WorldWideScience

Sample records for oil supply measures

  1. International Oil Supplies and Demands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-09-01

    The eleventh Energy Modeling Forum (EMF) working group met four times over the 1989--90 period to compare alternative perspectives on international oil supplies and demands through 2010 and to discuss how alternative supply and demand trends influence the world's dependence upon Middle Eastern oil. Proprietors of eleven economic models of the world oil market used their respective models to simulate a dozen scenarios using standardized assumptions. From its inception, the study was not designed to focus on the short-run impacts of disruptions on oil markets. Nor did the working group attempt to provide a forecast or just a single view of the likely future path for oil prices. The model results guided the group's thinking about many important longer-run market relationships and helped to identify differences of opinion about future oil supplies, demands, and dependence.

  2. International Oil Supplies and Demands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-04-01

    The eleventh Energy Modeling Forum (EMF) working group met four times over the 1989--1990 period to compare alternative perspectives on international oil supplies and demands through 2010 and to discuss how alternative supply and demand trends influence the world's dependence upon Middle Eastern oil. Proprietors of eleven economic models of the world oil market used their respective models to simulate a dozen scenarios using standardized assumptions. From its inception, the study was not designed to focus on the short-run impacts of disruptions on oil markets. Nor did the working group attempt to provide a forecast or just a single view of the likely future path for oil prices. The model results guided the group's thinking about many important longer-run market relationships and helped to identify differences of opinion about future oil supplies, demands, and dependence.

  3. IEA Response System for Oil Supply Emergencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-12-15

    Emergency response to oil supply disruptions has remained a core mission of the International Energy Agency since its founding in 1974. This information pamphlet explains the decisionmaking process leading to an IEA collective action, the measures available -- focusing on stockdraw -- and finally, the historical background of major oil supply disruptions and the IEA response to them. It also demonstrates the continuing need for emergency preparedness, including the growing importance of engaging key transition and emerging economies in dialogue about energy security.

  4. IEA Response System for Oil Supply Emergencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-15

    Emergency response to oil supply disruptions has remained a core mission of the International Energy Agency since its founding in 1974. This information pamphlet explains the decisionmaking process leading to an IEA collective action, the measures available -- focusing on stockdraw -- and finally, the historical background of major oil supply disruptions and the IEA response to them. It also demonstrates the continuing need for emergency preparedness, including the growing importance of engaging key transition and emerging economies in dialogue about energy security.

  5. Oil supply and demand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rech, O

    2004-07-01

    World oil demand, driven by economic development in China, posted the highest growth rate in 20 years. In a context of geopolitical uncertainty, prices are soaring, encouraged by low inventory and the low availability of residual production capacity. Will 2004 bring a change in the oil market paradigm? (author)

  6. Stochastic Optimization of Supply Chain Risk Measures –a Methodology for Improving Supply Security of Subsidized Fuel Oil in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adinda Yuanita

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Monte Carlo simulation-based methods for stochastic optimization of risk measures is required to solve complex problems in supply security of subsidized fuel oil in Indonesia. In order to overcome constraints in distribution of subsidized fuel in Indonesia, which has the fourth largest population in the world—more than 250,000,000 people with 66.5% of productive population, and has more than 17,000 islands with its population centered around the nation's capital only—it is necessary to have a measurable and integrated risk analysis with monitoring system for the purpose of supply security of subsidized fuel. In consideration of this complex issue, uncertainty and probability heavily affected this research. Therefore, this research did the Monte Carlo sampling-based stochastic simulation optimization with the state-of-the-art "FIRST" parameter combined with the Sensitivity Analysis to determine the priority of integrated risk mitigation handling so that the implication of the new model design from this research may give faster risk mitigation time. The results of the research identified innovative ideas of risk based audit on supply chain risk management and new FIRST (Fairness, Independence, Reliable, Sustainable, Transparent parameters on risk measures. In addition to that, the integration of risk analysis confirmed the innovative level of priority on sensitivity analysis. Moreover, the findings showed that the new risk mitigation time was 60% faster than the original risk mitigation time.

  7. Relationship between Supplied Oil Flow Rates and Oil Film Thicknesses under Starved Elastohydrodynamic Lubrication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taisuke Maruyama

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Many studies have already considered starved lubrication. However, there have been no reports on the oil film thicknesses under steady starved EHL (elastohydrodynamic lubrication, where the ultra-low volume of oil supplied per unit time is uniform. The present study examined the relationship between the supplied oil flow rate and oil film thickness under steady starved lubrication. A ball-on-disk testing machine was used in experiments to measure the oil film thickness by means of optical interferometry. A microsyringe pump was used to accurately control the supplied oil flow rate. The supplied oil flow rate was kept constant, and the minimum oil film thickness was measured for 1 h after the start of the tests to determine the relationship between the supplied oil flow rate and oil film thickness.

  8. International Oil Supplies and Demands. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-09-01

    The eleventh Energy Modeling Forum (EMF) working group met four times over the 1989--90 period to compare alternative perspectives on international oil supplies and demands through 2010 and to discuss how alternative supply and demand trends influence the world`s dependence upon Middle Eastern oil. Proprietors of eleven economic models of the world oil market used their respective models to simulate a dozen scenarios using standardized assumptions. From its inception, the study was not designed to focus on the short-run impacts of disruptions on oil markets. Nor did the working group attempt to provide a forecast or just a single view of the likely future path for oil prices. The model results guided the group`s thinking about many important longer-run market relationships and helped to identify differences of opinion about future oil supplies, demands, and dependence.

  9. International Oil Supplies and Demands. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-04-01

    The eleventh Energy Modeling Forum (EMF) working group met four times over the 1989--1990 period to compare alternative perspectives on international oil supplies and demands through 2010 and to discuss how alternative supply and demand trends influence the world`s dependence upon Middle Eastern oil. Proprietors of eleven economic models of the world oil market used their respective models to simulate a dozen scenarios using standardized assumptions. From its inception, the study was not designed to focus on the short-run impacts of disruptions on oil markets. Nor did the working group attempt to provide a forecast or just a single view of the likely future path for oil prices. The model results guided the group`s thinking about many important longer-run market relationships and helped to identify differences of opinion about future oil supplies, demands, and dependence.

  10. Oil and Gas: Supply Issues After Katrina

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bamberger, Robert L; Kumins, Lawrence

    2005-01-01

    .... Assessment of damage to oil and gas production rigs, as well as refineries, continues. Some operating refineries whose crude supply has been interrupted are borrowing crude from the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR...

  11. An oil demand and supply model incorporating monetary policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Askari, Hossein [George Washington University, 17795 Canby Road, Leesburg, VA 20175 (United States); Krichene, Noureddine [International Monetary Fund, 700 19th Street, NW, Washington DC 20431 (United States)

    2010-05-15

    Oil price inflation may have had a significant role in pushing the world economy into its worst post-war recession during 2008-2009. Reserve currency central banks pursued an overly expansionary monetary policy during 2001-2009, in the form of low or negative real interest rates and accompanied by a rapidly falling US dollar, while paying inadequate attention to the destabilizing effects on oil markets. In this paper, we show that monetary policy variables, namely key interest rates and the US dollar exchange rate, had a powerful effect on oil markets. World oil demand was significantly influenced by interest and dollar exchange rates, while oil supply was rigid. Oil demand and supply have very low price elasticity and this characteristic makes oil prices highly volatile and subject to wider fluctuations than the prices of other commodities. Aggressive monetary policy would stimulate oil demand, however, it would be met with rigid oil supply and would turn inflationary and disruptive to economic growth if there was little excess capacity in oil output. We argue that a measure of stability in oil markets cannot be achieved unless monetary policy is restrained and real interest rates become significantly positive. Monetary tightening during 1979-1982 might imply that monetary policy has to be restrained for a long period and with high interest rates in order to bring stability back to oil markets. (author)

  12. IEA Response System for Oil Supply Emergencies (2012 update)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-09-05

    Emergency response to oil supply disruptions has remained a core mission of the International Energy Agency since its founding in 1974. This information pamphlet explains the decisionmaking process leading to an IEA collective action, the measures available -- focusing on stockdraw -- and finally, the historical background of major oil supply disruptions and the IEA response to them. It also demonstrates the continuing need for emergency preparedness, including the growing importance of engaging key transition and emerging economies in dialogue about energy security.

  13. Heavy oil supply economics and supply response to low oil prices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, L. [Canadian Energy Research Inst., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    1999-04-01

    The dynamics of the heavy oil industry are examined, including prices, market demand, supply and supply costs. Price assumptions are provided for the reference case oil price (west Texas intermediate at Cushing). Supply cost methodology is explained. Capital and operating costs for various heavy oil and synthetic sources are derived from modeling results. The range of supply costs for heavy oil and bitumen from various sources, supply costs in terms of reference case market values and in terms of 1995-1996 average market values for Bow River crude, are derived. The CERI long term supply forecast model is explained. Western Canada upstream oil and gas cash flow and capital expenditures, eastern Canada exploration and expenditures by hydrocarbon type, and Canadian heavy oil and bitumen production based on reference case prices are estimated. Based on these projections the outlook for heavy oil at reference case prices for better than average quality resources is judged to be economic. Lower quality resources will require technology gains for successful commercialization. SAGD is a likely candidate in this respect. Again based on reference prices, production is forecast to decline by 100 Kb/d over the next five years. Diluent supply is considered to be adequate throughout the forecast period. As far as thermal bitumen is concerned, the growth could, in fact, exceed the projection, but if so, more upgrading will be required. 11 figs.

  14. Measurement of Pulsed Power Supply

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Power supply system is an important subsystem of CSR. To apply for running, the parameters of power supply must be fit the design’s demands. We have tested all prototype of power supply as follows.The DC stability measurement is that the power supply runs in certain current level from the lower value to the normal value. In every current level, we acquire about 550 data by digital meter (model 7081) in 8 h.

  15. PROSPECTIVE MODELLING OF OIL SUPPLY IN TUNISIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thameur Necibi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The theoretical framework which we are developing refers essentially to Hubbert model in order to determine the peak oil in Tunisia and the exploitation speed of the remaining resources, while referring to the data supplied by the Directorate General for Energy. The study focuses on the comparison between the results of the several econometric adjustment techniques (linear, non-linear techniques, linear techniques with structural change and the non-parametric methods applied to the Tunisian oil production during the period going from 1966 to 2011. The prospective study through the econometric models has allowed us to determine the two dates scaring all energy executives, namely the peak which took place in the middle of the eighties and the finiteness of resources planned in 2028. The obtained results have shown that it remains 495 million barrels to be produced in Tunisia, bearing in mind that the data supplied by the authorities announces the figure of 420 million barrels of the remaining proved reserve in the Tunisian underground. Thereby, we have noticed a strong link between the physical models for reservoir flows and the empirical specifications based on the decline curves.

  16. Suspension of oil supply and import of oil from the overseas oil development program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Hyung [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea)

    1999-03-01

    The import of oil from the overseas oil development is not only reducing the probability and the scale of supply suspension but also enhancing the competitive power of oil industry by securing crude oil stably and economically. Therefore, the import of oil from the overseas oil development is desperately required to meet the opening of domestic oil market. Since the overseas oil development program has started in 1981, the government subsidy from special energy accounting is $0.6 billion occupying 25% of total investment with $2.4 billion. In spite of such a government subsidy, the import amount of development in 1997 is 13.6 million barrel, which is only 1.6% of domestic crude oil consumption. With the goal of supplying 10% of domestically consumed crude oil with self-developed crude oil by 2010, the government is considering a support plan to secure oil for the energy security, because enterprises are lowering its priority of investment on the overseas oil development program as a result of IMF crisis and restructuring. This study estimates the amount of government subsidy through the positive analysis, by selecting an aftermath supporting program as an alternative. (author). 28 refs., 3 figs., 9 tabs.

  17. Oil supply security -- Emergency response of IEA countries 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-11-29

    When Hurricane Katrina hit the Gulf of Mexico in 2005, the region's oil production and refining infrastructure was devastated and world energy markets were disrupted. The International Energy Agency decided in a matter of days to bring 60 million barrels of additional oil to the market. The emergency response system worked - the collective action helped to stabilise global markets. Since its founding in 1974, oil supply security has been a core mission of the IEA and the Agency has improved its mechanisms to respond to short-term oil supply disruptions. Nevertheless, numerous factors will continue to test the delicate balance of supply and demand. Oil demand growth will continue to accelerate in Asia; oil will be increasingly produced by a shrinking number of countries; and capacities in the supply chain will need to expand. These are just a few of the challenges facing an already tight market. What are the emergency response systems of IEA countries? How are their emergency structures organised? How prepared is the IEA to deal with an oil supply disruption? This publication addresses these questions. It presents another cycle of rigorous reviews of the emergency response mechanisms of IEA member countries. The goal of these reviews is to ensure that the IEA stays ready to respond effectively to oil supply disruptions. This publication also includes overviews of how China, India and countries of Southeast Asia are progressing with domestic policies to improve oil supply security, based on emergency stocks.

  18. Oil and gas supply : hurdles and opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giusti, L. [Centre for Strategic and International Studies, Washington, DC (United States)

    2006-07-01

    The socioeconomic development in Latin America was discussed with reference to its abundant and diverse resources. Despite its large population, Latin America represents only 6 per cent of the world gross domestic product (GDP) and a less than 6 per cent of the total world trading. This presentation described the problems of large deficits, poor economic policies, large debt and corruption that provoked inflation, economic slowdown, and foreign debt in Latin America. Policy makers agreed that reforms were needed if Latin American economies were to grow more than 6 per cent a year, and to lower the number of people living in poverty in the region. The second-generation reform for Latin America was meant to promote economic development without inflation. It is based on quality public sector governance; fiscal strengthening; an enhanced legal and regulatory framework; efficient financial markets; and, labour and market reform. This presentation also discussed the oil and gas industry's contention with the perceptions that the economic crisis in Latin America was caused by globalization, international trade and acquisitive industrialized countries. An initiative was launched in 1994 to build an integrated energy data bank, evaluate existing interconnections among Latin American countries, and identify barriers for a larger integration to facilitate and improve commercial activities. It was emphasized that while the United States has a large deficit of oil, Canada and Latin America have large surpluses of energy resources, which if developed efficiently and effectively, can be a leading engine of regional development and an important contributor to global competitiveness. Canada is the largest supplier of energy, including oil, natural gas and electricity to the United States, the world's largest energy consumer and largest oil and gas market. Mexico and Brazil were identified as the other 2 large economies in the region's energy chain, but Mexico is self

  19. Documentation of the Oil and Gas Supply Module (OGSM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to define the objectives of the Oil and Gas Supply Model (OGSM), to describe the model`s basic approach, and to provide detail on how the model works. This report is intended as a reference document for model analysts, users, and the public. Projected production estimates of US crude oil and natural gas are based on supply functions generated endogenously within National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) by the OGSM. OGSM encompasses domestic crude oil and natural gas supply by both conventional and nonconventional recovery techniques. Nonconventional recovery includes enhanced oil recovery (EOR), and unconventional gas recovery (UGR) from tight gas formations, Devonian/Antrim shale and coalbeds. Crude oil and natural gas projections are further disaggregated by geographic region. OGSM projects US domestic oil and gas supply for six Lower 48 onshore regions, three offshore regions, and Alaska. The general methodology relies on forecasted profitability to determine exploratory and developmental drilling levels for each region and fuel type. These projected drilling levels translate into reserve additions, as well as a modification of the production capacity for each region. OGSM also represents foreign trade in natural gas, imports and exports by entry region. Foreign gas trade may occur via either pipeline (Canada or Mexico), or via transport ships as liquefied natural gas (LNG). These import supply functions are critical elements of any market modeling effort.

  20. PRINCIPLES OF THE SUPPLY CHAIN PERFORMANCE MEASUREMENT

    OpenAIRE

    BEATA ŒLUSARCZYK; SEBASTIAN KOT

    2012-01-01

    Measurement of performance in every business management is a crucial activity allowing for effectiveness increase. The lack of suitable performance measurement is especially noticed in complex systems as supply chains. Responsible persons cannot manage effectively without suitable set of measures those are base for comparison to previous data or effects of other supply chain functioning. The analysis shows that it is very hard to find balanced set of supply chain performance measures those sh...

  1. Can reserve additions in mature crude oil provinces attenuate supply-side peak oil?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okullo, Samuel; Reynes, Frederic

    2010-09-15

    More often, oil supply has been modeled on the basis of resource availability and demand. The impact of strategy between oil producers has largely been ignored or overly simplified. In this paper, we formulate a model that embodies a weak and strong OPEC for varied rates of reserve additions. With this economic equilibrium model which has the capability to generate a supply side peak in oil production, we show that although reserves of conventional crude oil may seem abundant. OPEC has the ability to lead to substantial crude oil reserve depletion in non-OPEC countries by 2050 given likely depletion rates.

  2. Oil Refinery Supply Chain Modelling Using Pipe Transportation Simulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Dyntar

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes an application of Pipe Transportation Simulator (PTS in oil refinery supply chain modelling. We develop the simulator in Witness simulation software environment using MS Excel for input data loading and outputs upgrading. PTS is particularly suitable for “what-if” analysis in the crude oil, fuels or gas supply chains where the products are transported among warehouses and refineries through the pipe lines. To discuss the basic functionality of proposed simulator we employ PTS to simulate a real oil refinery supply chain consisting of 16 warehouses and 3 refineries placed in the Czech Republic and Slovakia. The refineries and warehouses are connected together with 21 pipe lines. PTS is used to verify a plan of fuels movements among warehouses and refineries as well as a plan of repairs of certain pipe lines in the selected time period of the length of 30 days.

  3. Oil and Gas Supply and Demand in China and Its Development Strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The paper makes a comprehensive prediction of China's future demand for oil and gas with two methods, i.e. the prediction method based on the demand for individual oil and gas products and the method for predicting the total demand. According to the demand prediction of, and the historical data on, the oil and gas consumption, we conduct an analysis of the oil and gas consumption trends, which can be described as six different development periods. On the other hand, the paper makes a comprehensive analysis of the domestic oil and gas resources and, on this basis, makes a basic prediction of the domestic output of oil and gas. The supply and demand situation is also analyzed. By using the SWOT analysis method, the paper puts forward the development strategies for China's oil and gas industry and gives some related strategic measures.

  4. Documentation of the Oil and Gas Supply Module (OGSM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-24

    The purpose of this report is to define the objectives of the Oil and Gas Supply Model (OGSM), to describe the model`s basic approach, and to provide detail on how the model works. This report is intended as a reference document for model analysts, users, and the public. It is prepared in accordance with the Energy Information Administration`s (EIA) legal obligation to provide adequate documentation in support of its statistical and forecast reports (Public Law 93-275, Section 57(b)(2)). Projected production estimates of U.S. crude oil and natural gas are based on supply functions generated endogenously within National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) by the OGSM. OGSM encompasses domestic crude oil and natural gas supply by both conventional and nonconventional recovery techniques. Nonconventional recovery includes enhanced oil recovery (EOR), and unconventional gas recovery (UGR) from tight gas formations, Devonian shale and coalbeds. Crude oil and natural gas projections are further disaggregated by geographic region. OGSM projects U.S. domestic oil and gas supply for six Lower 48 onshore regions, three offshore regions, and Alaska. The general methodology relies on forecasted drilling expenditures and average drilling costs to determine exploratory and developmental drilling levels for each region and fuel type. These projected drilling levels translate into reserve additions, as well as a modification of the production capacity for each region. OGSM also represents foreign trade in natural gas, imports and exports by entry region. Foreign gas trade may occur via either pipeline (Canada or Mexico), or via transport ships as liquefied natural gas (LNG). These import supply functions are critical elements of any market modeling effort.

  5. Influence of Frequency Converters on Insulation of Power Supply Cables at Oil-Producing Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. I. Zalizny

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers consequences of negative frequency converter influence on insulation of  power supply cables used for submersible installations of electric-centrifugal pumps at oil-producing stations. The possible approaches to the solution of the problem are proposed on the basis of a harmonic analysis of actually measured voltages and currents in a cable.  

  6. Quantitative Measures of Mineral Supply Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, K. R.

    2009-12-01

    Almost all metals and many non-metallic minerals are traded internationally. An advantage of global mineral markets is that minerals can be obtained from the globally lowest-cost source. For example, one rare-earth element (REE) mine in China, Bayan Obo, is able to supply most of world demand for rare earth elements at a cost significantly less than its main competitors. Concentration of global supplies at a single mine raises significant political risks, illustrated by China’s recent decision to prohibit the export of some REEs and severely limit the export of others. The expected loss of REE supplies will have a significant impact on the cost and production of important national defense technologies and on alternative energy programs. Hybrid vehicles and wind-turbine generators, for example, require REEs for magnets and batteries. Compact fluorescent light bulbs use REE-based phosphors. These recent events raise the general issue of how to measure the degree of supply risk for internationally sourced minerals. Two factors, concentration of supply and political risk, must first be addressed. Concentration of supply can be measured with standard economic tools for measuring industry concentration, using countries rather than firms as the unit of analysis. There are many measures of political risk available. That of the OECD is a measure of a country’s commitment to rule-of-law and enforcement of contracts, as well as political stability. Combining these measures provides a comparative view of mineral supply risk across commodities and identifies several minerals other than REEs that could suddenly become less available. Combined with an assessment of the impact of a reduction in supply, decision makers can use these measures to prioritize risk reduction efforts.

  7. Non-OPEC Oil Supply: Economics and Energy Policy Options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mourik, Maarten van [Paris (France); Shepherd, Richard K. [Perpignan (France)

    2003-07-01

    Apart from the enigmatic FSU, there is little prospect of long term growth for non-OPEC oil supply and a strong likelihood that over the next few years the trend will flatten and then decline irrevocably. Decline will come faster if the spectacular discoveries in the deep water offshore plays of the southern Atlantic and the Gulf of Mexico attract sufficient investment to match the loss of production in the North Sea. Deep water oil supply might be expected to reach a peak of as much as 6-7 million barrels a day by the time the North Sea has lost more than half its current output in the period beyond 2010. But economics play as strong a role as geology in real world oil business. Current indicators suggest that the prolific deep water wells are delivering less oil than expected and for a shorter period. That means less revenue. This paper outlines the disappointing performance of recent offshore fields, in both deep water and conventional water depths, and suggests consequences for global supply in the next decade. The 30 year success story of non-OPEC oil supply stems directly from the oil price revolution of the 1970s, without which the North Sea and most other offshore oil plays would not have been economic. The non-OPEC oil boom was also necessary because access to the cheap oil of the Persian Gulf and a few other plays were simply not available to the international private sector oil industry, as they had been before. That era is now over. It is ending not because oil is too cheap, but because there are powerful reasons for change. Firstly there is not enough oil left to make a difference beyond the next few years. Secondly, the economics of deep water and other offshore oil may not be attractive enough. Thirdly the doors to the Middle East are now being opened again to companies that can write those assets on their balance sheets and generate profits, allowing better return on investment and their higher share prices. There is no more compelling reason for a

  8. SINGLE CRITERION SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT IN OLIVE OIL INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvija Vlah Jerić

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work we consider the supply chain management in olive oil industry. We construct the mixed-integer programming model connecting the optimization of olives harvesting and storage and olive oil production. The goal is to maximize the olive oil producer profit consisting of revenue, production cost and storage cost. In the same time, we have to take into the consideration the farmers’ (suppliers’ utility too. Namely, the suppliers want to maintain the harvest delay and delivery cost as minimal as possible. In the case of single criterion optimization problem we suppose that the producer is taking care of all five goals, so the objective function consists of the producer’s revenue, storage cost, production cost, harvest delay and delivery cost with the appropriate sign. Due to the big dimension of the problem two heuristics are proposed for solving it. Some simulations are performed and the results show good heuristics behavior.

  9. Documentation of the oil and gas supply module (OGSM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to define the objectives of the Oil and Gas Supply Model (OGSK, to describe the model`s basic approach, and to provide detail on how the model works. This report is intended as a reference document for model analysts, users, and the public. It is prepared in accordance with the Energy Information Administration`s (EIA) legal obligation to provide adequate documentation in support of its statistical and forecast reports (Public Law 93-275, Section 57(b)(2). OGSM is a comprehensive framework with which to analyze oil and gas supply potential and related issues. Its primary function is to produce forecast of crude oil, natural gas production, and natural gas imports and exports in response to price data received endogenously (within NEMS) from the Natural Gas Transmission and Distribution Model (NGTDM) and the Petroleum Market Model (PMM). To accomplish this task, OGSM does not provide production forecasts per se, but rather parameteres for short-term domestic oil and gas production functions and natural gas import functions that reside in PMM and NGTDM.

  10. A Canadian perspective on the supply costs, production and economic impacts from oil sands development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McColl, D.; Masri, M. [Canadian Energy Research Inst., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2008-05-15

    This article provided a synopsis of oil sands research recently conducted at the Canadian Energy Research Institute (CERI). The production profiles and capital expenditures that CERI has projected for oil sands projects were explored along with the macroeconomic benefits associated with oil sands development. In addition to rising capital and operating costs, bitumen producers are challenged by labour shortages and environmental concerns. However, CERI warrants continued growth in production from the oil sands industry, given the current high price state of the global oil market and security of supply concerns from oil importing countries. This article also provided background information and analysis to assess the implications of future development. The projected growth in the oil sands industry creates demands for infrastructure, housing, health care, education, and business services. The economic impacts were measured at the local, provincial, national and global levels in terms of changes in gross domestic product; changes in employment; and, changes in government revenues. It was concluded that with continued investment and development, Alberta's oil sands resource is expected to continue to produce oil for decades, and would eventually achieve 6 MMbpd production. 8 refs., 3 tabs., 10 figs.

  11. Commitment to and preparedness for sustainable supply chain management in the oil and gas industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan Ahmad, Wan Nurul K; Rezaei, Jafar; Tavasszy, Lóránt A; de Brito, Marisa P

    2016-09-15

    Our current dependency on the oil and gas (O&G) industry for economic development and social activities necessitates research into the sustainability of the industry's supply chains. At present, studies on sustainable supply chain management (SSCM) practices in the industry do not include firm-internal factors that affect the sustainability strategies employed by different functional areas of its supply chains. Our study aims to address this gap by identifying the relevant internal factors and exploring their relationship with SSCM strategies. Specifically, we discuss the commitment to and preparedness for sustainable practices of companies that operate in upstream and downstream O&G supply chain. We study the impact of these factors on their sustainability strategies of four key supply chain functions: supplier management, production management, product stewardship and logistics management. The analyses of data collected through a survey among 81 companies show that management preparedness may enhance sustainable supply chain strategies in the O&G industry more than commitment does. Among the preparedness measures, management of supply chain operational risks is found to be vital to the sustainability of all supply chain functions except for production management practices. The findings also highlight the central importance of supplier and logistics management to the achievement of sustainable O&G supply chains. Companies must also develop an organizational culture that encourages, for example, team collaboration and proactive behaviour to finding innovative sustainability solutions in order to translate commitment to sustainable practices into actions that can produce actual difference to their SSCM practices.

  12. Information in the supply chain: measuring supply chain performance

    OpenAIRE

    Bytheway, Andrew

    1995-01-01

    Information is one of many factors in the development of supply chain operations. It is a key factor in a number of new initiatives, such as: business process management. partnership development, efficient customer response, tighter integration of supply chain operations and outsourcing of ancillary operations. Improvement of the supply chain takes place at different levels: simple efficiency (the Improvement of existing processes), improved quality of service (the redesign of ...

  13. Economics of oil supply dynamics. Theory and practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrett, S.A.

    1986-10-01

    A model of oil supply is developed where firms, in attempting to keep extraction costs down, build up reserves not only by discovering and developing new reservoirs but also by increasing the recovery of previously discovered deposits. This approach is therefore consistent with the definition of reserves corresponding to the data used in most empirical analyses. The functions underlying the theoretical model are estimated econometrically using data for Alberta, Canada, and 'optimal' solutions are simulated and compared with the observed dynamics. It is suggested that reserves have perhaps been built up at a rate that is greater than the socially optimal rate.

  14. 32 CFR 766.13 - Sale of aviation fuel, oil, services and supplies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sale of aviation fuel, oil, services and... aviation fuel, oil, services and supplies. (a) General policy. In accordance with sections 1107 and 1108 of... Aviation fuel, oil, services, and supplies are not sold to civil aircraft in competition with...

  15. A Policy study on stabilization of heating oil supply and demand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Bok Jae [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea)

    1999-03-01

    As a principal heating fuel for household and commercial sector, and a heat source fuel for industry, the heating oil shows its great demand intensively during a specific period (wintertime) due to its characteristics. It represents that the fluctuation of heating oil demand throughout the year is very extreme. Therefore, the stable supply of heating oil has been rising as an important task. It is desirable to develop and supply a new type of heating oil compounded of kerosene and gasoline with appropriate ratio for short- and mid-term to have a stable supply and demand of heating oil. For long-term prospect, it is desirable to supply petroleum products mixing gasoline and B-C oil as heating oil when it is equipped with combustion technology of boiler and distribution system. In this case, it is required to have investment on infrastructure for the supply of new heating oil (mixture of gasoline and B-C oil) and a proper preparatory period for the conversion of equipment (such as a boiler). The vitalization of storing oil is essential to stabilize the supply and demand of heating oil. In order to vitalize it, the price of heating oil should be determined by a market function reflecting the seasonal supply and demand circumstances. (author). 101 refs., 5 figs., 83 tabs.

  16. Oil refining industry: Technology complexity and supply flexibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gulli' , F. (Univ. Commerciale L. Bocconi, Milan (Italy). Ist. di Economia delle Fonti di Energia)

    1992-01-01

    In the last twenty years, the rapid shifting of demand towards lighter products (together with a reduction in demand for crude oil), and the new environmental requirements for finished products have imposed a restructuring of the petroleum refining sector, as well as, a larger recourse to technologically more complex types of processes. However, global changes in the crude oil and petroleum products market did not take place in a uniform way; thus, remarkable differences in refining technologies now exist among the refining systems of the USA, Japan and Europe (Italy in particular). In highlighting and evaluating these differences, this paper identifies a clear technological gap between the US industry and the European and Japanese industries due mainly to the strong penetration in the US of conversion processes. In fact, this high conversion capacity is a consequence of the need to adjust the offer to increasing demand for light products. Further changes foreseen in the crude oil supply and finished products market call for greater re-conversion of downstream refining.

  17. The palm oil supply chain, deforestation and peat clearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucher, D. H.

    2013-12-01

    The palm oil industry has expanded rapidly in the last two decades, particularly in Indonesia. A considerable amount of this expansion has been at the expense of forests and peatlands, resulting in considerable greenhouse gas emissions. Now the industry is faced with two new challenges. There is a possible oversupply on the global market due to recent expansion and the time lag between clearing and new production coming on line, which may depress prices considerably. Furthermore, there is increasing pressure to reduce the industry's impact on climate and biodiversity, exemplified by the commitment by the businesses of the Consumer Goods Forum to eliminate deforestation from their supply chains by 2020. This presentation will examine the interaction between these two challenges and its implications for the industry, in both southeast Asia and new regions of expansion, and how this interaction could transform the industry's mode of expansion in the coming decade.

  18. The importance of the global oils and fats supply and the role that palm oil plays in meeting the demand for oils and fats worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, James; Fitton, Claire

    2010-06-01

    This article highlights the importance of the role that palm oil plays in meeting the demand for oils and fats worldwide for food. On top of this food demand, the demand for vegetable oils for biofuels, which now absorb over 10% of world oil and fat supplies, has rapidly increased.

  19. Travel demand policies for saving oil during a supply emergency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noland, Robert B. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Centre for Transport Studies, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: r.noland@imperial.ac.uk; Cowart, William A. [ICF Consulting, Ltd., Egmont House, 25-31 Tavistock Place, Bloomsbury, London, WC1H 9SU (United Kingdom); Fulton, Lewis M. [International Energy Agency, 9 Rue de la Federation, Paris 75015 (France)

    2006-11-15

    An area of growing concern is the future stability of oil producing regions and the ability to maintain stability in international petroleum markets. The transport sector, in particular, is extremely vulnerable to short-term supply disruptions with consequent implications on economic activities in most countries. This paper analyses potential transport demand restraint strategies that could potentially mitigate the impact of short-term supply disruptions. Our analysis includes estimates of the potential fuel savings from several policies. Specifically, we examine various work-based policies (telecommuting, flexible work schedules), the potential of carpooling, speed limit reductions, driving bans and restrictions, increased public transport usage, and providing information on the effect of maintaining optimal tire pressures. The analysis uses various assumptions based on existing knowledge about how travelers may respond under emergency conditions to develop estimates of potential fuel savings. Results suggest that the most restrictive policies, such as driving bans and mandatory carpooling are the most effective. Other policies provide small reductions with some, such as telecommuting and flexible work schedules, having the potential to be easily implemented. Those policies, focussed on encouraging public transport use, are less effective and potentially more costly to implement.

  20. Optimization of electrical supply systems of oil production installations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nissenbaum, I.A.; Novoselov, Yu.B.; Tsekhnov, A.N.

    1979-01-01

    The problem of optimization of electrical system assumes determination of the method for constructing the system, the functioning of which would assure minimal values of the technical-economic criterion -- costs, which are the basic economic factor in construction and exploitation of the system. When designing electro-supply systems for oil production installations, in particular, the pump stations, three principal versions of the optimization problem are possible, which are determined by the different conditions of the system, the type of minimizing criteria and volume of optimizing parameters. The most difficult optimization of an electrical system is when it is characterized only by assumed values of active power flow, which are determined by the specific energy requirements of the planned technological processes and the type of equipment used. Second, the more common optimization problem is improvement of the existing electrical network, with established processes and equipment use. The third version is a developing system, in which as a result of introduction of new technological installations, or remodeling of old ones, and which may result in a sharp change or re-distribution of the active power supply. Determining operating regimen of the system and optimization of economic-technical criteria should be a result of large-scale calculation and simulation using a digital computer, and use of iteration and non-linear programming methods.

  1. Strategic and tactical mathematical programming models within the crude oil supply chain context : A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sahebi, H.; Nickel, S.; Ashayeri, J.

    2014-01-01

    In today's business world, oil companies cannot be productive and competitive, and, thus, will not survive without taking the supply chain management concepts into account. Consequently, the management of a Crude Oil Supply Chain (COSC) is increasingly receiving substantial importance. The growing n

  2. Oil supply between OPEC and non-OPEC based on game theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yuwen; Yi, Jiexin; Yan, Wei; Yang, Xinshe; Zhang, Song; Gao, Yifan; Wang, Xi

    2014-10-01

    The competing strategies between OPEC (Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries) and non-OPEC producers make the oil supply market a complex system, and thus, it is very difficult to model and to make predictions. In this paper, we combine the macro-model based on game theory and micro-model to propose a new approach for forecasting oil supply. We take into account the microscopic behaviour in the clearing market and also use the game relationships to adjust oil supplies in our approach. For the supply model, we analyse and consider the different behaviour of non-OPEC and OPEC producers. According to our analysis, limiting the oil supply, and thus maintaining oil price, is the best strategy for OPEC in the low-price scenario, while the rising supply is the best strategy in the high-price scenario. No matter what the oil price is, the dominant strategy for non-OPEC producers is to increase their oil supply. In the high-price scenario, OPEC will try to deplete non-OPEC's share in the oil supply market, which is to OPEC's advantage.

  3. 基于供应链的成品油库存管理优化措施分析%Analysis of the Refined Oil Inventory Management based on Supply Chain Optimization Measures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹微

    2015-01-01

    成品油是指原油经过生产加工后而炼成的油,主要包括生物柴油、乙醇汽油、煤油、柴油和汽油等。在成品油物流过程中,库存管理是非常重要的环节,同时,因为成品油具有一定的特殊性,所以,对库存管理提出了更高的要求。分析了我国成品油库存管理过程中存在的问题,提出了有关成品油库存管理的策略,并指出了成品油库存管理的优化措施,以期为相关人员提供必要的参考。%The refined oil is the production and processing of crude oil after the oil and Tempered, including bio-diesel, ethanol, gasoline, kerosene, diesel and gasoline. In the process of refined oil logistics, inventory management is a very important part, but because of the refined oil has a certain particularity, so inventory management put forward higher requirements. Analysis of China's oil inventory management process problems rose concerning oil inventory management strategy, and pointed out the optimization measures oil inventory management in order to provide the necessary reference to relevant personnel.

  4. Markets during world oil supply crises: an analysis of industry, consumer, and governmental response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erfle, Stephen; Pound, John; Kalt, Joseph

    1981-04-01

    An analysis of the response of American markets to supply crises in world oil markets is presented. It addresses four main issues: the efficiency of the operation of American oil markets during oil supply crises; the problems of both economic efficiency and social equity which arise during the American adaptation process; the propriety of the Federal government's past policy responses to these problems; and the relationship between perceptions of the problems caused by world oil crises and the real economic natures of these problems. Specifically, Chapter 1 presents a theoretical discussion of the effects of a world supply disruption on the price level and supply availability of the world market oil to any consuming country including the US Chapter 2 provides a theoretical and empirical analysis of the efficiency of the adaptations of US oil product markets to higher world oil prices. Chapter 3 examines the responses of various groups of US oil firms to the alterations observed in world markets, while Chapter 4 presents a theoretical explanation for the price-lagging behavior exhibited by firms in the US oil industry. Chapter 5 addresses the nature of both real and imagined oil market problems in the US during periods of world oil market transition. (MCW)

  5. Use of political pressure as a policy tool during the 1979 oil-supply crisis. [Monograph

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erfle, S.; Pound, J.; Kalt, J.

    1981-01-01

    The response of American markets to supply crisis in world oil markets is analyzed in the context of four main issues: the efficiency of the operation of American oil markets during oil-supply crises; the problems of both economic efficiency and social equity that arise during the American adaptation process; the propriety of the federal government's past policy responses to these problems; and the relationship between perceptions of the problems caused by world oil crises and the real economic nature of these problems. The conclusion is reached that federal intervention has caused the bulk of the genuine oil-market inefficiencies experienced by American consumers since 1973, and has forced major oil companies in particular into price and supply behavior at odds with the interests of the firms themselves and society's interests in maximizing national economic output. 64 references, 15 figures, 11 tables.

  6. Supply Deficit of Feedstock Oils for Carbon Black

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Bingyan

    2007-01-01

    @@ Feedstock oils used for carbon blackproduction mainly include ethylene tar,anthracene oil and coal tar. With thegrowing output of carbon black in re-cent years, demand for feedstock oilshas increased constantly.

  7. Impact Of The Oil Trade On The Global Economy And The Role Of Giant Fields In Predicting Supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelley, Wayne; Bishop, Richard

    2010-09-15

    Confusion about global oil supply ('peak oil') is a distraction from the economic issue of massive wealth transfer associated with oil trading and its potential to destabilize the world economy. Without an accurate forecast of oil volumes (resources, reserves and supply), timing and cost, there is no reliable way to model the consequences of the oil trade on the global economy. This paper illustrates why it is imperative to improve our understanding of the oil trade on the global economy and proposes a method of forecasting oil supply for input into a credible global economic model.

  8. PROTOTYPIC CONTINUITY METHODS FOR FASTER RECOVERY OF OIL PRODUCTS SUPPLY AFTER GREAT QUAKE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuno, Takato

    In the Great East Japan Earthquake, some oil product farms and tanks had a lot of damages. Then we temporally run short of oil products such as gasoline, lamp oil. The oil product is indispensable to make cargo shipment, or rescue operations, and some trouble must come for everyday shopping and movement of business. The lifeline damages come out electric power, water service, gas and communication. In addition the oil product shortage overlaps then the importance to restore was recognized. After earthquake disaster, there is a possibility to interrupt supply services such as shipping from oil tanks and sale at stations. Even if their discontinuation comes, it needs some business continuity policies in order to recover supply service at early stage. This paper grasps oil product discontinuation of supply and restoration transition and tries to get disaster lessons. This paper proposes prototypic techniques to minimize the sum of penalties to supply no service for neighbor region with capacities of critical stations. It applies to Tohoku regions and their gas stations and comments the usefulness of techniques and implication of supply service continuity policy.

  9. Finding the food-fuel balance. Supply and demand dynamics in global vegetable oil markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savanti, P.

    2012-10-15

    Demand for vegetable oils for food and biofuel use is expected to increase by an additional 23 million tonnes by 2016; however supply is expected to struggle to keep up with this demand, according to this Rabobank report. Vegetable oil stocks have reached a 38 year low this year due in large part to constraints such as land availability and adverse weather.

  10. Oil-Price Shocks: Beyond Standard Aggregate Demand/Aggregate Supply Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elwood, S. Kirk

    2001-01-01

    Explores the problems of portraying oil-price shocks using the aggregate demand/aggregate supply model. Presents a simple modification of the model that differentiates between production and absorption of goods, which enables it to better reflect the effects of oil-price shocks on open economies. (RLH)

  11. The Impact of Price Fluctuations in Supply Chain Uncertainty and Risk in Oil & Gas Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Mikayilova, Khatira

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Purpose – The purpose of this research is to examine the challenges faced in oil and gas Supply Chain (SC) during the oil price fluctuations, provide recommendation on a way to reduce uncertainty in SC of oil and gas industry. Design/methodology/approach-The companies chosen for this research are called BP and two service companies: Schlumberger and Halliburton. In order to carry out this study, a qualitative research method was applied. Primary data was gathered through semi-s...

  12. Optimal offshore supply vessel planning: a case study of a Chinese offshore oil and gas production area

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Zeng

    2014-01-01

    In the offshore oil and gas industry, the drilling or production installations scattered in the offshore oilfields require supplies from onshore depots. These supply services are performed specially by the offshore supply vessel fleets shuttling between offshore installations and onshore depots. In practice, the offshore supply vessels owned by a service company are normally under time charter and their operations are arranged by their charterer, the oil company. The planning of the supply se...

  13. Eastern Canadian crude oil supply and its implications for regional energy security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, Larry [Energy Research Group, Electrical and Computer Engineering, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada)

    2010-06-15

    Canada has been blessed with immense energy resources; however, their distribution is not uniform. One such example is crude oil, which is found primarily in western Canada. Eastern Canada, consisting of the six eastern-most provinces (Newfoundland and Labrador, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Ontario, Prince Edward Island, and Quebec), produce limited quantities of crude oil, most of which is exported to the United States. Ideally, western Canadian crude oil would meet the demands of eastern Canada; however, the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) and the absence of oil pipelines means that eastern Canada increasingly relies on supplies of crude oil from a small number of oil exporting countries, many with declining production. This paper examines crude oil production, supply, and its refining in eastern Canada. It shows that crude production in the region has reached its peak and that increasing global competition for crude oil will affect energy security in eastern Canada, either through price increases or supply shortages, or both. (author)

  14. Glass vs. Plastic: Life Cycle Assessment of Extra-Virgin Olive Oil Bottles across Global Supply Chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Accorsi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The environmental impacts of global food supply chains are growing with the need for their measurement and management. This paper explores the operations of a global supply chain for extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO according to a life cycle assessment (LCA methodology. The LCA assessment methodology is applied to determine the environmental impact categories associated with the bottled EVOO life cycle, focusing on packaging decisions. The proposed analysis identifies the greatest environmental stressors of the EVOO supply chain, thereby supporting strategic and operative decisions toward more efficient and environmentally-friendly operations management and packaging choices. This paper quantifies the environmental categories of the impacts of global warming potential, ozone layer depletion, non-renewable energy use, acidification, eutrophication and photochemical smog, for the observed EVOO supply chain, given alternative packaging configurations, i.e., a glass bottle vs. a plastic bottle. The observed system includes the supply of EVOO, the EVOO processing and bottling, the supply of packaging, the distribution of final products to customers, the end-of-life (EOL treatments regarding the management, recycling and the disposal of waste across a global supply chain. The findings from the LCA highlight the potential of PET bottles in reducing the environmental impact of EVOO supply chains and identifies hotspots of discussion for policy-makers, EVOO producers and consumers.

  15. EIA model documentation: Documentation of the Oil and Gas Supply Module (OGSM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to define the objectives of the Oil and Gas Supply Model (OGSM), to describe the model`s basic approach, and to provide detail on how the model works. This report is intended as a reference document for model analysts, users, and the public. Projected production estimates of US crude oil and natural gas are based on supply functions generated endogenously within National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) by the OGSM. OGSM encompasses domestic crude oil and natural gas supply by both conventional and nonconventional recovery techniques. Nonconventional recovery includes enhanced oil recovery (EOR), and unconventional gas recovery (UGR) from tight gas formations, Devonian shale and coalbeds. Crude oil and natural gas projects are further disaggregated by geographic region. OGSM projects US domestic oil and gas supply for six Lower 48 onshore regions, three offshore regions, and Alaska. The general methodology relies on forecasted drilling expenditures and average drilling costs to determine exploratory and developmental drilling levels for each region and fuel type. These projected drilling levels translate into reserve additions, as well as a modification of the production capacity for each region. OGSM also represents foreign trade in natural gas, imports and exports by entry region.

  16. Steam and fuel oil supply and purge valve with cooling steam feature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchanan, B.F.; Buchanan, J.R.

    1991-09-17

    This patent describes a steam and fuel oil supply and purge valve. It comprises a valve body defining steam and oil inlet ports, at least one discharge port, a steam purge passageway interconnecting the steam inlet and discharge ports, an oil supply passageway interconnecting the oil inlet and discharge ports, a cooling steam passageway interconnecting the steam inlet and discharge ports, a steam valve and actuator member movable between first, second, third, and fourth positions in the valve body and operable to open and close the steam purge and cooling steam passageways, a small metering passageway in the steam valve and actuator member which is so dimensioned and located as to open prior to full opening movement of the valve member and actuator relative to its seat, an oil valve member movable between first and second positions to open and close the oil supply passageway, biasing means urging the oil valve member toward its second and closed positions, the steam valve and actuator member in its first and second positions respectively closing and opening the steam purge passageway.

  17. Performance measurement for supply chain management and evaluation criteria determination for reverse supply chain management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kongar, N. Elif

    2004-12-01

    Today, since customers are able to obtain similar-quality products for similar prices, the lead time has become the only preference criterion for most of the consumers. Therefore, it is crucial that the lead time, i.e., the time spent from the raw material phase till the manufactured good reaches the customer, is minimized. This issue can be investigated under the title of Supply Chain Management (SCM). An efficiently managed supply chain can lead to reduced response time for customers. To achieve this, continuous observation of supply chain efficiency, i.e., a constant performance evaluation of the current SCM is required. Widely used conventional performance measurement methods lack the ability to evaluate a SCM since the supply chain is a dynamic system that requires a more thorough and flexible performance measurement technique. Balanced Scorecard (BS) is an efficient tool for measuring the performance of dynamic systems and has a proven capability of providing the decision makers with the appropriate feedback data. In addition to SCM, a relatively new management field, namely reverse supply chain management (RSCM), also necessitates an appropriate evaluation approach. RSCM differs from SCM in many aspects, i.e., the criteria used for evaluation, the high level of uncertainty involved etc., not allowing the usage of identical evaluation techniques used for SCM. This study proposes a generic Balanced Scorecard to measure the performance of supply chain management while defining the appropriate performance measures for SCM. A scorecard prototype, ESCAPE, is presented to demonstrate the evaluation process.

  18. Environmentally conscious design of upstream crude oil supply chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sahebi, H.; Nickel, S.; Ashayeri, J.

    In the past few decades, very rapid growth in environmental legislation has resulted in an increasing will of companies to address environmental thinking through their supply chain. In this context, great strides have been made to incorporate the environmental concerns, such as “green” and

  19. World crude oil and natural gas. A demand and supply model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krichene, Noureddine [International Monetary Fund, 700, 19 Street, 20431 Washington, DC (United States)

    2002-11-01

    This paper examines world markets for crude oil and natural gas over the period 1918-1999; it analyzes the time-series properties of output and prices and estimates demand and supply elasticities during 1918-1973 and 1973-1999. Oil and gas prices were stable during the first period; they became volatile afterwards, reflecting deep changes in the market structure following the oil shock in 1973. Demand price elasticities were too low; however, demand income elasticities were high. Supply price elasticities were also too low. The elasticity estimates help to explain the market power of the oil producers and price volatility in response to shocks, and corroborate elasticity estimates in energy studies.

  20. World crude oil and natural gas: a demand and supply model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krichene, N. [International Monetary Fund, Washington, DC (United States)

    2002-11-01

    This paper examines world markets for crude oil and natural gas over the period 1918-1999; it analyzes the time-series properties of output and prices and estimates demand and supply elasticities during 1918-1973 and 1973-1999. Oil and gas prices were stable during the first period; they became volatile afterwards, reflecting deep changes in the market structure following the oil shock in 1973. Demand price elasticities were too low; however, demand income elasticities were high. Supply price elasticities were also too low. The elasticity estimates help to explain the market power of the oil producers and price volatility in response to shocks, and corroborate elasticity estimates in energy studies. (author)

  1. The Study on Global Oil and Gas Supply and Demand undertaken by the National Petroleum Council

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slutz, James

    2007-07-01

    The National Petroleum Council (NPC) Study on Global Oil and Gas is one of the most comprehensive studies on global oil and gas supply and demand projections ever undertaken to date. This study comprises approximately 250 experts from industry, government, research institutions, academia, energy ministries from around the world, national oil companies, and non-government organizations. The NPC study team has collected and analyzed global data on supply and demand trends through the year 2030. While other studies have examined the economic, environmental, security and geo-policy implications of the oil and gas supply and demand picture, this study examines all three political priorities simultaneously. The multi-dimensional foundations of the policy recommendations, and the diverse expertise of study group members, results in findings which are truly unique, and separate this study from numerous previous studies on global oil and gas supply and demand. Although key findings and policy recommendations will not be released prior to the study's release in June of 2007, the following paper provides the scope of work and the detailed project plan that will result in an energy outlook that is differentiated from all recent studies.

  2. Development of oil supply and demand planning model for mid- and long-term

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sung Hyun [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea)

    1997-10-01

    Despite the liberalization of oil market, a systematic model is required for reasonable supply and demand of oil, which still has an important influence on industry and state economy. It is required a demand model deriving prospects of each sector and product and a supply model examining the optimum rate of operation, production mix of products, stock, export and import, and the size of equipment investment to meet given demand. As the first phase for the development of supply and demand model, the existing oil and energy models in domestic and overseas were reviewed and recommendations for establishing a Korean oil supply and demand model were derived in this study. Based on these, a principle for establishing a model and a rough framework were set up. In advance of mid- and long-term prospects, a short-term prospect model was established and the short-term prospects for the first quarter of 1999 and for the year 1999 were presented on trial. Due to the size and characters of a supply model, a plan for an ideal model was first explained and then a plan for creating a model step by step was presented as a realistic scheme. (author). 16 refs., 9 figs., 19 tabs.

  3. Measurement and modeling of oil slick transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Cathleen E.; Dagestad, Knut-Frode; Breivik, Åyvind; Holt, Benjamin; Röhrs, Johannes; Christensen, Kai Hâkon; Espeseth, Martine; Brekke, Camilla; Skrunes, Stine

    2016-10-01

    Transport characteristics of oil slicks are reported from a controlled release experiment conducted in the North Sea in June 2015, during which mineral oil emulsions of different volumetric oil fractions and a look-alike biogenic oil were released and allowed to develop naturally. The experiment used the Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar (UAVSAR) to track slick location, size, and shape for ˜8 h following release. Wind conditions during the exercise were at the high end of the range considered suitable for radar-based slick detection, but the slicks were easily detectable in all images acquired by the low noise, L-band imaging radar. The measurements are used to constrain the entrainment length and representative droplet radii for oil elements in simulations generated using the OpenOil advanced oil drift model. Simultaneously released drifters provide near-surface current estimates for the single biogenic release and one emulsion release, and are used to test model sensitivity to upper ocean currents and mixing. Results of the modeling reveal a distinct difference between the transport of the biogenic oil and the mineral oil emulsion, in particular in the vertical direction, with faster and deeper entrainment of significantly smaller droplets of the biogenic oil. The difference in depth profiles for the two types of oils is substantial, with most of the biogenic oil residing below depths of 10 m, compared to the majority of the emulsion remaining above 10 m depth. This difference was key to fitting the observed evolution of the two different types of slicks.

  4. Logistics and supply chain effectiveness measure areas in lng companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the issues of logistics and supply chain measures in companies. It considers different management systems in the area of production, which evolved from isolated production activities to business connected systems. There are performed three case studies - three examples of systems proposed and implemented in the LNG industry: I-MAC, ICIMS and PMS. Data gained from these systems are the basis to create effectiveness measures for LNG companies and LNG supply chains.

  5. A New Resilience Measure for Supply Chain Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiying Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, supply chain networks can span the whole world, and any disruption of these networks may cause economic losses, decreases in sales and unsustainable supplies. Resilience, the ability of the system to withstand disruption and return to a normal state quickly, has become a new challenge during the supply chain network design. This paper defines a new resilience measure as the ratio of the integral of the normalized system performance within its maximum allowable recovery time after the disruption to the integral of the performance in the normal state. Using the maximum allowable recovery time of the system as the time interval under consideration, this measure allows the resilience of different systems to be compared on the same relative scale, and be used under both scenarios that the system can or cannot restore in the given time. Two specific resilience measures, the resilience based on the amount of product delivered and the resilience based on the average delivery distance, are provided for supply chain networks. To estimate the resilience of a given supply chain network, a resilience simulation method is proposed based on the Monte Carlo method. A four-layered hierarchial mobile phone supply chain network is used to illustrate the resilience quantification process and show how network structure affects the resilience of supply chain networks.

  6. Oil and gas supply and economics model for Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Partowidagdo, W.

    1987-01-01

    The central goal of this study was to estimate the potential of Indonesia's unexplored basins to continue to provide income to the country. Specific objectives were: (1) Build a model that estimates how the level of efforts by the contractors in a basin will vary as physical properties, government's tax rate, and hydrocarbon prices vary. The basic assumption underlying the model is that a contractor adapts his efforts in an attempt to maximize his discounted profit. (2) Use the model to analyze the impact of the Government's tax policy in each Indonesian basin. The model consists of three submodels: discovery, development and economics. The main program uses these three submodels iteratively to determine optimum investment, which give maximum net revenue for the contractors, as a function of tax rate and hydrocarbon price for each basin in Indonesia. Remaining recoverable reserves up to the contractors' economic limit and to government's economic limit were calculated for each of the 40 known basins in Indonesia. As expected, the following conditions cause calculated recoverables to increase: (1) higher hydrocarbon prices; (2) higher fraction of discovered gas developed and sold; (3) lower cost in a basin; (a) less remote area, (b) shallower sea, (c) shallower formation; (4) higher fraction of oil in a basin (oil is more profitable than gas).

  7. Manufacturing Improvement Program for the Oil and Gas Industry Supply Chain and Marketing Cluster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Robert [Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater, OK (United States)

    2016-09-28

    This project supported upgrades for manufacturing companies in the oil and natural gas supply chain in Oklahoma. The goal is to provide assistance that will lead to the improved efficiency advancement of the manufacturing processes currently used by the existing manufacturing clients. The basis for the work is to improve the economic environment for the clients and the communities they serve.

  8. Flexible scheduling model of crude oil operations under crude supply disturbance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Today’s changeable market and resultant disturbance of crude oil supply require agile and flexible scheduling of crude oil operation. The objective of flexible scheduling is to keep stable crude oil op-eration and satisfy production demands under the circumstances of supply disturbance. In this paper, a new mixed integer non-linear programming (MINLP) formulation is set up for crude oil scheduling firstly, and then some heuristic rules worked out by some experts are proposed to linearize bilinear terms and prefix some binary variables in the MINLP model. These rules not only reduce the complexity of the MINLP model, but also can be used to solve the scheduling problems in various conditions. In case study, the new model with heuristic rules and the best models reported in the literature are com-pared and evaluated in three benchmark examples in the normal situation, and then three abnormal situations of supply delay are considered based on the new approach. The results of case study show that the new flexible approach can handle crude oil scheduling problems efficiently in both normal and abnormal conditions.

  9. Flexible scheduling model of crude oil operations under crude supply disturbance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAN Ming; QIAN Yu; LI Xiu-Xi

    2009-01-01

    Today's ohangeable market and resultant disturbance of orude oil supply require agile and flexible scheduling of crude oil operation. The objective of flexible scheduling is to keep stable crude oil op-eration and satisfy production demands under the circumstances of supply disturbance. In this paper, a new mixed integer non-linear programming (MINLP) formulation is set up for crude oil scheduling firstly, and then some heuristic rules worked out by some experts are proposed to linearize bilinear terms and prefix some binary variables in the MINLP model. These rules not only reduce the complexity of the MINLP model, but also can be used to solve the scheduling problems in various conditions. In oase study, the new model with heuristic rules and the best models reported in the literature are com-pared and evaluated in three benchmark examples in the normal situation, and then three abnormal situations of supply delay are considered based on the new approach. The results of case study show that the new flexible approach can handle crude oil scheduling problems efficiently in both normal and abnormal conditions.

  10. Supply Chain Dynamic Performance Measurement Based on BSC and SVM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Hong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Now individual contest among enterprises has been turning into collective contest among supply chains. Supply chain management (SCM has been a major component of competitive strategy to enhance organizational productivity and profitability. In recent years, organizational performance measurement and metrics have received much attention from researchers and practitioners. The foundation of proper supply chain performance assessment system is the basis of its effective operation and management. Most of the traditional supply chain performance evaluation is a static evaluation, while the actual supply chain is a dynamic system, therefore need to adapt with ways to carry out the evaluation. In order to meet the needs of the dynamic alliance's overall performance evaluation, this paper extended the traditional four Balanced Scorecard dimension into five. On this basis, established the five Balanced Scorecard dimension of supply chain, and also established a three-layered of quantitative index system according to this model. Measured then each performance indexs value by using the theory of Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process, meanwhile reduced the number of input of the Support Vector Machine (SVM by using classification method, finally, got performance evaluations result by using the weighted Least Squares Support Vector Machine (LS-SVM, which provides the basis for rational analysis and decision-making of the supply chain.

  11. European oil product supply modelling; Modelisation de l`offre de produits petroliers en Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saint-Antonin, V

    1998-12-11

    Over the last few years, trends in European oil product consumption (in terms of level as structure and quality) has important implications of the refining industry. In this context, the purpose of this thesis consists in building a mathematical programming model applied to the European refineries in order to determine oil product supply prices, European refining industry investments and oil product exchanges of the European Union. The first part presents the reason for our choice for a long-term aggregate multi-refineries linear programming model, based on European refineries characteristics and the objectives of our model. Its dual properties are studied in detail and we focus particularly on the European exchange modelling. In the second part, an analysis of the European refining trends leads us to identify parameters and variables of the model that are essential to the aggregate representation of the European oil product supply. The third part is devoted to the use of this model, regarding two scenarios of increasingly stringent specifications for gasoline and diesel oil. Our interest for these products is due to their important share of the European oil product consumption and the not insignificant responsibility of the transport sector for atmospheric pollution. Finally, in order to have the use of an overall picture of the European refining industry, we build a regression model summarizing, though a few equations, the main relations between the major endogenous and exogenous variables o the LP model. Based on pseudo-data, this kind of model provides a simple and robust representation of the oil product supply. But a more specialized analysis of the refining industry operations, turning on a technical assessment of processing units, is reliant on the use of an optimization model such as the model we have built. (author) 102 refs.

  12. Risk assessment in the upstream crude oil supply chain: Leveraging analytic hierarchy process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Charles Awoala

    For an organization to be successful, an effective strategy is required, and if implemented appropriately the strategy will result in a sustainable competitive advantage. The importance of decision making in the oil industry is reflected in the magnitude and nature of the industry. Specific features of the oil industry supply chain, such as its longer chain, the complexity of its transportation system, its complex production and storage processes, etc., pose challenges to its effective management. Hence, understanding the risks, the risk sources, and their potential impacts on the oil industry's operations will be helpful in proposing a risk management model for the upstream oil supply chain. The risk-based model in this research uses a three-level analytic hierarchy process (AHP), a multiple-attribute decision-making technique, to underline the importance of risk analysis and risk management in the upstream crude oil supply chain. Level 1 represents the overall goal of risk management; Level 2 is comprised of the various risk factors; and Level 3 represents the alternative criteria of the decision maker as indicated on the hierarchical structure of the crude oil supply chain. Several risk management experts from different oil companies around the world were surveyed, and six major types of supply chain risks were identified: (1) exploration and production, (2) environmental and regulatory compliance, (3) transportation, (4) availability of oil, (5) geopolitical, and (6) reputational. Also identified are the preferred methods of managing risks which include; (1) accept and control the risks, (2) avoid the risk by stopping the activity, or (3) transfer or share the risks to other companies or insurers. The results from the survey indicate that the most important risk to manage is transportation risk with a priority of .263, followed by exploration/production with priority of .198, with an overall inconsistency of .03. With respect to major objectives the most

  13. Determination of Aluminium and Physicochemical Parameters in the Palm Oil Estates Water Supply at Johor, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siti Farizwana, M. R.; Mazrura, S.; Zurahanim Fasha, A.; Ahmad Rohi, G.

    2010-01-01

    The study was to determine the concentration of aluminium (Al) and study the physicochemical parameters (pH, total dissolved solids (TDS), turbidity, and residual chlorine) in drinking water supply in selected palm oil estates in Kota Tinggi, Johor. Water samples were collected from the estates with the private and the public water supplies. The sampling points were at the water source (S), the treatment plant outlet (TPO), and at the nearest houses (H1) and the furthest houses (H2) from the TPO. All estates with private water supply failed to meet the NSDWQ for Al with mean concentration of 0.99 ± 1.52 mg/L. However, Al concentrations in all public water supply estates were well within the limit except for one estate. The pH for all samples complied with the NSDWQ except from the private estates for the drinking water supply with an acidic pH (5.50 ± 0.90). The private water supply showed violated turbidity value in the drinking water samples (14.2 ± 24.1 NTU). Insufficient amount of chlorination was observed in the private water supply estates (0.09 ± 0.30 mg/L). Private water supplies with inefficient water treatment served unsatisfactory drinking water quality to the community which may lead to major health problems. PMID:21461348

  14. Determination of aluminium and physicochemical parameters in the palm oil estates water supply at Johor, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siti Farizwana, M R; Mazrura, S; Zurahanim Fasha, A; Ahmad Rohi, G

    2010-01-01

    The study was to determine the concentration of aluminium (Al) and study the physicochemical parameters (pH, total dissolved solids (TDS), turbidity, and residual chlorine) in drinking water supply in selected palm oil estates in Kota Tinggi, Johor. Water samples were collected from the estates with the private and the public water supplies. The sampling points were at the water source (S), the treatment plant outlet (TPO), and at the nearest houses (H1) and the furthest houses (H2) from the TPO. All estates with private water supply failed to meet the NSDWQ for Al with mean concentration of 0.99 ± 1.52 mg/L. However, Al concentrations in all public water supply estates were well within the limit except for one estate. The pH for all samples complied with the NSDWQ except from the private estates for the drinking water supply with an acidic pH (5.50 ± 0.90). The private water supply showed violated turbidity value in the drinking water samples (14.2 ± 24.1 NTU). Insufficient amount of chlorination was observed in the private water supply estates (0.09 ± 0.30 mg/L). Private water supplies with inefficient water treatment served unsatisfactory drinking water quality to the community which may lead to major health problems.

  15. Determination of Aluminium and Physicochemical Parameters in the Palm Oil Estates Water Supply at Johor, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Siti Farizwana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was to determine the concentration of aluminium (Al and study the physicochemical parameters (pH, total dissolved solids (TDS, turbidity, and residual chlorine in drinking water supply in selected palm oil estates in Kota Tinggi, Johor. Water samples were collected from the estates with the private and the public water supplies. The sampling points were at the water source (S, the treatment plant outlet (TPO, and at the nearest houses (H1 and the furthest houses (H2 from the TPO. All estates with private water supply failed to meet the NSDWQ for Al with mean concentration of 0.99 ± 1.52 mg/L. However, Al concentrations in all public water supply estates were well within the limit except for one estate. The pH for all samples complied with the NSDWQ except from the private estates for the drinking water supply with an acidic pH (5.50 ± 0.90. The private water supply showed violated turbidity value in the drinking water samples (14.2 ± 24.1 NTU. Insufficient amount of chlorination was observed in the private water supply estates (0.09 ± 0.30 mg/L. Private water supplies with inefficient water treatment served unsatisfactory drinking water quality to the community which may lead to major health problems.

  16. Energy supply strategy: getting technology commercialized, shale oil and enhanced oil recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steger, J.E.; Sullo, P.; Michaelis, M.; Nason, H.K.

    1979-12-01

    Purpose is to identify factors inhibiting the near-term investment of industrial funds for producing oil from shale and through enhanced oil recovery, and to estimate the investment and production which would result if these deterrents were removed and suitable incentives provided. The barriers are discussed under the following categories: economic, environmental, institutional/regulatory, and technical. (DLC)

  17. Oil Producers vulnerability: restrictions for oil supply strategy - OPEC, Mexico and Norway; Indicadores de vulnerabilidade do produtor de petroleo: restricoes a estrategia de oferta - OPEP, Mexico and Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delgado, Fernanda; Schaeffer, Roberto; Szklo, Alexandre [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE)

    2008-07-01

    Few analysts address the socio-economic vulnerability faced by large oil producers countries that restricts their oil supply strategies. However, such as net import countries may be vulnerable to oil supply, large oil exporters countries may also become vulnerable due to their socio-economic dependence on oil, as export revenues are so important to their wealth generation and their populations' well-fare status. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the vulnerabilities of some oil exporters as the OPEC's member-countries, Mexico and Norway face, or may face, and that may restrict their degree of freedom for productive decision making (including investments) and for elaborating oil supply strategies (aiming at taking a larger share of the oil revenue). In order to do that this paper is divided in 3 sections. Initially, socio-economic vulnerability indicators for the oil exporting countries are presented, built and analyzed. Socio-economic vulnerability indicators comprehend, for instance, the following dimensions: physical, productive, fiscal, commercial, macroeconomic and social. The next section regards the application of a multi criteria method, the AHP - Analytic Hierarchy Process in order to summarize and organize the indicators. Finally, implications of the socio-economic vulnerabilities of these oil export countries for the world oil supply and price are derived. (author)

  18. Supply of carbon dioxide for enhanced oil recovery. Final report, October 15, 1976--September 1, 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rump, W.M.; Hare, M.; Porter, R.E.

    1977-09-01

    Results are presented from a study of the carbon dioxide supply situation for miscible flooding operations to enhance oil recovery. Candidate oil reservoirs were identified, and the carbon dioxide requirements and the potential recoverable oil for some of these were estimated. A survey of carbon dioxide sources has been conducted within the geographic areas where candidate oil reservoirs exist. Sources considered were both high and low quality gases from combustion vents, chemical process stacks, and naturally occurring gas deposits. The survey shows more than enough carbon dioxide is available from above-ground sources alone to meet expected demands. Systems to purify and deliver the carbon dioxide were designed and the costs of the delivered carbon dioxide estimated. Lowest cost is carbon dioxide from natural source with credit for by-product methane. A more comprehensive survey of above-ground and natural sources is recommended.

  19. Robust optimization on sustainable biodiesel supply chain produced from waste cooking oil under price uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong; Jiang, Yunjian

    2017-02-01

    Waste cooking oil (WCO)-for-biodiesel conversion is regarded as the "waste-to-wealthy" industry. This paper addresses the design of a WCO-for-biodiesel supply chain at both strategic and tactical levels. The supply chain of this problem is studied, which is based on a typical mode of the waste collection (from restaurants' kitchen) and conversion in the cities. The supply chain comprises three stakeholders: WCO supplier, integrated bio-refinery and demand zone. Three key problems should be addressed for the optimal design of the supply chain: (1) the number, sizes and locations of bio-refinery; (2) the sites and amount of WCO collected; (3) the transportation plans of WCO and biodiesel. A robust mixed integer linear model with muti-objective (economic, environmental and social objectives) is proposed for these problems. Finally, a large-scale practical case study is adopted based on Suzhou, a city in the east of China, to verify the proposed models.

  20. Optimizing the power of transformer substations in electric supply to the oil fields of Western Siberia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nissenbaum, I.A.; Kudryashov, R.A.; Novoselov, Yu.B.; Sud, I.N.

    1983-01-01

    The problems which come up in designing substations for electricity supply grids for the oil fields in Western Siberia in determining their capacity are examined. A technique is proposed for technical and economic selection of the capacity of substations with consideration of the specifications for design documentation. The issues of rating loads on transformer substations and their prediction are examined. A technique for considering the overloading capability of transformers and their wear at the design load is presented. An example of power drop of an oil field, 35/6 kilovolt voltage substation is cited.

  1. 25 CFR 226.38 - Measuring and storing oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Measuring and storing oil. 226.38 Section 226.38 Indians... LANDS FOR OIL AND GAS MINING Requirements of Lessees § 226.38 Measuring and storing oil. All production.... Facilities suitable for containing and measuring accurately all crude oil produced from the wells shall...

  2. Enhanced Oil Recovery: Aqueous Flow Tracer Measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph Rovani; John Schabron

    2009-02-01

    A low detection limit analytical method was developed to measure a suite of benzoic acid and fluorinated benzoic acid compounds intended for use as tracers for enhanced oil recovery operations. Although the new high performance liquid chromatography separation successfully measured the tracers in an aqueous matrix at low part per billion levels, the low detection limits could not be achieved in oil field water due to interference problems with the hydrocarbon-saturated water using the system's UV detector. Commercial instrument vendors were contacted in an effort to determine if mass spectrometry could be used as an alternate detection technique. The results of their work demonstrate that low part per billion analysis of the tracer compounds in oil field water could be achieved using ultra performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry.

  3. Evaluating the economic impacts of pipeline useage on the Texas oil & gas supply chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Jashandeep

    The objective of this dissertation is to find the minimum supply chain cost for the Texas oil and gas industry, when pipeline is used as the major mode of transporting oil. The problem is solved, by introducing a mixed -- integer linear programming model which will help in taking the necessary decisions based on the cost estimates for various scenarios. In order to meet the objective, specific objectives were put down to evaluate their impacts. First was to evaluate the economic impact of mode of transport and the infrastructure second was to evaluate the economic impact of refinery flow. Finally this dissertation aims at the mixed -- integer programming model to demonstrate the economic impacts of pipeline usage on the supply chain.

  4. NEMS International Energy Module, model documentation report: World Oil Market, Petroleum Products Supply and Oxygenates Supply components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-04

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) is developing the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) to enhance its energy forecasting capabilities and to provide the Department of Energy with a comprehensive framework for analyzing alternative energy` futures. NEMS is designed with a multi-level modular structure that represents specific energy supply activities, conversion processes, and demand sectors as a series of self-contained units which are linked by an integrating mechanism. The NEMS International Energy Module (IEM) computes world oil prices and the resulting patterns of international trade in crude oil and refined products. This report is a reference document for energy analysts, model users, and the public that is intended to meet EIA`s legal obligation to provide adequate documentation for all statistical and forecast reports (Public Law 93-275, section 57(b)(1). Its purpose is to describe the structure of the IEM. Actual operation of the model is not discussed here. The report contains four sections summarizing the overall structure of the IEM and its interface with other NEMS modules, mathematical specifications of behavioral relationships, and data sources and estimation methods. Following a general description of the function and rationale of its key components, system and equation level information sufficient to permit independent evaluation of the model`s technical details is presented.

  5. Process modeling and supply chain design for advanced biofuel production based on bio-oil gasification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qi

    As a potential substitute for petroleum-based fuel, second generation biofuels are playing an increasingly important role due to their economic, environmental, and social benefits. With the rapid development of biofuel industry, there has been an increasing literature on the techno-economic analysis and supply chain design for biofuel production based on a variety of production pathways. A recently proposed production pathway of advanced biofuel is to convert biomass to bio-oil at widely distributed small-scale fast pyrolysis plants, then gasify the bio-oil to syngas and upgrade the syngas to transportation fuels in centralized biorefinery. This thesis aims to investigate two types of assessments on this bio-oil gasification pathway: techno-economic analysis based on process modeling and literature data; supply chain design with a focus on optimal decisions for number of facilities to build, facility capacities and logistic decisions considering uncertainties. A detailed process modeling with corn stover as feedstock and liquid fuels as the final products is presented. Techno-economic analysis of the bio-oil gasification pathway is also discussed to assess the economic feasibility. Some preliminary results show a capital investment of 438 million dollar and minimum fuel selling price (MSP) of $5.6 per gallon of gasoline equivalent. The sensitivity analysis finds that MSP is most sensitive to internal rate of return (IRR), biomass feedstock cost, and fixed capital cost. A two-stage stochastic programming is formulated to solve the supply chain design problem considering uncertainties in biomass availability, technology advancement, and biofuel price. The first-stage makes the capital investment decisions including the locations and capacities of the decentralized fast pyrolysis plants and the centralized biorefinery while the second-stage determines the biomass and biofuel flows. The numerical results and case study illustrate that considering uncertainties can be

  6. Examination of oil sands projects : gasification, CO{sub 2} emissions and supply costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, K. [Energy Resources Conservation Board, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2008-10-15

    Non-conventional resources such as Alberta's oil sands are experiencing increased global interest because of the decline in global conventional oil and natural gas reserves. Bitumen extraction and upgrading is an energy intensive process. This paper provided a general discussion of Alberta's oil sands reserves, production and energy requirements. The paper discussed the application of different technologies to the oil sands, and in particular, the use of gasification as a method to produce bitumen-derived synthesis gas. Two oil sands projects currently under construction and implementing gasification technology were briefly described. The paper also provided a comparison of emission intensities from projects that employ gasification leading to a forecast of carbon dioxide equivalent emissions from the oil sands. The impact of Alberta's legislation and the federal framework on greenhouse gas emissions were also examined. Last, the paper discussed a supply cost methodology to compare an integrated extraction and upgrading project using gasification versus a similar project using a conventional steam methane reforming process (SMR). It was concluded that after comparing carbon dioxide emission intensities across different types of projects, the type of project that would be most heavily impacted by greenhouse gas emissions penalties was an in-situ extraction with an upgrading project that employed gasification technology. 36 refs., 5 tabs., 12 figs., 1 appendix.

  7. Supply chain performance measurement in the manufacturing industry:a single case study research to develop a supply chain performance measurement framework

    OpenAIRE

    Sillanpää, I.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Supply chain performance measurement – the process of qualifying the efficiency and effectiveness of the supply chain. The aim of this study is to create a supply chain measurement framework for manufacturing industry, define what data should be measured and verify the measurement framework in the case company's supply chain. The research approach is hermeneutic and the research was a qualitative, constructive single case study research. The case company operates in the steel indu...

  8. Impact of innovations on future energy supply - chemical enhanced oil recovery (CEOR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittner, Christian

    2013-01-01

    The International Energy Agency (IEA) expects an increase of global energy demand by one-third during next 20 years together with a change in the global energy mix. A key-influencing factor is a strong expected increase in oil and gas production in the United States driven by 'new' technologies such as hydraulic fracturing. Chemical enhanced oil recovery (CEOR) is another strong growing technology with the potential of a step change innovation, which will help to secure future oil supply by turning resources into reserves. While conventional production methods give access to on average only one-third of original oil in place, the use of surfactants and polymers allows for recovery of up to another third of this oil. In the case of polymer flooding with poly acrylamide, the number of full field implementations has increased in recent years. In the meantime new polymers have been developed to cover previously unmet needs - such polymers can be applied in fields of high salinity and high temperature. Use of surfactants is in an earlier stage, but pilot tests show promising results.

  9. A comparison of oil supply risks in EU, US, Japan, China and India under different climate scenarios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Moerkerk, Mike; Crijns-Graus, Wina

    2016-01-01

    For many countries, the inflow of energy is essential to keep economies running. Oil is typically considered to be the most critical fuel as an input for the petro-chemical and transportation sector and due to limited and less spread reserves. In this study external oil supply risks are assessed for

  10. A comparison of oil supply risks in EU, US, Japan, China and India under different climate scenarios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Moerkerk, Mike; Crijns-Graus, Wina

    2016-01-01

    For many countries, the inflow of energy is essential to keep economies running. Oil is typically considered to be the most critical fuel as an input for the petro-chemical and transportation sector and due to limited and less spread reserves. In this study external oil supply risks are assessed for

  11. An empirical supply chain measurement model for a national egg producer based on the supply chain operations reference model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Pretorius

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The management of a supply chain is both an offensive and defensive weapon that organisations can use to increase their competitive edge and capture a larger share of the market. In management science and supply chain management, multi-criteria decision making techniques have been used to solve a range of real-world problems. The problem is that many, if not most, companies in South Africa either do not have the required skills to use these decision-making techniques to improve or re-configure their supply chain, or they do not have a complete data set with which to model it effectively. In order to manage supply chains effectively, organisations at the very least need feedback on the performance of their entire supply chain. In this article, generic supply chain performance measures were used and a theoretical or empirical model was developed for the performance measurement of a national egg producer’s supply chain. It focused on a managerial program for the identification and management of their supply chain with recommendations for applying a measurement model. The overall performance of the supply chain as well as the five different performance attributes was presented to management in a dashboard format. This article could be used as a basis for future studies of supply chain performance measurement and the model could be used as a foundation for developing an improved version, not only for the egg industry, but for other industries as well. 

  12. Global fishmeal and fish-oil supply: inputs, outputs and markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, C J; Jackson, A J

    2013-10-01

    Recent data on fishmeal and fish-oil supply are presented identifying key producer countries and raw material sources and distinguishing between whole fish and by-products. The conversion of these raw materials into marine ingredients is discussed and global volumes presented. This is followed by a summary of the main countries using these marine ingredients over recent years. Uses of fishmeal and fish-oil by market segment are then presented. From this, a global mass balance of inputs and outputs is derived which allows the calculation of the input-to-output ratios (fish in:fish out; FIFO) for the main aquaculture production types to be made. Current areas of focus by the industry include the need to demonstrate sustainable practice, more strategic use of marine ingredients, greater use of fishery and land-animal by-products as well as vegetable substitutes, and novel sources of essential omega-3 fats, notably the long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids. Implications are drawn for future supply prospects of fishmeal and fish-oil and their future role in aquaculture, agriculture and human health.

  13. Oil demand reduction in an oil crisis. Evaluation of oil demand-reducing measures for the transportation sector; Brandstofvraagreductie bij oliecrisis. Evaluatie van vraagreducerende maatregelen voor de transportsector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanschke, C.B.; Van Bree, B.; Kroon, P. [ECN Beleidsstudies, Petten (Netherlands)

    2010-01-15

    Every IEA member state must have in place measures to reduce oil demand during oil supply emergencies. The transport sector offers significant opportunities to reduce oil demand with relatively limited impact on the overall economy. To determine which measures are useful in the Dutch situation, this report performs a quick scan of a number of demand restraint measures in the transport sector. The quick scan ranks measures by their effectiveness, feasibility, and efficiency. Based on the quick scan results, three measures have been selected for further research (Sunday driving ban, work-trip reduction, and carpooling). Additionally, the effects of price increases on oil demand have been examined. Five refineries and a large petrochemical industry sector are based in the Netherlands. Therefore, the shares of passenger road transport (20%) and freight road transport (12%) in the national oil demand are comparatively low. As a consequence an oil demand reduction in road transport of at least 20% to 30% is required to meet the national oil demand reduction target of 7% to 10% agreed within IEA. Price effects during an oil crisis are uncertain given limited research, and estimated to reduce oil demand from passenger road transport by 15% to 35% and oil demand from freight road transport by 10% to 25%. Given the uncertainty, this effect was halved to obtain a conservative estimate of 2% to 4% of national oil demand reduction as a result of price effects. A Sunday driving ban can lead to reductions of 50% to 80% of passenger travel on Sundays, leading to savings of 1% to 1.5% of national oil demand. Work-trip reduction policies can reduce worktrips by 10% and lead to reductions of 0.5% to 1% of total oil demand. Carpooling has the greatest potential, reducing work trips up to 30% and leading to 0% to 2.5% savings of national oil demand. The broad range of the latter estimate is due to the limited options available to influence motorists to share their vehicles with others

  14. Sustainable supply chain design for waste cooking oil-based biodiesel in bogor using dynamic system approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syahdan, A. D.; Arkeman, Y.; Wijaya, H.

    2017-05-01

    Biodiesel is one of the alternative fuels that are environmentally friendly. Besides palm oil, biodiesel can also be produced from waste cooking oil. Since 2007, the government of Bogor has been utilizing waste cooking oil into biodiesel for use as Transpakuan bus’ fuel. However, in practice, the amount of waste cooking oil supplied is never sufficient the needs of fuel of 30 units Transpakuan bus. The main objective of this research is to analyze the availability of waste cooking oil that will be converted into biodiesel within the next ten years as well as providing policy advice to support the program. The method used is a dynamic system that is followed by simulation of multiple scenarios that have been defined. The system is divided into three subsystems, namely supply subsystem, demand subsystem, and production subsystem. The results showed that the current system is not able to guarantee the sustainability of the supply chain of waste cooking oil as a raw material of biodiesel. From some of the scenarios tested can be concluded that biodiesel needs would increase in line with the trend of the use of environmentally friendly fuels. It takes a new system and a new policy relating to the biodiesel supply chain. Policy suggestions that can be proposed from this research is to increase supplier participation, objectify the program of converting angkot into Transpakuan bus, and support the development of biodiesel industry.

  15. Oil supply, demand and price; Offre, demande et prix du petrole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lescaroux, F.

    2011-07-15

    To date the new millennium has seen a new twist in the history of oil. At the time of the last counter-shock, the IFP chairman declared. 'Our hero is no longer that of a Shakespearean drama of sound and fury. He has become just one of the players on a trivial theatre stage'. Peace lasted fifteen years, during which the barrel price fluctuated gently. But the oil price chronicle has become passionate once again and tragedy is stepping back in. Yet, this crisis is reminiscent of previous ones, those of the seventies and also of the 1910's, and its outcome could be surprisingly muted. Owing to inertia in production and consumption, the oil system is not responsive in the short run to sudden price variations, and the price rebound could go further as the economic situation improves; in the long term, however, innovation plays a primary role in both supply and demand functions, which have proven very flexible for 150 years, so a new period of balance could start by the twenties. (author)

  16. Measuring energy security. Can the United States achieve oil independence?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greene, David L. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, National Transportation Research Center, 2360 Cherahala Boulevard, Knoxville, TN 37932 (United States)

    2010-04-15

    Stochastic simulation of the direct economic costs of oil dependence in an uncertain future is proposed as a useful metric of oil dependence. The market failure from which these costs arise is imperfect competition in the world oil market, chiefly as a consequence of the use of market power by the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) cartel. Oil dependence costs can be substantial. It is estimated that oil dependence costs to the US economy in 2008 will exceed $500 billion. Other costs, such as military expenditures or foreign policy constraints are deemed to be largely derivative of the actual or potential economic costs of oil dependence. The use of quantifiable economic costs as a security metric leads to a measurable definition of oil independence, or oil security, which can be used to test the ability of specific policies to achieve oil independence in an uncertain future. (author)

  17. Transient Processes in Electric Power Supply System for Oil Terminal with Own Gas-Turbine Power Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Hаshimov

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains results of the investigations concerning influence of symmetrical and non-symmetrical short circuits at main power network on electric power supply system of a huge oil terminal which is powered by own gas-turbine power station. Calculations have been made in accordance with the IEC and IEEЕ requirements. Estimations for voltage level and distribution of short circuit current in the electric power supply system of the Sangachal oil terminal being operated in parallel with the AzerEnerji grid are presented in the paper

  18. Developing measures for the evaluation of information flow efficiency in supply chains

    OpenAIRE

    Johanna A. Badenhorst; Claus Maurer; Tersia Brevis-Landsberg

    2013-01-01

    Member organisations in a supply chain are dependent on each other to provide material, services and information to perform optimally in the supply chain. Efficient, unrestricted information flow is needed in supply chains to function properly. Information flow is thus an element of supply chain management that needs to be managed. Yet, no indication could be found in supply chain management literature of the measurement of information flow efficiency. Hence, the aim of this article is to exp...

  19. Effects of oxygen supply on the biodegradation rate in oil hydrocarbons contaminated soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawierucha, I.; Malina, G.

    2011-04-01

    Respirometry studies using the 10-chamber Micro-Oxymax respirometer (Columbus, Ohio) were conducted to determine the effect of biostimulation (by diverse ways of O2 supply) on enhancing biodegradation in soils contaminated with oil hydrocarbons. Soil was collected from a former military airport in Kluczewo, Poland. Oxygen was supplied by means of aerated water, aqueous solutions of H2O2 and KMnO4. The biodegradation was evaluated on the basis of O2 uptake and CO2 production. The O2 consumption and CO2 production rates during hydrocarbons biodegradation were estimated from the slopes of cumulative curve linear regressions. The pertinent intrinsic and enhanced biodegradation rates were calculated on the basis of mass balance equation and O2 uptake and CO2 production rates. The biodegradation rates of 5-7 times higher as compared to a control were observed when the aqueous solution of KMnO4 in concentration of 20 g L-1 was applied. Permanganate is known to readily oxidize alkene carbon - carbon double bonds; so it can be successfully applied in remediation technology for soils contaminated with oil hydrocarbons. While hydrocarbons are not completely mineralized by permanganate oxidation reactions, their structure is altered by polar functional groups providing vast improvements in aqueous solubility and availability for biodegradation. The 3% aqueous solution of H2O2 caused significant improvement of the biodegradation rates as compared to a control (on average about 260%). Aerobic biodegradation of hydrocarbons can benefit from the presence of oxygen released during H2O2 decomposition. Adding of aerated water resulted in an increase of biodegradation rates (about 114 - 229%) as compared to a control. The aerated water can both be the source of oxygen for microorganisms and determine the transport of substrate to bacteria cells.

  20. Provision of Continuity in Power Supply of Wind Power Stations by Improvement of Methods for Control of Oil Transformer Serviceability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. A. Rolik

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers problems pertaining to reduction of time for restoration of a wind power station (WPS by development of a method and control means according to informative parameter. A high-voltage oil transformer has been selected as a control WPS object.  The paper shows that the most informative parameter determining continuity in WPS power supply is an over-heating temperature of oil transformer elements. A method and means for control of WPS oil transformer serviceability are proposed in the paper.

  1. Performance Measurement/Management in Closed-Loop Supply Chain

    OpenAIRE

    Kashyap, Karthik

    2010-01-01

    Reverse logistics and supply chain or the more popular term closed-loop supply chain management is a topic which is gaining speed and popularity during recent years especially due to the various laws and directives laid down by the governments in order to protect environment and the society. Apart from these directives, organisations across various industry sectors are realising this as an opportunity to gain competitive advantage in the supply chain over other organisations and a way of gain...

  2. Agile Supply Chain Reengineering Based on Multi-Objective Global Performance Measurement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王炬香; 奚立峰; 王安麟; 胡宗武

    2003-01-01

    The process and related technology of agile supply chain reengineering is discussed in this paper. The process of supply chain reengineering is divided into two parts here: structure reengineering and operation strategy reengineering. Multi-agent concept is adopted in the structure reengineering for the convenience of the modeling. Enterprises in the agile supply chain are expressed as corresponding agents with specified characteristics. Cost and response time are adopted as the main objectives of the global supply chain performance measurement. A virtual simplified supply chain is used to illustrate the role of overall supply chain performance measurement in the reengineering process.

  3. Electrical Power Supply to Offshore Oil Installations by High Voltage Direct Current Transmission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myhre, Joergen Chr.

    2001-07-01

    This study was initiated to investigate if it could be feasible to supply offshore oil installations in the North Sea with electrical power from land. A prestudy of alternative converter topologies indicated that the most promising solution would be to investigate a conventional system with reduced synchronous compensator rating. The study starts with a summary of the state of power supply to offshore installations today, and a short review of classical HVDC transmission. It goes on to analyse how a passive network without sources influences the inverter. The transmission, with its current controlled rectifier and large inductance, is simulated as a current source. Under these circumstances the analysis shows that the network frequency has to adapt in order to keep the active and reactive power balance until the controllers are able to react. The concept of firing angle for a thyristor is limited in a system with variable frequency, the actual control parameter is the firing delay time. Sensitivity analysis showed some astonishing consequences. The frequency rises both by an increase in the active and in the reactive load. The voltage falls by an increase in the active load, but rises by an increase in the inductive load. Two different control principles for the system of inverter, synchronous compensator and load are defined. The first takes the reference for the firing delay time from the fundamental voltage at the point of common coupling. The second takes the reference for the firing delay time from the simulated EMF of the synchronous compensator. Of these, the second is the more stable and should be chosen as the basis for a possible control system. Two simulation tools are applied. The first is a quasi-phasor model running on Matlab with Simulink. The other is a time domain model in KREAN. The time domain model is primarily used for the verification of the quasi-phasor model, and shows that quasi-phasors is still a valuable tool for making a quick analysis

  4. Measuring the Value-added of Oil Palm Products with Integrating SCOR Model and Discrete Event Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitra Lestari

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Oil palm processing industry in Malaysia can directly distribute the finished products in exporting without considering the transformation value of the product to the end customer. Nevertheless, it influences the configuration of the supply chain strategy. The purpose of this study measures the performance of supply chain configuration in oil palm business. The model use tools for measuring supply chain configuration with integrating SCOR models and discrete event simulation. Finding of this study revealed that the highest value-added of oil palm derivative product is scenario 5 which it proposes 100% CPO and CPKO deliver to the local refinery without distributing to the export and its finished products are distributed to the export through the port. Finally, it gives consideration to the stakeholders in controlling the system and then makes sure the business process keeps running on the track.

  5. When balanced for precursor fatty acid supply echium oil is not superior to linseed oil in enriching lamb tissues with long-chain n-3 PUFA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitessa, Soressa M; Young, Paul; Nattrass, Greg; Gardner, Graham; Pearce, Kelly; Pethick, David W

    2012-07-14

    Vegetable oils containing stearidonic acid (SDA, 18 : 4n-3) are considered better precursors of long-chain n-3 PUFA (LC n-3 PUFA) than those with only α-linolenic acid (ALA, 18 : 3n-3). The present study re-examined this premise using treatments where added ALA from linseed oil was matched with ALA plus SDA from echium oil. Lambs (n 6) were abomasally infused with saline (control (C), 25 ml), echium oil low (EL, 25 ml), echium oil high (EH, 50 ml), linseed oil low (LL, 25 ml) or linseed oil high (LH, 50 ml) for 4 weeks. The basal ration used was identical across all treatments. EPA (20 : 5n-3) in meat increased from 6·5 mg in the C lambs to 16·8, 17·7, 13·5 and 11·7 (SEM 0·86) mg/100 g muscle in the EL, EH, LL and LH lambs, respectively. For muscle DPA (docosapentaenoic acid; 22 : 5n-3), the corresponding values were 14·3, 22·2, 18·6 18·2 and 19·4 (SEM 0·57) mg/100 g muscle. The DHA (22 : 6n-3) content of meat was 5·8 mg/100 g in the C lambs and ranged from 4·53 to 5·46 (SEM 0·27) mg/100 g muscle in the oil-infused groups. Total n-3 PUFA content of meat (including ALA and SDA) increased from 39 mg to 119, 129, 121 and 150 (SEM 12·3) mg/100 g muscle. We conclude that both oil types were effective in enhancing the EPA and DPA, but not DHA, content of meat. Furthermore, we conclude that, when balanced for precursor n-3 fatty acid supply, differences between linseed oil and echium oil in enriching meat with LC n-3 PUFA were of little, if any, nutritional significance.

  6. Measurements and modeling of physical properties for oil and biomaterial refining

    OpenAIRE

    Zaitseva, Anna

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to investigate a set of binary systems for developing necessary thermodynamic models for oil and biofuel industries. Extensive experimental work was performed for supplying the necessary vapor – liquid equilibria (VLE) and excess enthalpy data for the selected systems. Binary systems with C4 hydrocarbons + alkenes, alcohols and ketones were measured due to their importance in production of fuel additives. Static total pressure apparatus was utilized for these iso...

  7. 33 CFR 106.270 - Security measures for delivery of stores and industrial supplies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... stores and industrial supplies. 106.270 Section 106.270 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... stores and industrial supplies. (a) General. The OCS facility owner or operator must ensure that security measures relating to the delivery of stores or industrial supplies to the OCS facility are implemented...

  8. A key performance measures for evaluating cold supply chain performance in farm industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shashi Shashi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to develop a set of measures, evaluate their importance and effect in cold supply chain performance. This investigation reviewed previous research works on all the stages of the farm product supply chain. Based on farm product supply chain, 4 measures with 31 metrics were identified and developed to measure the cold supply chain performance. A survey was organized to establish the importance and the effect of identified measures. The 5 point Likert scale questionnaire was distributed among SC academics and practitioners. The observed finding infers that the measurement instrument was substantiating for evaluating cold supply chain performance in farm industry. The new developed metrics will help firms improve the visibility of supply among partners and in better decision making. The investigation was enfolded up through the plan of direction intended for future study.

  9. Microwave remote sensing measurements of oil pollution on the ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croswell, W. F.; Blume, H.-J. C.; Johnson, J. W.

    1981-01-01

    Microwave and optical remote sensors were flown over fresh and weathered crude oil released from a surface research vessel and also over a slick formed on the sea by frozen oleyl alcohol cubes released from a helicopter. For the crude oil experiments, microwave radiometric measurements at 1.43, 2.65, 22, and 31 GHz are reported, along with the variable incidence angle scattering measurements at 13.9 GHz. For these experiments, unusual depressions in the L-band brightness temperature were observed, possibly related to dispersants applied to the crude oil. Similar depressions, but with much larger values, were observed over the oleyl alcohol monomolecular slicks. Images obtained at 31 and 22 GHz were used to infer oil volume, yielding values which bound the known amounts spilled. Ku band measurements obtained in repeated passes over crude oil slicks are also discussed.

  10. Thermal Diffusivity Measurements in Edible Oils using Transient Thermal Lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, R. Carbajal.; Pérez, J. L. Jiménez.; Cruz-Orea, A.; Martín-Martínez, E. San.

    2006-11-01

    Time resolved thermal lens (TL) spectrometry is applied to the study of the thermal diffusivity of edible oils such as olive, and refined and thermally treated avocado oils. A two laser mismatched-mode experimental configuration was used, with a He Ne laser as a probe beam and an Ar+ laser as the excitation one. The characteristic time constant of the transient thermal lens was obtained by fitting the experimental data to the theoretical expression for a transient thermal lens. The results showed that virgin olive oil has a higher thermal diffusivity than for refined and thermally treated avocado oils. This measured thermal property may contribute to a better understanding of the quality of edible oils, which is very important in the food industry. The thermal diffusivity results for virgin olive oil, obtained from this technique, agree with those reported in the literature.

  11. Developing measures for the evaluation of information flow efficiency in supply chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna A. Badenhorst

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Member organisations in a supply chain are dependent on each other to provide material, services and information to perform optimally in the supply chain. Efficient, unrestricted information flow is needed in supply chains to function properly. Information flow is thus an element of supply chain management that needs to be managed. Yet, no indication could be found in supply chain management literature of the measurement of information flow efficiency. Hence, the aim of this article is to explore the measurement of information flow efficiency in supply chain management (SCM and exploratively develop possible measures (indicators and associated metrics to measure the efficiency of information flow.In this research the theory of information and related concepts, the basic notions of information systems and the models of business performance measurement were explored. Based on information flow theory and information flow characteristics a research instrument was developed. It was used in a survey to seek inputs from supply chain managers as to the usefulness of characteristics as indicators and metrics for the measurement of information flow efficiency in a supply chain. The main contribution of the study is the development of a conceptual framework of indicators and metrics that may be used to evaluate the efficiency of information flows in supply chains. The results of this study can be used as a basis for further studies to validate the instrument for measuring information flow efficiency and to develop scales to actually measure information flow efficiency.

  12. The investigation of supply chain's reliability measure: a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghizadeh, Houshang; Hafezi, Ehsan

    2012-10-01

    In this paper, using supply chain operational reference, the reliability evaluation of available relationships in supply chain is investigated. For this purpose, in the first step, the chain under investigation is divided into several stages including first and second suppliers, initial and final customers, and the producing company. Based on the formed relationships between these stages, the supply chain system is then broken down into different subsystem parts. The formed relationships between the stages are based on the transportation of the orders between stages. Paying attention to the system elements' location, which can be in one of the five forms of series namely parallel, series/parallel, parallel/series, or their combinations, we determine the structure of relationships in the divided subsystems. According to reliability evaluation scales on the three levels of supply chain, the reliability of each chain is then calculated. Finally, using the formulas of calculating the reliability in combined systems, the reliability of each system and ultimately the whole system is investigated.

  13. 油气润滑系统供油单元的控制%Control of the Oil Supply Unit of Oil-Air Lubrication System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘雨辰; 孙启国; 吕洪波

    2013-01-01

      油气润滑是一种应用气液两相流进行润滑的新兴润滑技术,具有节能、环保、耗油量少、运行成本低、维护简便易行等优点。供油单元是油气润滑系统的重要组成部分,对润滑效果有很大影响。设计了供油单元的控制电路和控制程序并采用Multisim10对温度信号采集电路进行了模拟仿真,实现了供油单元自动检测温度、液位,并能够加热、自动补油和报警等功能,降低了供油单元的制造成本与运行功耗,提高了系统集成度。%Oil-air lubrication is a kind of emerging lubrication technology with advantages , such as energy conservation , envi-ronmental protection and lower oil consumption and operation cost.Oil supply unit has a great effect on the property of the oil-air lubrication and becomes an important composition of the oil-air lubrication system.The circuit and program are designed to control the oil supply unit and the control circuit and parameters of the component are verified by the simulation using Multi-sim10 in this thesis.Automatic monitoring of the temperature and liquid level and the fault alarm are realized in this unit with a lower cost and the energy consumption, and a higher integration.

  14. 75 FR 11841 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Short Supply Regulations, Petroleum (Crude Oil)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-12

    ... Regulations, Petroleum (Crude Oil) AGENCY: Bureau of Industry and Security. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The... petroleum (crude oil) and is used by licensing officers to determine the exporter's compliance with the five...

  15. Crude oil price dynamics: A study on effects of market expectation and strategic supply on price movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xin

    Recent years have seen dramatic fluctuations in crude oil prices. This dissertation attempts to better understand price behavior. The first chapter studies the behavior of crude oil spot and futures prices. Oil prices, particularly spot and short-term futures prices, appear to have switched from I(0) to I(1) in early 2000s. To better understand this apparent change in persistence, a factor model of oil prices is proposed, where the prices are decomposed into long-term and short-term components. The change in the persistence behavior can be explained by changes in the relative volatility of the underlying components. Fitting the model to weekly data on WTI prices, the volatility of the persistent shocks increased substantially relative to other shocks. In addition, the risk premiums in futures prices have changed their signs and become more volatile. The estimated net marginal convenience yield using the model also shows changes in its behavior. These observations suggest that a dramatic fundamental change occurred in the period from 2002 to 2004 in the dynamics of the crude oil market. The second chapter explores the short-run price-inventory dynamics in the presence of different shocks. Classical competitive storage model states that inventory decision considers both current and future market condition, and thus interacts with spot and expected future spot prices. We study competitive storage holding in an equilibrium framework, focusing on the dynamic response of price and inventory to different shocks. We show that news shock generates response profile different from traditional contemporaneous shocks in price and inventory. The model is applied to world crude oil market, where the market expectation is estimated to experience a sharp change in early 2000s, together with a persisting constrained supply relative to demand. The expectation change has limited effect on crude oil spot price though. The world oil market structure has been studied extensively but no

  16. A CONFIRMATORY APPROACH TO MEASURING RISKS IN SUPPLY CHAINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constangioara Alexandru

    2014-07-01

    Our proposed research methodology reveals the advantages of a confirmatory factor analysis over an exploratory principal component analysis in the context of risks management in supply chains. Moreover, as Sodhi and Tang (2012 reveals, more than half of papers in existing SCRM literature are either conceptual or qualitative empirical (case studies. Our proposed quantitative methodology contributes to reducing the above mentioned gap, providing results that can be used for statistical inferences and for enhancing the efficiency of the managerial decisional process.

  17. Vulnerability of the United States’ Oil Supply to Terrorist Attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Ukraine) Major Oil Pipelines (capacity, 2002E): Druzhba (1.2 million bbl/d); Baltic Pipeline System (240,000 bbl/d); CPC Tengiz- Novorossiisk... Pipelines & Terminals 12 Figure 3: Vulnerability Rankings of the Oil Infrastructure 16 Figure 4: Major Pipelines within the Continental...Qaida. 9-11 has demonstrated their global reach, and attacks on Iraqi and Saudi oil nodes have demonstrated their intent. The oil pipelines and

  18. An empirical analysis of the impacts of taxes and royalties on the supply of conventional crude oil in Alberta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amoah, B.

    1998-12-31

    The economic impact of taxes, royalties and government fiscal policy tools on conventional crude oil supply in Alberta was examined. A dynamic economic model of Alberta`s conventional petroleum industry was developed and used to evaluate the quantitative impacts of government fiscal policies on exploration and extraction of conventional crude oil in the province. It was determined that taxes and royalties can shorten the life of the industry, reduce activity level, reduce ultimate recovery of conventional crude oil, render more of the established reserves sub-economic and create social welfare loss. It was also revealed that compared to provincial corporate income tax and crown royalties, federal corporate income tax has a larger adverse effect on the performance of the industry in terms of creating higher dead-weight loss and shortening the life of the industry.

  19. Verifying a Simplified Fuel Oil Flow Field Measurement Protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henderson, H.; Dentz, J.; Doty, C.

    2013-07-01

    The Better Buildings program is a U.S. Department of Energy program funding energy efficiency retrofits in buildings nationwide. The program is in need of an inexpensive method for measuring fuel oil consumption that can be used in evaluating the impact that retrofits have in existing properties with oil heat. This project developed and verified a fuel oil flow field measurement protocol that is cost effective and can be performed with little training for use by the Better Buildings program as well as other programs and researchers.

  20. Verifying a Simplified Fuel Oil Field Measurement Protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henderson, Hugh [Advanced Residential Integrated Energy Solutions Collaborative (ARIES), New York, NY (United States); Dentz, Jordan [Advanced Residential Integrated Energy Solutions Collaborative (ARIES), New York, NY (United States); Doty, Chris [Advanced Residential Integrated Energy Solutions Collaborative (ARIES), New York, NY (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The Better Buildings program is a U.S. Department of Energy program funding energy efficiency retrofits in buildings nationwide. The program is in need of an inexpensive method for measuring fuel oil consumption that can be used in evaluating the impact that retrofits have in existing properties with oil heat. This project developed and verified a fuel oil flow field measurement protocol that is cost effective and can be performed with little training for use by the Better Buildings program as well as other programs and researchers.

  1. Situation of crude oil supply and demand in China%中国原油供求形势

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张德义

    2012-01-01

    分析了我国原油供求形势,预测了我国不同高峰原油产量及发展趋势,认为我国原油产量已进入高峰期,高峰平台在180 ~200Mt/a,高峰平台还有望延续到2035年以后.按照常规原油储量和产量来看,我国原油供需矛盾是非常突出的,主要表现在:原油加工能力持续增长,近5年,全国原油加工能力与加工量分别增长了20.58%和29.36%,而同期世界原油加工能力仅增长3.57%.与此同时,中国炼油能力布局及企业规模调整也在加快.原油缺口和进口依赖形势更加严峻,进入本世纪以来,我国原油进口量和进口依存度同步增长,我国进口原油从2∞8年起就已经超出了进口依存度50%的警界线,而且越来越严重.目前我国进口原油主要从三条陆上运输管道和海上运辅的方式进入国内原油运输管网.%The crude oil supply in China is studied, and the peak crude oil productions and development are predicted. It is concluded that the crude oil production in China hag already entered the peak period. The peak platform is 180-200 million tons per year, which will possibly go beyond the year 2035. Based upon the conventional crude oil deposit and production, there is a great deficit between crude oil supply and demand. In the past 5 years, the crude oil processing capacity and crude oil processed in China have been increased by 20.58% and 29.36% respectively, while the crude oil processing capacity is only increased by 3.57% in the same period in the world. At the same time, the rapid development of petroleum refineries and refinery expansion have aggravated the crude oil deficit and reliance on the imported crude oil. Since the beginning of this century, the amount of imported crude oil and reliance on imported crude oil in China have been rising at the same time, and the reliance on imported crude oil has exceeded the 50% warning line since 2008, which is becoming increasingly serious. The imported crude

  2. Supply Chain Sustainability Analysis of Fast Pyrolysis and Hydrotreating Bio-Oil to Produce Hydrocarbon Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adom, Felix K.; Cai, Hao; Dunn, Jennifer B.; Hartley, Damon; Searcy, Erin; Tan, Eric; Jones, Sue; Snowden-Swan, Lesley

    2016-03-31

    This report describes the supply chain sustainability analysis (SCSA) of renewable gasoline and diesel produced via fast pyrolysis of a blended woody feedstock. The metrics considered in this analysis include supply chain greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and water consumption.

  3. Residual oil aerosol measurements on refrigerators and liquefiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pflueckhahn, D.; Anders, W.; Hellwig, A.; Knobloch, J.; Rotterdam, S.

    2014-01-01

    The purity of the process gas is essential for the reliability of refrigerators and liquefiers. Filtration and adsorption of impurities like water, nitrogen, and oil result in a major effort, cost, and maintenance in the helium process. Expensive impurity monitors for moisture, nitrogen, and hydrocarbon contents are required to identify filter failures and leakage immediately during the operation. While water and nitrogen contaminants can be detected reliably, the measurement of oil aerosols at the ppb-level is challenging. We present a novel diagnostic oil aerosol measurement system able to measure particles in the sub-μm range. This unit enabled us to evaluate and improve the oil separation system on a LINDE TCF 50 helium liquefier.

  4. Oil Spill Field Trial at Sea: Measurements of Benzene Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjesteland, Ingrid; Hollund, Bjørg Eli; Kirkeleit, Jorunn; Daling, Per; Bråtveit, Magne

    2017-07-01

    Characterize personal exposure to airborne hydrocarbons, particularly carcinogenic benzene, during spill of two different fresh crude oils at sea. The study included 22 participants taking part in an «oil on water» field trial in the North Sea. Two types of fresh crude oils (light and heavy) were released six times over two consecutive days followed by different oil spill response methods. The participants were distributed on five boats; three open sampling boats (A, B, and C), one release ship (RS), and one oil recovery (OR) vessel. Assumed personal exposure was assessed a priori, assuming high exposure downwind and close to the oil slick (sampling boats), low exposure further downwind (100-200 m) and upwind from the oil slick (main deck of RS and OR vessel), and background exposure indoors (bridge of RS/OR vessel). Continuous measurements of total volatile organic compounds in isobutylene equivalents were performed with photoionization detectors placed in all five boats. Full-shift personal exposure to benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes, naphthalene, and n-hexane was measured with passive thermal desorption tubes. Personal measurements of benzene, averaged over the respective sample duration, on Day 1 showed that participants in the sampling boats (A, B, and C) located downwind and close to the oil slick were highest exposed (0.14-0.59 ppm), followed by participants on the RS main deck (0.02-0.10 ppm) and on the bridge (0.004-0.03 ppm). On Day 2, participants in sampling boat A had high benzene exposure (0.87-1.52 ppm) compared to participants in sampling boat B (0.01-0.02 ppm), on the ships (0.06-0.10 ppm), and on the bridge (0.004-0.01 ppm). Overall, the participants in the sampling boats had the highest exposure to all of the compounds measured. The light crude oil yielded a five times higher concentration of total volatile organic compounds in air in the sampling boats (max 510 ppm) than the heavy crude oil (max 100 ppm) but rapidly declined to

  5. Best Measuring Time for a Millikan Oil Drop Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapusta, J. I.

    1975-01-01

    In a Millikan oil drop experiment, there is a best measuring time for observing the drop, due to Brownian motion of the drop and the experimenter's reaction time. Derives an equation for the relative error in the measurement of the drop's excess charge, and obtains a formula for the best measuring time. (Author/MLH)

  6. Microwave Radiometry for Oil Pollution Monitoring, Measurements, and Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skou, Niels

    1986-01-01

    Work is presently carried out in Europe to change the Status of the microwave radiometer, namely, to develop it from a research instrument to an operational instrument-especially for measuring oil pollution on the sea surface. The Technical University of Denmark (TUD), with its long experience...... in airborne microwave radiometry, is heavily involved in this process. The TUD multichannel imaging radiometer system has been flown in several large-scale oil-pollution experiments, the collected data have been analyzed, and they have revealed that care must be exercised to obtain accurate oil volume...

  7. Analysis of China's Crude Oil Supply and Demand in the Year 2010 and the Year 2020%2010年与2020年中国原油供需形势分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宝毅; 张宝生

    2005-01-01

    Along with the speedy development of the economic growth in China, the shortage of oil and gas becomes more and more serious. Based on summarizing some related research results, the prediction of China's oil demand and supply in the year 2010 and the year 2020 has been given in the paper. The oil supply and demand situation is discussed on three different levels. Accordingly, suggestions about the oil supply safety and the national economy safety strategies have been given.

  8. Measuring Success: Metrics that Link Supply Chain Management to Aircraft Readiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-09-01

    systems also do not provide broad or detailed calculations of supply chain response time. If a MALS wishes to measure Supply Chain Response Time, it...Summary and Cockpit Chart Graphic (from Ref. 30) 114 30 tmdl wuc3 creqs oreqs new tdays sfill acwt tier_1% wrt difm wra_bcm_pc bcm_pc bcm1_pc

  9. Performance measurement in agri-food supply chains: a case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aramyan, L.H.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.; Vorst, van der J.G.A.J.; Kooten, van O.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose - Measurement of the performance of entire supply chains is an important issue because it allows for "tracking and tracing" of efficacy and efficiency failures and leads to more informed decision making with regard to chain design. However, the choice of appropriate supply chain performance

  10. Performance measurement in agri-food supply chains: a case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aramyan, L.H.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.; Vorst, van der J.G.A.J.; Kooten, van O.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose - Measurement of the performance of entire supply chains is an important issue because it allows for "tracking and tracing" of efficacy and efficiency failures and leads to more informed decision making with regard to chain design. However, the choice of appropriate supply chain performance

  11. Labour market assessment of the offshore oil and gas industry supply and service sector in Newfoundland and Labrador

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-09-01

    The Petroleum Industry Human Resource Committee (PIHRC) commissioned this study in December 2002 to develop a profile of the labour demand and supply for the upstream production phase of the offshore oil and gas industry. Interviews with representatives from more than 45 countries in the offshore oil and gas sector in Newfoundland and Labrador were conducted. In addition, the results of a mail survey forwarded to an additional 42 companies were included along with a review of secondary labour market research. More than 340 positions were identified in the production phase in the study. Of these, approximately 80 were identified as difficult to recruit for a variety of reasons including: insufficient experience in the oil industry; occupational shortages; short-term or project employment opportunities; very limited employment opportunities and limited occupational supply; lack of specific occupational training programs; and additional projects possibly leading to occupational shortages. The study provided valuable input concerning future labour market and human resource planning and career counselling on the 340 positions previously identified. 10 tabs.

  12. Bioinspired materials for water supply and management: water collection, water purification and separation of water from oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Philip S; Bhushan, Bharat

    2016-08-06

    Access to a safe supply of water is a human right. However, with growing populations, global warming and contamination due to human activity, it is one that is increasingly under threat. It is hoped that nature can inspire the creation of materials to aid in the supply and management of water, from water collection and purification to water source clean-up and rehabilitation from oil contamination. Many species thrive in even the driest places, with some surviving on water harvested from fog. By studying these species, new materials can be developed to provide a source of fresh water from fog for communities across the globe. The vast majority of water on the Earth is in the oceans. However, current desalination processes are energy-intensive. Systems in our own bodies have evolved to transport water efficiently while blocking other molecules and ions. Inspiration can be taken from such to improve the efficiency of desalination and help purify water containing other contaminants. Finally, oil contamination of water from spills or the fracking technique can be a devastating environmental disaster. By studying how natural surfaces interact with liquids, new techniques can be developed to clean up oil spills and further protect our most precious resource.This article is part of the themed issue 'Bioinspired hierarchically structured surfaces for green science'. © 2016 The Author(s).

  13. Measurement of quadratic electrogyration effect in castor oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izdebski, Marek; Ledzion, Rafał; Górski, Piotr

    2015-07-01

    This work presents a detailed analysis of electrogyration measurement in liquids with the usage of an optical polarimetric technique. Theoretical analysis of the optical response to an applied electric field is illustrated by experimental data for castor oil which exhibits natural optical activity, quadratic electro-optic effect and quadratic electrogyration effect. Moreover, the experimental data show that interaction of the oil with a pair of flat electrodes induces a significant dichroism and natural linear birefringence. The combination of these effects occurring at the same time complicates the procedure of measurements. It has been found that a single measurement is insufficient to separate the contribution of the electrogyration effect, but it is possible on the basis of several measurements performed with various orientations of the polarizer and the analyser. The obtained average values of the quadratic electrogyration coefficient β13 in castor oil at room temperature are from - 0.92 ×10-22 to - 1.44 ×10-22m2V-2 depending on the origin of the oil. Although this study is focused on measurements in castor oil, the presented analysis is much more general.

  14. Quantifying, Assessing, and Mitigating Methane Emissions from Super-emitters in the Oil and Gas Supply Chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, David Richard

    Methane emissions from the oil and gas (O&G) supply chain reduce potential climate benefits of natural gas as a replacement for other fossil fuels that emit more carbon dioxide per energy produced. O&G facilities have skewed emission rate distributions with a small fraction of sites contributing the majority of emissions. Knowledge of the identity and cause of these high emission facilities, referred to as super-emitters or fat-tail sources, is critical for reducing supply chain emissions. This dissertation addresses the quantification of super-emitter emissions, assessment of their prevalence and relationship to site characteristics, and mitigation with continuous leak detection systems. Chapter 1 summarizes the state of the knowledge of O&G methane emissions. Chapter 2 constructs a spatially-resolved emission inventory to estimate total and O&G methane emissions in the Barnett Shale as part of a coordinated research campaign using multiple top-down and bottom-up methods to quantify emissions. The emission inventory accounts for super-emitters with two-phase Monte Carlo simulations that combine site measurements collected with two approaches: unbiased sampling and targeted sampling of super-emitters. More comprehensive activity data and the inclusion of super-emitters, which account for 19% of O&G emissions, produces a emission inventory that is not statistically different than top-down regional emission estimates. Chapter 3 describes a helicopter-based survey of over 8,000 well pads in seven basins with infrared optical gas imaging to assess high emission sources. Four percent of sites are observed to have high emissions with over 90% of observed sources from tanks. The occurrence of high emissions is weakly correlated to site parameters and the best statistical model explains only 14% of variance, which demonstrates that the occurrence of super-emitters is primarily stochastic. Chapter 4 presents a Gaussian dispersion model for optimizing the placement of

  15. Measuring marine oil spill extent by Markov Random Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moctezuma, Miguel; Parmiggiani, Flavio; Lopez Lopez, Ludwin

    2014-10-01

    The Deepwater Horizon oil spill of the Gulf of Mexico in the spring of 2010 was the largest accidental marine oil spill in the history of the petroleum industry. An immediate request, after the accident, was to detect the oil slick and to measure its extent: SAR images were the obvious tool to be employed for the task. This paper presents a processing scheme based on Markov Random Fields (MRF) theory. MRF theory describes the global information by probability terms involving local neighborhood representations of the SAR backscatter data. The random degradation introduced by speckle noise is dealt with a pre-processing stage which applies a nonlinear diffusion filter. Spatial context attributes are structured by the Bayes equation derived from a Maximum-A-Posteriori (MAP) estimation. The probability terms define an objective function of a MRF model whose goal is to detect contours and fine structures. The markovian segmentation problem is solved with a numerical optimization method. The scheme was applied to an Envisat/ASAR image over the Gulf of Mexico of May 9, 2010, when the oil spill was already fully developed. The final result was obtained with 51 recursion cycles, where, at each step, the segmentation consists of a 3-class label field (open sea and two oil slick thicknesses). Both the MRF model and the parameters of the stochastic optimization procedure will be provided, together with the area measurement of the two kinds of oil slick.

  16. Supply chain performance measurement: the case of the traditional food sector in the EU

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gellynck, X.; Molnar, A.; Aramyan, L.H.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study is to develop a sound measurement instrument of traditional food supply chain performance integrating the perspectives of different stakeholders. Therefore first, stakeholders’ goals are generalized via focus groups and individual interviews. Second, stakeholders’ goals

  17. Supply chain performance measurement: the case of the traditional food sector in the EU

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gellynck, X.; Molnar, A.; Aramyan, L.H.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study is to develop a sound measurement instrument of traditional food supply chain performance integrating the perspectives of different stakeholders. Therefore first, stakeholders’ goals are generalized via focus groups and individual interviews. Second, stakeholders’ goals a

  18. The Demand and Supply of Petroleum Equipment for China Onshore Oil and Gas Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang Zhiqian

    1995-01-01

    @@ China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC) is a state corporation responsible for all onshore oil and gas operations in the country including islands and the shallow sea areas with depth of less than 5 m.

  19. Measurement of the total activity concentrations of Libyan oil scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Silva, F. C. A.; Bradley, D. A.; Regan, P. H.; Rozaila, Z. Siti

    2017-08-01

    Twenty-three oil scale samples obtained from the Libyan oil and gas industry production facilities onshore have been measured using high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry with a shielded HPGe detector, the work being carried out within the Environmental Radioactivity Laboratory at the University of Surrey. The main objectives of this work were to determine the extent to which the predominant radionuclides associated with the uranium and thorium natural decay chains were in secular equilibrium with their decay progeny, also to compare differences between the total activity concentrations (TAC) in secular equilibrium and disequilibrium and to evaluate the measured activities for the predominant gamma-ray emitting decay radionuclides within the 232Th and 238U chains. The oil scale NORM samples did not exhibit radioactive equilibrium between the decay progeny and longer-lived parent radionuclides of the 238U and 232Th series.

  20. Measurement of Submerged Oil/Gas Leaks using ROV Video

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, Franklin; de Vera, Giorgio; Lee, Kenneth; Savas, Ömer

    2013-11-01

    Drilling for oil or gas in the Gulf of Mexico is increasing rapidly at depths up to three miles. The National Commission on the Deepwater Horizon Oil Leak concluded that inaccurate estimates of the leak rate from the Deepwater Horizon caused an inadequate response and attempts to cap the leak to fail. The first response to a submerged oil/gas leak will be to send a Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) down to view the leak. During the response to the Deepwater Horizon crisis, the authors Savas and Shaffer were members of the Flow Rate Technical Group's Plume Team who used ROV video to develop the FRTG's first official estimates of the oil leak rate. Savas and Shaffer developed an approach using the larger, faster jet features (e.g., turbulent eddies, vortices, entrained particles) in the near-field developing zone to measure discharge rates. The authors have since used the Berkeley Tow Tank to test this approach on submerged dye-colored water jets and compressed air jets. Image Correlation Velocimetry has been applied to measure the velocity of visible features. Results from tests in the Berkeley Tow Tank and submerged oil jets in the OHMSETT facility will be presented.

  1. Off-shore enhanced oil recovery in the north sea: matching CO_2 demand and supply given uncertain market conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compernolle, Tine; Welkenhuysen, Kris; Huisman, Kuno; Piessens, Kris; Kort, Peter

    2015-04-01

    Introduction CO2 enhanced oil recovery (CO2-EOR) entails the injection of CO2 in mature oil fields in order to mobilize the oil. In particular, the injected CO2 reduces the oil's viscosity and acts as a propellant, resulting in an increased oil extraction rate (Leach et al., 2011). Given uncertainty in both oil price and CO2 price under the EU ETS system, aim of this study is to analyze under which economic conditions a CO2 exchange can be established between a CO2 supplier (an electricity producer for whom CO2 is a by-product) and a CO2 user (an offshore oil company that exploits oil fields in the North Sea and needs CO2 for enhanced oil recovery). Methodology A techno-economic simulation tool, PSS IV, was developed to provide investment decision support on integrated CO2-EOR projects (Welkenhuysen et al., 2014). Until now, a fixed onshore supply of CO2 was presumed. An economic optimization model is now developed for both the CO2 producer and the CO2 user. Because net present value and discounted cash flow methods are inadequate to deal with issues like uncertainty and the irreversibility of an investment decision, the real options theory is applied (Dixit and Pindyck, 1994). The way in which cooperation between the companies can take place, will be studied using game theoretical concepts (Lukas and Welling, 2014). Economic and technical data on CO2 capture are available from the PSS database (Piessens et al., 2012). Data on EOR performance, CO2 requirements and various costs are taken from literature (BERR, 2007; Klokk et al., 2010; Pershad et al., 2012). Results/Findings It will be shown what the impact of price uncertainty is on the investment decision of the electricity producer to capture and sell CO2, and on the decision of the oil producer to make the necessary investments to inject CO2 for enhanced oil recovery. Based on these results, it will be determined under which economic conditions a CO2 exchange and transport can take place. Furthermore, also the

  2. Towards a Framework for Process Mapping and Performance Measurement in Construction Supply Chains

    OpenAIRE

    Thunberg, Micael

    2013-01-01

    The purpose with this study is to develop a framework for process mapping and performance measurement in construction supply chains. This is done as current literature suggest that many of the problems that cause the cost- and time overruns in construction can be mitigated by implementing supply chain management (SCM) principles. For example, temporary organisations, fragmentation, etc. can affect the time and cost as work and information among members easily are delayed and even distorted. I...

  3. Measurement reduction method for the Millikan oil-drop experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yingzi; Zhang, Liwen; Shan, Guanqiao; Li, Jin; Cui, Huaiyang; Chen, Ziyu

    2015-09-01

    To overcome the shortcomings of the measurement procedure used for the Millikan oil-drop experiment course, this paper suggests a measurement reduction method based on simplification of the conventional formula. In this method, only the voltage and the fall time are required to be recorded. This method can also simplify the analysis and the measurement error of the experiment and give proper parameter intervals, which results in a small measurement error. A solution is conducted to calculate the value of the elementary charge, and this solution verifies the measurement reduction method.

  4. Oil producing plants of the wildflora as potential crop plants supplying industrial raw material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radatz, W.; Hondelmann, W.

    1981-01-01

    The wildflora exhibits a continuously renewing potential for the production of chemical constituents suitable for industrial uses. Among them seed oil producing species assume a preferred position. Forty-two indigenous as well as adaptable taxa along with their botanical, agronomical and biochemical data are presented. Furthermore an approach to their domestication and agronomic improvement is given. (Refs. 158).

  5. Balanced framework for measuring performance of supply chains in house building

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Halman, J.I.M.; Voordijk, J.T.

    2012-01-01

    Despite its importance, performance measurement of supply chains of house building firms has not received much attention yet in academic literature. The objective of this study is to develop a framework to measure this performance. In a first step, a comprehensive framework is developed composed of

  6. A New Style Oil Supply Circuit of Accumulator%一种新型厨具金属压机蓄能器供油油路设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈伟俊; 周玉海

    2013-01-01

    由于金属压机所需要的压力等级比较多,为克服传统蓄能器供油油路存在的问题,在不大幅度提高液压系统成本的前提下,设计一种新型蓄能器供油油路.%According to the problem existing in accumulator oil-supplying circuit and on the base of not wide-range increasing cost of hydraulic system,a new style accumulator oil-supplying circuit was designed to meet pressure rating need of mental press.

  7. Energy supply security in Europe: principles and measures; La securite des approvisionnements energetiques en Europe: principes et mesures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keppler, J.H.

    2007-07-01

    After having recalled a dozen of reasons for some worries about energy supply security in Europe during the past months (oil price increase, intentional interruption of gas and oil deliveries by Russia respectively to Ukraine and Belarus, creation of a new CO{sub 2} trading scheme, tensions on the European electricity markets, and so on), the author distinguishes and discusses those which are actually a threat to energy supply and those which are not. Then, he proposes a classification of these threats in relationship with the reasons for delivery interruption, production capacity limitation, or price increase. These reasons can be political situations and decisions, technical problems, commercial reasons. Then, the author examines what European policy makers can do to manage these risks and ensure energy supply security. This needs economic as well as political responses, coherence between domestic energy policies and energy supply security, and an efficient foreign policy based on a multilateral approach

  8. Measuring the metallurgical supply chain resilience using fuzzy analytic network process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Wicher

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a methodology for measuring the metallurgical supply chain resilience, which enables the ascertainment of key resilience capabilities and measurable criteria, and determining a level of the resilience. The methodology is based on Analytic Network Process (ANP, which is used to solve the complex decision-making problems, whose structures can be mapped as non-linear networks. Since ambiguous pairwise comparisons expressed by fuzzy sets are considered, the Fuzzy Analytic Network Process (FANP is applied. The methodology is verified on the generalised model of a metallurgical supply chain. The SuperDecisions software was used for the application. The experiments performed demonstrate the high level of suitability of the FANP approach for measuring metallurgical supply chain resilience.

  9. Evaluation of measures to meet future supply demand gap in Chennai city, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshmanan, E.; Paul, N.

    2016-12-01

    Availability of water forever has daunted all the major cities of the world and the cities of India are no exception. Even with high annual average rainfall of 1200 mm the Chennai city has an availability of just 108 lpcd of water, which is much lower than 150 lpcd prescribed by the World Health Organisation. The water requirement presently is met mainly from five reservoirs and partly from groundwater pumping which has given rise to seawater intrusion. The objective of this study is to find effective measures for overcoming the chronic demand supply gap and to predict the results of such measures quantitatively by modelling with the Water Evaluation and Planning System(WEAP). The modelling of city's water demand and supply system was carried out using WEAP and calibration was done using PEST. The data required for this study was obtained from various sources as well as by field investigations. There has been a continuous decrease in the actual water supply even with high availability as predicted by the model. About 60 percent of the city's supplied water ends in sewage and after treatment is presently supplied to industries, on its reuse it is found to meet completely the city's demand alone. The modelled heavy rainfall scenario demonstrates an increase in the water availability up to 20 percent during the years of heavy rainfall. The rejuvenation of existing water bodies in the outskirts of Chennai will increase the water availability for agriculture by 60 percent and hence more groundwater can be pumped for city's water supply. With addition of a new desalination plant over the existing two, the city's water supply-demand gap can be reduced by about 80%. If all the measures are implemented the water availability will exceed the demand. Thus, the WEAP model was successfully used to suggest means for sustainable water management plans for the Chennai city.

  10. Ultrasonic oil-film thickness measurement: An angular spectrum approach to assess performance limits

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, J.; Drinkwater, B.W.; Dwyer-Joyce, R.S.

    2007-01-01

    The performance of ultrasonic oil-film thickness measurement in a ball bearing is quantified. A range of different viscosity oils (Shell T68, VG15, and VG5) are used to explore the lowest reflection coefficient and hence the thinnest oil-film thickness that the system can measure. The results show a minimum reflection coefficient of 0.07 for both oil VG15 and VG5 and 0.09 for oil T68 at 50 MHz. This corresponds to an oil-film thickness of 0.4 μm for T68 oil. An angular spectrum (or Fourier d...

  11. SUPPLIES COSTS: AN EXPLORATORY STUDY WITH APPLICATION OF MEASUREMENT MODEL OF LOGISTICS COSTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Ferreira Alves

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the main reasons for the difficulty in adopting an integrated method of calculation of logistics costs is still a lack of adequate information about costs. The management of the supply chain and identify its costs can provide information for their managers, with regard to decision making, generating competitive advantage. Some models of calculating logistics costs are proposed by Uelze (1974, Dias (1996, Goldratt (2002, Christopher (2007, Castiglioni (2009 and Borba & Gibbon (2009, with little disclosure of the results. In this context, this study aims to evaluate the costs of supplies, applying a measurement model of logistics costs. Methodologically, the study characterized as exploratory. The model applied pointed, in original condition, that about R$ 2.5 million were being applied in the process of management of supplies, with replacement costs and storage imbalance. Upgrading the company's data, it is possible obtain a 52% reduction in costs to replace and store supplies. Thus, the cost model applied to logistical supplies showed feasibility of implementation, as well as providing information to assist in management and decision-making in logistics supply.

  12. Thermal properties measurements in biodiesel oils using photothermal techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, M. P. P.; Andrade, A. A.; Franco, R. W. A.; Miranda, P. C. M. L.; Sthel, M.; Vargas, H.; Constantino, R.; Baesso, M. L.

    2005-08-01

    In this Letter, thermal lens and open cell photoacoustic techniques are used to measure the thermal properties of biodiesel oils. The absolute values of the thermal effusivity, thermal diffusivity, thermal conductivity and the temperature coefficient of the refractive index were determined for samples obtained from soy, castor bean, sunflower and turnip. The results suggest that the employed techniques may be useful as complementary methods for biodiesel certification.

  13. Sistem Supply Chain Crude-Palm-Oil Indonesia dengan Mempertimbangkan Aspek Economical Revenue, Social Welfare dan Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuncoro Harto Widodo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Crude-Palm-Oil (CPO is an agro-industrial commodity which has a strategic value to be developed for Indonesian economy and social welfare. Production and export of Indonesian CPO increase progressively in the view years so that CPO is one of the pre-eminent products of Indonesia. On the other hand, however, they could give two negative impacts. First, a less CPO supply for domestic market as a result of export growing. Second, a worse environment as an effect of the opening new palm plantations. We, therefore, construct and simulate the system model for analyzing the relationships between the components and for describing their behaviour within the supply chain of CPO by using a dynamic model. The result shows that in the next 30 years, the revenue of Indonesian CPO industries tends to increase. The biggest revenue will be achieved in the year 23rd. The maximum addition of plantation employees is in the year 7th as well as in the year 17th. Deforestation would be the highest in the year 7th and 17th in which 2008 as a basic year.

  14. The Management of the Competitive Differentiation of Companies that Supply Electromechanical Equipments for the Oil Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. C. Rada

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Let us assume that the supplier ofelectromechanical devices for the oil industry hasalready selected its target market. When it is the onlysupplier for that market, it will be able to sell at a pricethat would bring it considerable profit. If the price istoo high and there are no entering barriers forcompetitors, the latter will penetrate the market andcause a lowering of the prices for theelectromechanical devices. When the same market isprovided by companies that produce non-differentiateddevices, buyers will choose the company that sells atthe lowest price. Consequently, the other companieswill have to lower the price as well. The onlyalternative for the supplier oil electromechanicaldevices is to differentiate its offer. If this action issuccessful, it will be able to practice a higher price,due to the superior quality that is being offered. Thereare four ways of defining an offer: the agent that sellsoil products can create value by offering products thatare [1]:- Better - the offer can better satisfy the needs ofcustomers than that of competitors, whichusually involves at least a minimumimprovement of the electromechanical device:- Newer – providing a solution that does not existso far, which implies a higher risk than in thesituation mentioned above, but can bring ahigher profit- Faster - the delivery time for anelectromechanical device is reduced- Cheaper – the product is identical with thatoffered by competitors, but the price is lower

  15. Measuring the security of external energy supply in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le Coq, Chloe; Paltseva, Elena

    2009-01-01

    studies of this kind provide aggregate indexes combining different types of energy. Our results suggest that an aggregate approach could be misleading, at least for discussions of the short-term response to risks. We discuss the implications of our findings for the common energy policy.......The security of energy supply is one of the main objectives of EU energy policy. In this paper, we introduce an index designed to evaluate the short-term risks associated with the external supply of energy to the EU Member States. It combines measures of energy import diversification, political...

  16. Measuring efficiency of international crude oil markets: A multifractality approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niere, H. M.

    2015-01-01

    The three major international crude oil markets are treated as complex systems and their multifractal properties are explored. The study covers daily prices of Brent crude, OPEC reference basket and West Texas Intermediate (WTI) crude from January 2, 2003 to January 2, 2014. A multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MFDFA) is employed to extract the generalized Hurst exponents in each of the time series. The generalized Hurst exponent is used to measure the degree of multifractality which in turn is used to quantify the efficiency of the three international crude oil markets. To identify whether the source of multifractality is long-range correlations or broad fat-tail distributions, shuffled data and surrogated data corresponding to each of the time series are generated. Shuffled data are obtained by randomizing the order of the price returns data. This will destroy any long-range correlation of the time series. Surrogated data is produced using the Fourier-Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (F-DFA). This is done by randomizing the phases of the price returns data in Fourier space. This will normalize the distribution of the time series. The study found that for the three crude oil markets, there is a strong dependence of the generalized Hurst exponents with respect to the order of fluctuations. This shows that the daily price time series of the markets under study have signs of multifractality. Using the degree of multifractality as a measure of efficiency, the results show that WTI is the most efficient while OPEC is the least efficient market. This implies that OPEC has the highest likelihood to be manipulated among the three markets. This reflects the fact that Brent and WTI is a very competitive market hence, it has a higher level of complexity compared against OPEC, which has a large monopoly power. Comparing with shuffled data and surrogated data, the findings suggest that for all the three crude oil markets, the multifractality is mainly due to long

  17. Supplying Synthetic Crude Oil from Canadian Oil Sands: A Comparative Study of the Costs and CO2 Emissions of Mining and In-Situ Recovery

    OpenAIRE

    M?jean, A.; Hope, Chris

    2010-01-01

    High crude oil prices and the eventual decline of conventional oil production raise the issue of alternative fuels such as non-conventional oil. The paper describes a simple probabilistic model of the costs of synthetic crude oil (SCO) produced from Canadian oil sands. Synthetic crude oil is obtained by upgrading bitumen that is first produced through mining or in-situ recovery techniques. This forward-looking analysis quantifies the effects of learning and production constraints on the costs...

  18. Logistic indicators measurement in two assembly operations feeded by supply-chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Morais Menezes

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a methodology for the measurement of logistic indicators. The methodology was applied in two cases: a shoewear assembling manufacture and a air conditioning assembling operation, both feeded by supply-chains. The study of the assembling operation can be useful in synchronizing the supply-chain and reducing variability in order arrivals by forming an assembly buffer. The methodology applies quantitative and graphic analysis to evaluate leadtime, inventory, performance and buffer. The first case was an exploration of the model, testing and refine its quantitative part. The second case, more extended, studied, in quantitative and graphically modes, two serial processes: standard assembling of items delivered by a supply-chain and customized services. The case was discussed and the implications analyzed. With the so calculated indicators, we suggest inventory reduction in assembling and increase in customization, so the total leadtime can also be reduced. Key words:, Logistic indicators, Queues in manufacture, Manufacturing Control; Variability in Supply Chains, Supply Chain management.

  19. 世界石油大国-俄罗斯石油能源供需情况及出口战略%Oil Energy Supply-demand Situation and Export Strategy of Russia as World Oil-rich Country

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    俄罗斯是世界石油大国,拥有丰富的石油储量,在保证世界石油产量和需求方面,俄罗斯起着举足轻重的作用,因此了解俄罗斯石油能源供需情况及出口战略具有重要意义。介绍了俄罗斯的石油生产情况、石油产业的国际地位及能源消费情况,同时介绍了俄罗斯的石油长期战略及出口情况,并提出了一些建议。%Russia is an oil-rich country in the world; it has rich oil reserves and plays an important role in ensuring world’s oil supply and demand. So understanding Russian oil energy supply and demand situation and export strategy has important significance. In this paper, Russian oil production conditions, international status of the oil industry and energy consumption were introduced. The long-term strategy of Russian oil and export situation were also introduced, and some suggestions were put forward.

  20. Brazilian oil and gas supply and service industry's: context and perspectives; Contexto e perspectivas do segmento para-petrolifero brasileiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Antonio Ricardo Pimentel de [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    This paper describes the goods and services supply oil segment, as different than the oil companies segment itself. It points to the transformations in the goods and services supply segment from the 1980s until now. At that time with low international oil prices, the oil companies induced the goods and services firms to assume a major role in development of technology. Inside the country here, the goods and services segment had high local content performance but it was associated to low technology intensity or to branches of large multinational firms installed in the Brazilian market. The paper points the French approaching on this same oil segment and its applicability to the Brazilian case, giving one example of financial R and D resources for supporting such a target. Otherwise than in France some specific obstacles can be found here in that development purpose. As alternative some others scenarios were finally explored in the paper for further suggestions for institutional approaching in this Brazilian industrial oil segment. (author)

  1. Measuring risk of crude oil at extreme quantiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saša Žiković

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to investigate the performance of VaR models at measuring risk for WTI oil one-month futures returns. Risk models, ranging from industry standards such as RiskMetrics and historical simulation to conditional extreme value model, are used to calculate commodity market risk at extreme quantiles: 0.95, 0.99, 0.995 and 0.999 for both long and short trading positions. Our results show that out of the tested fat tailed distributions, generalised Pareto distribution provides the best fit to both tails of oil returns although tails differ significantly, with the right tail having a higher tail index, indicative of more extreme events. The main conclusion is that, in the analysed period, only extreme value theory based models provide a reasonable degree of safety while widespread VaR models do not provide adequate risk coverage and their performance is especially weak for short position in oil.

  2. Laser induced fluorescence measurements of the mixing of fuel oil with air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, A.; Bombach, R.; Hubschmid, W.; Kaeppeli, B. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1999-08-01

    We report on measurements of the mixing of fuel oil with air at atmospheric pressure in an industrial premixed gas turbine burner. The concentration of the vaporized fuel oil was measured with laser induced fluorescence. We reason that the fuel oil concentration can be considered with good accuracy as proportional to the fluorescence intensity. (author) 6 fig., 3 refs.

  3. Profit and Risk Measures in Oil Production Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Capolei, Andrea; Foss, Bjarne; Jørgensen, John Bagterp

    2015-01-01

    on the value of the uncertain parameters. In this case, a problem reformulation is needed to properly define the optimization problem. In this paper we describe the concept of risk and we explore how to handle the risk by using appropriate risk measures. We provide a review on various risk measures reporting...... pro and cons for each of them. Finally, among the presented risk measures, we identify two of them as appropriate risk measures when minimizing the risk.......In oil production optimization, we usually aim to maximize a deterministic scalar performance index such as the profit over the expected reservoir lifespan. However, when uncertainty in the parameters is considered, the profit results in a random variable that can assume a range of values depending...

  4. Performance of current measurement system in poloidal field power supply for Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, D. M.; Li, J.; Wan, B. N.; Lu, Z.; Wang, L. S.; Jiang, L.; Lu, C. H.; Huang, J.

    2016-11-01

    As one of the core subsystems of the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST), the poloidal field power system supplies energy to EAST's superconducting coils. To measure the converter current in the poloidal field power system, a current measurement system has been designed. The proposed measurement system is composed of a Rogowski coil and a newly designed integrator. The results of the resistor-inductor-capacitor discharge test and the converter equal current test show that the current measurement system provides good reliability and stability, and the maximum error of the proposed system is less than 1%.

  5. Performance Measurement of Water Desalination Supply Chain Using Balanced Scorecard Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Balfaqih

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to propose a theoretical framework based on a balanced scorecard (BSC for performance measurement in the water desalination supply chain (WDSC. The reason for choosing this context is that the supply chain (SC of water desalination has received a great amount of attention, due to issues related to the increased need of fresh water for agricultural, industrial and human consumptions. The research methodology is based on literature analysis concerning performance measurement and metrics, the water desalination industry and the BSC model. Different SC performance measures which related to WDSC have been reviewed and distributed into four BSC perspectives: financial, customer, internal business, and learning & growth. The article provides a structured theoretical framework specific for WDSC. This is the first developed framework in WDSC which could serve as a reference to develop applicable performance indicators, and it is expected that both researchers and practitioners would benefit from the proposed framework.

  6. Oil supply and demand - Panorama 2008; L'offre et la demande petrolieres - Panorama 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    The crude price variations of the last five years might be compared to the movements of a ball bouncing in an elevator. At regular intervals, a new high is reached, setting a record soon to be broken in turn. For each 'bounce', we might try to identify the conjuncture reasons responsible for pushing prices upwards, but there is always another new high, because the elevator has not finished going up. The price of US$ 100/bbl was reached 'by accident' at the beginning of 2008. Prices will stay high in future, and this record will inevitably be left behind for good in the next few years. Supply, limited in its nature, is inadequate in the face of needs infinite in their desires. This has placed the crude price on a growth path whose direction could only be changed, it would seem, by massive development of replacement fuels or very large gains in energy efficiency. That is, unless the world economy were hit by a major economic crisis.

  7. Information measuring subsystem oil pumping station “Parabel”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyashina Galina S.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Information-measurement subsystem oil pumping station (OPS “Parabel”, located on the site of the main pipeline “Alexandrov-Anzhero” (OJSC “AK” Transneft "”. Developed on the basis of a modern microprocessor equipment, automation, as well as high-speed digital data channels. The simple solution to meet the requirements set out in the guidance document "Automation and remote control of trunk pipelines. «General provisions» (RD-35.240.0000-KTN-207-08.

  8. Designing a robust supply chain management based on distributers’ efficiency measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzaneh Adabi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An appropriate supply chain design helps survival in competitive markets. Achieving maximum efficiency may also help decision makers have a better selection for the supply chain network. The purpose of this paper is to design an efficient supply chain model in terms of the distribution channels under uncertain conditions. The proposed study produces multi products using different materials by considering four layers of multiple suppliers, producers, storages and customers. There are two objectives of maximizing efficiency of distributers and minimizing total cost of supply chain management. The proposed model locates producers as well as suppliers and determines the amount of orders from different suppliers. In order to measure the relative efficiency, the study uses the method developed by Klimberg and Ratick (2008 [Klimberg, R. K., & Ratick, S. J. (2008. Modeling data envelopment analysis (DEA efficient location/allocation decisions. Computers & Operations Research, 35(2, 457-474.]. In addition, to handle the uncertainty, the study uses the robust optimization technique developed by Molvey and Ruszczyński (1995 [Mulvey, J. M., & Ruszczyński, A. (1995. A new scenario decomposition method for large-scale stochastic optimization. Operations research, 43(3, 477-490.]. The preliminary results indicate that the proposed model is capable of providing efficient solutions under various uncertain conditions.

  9. Development of a Sonar Oil Tanker Cargo Measurement System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-08-01

    lesser of $147 per gross registered ton (grt) or $16.8 million. -Contract Regarding an Interim Supplement to Tanker Liability for Oil Pollution ( CRISTAL ...exhausted. The member oil companies each contribute to a fund based upon each company’s annual oil movement and transers. CRISTAL , like TOVALOP...restricts oil pollution damage compensation to pollution incidents in the territorial sea, or on the territory of any state. The liability of CRISTAL is

  10. DELIVERY PERFORMANCE MEASUREMENT IN AN INTEGRATED SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT: CASE STUDY IN BATTERIES MANUFACTURING FIRM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.V. Muniswamy

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Delivery performance provides an indication of how successful the supply chain is at providingproducts and services to the customer. This metric is most important in supply chain management asit integrates the measurement of performance right from supplier end to the customer end. Presentresearch is focused on a case study conducted in a leading batteries manufacturing firm in SouthIndia and analysis of elemental performances in overall delivery performance of an entire supplychain in an integrated approach. NLP and Dynamic Programming models have been used to getoptimal and sub-optimal solutions to help firms in benchmarking expected performance levels. Theeffect of learning has also been described with an empirical analysis.

  11. Future water supply management adaptation measures - case study of Ljubljana field aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čenčur Curk, B.; Zajc Benda, T.; Souvent, P.; Bračič Železnik, B.; Bogardi, I.

    2012-04-01

    The main drinking water supply problems are related to the significant change of groundwater quantity and quality observed in the last decades as an effect of land use practices and very likely also climate change. The latter may affect the ability of drinking water suppliers to provide enough water of sufficient quality to the consumers. These topics were studied in the frame of SEE project CC-WaterS (Climate Change and Impact on Water Supply) with the main goal to develop a water supply management system regarding optimisation of water extraction and land use restrictions under climate change scenarios for water suppliers, since existing management practices are mostly inadequate to reduce impacts of CC on water supply reliability. The main goal was a designation of appropriate measures and risk assessment to adapt water supply to changing climate and land use activities considering socio-economic aspects. This was accomplished by using 'Fuzzy Decimaker', which is a tool for selecting and ranking risk reduction measures or management actions for local waterworks or water authorities under the pressure of climate change. Firstly, management options were selected and ranked. For public water supply of Ljubljana, the capital of Slovenia, several management options were selected. For improvement of water supply and preservation of water resource quantities there is a need for engineering interventions, such as reducing water losses on pipelines. For improving drinking water safety and preserving water resource quality farmers are not allowed to use fertilisers in the first safeguarding zone and they get compensations for income reduction because of lower farming production. Compensations for farming restrictions in the second safeguarding zone were applied as additional management option. On the other hand, drinking water treatment is another management option to be considered. Trends in groundwater level are decreasing, above all recharge areas of waterworks

  12. Water in soybean oil microemulsions as medium for electrochemical measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mendonça Carla R. B.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Microemulsions of water in soybean oil (w/o ME were prepared with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS as surfactant and amyl or isoamyl alcohol, as co-surfactants. Microemulsions containing 40.0% oil, 43.2% alcohol, 10.8% SDS and 6.0% water in weight, in the ratio 1:4 [SDS]:[alcohol] showed the highest thermodynamic stability. The aqueous droplet size and its diffusion coefficient Dw/o in the ME were determined through dynamic light scattering (DLS. Voltammetric measurements in the ME at a Pt disk ultramicroelectrode (ume evidenced the oxidation of both water and ferrocene (Fc, and the reduction of oleic acid. The Dw/o values calculated from the limiting current being lower than the ones obtained from DLS indicate that water oxidation probably requires diffusion towards the electrode of both the droplets and the water molecules from inside the droplets. The results show that electroanalytical determinations can be carried out in w/o ME.

  13. Anti-Candida activity assessment of Pelargonium graveolens oil free and nanoemulsion in biofilm formation in hospital medical supplies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giongo, Janice Luehring; de Almeida Vaucher, Rodrigo; Fausto, Viviane Pedroso; Quatrin, Priscilla Maciel; Lopes, Leonardo Quintana Soares; Santos, Roberto Christ Vianna; Gündel, André; Gomes, Patrícia; Steppe, Martin

    2016-11-01

    Infections due to microbial biofilm formation on the surface of catheters and other medical devices are constantly reported as a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients admitted to hospitals. Furthermore, sessile cells are more resistant to phagocytosis and most antimicrobial, which complicates the treatment of such infections. Researches aimed at new antimicrobial originating mainly from plants have increased in recent years and the development of new strategies for their release is critical in combating the formation of biofilms. Geranium oil (GO) has proven antimicrobial activity. Because of this, the aim of this study was to develop nanoemulsions containing this oil (NEG) and evaluate its activity after the biofilm formation of Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Candida glabrata, and Candida krusei in hospital medical supplies. For quantification of the biofilm, crystal violet, total protein, and ATP-bioluminescence assays were used. The results revealed that GO and NEG showed lower MIC for C. albicans and C. tropicalis. The biofilms formed by different species of Candida on the surfaces of polyethylene and polyurethane were quantified. GO and NEG significantly inhibited the formation of biofilms in all species tested on the surfaces of polyethylene. However, NEG antibiofilm has had better activity than GO for C. albicans, C. tropicalis and C. glabrata, according to the surface potential analysis by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The analysis of the biofilm formation on the polyethylene surface by ATP-bioluminescence and CFU showed similar results. In both methods the formation of biofilm in the catheter occurred in greater quantity for C. albicans and C. tropicalis. GO did not significantly inhibit the formation of biofilms only in C. krusei, although NEG significantly increased this activity GO in all species tested when compared to the control training biofilm. The following study shows that the development of NEG may become an effective

  14. 炼油工业供应链模式的营销集成研究%Sale Integration Research in the Mode of Oil Refining Supply Chain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    亢锐; 范全义; 叶伟

    2001-01-01

    Introduces the concept and structure of the supply chain of oil refining industry firstly, then analyzes the support technologies, design methods, isomerous information integration technologies and market prognostication function of the supply chain of oil refining industry. Based on these, the sale management system in the supply chain of oil refining industry is introduced and the system integration framework is put forward. Finally the design methods are analyzed, especially the market prognostication by using Markov method.%首先介绍了炼油工业供应链的定义与结构,分析了炼油工业供应链的支撑技术、开发方法、异构信息集成技术,以及市场预测功能。在此基础上,介绍了炼油工业供应链模式中的营销管理系统,提出了系统的集成框架结构,分析了其设计技术,特别提出了用马尔可夫方法进行市场预测的思路。

  15. 全球石油供应下新地缘政治经济格局分析%New Geopolitical Economic Analysis Based on Global Oil Supply

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈志建; 王铮

    2015-01-01

    石油与地缘政治的相互影响是必然和持久的,这深刻地影响着石油价格波动和国家石油能源安全。对此,本文选取1994年1月到2011年12月的时间序列数据,从地缘政治视角研究国际石油供给的格局及石油价格波动主导权。首先,通过ArcGIS进行空间分析,来展现石油供给的地缘政治格局总体面貌;其次,对国际石油价格波动主导权进行实证分析,结果显示:石油存储量与石油价格之间并非简单的线性关系,且在金融危机时期往往呈现负相关关系,在地缘政治事件频发时期往往呈现正相关关系;进一步对主导权量化估算,结果表明,国际石油价格波动主导权更多地掌控在OECD需求方,即金融业主导国家。随着时间的推移,非OECD需求方与石油供给方对国际石油价格主导权逐渐增加,同时,金融因素对国际油价波动的主导权不容忽视。%The interaction between oil and geopolitics is inevitable and per-sistent, which profoundly affect international oil prices fluctuations and na-tional petroleum energy security. For a long time, international oil prices fluctuations has received much attention, from the government, enterprises and scholars.However, Few research studies have quantified the dominant driver of international crude oil price fluctuations from a geopolinomic perspective. To remedy this situation, this article attempts to analyse the pattern of inter-national crude oil supplies and the dominant driver of international crude oil prices from the geopolinomic perspective. The analysis uses time series data from January 1994 to December 2011. Using ArcGIS classifications, this study depicts the general geopolitical pattern of crude oil supply. Next, the study conducts an empirical analysis of the dominant driver of international crude oil price fluctuations. The results demonstrate that the relationship between crude oil reserves and crude oil

  16. Investigating risk and robustness measures for supply chain network design under demand uncertainty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Govindan, Kannan; Fattahi, Mohammad

    2017-01-01

    This paper addresses a multi-stage and multi-period supply chain network design problem in which multiple commodities should be produced through different subsequent levels of manufacturing processes. The problem is formulated as a two-stage stochastic program under stochastic and highly time......-variable demands. To deal with the stochastic demands, a Latin Hypercube Sampling method is applied to generate a fan of scenarios and then, a backward scenario reduction technique reduces the number of scenarios. Weighted mean-risk objectives by using different risk measures and minimax objective are examined...

  17. 国内燃料油供需现状分析与思考%The Analysis of Domestic Fuel Oil Supply-Demand Status and Some Considerations about It

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海波

    2015-01-01

    Fuel oil is a petroleum product variety with relatively high market-oriented degree in China at present. China formally opened fuel oil price at 2001 for the first time, then published the adjustment of import-export quota and excise rate as well as other policy measures several times. Domestic fuel oil market basically integrates with international market, the internationalization of products have been further enhanced. Following the development of local refining enterprises, the application of fuel oil extends from traditional power generation, heating and transportation to processing use. The article analyzes the supply-demand status of domestic fuel oil as well as the situation facing it and puts forward some considerations about domestic fuel oil market development.%燃料油是目前我国市场化程度较高的石油产品品种。我国最早于2001年正式放开了燃料油的价格,之后又数次发布进出口配额、消费税率调整等政策措施,国内燃料油市场与国际市场基本接轨,产品的国际化程度进一步提高。随着地方炼油企业的发展,燃料油的用途从传统的发电、供热、运输等领域又扩展到了加工使用。本文分析了国内燃料油供需现状及其面临的形势,提出了关于国内燃料油市场开发的若干思考。

  18. Using fuzzy cognitive maps to model performance measurement system of Internet-based supply chain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Juan-juan; WANG Cheng-liang

    2006-01-01

    Fuzzy cognitive maps (FCM) is a well-established artificial intelligence technique, which can be effectively applied in the domains of performance measurement, decision making and other management science. FCM can be a useful tool in a group decision-making environment by using scientifically integrated expert knowledge. The theories of FCM and balance scorecard (BSC) both emphasize cause-and-effect relationships among indicators in a complex system, but few reports have been published addressing the combined application of these two techniques. In this paper we propose a FCM simulation model for the sample performance measurement system of Internet-based supply chain, which is constructed by BSC theory.We gave examples to explain how FCM can be adapted to execute the causal mechanism of BSC, and also how FCM can support group decision-making and forecasting in performance measurement.

  19. Distributed Measuring System for Predictive Diagnosis of Uninterruptible Power Supplies in Safety-Critical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Saponara

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This work proposes a scalable architecture of an Uninterruptible Power Supply (UPS system, with predictive diagnosis capabilities, for safety critical applications. A Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA has identified the faults occurring in the energy storage unit, based on Valve Regulated Lead-Acid batteries, and in the 3-phase high power transformers, used in switching converters and for power isolation, as the main bottlenecks for power system reliability. To address these issues, a distributed network of measuring nodes is proposed, where vibration-based mechanical stress diagnosis is implemented together with electrical (voltage, current, impedance and thermal degradation analysis. Power system degradation is tracked through multi-channel measuring nodes with integrated digital signal processing in the transformed frequency domain, from 0.1 Hz to 1 kHz. Experimental measurements on real power systems for safety-critical applications validate the diagnostic unit.

  20. New Method of Online Measurement of Oil and Suspended Material Concentration In Flowing Waste Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Hongwei; Xu, Guobing; Xu, Xinqiang; Zhou, Fangde

    2007-06-01

    At present, the most of the measurements of oil and suspended material concentration in waste water measuring are not online surveys. A new method of online measurement of oil and suspended material concentration in flowing waste water is presented. The room experiments and field tests showed that it is suitable to waste water treatment on line. After sampling, It needed to measure immediately the concentration in first time. Then let sample to be in still in 10 - 20 seconds. After that the bulk concentration was measured in second time. Because of the suspended solids having heavy density, they would be dropped from waster water. During ultrasonic operation, emulsify the oil in waster water, the oil and suspended solid would be depart. After that the third time measurement was done. In thus way the concentrations of oil and suspended solids can be measured. At present there are two on-site equipments operating in the Changqing oilfield, and the results are pretty well.

  1. Contingency interim measure for the public water supply at Barnes, Kansas.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaFreniere, L. M.; Environmental Science Division

    2009-07-09

    This document presents a conceptual design for a contingency interim measure (IM) for treatment of the public water supply system at Barnes, Kansas, should this become necessary. The aquifer that serves the public water supply system at Barnes has been affected by trace to low concentrations of carbon tetrachloride and its degradation product, chloroform. Investigations conducted on behalf of the CCC/USDA by Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne 2008a) have demonstrated that groundwater at the Barnes site is contaminated with carbon tetrachloride at concentrations exceeding the Kansas Tier 2 risk-based screening level (RBSL) and the EPA maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 5.0 {micro}g/L for this compound. The Commodity Credit Corporation of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (CCC/USDA) formerly operated a grain storage facility in Barnes, approximately 800 ft east-southeast of the public water supply wells. Carbon tetrachloride was used in the treatment of grain. Another potential source identified in an investigation conducted for the KDHE (PRC 1996) is the site of a former agriculture building owned by the local school district (USD 223). This building is located immediately east of well PWS3. The potential contingency IM options evaluated in this report include the treatment of groundwater at the public water supply wellheads and the provision of an alternate water supply via Washington County Rural Water District No.2 (RWD 2). This document was developed in accordance with KDHE Bureau of Environmental Remediation (BER) Policy No.BER-RS-029 (Revised) (KDHE 2006a), supplemented by guidance from the KDHE project manager. Upon the approval of this contingency IM conceptual design by the KDHE, the CCC/USDA will prepare a treatment system design document that will contain the following elements: (1) Description of the approved contingency IM treatment method; (2) Drawings and/or schematics provided by the contractor and/or manufacturer of the approved technology; (3) A

  2. Measurements in support of the Deepwater Horizon (MC-252) oil spill response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crout, Richard L.

    2011-06-01

    The explosion of the Deepwater Horizon (MC-252) drilling platform on 20 April 2010 began a long response by the United Area Command. Previous responses to oil spills were limited in time due to the amount of oil spilled and were generally confined to the surface. Some of the oil from the Deepwater Horizon wellhead in 1500 meters of water broke into smaller droplets, whose density caused much of the oil to stay within a zone from 1000 to 1300 meters depth. The remainder of the oil rose to the surface. The two primary locations of oil required a broad collection of remote sensing techniques to locate and monitor the oil spill. Surface oil was monitored primarily from the air using aircraft and satellite assets. Satellite visible, infra-red, and radar satellite imagery helped to locate oil in the northern Gulf of Mexico and help predict its movement away from the spill site. Daily over-flights by aircraft provided higher spatial and temporal resolution data that were assimilated into daily products. These remote sensing assets were able to track the surface oil, but the subsurface oil required different techniques. In addition to salinity and temperature profiles to determine the subsurface structure, fluorometry and dissolved oxygen measurements provided information related to oil and its consumption by microorganisms. Water samples collected from CTD casts were analyzed on-board and returned to on-shore laboratories.

  3. Fuel demand reduction during oil crisis. Evaluation of demand reducing measures for the transportation sector; Brandstofvraagreductie bij oliecrisis. Evaluatie van vraagreducerende maatregelen voor de transportsector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanschke, C.B.; Van Bree, B.; Kroon, P. [ECN Beleidsstudies, Petten (Netherlands)

    2010-01-15

    Every IEA member state must have in place measures to reduce oil demand during oil supply emergencies. The transport sector offers significant opportunities to reduce oil demand with relatively limited impact on the overall economy. To determine which measures are useful in the Dutch situation, this report performs a quick scan of a number of demand restraint measures in the transport sector. The quick scan ranks measures by their effectiveness, feasibility, and efficiency. Based on the quick scan results, three measures have been selected for further research (Sunday driving ban, work-trip reduction, and carpooling). Additionally, the effects of price increases on oil demand have been examined. Five refineries and a large petrochemical industry sector are based in the Netherlands. Therefore, the shares of passenger road transport (20%) and freight road transport (12%) in the national oil demand are comparatively low. As a consequence an oil demand reduction in road transport of at least 20% to 30% is required to meet the national oil demand reduction target of 7% to 10% agreed within IEA. Price effects during an oil crisis are uncertain given limited research, and estimated to reduce oil demand from passenger road transport by 15% to 35% and oil demand from freight road transport by 10% to 25%. Given the uncertainty, this effect was halved to obtain a conservative estimate of 2% to 4% of national oil demand reduction as a result of price effects. A Sunday driving ban can lead to reductions of 50% to 80% of passenger travel on Sundays, leading to savings of 1% to 1.5% of national oil demand. Work-trip reduction policies can reduce worktrips by 10% and lead to reductions of 0.5% to 1% of total oil demand. Carpooling has the greatest potential, reducing work trips up to 30% and leading to 0% to 2.5% savings of national oil demand. The broad range of the latter estimate is due to the limited options available to influence motorists to share their vehicles with others

  4. Africa's position shift in world oil supply pattern%非洲在世界石油供给格局中的地位演变

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝丽莎; 赵媛

    2012-01-01

    21世纪以来,非洲已成为世界石油进口大国寻求来源地多元化、保障自身石油安全的战略高地,也成为我国的第二大石油来源地。考察非洲在世界石油供给格局中的地位及演变,有利于系统把握非洲石油供给的优劣势,为优化我国对非石油合作战略提供依据。本文以国家为研究单元,综合运用箱线图和空间聚类分析法,创新份额和位序综合分析法,对比考察了1980~2010年间,非洲在世界石油探明储量、生产量、储采比和出口量格局中的地位及演变。结果表明:非洲是当今世界除中东以外,规模以上石油供给国最为集中的地区,在新老接替中,实现总体供给地位的巩固和提升;非洲在世界石油供给格局中的主要优势在于其高储采比和高出口率,是未来世界石油持续增产增销的重点地区之一;非洲逐渐进入世界石油供给格局的核心地带,石油地缘战略地位大为提升;在未来较长时间内,非洲仍将是我国主要的石油来源地之一,我国应当在非洲推进来源地多元化战略,真正进入非洲核心石油市场,扩大供给来源,并分散供给风险。%In the 21st century, Africa has been a strategic place for major oil importers seeking to diversify imports in order to achieve greater oil security, and also Africa has been the second biggest source for China, so that analyses of Africa's position shift in world oil supply pattern could help us to get a better understanding of Africa's advantages and disadvantages in the oil supply, in order to optimize China's strategy for oil cooperation with Africa. In this paper, boxplots and spatial cluster analysis are integrated, together with modified share and rank analysis, to examine and compare Africa's positions and their shift in the patterns of world oil proved reserves, oil production, reserves-to-production ratio, and exports. The results show that, Africa is the most concentrated

  5. Liquid Level Measurement in Oil Tanks Based on Double-differential Pressure Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The system principle and configuration of the double-differential pressure method for measuring oil tank level are presented. The fundamental method and circuit of fiber optic transmission are analyzed .The accuracy and security of level measurement in the oil tanks have been greatly improved.

  6. Supply and Economics of Tall Oil for the Manufacture of Second-Generation Biodiesel in Central Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, Alfred (Arbokem Inc., P.O. Box 34173, Vancouver V6J 4N1 (Canada)). E-mail: arbokem@arbokem.com

    2008-10-15

    Tall oil is a co-product of the alkaline pulping of coniferous wood for the manufacture of cellulosic pulp. In view of the escalating-cost trend of purchased fossil-fuel energy, pulp mills are prioritizing the use of tall oil for lime-kiln operations, instead of sales to external manufacturers of fatty acids and rosin. There is an attractive economic opportunity to use tall oil for the production of higher-value second-generation biodiesel with concomitant partial off-set of the fossil fuel used in lime-kiln operation. Additional incremental income could be realized with the co-manufacture of phytosterols from tall oil

  7. Ultrasonic oil-film thickness measurement: an angular spectrum approach to assess performance limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Drinkwater, Bruce W; Dwyer-Joyce, Rob S

    2007-05-01

    The performance of ultrasonic oil-film thickness measurement in a ball bearing is quantified. A range of different viscosity oils (Shell T68, VG15, and VG5) are used to explore the lowest reflection coefficient and hence the thinnest oil-film thickness that the system can measure. The results show a minimum reflection coefficient of 0.07 for both oil VG15 and VG5 and 0.09 for oil T68 at 50 MHz. This corresponds to an oil-film thickness of 0.4 microm for T68 oil. An angular spectrum (or Fourier decomposition) approach is used to analyze the performance of this configuration. This models the interaction of component plane waves with the measurement system and quantifies the effect of the key parameters (transducer aperture, focal length, and center frequency). The simulation shows that for a focused transducer the reflection coefficient tends to a limiting value at small oil-film thickness. For the transducer used in this paper it is shown that the limiting reflection coefficient is 0.05 and the oil-film measurement errors increase as the reflection coefficient approaches this value. The implications for improved measurement systems are then discussed.

  8. Influence of the temperature, pressure and viscosity on the oil measurement with turbine type measurers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magalí Araújo Damasceno

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The flow measurement of liquids and gases is a necessity in many industrial applications. There is a great amount of measurers for such purpose, as, for example, the coriolis, positive displacement and type turbine measurers. A measurer sufficiently used for the oil flow measurement is the turbine type, because it uses the proper extracted energy of the measured flow for its functioning, moreover is also used as standard for the calibration of other measurers. For this reason, it is important to study the parameters that influence the measurement process for turbine measurers. In Brazil, to measure the volume of oil, regardless the type of measurer, it is necessary to observe "Portaria Conjunta Nº. 1", of June 19, 2000, that approved the Technical Regulation of Measurement of Oil and Natural Gas, establishing the minimum conditions and requirements for the systems of oil and natural gas measurement, in order to get a measurement standard. As such, the present work has the objective of determining parameters that influence in the measurement of oil volumes using turbine measurers.A medição de fluxo em líquidos e gases é uma necessidade em muitas aplicações industriais. Existe uma grande quantidade de medidores para tal finalidade, como, por exemplo, os medidores de velocidade tipo turbina, deslocamento positivo e coriolis. Um medidor bastante utilizado para a medição de vazão de petróleo é o tipo turbina, porque utiliza a própria energia extraída da vazão medida para seu funcionamento. Além disso, é também usado como padrão para a calibração de outros medidores. Daí a importância de se estudar os parâmetros que influenciam o processo de medição por medidores tipo turbina. Para se medir o volume de petróleo, independentemente do tipo de medidor, é necessário observar o que determina a Portaria Conjunta Nº. 1, de 19 de junho de 2000, que aprovou o Regulamento Técnico de Medição de Petróleo e Gás Natural

  9. A Novel Method for Measuring Electrical Conductivity of High Insulating Oil Using Charge Decay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Z. Q.; Qi, P.; Wang, D. S.; Wang, Y. D.; Zhou, W.

    2016-05-01

    For the high insulating oil, it is difficult to measure the conductivity precisely using voltammetry method. A high-precision measurementis proposed for measuring bulk electrical conductivity of high insulating oils (about 10-9--10-15S/m) using charge decay. The oil is insulated and charged firstly, and then grounded fully. During the experimental procedure, charge decay is observed to show an exponential law according to "Ohm" theory. The data of time dependence of charge density is automatically recorded using an ADAS and a computer. Relaxation time constant is fitted from the data using Gnuplot software. The electrical conductivity is calculated using relaxation time constant and dielectric permittivity. Charge density is substituted by electric potential, considering charge density is difficult to measure. The conductivity of five kinds of oils is measured. Using this method, the conductivity of diesel oil is easily measured to beas low as 0.961 pS/m, as shown in Fig. 5.

  10. Measuring the influence of industry sector membership on supply chain disruption reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcantara, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    The global Supply Chain Resilience Survey by the Business Continuity Institute and Zurich Insurance is a comprehensive study on the state of supply chains in different organisations worldwide. As a benchmarking tool, it also contains data about business continuity arrangements in place to ensure supply chain resilience. Given this study's historically qualitative approach to reporting, this paper aims to introduce quantitative analysis. In this paper, responses that report membership in Standard Industrial Classification 2007 industry sectors from the 2013 Supply Chain Resilience Survey were disaggregated and related to supply chain disruption reporting. A chi-square test of independence reveals that membership in a particular industry sector influences reporting of supply chain disruption. Nonetheless, the relationship between these variables is weak. This study demonstrates interesting differences between industry sectors in terms of supply chain resilience. Further research is required in terms of other variables in order to provide granularity and relevant findings to supply chain planners.

  11. Measurement of H!gh Power Current-Stabilized Power Supply with High Stability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YanHuaihai; FengXiuming; BaiZhen; ZhouZhongzu

    2003-01-01

    The DC power supply system of HIRFL has been upgraded since 1999, these new power supplies are used mainly as high frequency ZVS soft-switching converters or thyristor phase-controlled rectifiers. Each power supply is strictly tested before being put into operation, especially for long-term current stability, current ripple, efficiency, repeatability, EMI and so on. The tested results indicated that performances of power supplies satisfy requirement of HIRFL.

  12. The Predictive Value of Subjective Labour Supply Data: A Dynamic Panel Data Model with Measurement Error

    OpenAIRE

    Euwals, Rob

    2002-01-01

    This paper tests the predictive value of subjective labour supply data for adjustments in working hours over time. The idea is that if subjective labour supply data help to predict next year?s working hours, such data must contain at least some information on individual labour supply preferences. This informational content can be crucial to identify models of labour supply. Furthermore, it can be crucial to investigate the need for, or, alternatively, the support for laws and collective agree...

  13. Water Quality, Mitigation Measures of Arsenic Contamination and Sustainable Rural Water Supply Options in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HOSSAIN M. ANAWAR

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic contamination of groundwater has created a serious public health issue in Bangladesh and West Bengal (India, because groundwater is widely used for drinking, household and agriculture purposes. Given the magnitude of the problem of groundwater contamination facing Bangladesh, effective, acceptable and sustainable solutions are urgently required. Different NGOs (Non-government organizations and research organizations are using their extensive rural networks to raise awareness and conduct pilot projects. The implication of the results from the previous studies is robust, but coastly arsenic reduction technologies such as activated alumina technology, and As and Fe removal filters may find little social acceptance, unless heavily subsidized. This review paper analysed the quality of surface water and ground water, all mitigation measures and the most acceptable options to provide sustainable access to safe- water supply in the rural ares of Bangladesh. Although there are abundant and different sources of surface water, they can not be used for drinking and hosehold purposes due to lack of sanitation, high faecal coliform concentration, turibidity and deterioration of quality of surface water sources. There are a few safe surface water options; and also there are several methods available for removal of arsenic and iron from groundwater in large conventional treatments plants. This review paper presented a short description of the currently available and most sustainable technologies for arsenic and iron removal, and alternative water supply options in the rural areas.

  14. Risk management measures for chemicals in consumer products: documentation, assessment, and communication across the supply chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruinen de Bruin, Yuri; Hakkinen, Pertti Bert; Lahaniatis, Majlinda; Papameletiou, Demosthenes; Del Pozo, Carlos; Reina, Vittorio; Van Engelen, Jacqueline; Heinemeyer, Gerhard; Viso, Anne Catherine; Rodriguez, Carlos; Jantunen, Matti

    2007-12-01

    This paper analyzes the way risk management measures (RMMs) for consumer products have been used to date in authority and industry risk assessments. A working concept for consumer product RMMs is developed, aimed at controlling, limiting or avoiding exposures, and helping to insure the safe use (or handling) of a substance as part of a consumer product. Particular focus is placed on new requirements introduced by REACH (registration, evaluation, and authorization of chemicals). A RMMs categorization approach is also developed, dividing consumer product RMMs into those that are product integrated and those that are communicated to consumers. For each of these categories, RMMs for normal use, accidental use or misuse need to be distinguished. The level of detail for documenting, assessing and communicating RMMs across supply chains can vary, depending on the type of the assessment (tiered approach). Information on RMMs was collected from published sources to demonstrate that a taxonomical approach using standard descriptors for RMMs libraries is needed for effective information exchange across supply chains.

  15. 10 CFR Appendix Z to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of External Power Supplies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption... Appendix Z to Subpart B of Part 430—Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of External Power Supplies 1. Scope: This appendix covers the test requirements used to measure energy consumption...

  16. A new technique for the solution of references problem in oil pollution measurement by UVF technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasım Cemal Güven

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the problems of references used for oil pollution measurement by UVF method were discussed. The main problem of this method is that the origin of the reference for pollutant oil is unknown. The proposed solution for this problem was based on sea water sample which was taken from contaminated area, extracted by DCM, the organic phase was distilled, its calibration curve was plotted with this residue oil and measurement was made on its equation. The oil pollution results for the sea water of K0 station by using this equation for 2013 was 15.21 mg/L and for 2014 15.25 mg/L. for the same samples determination of oil pollution by using crude oil references varies between 0.11 and 1.15 various crude oils and using chrysene reference 0.11-0.19 mg/L. These results show that pollution level varied depending on references used. The proposed method more realistically determines the oil pollution level. The proposed technique is the first for oil pollution measurement by UVF.

  17. Distributor– Retailer Interface in Pharmaceutical Supply Chain: Service Quality Measurement Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehralian, Gholamhossein; Babapour, Jafar; peiravian, farzad

    2016-01-01

    In the current competitive market, service quality management is the key to the survival and success of businesses. SERVQUAL is a popular service quality measurement scale (SQMS) that has served as a basis for subsequent research on service quality; it has been used for testing different aspects of service quality in a market. The purpose of our study is, therefore, to develop a service quality measurement scale (SQMS) for the distributor–retailer interface of Pharm supply chains (PSC) in Iran. A survey was performed to collect data from pharmacies located in Tehran. A valid and reliable questionnaire delivered to pharmacies, and 400 pharmacies were intended to participate in our survey. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to develop an SQMS in this study. Sufficient sampling was undertaken to do CFA. Consistent with other service quality studies, this Res developed an SQMS with five dimensions and 20 items for PSC, and contributes to mangers to regularly measure service quality. This is an initial study to develop a framework for measuring service quality in Iranian PCS. The framework can be used effectively to achieve competitive advantage at the distributor–retailer interface. PMID:28243297

  18. Distributor- Retailer Interface in Pharmaceutical Supply Chain: Service Quality Measurement Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehralian, Gholamhossein; Babapour, Jafar; Peiravian, Farzad

    2016-01-01

    In the current competitive market, service quality management is the key to the survival and success of businesses. SERVQUAL is a popular service quality measurement scale (SQMS) that has served as a basis for subsequent research on service quality; it has been used for testing different aspects of service quality in a market. The purpose of our study is, therefore, to develop a service quality measurement scale (SQMS) for the distributor-retailer interface of Pharm supply chains (PSC) in Iran. A survey was performed to collect data from pharmacies located in Tehran. A valid and reliable questionnaire delivered to pharmacies, and 400 pharmacies were intended to participate in our survey. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to develop an SQMS in this study. Sufficient sampling was undertaken to do CFA. Consistent with other service quality studies, this Res developed an SQMS with five dimensions and 20 items for PSC, and contributes to mangers to regularly measure service quality. This is an initial study to develop a framework for measuring service quality in Iranian PCS. The framework can be used effectively to achieve competitive advantage at the distributor-retailer interface.

  19. Testing and preformance measurement of straight vegetable oils as an alternative fuel for diesel engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshminarayanan, Arunachalam

    Rising fuel prices, growing energy demand, concerns over domestic energy security and global warming from greenhouse gas emissions have triggered the global interest in bio-energy and bio-fuel crop development. Backlash from these concerns can result in supply shocks of traditional fossil fuels and create immense economic pressure. It is thus widely argued that bio-fuels would particularly benefit developing countries by off-setting their dependencies on imported petroleum. Domestically, the transportation sector accounts for almost 40% of liquid fuel consumption, while on-farm application like tractors and combines for agricultural purposes uses close to an additional 18%. It is estimated that 40% of the farm budget can be attributed to the fuel costs. With the cost of diesel continuously rising, farmers are now looking at using Straight Vegetable Oil (SVO) as an alternative fuel by producing their own fuel crops. This study evaluates conventional diesel compared to the use of SVO like Camelina, Canola and Juncea grown on local farms in Colorado for their performance and emissions on a John Deere 4045 Tier-II engine. Additionally, physical properties like density and viscosity, metal/mineral content, and cold flow properties like CFPP and CP of these oils were measured using ASTM standards and compared to diesel. It was found that SVOs did not show significant differences compared to diesel fuel with regards to engine emissions, but did show an increase in thermal efficiency. Therefore, this study supports the continued development of SVO production as a viable alternative to diesel fuels, particularly for on-farm applications. The need for providing and developing a sustainable, economic and environmental friendly fuel alternative has taken an aggressive push which will require a strong multidisciplinary education in the field of bio-energy. Commercial bio-energy development has the potential to not only alleviate the energy concerns, but also to give renewed

  20. A surface tension based method for measuring oil dispersant concentration in seawater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Zhengqing; Gong, Yanyan; Liu, Wen; Fu, Jie; O'Reilly, S E; Hao, Xiaodi; Zhao, Dongye

    2016-08-15

    This work developed a new method to determine concentration of Corexit EC9500A, and likely other oil dispersants, in seawater. Based on the principle that oil dispersants decrease surface tension, a linear correlation was established between the dispersant concentration and surface tension. Thus, the dispersant concentration can be determined by measuring surface tension. The method can accurately analyze Corexit EC9500A in the concentration range of 0.5-23.5mg/L. Minor changes in solution salinity (oil dispersants in water/seawater, which has been desired by the oil spill research community and industries.

  1. Establishing a risk reduction model for the inbound supply chain in an oil refinery / H.C. Swanepoel

    OpenAIRE

    Swanepoel, Helena Catharina

    2011-01-01

    Companies are in business to make money; money is not there just to be taken. The drive should be on Cash Focus and Project Excellence, the ultimate goal and first price is always to grow stakeholder value sustainability. To be able to achieve just that, the focus should be on: - Operations excellence - Functional excellence - Capital excellence - Value-driven leadership The mission of the oil refinery is to refine crude oil utilising high conversion capability, gen...

  2. Exploring Different Order Decision Behaviors with Bullwhip Effect and Service Level Measures in Supply Chain System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuoqun Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Since decision makers’ bounded rationality would impact supply chain performance, it is necessary to explore how the individual decisions work in the supply chain. This paper investigates bullwhip effect variation and service level tendency while the decisions are made by different decision makers. Based on the existing study results, the paper establishes a system dynamics model of supply chain conforming to modern supply chain characters. In the model, two adjustment parameters are adopted to describe individual differences in decision makers. The simulation result demonstrates that the behavioral adjustment with different extent results in different supply chain performance. The impact of two parameters is very different. The decision makers should try to avoid the overadjustment to the scarcity of supply from their upstream member.

  3. A Supply chain performance measurement system: A Case study in automotive industry

    OpenAIRE

    Çapar, İsmail; Capar, Ismail

    2002-01-01

    Today's fierce market conditions drive companies to effectively evaluate their overall supply chain performance and identify improvement areas for gaining competitive advantages. In the last few decades, organizations have improved their internal processes by using initatives such as JIT, Kanban, Kaizen, and TQM. At the same time new methods and initiatives in the area of Supply Chain Management have forced organizations to improve not only their internal processes but also the supply chain t...

  4. A Supply chain performance measurement system: A Case study in automotive industry

    OpenAIRE

    Çapar, İsmail; Capar, Ismail

    2002-01-01

    Today's fierce market conditions drive companies to effectively evaluate their overall supply chain performance and identify improvement areas for gaining competitive advantages. In the last few decades, organizations have improved their internal processes by using initatives such as JIT, Kanban, Kaizen, and TQM. At the same time new methods and initiatives in the area of Supply Chain Management have forced organizations to improve not only their internal processes but also the supply chain t...

  5. LOWERING UNCERTAINTY IN CRUDE OIL MEASUREMENT BY SELECTING OPTIMIZED ENVELOPE COLOR OF A PIPELINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Saadat

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Lowering uncertainty in crude oil volume measurement has been widely considered as one of main purposes in an oil export terminal. It is found that crude oil temperature at metering station has big effects on measured volume and may cause big uncertainty at the metering point. As crude oil flows through an aboveground pipeline, pick up the solar radiation and heat up. This causes the oil temperature at the metering point to rise and higher uncertainty to be created. The amount of temperature rise is depended on exterior surface paint color. In the Kharg Island, there is about 3 km distance between the oil storage tanks and the metering point. The oil flows through the pipeline due to gravity effects as storage tanks are located 60m higher than the metering point. In this study, an analytical model has been conducted for predicting oil temperature at the pipeline exit (the metering point based on climate and geographical conditions of the Kharg Island. The temperature at the metering point has been calculated and the effects of envelope color have been investigated. Further, the uncertainty in the measurement system due to temperature rise has been studied.

  6. 低油价常态下原油生产企业物资供应管理工作刍议%On Supply and Management of Enterprise Materials for Crude Oil Production in Low Oil Price Situation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周宏

    2015-01-01

    The new situation of low oil price forces the oil production enterprise to enhance supply and management of materials and improve such aspects as material plan ,material purchase ,material use and material reserve in a scien-tific way .It is necessary to effectively control materials consumption and reduce enterprise production cost under the condition of normal production .%低油价的新常态迫使原油生产企业必须加强物资供应管理工作 ,提升物资计划、物资采购、物资使用和物资储备等几个重要环节的科学性.在保障企业正常生产的情况下 ,有效控制材料消耗 ,降低企业生产成本.

  7. A proposed measurement method for void fraction in lubricant oil based on the image processing technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianwen; An, Qi

    2008-02-01

    A new method for measuring void fraction in lubricating oils is presented based on the image processing technique. The problem here differs from the bubbles detection problem in two-phase fluids in that our interest lies in the gross amount of gas voids in oils. Our method is based on an observation that gas voids in oils change the color of the mixed gas-oil material. Therefore, a measurement technique was established based on the change in color. In particular, the relationship between the change in color and amount of voids was established experimentally. The experiment and testing were performed on a particular setup which consists of a pipe, oil, and air. The test result has shown that this method is effective. The method is the simplest and most accurate one among the existing methods.

  8. Study on risk factors of oil supply depending on mathematical models%基于石油供应单因素风险因子数学模型研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾承晓; 陈光玖; 张斌

    2009-01-01

    本文在分析石油供应风险影响因素的基础上,通过建立预测石油供应风险因子的数学模型,利用这些数学模型对石油供应风险进行定量的研究,从深层次上认识石油供应风险因子的变化特点,为石油供应风险预警和有效地控制风险提供更多的信息支持.%Based on the analysis of risk factors about oil supply, I established some mathematical models for predicting risk factors about oil supply. By these mathematical models of the risk about oil supply, I grasped the characteristics of oil supply risk factor. The quantitative research will provide more effective early warning and management information for oil supply risk.

  9. Exploring energy saving policy measures by renewable energy supplying cooperatives (REScoops)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coenen, Franciscus H.J.M.; Hoppe, Thomas; Chalkiadakis, Georgios; Tsoutsos, Theocharis; Akasiadis, Charilaos

    2017-01-01

    Cooperatives for renewable energy supply (REScoops) provide their members renewably generated energy within a cooperative model that enables members to co-decide on the cooperative’s future. REScoops do not only collectively own renewable energy production facilities and supply this to their

  10. 甘肃省食用植物油供需波动变化研究%THE SUPPLY AND DEMAND FLUCTUATIONS OF EDIBLE VEGETABLE OIL IN GANSU PROVINCE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李红霞; 马丽荣; 王恒炜

    2015-01-01

    食用植物油是人民群众的生活必需品,其消费量已成为衡量一个国家人民生活水平的重要标志,并在国家食物安全中占有重要的地位,保障其供给安全,对促进经济发展和社会稳定具有重要意义.文章收集整理了1978~2012年甘肃省油料作物和食用植物油相关数据,运用速度法和数理统计等方法,从产量、供给、需求、消费量、库存消费比等方面,分析研究甘肃省食用植物油供需波动变化情况.研究得出油料市场供给基本满足消费需求,但油料作物种植发展缓慢,产业化水平较低;食用植物油供需波动处于紧平衡状态,自给率仅为76%左右,省外购进的量远远大于外销量,消费需求的增长速度超过产量的增长,食用植物油缺口较大,同时存在种植品种与加工品种、品种结构与市场需求、区域性产销不协调之处.通过综合分析研究,构建了"以自给为主,贸易调剂为铺"的供给模式,提出了提高食用植物油安全供给的政策选择,为甘肃省食用植物油发展提供了新思路和科学依据,对保障甘肃省食用植物油安全供给具有重要意义.%Edible vegetable oil is one of the life necessities. Its consumption has become an important symbol to measure the level of people's life and plays an important role in the national food security. The sufficient supply is very important to the promotion of economic development and social stability. Based on the related data of oilseeds and edible oil in Gansu province from 1978 to 2012,taking the production,supply,demand,consumption and the stock consumption ratio of the vegetable oil as the main research objects,this paper analyzed the changes fluctuation of supply and demand of Gansu province edible vegetable oil using velocity method and mathematical statistics method. The results showed that the edible vegetable oil market supply can basically meet the consumers' demand,but the growing of oil crops was

  11. Self-consistent photothermal techniques: Application for measuring thermal diffusivity in vegetable oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balderas-López, J. A.; Mandelis, Andreas

    2003-01-01

    The thermal wave resonator cavity (TWRC) was used to measure the thermal properties of vegetable oils. The thermal diffusivity of six commercial vegetable oils (olive, corn, soybean, canola, peanut, and sunflower) was measured by means of this device. A linear relation between both the amplitude and phase as functions of the cavity length for the TWRC was observed and used for the measurements. Three significant figure precisions were obtained. A clear distinction between extra virgin olive oil and other oils in terms of thermal diffusivity was shown. The high measurement precision of the TWRC highlights the potential of this relatively new technique for assessing the quality of this kind of fluids in terms of their thermophysical properties.

  12. Measuring Labour Supply Responses to Tax Changes by Use of Exogenous Tax Reforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graversen, Ebbe Krogh

    1996-01-01

    This paper estimates average labour supply responses to tax changes for women in Denmark using the tax reform in 1987 as a natural experiment to identify the responsiveness to tax changes. Both changes in the participation rate and in worki ng hous are considered. A nonparametric difference......-in-difference (DID) estimator and a suitable modified parametric DID estimator are used to estimate the labour supply responses and calculate labour supply elasticities with respect to marg inal tax rates and wage rates net of taxes. Finally, we simulate the effect of the fully implemented Danish 1994/1998 tax...

  13. Energy efficiency measures for offshore oil and gas platforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Tuong-Van; Voldsund, Mari; Breuhaus, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Oil and gas platforms are energy-intensive systems { each facility uses from a few to several hundredsMW of energy, depending on the petroleum properties, export specifcations and feld lifetime. Several technologies for increasing the energy effciency of these plants are investigated in this work....... They include: (i) the installation of multiple pressure levels in production manifolds, (ii) the implementation of multiphaseexpanders, (iii) the promotion of energy and process integration, (iv) the limitation of gas recirculation around the compressors, (v) the exploitation of low-temperature heat from...... the gas cooling steps, (vi) the downsizing or replacement of the existing gas turbines, and (vii) the use of the waste heat from the powerplant. The present study builds on four actual cases located in the North and Norwegian Seas, which differ by the type of oil processed, operating conditions...

  14. Risk assessment and national measure plan for oil and HNS spill accidents near Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Moonjin; Jung, Jung-Yeul

    2013-08-15

    Many oil and HNS spill accidents occur in the waters surrounding the Korean Peninsula because Korea is one of the biggest trading partners in the world. In this study, we analyzed the oil and HNS spill accidents that occurred between 1994 and 2005 and created risk matrices to assess these accidents. The worst scenarios of future oil and HNS spill accidents were established, and the maximum spill amounts were estimated using historic accident data and a correlation from IPIECA. The maximum spill amounts are estimated to be between 77,000 and 10,000 tons of oil and HNS, respectively. One third of the spill materials should be removed using recovery equipment within three days of the spill event, according to the national measure plan. The capability of recovery equipment to remove spill materials can be estimated, and the equipment should then be prepared to mitigate the harmful effects of future oil and HNS accidents on humans and marine ecosystems.

  15. Measuring salinity in crude oils: Evaluation of methods and an improved procedure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montserrat Fortuny; Elisangela B. Silva; Agnaldo C. Filho; Rosana L.F.V. Melo; Marcio Nele; Raquel C.C. Coutinho; Alexandre F. Santos [Programa de Engenharia de Processos/Universidade Tiradentes, Aracaju (Brazil)

    2008-06-15

    In this work, a novel procedure is developed to determine the amount of salt for crude oils in which the available laboratory techniques are unable to provide accurate salt content values. The technique is based on measuring the salinity of the wash water that is vigorously mixed with the crude oil (forming an emulsion) and then separating it from the water-in-oil emulsion by irradiating microwave energy during few minutes. This three step process involves the emulsification of the wash water exempt of salt in crude oil, followed by the recovery of the water by microwave heating and, finally, the analysis of the salt content using the classical Mohr's method titration procedure. The novel technique presented here was able to provide reliable information about the salt content on Brazilian crude oils, in a rapid manner, without need of unsafe time-consuming solvent extraction procedures. 29 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  16. Design and Optimization of Capacitated Supply Chain Networks Including Quality Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystel K. Castillo-Villar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents (1 a novel capacitated model for supply chain network design which considers manufacturing, distribution, and quality costs (named SCND-COQ model and (2 five combinatorial optimization methods, based on nonlinear optimization, heuristic, and metaheuristic approaches, which are used to solve realistic instances of practical size. The SCND-COQ model is a mixed-integer nonlinear problem which can be used at a strategic planning level to design a supply chain network that maximizes the total profit subject to meeting an overall quality level of the final product at minimum costs. The SCND-COQ model computes the quality-related costs for the whole supply chain network considering the interdependencies among business entities. The effectiveness of the proposed solution approaches is shown using numerical experiments. These methods allow solving more realistic (capacitated supply chain network design problems including quality-related costs (inspections, rework, opportunity costs, and others within a reasonable computational time.

  17. Measuring success : metrics that link supply chain management to aircraft readiness

    OpenAIRE

    McDoniel, Patrick S.; Balestreri, William G.

    2002-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. This thesis evaluates and analyzes current strategic management planning methods that develop performance metrics linking supply chain management to aircraft readiness. Our primary focus is the Marine Aviation Logistics Squadron. Utilizing the Logistics Management Institute's DoD Supply Chain Implementation Guide and adapted SCOR model, we applied the six step process for developing a strategic logistics management plan for implementi...

  18. Thermal-Diffusivity Measurements of Mexican Citrus Essential Oils Using Photoacoustic Methodology in the Transmission Configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, G. A. López; González, R. F. López; López, J. A. Balderas; Martínez-Pérez, L.

    2011-05-01

    Photoacoustic methodology in the transmission configuration (PMTC) was used to study the thermophysical properties and their relation with the composition in Mexican citrus essential oils providing the viability of using photothermal techniques for quality control and for authentication of oils and their adulteration. Linear relations for the amplitude (on a semi-log scale) and phase, as functions of the sample's thickness, for the PMTC was obtained through a theoretical model fit to the experimental data for thermal-diffusivity measurements in Mexican orange, pink grapefruit, mandarin, lime type A, centrifuged essential oils, and Mexican distilled lime essential oil. Gas chromatography for distilled lime essential oil and centrifuged lime essential oil type A is reported to complement the study. Experimental results showed close thermal-diffusivity values between Mexican citrus essential oils obtained by centrifugation, but a significant difference of this physical property for distilled lime oil and the corresponding value obtained by centrifugation, which is due to their different chemical compositions involved with the extraction processes.

  19. Cost-Effective ERT Technique for Oil-in-Water Measurement for Offshore Hydrocyclone Installations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løhndorf, Petar Durdevic; Hansen, Leif; Mai, Christian

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to introduce and design a cost-effective Oil-in-Water (OiW) measuring instrument, which will be investigated for its value in increasing the efficiency of a deoiling hydrocyclone. The technique investigated is based on Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT), which basic...... principle is to measure the resistivity of substances from multiple electrodes and from these measurements create a 2-D image of the oil and gas component in the water. This technique requires the measured components to have different electrical resistances, such as seawater which has a lower electrical...... resistance than hydrocarbon oil and gas. This work involves construction of a pilot plant, for testing the feasibility of ERT for OiW measurements, and further exploring if this measured signal can be applied as a reliable feedback signal in optimization of the hydrocyclone's efficiency. Different algorithms...

  20. Simulated epidemiological and economic effects of measures to reduce piglet supply during a classical swine fever epidemic in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mangen, M.J.J.; Nielen, M.; Burrell, A.M.

    2003-01-01

    The effects of additional measures adopted during a classical swine fever (CSF) epidemic to reduce piglet supply, namely, an insemination ban, abortion of sows and killing of young piglets, are studied using a stochastic, spatial, dynamic epidemiological simulation model of the pig sector in the Net

  1. 10 CFR 218.11 - Supply orders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Supply orders. 218.11 Section 218.11 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OIL STANDBY MANDATORY INTERNATIONAL OIL ALLOCATION Supply Orders § 218.11 Supply orders. (a) A supply order shall require that the firm to which it is issued take actions specified therein relating...

  2. Thermal Effusivity Measurement of Virgin Coconut Oil-Methanol Mixtures using Photoacoustic Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firas K.M. Al-asfoor

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermal effusivity of virgin coconut oil-methanol mixtures were measured using open photoacoustic cell technique. The samples were prepared by simply mixing virgin coconut oil and methanol using similar procedure applied for preparation of biodisel. Thermal effusivity of the sample was obtained by fitting the experimental data of photoacoustic amplitude signal to the expression of photoacoustic signal as a function of chopping frequency. Thermal effusivity of mixtures decrease between 0.0851 W s1/2 K-1 cm-2 (pure virgin coconut oil and 0.0644 W s1/2 K-1 cm-2 (pure methanol with the increasing of methanol in the mixture.

  3. A framework for measuring the supply chain's agility of mass construction industry in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keyvan Poloie

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Impotent planning system in house providing process is the result of inadequate housing management system in theoretical, empirical, and operational fields. In addition, Mass Construction industry in Iran confronts with other problems such as instability in raw material prices, unsteadiness in production and investment laws and regulations, frailty of transportation infrastructure, international sanctions and etc. Furthermore, customers’ needs, lower costs, and greater customizations lead mass producing to search for new solutions and novel producing system. Agility is offered as a strategy to enable Mass Construction associations to be maintained in the competition of constantly changing market in Iran. In such a market, previous approaches lose their capabilities in supply chain. Thus to achieve agility by Mass Construction association is the chief aim of this study. This study is descriptive-analytic and can be identified as developmental –functional considering its target. After surveying previous research literature and using experts’ opinions, we investigated final agile sub criteria of supply chain and then we used interpretive- structural modeling approach to determine the relation among sub criteria and to offer an agile supply chain model. Surveying research literature and experts’ opinions lead us to identify 8 criteria (society, government, financial, information technology, market, partnership, quality and technology and also 22 sub criteria for supply chain’s agility. Then the results were analyzed through interpretive-structural approach and relation of criteria and sub criteria and their consequence were achieved. These relations showed that government and infrastructure investment, culture, regulations and responses to social and environmental issues are the basis of agility in mass housing productions’ supply chain. This model helps supply chain managers to have strategic planning to enhance agility in supply chain

  4. Measurement of temperature-dependent viscosity and thermal conductivity of alumina and titania thermal oil nanofluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cieśliński Janusz T.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study the results of simultaneous measurements of dynamic viscosity, thermal conductivity, electrical conductivity and pH of two nanofluids, i.e., thermal oil/Al2O3 and thermal oil/TiO2 are presented. Thermal oil is selected as a base liquid because of possible application in ORC systems as an intermediate heating agent. Nanoparticles were tested at the concentration of 0.1%, 1%, and 5% by weight within temperature range from 20 °C to 60 °C. Measurement devices were carefully calibrated by comparison obtained results for pure base liquid (thermal oil with manufacturer’s data. The results obtained for tested nanofluids were compared with predictions made by use of existing models for liquid/solid particles mixtures.

  5. Measurement of temperature-dependent viscosity and thermal conductivity of alumina and titania thermal oil nanofluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieśliński, Janusz T.; Ronewicz, Katarzyna; Smoleń, Sławomir

    2015-12-01

    In this study the results of simultaneous measurements of dynamic viscosity, thermal conductivity, electrical conductivity and pH of two nanofluids, i.e., thermal oil/Al2O3 and thermal oil/TiO2 are presented. Thermal oil is selected as a base liquid because of possible application in ORC systems as an intermediate heating agent. Nanoparticles were tested at the concentration of 0.1%, 1%, and 5% by weight within temperature range from 20 °C to 60 °C. Measurement devices were carefully calibrated by comparison obtained results for pure base liquid (thermal oil) with manufacturer's data. The results obtained for tested nanofluids were compared with predictions made by use of existing models for liquid/solid particles mixtures.

  6. Mapping three-dimensional oil distribution with π-EPI MRI measurements at low magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming; Xiao, Dan; Romero-Zerón, Laura; Marica, Florea; MacMillan, Bryce; Balcom, Bruce J.

    2016-08-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a robust tool to image oil saturation distribution in rock cores during oil displacement processes. However, a lengthy measurement time for 3D measurements at low magnetic field can hinder monitoring the displacement. 1D and 2D MRI measurements are instead often undertaken to monitor the oil displacement since they are faster. However, 1D and 2D images may not completely reflect the oil distribution in heterogeneous rock cores. In this work, a high-speed 3D MRI technique, π Echo Planar Imaging (π-EPI), was employed at 0.2 T to monitor oil displacement. Centric scan interleaved sampling with view sharing in k-t space was employed to improve the temporal resolution of the π-EPI measurements. A D2O brine was employed to distinguish the hydrocarbon and water phases. A relatively homogenous glass bead pack and a heterogeneous Spynie core plug were employed to show different oil displacement behaviors. High quality 3D images were acquired with π-EPI MRI measurements. Fluid quantification with π-EPI compared favorably with FID, CPMG, 1D-DHK-SPRITE, 3D Fast Spin Echo (FSE) and 3D Conical SPRITE measurements. π-EPI greatly reduced the gradient duty cycle and improved sensitivity, compared to FSE and Conical SPRITE measurements, enabling dynamic monitoring of oil displacement processes. For core plug samples with sufficiently long lived T2, T2∗, π-EPI is an ideal method for rapid 3D saturation imaging.

  7. Measurement uncertainty of ester number, acid number and patchouli alcohol of patchouli oil produced in Yogyakarta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Istiningrum, Reni Banowati; Saepuloh, Azis; Jannah, Wirdatul; Aji, Didit Waskito

    2017-03-01

    Yogyakarta is one of patchouli oil distillation center in Indonesia. The quality of patchouli oil greatly affect its market price. Therefore, testing quality of patchouli oil parameters is an important concern, one through determination of the measurement uncertainty. This study will determine the measurement uncertainty of ester number, acid number and content of patchouli alcohol through a bottom up approach. Source contributor to measurement uncertainty of ester number is a mass of the sample, a blank and sample titration volume, the molar mass of KOH, HCl normality, and replication. While the source contributor of the measurement uncertainty of acid number is the mass of the sample, the sample titration volume, the relative mass and normality of KOH, and repetition. Determination of patchouli alcohol by Gas Chromatography considers the sources of measurement uncertainty only from repeatability because reference materials are not available.

  8. IDENTIFICATION OF MEASUREMENT ITEMS OF DESIGN REQUIREMENTS FOR LEAN AND AGILE SUPPLY CHAIN-CONFIRMATORY FACTOR ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.Venkata Ramana

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the consistency approaches by confirmatory factor analysis that determines the construct validity, convergent validity, construct reliability and internal consistency of the items of strategic design requirements. The design requirements includes use of information technology, sourcing procedures, new product development, flexible manufacturing functions and demand management supply chain net work design, management, commitment and inventory management policies among manufacturers of volatile and unforeseeable products in Andhraadesh, India. This study suggested that the seven factor model with 20 items of the leagile supply chain design requirements had a good fit. Further, the study showed a val id and reliable measurement to identify critical items among the design requirements of leagile supply chains.

  9. Oil Markets' Reactions to Significant Supply Shocks%重大供给冲击对石油市场的影响分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘慧峰; 吕文栋; 石智超

    2012-01-01

    This paper collected historical significant supply shocks as events, including Venezuela Strike, Iraq War, Hurricane Katrina, Turkey's Attack towards Kurdish, Gulf Oil Spill and Libya War. We built GRACH model to investigate the impact on volatility induced by supply shock on Brent and WTI crude oil spot and future markets, Dubai and Aman spot markets. Then we further adopted event study considering heteroskedasticity correction to examine the short run impact on the returns of main global oil markets due to these supply shocks. The empirical results show that: most of these events induced lager volatility in the event window; the cumulative abnormal returns in the event window are significantly positive for almost all the events except for Iraq war and Gulf oil spill; the trend of cumulative abnormal returns of all the markets exhibit the same pattern in the event window for any given event; the geographical location where events happened has a larger impact on the returns of the neighboring markets. This paper presents the economic interpretations for these empirical findings and proposed corresponding policy suggestions for different participants of oil market.%收集历史上石油市场的重大供给冲击事件,包括委内瑞拉大罢工、伊拉克战争、卡特琳娜飓风、土耳其攻打库尔德、墨西哥湾漏油事件和利比亚战争,选取Brent、WTI现货和期货以及迪拜和阿曼现货等国际主要石油市场数据,建立GARCH模型,分析供给冲击对市场波动性的影响,进一步采用异方差修正的事件分析法考察这些事件对全球主要石油市场收益率的短期影响.研究结果表明,大部分事件会导致事件窗内的方差变大,除伊拉克战争和墨西哥湾漏油事件外,其他事件的事件窗内的累计超额收益显著为正,同一事件下所有市场事件窗内累计超额收益走势一致,重大事件发生的地理区位对邻近市场的收益率的影响更大.对实证结果进

  10. Comparison of electrical capacitance tomography & gamma densitometer measurement in viscous oil-gas flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archibong Eso, A.; Zhao, Yabin; Yeung, Hoi

    2014-04-01

    Multiphase flow is a common occurrence in industries such as nuclear, process, oil & gas, food and chemical. A prior knowledge of its features and characteristics is essential in the design, control and management of such processes due to its complex nature. Electrical Capacitance Tomography (ECT) and Gamma Densitometer (Gamma) are two promising approaches for multiphase visualization and characterization in process industries. In two phase oil & gas flow, ECT and Gamma are used in multiphase flow monitoring techniques due to their inherent simplicity, robustness, and an ability to withstand wide range of operational temperatures and pressures. High viscous oil (viscosity > 100 cP) is of interest because of its huge reserves, technological advances in its production and unlike conventional oil (oil viscosity oil and gas flows comes with certain associated concerns which include; increased entrainment of gas bubbles dispersed in oil, shorter and more frequent slugs as well as oil film coatings on the walls of flowing conduits. This study aims to determine the suitability of both devices in the visualization and characterization of high-viscous oil and gas flow. Static tests are performed with both devices and liquid holdup measurements are obtained. Dynamic experiments were also conducted in a 1 & 3 inch facility at Cranfield University with a range of nominal viscosities (1000, 3000 & 7500 cP). Plug, slug and wavy annular flow patterns were identified by means of Probability Mass Function and time series analysis of the data acquired from Gamma and ECT devices with high speed camera used to validate the results. Measured Liquid holdups for both devices were also compared.

  11. Measurement of oil volume fraction and velocity distributions in vertical oil-in-water flows using ERT and a local probe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Hua; WANG Mi; WU Ying-xiang; MA Yi-xin; WILLIAMS Richard

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the use of a high performance dual-plane electrical resistance tomography (ERT) system and a local dual-sensor conductance probe to measure the vertical upward oil-in-water pipe flows in which the mean oil volume fraction is up to 23.1%.A sensitivity coefficient back-projection (SBP) algorithm was adopted to reconstruct the flow distributions and a cross correlation method was applied to obtain the oil velocity distributions. The oil volume fraction and velocity distributions obtained from both measurement techniques were compared and good agreement was found, which indicates that the ERT technique can be used to measure the low fraction oil-water flows. Finally, the factors affecting measurement precision were discussed.

  12. On-line measurement of the supplied wind capacity for a defined supply area; Online-Ermittlung der eingespeisten Windleistung fuer definierte Versorgungsgebiete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ensslin, C.; Hoppe-Kilpper, M.; Rohrig, K. [Institut fuer Solare Energieversorgungstechnik (ISET), Kassel (Germany)

    1999-07-01

    Apart from knowing exactly the statistic performance of the supplied wind capacity the projection of the capacity to be expected in the short and medium-term is of increasing importance for the utilisation plan of power plants and the load management of public utilities. Various approaches and methods already exist for the projection of wind capacity. These approaches are based on the capability to approximate non-linear interrelations and to use unclear, incomplete or even contradictory data with the help of artificial neuronal networks. The physical and meteorological interrelations of the problem do not need to be known during the modelling. Based upon the on-line measurement of wind energy supply the short time projection for periods of one to four hours, e.g. by means of artificial neuronal networks, is an important first step for an improved integration of wind energy into load control and utilisation plan of power plants of public utilities with a high share in wind energy. A first study carried out by the ISET (Institute for Solar Energy Supply Technology) showed the basic possibility to predict the overall capacity of widely distributed joint systems of wind power plants by means of artificial neuronal networks. (orig.) [German] Neben der genauen Kenntnis des statistischen Verhaltens der eingespeisten Windleistung ist die Vorhersage der kurz- bis mittelfristig zu erwartenden Leistung fuer die Kraftwerkseinsatzplanung und das Lastmanagement von Energieversorgungsunternehmen von zunehmender Bedeutung. Fuer die Prognose der Windleistung existieren bereits verschiedene Ansaetze und Verfahren. Dabei basieren die Ansaetze zur Windleistungsprognose mit Hilfe von Kuenstlichen Neuronalen Netzen (KNN) auf der Faehigkeit, nichtlineare Zusammenhaenge zu approximieren und verrauschte, unvollstaendige oder sogar widerspruechliche Daten zu verwenden. Weiter sind bei der Modellierung keine Kenntnisse der physikalischen oder meteorologischen Zusammenhaenge des Problems

  13. Measuring performance at the supply chain level: the role of the chain director

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Job A.C. De Haan

    2016-05-01

    The findings show when an attempt to implement a PMS at the supply chain level might be appropriate and effective (if a chain exists and has a director, and how the system’s content should be focused on what is needed to improve chain performance (with end customers’ demands as a starting point. The paper highlights the benefits obtained by the other partners if they comply with the best informed supply chain member in the development of the chain’s PMS, as well as how a PMS cannot be developed when none of the partners can be labelled as chain director.

  14. Experimental investigation of wettability alteration on residual oil saturation using nonionic surfactants: Capillary pressure measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Amirpour

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introducing the novel technique for enhancing oil recovery from available petroleum reservoirs is one of the important issues in future energy demands. Among of all operative factors, wettability may be the foremost parameter affecting residual oil saturation in all stage of oil recovery. Although wettability alteration is one of the methods which enhance oil recovery from the petroleum reservoir. Recently, the studies which focused on this subject were more than the past and many contributions have been made on this area. The main objective of the current study is experimentally investigation of the two nonionic surfactants effects on altering wettability of reservoir rocks. Purpose of this work is to change the wettability to preferentially the water-wet condition. Also reducing the residual oil saturation (Sor is the other purpose of this work. The wettability alteration of reservoir rock is measured by two main quantitative methods namely contact angle and the USBM methods. Results of this study showed that surfactant flooding is more effective in oil-wet rocks to change their wettability and consequently reducing Sor to a low value. Cedar (Zizyphus Spina Christi is low priced, absolutely natural, and abundantly accessible in the Middle East and Central Asia. Based on the results, this material can be used as a chemical surfactant in field for enhancing oil recovery.

  15. Oil palm and the emission of greenhouse gasses- from field measurements in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Niharika; Bruun, Thilde Bech; Giller, Ken E.; Magid, Jakob; van de Ven, Gerrie; de Neergaard, Andreas

    2017-04-01

    Palm oil from the oil palm (Elaeis guianensis) has in recent years become the world's most important vegetable oil. The increasing demand for palm oil has led to expansion of oil palm plantations, which has caused environmental controversies associated with carbon losses and the use of large amounts of mineral fertilizers. Efforts to increase sustainability of oil palm cultivation, include recycling of oil-mill residues and pruning's, but with this comes increased potential for methane emission from the plantations. Until now no field-based data on greenhouse gas emissions from oil palm plantations have been reported. Here for the first time we present data from a long term (360 days) field trial in Bah Lias Research Station, North Sumatra, Indonesia on greenhouse gas emissions from an oil palm plantation with various treatments of recycled oil palm waste products, fertilizers and simulated rainfall. The first experiment was conducted over a full year (dry + wet season) with mineral fertilizer treatments including urea and ammonium sulphate, and organic fertilizer treatments constituting: empty fruit bunches (EFB), enriched mulch (EFB + palm oil mill effluent (POME) ) and pruned oil palm fronds (OPF). Treatment doses represent the current management in Indonesian plantations and the higher doses that are expected in the imminent future. For the organic treatments several methods of application (applied in inter-rows, piles, patches or bands) were evaluated. The second experiment investigated effects of soil water saturation on GHG emissions through adding 25 mm simulated rainfall per day for 21 days. Each palm tree received 1 kg of N fertilizer as urea or ammonium sulphate and enriched mulch. The gas fluxes in the fields was measured by a large static-chamber (1.8 m x 1.2 m) method and CH4 and N2O concentrations were determined using gas chromatographs. We found that emissions were significantly affected by the type and dose of mineral fertilizers. Application of

  16. An empirical investigation for measuring the performance of supply chain operation: A case study of healthcare industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeede Nateghinia

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A supply chain is a network of facilities for procuring raw materials, transforming them into intermediate goods and then final products, and delivering them to customers through a distribution system. This paper presents an empirical investigation to measure the performance of a hospital based on the implementation of supply chain operations reference (SCOR method. The proposed model of this paper considers five criteria including reliability, responsiveness, agility, costs and assets in one of Iranian hospitals and computes the performance of four important departments including dentistry, radiology, pharmacy and laboratory. The proposed model of this paper uses analytical hierarchy process to assign weights for all criteria to measure the overall performance. The result of this survey indicates that reliability is the most important factor in measuring the performance of medical centers.

  17. Saving oil in a hurry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none

    2005-07-01

    During 2004, oil prices reached levels unprecedented in recent years. Though world oil markets remain adequately supplied, high oil prices do reflect increasingly uncertain conditions. Many IEA member countries and non-member countries alike are looking for ways to improve their capability to handle market volatility and possible supply disruptions in the future. This book aims to provide assistance. It provides a new, quantitative assessment of the potential oil savings and costs of rapid oil demand restraint measures for transport. Some measures may make sense under any circumstances; others are primarily useful in emergency situations. All can be implemented on short notice ? if governments are prepared. The book examines potential approaches for rapid uptake of telecommuting, ?ecodriving?, and car-pooling, among other measures. It also provides methodologies and data that policymakers can use to decide which measures would be best adapted to their national circumstances. This ?tool box? may help countries to complement other measures for coping with supply disruptions, such as use of strategic oil stocks.

  18. GEANT4 simulation of water volume fraction measurement in dehydrated crude oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JING Chunguo; XING Guangzhong; LIU Bin

    2007-01-01

    Online measurement of water volume fraction (WVF) in dehydrated crude oil is a difficult task due to very little water in dehydrated crude oil and high precision requirements. We presents a method to measure water volume fraction in dehydrated crude oil with γ-ray densitometry. The Monte Carlo computer simulation packet GEANT4 was used to analyze the WVF measuring sensitivity of the γ-ray densitometry at different γ-ray energies, and effects of temperature, pressure, salinity and oil components on WVF measurement. The results show that the γ-ray densitome-try has high sensitivity in γ-ray energy ranges of 16~25 keV, and it can distinguish WVF changes of 0.0005. The calculated WVF decreases about 0.0002 with 1 ℃ of temperature increase and they have approximately linear relation with temperature when water volume fraction remains the same. Effects of pressure, salinity and oil components on water volume fraction can be neglected. Experiments were done to analyze sensitivity of the γ-ray densitometry. The results, as compared with simulations, demonstrate that simulation method is reliable and it is feasible to gauge low water volume fraction using low energy γ-rays.

  19. Skin friction measurements by a new nonintrusive double-laser-beam oil viscosity balance technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monson, D. J.; Higuchi, H.

    1980-01-01

    A portable dual-laser-beam interferometer that nonintrusively measures skin friction by monitoring the thickness change of an oil film subject to shear stress is described. The method is an advance over past versions in that the troublesome and error-introducing need to measure the distance to the oil leading edge and the starting time for the oil flow has been eliminated. The validity of the method was verified by measuring oil viscosity in the laboratory, and then using those results to measure skin friction beneath the turbulent boundary layer in a low-speed wind tunnel. The dual-laser-beam skin friction measurements are compared with Preston tube measurements, with mean velocity profile data in a 'law-of-the-wall' coordinate system, and with computations based on turbulent boundary-layer theory. Excellent agreement is found in all cases. This validation and the aforementioned improvements appear to make the present form of the instrument usable to measure skin friction reliably and nonintrusively in a wide range of flow situations in which previous methods are not practical.

  20. SUPPLIES COSTS: AN EXPLORATORY STUDY WITH APPLICATION OF MEASUREMENT MODEL OF LOGISTICS COSTS

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Paula Ferreira Alves; José Vanderlei Silva Borba; Gilberto Tavares dos Santos; Artur Roberto Gibbon

    2013-01-01

    One of the main reasons for the difficulty in adopting an integrated method of calculation of logistics costs is still a lack of adequate information about costs. The management of the supply chain and identify its costs can provide information for their managers, with regard to decision making, generating competitive advantage. Some models of calculating logistics costs are proposed by Uelze (1974), Dias (1996), Goldratt (2002), Christopher (2007), Castiglioni (2009) and Borba & Gibbon (2009...

  1. Development of a social auditing management system to measure responsibility in a supply chain : Case Company: Pramia

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop an auditing system for a case company, Pramia, which would measure and manage responsibility throughout their supply chain. This was done by researching theoretical methodology in social auditing and key concepts related to the study and also a practical method used to gain insight on developing the management system. This thesis addresses the issues and needs of Pramia, provides a layout of actions for the revised management system, as well as a plan ...

  2. The algorithm of measuring parameters of separate oil streams components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopteva, A. V.; Voytyuk, I. N.

    2017-02-01

    This paper describes a development in the area of non-contact measurement of moving flows, including mass flow, the number of components and their mass ratios in a multicomponent flow, as well as measurement of flows based on algorithms and functional developed for various industries and production processes. The paper demonstrates that at the core of the proposed systems, there is the physical information field created in the cross section of the moving flow by hard electromagnetic radiation. The substantiation and measurement of the information parameters are performed by the hardware and the software of the automatic measuring system. A new way of statistical pulsation measurements by the radioisotope technique is described, being alternative to the existing stream control methods and allowing improving accuracy of measurements. The basic formula fundamental for the method of calibration characteristics correction is shown.

  3. Development of measures to improve technologies of energy recovery from gaseous wastes of oil shale processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tugov, A. N.; Ots, A.; Siirde, A.; Sidorkin, V. T.; Ryabov, G. A.

    2016-06-01

    Prospects of the use of oil shale are associated with its thermal processing for the production of liquid fuel, shale oil. Gaseous by-products, such as low-calorie generator gas with a calorific value up to 4.3MJ/m3 or semicoke gas with a calorific value up to 56.57 MJ/m3, are generated depending on the oil shale processing method. The main methods of energy recovery from these gases are either their cofiring with oil shale in power boilers or firing only under gaseous conditions in reconstructed or specially designed for this fuel boilers. The possible use of gaseous products of oil shale processing in gas-turbine or gas-piston units is also considered. Experiments on the cofiring of oil shale gas and its gaseous processing products have been carried out on boilers BKZ-75-39FSl in Kohtla-Järve and on the boiler TP-101 of the Estonian power plant. The test results have shown that, in the case of cofiring, the concentration of sulfur oxides in exhaust gases does not exceed the level of existing values in the case of oil shale firing. The low-temperature corrosion rate does not change as compared to the firing of only oil shale, and, therefore, operation conditions of boiler back-end surfaces do not worsen. When implementing measures to reduce the generation of NO x , especially of flue gas recirculation, it has been possible to reduce the emissions of nitrogen oxides in the whole boiler. The operation experience of the reconstructed boilers BKZ-75-39FSl after their transfer to the firing of only gaseous products of oil shale processing is summarized. Concentrations of nitrogen and sulfur oxides in the combustion products of semicoke and generator gases are measured. Technical solutions that made it possible to minimize the damage to air heater pipes associated with the low-temperature sulfur corrosion are proposed and implemented. The technological measures for burners of new boilers that made it possible to burn gaseous products of oil shale processing with low

  4. Designing Performance Measurement For Supply Chain's Actors And Regulator Using Scale Balanced Scorecard And Data Envelopment Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusrini, Elisa; Subagyo; Aini Masruroh, Nur

    2016-01-01

    This research is a sequel of the author's earlier conducted researches in the fields of designing of integrated performance measurement between supply chain's actors and regulator. In the previous paper, the design of performance measurement is done by combining Balanced Scorecard - Supply Chain Operation Reference - Regulator Contribution model and Data Envelopment Analysis. This model referred as B-S-Rc-DEA model. The combination has the disadvantage that all the performance variables have the same weight. This paper investigates whether by giving weight to performance variables will produce more sensitive performance measurement in detecting performance improvement. Therefore, this paper discusses the development of the model B-S-Rc-DEA by giving weight to its performance'variables. This model referred as Scale B-S-Rc-DEA model. To illustrate the model of development, some samples from small medium enterprises of leather craft industry supply chain in province of Yogyakarta, Indonesia are used in this research. It is found that Scale B-S-Rc-DEA model is more sensitive to detecting performance improvement than B-S- Rc-DEA model.

  5. Non-contacting Measurement of Oil Film Thickness Between Loaded Metallic Gear Teeth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Daniel B.; Ceccio, Steven L.; Dowling, David R.

    2013-11-01

    The mechanical power transmission efficiency of gears is depends on the lubrication condition between gear teeth. While the lubrication levels can be generally predicted, an effective in-situ non-contacting measurement of oil film thicknesses between loaded metallic gear teeth has proved elusive. This study explores a novel oil film thickness measurement technique based on optical fluence, the light energy transmitted between loaded gear teeth. A gear testing apparatus that allowed independent control of gear rotation rate, load torque, and oil flow was designed and built. Film thickness measurements made with 5-inch-pitch-diameter 60-tooth spur gears ranged from 0.3 to 10.2 mil. These results are compared with film thickness measurements made in an earlier investigation (MacConochie and Cameron, 1960), as well as with predictions from two film thickness models: a simple two-dimensional squeezed oil film and the industry-accepted model as described by the American Gear Manufacturers Association (AGMA 925, 2003). In each case, the measured film thicknesses were larger than the predicted thicknesses, though these discrepancies might be attributed to the specifics the experiments and to challenges associated with calibrating the fluence measurements. [Sponsored by General Electric].

  6. Spectrophotometric method for quantitative measuring essential oil in aromatic water and distillate with rose smell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semenova, E.; Presnyakova, V.; Goncharov, D.; Goncharov, M.; Presnyakova, E.; Presnyakov, S.; Moiseeva, I.; Kolesnikova, S.

    2017-01-01

    In this connection, we improved the express methods of determining the mixture of volatile aromatic substances by the spectrophotometry of aromatic water and steam distillate of essential oil raw materials (traditional or biotechnological with rose smell). Direct spectrophotometry of distillation water is impossible because it is a colloid of liquid oil and law is not observed. Therefore, it is necessary to dissolve 1 ml of distillate in ethanol in the ratio 1:4, in this case we take real solution with no lipophilic fall-out on the walls of cuvette, also the light absorption law is observed. There are stable maximums in spectrums of studied oils. Optical density of these maximums is a result of summary absorption of terpenoid components (aromatic and monoterpene alcohols, its ethers). Optical density of tested and standard solutions is measured in appropriate wavelengths. Spectrophotometric method of determination of essential oil quantity in aromatic water with rose smell differs with high sensitivity (10-5-10-6 gmol/l) and allows to determine oil concentration from 0,900 to 0,008 mg with an error less than 1%. At that, 1 ml is enough for analysis. It’s expedient to apply this method while operating with small quantity of water distillate in biochemical and biotechnological researches and also as express control for extraction and hydrodistillation of essential oil raw material (rose petals and flowers from different origin, eremothecium cultural liquid etc.).

  7. Oil quality parameters and quantitative measurement of major secoiridoid derivatives in Neb Jmel olive oil from various Tunisian origins using qNMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Mansour, Amir; Gargouri, Boutheina; Melliou, Eleni; Magiatis, Prokopios; Bouaziz, Mohamed

    2016-10-01

    Olive oil contains compounds with interesting biological activities which are influenced by the cultivar, the geographic origin and other factors. The aims of this work were to (1) investigate these factors in Neb Jmel olive oil from various Tunisian origins; (2) determine the influence of geographic conditions on phenolic composition of Neb Jmel olive oil and consequently on the antioxidant compounds; and (3) verify whether oils could be discriminated based on geographical origin. The characterisation of extra-virgin Neb Jmel olive oil produced in its original location has been conducted. Owing to the effect of the genotype and environmental, agronomic and technological factors on the chemical composition of olive oil and its quality, all studied olives were collected at the same season, and their oil obtained under the same processing technique. Many analyses were carried out to characterise the different olive oils: free acidity, peroxide value, fatty acid composition, Rancimat assay, pigments content and phenolic compounds by (1) H NMR. A recently developed method for the direct measurement of the oleocanthal and oleacein levels in olive oil by quantitative (1) H NMR was applied. The method was applied to the study of four Neb Jmel olive oils samples, and a broad variation of concentrations of all four secoiridoids was recorded. The concentration of each ranged from 55 to 529 mg kg(-1) and the sum of the four major secoiridoids (known as D3) ranged from 436 to 1063 mg kg(-1) . The quantification of major phenolic compounds of olive oil by NMR indicated that environmental conditions influence the production of qualitative phenolic fractions. All these compounds can be used as base 'markers' to characterise and differentiate these olive oil on geographic origin. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Laser-induced fluorescence measurement of the oil film thickness in an internal combustion engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostroski, Greg M.; Ghandhi, Jaal B.

    1997-11-01

    The use of a fluorescent dopant molecule to enhance the natural fluorescence of motor oils, and allow quantitative determination of temperature and film thickens in internal combustion engines has been investigated. Measurement of the fluorescence as a function of temperature were made with neat Mobil 1, and solutions of the dopant BTBP in mineral oil and Mobil 1. The fluorescence yield of neat Mobil 1 was found to vary by 30 percent over the temperature range explored, but the spectral characteristics, as measured with bandpass filters, were unaffected by temperature. The BTBP fluorescence was found to increase significantly with temperature, and it was found the narrower regions in the spectrum increased proportionally more than the fluorescence collected over the entire spectrum, allowing a determination of temperature to be made which can then be used to correct for the change in fluorescence yield. Solutions in Mobil 1 showed a smaller increase than that observed in mineral oil.

  9. System for measurement and automatic regulation of gas flow within an oil aging test device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žigić Aleksandar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a system within an oil aging test device that serves for measurement and automatic regulation of gas flow. Following an already realized system that continuously monitors, logs, and regulates transformer oil temperature during the aging process and maintains temperature consistency within strict limits, a model of a flow meter and regulator of air or oxygen through transformer oil samples is developed. A special feature of the implemented system is the measurement of very small gas flows. A short technical description of the realized system is given with a functional block diagram. The basic technical characteristics of the system are specified, and the operating principles and application of the system are described. The paper also gives performance test results in a real exploitation environment.

  10. A High Resolution Capacitive Sensing System for the Measurement of Water Content in Crude Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Zubair Aslam

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design of a non-intrusive system to measure ultra-low water content in crude oil. The system is based on a capacitance to phase angle conversion method. Water content is measured with a capacitance sensor comprising two semi-cylindrical electrodes mounted on the outer side of a glass tube. The presence of water induces a capacitance change that in turn converts into a phase angle, with respect to a main oscillator. A differential sensing technique is adopted not only to ensure high immunity against temperature variation and background noise, but also to eliminate phase jitter and amplitude variation of the main oscillator that could destabilize the output. The complete capacitive sensing system was implemented in hardware and experiment results using crude oil samples demonstrated that a resolution of ±50 ppm of water content in crude oil was achieved by the proposed design.

  11. Evaluation of a simple and sensitive sensory method for measuring rancidity in soybean oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angulo, O.

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of the 2 Alternative Forced Choice (2-AFC sensory method in detecting rancidity in soybean oils. Additionally, correlations between the physico-chemical quality and the sensory attributes of edible soybean oils were studied. Soybean oil samples from four different plants were analyzed for their fatty acid profile, Free fatty acid (FFA, Anisidine Value (AV, Peroxide Value (PV, Conjugated Dienes (CD, Colour, Rancimat and TOTOX. The sensory attributes of the oils were measured using The American Oil Chemists Society (AOCS sensory method and additionally, rancidity was assessed using the 2-AFC sensory method. All oil samples fit the quality control criteria for edible soybean oil. The 2-AFC The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of the 2 Alternative Forced Choice (2-AFC sensory method in detecting rancidity in soybean oils. Additionally, correlations between the physico-chemical quality and the sensory attributes of edible soybean oils were studied. Soybean oil samples from four different plants were analyzed for their fatty acid profile, Free fatty acid (FFA, Anisidine Value (AV, Peroxide Value (PV, Conjugated Dienes (CD, Colour, Rancimat and TOTOX. The sensory attributes of the oils were measured using The American Oil Chemists Society (AOCS sensory method and additionally, rancidity was assessed using the 2-AFC sensory method. All oil samples fit the quality control criteria for edible soybean oil. The 2-AFC  method was sensitive to small differences in rancidity. Differences in anisidine value and Rancimat were correlated to the difference in rancidity (d' among oilsEl propósito de este trabajo fue evaluar la eficacia de la prueba de selección forzada de dos alternativas (2-AFC para determinar la rancidez en aceite de soja. La correlación entre la calidad química y los atributos sensoriales de los aceites fue el segundo objetivo del trabajo. El perfil de ácidos grasos

  12. Measurements and modelling of phase behaviour and viscosity of a heavy oil-butane system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yazdani, A.; Maini, B.B. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada)

    2007-07-01

    Solvent based recovery processes are environmentally friendly alternatives for thermal techniques. Information on the phase behavior of the heavy oil/solvent system is needed for numerical simulation and feasibility studies of these processes. However, the lack of experimental data for such systems in the literature has been problematic. Solvent/oil mixtures that are evaluated within the context of the vapour extraction (VAPEX) process, require accurate description of the system's pressure, volume, and temperature (PVT) properties. This paper presented the results of a study that designed an experimental set-up and conducted several experiments in order to obtain the required PVT information. The paper presented the results of the PVT experiments conducted with the Frog-Lake heavy oil/butane system that was used in VAPEX experiments reported previously by the authors. The experimental measurements included the solvent fractions in the oil, mixture density and mixture viscosity at different saturation pressures. Using the phase behavior package WINPROP, the PVT results were modeled and an equation of state (EOS) was tuned for simulating the experimental behavior of the system. The viscosity measurements were compared with the predictions of several available correlations. It was concluded that the predicted values of EOS for density and saturation pressure were in agreement with the obtained experimental data and that a mixing type relationship was found to be adequate for describing the viscosity of heavy oil - solvent mixtures. 12 refs., 4 tabs., 10 figs.

  13. Measurement and control system for a fuel supply plant at an airport; Kuko kyuyu plant no keisoku seigyo system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-01-10

    Air transportation demand is increasing internationally both for passengers and cargoes. A number of Asian countries intend to have a hub airport for Asia, and moving forward building new airports and expanding the existing airports. In the area of airport fuel supply, Fuji Electric has received an order from the Inchon International Airport Public Corporation of Korea a measurement and control system, and is making adjustments at site now. This system is a high-reliability open system which links the controller (ICS-2000), FOCUS, and a UNIX computer by the information LAN and the control LAN according to Ethernet, and duplicates the control LAN. On the other hand, the system has such functions as control of aircraft fuel from receiving from a pipeline to filling it into a storage tank, control of rotation speed of delivery pumps and control of the number thereof for operation, thus attempting automation of fuel supply to aircraft. (translated by NEDO)

  14. Cyclonic multiphase flow measurement system GLCC®1 for oil well capacity evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.M. Godoy–Alcántar

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows the development of a portable multiphase flow measurement system based in cyclonic separation technology GLCC@1. This system is aimed for oil well measurement and was developed in three phases; the first devoted to the geometric design of a cyclonic separator by means of design software GLCC V7.8 and the selection of measurement instrumentation and flux control valves. In the second phase, the automatic control system was designed for the implementation of four control strategies each one related with a possible scenario of the well behavior. The third constitutes the integration of the measurement and control devices through a user interface aimed for visualization, information processing and system's operation and control. Experimental results in oil well measurements show the efficiency and workability of the integrated system.

  15. Advanced distillation curve measurements for corrosive fluids: Application to two crude oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lisa Starkey Ott; Beverly L. Smith; Thomas J. Bruno [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, CO (United States). Physical and Chemical Properties Division

    2008-10-15

    We have recently introduced several important improvements in the measurement of distillation curves for complex fluids. The modifications include a composition-explicit data channel for each distillate fraction (for both qualitative and quantitative analysis) and corrosivity assessment of each distillate fraction. The composition-explicit information is achieved with a new sampling approach that allows precise qualitative as well as quantitative analyses of each fraction, on the fly. We have applied the new method to a variety of fluids, including simple n-alkanes, rocket propellant, gasoline, jet fuels, and a hydrocarbon fluid made corrosive with dissolved hydrogen sulfide. In the current contribution, we present the application of the advanced distillation curve method to two samples of crude oil. A primary motivation behind the work is to precisely measure the distillation curves of these oils using our advanced distillation apparatus; these low uncertainty measurements of true thermodynamic state points can be used for equation of state development and differentiation of crude oil samples. Then, the information content of each distillation was extended much further by use of the composition-explicit data channel: gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), infrared spectrophotometry (IR), gas chromatography with sulfur chemiluminescence detection (GC-SCD), and the copper strip corrosion test (CSCT) were used for each distillate volume fraction sampled. Consequently, for each volume fraction of crude oil distillate sampled, we can address the composition, quantitate the total sulfur content, and measure the corrosivity. 39 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Rapid Evaluation of Water-in-Oil (w/o) Emulsion Stability by Turbidity Ratio Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song; Jho; Kim; Kim

    2000-10-01

    In this Note, we investigated the turbidity ratio method for the evaluation of water-in-oil emulsion stability. The slope of turbidity ratio of water-in-oil emulsions with time was taken as an index of stability; the higher the slope, the less stable the system. Various factors affecting the stability of emulsion such as HLB of emulsifier, amount of emulsifiers, and water were tested using this technique. The results of the turbidity ratio technique for the evaluation of emulsion stability were well consistent with those obtained by the measurement of phase separation when incubated for 30 days at room temperature. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  17. FBG sensing temperature characteristic and application in oil/gas down-hole measurement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shaomin LI; Xiaoying LIU; You LI; Shenlong YANG; Chong LIU

    2009-01-01

    Fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) have been used to sense numerous parameters such as strain, temperature, and pressure. Cost-effective multipoint measurements have been achieved by connecting FBGs in parallel, serial, and other topologies as well as by using spatial, wavelength, and time-domain multiplexing techniques. This paper presents a method of measuring temperature of the oil/gas down-hole. Detailed contents include the basic theory and characteristics of fiber gratings, analysis of the sensing mechanism of fiber-optic gratings, and the cross-sensitivity effect between temperature and strain; the method of making the light-source of the fiber-optic gratings and the technology of measuring wavelength shift, building an experimental system of the temperature measurement, and dealing with the experimental data. The paper makes a comparison of several kinds of FBG sensing systems used in oil/gas down-hole to measure temperature and the analysis of the experimental results of building the temperature measurement experimental sys-tem. It demonstrates that the fiber-optic grating sensing method is the best choice in all methods of measuring temperature in oil/gas down-hole, which has a brilliant applied prospect.

  18. Incorporating risk measures in closed-loop supply chain network design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soleimani, H.; Seyyed-Esfahani, M.; Govindan, Kannan

    2014-01-01

    functions and decision-making procedures are undertaken based on the expected values and risk adversity criteria. Finally, performances of the developed mean-risk models are evaluated in various aspects. Results reveal that the inefficiencies of risk-neutral approaches can be overcome. In addition, in terms......This paper considers a location-allocation problem in a closed-loop supply chain (CLSC) with two extensions: first, demand and prices of new and return products are regarded as non-deterministic parameters and second, the objective function is developed from expected profit to three types of mean......-risk ones. Indeed, design and planning an integrated CLSC in real-world volatile markets is an important and necessary issue. Further, risk-neutral approaches, which are considered expected values, are not efficient for such uncertain conditions. Hence, this paper, copes with the design and planning problem...

  19. The effect of dietary fish oil-supplementation to healthy young men on oxidative burst measured by whole blood chemiluminescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartelt, Stine; Timm, Michael; Damsgaard, Camilla Trab

    2008-01-01

    a randomised 2 £ 2-factorial design in which subjects were randomly assigned to 8-week supplementation with capsules containing fish oil (about 29 g n-3 LCPUFA/d) or olive oil (control). Subjects were also randomly assigned to household use of oils and fat spreads with a high or a low 18 : 2n-6 content...... by the fish oil-supplementation (P,0001, compared to the olive oil groups). No effect of the intervention was observed on neutrophil count, but one measure of the zymosan-induced oxidative burst was higher in the fish oil groups (P¼003) compared to the olive oil groups. The fat intervention did not in itself...

  20. Fatigue in seafarers working in the offshore oil and gas re-supply industry: effects of safety climate, psychosocial work environment and shift arrangement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hystad, Sigurd W; Saus, Evelyn-Rose; Sætrevik, Bjørn; Eid, Jarle

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the influence of safety climate and psychosocial work environment on the reported fatigue of seafarers working in the offshore oil and gas re-supply industry (n = 402). We found that seafarers who reported high psychological demands and perceived the organisational-level safety climate negatively,reported significantly more mental fatigue, physical fatigue, and lack of energy. In addition, seafarers who reported having high levels of job control reported being significantly less mentally fatigued. We also found some combined effects of safety climate and shift arrangement. Organisational-level safety climate did not influence the levels of physical fatigue in seafarers working on the night shift. On the contrary, seafarers working during the days reported to be more physically fatigued when they perceived the organisational-level climate to be negative compared with the positive. The opposite effect was found for group-level safety climate: seafarers working during the nights reported to be more physically fatigued when they perceived the group-level climate to be negative compared with the positive. The results from this study point to the importance of taking into consideration aspects of the psychosocial work environment and safety climate,and their potential impact on fatigue and safety in the maritime organisations.

  1. Revisiting local TOC measures in an internal supply chain: a note

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gupta, M.; Andersen, S.

    2012-01-01

    While the global theory of constraints (TOC)-based measures of throughput, inventory and operating expense are well known, the literature on local measures of throughput dollar-days and inventory dollar-days (TDDs/IDDs) is sparse and inconclusive. This paper shows how adherence to these measures...

  2. Measurement of light polarization characteristics from an oil-polluted soil surface in near-infrared bands

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yuan; SHENG LianXi; LIKe; ZHAO NaiZhuo; ZHAO YunSheng

    2009-01-01

    Oil pollution can be monitored by infrared remote sensing technology. In this work, the degree of pola-rization (DOP) was established as a quantitative index of oil pollution. The crude oil and the local typical surface soil from the Songyuan oil field in Jilin province were collected. Some soil samples with four levels of oil content and three levels of water content were prepared and measured. The DOP of the polluted soil and the clean soil in the field was also measured at 180° relative viewing azimuth angle, and 10°, 30° and 50° viewing zenith angles. It was found that with rising soil oil content, the DOP of the reflected light on the soil surface increased when the soil water content was low, and decreased when the soil water content was high.

  3. Urinary oxidative stress biomarkers among local residents measured 6years after the Hebei Spirit oil spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung-Ah; Noh, Su Ryeon; Cheong, Hae-Kwan; Ha, Mina; Eom, Sang-Yong; Kim, Heon; Park, Myung-Sook; Chu, Yeonhee; Lee, Seung-Hwa; Choi, Kyungho

    2017-02-15

    In December 2007, the Hebei Spirit oil spill occurred on the west coast of South Korea. Association between crude oil exposure and the levels of urinary oxidative stress biomarkers was reported among the local residents, 1.5years after the accident. The aim of this study was to follow-up possible longer-term effects of the oil spill among the residents near the oil spill. Six years after the accident, urinary oxidative stress biomarkers of the residents were associated with surrogates of oil exposure. The target subjects were divided into two groups based on the distance of their residence to the spill site, i.e., those near the spill site ('Near' group, n=476), and those far from the spill ('Far' group, n=152). A questionnaire was administered by trained interviewers or self-reporting, and demographic information and other parameters of the participants, such as socioeconomic status, smoking and drinking behaviors, disease history, and duration of clean-up activities after the spill, were collected. The participants' levels of 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in 12 h urine samples were measured as indicators of oxidative DNA damage and lipid peroxidation, respectively. A general linear model was used for statistical analysis. Urinary MDA and 8-OHdG levels measured from 'Near' group, i.e., geometric mean of 2.19μmol/g creatinine, and 5.41μg/g creatinine, respectively, were higher than those of 'Far' group. Especially, urinary 8-OHdG levels in the 'Near' group were significantly higher than those of 'Far' after adjusting relevant covariates. In addition, the duration of clean-up activities showed a significant association with both urinary 8-OHdG and MDA levels. Even 6years after the oil spill, positive associations between oxidative stress biomarkers and surrogates of oil exposure were evident. While the present study design lacks biomarkers of exposure, the results of this study suggest that the consequences of oil pollution may last

  4. SUPPLY CHAIN PERFORMANCE MEASUREMENT: A CASE STUDY ABOUT APPLICABILITY OF SCOR MODEL IN A MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY FIRM

    OpenAIRE

    ERKAN, Turan Erman; BAÇ, Ugur

    2011-01-01

    The Supply Chain Operations Reference model (SCOR) is the product of the Supply Chain Council. The supply chain operations reference model (SCOR) is a management tool used to address, improve, and communicate supply chain management decisions within a company and with suppliers and customers of a company. The model describes the business processes required to satisfy a customer’s demands. It also helps to explain the processes along the entire supply chain and provides a basis for how t...

  5. A cooperation model based on CVaR measure for a two-stage supply chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xinsheng; Meng, Zhiqing; Shen, Rui

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, we introduce a cooperation model (CM) for the two-stage supply chain consisting of a manufacturer and a retailer. In this model, it is supposed that the objective of the manufacturer is to maximise his/her profit while the objective of the retailer is to minimise his/her CVaR while controlling the risk originating from fluctuation in market demand. In reality, the manufacturer and the retailer would like to choose their own decisions as to wholesale price and order quantity to optimise their own objectives, resulting the fact that the expected decision of the manufacturer and that of the retailer may conflict with each other. Then, to achieve cooperation, the manufacturer and the retailer both need to give some concessions. The proposed model aims to coordinate the decisions of the manufacturer and the retailer, and balance the concessions of the two in their cooperation. We introduce an s* - optimal equilibrium solution in this model, which can decide the minimum concession that the manufacturer and the retailer need to give for their cooperation, and prove that the s* - optimal equilibrium solution can be obtained by solving a goal programming problem. Further, the case of different concessions made by the manufacturer and the retailer is also discussed. Numerical results show that the CM is efficient in dealing with the cooperations between the supplier and the retailer.

  6. A Newly Developed Method for Computing Reliability Measures in a Water Supply Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Malinowski

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A reliability model of a water supply network has beens examined. Its main features are: a topology that can be decomposed by the so-called state factorization into a (relativelysmall number of derivative networks, each having a series-parallel structure (1, binary-state components (either operative or failed with given flow capacities (2, a multi-state character of the whole network and its sub-networks - a network state is defined as the maximal flow between a source (sources and a sink (sinks (3, all capacities (component, network, and sub-network have integer values (4. As the network operates, its state changes due to component failures, repairs, and replacements. A newly developed method of computing the inter-state transition intensities has been presented. It is based on the so-called state factorization and series-parallel aggregation. The analysis of these intensities shows that the failure-repair process of the considered system is an asymptotically homogenous Markov process. It is also demonstrated how certain reliability parameters useful for the network maintenance planning can be determined on the basis of the asymptotic intensities. For better understanding of the presented method, an illustrative example is given. (original abstract

  7. Impact of Onne Free Zone on Supply Chain Performance of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Impact of Onne Free Zone on Supply Chain Performance of Registered Oil and Gas ... operational challenges and add to the cost of doing business in the zone. ... of experienced supply chain, logistics or operations managers of sampled oil ...

  8. Ambient Aerosol in Southeast Asia: High Resolution Aerosol Mass Spectrometer Measurements Over Oil Palm (Elaeis guineensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, G.; Dimarco, C.; Misztal, P.; Nemitz, E.; Farmer, D.; Kimmel, J.; Jimenez, J.

    2008-12-01

    The emission of organic compounds in the troposphere is important factor in the formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA). A very large proportion of organic material emitted globally is estimated to arise from biogenic sources, with almost half coming from tropical and sub-tropical forests. Preliminary analyses of leave cuvette emission studies suggest that oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) is a significantly larger source of isoprene than tropical forest. Much larger sources of isoprene over oil palm allied with a larger anthropogenic component of local emissions contrast greatly with the remote tropical forest environment and therefore the character of SOA formed may differ significantly. These issues, allied with the high price of palm oil on international markets leading to increased use of land for oil palm production, could give rise to rapidly changing chemical and aerosol regimes in the tropics. It is therefore important to understand the current emissions and composition of organic aerosol over all important land-uses in the tropical environment. This in turn will lead to a greater understanding of the present, and to an improvement in predictive capacity for the future system. To help address these issues, a high resolution time of flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) was deployed in the Sabahmas (PPB OIL) oil palm plantation near Lahad Datu, in Eastern Sabah, as part of the field component of the Aerosol Coupling in the Earth System (ACES) project, part of the UK NERC APPRAISE program. This project was allied closely with measurements made of similar chemical species and aerosol components at a forest site in the Danum Valley as part of the UK Oxidant and Particle Photochemical Processes above a Southeast Asian tropical rainforest (OP3) project. Measurements of submicron non- refractory aerosol composition are presented along with some preliminary analysis of chemically resolved aerosol fluxes made with a new eddy covariance system, based on the

  9. The effect of market orientation on business performance and organizational innovation with the role of mediator (The case of study: companies manufacturing and supplying parts national Iranian south oil company in the khuzestan province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahim Rahimi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The disturbance of business processes, Cause than companies Use very different from the tendency to increase their performance in the market, are to enjoy the present study sought to evaluate the effect of market orientation on the role of mediator with organizational innovation in companies manufacturing and supplying parts for the oil industry in Khuzestan Materials Research harm based on the purpose of the application, in terms of how to compile and run, cross-scientific and the type of data collected using quantitative.the population included all the senior managers executives of companies building and commercial 300 are in Khuzestan province. The amount of firm of Morgan sample of 169 companies, which randomly stratified and randomly selected elements within each class .also descriptive analysis using SPSS and to test hypotheses of application software in the smart PLS measurement model and structural transactions model.The Results indicate that market orientation and organizational innovation on business performance separately and also through the positive impact and significant organizational innovation mediator.

  10. Airborne Lidar Measurements of Pollution above the Oil Sands Region in Northern Alberta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Monika; Whiteway, James; Seabrook, Jeffrey; Gray, Lawrence; Strawbridge, Kevin B.

    2016-06-01

    Lidar measurements of ozone and aerosol were conducted from a Twin Otter aircraft above the oil sands region of northern Alberta. For the majority of the flights, significant amounts of aerosol were observed within the boundary layer, up to an altitude of 2.0 km above sea level (ASL), while the ozone concentration remained at background levels (30-45 ppb) downwind of the industry. On August 24th the lidar measured a separated layer of aerosol above the boundary layer, at a height of 2.0 km ASL, in which the ozone mixing ratio increased to 70 ppb. Backward trajectory calculations revealed that the air containing this separated aerosol layer had passed over an area of forest fires. Directly below the layer of forest fire smoke, pollution from the oil sands industry was observed. Measurements of the backscatter linear depolarization ratio were obtained with a ground based lidar operated by Environment Canada within the oil sands region. The depolarization measurements aided in discriminating between the separate sources of pollution from industry and forest fires. The depolarization ratio was 5-6% in forest fire smoke and 7-10% in the industrial pollution.

  11. Airborne Lidar Measurements of Pollution above the Oil Sands Region in Northern Alberta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aggarwal Monika

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Lidar measurements of ozone and aerosol were conducted from a Twin Otter aircraft above the oil sands region of northern Alberta. For the majority of the flights, significant amounts of aerosol were observed within the boundary layer, up to an altitude of 2.0 km above sea level (ASL, while the ozone concentration remained at background levels (30-45 ppb downwind of the industry. On August 24th the lidar measured a separated layer of aerosol above the boundary layer, at a height of 2.0 km ASL, in which the ozone mixing ratio increased to 70 ppb. Backward trajectory calculations revealed that the air containing this separated aerosol layer had passed over an area of forest fires. Directly below the layer of forest fire smoke, pollution from the oil sands industry was observed. Measurements of the backscatter linear depolarization ratio were obtained with a ground based lidar operated by Environment Canada within the oil sands region. The depolarization measurements aided in discriminating between the separate sources of pollution from industry and forest fires. The depolarization ratio was 5-6% in forest fire smoke and 7-10% in the industrial pollution.

  12. Soft colloidal probes for AFM force measurements between water droplets in oil

    KAUST Repository

    Vakarelski, Ivan Uriev

    2014-11-01

    Here we introduce an extension of the atomic force microscopy (AFM) colloidal probe technique, as a simple and reliable experimental approach to measure the interaction forces between small water droplets (~80-160. μm) dispersed in oil. Small water droplets are formed by capillary breakup of a microscale water jet in air, which is forced out of a fine capillary nozzle, and deposited on a superhydrophobic substrate immersed in tetradecane oil medium. In these conditions the water droplets are very loosely attached to the superhydrophobic substrate and are easily picked up with a hydrophobic AFM cantilever to form a soft colloidal probe. Sample force measurements are conducted to demonstrate the capability of the technique.

  13. Measurement and Modelling of Phase Equilibrium of Oil - Water - Polar Chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frost, Michael Grynnerup

    . Thesechemicals belong to different families like alcohols, glycols, alkanolamines, surfactants andpolymers. They have various functions, e.g., methanol and MEG are used as gas hydrate inhibitors,surfactants are used to lower interfacial tension between crude oil and microemulsion and polymersin a polymer......-waterflooding process act primarily as thickeners. The main purpose of this work, focusing on the phase equilibrium of complex systems containingthermodynamic gas hydrate inhibitors, is to give a solid contribution in bridging the existing gaps inwhat experimental data is concerned. This was achieved not just...... with the measurement of newexperimental data, but through the development of new experimental equipment for the study ofmulti-phase equilibrium. In addition to measurement of well-defined systems, LLE have beenmeasured for North Sea oils with MEG and water. The work can be split up into two parts: Experimental: VLE...

  14. Measuring the Spread Components of Oil and Gas Companies from CDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliano Ribeiro de Almeida

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we use the information from the credit default swap market to measure the main components of the oil and gas companies spread. Using nearly 20 companies of this industry with different ratings and nearly 80 bonds, the result was that the majority of the oil and gas spread is due to the default risk. We also find that the spread component related to the non-default is strongly associated with some liquidity measures of bond markets, what suggest that liquidity has a very important role in the valuation of fixed income assets. On the other side, we do not find evidence that the non-default component of the spread is related to tax matters.

  15. Oil Pollution Of The Southeastern Baltic Sea By Satellite Remote Sensing Data And In-Situ Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulycheva Elena V.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Results of operational satellite monitoring of oil pollution of the sea surface together with in-situ measurements of the oil products concentration in the water column for the first time allowed to establish relation between the surface pollution originated from ships, and the general characteristics of spatial and temporal distribution of oil products in the water column in the Southeastern Baltic Sea. Areas with heightened concentrations of oil products in the surface and bottom layers were determined for the study area. The main directions of the contamination propagation are agreed with the main direction of annual mean transport of substances in the Gdansk Basin.

  16. Computation of the start-up period of large synchronous electric motors on a computer in the design of power supply networks for the oil fields of Western Siberia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nissenbaum, I.A.; Gorbacheva, N.Y.

    1980-01-01

    Currently used methods of computing the start-up period of large synchronous electric motors do not give us reliable information about the mode of the electrical system of the oil field when the motor is started up. The reason for this is that the response of the oil field electrical transducers to voltage drops is not taken into account in these methods. A new program is proposed, called the Computation of the Start-up Period of Large Synchronous Electric Motors, written and compiled in PL/1 for Unified System computers. The program makes it possible to undertake automated computations of a residual voltage table at the nodes of the designed power supply network and the operating modes of the most powerful oil field transducers.

  17. Experiment on Measurement of Interfacial Tension for Subsurface Conditions of Light Oil from Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiravivitpanya Jiramet

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available One of enhanced oil recovery techniques to increase oil production is surfactant flooding. Surfactants are considered as effective chemical agents used in oilfield in Thailand. It is used to reduce the interfacial tension (IFT of two fluids and to make them flow easier in the reservoir. In this study, Monoethanolamide (MEA commonly used for carbon dioxide capture, is applied as a surfactant to reduce IFT between oil and brine. Therefore, the aim of this work is to investigate and measure the IFT based on the conditions of subsurface at the oilfield in Thailand. These parameters such as temperature, pressure, salinity as well as the concentration of surfactant are adjusted to investigate the effects on IFT reduction. From the results, it is reported that pressure from 1000 to 2000 psi and temperature varied from 70°C to 90°C can reduce IFT insignificantly. However, salinity and surfactant concentration are the main parameters that impact on the IFT reduction. It can greatly decrease IFT up to 87.13% for surfactant concentration and up to 74.06% for salinity. Finally, the results can be applied to use in the real field for enhanced oil production in Thailand.

  18. Macro-Logistics Decision Factors and Information Measures for Scanning Global (Supply Chain) Environments in International Location Choice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kinra, Aseem

    2012-01-01

    reviews and content analyses. Finally, the study employs expert opinions in order to validate these factors and information measures and to present the findings in the form of a decision hierarchy. The findings suggest the importance of 17 generic decision factors at the macro-economic (country) level......value chains and supply chain management. This scope is usually accompanied by uncertainty to organisations, especially for the cross-border value chain with geographically dispersed operations and activities, and poses environmental complexity in the form of risks and costs that organisations need......-logistics factors that pose international uncertainty in cross-border flows of goods, information, payment and ownership. Similarly, a list of information measures that are relevant in scanning against this international uncertainty is also developed. For this purpose, the study deploys integrated literature...

  19. Measurement of naphthenic acids in the receiving waters around an offshore oil platform by passive sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harman, Christopher; Langford, Katherine; Sundt, Rolf C; Brooks, Steven

    2014-09-01

    Polar organic chemical integrative samplers (POCIS) were deployed in the vicinity of an offshore oil installation and analyzed for naphthenic acids (NAs). The POCIS accumulated a range of mono- to tetracyclic NAs, with different degrees of alkylation, with monocyclic acids being the most abundant. Currently, POCIS or similar polar samplers may be the only way to measure exposure to NAs from offshore discharges in situ. In addition, they may be a valuable tool for monitoring similar organic acids in general. © 2014 SETAC.

  20. Short chain aliphatic acid anions in oil field waters and their contribution to the measured alkalinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willey, L.M.; Kharaka, Y.K.; Presser, T.S.; Rapp, J.B.; Barnes, I.

    1975-01-01

    High alkalinity values found in some formation waters from Kettleman North Dome oil field are due chiefly to acetate and propionate ions, with some contribution from higher molecular weight organic acid ions. Some of these waters contain no detectable bicarbonate alkalinity. For waters such as these, high supersaturation with respect to calcite will be incorrectly indicated by thermodynamic calculations based upon carbonate concentrations inferred from traditional alkalinity measurements. ?? 1975.

  1. Note: Wide-range and high-resolution on-chip delay measurement circuit with low supply-voltage sensitivity for SoC applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Duo; Hung, Yu-Chan

    2016-11-01

    This paper presents an on-chip delay measurement (OCDM) circuit with a wide delay-measurement range, a high delay-measurement resolution and low supply-voltage sensitivity for efficient detection, and diagnosis in the high-performance system-on-chip (SoC). The proposed cascade-stage measurement structure can simultaneously achieve a delay-measurement range of several nanoseconds and a quantization resolution of several picoseconds. The proposed delay-measurement circuit has a high immunity to supply voltage variations without any additional calibration or self-biasing circuit. The delay-measurement range is 5.25 ns with 6 ps resolution; and the average delay resolution variation is 0.41% with ±10% supply voltage variations.

  2. Oil-water two-phase flow measurement with combined ultrasonic transducer and electrical sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Chao; Yuan, Ye; Dong, Xiaoxiao; Dong, Feng

    2016-12-01

    A combination of ultrasonic transducers operated in continuous mode and a conductance/capacitance sensor (UTCC) is proposed to estimate the individual flow velocities in oil-water two-phase flows. Based on the Doppler effect, the transducers measure the flow velocity and the conductance/capacitance sensor estimates the phase fraction. A set of theoretical correlations based on the boundary layer models of the oil-water two-phase flow was proposed to describe the velocity profile. The models were separately established for the dispersion flow and the separate flow. The superficial flow velocity of each phase is calculated with the velocity measured in the sampling volume of the ultrasonic transducer with the phase fraction through the velocity profile models. The measuring system of the UTCC was designed and experimentally verified on a multiphase flow loop. The results indicate that the proposed system and correlations estimate the overall flow velocity at an uncertainty of U J   =  0.038 m s-1, and the water superficial velocity at U Jw   =  0.026 m s-1, and oil superficial velocity at U Jo   =  0.034 m s-1. The influencing factors of uncertainty were analyzed.

  3. Field Measurements of Water Supply and Drainage Noise in the Bathrooms of Korea’s Multi-Residential Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Seok Yang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In Korea, water supply and drainage noises result in one of the main noise complaints because more than 50% of people reside in multi-residential buildings. In this study, a series of field measurements were therefore carried out to examine the current noise situation. The noise levels were measured in the bathrooms of the upper and lower floors, as well as in habitable rooms. The measurement results for the bathrooms of the lower floor (N = 113 are 47.8 dBA (water closet, 42.7 dBA (basin, and 33.9 dBA (bathtub for water drainage, while values vary between 33.7 dBA and 37.0 dBA for the water supply. The results suggest that the water drainage noise needs to be controlled first. The system bathroom (42.8 dBA produced lower noise levels than the wet construction method (48.2 dBA for all of the sanitary wares. The highest noise levels in the living rooms (N = 11 and bedrooms (N = 8 of the lower floor are 34.3 dBA and 39.1 dBA, respectively. The average noise level in the rooms (N = 19 is 37.8 dBA. The overall result suggests that it is necessary to develop an acoustic guideline to satisfy the higher Class of the 2nd ISO/CD 19488, although the current noise level satisfies Class C (living room and Class D (bedroom.

  4. Evaluating the use of PAO (4 cSt polyalphaoelfin) oil instead of DOP (di-octyl phthalate) oil for measuring the aerosol capture of nuclear canister filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, Murray E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-07-18

    This document details the distinction between using PAO (4 cSt polyalphaoelfin) oil instead of DOP (di-octyl phthalate) oil for measuring the aerosol capture of filters. This document is developed to justify the use of PAO rather than DOP for evaluating the performance of filters in the SAVY 4000 and Hagan containers. The design criteria (Anderson et al, 2012) for purchasing SAVY 4000 containers and the Safety Analysis Report for the SAVY 4000 Container Series specified that the filter must “capture greater than 99.97% of 0.45 μm mean diameter dioctyl phthalate (DOP) aerosol at the rated flow with a DOP concentration of 65±15 micrograms per liter.”This corresponds to a leakage percent of 0.03% (3.0x10-2). The density of DOP oil is 985 kg/m3 and the density of PAO oil is 819 kg/m3. ATI Test Inc measured the mass mean diameter of aerosol distributions produced by a single Laskin type III-A nozzle operating at a 20 psig air pressure as 0.563 μm for DOP oil and 0.549 μm for PAO oil. (See Appendix A.) For both types of oil in this document, the single fiber method calculated the leakage percent to be 4.4x10-5 for DOP oil and 4.7x10-5 for PAO oil. Although the percent error between these two quantities is 7.7%, these calculated leakage percent values are more than two orders of magnitude less than the criterion specified in the SAVY canister SAR. As a point of reference, the photometer used to measure the SAVY canister filter performance cannot resolve values for the leakage percent below 1.0x10-5. Additionally, over a range of particle sizes from 0.01 μm to 3.0 μm, there was less than 4.0x10-5 error between the calculated filter efficiency for the two types of oil at any particular particle size diameter. In conclusion, the difference between using DOP and PAO for testing SAVY canister filters is of inconsequential concern.

  5. Innovative procedure for measurement of losses of transformers supplying nonsinusoidal loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuchs, E.F. [University of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering; Yildirim, D. [Kupluce Yolu, Istanbul (Turkey); Batan, T. [Tercuman Yanus Sok, Istanbul (Turkey)

    1999-11-01

    The measurement of iron-core and copper losses of single-phase transformers is important in particular for transformers feeding nonlinear loads. A new digital data-acquisition method is devised for the separate measurement of iron-core and copper losses of transformers under any full or partial-load condition. The accuracy requirements of the instruments (voltage, current sensors, volt and current meters) employed are addressed. A 25 kVA, 7200/240 V single-phase transformer has been loaded with either three diode-bridge rectifiers and/or a thyristor-bridge rectifier at varying total harmonic voltage and current distortions, such that at the maximum permissible apparent power, losses are identical to the rated losses. The maximum errors of losses are acceptably low if voltage (dividers) and current (shunts) sensors with 2% and digital instruments with 0.1% errors are used. The derating under nonlinear loads is measured as a function of dominant 3rd and 5th current harmonics. The influence of voltage distortion is studied. The total harmonic distortion of the current (THD{sub i}) was varied greatly from 0 to 90%, and the resulting voltage THD{sub v} values were below 6% for the given power system impedance. At large THD{sub i} values (e.g. 90%), the reduction in apparent power rating (RAPR) is not very large ({approx} 100%). However, the real power capability (RPC) of the transformer is severely restricted: for example, at THD{sub i} = 90% the RPC is about 0.5pu. For this reason it might be advisable to define derating in terms of the reduction in real power capability and not in terms of RAPR. (author)

  6. Limitation of fluorescence spectrophotometry in the measurement of naphthenic acids in oil sands process water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Weibing; Ewanchuk, Andrea; Perez-Estrada, Leonidas; Sego, Dave; Ulrich, Ania

    2013-01-01

    Fluorescence spectrophotometry has been proposed as a quick screening technique for the measurement of naphthenic acids (NAs). To evaluate the feasibility of this application, the fluorescence emission spectra of NAs extracted from three oil sands process water sources were compared with that of commercial NAs. The NAs resulting from the bitumen extraction process cannot be differentiated because of the similarity of the fluorescence spectra. Separation of the fluorescent species in NAs using high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detector proved unsuccessful. The acidic fraction of NAs is fluorescent but the basic fraction of NAs is not fluorescent, implying that aromatic acids in NAs give rise to the fluorescent signals. The concentrations of NAs in oil sands process water were measured by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), fluorescence spectrophotometry and ultra high performance liquid chromatography-time of flight/mass spectrometry (UPLC-TOF/MS). Commercial Merichem and Kodak NAs are the best standards to use when measuring NAs concentration with FTIR and fluorescence spectrophotometry. In addition, the NAs concentrations measured by fluorescence spectrophotometry are about 30 times higher than those measured by FTIR and UPLC-TOF/MS. The findings in this study underscore the limitation of fluorescence spectrophotometry in the measurement of NAs.

  7. High oil Price Calls for More Motivated Actions in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ The oil price has been soaring since the early of this year, and lingered at above US$70per barrel for a while lately. International oil prices have repeatedly hit record high, imposing unprecedented impact on the economic growth and citizens' life in China. In order to stabilize the domestic oil market, ensure a safe oil supply, and reduce the impact of high oil price on China's economic growth, the Chinese government should take more active measures to address these issues as soon as possible.

  8. Antibacterial activity of essential oils on the growth of Staphylococcus aureus and measurement of their binding interaction using optical biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Kyong-Hwan; Yang, Ki-Sook; Kim, Jin; Kim, Jin-Chul; Lee, Ki-Young

    2007-11-01

    Antibacterial activity of essential oils (Tea tree, Chamomile, Eucalyptus) on Staphylococcus aureus growth was evaluated as well as the essential oil-loaded alginate beads. The binding interactions between the cell and the essential oils were measured using an optical biosensor. The antibacterial activity of the essential oils to the cell was evaluated with their binding interaction and affinity. The antibacterial activity appeared in the order of Tea Tree> Chamomile>Eucalyptus, in comparison of the inhibition effects of the cell growth to the essential oils. The association rate constant and affinity of the cell binding on Tea Tree essential oil were 5.0 x 10(-13) ml/(CFU-s) and 5.0 x 10(5) ml/CFU, respectively. The affinity of the cell binding on Tea Tree was about twice higher than those on the other essential oils. It might be possible that an effective antibacterial activity of Tea Tree essential oil was derived from its strong adhesive ability to the cell, more so than those of the other essential oils.

  9. Theory and Practice on Grouping Oil Supply of Hydraulic System in Production Line%生产流水线液压系统分组供油的理论与实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟文辉

    2014-01-01

    对于多执行元件的生产流水线液压传动系统,分组供油是一种合理的选择。从分组供油需满足的基本要求出发,研究了回路设计、油泵选型、排量计算、系统效率、基本参数的设计计算等重要问题,据此提出基于液压系统效率的分组原则。并介绍了采用分组供油的方法,对浇铸生产线液压系统改造的成功实例,验证了文中的结论,为生产线液压系统的设计和改造提供参考。%Grouping oil supply is a reasonable selection to hydraulic power actuating system in multi-component production line. Considering the basic requirements of grouping oil supply,loop design,oil pump selection,displacement calculation,system effi-ciency,design calculation of basic parameters and so on were researched.On these grounds,group forming criterion was come up with based on hydraulic system efficiency.Using the method of grouping oil supply,a successful example of hydraulic system reforma-tion in casting production line was introduced,and the conclusion was validated.It can be used for reference in the design and refor-mation of hydraulic system in production line.

  10. Study on the Measurement Systems and Implementation Methods of Strategic Distributor's Core Competence Under Supply Chain Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Jianhua

    2006-01-01

    Under the circumstance of buyer's market, the general core competence of supply chain is radically determined by the core competence of distributors facing customers directly. Based on the analysis of channel management and creation model, the traditional Manufacture-Distributor relationship is discussed including the disadvantages of common distributor Core Competence evaluation. Meanwhile, In this paper, the Logarithm Triangular Fuzzy Number-AHP method is creatively used to evaluate the strategic distributor Core Competence evaluation index system. This method also overcomes some disadvantages that experts can directly give definite numbers when the traditional AHP method is used to value certainty and measure the qualitative index. More important, it is a scientific qualitative and quantitative evaluation tool. Then the real cases are researched based on all discussions above.

  11. Intentional cargo disruption by nefarious means: Examining threats, systemic vulnerabilities and securitisation measures in complex global supply chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGreevy, Conor; Harrop, Wayne

    2015-01-01

    Global trade and commerce requires products to be securely contained and transferred in a timely way across great distances and between national boundaries. Throughout the process, cargo and containers are stored, handled and checked by a range of authorities and authorised agents. Intermodal transportation involves the use of container ships, planes, railway systems, land bridges, road networks and barges. This paper examines the the nefarious nature of intentional disruption and nefarious risks associated with the movement of cargo and container freight. The paper explores main threats, vulnerabilities and security measures relevant to significant intermodal transit risk issues such as theft, piracy, terrorism, contamination, counterfeiting and product tampering. Three risk and vulnerability models are examined and basic standards and regulations that are relevant to safe and secure transit of container goods across international supply networks are outlined.

  12. Strategic Supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    March 7, 2003. [29] Velis, Lil. “ Publishing Industry : Supply Chain Strategy in Action,” briefing presented to ICAF Strategic Supply Seminar, May 6...Lambert and Stock, page 48. [32] Velis, Lil. “ Publishing Industry : Supply Chain Strategy in Action,” briefing presented to ICAF Strategic Supply

  13. Study on the Planning Model and Algorithm of Aircraft Carrier Formation Oil with Supplies%航母编队油料伴随补给规划模型及算法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄必佳; 王公宝

    2015-01-01

    基于航母编队油料伴随补给规划问题,提出作战背景下补给舰船的3种补给策略。根据合理假设,将解决TSP问题的指导思想加以改进并应用于补给规划问题中。以最小化补给时间和最大化作战效能为目标函数,分别构建补给规划模型,通过Matlab软件,利用改进的多目标离散粒子群算法对问题进行求解,并进行仿真实验验证。仿真结果表明:该方法是合理、有效的,能获得更小的补给时间和更大的编队作战效能,较好地实现航母编队油料伴随补给规划问题的优化。%Based on the planning problem of accompanied oil supply in the formation of aircraft carrier, put forwards three kinds of replenishment strategy under the background of ship combat supplies. According to reasonable assumptions, the guiding ideology to solve the TSP problem is improved and applied to the supply planning problem. Taking minimize supply time and maximum effectiveness as the objective function, supply planning model were constructed by Matlab software, to solve the problem by using the multi-objective improved discrete particle swarm algorithm, and the simulation experiment. Results show that the method is reasonable and effective which can get a smaller supply time and greater formation combat effectiveness, optimization of aircraft carrier formation with better fuel supply planning problem.

  14. Measurement of emulsion flow in porous media: Improvements in heavy oil recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, J.; Wang, J.; Kantzas, A.

    2009-02-01

    Many heavy oil and bitumen reservoirs in the world are too small or thin for thermal enhanced oil recovery methods to be economic. In these fields, novel methods of less energy intensive, non-thermal technologies are required. Previous experience has shown that the injection of low concentrations of aqueous alkali-surfactant solutions into the reservoir can significantly improve the oil recovery, beyond that of waterflooding. This is due to the in-situ formation of emulsions, which plug off the water channels and lead to improved sweep efficiency in the reservoir. The proper control of these floods requires methods for monitoring the formation and effect of these emulsions. In this paper, the results of laboratory core floods are interpreted to demonstrate how the pressure and flow response can be related to the formation of these emulsions. A new technique (low field NMR) is also used to directly measure W/O emulsions in porous media. Finally, a numerical study is performed in order to demonstrate how the in-situ formation of emulsions can be simply represented in simulation software.

  15. Oil Concentration Measurement In Saturated Liquid Refrigerant Flowing Inside A Refrigeration Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyne Morvan

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available

    An ultrasonic device was calibrated to measure in situ and in real time the polyol ester oil (POE concentration of the refrigerant liquid R 410A. The first part of this paper is devoted to the properties of the mixture, to the effects of the presence of oil on the speed of sound in the liquid phase and to the calibration and validation procedures carried out with a saturated liquid refrigerant. In order to have a number of calibration points that is not too large, it is necessary to maintain the mixture as close as possible to saturation conditions, which constrains the choice of the location of the sensor on the installation investigated. In the second part, the first results obtained on this installation are presented. It appears that the speed of sound in the POE / R 410A mixture is a strong function of the temperature and oil concentration, as was expected, but it also significantly depends on the pressure. Consequently, if the use of a sensor in a sub-cooled area is considered, additional calibration and validation procedures are necessary.

    • This paper was presented at the ECOS'00 Conference in Enschede, July 5-7, 2000 

  16. A portable electronic system for in-situ measurements of oil concentration in MetalWorking fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Grossi, M

    2016-01-01

    MetalWorking Fluids (MWFs) are widely used to cool and lubricate machines and tools. By far, the most common MWFs are oil-in-water emulsions with oil concentration (C oil) in the range from 1% to 10%, depending on type of oil, material to be worked, etc. In order to optimize emulsion and machine performance, as well as for good waste policy, the right value of C oil should be kept (approximately) constant during the MWF's lifecycle to compensate inevitable changes due to water evaporation, bacterial attack, oil adhesion to metal parts, etc.. This, however, requires periodic measurements, often skipped because they require unhandy operations and produce inaccurate results. In this context, a new system is presented that is based on the falling ball principle, normally used for viscosity measurements, shown to be suitable also for accurate C oil measurements. In our system, the transit time of the sphere within the instrument is determined by means of inductive proximity sensors, a PT100 sensor is used for temp...

  17. Global Skin-Friction Measurements Using Particle Image Surface FLow Visualization and a Luminescent Oil-Film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husen, Nicholas; Roozeboom, Nettie; Liu, Tianshu; Sullivan, John P.

    2015-01-01

    A quantitative global skin-friction measurement technique is proposed. An oil-film is doped with a luminescent molecule and thereby made to fluoresce in order to resolve oil-film thickness, and Particle Image Surface Flow Visualization is used to resolve the velocity field of the surface of the oil-film. Skin-friction is then calculated at location x as (x )xh, where x is the displacement of the surface of the oil-film and is the dynamic viscosity of the oil. The data collection procedure and data analysis procedures are explained, and preliminary experimental skin-friction results for flow over the wing of the CRM are presented.

  18. [Adaptability of Helianthus annuus seedlings to crude oil pollution in soil and its improvement measures under salinization stress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing-lei; Ci, Hua-cong; He, Xing-dong; Liang, Yu-ting; Zhao, Xuan; Sun, Hui-ting; Xie, Hong-tao

    2015-11-01

    To explore the adaptability of plant under salt stress to crude oil pollution of soil and improvement measures, a pot experiment of Helianthus annuus seedlings was conducted using orthogonal experiment method with crude oil-sodium chloride-desulfurization gypsum and cinder-zeolite-desulfurization gypsum-sawdust. The results showed that, with the increase of soil crude oil concentration, the relative growth rate (RGR) of plant height, RGR of aboveground biomass and root N: P ratios of H. annuus seedlings decreased significantly, while the activity of SOD and CAT increased at first and then decreased significantly. The RGR of plant height and aboveground biomass significantly increased (P cinder, zeolite, desulfurization gypsum under salinization condition. The crude oil pollution of soil could decrease the relative growth rate of H. annuus seedling, and sawdust could reduce the influence of crude oil pollution on plant growth under salt stress.

  19. Measuring Iranian Petroleum Downstream Supply Chain Management Performance; : A Combination of Analytical Hierarchy Process and Balance Score Card

    OpenAIRE

    Norouzi, Saba

    2013-01-01

    Petroleum downstream is a strategic and important industry for any nation. It supplies most of transport and travel needs and provides petrochemical business raw material, which is one of the infrastructure industries. Considering the importance of petroleum downstream and due to a very volatile crude and product market, one of the industry’s main targets is to meet customers’ requirements with administrating downstream supply chain efficiently. Supply chain management (SCM) is a strategic to...

  20. Evapotranspiration components determined by eddy covariance and sap flux measurements in oil palm plantations in Sumatra, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijide, Ana; Röll, Alexander; Niu, Furong; June, Tania; Hölscher, Dirk; Knohl, Alexander

    2015-04-01

    The expansion of oil palm cultivation fueled by the increasing global demand for palm oil is leading to massive land transformations in tropical areas, particularly in South-East Asia. Conversions of forest land to oil palm plantations likely affect ecosystem water fluxes. However, there is a lack of information on water fluxes from oil palm plantations as well as on the partitioning of these fluxes into its different components such as transpiration and evaporation. It is expected that water fluxes from oil palm plantations vary temporally, both long-term, i.e. between different age-classes of plantations, and short-term, i.e. from day to day within a certain plantation (e.g. during or after periods of rainfall). A proper evaluation of water fluxes from oil palm plantations thus requires an experimental design encompassing these types of variability. To assess evapotranspiration (ET) rates, an eddy covariance tower was installed in a 2-year-old oil palm plantation in the lowlands of Jambi, Sumatra; it was subsequently moved to a 12-year-old oil palm plantation located in the same region. In parallel to the ET, sap flux density was measured on 16 leaf petioles on four oil palms; stand transpiration rates were derived from these measurements with stand inventory data. The parallel measurements ran for several weeks in both plantations. Preliminary results for our period of study show that the average ET rate of the 2-year-old oil palm plantation was 5.2 mm day-1; values up to 7.0 mm day-1 were observed on dry, sunny days with non-limiting soil moisture. Stand transpiration (T) by the young oil palms was very low, 0.3 mm day-1on average, and only showed a small variation between days. Under optimal environmental conditions, the ratio of T to total ET was up to 0.08 in the young plantation, while in the mature, 12-year-old plantation, it was significantly higher and reached 0.5. Transpiration rates in the mature oil palm plantation were about six- to seven-fold higher

  1. Supply Chain Interoperability Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-19

    roles. Resnick (2004) referred to corporate reputation management as a key asset for companies and identified the objectives that CEOs believe their...International Journal of Logistics Management 19 (2) (08/15; 2015/01): 110-29. Resnick . 2004. Corporate reputation: Managing corporate reputation-applying

  2. Oil Reserve Center Established

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Like other countries,China has started to grow its strategic oil reserve in case oil supplies are cut On December 18,2007,the National Development and Reform Commission(NDRC),China’s top economic planner,announced that the national oil reserve center has been officially launched.The supervisory system over the oil reserves has three levels: the energy department of the NDRC,the oil reserve center,and the reserve bases.

  3. Comparison of the oxidative stability of linseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) oil by pressure differential scanning calorimetry and Rancimat measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symoniuk, Edyta; Ratusz, Katarzyna; Krygier, Krzysztof

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the oxidative stability of linseed oil using the pressure differential scanning calorimetry (PDSC) and Rancimat methods, and to determine the kinetic parameters of linseed oil oxidation. Five cold pressed linseed oils were oxidized at different temperatures under PDSC (90-140 °C) and Rancimat (70-140 °C) test conditions. The oxidative stability of the linseed oils was calculated based on induction times (PDSCτmax, Rancimat τon), the Arrhenius equation and activated complex theory, frequency factors (Z), the reaction rate coefficient (k) for all temperatures, activation energies (Ea), Q10 numbers, activation enthalpies (∆H(++)), and activation entropies (∆S(++)). The PDSC method was more convenient for the determination of the induction time of linseed oils than the Rancimat method. During oxidation measurement by Rancimat method, the linseed oil polymerized, which affected the measurements. The reaction rate coefficient increased with rising temperature during measurement by both methods. The activation energy values of linseed oil oxidation using the PDSC and Rancimat methods ranged from 93.14 to 94.53 and 74.03 to 77.76 kJ mol(-1), respectively. The Q10 , ∆H(++), and ∆S(++) values for the analyzed linseed oils were between 2.11-2.13, 90.54-91.30 kJ mol(-1), -33.20 to -30.90 J mol K(-1) calculated by PDSC measurements, and 2.23-2.32, 71.03-74.76, -59.42 to -49.08 J mol K(-1) by Rancimat measurements, respectively.

  4. World Crude Oil Markets; Monetary Policy and the Recent Oil Shock

    OpenAIRE

    Noureddine Krichene

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between monetary policy and oil prices within a world oil demand and supply model. Low price and high income elasticities of demand and rigid supply explain high price volatilities and producers' market power. Exchange and interest rates do influence oil market equilibrium. The relationship between oil prices and interest rates is a two-way relationship that depends on the type of oil shock. During a supply shock, rising oil prices caused interest rates to...

  5. Measuring and Managing Army Supply Chain Risk: A Quantitative Approach by Item Number and Commercial Entity Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Transition “ costs ” for new suppliers Distribution risks/disruptions: inbound or outbound Infrastructure Unavailability Roads Rails Ports Air...Sourcing and Supplier Relationship Management initiative, to help the Army reduce supply chain costs by identifying strategic suppliers and working closely...Relationship Management (SRM) initiative. This initiative seeks to leverage industry best practices to help the Army reduce supply chain costs

  6. Oil palm water use: calibration of a sap flux method and a field measurement scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Furong; Röll, Alexander; Hardanto, Afik; Meijide, Ana; Köhler, Michael; Hendrayanto; Hölscher, Dirk

    2015-05-01

    Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) water use was assessed by sap flux density measurements with the aim to establish the method and derive water-use characteristics. Thermal dissipation probes were inserted into leaf petioles of mature oil palms. In the laboratory, we tested our set-up against gravimetric measurements and derived new parameters for the original calibration equation that are specific to oil palm petioles. In the lowlands of Jambi, Indonesia, in a 12-year-old monoculture plantation, 56 leaves on 10 palms were equipped with one sensor per leaf. A 10-fold variation in individual leaf water use among leaves was observed, but we did not find significant correlations to the variables trunk height and diameter, leaf azimuthal orientation, leaf inclination or estimated horizontal leaf shading. We thus took an un-stratified approach to determine an appropriate sampling design to estimate stand transpiration (Es, mm day(-1)) rates of oil palm. We used the relative standard error of the mean (SEn, %) as a measure for the potential estimation error of Es associated with sample size. It was 14% for a sample size of 13 leaves to determine the average leaf water use and four palms to determine the average number of leaves per palm. Increasing these sample sizes only led to minor further decreases of the SEn of Es. The observed 90-day average of Es was 1.1 mm day(-1) (error margin ± 0.2 mm day(-1)), which seems relatively low, but does not contradict Penman-Monteith-derived estimates of evapotranspiration. Examining the environmental drivers of Es on an intra-daily scale indicates an early, pre-noon maximum of Es rates (11 am) due to a very sensitive reaction of Es to increasing vapor pressure deficit in the morning. This early peak is followed by a steady decline of Es rates for the rest of the day, despite further rising levels of vapor pressure deficit and radiation; this results in pronounced hysteresis, particularly between Es and vapor pressure deficit.

  7. Supply Chain Connectivity: Enhancing Participation in the Global Supply Chain

    OpenAIRE

    Epictetus E. Patalinghug

    2015-01-01

    Supply chain connectivity is vital for the efficient flow of trade among APEC economies. This paper reviews the literature and supply chain management, describes the barriers to enhancing participation in global supply chain, analyzes the various measures of supply chain performance, and suggests steps for the Philippines to fully reap the benefits of the global value chain.

  8. Perspective on the energy future of the Northeast United States. [Reduce demand and develop diversified supplies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brainard, J.; Davitian, H.; Goettle, R. IV; Palmedo, P.F.

    1976-06-01

    This study was undertaken to examine the implications of alternative energy futures for the northeastern U.S. First, the past and present energy supply and demand patterns for the U.S. and the northeast region are reviewed. Then, on the basis of detailed analyses of present and possible future supply and demand activities, scenarios for the years 1985 and 2000 are constructed and compared to examine the implications of various policies that will affect future supply and demand activities. Economic and environmental consequences are also discussed. The principal findings of the study are these: (1) conservation measures can reduce fuel and resource requirements in the northeast by over 30 percent; (2) oil imports are likely to continue to be a major energy resource for the northeast since only if strong conservation measures are combined with large increases in U.S. energy supplies is there apt to be a substantial decline in oil imports to the region; (3) a shift to coal and other alternate energy supplies, coupled with increased conservation, could compensate for a curtailment in the use of nuclear power in the region; (4) new resource technologies are capable of supplying up to 20 percent of the region's energy requirements in 2000; (5) no single supply technology or single conservation strategy taken alone can reduce the region's increasing dependence on foreign oil. Rather, the creation of an acceptable energy system for the region will require efforts in many directions in terms both of reducing demand and developing reliable, diversified supplies.

  9. Laser-induced fluorescence fiber optic probe measurement of oil dilution by fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, II, James E [Knoxville, TN; Partridge, Jr., William P [Oak Ridge, TN

    2010-11-23

    Apparatus for detecting fuel in oil includes an excitation light source in optical communication with an oil sample for exposing the oil sample to excitation light in order to excite the oil sample from a non-excited state to an excited state and a spectrally selective device in optical communication with the oil sample for detecting light emitted from the oil sample as the oil sample returns from the excited state to a non-excited state to produce spectral indicia that can be analyzed to determine the presence of fuel in the oil sample. A method of detecting fuel in oil includes the steps of exposing a oil sample to excitation light in order to excite the oil sample from a non-excited state to an excited state, as the oil sample returns from the excited state to a non-excited state, detecting light emitted from the oil sample to produce spectral indicia; and analyzing the spectral indicia to determine the presence of fuel in the oil sample.

  10. 海洋油田测井装置电机驱动供电方式的研究%Research on mode of motor driving power supplies for marine oil well testing equipment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓永红; 任学军; 张全柱; 班志强

    2011-01-01

    针对海洋油田测井装置,对其驱动液压泵电机的供电方式进行了研究,比较分析了七种供电方式的优缺点,提出了一种最有应用前途的马达电机供电方式.种供电方式克服了传统的"调压器加变压器"的海洋油田测井电源方案的诸多缺点,具有体积小、质量轻、电压调节方便、起动电流小、动态响应快、智能化程度高等优点.种供电方式由多个IGBT功率变换单元组成,经过了多个电压变换环节,实现了从单相AC 110 V低压至双相AC 600~AC 1200 V中压的变换.该电源装置设计方案新颖、技术先进、性能指标优越,可以在海洋油田测井行业内推广应用.%For marine oil well testing equipment, the mode of power supplies for driving hydraulic pump motor was studied. Seven kinds of advantages and disadvantages of power supplies were analyzed comparatively. The mode of motor power supply of the most promising application was proposed, which overcame the many disadvantages of traditional mode of marine oil well testing, voltage regulator and transfomlers,mode, and had many advantages, for example, small size, light weight, convenient voltage regulating, small starting current, fast dynamic response, high intelligence, and etc. The power supply consisted of many IGBT power conversion units, which had many AC/DC/AC-AC/DC/AC voltage conversion links, and achieved the conversion from the single-phase low voltage AC 110 V to the two-phase medium voltage AC 600-AC 1200 V. The power supply equipment has innovative designing, advanced technology, and superior performance, and can be promoted in the marine oil well testing industry.

  11. Measurements of Submicron Particle Adsorption and Particle Film Elasticity at Oil-Water Interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manga, Mohamed S; Hunter, Timothy N; Cayre, Olivier J; York, David W; Reichert, Matthew D; Anna, Shelly L; Walker, Lynn M; Williams, Richard A; Biggs, Simon R

    2016-05-01

    The influence of particle adsorption on liquid/liquid interfacial tension is not well understood, and much previous research has suggested conflicting behaviors. In this paper we investigate the surface activity and adsorption kinetics of charge stabilized and pH-responsive polymer stabilized colloids at oil/water interfaces using two tensiometry techniques: (i) pendant drop and (ii) microtensiometer. We found, using both techniques, that charge stabilized particles had little or no influence on the (dynamic) interfacial tension, although dense silica particles affected the "apparent" measured tension in the pendent drop, due to gravity driven elongation of the droplet profile. Nevertheless, this apparent change additionally allowed the study of adsorption kinetics, which was related qualitatively between particle systems by estimated diffusion coefficients. Significant and real interfacial tension responses were measured using ∼53 nm core-shell latex particles with a pH-responsive polymer stabilizer of poly(methyl methacrylate)-b-poly(2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate) (pMMA-b-pDMAEMA) diblock copolymer. At pH 2, where the polymer is strongly charged, behavior was similar to that of the bare charge-stabilized particles, showing little change in the interfacial tension. At pH 10, where the polymer is discharged and poorly soluble in water, a significant decrease in the measured interfacial tension commensurate with strong adsorption at the oil-water interface was seen, which was similar in magnitude to the surface activity of the free polymer. These results were both confirmed through droplet profile and microtensiometry experiments. Dilational elasticity measurements were also performed by oscillation of the droplet; again, changes in interfacial tension with droplet oscillation were only seen with the responsive particles at pH 10. Frequency sweeps were performed to ascertain the dilational elasticity modulus, with measured values being significantly higher

  12. Measurement of glycidol hemoglobin adducts in humans who ingest edible oil containing small amounts of glycidol fatty acid esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Hiroshi; Onishi, Masayuki; Fujii, Kenkichi; Ikeda, Naohiro; Yamaguchi, Tohru; Fujimori, Taketoshi; Nishiyama, Naohiro; Kasamatsu, Toshio

    2011-10-01

    Hemoglobin (Hb) adducts are frequently used to address and/or monitor exposure to reactive chemicals. Glycidol (G), a known animal carcinogen, has been reported to form Hb adducts. Here, we measure G adduct levels in humans who daily ingest DAG oil, an edible oil consisting mainly of diacylglycerol. Since DAG oil contains a small amount of glycidol fatty acid esters (GEs), possible exposure to G released from GEs has been raised as a possible concern. For measurement of Hb adducts, we employed the N-alkyl Edman method reported by Landin et al. (1996) using gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry with minor modifications to detect G-Hb adducts as N-(2,3-dihydroxy-propyl)valine (diHOPrVal). Blood samples were collected from 7 DAG oil users and 6 non-users, and then G-Hb adduct levels were measured. G-Hb adducts were detected in all samples. The average level of diHOPrVal was 3.5±1.9pmol/g globin in the DAG oil users and 7.1±3.1pmol/g globin in the non-users. We conclude that there is no increased exposure to G in individuals who daily ingest DAG oil.

  13. Calculating model for equivalent consumption efficiency in polarization measurement system of oil-spilled on the sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiang; Qian, Weixian; Lu, Dongming; Lu, Yingcheng

    2016-07-01

    As a new analytical method to identify oil spill on sea, the main effect of polarization measurement system is the scattering polarization information of different measured parts. This paper observed the polarization characteristic of oil film and seawater, and analyzed the transmission path of polarized light in the samples. Combined with Fresnel formula and law of Beer, the path of polarized light was divided into three parts, and the light propagation between the molecules was analyzed in detail. The results were affected by the capacity to change the polarization state. In order to quantify the equivalence, we defined an equivalent consumption efficiency (ECE). The ECE describes the ability of the molecules to weaken the polarization attribute of incident light. Then according to the polarization information in Mueller matrix, we inferred that the oil film and seawater had different polarization characteristics. In order to verify the correctness of the model, we applied it to detect the actual oil spill on sea in the case of simulated sunlight finally. Research indicated that the propagation path of polarization light was in connection with the molecular structure and interactions of medium. Under the different measuring angles, the ECE of oil film and seawater have both differences and regularities, the experimental results indicated that it can be used for rapid detection of oil spill on sea, and the data is accurate and reliable.

  14. Measuring the importance of oil-related revenues in total fiscal income for Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reyes-Loya, Manuel Lorenzo; Blanco, Lorenzo [Facultad de Economia, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Loma Redonda 1515 Pte., Col. Loma Larga, C.P. 64710, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon (Mexico)

    2008-09-15

    Revenues from oil exports are an important part of government budgets in Mexico. A time-series analysis is conducted using monthly data from 1990 to 2005 examining three different specifications to determine how international oil price fluctuations and government income generated from oil exports influence fiscal policy in Mexico. The behavior of government spending and taxation is consistent with the spend-tax hypothesis. The results show that there is an inverse relationship between oil-related revenues and tax revenue from non-oil sources. Fiscal policy reform is urgently needed in order to improve tax collection as oil reserves in Mexico become more and more depleted. (author)

  15. Evaluation of cross correlation technique to measure flow in pipes of the oil industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avilan, Eddie J., E-mail: eddieavilan@gmail.com [Universidad Central de Venezuela (UCV), Facultad de Ingenieria, Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Reis, Verginia, E-mail: verginia@nuclear.ufrj.br [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia (PEN/COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear; Barreira, Luis E.; Salgado, Cesar Marques, E-mail: brandao@ien.gov.br, E-mail: otero@ien.gov.br [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (DIRA/IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Divisao de Radiofarmacos

    2013-07-01

    The present work is concerned with the use of the cross correlation technique to measure delay time between two simulated signals displaced with respect to time, in order to develop a cross correlator system that will be used to measure the water and oil pipes flowrate in which the detection system is composed by two external low intensity radiation sources located along the tube and two NaI(Tl) gamma-ray detectors. The final purpose of the correlator system is to use the natural disturbances, as the turbulence in the own flow rather than to inject radioactive tracers to the fluid flow as usually is carried out. In the design of this correlator is evaluated the point-by-point calculation method for the cross correlation function in order to produce a system accurate and fast. This method is divided at the same time in three modes of operation: direct, relay and polarity. (author)

  16. Experimental measurement of oil-water two-phase flow by data fusion of electrical tomography sensors and venturi tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yinyan; Deng, Yuchi; Zhang, Maomao; Yu, Peining; Li, Yi

    2017-09-01

    Oil-water two-phase flows are commonly found in the production processes of the petroleum industry. Accurate online measurement of flow rates is crucial to ensure the safety and efficiency of oil exploration and production. A research team from Tsinghua University has developed an experimental apparatus for multiphase flow measurement based on an electrical capacitance tomography (ECT) sensor, an electrical resistance tomography (ERT) sensor, and a venturi tube. This work presents the phase fraction and flow rate measurements of oil-water two-phase flows based on the developed apparatus. Full-range phase fraction can be obtained by the combination of the ECT sensor and the ERT sensor. By data fusion of differential pressures measured by venturi tube and the phase fraction, the total flow rate and single-phase flow rate can be calculated. Dynamic experiments were conducted on the multiphase flow loop in horizontal and vertical pipelines and at various flow rates.

  17. Oil accumulation in intact olive fruits measured by near infrared spectroscopy-acousto-optically tunable filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellincontro, Andrea; Caruso, Giovanni; Mencarelli, Fabio; Gucci, Riccardo

    2013-04-01

    A field experiment was conducted to test the reliability of the near infrared spectroscopy (NIR)-acousto-optically tunable filter (AOTF) method to measure mesocarp oil content in vivo against nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) determinations using three different olive cultivars at different stages of ripening. In the partial least squares model carried out for the cultivar 'Arbequina', the coefficient of determination in calibration (R(2)c) was 0.991, while the coefficient of determination in cross-validation (R(2)cv) was 0.979. For the cultivar 'Frantoio' the indexes were 0.982 and 0.971, respectively; while for the cultivar 'Leccino' R(2)c was 0.977 and R(2)cv was 0.965. Finally, for the combined model (sum of the three varieties) these indexes were 0.921 and 0.903, respectively. The residual predictive deviation (RPD) ratio was insufficient for the predictive model of cultivar 'Leccino' only (1.98), whereas in the other cases the RPD ratios were completely sufficient, within the estimation range over 2.5-3 (2.61 in the global model, and 4.23 in the cultivar 'Frantoio'), or in describing a large capacity with values greater than 5, as in the cultivar 'Arbequina' (9.58). NIR-AOTF spectroscopy proved to be a novel, rapid and reliable method to monitor the oil accumulation process in intact olive fruits in the field. The innovative approach of coupling NIR and NMR technologies opens up new scenarios for determining the optimal time for harvesting olive trees to obtain maximum oil production. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Application of Neural Network in the Measuring System On-line for Water Content of Crude Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zengrong Zhao

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to introduce a new way to measure the water content of Crude Oil. In this measurement system, capacitive sensor is used as sensitive element and BP neural network model is adopted to deal with data. Water content and temperature are used as input parameters to set up BP neural network model. By MATLAB simulation, a moisture content of crude oil is forecasted, so that the influence comes from temperature variation is compensated and the accuracy of the measurement result is improved.

  19. Ground Surface Power Supply Mode for the Deep -well Motor in Oil -well Logging Devices%油田测井装置深井电机地面供电方式的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭其泽; 张全柱

    2011-01-01

    Power supply modes for driving hydraulic pump motor at the oil - well logging device were discussed. And advantages and disadvantages of six power supply modes were analyzed and compared with each other. A most promising motor power supply mode was then put forward. This mode has overcome disadvantages existed in traditional oil - well logging power supply method, I. E. , the transitional "voltage regulator along with transformer" method. The proposed power supply mode has advantages of small volume,light weight,convenient voltage regulation,small starting voltage,fast transient response,and high intelligence degree. This power supply is composed of several ICBT power transforming units,and has realized the transformation from single - phase low voltage of AC110V to dual -phase middle voltage of AC600 ~ AC1200V after multiple AC/DC/AC - AC/DC/AC voltage transform links.%针对油田测井装置的驱动液压泵电机的供电方式进行了研究,比较分析了6种供电方式的优缺点,提出一种最有应用前途的电机供电方式.该供电方式克服了传统的调压器加变压器的油田测井电源方式的诸多缺点,具有体积小、重量轻、电压调节方便、起动电流小、动态响应快和智能化程度高等优点.该电源由多个IGBT功率变换单元组成,经过AC/DC/AC—AC/DC/AC多个电压变换环节,实现从单相AC 110 V低压至双相AC600~AC 1 200V中压的变换.

  20. Cuba's oil crisis spells trouble for Castro; Opportunity for foreign petroleum investment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-07-06

    This paper reports on Cuba's oil crisis which presents long term woes for the government of Fidel Castro but new opportunities for foreign petroleum investment. That's the main thesis of a study by East-West Center (EWC), Honolulu. Since the cutoff of subsidized oil supplies from the former Soviet Union at the first of the year, Cuba has endured a crippling loss of export revenues and draconian energy rationing measures at home. The Soviets had reduced oil supplies to Cuba since 1989 after decades of providing the Castro government with subsidized oil supplies. Former Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev exempted Cuba from paying market prices for Soviet oil in 1991 while requiring that of Soviet trading partners in eastern Europe. With the collapse of Communism in the former U.S.S.R., however, oil supplies from that region are available to Cuba only at market prices and for hard currency. That has triggered a crisis in the Western Hemisphere's sole Communist regime as Cuba's gross special product - equivalent to GNP - fell by 5% in 1990 and a further 20% in 1991. The foreign exchange loss of $1.6 billion stemming from the loss of Soviet subsidized oil supplies exceeds that of total foreign exchange earnings from all other sources. If Cuba imports oil in 1989 volumes at current prices, its oil import tab alone will be $1.3 billion, EWC projects.

  1. The Endogenous/Exogenous Nature of South Africa's Money Supply Under Direct and Indirect Monetary Control Measures

    OpenAIRE

    Nell, Kevin S.

    1999-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to describe South Africa's money supply process along several competing, but not mutually exclusive, theoretical paradigms over the period 1966-1997. The most important conclusion to be drawn from the empirical results is that irrespective of the monetary system at the time, the money supply process in South Africa is endogenously determined. The empirical analysis further shows that the inability of the South African Reserve Bank (SARB) to reach predetermine...

  2. Microbial response to oil enrichment in Gulf of Mexico sediment measured using a novel long-term benthic lander system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beth N. Orcutt

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Weathered crude oil sank to the seafloor following the 'Deepwater Horizon' disaster in 2010, removing this oil from further physical and photo-chemical degradation processes and leaving benthic processes as the mechanisms for altering and remediating this hydrocarbon source. To quantify potential microbial oil degradation rates at the seafloor, and associated changes in sediment microbial community structure and pore fluid composition, we used a benthic lander system to deploy novel sediment flow-through chambers at a natural hydrocarbon seep in the Gulf of Mexico (at a depth of 1226 m in lease block GC600 roughly 265 km southwest of the 'Deepwater Horizon' wellhead (at 1500 m depth. Sediment amended with 20% unweathered crude oil had elevated rates of sulfate reduction over the course of the 5-month-long experiment as compared to an unamended control, yielding potential rates of sulfate reduction (600–800 mmol m–2 d–1 among the highest measured in hydrocarbon-influenced seafloor sediment. Oil amendment also stimulated methane production towards the end of the experiment, and led to slightly higher cell densities without significant changes in microbial community structure, based on 16S rRNA gene sequence libraries and fatty acid profiles. Assuming a link between sulfate reduction and hydrocarbon degradation, these results suggest that electron acceptor availability may become limiting in heavily oiled deep-sea environments, resulting in minimal degradation of deposited oil. This study provides unique data on seafloor sediment responses to oil deposition, and reveals the value of using observatories to fill the gap in understanding deep-sea microbial processes, especially for ephemeral and stochastic events such as oil spills.

  3. Directed weighted network structure analysis of complex impedance measurements for characterizing oil-in-water bubbly flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zhong-Ke; Dang, Wei-Dong; Xue, Le; Zhang, Shan-Shan

    2017-03-01

    Characterizing the flow structure underlying the evolution of oil-in-water bubbly flow remains a contemporary challenge of great interests and complexity. In particular, the oil droplets dispersing in a water continuum with diverse size make the study of oil-in-water bubbly flow really difficult. To study this issue, we first design a novel complex impedance sensor and systematically conduct vertical oil-water flow experiments. Based on the multivariate complex impedance measurements, we define modalities associated with the spatial transient flow structures and construct modality transition-based network for each flow condition to study the evolution of flow structures. In order to reveal the unique flow structures underlying the oil-in-water bubbly flow, we filter the inferred modality transition-based network by removing the edges with small weight and resulting isolated nodes. Then, the weighted clustering coefficient entropy and weighted average path length are employed for quantitatively assessing the original network and filtered network. The differences in network measures enable to efficiently characterize the evolution of the oil-in-water bubbly flow structures.

  4. Near infrared emission photometer for measuring the oxidative stability of edible oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Francisco Senna; Pasquini, Celio

    2013-09-24

    Near infrared emission spectroscopy (NIRES) allows the determination of the induction time (IT) of edible oils in accelerated oxidation experiments by monitoring the emissivity of a band at 2900 nm, which corresponds to the formation of hydroperoxides. In this work, a new near infrared emission photometer dedicated to the determination of oxidative stability is described. The photometer presents several advantages compared to the previously reported NIRES instrument, such as lower cost and extreme simplicity of design and maintenance. The results obtained in the evaluation of the proposed instrument were compared with the official Rancimat method and instrument. The significant advantages include: faster analysis, lower sample consumption and operational simplicity. It is demonstrated that the procedure for determination of oxidative stability of oils can be significantly simplified and performed by measuring the sample emission at only one spectral region centered at 2900 nm. Also, the proposed instrument and method present precision equivalent to the Rancimat method (coefficient of variation=5.0%). A significant correlation between the methods has been found (R(2)=0.81).

  5. Turbulence measurements in the northern gulf of Mexico: Application to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill on droplet dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhankun; DiMarco, Steven F.; Socolofsky, Scott A.

    2016-03-01

    An integrated observational field effort that makes simultaneous and collocated measurements of turbulence and fine-scale parameters has been conducted near the Deepwater Horizon oil spill site in the northern Gulf of Mexico (GOM). Full water column profiles are collected across the continental slope in July 2013. The observational results suggest that strong turbulence is patchy and mostly measured in the thermocline and deepwater when using the buoyancy Reynolds number, Reb=200 criterion, the boundary between weak and strong turbulence. Bottom enhanced turbulence is often seen on the continental slope. Using the ratio of the turbulent velocity scale and the oil droplets rising velocity, we develop criteria for when turbulence will dominate the movement of oil droplets and when turbulence can be ignored. Based on the data collected, for oil droplets with rising velocity greater than 6×10-3 m s-1, the turbulence effect can be ignored on the continental slope of the northern GOM. For oil droplets with rising speed less than 10-4 m s-1, their motions will be affected by the turbulent flow at all depths. For oil droplets with rising speed between 10-4 and 6×10-3 m s-1, the role of turbulence will depend on the strength of the local turbulence and water stratification. We also relate turbulent velocity to the size and density of oil droplets by estimating the rising velocity of different size oil droplets due to balance between buoyancy and drag force. Droplet size and density difference are the two critical parameters in determining the role of turbulence.

  6. Skin friction measurement on the NASA Common Research Model using global luminescent oil film skin friction meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajendran, Lalit Kishore

    Accurate skin friction measurements are indispensable in the design of more efficient aerodynamic vehicles, and is also the controlling variable in closed loop flow control systems. Spatially and temporally resolved skin friction data is required to calibrate turbulence models used in Computational Fluid Dynamics analysis, and can also provide insight into the nature of near-wall turbulence. Luminescent oil film based techniques offer the ability to make distributed wall shear stress measurements with a relatively simple setup. The Global Luminescent Oil Film Skin Friction Meter (GLOSFM) technique involves calculating the shear stress based on observing the thickness of an oil film, which in turn is directly proportional to its luminescent intensity, provided the oil film is sufficiently thin. This technique is briefly reviewed, with some emphasis on uncertainty quantification, and the formation and propagation of ripples/surface waves on the oil film, as well as their impact on the shear stress measurement. Finally, this technique is used to measure the skin friction field on the wing and fuselage of the NASA Common Research Model, a passenger jet configuration. The issue of repeatability and the effects of tripping the flow are investigated, and the effect of flow parameters like the angle of attack and the Reynolds number are studied.

  7. The Cost-profit Analysis of Increasing Domestic Oil Supply--Based on Reducing Oil Import Dependent Effect%我国石油供给扩张的成本-收益分析--基于降低石油进口依赖效应视角

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈燕; 林仲豪

    2014-01-01

    石油进口依赖给我国经济带来了巨大成本支出和经济风险,提高我国国内石油供给量是降低石油进口依赖路径之一。基于降低石油进口依赖效应,从我国国内石油供给的财富转移收益、潜在 GDP 收益和宏观经济调整收益三个角度以及从直接生产成本、环境成本和使用者成本三项成本来对提高我国国内石油供给的经济可行性进行论证,结论显示整体趋势上,提高国内石油供给的总收益大于其总成本,并且其净收益呈现上升态势,是有利可图的,这种优势在国际油价高企的时候表现得更为突出,但是收益-成本弹性却呈现下降态势,即整体上成本的相对增长幅度要快于收益的增长幅度。%Oil import dependence has brought tremendous costs and economic risk for China. Increasing China's oil supply is one way of reducing oil import dependence. Based on the reducing the oil import dependence effect, the article analyses the economic viability of increasing domestic oil supply from three points of view, that is, profits of wealth transfer, potential GDP profits and macroeconomic adjustment profits, and from another three consideration of costs, namely, direct production costs, environmental costs and user costs. The result shows that the profits of increasing our domestic oil supply are more than the costs from the overall trend, and the net profit is increasing, especially as the high oil price. But, the elasticity of profit-cost is falling, which shows the relatively growth rate of overall costs is faster than growth rate of profits.

  8. Optical fiber sensor temperature coded for concentration measurement of oil-biodiesel blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Possetti, Gustavo Rafael Collere; Kamikawachi, Ricardo Canute; Muller, Marcia; Fabris, José Luís

    2013-12-01

    This work describes the operation of an optical fiber sensor employed in the determination of remaining oil concentration in oil-biodiesel blends. The sensor is based both on the sensitivity of a long period grating to changes in the surroundings refractive index and on the thermo-optical properties of oil-biodiesel blends. The sensor response is provided by a temperature coded interrogation unit that employs an auxiliary fiber Bragg grating. The standard metrological analysis of an optimized sensor showed that is possible to detect until 0.10% v/v of oil in oil-biodiesel blends.

  9. Mounting and performance measurements of a PV array addition to an existing small wind-power installation for greenhouse electric supply in Patagonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Oliva

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A small wind-power system intended for electric supply of a research greenhouse at the local University facilities in San Julian region incorporates a photovoltaic (PV array and regulator, which is described in this report together with its data-acquisition system. The main application is control and lighting. The Alternative Energy Group at the University seeks through this project to acquire knowledge and practical experience in the combination of renewable energy sources for optimal electrical supply of isolated systems, their associated measurements and processing of resulting data

  10. 乳品供应链效率测度研究进展%Research for Measuring Dairy Supply Chain Efficiency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘俊华; 李燕霞

    2014-01-01

    The paper reviews recent literatures on the dairy supply chain efficiency measurement at home and abroad, which analyses the related papers for diary supply chain and emphasizes the research on the frontier of the supply chain effi-ciency.It is shown that to diary supply chain,security and efficiency are the key concerned issues while to supply chain ef-ficiency,focuses are the evaluation of supply chain performance including both general theory and empirical study.Net DEA models considering the inner complex structure and supply chain DEA model deriving from the former one are the main study methods for supply chain efficiency measurement in recent years.The paper has a discussion on the internal complex structure of dairy supply chain which is described carefully.On the basis of multi -objectives of the supply chain manage-ment,the efficiency of dairy supply chain can be analyzed on the aspects of production efficiency,economic efficiency,lo-gistics efficiency and safety efficiency and so on.The crucial issues of measuring dairy supply chain efficiency are the deter-mination of the input -output indicators of all efficiency and the integration of multi -stage supply chain DEA model,and the difficulties lie in researches on the quality security efficiency as well as statements of all outputs frontier.%梳理近年研究乳品供应链效率测度问题的相关文献,包括国内外关于乳品供应链的研究现状和重点剖析的供应链效率问题研究前沿,分析表明:对于乳品供应链,安全和效率是其关注的重点内容;对于供应链效率问题,其核心为供应链绩效评价,通用理论研究与实证研究并举,其中考虑内部复杂结构的网络 DEA 模型及其衍生的供应链 DEA 模型是近年兴起的供应链效率研究的主要方法。描述乳品供应链的复杂内部结构,根据供应链管理的多目标性提出乳品供应链效率可从生产效率、经济效率、物流效率和质

  11. Increasing homogeneity in global food supplies and the implications for food security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoury, Colin K.; Bjorkman, Anne D.; Dempewolf, Hannes; Ramirez-Villegas, Julian; Guarino, Luigi; Jarvis, Andy; Rieseberg, Loren H.; Struik, Paul C.

    2014-01-01

    The narrowing of diversity in crop species contributing to the world’s food supplies has been considered a potential threat to food security. However, changes in this diversity have not been quantified globally. We assess trends over the past 50 y in the richness, abundance, and composition of crop species in national food supplies worldwide. Over this period, national per capita food supplies expanded in total quantities of food calories, protein, fat, and weight, with increased proportions of those quantities sourcing from energy-dense foods. At the same time the number of measured crop commodities contributing to national food supplies increased, the relative contribution of these commodities within these supplies became more even, and the dominance of the most significant commodities decreased. As a consequence, national food supplies worldwide became more similar in composition, correlated particularly with an increased supply of a number of globally important cereal and oil crops, and a decline of other cereal, oil, and starchy root species. The increase in homogeneity worldwide portends the establishment of a global standard food supply, which is relatively species-rich in regard to measured crops at the national level, but species-poor globally. These changes in food supplies heighten interdependence among countries in regard to availability and access to these food sources and the genetic resources supporting their production, and give further urgency to nutrition development priorities aimed at bolstering food security. PMID:24591623

  12. Measuring Rate Capability of a Bakelite-Trigger RPC Coated with Linseed Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Leah

    2008-10-01

    The PHENIX experiment at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider at Brookhaven National Laboratory intends to study proton spin structure through the detection of high pT muons produced from W-Boson decay. Such measurements will require an upgrade of the first level muon trigger using Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs). RPCs are gas detectors in which high voltage is applied across two resistive electrodes (bakelite plates) spaced 2 mm apart. The resistivity of the electrodes and possible coatings on the surface of the electrodes determine the rate capability of RPCs. We tested the performance of a double gap RPC in avalanche mode under gamma radiation from an Fe55 source. In this paper we present the rate capability of a bakelite RPC with a coating of linseed oil applied to the bakelite electrode surfaces.

  13. Measures to prevent oil pollution in oceans, and their preservation effect; Kaiyo no abura osen no boshi taisaku to hozen koka ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinoda, T.; Fukuchi, N.; Fujii, H. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Sato, S.

    1996-04-10

    It was intended to confirm, based on various problems surrounding oil flow-out accidents, that oil fences whose use is first considered when an oil flow-out accident occurs cause oil leakage due to oil pass-through phenomenon as the largest defect in performance of oil fences. Therefore, oil fence performance was analyzed by using a simulation. Furthermore, several types of diffusion prevention and avoidance measures, and combinations thereof were evaluated by using multi-criteria analysis. It was also elucidated how recognitions on the importance of methods to prevent oil pollution differ depending on standpoints. Difference in oil flow-out prevention performance of oil fences due to variation in tidal currents was made clear by combining a diffusion simulation using the finite element method with the prevention performance of oil fences relative to the tidal currents. In areas with no good hydrographic conditions where pollution spreads rapidly, it is necessary to suppress oil diffusion by extending oil fences double or triple, and using gelling agents. 4 refs., 8 figs.

  14. Engine Oil Condition Monitoring Using High Temperature Integrated Ultrasonic Transducers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeff Bird

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work contains two parts. In the first part, high temperature integrated ultrasonic transducers (IUTs made of thick piezoelectric composite films, were coated directly onto lubricant oil supply and sump lines of a modified CF700 turbojet engine. These piezoelectric films were fabricated using a sol-gel spray technology. By operating these IUTs in transmission mode, the amplitude and velocity of transmitted ultrasonic waves across the flow channel of the lubricant oil in supply and sump lines were measured during engine operation. Results have shown that the amplitude of the ultrasonic waves is sensitive to the presence of air bubbles in the oil and that the ultrasound velocity is linearly dependent on oil temperature. In the second part of the work, the sensitivity of ultrasound to engine lubricant oil degradation was investigated by using an ultrasonically equipped and thermally-controlled laboratory testing cell and lubricant oils of different grades. The results have shown that at a given temperature, ultrasound velocity decreases with a decrease in oil viscosity. Based on the results obtained in both parts of the study, ultrasound velocity measurement is proposed for monitoring oil degradation and transient oil temperature variation, whereas ultrasound amplitude measurement is proposed for monitoring air bubble content.

  15. Is oil consumption constrained by industrial structure? Evidence from China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Y. Q.; Duan, H. M.

    2017-08-01

    This paper examines whether oil consumption is constrained by output value, applying a cointegration test and an ECM to the primary, secondary, and tertiary sectors in China during 1985-2013. The empirical results indicate that oil consumption in China is constrained by the industrial structure both in the short run and in the long run. Regardless of the time horizon considered, the oil consumption constraint is the lowest for the primary sector as well as the highest for the tertiary sector. This is because the long-term industrial structure formation and the technological level of each sector underlines the existence of long run equilibrium and short run fluctuations of output value and oil consumption, with the latter being constrained by adjustments in industrial structure. In order to decrease the constraining effect of output value on oil consumption, the government should take some measures to improve the utilization rate, reducing the intensity of oil consumption, and secure the supply of oil.

  16. The Application Research of Inventory Control with Multi -objective Constraints under the Perspective of Supply Chain---A Case Analysis of Industrial Lubricating Oil Supply Chain%库存控制之供应链多目标视角下的应用研究--以工业润滑油供应链为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丽娟; 李英英

    2016-01-01

    〔Abstract〕 Study on inventory control of supply chain has become a trend , different from the conventional single target study on in-ventory control , the author made the emphasis on the study on minimizing inventory cost and maximizing the average satisfaction rate of cus -tomer demand and built a multi -objective inventory control model . In the end , the model and the solution were applied to the lubricating oil supply chain , which was helpful for making decisions for these enterprises in the lubricating oil supply chain .%供应链环境下库存控制的研究已经成为趋势,区别于常规的单目标库存控制的研究,本文以工业润滑油供应链为依托,提出了在供应链背景下考虑供应链库存成本最小化和客户平均需求满足率最大化为目标的库存控制研究思路,构建了多目标库存控制模型。最后将所建的供应链视角下多目标库存控制决策模型进行实证分析,为目标供应链上的企业做出生产、销售等决策提供依据。

  17. Quality control in cross-border agro-based supply chains: Modes of regulation in coffee, cocoa, bananas, palm oil, timber and aquaculture.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vellema, S.R.; Valk, van der O.M.C.

    2006-01-01

    This report describes the regulation and control of quality of product and process in a selection of cross-border agro-based supply chains. The factual presentation reveals the specific nature of regulation in a product group. It also provides a basis for comparing the modes of regulation and inform

  18. Quality control in cross-border agro-based supply chains: Modes of regulation in coffee, cocoa, bananas, palm oil, timber and aquaculture.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vellema, S.R.; Valk, van der O.M.C.

    2006-01-01

    This report describes the regulation and control of quality of product and process in a selection of cross-border agro-based supply chains. The factual presentation reveals the specific nature of regulation in a product group. It also provides a basis for comparing the modes of regulation and

  19. Effect of maternally supplied n-3 and n-6 oils on the fatty acid composition and mononuclear immune cell distribution of lymphatic tissue from the gastrointestinal tract of suckling piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binter, Claudia; Khol-Parisini, Annabella; Gerner, Wilhelm; Schäfer, Klaus; Hulan, Howard W; Saalmüller, Armin; Zentek, Jürgen

    2011-10-01

    Fatty acids are essential for immune cell function. Maternal dietary fatty acid supply influences body fat composition of their offspring. As a first step to study immunonutritional interactions at an early age of pigs, four sows were fed a diet containing sunflower oil or oil from seal blubber during pregnancy and lactation. Corresponding piglets were sacrificed at three consecutive time points in the suckling period and their mesenteric lymph nodes and spleen were analysed by gas chromatography for levels of fatty acid. At the same time mononuclear cells of these organs and of the intestinal lymphoid tissue from the jejunum were isolated and subpopulations characterised by flow cytometry. Levels of fatty acids from the lymphatic organs of the piglets were significantly influenced by the maternal diet. The concentration of the fatty acids 20:5n-3, 22:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 were higher in the spleen and mesenteric lymph node of piglets suckled to sows of the test diet. Additionally, suckling time affected the levels of some long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. Dietary effects were seen on some subpopulations including CD4-CD8alpha+ lymphocytes of the mesenteric lymph nodes and CD4+CD8alpha+ lymphocytes of the lamina propria, which were higher in the group fed seal blubber oil. The levels of CD21+ B-cells were higher in the group fed sunflower oil. The results indicate that the maternal diet and suckling time affect the fatty acid status of the investigated lymphatic tissues of piglets, but may have minor effects on the investigated lymphocyte subpopulations.

  20. Biosensor measurements of polar phenolics for the assessment of the bitterness and pungency of virgin olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, Johanneke L H C; Hrncirik, Karel; Bulukin, Emily; Boucon, Claire; Mascini, Marco

    2006-06-14

    Bitterness and pungency, sensory quality attributes of virgin olive oil, are related to the presence of phenolic compounds. Fast and reliable alternatives for the evaluation of sensory attributes and phenolic content are desirable, as sensory and traditional analytical methods are time-consuming and expensive. In this study, two amperometric enzyme-based biosensors (employing tyrosinase or peroxidase) for rapid measurement of polar phenolics of olive oil were tested. The biosensor was constructed using disposable screen-printed carbon electrodes with the enzyme as biorecognition element. The sensor was coupled with a simple extraction procedure and optimized for use in flow injection analysis. The performance of the biosensor was assessed by measuring a set of virgin olive oils and comparing the results with data obtained by the reference HPLC method and sensory scores. The correlations between the tyrosinase- and peroxidase-based biosensors and phenolic content in the samples were high (r = 0.82 and 0.87, respectively), which, together with a good repeatability (rsd = 6%), suggests that these biosensors may represent a promising tool in the analysis of the total content of phenolics in virgin olive oils. The correlation with sensory quality attributes of virgin olive oil was lower, which illustrates the complexity of sensory perception. The two biosensors possessed different specificities toward different groups of phenolics, affecting bitterness and pungency prediction. The peroxidase-based biosensor showed a significant correlation (r = 0.66) with pungency.

  1. [Preventive measures for improvement of suitability of water from individual water supply objects in the areas ravaged by war].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venus, Miroslav

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this article was to test the success of sanation of unsatisfactory individual water supply objects in the areas ravages of war. 198 individual water supply objects were consolidated in the area of Voćin, with hyperchlorination and pumping out of water, after which desinfection with chlorine preparation was carried out. Samples of drinking water taken for bacteriological analysis were analyzed on total coliform bacteria, fecal coliform bacteria and fecal streptococci by method of membranous filtration, while the number of colonies of aerobic bacteria at 22 degrees C and 37 degrees C were determined on triptosis-glucosis-yeast agar. Good samples, considering the Regulations on health suitability of drinking water, were 152, or 77%. In unfit samples, which were 46, or 23%, the most common isolates were fecal streptococci, with frequency of 30%. Although public waterworks represent the best way to supply people with good drinking water, it is possible to achieve a satisfactory degree of water quality from individual water supply objects with implementation of public health activities, if we execute them periodically and professionally.

  2. Photo- and thermal degradation of olive oil measured using an optical fibre smartphone spectrofluorimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Md Arafat; Canning, John; Cook, Kevin; Ast, Sandra; Jamalipour, Abbas

    2017-04-01

    Degradation of olive oil under light and heat are analysed using an optical fibre based low-cost portable smartphone spectrofluorimeter. Visible fluorescence bands associated with phenolic acids, vitamins and chlorophyll centred at λ 452, 525 and 670 nm respectively are generated using near-UV excitation (LED λex 370 nm), of extra virgin olive oil are degraded more likely than refined olive oil under light and heat exposure. Packaging is shown to be critical when assessing the origin of degradation.

  3. Measurement of the Relative Free Radical Content of Insulating Oils of Petroleum Origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Issouf Fofana

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Oil/paper insulation degradation in transformers involves chemical and physical changes in the materials. Some of the chemical reactions involve very reactive intermediates called free radicals. Free radicals play a major role in a wide variety of ageing processes. The detection of these reactive species in oil may, in principle, provide useful information for monitoring oil degradation. This manuscript details a laboratory technique, which determines the relative content of free radicals in insulating oils of petroleum origin by a spectrophotometric method. Free radicals may be formed in oils under operating or test conditions. The procedure enables the determination of the relative concentration of free radicals, which can act as the precursors of decay products such as charge carriers, oxidized molecules, as well as polymerization products. The technique involves using a reactive free radical reagent, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, added to oil to assess free radical concentration. This method is applicable to new, reclaimed, or used oils as well as naturally or artificially oxidized oil (the cause of aging can be chemical, physical, or electrical. In this contribution, free radicals were assessed following electrical discharge application in oil.

  4. 76 FR 14980 - BOEMRE Information Collection Activity: 1010-0185, Increased Safety Measures for Oil and Gas...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-18

    ... Measures for Oil and Gas Drilling, Well-Completion, and Well-Workover Operations. OMB Control Number: 1010... sufficient to prevent or minimize the likelihood of blowouts, loss of well control, fires, spillages... certain drilling requirements. This includes requirements related to subsea and surface blowout...

  5. Calibration of Mineralization Degree for Dynamic Pure-water Measurement in Horizontal Oil-water Two-phase Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Weihang; Li, Lei; Kong, Lingfu; Liu, Xingbin

    2016-08-01

    In order to solve the problem of dynamic pure-water electrical conductivity measurement in the process of calculating water content of oil-water two-phase flow of production profile logging in horizontal wells, a six-group local-conductance probe (SGLCP) is proposed to measure dynamic pure-water electrical conductivity in horizontal oil-water two-phase flow. The structures of conductance sensors which include the SGLCP and ring-shaped conductance probe (RSCP) are analyzed by using the finite-element method (FEM). In the process of simulation, the electric field distribution generated by the SGLCP and RSCP are investigated, and the responses of the measuring electrodes are calculated under the different values of the water resistivity. The static experiments of the SGLCP and RSCP under different mineralization degrees in horizontal oil-water two-phase flow are carried out. Results of simulation and experiments demonstrate a nice linearity between the SGLCP and RSCP under different mineralization degrees. The SGLCP has also a good adaptability to stratified flow, stratified flow with mixing at the interface and dispersion of oil in water and water flow. The validity and feasibility of pure-water electrical conductivity measurement with the designed SGLCP under different mineralization degrees are verified by experimental results.

  6. Data Mining of Satellite-Based Measurements to Distinguish Natural From Man-Made Oil Slicks at the Sea Surface in Campeche Bay (Mexico)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, G. D. A.; Minnett, P. J.; de Miranda, F. P.; Landau, L.; Paes, E.

    2016-02-01

    Campeche Bay, located in the Mexican portion of the Gulf of Mexico, has a well-established activity engaged with numerous oil rigs exploring and producing natural gas and oil. The associated risk of oil slicks in this region - that include oil spills (i.e. oil floating at the sea surface solely attributed to man-made activities) and oil seeps (i.e. surface footprint of the oil that naturally comes out of the seafloor reaching the surface of the ocean) - leads Pemex to be in a continuous state of alert for reducing possible negative influence on marine and coastal ecosystems. Focusing on a monitoring strategy, a multi-year dataset (2008-2012) of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) measurements from the RADARSAT-2 satellite is used to investigate the spatio-temporal distribution of the oil slicks observed at the surface of the ocean in the Campeche Bay region. The present study is an exploratory data analysis that seeks to discriminate between these two possible oil slick types: oil seeps and oil spills. Multivariate data analysis techniques (e.g. Principal Components Analysis, Clustering Analysis, Discriminant Function, etc.) are explored to design a data-learning classification algorithm to distinguish natural from man-made oil slicks. This analysis promotes a novel idea bridging geochemistry and remote sensing research to express geophysical differences between seeped and spilled oil. Here, SAR backscatter coefficients - i.e. sigma-naught (σo), beta-naught (βo), and gamma-naught (γo) - are combined with attributes referring to the geometry, shape, and dimension that describe the oil slicks. Results indicate that the synergy of combining these various characteristics is capable of distinguishing oil seeps from oil spills observed on the sea surface to a useful accuracy.

  7. Energy consumption in development countries - effects on economics and compulsory adaptation of oil importers and consumers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czakainski, M.

    1983-09-01

    Energy supply of developing countries is mainly based on mineral oil products and traditional energy carriers. The oil-importing developing countries were hard hit in their development efforts by the two oil-price surges of 1973/74 and, especially, of 1979/80. Any adaptation measures taken by the oil-importing countries of the third world should aim at tapping their own energy reserves, at a mature energy policy concerning concepts and instruments and at restructuring the strong dependence on oil of their consumption structures.

  8. Ultrasonic method for measuring water holdup of low velocity and high-water-cut oil-water two-phase flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, An; Han, Yun-Feng; Ren, Ying-Yu; Zhai, Lu-Sheng; in, Ning-De

    2016-03-01

    Oil reservoirs with low permeability and porosity that are in the middle and late exploitation periods in China's onshore oil fields are mostly in the high-water-cut production stage. This stage is associated with severely non-uniform local-velocity flow profiles and dispersed-phase concentration (of oil droplets) in oil-water two-phase flow, which makes it difficult to measure water holdup in oil wells. In this study, we use an ultrasonic method based on a transmission-type sensor in oil-water two-phase flow to measure water holdup in low-velocity and high water-cut conditions. First, we optimize the excitation frequency of the ultrasonic sensor by calculating the sensitivity of the ultrasonic field using the finite element method for multiphysics coupling. Then we calculate the change trend of sound pressure level attenuation ratio with the increase in oil holdup to verify the feasibility of the employed diameter for the ultrasonic sensor. Based on the results, we then investigate the effects of oil-droplet diameter and distribution on the ultrasonic field. To further understand the measurement characteristics of the ultrasonic sensor, we perform a flow loop test on vertical upward oil-water two-phase flow and measure the responses of the optimized ultrasonic sensor. The results show that the ultrasonic sensor yields poor resolution for a dispersed oil slug in water flow (D OS/W flow), but the resolution is favorable for dispersed oil in water flow (D O/W flow) and very fine dispersed oil in water flow (VFD O/W flow). This research demonstrates the potential application of a pulsed-transmission ultrasonic method for measuring the fraction of individual components in oil-water two-phase flow with a low mixture velocity and high water cut.

  9. Modeling of oil mist and oil vapor concentration in the shale shaker area on offshore drilling installations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bråtveit, Magne; Steinsvåg, Kjersti; Lie, Stein Atle; Moen, Bente E

    2009-11-01

    The objective of this study was to develop regression models to predict concentrations of oil mist and oil vapor in the workplace atmosphere in the shale shaker area of offshore drilling installations. Collection of monitoring reports of oil mist and oil vapor in the mud handling areas of offshore drilling installations was done during visits to eight oil companies and five drilling contractors. A questionnaire was sent to the rig owners requesting information about technical design of the shaker area. Linear mixed-effects models were developed using concentration of oil mist or oil vapor measured by stationary sampling as dependent variables, drilling installation as random effect, and potential determinants related to process technical parameters and technical design of the shale shaker area as fixed effects. The dataset comprised stationary measurements of oil mist (n = 464) and oil vapor (n = 462) from the period 1998 to 2004. The arithmetic mean concentrations of oil mist and oil vapor were 3.89 mg/m(3) and 39.7 mg/m(3), respectively. The air concentration models including significant determinants such as viscosity of base oil, mud temperature, well section, type of rig, localization of shaker, mechanical air supply, air grids in outer wall, air curtain in front of shakers, and season explained 35% and 17% of the total variance in oil vapor and oil mist, respectively. The developed models could be used to indicate what impact differences in technical design and changes in process parameters have on air concentrations of oil mist and oil vapor. Thus, the models will be helpful in planning control measures to reduce the potential for occupational exposure.

  10. Petroleum supply monthly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blends, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States.

  11. Petroleum Supply Monthly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major U.S. geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  12. Integrating Oil Debris and Vibration Measurements for Intelligent Machine Health Monitoring. Degree awarded by Toledo Univ., May 2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempsey, Paula J.

    2003-01-01

    A diagnostic tool for detecting damage to gears was developed. Two different measurement technologies, oil debris analysis and vibration were integrated into a health monitoring system for detecting surface fatigue pitting damage on gears. This integrated system showed improved detection and decision-making capabilities as compared to using individual measurement technologies. This diagnostic tool was developed and evaluated experimentally by collecting vibration and oil debris data from fatigue tests performed in the NASA Glenn Spur Gear Fatigue Rig. An oil debris sensor and the two vibration algorithms were adapted as the diagnostic tools. An inductance type oil debris sensor was selected for the oil analysis measurement technology. Gear damage data for this type of sensor was limited to data collected in the NASA Glenn test rigs. For this reason, this analysis included development of a parameter for detecting gear pitting damage using this type of sensor. The vibration data was used to calculate two previously available gear vibration diagnostic algorithms. The two vibration algorithms were selected based on their maturity and published success in detecting damage to gears. Oil debris and vibration features were then developed using fuzzy logic analysis techniques, then input into a multi sensor data fusion process. Results show combining the vibration and oil debris measurement technologies improves the detection of pitting damage on spur gears. As a result of this research, this new diagnostic tool has significantly improved detection of gear damage in the NASA Glenn Spur Gear Fatigue Rigs. This research also resulted in several other findings that will improve the development of future health monitoring systems. Oil debris analysis was found to be more reliable than vibration analysis for detecting pitting fatigue failure of gears and is capable of indicating damage progression. Also, some vibration algorithms are as sensitive to operational effects as they

  13. A Causal Relationship between Quality Management Practices, Supply-Chain Practices, Demand-Chain Practices, and Company Performance: Evidence from the Indonesia’s Oil and Gas Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Ciptono, Wakhid Slamet

    2015-01-01

    Studi ini mengembangkan suatu hubungan kausal antara lima konstruk penelitian QualityManagement Practices (QMP), Supply-Chain Practices (SCP), Demand-Chain Practices (DCP), CompanyPerformance (Value-Gain Performance atau VGP dan Monetary-Gain Performance atau MGP) denganmenggunakan Structural Equation Modeling (SEM)—studi kasus pada industri migas di Indonesia. Modelkonseptual penelitian ini merupakan kolaborasi dari berbagai penelitian sebelumnya yang terkait denganenam dimensi praktik manaj...

  14. Measurement of Supply Chain Performance Based on Market Model%基于市场模型的供应链绩效量度

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张志俊; 孙丹

    2013-01-01

    在借鉴国内外先进理论、方法和技术的基础上,构建了供应链市场模型,并提出了基于市场模型的供应链绩效量度理念,设置了不同市场模型下的供应链绩效量度指标,并对其量度指标数据收集及应用等问题进行了探讨.%In this paper,by drawing from advanced foreign theories,methods and technologies,we established the supply chain market model and proposed the ideas for the measurement of supply chain performance based on the model,set different index for the measurement and at the end discussed related problems such as collection and application of index data.

  15. Adsorption Behavior of Heat Modified Soybean Oil via Boundary Lubrication Coefficient of Friction Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    The frictional behaviors of soybean oil and heat modified soybean oils with different Gardner scale viscosities as additives in hexadecane have been examined in a boundary lubrication test regime (steel contacts) using Langmuir adsorption model. The free energy of adsorption (delta-Gads) of various...

  16. An Environmental Analysis of the Effect of Energy Saving, Production and Recovery Measures on Water Supply Systems under Scarcity Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Puleo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Water is one of the primary resources provided for maintaining quality of life and social status in urban areas. As potable water is considered to be a primary need, water service has usually been managed without examining the economic and environmental sustainability of supply processes. Currently, due to increases in energy costs and the growth of environment preservation policies, reducing water leakage, energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG production have become primary objectives in reducing the environmental footprint of water service. The present paper suggests the implementation of some performance indicators that show the interdependence of water loss, energy consumption and GHG emission. These indicators are used to compare a few possible mitigation scenarios involving water loss reduction and increasing the system’s energy efficiency. The proposed indicators were applied to a complex urban water supply system serving the city of Palermo (Italy.

  17. Measuring the embodied energy in drinking water supply systems: a case study in the Great Lakes region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Weiwei; Nasiri, Fuzhan; Eckelman, Matthew J; Zhang, Qiong; Zimmerman, Julie B

    2010-12-15

    A sustainable supply of both energy and water is critical to long-term national security, effective climate policy, natural resource sustainability, and social wellbeing. These two critical resources are inextricably and reciprocally linked; the production of energy requires large volumes of water, while the treatment and distribution of water is also significantly dependent upon energy. In this paper, a hybrid analysis approach is proposed to estimate embodied energy and to perform a structural path analysis of drinking water supply systems. The applicability of this approach is then tested through a case study of a large municipal water utility (city of Kalamazoo) in the Great Lakes region to provide insights on the issues of water-energy pricing and carbon footprints. Kalamazoo drinking water requires approximately 9.2 MJ/m(3) of energy to produce, 30% of which is associated with indirect inputs such as system construction and treatment chemicals.

  18. Study on the measurement method of oil well’s dynamic liquid level based on air column resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wei; Gan, Liqun; Zhou, Pan; Li, Taifu; Gu, Xiaohua

    2017-08-01

    A method measuring the depth of liquid surface of oil well based on the resonance principle of air column is proposed in this paper. In the method, air resonance in casing pipe is inspired by sending white noise to oil well continuously, and then dynamic liquid level of oil well can be calculated by analysing frequency spectrum of the experimental resonance signal. Aiming at the problem that the resonance signal contains a lot of white noise, firstly, convolution window function with stronger filtering characteristics is used to improve the signal to noise ratio; then the method of Welch multi segment average power spectrum is used to eliminate noise interference further in frequency domain; finally, the real resonance frequency is measured on the base of the smooth and clear Welch power spectrum, and the depth of the oil well can be estimated effectively. The experimental results show that the above signal processing method can greatly improve the accuracy of measuring the dynamic liquid level depth.

  19. Nursing Supplies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stages Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Nursing Supplies Page Content Article Body Throughout most of ... budget. (Nursing equipment also makes wonderful baby gifts.) Nursing Bras A well-made nursing bra that comfortably ...

  20. Petroleum supply monthly, April 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-01

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographical regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the US. The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the US.

  1. Ultrasonic method for measuring water holdup of low velocity and high-water-cut oil-water two-phasefl ow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao An; Han Yun-Feng; Ren Ying-Yu; Zhai Lu-Sheng; Jin Ning-De

    2016-01-01

    Oil reservoirs with low permeability and porosity that are in the middle and late exploitation periods in China’s onshore oilfi elds are mostly in the high-water-cut production stage. This stage is associated with severely non-uniform local-velocity flow profiles and dispersed-phase concentration (of oil droplets) in oil-water two-phase flow, which makes it diffi cult to measure water holdup in oil wells. In this study, we use an ultrasonic method based on a transmission-type sensor in oil-water two-phase flow to measure water holdup in low-velocity and high water-cut conditions. First, we optimize the excitation frequency of the ultrasonic sensor by calculating the sensitivity of the ultrasonicfi eld using thefi nite element method for multiphysics coupling. Then we calculate the change trend of sound pressure level attenuation ratio with the increase in oil holdup to verify the feasibility of the employed diameter for the ultrasonic sensor. Based on the results, we then investigate the effects of oil-droplet diameter and distribution on the ultrasonicfi eld. To further understand the measurement characteristics of the ultrasonic sensor, we perform a flow loop test on vertical upward oil-water two-phasefl ow and measure the responses of the optimized ultrasonic sensor. The results show that the ultrasonic sensor yields poor resolution for a dispersed oil slug in waterfl ow (D OS/Wfl ow), but the resolution is favorable for dispersed oil in waterfl ow (D O/Wfl ow) and veryfi ne dispersed oil in waterfl ow (VFD O/Wfl ow). This research demonstrates the potential application of a pulsed-transmission ultrasonic method for measuring the fraction of individual components in oil-water two-phasefl ow with a low mixture velocity and high water cut.

  2. 实施绿色供应链管理,提升我国食用油产业竞争优势%Implementation of green supply chain management to advance the competitive advantage of edible oil industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晔明; 傅贤智; 周惠明

    2011-01-01

    Based on the characteristics of China' s edible oil industry, the concept and urgency of Green Supply Chain Management (GSCM) was represented, and the mode of implementation of GSCM was proposed. The macro and micro environmental factors influencing the implementation of GSCM in edible oil industry were analyzed ,the strategic value of GSCM for competitive advantage was described ,and then the methods to achieve competitive advantages under the GSCM mode were proposed.%从我国食用油产业特点出发,阐述了绿色供应链管理(GSCM)的内涵和紧迫性,提出食用油产业实施GSCM的模式,分析影响食用油产业实施GSCM的宏观和微观环境因素,指出实施GSCM对食用油产业竞争优势的战略价值表现,进而提出GSCM模式下提升我国食用油产业竞争优势的可选途径.

  3. Probe and Sensors Development for Level Measurement of Fats, Oils and Grease in Grease Boxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Faria

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The wide spread of food outlets has become an environmental and sanitation infrastructure problem, due to Fats, Oils and Grease (FOG. A grease box is used at the industrials facilities to collect the FOG, in a specific time window, while its quality is good for recycling (e.g., biodiesel and it is economically valuable. After this period, it will be disposed at a cost. For the proper management of the grease boxes, it is necessary to know the quantity of FOG inside the boxes, which is a major problem, as the boxes are sealed and permanently filled with water. The lack of homogeneity of the FOG renders it not detectable by current probes for level detection in liquids. In this article, the design, development and testing of a set of probes for FOG level measurement, based on the principles used in sensors for the detection of liquids inside containers, is described. The most suitable probe, based on the capacitance principle, together with the necessary hardware and software modules for data acquisition and transmission, was developed and tested. After the development phase, the probe was integrated on a metropolitan system for FOG collection and grease box management in partnership with a grease box management company.

  4. Optofluidic multi-measurement system for the online monitoring of lubricant oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verschooten, Tom; Callewaert, Manly; Ciaccheri, Leonardo; Vervaeke, Michael; Van Erps, Jürgen; De Malsche, Wim; Grazia Mignani, Anna; Thienpont, Hugo; Ottevaere, Heidi

    2016-01-01

    We show a detection system that simultaneously allows absorbance (ABS), laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) and scattering detection excited by two different laser sources at 405 nm and 450 nm. The heart of the system consists of a mass manufacturable polymer optofluidic chip. The chip is mounted in an optical detection assembly that aligns the chip to the rest of the system, seals the chip from leakage, fixes the position and connects the channels to the rest of the fluidic system. The fluidics exhibit a reduced susceptibility to perturbations caused by air bubbles, this is accomplished by making use of a serpentine channel layout. For coumarin 480, detection limits of 100 nM and 10 pM are observed for ABS and LIF respectively. An effective detection range of 4000 down to 1 nephelometric turbidity units is shown for the detection of scattered light. The viscous behaviour of the sample is analysed by a secondary FFT processing step of which the result is further processed by multivariate data analysis. This allows the identification of samples and prediction of their quality parameters. We apply this system for the monitoring of lubricant oil, demonstrating its ability to compete with spectroscopic detection techniques. The low-cost approach and multi-measurement architecture shown in this paper pave the way for miniaturized on-line monitoring of liquids in an industrial environment.

  5. 餐厨废弃油脂生产洗涤用品工艺研究%Study on the process of dining kichen waste oil production cleaning supplies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖云; 陈其国

    2013-01-01

    餐厨废弃油脂直接排放,污染环境,冲击食品安全.本研究拟以餐厨废弃油脂为原料,生产洗涤用品,探讨了皂化反应的影响因素,皂化反应最适条件为:NaOH 90g,反应温度80℃,反应时间30min,纯水200mL.液体皂基的配比为:废弃油脂30.0%,碱12.5%,无水乙醇15.0%,余量为水.在此基础上,进行洗衣液、洗手液、洗洁精配方的工艺优化,得到生产合格洗涤用品的配方.%If the dining kichen waste oil was poured to the environment,it would pollute the environment and affect the safety of food.In this paper,dining kichen waste oil was as material to produce cleaning supplies.The influencing factors on saponification reaction were disauseed.The most suitable saponification reaction conditions were sodium hydrate 90g,reactiom temperature 80℃,reaetion time 30min,pure water 200mL.The ratio of liquid soap were waste oil 30.0%,alkali 12.5%,absolate ethyl alcohol 15.0%,surplus was pure water.On this basis,the process of licensed liquid detergent,hand sanitizer and detergent were optimized the formulations of quality detergent were obtained.

  6. Petroleum supply monthly, August 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    This publication the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report, (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. Data presented are divided into Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  7. Petroleum supply monthly, August 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    This publication the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report, (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. Data presented are divided into Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  8. Airborne Measurements of Aerosol Emissions From the Alberta Oil Sands Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, S. G.; Clarke, A. D.; McNaughton, C. S.; Freitag, S.

    2012-12-01

    The Alberta oil sands contain a vast reservoir of fossil hydrocarbons. The extremely viscous bitumen requires significant energy to extract and upgrade to make a fluid product suitable for pipelines and further refinement. The mining and upgrading process constitute a large industrial complex in an otherwise sparsely populated area of Canada. During the ARCTAS project in June/July 2008, while studying forest fire plumes, the NASA DC-8 and P-3B flew through the plume a total of 5 times. Once was a coordinated visit by both aircraft; the other 3 were fortuitous passes downwind. One study has been published about gas emissions from the complex. Here we concentrate on aerosol emissions and aging. As previously reported, there appear to be at least 2 types of plumes produced. One is an industrial-type plume with vast numbers of ultrafine particles, SO2, sulfate, black carbon (BC), CO, and NO2. The other, probably from the mining, has more organic aerosol and BC together with dust-like aerosols at 3 μm and a 1 μm mode of unknown origin. The DC-8 crossed the plume about 10 km downwind of the industrial site, giving time for the boundary layer to mix and enabling a very crude flux calculation suggesting that sulfate and organic aerosols were each produced at about 500 g/s (estimated errors are a factor of 2, chiefly due to concerns about vertical mixing). Since this was a single flight during a project dedicated to other purposes and operating conditions and weather may change fluxes considerably, this may not be a typical flux. As the plume progresses downwind, the ultrafine particles grow to sizes effective as cloud condensation nucei (CCN), SO2 is converted to sulfate, and organic aerosol is produced. During fair weather in the summer, as was the case during these flights, cloud convection pumps aerosol above the mixed layer. While the aerosol plume is difficult to detect from space, NO2 is measured by the OMI instrument an the Aura satellite and the oil sands plume

  9. Supplies regulation; Reglementation des approvisionnements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    Since the 1 january 1993, the import and export of petroleum products and crude oil, their processing, transport, storage and distribution are free, provided some obligation respect allowing the supplying of these product during a crisis. The operators obligations are presented and discussed in this document as the taxes on petroleum products and natural gas. (A.L.B.)

  10. Accurate measurement of air supply. Radial blower with a mass flow sensor; Fuer eine exakte Luftzuteilung. Radialgeblaese mit Massenstromsensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartauer, Siegbert [ebm-papst Landshut GmbH, Landshut (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    Fire is alive, which has always made it an interesting object for interior decoration, e.g. open chimneys or chimneys with glass windows. Modern gas-fuelled chimneys combine the soothing vision of open flames with efficient room heating. For low pollution and low consumption, fire needs fuel and oxygen in an optimum ratio. Conventional ''atmospheric'' burners must be adjusted on site, but variations of temperature and atmospheric pressure will still vary the air supply. As an optimum alternative, the contribution presents a new radial blower with an integrated mass flow sensor. (orig.)

  11. Development of recommended practices and guidance documents for upstream oil and gas flow measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahl, Eivind; Scheers, Lex; Ting, Frank; Letton, Chip

    2005-07-01

    As first stated in the Introduction, improvements in multiphase flow meters during the last 15 years have resulted in their increased usage in upstream oil and gas applications, especially in difficult offshore locations both topside and deep subsea. To address user needs for information and standardization in the area, documentation has recently been created under the auspices of the NFOGM, API, and ISO. Our intent here was to familiarize potential users with the three new documents, which should be helpful in a number of respects, e.g., (a) distribution of best knowledge and operational practices on the subject, (b) provision of a common language for discussing multiphase flow, and (c) accounting for the requirements of governing regulatory authorities. At this stage of completion of NFOGM, API, and ISO reports, a natural question arises as to what the future holds for another round of flow measurement documentation. Candidate areas include: 1) In Situ Verification of Multiphase Flow Meters. 2) Wet Gas Flow Measurement. 3) Flare Gas Meters. 4) Virtual Metering. 5) Composition and Phase Behavior Issues In Measurement. 6) Flow Measurement Uncertainty. Addressing certain of these is already being proposed in several possible venues, among which are (1) the DeepStar Consortium, (2) a JIP for investigating total system (meter + flowline + separator) uncertainty organized by a group at Tulsa University, and (3) a program for development of drilling and production capabilities in ultradeep water to be sponsored by the US Department of Energy. The creation of the three documents discussed in this paper demonstrates the benefits that strong international cooperation can achieve in producing standardization documents, ensuring their true global input and acceptance. On the other hand, it should also be questioned why two or more documents are required, which are the result of much duplication of effort. For example, although there are differences between API RP86 and the

  12. Feedstock Supply System Design and Economics for Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Hydrocarbon Fuels Conversion Pathway: Fast Pyrolysis and Hydrotreating Bio-Oil Pathway "The 2017 Design Case"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin L. Kenney; Kara G. Cafferty; Jacob J. Jacobson; Ian J. Bonner; Garold L. Gresham; J. Richard Hess; William A. Smith; David N. Thompson; Vicki S. Thompson; Jaya Shankar Tumuluru; Neal Yancey

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy promotes the production of liquid fuels from lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks by funding fundamental and applied research that advances the state of technology in biomass sustainable supply, logistics, conversion, and overall system sustainability. As part of its involvement in this program, Idaho National Laboratory (INL) investigates the feedstock logistics economics and sustainability of these fuels. Between 2000 and 2012, INL quantified and the economics and sustainability of moving biomass from the field or stand to the throat of the conversion process using conventional equipment and processes. All previous work to 2012 was designed to improve the efficiency and decrease costs under conventional supply systems. The 2012 programmatic target was to demonstrate a biomass logistics cost of $55/dry Ton for woody biomass delivered to fast pyrolysis conversion facility. The goal was achieved by applying field and process demonstration unit-scale data from harvest, collection, storage, preprocessing, handling, and transportation operations into INL’s biomass logistics model.

  13. Measurement of used oil rancidity indexes in the confectioneries and food shops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Farrokhzadeh

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion: The acid and peroxide numbers was in acceptable range, however, the rancidity or oil chemicals corruption caused by inappropriate conservation conditions. This type of fast food, have adverse effects on consumers′ health.

  14. Remote and Onsite Direct Measurements of Emissions from Oil and Natural Gas Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmentally responsible oil and gas production requires accurate knowledge of emissions from long-term production operations1, which can include methane, volatile organic compounds, and hazardous air pollutants. Well pad emissions vary based on the geologically-determined com...

  15. Measuring the environmental sustainability performance of global supply chains: A multi-regional input-output analysis for carbon, sulphur oxide and water footprints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acquaye, Adolf; Feng, Kuishuang; Oppon, Eunice; Salhi, Said; Ibn-Mohammed, Taofeeq; Genovese, Andrea; Hubacek, Klaus

    2017-02-01

    Measuring the performance of environmentally sustainable supply chains instead of chain constitute has become a challenge despite the convergence of the underlining principles of sustainable supply chain management. This challenge is exacerbated by the fact that supply chains are inherently dynamic and complex and also because multiple measures can be used to characterize performances. By identifying some of the critical issues in the literature regarding performance measurements, this paper contributes to the existing body of literature by adopting an environmental performance measurement approach for economic sectors. It uses economic sectors and evaluates them on a sectoral level in specific countries as well as part of the Global Value Chain based on the established multi-regional input-output (MRIO) modeling framework. The MRIO model has been used to calculate direct and indirect (that is supply chain or upstream) environmental effects such as CO2, SO2, biodiversity, water consumption and pollution to name just a few of the applications. In this paper we use MRIO analysis to calculate emissions and resource consumption intensities and footprints, direct and indirect impacts, and net emission flows between countries. These are exemplified by using carbon emissions, sulphur oxide emissions and water use in two highly polluting industries; Electricity production and Chemical industry in 33 countries, including the EU-27, Brazil, India and China, the USA, Canada and Japan from 1995 to 2009. Some of the highlights include: On average, direct carbon emissions in the electricity sector across all 27 member states of the EU was estimated to be 1368 million tons and indirect carbon emissions to be 470.7 million tons per year representing 25.6% of the EU-27 total carbon emissions related to this sector. It was also observed that from 2004, sulphur oxide emissions intensities in electricity production in India and China have remained relatively constant at about 62.8 g

  16. Action spectrum for bergamot-oil phototoxicity measured by sunburn cell counting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasui, Y; Hirone, T

    1994-05-01

    The present study investigated the phototoxic effect of bergamot oil and its photosensitive component, bergapten, on sunburn cell (SBC) production in guinea pig skin. The back skin was pretreated with bergamot oil or bergapten and exposed to monochromatic light under various conditions. After irradiation, skin specimens were excised, and histological sections were prepared. The number of sunburn cells in the interfollicular epidermis was counted. The SBC formation by bergamot oil or bergapten plus UVB radiation was the same as that without pretreatment with any photosensitizer. In contrast, a significant number of SBCs were induced by bergamot oil or bergapten plus UVA radiation, but no SBCs were found after the treatment with UVA alone. The result indicates that bergamot oil or bergapten was photosensitized by UVA irradiation. The SBCs were linearly increased in a UV-dose dependent manner. On the basis of the regression lines, an action spectrum and spectral peak for the photosensitizers plus UVA were obtained. The action spectrum for bergamot oil- and bergapten-induced SBC formation was in the ranges of 325-365 nm and 325-350 nm, and their spectral peaks were at 335-345 nm and 335-350 nm, respectively. The data are in good accordance with those estimated from skin erythema reactions. Therefore, counting SBCs is a very useful parameter for quantitative evaluation of phototoxicity.

  17. China's Two Oil Giants Halt Oil Products Exports

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yin Xian

    2008-01-01

    @@ CNPC, China's largest oil producer, and Sinopec, the nation's largest refiner expressed they would increase their oil processing and halt oil products exports in the third quarter to ensure domestic supply. Vice president of CNPC Wang Yilin said on June 2 that CNPC would stop oil products export and increase the imports to secure the domestic market supplies. Meanwhile, Sinopec President Wang Tianpu also said that Sinopec would raise production, halt exports and adjust product structure to ensure domestic supply, especially for the reconstruction after the earthquake, the summer harvest and the Olympic Games.

  18. Réduction des approvisionnements pétroliers multiples dans les programmes linéaires de raffinage Reduction of Multiple Oil Supplies in Linear Refining Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bond J.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available L'article propose une méthode pour réduire le nombre des pétroles bruts nécessaires pour représenter un approvisionnement lors de l'utilisation de programmes linéaires de raffinage, ceci afin de diminuer la taille et les temps de calcul de ces modèles. Les techniques utilisées sont celles de l'analyse de données multidimensionnelles. Un exemple est traité pour illustrer la méthode. The article proposes a method for reducing the number of crude ails needed to make up the supply in linear programs of refining, in order ta cut clown on the size and calculation time of such models. The method uses techniques of multidimensional data analysis. An exemple is considered in order to illustrate the method.

  19. Effect of polyglycerol esters additive on palm oil crystallization using focused beam reflectance measurement and differential scanning calorimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saw, M H; Hishamuddin, E; Chong, C L; Yeoh, C B; Lim, W H

    2017-01-01

    The effect of 0.1-0.7% (w/w) of polyglycerol esters (PGEmix-8) on palm oil crystallization was studied using focused beam reflectance measurement (FBRM) to analyze the in-line changes of crystal size distribution during the crystallization. FBRM results show that 0.1-0.5% (w/w) of PGEmix-8 did not significantly affect nucleation but slightly retarded crystal growth. The use of 0.7% (w/w) additive showed greater heterogeneous nucleation compared to those with lower dosages of additive. Crystal growth was also greatly reduced when using 0.7% (w/w) dosage. The morphological study indicated that the palm oil crystals were smaller and more even in size than when more additive was added. Isothermal crystallization studies using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) showed increased inhibitory effects on palm oil crystal growth with increasing concentration of PGEmix-8. These results imply that PGEmix-8 is a nucleation enhancing and crystal growth retarding additive in palm oil crystallization at 0.7% (w/w) dosage. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. A blend of sesame oil and rice bran oil lowers blood pressure and improves the lipid profile in mild-to-moderate hypertensive patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devarajan, Sankar; Singh, Ravinder; Chatterjee, Biprabuddha; Zhang, Bo; Ali, Amanat

    2016-01-01

    Sesame oil and rice bran oil are known for their unsaturated fatty acids and antioxidants contents and have been reported to reduce the cardiovascular risk. To determine the effect of a blend of 20% unrefined cold-pressed lignans-rich sesame oil and 80% physically refined γ-oryzanol-rich rice bran oil (Vivo) as cooking oil in mild-to-moderate hypertensive patients. In this prospective, open-label dietary approach, 300 hypertensive patients and 100 normotensives were divided into groups as: (1) normotensives treated with sesame oil blend, (2) hypertensives treated with sesame oil blend, (3) hypertensives treated with nifedipine, a calcium channel blocker (20 mg/d), and (4) hypertensives receiving the combination of sesame oil blend and nifedipine (20 mg/d). Sesame oil blend was supplied to respective groups, and they were instructed to use it as the only cooking oil for 60 days. Resting blood pressure was measured at days 0, 15, 30, 45, and 60, whereas the fasting lipid profile was measured at days 0 and 60. Significant reduction in blood pressure (systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial) from days 0 to 15, 30, 45, and 60 were observed in hypertensives treated with sesame oil blend alone (P sesame oil blend and nifedipine (P Sesame oil blend with nifedipine-treated group showed greatest reduction in blood pressure. Total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels reduced, whereas high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels increased significantly only in hypertensives treated with sesame oil blend alone and the combination of sesame oil blend and nifedipine (P sesame oil and rice bran oil as cooking oil showed a significant antihypertensive and lipid-lowering action and had noteworthy additive effect with antihypertensive medication. Copyright © 2016 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. A DANREF certified reference plastic for measurement of overall migration into the food simulant olive oil by single sided testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, K. H.; Lillemark, L.; Petersen, Jens Højslev

    2000-01-01

    A reference material for the determination of overall migration from a plastic coextrudate into the fatty food simulant olive oil was produced and certified in an interlaboratory study. The analyses were carried out according to the ENV 1186 standard from the European Committee for Standardization...... material suitable for laboratories measuring according to the EU overall migration limit [4]. The material has been found stable over 45 months....

  2. Investigation of oil-air two-phase mass flow rate measurement using Venturi and void fraction sensor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Hong-jian; YUE Wei-ting; HUANG Zhi-yao

    2005-01-01

    Oil-air two-phase flow measurement was investigated with a Venturi and void fraction meters in this work. This paper proposes a new flow rate measurement correlation in which the effect of the velocity ratio between gas and liquid was considered.With the pressure drop across the Venturi and the void fraction that was measured by electrical capacitance tomography apparatus,both mixture flow rate and oil flow rate could be obtained by the correlation. Experiments included bubble-, slug-, wave and annular flow with the void fraction ranging from 15% to 83%, the oil flow rate ranging from 0.97 kg/s to 1.78 kg/s, the gas flow rate ranging up to 0.018 kg/s and quality ranging nearly up to 2.0%. The root-mean-square errors of mixture mass flow rate and that ofoil mass flow rate were less than 5%. Furthermore, coefficients of the correlation were modified based on flow regimes, with the results showing reduced root-mean-square errors.

  3. Project supply chain management: From agile to lean

    OpenAIRE

    Asbjørnslett, Bjørn Egil

    2003-01-01

    More than forty years has passed since the start of the North Sea oil and gas developments. On the managerial side of the projects there have been large cost overruns, project planning and control measures developed to avoid these, initiatives to improve the industry’s competitiveness in the North Sea, as well as measures to improve the supply chains contribution in the projects. We have seen a focus first and foremost on the CAPEX side of the projects, which still is the public measure of a ...

  4. Petroleum supply annual 1995: Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    The {ital Petroleum Supply Annual} contains information on supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. It reflects data collected from the petroleum industry during 1995 through monthly surveys, and it is divided into 2 volumes. This volume contains three sections: summary statistics, detailed statistics, and selected refinery statistics, each with final annual data. (The other volume contains final statistics for each month and replaces data previously published in the {ital Petroleum Supply Monthly}).

  5. Molecular interactions of plant oil components with stratum corneum lipids correlate with clinical measures of skin barrier function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mack Correa, Mary Catherine; Mao, Guangru; Saad, Peter; Flach, Carol R; Mendelsohn, Richard; Walters, Russel M

    2014-01-01

    Plant-derived oils consisting of triglycerides and small amounts of free fatty acids (FFAs) are commonly used in skincare regimens. FFAs are known to disrupt skin barrier function. The objective of this study was to mechanistically study the effects of FFAs, triglycerides and their mixtures on skin barrier function. The effects of oleic acid (OA), glyceryl trioleate (GT) and OA/GT mixtures on skin barrier were assessed in vivo through measurement of transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and fluorescein dye penetration before and after a single application. OA's effects on stratum corneum (SC) lipid order in vivo were measured with infrared spectroscopy through application of perdeuterated OA (OA-d34 ). Studies of the interaction of OA and GT with skin lipids included imaging the distribution of OA-d34 and GT ex vivo with IR microspectroscopy and thermodynamic analysis of mixtures in aqueous monolayers. The oil mixtures increased both TEWL and fluorescein penetration 24 h after a single application in an OA dose-dependent manner, with the highest increase from treatment with pure OA. OA-d34 penetrated into skin and disordered SC lipids. Furthermore, the ex vivo IR imaging studies showed that OA-d34 permeated to the dermal/epidermal junction while GT remained in the SC. The monolayer experiments showed preferential interspecies interactions between OA and SC lipids, while the mixing between GT and SC lipids was not thermodynamically preferred. The FFA component of plant oils may disrupt skin barrier function. The affinity between plant oil components and SC lipids likely determines the extent of their penetration and clinically measurable effects on skin barrier functions. © 2013. Johnson & Johnson Consumer Companies Inc.. Experimental Dermatology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Humoral defence improvement and haematopoiesis stimulation in sows and offspring by oral supply of shark-liver oil to mothers during gestation and lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitre, Romain; Etienne, Michel; Martinais, Sophie; Salmon, Henri; Allaume, Patrick; Legrand, Philippe; Legrand, Alain B

    2005-11-01

    Shark-liver oil (SLO) contains two bioactive lipids: alkylglycerols and n-3 PUFA. Alkylglycerols have immunostimulating and haematopoietic properties, while n-3 PUFA are essential for optimal neonatal development. We investigated the beneficial effects of dietary supplementation with 32 g SLO/d to twelve pregnant and then lactating sows (from day 80 of pregnancy to weaning) on the growth and immune status of their offspring, compared with a control group. Sows were vaccinated against Aujeszky's disease 21 d before term. Blood samples were collected from sows before treatment, on delivery and 14 d later, and from five piglets per litter on days 2, 21 and 36 after birth; colostrum and milk samples were collected 12 h, 14 and 28 d postpartum. Compared with controls, supplemented sows had higher levels of both erythrocytes and Hb in their blood, and higher concentrations of IgG, alkylglycerols and n-3 PUFA in their mammary secretions. In piglets from supplemented sows, leucocytes and IgG were higher. Supplementation with SLO resulted in an increase in Aujeszky antibodies in both blood and colostrum of sows after vaccination, together with an increase in Aujeszky antibodies in piglet blood. Our findings demonstrate that improvement of both passive and active immune status in piglets is related to the consumption of alkylglycerols associated with n-3 PUFA in the sow diet. The overall improvement in offspring health status by SLO supplementation to the mother could be of interest for optimisation of the lipid diet during and after pregnancy.

  7. Occupational exposure in central sterilization supply department and its preventive measures%消毒供应室职业暴露及防范措施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘敏

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨消毒供应室工作人员职业暴露及防护措施.方法 根据消毒供应室工作人员暴露的危险因素,制定并落实规范化的防护措施.结果 提高了职业暴露防护意识,加强了职业安全管理,有效地防止职业感染的发生,确保了工作人员身心健康.结论 重视工作人员的职业暴露教育,减少或消除造成职业暴露的各种因素是防范措施的关键.%OBJECTIVE To discuss the risk factors and treatment measures of the occupational exposure and protection among the staff in the disinfecting supply division.METHODS The standardized treatment measures were formulated and implemented according to the risk factors for the occupational exposure among the staff in central sterilization supply department.RESULTS The awareness about the protection of occupational infection was improved, the management of occupational safety was strengthened, the occupational infections were effectively prevented, and the health of medical workers was guarranteed.CONCLUSION To think highly of the safety caution of occupational exposure among the staff, to reduce or eliminate the various factors causing occupational exposur e are crucial preventive measures.

  8. Performance Measurement of Supply Chain Management Based on the Balanced Scorecard%基于BSC方法的供应链绩效评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡冰一

    2011-01-01

    本文运用从BSC的方法来评价供应链绩效,评价的角度有四个:财务,顾客,内部流程,创新和成长.在提出指标的时候,对以往的很多供应链绩效指标相关文献进行了回顾,并把这些指标导入到供应链的四个维度.在对文献回顾的基础上提出了本文的方法,本文的方法对于管理者来说可以更有效的从多角度评价供应链绩效.%This paper develops a balanced scorecard for supply chain management (SCM) that measures and evaluates day-to -day business operations from following four perspectives: finance, customer, internal business process, and learning and growth. The balanced scorecard developed in this paper provides a useful guidance for the practical managers in evaluation and measuring of SCM in a balanced way and proposes a balanced performance measurement system to map and analyze supply chains. While suggesting balanced scorecard, different SCM performance metrics have been reviewed and distributed into four perspectives. This helps managers to evaluate SCM performance in a much-blanced way from all angles of business.

  9. Oil condensation boilers and problems with sulphur. Sulphur separation for oil-fired condensation boilers and flue gas scrubbers - six measurements at different boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koebel, M.; Elsener, M.

    1988-11-01

    Three condensation boilers, one condensating scrubber boiler and two waste gas scrubbers were the objects of measurements made to determine to what degree sulphur is separated. The three condensation boilers which are only equipped with a condenser for the condensation of the combustion water shaved separation levels of between 0.5 and 3.5%. They are therefore not suitable for cutting the SO/sub 2/-emissions from the combustion of sulphur-containing fuel oil. The washer boilers showed better results (40-45%) despite the fact that it works with acid washing liquid (2.85 pH). To explain the high level of separation one must assume that under oxygen influence a large part of the sulphur dioxide is further oxidised to sulphuric acid. Alkaline washers showed very good separations of up to 90%. Here again a large part of the sulphur dioxide further oxidises to sulfates.

  10. Designing a performance measurement system for supply chain using balanced scorecard, path analysis, cooperative game theory and evolutionary game theory: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Hootan Eskafi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, supply chain management is known as the key factor for achieving competitive advantage. Better customer service, revenue improvement and cost reduction are the results of this philosophy. Organizations can manage the performance of their firms by appropriate goal setting, identifying criteria and continuous performance measurement, which creates a good view for the business circumstances. Developing and defining appropriate indicators at different levels of chain is necessary for implementing a performance measurement system. In this study, we propose a new method to determine the measurement indicators and strategies of the company in term of balanced scorecard. The study is a combination of balanced scorecard, path analysis, evolutionary game theory and cooperative game theory for strategic planning. The study offers an appropriate program for future activities of organizations and determines the present status of the firm. The implementation of the proposed method is introduced for a food producer and the results are analyzed.

  11. 基于AMESet的压力油箱供油系统建模与仿真研究%Research on Modeling and Simulation of Hydraulic Oil Supply System with Pressurized Tank Based on AMESet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕庆军; 杨庆俊; 朱冬

    2013-01-01

    Pressurized tank was used for hydraulic system in armoured vehicle to provide instantaneous high flow for hydraulic brake and to supply hydraulic oil to other branches such as lubricating systems.By mathematically modeling the pneumatic gear pump, hybrid relief valve for both air and oil,and pressurized tank,a complete simulation model for this hydraulic system with pressurized tank as its core element was established based on AMESet,which was easily embedded in the system established by AMESim for simu-lation.The simulation model shows that the model is correct to represent characteristics of the pneumatic pump,hybrid relief valve and the tank,and thus can be used for the optimization design of the pressurized tank.%装甲车辆的供油系统采用压力油箱以提供制动时所需的瞬时大流量液流,同时保证润滑等其他油路的用油。基于AMESet构建了以压力油箱为核心的供油系统仿真模型,对压力油箱中气动齿轮泵、气液混合溢流阀和油箱等子模型进行了数学建模,可以方便地嵌入到AMESim构建的总系统中进行仿真。该仿真模型能够正确仿真压力油箱中气泵、气液混合溢流阀等特性,为压力油箱的优化设计提供了依据。

  12. Pacific Northwest Laboratory Gulfstream I measurements of the Kuwait oil-fire plume, July--August 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busness, K.M.; Hales, J.M.; Hannigan, R.V.; Thorp, J.M.; Tomich, S.D.; Warren, M.J. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)); Al-Sunaid, A.A. (Saudi ARAMCO, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia)); Daum, P.H.; Mazurek, M. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States))

    1992-11-01

    In 1991, the Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted a series of aircraft measurements to determine pollutant and radiative properties of the smoke plume from oil fires in Kuwait. This work was sponsored by the US Department emanating of Energy, in cooperation with several other agencies as part of an extensive effort coordinated by the World Meteorological Organization, to obtain a comprehensive data set to assess the characteristics of the plume and its environmental impact. This report describes field measurement activities and introduces the various data collected, but provides only limited analyses of these data. Results of further data analyses will be presented in subsequent open-literature publications.

  13. Measurement of electrical impedance of a Berea sandstone core during the displacement of saturated brine by oil and CO2 injections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu; Xue, Ziqiu; Park, Hyuck; Kiyama, Tamotsu; Zhang, Yi; Nishizawa, Osamu; Chae, Kwang-seok

    2015-12-01

    Complex electrical impedance measurements were performed on a brine-saturated Berea sandstone core while oil and CO2 were injected at different pressures and temperatures. The saturations of brine, oil, and CO2 in the core were simultaneously estimated using an X-ray computed tomography scanner. The formation factor of this Berea core and the resistivity indexes versus the brine saturations were calculated using Archie's law. The experimental results found different flow patterns of oil under different pressures and temperatures. Fingers were observed for the first experiment at 10 MPa and 40 °C. The fingers were restrained as the viscosity ratio of oil and water changed in the second (10 MPa and 25 °C) and third (5 MPa and 25 °C) experiments. The resistivity index showed an exponential increase with a decrease in brine saturation. The saturation exponent varied from 1.4 to 4.0 at different pressure and temperature conditions. During the oil injection procedure, the electrical impedance increased with oil saturation and was significantly affected by different oil distributions; therefore, the impedance varied whether the finger was remarkable or not, even if the oil saturation remained constant. During the CO2 injection steps, the impedance showed almost no change with CO2 saturation because the brine in the pores became immobile after the oil injection.

  14. Secondary Organic Aerosol Produced from Non-Measured Hydrocarbons Downwind from the Oil Spill in the Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Gouw, J. A.; Middlebrook, A. M.; Warneke, C.; Ahmadov, R.; Atlas, E. L.; Bahreini, R.; Blake, D. R.; Brock, C. A.; Brioude, J.; Fahey, D. W.; Fehsenfeld, F. C.; Gao, R.; Holloway, J. S.; Lueb, R.; McKeen, S. A.; Meagher, J. F.; Murphy, D. M.; Parrish, D. D.; Perring, A. E.; Pollack, I. B.; Ravishankara, A. R.; Robinson, A. L.; Ryerson, T. B.; Schwarz, J. P.; Spackman, J. R.; Srinivasan, A.; Watts, L.

    2010-12-01

    An extensively instrumented NOAA WP-3D research aircraft made airborne measurements of the gaseous and aerosol composition of air over the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill that occurred in April-July of 2010 in the Gulf of Mexico. A narrow plume of hydrocarbons was observed downwind from DWH that is attributed to the evaporation of fresh oil on the sea surface. A much wider plume of organic aerosol (OA) was attributed to secondary (SOA) formation from unmeasured, less volatile hydrocarbons that were emitted from a wider area around DWH. These observations provide compelling evidence for the importance of SOA formation from less volatile hydrocarbons, which has been proposed as a significant source of OA in the atmosphere.

  15. Measurement of trace elements in lubricating oils by the PIXE method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaskola, M.; Kucharski, M.; Zemlo, L. (Institute of Nuclear Research, Warsaw (Poland)); Babinski, B. (Wojskowy Instytut Techniki Pancernej i Samochodowej, Warszawa (Poland))

    1981-01-01

    A beam of 2 to 2.5 MeV protons has been used to excite X-ray emission from a lubricating oil sample. The X-rays have been detected using a Si(Li) solid state detector. The experimental arrangement for the PIXE method is also described.

  16. Measurement of oil film thickness and friction force on a guide shoe bearing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vølund, Anders

    2002-01-01

    An experimental program was carried out in order to reveal oil film thickness, and friction force of the guide shoe bearing of a large two stroke marine diesel engine. The experiment was conducted on a full size engine located at the research facility at MAN B&W Diesel A/S. The experiment was con...

  17. Petroleum supply annual 1996: Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    The Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA) contains information on the supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. The publication reflects data that were collected from the petroleum industry during 1996 through annual and monthly surveys. The PSA is divided into two volumes. This first volume contains three sections: Summary Statistics, Detailed Statistics, and Refinery Capacity; each with final annual data. The summary statistics section show 16 years of data depicting the balance between supply, disposition and ending stocks for various commodities including crude oil, motor gasoline, distillate fuel oil, residual fuel oil, jet fuel propane/propylene, and liquefied petroleum gases. The detailed statistics section provide 1996 detailed statistics on supply and disposition, refinery operations, imports and exports, stocks, and transportation of crude oil and petroleum products. The refinery capacity contain listings of refineries and associated crude oil distillation and downstream capacities by State, as of January 1, 1997, as well as summaries of corporate refinery capacities and refinery storage capacities. In addition, refinery receipts of crude oil by method of transportation for 1996 are provided. Also included are fuels consumed at refineries, and lists of shutdowns, sales, reactivations, and mergers during 1995 and 1996. 16 figs., 59 tabs.

  18. Automotive Oil Measurement System Model Based on Fuel Weight%基于重量的汽车油量测量系统理论模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张叶; 郝源隆

    2013-01-01

      传统汽车油量测量系统应用浮子测量存油液面来实现,存在稳定性和精确度的问题,在研究实际车辆结构的基础上,提出了通过4个压力计来实现测量油量重量的理论模型。%To the problem of poor stability and accuracy in traditional automotive oil measurement system using float to measure the oil level ,on the basis of the study on the actual vehicle structure , this paper presents a theoretical model of automotive oil measurement system which uses four pressure gauges to measure the oil weight .

  19. Effects on Humans Elicited by Inhaling the Fragrance of Essential Oils: Sensory Test, Multi-Channel Thermometric Study and Forehead Surface Potential Wave Measurement on Basil and Peppermint

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    SATOH, Tomoko; SUGAWARA, Yoshiaki

    2003-01-01

    The effects on humans inhaling the fragrance of essential oils were examined in terms of a sensory test, a multi-channel skin thermometer study and a portable forehead surface electroencephalographic (IBVA-EEG) measurement...

  20. COSCO Calls for Boost of China's Oil Fleet Capacity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Dalian Ocean Shipping Company (COSCO Dalian)said recently that China should strengthen its maritime oil transport capacity to ensure the security of China's oil supply. Meng Qinglin, Managing Director of COSCO Dalian, said at the 2006 China Oil and Gas Summit that with the rise of China's oil imports, the weak maritime oil transport capacity has become a major threat to China's oil supply security.

  1. Supply Chain Performance Evaluation: Trends and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezutah U. Olugu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: In today’s manufacturing world, globalization policies and rejuvenation have created a more intensive competition amongst manufacturers. On the other hand, manufacturers have turned to the option of adopting innovative technologies, process re-engineering and strategies such as efficient supply chain management to achieve a sustainable competitive advantage. Effective supply chain performance measurement has been identified as a key issue towards efficient supply chain management. To explore the extent of research in supply chain performance measurement and establish the gap in knowledge in supply chain performance measurement using fuzzy logic operation. Approach: Literatures in the area of supply chain performance measurement had been extensively reviewed. Both traditional and fuzzy logic approaches to supply chain performance measurement were scrutinized. Further scrutiny was carried out to establish potential research areas in the application of fuzzy logic operations in supply chain performance measurement. Results: The supply chain performance measurement using fuzzy logic operation was identified as a new direction in measuring the uncertainty and ambiguity surrounding supply chain performance measurement. Direction for further studies in the application of fuzzy logic operation in supply chain management and its performance measurement were also identified. Conclusion: Result of this study implied that there is still a gap in knowledge in the area of supply chain performance measurement. This new direction of studies involved extending the existing supply chains to incorporate product recovery after the useful life.

  2. Analysis of Water-saving Measures of Building Water Supply and Drainage Design%建筑给排水设计节水措施的分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨沁

    2014-01-01

    The water-saving design of drainage system is an important measure to save energy. This paper analyzes the present situation of water consumption of water drainage de- sign, clarifying the necessity of water saving design, and pu- ting forward some measures for water saving in design of water supply and drainage.%建筑给排水系统的节水设计是一项重要的节能措施。本文分析了建筑给排水设计的用水现状,明确了了节水设计的必要性,并提出了一些给排水设计中的节水措施。

  3. Petroleum supply monthly, January 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    Data presented describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States. The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States.

  4. Options for Procuring Adequate Supplies of Petroleum Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-07-01

    4. PRODUCTS DISTILLED FROM TWO DIFFERENT CRUDE OILS Products Percent Brazoria City, Texas Boscan (Venezuela) API Gravity 31.70 API Gravity 11.30...study analyzes the procurement problem experienced by the Defense Fuel Supply Center in the recent period of stringency of supply of crude oil. This study...79 1. Barter ........ .................... 79 2. Acquiring Foreign Crude Oil and Transforming It Into Product .... .............. . 83 B

  5. Development of a ROV Deployed Video Analysis Tool for Rapid Measurement of Submerged Oil/Gas Leaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savas, Omer [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-04-03

    Expanded deep sea drilling around the globe makes it necessary to have readily available tools to quickly and accurately measure discharge rates from accidental submerged oil/gas leak jets for the first responders to deploy adequate resources for containment. We have developed and tested a field deployable video analysis software package which is able to provide in the field sufficiently accurate flow rate estimates for initial responders in accidental oil discharges in submarine operations. The essence of our approach is based on tracking coherent features at the interface in the near field of immiscible turbulent jets. The software package, UCB_Plume, is ready to be used by the first responders for field implementation. We have tested the tool on submerged water and oil jets which are made visible using fluorescent dyes. We have been able to estimate the discharge rate within 20% accuracy. A high end WINDOWS laptop computer is suggested as the operating platform and a USB connected high speed, high resolution monochrome camera as the imaging device are sufficient for acquiring flow images under continuous unidirectional illumination and running the software in the field. Results are obtained over a matter of minutes.

  6. Cheap oil. Good news - for most

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lorié, J.

    2014-01-01

    - The oil price has fallen by 40% in recent months, as a result of increasing oil supply, and is expected to be in the range of USD 70 - 80 per barrel in 2015. - The global economy is set to benefit, as are oil importing regions such as Europe and Asia. - Oil exporting countries like Brazil, Russia

  7. 49 CFR 230.116 - Oil tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Oil tanks. 230.116 Section 230.116 Transportation... Locomotive Tanks § 230.116 Oil tanks. The oil tanks on oil burning steam locomotives shall be maintained free... adjacent to the fuel supply tank or in another safe location; (b) Closes automatically when tripped...

  8. Designing an optical set-up of differential laser triangulation for oil film thickness measurement on water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Baozhene; Sun, Jingbin; Liu, Pengcheng; Lü, Qieni; Wu, Di

    2013-01-01

    Based on the differential laser triangulation principle, an optical system configuration for measuring the oil film thickness on water is designed and developed. A semiconductor laser of 650 nm wavelength with the maximum power of 5 mW is used as a light source, the magnification of the imaging system is 1.4; the range of the measurement is 0.1 mm-10 mm; the resolution is 2.3 μm and the measurement accuracy is 10 μm theoretically. Experiments are conducted with block gauges and feeler gauges, and the experimental results, with absolute error less than ±25 μm and the maximal measurable thickness 12 mm, indicate that this system presented in this paper can fulfill high accuracy.

  9. Measuring biodegradation of oil products by means of environmental forensic methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallego, J. R.; Garcia-Mtnez, M. J.; Ortiz, J. E.; Ortega, M.; Torres, T. de; Llamas, J. F.

    2009-07-01

    Bioremediation technologies are focused to the biodegradation of organic pollutants. This approach is particularly helpful when soils and/or groundwater are affected by oil products spills, given the satisfactory biodegradability of most hydrocarbons. However, during a bio-treatment the decreasing in pollutants concentration may be due to both biotic and biotic processes, whose distinction is very important, albeit difficult, in order to evaluate if bioremediation is being properly applied. (Author)

  10. Modelling and measurement of wear particle flow in a dual oil filter system for condition monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henneberg, Morten; Eriksen, René Lynge; Fich, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Wear debris is an indicator of the health of machinery, and the availability of accurate methods for characterising debris is important. In this work, a dual filter model for a gear oil system is used in conjunction with operational data to indicate three different system operating states. The qu...... particle generation is made possible by model parameter estimation and identification of an unintended lack of filter change. The model may also be used to optimise system and filtration performance, and to enable continuous condition monitoring.......Wear debris is an indicator of the health of machinery, and the availability of accurate methods for characterising debris is important. In this work, a dual filter model for a gear oil system is used in conjunction with operational data to indicate three different system operating states....... The quantity of wear particles in gear oil is analysed with respect to system running conditions. It is shown that the model fits the data in terms of startup “particle burst” phenomenon, quasi-stationary conditions during operation, and clean-up filtration when placed out of operation. In order to establish...

  11. Fine study on single sand body and measures for tapping the potential of residual oil during polymer flooding in Pubei reservoir of Daqing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Y. J.

    2016-08-01

    In order to effectively guide the narrow channel sand body oil fields to exploit, according to the sand body distribution characteristics and geological genesis of narrow channel sand body oil fields, the type of single sand body is clarified. By means of identification of logging curves and correlation of well-tie profile, the internal structure of single sand body is recognized. and then the remaining oil genesis, distribution characteristics and the potential areas for polymer flooding are clarified by combining numerical simulation technology and dynamic analysis technology, and the remaining oil potential tapping method is designed by taking into consideration various factors including the characteristics of the remaining oil, reservoir property and product dynamic character. The result shows that the single sand body is divided into five types including multiphase channel superposition, distributary channel, single channel, sheet sand and lenticular sand. Potential remaining oil mainly are distributed in thick oil layers of multiphase channel superposition type and distributary channel type in which channel sands were developed and sedimentary environment are stable inner front facies and lake regressive inner front facies. The remaining oil is developed by optimizing the parameters of polymer flooding and combining many different measures. The study provides technical support for the efficient exploration for polymer flooding.

  12. Sediment supply to beaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Troels

    2014-01-01

    and this reduces confidence in predictions of long-term shoreline change. In this paper, field measurements of suspended sediment load and cross-shore transport on the lower shoreface are used to derive a model for sediment supply from the lower to the upper shoreface at large spatial and temporal scales. Data...

  13. A Sensitive Microplate Assay for Lipase Activity Measurement Using Olive Oil Emulsion Substrate: Modification of the Copper Soap Colorimetric Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafa, Ahmad; Karmali, Amin; Abdelmoez, Wael

    2016-01-01

    The present work involves a sensitive high-throughput microtiter plate based colorimetric assay for estimating lipase activity using cupric acetate pyridine reagent (CAPR). In the first approach, three factors two levels factorial design methodology was used to evaluate the interactive effect of different parameters on the sensitivity of the assay method. The optimization study revealed that the optimum CAPR concentration was 7.5% w/v, the optimum solvent was heptane and the optimum CAPR pH was 6. In the second approach, the optimized colorimetric microplate assay was used to measure lipase activity based on enzymatic hydrolysis of olive oil emulsion substrate at 37°C and 150 rpm. The emulsion substrates were formulated by using olive oil, triton X-100 (10% v/v in pH 8) and sodium phosphate buffer of pH 8 in ratio of 1:1:1 in the case of Candida sp. lipase. While in the case of immobilized lipozyme RMIM, The emulsion substrates were formulated by using olive oil, triton X-100 (1% v/v in pH 8) and sodium phosphate buffer of pH 8 in ratio of 2:1:1. Absorbance was measured at 655 nm. The stability of this assay (in terms of colored heptane phase absorbance readings) retained more than 92.5% after 24 h at 4°C compared to the absorbance readings measured at zero time. In comparison with other lipase assay methods, beside the developed sensitivity, the reproducibility and the lower limit of detection (LOD) of the proposed method, it permits analyzing of 96 samples at one time in a 96-well microplate. Furthermore, it consumes small quantities of chemicals and unit operations.

  14. Occupation hazard factors and protection measures of nurses in supply room%供应室护士职业危害因素及防护措施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王云

    2015-01-01

    供应室护士特殊的工作性质决定着他们常暴露于多种职业危害因素之中,在操作过程中如不注意自我防护,很容易造成职业性危害,影响其身心健康。为了保证供应室护士的健康安全,本文主要分析了职业危害因素及防护措施。%The special nature of work of nurses in supply room determines that they often expose to a variety of occupational hazard factors.If they do not pay attention to self protection in the process of operation, it is easy to cause occupational hazards and affect their physical and mental health.In order to guarantee supply room nurses' health and safety,the author mainly analyzes the occupational hazard factors and protection measures in this paper.

  15. WEO-2006 Fact Sheet: Oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    We have revised upwards our assumptions for oil prices in this Outlook, reflecting current market conditions. Globally, fossil fuels will remain the dominant source of energy to 2030 in both scenarios. Rising oil and gas demand and imports, if unchecked, would accentuate the consuming countries' vulnerability to a severe supply disruption and resulting price shock. The growing insensitivity of oil demand to price accentuates the potential impact on international oil prices of such a disruption.

  16. Petroleum supply monthly, with data from June 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    The Petroleum Supply Division (PSD) of the Energy Information Administration (EIA) collects and published information on petroleum supply and disposition in the United States. The information is collected through a series of surveys that make up the Petroleum Supply Reporting System (PSRS). The PSRS data are published in the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM), and Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). This report presents information on crude oil production, crude oil imports and exports, refinery operations, natural gas processing, transportation, and oxygenate data.

  17. 给水规划设计中节能措施的思考%Energy-saving Measures for Water Supply Planning Designing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王全; 王立; 杨长岭; 张克峰; 孟付明; 王永磊; 王成刚

    2014-01-01

    给水专项规划作为城市总体规划的一个重要组成部分,关系到城市的发展,越来越得到相关部门的重视。给水专项规划设计中的节能主要体现在用水量预测及水资源平衡分析、供水方式的选择、城市再生水利用、新型管材的选用、水力计算、规划实施方案决策等方面。结合给水专项规划中的部分实例,简要分析了规划设计过程中各个环节的节能控制措施。提出了多种方法预测城市用水量、分区分压供水方案、城市工业用水和市政杂用水考虑优先使用再生水、推荐使用新型管材、控制点服务水头及管道经济流速的确定方法、合理确定近期实施方案、充分利用现状给水设施、给水管理系统整合提效等观点。%Special planning of water supply is an important part of urban planning in city. It relates to the urban development which attracts more and more attention by various departments and organizations. The energy-saving design is special planning of water supply mainly reflects in the prediction of water consumption and water resources balance analysis, supply options, reclaimed water in city, the selection of new pipes, hydraulic calculation, the plan implementation decisions. Energy-saving control measures are analyzed briefly during each link of the design process, combined with cases of the water supply in the special planning. Proposed a variety of methods to predict urban water consumption, including the partition and partial pressure of water supply scheme, the priority use of recycled water in urban industrial water and municipal miscellaneous water, the suggestion to use new pipe, the method for determining service head and the point of low-cost pipeline flow rate, reasonable assurance as to the recent implementation of the program, taking full advantage of the current water supply facilities, integration and efficiency improve-ment of water management systems, and so on.

  18. Macro-logistics Decision Factors and Information Measures for Scanning Global (Supply Chain) Environments in International Location Choice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kinra, Aseem

    in scanning against this international uncertainty is also developed. For this purpose, the study deploys integrated literature reviews and content analyses. Finally, the study employs expert opinions in order to validate these factors and information measures and to present the findings in the form...... operations and activities, and poses environmental complexity in the form of risks and costs that organisations need to contend with. With this background, the purpose of this paper is to report on the most important macro logistics decision factors that describe environmental complexity for global....../cross border logistics operations. The study applies a decision-making oriented approach in order to develop a set of macrologistics factors that pose international uncertainty in cross-border flows of goods, information, payment and ownership. Similarly, a list of information measures that are relevant...

  19. Fusing enhanced radar precipitation, in-situ hydrometeorological measurements and airborne LIDAR snowpack estimates in a hyper-resolution hydrologic model to improve seasonal water supply forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gochis, D. J.; Busto, J.; Howard, K.; Mickey, J.; Deems, J. S.; Painter, T. H.; Richardson, M.; Dugger, A. L.; Karsten, L. R.; Tang, L.

    2015-12-01

    Scarcity of spatially- and temporally-continuous observations of precipitation and snowpack conditions in remote mountain watersheds results in fundamental limitations in water supply forecasting. These limitationsin observational capabilities can result in strong biases in total snowmelt-driven runoff amount, the elevational distribution of runoff, river basin tributary contributions to total basin runoff and, equally important for water management, the timing of runoff. The Upper Rio Grande River basin in Colorado and New Mexico is one basin where observational deficiencies are hypothesized to have significant adverse impacts on estimates of snowpack melt-out rates and on water supply forecasts. We present findings from a coordinated observational-modeling study within Upper Rio Grande River basin whose aim was to quanitfy the impact enhanced precipitation, meteorological and snowpack measurements on the simulation and prediction of snowmelt driven streamflow. The Rio Grande SNOwpack and streamFLOW (RIO-SNO-FLOW) Prediction Project conducted enhanced observing activities during the 2014-2015 water year. Measurements from a gap-filling, polarimetric radar (NOXP) and in-situ meteorological and snowpack measurement stations were assimilated into the WRF-Hydro modeling framework to provide continuous analyses of snowpack and streamflow conditions. Airborne lidar estimates of snowpack conditions from the NASA Airborne Snow Observatory during mid-April and mid-May were used as additional independent validations against the various model simulations and forecasts of snowpack conditions during the melt-out season. Uncalibrated WRF-Hydro model performance from simulations and forecasts driven by enhanced observational analyses were compared against results driven by currently operational data inputs. Precipitation estimates from the NOXP research radar validate significantly better against independent in situ observations of precipitation and snow-pack increases

  20. Supply-Chain Risk Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-07

    security score upon first submission – 3/1/2010 Measured Against CWE/SANS Top-25 Errors 24 SQL Database Query Output: All records with ID = 48983...exploitable design or coding errors • Very little data for software supply chains 8 Software Supply Chain Complexity-1 Composite inherits risk from any point... Relative Effort Operational Capabilities Knowledge of Supplier Capabilities Knowledge of Product Attributes 13 Supply-Chain Risk Categories Category

  1. Improvement of a Vertical Falling Ball Viscometer for Measuring Engine Oil Properties using 532nm diode laser, with Estimation of the Concentration of operated Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawood O. Altaify

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this work, an improvement of falling ball viscometer was presented using laser beam. Several parameters such as viscosity, shear stress, shear rate, Reynolds number and drag coefficient were calculated for a sample of unused engine oil. In the other words, during the operation of engine, the variation of viscosity occurs due to the increasing in the engine temperature and may in the increasing of the concentration of engine body particles inside the oil due to friction force even with existing the oil filter there are tiny particles that pass through the oil filter, therefore a Lambert’s law was used to estimate the particles concentrations of the operated oil, the resulted graphs show increasing of the impurities concentration with operation time.

  2. Total lead (Pb) concentration in oil shale ash samples based on correlation to isotope Pb-210 gamma-spectrometric measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaasma, T.; Kiisk, M.; Tkaczyk, A.H. [University of Tartu (Estonia); Bitjukova, L. [Tallinn University of Technology (Estonia)

    2014-07-01

    Estonian oil shale consists of organic matter and mineral material and contains various amounts of heavy metals as well as natural radionuclides (from the U-238 and Th-232 series and K-40). Previous research has shown that burning oil shale in the large power plants causes these radionuclides to become enriched in different ash fractions and be partially emitted to the atmosphere via fly ash and flue gases. The activity concentrations (Bq/kg) of these nuclides in different oil shale ash fractions vary significantly. This is influenced by the boiler parameters and combustion conditions - prevailing temperatures, pressure, ash circulating mechanisms, fly ash particle size, chemical composition of ash and coexistence of macro and micro components. As with radionuclides, various heavy metals remain concentrated in the ash fractions and are released to the atmosphere (over 20 tons of Pb per year from Estonian oil shale power plants). Lead is a heavy metal with toxic influence on the nervous system, reproductive system and different organs in human body. Depending on the exposure pathways, lead could pose a long term health hazard. Ash samples are highly heterogeneous and exhibit great variability in composition and particle size. Determining the lead concentration in ash samples by modern methods like inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS), flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS), graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy (GFAAS) and other techniques often requires time consuming, multistage and complex chemical sample preparation. The list of possible methods to use is lengthy, but it is a challenge to choose a suitable one to meet measurement needs and practical considerations. The detection limits, capital costs and maintenance expenses vary between the instruments. This work presents the development of an alternative measurement technique for our oil shale ash samples. Oil shale ash was collected from different boilers using pulverized fuel

  3. Energy Choices. Global Energy Trends and Problems to Supply the Energy Demand; Vaegval Energi. Globala energitrender och problem att tillgodose energibehoven

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radetzki, Marian (Luleaa Univ. of Technology, Luleaa (Sweden))

    2008-09-15

    Although the use of renewable fuels is increasing, oil and other fossil fuels still dominate the global energy supply the next decades, as shown by a review of energy sector development from 1990 to today and projections up to 2030. Nothing indicates that the supplies of oil or any other fossil fuel will be depleted during the coming decades. Resource Nationalism has long characterized the oil market. OPEC has since 1970 successfully controlled the supply and price of oil for its producing member countries. The cartel's grip on the oil market has been strengthened in the 2000s commodity boom, not least as a result of improved production discipline among member countries. At the same time, the long-term trend in the world's great centers of consumption is towards a lower degree of self-sufficiency in energy. The EU dependence on import of oil is expected to rise to over ninety per cent by year 2030. In order to secure a stable energy supply, clear strategies in the oil-importing countries are needed. Tools include diversified import, storage and securing supplies through futures trading on commodity exchanges. Energy policy has long been focused on supply. But the environmental aspects of energy production and use has grown in importance and now the climate issue dominates the energy policy. So far, however, the policy measures to curb the effects of climate change has been both limited and cost-ineffective. The cost to seriously limit emissions of greenhouse gases will be high. To carry out serious climate measures will annually take at least one percent of global GDP, according to an estimate by the British economist Nicholas Stern. This can be compared to the additional cost of approximately five percent of global GDP as energy consumers had to absorb between 2005 and 2008 because of rising prices for fossil fuels

  4. A method for measuring losses of soil carbon by heterotrophic respiration from peat soils under oil palms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Jenny; Manning, Frances; Smith, Jo; Arn Teh, Yit

    2017-04-01

    The effects of drainage and deforestation of South East Asian peat swamp forests for the development of oil palm plantations has received considerable attention in both mainstream media and academia, and is the source of significant discussion and debate. However, data on the long-term carbon losses from these peat soils as a result of this land use change is still limited and the methods with which to collect this data are still developing. Here we present the ongoing evolution and implementation of a method for separating autotrophic and heterotrophic respiration by sampling carbon dioxide emissions at increasing distance from palm trees. We present the limitations of the method, modelling approaches and results from our studies. In 2011 we trialled this method in Sumatra, Indonesia and collected rate measurements over a six day period in three ages of oil palm. In the four year oil palm site there were thirteen collars that had no roots present and from these the peat based carbon losses were recorded to be 0.44 g CO2 m2 hr-1 [0.34; 0.57] (equivalent to 39 t CO2 ha-1 yr-1 [30; 50]) with a mean water table depth of 0.40 m, or 63% of the measured total respiration across the plot. In the two older palm sites of six and seven years, only one collar out of 100 had no roots present, and thus a linear random effects model was developed to calculate heterotrophic emissions for different distances from the palm tree. This model suggested that heterotrophic respiration was between 37 - 59% of total respiration in the six year old plantation and 39 - 56% in the seven year old plantation. We applied this method in 2014 to a seven year old plantation, in Sarawak, Malaysia, modifying the method to include the heterotrophic contribution from beneath frond piles and weed covered areas. These results indicated peat based carbon losses to be 0.42 g CO2 m2 hr-1 [0.27;0.59] (equivalent to 37 t CO2 ha-1 yr-1 [24; 52]) at an average water table depth of 0.35 m, 47% of the measured

  5. Oil Return Measurements In A Unitary Split System Air Conditioner Using Different Refrigerant Mixtures

    OpenAIRE

    Feichter, Gabriel A.; Eckhard A. Groll; Kurtulus, Orkan; Meng, Ben

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study presented in this paper is an experimental investigation of the oil return characteristics of alternative refrigerants for residential air conditioning systems using R22. Due to the phase-out of HCFC refrigerants, the production of R22 will be stopped by the year 2020. In some cases of vapor compression systems installed in the field, it will be necessary to replace the R22 with alternative drop-in refrigerants as a part of maintenance procedures. Since R22 system typical...

  6. Effect of dietary argan oil on fatty acid composition, proliferation, and phospholipase D activity of rat thymocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzaria, Amal; Meskini, Nadia; Dubois, Madeleine; Croset, Martine; Némoz, Georges; Lagarde, Michel; Prigent, Annie-France

    2006-06-01

    Argan oil is receiving increasing attention due to its potential health benefits in the prevention of cardiovascular risk, but no information to date is available about its possible effect on immune cells and functions. To address this issue male rats were fed one of five diets that contained fish oil, argan oil, olive oil, coconut oil, or sunflower oil for 4 wk. The fatty acid composition of plasma and thymocyte lipids was then analyzed in relation to the mitogen-induced proliferation and phospholipase D (PLD) activity of thymocytes. The 18:2omega-6 proportion in thymocyte phospholipids from rats fed argan oil was significantly lower than that observed in phospholipids from rats fed sunflower oil and fish oil but higher than that found in the olive oil and coconut oil groups. Further, a significant positive linear relation was found between thymocyte proliferation and the 18:2omega-6 proportion in thymocyte phospholipids, whatever the diet. The proliferation response of thymocytes to mitogenic activation was also inversely correlated to PLD activity measured in intact thymocytes. Subsequent western blotting experiments indicated that the diet-induced variations in PLD activity mainly reflected variations in the expression of PLD2 protein. On the whole, the present study shows that the effects of argan oil on immune cells are very similar to those of olive oil, and that, as a consequence, argan oil can be used as a balanced dietary supply without marked adverse effects on immune cell function.

  7. Offshore Supply Industry Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roslyng Olesen, Thomas

    The value chains for offshore oil and gas and offshore wind are both basically driven by the demand for energy. This is heavily dependent on a number of factors including the price of various energy sources and the policy making of the states which influence legislation, indirect subsidies...... and direct investments. At the center of both value chains are the energy companies. The energy companies have a number of suppliers and sub suppliers which provide a range of equipment and services to the offshore operations. The supply industry is characterized by horizontal cooperation (between suppliers...... of services including includes legal advice, financing, insurance etc. The two value chains have a number of activities in common. Both include (1) a tender and concession phase where the energy company obtains the right to explore and produce energy from the authorities. (2) An exploration phase where...

  8. Oil and the Arab-Israeli conflict, 1948-63

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bialer, Uri [Hebrew Univ., Jerusalem (Israel)

    1999-07-01

    The book traces Israel's efforts to ensure a regular supply of oil. Part I of the book entitled The Eclipse of Haifa, addresses fuel supply and demand in Mandatory Palestine, the twilight of British rule, the 1948 war, international oil diplomacy and war, cutting the losses, and legal readjustment between Israel and the oil companies. Part II entitled Between Moscow and Tehran examines the establishment of the Delek Oil Company, alternative sources such as Venezuela and Kuwait, the implications of oil supply agreements with the Soviet Union, the possibility of purchasing Iranian oil, the departure of the oil companies, and the Eilat connection. (UK)

  9. 基于物流多层框架的供应链安全措施研究%A Multi-layered Logistics Framework for Supply Chain Security Measures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘慧兰; 解艳艳

    2011-01-01

    The paper sorts through and classifies the current literatures on measures of supply chain security, proposes that the research of supply chain security based on the multi-layered logistics framework can help recognize the weak links of the supply chain in terms of security and, for the first time, matches the various measures for supply chain security with the specific logistics links.%对现有文献中的供应链安全措施进行了分类和梳理,基于物流系统多层研究框架的提出能够识别供应链中的薄弱环节,并首次将供应链安全措施与具体物流环节进行了匹配.

  10. Fiscal 1994 survey of the base arrangement promotion for foreign coal import. Feasibility study on supply of simultaneously up-graded low rank coal and heavy oil; 1994 nendo kaigaitan yunyu kiban seibi sokushin chosa. Teihin`itan to jushitsuyu no doji kohin`ika ni yoru kaishitsutan kyokyu jigyo no feasibility chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    Applicability of the M-COIL process was studied with the aim of the effective use of low grade coal. The M-COIL process, which heightens grades of low grade coal and heavy distillate low in use value at the same time, is a technology to get a reformed coal corresponding to general coal and a reformed coal corresponding to crude oil. As the whole system, an M-COIL plant is constructed near the Kertapati coal terminal in Palembang city, Indonesia. From Tanjung Enim, coal is carried in via the coal terminal by the existing railroad transport, and the reformed coal is exported as general coal via the existing route again from the terminal. Moreover, the system supplies by pipeline residual oil from the Palembang/Musi oil refinery as raw material of heavy distillate and sells the reformed oil as crude oil equivalence to oil refinery. As a result of trially calculating economy of the system with the production scale as 2 million tons in reformed coal, it was found that the effect of applying the M-COIL process can be expected in the system using subbituminous coal as raw material. 39 figs., 29 tabs.

  11. Petroleum supply monthly, April 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1990-06-26

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of three publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other two publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR) and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly describe (PSM) the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in Primary Supply.'' Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: (1) the Summary Statistics and (2) the Detailed Statistics.

  12. Petroleum supply monthly, July 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-07-29

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: Petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States.

  13. Petroleum supply monthly, August 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-26

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  14. Advances in Methane Isotope Measurements via Direct Absorption Spectroscopy with Applications to Oil and Gas Source Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yacovitch, T. I.; Herndon, S. C.; Roscioli, J. R.; Petron, G.; Shorter, J. H.; Jervis, D.; McManus, J. B.; Nelson, D. D.; Zahniser, M. S.; Kolb, C. E., Jr.

    2015-12-01

    Instrumental developments in the measurement of multiple isotopes of methane (12CH4, 13CH4 and 12CH3D) are presented. A first generation 8-micron instrument quantifies 12CH4 and 13CH4 at a 1-second rate via tunable infrared direct absorption spectroscopy (TILDAS). A second generation instrument uses two 3-micron intraband cascade lasers in an Aerodyne dual laser chassis for simultaneous measurement of 12CH4, 13CH4 and 12CH3D. Sensitivity and noise performance improvements are examined. The isotopic signature of methane provides valuable information for emission source identification of this greenhouse gas. A first generation spectrometer has been deployed in the field on a mobile laboratory along with a sophisticated 4-tank calibration system. Calibrations are done on an agressive schedule, allowing for the correction of measured isotope ratios to an absolute isotope scale. Distinct isotopic signatures are found for a number of emission sources in the Denver-Julesburg Basin: oil and gas gathering stations, compressor stations and processing plants; a municipal landfill, and dairy/cattle operations. The isotopic signatures are compared with measured ethane/methane ratios. These direct absorption measurements have larger uncertainties than samples measured via gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, but have several advantages over canister sampling methods: individual sources of short duration are easier to isolate; calibrated isotope ratio results are available immediately; replicate measurements on a single source are easily performed; and the number of sources sampled is not limited by canister availability and processing time.

  15. Review and Outlook of China's Oil Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gong Jinshuang

    2006-01-01

    @@ In the first half of 2006, growth of oil supply in China slowed down and the growth rate of actual consumption was kept stable. Oil imports and apparent consumption increased rapidly, and the oil price went up to the historical records. In the future, growth of oil supply in China will still be restrained and oil import will remain a relatively high growth rate in the latter half of 2006.Compared to actual consumption, which will still be stabilized, the growth rate of apparent consumption will be higher. The oil price will linger at high-level.

  16. 浅谈消毒供应室职业危害及防护措施%Disinfection Supply Room Occupation Harm and Protection Measures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    遭鲜玲

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the occupation harm factor staf working in the sterilization and supply room and protective measures.Methods Analysis of risk factors of occupation,to develop ef ective protective measures.Resuits Improve the occupation harm safety awareness,strengthen the occupation safety management,to create a safe and healthy work environment,ensure the occupation safety.Conclusion Strengthen the occupation safety knowledge education,take ef ective protective measures,to ensure that the occupation health.%目的探讨消毒供应室的职业危害因素与防护措施。方法分析职业危险因素,制定有效的防护措施。结果提高了职业危害安全防护意识,加强了职业安全管理,创造安全健康的工作环境,确保职业安全。结论加强职业安全防护知识教育,采取积极有效的防护措施,才能确保职业安全、健康。

  17. Differentiation and Analysis of Oil - Gas Reserves and Oil- Gas Assets and Their Value Measurement%油气储量资产与油气资产辨析及其价值计量研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨惠贤; 陈莹昭

    2012-01-01

    从会计实务及理论上辨析油气储量资产与油气资产内涵。油气储量资产的关键问题是其历史成本与价值的巨大差异性,公允价值计量是提供高质量油气会计信息的一种方法,但是实现尚有障碍;国际上关于油气资产公允价值计量运用条件满足性研究仍在进行中;历史成本下补充信息披露内容及方式也值得探讨。%The connotation of oil - gas reserves and oil - gas assets is differentiated and analyzed from the theory and practice of accounting. It is explained that the key problem of oil - gas reserve asset is the great difference between its historical cost and its value, and fair value measurement is one effective method to get high quality oil -gas accounting information, but there are still some barriers in realizing it. At present, the research about the satisfaction condition for fair value measurement of oil - gas assets is still being conducted in the world. Meanwhile, the disclosed Content and methods of additional information under the historical cost are also worth to be explored.

  18. In-situ measurements of the effective thermal conductivity of oil-sandstone samples under simulated conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shuxia Cheng; Zhilan Li; Xinshi Ge; Jiangan Li; Yongzhong Zhang; Xingan Liang; Youwang Song; Huangqing Feng (University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui (China). Dept. of Engineering Thermophysics)

    1990-01-01

    A transient-state thermal test apparatus for the in situ measurement of the thermal conductivity of core samples, under simulated conditions has been developed. It has an operational temperature range of 293 to 523k. Confinement pressures of 10 -11 MPa can be applied to the sample to simulate overburden load. Pore fluid pressures up to 8-9 MPa can be generated within the test cell to ensure fluid saturation of the sample throughout a test. The variation of degree of oil/water saturation in a sample can be easily achieved within the test cell. The test apparatus can be used to measure the effects of the material itself, its degree of fluid saturation, and ambient conditions. (author).

  19. Bergen conference on oil and economics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-01-01

    The conference proceedings contain 7 papers. The topics covered are: Possible oil supply distribution and IEA's contingency plan; The oil market and economic progress in third world countries; The impact of oil on the foreign policies of the superpowers and its ramifications on the oil market; The role of the international oil market in Soviet oil policies; International trade -Status and possible developments. Do oil producers hold any particular responsibility; Economic and political issues in the Middle East oil exporting countries; Coping with political risks - business strategies in the case of Mobil. Separate abstract was prepared for one of the papers.

  20. Analysis of the Reason of Ship' s Oil Spill and Control Measures%船舶溢油原因及其治理措施探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈林春; 汪舟娜

    2012-01-01

    With the rapid development of the shipping industry, the ship' s pollution is also increasing, especially for the oil spill pollution. Based on the analysis of ship oil spill reason, put forward and compared the advantages and disadvantages of treatment measures of oil spill pollution, to deal with the different cases of oil spill pollution.%随着航运业的快速发展,船舶对海洋的污染也日益加剧,尤其表现为溢油污染.分析了船舶溢油原因,提出并比较了治理溢油污染各项措施的优缺点,以应对不同情况下的溢油污染.

  1. Assessment of Volatile Organic Compound and Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions from Oil and Natural Gas Well Pads using Mobile Remote and On-site Direct Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC) and hazardous air pollutants (HAP) from oil and natural gas production were investigated using direct measurements of component-level emissions on well pads in the Denver-Julesburg (DJ) Basin and remote measurements of production pad-...

  2. Examining spatial patterns in polycyclic aromatic compounds measured in stream macroinvertebrates near a small subarctic oil and gas operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korosi, J B; Eickmeyer, D C; Chin, K S; Palmer, M J; Kimpe, L E; Blais, J M

    2016-03-01

    The Cameron River runs through a small, remote petrochemical development in the Cameron Hills (Northwest Territories, Canada). In order to evaluate the exposure of aquatic biota to contaminants from oil and gas activities, we measured polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) in macroinvertebrates collected from sites and tributaries along the Cameron River, including upstream and downstream of the development, and sites located near drilled wells (developed). Macroinvertebrate tissue PAC burdens ranged from 0.2-2.8 μg g(-1) lipid for unsubstituted compounds, and from 4.2-63.2 μg g(-1) lipid for alkylated compounds, relatively low compared to similar studies from more industrialized regions in North America. There was no significant difference in tissue PAC burdens between upstream, downstream, or developed sites (p = 0.12), although alkyl PACs in five out of seven developed sites were higher than the regional average. Petrogenic PACs were dominant in most samples, including alkyl fluorines, alkyl phenanthrene/anthracenes, and alkyl dibenzothiophenes. Minimal changes in PAC composition in macroinvertebrate tissues were detected along the Cameron River, with the exception of the two sites furthest downstream that had high concentrations of C3-C4 naphthalene. Overall, our results suggest that oil and gas development in the Cameron Hills has not resulted in substantial increases in PAC bioaccumulation in stream macroinvertebrates, although the potential that alkyl naphthalenes are being transported downstream from the development warrants further attention.

  3. Viscosity measurements of CO2-in-water foam with dodecyl polypropoxy sulfate surfactants for enhanced oil recovery application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramudita, Ria Ayu; Ryoo, Won Sun

    2016-08-01

    Apparent viscosities of CO2-in-water foams were measured in a wide range of shear rate from 50 to 105 inverse second for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) application. The CO2-in-water dispersions, made of 50:50 weight proportions of CO2 and water with 1 wt.% surfactant concentration, were prepared in high-pressure recirculation apparatus under pressure where CO2 density becomes 0.7, 0.8, and 0.9 g/mL at each temperature of 35, 45, and 55°C. The surfactants used for the foam generation were sodium dodecyl polypropoxy sulfates with average propoxylation degrees of 4.7 and 6.2. The foam viscosity showed shear thinning behaviors with power-law indices ranging from 0.80 to 0.85, and approached a Newtonian regime in the lower shear rate range at several tens of inverse second. Zero-shear viscosity values projected from experimental data based on Ellis model were as high as 57.4 mPa·s and enough to control the mobility of water and CO2 in oil reservoirs.

  4. Design of Supply Chain Networks with Supply Disruptions using Genetic Algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The design of supply chain networks subject to disruptions is tackled. A genetic algorithm with the objective of minimizing the design cost and regret cost is developed to achieve a reliable supply chain network. The improvement of supply chain network reliability is measured against the supply chain cost.

  5. Design of Supply Chain Networks with Supply Disruptions using Genetic Algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Taha, Raghda; Abdallah, Khaled; Sadek, Yomma; El-Kharbotly, Amin; Afia, Nahid

    2014-01-01

    The design of supply chain networks subject to disruptions is tackled. A genetic algorithm with the objective of minimizing the design cost and regret cost is developed to achieve a reliable supply chain network. The improvement of supply chain network reliability is measured against the supply chain cost.

  6. Size dependence of shape and stiffness of single sessile oil nanodroplets as measured by atomic force microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munz, Martin; Mills, Tom

    2014-04-22

    This article presents results and guidelines on the quantitative analysis of size, shape, and stiffness of single sessile oil droplets in air and in water. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) facilitates the analysis of micro- and nanoscale droplets which are of growing importance for agrochemicals, cosmetics, or foodstuffs containing emulsions with nanoscale compartments or droplets. Measurement of droplet shape and stiffness provides information on the contact angle with the support surface as well as the interfacial tension of the liquid-liquid interface. In this study, micro- and nanoscale droplets were imaged both in amplitude modulation (AM) and force mapping modes. The effects of the AM mode set point ratio on the measured droplet shape are discussed, and a modified spherical cap model is suggested to extract the droplet-substrate contact angle. This model was applied to a population of different sized oil droplets imaged in water and led to the finding that the contact angle with the solid support varies with the droplet size. Force mapping was undertaken to measure the droplet stiffness as a function of the droplet size. Smaller droplets were found to be stiffer, in reasonable agreement with the Attard-Miklavcic model [Langmuir 2001, 17, 8217-8223] which describes the deformation of a sessile droplet in the nonwetting regime, i.e., by partial wrapping of the droplet around the probe surface. The model limitations are discussed in terms of the diverging droplet stiffness predicted for droplet radii similar to the probe radius as well as the error propagation associated with the droplet shape function.

  7. Measurement of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in CLA-rich soy oil by attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadamne, Jeta V; Jain, Vishal P; Saleh, Mohammed; Proctor, Andrew

    2009-11-25

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers in oils are currently measured as fatty acid methyl esters by a gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID) technique, which requires approximately 2 h to complete the analysis. Hence, we aim to develop a method to rapidly determine CLA isomers in CLA-rich soy oil. Soy oil with 0.38-25.11% total CLA was obtained by photo-isomerization of 96 soy oil samples for 24 h. A sample was withdrawn at 30 min intervals with repeated processing using a second batch of oil. Six replicates of GC-FID fatty acid analysis were conducted for each oil sample. The oil samples were scanned using attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), and the spectrum was collected. Calibration models were developed using partial least-squares (PLS-1) regression using Unscrambler software. Models were validated using a full cross-validation technique and tested using samples that were not included in the calibration sample set. Measured and predicted total CLA, trans,trans CLA isomers, total mono trans CLA isomers, trans-10,cis-12 CLA, trans-9,cis-11 CLA and cis-10,trans-12 CLA, and cis-9,trans-11 CLA had cross-validated coefficients of determinations (R2v) of 0.97, 0.98, 0.97, 0.98, 0.97, and 0.99 and corresponding root-mean-square error of validation (RMSEV) of 1.14, 0.69, 0.27, 0.07, 0.14, and 0.07% CLA, respectively. The ATR-FTIR technique is a rapid and less expensive method for determining CLA isomers in linoleic acid photo-isomerized soy oil than GC-FID.

  8. THE COMPLEX SYSTEM OF POWER QUALITY CONTROL AND IMPROVEMENT FOR MINIMIZATION OF DELETERIOUS EFFECT ON ENVIRONMENT IN CONDITIONS OF OIL PRODUCTION ENTERPRISES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emiliia V. Iakovleva

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The complex system of control, monitoring and improvement of power quality in power supply systems of oil production enterprises is designed, which also allows to decrease the negative influence on the environment. The main reasons for mismatch between the actual electricity quality in distribution network and the requirements for oil producing businesses, as set forth by reference documents, have been disclosed. Provided are recommendations in connection with the arrangement and the practical implementation of technical measures for controlling and improving the quality of electric power in oil producing enterprises power supply systems.

  9. Novel Application of the Flotation Technique To Measure the Wettability Changes by Ionically Modified Water for Improved Oil Recovery in Carbonates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sohal, Muhammad Adeel Nassar; Thyne, Geoffrey; Søgaard, Erik Gydesen

    2016-01-01

    imbibition tests take months, and chromatographic separation is feasible only for core flooding in sulfate free carbonates at low temperature. A novel application of the well-established technique known as flotation was used in this study to measure the oil-wet and water-wet percent of pure biogenic chalk (Dan...... Chalk from Denmark). It is an accurate, fast, and most reliable method to quantitatively measure the water-wet and oil-wet fractions of a reservoir rock. It determines the potential of advanced water to improve wettability within days, instead of measurements that can take months and require expensive...... alteration and the amount of oil attached to the water-wet percent of rock was also determined....

  10. Petroleum supply monthly, October 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-26

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  11. Petroleum Supply Monthly, August 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-10-30

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of three publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other two publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR) and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) district movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in Primary Supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections (1) the Summary Statistics and (2) the Detailed Statistics.

  12. Petroleum supply monthly, January 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-15

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  13. Petroleum supply monthly, May 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-05-27

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum supply annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  14. Petroleum supply monthly, June 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-28

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  15. Petroleum supply monthly, July 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-07-26

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  16. China Thirst for Overseas Oil and Gas Resources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Wuyi

    2004-01-01

    @@ China's oil companies are currently accelerating their efforts for implementation of the strategy to operate the oil business worldwide in the attempt to secure the energy supply as the country becomes more and more dependent on oil imports.The Chinese government has also adopted every possible means to diversify the sources of energy supply.

  17. Research of Reliable Power Supply Schemes for OOO Gazprom Production Yamburg Gas Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Askarov Alisher

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In article the analysis of substation electric part for the enterprises an oil and gas complex power supply is carried out: structure and switchgear schemes, uninterrupted reserve sources structure. Recommendations for power supply reliability are made.

  18. Oil Slick Characterization Using Synthetic Aperture Radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, C. E.; Breivik, O.; Brekke, C.; Skrunes, S.; Holt, B.

    2015-12-01

    Oil spills are a hazard worldwide with potential of causing high impact disasters, and require an active oil spill response capability to protect personnel, the ecosystem, and the energy supply. As the amount of oil in traditionally accessible reserves decline, there will be increasing oil extraction from the Arctic and deep-water wells, both new sources with high risk and high cost for monitoring and response. Although radar has long been used for mapping the spatial extent of oil slicks, it is only since the Deepwater Horizon spill that synthetic aperture radar (SAR) has been shown capable of characterizing oil properties within a slick, and therefore useful for directing response to the recoverable thicker slicks or emulsions. Here we discuss a 2015 Norwegian oil-on-water spill experiment in which emulsions of known quantity and water-to-oil ratio along with a look-alike slick of plant oil were released in the North Sea and imaged with polarimetric SAR (PolSAR) by NASA's UAVSAR instrument for several hours following release. During the experiment, extensive in situ measurements were made from ship or aircraft with meteorological instruments, released drift buoys, and optical/IR imagers. The experiment was designed to provide validation data for development of a physical model relating polarization-dependent electromagnetic scattering to the dielectric properties of oil mixed with ocean water, which is the basis for oil characterization with SAR. Data were acquired with X-, C-, and L-band satellite-based SARs to enable multi-frequency comparison of characterization capabilities. In addition, the data are used to develop methods to differentiate mineral slicks from biogenic look-alikes, and to better understand slick weathering and dispersion. The results will provide a basis for modeling oil-in-ice spills, currently a high priority for nations involved in Arctic oil exploration. Here we discuss the Norwegian experiment, the validation data, and the results of

  19. Measurement of Multiple Vitamin K Forms in Processed and Fresh-Cut Pork Products in the U.S. Food Supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xueyan; Shen, Xiaohua; Finnan, Emily G; Haytowitz, David B; Booth, Sarah L

    2016-06-01

    Vitamin K food composition data have historically been limited to plant-based phylloquinone (vitamin K1). The purpose of this study was to expand analysis of vitamin K to animal products and to measure phylloquinone and 10 forms of menaquinones (vitamin K2) in processed and fresh-cut pork products. Nationally representative samples of processed pork products (n = 28) were obtained through USDA's National Food and Nutrition Analysis Program, and fresh pork (six cuts; n = 5 per cut) and bacon (n = 4) were purchased from local retail outlets. All samples were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (phylloquinone and menaquinone-4) and atmospheric-pressure chemical ionization-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (menaquinone-5 to menaquinone-13). Although low in phylloquinone (processed pork products and fresh pork cuts contained menaquinone-4, menaquinone-10, and menaquinone-11 (range: [35.1 ± 11.0]-[534 ± 89.0] μg of menaquinones per 100 g). The total menaquinone contents of processed pork products were correlated with fat contents (r = 0.935). In summary, processed and fresh-cut pork products are a rich dietary source of menaquinones that are currently unaccounted for in assessment of vitamin K in the food supply.

  20. Customer Service Status and Improvement Measures of Power Supply Enterprises%供电企业的客户服务现状及改进措施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭嘉亮

    2015-01-01

    The power supply enterprise wants to obtain the sustained development, in the competitive market to gain the superiority, must unceasingly solve the enterprise in the power customer service aspect existence question. Only in this way can meet the needs of power users. Combined with the experience of customer service, this analysis of the existing problems in our country's power customer service is analyzed, and the improvement measures are put forward for reference only.%供电企业要想得到持续发展,在竞争激烈的市场中赢得优势,就必须不断解决企业在电力客户服务方面存在的问题。只有这样,才能满足电力用户的需求。结合客户服务岗位的工作经验,分析了现阶段我国的电力客户服务中普遍存在的问题,并提出了改进措施,仅供参考。

  1. 供电企业电费抄核收的创新措施%A power supply enterprise electricity copying HeShou innovation measures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴月红

    2013-01-01

    本文针对我国供电企业电费抄核收面临的现状和问题,提出创新措施,从制度完善、管理理念的更新、服务体系优质灵活化、充分利用信息平台、电费“抄核”之环节的操作规范化等方面,以提高相关工作人员的工作效率,统一管理,特殊配合,做客户满意的企业的同时又能增强竞争力和提高企业效益。%This article in view of the our country present situation and problems of the power supply enterprise electricity copying HeShou face,innovation measures are put forward,from the system consummation,update management idea,high quality flexible service system,make full use of the information platform,electricity "nuclear" copy link operation standardization,etc.,in order to improve the relevant work personnel's work efficiency and unified management,special coordination,making customer satisfaction enterprises at the same time can enhance competitiveness and improve the efficiency of the enterprise.

  2. Oil Spill Cleanup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauble, Christena Ann

    2011-01-01

    Several classroom activities using a model of a seashore and an oil spill demonstrate the basic properties of oil spills in oceans. Students brainstorm about how to best clean up the mess. They work in teams, and after agreeing on how they will proceed, their method is tested by measuring the amount of oil removed and by rating the cleanliness of…

  3. Oil Spill Cleanup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauble, Christena Ann

    2011-01-01

    Several classroom activities using a model of a seashore and an oil spill demonstrate the basic properties of oil spills in oceans. Students brainstorm about how to best clean up the mess. They work in teams, and after agreeing on how they will proceed, their method is tested by measuring the amount of oil removed and by rating the cleanliness of…

  4. SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT – KEY FACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Daniela DINU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper exposes Supply Chain Management by its key factors. Briefly, where the Supply Chain Management is treated as strategic part of a company then maintaining both control and influence throughout the entire supply chain are key factors and critical to success. On the other hand, finding the right partner to manage the non-strategic Supply Chains would be another key factor too. To define the most important key factors within Supply Chain Management means a deeply understanding of both Supply Chain’ s components, procedures, workflow, processes and the importance of Supply Chain Management into maximizing company's value. SCORE model able to provide solid information about measuring performance and identifying priorities within Supply Chain Management will help us to understand the key factors by analyzing its elements: Plan, Source, Make, Deliver,Return, Enable. These elements covers all the challenging areas from first to third tier of Supply Chain Management.

  5. Measurement of oil-water flow via the correlation of turbine flow meter, gamma ray densitometry and drift-flux model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李东晖; 许晶禹

    2015-01-01

    The flow rate of the oil-water horizontal flow is measured by the combination of the turbine flow meter and the single- beam gamma ray densitometry. The emphasis is placed on the effects of the pipe diameter, the oil viscosity and the slip velocity on the measurement accuracy. It is shown that the mixture flow rate measured by the turbine flow meter can meet the application requirement in the water continuous pattern (o-w flow pattern). In addition, by introducing the developed drift-flux model into the measurement system, the relative errors of measurements for component phase flow rates can be controlled within±5%. Although more accurate methods for the flow rate measurement are available, the method suggested in this work is advantageous over other methods due to its simplicity for practical applications in the petroleum industry.

  6. Petroleum supply annual 1994. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-22

    The Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA) contains information on the supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. The publication reflects data that were collected from the petroleum industry during 1994 through annual and monthly surveys. The PSA is divided into two volumes. This first volume contains four sections: Summary Statistics, Detailed Statistics, Refinery Capacity, and Oxygenate Capacity each with final annual data. The second volume contains final statistics for each month of 1994, and replaces data previously published in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM). The tables in Volumes 1 and 2 are similarly numbered to facilitate comparison between them. Below is a description of each section in Volume 1 of the PSA.

  7. Petroleum supply annual 1993. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    The Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA) contains information on the supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. The publication reflects data that were collected from the petroleum industry during 1993 through annual and monthly surveys. The PSA is divided into two volumes. This first volume contains four sections: Summary Statistics, Detailed Statistics, Refinery Capacity, and Oxygenate Capacity each with final annual data. The second volume contains final statistics for each month of 1993, and replaces data previously published in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM). The tables in Volumes 1 and 2 are similarly numbered to facilitate comparison between them. Below is a description of each section in Volume 1 of the PSA.

  8. Petroleum supply annual, 1997. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-06-01

    The Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA) contains information on the supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. The publication reflects data that were collected from the petroleum industry during 1997 through annual and monthly surveys. The PSA is divided into two volumes. This first volume contains three sections: Summary Statistics, Detailed Statistics, and Refinery Statistics; each with final annual data. The second volume contains final statistics for each month of 1997, and replaces data previously published in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM). The tables in Volumes 1 and 2 are similarly numbered to facilitate comparison between them. 16 figs., 48 tabs.

  9. Gamma-Ray Measurements of Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials in Sludge, Scale and Well Cores of the Oil Industry in Southern Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Ridha Hussain SUBBER

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Radioactivity of nuclides 238U, 226Ra, 232Th and 40K was measured in soil by γ-ray spectrometry using a NaI (Li detector. A criterion was set in order to analyze sludge samples from oil fields and oil well-cores in southern Basrah, in the Iraq oil fields. More than 3 γ-ray energy peaks were used for the determination of 226Ra and 232Th activity concentrations to obtain results that are more accurate. Relationships between the measured radionuclides were discussed. Radionuclides 238U and 226Ra were found in disequilibrium with ratio of specific activities (238 U/226 Ra less than unity for most of the sludge and core samples. The content of radioactive elements in the sludge, scale and well core is found within the range of other petroleum countries in the region.doi:10.14456/WJST.2014.93

  10. Direct measurement of oil iodine value through visible spectrometry%可见光谱法直接测定油脂碘值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹良明

    2015-01-01

    After completion of addition reaction between oil and Wijs solution,potassium iodide was added into the solution. The 50%acetic acid aqueous solution was set as reference to the yield iodine, then the absorbance values Ac of iodide was measured at the point of 630 nm. Meanwhile,the value A0 was evaluated through reagent blank. The consumption of oil reacted with iodine chloride was indirectly determined. The results indicate that the consumption of oil was proportional to the amount of oil IV, the oil IV was then determined. The outcomes also show that the value was approximately the same as that measure by Wij’s method. The relative error was less than 2%by visible spectrometry.%油脂与韦氏液发生加成反应后,加入碘化钾溶液,析出的碘以50%冰醋酸的水溶液作参比,在630 nm处测定碘吸光度值Ae,同时作空白,测定其A0,间接找到油脂消耗氯化碘的量,其消耗的量与油脂碘值成正比,由此可以计算出油脂的碘值。结果表明,与韦氏法比较,结果基本相同,相对误差小于2%。

  11. Fossil fuels supplies modeling and research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leiby, P.N.

    1996-06-01

    The fossil fuel supplies modeling and research effort focuses on models for US Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) planning and management. Topics covered included new SPR oil valuation models, updating models for SPR risk analysis, and fill-draw planning. Another task in this program area is the development of advanced computational tools for three-dimensional seismic analysis.

  12. Petroleum supply annual 1993. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    This publication contains information on the supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. The publication reflects data that were collected from the petroleum industry during 1993 through annual and monthly surveys. This second volume contains final statistics for each month of 1993.

  13. Palm oil as a fuel for agricultural diesel engines: Comparative testing against diesel oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teerawat Apichato

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Due to unstable oil price situation in the world market, many countries have been looking for alternative energy sources to substitute for petroleum. Vegetable oil is one of the alternatives which can be used as fuel in automotive engines either in the form of straight vegetable oil, or in the form of ethyl or methyl ester. This paper presents a comparative performance testing of diesel engine using diesel oil and refined palm oil over 2,000 hours of continuous running time. Short-term performance testing was conducted for each fuel on the dynamometer engine test bed. Specific fuel consumption, exhaust temperature and black smoke density were determined and measured. Long-term performance testing (or endurance test was also done by running the engines coupled with a generator in order to supply load (electricity to a lightbulb board. For each 500 hours of engine run time, the engines were dissembled for engine wear inspection. It was found that the fuel pump and fuel valve weight losses from both engines showed insignificant differences either at the first 500 hours of running time or at the second 500 hours of running time but the inlet valve from the engine fueled by diesel oil had a higher weight loss than the engine fueled by refined palm oil at the first 500 hours and at the second 500 hours of running time. The compression rings from the engine fueled by refined palm oil showed a significant weight loss compared to the engine fueled by diesel oil both after 500 hours and after 1000 hours of running time.

  14. Phase I Focused Corrective Measures Study/Feasibility Study for the L-Area Oil and Chemical Basin (904-83G)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, E. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States)

    1997-02-01

    This report presents the completed Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) Focused Corrective Measures Study/Feasibility Study (CMS/FS) for the L-Area Oil and Chemical Basin (LAOCB)/L-Area Acid Caustic Basin (9LAACB) Solid Waste Management Unit/Operable Unit (SWMU/OU) at the Savannah River Site (SRS).

  15. Organic Reference Materials for Hydrogen, Carbon, and Nitrogen Stable Isotope-Ratio Measurements : Caffeines, n-Alkanes, Fatty Acid Methyl Esters, Glycines, L-Valines, Polyethylenes, and Oils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schimmelrnann, Arndt; Qi, Haiping; Coplen, Tyler B.; Brand, Willi A.; Fong, Jon; Meier-Augenstein, Wolfram; Kemp, Helen F.; Toman, Blaza; Ackermann, Annika; Assonov, Sergey; Aerts-Bijma, Anita T.; Brejcha, Ramona; Chikaraishi, Yoshito; Darwish, Tamim; Elsner, Martin; Gehre, Matthias; Geilmann, Heike; Groeing, Manfred; Helie, Jean-Francois; Herrero-Martin, Sara; Meijer, Harro A. J.; Sauer, Peter E.; Sessions, Alex L.; Werner, Roland A.

    2016-01-01

    An international project developed, quality-tested, and determined isotope-delta values of 19 new organic reference materials (RMs) for hydrogen, carbon, and nitrogen stable isotope-ratio measurements, in addition to analyzing pre-existing RMs NBS 22 (oil), IAEA-CH-7 (polyethylene foil), and IAEA-60

  16. Water holdup measurement of oil-water two-phase flow in a horizontal well using a dual-circle conductance probe array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lijun; Zhang, Wen; Cao, Zhang; Zhao, Jiayu; Xie, Ronghua; Liu, Xingbin; Hu, Jinhai

    2016-11-01

    This paper presents a minimum root-mean-square error (RMSE)-based method for a dual-circle conductance probe array to measure the water holdup of an oil-water two-phase flow in a horizontal oil well. The dual-circle conductance probe array consisting of 24 conductance probes, half of which are equidistantly distributed on a 34 mm radius inner circle and the other half on a 48 mm radius outer circle, is used to estimate the oil-water interface and hence the water holdup in the horizontal oil well. For the same water holdup, the number of probes immersed in water may vary with varying the azimuth angle due to the limited number of probes. The limited number of probes and unknown azimuth angle of the probe array in the oil well limit the measurement accuracy of the water holdup. In order to obtain a better water holdup estimate, a water holdup measurement method based on the minimum RMSE was proposed to decrease the effects of the limited number of probes and unknown azimuth angle of the probe array. To verify the proposed method, numerical simulations were carried out and compared with the commonly used equi-weight estimate method; results showed that the RMSE of the water holdup estimates obtained using the proposed method is smaller than that when using the equi-weight estimate method. Experiments were implemented in a 16 m long and 125 mm inner diameter horizontal pipe on an industrial-scale experimental multiphase flow setup in the Daqing Oil Field, China. The RMSEs of water holdup estimates obtained using the proposed and equi-weight estimate methods are 0.0632 and 0.0690, respectively, showing that the proposed method is better than the equi-weight estimate method.

  17. Petroleum Supply Monthly, July 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-09-28

    Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 states and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in Primary Supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States.

  18. Petroluem Supply Monthly, May 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-06-04

    Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  19. Oil/gas pre-treatment plants and air quality hazards: PM1 measurements in Agri Valley (southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Trippetta

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A PM1 (i.e., aerosol particles with aerodynamic diameter less 1.0 μm short term monitoring campaign was carried out in Agri Valley (southern Italy in September 2012. This area is of international concern since it houses the largest European on-shore reservoir and the largest oil/gas pre-treatment plant (i.e., Centro Olio Val d'Agri – COVA within an anthropized context. PM1 measurements were performed in Viggiano, the nearest town to the COVA plant and one of the most populated town of the Agri Valley. During the study period, the PM1 daily concentrations ranged from 1.2 to 8.4 μg m−3 with a mean value of 4.6 μg m−3. Regarding the PM1 chemical composition, it can be observed that S and typical crustal elements were the most abundant constituents of the PM1 collected. By applying the Principal Component Analysis, it was pointed out that crustal soil, biomass and wood burning, secondary atmospheric reactions involving COVA plant emissions and local soil particles, and traffic were the main sources contributing to the PM1 measured in the area under study. Moreover, a possible contribution of the long-range transport of African dust was observed.

  20. IOP measurement in silicone oil tamponade eyes by Corvis ST tonometer, Goldmann applanation tonometry and non-contact tonometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yang; Zheng, Lin; Bian, Ailing; Zhou, Qi

    2017-04-25

    To compare the postoperative intraocular pressure (IOP) of eyes following pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) combined with intravitreal silicone oil (SO) tamponade by Corneal Visualization Scheimpflug Technology (CST), Goldmann applanation tonometry (GAT) and non-contact tonometry (NCT). Thirty-eight participants who had undergone PPV combined with SO tamponade to treat vitreoretinal diseases were enrolled. Postoperative IOP measurements were obtained using CST, NCT and GAT. Inter-device agreement was assessed by Bland-Altman analysis. The correlation coefficient was used to describe the potential postoperative factors affecting the postoperative IOP differences between each device. Bland-Altman analysis revealed the bias between CST and GAT, between CST and NCT, and between GAT and NCT to be -0.2, 2.1 and 2.4 mmHg, respectively. CST and GAT correlated well with each other. NCT values were lower than those of GAT and CST (all p tamponade eyes, NCT obtains lower IOP than other tonometry techniques, and CST is highly consistent with GAT. CST offers an optional non-contact method for measuring postoperative IOP in SO tamponade eyes.

  1. The present global financial and economic crisis and the oil crises of the 1970s. Opposite turning points in the development of economic growth, energy supply, and the role of nuclear power?; Die gegenwaertige globale Finanz- und Wirtschaftskrise und die Oelkrisen der 1970er-Jahre. Gegensaetzliche Trendwenden in der Entwicklung von Wirtschaftswachstum, Energieversorgung und Rolle der Kernenergie?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrmann, Dieter

    2012-08-15

    After decades of extensive economic growth, the oil crises in the 1970s enforced the transition to intensive growth in a manner conserving resources, combined with a fundamental turnaround in the development of global energy supply and the role of nuclear power. Meanwhile, the world has changed considerably as a result of population growth, technical progress, and globalization - and it is in the throes of another crisis. The contribution shows, on the basis of empirical indicators, that higher commodity prices halted the period of intense growth already in late 2007. The following global financial and economic crisis can be interpreted plausibly as a return to extensive economic growth worldwide. This is likely to have far-reaching consequences for the future development of global energy supply and the role of nuclear power. (orig.)

  2. An on-line adaptive estimation method for water holdup measurement in oil-water two-phase flow with a conductance/capacitance sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hao; Tan, Chao; Dong, Feng

    2016-07-01

    Oil-water two-phase flow widely exists in industrial processes such as petroleum engineering and chemical engineering. Accurate and real-time measurement of water holdup is an important problem requiring urgent solutions. In this work, a conductance and capacitance combination sensor (CCCS) system with four conductance rings and two concave capacitance plates was validated for its measurement performance of in situ water holdup through dynamic experiments. An online adaptive weight Kalman estimation (OAWKE) fusion algorithm for the CCCS system is proposed to fuse the conductance measurement and capacitance measurement. The algorithm has fast and dynamic response for the water holdup measurement of oil-water two-phase flow and has improved measurement precision by the adaptive data fusion method. The OAWKE fusion algorithm also has the ability to deal with the abrupt change of water holdup during the measurement process. Therefore, in the low water conductivity condition (tap water), the CCCS system with the OAWKE fusion algorithm can dynamically estimate the real-time full range water holdup of oil-water two-phase flow, which has prospects in the petroleum industry.

  3. 成品油物流主要成本控制策略研究%Research on the Measures of Refined Oil Logistics Main Cost Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴明涛; 王玉翠; 张彦明

    2012-01-01

    According to the present situation of higher oil logistics cost in China, combining the meaning of refined oil logistics and its logistics cost, the cost affecting factors of the transportation, storage and distribution, which are the larger of the refined oil logistics total cost are analyzed, and the logistics cost control measures corresponding to the three major aspects are proposed in this paper.%针对我国成品油物流成本较高的现状,结合成品油物流及其物流成本的含义,分析了占成品油物流总成本比重较大的运输、仓储和配送等物流环节的成本影响因素,并提出了与之相对应的物流成本控制策略.

  4. Water issues associated with heavy oil production.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veil, J. A.; Quinn, J. J.; Environmental Science Division

    2008-11-28

    Crude oil occurs in many different forms throughout the world. An important characteristic of crude oil that affects the ease with which it can be produced is its density and viscosity. Lighter crude oil typically can be produced more easily and at lower cost than heavier crude oil. Historically, much of the nation's oil supply came from domestic or international light or medium crude oil sources. California's extensive heavy oil production for more than a century is a notable exception. Oil and gas companies are actively looking toward heavier crude oil sources to help meet demands and to take advantage of large heavy oil reserves located in North and South America. Heavy oil includes very viscous oil resources like those found in some fields in California and Venezuela, oil shale, and tar sands (called oil sands in Canada). These are described in more detail in the next chapter. Water is integrally associated with conventional oil production. Produced water is the largest byproduct associated with oil production. The cost of managing large volumes of produced water is an important component of the overall cost of producing oil. Most mature oil fields rely on injected water to maintain formation pressure during production. The processes involved with heavy oil production often require external water supplies for steam generation, washing, and other steps. While some heavy oil processes generate produced water, others generate different types of industrial wastewater. Management and disposition of the wastewater presents challenges and costs for the operators. This report describes water requirements relating to heavy oil production and potential sources for that water. The report also describes how water is used and the resulting water quality impacts associated with heavy oil production.

  5. Gear Damage Detection Integrating Oil Debris and Vibration Measurement Technologies Developed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyekeyeski, Andrew L.; Sawicki, Jerzy T.

    2001-01-01

    The development of highly reliable health-monitoring systems is one technology area recommended for reducing the number of helicopter accidents. Helicopter transmission diagnostics are an important part of a helicopter health-monitoring system because helicopters depend on the power train for propulsion, lift, and flight maneuvering. One technique currently being tested for increasing the reliability and decreasing the false alarm rate of current transmission diagnostic tools is the replacement of simple single-sensor limits with multisensor systems integrating different measurement technologies.

  6. Palm Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palm oil is obtained from the fruit of the oil palm tree. Palm oil is used for preventing vitamin A deficiency, cancer, ... blood pressure, high cholesterol, and cyanide poisoning. Palm oil is used for weight loss and increasing the ...

  7. Diesel oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oil ... Diesel oil ... Diesel oil poisoning can cause symptoms in many parts of the body. EYES, EARS, NOSE, AND THROAT Loss of ... most dangerous effects of hydrocarbon (such as diesel oil) poisoning are due to inhaling the fumes. NERVOUS ...

  8. Scientific and Technological Innovation Is an Important Approach to Ensuring China's Oil Security

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    With the rapid and continual growth of national economy, the gap between oil demand and supply keeps widening in China, therefore China will increasingly depend on imported oil. However, the world's oil and gas resources are unevenly distributed; global world's oil prices remain high; and over 70 percent of China's imported oil has to be shipped through the Malacca Strait. There are various ways to ensure China's oil security today, and the practical and feasible strategic option is to increase the discovery and production of domestic oil, raise energy efficiency and develop petroleum substitutes. Scientific and technological innovation is crucial both in new oil reserves discovery and production,energy conservation, and in the development of petroleum substitutes, establishment of a strategic oil reserve system and for environment protection. This indicates that China should take effective measures in investment strategy, fiscal policies, financing instruments, intellectual property protection, fostering talents and professionals, so as to establish its own scientific and technological innovation system in the petroleum industry and be better able to ensure oil security.

  9. Health supply chain management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Rolf; Gallagher, Pat

    2010-01-01

    This chapter gives an educational overview of: * The actual application of supply chain practice and disciplines required for service delivery improvement within the current health environment. * A rationale for the application of Supply Chain Management (SCM) approaches to the Health sector. * The tools and methods available for supply chain analysis and benchmarking. * Key supply chain success factors.

  10. Airborne Trace Gas and Aerosol Measurements in Several Shale Gas Basins during the SONGNEX (Shale Oil and Natural Gas Nexus) Campaign 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warneke, C.; Trainer, M.; De Gouw, J. A.

    2015-12-01

    Oil and natural gas from tight sand and shale formations has increased strongly over the last decade. This increased production has been associated with emissions of methane, non-methane hydrocarbons and other trace gases to the atmosphere, which are concerns for air quality, climate and air toxics. The NOAA Shale Oil and Natural Gas Nexus (SONGNEX) aircraft campaign took place in 2015, when the NOAA WP-3 aircraft conducted 20 research flights between March 19 and April 27, 2015 in the following shale gas regions: Denver-Julesberg, Uintah, Upper Green River, San Juan, Bakken, Barnett, Eagle Ford, Haynesville, Woodford, and Permian. The NOAA P3 was equipped with an extensive set of gas phase measurements, including instruments for methane, ethane, CO, CO2, a new H3O+CIMS, canister and cartridge samples for VOCs, HCHO, glyoxal, HNO3, NH3, NOx, NOy, PANs, ozone, and SO2. Aerosol number and size distributions were also measured. This presentation will focus on an overview of all the measurements onboard the NOAA WP-3 aircraft and discuss the differences between the shale gas regions. Due to a drop in oil prices, drilling for oil decreased in the months prior to the mission, but nevertheless the production of oil and natural gas were near the all-time high. Many of the shale gas basins investigated during SONGNEX have quite different characteristics. For example, the Permian Basin is a well-established field, whereas the Eagle Ford and the Bakken saw an almost exponential increase in production over the last few years. The basins differ by the relative amounts of natural gas versus oil that is being produced. Previous work had shown a large variability in methane emissions relative to the production (leak rate) between different basins. By including more and qualitatively different basins during SONGNEX, the study has provided an extensive data set to address how emissions depend on raw gas composition, extraction techniques and regulation. The influence of these

  11. A dynamic perspective of the geopolitical supply risk of metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Habib, Komal; Hamelin, Lorie; Wenzel, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    . In the context of strategic planning and innovation, and in scientific literature, this aspect is often referred to as geopolitical supply risk. In the past few decades, cobalt crisis, the oil embargo, and the more recent Rare Earth Elements (REEs) issue are the best examples regarding the geopolitical supply...

  12. China Oil Reserve and Major Refined Products Marketing Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Xunying

    2001-01-01

    @@ 1 Current Status and Forecast on Supply and Demand for Oil in China 1.1 Chinese oil trade balance China's demand for crude oil has increased sharply since the 1990's. From 1991 to 2000, the consumption of China's crude oil increased by 6% a year, but the output still lagged far behind the domestic need (See Table 1).

  13. Effect of Sesame Oil on Diuretics or ß-blockers in the Modulation of Blood Pressure, Anthropometry, Lipid Profile, and Redox Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankar, D.; Rao, M. Ramakrishna; Sambandam, G.; Pugalendi, K.V.

    2007-01-01

    The study was undertaken to investigate the effect of sesame oil in hypertensive patients who were on antihypertensive therapy either with diuretics (hydrochlorothiazide) or ß-blockers (atenolol). Thirty-two male and 18 female patients aged 35 to 60 years old were supplied sesame oil (Idhayam gingelly oil) and instructed to use it as the only edible oil for 45 days. Blood pressure, anthropometry, lipid profile, lipid peroxidation, and enzymic and non-enzymic antioxidants were measured at baseline and after 45 days of sesame oil substitution. Substitution of sesame oil brought down systolic and diastolic blood pressure to normal. The same patients were asked to withdraw sesame oil consumption for another 45 days, and the measurements were repeated at the end of withdrawal period. Withdrawal of sesame oil substitution brought back the initial blood pressure values. A significant reduction was noted in body weight and body mass index (BMI) upon sesame oil substitution. No significant alterations were observed in lipid profile except triglycerides. Plasma levels of sodium reduced while potassium elevated upon the substitution of sesame oil. Lipid peroxidation (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances [TBARS]) decreased while the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and the levels of vitamin C, vitamin E, ß-carotene, and reduced glutathione (GSH) were increased. The results suggested that sesame oil as edible oil lowered blood pressure, decreased lipid peroxidation, and increased antioxidant status in hypertensive patients. PMID:17876372

  14. Evaluation of oil ducts wettability by measurements of contact angle. Effect of asphaltenes and naphtenic acids; Avaliacao da molhabilidade de oleodutos atraves de medidas de angulo de contato. Efeitos de asfaltenos e acidos naftenicos do petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Ronaldo G. dos; Mokamed, Rahoma S. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Quimica; Loh, Watson [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica

    2003-07-01

    The recent interest of the petroleum companies for heavy crude oils reserves have been increased in the last decades. Rheological properties of these oils interferes with their economical production and transportation. Technologies based on the flow of lubricated oil through an aqueous film (Core Flows) represent an alternative way to improve of the flow efficiency and viability of the recovery of these heavy oils. In the systems, the pressure drop caused from the high values of viscosity can be reduced to values similar to those encounter in single aqueous flow. The progressive accumulation oil on the pipeline walls is, however, the major problem for the implementation of core flow. For oil accumulation to take place, pipeline surface would need to be oil-wet. This work examines the wettability of pipeline surfaces and the effect of oil phase polar constitute such as asphaltenes and naphtenic acids in the possible alteration of these surfaces from water-wet to oil-wet. The effect of crude oil fractions on the wettability is shown by measurements of contact angle. Commercial and carbon steel are tested. The results show that the wettability of the surfaces depend on oil composition and can be rectified by components in aqueous phase. (author)

  15. Epidemiologic studies of behavioral health following the Deepwater Horizon oil spill: limited impact or limited ability to measure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teich, Judith L; Pemberton, Michael R

    2015-01-01

    Two large-scale epidemiologic federal surveys conducted in the Gulf Coast following the Deepwater Horizon oil spill and intended to measure its impact on mental disorders and substance use found less dramatic results than had been anticipated. However, several smaller-scale studies conducted shortly after the spill did find increases in the prevalence of certain psychological problems among individuals surveyed. Previous federal studies conducted following two disasters-the destruction of the World Trade Center (WTC) and Hurricanes Katrina and Rita-found few statistically significant changes in behavioral disorders in the wake of those events, except for individuals displaced from their homes by Katrina for 2 weeks or more. In this commentary, the authors discuss questions raised by these mixed results regarding the limitations of such studies, the behavioral health impact of the Deepwater Horizon spill compared to disasters causing more widespread loss of life and destruction of property, and the ways in which data collection following disasters might be improved to benefit public health planners.

  16. Assessment of OPEC's oil pricing policy from 1970 to 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazim, A. [Dubai Technology and Media Free Zone Authority, Dubai (United Arab Emirates)

    2007-07-01

    The Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) is an international organization, composed of eleven developing countries that rely on oil revenues as their main source of income. The member countries include: Algeria, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Libya, Nigeria, Qatar, United Arab Emirates, Saudi Arabia and Venezuela. These member countries collectively supply approximately 40 per cent of the world's oil output, and possess more than three-quarters of the world's total proven crude oil reserves. Currently, OPEC's approximate rate of oil production and export is 25 million barrels per day with Saudi Arabia alone contributing about one third of this rate. However, in the recent years the economy of major OPEC countries mainly Saudi Arabia, Venezuela, Algeria, Indonesia and Iran has been significantly hindered by the instability of oil price as a result of fluctuations in the American dollar. This paper presented a simple economical assessment of OPEC's oil pricing policy from 1970 to 2000. Fluctuations of the oil price in American dollars were analysed against other major currencies. Their influences on the generated revenues were determined. In order to explore the most advantageous scenario, the oil pricing policy during that period was compared with two baskets of currencies. It was concluded that results indicated that OPEC members could have achieved a total current savings of at least 170 billion dollars if the price of oil was linked to a basket of currencies from 1970 to 2000. These savings were approximately equivalent to the revenues generated in at least 1 year of OPEC's average rate of oil production and export. It was recommended that OPEC members should consider restructuring their oil pricing policy by taking effective measures such as linking the price of oil to a basket of currencies in order to stabilize the price of oil and secure stable revenue generated from their oil production and export. 17 refs., 1 tab

  17. Demand-Supply Trends and Projections of Food in India

    OpenAIRE

    Surabhi Mittal

    2008-01-01

    The present paper presents the supply and demand trends of rice, wheat, total cereals, pulses, edible oil/oilseeds and sugar/sugarcane. It provides the demand and supply projections for food items during 2011, 2021 and 2026. These projections have been based on change in productivity levels, changes in price, growth of population and income growth. A comparison with projections provided by other scholars has also been made in the paper. Subsequently, the future supply-demand gap has been disc...

  18. THE COSTS OF ENERGY SUPPLY SECURITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogner, H.H.; Langlois, L.M.; McDonald, A.; Weisser, D.; Howells, M.

    2007-07-01

    In general, increasing a country's energy supply security does not come for free. It costs money to build up a strategic reserve, to increase supply diversity or even to accelerate energy efficiency improvements. Nor are all investments in increasing energy supply security cost effective, even if the shocks they are designed to insure against can be predicted with 100% accuracy. The first half of the paper surveys different definitions and strategies associated with the concept of energy supply security, and compares current initiatives to establish an 'assured supply of nuclear fuel' to the International Energy Agency's (IEA's) system of strategic national oil reserves. The second half of the paper presents results from several case studies of the costs and effectiveness of selected energy supply security policies. One case study examines alternative strategies for Lithuania following the scheduled closure of the Ignalina-2 nuclear reactor in 2009. The second case study examines, for countries with different energy resources and demand structures, the effectiveness of a policy to increase supply diversity by expanding renewable energy supplies. (auth)

  19. When Oil Prices Encounter the Financial Crisis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tang Jintao

    2008-01-01

    @@ The oil market is just like the sea; it is never quiet for a single moment. Facing the sea to observe the tide, we must behave calm in order to act correctly. The oil in the country is like the blood of the economy, and the oil prices in the economy is like a barometer. Under the mysterious veil, there are oil supply changes, the pattern of political restructuring...

  20. Emission rate estimates determined for a large number of volatile organic compounds using airborne measurements for the oil sands facilities in Alberta, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, S. M.; Leithead, A.; Moussa, S.; Liggio, J.; Moran, M. D.; Wang, D. K.; Hayden, K. L.; Darlington, A.; Gordon, M.; Staebler, R. M.; Makar, P.; Stroud, C.; McLaren, R.; Liu, P.; O'brien, J.; Mittermeier, R. L.; Zhang, J.; Marson, G.; Cober, S.; Wolde, M.; Wentzell, J.

    2016-12-01

    In August and September of 2013, aircraft-based measurements of air pollutants were made during a field campaign in support of the Joint Canada-Alberta Implementation Plan on Oil Sands Monitoring in Alberta, Canada. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were determined using a high resolution proton-transfer-reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometer (PTR-ToF-MS) continuously at 2-5 second resolution during the flights, and from 680 discretely sampled stainless steel canisters collected during flights followed by offline GC-MS and GC-FID analyses for four large oil sands surface mining facilities. The Top-down Emission Rate Retrieval Algorithm (TERRA), developed at Environment and Climate Change Canada (ECCC), was applied to the aromatics and oxygenated VOC results from the PTR-ToF-MS to determine their emission rates. Additional VOC species, determined in the canisters, were compared with the PTR-ToF-MS VOC species to determine their emission ratios. Using these emission ratios and the emission rates for the aromatics and oxygenated VOCs, the individual emission rates for 73-90 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were determined for each of the four major oil sands facilities. The results are the first independently determined emission rates for a large number of VOCs at the same time for large industrial complexes such as the oil sands mining facilities. These measurement-based emission data will be important for strengthening VOC emission reporting.