Pipe Cooling System for Electric Vehicle Li-Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ri-Guang Chi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The heat generation of lithium ion batteries in electric vehicles (EVs leads to a degradation of energy capacity and lifetime. To solve this problem, a new cooling concept using an oscillating heat pipe (OHP is proposed. In the present study, an OHP has been adopted for Li-ion battery cooling. Due to the limited space in EVs, the cooling channel is installed on the bottom of the battery module. In the bottom cooling method with an OHP, generated heat can be dissipated easily and conveniently. However, most studies on heat pipes have used bottom heating and top or side cooling methods, so we investigate the various effects of parameters with a top heating/bottom cooling mode with the OHP, i.e., the inclination angle of the system, amount of working fluid charged, the heating amount, and the cold plate temperature with ethanol as a working fluid. The experimental results show that the thermal resistance (0.6 °C/W and uneven pulsating features influence the heat transfer performance. A heater used as a simulated battery was sustained under 60 °C under 10 W and 14 W heating conditions. This indicates that the proposed cooling system with the bottom cooling is feasible for use as an EV’s battery cooling system.

  15. Effects of different irrigation intervals and plant density on morphological characteristics, grain and oil yields of sesame (Sesamum indicum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    parviz rezvani moghadam

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the effects of different irrigation intervals and plant density on morphological characteristics, grain and oil yields of sesame, an experiment was conducted at experimental station, college of agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad. Four different irrigation intervals (one, two, three and four weeks with four plant densities (20, 30, 40 and 50 plants/m2 were compared in a spilt plot arrangement based on randomized complete block design with four replications. Irrigation intervals and plant densities allocated in main plots and subplots, respectively. Different characteristics such as plant height, distance of first capsule from soil surface, number of branches per plant, number of grains per capsule, number of capsules per plant, grain yield, 1000-seed weight, harvest index and oil yield were recorded. The results showed that there were no significant difference between different irrigation intervals in terms of distance of first capsule from soil surface, number of grains per capsule, 1000-seed weight and harvest index. Different irrigation intervals had significant effects on plant height, number of branches per plant, number of capsules per plant, grain yield and oil yield. There were significant differences between different plant densities in terms of distance of first capsule from soil surface, number of branches per plant, number of graines per capsule, number of capsules per plant, grain yield, harvest index and oil yield. The highest grain yield (798/7 kg/ha and oil yield (412/8 kg/ha were obtained at one week and four weeks irrigation intervals, respectively. Between all treatments, 50 plants/m2 and one week irrigation interval produced the highest grain yield (914/7 kg/ha and oil yield (478/6 kg/ha. Because of shortage of water in Mashhad condition, the results recommended that, 50 plants/m2 and two weeks irrigation interval produced rather acceptable grain yield, with less water consumption.

  16. Tectonic Characteristics and its Effects on the Control of the Oil and Gas Accumulation in Bayanhushu Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Zhaobin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, it makes full use of seismic and Wells in the single well data on the basis of predecessors’ research. On the basis of structural geology theory as the instruction, the detailed characteristics of structure and fracture were studied in this paper. Based on the fracture characteristics, the authors studied the basement depth and the development of hydrocarbon source rocks characteristics, and the restoration method of sag tectonic evolution characteristics are analyzed as well. The authors also discussed the construction control of the oil and gas distribution rules. Through this research, the authors found out the regional tectonic framework, the fault distribution and the tectonic evolution stage, illustrated the structure of oil and gas accumulation conditions, the accumulation mode, and the distribution rule of control law. Through prototype basin restoration, the authors given concerns about the early depression and tectonic background of stuck faults control source, the distribution of sand body, the western steep slope fan delta and gentle slope belt of eastern braided river delta front sand body is favorable reservoir. Depression after Nantun group and the end of the Yimin group at the end of the reversal of the two big changes, ring between the concave structure development, favorable traps formed early reverse changes, late reverse change on the early formation of trap destruction; reservoir by the late Nantun group is formed by the reverse change control in the construction of the steep slope belt wing structure oil and gas enrichment.

  17. Improving Vegetable Oil Fueled CI Engine Characteristics Through Diethyl Ether Blending

    KAUST Repository

    Vedharaj, S.

    2016-12-01

    In this research, the flow and ignition properties of vegetable oil (VO) are improved by blending it with diethyl ether (DEE). DEE, synthesized from ethanol, has lower viscosity than diesel and VO. When DEE is blended with VO, the resultant DEEVO mixtures have favorable properties for compression ignition (CI) engine operation. As such, DEEVO20 (20% DEE + 80% VO) and DEEVO40 (40% DEE + 60% VO) were initially considered in the current study. The viscosity of VO is 32.4*10−6 m2/s; the viscosity is reduced with the increase of DEE in VO. In this study, our blends were limited to a maximum of 40% DEE in VO. The viscosity of DEEVO40 is 2.1*10−6 m2/s, which is comparable to that of diesel (2.3*10−6 m2/s). The lower boiling point and flash point of DEE improves the fuel spray and evaporation for DEEVO mixtures. In addition to the improvement in physical properties, the ignition quality of DEEVO mixtures is also improved, as DEE is a high cetane fuel (DCN = 139). The ignition characteristics of DEEVO mixtures were studied in an ignition quality tester (IQT). There is an evident reduction in ignition delay time (IDT) for DEEVO mixtures compared to VO. The IDT of VO (4.5 ms), DEEVO20 (3.2 ms) and DEEVO40 (2.7 ms) was measured in IQT. Accordingly, the derived cetane number (DCN) of DEEVO mixtures increased with the increase in proportion of DEE. The reported mixtures were also tested in a single cylinder CI engine. The start of combustion (SOC) was advanced for DEEVO20 and DEEVO40 compared to diesel, which is attributed to the high DCN of DEEVO mixtures. On the other hand, the peak heat release rate decreased for DEEVO mixtures compared to diesel. Gaseous emissions such as nitrogen oxide (NOX), total hydrocarbon (THC) and smoke were reduced for DEEVO mixtures compared to diesel. The physical and ignition properties of VO are improved by the addition of DEE, and thus, the need for the trans-esterification process is averted. Furthermore, this blending strategy is simpler

  18. Improving Vegetable Oil Fueled CI Engine Characteristics Through Diethyl Ether Blending

    KAUST Repository

    Vedharaj, S.; Vallinayagam, R.; Sarathy, Mani; Dibble, Robert W.

    2016-01-01

    In this research, the flow and ignition properties of vegetable oil (VO) are improved by blending it with diethyl ether (DEE). DEE, synthesized from ethanol, has lower viscosity than diesel and VO. When DEE is blended with VO, the resultant DEEVO mixtures have favorable properties for compression ignition (CI) engine operation. As such, DEEVO20 (20% DEE + 80% VO) and DEEVO40 (40% DEE + 60% VO) were initially considered in the current study. The viscosity of VO is 32.4*10−6 m2/s; the viscosity is reduced with the increase of DEE in VO. In this study, our blends were limited to a maximum of 40% DEE in VO. The viscosity of DEEVO40 is 2.1*10−6 m2/s, which is comparable to that of diesel (2.3*10−6 m2/s). The lower boiling point and flash point of DEE improves the fuel spray and evaporation for DEEVO mixtures. In addition to the improvement in physical properties, the ignition quality of DEEVO mixtures is also improved, as DEE is a high cetane fuel (DCN = 139). The ignition characteristics of DEEVO mixtures were studied in an ignition quality tester (IQT). There is an evident reduction in ignition delay time (IDT) for DEEVO mixtures compared to VO. The IDT of VO (4.5 ms), DEEVO20 (3.2 ms) and DEEVO40 (2.7 ms) was measured in IQT. Accordingly, the derived cetane number (DCN) of DEEVO mixtures increased with the increase in proportion of DEE. The reported mixtures were also tested in a single cylinder CI engine. The start of combustion (SOC) was advanced for DEEVO20 and DEEVO40 compared to diesel, which is attributed to the high DCN of DEEVO mixtures. On the other hand, the peak heat release rate decreased for DEEVO mixtures compared to diesel. Gaseous emissions such as nitrogen oxide (NOX), total hydrocarbon (THC) and smoke were reduced for DEEVO mixtures compared to diesel. The physical and ignition properties of VO are improved by the addition of DEE, and thus, the need for the trans-esterification process is averted. Furthermore, this blending strategy is simpler

  19. Dose-response effects of dietary pequi oil on fermentation characteristics and microbial population using a rumen simulation technique (Rusitec).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Andrea Camacho; Durmic, Zoey; Vercoe, Philip E; Chaves, Alexandre V

    2017-12-01

    The effect of increasing the concentration of commercial pequi (Caryocar brasiliense) oil on fermentation characteristics and abundance of methanogens and fibrolityc bacteria was evaluated using the rumen simulation technique (Rusitec). In vitro incubation was performed over 15 days using a basal diet consisting of ryegrass, maize silage and concentrate in equal proportions. Treatments consisted of control diet (no pequi oil inclusion, 0 g/kg DM), pequi dose 1 (45 g/kg DM), and pequi dose 2 (91 g/kg DM). After a 7 day adaptation period, samples for fermentation parameters (total gas, methane, and VFA production) were taken on a daily basis. Quantitative real time PCR (q-PCR) was used to evaluate the abundance of the main rumen cellulolytic bacteria, as well as abundance of methanogens. Supplementation with pequi oil did not reduce overall methane production (P = 0.97), however a tendency (P = 0.06) to decrease proportion of methane in overall microbial gas was observed. Increasing addition of pequi oil was associated with a linear decrease (P < 0.01) in dry matter disappearance of maize silage. The abundance of total methanogens was unchanged by the addition of pequi oil, but numbers of those belonging to Methanomassiliicoccaceae decreased in liquid-associated microbes (LAM) samples (P < 0.01) and solid-associated microbes (SAM) samples (P = 0.09) respectively, while Methanobrevibacter spp. increased (P < 0.01) only in SAM samples. Fibrobacter succinogenes decreased (P < 0.01) in both LAM and SAM samples when substrates were supplemented with pequi oil. In conclusion, pequi oil was ineffective in mitigating methane emissions and had some adverse effects on digestibility and selected fibrolytic bacteria. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Numerical Analysis on the Influence of Thermal Effects on Oil Flow Characteristic in High-Pressure Air Injection (HPAI Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Jia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In previous laboratory study, we have shown the thermal behavior of Keke Ya light crude oil (Tarim oilfield, branch of CNPC for high-pressure air injection (HPAI application potential study. To clarify the influences of thermal effects on oil production, in this paper, we derived a mathematical model for calculating oil flow rate, which is based on the heat conduction property in porous media from the combustion tube experiment. Based on remarkably limited knowledge consisting of very global balance arguments and disregarding all the details of the mechanisms in the reaction zone, the local governing equations are formulated in a dimensionless form. We use finite difference method to solve this model and address the study by way of qualitative analysis. The time-space dimensionless oil flow rate (qD profiles are established for comprehensive studies on the oil flow rate characteristic affected by thermal effects. It also discusses how these findings will impact HPAI project performances, and several guidelines are suggested.

  1. Determination And Characteristic Oil Biomarker Of Illegal Crude Oil Production Using Mass Spectroscopy in Musi Banyuasin District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edhi suryanto

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available South Sumatra is one of the largest petroleum producing provinces in Indonesia, especially in the region of Musi Banyuasin Petroleum resources other than legally cultivated by Pertamina as government representatives, but on the other hand the community also participate through Illegal Drilling activities. This study aims to determine the hydrocarbon content and characterization of petroleum produced illegally by communities in the Sangadesa, Babattoman and Keluang districts through the biomarker analysis of the distribution of n-Alkane C10-C34 (m/z: 57, pristane, phytane, sterane C27-C29 (m/z: 217,218,259 and specific biomarker using Gas Chromatography Mass Spectroscopy agilent GCMSD 6890/5973i with data analysis using MSD Chemstation F.01.01.2317 and Library Database NIST14. Petroleum samples taken from 10 illegal wells with a depth range of 80-250 meters and production period of 3 months until 3 years. Oil is produced through The illegal drilling is not the main oil source rock but the result of migration. Biomarkers Hydrocarbon analysis is one of the most widely used devices for exploration geochemistry, exploitation, production and forensic environment in the assessment and determination of sources of pollution related to petroleum material and derivatives very well.

  2. Oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cobbett, G T.B.

    1907-07-08

    Crude petroleum having a density of 850 to 900 is purified with sulfuric acid, decanted, mixed with benzine or petrol, and again treated with sulfuric acid and decanted. The remaining acid and coloring-matter are removed by washing with water, or treating with oxalic acid, zinc carbonate, lead carbonate, calcium carbonate, or oxide of zinc. The product is used as a fuel for internal-combustion engines. Specifications No. 28,104, A.D. 1906, and No. 12,606, A.D. 1907, are referred to. According to the Provisional Specification, the process is applicable to shale or schist oil.

  3. Characteristic fly-ash particles from oil-shale combustion found in lake sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alliksaar, T.; Hoerstedt, P.; Renberg, I.

    1998-01-01

    Fly-ash particles accumulate in sediments and can be used to assess spatial distribution and temporal trends of atmospheric deposition of pollutants derived from high temperature combustion of fossil fuels. Previous work has concerned fly-ash derived from oil and coal. Oil-shale is the main fossil fuel used in Estonia and a major source of atmospheric pollution in the Baltic states. To assess if oil-shale power plants produce specific fly-ash particles scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) were used to compare fly-ash particles from oil-shale combustion with particles from oil and coal combustion. Two types were analysed, large black (10-30μm) and small glassy (< 5 μm) spheroidal particles. Although article morphology to some extent is indicative of the fuel burnt, morphological characters are not sufficient to differentiate between particles of different origin. However, the results indicate that with EDX analysis the fly-ash from oil-shale can be distinguished form oil and coal derived particles in environmental samples. Concentrations of large black and small glassy spheroidal fly-ash particles in a sediment core from an Estonian lake showed similar trends to oil-shale combustion statistics from Estonian power plants. 27 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  4. The influence of physicochemical characteristics of a non-edible oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, oil was extracted from yellow oleander (YO) seed and the yield was found to be 64.7% . The physico-chemical parameters of the yellow oleander seed oil (YO) were assessed following the ASTM standard methods, and found to have iodine value of 75.82 and calorific value of 13.79 MJ/Kg. Other ...

  5. Numerical analysis on thermal characteristics and ice melting efficiency for microwave deicing vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Can; Yang, Bo; Tan, Gangfeng; Guo, Xuexun; Zhou, Li; Xiong, Shengguang

    2016-05-01

    In the high latitudes, the icy patches on the road are frequently generated and have a wide distribution, which are difficult to remove and obviously affect the normal usage of the highways, bridges and airport runways. Physical deicing, such as microwave (MW) deicing, help the ice melt completely through heating mode and then the ice layer can be swept away. Though it is no pollution and no damage to the ground, the low efficiency hinders the development of MW deicing vehicle equipped without sufficient speed. In this work, the standard evaluation of deicing is put forward firstly. The intensive MW deicing is simplified to ice melting process characterized by one-dimensional slab with uniform volumetric energy generation, which results in phase transformation and interface motion between ice and water. The heating process is split into the superposition of three parts — non-heterogeneous heating for ground without phase change, heat transfer with phase change and the heat convection between top surface of ice layer and flow air. Based on the transient heat conduction theory, a mathematical model, combining electromagnetic and two-phase thermal conduction, is proposed in this work, which is able to reveal the relationship between the deicing efficiency and ambient conditions, as well as energy generation and material parameters. Using finite difference time-domain, this comprehensive model is developed to solve the moving boundary heat transfer problem in a one-dimensional structured gird. As a result, the stimulation shows the longitudinal temperature distributions in all circumstances and quantitative validation is obtained by comparing simulated temperature distributions under different conditions. In view of the best economy and fast deicing, these analytic solutions referring to the complex influence factors of deicing efficiency demonstrate the optimal matching for the new deicing design.

  6. Sensory profiling: a method for describing the sensory characteristics of virgin olive oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyon, David H.

    1994-04-01

    Full Text Available Sensory profiling is an objective, descriptive technique which uses a panel of trained assessors. It was used at Campden to differentiate olive oil which differed in terms of the country of origin, variety, ripeness and extraction techniques. The data were related to similar results from the Netherlands and Italy. The results indicated that all three sensory panels perceived the samples in the same way, however, the differed in the way the oils were described.
    The new European legislation on olive oil is partially concerned with the sensory aspects of the oil. The sensory grading takes into account the 'positive' and 'negative' attributes in the oil before giving an overall quality grade. These attributes do not reflect the consumer requirements, therefore, the grading should be restricted to the assessment of the presence or absence of sensory defects.

  7. Improvement in genetic characteristics and oil yield of selected soybean progenies from octuple crosses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamawaki Osvaldo Toshiyuki

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate 44 soybean octuple crosses in the F4:3[8] and F5:3[8] generations in order to select progenies superior for seed oil yield (OY and other important agronomic characteristics. Octuple crosses were hybridized in a chain mating system. In one group, crosses were carried out for three generations with the adapted x exotic parents until octuple crosses with 75% adapted genes and 25% exotic genes were obtained. In a second group, hybridization of adapted x adapted parents originated crosses with 100% adapted genes. During the growing season 1994/95, the progenies F4:3[8] were evaluated by using the augmented block design. The progenies F5:3[8] were evaluated during the growing season 1995/96 in three experiments using augmented block design without repetition. The octuple crosses gave origin to superior progenies for all the characters studied. In the C22 cross, OY values were 707 kg/ha. The estimates of heritability in relation to the crosses average resulted in the following mean, minimum and maximum values, respectively: number of days to maturity (52.35%, 3.71%, 84.23%; agronomic value (26.69%, 1.62%, 61.28% and grain yield (29.28%, 1.52%, 61.06%. The observed genetic gains for grain yield in the early, intermediate and late F5:3[8] progenies were superior to the expected genetic gains and the observed genetic gains for OY were more expressive in the early and late F5:[8] progenies. The genetic variability remaining in the selected progenies of some crosses suggests that further genetic gains for grain yield and OY might be possible with advanced selection cycles.

  8. Parameters Identification and Sensitive Characteristics Analysis for Lithium-Ion Batteries of Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Zhang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper mainly investigates the sensitive characteristics of lithium-ion batteries so as to provide scientific basises for simplifying the design of the state estimator that adapt to various environments. Three lithium-ion batteries are chosen as the experimental samples. The samples were tested at various temperatures (−20 ∘ C, −10 ∘ C, 0 ∘ C , 10 ∘ C , 25 ∘ C and various current rates (0.5C, 1C, 1.5C using a battery test bench. A physical equivalent circuit model is developed to capture the dynamic characteristics of the batteries. The experimental results show that all battery parameters are time-varying and have different sensitivity to temperature, current rate and state of charge (SOC. The sensitivity of battery to temperature, current rate and SOC increases the difficulty in battery modeling because of the change of parameters. The further simulation experiments show that the model output has a higher sensitivity to the change of ohmic resistance than that of other parameters. Based on the experimental and simulation results obtained here, it is expected that the adaptive parameter state estimator design could be simplified in the near future.

  9. Use of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) for the detection and surveillance of marine oil spills in the Belgian part of the North Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donnay, E.

    2009-01-01

    This paper discussed the use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) deployed by the Belgian Army in order to detect oil spills as well as for intelligence, reconnaissance and surveillance missions. The UAV are fitted with a dual sensor gyro-stabilized turret which combines a daylight camera and a thermal infrared camera. Live images of the sensors are transmitted in real time to control stations. All Belgian marine pollution surveillance platforms are coordinated by the Maritime Security Center of the Belgian Coast Guard. Satellite surveillance services provide real time information related to potential oil spills and other anomalies on the sea surface. Stand-by helicopters are also used for the rapid assessment of reported spills. The B-Hunter system is undetectable due to its small size and low noise signature, and can be used for the continuous monitoring of specific areas or for the tracking of suspect vessels. The system will also be used to monitor the progress of oil spill response operations as well as to provide information and guidance to response vessels. 6 refs., 2 figs

  10. Use of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) for the detection and surveillance of marine oil spills in the Belgian part of the North Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donnay, E. [Federal Public Service Health, Food Chain Safety and Environment, Brussels (Belgium)

    2009-07-01

    This paper discussed the use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) deployed by the Belgian Army in order to detect oil spills as well as for intelligence, reconnaissance and surveillance missions. The UAV are fitted with a dual sensor gyro-stabilized turret which combines a daylight camera and a thermal infrared camera. Live images of the sensors are transmitted in real time to control stations. All Belgian marine pollution surveillance platforms are coordinated by the Maritime Security Center of the Belgian Coast Guard. Satellite surveillance services provide real time information related to potential oil spills and other anomalies on the sea surface. Stand-by helicopters are also used for the rapid assessment of reported spills. The B-Hunter system is undetectable due to its small size and low noise signature, and can be used for the continuous monitoring of specific areas or for the tracking of suspect vessels. The system will also be used to monitor the progress of oil spill response operations as well as to provide information and guidance to response vessels. 6 refs., 2 figs.

  11. The Slug and Churn Turbulence Characteristics of Oil-Gas-Water Flows in a Vertical Small Pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Weixin; Han, Yunfeng; Wang, Dayang; Zhao, An; Jin, Ningde

    2017-08-01

    The intention of the present study was to investigate the slug and churn turbulence characteristics of a vertical upward oil-gas-water three-phase flow. We firstly carried out a vertical upward oil-gas-water three-phase flow experiment in a 20-mm inner diameter (ID) pipe to measure the fluctuating signals of a rotating electric field conductance sensor under different flow patterns. Afterwards, typical flow patterns were identified with the aid of the texture structures in a cross recurrence plot. Recurrence quantitative analysis and multi-scale cross entropy (MSCE) algorithms were applied to investigate the turbulence characteristics of slug and churn flows with the varying flow parameters. The results suggest that with cross nonlinear analysis, the underlying dynamic characteristics in the evolution from slug to churn flow can be well understood. The present study provides a novel perspective for the analysis of the spatial-temporal evolution instability and complexity in oil-gas-water three-phase flow.

  12. Physical characteristic and irritation index of Syzigium aromaticum essential oil in O/W and W/O creams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safriani, R.; Sugihartini, N.; Yuliani, S.

    2017-11-01

    Essential oil of Syzigium aromaticum has been formulated in O/W and W/O creams as anti-inflammatory dosage form. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the physical characteristic and irritation index of S. aromaticum essential oil in O/W and W/O creams. The creams were made by fusion method. The creams then were evaluated the physical characteristic including pH, viscosity, spreadability and adhesivity. The irritation index was obtained by irritation skin test in male rabbit. The results showed that the W/O and O/W creams have the value of pH: 6.3 and 6.27; spreadability: 3,18 and 4.17 cm2; adhesivity: 5.59 and 0.07 minutes; viscosity: 4.43 and 2.88 Pa.S, respectively. The irritation test showed that the control enhancer caused mild irritation in both of W/O and O/W creams. These findings indicated that type of cream might influence the physical characteristic and irritation index of S. aromaticum essential oil cream.

  13. Experimental Study on Breakdown Characteristics of Transformer Oil Influenced by Bubbles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunxu Qin

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Bubbles will reduce the electric strength of transformer oil, and even result in the breakdown of the insulation. This paper has studied the breakdown voltages of transformer oil and oil-impregnated pressboard under alternating current (AC and direct current (DC voltages. In this paper, three types of electrodes were applied: cylinder-plan electrodes, sphere-plan electrodes, and cone-plan electrodes, and the breakdown voltages were measured in both no bubbles and bubbles. The sphere-sphere electrodes were used to study the breakdown voltage of the oil-impregnated pressboard. The results showed that under the influence of bubble, the breakdown voltage of the cylinder-plan electrode dropped the most, and the breakdown voltage of the cone-plan electrode dropped the least. The bubbles motion was the key factor of the breakdown. The discharge types of the oil-impregnated pressboard were different with bubbles, and under DC, the main discharge type was flashover along the oil-impregnated pressboard, while under AC, the main discharge type was breakdown through the oil-impregnated pressboard.

  14. Characteristics, Composition and Oxidative Stability of Lannea microcarpa Seed and Seed Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrice Bazongo

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The proximate composition of seeds and main physicochemical properties and thermal stability of oil extracted from Lannea microcarpa seeds were evaluated. The percentage composition of the seeds was: ash (3.11%, crude oil (64.90%, protein (21.14%, total carbohydrate (10.85% and moisture (3.24%. Physicochemical properties of the oil were: refractive index, 1.473; melting point, 22.60°C; saponification value, 194.23 mg of KOH/g of oil; iodine value, 61.33 g of I2/100 g of oil; acid value, 1.21 mg of KOH/g of oil; peroxide value, 1.48 meq of O2/kg of oil and oxidative stability index, 43.20 h. Oleic (43.45%, palmitic (34.45%, linoleic (11.20% and stearic (8.35% acids were the most dominant fatty acids. Triacylglycerols with equivalent carbon number (ECN 48 and ECN 46 were dominant (46.96% and 37.31%, respectively. The major triacylglycerol constituents were palmitoyl diolein (POO (21.23%, followed by dipalmitoyl olein (POP (16.47%, palmitoyl linoleyl olein (PLO (12.03%, dipalmitoyl linolein (PLP (10.85% and dioleoyl linolein (LOO (9.30%. The total polyphenol and tocopherol contents were 1.39 mg GAE g−1 DW and 578.56 ppm, respectively. γ-Tocopherol was the major tocopherol (437.23 ppm. These analytical results indicated that the L. microcarpa seed oil could be used as a frying oil and in the cosmetic industry.

  15. Characteristics and composition of Jatropha gossypiifoliaand Jatropha curcas L. oils and application for biodiesel production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Oliveira, Jefferson S.; Leite, Polyanna M.; de Souza, Lincoln B.; Mello, Vinicius M.; Rubim, Joel C.; Suarez, Paulo A.Z. [Laboratorio de Materiais e Combustiveis, Instituto de Quimica, Universidade de Brasilia, C.P. 4478, 70919-970 Brasilia, DF (Brazil); Silva, Eid C.; Meneghetti, Simoni M.P. [Instituto de Quimica e Biotecnologia, Universidade Federal de Alagoas, Av. Lourival de Melo Mota, s/n, Cidade Universitaria, 57072-970 Maceio-AL (Brazil)

    2009-03-15

    In this work two genus of the Jatropha family: the Jatropha gossypiifolia (JG) and Jatropha curcas L. (JC) were studied in order to delimitate their potential as raw material for biodiesel production. The oil content in wild seeds and some physical-chemical properties of the oils and the biodiesel obtained from them were evaluated. The studied physical-chemical properties of the JC and JG biodiesel are in acceptable range for use as biodiesel in diesel engines, showing a promising economic exploitation of these raw materials in semi-arid regions. However, further agronomic studies are needed in order to improve the seed production and the crude oil properties. (author)

  16. Extraction Method of Driver’s Mental Component Based on Empirical Mode Decomposition and Approximate Entropy Statistic Characteristic in Vehicle Running State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuan-Feng Zhao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the driver fatigue monitoring technology, the essence is to capture and analyze the driver behavior information, such as eyes, face, heart, and EEG activity during driving. However, ECG and EEG monitoring are limited by the installation electrodes and are not commercially available. The most common fatigue detection method is the analysis of driver behavior, that is, to determine whether the driver is tired by recording and analyzing the behavior characteristics of steering wheel and brake. The driver usually adjusts his or her actions based on the observed road conditions. Obviously the road path information is directly contained in the vehicle driving state; if you want to judge the driver’s driving behavior by vehicle driving status information, the first task is to remove the road information from the vehicle driving state data. Therefore, this paper proposes an effective intrinsic mode function selection method for the approximate entropy of empirical mode decomposition considering the characteristics of the frequency distribution of road and vehicle information and the unsteady and nonlinear characteristics of the driver closed-loop driving system in vehicle driving state data. The objective is to extract the effective component of the driving behavior information and to weaken the road information component. Finally the effectiveness of the proposed method is verified by simulating driving experiments.

  17. Growth performance, carcass characteristics, and the incidence of ascites in broilers in response to feed restriction and litter oiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGovern, R H; Feddes, J J; Robinson, F E; Hanson, J A

    1999-04-01

    The effect of feed restriction and the application of canola oil to broiler straw litter to contain respirable dust on growth performance, carcass traits, and the incidence of ascites was evaluated with 800 male broilers studied in two 6-wk periods. Two pens of birds were feed restricted. Two pens of birds received feed ad libitum for the 6-wk trial. One restricted and one ad libitum pen received biweekly addition of canola oil to the litter. At 6 wk of age, 30 birds from each pen were killed for determination of breast muscle, fat pad, and heart weights. All birds were scored for the incidence of ascites at processing. A cross sectional image of each heart was digitally recorded and, using image analysis, the right ventricular area (RVA), left ventricular area (LVA), and total heart area (HA) were determined. The right ventricular wall was removed and its weight was expressed as a percentage of total heart weight (PRVW). The 40-d BW was significantly greater in the ad libitum birds (2.07 kg) than in the feed-restricted birds (1.86 kg). The right ventricular weight (RVW) (1.69 and 1.92 g) and the RVA (0.35 and 0.40 cm2) were also significantly different between the two feeding treatments. The ascites score was significantly correlated to the RVW (r = 0.50) and RVA (r = 0.52). The RVA was also correlated to the RVW (r = 0.63). Oiling the litter did not result in differences in carcass characteristics. Litter oiling significantly reduced the RVA of the ad libitum birds (0.36 cm2) compared to the ad libitum birds that did not have oiled litter (0.44 cm2). Feed restriction reduced the incidence of ascites, but also reduced gain. Litter oiling in the feed-restricted groups reduced the RVA, but did not reduce mortality.

  18. The spatiotemporal dynamic analysis of the implied market information and characteristics of the correlation coefficient matrix of the international crude oil price returns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian, Lixin; Ding, Zhenqi; Zhen, Zaili; Wang, Minggang

    2016-01-01

    The international crude oil market plays a crucial role in economies, and the studies of the correlation, risk and synchronization of the international crude oil market have important implications for the security and stability of the country, avoidance of business risk and people's daily lives. We investigate the information and characteristics of the international crude oil market (1999-2015) based on the random matrix theory (RMT). Firstly, we identify richer information in the largest eigenvalues deviating from RMT predictions for the international crude oil market; the international crude oil market can be roughly divided into ten different periods by the methods of eigenvectors and characteristic combination, and the implied market information of the correlation coefficient matrix is advanced. Secondly, we study the characteristics of the international crude oil market by the methods of system risk entropy, dynamic synchronous ratio, dynamic non-synchronous ratio and dynamic clustering algorithm. The results show that the international crude oil market is full of risk. The synchronization of the international crude oil market is very strong, and WTI and Brent occupy a very important position in the international crude oil market. (orig.)

  19. The spatiotemporal dynamic analysis of the implied market information and characteristics of the correlation coefficient matrix of the international crude oil price returns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian, Lixin [Jiangsu University, Energy Development and Environmental Protection Strategy Research Center, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu (China); Nanjing Normal University, School of Mathematical Sciences, Nanjing, Jiangsu (China); Ding, Zhenqi; Zhen, Zaili [Jiangsu University, Energy Development and Environmental Protection Strategy Research Center, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu (China); Wang, Minggang [Nanjing Normal University, School of Mathematical Sciences, Nanjing, Jiangsu (China)

    2016-08-15

    The international crude oil market plays a crucial role in economies, and the studies of the correlation, risk and synchronization of the international crude oil market have important implications for the security and stability of the country, avoidance of business risk and people's daily lives. We investigate the information and characteristics of the international crude oil market (1999-2015) based on the random matrix theory (RMT). Firstly, we identify richer information in the largest eigenvalues deviating from RMT predictions for the international crude oil market; the international crude oil market can be roughly divided into ten different periods by the methods of eigenvectors and characteristic combination, and the implied market information of the correlation coefficient matrix is advanced. Secondly, we study the characteristics of the international crude oil market by the methods of system risk entropy, dynamic synchronous ratio, dynamic non-synchronous ratio and dynamic clustering algorithm. The results show that the international crude oil market is full of risk. The synchronization of the international crude oil market is very strong, and WTI and Brent occupy a very important position in the international crude oil market. (orig.)

  20. Changes in the Characteristics of Water-in-Oil-based High Internal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy and Alternative Medicine, the Islamia University of Bahawalpur 63100, ... and water-in-oil (W/O) systems with internal .... stresses were applied on the samples, and shear rates and .... Curr Opin Colloid Interfac.

  1. Analysis of the electrical characteristic of linseed oil films exposed to humidity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palummo, Lucrezia [Rome University Tor Vergata, Physic Department, Rome (Italy); Bearzotti, Andrea [IMM-CNR, Area di Ricerca di Roma Tor Vergata, Rome (Italy)

    2009-12-15

    Linseed oil is a material widely used in various applications as a protecting layer for surfaces in industry, in scientific research, for medical use, and finally for artistic purpose. This natural origins substance has a particular application as a protective and smoothing layer on phenolic-melaminic laminate electrodes on Resistive Plate Chamber (RPC) detectors used in various particle physic experiments. In such electronic applications where linseed oil could be exposed to water vapours, an electrical characterization should result useful for having an overall control of the process involving the oil. In this paper, we studied the electrical behaviour towards relative humidity variations of linseed oil films deposited on interdigitated metal electrodes. Moreover, I/V characterisation both in air and vacuum, current vs. temperature and relative humidity was performed. (orig.)

  2. Influence of Vehicle Speed on the Characteristics of Driver's Eye Movement at a Highway Tunnel Entrance during Day and Night Conditions: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Li; Dong, Li-Li; Xu, Wen-Hai; Zhang, Li-Dong; Leon, Arturo S

    2018-04-02

    The aim of this study was to investigate how vehicle speed influences the characteristics of driver's eye movement at highway tunnel entrances during day and night. In this study, six drivers' eye movement data (from 200 m before tunnel entrance to 200 m inside tunnel entrance) under five predetermined vehicle speeds (40, 50, 60, 70 and 80 km/h) in the daytime and three predetermined vehicle speeds (40, 60 and 80 km/h) in the nighttime were recorded using the non-intrusive Dikablis Professional eye-tracking system. Pupil size, the average fixation duration time and the average number of fixation were analyzed and then the influence of the vehicle speed on these parameters was evaluated by means of IBM SPSS Statistics 20.0. The results for pupil size in daytime increased when approaching the tunnel entrance, while as for nighttime, pupil size decreased when approaching the tunnel entrance and then increased after entering the tunnel. The pupil size in daytime has a significant negative correlation with vehicle speed, while the pupil size in nighttime did not show a significant association with vehicle speed. Furthermore, the average fixation duration in daytime increased when entering the tunnel, and had a significant negative correlation with vehicle speed. Also, the average number of fixations in daytime decreased when entering the tunnel and has a significant negative correlation with vehicle speed. However, the average fixation duration and the average number of fixations in nighttime did not show any significant association with vehicle speed. Moreover, limitations and future directions of the study are discussed for the further investigation.

  3. Gamma radiation influence in physical and chemical characteristics of Bacaba Oil (Oenocarpus bacaba Mart.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonseca, Hugo Maia; Santos, Camila Oliveira dos; Cruz, Luis Paulo Adami; Arthur, Valter; Souza, Adriana Regia Marques de

    2015-01-01

    The bacaba (Oenocarpus bacaba Mart.) is a fruit originating from the Amazon forest, and its oil has similarity to the fatty acid composition of olive oil. The objective of this study was to evaluate the quality of bacaba oil submitted to gamma radiation in the of 5, 10 and 15 kGy. The extracted oil was irradiated at doses of 5, 10 and 15 kGy, and then the physical and chemical analysis were carried out: acid value, peroxide value, iodine value, refractive index, specific gravity, saponification value, coefficient specific extinction at 232 and 270 nm and color. Was possible to evidence that radiation promoted decrease in acidity of the oil 26.67%, 27.27% and 9.09%, respectively, at the doses of 5, 10 and 15 kGy, in relation to oil which has not gone through the process (standard). The values of specific gravity, refractive index and saponification value, have not changed, but the result of peroxides were significantly affected, increasing by 51.99%, 100.44% and 89.40% values relative to the standard. It was also observed a significant increase in K232 and K270 values, suggesting increased oxidation products, conjugated dienes and trienes. The oil color has been affected by the doses, generating a product with a more yellowish color and increased brightness. That way, from the analysis, it concluded that the use of gamma radiation at the doses used were not sufficient to make it, in the short term, unsafe for consumption, but changed substantially oil color. (author)

  4. Identifying the Entrepreneurship Characteristics of the Oil Palm Community Plantation Farmers in the Riau Area

    OpenAIRE

    Brilliant Asmit; Deddy P. Koesrindartoto

    2015-01-01

    Oil palm is an essential and strategic commodity in the Riau area because of its considerable role in supporting the peoples’ economy, especially for plantation farmers. Oil palm plantation activities have brought economic impacts to society there, both for the people who are directly involved with the plantations and for their surrounding communities. This regional advantage is a facility for farmers to be able to develop their farms as plantations. The aims of this research are to identify ...

  5. Gamma radiation influence in physical and chemical characteristics of Bacaba Oil (Oenocarpus bacaba Mart.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonseca, Hugo Maia; Santos, Camila Oliveira dos; Cruz, Luis Paulo Adami, E-mail: hmaiaf@gmail.com [Universidade Federal do Tocantins (UFT), Palmas, TO (Brazil); Arthur, Valter, E-mail: arthur@cena.usp.br [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Irradiacao de Alimentos e Radioentomologia; Souza, Adriana Regia Marques de, E-mail: adriana.souza@pq.cnpq.br [Universidade Federal de Goias (UFGO), Goiania, GO (Brazil). Escola de Agronomia

    2015-07-01

    The bacaba (Oenocarpus bacaba Mart.) is a fruit originating from the Amazon forest, and its oil has similarity to the fatty acid composition of olive oil. The objective of this study was to evaluate the quality of bacaba oil submitted to gamma radiation in the of 5, 10 and 15 kGy. The extracted oil was irradiated at doses of 5, 10 and 15 kGy, and then the physical and chemical analysis were carried out: acid value, peroxide value, iodine value, refractive index, specific gravity, saponification value, coefficient specific extinction at 232 and 270 nm and color. Was possible to evidence that radiation promoted decrease in acidity of the oil 26.67%, 27.27% and 9.09%, respectively, at the doses of 5, 10 and 15 kGy, in relation to oil which has not gone through the process (standard). The values of specific gravity, refractive index and saponification value, have not changed, but the result of peroxides were significantly affected, increasing by 51.99%, 100.44% and 89.40% values relative to the standard. It was also observed a significant increase in K232 and K270 values, suggesting increased oxidation products, conjugated dienes and trienes. The oil color has been affected by the doses, generating a product with a more yellowish color and increased brightness. That way, from the analysis, it concluded that the use of gamma radiation at the doses used were not sufficient to make it, in the short term, unsafe for consumption, but changed substantially oil color. (author)

  6. 2015 Vehicle Technologies Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Stacy C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Williams, Susan E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Boundy, Robert G. [Roltek, Inc., Clinton, TN (United States); Moore, Sheila [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-04-01

    This is the seventh edition of the Vehicle Technologies Market Report, which details the major trends in U.S. light-duty vehicle and medium/heavy truck markets as well as the underlying trends that caused them. This report is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy s (DOE) Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO), and, in accord with its mission, pays special attention to the progress of high-efficiency and alternative-fuel technologies. After opening with a discussion of energy and economics, this report features a section each on the light-duty vehicle and heavy/medium truck markets, and concluding with a section each on technology and policy. The first section on Energy and Economics discusses the role of transportation energy and vehicle markets on a national (and even international) scale. For example, Figures 12 through 14 discuss the connections between global oil prices and U.S. GDP, and Figures 22 and 23 show U.S. employment in the automotive sector. The following section examines Light-Duty Vehicle use, markets, manufacture, and supply chains. Figures 27 through 63 offer snapshots of major light-duty vehicle brands in the United States and Figures 70 through 81 examine the performance and efficiency characteristics of vehicles sold. The discussion of Medium and Heavy Trucks offers information on truck sales (Figures 90 through 94) and fuel use (Figures 97 through 100). The Technology section offers information on alternative fuel vehicles and infrastructure (Figures 105 through 118), and the Policy section concludes with information on recent, current, and near-future Federal policies like the Corporate Average Fuel Economy standard (Figures 130 through 137). In total, the information contained in this report is intended to communicate a fairly complete understanding of U.S. highway transportation energy through a series of easily digestible nuggets. Suggestions for future expansion, additional information, or other improvements are most welcome.

  7. Experimental and analytical investigation on the emission and combustion characteristics of CI engine fueled with tamanu oil methyl esters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perumal Navaneetha Krishnan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The emission and combustion characteristics of a four stroke multi fuel single cylinder variable compression ratio engine fueled with tamanu oil methyl ester and its blends 10%, 20%, 40%, and 60% with diesel (on volume basis are examined and compared with standard diesel. Biodiesel produced from tamanu oil by trans-esterification process has been used in this study. The experiment has been conducted at a constant engine speed of 1500 rpm with 50% load and at compression ratios of 16:1, 17:1, 18:1, 19:1, and 20:1. With different blend and for selected compression ratio the exhaust gas emissions such as CO, HC, NOx, CO2, and the combustion characteristics are measured. The variation of the emission parameters for different compression ratios and for different blends is given, and optimum compression ratio which gives best performance has been identified. The results indicate higher rate of pressure rise and minimum heat release rate at higher compression ratio for tamanu oil methyl ester when compared with standard diesel. The blend B40 for tamanu oil methyl ester is found to give minimum emission at 50% load. The blend when used as fuel results in reduction of polluting gases like HC, CO, and increase in NOx emissions. The previously mentioned emission parameters have been validated with the aid of artificial neural network. A separate model is developed for emission characteristics in which compression ratio, blend percentage and load percentage were used as the input parameter whereas CO, CO2, HC, and NOx were used as the output parameter. This study shows that there is a good correlation between the artificial neural network predicted values and the experimental data for different emission parameters.

  8. Review of marine animals and bioinspired robotic vehicles: Classifications and characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, S.; Abdelkefi, A.

    2017-08-01

    Marine robots are a developing topic for military, scientific, and environmental missions. However, most existing marine robots are either limited to flight or limited to swimming. Therefore, the combination of both provides endless possibilities for tasks, such as espionage, pollution and marine wildlife surveillance, and border protection. Applying bioinspiration and biomimetics not only camouflages the robot, but also increases the efficiency of already perfected designs. Because bioinspiration and aerial-aquatic locomotion are the main attraction for this article, this review gathers the characteristics of aerial-aquatic animals useful for such designs. These animals are diving birds and flying fish, specifically plunge-diving birds, surface-diving birds, both plunge- and surface-diving birds, two-winger flying fish, and four-winger flying fish. The overview of the current marine bioinspired and non-bioinspired robots that are both aerial and aquatic are also presented, followed by the limitations and recommendations of the bioinspired robots. It is shown by a comparison between the bioinspired robot and its corresponding animal that the existing robotic systems are not truly bioinspired. The main traits these systems are missing are replicating the exact weight, size, muscle movement, and skin texture of the biological animal. In order to have efficient robots, bioinspiration needs to be perfected. Doing so requires not only the basic design to be replicated, but every detail of the system to be imitated.

  9. Lateral restorable characteristics of the high-Tc superconducting maglev vehicle above the permanent magnet guideway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, G.T.; Wang, J.S.; Lin, Q.X.; Liu, M.X.; Deng, Z.G.; Li, X.C.; Liu, H.F.; Zheng, J.; Wang, S.Y.

    2009-01-01

    The lateral restorable characteristics of a translational symmetry high-T c superconducting maglev system are investigated by measuring its resonant frequency (f RF ) after a lateral displacement. The difference between whether this lateral displacement is restorable, meaning elastic or inelastic, is determined by whether or not the maglev body returns to its original position after a lateral displacement. The maximum restorable lateral displacement (δ MRLD ) is determined by the sudden change of the f RF vs. the maximum lateral displacement (δ MLD ) curve. The f RF of the high-T c superconducting maglev system with different field-cooling height (FCH) and working height (WH) was obtained from the frequency domain vibration curve which was measured by a vibration measurement system. The results showed that, the δ MRLD was reduced when the WH was decreased. The maximum restorable guidance force (F MRGF ) was found to not always increase with the lowering of the WH for the same FCH. The lateral restorable stiffness (k LRS ) was always enhanced with the decrease of the WH. The decrease of the δ MRLD with the WH is interpreted by the fact that, the tangential field component (ΔH) across the surface of the high-T c superconductor (HTSC) is easier to exceed the J c λ value (J c is the critical current density and λ is the London penetration depth) when the WH is lowered, and this makes the trapped flux lines become more susceptible in escaping its pinning sites.

  10. Performance and exhaust emission characteristics of direct-injection Diesel engine when operating on shale oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labeckas, Gvidonas; Slavinskas, Stasys

    2005-01-01

    This article presents the comparative bench testing results of a naturally aspirated, four stroke, four cylinder, water cooled, direct injection Diesel engine when running on Diesel fuel and shale oil that is produced in Estonia from local oil shale. The purpose of this research is to investigate the possibility of practical usage of the shale oil as the alternative fuel for a high speed Diesel engine as well as to evaluate the combustion efficiency, brake specific fuel consumption, emission composition changes and the smoke opacity of the exhausts. Test results show that when fuelling a fully loaded engine with shale oil, the brake specific fuel consumption at the maximum torque and rated power is correspondingly higher by 12.3% and 20.4%. However, the brake thermal efficiencies do not differ widely and their maximum values remain equal to 0.36-0.37 for Diesel fuel and 0.32-0.33 for shale oil. The total nitrogen oxide emissions from the shale oil at engine partial loads remain considerably lower although when running at the maximum torque and rated power, the NO x emissions become correspondingly higher by 21.8% and 27.6%. The smoke opacity of the fully loaded engine at a wide range of speeds is lower by 30-35%, whereas the carbon monoxide and unburned hydrocarbon emissions in the exhausts at moderate and full load regimes do not undergo significant changes

  11. Characteristics and Composition of a High Oil Yielding Castor Variety from Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panhwar, Tarique; Mahesar, Sarfaraz Ahmed; Mahesar, Abdul Waheed; Kandhro, Aftab Ahmed; Talpur, Farah Naz; Laghari, Zahid Hussain; Chang, Abdul Sattar; Hussain Sherazi, Syed Tufail

    2016-01-01

    Keeping in view the versatile applications of castor oil in cosmetic, pharmaceutical and recently as renewable source, the present work is a step towards the commercialization of castor on large scale in Pakistan. The current study introduces a castor variety with high oil content. Initially seeds were physically examined for some physical parameters. Seed moisture, ash content and linear dimensions such as length, width and thickness were found to be 4.53%, 6.44%, 12.24 mm, 8.31 mm and 5.67 mm, respectively. For oil extraction, Soxhlet method was used which resulted in the high oil content 54.0%. For quality assessment of oil, physicochemical parameters were checked according to official standard AOCS methods and compared with ASTM specifications. The determined parameters were as follows; specific gravity 0.953 g/cm(-3), refractive index 1.431, viscosity 672.0 mPas.s, moisture content 0.32%, FFA 0.14%, IV 83.61 gI2/100 g, PV 2.25 meq/Kg and SV 186.0 mgKOH/g. Furthermore, fatty acid analysis of oil showed that, most abundant fatty acid was ricinoleic acid 94.59%, followed by palmitic 0.31%, linoleic 1.84%, oleic (n-9) 2.05%, oleic (n-10) 0.22%, stearic 0.45% and eicosenoic acid 0.53%. The detected fatty acids were compared with registered variety and varieties of other regions.

  12. Influence of malaxation time of olive paste on oil extraction yields and chemical and organoleptic characteristics of virgin olive oil obtained by a centrifugal decanter at water saving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serraiocco, A.

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Experimental tests were carried out to ascertain the influence of malaxation time of olive paste on extraction yields and qualitative characteristics of virgin olive oils obtained by a centrifugal decanter at water saving. Results show that malaxation time has to be no less than 45 minutes to have a satisfactory oil extraction yield. Furthermore, it was ascertained that the malaxation time, protracted up to 90 minutes, does not have influence upon qualitative and organoleptic characteristics of oils. Only the total phenols content of oils changed significantly when the malaxation time of olive paste increased from 15 to 90 minutes. However, in this research has been demonstrated that in some cases the total phenols content of oils increased during the first 30-45 minutes of malaxation and after it diminished. This is due to the variation of total phenols content of vegetable water that in the first time increased and after diminished very quickly. Because of the partition equilibrium law, the total phenols content of oil changed in the same way. Finally, results show that the composition of volatile substances of head-space of oils did not change increasing the malaxation time of olive paste obtained from good quality olive fruits.Se realizaron pruebas experimentales para verificar la influencia del tiempo de batido sobre los rendimientos en aceite y sobre las características de la calidad de los aceites obtenidos con un decanter centrifugo con ahorro de agua. Los resultados conseguidos indicaron que el tiempo de batido no debe ser inferior a 45 minutos para poder obtener rendimientos en aceite satisfactorios. Además, se pudo verificar que la operación de batido, aun siendo prolongada a 90 minutos, no influencia significativamente en las características cualitativas y organolépticas de los aceites. Solo el contenido de fenoles totales en los aceites disminuyó cuando el tiempo de batido fue incrementado de 15 a 90 minutos. Sin embargo, se

  13. Characteristics of indirect laser-induced plasma from a thin film of oil on a metallic substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiu, Jun-Shan; Bai, Xue-Shi; Motto-Ros, Vincent; Yu, Jin

    2015-04-01

    Optical emissions from the major and trace elements embodied in a transparent gel prepared from cooking oil were detected after the gel was spread in a thin film on a metallic substrate. Such emissions are due to the indirect breakdown of the coating layer. The generated plasma, a mixture of substances from the substrate, the layer, and the ambient gas, was characterized using emission spectroscopy. The characteristics of the plasma formed on the metal with and without the coating layer were investigated. The results showed that Al emission induced from the aluminum substrates coated with oil films extends away from the target surface to ablate the oil film. This finally formed a bifurcating circulation of aluminum vapor against a spherical confinement wall in the front of the plume, which differed from the evolution of the plasma induced from the uncoated aluminum target. The strongest emissions of elements from the oil films can be observed at 2 mm above the target after a detection delay of 1.0 μs. A high temperature zone has been observed in the plasma after the delay of 1.0 μs for the plasma induced from the coated metal. This higher temperature determined in the plasma allows the consideration of the sensitive detection of trace elements in liquids, gels, biological samples, or thin films.

  14. Anti-oxidative effect of turmeric on frying characteristics of soybean oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Anindita; Ghosh, Santinath; Ghosh, Mahua

    2015-03-01

    Curcumin, the active principle of turmeric, is known to act as an anti-oxidant, anti-mutagen and anti-carcinogen. This study aimed to find out the thermal and oxidative stability of soybean oil when potatoes marinated with turmeric were deep fried in the oil. Two sets of experiment were carried out. In one set, 1 L of oil was heated for 24 h (8 h daily for 3 consecutive days) and 200 g of potato chips without any marination were fried each time twice daily. Foods were fried in batches to replicate the commercial practice of the food industries. The temperature maintained during the whole experiment was at 180-190 °C i.e. at the frying temperature. About 50 ml of the oil sample was collected after every 4 h. In the second set, another 1 L of soybean oil was heated for 24 h in the similar manner and potato chips marinated with turmeric was fried twice daily. Oil samples were collected as before and comparative studies were done. The chemical parameters like acid value, peroxide value, content of 4-hydroxy-2-trans-nonenal (HNE) and fatty acid composition for all the oil samples of each set were determined. The comparative studies on peroxide value and content of HNE revealed that the antioxidant property of curcumin in turmeric helped in reducing the oxidation of the oil initially, but with increase in duration of time, the antioxidant potency got gradually reduced. The loss of unsaturated fatty acids were calculated from the fatty acid composition and it was found that loss of unsaturation in soybean oil where turmeric marinated potatoes were fried was 6.37 % while the controlled one showed 7.76 % loss after 24 h of heating. These results indicated higher thermal and oxidative stability of the soybean oil in presence of turmeric. However, the antioxidant effect gradually decreased with increase in duration of heating.

  15. Electric and hybrid vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    Report characterizes state-of-the-art electric and hybrid (combined electric and heat engine) vehicles. Performance data for representative number of these vehicles were obtained from track and dynamometer tests. User experience information was obtained from fleet operators and individual owners of electric vehicles. Data on performance and physical characteristics of large number of vehicles were obtained from manufacturers and available literature.

  16. Chemical Composition, Physicochemical Characteristics, and Nutritional Value of Lannea kerstingii Seeds and Seed Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judicaël Thomas Ouilly

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition, main physicochemical properties, and nutritional value of seed flour and seed oil of Lannea kerstingii were studied. The results indicated that seeds contained 3.61% moisture, 57.85% fat, 26.39% protein, 10.07% carbohydrates, and 2.08% ash. Potassium was the predominant mineral, followed by magnesium and calcium. The essential amino acids were at higher levels than the estimated amino acid requirements of FAO/WHO/UNU except for lysine. Fatty acid composition showed that oleic acid was the major fatty acid, followed by palmitic, linoleic, and stearic acids. Physicochemical properties of the seed oil were melting point, 19.67°C; refractive index (25°C, 1.47; iodine value, 60.72/100 g of oil; peroxide value, 0.99 meq. O2/kg of oil; p-anisidine value, 0.08; total oxidation (TOTOX value, 2.06; oxidative stability index (120°C, 52.53 h; free fatty acids, 0.39%; acid value, 0.64 mg of KOH/g of oil; saponification value, 189.73. Total amount of tocopherols, carotenoids, and sterols was 578.60, 4.60, and 929.50 mg/kg of oil, respectively. γ-Tocopherol (82%, lutein (80%, and β-sitosterol (93% were the most abundant forms of tocopherols, carotenoids, and sterols, respectively. Seeds of L. kerstingii constitute an alternative source of stable vegetable oil and protein for nutritional and industrial applications.

  17. Thermal characteristics of non-edible oils as phase change materials candidate to application of air conditioning chilled water system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irsyad, M.; Indartono, Y. S.; Suwono, A.; Pasek, A. D.

    2015-09-01

    The addition of phase change material in the secondary refrigerant has been able to reduce the energy consumption of air conditioning systems in chilled water system. This material has a high thermal density because its energy is stored as latent heat. Based on material melting and freezing point, there are several non-edible oils that can be studied as a phase change material candidate for the application of chilled water systems. Forests and plantations in Indonesia have great potential to produce non-edible oil derived from the seeds of the plant, such as; Calophyllum inophyllum, Jatropha curcas L, and Hevea braziliensis. Based on the melting temperature, these oils can further studied to be used as material mixing in the secondary refrigerant. Thermal characteristics are obtained from the testing of T-history, Differential Scanning Calorimetric (DSC) and thermal conductivity materials. Test results showed an increase in the value of the latent heat when mixed with water with the addition of surfactant. Thermal characteristics of each material of the test results are shown completely in discussion section of this article.

  18. Characteristics of Waste Plastics Pyrolytic Oil and Its Applications as Alternative Fuel on Four Cylinder Diesel Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nosal Nugroho Pratama

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Waste plastics recycling using pyrolysis method is not only able to decrease a number of environment pollutant but also able to produce economical and high quality hydrocarbon products. Two experiments were conducted to completely study Waste Plastic Pyrolytic Oil (WPPO characteristics and its applications.  First experiment investigated oil characteristics derived from pyrolysis process in two stages batch reactors: pyrolysis and catalytic reforming reactor, at maximum temperature 500oC and 450oC respectively. Waste Polyethylene (PE, Polypropylene (PP, Polystyrene (PS, Polyethylene Terepthalate (PET and others were used as raw material. Nitrogen flow rate at 0.8 l/minutes was used to increase oil weight percentage. Indonesian natural zeolite was used as catalyst. Then, second experiment was carried out on Diesel Engine Test Bed (DETB used blending of WPPO and Biodiesel fuel with a volume ratio of 1:9. This experiment was specifically conducted to study how much potency of blending of WPPO and biodiesel in diesel engine. The result of first experiment showed that the highest weight percentage of WPPO derived from mixture of PE waste (50%wt, PP waste (40%wt and PS waste (10%wt is 45.13%wt. The more weight percentage of PE in feedstock effected on the less weight percentage of WPPO, the more percentage of C12-C20 content in WPPO and the higher calorific value of WPPO. Characteristics of WPPO such as, Specific Gravity, Flash point, Pour Point, Kinematic Viscosity, Calorific value and percentage of C12-C20 showed interesting result that WPPO could be developed as alternative fuel on diesel fuel blending due to the proximity of their characteristics. Performance of diesel engine using blending of WPPO and biodiesel on second experiment gave good result so the WPPO will have great potency to be valuable alternative liquid fuel in future, especially on stationary diesel engine and transportation engine application.

  19. Quality characteristics of Bali sardinella (Sardinella lemuru) oil purified with bentonite as an adsorbent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadhiro, U.; Subekti, S.; Tjahjaningsih, W.; Patmawati

    2018-04-01

    Crude fish oil extracted from fish canning industry a low quality, therefore refining process is required to obtain feasible fish oil for food purposes. Purification of fish oil can through steps of degumming, neutralization, and bleaching by using bentonite as the adsorbent. This study aims to analyze the results of the purification process of crude fish oil by-product of canning industry of lemuru fish by using bentonite adsorbent with different concentrations. The method used was an experimental method by descriptive data analysis. The results showed that the highest yield (33.418 %) obtained from oil purification of lemuru with bentonite concentration of 6 % are classified as follows: free fatty acid content of 0.265 %, peroxide value of 6.343 mEq / kg, produce clarity 60.275 % T, 88.075 % T, 87.5 % T, 87.425 % T, 87.975 % T at a wavelength (λ) of 450 nm, 550 nm, 620 nm, 665 nm, 700 nm, para-anisidine value of 3.725 mEq / kg; and value of oxidation total of 16.41 meq / kg.

  20. Studies on the physicochemical characteristics of oil extracted from gamma irradiated pistachio (Pistacia vera L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Bachir, Mahfouz

    2015-01-15

    The present study evaluated the quality of pistachio oil, as a function of irradiation, to determine the dose level causing undesirable changes to pistachio oil. Physicochemical fatty acid composition, acidity value, peroxide value, iodine value specification number, thiobarbituric acid (TBA) value and colour of pistachio oil extracted from samples treated with 0, 1, 2 and 3 kGy doses of gamma irradiation were determined. Gamma irradiation caused the alteration of fatty acids of pistachio oil which showed a decrease in oleic acid (C18:1) and an increase in linoleic acid (C18:2). All other fatty acids remained unaffected after irradiation. The higher used doses (2 and 3 kGy) decreased acidity value, peroxide value and iodine value, and increased specification number, with no effect on TBA value. Irradiation had a significant effect on colour values of pistachio oil. Parameters L, a and b increased at doses of 1 and 2 kGy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Fatty acid composition and physicochemical characteristics of Tartar (Sterculia Stigera) oil as Affected by the extraction method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eljack, M.; Babiker, E. E.; El Tinay, A. H.

    2004-01-01

    Fatty acid content and physicochemical characteristics of oil extracted from Tartar seeds, using two extraction methods, were studied. The results revealed that saturated fatty acid content varied from 0.2% to 33.4%, while unsaturated fatty acid content varied from 0.1% to 24.2%, with no significant difference between the extraction methods. Sterols content varied from 0.3% to 66.0%. Cyclopropenoid fatty acids ranged from 3.4% to 5.3% but were significantly reduced after refining. Glycerides content varied with maximum values of 78.03%, 4.58% and 2.82% for tri-, di-, and mono-glycerides, respectively. Physicochemical investigation of the oil showed that the colour, refractive index, free fatty acids, peroxide value, saponification value, relative viscosity, iodine value, and unsaponifiable matter were similar for both methods of extraction with minor exceptions.(Author)

  2. Combustion characteristics of Malaysian oil palm biomass, sub-bituminous coal and their respective blends via thermogravimetric analysis (TGA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idris, Siti Shawalliah; Rahman, Norazah Abd; Ismail, Khudzir

    2012-11-01

    The combustion characteristics of Malaysia oil palm biomass (palm kernel shell (PKS), palm mesocarp fibre (PMF) and empty fruit bunches (EFB)), sub-bituminous coal (Mukah Balingian) and coal/biomass blends via thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) were investigated. Six weight ratios of coal/biomass blends were prepared and oxidised under dynamic conditions from temperature 25 to 1100°C at four heating rates. The thermogravimetric analysis demonstrated that the EFB and PKS evolved additional peak besides drying, devolatilisation and char oxidation steps during combustion. Ignition and burn out temperatures of blends were improved in comparison to coal. No interactions were observed between the coal and biomass during combustion. The apparent activation energy during this process was evaluated using iso-conversional model free kinetics which resulted in highest activation energy during combustion of PKS followed by PMF, EFB and MB coal. Blending oil palm biomass with coal reduces the apparent activation energy value. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Research on heat transfer characteristic of crude oil during the tubular heating process in the floating roof tank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Zhao

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available By means of finite volume method, the heat transfer characteristic of crude oil under the tubular heating in the floating roof tank is investigated by numerical simulation. The evolution of temperature profile and its relationship with the flow pattern is presented in detail. A noticeable finding is that there exists the transformation of the flow pattern which affects the temperature profile apparently during the heating process. Special concern is taken on the evolution of temperature distribution on the interface between oil and the inner wall of the tank. The temperature profile on the top wall, sidewall and base wall of the tank is investigated. It is concluded that the plume induced by natural convection takes most responsibility for the formation of temperature field in the tank. The second factor is the boundary condition of the tank.

  4. PHYSICOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS, PESTICIDE RESIDUE AND AFLATOXIN CONTAMINATION OF COLD PRESSED PUMPKIN SEED (Cucurbita pepo L. OILS FROM CENTRAL ANATOLIA REGION OF TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FATMA NUR ARSLAN

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, physicochemical characteristics, pesticide residues and aflatoxin contaminations of cold pressed pumpkin seed (Cucurbita pepo L. oils cultivated in four different central Anatolia regions of Turkey, were investigated. Lab-scale screw press machine was used to produce cold pressed pumpkin seed oils and the oil contents were found between 42.8%−47.4% for naked seeds. The physicochemical characteristic (refractive index, viscosity, color value, triglyceride profile analysis, peroxide value, iodine value, free fatty acid, saponification number, unsaponified matter, specific extinction values at 232 and 270 nm of cold pressed oils were determined by using different analytical techniques. The results showed that there was a non-significant difference between cold pressed pumpkin seed oils from different regions, in terms of physicochemical characteristics. The contents of pesticide residue and aflatoxin B1, B2, G1 and G2 contamination were determined by using validated UHPLC-MS/MS method. The chlorpyrifos pesticide residue was detected under the limit value declared by official authorities for the quality assessment of edible oils. Aflatoxins weren’t detected in any of studied pumpkin seed oils. Therefore, in food industry the positive effect of screw-pressing application could be useful for preservation of bioactive compounds during edible oil production and also enhancing of their functional properties.

  5. Identification of characteristics and frequent scenarios of single-vehicle rollover crashes during pre-ballistic phase; part 1 - A descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Taewung; Bose, Dipan; Foster, Jon; Bollapragada, Varun; Crandall, Jeff R; Clauser, Mark; Kerrigan, Jason R

    2017-10-01

    This study aimed to identify common patterns of pre-ballistic vehicle kinematics and roadway characteristics of real-world rollover crashes. Rollover crashes that were enrolled in the National Automotive Sampling System-Crashworthiness Data System (NASS-CDS) between the years 2000 and 2010 were analyzed. A descriptive analysis was performed to understand the characteristics of the pre-ballistic phase. Also, a frequency based pattern analysis was performed using a selection of NASS-CDS variables describing the pre-ballistic vehicle kinematics and roadway characteristics to rank common pathways of rollover crashes. Most case vehicles departed the road due to a loss of control/traction (LOC) (61%). The road departure with LOC was found to be 13.4 times more likely to occur with slippery road conditions compared to dry conditions. The vehicle was typically laterally skidding with yawing prior to a rollover (66%). Most case vehicles tripped over (82%) mostly at roadside/median (69%). The tripping force was applied to the wheels/tires (82%) from the ground (79%). The combination of these six most frequent attributes resulted in the most common scenario, which accounted for 26% of the entire cases. Large proportion of road departure with LOC (61%) implies electronic stability control (ESC) systems being an effective countermeasure for preventing single-vehicle rollover crashes. Furthermore, the correlation between the road departure with LOC and the reduced friction limit suggests the necessity of the performance evaluation of ESC under compromised road surface condition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of stiffness and movement speed on selected dynamic torque characteristics of hydraulic-actuation joystick controls for heavy vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Michele; Rogers, Robert; Rickards, Jeremy; Tingley, Maureen; Biden, Edmund

    2006-02-22

    The purpose of this work was to quantify the effects of joystick stiffness and movement speed on the dynamic torque characteristics of hydraulic-actuation joystick controls, as found in off-road vehicles, as one of the initial steps towards the development of a joystick design protocol. Using a previously developed mathematical model in which a hydraulic-actuation joystick is assumed to rotate about two axes where the rotation origin is a universal joint, the dynamic torque characteristics incurred by an operator were predicted. Utilizing a laboratory mock-up of an excavator cab environment, three actuation torque characteristics (peak torque, angular impulse and deceleration at the hard endpoint) were quantified for nine unskilled joystick operators during the use of a commonly used North American hydraulic-actuation joystick. The six different experimental conditions included combinations of three joystick stiffnesses and two movement speeds. The highest instantaneous input torque over the course of the joystick movement (not including the hard endpoint) was evaluated using the peak torque value. Angular impulse provided an indication of the sustained exposure to force. The third indicator, deceleration at the hard endpoint, was included to provide a description of impact loading on the hand as the joystick came to a sudden stop. The most important result of this work is that the dynamic torque characteristics incurred during hydraulic-actuation joystick use are substantial. While the peak torque values were not very different between the fast and slow motion conditions, the high decelerations even for slow movements observed at maximum excursion of the joystick indicate that the dynamics do matter. On the basis of deceleration at the hard endpoint and peak torque, the joystick movements that require the highest values for a combination of torque variables are the side-to-side ones. This suggests that less stiff balance and return springs should be considered for

  7. Quality and characteristics of fermented ginseng seed oil based on bacterial strain and extraction method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myung-Hee Lee

    2017-07-01

    Results and Conclusion: The color of the fermented ginseng seed oil did not differ greatly according to the fermentation or extraction method. The highest phenolic compound content recovered with the use of supercritical fluid extraction combined with fermentation using the Bacillus subtilis Korea Food Research Institute (KFRI 1127 strain. The fatty acid composition did not differ greatly according to fermentation strain and extraction method. The phytosterol content of ginseng seed oil fermented with Bacillus subtilis KFRI 1127 and extracted using the supercritical fluid method was highest at 983.58 mg/100 g. Therefore, our results suggested that the ginseng seed oil fermented with Bacillus subtilis KFRI 1127 and extracted using the supercritical fluid method can yield a higher content of bioactive ingredients, such as phenolics, and phytosterols, without impacting the color or fatty acid composition of the product.

  8. Characteristic of natural rubber latex-methyl metha-crylate copolymer in mineral lubricant base oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meri Suhartini; Rahmawati

    2010-01-01

    Natural rubber latex-methyl methacrylate copolymer was diluted in xylene, then diluted in four types of lubricant base oil with concentrations of 0.25%, 1%, 5%, and 10%. The mixed solutions were analyzed to obtain kinematics viscosity, viscosity index, density, ash content, metal content, flash point, shear stability and total alkali number. The viscosity index of sample, increased by adding the copolymer solution. The results showed that lubricant base oil of High Viscosity index (HVI) 60 and mixed HVI 60: HVI 650 gave optimum viscosity index. The higher concentration of polymer added into base lubricant oil, the higher viscosity index obtained. The shear stability test showed that the kinematics viscosity of sample decreased 6.5% after 60 minutes of treatment test. (author)

  9. The question of determining the characteristics of steam displacement of oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trimilic, D; Durdevic, V; Nad, D

    1984-01-01

    The problems of optimizing steam pumping into a stratum in order to increase the oil production in operating oil deposits with high viscosity of the mineral are examined. A STEAM program is developed which is designed for determining the parameters of the oil with the effects of steam. The program is written in Fortran 4 language and is considered quite reliable in light of its acquisition through correction of Mikhill and Stegepeyer's basic model on the basis of the actual conduct of the deposits at which the steam injection method has been in practical use for some time. This ensures exceedingly high coincidence between the values calculated using the proposed model and the actual indicators of operation. Thanks to the small number of output data, the program is marked by operational simplicity and takes up a small volume of the computer (EVM) memory which noticeably reduces the cost of the calculations.

  10. Characteristics of enriched cultures for bio-huff-`n`-puff tests at Jilin oil field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiu-Yuan Wang; Gang Dai; Yan-Fen Xue; Shu-Hua Xie [Institute of Microbiology, Beijing (China)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    Three enriched cultures (48, 15a, and 26a), selected from more than 80 soil and water samples, could grow anaerobically in the presence of crude oil at 30{degrees}C and could ferment molasses to gases and organic acids. Oil recovery by culture 48 in the laboratory model experiment was enhanced by 25.2% over the original reserves and by 53.7% over the residual reserves. Enriched culture 48 was composed of at least 4 species belonging to the genera Eubacterium, Fusobacterium, and Bacteroides. This enriched culture was used as inoculum for MEOR field trials at Jilin oil field with satisfactory results. The importance of the role of these isolates in EOR was confirmed by their presence and behavior in the fluids produced from the microbiologically treated reservoir.

  11. Fundamental characteristics on electric system of solar electric vehicle; Solar car no denki keito ni kansuru kiso tokusei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujita, S; Sasaki, M; Kaga, T; Koyama, N [Hachinohe Institute of Technology, Aomori (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    The electric system of a solar vehicle was removed and the fundamental characteristics examined in order to carry out a basic experiment on the electric system. Using a basic circuit with panels, batteries and loads connected, the voltage and current were measured in the presence/absence of the trackers, batteries, etc., and then, their effects were examined. Simultaneously, the quantity of solar radiation was also measured. The lowering of the output voltage was somewhat relaxed with the use of the trackers. Further, with the trackers used, the output voltage of the panel was small in spite of a large quantity of solar radiation compared to the case without the trackers, which was due to the restriction of the output voltage by the trackers. When measured without batteries, the output voltage of the panel was such that the load current was also influenced by the variation of insolation, so that, with a large decrease in insolation, the load current was decreased with the supply of current suspended from the panel. 7 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Evaluation of date kernel oils and their effects on wheat flour characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsakr, A. S.

    1991-06-01

    Full Text Available Date kernels constitute about 13% of the whole date fruit, and cotain moderate amounts of oils with relatively high caloric values. Agwa soft and Aprimi dry date kernel oils were used in this work. Results showed that Aprimi date kernel oils have high levels of both caproic acid and stearic acid of 23.04 and 18.40% respectively, while Agwa kernel oils have high levels of caprylic acid and capric acid of 22.31 and 12.20%. Moreover Agwa oils achieved higher amounts of unsaponifiable matters, sterols and tocopherols. The addition of soft and dry date kernel oils did not improve the wheat flour strength but raised its resistance to extensibility.

    Las pepitas de dátiles constituyen alrededor del 13% del fruto entero, y contienen cantidades moderadas de aceite con valores calóricos relativamente altos. En este trabajo se han utilizado aceites de pepitas de dátiles Agwa blandas y Aprimi secas. Los resultados mostraron que los aceites de pepitas de dátiles Aprimi tienen altos niveles de ácidos caproico y esteárico, 23’04 y 18'40% respectivamente, mientras que los aceites de pepitas Agwa tienen niveles altos de ácidos caprílico y cáprico, 22'31 y 12'20%. Por otra parte los aceites Agwa alcanzaron valores elevados de materia insaponificable, esteroles y tocoferoles. La adición de aceites de pepitas de dátiles secas y blandas no mejoró el poder de la harina de trigo pero incrementó su resistencia a la extensibilidad.

  13. Advanced testing and characterization of shear modulus and deformation characteristics of oil sand materials

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Anochie-Boateng, Joseph

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available and Pressures,” Can. Geotech. J., Vol. 24, 1987, pp. 1–10. [5] Samieh, A.M. and Wong, R.C.K., “Deformation of Athabasca Oil Sand in Triaxial Compression Tests at Low Effective Stresses under Varying Boundary Conditions,” Can. Geotech. J., Vol.34, 1997, pp.... 985– 990. [6] Samieh, A.M. and Wong, R.C.K., “Modeling the Responses of Athabasca Oil Sand in Triaxial Compression Tests at Low Pressure,” Can. Geotech. J., Vol. 35, 1998, pp. 395–406. [7] AASHTO Standard T265, 2009, “Laboratory Determination...

  14. Characteristics of the oil transport network in the South of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juárez, R.; Fernández, I. Y.; Guzmán, L.

    2017-01-01

    We present a study of some organizational properties of the oil transport network of the Mexican oil company (PEMEX) in a region of the State of Tabasco. Particularly, the generalized centrality and the distribution of connectivities are calculated in order to evaluate some aspects of the structure of the network. We find that the connectivities (k) are characterized by a degree distribution which follows a power-law function of the form, P(k)~k -λ, with λ = 2.6. Moreover, our procedure permits to evalute the importance of lines (ducts) and nodes, which can be wells, production headers, separation batteries and petrochemical complexes.

  15. Combustion Characteristics of CI Diesel Engine Fuelled With Blends of Jatropha Oil Biodiesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Manpreet; Yunus Sheikh, Mohd.; Singh, Dharmendra; Nageswara rao, P.

    2018-03-01

    Jatropha Curcas oil is a non-edible oil which is used for Jatropha biodiesel (JBD) production. Jatropha biodiesel is produced using transesterification technique and it is used as an alternative fuel in CI diesel engine without any hardware modification. Jatropha biodiesel is used in CI diesel engine with various volumetric concentrations (blends) such as JBD5, JBD15, JBD25, JBD35 and JBD45. The combustion parameters such as in-cylinder pressure, rate of pressure rise, net heat release, cumulative heat release, mass fraction burned are analyzed and compared for all blends combustion data with mineral diesel fuel (D100).

  16. 2016 Vehicle Technologies Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Stacy Cagle [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Williams, Susan E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Boundy, Robert Gary [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Moore, Sheila A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-05-01

    This is the seventh edition of this report, which details the major trends in U.S. light-duty vehicle and medium/heavy truck markets. This report is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy s (DOE) Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO), and, in accord with its mission, pays special attention to the progress of high-efficiency and alternative-fuel technologies. After opening with a discussion of energy and economics, this report features a section each on the light-duty vehicle and heavy/medium truck markets, and concluding with a section each on technology and policy. The first section on Energy and Economics discusses the role of transportation energy and vehicle markets on a national (and even international) scale. For example, Figures 12 through 14 discuss the connections between global oil prices and U.S. GDP, and Figures 21 and 22 show U.S. employment in the automotive sector. The following section examines Light-Duty Vehicle use, markets, manufacture, and supply chains. Figures 27 through 69 offer snapshots of major light-duty vehicle brands in the United States and Figures 73 through 85 examine the performance and efficiency characteristics of vehicles sold. The discussion of Medium and Heavy Trucks offers information on truck sales (Figures 94 through 98) and fuel use (Figures 101 through 104). The Technology section offers information on alternative fuel vehicles and infrastructure (Figures 109 through 123), and the Policy section concludes with information on recent, current, and near-future Federal policies like the Corporate Average Fuel Economy standard (Figures 135 through 142). In total, the information contained in this report is intended to communicate a fairly complete understanding of U.S. highway transportation energy through a series of easily digestible nuggets. Suggestions for future expansion, additional information, or other improvements are most welcome.

  17. 2013 Vehicle Technologies Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Stacy Cagle [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Williams, Susan E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Boundy, Robert Gary [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Moore, Sheila A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2014-03-01

    This is the fifth edition of this report, which details the major trends in U.S. light-duty vehicle and medium/heavy truck markets as well as the underlying trends that caused them. This report is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy s (DOE) Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO), and, in accord with its mission, pays special attention to the progress of high-efficiency and alternative-fuel technologies. After opening with a discussion of energy and economics, this report features a section each on the light-duty vehicle and heavy/medium truck markets, and concluding with a section each on technology and policy. The first section on Energy and Economics discusses the role of transportation energy and vehicle markets on a national (and even international) scale. For example, Figures 12 through 14 discuss the connections between global oil prices and U.S. GDP, and Figures 21 and 22 show U.S. employment in the automotive sector. The following section examines Light-Duty Vehicle use, markets, manufacture, and supply chains. Figures 24 through 51 offer snapshots of major light-duty vehicle brands in the U.S. and Figures 56 through 64 examine the performance and efficiency characteristics of vehicles sold. The discussion of Medium and Heavy Trucks offers information on truck sales (Figures 73 through 75) and fuel use (Figures 78 through 81). The Technology section offers information on alternative fuel vehicles and infrastructure (Figures 84 through 95), and the Policy section concludes with information on recent, current, and near-future Federal policies like the Corporate Average Fuel Economy standard (Figures 106 through 110). In total, the information contained in this report is intended to communicate a fairly complete understanding of U.S. highway transportation energy through a series of easily digestible nuggets.

  18. Moringa oleifera Seeds and Oil: Characteristics and Uses for Human Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leone, Alessandro; Spada, Alberto; Battezzati, Alberto; Schiraldi, Alberto; Aristil, Junior; Bertoli, Simona

    2016-12-20

    Moringa oleifera seeds are a promising resource for food and non-food applications, due to their content of monounsaturated fatty acids with a high monounsaturated/saturated fatty acids (MUFA/SFA) ratio, sterols and tocopherols, as well as proteins rich in sulfated amino acids. The rapid growth of Moringa trees in subtropical and tropical areas, even under conditions of prolonged drought, makes this plant a reliable resource to enhance the nutritional status of local populations and, if rationalized cultivation practices are exploited, their economy, given that a biodiesel fuel could be produced from a source not in competition with human food crops. Despite the relatively diffuse use of Moringa seeds and their oil in traditional medicine, no pharmacological activity study has been conducted on humans. Some encouraging evidence, however, justifies new efforts to obtain clear and definitive information on the benefits to human health arising from seed consumption. A critical review of literature data concerning the composition of Moringa oil has set in motion a plan for future investigations. Such investigations, using the seeds and oil, will focus on cultivation conditions to improve plant production, and will study the health effects on human consumers of Moringa seeds and their oil.

  19. Modelling of underground geomechanical characteristics for electrophysical conversion of oil shale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bukharkin, A A; Koryashov, I A; Martemyanov, S M; Ivanov, A A

    2015-01-01

    Oil shale energy extraction is an urgent issue for modern science and technique. With the help of electrical discharge phenomena it is possible to create a new efficient technology for underground conversion of oil shale to shale gas and oil. This method is based on Joule heat in the rock volume. During the laboratory experiments the problem has arisen, when the significant part of a shale fragment is being heated, but the further heating is impossible due to specimen cracking. It leads to disruption in current flow and heat exchange. Evidently, in the underground conditions these failure processes will not proceed. Cement, clay and glass fiber/epoxy resin armature have been used for modelling of geomechanical underground conditions. Experiments have shown that the use of a reinforcing jacket makes it possible to convert a full rock fragment. Also, a thermal field extends radially from the centre of a tree-type structure, and it has an elliptic cross section shape. It is explained by the oil shale anisotropy connected with a rock laminar structure. Therefore, heat propagation is faster along the layers than across ones. (paper)

  20. Effect of frying oils on quality characteristics of frozen chicken patties ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Shaista

    2012-02-09

    Feb 9, 2012 ... products that have negative effects on human health. (Boyd et al., 1993). ... Cumin powder - 2 g, Coriander powder - 2 g and salt – to taste) for ..... Effect of dietary palm olein oil on oxidative stress associated with ischemic-.

  1. Performance Characteristics of a 4 × 6 Oil-Free Twin-Screw Compressor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun-Seok Byeon

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The screw compressor in the early stage of development is generally known as the oil-injection type. However, escalating environmental problems and advances in electronic components have spurred continuous R & D to minimize the oil content in compressed air. The oil-free twin-screw compressor is continuously compressed by inner volumetric change between rotors and casing. For this reason, in order to predict the overall performance of the screw compressor at the early stage of the design process, industry still relies on the empirical method. However, it is difficult using the existing empirical method to gain more information of the inner fluid flow of the twin-screw compressor. Flow simulation techniques using CFD are required. This study presents applications of a recently proposed overset grid method to the solution of the flow around a moving boundary. In order to analyze the performance of a 4 × 6 oil-free screw compressor, the 3-D, unsteady and compressible flow fields were numerically calculated with a shear stress transport (SST turbulence model, and implemented by the commercial software, Star-CCM+. The pressure distributions were calculated and graphically depicted. Results also showed that the volumetric and adiabatic efficiencies of the screw compressor measured by the experiments were 78% and 71%, respectively.

  2. Chemical characteristics and fatty acid composition on oils and fats stored in different packaging materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Shattory, Y.

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available Bleached cottonseed oil, partially hydrogenated palm oil and margarine were stored in metal (tin cans and white plastic (polyethylene bottles with air in head space and served at room temperature during the whole period of investigation. The analytical techniques used to analyse these materials has been done at zero time storing (control, after four and seven months of storage. This study showed that storing oils in metal cans have better results than plastic packages specially for bleached cottonseed and hydrogenated oils.

    Aceite de semilla de algodón decolorado, aceite de palma parcialmente hidrogenado y margarina fueron almacenados en latas metálicas (estaño y en botellas de plástico blanco (polietileno con aire en el espacio de cabeza y a temperatura ambiente durante todo el período de investigación. Las técnicas analíticas usadas para analizar estos materiales fueron ensayados a tiempo cero de almacenamiento (control, y después de cuatro y siete meses de almacenamiento. Este estudio mostró que los aceites almacenados en latas metálicas tienen mejores resultados que los envases de plástico, especialmente para los aceites hidrogenados y de semilla de algodón decolorado.

  3. Characteristics of waterflooding of oil pools with clay-containing reservoir rocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheltov, Yu V; Stupochenko, V E; Khavkin, A Ya; Martos, V N

    1981-01-01

    When planning the development of oil fields with reservoir pressure maintenance by the injection of water or activated solutions (surfactants, alkali, etc.), it is necessary to take into account the consequences of phenomena related to clay swelling. For this purpose, it is necessary to measure on a core the parameters characterizing the change and hysteresis of the filtration and storage properties of the reservoir rocks. Swelling of the clay component of the rock along with reducing these properties in the sweep zone can promote an increase of the efficiency of displacing oil by water. Theoretical investigations showed that the maximum displacement efficiency in homogeneous clay-containing rocks does not depend on the time of starting stimulation by demineralized waters. The efficiency from changing the mineralization of the stimulating agent increases with increase of viscosity of the oil. Under certain physical and geologic conditions, a purposeful change of the filtration and storage properties by increasing or decreasing clay swelling can increase the efficiency of developing the field and can increase oil recovery.

  4. Composition, physical properties and drying characteristics of seed oil of Citrullus lanatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idris, S. A.; Rashidi, A. R.; Muhammad, A.; Abdullah, M.; Elham, O. S. J.; Mamat, M. S.

    2017-09-01

    A study to investigate the effect of different drying methods for the pre-treatment process on the quality and quantity of oil extracted from Citrulllus lanatus seeds was conducted. The red type Citrulllus lanatus seeds from local supermarket in Shah Alam is used in this experiment. The amount of seed was divided into two portions; one portion was subjected to sun drying while the other portion was subjected to oven drying (at a temperature of 70°C). After the drying process, the seeds were ground in a laboratory grinder to turn them into powder. The ground seeds then will be fed to Supercritical Carbon Dioxide unit (SC-CO2) for extraction. Once the extracted oil is obtained, it will be analysed by using Gas Chromatography and Mass Spectrometer (GC-MS). Results indicated that the amount of the moisture content from the sun-dried was lower compared to oven-dried. The results also indicated that, there were no significant difference in the quantity of oil obtained from both samples of oven-dried and sun-dried. However, the acid value and other component content in the sample were higher in the sun-dried sample relative to the oven-dried sample. Linoleic acid is the only compound that was found in the oven-dried sample, whereas linoleic acid and oleic acid were found in the sun-dried sample. Based on the results, it shows that the drying effect were important when the quality of oil was to be considered. The other compounds like Naphtalenol, 9-17-Octadecadeinal, 2-Chloroethyl linoleate, and Carboxin also are found in the sun-dried sample. Other that that, drying method does not give any effect to the physical appearance of the extracted oil, as similar color and other physical appearance was produced by the both sample.

  5. The effect of organic and biofertilizers on some quantitative characteristics and essential oil content of summer savory (Satureja hortensis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Rezvani Moghaddam

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Plant growth promoting bacteria with various mechanisms such as an increase in uptake and availability of nutrients can improve plant growth. In order to evaluate the effects of biofertilizers and Vermicompost on quantitative characteristics and essential oil content of vegetative parts of summer savory, a field experiment was conducted during growing season of 2008- 2009 at Agriculture Research Station, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran. A randomized complete block design with three replications was used. Treatments included: Nitragin, Nitragin+Vermicompost, Nitragin+Nitroxin, Nitragin+Phosphate solublizing bacteria, Nitragin+Phosphate solublizing bacteria+Vermicompost, Nitragin+Phosphate solublizing bacteria+Nitroxin, Nitragin+Nitroxin+Vermicompost and control. Plants were harvested twice at 10% flowering stag. The result showed that biofertilizers and Vermicompost had significant effects (p≤0.01 on plant height, percentage of leaf and stem, biological yield and essential oil contents of leaves in both harvests. The combination of Nitragin + Nitroxin and Vermicompost and control treatments had the highest and the lowest plant height, percentage of stem and leaf, and biological yield. It seems that seed inoculation with biofertilizers enhanced root development and hence availability of moisture and nutrients, particularly nitrogen and phosphorus. Therefore, summer savory inoculation with biofertilizers could improve some quantitative and essential oil contents.

  6. Characteristic Chemical Components and Aroma-active Compounds of the Essential Oils from Ranunculus nipponicus var. submersus Used in Japanese Traditional Food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakaya, Satoshi; Usami, Atsushi; Yorimoto, Tomohito; Miyazawa, Mitsuo

    2015-01-01

    Ranunculus nipponicus var. submersus is an aquatic macrophyte; it is known as a wild edible plant in Japan for a long time. In this study, the essential oils from the fresh and dried aerial parts of R. nipponicus var. submersus were extracted by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and GC-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Moreover, important aroma-active compounds were also detected in the oil using GC-olfactometry (GC-O) and aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA). Thus, 98 compounds (accounting for 93.86%) of the oil were identified. The major compounds in fresh plant oil were phytol (41.94%), heptadecane (5.92%), and geranyl propionate (5.76%), while those of. Dried plant oil were β-ionone (23.54%), 2-hexenal (8.75%), and dihydrobovolide (4.81%). The fresh and dried oils had the green-floral and citrus-floral odor, respectively. The GC-O and AEDA results show that phenylacetaldehyde (green, floral odor, FD-factor = 8) and β-ionone (violet-floral odor, FD-factor = 8) were the most characteristic odor compounds of the fresh oils. β-Cyclocitral (citrus odor, FD-factor = 64) and β-ionone (violet-floral odor, FD-factor = 64) were the most characteristic odor compounds of the dried oil. These compounds are thought to contribute to the flavor of R. nipponicus var. submersus.

  7. Nature, origin, and production characteristics of the Lower Silurian regional oil and gas accumulation, central Appalachian basin, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryder, R.; Zagorski, W.A.

    2003-01-01

    Low-permeability sandstones of the Lower Silurian regional oil and gas accumulation cover about 45,000 mi2 (117,000 km2) of the Appalachian basin and may contain as much as 30 tcf of recoverable gas resources. Major reservoirs consist of the "Clinton" sandstone and Medina Group sandstones. The stratigraphically equivalent Tuscarora Sandstone increases the area of the Lower Silurian regional accumulation (LSRA) by another 30,000 mi2 (78,000 km2). Approximately 8.7 tcf of gas and 400 million bbl of oil have been produced from the Clinton/Medina reservoirs since 1880. The eastern predominantly gas-bearing part of the LSRA is a basin-center gas accumulation, whereas the western part is a conventional oil and gas accumulation with hybrid features of a basin-center accumulation. The basin-center accumulations have pervasive gas saturation, water near irreducible saturation, and generally low fluid pressures. In contrast, the hybrid-conventional accumulations have less-pervasive oil and gas saturation, higher mobile-water saturation, and both normal and abnormally low fluid pressures. High mobile-water saturation in the hybrid-conventional reservoirs form the updip trap for the basin-center gas creating a broad transition zone, tens of miles wide, that has characteristics of both end-member accumulation types. Although the Tuscarora Sandstone part of the basin-center gas accumulation is pervasively saturated with gas, most of its constituent sandstone beds have low porosity and permeability. Commercial gas fields in the Tuscarora Sandstone are trapped in naturally fractured, faulted anticlines. The origin of the LSRA includes (1) generation of oil and gas from Ordovician black shales, (2) vertical migration through an overlying 1000-ft (305-m)-thick Ordovician shale; (3) abnormally high fluid pressure created by oil-to-gas transformation; (4) updip displacement of mobile pore water by overpressured gas; (5) entrapment of pervasive gas in the basin center; (6) postorogenic

  8. Influence of olive ripening degree and crusher typology on chemical and sensory characteristics of Correggiolo virgin olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrone, Lucia; Pupillo, Sabrina; Neri, Luisa; Bertazza, Giampaolo; Magli, Massimiliano; Rotondi, Annalisa

    2017-03-01

    In this study, two types of crusher, hammer and blade, were used to produce olive oils from cv. Correggiolo olives at four stages of ripeness, to analyse the effect of these two factors on oil quality indices (free acidity, peroxide value, UV absorption), on phenolic compounds content and sensory profiles. Differences in chemical and sensory data were analysed by two-way ANOVA. Ripeness exerted a stronger influence than the crushing equipment on quality indices, phenolic content and sensory evaluation; moreover the statistical significance of interaction between the factors considered suggests that they are intertwined. Differences in the texture of olive pastes obtained by squashing and crushing were clearly evident at the first stage of ripeness via observation with a scanning electron microscope. The stronger mechanical action of the hammer crusher also produced smaller pit fragments compared to the blade crusher, as shown by particle size analysis of the kernels fragments. Knowledge about the interaction between ripening and crushing will allow olive oil producers to pursue a product of the quality most suitable for a particular type of consumer. For example, bitterness and pungency, characters recently connected with health effects because sensory markers of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) polyphenols, do not have a great sensory appeal for most consumers; however, there is a niche of gourmet estimators interested in these peculiar flavours and ready to pay a premium price for them. The producer will be able to customise the EVOO by modulating its chemical and sensory characteristics, especially the phenolic fraction, thus addressing the needs of consumers with different tastes. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Vertical Distribution Characteristics of PM2.5 Observed by a Mobile Vehicle Lidar in Tianjin, China in 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Lihui; Dong, Yunsheng; Zhang, Tianshu; Liu, Cheng; Liu, Wenqing; Xie, Zhouqing; Xiang, Yan; Zhang, Yi; Chen, Zhenyi; Fan, Guangqiang; Zhang, Leibo; Liu, Yang; Shi, Yuchen; Shu, Xiaowen

    2018-02-01

    We present mobile vehicle lidar observations in Tianjin, China during the spring, summer, and winter of 2016. Mobile observations were carried out along the city border road of Tianjin to obtain the vertical distribution characteristics of PM2.5. Hygroscopic growth was not considered since relative humidity was less than 60% during the observation experiments. PM2.5 profile was obtained with the linear regression equation between the particle extinction coefficient and PM2.5 mass concentration. In spring, the vertical distribution of PM2.5 exhibited a hierarchical structure. In addition to a layer of particles that gathered near the ground, a portion of particles floated at 0.6-2.5-km height. In summer and winter, the fine particles basically gathered below 1 km near the ground. In spring and summer, the concentration of fine particles in the south was higher than that in the north because of the influence of south wind. In winter, the distribution of fine particles was opposite to that measured during spring and summer. High concentrations of PM2.5 were observed in the rural areas of North Tianjin with a maximum of 350 μg m-3 on 13 December 2016. It is shown that industrial and ship emissions in spring and summer and coal combustion in winter were the major sources of fine particles that polluted Tianjin. The results provide insights into the mechanisms of haze formation and the effects of meteorological conditions during haze-fog pollution episodes in the Tianjin area.

  10. Pyrolysis characteristics and kinetics of oil-based drilling cuttings in shale gas developing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chuan; Li, Tong; Xu, Tengtun; Zeng, Yunmin; Song, Xue

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, the thermal behavior of waste oil-based drilling cuttings (from shale gas fields in Chongqing) was examined at different heating rates ranging from 5 to 15 °C min-1 in inert atmosphere using a sync analyzer of thermogravimetry (TG) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Four methods were used to analyze the distributions and variations of kinetics parameter (active energy (E) and frequency gene (A)): Coats-Redfern and other three iso-conversion rate methods (Flynn-Wall-Ozawa, Vyazovkin and Friedman). The experimental results indicated that the process consists of three steps, i.e., water evaporation, volatilization of light oil component and heavy oil cracking. TG curves moved toward higher temperature zone caused by thermal hysteresis with the increase of temperature rising rate. For volatilization of lightweight components, the E calculated by three iso-conversion rate methods changed a little with conversion, and had almost the same results as the CR method (14.39˜20.08 kJ.mol-1). For reactions of heavy oil cracking with mixed mechanism, corresponding E rose gradually with the increase of reaction time. The CR method shows nonlinear trends and the reaction models and kinetic parameters cannot be extracted from CR curves. The results by three iso-conversion methods showed that apparent activation energy was given as 155.74˜561.10 kJ.mol-1, 141.06˜524.96 kJ.mol-1 and 74.37˜605.10 kJ.mol-1, respectively.

  11. Characteristics of prickly lettuce seed oil in relation to methods of extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadan, A A

    1976-01-01

    Samples of seed oil of prickly lettuce (Lactuca Sacriola oleifera) which had been obtained by pressing or by extracting with acetone, ethyl ether, petroleum ether or carbon tetrachloride were analysed for the following parameters: viscosity, saponification number, iodine number, thiocyanogen value, unsaponifiable matter, free fatty acids, peroxide number and fatty acid composition. The different parameters varied in part considerably in relation to the method of production (pressing or solvent extraction) and to the solvent. It is tried to interprete these relationships.

  12. Investigation of the Anti-Melanogenic and Antioxidant Characteristics of Eucalyptus camaldulensis Flower Essential Oil and Determination of Its Chemical Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Huey-Chun; Ho, Ya-Chi; Lim, Jia-Min; Chang, Tzu-Yun; Ho, Chen-Lung; Chang, Tsong-Min

    2015-01-01

    The effects of essential oil from Eucalyptus camaldulensis flowers oil on melanogenesis and the oil’s antioxidant characteristics were investigated. Assays of mushroom and cellular tyrosinase activities and melanin content of mouse melanoma cells were performed spectrophotometrically, and the expression of melanogenesis-related proteins was determined by Western blotting. The possible signaling pathways involved in essential oil-mediated depigmentation were also investigated using specific protein kinase inhibitors. The results revealed that E. camaldulensis flower essential oil effectively suppresses intracellular tyrosinase activity and decreases melanin amount in B16F10 mouse melanoma cells. The essential oil also exhibits antioxidant properties and effectively decreases intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels. The volatile chemical composition of the essential oil was analyzed with gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The chemical constituents in the essential oil are predominately oxygenated monoterpenes (34.9%), followed by oxygenated sesquiterpenes (31.8%), monoterpene hydrocarbons (29.0%) and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (4.3%). Our results indicated that E. camaldulensis flower essential oil inhibits melanogenesis through its antioxidant properties and by down-regulating both mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) and protein kinase A (PKA) signaling pathways. The present study indicates that the essential oil has the potential to be developed into a skin care product. PMID:25961954

  13. Specific characteristics of essential oils of four Artemisia species from the Mongolian Trans-Altai Gobi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Javzmaa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The essential oil compositions of four Artemisia species in Mongolian Trans-Altai Gobi were studied by gas chromatography (GC and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. The oil from A.macrocephala Jacq and A.dracunculus Ledeb. were characterized by the presence of monoterpene hydrocarbons and oxygenated monoterpeneoids predominately. E-nerolidol (26.95%, methyleugenol (23.29% and sabinene (13.21% were found as main components in the essential oils of A.dracunculus. A.macrocephalla was characterized by the presence of chamazulene (13.8%, cineol (11.7%, myrcene (9.0%, germacrene-D (7.1%. A.anethifolia Web was characterized by the presence of fragrant compounds as camphor (26.05%, α-thujone (10.1%, borneol (5.1%. Davanone and davanone derivatives were also detected in the sample in amount of 7.7% in total. A.scoparia Waldst differed by domination of monoterpene hydrocarbons (78.9% with (Z- β-ocimene (29.24%, α-pinene (15.19%, limonene (10.27% and myrcene (9.61%.Mongolian Journal of Chemistry 16 (42, 2015, 34-38

  14. Quality characteristics and thermal behavior of buriti (Mauritia flexuosa L.) oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freitas, M.L.F.; Chisté, R.C.; Polachini, T.C.; Sardella, L.A.C.Z.; Aranha, C.P.M.; Ribeiro, A.P.B.; Nicoletti, V.R.

    2017-01-01

    This work reports a complete characterization of buriti oil. Physicochemical properties were determined according to AOCS methodologies and thermophysical properties were measured using a controlled stress rheometer and a digital electronic density meter. β-carotene and tocopherol contents were obtained using HPLC systems. Fatty acids and acylglycerol classes were determined using GC and HPSEC systems, respectively, while triacylglycerol composition was estimated using the software PrOleos. Thermal behavior (crystallization and melting) was analyzed using a DSC. The results attested high levels of total carotenoids with β-carotene as the major one; total tocopherols contained α- and β-tocopherols which accounted for 91% of the total; and monounsaturated fatty acids were mainly represented by oleic acid. The results showed close agreement between density and viscosity of buriti and olive oils. The crystallization and melting peaks occurred at -43.06 °C and -2.73 °C, respectively. These properties enable Buriti oil to be recommended as an excellent alternative for enriching foods with bioactive compounds. [es

  15. Quality characteristics and thermal behavior of buriti (Mauritia flexuosa L. oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L.F. Freitas

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This work reports a complete characterization of buriti oil. Physicochemical properties were determined according to AOCS methodologies and thermophysical properties were measured using a controlled stress rheometer and a digital electronic density meter. β-carotene and tocopherol contents were obtained using HPLC systems. Fatty acids and acylglycerol classes were determined using GC and HPSEC systems, respectively, while triacylglycerol composition was estimated using the software PrOleos. Thermal behavior (crystallization and melting was analyzed using a DSC. The results attested high levels of total carotenoids with β-carotene as the major one; total tocopherols contained α- and β-tocopherols which accounted for 91% of the total; and monounsaturated fatty acids were mainly represented by oleic acid. The results showed close agreement between density and viscosity of buriti and olive oils. The crystallization and melting peaks occurred at -43.06 °C and -2.73 °C, respectively. These properties enable Buriti oil to be recommended as an excellent alternative for enriching foods with bioactive compounds.

  16. CORONARY DIET INTERVENTION WITH OLIVE OIL AND CARDIOVASCULAR PREVENTION STUDY (THE CORDIOPREV STUDY): RATIONALE, METHODS, AND BASELINE CHARACTERISTICS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Lista, Javier; Perez-Martinez, Pablo; Garcia-Rios, Antonio; Alcala-Diaz, Juan F; Perez-Caballero, Ana I.; Gomez-Delgado, Francisco; Fuentes, Francisco; Quintana-Navarro, Gracia; Lopez-Segura, Fernando; Ortiz-Morales, Ana M; Delgado-Casado, Nieves; Yubero-Serrano, Elena; Camargo, Antonio; Marin, Carmen; Rodriguez-Cantalejo, Fernando; Gomez-Luna, Purificacion; Ordovas, Jose M; Lopez-Miranda, Jose; Perez-Jimenez, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    Coronary heart disease (CHD) represents a major global health burden. However, despite the well-known influence that dietary habits exert over the progression of this disease, there are no well-established and scientifically sound dietary approaches to prevent the onset of clinical outcomes in secondary prevention. The objective of the CORonary Diet Intervention with Olive oil and cardiovascular PREVention study (CORDIOPREV study, clinical trials number NCT00924937) is to compare the ability of a Mediterranean diet rich in virgin olive oil versus a low-fat diet to influence the composite incidence of cardiovascular events after 7 years, in subjects with documented CHD at baseline. For this purpose, we enrolled 1002 coronary patients from Spain. Baseline assessment (2009–12) included detailed interviews and measurements to assess dietary, social and biological variables. Results of baseline characteristics: The CORDIOPREV study in Spain describes a population with a high BMI (37.2% overweight and 56.3% obesity), with a median of LDL-cholesterol of 88.5 mg/dL (70.6% of the patients having <100 mg/dL, and 20.3% patients < 70 mg/dL). 9.6% of the participants were active smokers, and 64.4% were former smokers. Metabolic Syndrome was present in 58% of this population. To sum up, we describe here the rationale, methods and baseline characteristics of the CORDIOPREV study, which will test for the first time the efficacy of a Mediterranean Diet rich in extra virgin olive oil as compared with a low-fat diet on the incidence of CHD recurrence in a long term follow-up study. PMID:27297848

  17. Growth, carcass characteristics, and incidence of ascites in broilers exposed to environmental fluctuations and oiled litter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGovern, R H; Feddes, J J; Robinson, F E; Hanson, J A

    2000-03-01

    The effects of diurnal temperature fluctuations and removal of respirable dust, by application of canola oil to straw litter, on growth, carcass traits, and the degree of ascites was evaluated with 1,200 male broilers studied in two replicated 6-wk trials. Each trial used four pens of 150 birds. The temperature treatment consisted of a fluctuation of 3 C in temperature above the required temperature during the day (0600 to 1800 h) and 3 C below the required temperature at night (1800 to 0600 h) for a 6 C change in daily temperature. The control temperature was constant. All pens had the same mean daily temperature. In each trial, one control temperature pen and one fluctuation temperature pen received bi-weekly applications of canola oil to the litter (1.1 L/m2 of oil over 6 wk). At 6 wk of age, 30 birds from each pen were killed for determination of breast muscle, fatpad, and heart weights. All birds were scored for lesions of ascites at time of processing. A score of 0 or 1 represented slight pericardial effusion, slight pulmonary congestion, and edema. A score of 4 represented birds with marked accumulation of ascitic fluid in one or more ceolomic cavities (other than the pericardium) and advanced liver lesions. A cross-sectional image of each 4-mm heart slice (cross-section of the ventricles) was digitally recorded, and with image analysis we determined the right ventricular area (RVA), left ventricular area (LVA), and total heart area (HA). The final BW of the broilers were significantly different, the oiled-litter treatment (2,249 g) had lower weight gain compared with the nonoiled litter treatment (2,293 g). There were no differences in fatpad weight, shank length, lung weight, and percentage breast muscle between the main treatments. The Pectoralis minor and Pectoralis major weight were significantly heavier in the temperature fluctuation treatment than in the control temperature treatment by 3.0 and 12.0 g, respectively. The birds subjected to the control

  18. Determination of performance and combustion characteristics of a diesel engine fueled with canola and waste palm oil methyl esters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozsezen, Ahmet Necati [Department of Automotive Engineering Technology, Kocaeli University, 41380 Izmit (Turkey); Alternative Fuels R and D Center, Kocaeli University, 41040 Izmit (Turkey); Canakci, Mustafa, E-mail: canakci@kocaeli.edu.t [Department of Automotive Engineering Technology, Kocaeli University, 41380 Izmit (Turkey); Alternative Fuels R and D Center, Kocaeli University, 41040 Izmit (Turkey)

    2011-01-15

    In this study, the performance, combustion and injection characteristics of a direct injection diesel engine have been investigated experimentally when it was fueled with canola oil methyl ester (COME) and waste (frying) palm oil methyl ester (WPOME). In order to determine the performance and combustion characteristics, the experiments were conducted at constant engine speeds under the full load condition of the engine. The results indicated that when the test engine was fueled with WPOME or COME instead of petroleum based diesel fuel (PBDF), the brake power reduced by 4-5%, while the brake specific fuel consumption increased by 9-10%. On the other hand, methyl esters caused reductions in carbon monoxide (CO) by 59-67%, in unburned hydrocarbon (HC) by 17-26%, in carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) by 5-8%, and smoke opacity by 56-63%. However, both methyl esters produced more nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) emissions by 11-22% compared with those of the PBDF over the speed range.

  19. Determination of performance and combustion characteristics of a diesel engine fueled with canola and waste palm oil methyl esters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozsezen, Ahmet Necati; Canakci, Mustafa

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the performance, combustion and injection characteristics of a direct injection diesel engine have been investigated experimentally when it was fueled with canola oil methyl ester (COME) and waste (frying) palm oil methyl ester (WPOME). In order to determine the performance and combustion characteristics, the experiments were conducted at constant engine speeds under the full load condition of the engine. The results indicated that when the test engine was fueled with WPOME or COME instead of petroleum based diesel fuel (PBDF), the brake power reduced by 4-5%, while the brake specific fuel consumption increased by 9-10%. On the other hand, methyl esters caused reductions in carbon monoxide (CO) by 59-67%, in unburned hydrocarbon (HC) by 17-26%, in carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) by 5-8%, and smoke opacity by 56-63%. However, both methyl esters produced more nitrogen oxides (NO x ) emissions by 11-22% compared with those of the PBDF over the speed range.

  20. Characteristics of oil sludge from crude oil terminal and behaviors of the naturally occurring radioactive materials and heavy metals on combustion of the sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamad Puad Abu

    2001-01-01

    The study on the characteristics and behaviors of Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM) and heavy metals (HM) in the oil sludge from the crude oil terminal were performed using Gamma Spectroscopy (GM), Neutron Activation Analysis Instrumental (NAAI) and Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy (ICP-MS). GM and NAAI were used to analyze the concentrations of radionuclides whereas NAAI as well as ICP-MS techniques were applied for HM. The samples were then combusted at temperature ranging from 100 degree Celsius - 800 degree Celsius for a period of 30-150 minutes. The ashes produced were then analyzed again for the various elemental concentrations by the above techniques. The percentage of volatilization was then derived mathematically. The concentration of Ra-226 (123 Bq/ kg) and Ra-228 (117 Bq/ kg) in the oil sludge are higher compared with their parent U-238 (32.12 Bq/ kg) and Th-232 (35.36 Bq/ kg). The concentration of HM such as As (13.30 ppm), Cr (46 ppm) and Zn (4287 ppm) in the oil sludge are also higher compared with As (7.5 ppm), Cr (43 ppm) and Zn (36 ppm) contain in the Malaysian normal soil. The heating value for crude oil sludge is 9000 kJ/ kg which is below the value for self-sustaining combustion (11000 kJ/ kg). The percentage of volatilization varies from 2-70 % depends on the elements, temperature and period of combustion. Uranium was found to volatile more than other elements. Higher temperatures (>500 degree Celsius) and longer exposure time (>90 minutes) promoted metal and radionuclide volatilization significantly more than 20 %. Based on the first order kinetic reaction, a new global mathematical model was developed (Q e =1-e -k e t ). This model can predict the percentage of volatilization for the various elements contain in the sludge if the temperature and time of combustion are known. With this known percentage of volatilization, the concentration of various elements present in the bottom and fly ashes can be deduced. From

  1. KARAKTERISTIK FISIKOKIMIA DAN ANTIBAKTERI VIRGIN COCONUT OIL HASIL FERMENTASI BAKTERI ASAM LAKTAT [Physicochemical and Antibacterial Characteristics of Virgin Coconut Oil Fermented with Lactic Acid Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Rahmadi*

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Destabilization of oil-water emulsion in coconut milk, in the production of virgin coconut oil (VCO, can be accelerated with the utilization of lactic acid bacteria fermentation. This research was aimed to determine physicochemical and antibacterial characteristics of VCO from coconut hybrid variety fermented with L. casei of Yakult® and two isolates of L. plantarum from mandai (traditionally fermented Artocarpus campeden and coconut water. The observed physicochemical of VCO included yield, specific gravity, moisture content, saponification value, peroxide value, and free fatty acid. The antibacterial activity was subjected to the well diffusion method against E. coli and S. aureus with chloramphenicol as the positive control. L. casei yielded the best VCO-BAL at 34.5% (v/v, while L. plantarum from mandai and coconut water yielded 29.5% (v/v and 25.3% (v/v, respectively. VCO-BAL from L. casei had the lightest specific gravity of 0.84±0.04 g.mL-1. Average of measured moisture contents (0.03-0.05%, saponification values (161.3-163.6, peroxide values (0.53-0.86, and free fatty acids (0.11-0.12% of the three VCO-BALs were not significantly (p>0.05 different with respect to control. VCO-BAL produced from L. plantarum of coconut water did not exhibit better antibacterial activity compared to control. VCO-BAL from L. casei demonstrated highest antibacterial activity against E. coli, 6.45±0.50 mm (58.1% of positive control and S. aureus, 5.23±0.40 mm (51.3% of positive control. It is deduced that antibacterial activity from VCO-BAL is contributed by hydrophobic bacteriocins.

  2. Partitioning the relative contributions of inorganic plant composition and soil characteristics to the quality of Helichrysum italicum subsp. italicum (Roth) G. Don fil. essential oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchini, Ange; Santoni, François; Paolini, Julien; Bernardini, Antoine-François; Mouillot, David; Costa, Jean

    2009-07-01

    Composition of Helichrysum italicum subsp. italicum essential oil showed chemical variability according to vegetation cycle, environment, and geographic origins. In the present work, 48 individuals of this plant at different development stages and the corresponding root soils were sampled: i) 28 volatile components were identified and measured in essential oil by using GC and GC/MS; ii) ten elements from plants and soils have been estimated using colorimetry in continuous flux, flame atomic absorption spectrometry, or emission spectrometry (FAAS/FAES); iii) texture and acidity (real and potential) of soil samples were also reported. Relationships between the essential-oil composition, the inorganic plant composition, and the soil characteristics (inorganic composition, texture, and acidity) have been established using multivariate analysis such as Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and partial Redundancy Analysis (RDA). This study demonstrates a high level of intraspecific differences in oil composition due to environmental factors and, more particularly, soil characteristics.

  3. Simulation and analysis of vertical displacement characteristics of three wheels reverse trike vehicle with PID controller application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibowo, Lambang, Lullus; Erick Chandra, N.; Muhayat, Nurul; Jaka S., B.

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this research is to obtain a mathematical model (Full Vehicle Model) and compare the performance of passive and active suspension systems of a Three-Wheels Reverse Trike vehicle. Vehicle suspension system should able to provide good steering handling and passenger comfort. Vehicle suspension system generally only uses passive suspension components with fix spring and damper coefficients. An active suspension developed from the traditional (passive) suspension design can directly control the actuator force in the suspension system. In this paper, modeling and simulation of passive and active suspension system for a Full Vehicle Model is performed using Simulink-MATLAB software. Ziegler & Nichols tuning method is used to obtain controller parameters of Proportional Integral Derivative (PID) controller. Comparison between passive and active suspension with PID controller is conducted for disturbances input of single bump road surface profile 0.1 meters. The results are the displacement and acceleration of the vehicle body in the vertical direction of active suspension system with PID control is better in providing handling capabilities and comfort for the driver than of passive suspension system. The acceleration of 1,8G with the down time of 2.5 seconds is smaller than the acceleration of 2.5G with down time of 5.5 seconds.

  4. Composition and qualitative characteristics of virgin olive oils produced in northern Adriatic region, Republic of Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milin, Cedomila

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Istria and Island Krk are located in the Northern Adriatic region, Republic of Croatia. The majority of oils produced on the islands of this Region correspond to extra virgin classification as a consequence of olive cultivars (Debela, Naska, Rosulja, Slatka, Buza, Carbonera, Bianchera, Leccino. The characterisation of these oils is little known. The objective of this work was the characterisation of virgin olive oils during the 1997/98, 1998/99 and six months of 1999/2000 harvest. Acidity, peroxide value and UV absorption constants were determined for all samples. Fatty acid composition, sterol and aliphatic alcohol contents, saturated fatty acids in the 2-position of the triglyceride and trilinolein content were determined for the virgin olive oils during 1997/98 harvest. The chemical analyses were supported by the determination of polyphenol content expressed as caffeic acid, squalene and α-tocopherol content.Istria y la isla Krk están localizadas en el norte de la región Adriática, República de Croacia. La mayoría de los aceites producidos en las islas de esta región corresponden a la clasificación extra virgen de las variedades (Debela, Naska, Rosulja, Slatka, Buza, Carbonera, Bianchera, Leccino. La caracterización de estos aceites es poco conocida. El objetivo de este trabajo fue la caracterización de los aceites de oliva vírgenes durante las campañas 1997/98, 1998/99 y seis meses de 1999/2000. Para todas las muestras se determinó la acidez, el índice de peróxido y las constantes de absorción en el UV. Para los aceites de oliva vírgenes durante la campaña 1997/98 se determinaron la composición en ácidos grasos, los contenidos en esteroles y alcoholes alifáticos, los ácidos grasos saturados en posición 2 de los triglicéridos y el contenido en trilinoleína. Los análisis químicos se completaron con la determinación del contenido en polifenoles expresado como ácido cafeico, y la determinación de escualeno y α-tocoferol.

  5. Effects of trout-oil methyl ester on a diesel engine performance and emission characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buyukkaya, Ekrem; Benli, Serdar; Karaaslan, Salih; Guru, Metin

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Maximum engine power was obtained at 2400 rpm for all fuels. ► The maximum torque of engine was obtained at 1500 rpm for blend fuels. ► The BSFC of TOME’s blends became less. ► HC emissions were found to be lower for blends. ► NO x was obtained to decrease in particularly high engine loads. - Abstract: In this study, trout oil methyl ester fuel (TOME) was prepared by transesterification using potassium hydroxide as catalyst. The trout oil and its blends (B10, B20, B40 and B50) were tested in a single-cylinder natural aspirated indirect injection diesel engine. The tests showed significant changes in engine’s power and particularly torque as well as major improvements in the engine emission for B40 and B50 in general, except the increasing of nitrogen oxide (NO x ) emission due to high combustion temperature resulted by better combustion process. The brake specific fuel consumption of B50 fuel was almost the same as that of diesel fuel at the maximum torque and rated power conditions. Carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrocarbon emissions (HC) were reduced around on average 13% and 45%, respectively, in case of TOME compared to diesel

  6. MEOR (microbial enhanced oil recovery) data base and evaluation of reservoir characteristics for MEOR projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryant, R.S.

    1989-09-01

    One aspect of NIPER's microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) research program has been focused on obtaining all available information regarding the use of microorganisms in enhanced oil recovery field projects. The data have been evaluated in order to construct a data base of MEOR field projects. The data base has been used in this report to present a list of revised reservoir screening criteria for MEOR field processes. This list is by no means complete; however, until more information is available from ongoing field tests, it represents the best available data to date. The data base has been studied in this report in order to determine any significant reports from MEOR field projects where the microbial treatment was unsuccessful. Such information could indicate limitations of MEOR processes. The types of reservoir information sought from these projects that could be limitations of microorganisms include reservoir permeability, salinity, temperature, and high concentrations of minerals in the rock such as selenium, arsenic, or mercury. Unfortunately, most of the MEOR field projects to date have not reported this type of information; thus we still cannot assess field limitations until more projects report these data. 7 refs., 1 fig., 7 tabs.

  7. Encapsulation of lemongrass oil with cyclodextrins by spray drying and its controlled release characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phunpee, Sarunya; Ruktanonchai, Uracha Rangsadthong; Yoshii, Hidefumi; Assabumrungrat, Suttichai; Soottitantawat, Apinan

    2017-04-01

    Inclusion of the two isomers of citral (E-citral and Z-citral), components of lemongrass oil, was investigated within the confines of various cyclodextrin (α-CD, β-CD and γ-CD) host molecules. Aqueous complex formation constants for E-citral with α-CD, β-CD and γ-CD were determined to be 123, 185, and 204 L/mol, respectively, whereas Z-citral exhibited stronger affinities (157, 206, and 253 L/mol, respectively). The binding trend γ-CD > β-CD > α-CD is a reflection of the more favorable geometrical accommodation of the citral isomers with increasing cavity size. Encapsulation of lemongrass oil within CDs was undertaken through shaking citral:CD (1:1, 1.5:1, and 2:1 molar ratio) mixtures followed by spray drying. Maximum citral retention occurred at a 1:1 molar ratio with β-CD and α-CD demonstrating the highest levels of total E-citral and Z-citral retention, respectively. Furthermore, the β-CD complex demonstrated the slowest release rate of all inclusion complex powders.

  8. Performance and Emission Characteristics of a Compression Ignition Engine Operating on Blends of Castor Oil Biodiesel-Diesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanwar, Roopesh; Sharma, Pushpendra Kumar; Singh, Aditya Narayan; Agrawal, Yadvendra Kumar

    2017-04-01

    Diesel vehicles are the nerves and veins of transportation, particularly in developing countries. With the rapid rate of modernization, increasing demand of fuel is inevitable. The exponential increase in fuel prices and the scarcity of its supply from the environment have promoted interest in the development of alternative sources of fuel. In this work, genus Ricinus communis L. was studied in order to delimit their potential as a raw material for biodiesel production. Further, castor oil, ethyl ester were prepared by transesterification using potassium hydroxide (KOH) as a catalyst and tested on a four-stroke, single-cylinder compression ignition engine. The test was carried out at a constant speed of 3000 rpm at different loads. The results represent a substantial decrease in carbon monoxide (CO) emission with an increasing biodiesel percentage. The reduction of CO in B05, B10, B15 and B20 averaged 11.75, 22.02, 24.23 and 28.79 %, respectively, compared to mineral diesel. The emission results of the comparative test indicated that CO, oxygen (O2) and smoke density emissions are found to be lower when the engine is filled with B05, B10, B15 and B20 as compared to mineral diesel, while carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrogen oxide (NOx) with B05, B10, B15 and B20 are found to increase marginally. Brake thermal efficiency and brake specific fuel consumption decrease and increase respectively in biodiesel with different blends in comparison of mineral diesel.

  9. Condensation heat transfer characteristics of R410A-oil mixture in 5 mm and 4 mm outside diameter horizontal microfin tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Xiangchao; Ding, Guoliang; Hu, Haitao; Zhu, Yu [Institute of Refrigeration and Cryogenics, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Gao, Yifeng [International Copper Association Shanghai Office, Shanghai 200020 (China); Deng, Bin [Institute of Heat Transfer Technology, Golden Dragon Precise Copper Tube Group Inc., Shanghai 200135 (China)

    2010-10-15

    Condensation heat transfer characteristics of R410A-oil mixture in 5 mm and 4 mm outside diameter horizontal microfin tubes were investigated experimentally. The experimental condensing temperature is 40 C, and nominal oil concentration range is from 0% to 5%. The test results indicate that the presence of oil deteriorates the heat transfer. The deterioration effect is negligible at nominal oil concentration of 1%, and becomes obvious with the increase of nominal oil concentration. At 5% nominal oil concentration, the heat transfer coefficient of R410A-oil mixture is found to have a maximum reduction of 25.1% and 23.8% for 5 mm and 4 mm tubes, respectively. The predictabilities of the existing condensation heat transfer correlations were verified with the experimental data, and Yu and Koyama correlation shows the best predictability. By replacing the pure refrigerant properties with the mixture's properties, Yu and Koyama correlation has a deviation of -15% to + 20% in predicting the local condensation heat transfer coefficient of R410A-oil mixture. (author)

  10. Characteristics and properties of oil-well cements auditioned with blast furnace slag

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, R.; Palacios, M.; Puertas, F.

    2011-01-01

    The present paper addresses the alkali activation of Portland cements containing blast furnace slag (20 and 30% by cement weight) with a view to the possible use of these materials in oil well construction. The hydration studies conducted showed that in cement/slag blends, the sodium silicate activator partially inhibited the dissolution of the silicate phases in the Portland cement, retarding cement hydration and reducing the precipitation of reaction products. Due to such partial inhibition, the cement/slag blends had significantly lower mechanical strength than Portland cements hydrated with water. 2 9Si and 2 7Al MAS NMR and BSE/EDX studies, in turn, showed that the CSH gel forming in the alkali-activated cement/slag pastes contained Al in tetrahedral positions and low Ca/Si ratios. (Author) 29 refs.

  11. Physical and chemical characteristics of five Turkish olive (Olea europea L. varieties and their oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ünverb, Ahmet

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Olive varieties from different locations in Turkey and their natural oils which were obtained using traditional methods were used. Five olive samples were considered for their moisture, crude oil, crude protein, crude ash, crude energy, crude fiber, pH and alcohol-soluble extract. Olives contained approximately 17.7 %-43.5 % olive oil. The crude fiber contents of olive fruits were found to be 5.5 % (Gemlik, 7.0 % (Kilis, 3.6 % (Uslu, 4.2 % (Tirilye and 5.6 % (Ayval?k. The mineral contents of several olive varieties were determined by ICP-AES and found to be excellent. Olives were found to be rich in Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Na and P minerals. Also, K, Na and P contents of the Gemlik variety were found higher than those of other varieties. The refractive index and density values of the Uslu variety were found to be high and the other varieties had similar values. Oleic acid (65.7 %- 83.6 % was present in the highest concentration, followed by palmitic (8.1-15.2 %, linoleic (3.5-15.5 %, stearic (2.0- 5.6 % and linolenic (0.1-3.0 %. The total amount of phenols among olive varieties was different. The total phenol content as gallic and catechic acid equivalent in all oil samples ranged from 22.5 to 97.1 mg/kg and 12.3 to 98.7 mg/kg, respectively. The Kilis variety of olives had the lowest total phenol value when compared to the other varieties.Aceitunas de Turquía de cinco variedades (Gemlik, Kilis, Uslu, Tirilye y Ayvalik así como sus correspondientes aceites obtenidos por métodos clásicos fueron usados en este estudio. En las aceitunas se determinó la composición proximal (humedad, contenido graso, proteína, cenizas, fibra, y extracto soluble en alcohol, el contenido en minerales y en fenoles. En el caso de los aceites se determinó la composición en ácidos grasos, acidez, insaponificable, índices de Yodo y de saponificación, densidad e índice de refracción. El contenido en aceite de las muestras fue muy variable oscilando entre 17.7 y 43.5% y

  12. Power and Torque Characteristics of Diesel Engine Fuelled by Palm-Kernel Oil Biodiesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oguntola J. ALAMU

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Short-term engine performance tests were carried out on test diesel engine fuelled with Palm kernel oil (PKO biodiesel. The biodiesel fuel was produced through transesterification process using 100g PKO, 20.0% ethanol (wt%, 1.0% potassium hydroxide catalyst at 60°C reaction temperature and 90min. reaction time. The diesel engine was attached to a general electric dynamometer. Torque and power delivered by the engine were monitored throughout the 24-hour test duration at 1300, 1500, 1700, 2000, 2250 and 2500rpm. At all engine speeds tested, results showed that torque and power outputs for PKO biodiesel were generally lower than those for petroleum diesel. Also, Peak torque for PKO biodiesel occurred at a lower engine speed compared to diesel.

  13. Experimental studies on the combustion and emission characteristics of a diesel engine fuelled with used cooking oil methyl ester and its diesel blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lakshmi Narayana Rao, G.; Sampath, S. [Sri Venkateswara College of Engineering, Sriperumbudur (India); Rajagopal, K. [Jawaharlal Nehru Technological Univ., Hyderabad (India)

    2008-04-01

    Transesterified vegetable oils (biodiesel) are promising alternative fuel for diesel engines. Used vegetable oils are disposed from restaurants in large quantities. But higher viscosity restricts their direct use in diesel engines. In this study, used cooking oil was dehydrated and then transesterified using an alkaline catalyst. The combustion, performance and emission characteristics of Used Cooking oil Methyl Ester (UCME) and its blends with diesel oil are analyzed in a direct injection C.I. engine. The fuel properties and the combustion characteristics of UCME are found to be similar to those of diesel. A minor decrease in thermal efficiency with significant improvement in reduction of particulates, carbon monoxide and unburnt hydrocarbons is observed compared to diesel. The use of transesterified used cooking oil and its blends as fuel for diesel engines will reduce dependence on fossil fuels and also decrease considerably the environmental pollution. Of the various alternate fuels under consideration, biodiesel is the most promising due to the following reasons: (1) Biodiesel can be used in the existing engine without any modifications. (2) Biodiesel is made entirely from vegetable sources; it does not contain any sulfur, aromatic hydrocarbons, metals or crude oil residues. (3) Biodiesel is an oxygenated fuel; emissions of carbon monoxide and soot tend to reduce. (4) Unlike fossil fuels, the use of biodiesel does not contribute to global warming as CO{sub 2} emitted is once again absorbed by the plants grown for vegetable oil/biodiesel production. Thus CO{sub 2} balance is maintained. (5) The Occupational Safety and Health Administration classifies biodiesel as a non-flammable liquid. (6) The use of biodiesel can extend the life of diesel engines because it is more lubricating than petroleum diesel fuel. (7) Biodiesel is produced from renewable vegetable oils/animal fats and hence improves the fuel or energy security and economy independence.

  14. Effects of crude glycerin from waste vegetable oil supplementation on feed intake, ruminal fermentation characteristics, and nitrogen utilization of goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanjula, Pin; Pongprayoon, Sahutaya; Kongpan, Sirichai; Cherdthong, Anusorn

    2016-06-01

    This experiment was evaluation of the effects of increasing concentrations of crude glycerin from waste vegetable oil (CGWVO) in diets on feed intake, digestibility, ruminal fermentation characteristics, and nitrogen balance of goats. Four crossbred male (Thai Native × Anglo Nubian) goats, with an average initial body weight (BW) of 31.5 ± 1.90 kg, were randomly assigned according to a 4 × 4 Latin square design. The dietary treatments contained 0, 2, 4, and 6 % of dietary dry matter (DM) of CGWVO. Based on this experiment, there were significantly different (P > 0.05) among treatment groups regarding DM intake and digestion coefficients of nutrients (DM, OM, CP, EE, NDF, and ADF), which goats receiving 6 % of CGWVO had lower daily DMI and nutrient intake than those fed on 0, 2, and 4 % of CGWVO. Ruminal pH, NH3-N, and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) concentration were unchanged by dietary treatments, except that for 6 % of CGWVO supplementation, NH3-N, and BUN were lower (P goats. This study was a good approach in exploiting the use of biodiesel production from waste vegetable oil for goat production.

  15. PERFORMANCE, EMISSION, AND COMBUSTION CHARACTERISTICS OF A CI ENGINE USING LIQUID PETROLEUM GAS AND NEEM OIL IN DUAL FUEL MODE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palanimuthu Vijayabalan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Increased environmental awareness and depletion of resources are driving the industries to develop viable alternative fuels like vegetable oils, compresed natural gas, liquid petroleum gas, producer gas, and biogas in order to provide suitable substitute to diesel for compression ignition engine. In this investigation, a single cylinder, vertical, air-cooled diesel engine was modified to use liquid petroleum gas in dual fuel mode. The liquefied petroleum gas, was mixed with air and supplied through intake manifold. The liquid fuel neem oil or diesel was injected into the combustion chamber. The performance, emission, and combustion characteristics were studied and compared for neat fuel and dual fuel mode. The experimental results on dual fuel engine show a reduction in oxides of nitrogen up to 70% of the rated power and smoke in the entire power range. However the brake thermal efficiency was found decreased in low power range due to lower calorific value of liquid petroleum gas, and increase in higher power range due to the complete burning of liquid petroleum gas. Hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide emissions were increased significantly at lower power range and marginal variation in higher power range.

  16. Cold Heat Release Characteristics of Solidified Oil Droplet-Water Solution Latent Heat Emulsion by Air Bubbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inaba, Hideo; Morita, Shin-Ichi

    The present work investigates the cold heat-release characteristics of the solidified oil droplets (tetradecane, C14H30, freezing point 278.9 K)/water solution emulsion as a latent heat-storage material having a low melting point. An air bubbles-emulsion direct-contact heat exchange method is selected for the cold heat-results from the solidified oil droplet-emulsion layer. This type of direct-contact method results in the high thermal efficiency. The diameter of air bubbles in the emulsion increases as compared with that in the pure water. The air bubbles blown from a nozzle show a strong mixing behavior during rising in the emulsion. The temperature effectiveness, the sensible heat release time and the latent heat release time have been measured as experimental parameters. The useful nondimensional emulsion level equations for these parameters have been derived in terms of the nondimensional emalsion level expressed the emulsion layer dimensions, Reynolds number for air flow, Stefan number and heat capacity ratio.

  17. Comparison of Y-jet and OIL effervescent atomizers based on internal and external two-phase flow characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mlkvik Marek

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Presented paper focuses on spraying of two viscous liquids (μ = 60 and 143 mPa·s by two types of twinfluid atomizers with internal mixing. We compared the well-known Y-jet atomizer with the less known, “outside in liquid” (OIL, configuration of the effervescent atomizer. The required liquid viscosity was achieved by using the water-maltodextrin solutions of different concentrations. Both the liquids were sprayed at two gas inlet pressures (Δp = 0.14 and 0.28 MPa and various gas-to-liquid ratios (GLR = 2.5%, 5%, 10% and 20%. The comparison was focused on four characteristics: liquid flow-rate (for the same working regimes, defined by Δp and GLR, internal flow regimes, Weber numbers of a liquid breakup (We and droplet sizes. A high-speed camera and Malvern Spraytec laser diffraction system were used to obtain necessary experimental data. Comparing the results of our experiments, we can state that for both the liquids the OIL atomizer reached higher liquid flow-rates at corresponding working regimes, it was typical by annular internal flow and higher We in the near-nozzle region at all the working regimes. As a result, it produced considerably smaller droplets than the second tested atomizing device, especially for GLR < 10%.

  18. Comparison of Y-jet and OIL effervescent atomizers based on internal and external two-phase flow characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mlkvik, Marek; Zaremba, Matous; Jedelsky, Jan; Jicha, Miroslav

    2016-03-01

    Presented paper focuses on spraying of two viscous liquids (μ = 60 and 143 mPa·s) by two types of twinfluid atomizers with internal mixing. We compared the well-known Y-jet atomizer with the less known, "outside in liquid" (OIL), configuration of the effervescent atomizer. The required liquid viscosity was achieved by using the water-maltodextrin solutions of different concentrations. Both the liquids were sprayed at two gas inlet pressures (Δp = 0.14 and 0.28 MPa) and various gas-to-liquid ratios (GLR = 2.5%, 5%, 10% and 20%). The comparison was focused on four characteristics: liquid flow-rate (for the same working regimes, defined by Δp and GLR), internal flow regimes, Weber numbers of a liquid breakup (We) and droplet sizes. A high-speed camera and Malvern Spraytec laser diffraction system were used to obtain necessary experimental data. Comparing the results of our experiments, we can state that for both the liquids the OIL atomizer reached higher liquid flow-rates at corresponding working regimes, it was typical by annular internal flow and higher We in the near-nozzle region at all the working regimes. As a result, it produced considerably smaller droplets than the second tested atomizing device, especially for GLR < 10%.

  19. Characteristic Evaluation on the Cooling Performance of an Electrical Air Conditioning System Using R744 for a Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moo-Yeon Lee

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the cooling performance characteristics of an electrical air conditioning system using R744 as an alternative of R-134a for a fuel cell electric vehicle. In order to analyze the cooling performance characteristics of the air conditioning system using R744 for a fuel cell electric vehicle, an electrical air conditioning system using R744 was developed and tested under various operating conditions according to both inlet air conditions of the gas cooler and evaporator and compressor speed. The cooling capacity and coefficient of performance (COP forcooling of the tested air conditioning system were up to 6.4 kW and 2.5, respectively. In addition, the electrical air conditioning system with R744 using an inverter driven compressor showed better performance than the conventional air conditioning system with R-134a under the same operating conditions. The observed cooling performance of the developed electrical air conditioning system was found to be sufficient for cooling loads under various real driving conditions for a fuel cell electric vehicle.

  20. Defect Pattern Recognition Based on Partial Discharge Characteristics of Oil-Pressboard Insulation for UHVDC Converter Transformer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Si

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The ultra high voltage direct current (UHVDC transmission system has advantages in delivering electrical energy over long distance at high capacity. UHVDC converter transformer is a key apparatus and its insulation state greatly affects the safe operation of the transmission system. Partial discharge (PD characteristics of oil-pressboard insulation under combined AC-DC voltage are the foundation for analyzing the insulation state of UHVDC converter transformers. The defect pattern recognition based on PD characteristics is an important part of the state monitoring of converter transformers. In this paper, PD characteristics are investigated with the established experimental platform of three defect models (needle-plate, surface discharge and air gap under 1:1 combined AC-DC voltage. The different PD behaviors of three defect models are discussed and explained through simulation of electric field strength distribution and discharge mechanism. For the recognition of defect types when multiple types of sources coexist, the Random Forests algorithm is used for recognition. In order to reduce the computational layer and the loss of information caused by the extraction of traditional features, the preprocessed single PD pulses and phase information are chosen to be the features for learning and test. Zero-padding method is discussed for normalizing the features. Based on the experimental data, Random Forests and Least Squares Support Vector Machine are compared in the performance of computing time, recognition accuracy and adaptability. It is proved that Random Forests is more suitable for big data analysis.

  1. Influence of Food Characteristics and Food Additives on the Antimicrobial Effect of Garlic and Oregano Essential Oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Díez, Juan; Alheiro, Joana; Pinto, Ana Luisa; Soares, Luciana; Falco, Virgilio; Fraqueza, Maria João; Patarata, Luis

    2017-06-10

    Utilization of essential oils (EOs) as antimicrobial agents against foodborne disease has gained importance, for their use as natural preservatives. Since potential interactions between EOs and food characteristics may affect their antimicrobial properties, the present work studies the influence of fat, protein, pH, a w and food additives on the antimicrobial effect of oregano and garlic EOs against Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes. Results showed that protein, pH, a w , presence of beef extract, sodium lactate and nitrates did not influence their antimicrobial effect. In contrast, the presence of pork fat had a negative effect against both EOs associated with their dilution of the lipid content. The addition of food phosphates also exerts a negative effect against EOs probably associated with their emulsification properties as observed with the addition of fat. The results may help the food industry to select more appropriate challenges to guarantee the food safety of foodstuffs.

  2. Physical and sensory characteristics of pork sausages from enzymatically modified blends of lard and rapeseed oil during storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheong, L.Z.; Zhang, H.; Nersting, L.

    2010-01-01

    Physical and sensory characteristic of pork sausages produced from enzymatic interesterified blends of lard and rapeseed oil during storage were evaluated. All three enzymatic interesterified blends (IE90, IE70 and IE50) had ratios of unsaturated to saturated fatty acids within the range of 1.......47-2.84 which is favourable for cardiovascular disease risk reduction. Blends of IE90 and IE70 were found to have suitable solid fat content, melting and crystallization profile suitable for sausages production. Sausages were produced from blends of IE90 and IE70 with different muscle types (musculus...... longissimus dorsi and musculus sternomandibularis) and processing conditions such as cooling rates and final processing temperature. Cooling rate was found to have no significant (P>0.05) effect on hardness of the sausages throughout storage. Both musculus longissimus dorsi and high final processing...

  3. The Influence of Soil Characteristics on the Toxicity of Oil Refinery Waste for the Springtail Folsomia candida (Collembola).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinecke, Adriaan J; van Wyk, Mia; Reinecke, Sophie A

    2016-06-01

    We determined the toxicity of oil refinery waste in three soils using the springtail Folsomia candida (Collembola) in bioassays. Sublethal exposure to a concentration series of API-sludge presented EC50's for reproduction of 210 mg/kg in site soil; 880 mg/kg in LUFA2.2- and 3260 mg/kg in OECD-soil. The sludge was the least toxic in the OECD-soil with the highest clay and organic matter content, the highest maximum water holding capacity, and the least amount of sand. It was the most toxic in the reference site soil with the lowest organic matter content and highest sand content. The results emphasized the important role of soil characteristics such as texture and organic matter content in influencing toxicity, possibly by affecting bioavailability of toxicants.

  4. Effect of Type of Food on the Trans Fatty Acids Formation and Characteristic of Oil during Frying Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atta, N.M.M.; Esmail, A.E.; Shams El Din, N.M.M.

    2010-01-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the physical and chemical changes which take place in blended oil (sunflower oil: soy bean oil 75: 25 w/w), therefore frying different types of food, such as fresh foods (potatoes, falafel, fish, meat and chicken) and semi-fried Foods (chicken bites koki (nuggets), shish pan koki and farm frites potato) during frying process for 20, 40 and 60 minutes at (180±5 degree C), also studying the effect of different types of food on the oil uptake and formation of trans fatty acids in oils during frying process. The obtained results as follows: the color (red unit), viscosity, acidity and peroxide value of investigated oils were increased during frying all foods (fresh and semi-fried foods), but the increase was more pronounced in case of frying semi-fried foods, while the refractive index of frying oil of semi-fried foods was decreased compared with control oil and frying oils of fresh food. The results indicated that a considerable range of oil uptake quantities during frying as a result of variation type of foods, among all food, finger potato extensive absorption of the frying oil during frying process compared with the other fresh foods, as a results the semi-fried foods will contain a higher percent of oil included the oil of its formation, that during its frying, it was absorbed a few amount of oil. These results indicated that, the percentage of formation trans fatty acid (eliadic acid) in frying oils after 20 and 60 minutes during frying semi-fried foods was more that than frying fresh foods. Also, the results observed that, the percentage of eliadic acid in frying oil of fresh potato was lower than the other frying oils of fresh food, additionally the quality of frying oil of fresh potato finger was the best compared to frying oil of the other food material

  5. KARAKTERISTIK MIKROKAPSUL MINYAK KAYA ASAM LEMAK OMEGA-3 DARI HASIL SAMPING PENEPUNGAN LEMURU [Characteristics of Microcapsule of omega-3 Fatty Acids Enriched Oil from Lemuru Meal Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teti Estiasih 1

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Omega-3 fatty acids enriched fish oil from lemuru fishmeal processing met the quality standard of food grade fish oil, but it was susceptible to oxidation. Microencapsulation by spray drying was one method that could protect this oil against oxidation and the microcapsule could be applied more widely and easier to handle. The important factor that affected microencapsulation process by spray drying method was encapsulant to core ratio. The objective of research was to elucidate the effect of encapsulant to core ratio (2:1; 3:1; 4:1; 5:1; and 6:1 (w/w on characteristics of omega-3 fatty acids enriched fish oil microcapsule. The increase of microencapsulation efficiency and the decrease of surface oil proportion were related to better emulsion stability prior to spray drying and film forming ability around oil globule as the sodium caseinate proportion increased. Emulsification and heating during spray drying could induce hydrolysis of triglycerides in fish oil. Therefore, the quantity of free fatty acids relatively unchanged although the proportion of encapsulated oil decreased. The decrease of oxidation degree is caused by better protective effect of sodium caseinate during emulsification and spray drying due to better film forming ability as proportion of encapsulant increased. However, it was followed by the decrease of omega-3 fatty acids content that related to decreasing proportion of fish oil. This phenomenon was supported by unchanging omega-3 fatty acids retention that showed protective effect of sodium caseinate on oxidation during microencapsulation. Different encapsulant to core ratio did not change yield of microcapsule. Different proportion of surface oil did not affect microcapsule recovery.

  6. Adjusting the operating characteristics to improve the performance of an emulsified palm oil methyl ester run diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debnath, Biplab K.; Sahoo, Niranjan; Saha, Ujjwal K.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► The oxygenated biodiesel has a lower calorific value and emits higher NO X than diesel. ► The objective is to study the water in palm oil biodiesel emulsion in a diesel engine. ► The tests are performed at higher compression ratio and retarded injection timing. ► The results obtained are compared with a POME run diesel engine. ► Higher efficiency, lower ignition delay and emissions are the outcomes. - Abstract: The popularity of emulsified fuels as alternative to diesel is cumulative. The water in diesel emulsion is the most practiced one. The presence of water in emulsion and its micro-explosion reduces emissions. However, the emulsified biodiesel is not properly explored. The reason may be due to its lesser calorific value that does not augment efficiency. Alongside oxygenated biodiesel generally emits higher NO X than diesel. Therefore, the present investigation targets at finding the performance, combustion and emission characteristics of emulsified biodiesel in a diesel engine at an elevated compression ratio (CR) and retarded injection timing (IT). This is because; at this CR–IT combination emulsified fuel will be injected at the warmer environment, mechanically created inside the cylinder. The objective is to achieve a faster combustion, lower ignition delay (ID), improved performance and emission characteristics. The biodiesel used in this work is the palm oil methyl ester (POME). The prepared two-phase water in POME (WIP) emulsion is tested in a variable compression ratio (VCR) diesel engine at CR = 18 and IT = 20°BTDC. The results obtained are then compared with the POME run engine data under the same CR and IT specifications. Additionally, experiments have also been conducted in the same engine at CR = 17.5 and IT = 23°BTDC to compare its results with those of WIP and POME run engines

  7. Effect of fish oil and sunflower oil on rumen fermentation characteristics and fatty acid composition of digesta in ewes fed a high concentrate diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toral, P G; Shingfield, K J; Hervás, G; Toivonen, V; Frutos, P

    2010-10-01

    Studies in ruminants have shown that supplementing the diet with a mixture of fish oil (FO) and sunflower oil (SO) enhances the concentration of cis-9, trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), 20:5 n-3, and 22:6 n-3 in milk because of alterations in ruminal biohydrogenation, but the intermediates formed under these conditions are not well characterized. Five ewes fitted with rumen cannula and fed a high concentrate diet were used to examine the effect of a mixture (30 g/kg of DM) of FO and SO (1:2, wt/wt) on temporal changes in rumen fermentation characteristics and the relative abundance of biohydrogenation intermediates in ruminal digesta collected after 0, 3, and 10 d on diet. Appearance and identification of biohydrogenation intermediates was determined based on complementary gas-liquid chromatography and Ag+-HPLC analysis of fatty acid methyl esters and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of corresponding 4,4-dimethyloxazoline derivatives. Inclusion of FO and SO in the diet had no effect on rumen pH, volatile fatty acid concentrations, or nutrient digestion, but altered the fatty acid composition of ruminal digesta, changes that were characterized by time-dependent decreases in 18:0 and 18:2 n-6 and the accumulation of trans 16:1, trans 18:1, 10-O-18:0, and trans 18:2. Lipid supplements enhanced the proportion of 20:5 n-3 and 22:6 n-3 in digesta and resulted in numerical increases in cis-9, trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid concentrations, but decreased the relative abundance of trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid. Furthermore, detailed analysis revealed the appearance of several unique 20:1, 20:2, 22:1, 22:3, and 22:4 products in ruminal digesta that accumulated over time, providing the first indications of 20 and 22 carbon fatty acid intermediates formed during the biohydrogenation of long-chain unsaturated fatty acids in sheep. In conclusion, FO and SO in a high concentrate diet caused a time-dependent inhibition of the complete

  8. On-board measurements of gaseous pollutant emission characteristics under real driving conditions from light-duty diesel vehicles in Chinese cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gang; Cheng, Shuiyuan; Lang, Jianlei; Li, Song; Tian, Liang

    2016-08-01

    A total of 15 light-duty diesel vehicles (LDDVs) were tested with the goal of understanding the emission factors of real-world vehicles by conducting on-board emission measurements. The emission characteristics of hydrocarbons (HC) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) at different speeds, chemical species profiles and ozone formation potential (OFP) of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from diesel vehicles with different emission standards were analyzed. The results demonstrated that emission reductions of HC and NOx had been achieved as the control technology became more rigorous from Stage I to Stage IV. It was also found that the HC and NOx emissions and percentage of O2 dropped with the increase of speed, while the percentage of CO2 increased. The abundance of alkanes was significantly higher in diesel vehicle emissions, approximately accounting for 41.1%-45.2%, followed by aromatics and alkenes. The most abundant species were propene, ethane, n-decane, n-undecane, and n-dodecane. The maximum incremental reactivity (MIR) method was adopted to evaluate the contributions of individual VOCs to OFP. The results indicated that the largest contributors to O3 production were alkenes and aromatics, which accounted for 87.7%-91.5%. Propene, ethene, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, 1-butene, and 1,2,3-trimethylbenzene were the top five VOC species based on their OFP, and accounted for 54.0%-64.8% of the total OFP. The threshold dilution factor was applied to analyze the possibility of VOC stench pollution. The majority of stench components emitted from vehicle exhaust were aromatics, especially p-diethylbenzene, propylbenzene, m-ethyltoluene, and p-ethyltoluene. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. A Review of the Labor Market, Manpower Characteristics and Training of Motor Vehicle Repair Personnel. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCutcheon, R. W.; And Others

    To determine whether current automotive mechanic training programs provide adequate exposure to the knowledge and skills needed to properly service and repair motor vehicles, data were gathered on the tasks, service and repair establishments, job market, labor force, and training programs. Primary sources of data are reports prepared by various…

  10. Influence of the feed pipe position of an industrial scale two-phase decanter on extraction efficiency and chemical-sensory characteristics of virgin olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caponio, Francesco; Squeo, Giacomo; Brunetti, Lucio; Pasqualone, Antonella; Summo, Carmine; Paradiso, Vito M; Catalano, Pasquale; Bianchi, Biagio

    2018-02-10

    Nowadays, olive oil extraction is basically achieved by means of two-phase decanters, which allow a reduction of water consumption and the leaching of phenolic compounds. Despite this, most of the working settings derive from studies carried out on three-phase decanters. Hence, the aim of the present study was to assess the influence of two-phase decanter feed pipe position (FP) on the extraction efficiency and chemical-sensory characteristics of virgin olive oil. Three different positions were considered: at 825 mm (FP1), 610 mm (FP2) and 520 mm (FP3) from the outlet of the oily phase. Position FP3 allowed the highest oil recovery (up to 10%), the lowest percentage of oil in the olive pomace and, in general, a regular trend in terms of oil extraction efficiency. However, the oily must that came out of the decanter was not completely clean in terms of residual content of solid sediment and water. The feeding position partially affected the profile of antioxidant compounds. In two-phase decanters, loading the olive paste close to the outlet of the oily phase is recommended to increase the extraction efficiency without jeopardizing the chemical-sensory characteristics of virgin olive oil. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Improvement of phenolic antioxidants and quality characteristics of virgin olive oil with the addition of enzymes and nitrogen during olive paste processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inconomou, D.; Arapoglou, D.; Israilides, C.

    2010-07-01

    The evolution of phenolic compounds and their contribution to the quality characteristics in virgin olive oil during fruit processing was studied with the addition of a combination of various commercial enzymes containing pectinases, polygalacturonases, cellulase and {beta}-glucanase with or without nitrogen flush. Olive fruits (Olea europaea, L.) of the cultivar Megaritiki, at the semi black pigmentation stage of maturity, were used in a 3-phase extraction system in an experiment at industrial scale. The addition of enzymes in the olive paste during processing increased the total phenol and ortho-diphenol contents, as well as some simple phenolic compounds (3,4-DHPEA, p-HPEA) and the secoiridoid derivatives (3,4-DHPEA-EDA and 3,4-DHPEAEA) in olive oil and therefore improved its oxidative stability. Furthermore, enzyme treatment ameliorated the quality parameters of the produced olive oil (acidity and peroxide value) and their sensory attributes. The use of additional N{sub 2} flush with the enzyme treatments did not improve the quality parameters of olive oil any further; however it did not affect the concentration of individual and total sterols or most of the fatty acid composition. Consequently, olive paste treatment with enzymes not only improved the quality characteristics of olive oil and enhanced the overall organoleptic quality, but also increased the olive oil yield. (Author) 33 refs.

  12. KANDUNGAN ASAM LEMAK DAN KARAKTERISTIK FISIKO-KIMIA MINYAK IKAN LELE DAN MINYAK IKAN LELE TERFERMENTASI (FATTY ACID CONTENTS AND PHYSICO-CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF CATFISH OIL AND FERMENTED CATFISH OIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iskari Ngadiarti

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Catfish oil and fermented catfish oil have not been developed and commercially produced as catfish derived products. Various processing of catfish oil will change both the composition and physico-chemical characteristics. The objective of this study was to identify the composition of fatty acids and physico-chemical characteristics of both catfish oil (MIL and fermented catfish oil (MILT. Results showed that fatty acid composition of catfish oil was MUFA (36.12%> PUFA> (32.43%> SFA (31.45%, while the composition of fermented catfish oil was MUFA (42.96%> SFA (42.32%> PUFA (15.39%. The fermentation process with lactic acid bacteria increased the content of stearic acid but decreased the content of linoleic acid and linolenic acid. Physical and chemical characteristics of MIL and MILT were almost similar, they indicated oxidation process, based on melting point, viscosity, and thiobarbituric acid values. Therefore, in the production of catfish oil or fermented cat fish oil, it is necessary to add spices and/or nutrient as antioxidants sources. Keywords: catfish oil, PUFA, MUFA, SFA and CLA  ABSTRAK Minyak ikan lele (MIL dan minyak ikan lele terfermentasi (MILT sebagai produk turunan dari ikan lele masih belum banyak dikembangkan dan diproduksi secara komersial. Berbagai proses pengolahan minyak dapat mengubah komposisi dan karakteristik fisiko-kimia minyak ikan lele. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengidentifikasi komposisi asam lemak dan karakteristik fisiko-kimia dari minyak ikan lele (MIL dan minyak ikan lele terfermentasi (MILT. Komposisi asam lemak pada MIL secara berurutan adalah MUFA (36,12% > PUFA (32,43% > SFA (31,45%, sedangkan setelah difermentasi menjadi MILT terjadi perubahan yaitu MUFA (42,96% > SFA (42,32% > PUFA (15,39%. Jenis asam lemak jenuh yang mengalami peningkatan  pada MILT adalah asam lemak stearat, sedangkan asam lemak tidak jenuh ganda yang mengalami penurunan adalah asam linoleat dan linolenat yang

  13. Characteristic Elemental Composition of Oil Pigments using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Yong Sam; Kim, Sun Ha; Sun, Gwang Min; Lim, Jong Myung; Moon, Jong Hwa; Kim, Young Jin; Lim, Sung Jin; Song, Yu Na; Kim, Ken

    2009-01-01

    The principal aim of this study is to identify the applicability of instrumental neutron activation analysis as a non-destructive examination tool for the quantitative composition analysis associated with authentication, restoration, and conservation of art objects in the field of cultural heritage. Generally, the chemical composition of pigments are associated with the colors such as white, yellow, orange, red, green, blue and black, and it varies with raw materials of pigments. According to the colors of a different pigments, chemical compositions are as follows; for example, white pigments were used for a mixture of Pb(CO 3 ) 2 , PbSO 4 , PbO, Pb(OH) 2 , ZnO, ZnS, TiO 2 , BaSO 4 , CaCO 3 , Al 2 O 3 , As 2 S 3 , etc.; black pigments were series of carbon black, borne ash, MnO+Mn 2 O 3 , etc.; red pigments were Fe 2 O 3 , Pb 3 O 4 , HgS, PbMo 4 , CdS+CdSe, etc.; brown and yellow pigments were PbCrO 4 , ZnCrO 4 , CdS-ZnS, K 3 [Co(NO 2 ) 6 ], Pb(SbO 3 ) 2 , C 19 H 16 O 11 Mg, SrCrO 4 , etc.; green pigments were Cr 2 O 3 , Cr 2 O(OH) 4 , Cu(C 2 H 3 O 2 )-2Cu(OH) 2 ), Cr 2 O 3 -Al 2 O 3 -CoO, etc.; blue pigments were Fe 4 [Fe(CN) 6 ] 3 , CoO-Al 2 O 3 , Na 8 - 10 Al 6 Si 6 O 24 S 2-4 , etc. This first step is to obtain quantitative data on the concentrations of major, minor and trace elements in oil pigments and to explain pigment sources by statistical treatment as reported in many literatures. The determination of major, minor and micro elements in the subject materials are essential in many fields of basic science and technology as well as commercial and industrial fields. In particular, direct analysis of a sample offers a more effective investigation method in these fields. Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) has an inherent advantage of being a non-destructive, simultaneously multi-elemental analysis with high accuracy and sensitivity. In order to characterize the elemental contents of art objects, the quantitative analysis of oil pigment series was

  14. Advanced Vehicle and Power Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-29

    optimize vehicle operation, and capture vehicle kinetic energy during braking ( regenerative energy). As much as two-thirds of this imported oil comes... categories . Figure 4 provides a visual representation of many of the HEV and BEV options available on the 2010 GSA Schedule. Figure 4 - GSA...gallon • Renewable energy generated 24 • Vehicle miles driven by vehicle category • Implementation costs – Infrastructure modifications required

  15. Carcass and Meat Characteristics and Gene Expression in Intramuscular Adipose Tissue of Korean Native Cattle Fed Finishing Diets Supplemented with 5% Palm Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sungkwon; Yan, Zhang; Choi, Changweon; Kim, Kyounghoon; Lee, Hyunjeong; Oh, Youngkyoon; Jeong, Jinyoung; Lee, Jonggil; Smith, Stephen B; Choi, Seongho

    2017-01-01

    We hypothesized that supplementing finishing diets with palm oil would promote adipogenic gene expression but depress stearoyl-CoA desaturase ( SCD ) gene expression in intramuscular (i.m.) adipose tissues of Hanwoo steers during fattening period (from 16 to 32 mon of age). Fourteen Hanwoo steers were allotted randomly to 2 groups of 7 steers based on initial BW and fed either a basal diet (control) or the basal diet supplemented with 5% palm oil (BDSP). At slaughter, i.m. adipose tissue was harvested for analysis of adipogenic gene expression and fatty acid composition. There were no differences in BW or average daily gain between treatment groups. Supplemental palm oil had no effect on carcass quality traits (carcass weight, backfat thickness, loin muscle area, or marbling scores) or meat color values. Palm oil increased ( p Palm oil increased total i.m. polyunsaturated fatty acids ( p palm oil on i.m. adipose tissue gene expression, the absence of negative effects on carcass and meat characteristics indicates that palm oil could be a suitable dietary supplement for the production of Hanwoo beef cattle.

  16. Physico-chemical characteristics of seed oils extracted from different apricot (Prunus armeniaca L. varieties from Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alkharfy, K. M.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The fruit seed oils from four varieties of apricot (Prunus armeniaca L., namely, Halmas, Nari, Travet and Charmagzi were analyzed for different physico-chemical characteristics. The oil yield from the apricot seeds (kernels ranged from 32.23-42.51%, while the protein, fiber and ash contents ranged from 13.21-20.90%, 5.13-9.81% and 2.11-3.89%, respectively. The extracted oils had an average iodine value (g of I/100 g of oil of 96.4-106.3; density at 24 °C, 0.87-0.93 mg/mL; refractive index (40 °C, 1.4655-1.4790; saponification value, 189.1-199.4 mg of KOH/g oil; unsaponifiable matter, 0.59-0.88%; free fatty acid (mg of KOH/g oil, 0.41-1.28; and color (1-inch cell, 1.31-2.96R 1 14.8-29.8Y. With regard to the oxidation state, the tested oils showed values for specific extinction at 232 and 268 nm, 2.30-3.42 and 0.82-1.04, respectively, while the peroxide value was 1.0-2.32 meq O2/kg and, p-anisidine was 1.22-1.90. The major fatty acid found in the oils was oleic acid (62.34-80.97% followed by linoleic (13.13-30.33%, palmitic (3.35-5.93%, linolenic (0.73-1.03% and stearic (1.10-1.68% acids. The contents of α-, γ-, and δ-, tocopherols in the oils ranged from 14.8-40.4, 330.8-520.8 and 28.5-60.2 mg/kg, respectively. The results of our present investigation revealed that apricot seed is a potential source of oil which can be used both for edible and oleochemical applications.Se han analizado las características físico-químicas de aceites de semillas de frutos de cuatro variedades diferentes de albaricoque, Halmas, Nari, Travet y Charmagzi (Prunus armeniaca L.. La producción de aceites de las semillas de albaricoque (hueso osciló entre 32,23-42,51%, mientras que las proteínas, fibra y cenizas dieron valores de 13,21-20,90%, 5,13-9,81% y 2,11-3,89%, respectivamente. Los aceites extraídos presentaron valores promedio de índice de yodo, de 96,4-106,3 (g de I/100 g de aceite; densidades a 24 °C de 0,87-0,93 mg/mL, índices de refracción (40

  17. Crude oil He and Ar isotopic characteristics and their geochemical significance: an example from the Gangxi oil field in the Huanghua depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Chenpeng

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Sampled from the Gangxi oil field in the Huanghua depression, Bohaiwan Basin, the crude oil He and Ar isotopic compositions and their geochemical significance were investigated. The result shows that i the 3He/4He values of the six oil samples free from air contamination indicate a mantle helium contribution ranging between 13.9% and 32.8% and averaging 24.1%, which means that the Gangxi oil field once had a tectonic background of the mantle-derived helium input and higher geothermal flow with an average of 75.0 mWm-2; ii deduced from the 40Ar/36Ar aging effect the Gangxi oil should be derived from the Tertiary; iii water injection is the main reason for the air contamination for the Gangxi oil noble gases and the relations between 3He/4He and 4He/20Ne as well as 40Ar/36Ar and 4He/20Ne are of an applicative potential in estimating the water injection effect and the connectivity of producing formations. The search for the crude oil He and Ar isotopes provides a new approach to inferring natural gas and oil sources, tectonic backgrounds, geothermal flow and water injection effect.

  18. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Recycled Cooking Oil Powers Biodiesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vehicles in Vermont Recycled Cooking Oil Powers Biodiesel Vehicles in Vermont to someone by E -mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Recycled Cooking Oil Powers Biodiesel Vehicles in Vermont on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Recycled Cooking Oil Powers Biodiesel Vehicles in

  19. Grand LAgrangian Deployment (GLAD): Surface Dispersion Characteristics Near the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozgokmen, Tamay; Poje, Andrew; Lipphardt, Bruce, Jr.; Haza, Angelique; Haus, Brian; Jacobs, Gregg; Reniers, Ad; Olascoaga, Josefina; Ryan, Edward; Novelli, Guillaume; Kirwan, Albert, Jr.; Griffa, Annalisa; Chen, Shuyi; Hogan, Pat

    2013-04-01

    Initial dispersion, residence time, and advective pathway results obtained from the nearly simultaneous deployment of some 300 surface drifters in the vicinity of the DwH oil spill in the DeSoto Canyon are reported. The goal of the GLAD experiment was to characterize, with unprecedented statistical significance, multi-point and multi-scale dispersion properties of the flow in the region of the DwH spill site including demarcation of the advective pathways between the Canyon and larger-scale flow features in the Gulf. Both the absolute and relative dispersion of surface drifters was quite slow for those drifters initialized within the Missippippi River Outflow. For the initial time period considered, drifter motion was characterized by large amplitude inertial motions, overall strong topographic control, and significant indications of interior control by frontal dynamics on 1-5 km scales. Very limited exchange, either across-shelf or with nearby mesoscale features, was observed and residence times in the Canyon typically exceeded one week with many drifters remaining there for more than 21 days.

  20. Coverage of Large-Scale Food Fortification of Edible Oil, Wheat Flour, and Maize Flour Varies Greatly by Vehicle and Country but Is Consistently Lower among the Most Vulnerable: Results from Coverage Surveys in 8 Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaron, Grant J; Friesen, Valerie M; Jungjohann, Svenja; Garrett, Greg S; Neufeld, Lynnette M; Myatt, Mark

    2017-05-01

    Background: Large-scale food fortification (LSFF) of commonly consumed food vehicles is widely implemented in low- and middle-income countries. Many programs have monitoring information gaps and most countries fail to assess program coverage. Objective: The aim of this work was to present LSFF coverage survey findings (overall and in vulnerable populations) from 18 programs (7 wheat flour, 4 maize flour, and 7 edible oil programs) conducted in 8 countries between 2013 and 2015. Methods: A Fortification Assessment Coverage Toolkit (FACT) was developed to standardize the assessments. Three indicators were used to assess the relations between coverage and vulnerability: 1 ) poverty, 2 ) poor dietary diversity, and 3 ) rural residence. Three measures of coverage were assessed: 1 ) consumption of the vehicle, 2 ) consumption of a fortifiable vehicle, and 3 ) consumption of a fortified vehicle. Individual program performance was assessed based on the following: 1 ) achieving overall coverage ≥50%, 2) achieving coverage of ≥75% in ≥1 vulnerable group, and 3 ) achieving equity in coverage for ≥1 vulnerable group. Results: Coverage varied widely by food vehicle and country. Only 2 of the 18 LSFF programs assessed met all 3 program performance criteria. The 2 main program bottlenecks were a poor choice of vehicle and failure to fortify a fortifiable vehicle (i.e., absence of fortification). Conclusions: The results highlight the importance of sound program design and routine monitoring and evaluation. There is strong evidence of the impact and cost-effectiveness of LSFF; however, impact can only be achieved when the necessary activities and processes during program design and implementation are followed. The FACT approach fills an important gap in the availability of standardized tools. The LSFF programs assessed here need to be re-evaluated to determine whether to further invest in the programs, whether other vehicles are appropriate, and whether other approaches

  1. Coverage of Large-Scale Food Fortification of Edible Oil, Wheat Flour, and Maize Flour Varies Greatly by Vehicle and Country but Is Consistently Lower among the Most Vulnerable: Results from Coverage Surveys in 8 Countries123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaron, Grant J; Friesen, Valerie M; Jungjohann, Svenja; Garrett, Greg S; Myatt, Mark

    2017-01-01

    Background: Large-scale food fortification (LSFF) of commonly consumed food vehicles is widely implemented in low- and middle-income countries. Many programs have monitoring information gaps and most countries fail to assess program coverage. Objective: The aim of this work was to present LSFF coverage survey findings (overall and in vulnerable populations) from 18 programs (7 wheat flour, 4 maize flour, and 7 edible oil programs) conducted in 8 countries between 2013 and 2015. Methods: A Fortification Assessment Coverage Toolkit (FACT) was developed to standardize the assessments. Three indicators were used to assess the relations between coverage and vulnerability: 1) poverty, 2) poor dietary diversity, and 3) rural residence. Three measures of coverage were assessed: 1) consumption of the vehicle, 2) consumption of a fortifiable vehicle, and 3) consumption of a fortified vehicle. Individual program performance was assessed based on the following: 1) achieving overall coverage ≥50%, 2) achieving coverage of ≥75% in ≥1 vulnerable group, and 3) achieving equity in coverage for ≥1 vulnerable group. Results: Coverage varied widely by food vehicle and country. Only 2 of the 18 LSFF programs assessed met all 3 program performance criteria. The 2 main program bottlenecks were a poor choice of vehicle and failure to fortify a fortifiable vehicle (i.e., absence of fortification). Conclusions: The results highlight the importance of sound program design and routine monitoring and evaluation. There is strong evidence of the impact and cost-effectiveness of LSFF; however, impact can only be achieved when the necessary activities and processes during program design and implementation are followed. The FACT approach fills an important gap in the availability of standardized tools. The LSFF programs assessed here need to be re-evaluated to determine whether to further invest in the programs, whether other vehicles are appropriate, and whether other approaches are needed

  2. Characteristic Elemental Composition of Oil Pigments using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Yong Sam; Kim, Sun Ha; Sun, Gwang Min; Lim, Jong Myung; Moon, Jong Hwa; Kim, Young Jin [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Sung Jin; Song, Yu Na; Kim, Ken [National Museum of Contemporary Art, Gwacheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-10-15

    The principal aim of this study is to identify the applicability of instrumental neutron activation analysis as a non-destructive examination tool for the quantitative composition analysis associated with authentication, restoration, and conservation of art objects in the field of cultural heritage. Generally, the chemical composition of pigments are associated with the colors such as white, yellow, orange, red, green, blue and black, and it varies with raw materials of pigments. According to the colors of a different pigments, chemical compositions are as follows; for example, white pigments were used for a mixture of Pb(CO{sub 3}){sub 2}, PbSO{sub 4}, PbO, Pb(OH){sub 2}, ZnO, ZnS, TiO{sub 2}, BaSO{sub 4}, CaCO{sub 3}, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, As{sub 2}S{sub 3}, etc.; black pigments were series of carbon black, borne ash, MnO+Mn{sub 2}O{sub 3}, etc.; red pigments were Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Pb{sub 3}O{sub 4}, HgS, PbMo{sub 4}, CdS+CdSe, etc.; brown and yellow pigments were PbCrO{sub 4}, ZnCrO{sub 4}, CdS-ZnS, K{sub 3}[Co(NO{sub 2}){sub 6}], Pb(SbO{sub 3}){sub 2}, C{sub 19}H{sub 16}O{sub 11}Mg, SrCrO{sub 4}, etc.; green pigments were Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Cr{sub 2}O(OH){sub 4}, Cu(C{sub 2}H{sub 3}O{sub 2})-2Cu(OH){sub 2}), Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-CoO, etc.; blue pigments were Fe{sub 4}[Fe(CN){sub 6}]{sub 3}, CoO-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Na{sub 8}-{sub 10}Al{sub 6}Si{sub 6}O{sub 24}S{sub 2-4}, etc. This first step is to obtain quantitative data on the concentrations of major, minor and trace elements in oil pigments and to explain pigment sources by statistical treatment as reported in many literatures. The determination of major, minor and micro elements in the subject materials are essential in many fields of basic science and technology as well as commercial and industrial fields. In particular, direct analysis of a sample offers a more effective investigation method in these fields. Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) has an inherent advantage of being a

  3. Liquid oil and residual characteristics of printed circuit board recycle by pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Kuo-Hsiung [Department of Environmental Engineering and Science, Fooyin University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Chiang, Hung-Lung, E-mail: hlchiang@mail.cmu.edu.tw [Department of Health Risk Management, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China)

    2014-04-01

    Highlights: • Pyrolysis is a technology for recycling of the non-metal fraction of PCBs. • Liquid product constituents were analyzed for PCB pyrolysis. • Water-soluble ionic species were determined for PCB pyrolysis exhaust. - Abstract: Non-metal fractions of waste printed circuit boards (PCBs) were thermally treated (200–500 °C) under nitrogen atmosphere. Carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen were determined by elemental analyzer, bromine by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), phosphorus by energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDX), and 29 trace elements by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometer (ICP-AES) and mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) for raw material and pyrolysis residues. Organic compositions of liquid oil were identified by GC (gas chromatography)–MS, trace element composition by ICP system, and 12 water-soluble ions by IC (ionic chromatography). Elemental content of carbon was >450 mg/g, oxygen 300 mg/g, bromine and hydrogen 60 mg/g, nitrogen 30 mg/g, and phosphorus 28 mg/g. Sulfur was trace in PCBs. Copper content was 25–28 mg/g, iron 1.3–1.7 mg/g, tin 0.8–1.0 mg/g and magnesium 0.4–1.0 mg/g; those were the main metals in the raw materials and pyrolytic residues. In the liquid products, carbon content was 68–73%, hydrogen was 10–14%, nitrogen was 4–5%, and sulfur was less than 0.05% at pyrolysis temperatures from 300 to 500 °C. Phenol, 3-bromophenol, 2-methylphenol and 4-propan-2-ylphenol were major species in liquid products, accounting for >50% of analyzed organic species. Bromides, ammonium and phosphate were the main species in water sorption samples for PCB pyrolysis exhaust.

  4. The Effects of Foam Thermal Protection System on the Damage Tolerance Characteristics of Composite Sandwich Structures for Launch Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nettles, A. T.; Hodge, A. J.; Jackson, J. R.

    2011-01-01

    For any structure composed of laminated composite materials, impact damage is one of the greatest risks and therefore most widely tested responses. Typically, impact damage testing and analysis assumes that a solid object comes into contact with the bare surface of the laminate (the outer ply). However, most launch vehicle structures will have a thermal protection system (TPS) covering the structure for the majority of its life. Thus, the impact response of the material with the TPS covering is the impact scenario of interest. In this study, laminates representative of the composite interstage structure for the Ares I launch vehicle were impact tested with and without the planned TPS covering, which consists of polyurethane foam. Response variables examined include maximum load of impact, damage size as detected by nondestructive evaluation techniques, and damage morphology and compression after impact strength. Results show that there is little difference between TPS covered and bare specimens, except the residual strength data is higher for TPS covered specimens.

  5. Comparative evaluation of thermal oxidative decomposition for oil-plant residues via thermogravimetric analysis: Thermal conversion characteristics, kinetics, and thermodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianbiao; Wang, Yanhong; Lang, Xuemei; Ren, Xiu'e; Fan, Shuanshi

    2017-11-01

    Thermal oxidative decomposition characteristics, kinetics, and thermodynamics of rape straw (RS), rapeseed meal (RM), camellia seed shell (CS), and camellia seed meal (CM) were evaluated via thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). TG-DTG-DSC curves demonstrated that the combustion of oil-plant residues proceeded in three stages, including dehydration, release and combustion of organic volatiles, and chars oxidation. As revealed by combustion characteristic parameters, the ignition, burnout, and comprehensive combustion performance of residues were quite distinct from each other, and were improved by increasing heating rate. The kinetic parameters were determined by Coats-Redfern approach. The results showed that the most possible combustion mechanisms were order reaction models. The existence of kinetic compensation effect was clearly observed. The thermodynamic parameters (ΔH, ΔG, ΔS) at peak temperatures were calculated through the activated complex theory. With the combustion proceeding, the variation trends of ΔH, ΔG, and ΔS for RS (RM) similar to those for CS (CM). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. NASA diagonal-braked test vehicle evaluation of traction characteristics of grooved and ungrooved runway surfaces at Miami International Airport, Miami, Florida, 8-9 May 1973

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horne, W. B.

    1977-01-01

    Two runways were evaluated under artificially wetted conditions with the NASA diagonal-braked vehicle (DBV). Results of the evaluation which included a pavement drainage analysis, a pavement skid resistance analysis, and a DBV wet/dry stopping distance ratio analysis indicated that the ungrooved runway surfaces had poor water drainage characteristics and poor skid resistance under wet conditions at high speeds especially in rubbercoated areas of the runways. Grooving runways to a transverse 1-1/4 x 1/4 x 1/4 inch pattern greatly improved both the water drainage and pavement skid resistance capability of these asphaltic concrete surfaces.

  7. Resolution 127/012. It approve the fuel quality 50-S Oil Gas characteristics within the framework of Technical Quality Specifications Rules for liquid fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    This resolution approves the initiative of Ancap fuel quality 50-S Oil Gas characteristics within the framework of Technical Quality Specifications Rules for liquid fuel. This resolution is according to the opinion of the National Energy Regulatory Unit and the Energy and Water Services in relation with the requirements of the current rule.

  8. An Experimental Study on Hysteresis Characteristics of a Pneumatic Braking System for a Multi-Axle Heavy Vehicle in Emergency Braking Situations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe Wang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the hysteresis characteristics of a pneumatic braking system for multi-axle heavy vehicles (MHVs. Hysteresis affects emergency braking performance severely. The fact that MHVs have a large size and complex structure leads to more nonlinear coupling property of the pneumatic braking system compared to normal two-axle vehicles. Thus, theoretical analysis and simulation are not enough when studying hysteresis. In this article, the hysteresis of a pneumatic brake system for an eight-axle vehicle in an emergency braking situation is studied based on a novel test bench. A servo drive device is applied to simulate the driver’s braking intensions normally expressed by opening or moving speed of the brake pedal. With a reasonable arrangement of sensors and the NI LabVIEW platform, both the delay time of eight loops and the response time of each subassembly in a single loop are detected in real time. The outcomes of the experiment show that the delay time of each loop gets longer with the increase of pedal opening, and a quadratic relationship exists between them. Based on this, the pressure transient in the system is fitted to a first-order plus time delay model. Besides, the response time of treadle valve and controlling pipeline accounts for more than 80% of the loop’s total delay time, indicating that these two subassemblies are the main contributors to the hysteresis effect.

  9. Characteristics and propierties of oil-well cements additioned with blast furnace slag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sánchez, R.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The present paper addresses the alkali activation of Portland cements containing blast furnace slag (20 and 30% of the cement by weight with a view to the possible use of these materials in oil well construction. The hydration studies conducted showed that in cement/slag blends, the sodium silicate activating solution partially inhibited the dissolution of the silicate phases in the Portland cement, retarding cement hydration and reducing the precipitation of reaction products. Due to such partial inhibition, the cement/slag blends had significantly lower mechanical strength than Portland cements hydrated with water. 29Si and 27Al MAS NMR and BSE/EDX studies, in turn, showed that the C-S-H gel forming in the alkali-activated cement/slag pastes contained Al in tetrahedral positions and low Ca/Si ratios.

    En el presente trabajo se ha estudiado la activación alcalina de cementos Pórtland con incorporación de escoria de horno alto (20% y 30% con respecto al peso de cemento para su posible aplicación en la construcción de pozos petrolíferos. Los estudios de hidratación realizados indican que en mezclas cemento/escoria, la disolución activadora de silicato sódico inhibe parcialmente la disolución de las fases silicato del cemento Pórtland originando un retraso de su hidratación así como la menor precipitación de productos de reacción. Dicha parcial inhibición de los procesos reactivos en las mezclas cemento/escoria originan resistencias mecánicas significativamente inferiores a las pastas de cemento Portland hidratadas con agua. Finalmente, los estudios de 29Si y 27Al RMN MAS y BSE/EDX indican que el gel C-S-H formado en pastas de mezcla cemento/escoria activadas alcalinamente presenta Al en posiciones tetraédricas y bajas relaciones Ca/Si.

  10. Physico-chemical characteristics and nutraceutical distribution of crude palm oil and its fractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasanth Kumar, P. K.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Crude palm oil (CRPO was dry fractionated at 25 °C to get crude palm olein (CRPOL, 77% and crude palm stearin (CRPS, 23%. Low and high melting crude palm stearin (LMCRPS 14.3% and HMCRPS 8.7% were separated by further fractionation of CRPS with acetone. The physico-chemical parameters and nutraceutical distribution showed variation in different fractions. The CRPO contained 514.7 mg·Kg−1 of β-carotene and 82.6%, 16.1%, 12.5% and 3.1% of it was distributed in CRPOL, CRPS, LMCRPS and HMCRPS respectively. The distribution of phytosterols in fraction was 1870.2, 1996.8, 1190.9, 1290.4 and 115.4 mg·Kg−1 for CRPO, CRPOL, CRPS, LMCRPS and HMCRPS respectively. Total tocopherol composition was 535.5, 587.1, 308.0, 305.6 and 36.2 mg·Kg−1 for CRPO, CRPOL, CRPS, LMCRPS and HMCRPS respectively. The results show that the fractionation of CRPO may be helpful in the preparation of nutraceutical-rich fractions.Aceite de palma crudo (CRPO fue fraccionado en seco a 25 °C para obtener oleína de palma cruda (CRPOL, 77% y estearinas de palma cruda (CRPS, el 23%. Estearinas con bajo y alto punto de fusión (LMCRPS 14,3% y HMCRPS 8,7% se separan por fraccionamiento adicional de CRPS con acetona. Los parámetros físico- químicos y la distribución de nutracéuticos muestra diferencias entre las fracciones. El CRPO contenía 514,7 mg·Kg−1 de β-caroteno y el 82,6%, 16,1%, 12,5% y 3,1% de este se distribuye en CRPOL, CRPS, LMCRPS y HMCRPS respectivamente. Los fitosteroles en las fracciones fue de: 1870,2, 1996,8, 1190.9, 1290,4 y 115,4 mg·Kg−1 para CRPO, CRPOL, CRPS, LMCRPS y HMCRPS respectivamente. La composición total de tocoferol fue 535,5, 587,1 308,0, 305,6 y 36,2 mg·Kg−1, para CRPO, CRPOL, CRPS, LMCRPS y HMCRPS respectivamente. Los resultados mostraron que el fraccionamiento de CRPO puede ser útil en la preparación de fracciones ricas en nutracéuticos.

  11. Combustion and emission characteristics of diesel engine fueled with diesel-like fuel from waste lubrication oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Xiangli; Ni, Peiyong

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • 100% diesel-like fuel from waste lubricating oil was conducted in a diesel engine. • Good combustion and fuel economy are achieved without engine modifications. • Combustion duration of DLF is shorter than diesel. • NOx and smoke emissions with the DLF are slightly higher than pure diesel. - Abstract: Waste lubricant oil (WLO) is one of the most important types of the energy sources. WLO cannot be burned directly in diesel engines, but can be processed to be used as diesel-like fuel (DLF) to minimize its harmful effect and maximize its useful values. Moreover, there are some differences in physicochemical properties between WLO and diesel fuel. In order to identify the differences in combustion and emission performance of diesel engine fueled with the two fuels, a bench test of a single-cylinder direct injection diesel engine without any engine modification was investigated at four engine speeds and five engine loads. The effects of the fuels on fuel economic performance, combustion characteristics, and emissions of hydrocarbons (HC), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx) and smoke were discussed. The DLF exhibits longer ignition delay period and shorter combustion duration than diesel fuel. The test results indicate that the higher distillation temperatures of the DLF attribute to the increase of combustion pressure, temperature and heat release rate. The brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) of the DLF compared to diesel is reduced by about 3% at 3000 rpm under light and medium loads. The DLF produces slightly higher NOx emissions at middle and heavy loads, somewhat more smoke emissions at middle loads, and notably higher HC and CO emissions at most measured points than diesel fuel. It is concluded that the DLF can be used as potential available fuel in high-speed diesel engines without any problems.

  12. Statistical Analysis of Partial Discharge Characteristics in Transformer Oil at the “Point-Plane” Electrode at Alternating Voltage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korobeynikov S.M.

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we consider the problems related to measuring and analyzing the characteristics of partial discharges which are the main instrument for oil-filled high-voltage electrical equipment diagnosing. The experiments on recording of partial discharges in transformer oil have been carried out in the “point-plane” electrode system at alternating current. The instantaneous voltage and the apparent charge have been measured depending on the root-mean-square voltage and the phase angle of partial discharges. This paper aimes at carrying out a statistical analysis of the obtained experimental results, in particular, the construction of a parametric probabilistic model of the dependence of the partial discharge inception voltage distribution on the value of the root-mean-square voltage. It differs from usual discharges which occur in liquid dielectric materials in case of sharp inhomogeneous electrode system. It has been suggested that discharges of a different type are the discharges in gas bubbles that occur when partial discharges in a liquid emerge. This assumption is confirmed by the fact that the number of such discharges increases with increasing the root-mean-square voltage value. It is the main novelty of this paper. This corresponds to the nature of the occurrence of such discharges. After rejecting the observations corresponding to discharges in gas bubbles, a parametric probabilistic model has been constructed. The model obtained makes it possible to determine the probability of partial discharge occurrence in a liquid at a given value of the instantaneous voltage depending on the root-mean-square voltage.

  13. 2011 Vehicle Technologies Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Stacy Cagle [ORNL; Boundy, Robert Gary [ORNL; Diegel, Susan W [ORNL

    2012-02-01

    This report details the major trends in U.S. light-duty vehicle and medium/heavy truck markets as well as the underlying trends that caused them. This report is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy s (DOE) Vehicle Technologies Program (VTP), and, in accord with its mission, pays special attention to the progress of high-efficiency and alternative-fuel technologies. This third edition since this report was started in 2008 offers several marked improvements relative to its predecessors. Most significantly, where earlier editions of this report focused on supplying information through an examination of market drivers, new vehicle trends, and supplier data, this edition uses a different structure. After opening with a discussion of energy and economics, this report features a section each on the light-duty vehicle and heavy/medium truck markets, and concluding with a section each on technology and policy. In addition to making this sectional re-alignment, this year s edition of the report also takes a different approach to communicating information. While previous editions relied heavily on text accompanied by auxiliary figures, this third edition relies primarily on charts and graphs to communicate trends. Any accompanying text serves to introduce the trends communication by the graphic and highlight any particularly salient observations. The opening section on Energy and Economics discusses the role of transportation energy and vehicle markets on a national (and even international) scale. For example, Figures 11 through 13 discuss the connections between global oil prices and U.S. GDP, and Figures 20 and 21 show U.S. employment in the automotive sector. The following section examines Light-Duty Vehicle use, markets, manufacture, and supply chains. Figures 26 through 33 offer snapshots of major light-duty vehicle brands in the U.S. and Figures 38 through 43 examine the performance and efficiency characteristics of vehicles sold. The discussion of Medium and

  14. Effects of an Addition of Different Essential Oils and Their Combinations to Diets on Performance and Carcass Characteristics Parameters in Broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behlül Sevim

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the effect of dietary supplementation of thymus (Thymus vulgaris L., rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L. and French lavender (Lavandua stoechas L. essential oils and their mixtures on body weight and body weight gain, feed consumption, feed conversion ratio, carcass characteristics in broiler. A total of one day old 640 broiler chicks (Ross 308 were used divided into 8 groups each having five replicates, ramdomly. There were 80 chicks in each experimental group. The experimental diets were consisted of control (0 mg/kg, addition to thymus essential oil (50 mg/kg, rosemary essential oil (50 mg/kg, lavandula essential oil (50 mg/kg tymus + rosemary (25+25 mg/kg, tymus + lavandula (25+25 mg/kg, rosemary + lavandula (25+25 mg/kg, tymus + rosemary + lavandula (16.7+16.7+16.7 mg/kg, respectively. Feed and water were provided as ad libitum. Experimental period was six weeks. The according to results that dietary different essential oil and their combinations did not significantly effect on body weight, body weight gain, feed consumption, feed conversion ratio and carcass characteristics.

  15. Interaction Effect of CO2 Enrichment and Nutritional Conditions on Physiological Characteristics, Essential Oil and Yield of Lemon Balm (Melissa officinalis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud SHOOR

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Carbon dioxide enrichment and nutritional improvement can increase photosynthesis and growth of different crops. The aim of the present study was to assess interaction effects of CO2 enrichment and fertilizer on physiological characteristics and lemon balm essential oil. Experimental units were composed of CO2 at 380, 700, and 1050 ppm with and without manure and N fertilizer application. A continuous increasing trend of individual plant leaf area, total dry weight accumulation and relative growth ratio were recorded with CO2 enrichment. When CO2 was elevated from 380 to 1050 ppm, the values of height (24.3%, SPAD reading (2.7%, essential oil yield (26.3% and final yield (65.3% were increased, unlike, stomatal conductance (35.2% and essential oil percentage (53% were decreased. The highest and the lowest values (except for oil percentage were obtained under N and no fertilizer application, respectively. Except for SPAD, interaction between CO2 enrichment and each fertilizer on all measured characteristics had a significant effect, so that CO2 effect was intensified by applying each fertilizer. Therefore, it can be concluded that when temperature increase caused by rising CO2 is not considered or there is not a limitation for resources, CO2 enrichment will improve lemon balm biomass and essential oil yield.

  16. On the Possibility of using Alluminium-Magnesium Alloys with Improved Mechanical Characteristics for Body Elements of Zenit-2S Launch Vehicle Propellant Tanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitalo, V.; Lytvyshko, T.

    2002-01-01

    Yuzhnoye SDO developed several generations of launch vehicles and spacecraft that are characterized by weight perfection, optimal cost, accuracy of output geometrical characteristics, stable strength characteristics, high tightness. The main structural material of launch vehicles are thermally welded non-strengthened aluminium- magnesium alloys. The aluminium-magnesium alloys in the annealed state have insufficiently high strength characteristics. Considerable increase of yield strength of sheets and plates can be reached by cold working but in this case, plasticity reduces. An effective way to improve strength of aluminium-magnesium alloys is their alloying with scandium. The alloying with scandium leads to modification of the structure of ingots (size reduction of cast grain) and formation of supersaturated solid solutions of scandium and aluminium during crystallization. During subsequent heatings (annealing of the ingots, heating for deformation) the solid solution disintegrates with the formation of disperse particles of Al3Sc type, that cause great strengthening of the alloy. High degree of dispersion and density of distribution in the matrix of secondary Al3Sc particles contribute to the considerable increase of the temperature of recrystallization of deformed intermediate products and to the formation of stable non-recrystallized structure. The alloying of alluminium-magnesium alloys with scandium increases their strength and operational characteristics, preserves their technological and corrosion properties, improves weldability. The alloys can be used within the temperature limits ­196-/+150 0C. The experimental structures of propellant tanks made of alluminium-magnesium alloys with scandium have been manufactured and tested. It was ascertained that the propellant tanks have higher margin of safety during loading with internal pressure and higher stability factor of the shrouds during loading with axial compression force which is caused by higher value

  17. Impacts of battery characteristics, driver preferences and road network features on travel costs of a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) for long-distance trips

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arslan, Okan; Yıldız, Barış; Ekin Karaşan, Oya

    2014-01-01

    In a road network with refueling and fast charging stations, the minimum-cost driving path of a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) depends on factors such as location and availability of refueling/fast charging stations, capacity and cost of PHEV batteries, and driver tolerance towards extra mileage or additional stopping. In this paper, our focus is long-distance trips of PHEVs. We analyze the impacts of battery characteristics, often-overlooked driver preferences and road network features on PHEV travel costs for long-distance trips and compare the results with hybrid electric and conventional vehicles. We investigate the significance of these factors and derive critical managerial insights for shaping the future investment decisions about PHEVs and their infrastructure. In particular, our findings suggest that with a certain level of deployment of fast charging stations, well established cost and emission benefits of PHEVs for the short range trips can be extended to long distance. Drivers' stopping intolerance may hamper these benefits; however, increasing battery capacity may help overcome the adverse effects of this intolerance. - Highlights: • We investigate the travel costs of CVs, HEVs and PHEVs for long-distance trips. • We analyze the impacts of battery, driver and road network characteristics on the costs. • We provide critical managerial insights to shape the investment decisions about PHEVs. • Drivers' stopping intolerance may hamper the cost and emission benefits of PHEVs. • Negative effect of intolerance on cost may be overcome by battery capacity expansion

  18. Diesel oil pool fire characteristic under natural ventilation conditions in tunnels with roof openings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanfu; Jiang, Juncheng; Zhu, Dezhi

    2009-07-15

    In order to research the fire characteristic under natural ventilation conditions in tunnels with roof openings, full-scale experiment of tunnel fire is designed and conducted. All the experimental data presented in this paper can be further applied for validation of numerical simulation models and reduced-scale experimental results. The physical model of tunnel with roof openings and the mathematical model of tunnel fire are presented in this paper. The tunnel fire under the same conditions as experiment is simulated using CFD software. From the results, it can be seen that most smoke is discharged directly off the tunnel through roof openings, so roof openings are favorable for exhausting smoke. But along with the decrease of smoke temperatures, some smoke may backflow and mix with the smoke-free layer below, which leads to fall in visibility and is unfavorable for personnel evacuation. So it is necessary to research more efficient ways for improving the smoke removal efficiency, such as early fire detection systems, adequate warning signs and setting tunnel cap.

  19. Performance and emission characteristics of a stationary diesel engine fuelled by Schleichera Oleosa Oil Methyl Ester (SOME) produced through hydrodynamic cavitation process

    OpenAIRE

    Ashok Kumar Yadav; M. Emran Khan; Amit Pal; Uttam Ghosh

    2018-01-01

    In this study, the performance and emission characteristics of biodiesel blends of 10, 20, 30 and 50% from Schleichera Oleosa oil based on hydrodynamic cavitation were compared to diesel fuel, and found to be acceptable according to the EN 14214 and ASTM D 6751 standards. The tests have been performed using a single cylinder four stroke diesel engine at different loading condition with the blended fuel at the rated speed of 1500 rpm. SOME (Schleichera Oleosa Oil Methyl Ester) blended with die...

  20. Oil trading manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, D.

    1995-01-01

    This manual provides basic information on all aspects of oil trading. Topics reviewed in Part 1 include physical characteristics and refining and oil pricing arrangements. Part 2 on instruments and markets contains chapters on crude oil markets, product markets, forward and futures contracts, forward paper markets, oil future exchanges, options, swaps and long term oil markets. Part 3 deals with administration and has chapters on operations and logistics, credit control, accounting, taxation of oil trading, contracts and legal and regulatory issues. (UK)

  1. Study on vibration characteristics and fault diagnosis method of oil-immersed flat wave reactor in Arctic area converter station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Wenqing; Wang, Yuandong; Li, Wenpeng; Sun, Guang; Qu, Guomin; Cui, Shigang; Li, Mengke; Wang, Yongqiang

    2017-10-01

    Based on long term vibration monitoring of the No.2 oil-immersed fat wave reactor in the ±500kV converter station in East Mongolia, the vibration signals in normal state and in core loose fault state were saved. Through the time-frequency analysis of the signals, the vibration characteristics of the core loose fault were obtained, and a fault diagnosis method based on the dual tree complex wavelet (DT-CWT) and support vector machine (SVM) was proposed. The vibration signals were analyzed by DT-CWT, and the energy entropy of the vibration signals were taken as the feature vector; the support vector machine was used to train and test the feature vector, and the accurate identification of the core loose fault of the flat wave reactor was realized. Through the identification of many groups of normal and core loose fault state vibration signals, the diagnostic accuracy of the result reached 97.36%. The effectiveness and accuracy of the method in the fault diagnosis of the flat wave reactor core is verified.

  2. Pd-Doped SnO2-Based Sensor Detecting Characteristic Fault Hydrocarbon Gases in Transformer Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weigen Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Methane (CH4, ethane (C2H6, ethylene (C2H4, and acetylene (C2C2 are important fault characteristic hydrocarbon gases dissolved in power transformer oil. Online monitoring these gaseous components and their generation rates can present the operational state of power transformer timely and effectively. Gas sensing technology is the most sticky and tricky point in online monitoring system. In this paper, pure and Pd-doped SnO2 nanoparticles were synthesized by hydrothermal method and characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, field-emission scanning electron microscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, respectively. The gas sensors were fabricated by side-heated preparation, and their gas sensing properties against CH4, C2H6, C2H4, and C2H2 were measured. Pd doping increases the electric conductance of the prepared SnO2 sensors and improves their gas sensing performances to hydrocarbon gases. In addition based on the frontier molecular orbital theory, the highest occupied molecular orbital energy and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital energy were calculated. Calculation results demonstrate that C2H4 has the highest occupied molecular orbital energy among CH4, C2H6, C2H4, and C2H2, which promotes charge transfer in gas sensing process, and SnO2 surfaces capture a relatively larger amount of electric charge from adsorbed C2H4.

  3. Effects of Encapsulated Fish Oil by Polymerized Whey Protein on the Textural and Sensory Characteristics of Low-Fat Yogurt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Diru

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Five types of polymerized whey protein (PWP1, PWP2, PWP3, PWP4 and PWP5 containing different amounts of fish oil were added to low-fat yogurt as fat replacers. The texture, apparent viscosity, and sensory properties of the yogurts were analyzed in comparison with full-fat ( 3.0%, w/w, fat and low-fat (1.5%, w/w; and 1.2%, w/w milk yogurt controls. The majority (~85% of the particle size distribution was in the range of 1106±158 nm. Thermal property analysis indicated PWP was thermally stable between 50°C and 90°C. Yogurts formulated with 12% of PWP4 and 14% of PWP5 demonstrated higher firmness, springiness and adhesiveness (P<0.05, and lower cohesiveness (P<0.05 than the low-fat milk yogurt controls. There was no fat separation and they had less fishy smell. Yogurts incorporated with 12% of PWP4 had comparable sensory and textural characteristics to the full- -fat milk yogurt control.

  4. Effect of heating rate on thermal cracking characteristics and kinetics of Xinjiang oil sand bitumen by TG-FTIR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Junhui; Zhang, Jinhong; Qiao, Yingyun; Tian, Yuanyu

    2017-08-01

    This work was aimed to investigate effects of heating rate on thermal cracking behaviors, distribution of gaseous products and activation energy of the thermal cracking process of Xinjiang oil sand bitumen (OSB). The thermal cracking experiments of Xinjiang OSB were performed by using thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) at various heating rates of 10, 20, 50, 80 and 120 K/min. The evolving characteristic of gaseous products produced from the thermal cracking process was evaluated by the Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR) connected with TG. The kinetic parameters of the thermal cracking process of Xinjiang OSB at each of heating rate were determined by the Coats-Redfern model. The result show that the temperature intervals of DE volatilization stage and main reaction stage, the ((dw/dt) max and Tmax in thermal cracking process of Xinjiang OSB all increased with the increasing heating rate. While the heating rate has not obvious effect on the coke yield of Xinjiang OSB. Furthermore, the maximum absorbance of gaseous products and corresponding temperature became larger as the heating rate increases. The activation energy of this two stage both presented increasing trend with the rising heating rate, while the increasing content of that of DE volatilization stage was weaker compared to that of main reaction stage.

  5. Characteristics of bio-oil from the pyrolysis of palm kernel shell in a newly developed two-stage pyrolyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Seung-Jin; Choi, Gyung-Goo; Kim, Joo-Sik

    2016-01-01

    Pyrolysis of palm kernel shell was performed using a two-stage pyrolyzer consisting of an auger reactor and a fluidized bed reactor within the auger reactor temperature range of ∼290–380 °C at the fluidized bed reactor temperature of ∼520 °C, and with a variable residence time of the feed material in the auger reactor. The highest bio-oil yield of the two-stage pyrolysis was ∼56 wt%. The bio-oil derived from the auger reactor contained degradation products of the hemicelluloses of PKS, such as acetic acid, and furfural, whereas the fluidized bed reactor produced a bio-oil with high concentrations of acetic acid and phenol. The auger reactor temperature and the residence time of PKS in the auger reactor had an influence on the acetic acid concentration in the bio-oil, while their changes did not induce an observable trend on the phenol concentration in the bio-oil derived from the fluidized bed reactor. The maximum concentrations of acetic acid and phenol in bio-oil were ∼78 and 12 wt% dry basis, respectively. As a result, it was possible for the two-stage pyrolyzer to separately produce two different bio-oils in one operation without any costly fractionation process of bio-oils. - Highlights: • The two-stage pyrolyzer is composed of an auger and a fluidized bed reactor. • The two-stage pyrolyzer produced two different bio-oils in a single operation. • The maximum bio-oil yield of the two-stage pyrolysis was ∼56 wt%. • The maximum concentration of acetic acid in bio-oil was ∼78 wt% dry basis. • The maximum concentration of phenol in bio-oil was ∼12 wt% dry basis.

  6. Vehicle-Dependent Disposition Kinetics of Fluoranthene in Fisher-344 Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aramandla Ramesh

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate how the vehicles of choice affect the pharmacokinetics of orally administered Fluoranthene [FLA] in rats. Fluoranthene is a member of the family of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon chemicals. Fluoranthene exposure to humans may occur as a result of cigarette smoking, consumption of contaminated food and water, heating woods in stoves and boilers, industrial sources such as coal gasification, carbon and graphite electrode manufacturing. Adult male Fisher-344 rats were given single oral doses of 25 and 50 μg/kg FLA in tricaprylin, peanut oil, cod liver oil, tween 80/isotonic saline (1:5 and 2% Alkamuls-EL620 through gavage. After administration, the rats were housed individually in metabolic cages and sacrificed at 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 hours post FLA exposure. Blood, lung, liver, small intestine, adipose tissue samples, urine, and feces were collected at each time point. Samples were subjected to a liquid-liquid extraction using methanol, chloroform, and water. The extracts were analyzed by a reverse-phase HPLC, equipped with a fluorescence detector. The results revealed a dose-dependent increase in FLA concentrations in plasma and tissues for all the vehicles used. Plasma and tissue FLA concentrations were greater for peanut oil; cod liver oil, and tricaprylin vehicles compared to Alkamuls (p peanut oil > tricaprylin > alkamuls > tween 80/isotonic saline (1:5]. These findings suggest that uptake and elimination of FLA is accelerated when administered through oil-based vehicles. The low uptake of FLA from alkamuls and tween 80/isotonic saline may have been a result of the poor solubility of the chemical. In summary, our findings reiterate that absorption characteristics of FLA were governed by the dose as well as the dosing vehicle. The vehicle-dependent bioavailability of FLA suggests a need for the judicious selection of vehicles in evaluating oral toxicity studies for risk assessment purposes.

  7. An Experimental Investigation on Performance and Emissions Characteristics of Jatropha Oil Blends with Diesel in a Direct Injection Compression Ignition Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    De, B.; Bose, P. K.; Panua, R. S.

    2012-07-01

    Continuous effort to reducing pollutant emissions, especially smoke and nitrogen oxides from internal combustion engines, have promoted research for alternative fuels. Vegetable oils, because of their agricultural origin and due to less carbon content compared to mineral diesel are producing less CO2 emissions to the atmosphere. It also reduces import of petroleum products. In the present contribution, experiments were conducted using Jatropha oil blends with diesel to study the effect on performance and emissions characteristics of a existing diesel engine. In this study viscosity of Jatropha oil was reduced by blending with diesel. A single cylinder, four stroke, constant speed, water cooled, diesel engine was used. The results show that for lower blend concentrations various parameters such as thermal efficiency, brake specific fuel consumption, smoke opacity, CO2, and NO x emissions are acceptable compared to that of mineral diesel. But, it was observed that for higher blend concentrations, performance and emissions were much inferior compared to diesel.

  8. Natural gas for vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tissot-Favre, V.; Sudour, D.; Binutti, M.; Zanetta, P.; Rieussec, J.L.

    2005-01-01

    As a true alternative to oil products, and environment friendly fuel, Natural Gas for Vehicles complies with requirements for sustainable development. In addition, it is part of the European Union policy which underlines the importance of energy diversification through alternative fuels. This workshop will look into the current offer to the public transport segment, waste collection vehicles, and commercial vehicle fleets. Actions taken to spread the use of natural gas to all types of cars will also be covered. This article gathers 5 presentations about this topic given at the gas conference

  9. Application of Technology of Hydrodynamic Cavitation Processing High-Viscosity Oils for the Purpose of Improving the Rheological Characteristics of Oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemenkov, Y. D.; Zemenkova, M. Y.; Vengerov, A. A.; Brand, A. E.

    2016-10-01

    There is investigated the technology of hydrodynamic cavitational processing viscous and high-viscosity oils and the possibility of its application in the pipeline transport system for the purpose of increasing of rheological properties of the transported oils, including dynamic viscosity shear stress in the article. It is considered the possibility of application of the combined hydrodynamic cavitational processing with addition of depressor additive for identification of effect of a synergism. It is developed the laboratory bench and they are presented results of modeling and laboratory researches. It is developed the hardware and technological scheme of application of the developed equipment at industrial objects of pipeline transport.

  10. Cooling Performance Characteristics of the Stack Thermal Management System for Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles under Actual Driving Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho-Seong Lee

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The cooling performance of the stack radiator of a fuel cell electric vehicle was evaluated under various actual road driving conditions, such as highway and uphill travel. The thermal stability was then optimized, thereby ensuring stable operation of the stack thermal management system. The coolant inlet temperature of the radiator in the highway mode was lower than that associated with the uphill mode because the corresponding frontal air velocity was higher than obtained in the uphill mode. In both the highway and uphill modes, the coolant temperatures of the radiator, operated under actual road driving conditions, were lower than the allowable limit (80 °C; this is the maximum temperature at which stable operation of the stack thermal management system of the fuel cell electric vehicle could be maintained. Furthermore, under actual road driving conditions in uphill mode, the initial temperature difference (ITD between the coolant temperature and air temperature of the system was higher than that associated with the highway mode; this higher ITD occurred even though the thermal load of the system in uphill mode was greater than that corresponding to the highway mode. Since the coolant inlet temperature is expected to exceed the allowable limit (80 °C in uphill mode under higher ambient temperature with air conditioning system operation, the FEM design layout should be modified to improve the heat capacity. In addition, the overall volume of the stack cooling radiator is 52.2% higher than that of the present model and the coolant inlet temperature of the improved radiator is 22.7% lower than that of the present model.

  11. Comparison of the Insecticidal Characteristics of Commercially Available Plant Essential Oils Against Aedes aegypti and Anopheles gambiae (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Edmund J; Gross, Aaron D; Dunphy, Brendan M; Bessette, Steven; Bartholomay, Lyric; Coats, Joel R

    2015-09-01

    Aedes aegypti and Anopheles gambiae are two mosquito species that represent significant threats to global public health as vectors of Dengue virus and malaria parasites, respectively. Although mosquito populations have been effectively controlled through the use of synthetic insecticides, the emergence of widespread insecticide-resistance in wild mosquito populations is a strong motivation to explore new insecticidal chemistries. For these studies, Ae. aegypti and An. gambiae were treated with commercially available plant essential oils via topical application. The relative toxicity of each essential oil was determined, as measured by the 24-h LD(50) and percentage knockdown at 1 h, as compared with a variety of synthetic pyrethroids. For Ae. aegypti, the most toxic essential oil (patchouli oil) was ∼1,700-times less toxic than the least toxic synthetic pyrethroid, bifenthrin. For An. gambiae, the most toxic essential oil (patchouli oil) was ∼685-times less toxic than the least toxic synthetic pyrethroid. A wide variety of toxicities were observed among the essential oils screened. Also, plant essential oils were analyzed via gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) to identify the major components in each of the samples screened in this study. While the toxicities of these plant essential oils were demonstrated to be lower than those of the synthetic pyrethroids tested, the large amount of GC/MS data and bioactivity data for each essential oil presented in this study will serve as a valuable resource for future studies exploring the insecticidal quality of plant essential oils. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Phenolic Compounds, Antioxidant Activity, and Other Characteristics of Extra Virgin Olive Oils from Italian Autochthonous Varieties Tonda di Villacidro, Tonda di Cagliari, Semidana, and Bosana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo I. G. Tuberoso

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Extra virgin olive oils (EVOOs from the fruits of Italian autochthonous varieties Tonda di Villacidro, Tonda di Cagliari, Semidana, and Bosana were investigated to promote their quality aspects. All the analyzed EVOOs showed low values of acidity (≤0.45% and of peroxide value (≤6.22 mEq O2/kg. There were no relevant differences in fatty acids and triacylglycerols composition among the four EVOOs. Tocopherols determined by HPLC-FL revealed that Bosana oil was characterized by the highest α-tocopherol level (213.3 ± 55.4 mg/kg. Chlorophylls, carotenoids, and total phenol (TP contents as well as antioxidant activity (FRAP, DPPH∙, and ABTS∙+ assays of the oils hydrophilic fractions (HFs were assessed by spectrophotometric methods. Some differences concerning the antioxidant activity and the TP content were observed: Bosana oil HF activity was the most pronounced (1.17 ± 0.37 mmol TEAC/kg and it contained the highest TPs amount (335.20 ± 121.34 mg/kg. HFs phenolic composition was determined by HPLC-DAD. The main identified phenols were secoiridoids, dominating in Bosana oil, such as decarboxymethyl ligstroside aglycone (p-HPEA-EDA, 35.8 ± 19.9 mg/kg and oleuropein aglycone (3,4-HPEA-EA up to 84.7 mg/kg. In summary, all the four varieties showed good characteristics for the use as quality EVOO.

  13. Improvement studies on emission and combustion characteristics of DICI engine fuelled with colloidal emulsion of diesel distillate of plastic oil, TiO2 nanoparticles and water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karisathan Sundararajan, Narayanan; Ammal, Anand Ramachandran Bhagavathi

    2018-04-01

    Experimentation was conducted on a single cylinder CI engine using processed colloidal emulsions of TiO 2 nanoparticle-water-diesel distillate of crude plastic diesel oil as test fuel. The test fuel was prepared with plastic diesel oil as the principal constituent by a novel blending technique with an aim to improve the working characteristics. The results obtained by the test fuel from the experiments were compared with that of commercial petro-diesel (CPD) fuel for same engine operating parameters. Plastic oil produced from high density polyethylene plastic waste by pyrolysis was subjected to fractional distillation for separating plastic diesel oil (PDO) that contains diesel range hydrocarbons. The blending process showed a little improvement in the field of fuel oil-water-nanometal oxide colloidal emulsion preparation due to the influence of surfactant in electrostatic stabilization, dielectric potential, and pH of the colloidal medium on the absolute value of zeta potential, a measure of colloidal stability. The engine tests with nano-emulsions of PDO showed an increase in ignition delay (23.43%), and decrease in EGT (6.05%), BSNO x (7.13%), and BSCO (28.96%) relative to PDO at rated load. Combustion curve profiles, percentage distribution of compounds, and physical and chemical properties of test fuels ascertains these results. The combustion acceleration at diffused combustion phase was evidenced in TiO 2 emulsion fuels under study.

  14. Importância das características na precificação de veículos nacionais Importance of characteristics in pricing national vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo Brandão de Resende

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available O mercado de bens de consumo é constituído por produtos heterogêneos que podem ser vistos como uma união de atributos ou características. Quantificar o valor dessas características pode auxiliar na criação de uma regra de precificação que permita, por exemplo, precificar um produto não existente, auxiliando na sua previsão de demanda. O objetivo deste trabalho é utilizar a teoria do preço hedônico para determinar empiricamente o valor e a importância relativa das características na precificação de veículos nacionais brasileiros. O modelo de previsão foi obtido utilizando-se uma função hedônica linear, cujos coeficientes foram estimados através de mínimos quadrados ordinários. Pode-se concluir que a potência é o fator de maior impacto no preço de um veículo, seguido pelo grau de luxo e marca.The market of consumer goods is consisted of heterogeneous products which can be viewed as a union of attributes or characteristics. Quantifying the value of these characteristics can help in the creation of a pricing rule, allowing, for example, pricing a product which is not available, and helping in the estimates of its demand. The purpose of this work is to use the theory of hedonic price to determine empirically the value of characteristics, as well as their relative importance, in the price of Brazilian vehicles. The model was obtained using data regarding 150 national vehicles and a linear hedonic function, which coefficients were estimated by ordinary least squares. It can be concluded that the engine power is the factor which has the greatest impact on a vehicle price, followed by the luxury level and the brand.

  15. Immersion oil for high-resolution live-cell imaging at 37°C: Optical and physical characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oomen, L.C.J.M.; Sacher, R.; Brocks, H.H.J.; Zwier, J.M.; Brakenhoff, G.J.; Jalink, K.

    2008-01-01

    The use of normal immersion oil, developed for 23°C, at 37°C greatly compromises both axial resolution and signal intensity. We developed and characterized an immersion oil for optimal performance in live-cell imaging at 37°C. We quantify the improvements in resolution and intensity obtained when

  16. Cuphea growth, yield, and oil characteristics as influenced by climate and soil environments across the Upper Midwest USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuphea is a potential new oilseed crop rich in medium-chain fatty acids (C8:0 to C14:0) that may serve as a renewable, biodegradable source of oil for lubricants, motor oil, and aircraft fuel. Impacts of climate and soil environment on cuphea growth and development are not well understood. The objec...

  17. Going Green with Electric Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deal, Walter F., III

    2010-01-01

    There is considerable interest in electric and hybrid cars because of environmental and climate change concerns, tougher fuel efficiency standards, and increasing dependence on imported oil. In this article, the author describes the history of electric vehicles in the automotive world and discusses the components of a hybrid electric vehicle.…

  18. Effect of carbon black composition with sludge palm oil on the curing characteristic and mechanical properties of natural rubber/styrene butadiene rubber compound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, R.; Nurazzi, N. Mohd; Huzaifah, M.

    2017-07-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the possibility of utilizing sludge palm oil (SPO) as processing oil, with various amount of carbon black as its reinforcing filler, and its effects on the curing characteristics and mechanical properties of natural rubber/styrene butadiene rubber (NR/SBR) compound. Rubber compound with fixed 15 pphr of SPO loading, and different carbon black loading from 20 to 50 pphr, was prepared using two roll mills. The cure characteristics and mechanical tests that have been conducted are the scorch and cure time analysis, tensile strength and tear strength. Scorch time (ts5) and cure time (t90) of the compound increases with the increasing carbon black loading. The mechanical properties of NR/SBR compound viz. the tensile strength, modulus at 300% strain and tear strength were also improved by the increasing carbon black loading.

  19. Design and characteristic investigations of superconducting wireless power transfer for electric vehicle charging system via resonance coupling method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Y. D. [Suwon Science College, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Yim, Seung Woo [Dept. of Korea Electric Power Corporation Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-09-15

    As wireless power transfer (WPT) technology using strongly coupled electromagnetic resonators is a recently explored technique to realize the large power delivery and storage without any cable or wire, this technique is required for diffusion of electric vehicles (EVs) since it makes possible a convenient charging system. Typically, since the normal conducting coils are used as a transmitting coil in the CPT system, there is limited to deliver the large power promptly in the contactless EV charging system. From this reason, we proposed the combination CPT technology with HTS transmitting antenna, it is called as, superconducting contactless power transfer for EV (SUWPT4EV) system. As the HTS coil has an enough current density, it can deliver a mass amount of electric energy in spite of a small scale antenna. The SUCPT4EV system has been expected as a noble option to improve the transfer efficiency of large electric power. Such a system consists of two resonator coils; HTS transmitting antenna (Tx) coil and normal conducting receiver (Rx) coil. Especially, the impedance matching for each resonator is a sensitive and plays an important role to improve transfer efficiency as well as delivery distance. In this study, we examined the improvement of transmission efficiency and properties for HTS and copper antennas, respectively, within 45 cm distance. Thus, we obtained improved transfer efficiency with HTS antenna over 15% compared with copper antenna. In addition, we achieved effective impedance matching conditions between HTS antenna and copper receiver at radio frequency (RF) power of 370 kHz.

  20. Design and characteristic investigations of superconducting wireless power transfer for electric vehicle charging system via resonance coupling method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Y. D.; Yim, Seung Woo

    2014-01-01

    As wireless power transfer (WPT) technology using strongly coupled electromagnetic resonators is a recently explored technique to realize the large power delivery and storage without any cable or wire, this technique is required for diffusion of electric vehicles (EVs) since it makes possible a convenient charging system. Typically, since the normal conducting coils are used as a transmitting coil in the CPT system, there is limited to deliver the large power promptly in the contactless EV charging system. From this reason, we proposed the combination CPT technology with HTS transmitting antenna, it is called as, superconducting contactless power transfer for EV (SUWPT4EV) system. As the HTS coil has an enough current density, it can deliver a mass amount of electric energy in spite of a small scale antenna. The SUCPT4EV system has been expected as a noble option to improve the transfer efficiency of large electric power. Such a system consists of two resonator coils; HTS transmitting antenna (Tx) coil and normal conducting receiver (Rx) coil. Especially, the impedance matching for each resonator is a sensitive and plays an important role to improve transfer efficiency as well as delivery distance. In this study, we examined the improvement of transmission efficiency and properties for HTS and copper antennas, respectively, within 45 cm distance. Thus, we obtained improved transfer efficiency with HTS antenna over 15% compared with copper antenna. In addition, we achieved effective impedance matching conditions between HTS antenna and copper receiver at radio frequency (RF) power of 370 kHz

  1. Characteristics of On-road Diesel Vehicles: Black Carbon Emissions in Chinese Cities Based on Portable Emissions Measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xuan; Wu, Ye; Jiang, Jingkun; Zhang, Shaojun; Liu, Huan; Song, Shaojie; Li, Zhenhua; Fan, Xiaoxiao; Fu, Lixin; Hao, Jiming

    2015-11-17

    Black carbon (BC) emissions from heavy-duty diesel vehicles (HDDVs) are rarely continuously measured using portable emission measurement systems (PEMSs). In this study, we utilize a PEMS to obtain real-world BC emission profiles for 25 HDDVs in China. The average fuel-based BC emissions of HDDVs certified according to Euro II, III, IV, and V standards are 2224 ± 251, 612 ± 740, 453 ± 584, and 152 ± 3 mg kg(-1), respectively. Notably, HDDVs adopting mechanical pump engines had significantly higher BC emissions than those equipped with electronic injection engines. Applying the useful features of PEMSs, we can relate instantaneous BC emissions to driving conditions using an operating mode binning methodology, and the average emission rates for Euro II to Euro IV diesel trucks can be constructed. From a macroscopic perspective, we observe that average speed is a significant factor affecting BC emissions and is well correlated with distance-based emissions (R(2) = 0.71). Therefore, the average fuel-based and distance-based BC emissions on congested roads are 40 and 125% higher than those on freeways. These results should be taken into consideration in future emission inventory studies.

  2. Physico-chemical characteristics of oil produced from seeds of some date palm cultivars (Phoenix dactylifera L.) .

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliman, S S; Al-Obeed, R S; Ahmed, T A

    2015-03-01

    The oil content of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids with some physico-chemical properties and nutrients were investigated in oil produced from seeds of six important date palm cultivars and one seed strain present in Saudi Arabia. The results indicated that the oil extracted from six seed cultivars of date palm ranged from 6.73-10.89% w/w oil. The refractive index of date seeds oil was found to be between 1.4574 to 1.4615. The iodine values, acid values and saponification values were in the range of 74.2-86.6 g iodine 100 g(-1); 2.50-2.58 mg KOH g(-1) and 0.206-0.217 mg KOH g(-1), respectively. Lauric acid, Myristic acid, Palmitic acid C15, Palmitic acid C16 Stearic acid, Arachidic acid and Behenic acid of date seeds oil contents were found between 8.67-49.27; 7.01-15.43; 0-0.57; 4.82-18.09; 1.02-7.86; 0-0.08; and 0-0.15% w/w, in that order. Omega-6 and Omega-9 of date seeds oil were found between 7.31-17.87 and 52.12-58.78%, respectively. Khalas, Barhy cvs. and seed strain gave highest K and Ca, Na and Fe, Mg as compared with other studied cultivars.

  3. Phytochemicals and Other Characteristics of Croatian Monovarietal Extra Virgin Olive Oils from Oblica, Lastovka and Levantinka Varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladenka Šarolić

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Virgin olive oils from the fruits of Croatian autochthonous varieties Oblica, Lastovka and Levantinka were characterized for the first time. Headspace volatiles were analyzed by HS-SPME/GC-FID/MS. The main volatiles were C6 compounds. The most abundant was (E-hex-2-enal (62.60%–69.20%. (Z-Hex-3-enal was not found in Lastovka oil, while Levantinka oil did not contain hexanal. Tocopherols, chlorophylls and carotenoids were determined by HPLC-FL. Levantinka oil was characterized by the highest α-tocopherol level (222.00 mg/kg. Total phenolic contents (TPs, as well as antioxidant activity (DPPH assay of the oils hydrophilic fractions (HFs were assessed by spectroscopic methods. The antioxidant activity of Oblica oil HF was the most pronounced (0.91 mmol TEAC/kg and the HF contained the highest TPs amount (212.21 mg/kg. HFs phenolic composition was determined by HPLC-DAD. The main identified phenols were secoiridoids dominated in Oblica oil: decarboxymethyl ligstroside aglycone (p-HPEA-EDA up to 158.5 mg/kg, oleuropein aglycone (3,4-HPEA-EA up to 96.4 mg/kg and decarboxymethyl oleuropein aglycon (3,4-DHPEA-EDA up to 93.5 mg/kg.

  4. Influence of feeding thermally peroxidized soybean oil to finishing barrows on processing characteristics and shelf life of commercially manufactured bacon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overholt, M F; Lowell, J E; Kim, G D; Boler, D D; Kerr, B J; Dilger, A C

    2018-05-12

    Objectives were to evaluate effects of feeding soybean oil (SO) with varying levels of peroxidation on fresh belly characteristics, processing yields, and shelf life of commercially manufactured bacon stored under food-service style conditions. Fifty-six barrows were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 diets containing 10% fresh SO (22.5°C) or thermally processed SO (45°C for 288 h, 90°C for 72 h, or 180°C for 6 h), each infused with air at a rate of 15L/min. Individually housed pigs were provided ad libitum access to feed for 81 d. On d 82 pigs were slaughtered and on d 83 carcasses were fabricated and bellies collected for recording of weight, dimensions, and flop distance. Belly adipose tissue cores were collected for analysis of iodine value (IV) by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIR-IV). Bacon was manufactured at a commercial processing facility and sliced bacon was subsequently transferred to food-service style packaging and subjected to 0, 30, 60, or 90 d storage at -20°C. Stored bacon was evaluated for thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and trained sensory evaluation of oxidized odor and flavor. Fresh belly and bacon processing traits were analyzed as a one-way ANOVA with the fixed effect of SO; whereas, shelf life traits were analyzed as a one-way ANOVA repeated in time. There was no effect (P ≥ 0.30) of SO on belly weight, length, width, or thickness; but bellies of pigs fed 90°C SO had greater (P ≤ 0.04) flop distance (more firm) than all other SO treatments. Belly fat NIR-IV of pigs fed 90°C SO were 10.22 units less (P processed at 90°C and 180°C reduced belly adipose tissue IV, but feeding peroxidized SO did not affect processing yields or shelf life characteristics of commercially manufactured bacon.

  5. Entrapped victims in motor vehicle collisions: characteristics and prehospital care in the city of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Rogério Navarro Dias

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To examine the severity of trauma in entrapped victims and to identify risk factors for mortality and morbidity. INTRODUCTION: Triage and rapid assessment of trauma severity is essential to provide the needed resources during prehospital and hospital phases and for outcome prediction. It is expected that entrapped victims will have greater severity of trauma and mortality than non-entrapped subjects. METHODS: A transverse, case-control, retrospective study of 1203 victims of motor vehicle collisions treated during 1 year by the prehospital service in São Paulo, Brazil was carried out. All patients were drivers, comprising 401 entrapped victims (33.3% and 802 non-entrapped consecutive controls (66.7%. Sex, age, mortality rates, Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS, Revised Trauma Score (RTS, corporal segments, timing of the prehospital care and resource use were compared between the groups. The results were analysed by χ2, Zres, analysis of variance and Bonferroni tests. RESULTS: Entrapped victims were predominantly men (84.8%, aged 32±13.1 years, with immediate mortality of 10.2% and overall mortality of 11.7%. They had a probability of death at the scene 8.2 times greater than that of non-entrapped victims. The main cause of death was hemorrhage for entrapped victims (45.2% and trauma for non-entrapped victims. Of the entrapped victims who survived, 18.7% had a severe GCS (OR = 10.62, 12% a severe RTS (OR = 9.78 and 23.7% were in shock (OR = 3.38. Entrapped victims were more commonly transported to advanced life support units and to tertiary hospitals. CONCLUSION: Entrapped victims had greater trauma severity, more blood loss and a greater mortality than respective, non-entrapped controls.

  6. Open-source LCA tool for estimating greenhouse gas emissions from crude oil production using field characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Houjeiri, Hassan M; Brandt, Adam R; Duffy, James E

    2013-06-04

    Existing transportation fuel cycle emissions models are either general and calculate nonspecific values of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from crude oil production, or are not available for public review and auditing. We have developed the Oil Production Greenhouse Gas Emissions Estimator (OPGEE) to provide open-source, transparent, rigorous GHG assessments for use in scientific assessment, regulatory processes, and analysis of GHG mitigation options by producers. OPGEE uses petroleum engineering fundamentals to model emissions from oil and gas production operations. We introduce OPGEE and explain the methods and assumptions used in its construction. We run OPGEE on a small set of fictional oil fields and explore model sensitivity to selected input parameters. Results show that upstream emissions from petroleum production operations can vary from 3 gCO2/MJ to over 30 gCO2/MJ using realistic ranges of input parameters. Significant drivers of emissions variation are steam injection rates, water handling requirements, and rates of flaring of associated gas.

  7. Spatial and Temporal Characteristics of Historical Oil and Gas Wells in Pennsylvania: Implications for New Shale Gas Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilmore, Robert M; Sams, James I; Glosser, Deborah; Carter, Kristin M; Bain, Daniel J

    2015-10-20

    Recent large-scale development of oil and gas from low-permeability unconventional formations (e.g., shales, tight sands, and coal seams) has raised concern about potential environmental impacts. If left improperly sealed, legacy oil and gas wells colocated with that new development represent a potential pathway for unwanted migration of fluids (brine, drilling and stimulation fluids, oil, and gas). Uncertainty in the number, location, and abandonment state of legacy wells hinders environmental assessment of exploration and production activity. The objective of this study is to apply publicly available information on Pennsylvania oil and gas wells to better understand their potential to serve as pathways for unwanted fluid migration. This study presents a synthesis of historical reports and digital well records to provide insights into spatial and temporal trends in oil and gas development. Areas with a higher density of wells abandoned prior to the mid-20th century, when more modern well-sealing requirements took effect in Pennsylvania, and areas where conventional oil and gas production penetrated to or through intervals that may be affected by new Marcellus shale development are identified. This information may help to address questions of environmental risk related to new extraction activities.

  8. Quality characteristics and microbiological safety evaluation of oils extracted from gamma irradiated almond (Prunus dulcis Mill.) seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatti, I. A.; Iqbal, M.; Anwar, F.; Shanid, S. A.; Shahid, M.

    2013-01-01

    The physicochemical attributes and microbial decontamination of oils extracted from gamma-irradiated almond (Mission and Price varieties) seeds, to the absorbed doses of 2-10 kGy, have been evaluated. Gamma irradiation exerted no considerable effect on the proximate seed composition. The physicochemical properties such as density and refractive index of the oils, extracted from gammairradieted seeds, were almost unaffected; the iodine value decreased while saponification value, unsaponifiable matter and free fatty acids increased. The oxidative status and tocopherol content of almond oils were negatively affected while the fatty acid profile slightly changed due to irradiation stress. Interestingly, these effects on the oil quality attributes were more pronounced at higher irradiation doses (> 6 kGy). Besides, microbial contamination was completely eliminated in the oils irradiated to an absorbed dose of 6.0 kGy. It could be concluded from the present findings that irradiation has a considerably positive or negative effect on some attributes of the almond oil. Therefore, an appropriate magnitude of gamma irradiation should be exercised to treat almond seeds in order to retain maximum nutritive benefits. (Author) 52 refs.

  9. Quality characteristics and microbiological safety evaluation of oils extracted from gamma irradiated almond (Prunus dulcis Mill.) seeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhatti, I. A.; Iqbal, M.; Anwar, F.; Shanid, S. A.; Shahid, M.

    2013-05-01

    The physicochemical attributes and microbial decontamination of oils extracted from gamma-irradiated almond (Mission and Price varieties) seeds, to the absorbed doses of 2-10 kGy, have been evaluated. Gamma irradiation exerted no considerable effect on the proximate seed composition. The physicochemical properties such as density and refractive index of the oils, extracted from gammairradieted seeds, were almost unaffected; the iodine value decreased while saponification value, unsaponifiable matter and free fatty acids increased. The oxidative status and tocopherol content of almond oils were negatively affected while the fatty acid profile slightly changed due to irradiation stress. Interestingly, these effects on the oil quality attributes were more pronounced at higher irradiation doses (> 6 kGy). Besides, microbial contamination was completely eliminated in the oils irradiated to an absorbed dose of 6.0 kGy. It could be concluded from the present findings that irradiation has a considerably positive or negative effect on some attributes of the almond oil. Therefore, an appropriate magnitude of gamma irradiation should be exercised to treat almond seeds in order to retain maximum nutritive benefits. (Author) 52 refs.

  10. Accounting for the Variation of Driver Aggression in the Simulation of Conventional and Advanced Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neubauer, J.; Wood, E.

    2013-01-01

    Hybrid electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, and battery electric vehicles offer the potential to reduce both oil imports and greenhouse gases, as well as to offer a financial benefit to the driver. However, assessing these potential benefits is complicated by several factors, including the driving habits of the operator. We focus on driver aggression, i.e., the level of acceleration and velocity characteristic of travel, to (1) assess its variation within large, real-world drive datasets, (2) quantify its effect on both vehicle efficiency and economics for multiple vehicle types, (3) compare these results to those of standard drive cycles commonly used in the industry, and (4) create a representative drive cycle for future analyses where standard drive cycles are lacking.

  11. Accounting for the Variation of Driver Aggression in the Simulation of Conventional and Advanced Vehicles: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neubauer, J.; Wood, E.

    2013-03-01

    Hybrid electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, and battery electric vehicles offer the potential to reduce both oil imports and greenhouse gases, as well as to offer a financial benefit to the driver. However, assessing these potential benefits is complicated by several factors, including the driving habits of the operator. We focus on driver aggression, i.e., the level of acceleration and velocity characteristic of travel, to (1) assess its variation within large, real-world drive datasets, (2) quantify its effect on both vehicle efficiency and economics for multiple vehicle types, (3) compare these results to those of standard drive cycles commonly used in the industry, and (4) create a representative drive cycle for future analyses where standard drive cycles are lacking.

  12. Nutritional and technological characteristics of olive (Olea europea L.) fruit and oil: two varieties growing in two different locations of Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Cevat; Ozcan, Mehmet Musa; Gümüş, Tuncay

    2009-08-01

    Olea europea L. fruits were evaluated for weight, moisture, ash, crude protein, crude oil, energy, crude fibre, roundness, resistance against extra force and product density. The relative density, refractive index, free fatty acids, peroxide value, iodine value and unsaponifiables were determined in the olive oils. The main fatty acids identified by gas chromatography were palmitic acid (16:0), palmitoleic acid (16:1), stearic acid (18:0), oleic acid (18:1) and linoleic acid (18:2). Of the identified fatty acids, lauric acid (12:0), linolenic acid (18:3), arachidic acid (20:0), eicosenoic acid (20:1), behenic acid (22:0) and lignoseric acid (24:0) were found in trace amounts. As expected, the oleic acid content was the major fatty acid of olive oil. Oleic acid was represented in much higher concentrations than the other acids. The product roundness, resistance against extra force, product density and weight of 100 fruit were established as technological characteristics in olive fruit. The damage energy and the unit of volume deformation energy of the Memecik and Tavşanyüreği varieties were 1.36×10(-3) J and 3.59×10(-4) J/mm(3) and 1.89×10(-3) J and 5.10×10(-4) J/mm(3), respectively. The fruits showed a similar composition, and both fruit and oil contained unsaturated fatty acids.

  13. Properties of chicken manure pyrolysis bio-oil blended with diesel and its combustion characteristics in RCEM, Rapid Compression and Expansion Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunbong Lee

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Bio-oil (bio-oil was produced from chicken manure in a pilot-scale pyrolysis facility. The raw bio-oil had a very high viscosity and sediments which made direct application to diesel engines difficult. The bio-oil was blended with diesel fuel with 25% and 75% volumetric ratio at the normal temperature, named as blend 25. A rapid compression and expansion machine was used for a combustion test under the experimental condition corresponding to the medium operation point of a light duty diesel engine using diesel fuel, and blend 25 for comparison. The injection related pressure signal and cylinder pressure signal were instantaneously picked up to analyze the combustion characteristics in addition to the measurement of NOx and smoke emissions. Blend 25 resulted in reduction of the smoke emission by 80% and improvements of the apparent combustion efficiency while the NOx emission increased by 40%. A discussion was done based on the analysis results of combustion.

  14. Understanding the Distributional Impacts of Vehicle Policy : Who Buys New and Used Alternative Vehicles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-02

    This research project explores the plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) market, including both Battery Electric Vehicles (BEVs) and Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs), and the sociodemographic characteristics of purchasing households. We use detailed...

  15. Physiochemical characteristics, fatty acid profile and tocopherol composition of the oil from Camellia oleifera Abel cultivated in Henan, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. B. Hu

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available As a unique woody oil tree, Camellia oleifera Abel originates from southern China and is now being cultivated in central China, such as the southern Henan province. The aim of this work is to determine some physiochemical parameters, fatty acid profile and tocopherol composition of the Camellia oleifera seed oils harvested in southern Henan in the 2016 season. The lipid contents of the kernel are in the range of 28.39- 56.94% on dry matter. The acid value (AV, saponification value (SV, iodine value (IV, and refractive index of the oils are in the ranges: 0.22-5.17 mg KOH/g, 178.90-196.91 mg KOH/g, 82.0-87.1 g I2/100g, and 1.4667-1.4720 (nD25 , respectively. The main fatty acids are: palmitic 7.07-9.52%, palmitoleic 0.09-0.22%, stearic 1.45-2.94%, oleic 77.02-84.33%, linoleic 5.19-11.23%, linolenic 0.53-0.70% and arachidic 0.22-0.70%. The sn-2 fatty acid composition is: 84.36-91.33% oleic, 7.14-14.22% linoleic, and 0.89-1.96% others. The tocopherol content is in the range of 39.55-75.94 mg/100g oil, including mainly α-tocopherol (33.98-67.82 mg/100g and γ-tocopherol (5.57- 8.27 mg/100g when the oils are extracted with hexane; and 14.91-44.36 mg/100g, including mainly α-tocopherol (9.42-37.08 mg/100g and γ-tocopherol (5.50-7.33 mg/100g when the oils are extracted by ethyl ether. The physiochemical properties C. oleifera seed oils from southern Henan are similar to those from other districts of China.

  16. Cavitation characteristics of multihole diesel-fuel nozzles in high-speed oil flows. Diesel kikan yo nenryo tako nozzle no abura cavitation tokusei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokota, M. (Shimonoseki Univ. of Fisheris, Yamaguchi (Japan)); Ito, Y. (Hachinohe Inst. of Tech., Aomori (Japan)); Aoki, H. (Xexel-Gleason U.S.A. Inc., New York (U.S.A))

    1991-07-25

    Recently, since higher velocity and higher pressure are required for diesel injection systems, cavitation behaviors in high velocity oil flows are strongly interested in such as 100 to 500 m/s for oil flow velocity and less than the cavitation factor {sigma} of 0.01. In this paper, oil cavitation characteristics at the injection part of multihole nozzles, especially on the flow characteristics, were studied systematically using fuel injection multihole nozzles for an actual use. As a result, it was clarified that subcavitation area (sub C), transition area, and supercavitation area (SC) could be existing in C{sub d}-{sigma} relation, which was similar to that specified cavitation conditions could be exisiting in the actual working area of multihole nozzles. And it was also clarified that flow coefficient C{sub d} relied on Reynolds number R{sub e} in the transition of {sigma}{ge}{sigma}{sub cr} and in {sub C} area, and mainly relied on {sigma} in SC area of {sigma}<{sigma}{sub cr}. Moreover, it was also confirmed that such tendency was similar to the one of the two-dimensional contraction of an area. 22 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Motor Vehicle Theft. Special Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlow, Caroline Wolf

    Thirteen years of data from the National Crime Survey were analyzed to examine the characteristics of motor vehicle theft, to identify trends during the past 13 years, and to determine who are most likely to be victims of motor vehicle theft. All motor vehicle thefts reported to the National Crime Survey from 1973 through 1985 were examined.…

  18. Wind-tunnel investigation of longitudinal and lateral-directional stability and control characteristics of a 0.237-scale model of a remotely piloted research vehicle with a thick, high-aspect-ratio supercritical wing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrdsong, T. A.; Brooks, C. W., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    A 0.237-scale model of a remotely piloted research vehicle equipped with a thick, high-aspect-ratio supercritical wing was tested in the Langley 8-foot transonic tunnel to provide experimental data for a prediction of the static stability and control characteristics of the research vehicle as well as to provide an estimate of vehicle flight characteristics for a computer simulation program used in the planning and execution of specific flight-research mission. Data were obtained at a Reynolds number of 16.5 x 10 to the 6th power per meter for Mach numbers up to 0.92. The results indicate regions of longitudinal instability; however, an adequate margin of longitudinal stability exists at a selected cruise condition. Satisfactory effectiveness of pitch, roll, and yaw control was also demonstrated.

  19. Numerical investigation on transient flow and cavitation characteristic within nozzle during the oil drainage process for a high-pressure common-rail DI diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Zuo-Yu; Li, Guo-Xiu; Yu, Yu-Song; Gao, Si-Chao; Gao, Guo-Xi

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The flow process within nozzle during oil drainage process were studied. • The effects of needle movement on flow characteristics were studied. • The cavitation characteristics in a transient flow were numerical studied. - Abstract: In the present investigation, the transient developments of flow and cavitation within an injector’s nozzle during the oil drainage process have been studied by numerical method for a high-pressure common-rail DI diesel engine, both the variation regulations of macro parameters (indicating flow characteristics and cavitation characteristics) and the distribution manners of important physical fields (indicating the cavitation evolution in the micro) have been obtained and analyzed. The obtained numerical results indicate that, during the oil drainage process, both mass flow rate and flow coefficient monotonously increase with declining variation rates, both averaged flow velocity and averaged turbulent kinetic energy also monotonously increase; however, to the curve of TKE-needle lift, there exist certain points give abrupt increase. The difference in TKE curve compared to averaged flow velocity is mainly attributed to the sudden variation of cavitation. Based upon the numerical results, the cavitation bubble will not be formed until the needle lift has been raised to a certain position due to the lower flow velocity and the lack of low (even negative) pressure zones. As needle rises, the primary bubbles are formed near the lower corner after nozzle’s entrance; but as needle further rises, the positions at where bubbles are formed have been transferred to the upper corner and then being blow downwards orifice as the increase of flow velocity

  20. Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) and soybean oil effects on quality characteristics of pork patties studied by response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Eunkyung; Joo, Nami

    2013-07-01

    Response surface methodology was used to investigate the effect and interactions of processing variables such as roselle extract (0.1-1.3%), soybean oil (5-20%) on physicochemical, textural and sensory properties of cooked pork patties. It was found that reduction in thickness, pH, L* and b* values decreased; however, water-holding capacity, reduction in diameter and a* values increased, respectively, as the amount of roselle increased. Soybean oil addition increased water-holding capacity, reduction in thickness, b* values of the patties. The hardness depended on the roselle and soybean oil added, as its linear effect was negative at proselle and soybean oil. The maximum overall quality score (5.42) was observed when 12.5 g of soybean oil and 0.7 g of roselle extract was added. The results of this optimization study would be useful for meat industry that tends to increase the product yield for patties using the optimum levels of ingredients by RSM. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.