WorldWideScience

Sample records for oil storage tank

  1. Oil Storage Facilities - Storage Tank Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — A Storage Tank Location is a DEP primary facility type, and its sole sub-facility is the storage tank itself. Storage tanks are aboveground or underground, and are...

  2. China's Largest Oil Storage Tanks Put into Service

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ Two 125,000-cubic-meter and 90-meter-diameter crude storage tanks, currently largest ones in China,have been constructed and put into service at Sinopec's Maoming Petrochemical Harbor Company in Southeast China's Guangdong Province in recent time.

  3. Underground Storage Tanks - Storage Tank Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — A Storage Tank Location is a DEP primary facility type, and its sole sub-facility is the storage tank itself. Storage tanks are aboveground or underground, and are...

  4. Increase the level of environmental safety for mechanical ventilation of light-oil storage tanks

    OpenAIRE

    Гарбуз, Сергей Викторович

    2015-01-01

    This paper evaluated the environmental risk of degassing light oil-storage tank, by quantifying emissions of hydrocarbon vapors in the air. To determine the basic parameters of the degassing tank that is carried out by mechanical ventilation, it has been created test bench geometrically similar to RVS-5000. Based on theoretical and experimental data, it is calculated the concentration of harmful substances (hydrocarbons) in the air for degassing method using in Ukraine, at all stages.Based on...

  5. 石油储罐机械清洗系统%Large Oil Storage Tanks Mechanical Cleaning System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄崇林; 蔡业彬; 何宏鹰

    2013-01-01

    Oil storage tanks need to be cleaned regularly during using .T he oil storage tanks me-chanical cleaning techniques is introduced ,including the main components of the oil storage tanks mechanical cleaning system for vacuum suction module device ,heat exchanger cleaning module e-quipment ,washing machines ,etc .The mechanical cleaning process of oil storage tanks is elabo-rated and the effective of the mechanical cleaning system of oil storage tanks is analyzed .%  对石油储罐机械清洗系统的主要组成部分真空抽吸模块设备、换热清洗模块设备、清洗机等进行了介绍,并对石油储罐机械清洗系统效益进行了分析。

  6. HYDRODYNAMIC LOADS ON OIL STORAGE TANKS WITH INTERIOR SEMI-POROUS BARRIERS UNDER EARTHQUAKES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The estimation of the hydrodynamic loading on cylindrical oilstorage tank during earthquakes is of fundamental importance in the anti-seismic design. Interior semi-porous barriers are considered being effective to reduce the hydrodynamic response of the inner fluid and the loading on the tank wall. A reduced two-dimensional source distribution method and sub-region matching technique are developed for the prediction of three-dimensional hydrodynamic forces on oil storage tanks of arbitrary sections with interior semi-porous barriers of different configurations under earthquake excitations.Excellent agreement is observed between the present results and the corresponding analytical results for a circular cylindrical oil tank with a concentric interior semi-porous barrier,which shows the validity and effectiveness of the present method. A clear view of the influence of semi-porous barriers on the hydrodynamic response of tanks during earthquakes is obtained by the analyses of computational results, which may offer some guidance to the corresponding anti-seismic design for oil storage tanks and similar structures. The method is also extended to include the effects of the elastic vibrations of the tank.

  7. Heat transfer in fuel oil storage tank at thermal power plants with local fuel heating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuznetsova Svetlana A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Results of mathematical modeling of the thermal control system in fuel oil storage, in the presence of heat source at the lower boundary of the region, in the framework of models of incompressible viscous fluid are presented. Solved the system of differential equations of non-stationary Navier-Stokes equations, the energy equation and the heat equation with appropriate initial and boundary conditions. Takes into account the processes of heat exchange region considered with the environment. A comparative analysis of the dependence of average temperatures of oil in the volume of the tank on the time calculated by the simplified (balanced method and obtained as a result of numerical simulation are performed.

  8. DimCuve : An Automatic Tool for the Optimisation of the Design and Realization of a Raw Palm oil Storage Tank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. NGUIDJOL

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper concerns the study of the design and realization of a storage tank for raw palm oil. The main objective is to solve the problems of supply shortages of raw palm oil to stock-out to small and Medium Size Enterprises in Cameroon. We first of all look at the state-of-the-art of the design and realization of storage tanks, and then, and in the case of raw palm oil storage, we design an open cylindrical vertical tank with a conical roof supported by a ramework. We then proceed with the sizing of all the structural elements based on specially chosen mechanical criteria. We put in place software, DimCuve, to be used for the automatic sizing of storage tanks. The interest of this work is conclusive for enterprises of this sector.

  9. Efficiency of in-vessel composting process in removal of petroleum hydrocarbons from bottom sludge of crude oil storage tanks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Naddafi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Remaining of crude oil in storage tanks usually results in accumulating oily sludge at the bottom of the tank, which should be treated and disposed of in a suitable manner. The efficiency of in-vessel composting process in removing total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH from bottom sludge of crude oil storage tanks was investigated in the present study. Material and methods: The sludge was mixed with immature compost at the ratios of 1:0 (as control, 1:2, 1:4, 1:6, 1:8, and 1:10 (as dry basis with the initial C:N:P and moisture content of 100:5:1 and 55% respectively for a period of 10 weeks. The moisture adjustment and mixing process were done 3 times a day during the composting period. Sampling and analysis of TPH and pH were done every week and every two days, respectively. Results: TPH removal in the 1:2, 1:4, 1:6, 1:8, and 1:10 composting reactors was 66.59, 73.19, 74.81, 80.20, and 79.91%, respectively. Thus, initial adjustment of sludge to immature compost ratios plays a great role in reduction of TPH. The results of the control reactors indicated that the main mechanism of TPH removal in the composting reactors was biological process. Conclusions: In-vessel composting by addition of immature compost as amendment is a viable choice for bioremediation of the bottom sludge of crude oil storage tanks.

  10. Improved Polyurethane Storage Tank Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-30

    Figure 5.2.4 – Teen / Twenty Berm Bays from Tank 11 Corner Improved Polyurethane Storage Tank Performance Page 63 of 197 FY2009 Final Technical...5.3.9 Pump Discharge Pressure Measurement Improved Polyurethane Storage Tank Performance Page 76 of 197 FY2009 Final Technical Report...chamber pressure Improved Polyurethane Storage Tank Performance Page 173 of 197 FY2009 Final Technical Report Seaman Corporation could not be

  11. Underground Storage Tanks in Iowa

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Underground storage tank (UST) sites which store petroleum in Iowa. Includes sites which have been reported to DNR, and have active or removed underground storage...

  12. Fuzzy fault tree assessment based on improved AHP for fire and explosion accidents for steel oil storage tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Lei; Shuai, Jian; Xu, Kui

    2014-08-15

    Fire and explosion accidents of steel oil storage tanks (FEASOST) occur occasionally during the petroleum and chemical industry production and storage processes and often have devastating impact on lives, the environment and property. To contribute towards the development of a quantitative approach for assessing the occurrence probability of FEASOST, a fault tree of FEASOST is constructed that identifies various potential causes. Traditional fault tree analysis (FTA) can achieve quantitative evaluation if the failure data of all of the basic events (BEs) are available, which is almost impossible due to the lack of detailed data, as well as other uncertainties. This paper makes an attempt to perform FTA of FEASOST by a hybrid application between an expert elicitation based improved analysis hierarchy process (AHP) and fuzzy set theory, and the occurrence possibility of FEASOST is estimated for an oil depot in China. A comparison between statistical data and calculated data using fuzzy fault tree analysis (FFTA) based on traditional and improved AHP is also made. Sensitivity and importance analysis has been performed to identify the most crucial BEs leading to FEASOST that will provide insights into how managers should focus effective mitigation.

  13. Successful field application of novel, non-silicone antifoam chemistries for high foaming heavy oil storage tanks in northern Alberta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wylde, J.J. [Society of Petroleum Engineers, Canadian Section, Calgary, AB (Canada)]|[Clariant Oil Services, Montreal, PQ (Canada)

    2008-10-15

    Heavy oil operators in northern Alberta have experienced production problems associated with foam formation in crude oil storage tanks. The foam could enter the transportation trucks and create separation problems in the process systems. Any antifoam used in the system could not contain silicone based polymers since these compounds affected the catalysts used in upgrading the crude oil and in the manufacture of asphalt. As such, there was a need to change the performance of the antifoam product. A phosphate ester and a salted amine were the previous incumbent antifoam products that did not perform well. Several chemistries were tested, including phosphate based products; ethoxylated and propoxylated esters; polyethylene glycol esters and oleates; alcohols, fatty alcohols and ethoxylated; and propoxylated alcohols. All products had to be freeze protected to -40 degrees C, which influenced the efficacy of antifoam chemicals. This paper described how laboratory testing has evolved to field wide implementation of a combined defoamer/antifoam chemistry. The laboratory tests revealed that foam induced in heavy, aged crude was very challenging and required the addition of heptane to create the foam. A potential follow-up may be to induce the foam without the addition of heptane by using a Seltzer cylinder in a semi-quantitative manner to rank performance of products against one another. The final selection of antifoam will depend on supply chain cost since the performance of the 2 blend products was essentially the same. 12 refs., 7 figs.

  14. First cloud-based service for analyzing storage tank data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2010-01-15

    Most commercial storage tanks are unmonitored and require manual processes to verify conditions, remediate issues or request servicing. New Boundary Technologies has developed an off-the-shelf solution that eliminates several manual processes. Its TankVista Internet service was launched as the first cloud-based service for continuously monitoring and analyzing the conditions and storage levels of commercial storage tanks, bins, silos and other containers. TankVista takes data from storage tank sensors and translates it into graphics and maps that industry can use to drive new efficiencies in storage tank management. A bulk oil distributor can leverage TankVista to remotely and continuously monitor its own storage tanks as well as those of its clients. TankVista monitors tank level, temperature, pressure, humidity and other storage criteria in order to know exactly when and where to replenish supplies. Rather than re-filling tanks at about 50 per cent capacity, a bulk oil distributor can wait until usage levels dictate more efficient re-filling. The monitoring takes place without manual intervention. TankVista complements the iDigi Tank, which has the unique ability to wirelessly connect dispersed and remote tank assets, and get this information through drop-in wireless mesh technology to the cloud without requiring onsite Internet access. 1 fig.

  15. A 400,000 lb crude oil storage tank was moved on an 11 in. air blanket

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-03-01

    The British patented-system used to move the 55,000 bbl tank at the Cushing, Okla., tank farm of Getty Oil Co. uses the same airlift principle employed by various hovercraft. Representatives from 20 pipeline and oil companies watched the move, which placed the tank 22 ft higher and 600 ft away from its former location, to improve its gravity flow rate, an improvement spurred by greater crude demands placed on Cushing Terminal. Two 425 hp air compressors were attached to the tank's shell and produced 130,000 cu ft/min of air. The airflow was directed beneath the tank through a segmented skirt fixed to the circumference of the tank's base. Less than 0.5 psi air pressure across the tank floor was needed to lift the tank. Four large D-7 tractors pulled and guided the tank up the incline onto its new pad, where the vessel was rotated into alignment for piping connections. Preliminary rig-up, grading, and pad preparation took six days, but actual tank relocation required only two hours. Getty's Cushing terminal feeds to the 20 in. dia Osage pipeline that serves Getty's El Dorado, Kans., refinery as well as other carriers.

  16. 49 CFR 230.116 - Oil tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Oil tanks. 230.116 Section 230.116 Transportation... Locomotive Tanks § 230.116 Oil tanks. The oil tanks on oil burning steam locomotives shall be maintained free... adjacent to the fuel supply tank or in another safe location; (b) Closes automatically when tripped...

  17. 14 CFR 23.1013 - Oil tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Oil tanks. 23.1013 Section 23.1013... tanks. (a) Installation. Each oil tank must be installed to— (1) Meet the requirements of § 23.967 (a...) Expansion space. Oil tank expansion space must be provided so that— (1) Each oil tank used with...

  18. 14 CFR 25.1013 - Oil tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Oil tanks. 25.1013 Section 25.1013... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Oil System § 25.1013 Oil tanks. (a) Installation. Each oil tank installation must meet the requirements of § 25.967. (b) Expansion space. Oil tank...

  19. 14 CFR 29.1013 - Oil tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Oil tanks. 29.1013 Section 29.1013... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Oil System § 29.1013 Oil tanks. (a) Installation. Each oil tank installation must meet the requirements of § 29.967. (b) Expansion space. Oil tank...

  20. Energy storage-boiler tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chubb, T. A.; Nemecek, J. J.; Simmons, D. E.

    1980-01-01

    Activities performed in an effort to demonstrate heat of fusion energy storage in containerized salts are reported. The properties and cycle life characteristics of a eutectic salt having a boiling point of about 385 C (NaCl, KCl, Mg Cl2) were determined. M-terphenyl was chosen as the heat transfer fluid. Compatibility studies were conducted and mild steel containers were selected. The design and fabrication of a 2MWh storage boiler tank are discussed.

  1. Integral Radiator and Storage Tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Kenneth A.; Miller, John R.; Jakupca, Ian; Sargi,Scott

    2007-01-01

    A simplified, lightweight system for dissipating heat of a regenerative fuel- cell system would include a heat pipe with its evaporator end placed at the heat source and its condenser end integrated into the wall of the regenerative fuel cell system gas-storage tanks. The tank walls act as heat-radiating surfaces for cooling the regenerative fuel cell system. The system was conceived for use in outer space, where radiation is the only physical mechanism available for transferring heat to the environment. The system could also be adapted for use on propellant tanks or other large-surface-area structures to convert them to space heat-radiating structures. Typically for a regenerative fuel cell system, the radiator is separate from the gas-storage tanks. By using each tank s surface as a heat-radiating surface, the need for a separate, potentially massive radiator structure is eliminated. In addition to the mass savings, overall volume is reduced because a more compact packaging scheme is possible. The underlying tank wall structure provides ample support for heat pipes that help to distribute the heat over the entire tank surface. The heat pipes are attached to the outer surface of each gas-storage tank by use of a high-thermal conductance, carbon-fiber composite-material wrap. Through proper choice of the composite layup, it is possible to exploit the high longitudinal conductivity of the carbon fibers (greater than the thermal conductivity of copper) to minimize the unevenness of the temperature distribution over the tank surface, thereby helping to maximize the overall heat-transfer efficiency. In a prototype of the system, the heat pipe and the composite wrap contribute an average mass of 340 g/sq m of radiator area. Lightweight space radiator panels have a mass of about 3,000 g/sq m of radiator area, so this technique saves almost 90 percent of the mass of separate radiator panels. In tests, the modified surface of the tank was found to have an emissivity of 0

  2. Leaking Underground Storage Tank (LUST) Trust Fund

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 1986, Congress created the Leaking Underground Storage Tank (LUST) Trust Fund to address releases from federally regulated underground storage tanks (USTs) by amending Subtitle I of the Solid Waste Disposal Act.

  3. 14 CFR 27.1013 - Oil tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Oil tanks. 27.1013 Section 27.1013... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Oil System § 27.1013 Oil tanks. Each oil tank must be... space of not less than the greater of 10 percent of the tank capacity or 0.5 gallon, and where used...

  4. Change on storage quality of edible oil in different specification of tank%不同规格罐体内食用植物油储存品质变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱丽琼; 朱启思; 吴秋婷; 曾彩虹; 邓常继

    2015-01-01

    The related indicators of edible oil quality during storage were monitored to compare the change of the oil quality,including peanut oil,soybean oil,rapeseed oil,stored in non -standard oil tank with standard oil tank.The results showed that the quality of peanut oil stored in non -standard tank was bet-ter than stored in standard tank.With stored in non -standard tank,the quality of soybean oil and rape-seed oil,was better than peanut oil.%监测食用油储存期间相关指标,对存放在标准油罐与非标油罐花生油的品质变化进行研究,非标罐中花生油、大豆油、油菜籽油的品质变化进行比较。结果表明非标准油罐存放的花生油品质好于标准罐存放;同是非标油罐存放,大豆油和油菜籽油储存品质优于花生油储存品质。

  5. 19 CFR 151.44 - Storage tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Storage tanks. 151.44 Section 151.44 Customs... Storage tanks. (a) Plans and gauge tables. When petroleum or petroleum products subject to duty at a specific rate per barrel are imported in bulk in tank vessels and are to be transferred into shore...

  6. Fault Tree Analysis of Fire and Explosion in Oil Storage Tank%油库储油罐火灾爆炸事故树分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周绍杰

    2013-01-01

    Large quantity of oil in oil storage tank is highly flammable and explosive.If any accident happens,consequences are beyond measure.According to characteristics of broad area of the security management in oil storage tank,and by analysis of the influencing factors and conditions related to fire and explosion accident in the oil storage tank,integrated fault tree model is established.The logical relationship between the accident and the basic events is clarified by carrying out qualitative analysis,while the structure importance factors of the basic events are ranked by carrying out quantitative analysis.Therefore the emphasis part in which there is potential of fire and explosion is found,and reasonable strategy for setting the security monitoring points is worked out.The results can provide basic for decision-marking of informational application in security management.%油库储油罐储存的油料具有易燃易爆性且存储量大,一旦发生事故后果严重.针对油库储油罐安全管理点多面广的特点,分析储油罐火灾爆炸事故的相关影响因素和条件,建立完善的事故树模型.通过定性分析理清火灾爆炸事故与基本事件的逻辑关系,定量分析获得顶上事件发生的概率和各基本事件的结构重要度顺序,找出储油罐存在火灾爆炸事故隐患的重点部位,制订科学合理的安全信息监控点策略,为油库安全管理手段向信息化迈进,预防事故的发生提供决策依据.

  7. Pad B Liquid Hydrogen Storage Tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Felicia

    2007-01-01

    Kennedy Space Center is home to two liquid hydrogen storage tanks, one at each launch pad of Launch Complex 39. The liquid hydrogen storage tank at Launch Pad B has a significantly higher boil off rate that the liquid hydrogen storage tank at Launch Pad A. This research looks at various calculations concerning the at Launch Pad B in an attempt to develop a solution to the excess boil off rate. We will look at Perlite levels inside the tank, Boil off rates, conductive heat transfer, and radiant heat transfer through the tank. As a conclusion to the research, we will model the effects of placing an external insulation to the tank in order to reduce the boil off rate and increase the economic efficiency of the liquid hydrogen storage tanks.

  8. 某10万m3钢储罐罐体变形的修复措施%The Rectification Methodof 100,000 m3 Steel Oil Storage Tank Wall Deformation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    应付钊; 丁伟

    2013-01-01

    The differential settlement of tank foundation or low quality tank erection will cause wall deformation of steel oil storage tank, the low quality tank erection will have greater effect on the lifting of floating roof than the differential settlement of tank foundation. In the paper, the reason causing wall deformation and rectification method were introduced, some questions that need considered during steel oil storage tank erection and high pressure filling method of cavity which is between tank bottom plate and tank foundation were pointed. Finally, some referable conclusions are obtained.%地基不均匀沉降和安装不当均会引起钢储罐罐体变形,安装不当引起的罐体变形比罐基础不均匀沉降造成的罐体变形对浮船升降影响可能更大.通过对某10万m3钢储罐产生罐壁变形的原因分析和纠偏措施介绍,提出了一些大型储罐在安装过程中应注意的问题,给出了罐体顶升后间隙采用高压吹填的处理措施,对同类工程设计有一定的借鉴意义.

  9. Compartmentalized storage tank for electrochemical cell system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piecuch, Benjamin Michael (Inventor); Dalton, Luke Thomas (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A compartmentalized storage tank is disclosed. The compartmentalized storage tank includes a housing, a first fluid storage section disposed within the housing, a second fluid storage section disposed within the housing, the first and second fluid storage sections being separated by a movable divider, and a constant force spring. The constant force spring is disposed between the housing and the movable divider to exert a constant force on the movable divider to cause a pressure P1 in the first fluid storage section to be greater than a pressure P2 in the second fluid storage section, thereby defining a pressure differential.

  10. Comparative safety analysis of LNG storage tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fecht, B.A.; Gates, T.E.; Nelson, K.O.; Marr, G.D.

    1982-07-01

    LNG storage tank design and response to selected release scenarios were reviewed. The selection of the scenarios was based on an investigation of potential hazards as cited in the literature. A review of the structure of specific LNG storage facilities is given. Scenarios initially addressed included those that most likely emerge from the tank facility itself: conditions of overfill and overflow as related to liquid LNG content levels; over/underpressurization at respective tank vapor pressure boundaries; subsidence of bearing soil below tank foundations; and crack propagation in tank walls due to possible exposure of structural material to cryogenic temperatures. Additional scenarios addressed include those that result from external events: tornado induced winds and pressure drops; exterior tank missile impact with tornado winds and rotating machinery being the investigated mode of generation; thermal response due to adjacent fire conditions; and tank response due to intense seismic activity. Applicability of each scenario depended heavily on the specific tank configurations and material types selected. (PSB)

  11. World`s largest underground oil storage tank in Akita; Akita ni 450 man kl sekiyu bichiku kichi kansei majika (sekai saidai yoryo no chichushiki gen`yu tanku kichi kensetsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kojima, K. [The Univ., of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1995-01-15

    The Akita Oil Storage Base is consisted of the onshore facilities such as the western base (39 ha; storage capacity 1.66 million kl) filled by earth in 1979, and the eastern base (71 ha; storage capacity 2.82 million kl) filled by earth in this project, as well as, the shipping/receiving facility of 180,000DWT class berth constructed in the offshore about 1 km to south and so forth. Out of them, the oil in was executed in the western base in November 1989, and in the 1st phase of the eastern base in December 1992 respectively, and they are already in operation. In addition currently, the underground tank of the 2nd phase construction work in the eastern base is nearly in completion, an appurtenant work are being advanced towards the oil in scheduled in July 1995. The underground tank in this base is the 1st structure in Japan as the tank installed insides the rockmass. In this project, by performing the effective utilization of the great quantity of an excavated rock, as well as, the organically systematized informatics execution of a design, execution and measurement, total work were advanced safer and more economically, and as a consequence the oil storage base with the underground tank of the maximum capacity in the world is in close to completion. 7 figs.

  12. Application of Mechanical Cleaning Method of Crude Oil Storage Tank%机械方法清理原油储罐的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴笛; 李文辉; 马小兵

    2014-01-01

    通过对人工及机械方法清理原油储罐的特点进行对比分析,提出了机械清理方法的原理及方法。通过试验研究发现,机械清理方法在安全性、环境保护、节约能源及成本控制等方面具有突出的优势。%By way of artificial and mechanical characteristics of crude oil storage tank cleaning comparative analysis of mechanical cleaning methods proposed principles and methods,the study found that mechanical cleaning methods,in safety,environmental protection,energy conserva-tion,cost control,has outstanding advantages.

  13. Underground storage tank management plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-09-01

    The Underground Storage Tank (UST) Management Program at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant was established to locate UST systems in operation at the facility, to ensure that all operating UST systems are free of leaks, and to establish a program for the removal of unnecessary UST systems and upgrade of UST systems that continue to be needed. The program implements an integrated approach to the management of UST systems, with each system evaluated against the same requirements and regulations. A common approach is employed, in accordance with Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) regulations and guidance, when corrective action is mandated. This Management Plan outlines the compliance issues that must be addressed by the UST Management Program, reviews the current UST inventory and compliance approach, and presents the status and planned activities associated with each UST system. The UST Management Plan provides guidance for implementing TDEC regulations and guidelines for petroleum UST systems. (There are no underground radioactive waste UST systems located at Y-12.) The plan is divided into four major sections: (1) regulatory requirements, (2) implementation requirements, (3) Y-12 Plant UST Program inventory sites, and (4) UST waste management practices. These sections describe in detail the applicable regulatory drivers, the UST sites addressed under the Management Program, and the procedures and guidance used for compliance with applicable regulations.

  14. Leaking Underground Storage Tank Sites in Iowa

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Leaking Underground Storage Tank (LUST) sites where petroleum contamination has been found. There may be more than one LUST site per UST site.

  15. Hanford Site Waste Storage Tank Information Notebook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Husa, E.I.; Raymond, R.E.; Welty, R.K.; Griffith, S.M.; Hanlon, B.M.; Rios, R.R.; Vermeulen, N.J.

    1993-07-01

    This report provides summary data on the radioactive waste stored in underground tanks in the 200 East and West Areas at the Hanford Site. The summary data covers each of the existing 161 Series 100 underground waste storage tanks (500,000 gallons and larger). It also contains information on the design and construction of these tanks. The information in this report is derived from existing reports that document the status of the tanks and their materials. This report also contains interior, surface photographs of each of the 54 Watch List tanks, which are those tanks identified as Priority I Hanford Site Tank Farm Safety Issues in accordance with Public Law 101-510, Section 3137*.

  16. Justification of parameters and selection of equipment for laboratory researches of a rammer's operating element dynamics in a soil foundation of a tank for oil and oil products storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruzin, A. V.; Gruzin, V. V.; Shalay, V. V.

    2017-08-01

    The development of technology for a directional soil compaction of tank foundations for oil and oil products storage is a relevant problem which solution will enable simultaneously provide required operational characteristics of a soil foundation and reduce time and material costs to prepare the foundation. The impact dynamics of rammers' operating elements on the soil foundation is planned to specify in the course of laboratory studies. A specialized technique is developed to justify the parameters and select the equipment for laboratory researches. The usage of this technique enabled us to calculate dimensions of the models, of a test bench and specifications of the recording equipment, and a lighting system. The necessary equipment for laboratory studies was selected. Preliminary laboratory tests were carried out. The estimate of accuracy for planned laboratory studies was given.

  17. Numerical Simulation of Heating System of Crude Oil Storage Tank Based on Solar Energy%基于太阳能的原油储罐加热系统数值模拟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹松

    2011-01-01

    The application prospects of the heating system of crude oil storage tanks based on solar energy and the heat transfer processes were analyzed, the numerical model of the heating system of crude oil storage tanks based on solar energy was established, the solar energy was simplified as the temperature distribution of the absorber plates, and then was analyzed by CFD software.The results show that: 1 ) because of the density differences caused by the heterogeneity of temperature distribution, it became the driving power of water flow form water tank to the water pipe inside the crude oil storage tank;2) after a long time of heating by solar energy,the temperature inside the crude oil storage tanks improves, but the temperature differences between daytime and night increase gradually; 3 )there are vortexes inside the crude oil storage tank, which indicates convection heat transfer efficiency of solar heating system and the convection heat transfer effect between cold and hot crude oil are influenced by water delivery pipe and its layout.%分析基于太阳能的原油储罐加热系统的应用前景.分析其传热过程,建立基于太阳能的原油储罐加热系统数学模型,将太阳能简化为集热板平面的温度分布,利用CFD软件对其进行数值模拟.研究结果表明:(1)由于水温分布的不均匀性造成的密度差成为水由水箱流向储罐内输水管进行流动加热原油的动力.(2)经长时间加热,原油储罐内的温度有所提升,但白天与夜间的原油储罐温差逐渐加大.(3)输水管及其布置会影响太阳能加热系统的对流换热和冷热原油间的对流换热效果.

  18. 40 CFR 280.230 - Operating an underground storage tank or underground storage tank system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... underground storage tank or underground storage tank system. (a) Operating an UST or UST system prior to...) Operating an UST or UST system after foreclosure. The following provisions apply to a holder who, through..., the purchaser must decide whether to operate or close the UST or UST system in accordance...

  19. 49 CFR 193.2181 - Impoundment capacity: LNG storage tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Impoundment capacity: LNG storage tanks. 193.2181... Impoundment capacity: LNG storage tanks. Each impounding system serving an LNG storage tank must have a minimum volumetric liquid impoundment capacity of: (a) 110 percent of the LNG tank's maximum...

  20. Comprehensive management of hydrocarbon storage tanks ageing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lesueur, V.; Riethmuller, M.; Chauveau, D. [IS Services, Villepinte (France)

    2006-07-01

    Corrosion generates considerable material losses in industry and can result in irreversible damages to the environment and some times in losses in human lives. Hydrocarbon storage tanks are subject to various corrosion types like generalised corrosion resulting in large areas thickness reduction, or potentially dangerous local damage (pitting, crevice or craters). To keep safe storage conditions and save service life, it is essential: - to identify the risks by taking into account the stored products, the storage type, the environmental factors, the type of coating and the storage history, - to select the most appropriate NDT technique (acoustic emission, thickness ultrasonic measurement, TOFD, ACFM, visual inspection, remote UT..) depending on the part to be inspected and on the expected type of damage, - to propose the best solution for storage tank restoration (repair, improved protection..) - to modify the operating conditions - to define the NDT periodicity and the appropriate technique to apply according to the type of risks, to the former inspection results and to the regulation context, - to determine the remaining life of storage tank. This approach is named Comprehensive Management of hydrocarbon storage tank ageing. IS Services has developed a software called ''AGIR'' aiming at providing guidance and support to apply this approach. (orig.)

  1. Petroleum storage tank cleaning using commercial microbial culture products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, D.R.; Entzeroth, L.C.; Timmis, A.; Whiteside, A.; Hoskins, B.C.

    1995-12-31

    The removal of paraffinic bottom accumulations from refinery storage tanks represents an increasingly costly area of petroleum storage management. Microorganisms can be used to reduce paraffinic bottoms by increasing the solubility of bottom material and by increasing the wax-carrying capacity of carrier oil used in the cleaning process. The economic savings of such treatments are considerable. The process is also intrinsically safer than alternative methods, as it reduces and even eliminates the need for personnel to enter the tank during the cleaning process. Both laboratory and field sample analyses can be used to document changes in tank material during the treatment process. These changes include increases in volatile content and changes in wax distribution. Several case histories illustrating these physical and chemical changes are presented along with the economics of treatment.

  2. 水下储油舱保温性能及温度传感器安装位置研究%Study of Underwater Oil Storage Tank Insulation Performance and Temperature Transmitter Placement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛德栋; 李艳; 徐兴平; 张辛

    2013-01-01

    水下储油舱具有抗风浪、防爆等优点,在海洋石油开采中得到了较多的应用.为了避免原油凝结,为水下储油舱设计了保温装置.在该储油舱内布置传感器,利用FLUENT软件研究舱内多个点的温度随时间变化规律,并得到了储油舱内温度场分布,验证了保温装置的可靠性.对温度传感器安装位置进行优化,保证了温度监测数据的正确性.%Endowed with advantages of anti-wave and anti-explosion,the underwater oil storage tank has been applied greatly in the offshore petroleum exploitation.In order to avoid crude condensation,an attemperator is designed in the underwater oil storage tank.And a sensor,arranged in the underwater oil storage tank,can use the FLUENT software can be used to study the rule of temperature change for multiple places in this tank over time.Therefore,the temperature field distribution of this tank is gathered and the reliability of the attemperator is verified consequently.At the same time,optimizing the installation location of the temperature transmitter can ensure the correctness of the temperature monitoring data.

  3. Study on Characteristics of Cracking Leakage of Large Oil Storage Tanks%大型油罐破裂泄漏特征研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘强; 王建华; 赵泽霖; 蒲家琦; 余东城; 罗朔

    2015-01-01

    Based on the statistics of the tank rupture accidents, the tank crackingcharacteristics and oil leakage flow distributionwere analyzed. According to the statistics of accidents, three typical formsof tank rupture were summarized,the location and reason of the oil tank crack were established. Consequences of the accident were analyzed, and the tank crackingleakage process was divided into two stages,theirflow field characteristics were researched respectively. With flat flow critical Reynolds number as the criterion, several Reynoldsnumbers of common oil for oil farm were calculated. It was concluded that the flowfieldof majority oil leakage was fully developed turbulence flow.%统计了多起油罐破裂事故,并对油罐破裂特征及油品泄漏流场进行分析。通过事故案例统计,总结了三种典型的油罐破裂形式,得到了油罐易发生破裂的位置及原因。对事故案例后果进行分析,将油罐破裂泄漏过程分为两个阶段,并分别对其流场特性进行研究。以平板流动临界雷诺数为判定准则,对油库常见油品泄漏流动雷诺数进行计算,得出泄漏油品的流态绝大多数为完全发展的湍流。

  4. Efficient Maintenance Scheduler for Near Optimum Utilization of Oil Tanks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fawaz S. Al-Anzi

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the entry of Kuwait into WTO and the expected liberalization of petroleum management, the oil market is to become more competitive. However, the space limitation and public increasing awareness of environmental protection issues and stricter regulation passed by Environmental Public Authority (EPA in Kuwait make the need for full utilization of oil tanks a prime requirement of a successful oil business. In order to help oil companies to achieve this and maximize revenues by increasing the availability of tanks, an efficient maintenance scheduling is needed. This study introduces a new hybrid evolutionary algorithm and its implantation for solving real-world problem of oil storage tanks. The algorithm incorporates the American Petroleum Institute (API standard 650 for open inspection procedure to produce a near optimal schedule for maintenance though continuously preserving a population diversity that ensures solution quality and convergence efficiency. The computational results show that the proposed evolutionary algorithm outperforms existing scheduler in literature and produces a higher quality solution which means better revenues though more operational tanks and more environmental protection though maximizing the utilization of existing tanks and less new tanks to build.

  5. Safety of atmospheric storage tanks during accidental explosions

    OpenAIRE

    Noret, E.; Prod'Homme, Gaëtan; Yalamas, Thierry; Reimeringer, Mathieu; Hanus, Jean-Luc; Duong, Duy-Hung

    2012-01-01

    International audience; The occurrence of a chain reaction from blast on atmospheric storage tanks in oil and chemical facilities is hard to predict. The current French practice for SEVESO facilities ignores projectiles and assumes a critical peak overpressure value observed from accident data. This method could lead to conservative or dangerous assessments. This study presents various simple mechanical models to facilitate quick effective assessment of risk analysis, the results of which are...

  6. Risk assessment of Kermanshah gas storage tanks by energy trace and barrier analysis (2014)

    OpenAIRE

    M. Ghanbari Kakavandi; F. Rajati; H. Ashtarian; SY. Hosseini

    2016-01-01

    Background: Despite the cost and millions loss of life due to industrial accidents, often are preventable through risk assessment methods and control measures. Objective: To assess the safety of gas storage tanks in Kermanshah oil refinery by Energy Trace and Barrier Analysis (ETBA). Methods: This case-descriptive study was conducted in gas storage tanks of Kermanshah oil refinery. Energy checklist was used for identification of energy types. Energy flows were tracked and then, manageme...

  7. 槽式太阳能系统导热油储罐的散热特性%Heat-dissipation characteristics of storage tank for heat conducting oil in trough solar energy system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王康; 陆建峰; 丁静; 杨建平

    2013-01-01

    The heat-dissipation characteristics of heat conducting oil storage tank in trough solar energy system was experimentally investigated.Its dissipation amount would the heat loss of storage drop with the oil temperature decreasing,and the tank outer wall temperature was remarkably dependent upon the tank structure and environment temperature.Therefore,a calculation method for heat loss was proposed based on the average temperature of tank outer wall surface.The thermal resistance of the tank includes the resistance of insulation layer inside the tank and the resistance of the radiation and natural convection outside the tank.According to the experimental result and the calculation one,the heat transfer correlations of the insulation layer inside the tank,thermal loss correlation of outer wall radiation,and natural convection heat dissipation correlation outside the tank were presented,providing basic data for investigation of thermal storage in trough solar energy system.%实验研究槽式太阳能系统中导热油储罐的散热特性.储罐散热量随导热油降温而逐渐减小,储罐外壁面温度受储罐结构和环境温度影响很大,由此提出以储罐外壁表面平均温度为基础的热损失计算方法.储罐总热阻包括罐内保温层和罐外热阻,罐外热阻主要由辐射和自然对流组成.结合实验结果与表面平均温度计算法,提出罐内保温层传热关联式、储罐外壁辐射热损失关联武、罐外大空间自然对流散热关联式,为槽武太阳能储热系统的研究提供基础数据.

  8. Earthquake resistant design of rock oil tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamada, M.; Iwano, M.; Izumi, H.; Shiba, Y.; Sugihara, Y.

    1983-01-01

    In order to establish a rational procedure of the earthquake resistant design of large rock caverns, such as oil storage tanks on nuclear power plants, experimental and numerical studies were conducted. Dynamic strains during earthquakes were observed on the lining of a railway tunnel constructed in a hard rock mountain, while the seismic motion in the surrounding rock was examined precisely. The observation clarified that the lining strain of the tunnel was linearly and statically related to the rock strain and the ratio of the lining strain to the rock strain was dominated by the relative stiffness of the lining and rock. Based on the results of the earthquake observation, numerical models were proposed for the estimation of the dynamic strains of rock caverns. A good agreement between the calculated strains and the observed ones assured the adequacy of the numerical models.

  9. Seed storage oil mobilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Ian A

    2008-01-01

    Storage oil mobilization starts with the onset of seed germination. Oil bodies packed with triacylglycerol (TAG) exist in close proximity with glyoxysomes, the single membrane-bound organelles that house most of the biochemical machinery required to convert fatty acids derived from TAG to 4-carbon compounds. The 4-carbon compounds in turn are converted to soluble sugars that are used to fuel seedling growth. Biochemical analysis over the last 50 years has identified the main pathways involved in this process, including beta-oxidation, the glyoxylate cycle, and gluconeogenesis. In the last few years molecular genetic dissection of the overall process in the model oilseed species Arabidopsis has provided new insight into its complexity, particularly with respect to the specific role played by individual enzymatic steps and the subcellular compartmentalization of the glyoxylate cycle. Both abscisic acid (ABA) and sugars inhibit storage oil mobilization and a substantial degree of the control appears to operate at the transcriptional level.

  10. Energy Policy Act of 2005 and Underground Storage Tanks (USTs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Energy Policy Act of 2005 significantly affected federal and state underground storage tank programs, required major changes to the programs, and is aimed at reducing underground storage tank releases to our environment.

  11. 40 CFR 279.45 - Used oil storage at transfer facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements of this subpart. Used oil transporters are also subject to the Underground Storage Tank (40 CFR part 280) standards for used oil stored in underground tanks whether or not the used oil exhibits any... facilities including loading docks, parking areas, storage areas, and other areas where shipments of used...

  12. Cryogenic Storage Tank Non-Destructive Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arens, Ellen

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the work in non-destructive evaluation (NDE) of cryogenic storage tanks. Four large cryogenic tanks, constructed in 1965 with perlite insulation in the annular regions, are of concern. The construction of the tanks, two Liquid Oxygen (LOX) and two Liquid Hydrogen (LH2), are described. The loss rate for the LOX tank at Pad A is slightly higher than that for the one at Pad B. The concerns for the LH2 tank at Pad B are that there is a significantly higher boil-off rate than that at Pad A, that there is mold growth, indicative of increased heat flow, that there is a long down-time needed for repairs, and that 3 of 5 full thermal cycles have been used on the Pad B LH2 tank. The advantages and disadvantages of thermal imaging are given. A detailed description of what is visible of the structures in the infra-red is given and views of the thermal images are included. Missing Perlite is given as the probable cause of the cold spot on the Pad B LH2 tank. There is no indications of problematic cold regions on the Pad A LH2 tank, as shown by the thermal images given in the presentation. There is definite indication of a cold region on the Pad A LOX tank. There is however concerns with thermal imaging, as thermal images can be significantly effected by environmental conditions, image differences on similar days but with different wind speeds. Other effects that must be considered include ambient temperature, humidity levels/dew, and cloud reflections

  13. 7 CFR 58.321 - Cream storage tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cream storage tanks. 58.321 Section 58.321 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards....321 Cream storage tanks. Cream storage tanks shall meet the requirements of § 58.128(d). Cream...

  14. Underground Storage Tanks - UST_IDEM_IN: Underground Storage Tanks in Indiana (Indiana Department of Environmental Management, Point Shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — UST_IDEM_IN is a point shapefile that contains regulated underground storage tank locations (including leaking underground storage tanks) in Indiana, provided by...

  15. Development of an energy storage tank model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Robert Christopher

    A linearized, one-dimensional finite difference model employing an implicit finite difference method for energy storage tanks is developed, programmed with MATLAB, and demonstrated for different applications. A set of nodal energy equations is developed by considering the energy interactions on a small control volume. The general method of solving these equations is described as are other features of the simulation program. Two modeling applications are presented: the first using a hot water storage tank with a solar collector and an absorption chiller to cool a building in the summer, the second using a molten salt storage system with a solar collector and steam power plant to generate electricity. Recommendations for further study as well as all of the source code generated in the project are also provided.

  16. DETERMINATION OF ECONOMIC SIZES FOR RC CYLINDRICAL WATER STORAGE TANKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Güneş KOZLUCA

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Water storage tanks are built in different shapes and sizes according to needs. Designs of water storage tanks with low costs are quite important for the national economy. Cylindrical and sphere tanks are the most economic types of tanks in terms of material cost. In this study several cylindrical tank designs are made. Then most economic tank radius – tank height ratio is searched by simply changing thickness, height and the radius of the tank considered. Storage capacity of these cylindrical tanks are all the same. All these reinforced tanks have cylindrical reinforced concrete walls fixed at the bottom and free top edge without roof. It is thought that tanks constructed with this optimal ratio will be beneficial.

  17. Fluid damping of cylindrical liquid storage tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habenberger, Joerg

    2015-01-01

    A method is proposed in order to calculate the damping effects of viscous fluids in liquid storage tanks subjected to earthquakes. The potential equation of an ideal fluid can satisfy only the boundary conditions normal to the surface of the liquid. To satisfy also the tangential interaction conditions between liquid and tank wall and tank bottom, the potential flow is superimposed by a one-dimensional shear flow. The shear flow in this boundary layer yields to a decrease of the mechanical energy of the shell-liquid-system. A damping factor is derived from the mean value of the energy dissipation in time. Depending on shell geometry and fluid viscosity, modal damping ratios are calculated for the convective component.

  18. Environment Risk Analysis on Fire Accident of Crude Oil Storage Tank%原油储罐火灾事故环境风险评价分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李冬梅

    2012-01-01

    By using the ADMS model, in this paper, the environmental influence of toxic and harmful gas emissions and associated/secondary pollution is forecasted during fire & explosion accident of 2 × 104m3 crude oil storage tank. The results show that it has a great influence on environment, under the condition of 6 h burning, the produced gas pollutants will cause half people die within 120 m of the accident center, hypoxia in the range of 120-240 m, and won't cause life risk in the range of 240-4 725m. Pollutants concentration at 4 725 m will exceed the maximum value of workshop limit value. Corresponding management measures for the environment risks are put forward. It provides reference for the environmental impact assessment of alike accidents, and the management of environmental protection agencies in the future.%通过运用ADMS模型,对2万m3原油储罐发生火灾爆炸事故时有毒有害气体及燃烧次生污染物的环境影响进行预测.结果表明,其产生的废气污染物对环境影响较大;在火灾持续6h的情况下,产生的主要废气污染物在距离事故中心120m范围内的人员将有半数死亡;距120~240m范围内造成组织缺氧;距240~4725 m人员不会有生命危险;距离4725m范围内污染物的浓度超出车间最高允许浓度要求.同时提出了相应的环境风险管理措施,为今后类似事故环境影响评价作借鉴,为环保部门环境管理提供参考.

  19. Computer modeling of ORNL storage tank sludge mobilization and mixing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terrones, G.; Eyler, L.L.

    1993-09-01

    This report presents and analyzes the results of the computer modeling of mixing and mobilization of sludge in horizontal, cylindrical storage tanks using submerged liquid jets. The computer modeling uses the TEMPEST computational fluid dynamics computer program. The horizontal, cylindrical storage tank configuration is similar to the Melton Valley Storage Tanks (MVST) at Oak Ridge National (ORNL). The MVST tank contents exhibit non-homogeneous, non-Newtonian rheology characteristics. The eventual goals of the simulations are to determine under what conditions sludge mobilization using submerged liquid jets is feasible in tanks of this configuration, and to estimate mixing times required to approach homogeneity of the contents of the tanks.

  20. Study of large oil storage tank zone fire risk forecast and early warning technology%大型石油储罐区火灾风险预测预警技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晅亚; 张清林; 秘义行; 许晓元

    2012-01-01

    According to the characteristics of the large-scale storage working equipments and process in large oil storage tank zone, based on the analysis of key equipments' leakages, fires, explosion and other disaster scenes and accident evolution model in the tank areas, the effect factors of the tanks area fire risk and fire & explosion accidents hazards were studied through the statistics and analysis of the typical petroleum tank zone fire accidents cases. Depending on the characteristics of different typical fire and explosion accidents scenarios, using the information technologies (GIS geographic information system, RS remote sensing and telemetry systems, etc. ) and remote singles moni-tor technologies, the large-scale oil storage tank area fire risk forecasting and early warning technology system were proposed. The status parameters of dangerous materials and process equipments can be carried out with real time measurement and monitoring. It can be realized to intergrade the fire risk dynamic analysis and evaluation, detection and monitoring, disasters prediction and early warning, including system dynamic decision-making, comprehensive coordination, emergency response, by which to improve the fire fighting forces prevention and control of large oil storage tank fire, disaster forecast and early warning signs, and level of technical capacity in order to achieve the dynamic security management of the storage tank area fire risk.%针对目前我国大型石油储罐区储运工艺特点与作业条件,通过对典型石油储罐区火灾事故案例的统计与分析,在对罐区关键设备与工艺设施泄漏、火灾、爆炸特性以及事散场景与灾害演化模式分析的基础上,对石油储运罐区火灾风险影响因素以及罐区火灾、爆炸事故危险性进行研究.根据典型的火灾、爆炸事故场景特点,基于信息技术(GIS地理信息系统、RS遥感遥测系统等)与远程信号动态监测技术,提出大型石油储罐区

  1. Chemical Safety Alert: Catastrophic Failure of Storage Tanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboveground, atmospheric storage tanks can fail when flammable vapors in the tank explode and break either the shell-to-bottom or side seam, resulting in hazardous release accidents. Proper maintenance practices can help prevent accidents.

  2. 100-N Area underground storage tank closures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowley, C.A.

    1993-08-01

    This report describes the removal/characterization actions concerning underground storage tanks (UST) at the 100-N Area. Included are 105-N-LFT, 182-N-1-DT, 182-N-2-DT, 182-N-3-DT, 100-N-SS-27, and 100-N-SS-28. The text of this report gives a summary of remedial activities. In addition, correspondence relating to UST closures can be found in Appendix B. Appendix C contains copies of Unusual Occurrence Reports, and validated sampling data results comprise Appendix D.

  3. 33 CFR 157.17 - Oil residue (sludge) tank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... tons or more must have a tank that receives and holds oil residue resulting from purification of fuel... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Oil residue (sludge) tank. 157.17...) POLLUTION RULES FOR THE PROTECTION OF THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK...

  4. 46 CFR 169.234 - Integral fuel oil tank examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Integral fuel oil tank examinations. 169.234 Section 169... VESSELS Inspection and Certification Drydocking Or Hauling Out § 169.234 Integral fuel oil tank examinations. (a) Each fuel oil tank with at least one side integral to the vessel's hull and located within...

  5. 75 FR 70241 - Compatibility of Underground Storage Tank Systems With Biofuel Blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-17

    ... AGENCY Compatibility of Underground Storage Tank Systems With Biofuel Blends AGENCY: Environmental... tank (UST) compatibility requirement as it applies to UST systems storing gasoline containing greater... underground storage tank systems greater clarity in demonstrating compatibility of their tank systems...

  6. Mathematical Model Based on BP Neural Network Algorithm for the Deflection Identification of Storage Tank and Calibration of Tank Capacity Chart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caihong Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The tank capacity chart calibration problem of two oil tanks with deflection was studied, one of which is an elliptical cylinder storage tank with two truncated ends and another is a cylinder storage tank with two spherical crowns. Firstly, the function relation between oil reserve and oil height based on the integral method was precisely deduced, when the storage tank has longitudinal inclination but has no deflection. Secondly, the nonlinear optimization model which has both longitudinal inclination parameter α and lateral deflection parameter β was constructed, using cut-complement method and approximate treatment method. Then the deflection tank capacity chart calibration with a 10 cm oil level height interval was worked out. Lastly, the tank capacity chart was corrected by BP neural network algorithm and got proportional error of theoretical and experimental measurements ranges from 0% to 0.00015%. Experimental results demonstrated that the proposed method has better performance in terms of tank capacity chart calibration accuracy compared with other existing approaches and has a strongly practical significance.

  7. 49 CFR 193.2623 - Inspecting LNG storage tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Inspecting LNG storage tanks. 193.2623 Section 193.2623 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS... GAS FACILITIES: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Maintenance § 193.2623 Inspecting LNG storage tanks. Each...

  8. Permanent Closure of the TAN-664 Underground Storage Tank

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley K. Griffith

    2011-12-01

    This closure package documents the site assessment and permanent closure of the TAN-664 gasoline underground storage tank in accordance with the regulatory requirements established in 40 CFR 280.71, 'Technical Standards and Corrective Action Requirements for Owners and Operators of Underground Storage Tanks: Out-of-Service UST Systems and Closure.'

  9. 40 CFR 52.1931 - Petroleum storage tank controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Petroleum storage tank controls. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Oklahoma § 52.1931 Petroleum... plan, the petroleum storage tanks listed in paragraphs (b) through (e) of this section shall be subject...

  10. A robotic end effector for inspection of storage tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, G.; Gittleman, M. [Oceaneering Space Systems, Houston, TX (United States)

    1995-10-01

    The structural integrity of waste storage tanks is of primary importance to the DOE, and is one aspect of the High-Level Waste Tank Remediation focus area. Cracks and/or corrosion damage in the inner tank walls can lead to the release of dangerous substances into the environment. The detection and sizing of corrosion and cracking in steel tank walls through remote non destructive evaluation (NDE) is the primary focus of this work.

  11. 航空燃油罐区火灾风险分析与消防安全设计%Fire Hazard Analysis and Safety Design of Aviation Oil Storage Tank Farm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李国军

    2012-01-01

    基于航空燃油物化性质与储存过程特点,分析了航空燃油罐区潜在的火灾危险性及火灾特点,如油品燃烧过程热值高,辐射热强,以及燃烧与爆炸相互转化等。并对某国内航空公司航空燃油罐区进行了消防安全核算。%Based on the physical and chemical properties of aviation oil and the characteristics of storage process,the potential of fire hazard and its features are analyzed,e.g.higher combustion heat value,larger radiation heat and mutual transformation of combustion and explosion,etc.A safety design for a domestic jet fuel tank farm is proposed.

  12. Analysis of explosion accident of refinery oil storage tank fire risk and countermeasures%炼油厂储油罐火灾爆炸事故风险及防范对策分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王凡

    2015-01-01

    There are many kinds of fire and explosion accidents of oil storage tank in the refinery.According to different accidents,the technichs need to analysis their risks and give some prevention countermeasures. In order to guarantee the safety production and reduce the property loss,they also need to standard and manage the various security measures.%炼油厂储油罐发生火灾爆炸事故的种类很多,针对于不同的事故案例,需要进行相应的风险分析,给出防范对策,规范和管理好各种安全措施,消除事故隐患,保障了安全生产,减少财产损失。

  13. Hydrogen Peroxide Storage in Small Sealed Tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitehead, J.

    1999-10-20

    Unstabilized hydrogen peroxide of 85% concentration has been prepared in laboratory quantities for testing material compatibility and long term storage on a small scale. Vessels made of candidate tank and liner materials ranged in volume from 1 cc to 2540 cc. Numerous metals and plastics were tried at the smallest scales, while promising ones were used to fabricate larger vessels and liners. An aluminum alloy (6061-T6) performed poorly, including increasing homogeneous decay due to alloying elements entering solution. The decay rate in this high strength aluminum was greatly reduced by anodizing. Better results were obtained with polymers, particularly polyvinylidene fluoride. Data reported herein include ullage pressures as a function of time with changing decay rates, and contamination analysis results.

  14. Vehicular hydrogen storage using lightweight tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitlitsky, F; Weisberg, A H; Myers, B

    2000-07-22

    Lightweight hydrogen storage for vehicles is enabled by adopting and adapting aerospace tankage technology. The weight, volume, and cost are already acceptable and improving. Prototype tankage was demonstrated with 11.3% hydrogen by weight, 1.74 million inch (44.3 km) burst performance factor (P{sub b}V/W), and 3.77 kWh/kg specific energy for the tank and hydrogen (LHV). DOE cannot afford full scale aerospace development costs. For example, it costs many tens of $M to develop a rocket motor casing with a safety factor (SF) of 1.25. Large teams of experts are required to design, develop, and test new processes. Car companies are buying existing technology with only modest investments in research and development (R&D). The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) team is maximizing the leverage from DOE funding by joining with industry to solve technical risks at the component level. LLNL is developing fabrication processes with IMPCO Technologies, Thiokol Propulsion, and Aero Tec Laboratories (ATL). LLNL is creating commercial products that are close to adoption under DOE solicitation. LLNL is breaking ground to achieve greater than 10% hydrogen by weight tankage with safety that exceeds the requirements of NGV2 standards modified for hydrogen. Risk reduction is proceeding along three axes: (1) Commercializable products will be available next year with {approx}90% confidence; (2) R&D progress is pushing the envelope in lightweight tankage for vehicles; and (3) Integration challenges are being met with partners in industry and DOE demo programs. This project is a key part of LLNL's effort to develop high cycle life energy storage systems with >600 Wh/kg specific energy for various applications, including: high altitude long endurance solar rechargeable aircraft, zero emission vehicles, hybrid energy storage/propulsion systems for spacecraft, energy storage for premium power, remote power sources, and peak shaving.

  15. Storage tank materials for biodiesel blends; the analysis of fuel property changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Komariah Leily

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Fuel stability is one of major problem in biodiesel application. Some of the physical properties of biodiesel are commonly changed during storage. The change in physico-chemical properties is strongly correlated to the stability of the fuel. This study is objected to observe the potential materials for biodiesel storage. The test was conducted in three kinds of tank materials, such as glass, HDPE, and stainless steel. The fuel properties are monitored in 12 weeks, while the sample was analyzed every week. Biodiesel used is palm oil based. The storage tanks were placed in a confined indoor space with range of temperature 27–34 °C. The relative humidity and sunshine duration on the location was also evaluated. The observed properties of the fuel blends were density, viscosity and water content. During 12 weeks of storage, the average density of B20 was changed very slightly in all tanks, while the viscosity was tend to increase sharply, especially in polimerics tank. Water content of B20 was increased by the increase of storage time especially in HDPE tank. In short period of storage, the biodiesel blends is found more stable in glass tank due to its versatility to prohibit oxidation, degradation, and its chemical resistance.

  16. The electrostatic properties of Fiber-Reinforced-Plastics double wall underground storage gasoline tanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yipeng; Liu, Quanzhen; Meng, He; Sun, Lifu; Zhang, Yunpeng

    2013-03-01

    At present Fiber Reinforced Plastics (FRP) double wall underground storage gasoline tanks are wildly used. An FRP product with a resistance of more than 1011 Ω is a static non-conductor, so it is difficult for the static electricity in the FRP product to decay into the earth. In this paper an experimental system was built to simulate an automobile gasoline filling station. Some electrostatic parameters of the gasoline, including volume charge density, were tested when gasoline was unloaded into a FRP double wall underground storage tank. Measurements were taken to make sure the volume charge density in the oil-outlet was similar to the volume charge density in the tank. In most cases the volume charge density of the gasoline was more than 22.7 μC m-3, which is likely to cause electrostatic discharge in FRP double wall underground storage gasoline tanks. On the other hand, it would be hard to ignite the vapor by electrostatic discharge since the vapor pressure in the tanks is over the explosion limit. But when the tank is repaired or re-used, the operators must pay attention to the static electricity and some measurements should be taken to avoid electrostatic accident. Besides the relaxation time of charge in the FRP double wall gasoline storage tanks should be longer.

  17. Attenuating water hammer pressure by means of gas storage tank

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The basic equations for computing the volume of gas storage tank were derived from the principles of attenuating water hammer pressure. Verifications using experiments indicate that the proposed equation can provide a fare precision in the predictions. By using the model of solid-liquid two-phase flow, the gas storage tank, pressure-relief valves and slow-closure reverse-control valves were compared with practical engineering problems, and the functions of gas storage tank in attenuating water hammer pressure were further investigated.

  18. Glass Bubbles Insulation for Liquid Hydrogen Storage Tanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sass, J. P.; SaintCyr, W. W.; Barrett, T. M.; Baumgartner, R. G.; Lott, J. W.; Fesmire, J. E.

    2009-01-01

    A full-scale field application of glass bubbles insulation has been demonstrated in a 218,000 L liquid hydrogen storage tank. This work is the evolution of extensive materials testing, laboratory scale testing, and system studies leading to the use of glass bubbles insulation as a cost efficient and high performance alternative in cryogenic storage tanks of any size. The tank utilized is part of a rocket propulsion test complex at the NASA Stennis Space Center and is a 1960's vintage spherical double wall tank with an evacuated annulus. The original perlite that was removed from the annulus was in pristine condition and showed no signs of deterioration or compaction. Test results show a significant reduction in liquid hydrogen boiloff when compared to recent baseline data prior to removal of the perlite insulation. The data also validates the previous laboratory scale testing (1000 L) and full-scale numerical modeling (3,200,000 L) of boiloff in spherical cryogenic storage tanks. The performance of the tank will continue to be monitored during operation of the tank over the coming years. KEYWORDS: Glass bubble, perlite, insulation, liquid hydrogen, storage tank.

  19. Underground storage tank 511-D1U1 closure plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mancieri, S.; Giuntoli, N.

    1993-09-01

    This document contains the closure plan for diesel fuel underground storage tank 511-D1U1 and appendices containing supplemental information such as staff training certification and task summaries. Precision tank test data, a site health and safety plan, and material safety data sheets are also included.

  20. Indian Country Leaking Underground Storage Tanks, Region 9, 2016

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This GIS dataset contains point features that represent Leaking Underground Storage Tanks in US EPA Region 9 Indian Country. This dataset contains facility name and...

  1. Inspecting Underground Storage Tanks - 2005 Energy Policy Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    these grant guidelines implement the inspection provisions in Sections 9005(c)(1) and 9005(c)(2) of the Solid Waste Disposal Act, enacted by the Underground Storage Tank Compliance Act, part of the Energy Policy Act of 2005.

  2. Public Record About Underground Storage Tanks - 2005 Energy Policy Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    These grant guidelines implement the public record provision in Section 9002(d) of the Solid Waste Disposal Act, enacted by the Underground Storage Tank Compliance Act, part of the Energy Policy Act of 2005.

  3. Study of Heat Transfer in Ice-storage Tank

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anding He; Huanqun Qian; Zhihua Hu; Fangde Zhou

    2001-01-01

    The heat transfer process of ice formation on the outside of coil pipe in the ice storage tank with glycol solution as the second refrigerant was studied in this paper analytically and experimentally. A model was developed for the charging process and the conduction shape factor was applied. Also, the result obtained from the model was compared with the experimental data, both data were in agreement. The simple model is useful for the operation, design and optimization of the ice storage tank.

  4. PetroChina to Construct China's Largest Oil Storage Facility in Shanghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ PetroChina was planning to build China's largest commercial oil storage tanks, with the capacity for 1 million cubic meters (6.3 million barrels), according to the recent reports from China's news media.

  5. Use of aluminum oxides, titanium and cerium in the production of ceramic composites for protective coating of storage tanks and transportation of oil raw; Uso de oxidos de aluminio, titanio e cerio na producao de compositos ceramicos para revestimento protetor de tanques de armazenamento e transporte de petroleo cru

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rego, S.A.B.C.; Ferreira, R.A.S.; Yadava, Y.P., E-mail: sheila.abc.rego@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), PE (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia e Geociencias

    2012-07-01

    The deployment of the Abreu e Lima refinery in the port of SUAPE - PE will increase the need to store oil in the region, it is essential to research and develop new materials inert to chemical attack promoted by oil. In this work, we produce the ceramic composite alumina-titania, ceria of high mechanical strength which is observed that with additions of titanium oxide in the order of 15% and 20% better results are obtained as possibly indicating these composites suitable for use in coating ceramic storage tanks of crude oil. (author)

  6. Estimation of evaporative losses during storage of crude oil and petroleum products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihajlović Marina A.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Storage of crude oil and petroleum products inevitably leads to evaporative losses. Those losses are important for the industrial plants mass balances, as well as for the environmental protection. In this paper, estimation of evaporative losses was performed using software program TANKS 409d which was developed by the Agency for Environmental Protection of the United States - US EPA. Emissions were estimated for the following types of storage tanks: fixed conical roof tank, fixed dome roof tank, external floating roof tank, internal floating roof tank and domed external floating roof tank. Obtained results show quantities of evaporated losses per tone of stored liquid. Crude oil fixed roof storage tank losses are cca 0.5 kg per tone of crude oil. For floating roof, crude oil losses are 0.001 kg/t. Fuel oil (diesel fuel and heating oil have the smallest evaporation losses, which are in order of magnitude 10-3 kg/tone. Liquids with higher Reid Vapour Pressure have very high evaporative losses for tanks with fixed roof, up to 2.07 kg/tone. In case of external floating roof tank, losses are 0.32 kg/tone. The smallest losses are for internal floating roof tank and domed external floating roof tank: 0.072 and 0.044, respectively. Finally, it can be concluded that the liquid with low volatility of low BTEX amount can be stored in tanks with fixed roof. In this case, the prevailing economic aspect, because the total amount of evaporative loss does not significantly affect the environment. On the other hand, storage of volatile derivatives with high levels of BTEX is not justified from the economic point of view or from the standpoint of the environment protection.

  7. Evaluation of the problematic of corrosion in bottoms of tanks of crude oil storage; Evaluacion de la problematica de corrosion en fondos de tanques de almacenamiento de petroleo crudo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malo T, Jose M; Uruchurtu C, Jorge; Meza, Beatriz [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Lopez C, Luis F [Region Marina Suroeste, Pemex (Mexico)

    2003-07-01

    In this article the results related to the corrosive aggressiveness of the water fluids of crude oil of the Marine Terminal of Dos Bocas (TMDB), on the effectiveness of the anticorrosive control methods and on the control measures that could be adopted are presented. Also, this article comprises a work made by personnel of the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) during year 2002. The corrosion in tanks is of electrochemical nature and has its origin in the watery phase that accompanies the crude oil on being extracted from underground. In the case of the storage tanks, the watery phase separates at the bottom, causing the wetness of the bottom steel plates and its degradation. Due to the limited access to the interior of the tank during its operation, a testing device was designed that was connected to a drain valve of a tank of the terminal. The experimental work looked for the evaluation of the aggressiveness of the fluids, the type of corrosion products formed and the effectiveness of the cathodic protection and of the coatings. Additionally, fluid samples were collected, for analyzing the natural aggressiveness level that presents the water contained in the three types of crude: Mayan, Olmeca and Istmo handled in the terminal, studying steel samples and of plant fluids under controlled laboratory conditions. The aggressiveness was obtained from measurements of corrosion rates and analysis of microbial activity. The feasibility of applying the method of cathodic protection was analyzed, observing its effectiveness, as well as particular corrosion forms as the ones that occur in the pontoons. The results of the study lead to propose a monitoring scheme to pursuit the integrity of the coatings, the operation of the cathodic protection and the corrosion in tanks, with which a better control of the operation of the anticorrosive methods and of the degradation that occurs with the corrosion, could be obtained. [Spanish] En este trabajo se presentan

  8. Solar Storage Tank Insulation Influence on the Solar Systems Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negoitescu Arina

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available For the storage tank of a solar system for domestic hot water production was analyzed the insulation thickness and material influence. To this end, it was considered a private house, occupied by 3 persons, located in zone I of thermal radiation, for which has been simulated the domestic hot water production process. The tank outlet hot water temperature was considered of 45°C. For simulation purposes, as insulation materials for the storage tank were taking into account glass wool and polyurethane with various thicknesses. Finally, was carried out the comparative analysis of two types of tanks, in terms of the insulation thickness influence on the solar fraction, annual solar contribution and solar annual productivity. It resulted that polyurethane is the most advantageous from all points of view.

  9. The Assessment of Fire-fighting Capabilities under the Pool Fire of Large Crude Oil Storage Tank%大型原油储罐池火灾事故下消防能力的评估

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李庆功; 宋文华; 吕铃钥; 陈阵

    2012-01-01

    以某大型原油储备库为例,采用FDS火灾模拟软件对储罐罐内池火灾进行了数值模拟,得出了火灾发展过程、烟气质量分数分布以及热辐射强度的变化规律,火灾初期烟粒子浓度高的区域分布面积大,且烟粒子分布的面积也比较广,随着反应的进行,烟粒子浓度逐渐降低,火焰逐渐明显,且主要分布在油面附近;热辐射强度随燃烧时间的延长而增强,最高值达35 kW/m2,最终下降并稳定在25 kW/m2左右.最后,对罐区固定消防设施以及移动消防设施的消防能力进行了评估.消防给水系统不能满足储罐罐内池火灾的灭火需求,泡沫灭火系统46 min可以将火扑灭;满足5 min原则的1号超特勤消防站不能满足该储罐发生池火灾所需要的消防车数量、移动泡沫炮数量、泡沫混合液量以及冷却水量.%Using fire simulation software FDS, the pool fire inside the tank is simulated with a large crude oil storage tank area taken for an example. The result of the fire development process, the mass fraction distribution of flue gas and the thermal radiation intensity variation is as follows. In the initial period of fire, the area range of high smoke concentration is wide, and the distribution of smoke particle is relatively wide, with the reaction proceeding, the concentration of smoke particles decreases, the flame becomes clear and is mainly on the surface of oil. The thermal radiation intensity is enhanced as the burning time passes by with the maximum value of 35 kW/m2, and finally declines stabilized at 25 kW/m2 or so. At last, the ability of the fixed and mobile firefighting facilities in the tank area is assessed. The fire-fighting water supply system does not meet the demand for extinguishing the fire, and the foam fire-extinguishing system could put the fire out after 46 min. No. 1 fire station in accordance with 5 min principle does not meet the required number of the mobile foam gun, foam mixture

  10. Seismic Analysis of Reinforced Concrete Shaft Support Water Storage Tank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharti Tekwani

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper compares the results of Seismic Analysis of Reinforced Concrete Shaft Support Water Storage Tank carried out in accordance with IS: 1893- 1984 and IS: 1893-2002 (Part-2 draft code. The analysis is carried out for shaft supported water tank of 500,750 and 1000 Cu.m capacity, located in four seismic zones (Zone-II, Zone -III, Zone-IV, Zone-V and on three different soil types (Hard rock, Medium soil, Soft soil. Further, 1000 kl tank for conditions - tank full, tank empty are also considered in this study. The analysis was performed using MAT LAB. The parameters of comparison include base shears, base moments and time history analysis. The above models are analyzed for different time history data such as El Centro, Kobe, Ji-Ji, Erzincan. The comparison is made between the structural responses of one mass and two mass models of above capacity.

  11. Cryogenic crashworthiness of LNG fuel storage tanks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atli-Veltin, B.; Vredeveldt, A.W.

    2014-01-01

    Shipping is gradually embracing natural gas as bunker fuel. The most viable way to store natural gas on board is in its liquid form. Gas needs to be cooled to cryogenic temperatures and in practice moderately pressurized. On board ships, solely double walled pressure tanks are used for this purpose.

  12. Cryogenic crashworthiness of LNG fuel storage tanks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atli-Veltin, B.; Vredeveldt, A.W.

    2014-01-01

    Shipping is gradually embracing natural gas as bunker fuel. The most viable way to store natural gas on board is in its liquid form. Gas needs to be cooled to cryogenic temperatures and in practice moderately pressurized. On board ships, solely double walled pressure tanks are used for this purpose.

  13. Effect of tank diameter on thermal behavior of gasoline and diesel storage tanks fires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Ricardo Machado; Centeno, Felipe Roman

    2017-08-24

    Studies on fire behavior are extremely important as they contribute in a firefighting situation or even to avoid such hazard. Experimental studies of fire in real scale are unfeasible, implying that reduced-scale experiments must be performed, and results extrapolated to the range of interest. This research aims to experimentally study the fire behavior in tanks of 0.04m, 0.20m, 0.40m, 0.80m and 4.28m diameter, burning regular gasoline or diesel oil S-500. The following parameters were here obtained: burning rates, burning velocities, heat release rates, flame heights, and temperature distributions adjacent to the tank. Such parameters were obtained for each tank diameter with the purpose of correlating the results and understanding the relationship of each parameter for the different geometrical scale of the tanks. Asymptotic results for larger tanks were found as (regular gasoline and diesel oil S-500, respectively): burning rates 0.050kg/(m(2)s) and 0.031kg/(m(2)s), burning velocities 4.0mm/min and 2.5mm/min, heat release rates per unit area 2200kW/m(2) and 1500kW/m(2), normalized averaged flame heights (Hi/D, where Hi is the average flame height, D is the tank diameter) 0.9 and 0.8. Maximum temperatures for gasoline pools were higher than for diesel oil pools, and temperature gradients close to the tanks were also higher for the former fuel. The behavior of the maximum temperature was correlated as a function of the tank diameter, the heat release rate of each fuel and the dimensionless distance from the tank. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. 46 CFR 31.10-24 - Integral fuel oil tank examinations-T/ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Integral fuel oil tank examinations-T/ALL. 31.10-24... CERTIFICATION Inspections § 31.10-24 Integral fuel oil tank examinations—T/ALL. (a) Each fuel oil tank with at least one side integral to the vessel's hull and located within the hull (integral fuel oil tank) is...

  15. Case Study in Corporate Memory Recovery: Hanford Tank Farms Miscellaneous Underground Waste Storage Tanks - 15344

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washenfelder, D. J.; Johnson, J. M.; Turknett, J. C.; Barnes, T. J.; Duncan, K. G.

    2015-01-07

    In addition to managing the 177 underground waste storage tanks containing 212,000 m3 (56 million gal) of radioactive waste at the U. S. Department of Energy’s Hanford Site 200 Area Tank Farms, Washington River Protection Solutions LLC is responsible for managing numerous small catch tanks and special surveillance facilities. These are collectively known as “MUSTs” - Miscellaneous Underground Storage Tanks. The MUSTs typically collected drainage and flushes during waste transfer system piping changes; special surveillance facilities supported Tank Farm processes including post-World War II uranium recovery and later fission product recovery from tank wastes. Most were removed from service following deactivation of the single-shell tank system in 1980 and stabilized by pumping the remaining liquids from them. The MUSTs were isolated by blanking connecting transfer lines and adding weatherproofing to prevent rainwater entry. Over the next 30 years MUST operating records were dispersed into large electronic databases or transferred to the National Archives Regional Center in Seattle, Washington. During 2014 an effort to reacquire the historical bases for the MUSTs’ published waste volumes was undertaken. Corporate Memory Recovery from a variety of record sources allowed waste volumes to be initially determined for 21 MUSTs, and waste volumes to be adjusted for 37 others. Precursors and symptoms of Corporate Memory Loss were identified in the context of MUST records recovery.

  16. Soil load above Hanford waste storage tanks (2 volumes)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pianka, E.W. [Advent Engineering Services, Inc., San Ramon, CA (United States)

    1995-01-25

    This document is a compilation of work performed as part of the Dome Load Control Project in 1994. Section 2 contains the calculations of the weight of the soil over the tank dome for each of the 75-feet-diameter waste-storage tanks located at the Hanford Site. The chosen soil specific weight and soil depth measured at the apex of the dome crown are the same as those used in the primary analysis that qualified the design. Section 3 provides reference dimensions for each of the tank farm sites. The reference dimensions spatially orient the tanks and provide an outer diameter for each tank. Section 4 summarizes the available soil surface elevation data. It also provides examples of the calculations performed to establish the present soil elevation estimates. The survey data and other data sources from which the elevation data has been obtained are printed separately in Volume 2 of this Supporting Document. Section 5 contains tables that provide an overall summary of the present status of dome loads. Tables summarizing the load state corresponding to the soil depth and soil specific weight for the original qualification analysis, the gravity load requalification for soil depth and soil specific weight greater than the expected actual values, and a best estimate condition of soil depth and specific weight are presented for the Double-Shell Tanks. For the Single-Shell Tanks, only the original qualification analysis is available; thus, the tabulated results are for this case only. Section 6 provides a brief overview of past analysis and testing results that given an indication of the load capacity of the waste storage tanks that corresponds to a condition approaching ultimate failure of the tank. 31 refs.

  17. K Basins sludge removal temporary sludge storage tank system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mclean, M.A.

    1997-06-12

    Shipment of sludge from the K Basins to a disposal site is now targeted for August 2000. The current path forward for sludge disposal is shipment to Tank AW-105 in the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS). Significant issues of the feasibility of this path exist primarily due to criticality concerns and the presence of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBS) in the sludge at levels that trigger regulation under the Toxic Substance Control Act. Introduction of PCBs into the TWRS processes could potentially involve significant design and operational impacts to both the Spent Nuclear Fuel and TWRS projects if technical and regulatory issues related to PCB treatment cannot be satisfactorily resolved. Concerns of meeting the TWRS acceptance criteria have evolved such that new storage tanks for the K Basins sludge may be the best option for storage prior to vitrification of the sludge. A reconunendation for the final disposition of the sludge is scheduled for June 30, 1997. To support this decision process, this project was developed. This project provides a preconceptual design package including preconceptual designs and cost estimates for the temporary sludge storage tanks. Development of cost estimates for the design and construction of sludge storage systems is required to help evaluate a recommendation for the final disposition of the K Basin sludge.

  18. 周期性边界条件对浮顶储罐原油传热过程的影响规律%Effect of periodic boundary conditions on heat transfer process of crude oil in floating roof storage tank

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙巍; 成庆林; 王沛迪; 李玉春; 孙海英

    2016-01-01

    随着石油储备需求的增加,油罐规模正向大型化以及能适应极限工况的方向发展。准确掌握罐内油品温度场的变化规律,对于保障油库安全经济运行具有重要意义。针对太阳辐射、大气温度等储罐环境的周期性变化条件,运用传热学相关理论,建立了大型双盘浮顶储罐非稳态传热过程的理论模型,通过对模型区域进行离散化得到边界节点的向前差分方程,在确定罐内原油物性参数、储罐传热系数以及边界热通量的基础上,研究得出储罐原油温度场的数值模拟方法。对大庆某10×104 m3浮顶储罐的应用分析表明,罐顶温降速率随着太阳辐射强度以及大气温度的降低而增大;罐壁温降速率受太阳辐射影响较小,随大气温度的降低而增大;罐底近似于绝热,温降速率受外界环境影响较小,研究结果可为优化大型浮顶罐的储存工艺设计及生产管理提供一定的理论支持。%With the increase in demand for oil storage,the scale of tanks are developing towards the direction of large scale and better adaptability to extreme working conditions. The change of oil temperature field inside the tank should be accurately grasped, which is of great significance to guarantee safe and economical operation of oil depot. Aiming at the periodic change conditions of tank ambient conditions such as solar radiation, atmospheric temperature andetc., a theoretical model of the unsteady-state heat transfer process of large double-deck floating roof tank is established by using the theory of heat transfer, and the forward difference equations of boundary point are obtained by model region discretion. On basis of determining the physical properties of crude oil in the storage tank, heat transfer coefficient of the tank as well as the heat flux density of boundary, the numerical stimulation method of temperature field in the tank can be studied. The analysis and

  19. Technical bases for leak detection surveillance of waste storage tanks. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, M.G.; Badden, J.J.

    1995-02-13

    This document provides the technical bases for specification limits, monitoring frequencies and baselines used for leak detection and intrusion (for single shell tanks only) in all single and double shell radioactive waste storage tanks, waste transfer lines, and most catch tanks and receiver tanks in the waste tank farms and associated areas at Hanford.

  20. Reducing drinking water supply chemical contamination: risks from underground storage tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enander, Richard T; Hanumara, R Choudary; Kobayashi, Hisanori; Gagnon, Ronald N; Park, Eugene; Vallot, Christopher; Genovesi, Richard

    2012-12-01

    Drinking water supplies are at risk of contamination from a variety of physical, chemical, and biological sources. Ranked among these threats are hazardous material releases from leaking or improperly managed underground storage tanks located at municipal, commercial, and industrial facilities. To reduce human health and environmental risks associated with the subsurface storage of hazardous materials, government agencies have taken a variety of legislative and regulatory actions--which date back more than 25 years and include the establishment of rigorous equipment/technology/operational requirements and facility-by-facility inspection and enforcement programs. Given a history of more than 470,000 underground storage tank releases nationwide, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency continues to report that 7,300 new leaks were found in federal fiscal year 2008, while nearly 103,000 old leaks remain to be cleaned up. In this article, we report on an alternate evidence-based intervention approach for reducing potential releases from the storage of petroleum products (gasoline, diesel, kerosene, heating/fuel oil, and waste oil) in underground tanks at commercial facilities located in Rhode Island. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether a new regulatory model can be used as a cost-effective alternative to traditional facility-by-facility inspection and enforcement programs for underground storage tanks. We conclude that the alternative model, using an emphasis on technical assistance tools, can produce measurable improvements in compliance performance, is a cost-effective adjunct to traditional facility-by-facility inspection and enforcement programs, and has the potential to allow regulatory agencies to decrease their frequency of inspections among low risk facilities without sacrificing compliance performance or increasing public health risks.

  1. Investigating and modeling of the effects of condensate storage tank fire in a refinery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Kamaei

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background & objective: Oil storage tanks are major industrial facilities which always pose risks of toxic substance release, fires and explosions. Fire has been recognized as the most common risk associated with such facilities, while explosion is the most important one in terms of ability to claim human lives and damage property. The current study aimed at investigating and modeling the effects of fires occurring in a gas condensate tank farm, according to which the level of possible emergencies were specified using the guidelines provided by the Center for Chemical Process Safety. Lastly, control measures were recommended. Methods: In the present study, the release and leakage of gas condensate from floating roof tanks were assessed using HAZOP method. Then, using PHAST software, the amount of radiation intensity received by the surrounding environment was determined, safe boundaries were computed, and according to the CCPS standard the emergency levels were determined. Results: modeling was performed based on the maximum capacity of tanks for both cold and hot seasons. The results revealed that safe distance for a maximum amount of irradiation density (4 KW/m2 related to a sudden release were 60 and 140 meters, respectively. Conclusion: according to the current condition of the plants and storage tanks, a plan was recommended for emergency management and practical suggestions were provided to improve the reliability and consistency.

  2. Oil fired boiler/solar tank- and natural gas burner/solar tank-units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furbo, Simon; Vejen, Niels Kristian; Frederiksen, Karsten Vinkler

    1999-01-01

    During the last few years new units consisting of a solar tank and either an oil fired boiler or a natural gas burner have been introduced on the Danish market. Three different marketed units - two based on a natural gas burner and one based on an oil fired boiler - have been tested in a heat...

  3. 33 CFR 157.10a - Segregated ballast tanks, crude oil washing systems, and dedicated clean ballast tanks for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... oil washing systems, and dedicated clean ballast tanks for certain new and existing vessels of 40,000... oil washing systems, and dedicated clean ballast tanks for certain new and existing vessels of 40,000... section; or (2) Dedicated clean ballast tanks that have a total capacity to meet the draft and...

  4. 33 CFR 157.10c - Segregated ballast tanks, crude oil washing systems, and dedicated clean ballast tanks for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... oil washing systems, and dedicated clean ballast tanks for certain new and existing tankships of 20... oil washing systems, and dedicated clean ballast tanks for certain new and existing tankships of 20... trim requirements in § 157.09(b); or (2) Dedicated clean ballast tanks that meet the design...

  5. Ice slurry cooling research: Storage tank ice agglomeration and extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasza, K. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Hayashi, Kanetoshi [NKK Corp., Kawasaki (Japan)

    1999-08-01

    A new facility has been built to conduct research and development on important issues related to implementing ice slurry cooling technology. Ongoing studies are generating important information on the factors that influence ice particle agglomeration in ice slurry storage tanks. The studies are also addressing the development of methods to minimize and monitor agglomeration and improve the efficiency and controllability of tank extraction of slurry for distribution to cooling loads. These engineering issues impede the utilization of the ice slurry cooling concept that has been under development by various groups.

  6. Integrated heat exchanger design for a cryogenic storage tank

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fesmire, J. E.; Bonner, T.; Oliveira, J. M.; Johnson, W. L.; Notardonato, W. U. [NASA Kennedy Space Center, Cryogenics Test Laboratory, NE-F6, KSC, FL 32899 (United States); Tomsik, T. M. [NASA Glenn Research Center, 21000 Brookpark Road, Cleveland, OH 44135 (United States); Conyers, H. J. [NASA Stennis Space Center, Building 3225, SSC, MS 39529 (United States)

    2014-01-29

    Field demonstrations of liquid hydrogen technology will be undertaken for the proliferation of advanced methods and applications in the use of cryofuels. Advancements in the use of cryofuels for transportation on Earth, from Earth, or in space are envisioned for automobiles, aircraft, rockets, and spacecraft. These advancements rely on practical ways of storage, transfer, and handling of liquid hydrogen. Focusing on storage, an integrated heat exchanger system has been designed for incorporation with an existing storage tank and a reverse Brayton cycle helium refrigerator of capacity 850 watts at 20 K. The storage tank is a 125,000-liter capacity horizontal cylindrical tank, with vacuum jacket and multilayer insulation, and a small 0.6-meter diameter manway opening. Addressed are the specific design challenges associated with the small opening, complete modularity, pressure systems re-certification for lower temperature and pressure service associated with hydrogen densification, and a large 8:1 length-to-diameter ratio for distribution of the cryogenic refrigeration. The approach, problem solving, and system design and analysis for integrated heat exchanger are detailed and discussed. Implications for future space launch facilities are also identified. The objective of the field demonstration will be to test various zero-loss and densified cryofuel handling concepts for future transportation applications.

  7. Estimating Residual Solids Volume In Underground Storage Tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, Jason L.; Worthy, S. Jason; Martin, Bruce A.; Tihey, John R.

    2014-01-08

    The Savannah River Site liquid waste system consists of multiple facilities to safely receive and store legacy radioactive waste, treat, and permanently dispose waste. The large underground storage tanks and associated equipment, known as the 'tank farms', include a complex interconnected transfer system which includes underground transfer pipelines and ancillary equipment to direct the flow of waste. The waste in the tanks is present in three forms: supernatant, sludge, and salt. The supernatant is a multi-component aqueous mixture, while sludge is a gel-like substance which consists of insoluble solids and entrapped supernatant. The waste from these tanks is retrieved and treated as sludge or salt. The high level (radioactive) fraction of the waste is vitrified into a glass waste form, while the low-level waste is immobilized in a cementitious grout waste form called saltstone. Once the waste is retrieved and processed, the tanks are closed via removing the bulk of the waste, chemical cleaning, heel removal, stabilizing remaining residuals with tailored grout formulations and severing/sealing external penetrations. The comprehensive liquid waste disposition system, currently managed by Savannah River Remediation, consists of 1) safe storage and retrieval of the waste as it is prepared for permanent disposition; (2) definition of the waste processing techniques utilized to separate the high-level waste fraction/low-level waste fraction; (3) disposition of LLW in saltstone; (4) disposition of the HLW in glass; and (5) closure state of the facilities, including tanks. This paper focuses on determining the effectiveness of waste removal campaigns through monitoring the volume of residual solids in the waste tanks. Volume estimates of the residual solids are performed by creating a map of the residual solids on the waste tank bottom using video and still digital images. The map is then used to calculate the volume of solids remaining in the waste tank. The

  8. Cathodic protection for the bottoms of above ground storage tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohr, John P. [Tyco Adhesives, Norwood, MA (United States)

    2004-07-01

    Impressed Current Cathodic Protection has been used for many years to protect the external bottoms of above ground storage tanks. The use of a vertical deep ground bed often treated several bare steel tank bottoms by broadcasting current over a wide area. Environmental concerns and, in some countries, government regulations, have introduced the use of dielectric secondary containment liners. The dielectric liner does not allow the protective cathodic protection current to pass and causes corrosion to continue on the newly placed tank bottom. In existing tank bottoms where inadequate protection has been provided, leaks can develop. In one method of remediation, an old bottom is covered with sand and a double bottom is welded above the leaking bottom. The new bottom is welded very close to the old bottom, thus shielding the traditional cathodic protection from protecting the new bottom. These double bottoms often employ the use of dielectric liner as well. Both the liner and the double bottom often minimize the distance from the external tank bottom. The minimized space between the liner, or double bottom, and the bottom to be protected places a challenge in providing current distribution in cathodic protection systems. This study examines the practical concerns for application of impressed current cathodic protection and the types of anode materials used in these specific applications. One unique approach for an economical treatment using a conductive polymer cathodic protection method is presented. (author)

  9. Fluid manifold design for a solar energy storage tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphries, W. R.; Hewitt, H. C.; Griggs, E. I.

    1975-01-01

    A design technique for a fluid manifold for use in a solar energy storage tank is given. This analytical treatment generalizes the fluid equations pertinent to manifold design, giving manifold pressures, velocities, and orifice pressure differentials in terms of appropriate fluid and manifold geometry parameters. Experimental results used to corroborate analytical predictions are presented. These data indicate that variations in discharge coefficients due to variations in orifices can cause deviations between analytical predictions and actual performance values.

  10. Risk assessment of Kermanshah gas storage tanks by energy trace and barrier analysis (2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ghanbari Kakavandi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite the cost and millions loss of life due to industrial accidents, often are preventable through risk assessment methods and control measures. Objective: To assess the safety of gas storage tanks in Kermanshah oil refinery by Energy Trace and Barrier Analysis (ETBA. Methods: This case-descriptive study was conducted in gas storage tanks of Kermanshah oil refinery. Energy checklist was used for identification of energy types. Energy flows were tracked and then, management and administrative procedures, and personal protective equipment were considered as safeguard. Exposed and vulnerable targets are also specified. Preliminary levels of risks were determined by combination of severity and likelihood. After suggestion of corrective action for unacceptable risks, risk assessment took place again. Identified risks were expressed using descriptive statistics such as frequency and percentage. Findings: Overall, 74 risks and 121 dangerous energies were identified. Of these, 25 risks were unacceptable, 46 were low risk, and 3 were acceptable risk with revised. Frequency of risks related to electric power was 20, and followed by risk of displacement- pressure-volume, potential and chemical energies, with frequencies of 13, 12 and 9, respectively. Conclusion: Given the environmental and protection conditions of the tanks, in addition, the high percentage of some of the damaging risks in this industry, use of appropriate control measures to prevention the event of future disasters will be inevitable.

  11. Research on acoustic emission in-service inspection for large above-ground storage tank floors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mingchun Lin; Yewei Kang; Min Xiong; Juan Zheng; Dongjie Tan [Petrochina Pipeline R and Center, Langfang (China)

    2009-07-01

    Much manpower is needed and a lot of materials are wasted when the floor of large above-ground storage tank (AST) is inspected with conventional methods which need to shut down the tank, then to empty and clean it before inspection. Due to the disadvantages of that, an in-service inspection method using acoustic emission (AE) technology is presented. By this mean the rational inspection plan and integrity evaluation of tank floors can be constructed. First, specific inspection steps are established based on the acoustic emission principle for large AST's floors and the practical condition of AST in order to acquire the AE corrosion data. Second, analysis method of acoustic emission dataset is studied. Finally, maintenance proposes are provided based on results of analysis for the corrosion status of the tank floors. In order to evaluate the performance of our method, an in-service field inspection is practiced on product oil tank with a volume of 5000 cubic meters. Then a traditional inspection procedure using magnetic flux leakage (MFL) technology is followed up. Comparative analysis of the results of the two inspection methods shows that there is consistency in localizing the position of corrosion between them. The feasibility of in-service inspection of AST's floors with AE is demonstrated. (author)

  12. Determination of technological risk during maintenance work on oil tanks

    OpenAIRE

    Калиновський, Андрій Якович; Липовий, Володимир Олександрович; Титаренко, Андрій Вікторович

    2015-01-01

    The article is devoted to the improvement of environmental safety at hazardous objects and surrounding areas with the presence of technological processes related to repair of oil tanks by controlling technological risks defined taking into account the influence of factors on their values.The aims of the study were man-made risks and extent of environment pollution as a result of accidents caused by process or the operation of the repair of oil tanks.In theoretical studies it was used complex ...

  13. [Study on the quantitative estimation method for VOCs emission from petrochemical storage tanks based on tanks 4.0.9d model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Wang, Min-Yan; Zhang, Jian; He, Wan-Qing; Nie, Lei; Shao, Xia

    2013-12-01

    VOCs emission from petrochemical storage tanks is one of the important emission sources in the petrochemical industry. In order to find out the VOCs emission amount of petrochemical storage tanks, Tanks 4.0.9d model is utilized to calculate the VOCs emission from different kinds of storage tanks. VOCs emissions from a horizontal tank, a vertical fixed roof tank, an internal floating roof tank and an external floating roof tank were calculated as an example. The consideration of the site meteorological information, the sealing information, the tank content information and unit conversion by using Tanks 4.0.9d model in China was also discussed. Tanks 4.0.9d model can be used to estimate VOCs emissions from petrochemical storage tanks in China as a simple and highly accurate method.

  14. Storage studies on mustard oil blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chugh, Bhawna; Dhawan, Kamal

    2014-04-01

    Mustard oil blends were investigated for fatty acid composition and oxidative stability during storage for 3 months at room temperature (15 °C to 35 °C). The blends were prepared using raw mustard oil with selected refined vegetable oils namely; palm, safflower, soybean, rice bran, sunflower and sesame oil (raw). The fatty acid compositions of all these blends were studied using GLC. The developed blends were found to obey the ideal fatty acid ratio as laid down by health agencies i.e. 1:2:1:: SFA:MUFA:PUFA. The oxidative stability of blends was studied by measuring peroxide value (PV), Kries and Thiobarbituric acid (TBA) test. Blends MPSu (mustard oil, palm oil and sunflower oil), MPT (mustard oil, palm oil and sesame oil) and MPGr (mustard oil, palm oil and groundnut oil) were more stable than other blends during storage. The presence of mustard oil in all blends might make them a healthier option for many consumers as it is a rich source of ω-3 fatty acids and has anti-carcinogenic properties.

  15. 油罐清洗技术的发展现状%Development Status of Oil Tank Cleaning Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵琳; 刘国荣; 姚凤灵; 王海涛

    2015-01-01

    原油是一种由多种烃类组成的复杂混合物,在油罐中进行长时间的储存后,由于重力、压力、温度的综合影响,原油中的杂质和重油性组分会慢慢沉积,最后积累在罐底,变成黑色、黏稠的胶状沉积物,即油罐底泥。底泥的不断增多会对原油的油品质量及储罐的有效容积产生很大影响,因此,必须对油罐进行定期检修和清洗除垢。目前,原油储罐的清洗技术主要包括人工清洗技术、化学清洗技术和机械清洗技术,还可以使用油罐清洗机器人对油罐进行清洗。我国原油储罐清洗技术正从原来的人工清洗技术向机械自动化清洗方向发展。介绍了几种油罐清洗方法,以及油罐清洗后残余油泥的处理方法。%The crude oil is a complex mixture composed of a variety of hydrocarbons. After prolonged storage in the tank, ow⁃ing to the comprehensive influence of gravity, pressure, temperature, impurities in crude oil and heavy oil group branch deposit slowly and finally accumulated at the bottom of the tank, into the black, sticky, colloidal sediments, namely oil tank sludge. The increasing sediment will have a great influence on the quality of crude oil and the effective volume of the storage tank, Therefore, it is necessary to regular maintenance and cleaning the tank. At present, the oil tank cleaning technology mainly includes the man⁃ual cleaning techniques, chemical cleaning technology and mechanical cleaning technology, and tank cleaning robot can also be used to clean the tank. Cleaning technology of oil storage tanks in China is from the original manual cleaning technology to the de⁃velopment of mechanical automation. This paper introduces several methods of tank cleaning, and processing method of residual sludge after tank cleaning.

  16. 46 CFR 167.15-40 - Integral fuel oil tank examinations-T/ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Integral fuel oil tank examinations-T/ALL. 167.15-40... PUBLIC NAUTICAL SCHOOL SHIPS Inspections § 167.15-40 Integral fuel oil tank examinations—T/ALL. (a) Each fuel oil tank with at least one side integral to the vessel's hull and located within the hull...

  17. 油气储罐火灾爆炸风险模拟评估方法研究及软件系统开发%The research and software development on simulation assessment method for oil gas storage tank's fire & explosion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢志祥; 周燕; 戴闯

    2010-01-01

    On account of the hazard of huge fire & explosion oil gas storage tank occurred,so leaked out or fired.and lead to fire explosion accident easily.Therefore,to study the important of the hazards is a key of preventing and controlling the accident efficiently.With the popularization & application of computer technology,it is feasible to simulate the process of hazardous chemical tanks and impact on environment.Aiming at the characteristics of fire & explosion of oil gas storage tank,the mathernatical stimulation model corresponding to each accident damage model is selected on the basis of analyzing and summarizing lots of danger models of fire and explosion occurred.A software simulation evaluation on fire & explosion of oil & gas storage tank is experimental developed.The functions,framework and development of the system are introduced.The software can iudge ifa serials oftanks are major hazards.The software system is made up of storage tank significant dangerous source identification system,fire blast analogue & evaluation system,oil & gas storage tank fire prevention learning system and backstage database system.With the use of system,accident results including hazardous area,human injured and economical losses are quantitatively calculated and quantiflcationally divided into grades Some rules in fire and explosion accidents can be got by comparing and analyzing during simulation results groups.It makes the risk assessment work run in a computer software way.As a result,the accuracy and efficiency assessment work are enhanced and the evaluation results become more objective and scientific.%油气储罐由于固有的火灾和爆炸危险性,一旦发生泄漏会导致火灾和爆炸事故的发生,因此研究油气储罐的风险评估方法对于预防和控制事故的发生具有十分重要的意义.随着计算机技术的发展,运用计算机模拟技术模拟危险化学品储罐事故后果,以及对环境的危害过程成为可能.针对油气储罐

  18. Criticality Safety Evaluation of Hanford Site High Level Waste Storage Tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ROGERS, C.A.

    2000-02-17

    This criticality safety evaluation covers operations for waste in underground storage tanks at the high-level waste tank farms on the Hanford site. This evaluation provides the bases for criticality safety limits and controls to govern receipt, transfer, and long-term storage of tank waste. Justification is provided that a nuclear criticality accident cannot occur for tank farms operations, based on current fissile material and operating conditions.

  19. 77 FR 25366 - Underground Storage Tank Program: Approved State Program for the State of Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-30

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 282 Underground Storage Tank Program: Approved State Program for the State of Oregon... Agency (EPA) to grant approval to any State to operate its underground storage tank program in the State... statutory and regulatory provisions. This rule codifies the prior approval of Oregon's underground storage...

  20. Identification of Layers in Oil-Tanks Using a Reflectometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton M. Bøifot

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper treats the possibilities of analysing layers in oil-tanks using a reflectometer. First some basic principles and expressions are presented. After that examples of commonly used windows are shown and a new generation of windows developed. These are called Hammingfolded windows, and can have side lobe levels below -85 dB.

  1. On teh non-destructive inspection system of the coating oil strage tank. Coating tank no hihakai kensa system ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyagawa, K. (Nihon University, Tokyo (Japan). Collete of Industrial Technology)

    1991-03-25

    Recently inside bottom steel plates in oil storage tanks are often coated by epoxy resin to prevent corrosion. Since dangerous tanks are obligated to be overhauled regularly by fire protection law, coatings of the tanks are removed when inspected each time and recoated after inspection. To eliminate such waste, a non-destructive inspection system to inspect over coating films without removing them has been demanded. This report examines the non-destructive inspection system on coating films of the tanks and introduces the study on the method to measure corrosion of bottom steel plates by the ultrasonic thickness gage as well as the research on the development of the system and method for non-destructive inspection to detect surface flaw on the weld parts of the bottom plates. Consequently, it was confirmed through experiments that non-destructive inspection on the coating films is possible. 1 ref., 2 tabs.

  2. Large-Scale Wireless Temperature Monitoring System for Liquefied Petroleum Gas Storage Tanks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangwen Fan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Temperature distribution is a critical indicator of the health condition for Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG storage tanks. In this paper, we present a large-scale wireless temperature monitoring system to evaluate the safety of LPG storage tanks. The system includes wireless sensors networks, high temperature fiber-optic sensors, and monitoring software. Finally, a case study on real-world LPG storage tanks proves the feasibility of the system. The unique features of wireless transmission, automatic data acquisition and management, local and remote access make the developed system a good alternative for temperature monitoring of LPG storage tanks in practical applications.

  3. Research of Operation Modes of Heat Storage Tank in CHP Plant Using Numerical Simulation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Streckiene, Giedre; Miseviciute, Violeta

    2011-01-01

    ... ________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ Volume 6 Re search of Operation Modes of Heat Storage Tank in CHP Plant Using Numerical Simulation Giedre Streckiene 1 , Violeta Miseviciute 2 , 1 - 2 Department...

  4. Modern efficient methods of steel vertical oil tanks clean-up

    OpenAIRE

    Nekrasov Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    The legislative base of the Russian Federation operating in the field of operation of tanks and tank parks is considered, and consecutive stages of technological process of cleaning of vertical steel tanks from oil ground deposits are presented. In work shortcomings of existing most widespread electromechanical mixers are described when using a hydraulic method of removal and prevention of formation of ground deposits in tanks with oil and oil products. For the purpose of increase of efficien...

  5. Contrast Analysis of Oil Storage Tank's Wax Scraper in Northern Region%北方地区储油罐机械式刮蜡器对比分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王辉; 王晓东; 李来春; 陈赫

    2012-01-01

    Wax situation of oil tank in northern region were analyzed, and the spring-type wax scraper and heavy hammer-type wax scraper were introduced emphatically. The effect of wax scraping was analyzed through the structure of the wax scraper, as a result, some suggestions and ideas for installation and design of wax scraper were put forward.%北方地区储油罐会出现罐壁结蜡的情况,分析介绍了弹簧板式刮蜡器和重锤式刮蜡器及其刮蜡效果,提出了储油罐刮蜡器应满足的要求.

  6. Control system design for robotic underground storage tank inspection systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiebel, G.R.

    1994-09-01

    Control and data acquisition systems for robotic inspection and surveillance systems used in nuclear waste applications must be capable, versatile, and adaptable to changing conditions. The nuclear waste remediation application is dynamic -- requirements change as public policy is constantly re-examined and refocused, and as technology in this area advances. Control and data acquisition systems must adapt to these changing conditions and be able to accommodate future missions, both predictable and unexpected. This paper describes the control and data acquisition system for the Light Duty Utility Arm (LDUA) System that is being developed for remote surveillance and inspection of underground storage tanks at the Hanford Site and other US Department of Energy (DOE) sites. It is a high-performance system which has been designed for future growth. The priority mission at the Hanford site is to retrieve the waste generated by 50 years of production from its present storage and process it for final disposal. The LDUA will help to gather information about the waste and the tanks it is stored in to better plan and execute the cleanup mission.

  7. En-route mechanical activation of viscous oil and oil products transported in railroad tank cars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yerlan MYRZAKHMETOV

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors of this document are aiming to substantiate the advantages of en-route mechanical activation technology as aids for railroad transportation of viscous oil and oil products in tank cars. The conceptual design implies the use of momentum generated by brake action. This document also contains preliminary data of laboratory research confirming the validity of the developed concept.

  8. Underground Storage Tanks, Underground Storage Tank point locations from various sources, Published in 2009, 1:12000 (1in=1000ft) scale, Iredell County GIS.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Underground Storage Tanks dataset, published at 1:12000 (1in=1000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Published Reports/Deeds information as of 2009. It...

  9. Polymeric hydrogen diffusion barrier, high-pressure storage tank so equipped, method of fabricating a storage tank and method of preventing hydrogen diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessing, Paul A [Idaho Falls, ID

    2008-07-22

    An electrochemically active hydrogen diffusion barrier which comprises an anode layer, a cathode layer, and an intermediate electrolyte layer, which is conductive to protons and substantially impermeable to hydrogen. A catalytic metal present in or adjacent to the anode layer catalyzes an electrochemical reaction that converts any hydrogen that diffuses through the electrolyte layer to protons and electrons. The protons and electrons are transported to the cathode layer and reacted to form hydrogen. The hydrogen diffusion barrier is applied to a polymeric substrate used in a storage tank to store hydrogen under high pressure. A storage tank equipped with the electrochemically active hydrogen diffusion barrier, a method of fabricating the storage tank, and a method of preventing hydrogen from diffusing out of a storage tank are also disclosed.

  10. Modern efficient methods of steel vertical oil tanks clean-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nekrasov Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The legislative base of the Russian Federation operating in the field of operation of tanks and tank parks is considered, and consecutive stages of technological process of cleaning of vertical steel tanks from oil ground deposits are presented. In work shortcomings of existing most widespread electromechanical mixers are described when using a hydraulic method of removal and prevention of formation of ground deposits in tanks with oil and oil products. For the purpose of increase of efficiency, reliability and decrease in power consumption of washout of oil ground deposits in tanks the new design of system of funneled washout and prevention of formation of deposits is offered.

  11. THERMAL STRATIFICATION IN SOLAR DOMESTIC STORAGE TANKS CAUSED BY DRAW-OFFS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jordan, Ulrike; Furbo, Simon

    2003-01-01

    in the storage tank. Furthermore, for theoretical investigations of the flow patterns in the storage tank, calculations were carried out by means of the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) tool Fluent. Based on the experimental and theoretical results, the sizes of fully mixed zones in the bottom part...

  12. Permanent Closure of MFC Biodiesel Underground Storage Tank 99ANL00013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerry L. Nisson

    2012-10-01

    This closure package documents the site assessment and permanent closure of the Materials and Fuels Complex biodiesel underground storage tank 99ANL00013 in accordance with the regulatory requirements established in 40 CFR 280.71, “Technical Standards and Corrective Action Requirements for Owners and Operators of Underground Storage Tanks: Out-of-Service UST Systems and Closure.”

  13. MIXING IN DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM STORAGE TANKS: ITS EFFECT ON WATER QUALITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nearly all distribution systems in the US include storage tanks and reservoirs. They are the most visible components of a wate distribution system but are generally the least understood in terms of their impact on water quality. Long residence times in storage tanks can have nega...

  14. Melton Valley Storage Tanks Capacity Increase Project, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-04-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to construct and maintain additional storage capacity at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, Tennessee, for liquid low-level radioactive waste (LLLW). New capacity would be provided by a facility partitioned into six individual tank vaults containing one 100,000 gallon LLLW storage tank each. The storage tanks would be located within the existing Melton Valley Storage Tank (MVST) facility. This action would require the extension of a potable water line approximately one mile from the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) area to the proposed site to provide the necessary potable water for the facility including fire protection. Alternatives considered include no-action, cease generation, storage at other ORR storage facilities, source treatment, pretreatment, and storage at other DOE facilities.

  15. Feasibility report on criticality issues associated with storage of K Basin sludge in tanks farms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vail, T.S.

    1997-05-29

    This feasibility study provides the technical justification for conclusions about K Basin sludge storage options. The conclusions, solely based on criticality safety considerations, depend on the treatment of the sludge. The two primary conclusions are, (1) untreated sludge must be stored in a critically safe storage tank, and (2) treated sludge (dissolution, precipitation and added neutron absorbers) can be stored in a standard Double Contained Receiver Tank (DCRT) or 241-AW-105 without future restrictions on tank operations from a criticality safety perspective.

  16. Oil Droplet Size Distribution and Optical Properties During Wave Tank Simulated Oil Spills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conmy, R. N.; Venosa, A.; Courtenay, S.; King, T.; Robinson, B.; Ryan, S.

    2013-12-01

    Fate and transport of spilled petroleum oils in aquatic environments is highly dependent upon oil droplet behavior which is a function of chemical composition, dispersibility (natural and chemically-enhanced) and droplet size distribution (DSD) of the oil. DSD is influenced by mixing energy, temperature, salinity, pressure, presence of dissolved and particulate materials, flow rate of release, and application of dispersants. To better understand DSD and droplet behavior under varying physical conditions, flask-scale experiments are often insufficient. Rather, wave tank simulations allow for scaling to field conditions. Presented here are experiment results from the Bedford Institute of Oceanography wave tank facility, where chemically-dispersed (Corexit 9500; DOR = 1:20) Louisiana Sweet crude, IFO-120 and ANS crude oil were exposed to mixing energies to achieve dispersant effectiveness observed in the field. Oil plumes were simulated, both surface and subsea releases with varying water temperature and flow rate. Fluorometers (Chelsea Technologies Group AQUATracka, Turner Designs Cyclops, WET Labs Inc ECO) and particle size analyzers (Sequoia LISST) were used to track the dispersed plumes in the tank and characterize oil droplets. Sensors were validated with known oil volumes (down to 300 ppb) and measured Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH) and Benzene-Toluene-Ethylbenzene-Xylene (BTEX) values. This work has large implications for tracking surface and deep sea oil plumes with fluorescence and particle size analyzers, improved weathering and biodegradation estimates, and understanding the fate and transport of spill oil.

  17. Numerical Simulation of Gas Leaking Diffusion from Storage Tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hongjun; Jing, Jiaqiang

    Over 80 percents of storage tank accidents are caused by gas leaking. Since traditional empirical calculation has great errors, present work aims to study the gas leaking diffusion under different wind conditions by numerical simulation method based on computational fluid dynamics theory. Then gas concentration distribution was obtained to determine the scope of the security zone. The results showed that gas diffused freely along the axis of leaking point without wind, giving rise to large range of hazardous area. However, wind plays the role of migrating and diluting the leaking gas. The larger is the wind speed, the smaller is the damage and the bigger is the security zone. Calculation method and results can provide some reference to establish and implement rescue program for accidents.

  18. The Mathematical Simulation of Fire and Explosion Accidents on Damage Scope in the Gas Station's Oil Storage Tank Area%加油站油品存储罐区火灾爆炸事故伤害范围的数学模拟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李庆功; 宋文华; 谢飞; 陈阵

    2011-01-01

    With the increase of motor vehicles and the development of city construction, the fire safety of gas station faces more severe challenges. The present gas stations use plow- in storage and closed oil unloading. However, as main storage equipment of the gas station, the oil tank is the primary source of danger, because the fire and explosion accident may be caused by the cleaning, loading and unloading of the oil tank. Once the accident happened in the gas station, it could easily cause significant casualties. As an example, the accident model of fire and explosion of the actual case in oil storage tank area of the station which is the typical hazardous source, is analyzed. The storage tank area is the primary dangerous source of the gas station and the model accident of the station mainly concludes the explosion of vapor cloud, which is the most severe accident ,the pool fire and so on. Then make calculation of the actual fire and explosion accident case. By analyzing and comparing the result coming from numerical computer simulations, it shows that the design of the gas station can't satisfy the requirements of fire protection. The design of gas station according to the present standard of petrol station, which gives the provision about the spacing between the gas equipment and facilities,the ancillary facilities and the related constructions, is hardly to guarantee the fire protection of gas station effectively.%随着机动车数量的增加和城市建设的发展,加油站的消防安全面临着更加严峻的挑战.当前加油站储罐多采用直埋式,使用密闭方式卸油.但是,油罐作为加油站油品的主要存储设备,进出油与清罐等作业都会形成造成火灾爆炸的环境,是加油站的主要危险源,一旦发生事故很容易造成重大人员伤亡.针对加油站典型危险源油品存储罐区,选择实际建设案例,对加油站储罐区的火灾爆炸事故模式进行分析.储罐发生的主要事故形式有蒸气

  19. Numerical Simulation of Sloshing in Rectangular Storage Tank Using Coupled FEM-BEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hassan Saghi; Mohammad Javad Ketabdari

    2012-01-01

    Sloshing of liquid can increase the dynamic pressure on the storage sidewalls and bottom in tanker ships and LNG careers.Different geometric shapes were suggested for storage tank to minimize the sloshing pressure on tank perimeter.In this research,a numerical code was developed to model liquid sloshing in a rectangular partially filled tank.Assuming the fluid to be inviscid,Laplace equation and nonlinear free surface boundary conditions are solved using coupled FEM-BEM.The code performance for sloshing modeling is validated against available data.To minimize the sloshing pressure on tank perimeter,rectangular tanks with specific volumes and different aspect ratios were investigated and the best aspect ratios were suggested.The results showed that the rectangular tank with suggested aspect ratios,not only has a maximum surrounded tank volume to the constant available volume,but also reduces the sloshing pressure efficiently.

  20. Closure Report for Underground Storage Tank 2310-U at the Pine Ridge West Repeater Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-07-01

    This document represents the Closure Report for Underground Storage Tank (UST) 2310-U at the Pine Ridge West Repeater Station, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Tank 2310-U was a 200-gal gasoline UST which serviced the emergency generator at the Repeater Station. The tank was situated in a shallow tank bay adjacent to the Repeater Station along the crest of Pine Ridge. The tank failed a tightness test in October 1989 and was removed in November 1989. The purpose of this report is to document completion of soil corrective action, present supporting analytical data, and request closure for this site.

  1. Particle behaviour consideration to maximize the settling capacity of rainwater storage tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, M Y; Mun, J S

    2007-01-01

    Design of a rainwater storage tank is mostly based on the mass balance of rainwater with respect to the tank, considering aspects such as rainfall runoff, water usage and overflow. So far, however, little information is available on the quality aspects of the stored rainwater, such as the behavior of particles, the effect of retention time of the water in the tank and possible influences of system configuration on water quality in the storage tank. In this study, we showed that the performance of rainwater storage tanks could be maximized by recognizing the importance of water quality improvement by sedimentation and the importance of the system configuration within the tank, as well as the efficient collection of runoff. The efficiency of removal of the particles was increased by there being a considerable distance between the inlet and the outlet in the rainwater storage tank. Furthermore, it is recommended that the effective water depth in a rainwater tank be designed to be more than 3 m and that the rainwater be drawn from as close to the water surface as possible by using a floating suction device. An operation method that increases the retention time by stopping rainwater supply when the turbidity of rainwater runoff is high will ensure low turbidity in the rainwater collected from the tank.

  2. Technical Assessment of Compressed Hydrogen Storage Tank Systems for Automotive Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hua, Thanh [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Ahluwalia, Rajesh [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Peng, J. -K [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Kromer, Matt [TIAX LLC, Lexington, MA (United States); Lasher, Stephen [TIAX LLC, Lexington, MA (United States); McKenney, Kurtis [TIAX LLC, Lexington, MA (United States); Law, Karen [TIAX LLC, Lexington, MA (United States); Sinha, Jayanti [TIAX LLC, Lexington, MA (United States)

    2010-09-01

    This technical report describes DOE's assessment of the performance and cost of compressed hydrogen storage tank systems for automotive applications. The on-board performance (by Argonne National Lab) and high-volume manufacturing cost (by TIAX LLC) were estimated for compressed hydrogen storage tanks. The results were compared to DOE's 2010, 2015, and ultimate full fleet hydrogen storage targets. The Well-to-Tank (WTT) efficiency as well as the off-board performance and cost of delivering compressed hydrogen were also documented in the report.

  3. Thermal Stratification in Small Solar Domestic Storage Tanks caused by Draw-offs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jordan, Ulrike; Furbo, Simon

    2005-01-01

    As shown in many research studies in the past, the thermal stratification of the tank caused by draw-offs has a high impact on the performance of a Solar Domestic Hot Water (SDHW) system. Nevertheless, in most tank models for system simulations the influence of the draw-off pattern on the mixing...... behaviour is not taken into account sufficiently. Two typical Danish domestic water storage tanks, each with a volume of about 150 l, were investigated. In both tanks the inlet pipes are placed at the bottom and hot water is drawn from the upper part of tank. Above the inlet pipes, differently shaped plates...... are placed in order to reduce the mixing of the incoming cold water with the warmer storage water. To measure the thermal stratification thermocouples were placed in a vertical glass tube inside the tank. Measurements were carried out with different draw-off volumes, flow rates, and initial temperatures...

  4. A STUDY OF CORROSION AND STRESS CORROSION CRACKING OF CARBON STEEL NUCLEAR WASTE STORAGE TANKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BOOMER, K.D.

    2007-08-21

    The Hanford reservation Tank Farms in Washington State has 177 underground storage tanks that contain approximately 50 million gallons of liquid legacy radioactive waste from cold war plutonium production. These tanks will continue to store waste until it is treated and disposed. These nuclear wastes were converted to highly alkaline pH wastes to protect the carbon steel storage tanks from corrosion. However, the carbon steel is still susceptible to localized corrosion and stress corrosion cracking. The waste chemistry varies from tank to tank, and contains various combinations of hydroxide, nitrate, nitrite, chloride, carbonate, aluminate and other species. The effect of each of these species and any synergistic effects on localized corrosion and stress corrosion cracking of carbon steel have been investigated with electrochemical polarization, slow strain rate, and crack growth rate testing. The effect of solution chemistry, pH, temperature and applied potential are all considered and their role in the corrosion behavior will be discussed.

  5. Seismic Fragility Analysis of a Degraded Condensate Storage Tank

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nie, J.; Braverman, J.; Hofmayer, C.; Choun, Y-S.; Kim, M.K.; Choi, I-K.

    2011-05-16

    The Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) and Brookhaven National Laboratory are conducting a collaborative research project to develop seismic capability evaluation technology for degraded structures and components in nuclear power plants (NPPs). One of the goals of this collaboration endeavor is to develop seismic fragility analysis methods that consider the potential effects of age-related degradation of structures, systems, and components (SSCs). The essential part of this collaboration is aimed at achieving a better understanding of the effects of aging on the performance of SSCs and ultimately on the safety of NPPs. A recent search of the degradation occurrences of structures and passive components (SPCs) showed that the rate of aging related degradation in NPPs was not significantly large but increasing, as the plants get older. The slow but increasing rate of degradation of SPCs can potentially affect the safety of the older plants and become an important factor in decision making in the current trend of extending the operating license period of the plants (e.g., in the U.S. from 40 years to 60 years, and even potentially to 80 years). The condition and performance of major aged NPP structures such as the containment contributes to the life span of a plant. A frequent misconception of such low degradation rate of SPCs is that such degradation may not pose significant risk to plant safety. However, under low probability high consequence initiating events, such as large earthquakes, SPCs that have slowly degraded over many years could potentially affect plant safety and these effects need to be better understood. As part of the KAERI-BNL collaboration, a condensate storage tank (CST) was analyzed to estimate its seismic fragility capacities under various postulated degradation scenarios. CSTs were shown to have a significant impact on the seismic core damage frequency of a nuclear power plant. The seismic fragility capacity of the CST was developed

  6. A storage gas tank is moved to a pallet in the O&C

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, Fla. -- Workers in the Operations and Checkout Building stand by while one of four gas tanks is moved toward the Spacelab Logistics Double Pallet. Part of the STS-104 payload, the storage tanks two gaseous oxygen and two gaseous nitrogen -- comprise the high pressure gas assembly that will be attached to the Joint Airlock Module during two spacewalks. The tanks will support future spacewalk operations from the Station and augment the Service Module gas resupply system.

  7. 76 FR 46798 - Compatibility of Underground Storage Tank Systems With Biofuel Blends; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Compatibility of Underground Storage Tank Systems With Biofuel Blends; Correction AGENCY... compliance with the Federal compatibility requirement for UST systems storing gasoline greater than...

  8. LEAKING UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANKS: REMEDIATION WITH EMPHASIS ON IN SITU BIORESTORATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The current literature indicates that in situ biorestoration has great potential for remediation of aquifers contaminated by leaking underground storage tanks. In situ aquifer restoration involves the enhancement of the indigenous microflora to degrade subsurface pollutants. The ...

  9. Indian Country Leaking Underground Storage Tank (LUST) Points, Region 9, 2016, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This GIS dataset contains point features that represent Leaking Underground Storage Tanks in US EPA Region 9 Indian Country. This dataset contains facility name and...

  10. Numerical simulation on heat transfer characteristics of the storage tank for concentrating solar power plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qianjun Mao

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Concentrating solar power plant coupling with energy storage is a new and emerging technology, which can solve two issues, that is, low flux density and intermittent of solar energy. Heat transfer characteristics of the storage tank in this system have a key effect on the system’s efficiency and cost. In this article, the heat transfer performance of a phase change thermal storage tank has been proposed, and the temperature distribution and liquid fraction of phase change material in the tank has numerically been investigated. The results show that the temperature increases with the increasing charge time. The results also show that there is a phase change process at the charge time of 200 min, and no phase change for the charge time of 250 and 300 min. The results of this article can provide a reference for future design and optimal operation of the storage tank in concentrating solar power plant.

  11. Small-Scale Metal Tanks for High Pressure Storage of Fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    London, Adam (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Small scale metal tanks for high-pressure storage of fluids having tank factors of more than 5000 meters and volumes of ten cubic inches or less featuring arrays of interconnected internal chambers having at least inner walls thinner than gage limitations allow. The chambers may be arranged as multiple internal independent vessels. Walls of chambers that are also portions of external tank walls may be arcuate on the internal and/or external surfaces, including domed. The tanks may be shaped adaptively and/or conformally to an application, including, for example, having one or more flat outer walls and/or having an annular shape. The tanks may have dual-purpose inlet/outlet conduits of may have separate inlet and outlet conduits. The tanks are made by fusion bonding etched metal foil layers patterned from slices of a CAD model of the tank. The fusion bonded foil stack may be further machined.

  12. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Part B permit application for tank storage units at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-05-01

    In compliance with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), this report discusses information relating to permit applications for three tank storage units at Y-12. The storage units are: Building 9811-1 RCRA Tank Storage Unit (OD-7); Waste Oil/Solvent Storage Unit (OD-9); and Liquid Organic Solvent Storage Unit (OD-10). Numerous sections discuss the following: Facility description; waste characteristics; process information; groundwater monitoring; procedures to prevent hazards; contingency plan; personnel training; closure plan, post closure plan, and financial requirements; record keeping; other federal laws; organic air emissions; solid waste management units; and certification. Sixteen appendices contain such items as maps, waste analyses and forms, inspection logs, equipment identification, etc.

  13. Permeability of Flexible Materials Used in Fuel Storage Tanks. Part 1. General Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-08-01

    459 PERMEABILITY OF FLEXIBLE MATERIALS USED IN FUEL STORAGE TANKS: PART 1 - GENERAL REVIEW B.C. Ennis- THE UNITED STATES NATIONAL TECHNICAL INFMATION... GENERAL REVIEW Accession For NTIS T&i Ju £ , ,, L f T B.C. Ennis * .... . . ABSTRACT I A review of the transport of hydrocarbon fuels through composite...PERMEABILITY OF FLEXIBLE MATERIALS USED IN FUEL STORAGE TANKS% ’I PART 1 - GENERAL REVIEW MT40R(S) COF"ATE AUTHOR Materlals Research Laboratories• !ENNIS

  14. Numerical Investigation of Effective Heat Conductivity of Fluid in Charging Process of Thermal Storage Tank

    OpenAIRE

    Taheri, H.; Schmidt, F. P.; Gabi, M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a numerical case study of heat transfer mechanisms during the charging process of a stratified thermal storage tank applied in a specific adsorption heat pump cycle. The effective thermal conductivity of the heat transfer fluid during the charging process is analyzed through CFD simulations using Unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations (URANS). The aim of the study is to provide an equivalent thermal conductivity for a one-dimensional storage tank model to be us...

  15. Liquid Level Measurement in Oil Tanks Based on Double-differential Pressure Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The system principle and configuration of the double-differential pressure method for measuring oil tank level are presented. The fundamental method and circuit of fiber optic transmission are analyzed .The accuracy and security of level measurement in the oil tanks have been greatly improved.

  16. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan for Corrective Action Unit 124: Storage Tanks, Nevada Test Site, Nevada (Draft), Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alfred Wickline

    2007-04-01

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan addresses closure for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 124, Areas 8, 15, and 16 Storage Tanks, identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 124 consists of five Corrective Action Sites (CASs) located in Areas 8, 15, and 16 of the Nevada Test Site as follows: • 08-02-01, Underground Storage Tank • 15-02-01, Irrigation Piping • 16-02-03, Underground Storage Tank • 16-02-04, Fuel Oil Piping • 16-99-04, Fuel Line (Buried) and UST This plan provides the methodology of field activities necessary to gather information to close each CAS. There is sufficient information and process knowledge from historical documentation and investigations of similar sites regarding the expected nature and extent of potential contaminants to recommend closure of CAU 124 using the SAFER process.

  17. 40 CFR Table 21 to Subpart G of... - Average Storage Temperature (Ts) as a Function of Tank Paint Color

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Average Storage Temperature (Ts) as a Function of Tank Paint Color 21 Table 21 to Subpart G of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... (Ts) as a Function of Tank Paint Color Tank Color Average Storage Temperature (Ts) White TA a =...

  18. Opportunistic pathogens relative to physicochemical factors in water storage tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Bahry, S N; Elshafie, A E; Victor, R; Mahmoud, I Y; Al-Hinai, J A

    2011-06-01

    Household water in Oman, as well as in other countries in the region, is stored in tanks placed on house roofs that can be subjected to physicochemical factors which can promote microbial growth, including pathogens and opportunistic pathogens which pose health risks. Water samples were collected from 30 houses in a heavily populated suburb of Muscat. The tanks used were either glass reinforced plastic (GRP), polyethylene or galvanised iron (GI). Heterotrophic bacteria, coliforms, faecal coliforms and iron sulphur bacteria varied significantly in the three tanks. Yeast and mould count showed significant variations. Isolation of Aeromonas spp., fluorogenic and pathogenic Pseudomonas, Pasteurella, Salmonella, Serratia and Tatumella, and Yersinia and Legionella in biofilms varied in the three tanks. The fungi isolates in the three tanks were Penicillium, Cladosporium and Aspergillus. Nephelometric turbidity unit, threshold odour number and free chlorine varied significantly in the three tanks. True colour unit values did not show a significant difference; however, GRP tanks had algae, autotrophic and pigmented microorganisms. In addition, GI tanks had sediments and corrosion. The results of this investigation are important to evaluate the status of the present household water tanks in countries with high annual temperatures, which may affect public health.

  19. Smart solar tanks - Heat storage of the future?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furbo, Simon; Shah, Louise Jivan

    1997-01-01

    can be large and in periods with a small hot water demand the volume can be small. For instance, the energy supply system can be controlled on measurements of the energy content of the tank during all hours of the week and based on a required hot water consumption and consumption pattern which can...... be selected by the owner of the system. Preliminary tests of a 175 l smart solar tank have been carried out. Finally, theoretical calculations of the yearly thermal performances of small SDHW-systems based on standard tanks and on a smart solar tank have been carried out. Based on the investigations...

  20. A novel method to design water spray cooling system to protect floating roof atmospheric storage tanks against fires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iraj Alimohammadi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrocarbon bulk storage tank fires are not very common, but their protection is essential due to severe consequences of such fires. Water spray cooling system is one of the most effective ways to reduce damages to a tank from a fire. Many codes and standards set requirements and recommendations to maximize the efficiency of water spray cooling systems, but these are widely different and still various interpretations and methods are employed to design such systems. This article provides a brief introduction to some possible design methods of cooling systems for protection of storage tanks against external non-contacting fires and introduces a new method namely “Linear Density Method” and compares the results from this method to the “Average Method” which is currently in common practice. The average Method determines the flow rate for each spray nozzle by dividing the total water demand by the number of spray nozzles while the Linear Density Method determines the nozzle flow rate based on the actual flow over the surface to be protected. The configuration of the system includes a one million barrel crude oil floating roof tank to be protected and which is placed one half tank diameter from a similar adjacent tank with a full surface fire. Thermal radiation and hydraulics are modeled using DNV PHAST Version 6.53 and Sunrise PIPENET Version 1.5.0.2722 software respectively. Spray nozzles used in design are manufactured by Angus Fire and PNR Nozzles companies. Schedule 40 carbon steel pipe is used for piping. The results show that the cooling system using the Linear Density Method consumes 3.55% more water than the design using the average method assuming a uniform application rate of 4.1 liters per minute. Despite higher water consumption the design based on Linear Density Method alleviates the problems associated with the Average Method and provides better protection.

  1. Effect of hot-water consumption on temperature distribution in a horizontal solar water storage tank

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helwa, N.H.; El-Ghetany, H.H. [National Research Center, Cairo (Egypt). Dept. of Solar Energy; Mobarak, A.M.; El-Sallak, M.S. [Cairo Univ. (Egypt). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1995-12-31

    This experimental investigation assesses the behaviour of a solar water heater provided with a liquid heat exchanger in a horizontal storage tank. The factors that affect the stratification inside the storage tank are considered. The performance of the system is studied in the light of the daily consumption of hot water of an Egyptian family. The results obtained show that in the places where it is necessary to use a horizontal tank it must be supplied with an auxiliary electric heater to meet the required load at the required temperature, especially in winter. (author)

  2. South Tank Farm underground storage tank inspection using the topographical mapping system for radiological and hazardous environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armstrong, G.A.; Burks, B.L.; Hoesen, S.D. van

    1997-07-01

    During the winter of 1997 the Topographical Mapping System (TMS) for hazardous and radiological environments and the Interactive Computer-Enhanced Remote-Viewing System (ICERVS) were used to perform wall inspections on underground storage tanks (USTs) W5 and W6 of the South Tank Farm (STF) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The TMS was designed for deployment in the USTs at the Hanford Site. Because of its modular design, the TMS was also deployable in the USTs at ORNL. The USTs at ORNL were built in the 1940s and have been used to store radioactive waste during the past 50 years. The tanks are constructed with an inner layer of Gunite{trademark} that has been spalling, leaving sections of the inner wall exposed. Attempts to quantify the depths of the spalling with video inspection have proven unsuccessful. The TMS surface-mapping campaign in the STF was initiated to determine the depths of cracks, crevices, and/or holes in the tank walls and to identify possible structural instabilities in the tanks. The development of the TMS and the ICERVS was initiated by DOE for the purpose of characterization and remediation of USTs at DOE sites across the country. DOE required a three-dimensional, topographical mapping system suitable for use in hazardous and radiological environments. The intended application is mapping the interiors of USTs as part of DOE`s waste characterization and remediation efforts, to obtain both baseline data on the content of the storage tank interiors and changes in the tank contents and levels brought about by waste remediation steps. Initially targeted for deployment at the Hanford Site, the TMS has been designed to be a self-contained, compact, and reconfigurable system that is capable of providing rapid variable-resolution mapping information in poorly characterized workspaces with a minimum of operator intervention.

  3. Operation Performance of Central Solar Heating System with Seasonal Storage Water Tank in Harbin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YE Ling; JIANG Yi-qiang; YAO Yang; ZHANG Shi-cong

    2009-01-01

    This paper presented a preliminary research on the central solar heating system with seasonal stor-age(CSHSSS)used in cold climate in China.A mathematical model of the solar energy seasonal storage water tank used in the central solar heating system was firstly developed based on energy conservation.This was fol-lowed by the simulation of the CSHSSS used in a two-floor villa in Harbin,and analysis of the impacts on storage water temperature of tank volume,solar collector area,tank burial depth,insulation thickness around the tank,etc.The results show there is a relatively economical tank volume to optimize the system efficiency,which de-creases with increasing tank volume at the constant collector area,and increases with increasing collector area at the constant tank volume.Furthermore,the insulation thickness has obvious effect on avoiding heat loss,while the tank burial depth doesn't.In addition-the relationship between the solar collector efficiency and storage wa-ter temperature is also obtained,it decreases quickly with increasing storing water temperature,and then in-creases slowly after starting space heating system.These may be helpful for relevant design and optimization in cold climates in China and all over the world.

  4. Acquisition and data analysis of storage tank bottoms for life prediction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aparecido da Silva, M. [Petroquimica Uniao, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Tus, R. [Rosen Europe, Oldenzaal (Netherlands)

    2006-07-01

    Several techniques can be used to develop important life prediction information regarding structural conditions of storage tank bottoms. However, there is a limited availability of test that can be obtained from in service structural components. The reasons for applying life prediction methodology to aging storage tanks: more stringent safety and environment regulations, avoid costly forced outages, the limited availability of construction sites for new tanks, the expense of constructing, etc. The cause for applying life prediction methodology in aging tanks is material degradation. Nondestructive evaluation technique for characterizing and sizing important mechanical conditions in storage tank bottoms have been developed by the Company Rosen Inspection Technologies. The Tank Bottom Inspection Tool (TBIT) is capable to detect, data collecting and sizing in real time oriented flaws defects as well as metal loss features with length of 03 mm and depth of 50%. The technique based in high resolution MFL (Magnetic Flux Leakage) was applied in a petrochemical storage tank and compared with visual and dimensional analysis. The results show accurate information for predicting life. (orig.)

  5. Regional scale analysis for the design of storage tanks for domestic rainwater harvesting systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campisano, A; Modica, C

    2012-01-01

    A regional scale analysis for the design of storage tanks for domestic rain water harvesting systems is presented. The analysis is based on the daily water balance simulation of the storage tank by the yield-after-spillage algorithm as tank release rule. Water balances are applied to 17 rainfall gauging stations in Sicily (Italy). Compared with literature existing methods, a novel dimensionless parameter is proposed to better describe the intra-annual character of the rainfall patterns. As a result, easy-to-use regional regressive models to evaluate the water saving performance and the overflow discharges from the tank are provided along with a stepwise procedure for practical application. The regional models demonstrate good fits between model predictions and simulated values of both water savings and overflows from the tank.

  6. Dehydration and desalting of heavy crude Maya into the TMDB by means of tanks of storage of 500 TB converted to type gun-barrel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cisneros, L.F.L.; Abundes, A.A.; Aguinaga, C.A.L.; Monroy, J.D.A.; Jimenez, R.M.; Sanchez, M.R.; Medina, J.L.H.; Vazquez, J.V.; Montano, A.E.G.; Villanueva, A.G.; Moreno, W.N.C.; Maria, G.B.; Mendez, J.L.J.; Cordero, E.D.; Ponce, F.C.; Estrada, C.D.; Azuara, V.H.C. [Petroleos Mexicanos, PEMEX, Mexico City (Mexico)

    2009-07-01

    When crude oil emerges from the production well, it is polluted with congenital waters and in some cases with sea water. These waters can be present as free water or emulsified. When the water reaches the surface, the free water is eliminated by sedimentation. However, the reduction of emulsified water is not directly due to the stability presented by the drops of emulsified water in the crude, therefore chemical injection for the separation of both phases is required. This paper discussed the design of a system for dehydration and desalting of 750 TBD Maya heavy crude, by means of tanks type gun-barrel. The design was performed using the simulation packages HYSYS and computational fluid dynamics of ANSYS, considering the parameters that were studied in bottle tests and profiled in tanks storage of 500 TB. The design was based on the settling speed that affects the dehydration and desalting of crude. The paper discussed the production facilities used in the crude dehydration, with particular reference to the gun barrel tank; washer tank; heat treater tanks; free water separator; and electrostatic separator. The development of the system was described in terms of data compilation using Stokes' Law and interpretation of the field data using bottle tests. It was concluded that the gun barrel train was the best option to dehydrate and desalt Mayan oil in the TMDB, since this processing system takes advantage of the existing facilities, specifically the storage tanks of 500 TB capacity. 16 refs., 5 tabs., 5 figs.

  7. Structured Analysis and Supervision Applied on Heavy Fuel Oil Tanks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LAKHOUA Mohamed Najeh

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces the need for structured analysis and real time (SA-RT method of controlcommand applications in a thermal power plant (TPP using a supervisory control and data acquisition system (SCADA. Then, the architecture of a SCADA system in a TPP is presented. A significant example of a control-command application is presented. It is about the heavy fuel oil tanks of a TPP. Then an application of a structured analysis method, generally used in industry, on the basis of the SA-RT formalism is presented. In fact, different modules are represented and described: Context Diagram, Data Flows Diagram, Control Flows Diagram, State Transition Diagram, Timing Specifications and Requirements Dictionary. Finally, this functional and operational analysis allows us to assist the different steps of the specification, the programming and the configuration of a new tabular in a SCADA system.

  8. Experimental Investigation of Jet-Induced Mixing of a Large Liquid Hydrogen Storage Tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, C. S.; Hasan, M. M.; Vandresar, N. T.

    1994-01-01

    Experiments have been conducted to investigate the effect of fluid mixing on the depressurization of a large liquid hydrogen storage tank. The test tank is approximately ellipsoidal, having a volume of 4.89 m(exp 3) and an average wall heat flux of 4.2 W/m(exp 2) due to external heat input. A mixer unit was installed near the bottom of the tank to generate an upward directed axial jet flow normal to the liquid-vapor interface. Mixing tests were initiated after achieving thermally stratified conditions in the tank either by the introduction of hydrogen gas into the tank or by self-pressurization due to ambient heat leak through the tank wall. The subcooled liquid jet directed towards the liquid-vapor interface by the mixer induced vapor condensation and caused a reduction in tank pressure. Tests were conducted at two jet submergence depths for jet Reynolds numbers from 80,000 to 495,000 and Richardson numbers from 0.014 to 0.52. Results show that the rate of tank pressure change is controlled by the competing effects of subcooled jet flow and the free convection boundary layer flow due to external tank wall heating. It is shown that existing correlations for mixing time and vapor condensation rate based on small scale tanks may not be applicable to large scale liquid hydrogen systems.

  9. A numerical study on the discharging performance of a packing module in a thermal storage tank

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yong Tae; Chung, Jae Dong [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Sejong University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park Hyoung Joon [Dept of.evelopment Center, Janghan Engineers. INC., Dangjin (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-07-15

    In this study, a numerical analysis on the discharging performance of a thermal storage tank completely filled with packing modules is investigated. The enthalpy-porosity method is adopted to analyze phase change phenomenon. Using this method, the melting process of a packing module in the thermal storage tank was studied as the HTF (heat transfer fluid) flows down from the top of the tank at the discharging mode. There are some design factors such as the module arrangement and the number of modules, but this study focuses on the effects of varying the flow rate of the HTF on the outlet temperature of the HTF, molten fraction, and thermal storage density. As the flow rate increases, the outlet temperature of the HTF gets higher and the total melting time of the PCM decreases. Additionally, the thermal storage density is increased so that it reaches about 93% for the desired value.

  10. CHANGXINDIAN OIL STORAGE TO BE LARGEST ONE IN BEIJING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ On August 11, the revision and expansion engineering of Changxindian Oil Storage, run by Sinopec Beijing Oil Company, kicked off formally, marking that another Olympic infrastructure engineering started building.

  11. PEI Domestic Oil Tank Program : a history of recent oil spills on Prince Edward Island

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McInnis, D.

    2001-04-01

    This power point presentation addressed the issue of recent oil spills on Prince Edward Island (PEI) with a critical examination of the Home Heat Tank Program in the province and how insurance companies, banks and real estate industry are dealing with the problem of oil spill contamination. The number of above ground domestic home heating tank spills continues to remain high and have been increasing in the past 10 years. This is due in part to improper installations which are essentially putting the safety of many homeowners and the environment at risk. It was noted that in Prince Edward Island, home heat tank installations do not have to be performed by qualified persons. Therefore, in order to save money, many home owners cut corners. Most improper installations are attributed to people who are not aware of proper guidelines and do not follow proper requirements and guidelines. In 1999 there were 208 domestic oil spills reported in PEI, of which 125 involved 17 tons or less of contaminated soil, 62 involved 51 tons of contaminated soil and 21 involved 51 tons or more of contaminated soil. The cost of cleanup for the latter was in the tens of thousands of dollars. It was recommended that this problem should be addressed in a 4 phase approach involving stakeholder consultation, public education, program assessment and regulation amendments. 37 figs.

  12. Safe interim storage of Hanford tank wastes, draft environmental impact statement, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-07-01

    This Draft EIS is prepared pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) and the Washington State Environmental Policy Act (SEPA). DOE and Ecology have identified the need to resolve near-term tank safety issues associated with Watchlist tanks as identified pursuant to Public Law (P.L.) 101-510, Section 3137, ``Safety Measures for Waste Tanks at Hanford Nuclear Reservation,`` of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1991, while continuing to provide safe storage for other Hanford wastes. This would be an interim action pending other actions that could be taken to convert waste to a more stable form based on decisions resulting from the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) EIS. The purpose for this action is to resolve safety issues concerning the generation of unacceptable levels of hydrogen in two Watchlist tanks, 101-SY and 103-SY. Retrieving waste in dilute form from Tanks 101-SY and 103-SY, hydrogen-generating Watchlist double shell tanks (DSTs) in the 200 West Area, and storage in new tanks is the preferred alternative for resolution of the hydrogen safety issues.

  13. Rainwater Harvesting in South India: Understanding Water Storage and Release Dynamics at Tank and Catchment Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, N. B.; Van Meter, K. J.; Mclaughlin, D. L.; Steiff, M.

    2015-12-01

    Rainwater harvesting, the small-scale collection and storage of runoff for irrigated agriculture, is recognized as a sustainable strategy for ensuring food security, especially in monsoonal landscapes in the developing world. In south India, these strategies have been used for millennia to mitigate problems of water scarcity. However, in the past 100 years many traditional rainwater harvesting systems have fallen into disrepair due to increasing dependence on groundwater. With elevated declines in groundwater resources, there is increased effort at the state and national levels to revive older systems. Critical to the success of such efforts is an improved understanding of how these ancient water-provisioning systems function in contemporary landscapes with extensive groundwater pumping and shifted climatic regimes. Knowledge is especially lacking regarding the water-exchange dynamics of these rainwater harvesting "tanks" at tank and catchment scales, and how these exchanges regulate tank performance and catchment water balances. Here, we use fine-scale water level variations to quantify daily fluxes of groundwater, evapotranspiration, and sluice outflows in four tanks over the 2013 northeast monsoon season in a tank cascade that covers a catchment area of 28.2 km2. Our results indicate a distinct spatial pattern in groundwater-exchange dynamics, with the frequency and magnitude of groundwater inflow events (as opposed to outflow) increasing down the cascade of tanks. The presence of tanks in the landscape dramatically alters the catchment water balance, with catchment-scale runoff:rainfall ratios decreasing from 0.29 without tanks to 0.04 - 0.09 with tanks. Recharge:rainfall ratios increase in the presence of tanks, from ~0.17 in catchments without tanks to ~ 0.26 in catchments with tanks. Finally, our results demonstrate how more efficient management of sluice outflows can lead to the tanks meeting a higher fraction of crop water requirements.

  14. Energy system investment model incorporating heat pumps with thermal storage in buildings and buffer tanks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Karsten; Balyk, Olexandr

    2013-01-01

    options: passive heat storage in the building structure via radiator heating, active heat storage in concrete floors via floor heating, and use of thermal storage tanks for space heating and hot water. It is shown that the model is well qualified for analysing possibilities and system benefits...... be taken into account. In this study, we present a model that facilitates analysing individual heat pumps and complementing heat storages in integration with the energy system, while optimising both investments and operation. The model incorporates thermal building dynamics and covers various heat storage...

  15. On the Behavior of Different PCMs in a Hot Water Storage Tank against Thermal Demands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacobo Porteiro

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Advantages, such as thermal storage improvement, are found when using PCMs (Phase Change Materials in storage tanks. The inclusion of three different types of materials in a 60 l test tank is studied. Two test methodologies were developed, and four tests were performed following each methodology. A thermal analysis is performed to check the thermal properties of each PCM. The distributions of the water temperatures inside the test tanks are evaluated by installing four Pt-100 sensors at different heights. A temperature recovery is observed after exposing the test tank to an energy demand. An energetic analysis that takes into account the energy due to the water temperature, the energy due to the PCM and the thermal loss to the ambient environment is also presented. The percentage of each PCM that remains in the liquid state after the energy demand is obtained.

  16. Decision and systems analysis for underground storage tank waste retrieval systems and tank waste remediation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bitz, D.A. [Independent Consultant, Kirkland, WA (United States); Berry, D.L. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jardine, L.J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-03-01

    Hanford`s underground tanks (USTs) pose one of the most challenging hazardous and radioactive waste problems for the Department of Energy (DOE). Numerous schemes have been proposed for removing the waste from the USTs, but the technology options for doing this are largely unproven. To help assess the options, an Independent Review Group (IRG) was established to conduct a broad review of retrieval systems and the tank waste remediation system. The IRG consisted of the authors of this report.

  17. 钢质原油储罐的腐蚀与防护%Corrosion and Protection of Steel Crude Oil Tanks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李军龙; 徐星; 金刘伟; 巩毅超; 陈挺

    2016-01-01

    With the continuous development of petroleum and petrochemical industry, and increasing of oil storage capacity, more and more storage tanks are being applied. Because the physical and chemical properties of crude oil are relatively complex and crude oil has strong corrosive, research on oil tank anti-corrosion measures and methods is very important. In this paper, based on the status of the corrosion of crude oil tank, in order to improve the service life of the tank and reduce the incidence of the tank, the corrosion mechanism of each part of the tank was researched. At the same time, the concrete corrosion protection measures were put forward. Finally, key causes to affect the tank anti-corrosion effect were analyzed.%随着石油石化行业的快速发展,对原油的储存提出了更高的要求,这就需要新建大量的原油储罐。基于原油的理化性质相对复杂又具有极强的腐蚀性,因此,研究原油储罐防腐蚀的举措和方法受到高度的重视。针对原油储罐的腐蚀现状,为确保大型储罐安全长周期运行,解决储罐防腐技术应用中的腐蚀泄露问题,降低储罐的事故风险,分析了针对储罐各个部位的腐蚀机理所采取的防腐蚀措施。最后阐述了影响储罐防腐蚀效果的原因。

  18. Study on in-service inspection methods for the above-ground oil tanks floors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min Xiong; Yewei Kang; Mingchun, Lin; Yi Sun [PetroChina Pipeline R and D Center, Langfang (China)

    2009-07-01

    It is very dangerous to the environment when oil tank floors get corrosion or leak during its long-time service. The traditional inspection methods need to shut down a tank and to empty it, then to clean it in order to inspect the floor. Comparing with the traditional methods, the in-service methods can inspect tank floors rapidly without removing product and opening the tank and can save many costs of tank emptying and cleaning. This paper explores three up-to date in-service inspection methods for the oil tank floors which are acoustic emission technology ultrasonic guided wave technology and mobile robot technology. The theoretic foundation and application status of each method is described. The advantage and disadvantage of each in-service detection technology is concluded. At last some proposals are made. (author)

  19. Thermal Performance Comparison of Glass Microsphere and Perlite Insulation Systems for Liquid Hydrogen Storage Tanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sass, J. P.; Fesmire, J. E.; Nagy, Z. F.; Sojourner, S. J.; Morris, D. L.; Augustynowicz, S. D.

    2008-03-01

    A technology demonstration test project was conducted by the Cryogenics Test Laboratory at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) to provide comparative thermal performance data for glass microspheres, referred to as bubbles, and perlite insulation for liquid hydrogen tank applications. Two identical 1/15th scale versions of the 3,200,000 liter spherical liquid hydrogen tanks at Launch Complex 39 at KSC were custom designed and built to serve as test articles for this test project. Evaporative (boil-off) calorimeter test protocols, including liquid nitrogen and liquid hydrogen, were established to provide tank test conditions characteristic of the large storage tanks that support the Space Shuttle launch operations. This paper provides comparative thermal performance test results for bubbles and perlite for a wide range of conditions. Thermal performance as a function of cryogenic commodity (nitrogen and hydrogen), vacuum pressure, insulation fill level, tank liquid level, and thermal cycles will be presented.

  20. Review of sensors for the in situ chemical characterization of the Hanford underground storage tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kyle, K.R.; Mayes, E.L.

    1994-07-29

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), in the Technical Task Plan (TTP) SF-2112-03 subtask 2, is responsible for the conceptual design of a Raman probe for inclusion in the in-tank cone penetrometer. As part of this task, LLNL is assigned the further responsibility of generating a report describing a review of sensor technologies other than Raman that can be incorporated in the in-tank cone penetrometer for the chemical analysis of the tank environment. These sensors would complement the capabilities of the Raman probe, and would give information on gaseous, liquid, and solid state species that are insensitive to Raman interrogation. This work is part of a joint effort involving several DOE laboratories for the design and development of in-tank cone penetrometer deployable systems for direct UST waste characterization at Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Underground Storage Tank Integrated Demonstration (UST-ID).

  1. Temperature distribution of a hot water storage tank in a simulated solar heating and cooling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namkoong, D.

    1976-01-01

    A 2,300-liter hot water storage tank was studied under conditions simulating a solar heating and cooling system. The initial condition of the tank, ranging from 37 C at the bottom to 94 C at the top, represented a condition midway through the start-up period of the system. During the five-day test period, the water in the tank gradually rose in temperature but in a manner that diminished its temperature stratification. Stratification was found not to be an important factor in the operation of the particular solar system studied.

  2. Emission characteristics of VOCs from three fixed-roof p-xylene liquid storage tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chungsying; Huang, Hsiaoyun; Chang, Shenteng; Hsu, Shihchieh

    2013-08-01

    This study evaluates emission characteristics of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) caused by standing loss (L S) and working loss (L W) of three vertical fixed-roof p-xylene (p-X) liquid tanks during 1-year storage and filling operation. The annual net throughput of the tanks reached 70,446 t, resulting in 9,425 kg of p-X vapor emission including 5,046 kg of L S (53.54 %) and 4,379 kg of L W (46.46 %). The estimated L W of AP-42 displayed better agreement with the measured values of a VOC detector than the estimated L S of AP-42. The L S was best correlated with the liquid height of the tanks, while the L W was best correlated with the net throughput of the tanks. As a result, decreasing vapor space volume of the tanks and avoiding high net throughput of the tanks in a high ambient temperature period were considered as effective means to lessen VOC emission from the fixed-roof organic liquid storage tank.

  3. FINAL REPORT - Development of High Pressure Hydrogen Storage Tank for Storage and Gaseous Truck Delivery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldwin, Donald [Hexagon Lincoln LLC, Lincoln, NE (United States)

    2017-08-04

    The “Development of High Pressure Hydrogen Storage Tanks for Storage and Gaseous Truck Delivery” project [DE-FG36-08GO18062] was initiated on 01 July 2008. Hexagon Lincoln (then Lincoln Composites) received grant funding from the U.S. Department of Energy to support the design and development of an improved bulk hauling and storage solution for hydrogen in terms of cost, safety, weight and volumetric efficiency. The development of this capability required parallel development and qualification of large all-composites pressure vessels, a custom ISO container to transport and store said tanks, and performance of trade studies to identify optimal operating pressure for the system. Qualification of the 250 bar TITAN® module was completed in 2009 with supervision from the American Bureau of Shipping [ABS], and the equipment has been used internationally for bulk transportation of fuel gases since 2010. Phase 1 of the project was successfully completed in 2012 with the issuance of USDOT SP 14951, the special permit authorizing the manufacture, marking, sale and use of TITAN® Mobile Pipeline® equipment in the United States. The introduction of tube trailers with light weight composite tankage has meant that 2 to 3 times as much gaseous fuel can be transported with each trip. This increased hauling efficiency offers dramatically reduced operating costs and has enabled a profitable business model for over-the-road compressed natural gas delivery. The economic drivers of this business opportunity vary from country to country and region to region, but in many places gas distribution companies have realized profitable operations. Additional testing was performed in 2015 to characterize hydrogen-specific operating protocols for use of TITAN® systems in CHG service at 250 bar. This program demonstrated that existing compression and decompression methodologies can efficiently and safely fill and unload lightweight bulk hauling systems. Hexagon Lincoln and U.S. DOE agreed

  4. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 135: Areas 25 Underground Storage Tanks, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. H. Cox

    2001-06-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 135, Area 25 Underground Storage Tanks, was closed in accordance with the approved Corrective Action Plan (DOE/NV, 2000). CAU 135 consists of three Corrective Action Sites (CAS). Two of these CAS's were identified in the Corrective Action Investigation Data Quality Objective meeting as being improperly identified as underground storage tanks. CAS 25-02-03 identified as the Deluge Valve Pit was actually an underground electrical vault and CAS 25-02-10 identified as an Underground Storage Tank was actually a former above ground storage tank filled with demineralized water. Both of these CAS's are recommended for a no further action closure. CAS 25-02-01 the Underground Storage Tanks commonly referred to as the Engine Maintenance Assembly and Disassembly Waste Holdup Tanks and Vault was closed by decontaminating the vault structure and conducting a radiological verification survey to document compliance with the Nevada Test Site unrestricted use release criteria. The Area 25 Underground Storage Tanks, (CAS 25-02-01), referred to as the Engine Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly (E-MAD) Waste Holdup Tanks and Vault, were used to receive liquid waste from all of the radioactive and cell service area drains at the E-MAD Facility. Based on the results of the Corrective Action Investigation conducted in June 1999, discussed in ''The Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 135: Area 25 Underground Storage Tanks, Nevada Test Site, Nevada'' (DOE/NV, 199a), one sample from the radiological survey of the concrete vault interior exceeded radionuclide preliminary action levels. The analytes from the sediment samples exceeded the preliminary action levels for polychlorinated biphenyls, Resource Conservation and Recovery Act metals, total petroleum hydrocarbons as diesel-range organics, and radionuclides. The CAU 135 closure activities consisted of scabbling radiological ''hot spots

  5. Lower Colorado River GRP Underground Storage Tank Sites (Closed), Nevada, 2012, Nevada Division of Environmental Protection Bureau of Corrective Actions

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The BCA layers are derived from a database for Federally Regulated Underground Storage Tanks (UST) and a database for Remediation and Leaking Underground Storage...

  6. 40 CFR 63.1253 - Standards: Storage tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... trucks and 49 CFR 173.31 for railcars. (3) Hazardous air pollutants must only be unloaded from tank... emission monitoring requirements of § 63.1258(b)(5). (e) Planned routine maintenance. The specifications... periods of planned routine maintenance. Periods of planned routine maintenance of the control...

  7. A case study of electrostatic accidents in the process of oil-gas storage and transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yuqin; Wang, Diansheng; Liu, Jinyu; Gao, Jianshen

    2013-03-01

    Ninety nine electrostatic accidents were reviewed, based on information collected from published literature. All the accidents over the last 30 years occurred during the process of oil-gas storage and transportation. Statistical analysis of these accidents was performed based on the type of complex conditions where accidents occurred, type of tanks and contents, and type of accidents. It is shown that about 85% of the accidents occurred in tank farms, gas stations or petroleum refineries, and 96% of the accidents included fire or explosion. The fishbone diagram was used to summarize the effects and the causes of the effects. The results show that three major reasons were responsible for accidents, including improper operation during loading and unloading oil, poor grounding and static electricity on human bodies, which accounted for 29%, 24% and 13% of the accidents, respectively. Safety actions are suggested to help operating engineers to handle similar situations in the future.

  8. Modelling of a solid oxide fuel cell CHP system coupled with a hot water storage tank for a single household

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liso, Vincenzo; Zhao, Yingru; Yang, Wenyuan

    2015-01-01

    In this paper a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) system for cogeneration of heat and power integrated with a stratified heat storage tank is studied. The use of a storage tank with thermal stratification allows one to increase the annual operating hours of CHP: heat can be produced when the request...

  9. Ormosil Beads for Insulation of Ground Cryogenic Storage Tanks Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advanced materials are required to insulate cryogenic storage and distribution systems for liquid propellants such as hydrogen and oxygen, used in orbital transfer...

  10. Method for Calculating Costs of Underground Storage Tank Closure at Fort Dix, New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-09-01

    OIL#6 Hazardous Substance __ Indicate Principal CERCLA Substance ___ ___ ___ chemical Abstract Service (CAS) No. ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ Mixture... Chemical Abstract Service (CAS) No. ___ ___ ___ ___ Mixture Unknown __ ------------------------ ------- I -------* ----- ------ -------- I...Substance Indicate Principal CERCLA Substance ____________ Chemical Abstract Service (CAS) No. _________ Mixture __ Unknown __ 1li. Date Tank Last

  11. 78 FR 70076 - Aging Management of Internal Surfaces, Fire Water Systems, Atmospheric Storage Tanks, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-22

    ... COMMISSION Aging Management of Internal Surfaces, Fire Water Systems, Atmospheric Storage Tanks, and... Guidance (LR-ISG), LR-ISG-2012-02, ``Aging Management of Internal Surfaces, Fire Water Systems, Atmospheric... aging management programs (AMPs), aging management review (AMR) items, and definitions in NUREG-...

  12. Borehole Miner - Extendible Nozzle Development for Radioactive Waste Dislodging and Retrieval from Underground Storage Tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CW Enderlin; DG Alberts; JA Bamberger; M White

    1998-09-25

    This report summarizes development of borehole-miner extendible-nozzle water-jetting technology for dislodging and retrieving salt cake, sludge} and supernate to remediate underground storage tanks full of radioactive waste. The extendible-nozzle development was based on commercial borehole-miner technology.

  13. Modification of a liquid hydrogen tank for integrated refrigeration and storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanger, A. M.; Jumper, K. M.; Fesmire, J. E.; Notardonato, W. U.

    2015-12-01

    The modification and outfitting of a 125,000-liter liquid hydrogen tank was performed to provide integrated refrigeration and storage capability. These functions include zero boil-off, liquefaction, and densification and therefore require provisions for sub-atmospheric tank pressures within the vacuum-jacketed, multilayer insulated tank. The primary structural modification was to add stiffening rings inside the inner vessel. The internal stiffening rings were designed, built, and installed per the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section VIII, to prevent collapse in the case of vacuum jacket failure in combination with sub-atmospheric pressure within the tank. For the integrated refrigeration loop, a modular, skeleton-type heat exchanger, with refrigerant temperature instrumentation, was constructed using the stiffening rings as supports. To support the system thermal performance testing, three custom temperature rakes were designed and installed along the 21-meter length of the tank, once again using rings as supports. The temperature rakes included a total of 20 silicon diode temperature sensors mounted both vertically and radially to map the bulk liquid temperature within the tank. The tank modifications were successful and the system is now operational for the research and development of integrated refrigeration technology.

  14. Simplified design and evaluation of liquid storage tanks relative to earthquake loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poole, A.B.

    1994-06-01

    A summary of earthquake-induced damage in liquid storage tanks is provided. The general analysis steps for dynamic response of fluid-filled tanks subject to horizontal ground excitation are discussed. This work will provide major attention to the understanding of observed tank-failure modes. These modes are quite diverse in nature, but many of the commonly appearing patterns are believed to be shell buckling. A generalized and simple-to-apply shell loading will be developed using Fluegge shell theory. The input to this simplified analysis will be horizontal ground acceleration and tank shell form parameters. A dimensionless parameter will be developed and used in predictions of buckling resulting from earthquake-imposed loads. This prediction method will be applied to various tank designs that have failed during major earthquakes and during shaker table tests. Tanks that have not failed will also be reviewed. A simplified approach will be discussed for early design and evaluation of tank shell parameters and materials to provide a high confidence of low probability of failure during earthquakes.

  15. Quantitative risk analysis of oil storage facilities in seismic areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabbrocino, Giovanni; Iervolino, Iunio; Orlando, Francesca; Salzano, Ernesto

    2005-08-31

    Quantitative risk analysis (QRA) of industrial facilities has to take into account multiple hazards threatening critical equipment. Nevertheless, engineering procedures able to evaluate quantitatively the effect of seismic action are not well established. Indeed, relevant industrial accidents may be triggered by loss of containment following ground shaking or other relevant natural hazards, either directly or through cascade effects ('domino effects'). The issue of integrating structural seismic risk into quantitative probabilistic seismic risk analysis (QpsRA) is addressed in this paper by a representative study case regarding an oil storage plant with a number of atmospheric steel tanks containing flammable substances. Empirical seismic fragility curves and probit functions, properly defined both for building-like and non building-like industrial components, have been crossed with outcomes of probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) for a test site located in south Italy. Once the seismic failure probabilities have been quantified, consequence analysis has been performed for those events which may be triggered by the loss of containment following seismic action. Results are combined by means of a specific developed code in terms of local risk contour plots, i.e. the contour line for the probability of fatal injures at any point (x, y) in the analysed area. Finally, a comparison with QRA obtained by considering only process-related top events is reported for reference.

  16. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 130: Storage Tanks Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alfred Wickline

    2009-03-01

    This Closure Report (CR) presents information supporting the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 130: Storage Tanks, Nevada Test Site, Nevada. This CR complies with the requirements of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order that was agreed to by the State of Nevada; U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Environmental Management; U.S. Department of Defense; and DOE, Legacy Management. The corrective action sites (CASs) within CAU 130 are located within Areas 1, 7, 10, 20, 22, and 23 of the Nevada Test Site. Corrective Action Unit 130 is comprised of the following CASs: • 01-02-01, Underground Storage Tank • 07-02-01, Underground Storage Tanks • 10-02-01, Underground Storage Tank • 20-02-03, Underground Storage Tank • 20-99-05, Tar Residue • 22-02-02, Buried UST Piping • 23-02-07, Underground Storage Tank This CR provides documentation supporting the completed corrective action investigations and provides data confirming that the closure objectives for CASs within CAU 130 were met. To achieve this, the following actions were performed: • Reviewed the current site conditions, including the concentration and extent of contamination. • Implemented any corrective actions necessary to protect human health and the environment. • Properly disposed of corrective action and investigation-derived wastes. From August 4 through September 30, 2008, closure activities were performed as set forth in the Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan for CAU 130, Storage Tanks, Nevada Test Site, Nevada. The purposes of the activities as defined during the data quality objectives process were: • Determine whether contaminants of concern (COCs) are present. • If COCs are present, determine their nature and extent, implement appropriate corrective actions, confirm that no residual contamination is present, and properly dispose of wastes. Constituents detected during the closure activities were evaluated against final action levels to identify

  17. What to do with a used oil tank; Aus Alt mach Nuetzlich

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janzing, B.; Lohse, A.

    2008-03-15

    If builder-owners change from oil, e.g. to pellets, they are faced with the problem of what to do with their oil tanks. The contribution presents two solutions, i.e. as a cistern or as a pellet store. (orig.)

  18. Submersible optical sensors exposed to chemically dispersed crude oil: wave tank simulations for improved oil spill monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conmy, Robyn N; Coble, Paula G; Farr, James; Wood, A Michelle; Lee, Kenneth; Pegau, W Scott; Walsh, Ian D; Koch, Corey R; Abercrombie, Mary I; Miles, M Scott; Lewis, Marlon R; Ryan, Scott A; Robinson, Brian J; King, Thomas L; Kelble, Christopher R; Lacoste, Jordanna

    2014-01-01

    In situ fluorometers were deployed during the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) Gulf of Mexico oil spill to track the subsea oil plume. Uncertainties regarding instrument specifications and capabilities necessitated performance testing of sensors exposed to simulated, dispersed oil plumes. Dynamic ranges of the Chelsea Technologies Group AQUAtracka, Turner Designs Cyclops, Satlantic SUNA and WET Labs, Inc. ECO, exposed to fresh and artificially weathered crude oil, were determined. Sensors were standardized against known oil volumes and total petroleum hydrocarbons and benzene-toluene-ethylbenzene-xylene measurements-both collected during spills, providing oil estimates during wave tank dilution experiments. All sensors estimated oil concentrations down to 300 ppb oil, refuting previous reports. Sensor performance results assist interpretation of DWH oil spill data and formulating future protocols.

  19. Optimal selection of intermediate storage tank capacity in a periodic batch/semicontinuous process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karimi, I.A.; Reklaitis, G.V.

    1983-07-01

    Batch/semicontinuous chemical plants are usually designed either by assuming infinite intermediate storage or by assuming that the units themselves act as storage vessels, while the storage vessels are sized by rules of thumb or experience. In this paper, the case of an intermediate storage vessel which links one upstream batch/semicontinuous unit to one downstream batch/semicontinuous unit is analyzed. The units are assumed to operate with fixed cycle times and capacities. Expressions for determining the minimum storage tank capacity necessary to decouple the two units are derived from a mathematical model of the periodic process. Effects of the relative starting times of the two units on the required storage capacity are determined, thus suggesting the optimum process timings to minimize the same. Application of the results is illustrated by an example.

  20. Implications of the modelling of stratified hot water storage tanks in the simulation of CHP plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos Celador, A., E-mail: alvaro.campos@ehu.es [ENEDI Research Group-University of the Basque Country, Departamento de Maquinas y Motores Termicos, E.T.S.I. de Bilbao Alameda de Urquijo, s/n 48013 Bilbao, Bizkaia (Spain); Odriozola, M.; Sala, J.M. [ENEDI Research Group-University of the Basque Country, Departamento de Maquinas y Motores Termicos, E.T.S.I. de Bilbao Alameda de Urquijo, s/n 48013 Bilbao, Bizkaia (Spain)

    2011-08-15

    Highlights: {yields} Three different modelling approaches for simulation of hot water tanks are presented. {yields} The three models are simulated within a residential cogeneration plant. {yields} Small differences in the results are found by an energy and exergy analysis. {yields} Big differences between the results are found by an advanced exergy analysis. {yields} Results on the feasibility study are explained by the advanced exergy analysis. - Abstract: This paper considers the effect that different hot water storage tank modelling approaches have on the global simulation of residential CHP plants as well as their impact on their economic feasibility. While a simplified assessment of the heat storage is usually considered in the feasibility studies of CHP plants in buildings, this paper deals with three different levels of modelling of the hot water tank: actual stratified model, ideal stratified model and fully mixed model. These three approaches are presented and comparatively evaluated under the same case of study, a cogeneration plant with thermal storage meeting the loads of an urbanisation located in the Bilbao metropolitan area (Spain). The case of study is simulated by TRNSYS for each one of the three modelling cases and the so obtained annual results are analysed from both a First and Second-Law-based viewpoint. While the global energy and exergy efficiencies of the plant for the three modelling cases agree quite well, important differences are found between the economic results of the feasibility study. These results can be predicted by means of an advanced exergy analysis of the storage tank considering the endogenous and exogenous exergy destruction terms caused by the hot water storage tank.

  1. Experimental study on the storage performance of high-vacuum-multilayer-insulation tank after sudden, catastrophic loss of insulating vacuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, G. F.; Li, X. D.; Wang, R. S.

    2012-05-01

    High-vacuum-multilayer-insulation (HVMLI) cryogenic tank is one kind of dangerous pressure vessels. One of the worst accidents that may occur in a high-vacuum-multilayer-insulation (HVMLI) cryogenic tank is a sudden, catastrophic loss of insulating vacuum (SCLIV). The influence of SCLIV on storage performance for a HVMLI cryogenic tank is experimentally studied in this paper. A test rig was built up and experiments were conducted using LN2 as the test medium. The cryogenic tank was tested in the conditions of various combinations with different initial liquid level and number of insulation layers. Some important conclusions for storage performance with a vacuum-lost HVMLI cryogenic tank have been obtained. The experimental results show that the numbers of insulation layers and the initial liquid level have obvious effect on the storage performance after SCLIV for cryogenic tanks.

  2. Performance of a solid oxide fuel cell CHP system coupled with a hot water storage tank for single household

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liso, Vincenzo; Zhao, Yingru; Yang, Wenyuan

    2014-01-01

    of heat used for thermal loads of the residence. Two fuels are considered, namely syngas and natural gas. The tank model considers the temperature gradients over the tank height. The results of the numerical simulation is used to size the SOFC system and storage heat tank to provide energy for a small...... household using two different fuels. In particular it was shown that in the case of syngas, due to larger system heat output, a larger tank volume was required in order to accumulate unused heat over the night. The detailed description of the tank model will be useful to energy system modelers when sizing......In this paper a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) system for cogeneration of heat and power integrated with a stratified heat storage tank is studied. Thermal stratification in the tank increases the heat recovery performance as it allows existence of a temperature gradient with the benefit...

  3. Rock-bed thermocline storage: A numerical analysis of granular bed behavior and interaction with storage tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassine, Nahia; Donzé, Frédéric-Victor; Bruch, Arnaud; Harthong, Barthélemy

    2017-06-01

    Thermal Energy Storage (TES) systems are central elements of various types of power plants operated using renewable energy sources. Packed bed TES can be considered as a cost-effective solution in concentrated solar power plants (CSP). Such a device is made up of a tank filled with a granular bed through which heat-transfer fluid circulates. However, in such devices, the tank might be subjected to catastrophic failure induced by a mechanical phenomenon known as thermal ratcheting. Thermal stresses are accumulated during cycles of loading and unloading until the failure happens. This paper aims at studying the evolution of tank wall stresses over granular bed thermal cycles, taking into account both thermal and mechanical loads, with a numerical model based on the discrete element method (DEM). Simulations were performed to study two different thermal configurations: (i) the tank is heated homogenously along its height or (ii) with a vertical gradient of temperature. Then, the resulting loading stresses applied on the tank are compared as well the response of the internal granular material.

  4. Acute collective gas poisoning at work in a manure storage tank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Żaba, Czesław; Marcinkowski, Jerzy T; Wojtyła, Andrzej; Tężyk, Artur; Tobolski, Jarosław; Zaba, Zbigniew

    2011-01-01

    Cases of deaths in manure or septic tanks are rare in legal-medical practice, more frequently as unfortunate occupational accidents. Poisoning with toxic gases, especially with hydrogen sulfide, is reported as the cause of death, while the exhaustion of oxygen in the air is omitted with the simultaneous excess of carbon dioxide. In such cases, determination of the direct cause of death constitutes a big problem because post-mortem examination does not reveal the specific changes. A case of acute collective poisoning by gases in a manure storage tank is presented of 5 agricultural workers, 2 of whom died. While explaining the cause of poisoning and deaths, toxicological blood tests were performed in the victims of the accident, as well as gases inside the manure storage tank. The post-mortem examinations and toxicological blood tests performed did not allow determination of the direct cause of death. Toxicological tests of gases from inside the manure tank showed a very low concentration of oxygen, with a simultaneous very high concentration of carbon dioxide, and a considerable level of hydrogen sulfide. The cause of fainting of three and deaths of two workers was not the poisoning with hydrogen sulfide, but oxygen deficiency in the air of the tank.

  5. Vehicular hydrogen storage using lightweight tanks (regenerative fuel cell systems)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitlitsky, F; Myers, B; Weisberg, A H

    1999-06-01

    Energy storage systems with extremely high specific energy (>400 Wh/kg) have been designed that use lightweight tankage to contain the gases generated by reversible (unitized) regenerative fuel cells (URFCs). Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) will leverage work for aerospace applications supported by other sponsors (including BMDO, NASA, and USAF) to develop URFC systems for transportation and utility applications. Lightweight tankage is important for primary fuel cell powered vehicles that use on-board storage of hydrogen. Lightweight pressure vessels with state-of-the-art performance factors were designed, and prototypes are being fabricated to meet the DOE 2000 goals (4000 Wh/kg, 12% hydrogen by weight, 700 Wh/liter, and $20/kWh in high volume production). These pressure vessels use technologies that are easily adopted by industrial partners. Advanced liners provide permeation barriers for gas storage and are mandrels for composite overwrap. URFCs are important to the efficient use of hydrogen as a transportation fuel and enabler of renewable energy. H{sub 2}/halogen URFCs may be advantageous for stationary applications whereas H{sub 2}/O{sub 2} or H{sub 2}/air URFCs are advantageous for vehicular applications. URFC research and development is required to improve performance (efficiency), reduce catalyst loading, understand engineering operation, and integrate systems. LLNL has the experimental equipment and advanced URFC membrane electrode assemblies (some with reduced catalyst loading) for evaluating commercial hardware (not funded by DOE in FY1999).

  6. ECOLO-HOUSE in the heavy snow-fall region. Ground-water and wasted-wood become resources by utilizing storage-tank; Yukiguni ECOLO-HOUSE. Chikunetsuso wo riyoshita chikasui oyobi mokushitsu gomi no shigenka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Umemiya, H.; Fukumuro, S. [Yamagata University, Yamagata (Japan)

    1997-11-25

    This paper reports living comfort in summer by operating a groundwater utilization system using a hot water storage tank and a floor air conditioning system. The groundwater utilization system is a system for room cooling by using groundwater and for supplying water for living use. The system operates as follows: groundwater is passed through a coil-type heat exchanger having pipes each 100 m long laid in parallel for a total length of 200 m, the heat exchanger being installed in a hot water storage tank; the water is used to cool water in the storage tank in summer; and the water is warmed up in the storage tank in winter, further heated by an oil boiler to be used as hot water for cooking and bathing. In the floor air conditioning system, cold water in the water storage tank (warm water in winter) is pumped up by a circulation pump, and passed through the floor air conditioning circuit having a pipe with a total length of 400 m at a flow rate of 14 liters per minute. The system is of a closed circuit in which the water is re-heated by a wood burning boiler in winter and returned to the hot water storage tank. The amount of supplied cold heat from groundwater to the hot water tank obtained on a daily average is 90W. About 20% of the monthly cumulative cold heat amount dissipated from the floor circuit is the monthly cumulative cold heat amount supplied from the groundwater circuit to the hot water storage tank. 1 ref., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Performance of rainwater harvesting system based on roof catchment area and storage tank capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Imroatul C.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing population growth has created problems in water resources. Natural water resources become progressively more expensive and difficult to develop. In addition, it is also becoming increasingly polluted and difficult to obtain. Many countries shown a resurgent interest in the use of rainwater harvesting (RWH technique to overcome these problems. There are several factors that will influence the RWH performance, such as the rainfall, catchment area, storage tank capacity, and water demand. The performance parameter determines by the volumetric reliability, time reliability, and yield. The RWH system used in this study is a simple RWH system that utilizes roof as a catchment area, pipes as a distribution system and tank as a storage. An analysis is carried out to investigate the effect of altering the large of the catchment area and storage tank capacity to the RWH system performance parameters. A suitable behavioral model based on the water balance method is implemented to evaluate the inflow, outflow, and the storage volume. Results demonstrate that with up to 15 years daily rainfall data in 15 cities in Indonesia, the most influential parameters on the performance of RWH system is the time reliability.

  8. Atmospheric Pressure Effects on Cryogenic Storage Tank Boil-Off

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sass, J. P.; Frontier, C. R.

    2007-01-01

    The Cryogenics Test Laboratory (CTL) at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) routinely utilizes cryostat test hardware to evaluate comparative and absolute thermal conductivities of a wide array of insulation systems. The test method is based on measurement of the flow rate of gas evolved due to evaporative boil-off of a cryogenic liquid. The gas flow rate typically stabilizes after a period of a couple of hours to a couple of days, depending upon the test setup. The stable flow rate value is then used to calculate the thermal conductivity for the insulation system being tested. The latest set of identical cryostats, 1,000-L spherical tanks, exhibited different behavior. On a macro level, the flow rate did stabilize after a couple of days; however the stable flow rate was oscillatory with peak to peak amplitude of up to 25 percent of the nominal value. The period of the oscillation was consistently 12 hours. The source of the oscillation has been traced to variations in atmospheric pressure due to atmospheric tides similar to oceanic tides. This paper will present analysis of this phenomenon, including a calculation that explains why other cryostats are not affected by it.

  9. Secondary Containment Design for the LLNL B801 Diala Oil Tank

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mertesdorf, E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-12-14

    Design is to add an extension to the secondary containment of tank T1-A3 at building 801. Piping from the inner tank penetrates the secondary containment tank below the liquid level of the primary tank. To meet Oil Pollution Prevention Regulation 40 CFR 120.7 the single wall piping needs to be provided with secondary containment. Steel Tank Institute (STI) conference publication states: §112.3(d)(1)(iii) –SPCC Plan requirements- Systems shall be designed in accordance with good engineering practice, including consideration of applicable industry standards and that procedures for required inspections and testing have been established. Section 112.7(a)(2) allows for deviations from specific rule requirements, provided the Owner/operator responsible to select, document and implement alternate measure and a PE certifies the SPCC Plan in accordance with good engineering practices, including consideration of industry standards

  10. Performance improvement by discharge from different levels in solar storage tanks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furbo, Simon; Andersen, Elsa; Thür, Alexander

    2005-01-01

    The thermal advantages by utilizing discharge from different levels in solar storage tanks are investigated, both for a small SDHW system and for a solar combisystem. The investigations showed that it is possible to increase the thermal performance of both types of systems by using two draw......-off levels from the solar tanks instead of one draw-off level at a fixed position. The best position of the second draw-off level is in the middle or just above the middle of the tank. For the investigated small SDHW system with a realistic draw off hot water temperature of 40°C and 45°C and an auxiliary...

  11. Guidelines for development of structural integrity programs for DOE high-level waste storage tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bandyopadhyay, K.; Bush, S.; Kassir, M.; Mather, B.; Shewmon, P.; Streicher, M.; Thompson, B.; Rooyen, D. van; Weeks, J.

    1997-01-01

    Guidelines are provided for developing programs to promote the structural integrity of high-level waste storage tanks and transfer lines at the facilities of the Department of Energy. Elements of the program plan include a leak-detection system, definition of appropriate loads, collection of data for possible material and geometric changes, assessment of the tank structure, and non-destructive examination. Possible aging degradation mechanisms are explored for both steel and concrete components of the tanks, and evaluated to screen out nonsignificant aging mechanisms and to indicate methods of controlling the significant aging mechanisms. Specific guidelines for assessing structural adequacy will be provided in companion documents. Site-specific structural integrity programs can be developed drawing on the relevant portions of the material in this document.

  12. Assessment of concentration mechanisms for organic wastes in underground storage tanks at Hanford

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerber, M.A.; Burger, L.L.; Nelson, D.A.; Ryan, J.L. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)); Zollars, R.L. (Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States))

    1992-09-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has conducted an initial conservative evaluation of physical and chemical processes that could lead to significant localized concentrations of organic waste constituents in the Hanford underground storage tanks (USTs). This evaluation was part of ongoing studies at Hanford to assess potential safety risks associated with USTs containing organics. Organics in the tanks could pose a potential problem if localized concentrations are high enough to propagate combustion and are in sufficient quantity to produce a large heat and/or gas release if in contact with a suitable oxidant. The major sources of oxidants are oxygen in the overhead gas space of the tanks and sodium nitrate and nitrite either as salt cake solids or dissolved in the supernatant and interstitial liquids.

  13. Power Reactant Storage Assembly (PRSA) (Space Shuttle). PRSA hydrogen and oxygen DVT tank refurbishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-07-01

    The Power Reactant Storage Assembly (PRSA) liquid hydrogen Development Verification Test (H2 DVT) tank assembly (Beech Aircraft Corporation P/N 15548-0116-1, S/N 07399000SHT0001) and liquid oxygen (O2) DVT tank assembly (Beech Aircraft Corporation P/N 15548-0115-1, S/N 07399000SXT0001) were refurbished by Ball Electro-Optics and Cryogenics Division to provide NASA JSC, Propulsion and Power Division, the capability of performing engineering tests. The refurbishments incorporated the latest flight configuration hardware and avionics changes necessary to make the tanks function like flight articles. This final report summarizes these refurbishment activities. Also included are up-to-date records of the pressure time and cycle histories.

  14. A mounded spherical storage tank at Papeete; Une sphere sous talus a Papeete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2003-09-01

    Because demand for liquid petroleum gas (LPG) in French Polynesia is burgeoning, deliveries of the product are on the rise, in particular from New Zealand. In consideration of this, Gaz de Tahiti has had a mounded 1.800 m{sup 3} spherical propane storage tank built by the Tissot group. The new tank joins the ranks of the standard 2.500 m{sup 3} spherical butane tank that Gaz de Tahiti already has at its Papeete site. The slope consists of earth-filled gabions, which are at least one metre thick at any point of the steel structure. The project is proof once again that Gaz de Tahiti has no reason to envy European companies when it comes to technology and development. (authors)

  15. Calculus of evaporation losses in oil products in fixed and floating roof tanks after API examples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barus, D.

    1971-06-01

    From vapor pressure diagrams for products between 1 and 20 psi Reid vapor pressure and for crude oil, the author calculates the evaporation losses through daily breathing, due to temperature fluctuations and through variations in liquid level due to filling and emptying the reservoir, both for fixed roof and for floating roof tanks. The necessary tables, graphs, and nomograms are given. It is concluded that floating roof tanks have a much lower rate of loss through evaporation than fixed roof tanks. The data are based on API publications.

  16. Technique of Oil Jet Tank Cleaning Equipment%以油洗油的清罐设备与技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛胜雄; 王永强; 巴胜富; 陈正文; 朱华清

    2011-01-01

    Basd on crude oil storage tank cleaning & recovery technique, the writer' s innovation achievements of oil jet tank cleaning equipment technique was introduced, as followings: the routing of oil jet cleaning sludge; technique characteristic of tank cleaning equipment; design & test of cavitation jet nozzle tips; key technique of 3-D rotary nozzle; making effective use of oil jet force. The test results of cavitation jet, produced through inserting the nozzle core into nozzle tips, shows that the jet effective range of Organ model nozzle tips is increased by 20%. It enhances the cleaning efficiency of tank bottom sludge.%基于原油储罐清洗与回收技术,介绍了清罐设备成套技术和关键点,其中包括:以油洗油的工艺路线、清罐成套设备的技术特点、空化射流喷嘴的设计与试验研究和三维旋转喷枪油射流打击力的有效利用等.通过对喷嘴中置入喷嘴芯形成的空化射流试验证实:将传统管风琴式喷嘴的射流射程提高了20%以上,仅此一点,极大地提高了罐底油泥的破碎效率.

  17. Modelling of a solid oxide fuel cell CHP system coupled with a hot water storage tank for a single household

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liso, Vincenzo; Zhao, Yingru; Yang, Wenyuan

    2015-01-01

    In this paper a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) system for cogeneration of heat and power integrated with a stratified heat storage tank is studied. The use of a storage tank with thermal stratification allows one to increase the annual operating hours of CHP: heat can be produced when the request...... produced by gasification and natural gas. The tank model considers the temperature gradients over the tank height. The results of the numerical simulation are used to size the SOFC system and storage heat tank to provide energy for a small household using two different fuels. In particular it was shown...... is low (for instance during the night), taking advantage of thermal stratification to increases the heat recovery performance. A model of the SOFC system is presented to estimate the energy required to meet the average electric energy demand of the residence. Two fuels are considered, namely syngas...

  18. Methanoculleus spp. as a biomarker of methanogenic activity in swine manure storage tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barret, Maialen; Gagnon, Nathalie; Morissette, Bruno; Topp, Edward; Kalmokoff, Martin; Brooks, Stephen P J; Matias, Fernando; Massé, Daniel I; Masse, Lucie; Talbot, Guylaine

    2012-05-01

    Greenhouse gas emissions represent a major problem associated with manure management in the livestock industry. A prerequisite to mitigate methane emissions occurring during manure storage is a clearer understanding of how the microbial consortia involved in methanogenesis function. Here, we have examined manure stored in outdoor tanks from two different farms, at different locations and depths. Physico-chemical and microbiological characterization of these samples indicated differences between each tank, as well as differences within each tank dependent on the depth of sampling. The dynamics of both the bacterial and archaeal communities within these samples were monitored over a 150-day period of anaerobic incubation to identify and track emerging microorganisms, which may be temporally important in the methanogenesis process. Analyses based on DNA fingerprinting of microbial communities identified trends common among all samples as well as trends specific to certain samples. All archaeal communities became enriched with Methanoculleus spp. over time, indicating that the hydrogenotrophic pathway of methanogenesis predominated. Although the emerging species differed in samples obtained from shallow depths compared to deep samples, the temporal enrichment of Methanoculleus suggests that this genus may represent a relevant indicator of methanogenic activity in swine manure storage tanks.

  19. Mechanical Characteristics of 9% Ni Steel Welded Joint for Lng Storage Tank at Cryogenic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Yong-Keun; Kim, Jae-Hoon; Shim, Kyu-Taek; Kim, Young-Kyun

    To confirm the safety performance of LNG storage tank, the change in fatigue crack growth rate and fracture toughness within X-grooved weld heat-affected zone (HAZ) of newly developed 9% Ni steel, which was SMAW welded, was investigated. These materials were produced by QT (quenching, tempering) heat treatment. The weld metal specimens were prepared by taking the same weld procedure applied in actual inner shell of LNG storage tank. All tests were performed in the temperature ranging from R.T. and -162°C. The fatigue crack growth behavior was carried out using CT specimen. Investigation has been carried out to study the influence of temperature and weld effect on fatigue crack growth behavior. Also, Fracture surfaces after tests were observe by scanning electron microscope (SEM).

  20. The Computer Aided Integrated Design and Analysis of Oil Tank in Vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    This paper creates 3D solid model and assembly of U RJ 92-6 oil tank and analyses its strength by integrated CAD/CAE/CAM software I-D EAS. Through integrated simulation in computer, design efficiency and quality of oil tank is greatly improved. Adopting integrated CAD/CAE/CAM software to carry out integrated research to equ ipment and products, we will be able to take overall analysis in aspects of 3-D solid modeling, pre-assembly and strength, etc., to realize non-paper designi ng and parallel designing...

  1. Self-pressurization of a spherical liquid hydrogen storage tank in a microgravity environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, C. S.; Hasan, M. M.

    1992-01-01

    Thermal stratification and self-pressurization of partially filled liquid hydrogen (LH2) storage tanks under microgravity condition is studied theoretically. A spherical tank is subjected to a uniform and constant wall heat flux. It is assumed that a vapor bubble is located in the tank center such that the liquid-vapor interface and tank wall form two concentric spheres. This vapor bubble represents an idealized configuration of a wetting fluid in microgravity conditions. Dimensionless mass and energy conservation equations for both vapor and liquid regions are numerically solved. Coordinate transformation is used to capture the interface location which changes due to liquid thermal expansion, vapor compression, and mass transfer at liquid-vapor interface. The effects of tank size, liquid fill level, and wall heat flux on the pressure rise and thermal stratification are studied. Liquid thermal expansion tends to cause vapor condensation and wall heat flux tends to cause liquid evaporation at the interface. The combined effects determine the direction of mass transfer at the interface. Liquid superheat increases with increasing wall heat flux and liquid fill level and approaches an asymptotic value.

  2. Numerical Investigation of LO2 and LCH4 Storage Tanks on the Lunar Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moder, Jeff; Barsi, Stephen; Kassemi, Mohammad

    2008-01-01

    Currently NASA is developing technologies to enable human exploration of the lunar surface for duration of up to 210 days. While trade studies are still underway, a cryogenic ascent stage using liquid oxygen (LO2) and liquid methane (LCH4) is being considered for the Altair lunar lander. For a representative Altair cryogenic ascent stage, we present a detailed storage analysis of the LO2 and LCH4 propellant tanks on the lunar surface for durations of up to 210 days. Both the LO2 and LCH4 propellant tanks are assumed to be pressurized with gaseous helium at launch. A two-phase lumped-vapor computational fluid dynamics model has been developed to account for the presence of a noncondensable gas in the ullage. The CFD model is used to simulate the initial pressure response of the propellant tanks while they are subjected to representative heat leak rates on the lunar surface. Once a near stationary state is achieved within the liquid phase, multizone model is used to extrapolate the solution farther in time. For fixed propellant mass and tank size, the long-term pressure response for different helium mass fractions in both the LO2 and LCH4 tanks is examined.

  3. Characterization and leaching study of sludge from Melton Valley Storage Tank W-25

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, J.L.; Egan, B.Z.; Beahm, E.C.; Chase, C.W.; Anderson, K.K.

    1997-08-01

    One of the greatest challenges facing the Department of Energy (DOE) is the remediation of the 100 million gallons of high-level and low-level radioactive waste in the underground storage tanks at its Hanford, Savannah River, Oak Ridge, Idaho, and Fernald sites. Bench-scale batch tests have been conducted with sludge from the Melton Valley Storage Tank (MVST) Facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to evaluate separation processes for use in a comprehensive sludge-processing flow sheet for concentrating the radionuclides and reducing the volumes of storage tanks wastes for final disposal. This report discusses the hot cell apparatus, the characterization of the sludge, and the results obtained from a variety of basic and acidic leaching tests of samples of sludge. Approximately 5 L of sludge/supernate from MVST W-25 was retrieved and transferred to a stainless steel tank for mixing and storage in a hot cell. Samples were centrifuged to separate the sludge liquid and the sludge solids. Air-dried samples of sludge were analyzed to determine the concentrations of radionuclides, other metals, and anions. Based upon the air-dried weight, about 41% of the centrifuged, wet sludge solids was water. The major alpha-, gamma-, and beta-emitting radionuclides in the centrifuged, wet sludge solids were {sup 137}Cs, {sup 60}Co, {sup 154}Eu, {sup 241}Am, {sup 244}Cm, {sup 90}Sr, Pu, U, and Th. The other major metals (in addition to the U and Th) and the anions were Na, Ca, Al, K, Mg, NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}, CO{sub 3}{sup 2{minus}}, OH{sup {minus}}, and O{sub 2{minus}}. The organic carbon content was 3.0 {+-} 1.0%. The pH was 13.

  4. Technical assessment of compressed hydrogen storage tank systems for automotive applications.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hua, T. Q.; Ahluwalia, R. K.; Peng, J. K.; Kromer, M.; Lasher, S.; McKenney, K.; Law, K.; Sinha, J. (Nuclear Engineering Division); (TIAX, LLC)

    2011-02-09

    The performance and cost of compressed hydrogen storage tank systems has been assessed and compared to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) 2010, 2015, and ultimate targets for automotive applications. The on-board performance and high-volume manufacturing cost were determined for compressed hydrogen tanks with design pressures of 350 bar ({approx}5000 psi) and 700 bar ({approx}10,000 psi) capable of storing 5.6 kg of usable hydrogen. The off-board performance and cost of delivering compressed hydrogen was determined for hydrogen produced by central steam methane reforming (SMR). The main conclusions of the assessment are that the 350-bar compressed storage system has the potential to meet the 2010 and 2015 targets for system gravimetric capacity but will not likely meet any of the system targets for volumetric capacity or cost, given our base case assumptions. The 700-bar compressed storage system has the potential to meet only the 2010 target for system gravimetric capacity and is not likely to meet any of the system targets for volumetric capacity or cost, despite the fact that its volumetric capacity is much higher than that of the 350-bar system. Both the 350-bar and 700-bar systems come close to meeting the Well-to-Tank (WTT) efficiency target, but fall short by about 5%. These results are summarized.

  5. METHODOLOGY & CALCULATIONS FOR THE ASSIGNMENT OF WASTE GROUPS FOR THE LARGE UNDERGROUND WASTE STORAGE TANKS AT THE HANFORD SITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BARKER, S.A.

    2006-07-27

    Waste stored within tank farm double-shell tanks (DST) and single-shell tanks (SST) generates flammable gas (principally hydrogen) to varying degrees depending on the type, amount, geometry, and condition of the waste. The waste generates hydrogen through the radiolysis of water and organic compounds, thermolytic decomposition of organic compounds, and corrosion of a tank's carbon steel walls. Radiolysis and thermolytic decomposition also generates ammonia. Nonflammable gases, which act as dilutents (such as nitrous oxide), are also produced. Additional flammable gases (e.g., methane) are generated by chemical reactions between various degradation products of organic chemicals present in the tanks. Volatile and semi-volatile organic chemicals in tanks also produce organic vapors. The generated gases in tank waste are either released continuously to the tank headspace or are retained in the waste matrix. Retained gas may be released in a spontaneous or induced gas release event (GRE) that can significantly increase the flammable gas concentration in the tank headspace as described in RPP-7771. The document categorizes each of the large waste storage tanks into one of several categories based on each tank's waste characteristics. These waste group assignments reflect a tank's propensity to retain a significant volume of flammable gases and the potential of the waste to release retained gas by a buoyant displacement event. Revision 5 is the annual update of the methodology and calculations of the flammable gas Waste Groups for DSTs and SSTs.

  6. Characterization of EPA's 16 priority pollutant polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in tank bottom solids and associated contaminated soils at oil exploration and production sites in Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojes, Heidi K; Pope, Peter G

    2007-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the concentration and types of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), a group of environmentally toxic and persistent chemicals, at contaminated oil exploration and production (E&P) sites located in environmentally sensitive and geographically distinct areas throughout Texas. Samples of tank bottom solids, the oily sediment that collects at the bottom of the tanks, were collected from inactive crude oil storage tanks at E&P sites and hydrocarbon contaminated soil samples were collected from the area surrounding each tank that was sampled. All samples were analyzed for the 16 PAH priority pollutant listed by US EPA and for total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH). The results demonstrate that overall average PAH concentrations were significantly higher in tank bottom solids than in contaminated soils. Total PAH concentrations decreased predictably with diminishing hydrocarbon concentrations; but the percent fraction of carcinogenic PAHs per total measured PAH content increased from approximately 12% in tank bottom solids to about 46% in the contaminated soils. These results suggest that the PAH content found in tank bottom solids cannot reliably be used to predict the PAH content in associated contaminated soil. Comparison of PAHs to conservative risk-based screening levels for direct exposure to soil and leaching from soil to groundwater indicate that PAHs are not likely to exceed default risk-based thresholds in soils containing TPH of 1% (10,000mg/kg) or less. These results show that the magnitude of TPH concentration may be a useful indicator of potential risk from PAHs in crude oil-contaminated soils. The results also provide credibility to the 1% (10,000mg/kg) TPH cleanup level, used in Texas as a default management level at E&P sites located in non-sensitive areas, with respect to PAH toxicity.

  7. The Auto control System Based on InTouch Configuration software for High-gravity Oil Railway Tank Feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu De-Kai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides automatic design for high-gravity oil railway tank feeding system of some refinery uses distributive control system. The system adopts the automatic system of Modicon TSX Quantum or PLC as monitor and control level and uses a PC-based plat form as principal computer running on the Microsoft Windows2000. An automatic control system is developed in the environment of InTouch configuration software. This system implements automatic high-gravity oil tank feeding with pump controlling function. And it combines automatic oil feeding controlling, pump controlling and tank monitoring function to implement the automation of oil feeding with rations and automatic control.

  8. The Gunite Tanks Remediation Project at Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Successful Integration & Deployment of Technologies Results in Remediated Underground Storage Tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Billingsley, K.; Bolling, D.

    2002-02-27

    This paper presents an overview of the underground technologies deployed during the cleanup of nine large underground storage tanks (USTs) that contained residual radioactive sludge, liquid low-level waste (LLLW), and other debris. The Gunite Tanks Remediation Project at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was successfully completed in 2001, ending with the stabilization of the USTs and the cleanup of the South Tank Farm. This U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) project was the first of its kind completed in the United States of America. The Project integrated robotic and remotely operated technologies into an effective tank waste retrieval system that safely retrieved more than 348 m3 (92,000 gal) of radioactive sludge and 3.15E+15 Bq (85,000 Ci) of radioactive contamination from the tanks. The Project successfully transferred over 2,385 m3 (630,000 gal) of waste slurry to ORNL's active tank waste management system. The project team avoided over $120 Million in costs and shortened the original baseline schedule by over 10 years. Completing the Gunite Tanks Remediation Project eliminated the risks posed by the aging USTs and the waste they contained, and avoid the $400,000 annual costs associated with maintaining and monitoring the tanks.

  9. METHODOLOGY AND CALCULATIONS FOR THE ASSIGNMENT OF WASTE GROUPS FOR THE LARGE UNDERGROUND WASTE STORAGE TANKS AT THE HANFORD SITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WEBER RA

    2009-01-16

    The Hanford Site contains 177 large underground radioactive waste storage tanks (28 double-shell tanks and 149 single-shell tanks). These tanks are categorized into one of three waste groups (A, B, and C) based on their waste and tank characteristics. These waste group assignments reflect a tank's propensity to retain a significant volume of flammable gases and the potential of the waste to release retained gas by a buoyant displacement gas release event. Assignments of waste groups to the 177 double-shell tanks and single-shell tanks, as reported in this document, are based on a Monte Carlo analysis of three criteria. The first criterion is the headspace flammable gas concentration following release of retained gas. This criterion determines whether the tank contains sufficient retained gas such that the well-mixed headspace flammable gas concentration would reach 100% of the lower flammability limit if the entire tank's retained gas were released. If the volume of retained gas is not sufficient to reach 100% of the lower flammability limit, then flammable conditions cannot be reached and the tank is classified as a waste group C tank independent of the method the gas is released. The second criterion is the energy ratio and considers whether there is sufficient supernatant on top of the saturated solids such that gas-bearing solids have the potential energy required to break up the material and release gas. Tanks that are not waste group C tanks and that have an energy ratio < 3.0 do not have sufficient potential energy to break up material and release gas and are assigned to waste group B. These tanks are considered to represent a potential induced flammable gas release hazard, but no spontaneous buoyant displacement flammable gas release hazard. Tanks that are not waste group C tanks and have an energy ratio {ge} 3.0, but that pass the third criterion (buoyancy ratio < 1.0, see below) are also assigned to waste group B. Even though the designation as

  10. METHODOLOGY AND CALCULATIONS FOR THE ASSIGNMENT OF WASTE GROUPS FOR THE LARGE UNDERGROUND WASTE STORAGE TANKS AT THE HANFORD SITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FOWLER KD

    2007-12-27

    This document categorizes each of the large waste storage tanks into one of several categories based on each tank's waste characteristics. These waste group assignments reflect a tank's propensity to retain a significant volume of flammable gases and the potential of the waste to release retained gas by a buoyant displacement event. Revision 7 is the annual update of the calculations of the flammable gas Waste Groups for DSTs and SSTs. The Hanford Site contains 177 large underground radioactive waste storage tanks (28 double-shell tanks and 149 single-shell tanks). These tanks are categorized into one of three waste groups (A, B, and C) based on their waste and tank characteristics. These waste group assignments reflect a tank's propensity to retain a significant volume of flammable gases and the potential of the waste to release retained gas by a buoyant displacement gas release event. Assignments of waste groups to the 177 double-shell tanks and single-shell tanks, as reported in this document, are based on a Monte Carlo analysis of three criteria. The first criterion is the headspace flammable gas concentration following release of retained gas. This criterion determines whether the tank contains sufficient retained gas such that the well-mixed headspace flammable gas concentration would reach 100% of the lower flammability limit if the entire tank's retained gas were released. If the volume of retained gas is not sufficient to reach 100% of the lower flammability limit, then flammable conditions cannot be reached and the tank is classified as a waste group C tank independent of the method the gas is released. The second criterion is the energy ratio and considers whether there is sufficient supernatant on top of the saturated solids such that gas-bearing solids have the potential energy required to break up the material and release gas. Tanks that are not waste group C tanks and that have an energy ratio < 3.0 do not have sufficient

  11. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 100-D-9 Boiler Fuel Oil Tank Site, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2006-030

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. M. Dittmer

    2006-08-10

    The 100-D-9 site is the former location of an underground storage tank used for holding fuel for the 184-DA Boiler House. Results of soil-gas samples taken from six soil-gas probes in a rectangle around the site the tank had been removed from concluded that there were no volatile organic compounds at detectable levels in the area. The 100-D-9 Boiler Fuel Oil Tank Site meets the remedial action objectives specified in the Remaining Sites ROD. The results demonstrated that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  12. MIGRATION OF PHTHALATES FROM PLASTIC TANK TO VEGETABLE OIL AS A PART OF FEEDING MIXTURES USED FOR CHICKEN BROILERS FATTENING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Suchý

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The concentrations of phthalic acid esters (PAEs as di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP and di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP were measured in samples of rapeseed oil, which was used as a feed. First samples were collected during the production process and second after the storage in plastic tank (21 days. The results of measurements are that there is 2.93-10.10 mg PAEs.kg-1 in the oil before storage and 22.73-61.55 mg PAEs.kg-1 after storage. For the monitoring of distribution and accumulation of PAEs in animal tissues and organs (muscles, adipose tissue, skin and liver broiler chicks ROSS 308 were used. The chicks were divided into 4 groups (50 chicks each. All the chicks were fed by commercial diets (complete feed, KKS for broiler chicks (starter – BR1; grower – BR2 and finisher – BR3. The experimental diets were supplemented with vegetable oil (RO with low (group N or high (group V phthalate content, or animal fat with high phthalate content (group Z. Neither the control diets (K nor the grower (BR1 diets contained vegetable oil or animal fat. DBP and DEHP were found in all tissues of all chicks. The highest concentration of DBP of 1.28 1.00 mg.kg-1 of fresh sample (an average value from 8 chicks was determined in the adipose tissue of V chicks. The highest concentration of DEHP of 3.27 2.87 mg.kg-1 of fresh sample (average of 8 chicks was also determined in the V group. doi:10.5219/49

  13. Organic liquids storage tanks volatile organic compounds (VOCS) emissions dispersion and risk assessment in developing countries: the case of Dar-es-Salaam City, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Msafiri M

    2006-05-01

    The emission estimation of nine volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from eight organic liquids storage tanks companies in Dar-es-Salaam City Tanzania has been done by using US EPA standard regulatory storage tanks emission model (TANKS 4.9b). Total VOCs atmospheric emission has been established to be 853.20 metric tones/yr. It has been established further that petrol storage tanks contribute about 87% of total VOCs emitted, while tanks for other refined products and crude oil were emitting 10% and 3% of VOCs respectively. Of the eight sources (companies), the highest emission value from a single source was 233,222.94 kg/yr and the lowest single source emission value was 6881.87 kg/yr. The total VOCs emissions estimated for each of the eight sources were found to be higher than the standard level of 40,000 kg/yr per source for minor source according to US EPA except for two sources, which were emitting VOCs below the standard level. The annual emissions per single source for each of the VOCs were found to be below the US EPA emissions standard which is 2,000 kg/yr in all companies except the emission of hexane from company F1 which was slightly higher than the standard. The type of tanks used seems to significantly influence the emission rate. Vertical fixed roof tanks (VFRT) emit a lot more than externally floating roof tanks (EFRT) and internally floating roof tanks (IFRT). The use of IFRT and EFRT should be encouraged especially for storage of petrol which had highest atmospheric emission contribution. Model predicted atmospheric emissions are less than annual losses measured by companies in all the eight sources. It is possible that there are other routes for losses beside atmospheric emissions. It is therefore important that waste reduction efforts in these companies are directed not only to reducing atmospheric emissions, but also prevention of the spillage and leakage of stored liquid and curbing of the frequently reported illegal siphoning of stored products

  14. Erecting Gas Storage Facilities and Oil Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-21

    working) pipe column; 3 - water intake (working) pipe column; 4 - well head; 5 - cementing of space around pipe; 6 - casing pipe column; 7 - non...artificially sealed from further dissolving (preserved) by means of lowering the level of the non-solvent intro- duced along the casing pipe column...the bore hole. The casing pipe column must provide reliable insulation of the covering rock over the underground tank, and sealing of the bore hole

  15. Review of Analytes of Concern and Sample Methods for Closure of DOE High Level Waste Storage Tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Thomas Russell

    2002-08-01

    Sampling residual waste after tank cleaning and analysis for analytes of concern to support closure and cleaning targets of large underground tanks used for storage of legacy high level radioactive waste (HLW) at Department of Energy (DOE) sites has been underway since about 1995. The DOE Tanks Focus Area (TFA) has been working with DOE tank sites to develop new sampling plans, and sampling methods for assessment of residual waste inventories. This paper discusses regulatory analytes of concern, sampling plans, and sampling methods that support closure and cleaning target activities for large storage tanks at the Hanford Site, the Savannah River Site (SRS), the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), and the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP).

  16. Review of Analytes of Concern and Sample Methods for Closure of DOE High Level Waste Storage Tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, T.R.

    2002-05-06

    Sampling residual waste after tank cleaning and analysis for analytes of concern to support closure and cleaning targets of large underground tanks used for storage of legacy high level radioactive waste (HLW) at Department of Energy (DOE) sites has been underway since about 1995. The DOE Tanks Focus Area (TFA) has been working with DOE tank sites to develop new sampling plans, and sampling methods for assessment of residual waste inventories. This paper discusses regulatory analytes of concern, sampling plans, and sampling methods that support closure and cleaning target activities for large storage tanks at the Hanford Site, the Savannah River Site (SRS), the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), and the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP).

  17. Zero Boil-Off Methods for Large Scale Liquid Hydrogen Tanks Using Integrated Refrigeration and Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notardonato, W. U.; Swanger, A. M.; Fesmire, J. E.; Jumper, K. M.; Johnson, W. L.; Tomsik, T. M.

    2017-01-01

    NASA has completed a series of tests at the Kennedy Space Center to demonstrate the capability of using integrated refrigeration and storage (IRAS) to remove energy from a liquid hydrogen (LH2) tank and control the state of the propellant. A primary test objective was the keeping and storing of the liquid in a zero boil-off state, so that the total heat leak entering the tank is removed by a cryogenic refrigerator with an internal heat exchanger. The LH2 is therefore stored and kept with zero losses for an indefinite period of time. The LH2 tank is a horizontal cylindrical geometry with a vacuum-jacketed, multi-layer insulation system and a capacity of 125,000 liters. The closed-loop helium refrigeration system was a Linde LR1620 capable of 390W cooling at 20K (without any liquid nitrogen pre-cooling). Three different control methods were used to obtain zero boil-off: temperature control of the helium refrigerant, refrigerator control using the tank pressure sensor, and duty cycling (on/off) of the refrigerator as needed. Summarized are the IRAS design approach, zero boil-off control methods, and results of the series of zero boil-off tests.

  18. Cryograb: A Novel Approach to the Retrieval of Waste from Underground Storage Tanks - 13501

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Brien, Luke; Baker, Stephen; Bowen, Bob [UK National Nuclear Laboratory, Chadwick House, Warrington (United Kingdom); Mallick, Pramod; Smith, Gary [US Department of Energy (United States); King, Bill [Savannah River National Laboratory (United States); Judd, Laurie [NuVision Engineering (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The UK's National Nuclear Laboratory (NNL) is investigating the use of cryogenic technology for the recovery of nuclear waste. Cryograb, freezing the waste on a 'cryo-head' and then retrieves it as a single mass which can then be treated or stabilized as necessary. The technology has a number of benefits over other retrieval approaches in that it minimizes sludge disturbance thereby reducing effluent arising and it can be used to de-water, and thereby reduce the volume of waste. The technology has been successfully deployed for a variety of nuclear and non-nuclear waste recovery operations. The application of Cryograb for the recovery of waste from US underground storage tanks is being explored through a US DOE International Technology Transfer and Demonstration programme. A sample deployment being considered involves the recovery of residual mounds of sludge material from waste storage tanks at Savannah River. Operational constraints and success criteria were agreed prior to the completion of a process down selection exercise which specified the preferred configuration of the cryo-head and supporting plant. Subsequent process modeling identified retrieval rates and temperature gradients through the waste and tank infrastructure. The work, which has been delivered in partnership with US DOE, SRNL, NuVision Engineering and Frigeo AB has demonstrated the technical feasibility of the approach (to TRL 2) and has resulted in the allocation of additional funding from DOE to take the programme to bench and cold pilot-scale trials. (authors)

  19. Treatment, storage, and disposal alternatives for the gunite and associated tanks at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DePew, R.E.; Rickett, K. [Advanced Systems Technology, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Redus, K.S. [MACTEC, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); DuMont, S.P. [Hazardous and Medical Waste Services, Inc. (United States); Lewis, B.E.; DePaoli, S.M.; Van Hoesen, S.D. Jr. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1996-05-01

    The gunite and associated tanks (GAAT) are inactive, liquid low-level waste tanks located in and around the North and South Tank Farms at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. These underground tanks are the subject of an ongoing treatability study that will determine the best remediation alternatives for the tanks. As part of the treatability study, an assessment of viable treatment, storage, and disposal (TSD) alternatives has been conducted. The report summarizes relevant waste characterization data and statistics obtained to date. The report describes screening and evaluation criteria for evaluating TSD options. Individual options that pass the screening criteria are described in some detail. Order-or-magnitude cost estimates are presented for each of the TSD system alternatives. All alternatives are compared to the baseline approach of pumping all of the GAAT sludge and supernate to the Melton Valley Storage Tank (MVST) facility for eventual TSD along with the existing MOST waste. Four TSD systems are identified as alternatives to the baseline approach. The baseline is the most expensive of the five identified alternatives. The least expensive alternative is in-situ grouting of all GAAT sludge followed by in-situ disposal. The other alternatives are: (1) ex-situ grouting with on-site storage and disposal at Nevada Test Site (NTS); (2) ex-situ grouting with on-site storage and disposal at NTS and the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP); and (3) ex-situ vitrification with on-site storage and disposal at NTS and WIPP.

  20. Environmental and Economic Impact of Underground Storage Tanks in the United States and Territories

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-12-01

    Pemex ), the Mexico City based state oil company, has accepted responsibility for the gasoline leak into the sewer system and offered to provide $32.7...owned and operated by Pemex , which crossed the southeast part of the city and supplied one of the main storage and distribution plants with gasoline

  1. Methane emissions from sugarcane vinasse storage and transportation systems: Comparison between open channels and tanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Bruna Gonçalves; Carvalho, João Luís Nunes; Chagas, Mateus Ferreira; Cerri, Carlos Eduardo Pellegrino; Cerri, Carlos Clemente; Feigl, Brigitte Josefine

    2017-06-01

    Over the last few years the brazilian sugarcane sector has produced an average of 23.5 million liters of ethanol annually. This scale of production generates large amounts of vinasse, which depending on the manner that is disposed, can result significant greenhouse gas emissions. This study aimed to quantify the methane (CH4) emissions associated with the two most widespread systems of vinasse storage and transportation used in Brazil; open channel and those comprising of tanks and pipes. Additionally, a laboratory incubation study was performed with the aim of isolating the effects of vinasse, sediment and the interaction between these factors on CH4 emissions. We observed significant differences in CH4 emissions between the sampling points along the channels during both years of evaluation (2012-2013). In the channel system, around 80% of CH4 emissions were recorded from uncoated sections. Overall, the average CH4 emission intensity was 1.36 kg CO2eq m-3 of vinasse transported in open channels, which was 620 times higher than vinasse transported through a system of tanks and closed pipes. The laboratory incubation corroborated field results, suggesting that vinasse alone does not contribute significant emissions of CH4. Higher CH4 emissions were observed when vinasse and sediment were incubated together. In summary, our findings demonstrate that CH4 emissions originate through the anaerobic decomposition of organic material deposited on the bottom of channels and tanks. The adoption of coated channels as a substitute to uncoated channels offers the potential for an effective and affordable means of reducing CH4 emissions. Ultimately, the modernization of vinasse storage and transportation systems through the adoption of tank and closed pipe systems will provide an effective strategy for mitigating CH4 emissions generated during the disposal phase of the sugarcane ethanol production process.

  2. The safe removal of frozen air from the annulus of an LH2 storage tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krenn, A.; Starr, S.; Youngquist, R.; Nurge, M.; Sass, J.; Fesmire, J.; Cariker, C.; Bhattacharya, A.

    2015-12-01

    Large Liquid Hydrogen (LH2) storage tanks are vital infrastructure for NASA. Eventually, air may leak into the evacuated and perlite filled annular region of these tanks. Although the vacuum level is monitored in this region, the extremely cold temperature causes all but the helium and neon constituents of air to freeze. A small, often unnoticeable pressure rise is the result. As the leak persists, the quantity of frozen air increases, as does the thermal conductivity of the insulation system. Consequently, a notable increase in commodity boil-off is often the first indicator of an air leak. Severe damage can result from normal draining of the tank. The warming air will sublimate which will cause a pressure rise in the annulus. When the pressure increases above the triple point, the frozen air will begin to melt and migrate downward. Collection of liquid air on the carbon steel outer shell may chill it below its ductility range, resulting in fracture. In order to avoid a structural failure, as described above, a method for the safe removal of frozen air is needed. A thermal model of the storage tank has been created using SINDA/FLUINT modelling software. Experimental work is progressing in an attempt to characterize the thermal conductivity of a perlite/frozen nitrogen mixture. A statistical mechanics model is being developed in parallel for comparison to experimental work. The thermal model will be updated using the experimental/statistical mechanical data, and used to simulate potential removal scenarios. This paper will address methodologies and analysis techniques for evaluation of two proposed air removal methods.

  3. Risk Based Inspection Methodology and Software Applied to Atmospheric Storage Tanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topalis, P.; Korneliussen, G.; Hermanrud, J.; Steo, Y.

    2012-05-01

    A new risk-based inspection (RBI) methodology and software is presented in this paper. The objective of this work is to allow management of the inspections of atmospheric storage tanks in the most efficient way, while, at the same time, accident risks are minimized. The software has been built on the new risk framework architecture, a generic platform facilitating efficient and integrated development of software applications using risk models. The framework includes a library of risk models and the user interface is automatically produced on the basis of editable schemas. This risk-framework-based RBI tool has been applied in the context of RBI for above-ground atmospheric storage tanks (AST) but it has been designed with the objective of being generic enough to allow extension to the process plants in general. This RBI methodology is an evolution of an approach and mathematical models developed for Det Norske Veritas (DNV) and the American Petroleum Institute (API). The methodology assesses damage mechanism potential, degradation rates, probability of failure (PoF), consequence of failure (CoF) in terms of environmental damage and financial loss, risk and inspection intervals and techniques. The scope includes assessment of the tank floor for soil-side external corrosion and product-side internal corrosion and the tank shell courses for atmospheric corrosion and internal thinning. It also includes preliminary assessment for brittle fracture and cracking. The data are structured according to an asset hierarchy including Plant, Production Unit, Process Unit, Tag, Part and Inspection levels and the data are inherited / defaulted seamlessly from a higher hierarchy level to a lower level. The user interface includes synchronized hierarchy tree browsing, dynamic editor and grid-view editing and active reports with drill-in capability.

  4. The Safe Removal of Frozen Air from the Annulus of an LH2 Storage Tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krenn, A.; Starr, S.; Youngquist, R.; Nurge, M.; Sass, J.; Fesmire, J.; Cariker, C.; Bhattacharya, A.

    2015-01-01

    Large Liquid Hydrogen (LH2) storage tanks are vital infrastructure for NASA. Eventually, air may leak into the evacuated and perlite filled annular region of these tanks. Although the vacuum level is monitored in this region, the extremely cold temperature causes all but the helium and neon constituents of air to freeze. A small, often unnoticeable pressure rise is the result. As the leak persists, the quantity of frozen air increases, as does the thermal conductivity of the insulation system. Consequently, a notable increase in commodity boil-off is often the first indicator of an air leak. Severe damage can result from normal draining of the tank. The warming air will sublimate which will cause a pressure rise in the annulus. When the pressure increases above the triple point, the frozen air will begin to melt and migrate downward. Collection of liquid air on the carbon steel outer shell may chill it below its ductility range, resulting in fracture. In order to avoid a structural failure, as described above, a method for the safe removal of frozen air is needed. A thermal model of the storage tank has been created using SINDA/FLUINT modeling software. Experimental work is progressing in an attempt to characterize the thermal conductivity of a perlite/frozen nitrogen mixture. A statistical mechanics model is being developed in parallel for comparison to experimental work. The thermal model will be updated using the experimental/statistical mechanical data, and used to simulate potential removal scenarios. This paper will address methodologies and analysis techniques for evaluation of two proposed air removal methods.

  5. Corrosion Behavior of Welded Joints for Cargo Oil Tanks of Crude Oil Carrier

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin-shan WEI; Yan-chang QI; Zhi-ling TIAN; Yun PENG

    2016-01-01

    E32 grade corrosion resistant steel was welded with welding wires with three different S contents.The mi-crostructure,mechanical properties,inclusions,and corrosion behavior of welded joint were investigated.The joint coupon corrosion test and potentiodynamic polarization test were carried out under the simulated corrosion environ-ment of the inner bottom plates of cargo oil tanks.The pitting initiation and propagation mechanism of the weld metal were studied by scanning electron microscopy and infinite focus.The results indicated that the microstructures of three kinds of weld metals are all composed of acicular ferrite,ferrite side-plate and proeutectoid ferrite.The micro-structure of heat-affected zone is composed predominantly of bainite.Joint welded with low S filler wire has good me-chanical properties.S can decrease free corrosion potential and increase the corrosion tendency.The pitting initiation is oxide inclusion or sulfide-oxide inclusion complex.S can induce the formation of occluded area and promote the corrosion propagation.The chemical compositions of weld metal is similar to base metal,which can limit the galvanic corrosion between weld metal and base metal,and avoid formation of corrosion step.

  6. Results Of Routine Strip Effluent Hold Tank, Decontaminated Salt Solution Hold Tank, Caustic Wash Tank And Caustic Storage Tank Samples From Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit During Macrobatch 6 Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, T. B.

    2014-01-02

    Strip Effluent Hold Tank (SEHT), Decontaminated Salt Solution Hold Tank (DSSHT), Caustic Wash Tank (CWT) and Caustic Storage Tank (CST) samples from the Interim Salt Disposition Project (ISDP) Salt Batch (“Macrobatch”) 6 have been analyzed for 238Pu, 90Sr, 137Cs, and by Inductively Coupled Plasma Emission Spectroscopy (ICPES). The Pu, Sr, and Cs results from the current Macrobatch 6 samples are similar to those from comparable samples in previous Macrobatch 5. In addition the SEHT and DSSHT heel samples (i.e. ‘preliminary’) have been analyzed and reported to meet NGS Demonstration Plan requirements. From a bulk chemical point of view, the ICPES results do not vary considerably between this and the previous samples. The titanium results in the DSSHT samples continue to indicate the presence of Ti, when the feed material does not have detectable levels. This most likely indicates that leaching of Ti from MST has increased in ARP at the higher free hydroxide concentrations in the current feed.

  7. Best practices for heavy oil crude treatment, case of study washed tank

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quezada, A.; Garcia, L.; Brown, J. [PDVSA Petroleos de Venezuela SA, Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of)

    2009-07-01

    There are several methods and systems to extract sediments contained in washed tanks. However, the current method of manual removal requires that the tank be put out of service for long periods of time, up to 6 months, thereby wasting valuable resources and man hours. In addition, sediments occupy a considerable volume of the tank, generating a considerable reduction of dehydration capacity, after 1.5 years of operation of the washed tank. A project was launched involving two enhancements to the washed tank that belongs to the Main Station Temblador and whose capacity is 96,000 barrels. In this particular tank, the total oil production (67,000 barrels per day) of the heavy area from the Morichal District is dehydrated and pumped for sale purposes. This paper provided a description of improvements, including removal system of sediments; interface control system; and removal system. It was concluded that the removal system of sediment must operate in conjunction with a clarification system to remove solids from the produced water before sending it to injection wells. 3 refs., 1 tab., 7 figs., 1 appendix.

  8. Standard practice for examination of liquid-Filled atmospheric and Low-pressure metal storage tanks using acoustic emission

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2007-01-01

    1.1 This practice covers guidelines for acoustic emission (AE) examinations of new and in-service aboveground storage tanks of the type used for storage of liquids. 1.2 This practice will detect acoustic emission in areas of sensor coverage that are stressed during the course of the examination. For flat-bottom tanks these areas will generally include the sidewalls (and roof if pressure is applied above the liquid level). The examination may not detect flaws on the bottom of flat-bottom tanks unless sensors are located on the bottom. 1.3 This practice may require that the tank experience a load that is greater than that encountered in normal use. The normal contents of the tank can usually be used for applying this load. 1.4 This practice is not valid for tanks that will be operated at a pressure greater than the examination pressure. 1.5 It is not necessary to drain or clean the tank before performing this examination. 1.6 This practice applies to tanks made of carbon steel, stainless steel, aluminum and oth...

  9. Transient Thermal Behavior of a Vertical Solar Storage Tank with a Mantle Heat Exchanger During No-Flow Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Barzegar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Transient thermal behavior of a vertical storage tank of a domestic solar heating system with a mantle heat exchanger has been investigated numerically in the charging mode. It is assumed that the tank is initially filled with uniform cold water. At an instant of time, the hot fluid from collector outlet is uniformly injected in the upper section of the mantle heat exchanger and after heat transfer with the fluid inside the tank, withdrawn from the bottom part of the heat exchanger. The conservation equations in the cylindrical coordinate and in axis-symmetric condition have been used according to the geometry under investigation. Governing equations have been discretized by employing the finite volume method and the SIMPLER algorithm has been used for coupling between momentum and pressure equations. The Low Reynolds Number (LRN k −ω model is utilized for treating turbulence in the fluid. First, the transient thermal behavior of heat storage tank and the process of formation of thermal stratification in the heat storage tank were investigated. Then, the influence of Rayleigh number in the heat storage tank, Reynolds number in the mantle heat exchanger and vertical positioning of mantle on the flow and thermal fields and the formation of the thermal stratification was investigated. It is found that for higher values of Rayleigh number, a more suitable thermal stratification is established inside the tank. Also it is noticed that increasing the incoming fluid velocity through the mantle heat exchanger causes a faster formation of the thermal stratification. A superior thermal performance was achieved when the mantle heat exchanger is positioned at the middle height of the storage tank.

  10. EFFECTS OF CHEMICAL DISPERSANTS AND MINERAL FINES ON CRUDE OIL DISPERSION IN A WAVE TANK UNDER BREAKING WAVES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The interaction of chemical dispersants and suspended sediments with crude oil influences the fate and transport of oil spills in coastal waters. A wave tank study was conducted to investigate the effects of chemical dispersants and mineral fines on the dispersion of oil and the ...

  11. EFFECTS OF CHEMICAL DISPERSANTS AND MINERAL FINES ON CRUDE OIL DISPERSION IN A WAVE TANK UNDER BREAKING WAVES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The interaction of chemical dispersants and suspended sediments with crude oil influences the fate and transport of oil spills in coastal waters. A wave tank study was conducted to investigate the effects of chemical dispersants and mineral fines on the dispersion of oil and the ...

  12. A risk management approach to double-shell tank waste volume versus storage capacity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coles, G.A. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Thurkow, T.J.; Fritz, R.L.; Nuhlestein, L.O.; Allen, M.R.; Stuart, R.J. [ARES Corp. (United States)

    1996-01-01

    A risk-based assessment of the overall waste volume versus double-shell tank storage capacity was conducted to develop fallback positions for projections where the waste volume was at a high risk of exceeding capacity. This study was initiated to provide that assessment. A working simulation model was the primary deliverable of this study. The model validates the approach and demonstrates that simulation analysis can provide a method of tracking uncertainties in available data, assessing probabilities, and serves as a tool to be used by management to determine the consequences of various off-normal occurrences.

  13. Seismic response analysis of LNG storage tank wall under influence of inner tank%内罐影响下LNG储罐外罐地震响应分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周利剑; 黄兢; 王向英; 范远刚

    2012-01-01

    In order to consider the influence of inner tank of LNG storage tank on seismic response of its outer wall, seismic response analysis of the wall of LNG storage tank with and without inner tank was carried out. Results show that the seismic response of the LNG storage tank with inner tank is smaller than that of LNG storage tank without inner one, existence of inner tank is favourable to earthquake resistance of storage tank and the influence of vertical seismic wave on vibration of the storage tank could not be neglected.%为了考虑内罐在不同方向地震动时对LNG(液化天然气)储罐外罐的影响,对有内罐和无内罐情况下LNG储罐外罐进行了地震响应分析.结果表明:有内罐时地震响应比无内罐时小,内罐的存在对LNG储罐抗震有好的影响;竖向地震波对结构振动的影响不能忽视.

  14. Long-term storage of three unconventional oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein, Ismail H.

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Three samples, Sclerocarya birrea oil (SCO, Melon bug oil (Aspongubus viduatus (MBO, and Sorghum bug oil (Agonoscelis pubescens (SBO, were stored (autoxidized in the dark at 30±2 °C for 24 months. Oil aliquots were withdrawn every 2-4 month for analyses of changes in four quality indexes, namely fatty acid composition, tocopherol content, peroxide value and oxidative stability index by Rancimat. After 24 months of storage the fatty acid composition of the three oils showed no change while tocopherol contents were decreased. SCO and MBO showed only slight changes in their oxidative stability as indicated by the peroxide value and induction period during the 24 months of storage. Sorghum bug oil showed a periodical increase in the peroxide value and had less stability as measured by the Rancimat in comparison to other oils.Tres muestras de aceite, Sclerocarya birrea oil (SCO, Melon bug oil (Aspongubus viduatus (MBO, and Sorghum bug oil (Agonoscelis pubescens (SBO, fueron almacenadas en la oscuridad a 30±2 °C durante 24 meses. Cada 2- 4 meses se toman alícuotas para analizar los cambios de calidad. Se determinaron la composición en ácidos grasos, el contenido en tocoferol, el índice de peróxidos y la estabilidad oxidativa mediante el aparato Rancimat. Después de 24 meses de almacenamiento, la composición en ácidos grasos no experimentó variación mientras que el contenido en tocoferol disminuyó en los tres aceites. SCO y MBO mostraron cambios minoritarios como se comprobó por los indices de peroxides y estabilidad a los 24 meses. SBO fue el menos estable de los tres aceites.

  15. Analisis Teknis dan Ekonomis Konversi Landing Craft Tank (LCT Menjadi Self-Propelled Oil Barge (SPOB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zainul Arifin Fatahillah

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Konversi Landing Craft Tank (LCT menjadi Self - Propelled Oil Barge (SPOB makin marak dilakukan. Hal ini dilakukan karena LCT sudah tidak dapat digunakan sebagai sarana pengangkut  minyak karena secara teknis tidak memenuhi persyaratan sebagai oil tank dan tertuang dalam kebijakan Direktur PT Pertamina Nomor: 754/F34100/2011-SO. Pada penelitian ini akan dibahas mengenai konversi LCT menjadi SPOB serta penambahan satu ruang muat sepanjang 6 meter. Analisa teknis yang dilakukan yaitu kapal hasil konversi harus memenuhi owner’s requirement, harus memenuhi batasan Lambung Timbul minimum berdasarkan Peraturan Garis Muat Indonesia, memenuhi kekuatan memanjang kapal sesuai dengan Rules BKI, serta memenuhi stabilitas kapal berdasarkan IMO. Dari hasil perhitungan didapatkan SPOB Kuda Laut 8 dengan Kapasitas Ruang Muat 202.656 ton Diesel Oil dengan Massa jenis 0.84 tom/m3. Lambung timbul minimum kapal sebesar 231.90 mm dengan sarat kapal maksimal adalah 1.74 m, serta tegangan  maksimum kapal sebesar  484.395 kg/cm2 terjadi pada saat kapal mengalami Hogging. Analisa ekonomis dapat dihitung biaya yang dibutuhkan untuk melakukan konversi dari Landing Craft Tank menjadi Self-Propelled Oil Barge.  Biaya yang harus dikeluarkan untuk melakukan konversi LCT Kuda Laut menjadi SPOB Kuda Laut 8 adalah sebesar 3.036.830.850,00 Rupiah.

  16. A Study on the High Intelligent Device for Measuring Water in the Oil Tank%油罐水高智能测量装置研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高文浩; 刘德俊; 梅宏林

    2014-01-01

    The water in crude oil must be removed in the mining and processing ,in order to reduce waste in the transportation and storage ,and to ensure the safety of transportation and processing .Therefore , the tank bottom‐line monitoring of water is important for crude oil production and management . With intelligent oil density meter , float type level gauge , parameters measured by pressure sensors online ,as well as the relationship between these three parameters ,the intelligent device for measuring water in the oil tank realized the online real‐time automatic monitoring of the height of water in the oil‐water mixture condition through PLC pro‐gramming calculation .It provides the technical support to timely discharge the water at the bottom of the tank in the process of oil dehydration and storage .%原油在开采和加工过程中必须除去原油中的水分,以减少在输送和储存过程中的浪费,确保输送、加工过程中的安全。因此,油罐底部水在线监测对原油生产和管理具有重要意义。油罐水高智能测量装置通过石油密度计、浮球式液位仪、压力传感器的在线测得参数,利用这3个参数关系,通过PLC编程计算实现对油罐中油水混合状态下底部水高的在线实时自动监测。这对于在石油脱水和存储过程中及时排放罐底水提供技术支持。

  17. Seismic design and evaluation guidelines for the Department of Energy high-level waste storage tanks and appurtenances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bandyopadhyay, K.; Cornell, A.; Costantino, C.; Kennedy, R.; Miller, C.; Veletsos, A.

    1993-01-01

    This document provides guidelines for the design and evaluation of underground high-level waste storage tanks due to seismic loads. Attempts were made to reflect the knowledge acquired in the last two decades in the areas of defining the ground motion and calculating hydrodynamic loads and dynamic soil pressures for underground tank structures. The application of the analysis approach is illustrated with an example. The guidelines are developed for specific design of underground storage tanks, namely double-shell structures. However, the methodology discussed is applicable for other types of tank structures as well. The application of these and of suitably adjusted versions of these concepts to other structural types will be addressed in a future version of this document.

  18. 30 CFR 75.1104 - Underground storage, lubricating oil and grease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Underground storage, lubricating oil and grease... COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection § 75.1104 Underground storage, lubricating oil and grease. Underground storage places for lubricating oil and grease...

  19. Development of a computer code to predict a ventilation requirement for an underground radioactive waste storage tank

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Y.J.; Dalpiaz, E.L. [ICF Kaiser Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1997-08-01

    Computer code, WTVFE (Waste Tank Ventilation Flow Evaluation), has been developed to evaluate the ventilation requirement for an underground storage tank for radioactive waste. Heat generated by the radioactive waste and mixing pumps in the tank is removed mainly through the ventilation system. The heat removal process by the ventilation system includes the evaporation of water from the waste and the heat transfer by natural convection from the waste surface. Also, a portion of the heat will be removed through the soil and the air circulating through the gap between the primary and secondary tanks. The heat loss caused by evaporation is modeled based on recent evaporation test results by the Westinghouse Hanford Company using a simulated small scale waste tank. Other heat transfer phenomena are evaluated based on well established conduction and convection heat transfer relationships. 10 refs., 3 tabs.

  20. 46 CFR 31.10-21a - Periodic gauging of tank vessel midbodies more than 30 years old that carry certain oil cargoes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... years old that carry certain oil cargoes-TB/ALL. 31.10-21a Section 31.10-21a Shipping COAST GUARD... gauging of tank vessel midbodies more than 30 years old that carry certain oil cargoes—TB/ALL. (a) As used... years old. (2) Regaugings: (i) Midbodies of double hull tank vessels, or single hull tank vessels...

  1. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 121: Storage Tanks and Miscellaneous Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2008-09-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 121 is identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) (1996, as amended February 2008) as Storage Tanks and Miscellaneous Sites. CAU 121 consists of the following three Corrective Action Sites (CASs) located in Area 12 of the Nevada Test Site, which is approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada: (1) CAS 12-01-01, Aboveground Storage Tank; (2) CAS 12-01-02, Aboveground Storage Tank; and (3) CAS 12-22-26, Drums; 2 AST's. CAU 121 closure activities were conducted according to the FFACO and the Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan for CAU 121 (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office, 2007). Field work took place from February through September 2008. Samples were collected to determine the path forward to close each site. Closure activities were completed as defined in the plan based on sample analytical results and site conditions. No contaminants of concern (COCs) were present at CAS 12-01-01; therefore, no further action was chosen as the corrective action alternative. As a best management practice (BMP), the empty aboveground storage tank (AST) was removed and disposed as sanitary waste. At CAS 12-01-02, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were present above the preliminary action level (PAL) in the soil beneath the AST that could possibly have originated from the AST contents. Therefore, PCBs were considered COCs, and the site was clean closed by excavating and disposing of soil containing PCBs. Approximately 5 cubic yards (yd{sup 3}) of soil were excavated and disposed as petroleum hydrocarbon PCB remediation waste, and approximately 13 yd3 of soil were excavated and disposed as PCB remediation waste. Cleanup samples were collected to confirm that the remaining soil did not contain PCBs above the PAL. Other compounds detected in the soil above PALs (i.e., total petroleum hydrocarbons [TPH] and semi-volatile organic compounds [SVOCs

  2. METHODOLOGY & CALCULATIONS FOR THE ASSIGNMENT OF WASTE FOR THE LARGE UNDERGROUND WASTE STORAGE TANKS AT THE HANFORD SITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    TU, T.A.

    2007-01-04

    Waste stored within tank farm double-shell tanks (DST) and single-shell tanks (SST) generates flammable gas (principally hydrogen) to varying degrees depending on the type, amount, geometry, and condition of the waste. The waste generates hydrogen through the radiolysis of water and organic compounds, thermolytic decomposition of organic compounds, and corrosion of a tank's carbon steel walls. Radiolysis and thermolytic decomposition also generates ammonia. Nonflammable gases, which act as dilutents (such as nitrous oxide), are also produced. Additional flammable gases (e.g., methane) are generated by chemical reactions between various degradation products of organic chemicals present in the tanks. Volatile and semi-volatile organic chemicals in tanks also produce organic vapors. The generated gases in tank waste are either released continuously to the tank headspace or are retained in the waste matrix. Retained gas may be released in a spontaneous or induced gas release event (GRE) that can significantly increase the flammable gas concentration in the tank headspace as described in RPP-7771, Flammable Gas Safety Isme Resolution. Appendices A through I provide supporting information. The document categorizes each of the large waste storage tanks into one of several categories based on each tank's waste and characteristics. These waste group assignments reflect a tank's propensity to retain a significant volume of flammable gases and the potential of the waste to release retained gas by a buoyant displacement event. Revision 6 is the annual update of the flammable gas Waste Groups for DSTs and SSTs.

  3. DOE underground storage tank waste remediation chemical processing hazards. Part I: Technology dictionary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeMuth, S.F.

    1996-10-01

    This document has been prepared to aid in the development of Regulating guidelines for the Privatization of Hanford underground storage tank waste remediation. The document has been prepared it two parts to facilitate their preparation. Part II is the primary focus of this effort in that it describes the technical basis for established and potential chemical processing hazards associated with Underground Storage Tank (UST) nuclear waste remediation across the DOE complex. The established hazards involve those at Sites for which Safety Analysis Reviews (SARs) have already been prepared. Potential hazards are those involving technologies currently being developed for future applications. Part I of this document outlines the scope of Part II by briefly describing the established and potential technologies. In addition to providing the scope, Part I can be used as a technical introduction and bibliography for Regulatory personnel new to the UST waste remediation, and in particular Privatization effort. Part II of this document is not intended to provide examples of a SAR Hazards Analysis, but rather provide an intelligence gathering source for Regulatory personnel who must eventually evaluate the Privatization SAR Hazards Analysis.

  4. ADMINISTRATIVE AND ENGINEERING CONTROLS FOR THE OPERATION OF VENTILATION SYSTEMS FOR UNDERGROUND RADIOACTIVE WASTE STORAGE TANKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiersma, B.; Hansen, A.

    2013-11-13

    Liquid radioactive wastes from the Savannah River Site are stored in large underground carbon steel tanks. The majority of the waste is confined in double shell tanks, which have a primary shell, where the waste is stored, and a secondary shell, which creates an annular region between the two shells, that provides secondary containment and leak detection capabilities should leakage from the primary shell occur. Each of the DST is equipped with a purge ventilation system for the interior of the primary shell and annulus ventilation system for the secondary containment. Administrative flammability controls require continuous ventilation to remove hydrogen gas and other vapors from the waste tanks while preventing the release of radionuclides to the atmosphere. Should a leak from the primary to the annulus occur, the annulus ventilation would also serve this purpose. The functionality of the annulus ventilation is necessary to preserve the structural integrity of the primary shell and the secondary. An administrative corrosion control program is in place to ensure integrity of the tank. Given the critical functions of the purge and annulus ventilation systems, engineering controls are also necessary to ensure that the systems remain robust. The system consists of components that are constructed of metal (e.g., steel, stainless steel, aluminum, copper, etc.) and/or polymeric (polypropylene, polyethylene, silicone, polyurethane, etc.) materials. The performance of these materials in anticipated service environments (e.g., normal waste storage, waste removal, etc.) was evaluated. The most aggressive vapor space environment occurs during chemical cleaning of the residual heels by utilizing oxalic acid. The presence of NO{sub x} and mercury in the vapors generated from the process could potentially accelerate the degradation of aluminum, carbon steel, and copper. Once identified, the most susceptible materials were either replaced and/or plans for discontinuing operations

  5. Large-volume heat storage tank made of GFK; Grosswaermespeichertank aus GFK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buehl, J.; Schultheis, P. [Technische Univ. Ilmenau (Germany). Fachgebiet Technische Thermodynamik

    1998-12-31

    The Technical University of Ilmenau, the company Verbundwerkstoff- und Kunststoffanwendungstechnik Schoenbrunn, the Institute for Aerospace and Light-weight construction of Dresden University with its approved testing facilities for plastics and the Institute for Construction Engineering in Berlin and several other institutions co-operated since 1996 in developing a concept for a series of long-term heat storage tanks up to 6,000 cubic metres storage volume made of plastic (GFK components) with a combined thermal insulation. A model tank (sandwich body with proportional thermal insulation layer and selected mixed laminates) with a volume of 1.5 cubic metres was built and installed in November 1996. The tank has been continuously operated at various test levels. The experiment proves the longevity of the materials used. (orig.) [Deutsch] In Zusammenarbeit der TU Ilmenau mit der Fa. Verbundwerkstoff - und Kunststoffanwendungstechnik Schoenbrunn und dem Institut fuer Luftfahrttechnik und Leichtbau Dresden, seiner akkredierten Pruefstelle fuer Kunststoffe, in Abstimmung mit dem Institut fuer Bautechnik Berlin und weiteren Einrichtungen und Partnern wird seit 1996 an einem Konzept fuer eine Typenreihe Langzeitwaermespeicher bis vorerst 6.000 m{sup 3} Speichervolumen aus Kunststoff (GFK-Komponenten) und kombinierter integrierter thermischer Isolation gearbeitet. Im Vorfeld dieser Entwicklung wurde auf der Basis vorausgewaehlter Materialien und Kompositionen ein Musterspeicher (ein Sandwich - Modellkoerper mit proportionaler Waermedaemmschicht sowie ausgewaehlten Mischlaminaten) mit einem Speichervolumen von 1,5 m{sup 3} realisiert. Dieser Musterspeicher wurde im November 1996 installiert und wird seither kontinuierlich in den entsprechenden Erprobungsstufen betrieben. Der Nachweis der Langlebigkeit der eingesetzten Materialien wurde experimentell erbracht. (orig.)

  6. Design of Mooring System for Oil Storage Vessels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李文龙; 谭家华

    2003-01-01

    The floating oil storage system has been proposed as a new facility for Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) in China. Mooring is one of the key technologies to ensure the safety, reliability, and performance of the oil storage system. This paper describes the concept, analysis, design and reliability of the mooring system. For mooring system design of these oil vessels, analysis is essential of the behavior of the vessel in connection with mooring facilities of nonlinear resilience. A nonlinear mathematical model for analyzing a moored vessel is established and solved. Some results of numerical simulations are presented. Assessment of the safety regarding the mooring system in terms of failure probability is carried out. Another simulation model for calculating the failure probability of the mooring system is proposed. The design parameters that have an influence on the characteristics of the failure probability have been identified. The simulation results show that the mooring system has an annual reliability value of 0.999998. The proposed simulation method is proved to be effective in quantitative evaluation of the safety of the mooring system for floating oil storage vessels.

  7. Lower Colorado River GRP Leaking Underground Storage Tank Sites (Open), Nevada, 2012, Nevada Division of Environmental Protection Bureau of Corrective Actions

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The BCA layers are derived from a database for Federally Regulated Underground Storage Tanks (UST) and a database for Remediation and Leaking Underground Storage...

  8. Do-It-Yourself device for recovery of cryopreserved samples accidentally dropped into cryogenic storage tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Rohini; Baranova, Ancha; Birerdinc, Aybike

    2012-05-11

    Liquid nitrogen is colorless, odorless, extremely cold (-196 °C) liquid kept under pressure. It is commonly used as a cryogenic fluid for long term storage of biological materials such as blood, cells and tissues (1,2). The cryogenic nature of liquid nitrogen, while ideal for sample preservation, can cause rapid freezing of live tissues on contact - known as 'cryogenic burn' (2), which may lead to severe frostbite in persons closely involved in storage and retrieval of samples from Dewars. Additionally, as liquid nitrogen evaporates it reduces the oxygen concentration in the air and might cause asphyxia, especially in confined spaces (2). In laboratories, biological samples are often stored in cryovials or cryoboxes stacked in stainless steel racks within the Dewar tanks (1). These storage racks are provided with a long shaft to prevent boxes from slipping out from the racks and into the bottom of Dewars during routine handling. All too often, however, boxes or vials with precious samples slip out and sink to the bottom of liquid nitrogen filled tank. In such cases, samples could be tediously retrieved after transferring the liquid nitrogen into a spare container or discarding it. The boxes and vials can then be relatively safely recovered from emptied Dewar. However, the cryogenic nature of liquid nitrogen and its expansion rate makes sunken sample retrieval hazardous. It is commonly recommended by Safety Offices that sample retrieval be never carried out by a single person. Another alternative is to use commercially available cool grabbers or tongs to pull out the vials (3). However, limited visibility within the dark liquid filled Dewars poses a major limitation in their use. In this article, we describe the construction of a Cryotolerant DIY retrieval device, which makes sample retrieval from Dewar containing cryogenic fluids both safe and easy.

  9. Technical assessment of cryo-compressed hydrogen storage tank systems for automotive applications.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahluwalia, R. K.; Hua, T. Q.; Peng, J.-K.; Lasher, S.; McKenney, K.; Sinha, J.; Nuclear Engineering Division; TIAX LLC

    2010-03-03

    On-board and off-board performance and cost of cryo-compressed hydrogen storage has been assessed and compared to the DOE 2010, 2015 and ultimate targets for automotive applications. The Gen-3 prototype system of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory was modeled to project the performance of a scaled-down 5.6-kg usable hydrogen storage system. The on-board performance of the system and high-volume manufacturing cost were determined for liquid hydrogen refueling with a single-flow nozzle and a pump that delivers 1.5 kg/min of liquid H{sub 2} to the insulated cryogenic tank capable of being pressurized to 272 atm (4000 psi). The off-board performance and cost of delivering liquid hydrogen were determined for two scenarios in which hydrogen is produced by central steam methane reforming (SMR) and by central electrolysis using electricity from renewable sources. The main conclusions from the assessment are that the cryo-compressed storage system has the potential of meeting the ultimate target for system gravimetric capacity and the 2015 target for system volumetric capacity (see Table I). The system compares favorably with targets for durability and operability although additional work is needed to understand failure modes for combined pressure and temperature cycling. The system may meet the targets for hydrogen loss during dormancy under certain conditions of minimum daily driving. The high-volume manufacturing cost is projected to be 2-4 times the current 2010 target of $4/kWh. For the reference conditions considered most applicable, the fuel cost for the SMR hydrogen production and liquid H{sub 2} delivery scenario is 60%-140% higher than the current target of $2-$3/gge while the well-to-tank efficiency is well short of the 60% target specified for off-board regenerable materials.

  10. Research status and prospect to the sludge cleaning technology of oil tank%油罐底泥清洗技术研究现状与展望

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周利坤

    2013-01-01

    Tank sludge is a dark and dense gelatinous material layer formed on the tank bottom during oil storage. Due to containing BTEX, phenols and other toxic substances, it cannot be directly discharged. However, it will accelerate corrosion to the tank bottom plate so as to reduce service life of the oil tank and have some negative impacts on the tank oil quality and effective volume. Characteristics, hazards, cleaning cycles and costs of the tank sludge are analyzed simply. Inductive analysis on the status and development trend for tank sludge treatments worldwide is conducted on cleaning technologies, cleaning processes, recycling treatment technologies and other aspects. The application and research status worldwide on manual cleaning, mechanical cleaning, robot cleaning and other aspects are introduced. Through comprehensive analysis, it is proposed that the tank sludge cleaning technology will develop towards closing, integration, systematization and intelligence and sludge treatment will develop towards facilitation, reduction, harmlessness and recycling.%油罐底泥是在油品储存过程中,在罐底形成的一种又黑又稠的胶状物质层,因其含有苯系物、酚类等有毒物质,不能直接排放.若不及时清除,将加速油罐底板的腐蚀,降低油罐的使用寿命,并对罐内油品质量、有效容积等产生一定的负面影响.简要分析了油罐底泥的特性、危害、清洗年限及费用;从清洗技术、清洗工艺及资源化处理技术等方面,归纳分析了国内外罐底油泥处理现状和发展趋势;阐述了国内外在人工清洗、机械清洗及机器人清洗等方面的应用与研究现状;通过综合分析,指出油罐底泥清洗技术将向密闭化、综合化、系统化、智能化的方向发展,油泥处理将向便捷化、减量化、无害化、资源化方向发展.

  11. 用于外浮顶油罐的BSMF型二次密封%BSMF TYPE SECONDARY SEAL FOR USE IN EXTERNAL FLOATING ROOF OIL TANK

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方小芳; 姚定湘; 刘宗良

    2001-01-01

    石油及其产品在储存过程中的蒸发损耗,不仅造成油品数量的损失和环境污染,还导致油品质量的下降和增加不安全因素,因此对储油罐的密封是人们一直关注的问题。用于外浮顶油罐的二次密封,可以弥补一次密封的不足而使油品蒸发降低,大大减轻油气对环境造成的污染和减小不安全因素,并可保护一次密封免受阳光、雨雪、风沙的影响,从而保证储存油品的质量。%During the process of storage for petroleum and itsproduction,the evaporation loss not only makes the oil quanlity loss and envoriment pollution,but also makes the oil quality decrease and increase the unsafe factors.So the seal of oil tank is a problem with general great interesting.The secondary seal for the use of external floating roof oil tank may remedy the defect of fist seal,and makes oil evaporation decrease,So the envoroment pollution,caused by oil gas,reduces and the unsafe factors decrease.It can protects the first seal against the enfluence of sun light,rain and snow,wind and sand,and secure the quality of storage oil.

  12. SAVANNAH RIVER SITE INCIPIENT SLUDGE MIXING IN RADIOACTIVE LIQUID WASTE STORAGE TANKS DURING SALT SOLUTION BLENDING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leishear, R.; Poirier, M.; Lee, S.; Steeper, T.; Fowley, M.; Parkinson, K.

    2011-01-12

    This paper is the second in a series of four publications to document ongoing pilot scale testing and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling of mixing processes in 85 foot diameter, 1.3 million gallon, radioactive liquid waste, storage tanks at Savannah River Site (SRS). Homogeneous blending of salt solutions is required in waste tanks. Settled solids (i.e., sludge) are required to remain undisturbed on the bottom of waste tanks during blending. Suspension of sludge during blending may potentially release radiolytically generated hydrogen trapped in the sludge, which is a safety concern. The first paper (Leishear, et. al. [1]) presented pilot scale blending experiments of miscible fluids to provide initial design requirements for a full scale blending pump. Scaling techniques for an 8 foot diameter pilot scale tank were also justified in that work. This second paper describes the overall reasons to perform tests, and documents pilot scale experiments performed to investigate disturbance of sludge, using non-radioactive sludge simulants. A third paper will document pilot scale CFD modeling for comparison to experimental pilot scale test results for both blending tests and sludge disturbance tests. That paper will also describe full scale CFD results. The final paper will document additional blending test results for stratified layers in salt solutions, scale up techniques, final full scale pump design recommendations, and operational recommendations. Specifically, this paper documents a series of pilot scale tests, where sludge simulant disturbance due to a blending pump or transfer pump are investigated. A principle design requirement for a blending pump is UoD, where Uo is the pump discharge nozzle velocity, and D is the nozzle diameter. Pilot scale test results showed that sludge was undisturbed below UoD = 0.47 ft{sup 2}/s, and that below UoD = 0.58 ft{sup 2}/s minimal sludge disturbance was observed. If sludge is minimally disturbed, hydrogen will not be

  13. 40 CFR 63.11087 - What requirements must I meet for gasoline storage tanks if my facility is a bulk gasoline...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... gasoline storage tanks if my facility is a bulk gasoline terminal, pipeline breakout station, or pipeline... CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Source Category: Gasoline... § 63.11087 What requirements must I meet for gasoline storage tanks if my facility is a bulk...

  14. Crude oil and finished fuel storage stability: An annotated review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whisman, M.L.; Anderson, R.P.; Woodward, P.W.; Giles, H.N.

    1991-01-01

    A state-of-the-art review and assessment of storage effects on crude oil and product quality was undertaken through a literature search by computer accessing several data base sources. Pertinent citations from that literature search are tabulated for the years 1980 to the present. This 1990 revision supplements earlier reviews by Brinkman and others which covered stability publications through 1979 and an update in 1983 by Goetzinger and others that covered the period 1952--1982. For purposes of organization, citations are listed in the current revision chronologically starting with the earliest 1980 publications. The citations have also been divided according to primary subject matter. Consequently 11 sections appear including: alternate fuels, gasoline, distillate fuel, jet fuel, residual fuel, crude oil, biodegradation, analyses, reaction mechanisms, containment, and handling and storage. Each section contains a brief narrative followed by all the citations for that category.

  15. An International Survey of Electric Storage Tank Water Heater Efficiency and Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Alissa; Lutz, James; McNeil, Michael A.; Covary, Theo

    2013-11-13

    Water heating is a main consumer of energy in households, especially in temperate and cold climates. In South Africa, where hot water is typically provided by electric resistance storage tank water heaters (geysers), water heating energy consumption exceeds cooking, refrigeration, and lighting to be the most consumptive single electric appliance in the home. A recent analysis for the Department of Trade and Industry (DTI) performed by the authors estimated that standing losses from electric geysers contributed over 1,000 kWh to the annual electricity bill for South African households that used them. In order to reduce this burden, the South African government is currently pursuing a programme of Energy Efficiency Standards and Labelling (EES&L) for electric appliances, including geysers. In addition, Eskom has a history of promoting heat pump water heaters (HPWH) through incentive programs, which can further reduce energy consumption. This paper provides a survey of international electric storage water heater test procedures and efficiency metrics which can serve as a reference for comparison with proposed geyser standards and ratings in South Africa. Additionally it provides a sample of efficiency technologies employed to improve the efficiency of electric storage water heaters, and outlines programs to promote adoption of improved efficiency. Finally, it surveys current programs used to promote HPWH and considers the potential for this technology to address peak demand more effectively than reduction of standby losses alone

  16. Acceptance and storage of fresh cheese made with essential oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joelmir Grassi Presente

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate the acceptance and conservation of Minas fresh cheese with essential oils added of oregano and ginger in its formulation. The quality of the milk used as raw material was evaluated for pH, acidity, alizarol, total solids, density, and total microbial load. The cheeses produced were characterized as pH, acidity, moisture, lipids, proteins and ashes. The cheeses were also evaluated by sensorial affective tests using hedonic and attitude scales, in order to determine the acceptance and purchase intention by judges. The count of total aerobic mesophilic microorganisms was used to estimate the shelf-life of cheeses. The milk used as raw material is presented within the quality standards required by legislation. The cheeses made with essential oils showed pH and acidity around 6.9 and 0.87%, respectively, 57.6% moisture, 31.3% lipids, 11.4% protein and 0.9% ash. The cheese added essential oil of oregano and the control cheese were those given by the judges the best values for acceptance (7.5 and 7.6, respectively and purchase intention (4.2 and 4.4 respectively. Regarding the estimated shelf-life, the cheeses added essential oil of oregano and ginger had lower overall microbial load values compared to the control (no oil and mixed (two oils addition, presented counts values with up 106 UFC/g only from the 28th day of storage.

  17. Optimization Design of Ship's Fuel Oil Tank Heating System%船舶燃油舱加热系统优化设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周志贤; 杨令康; 吴海荣

    2013-01-01

    Due to the traditional using steam coil to heat fuel oil storage tanks exists heat loss , repair damaged coil difficultly and coil surface carbon deposition and other shortcomings , a fuel transfer heating system was proposed .By transferring back hot oil to mix some cold oil in the heating tank , so as to achieve the purpose of heating fuel oil .The calculation results showed that using the fuel transfer heating system can reduce energy consumption and cost savings .%针对由于传统蒸汽盘管加热燃油舱存在散热损失大、盘管破损修复困难且表面易积炭等缺点,设计一种燃油转驳加热系统,即通过被驳回的热油来混合加热油舱中适量的冷油,从而达到加热燃油的目的。计算结果表明使用燃油转驳加热系统可以降低能源消耗和节约成本。

  18. Revised cost savings estimate with uncertainty for enhanced sludge washing of underground storage tank waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeMuth, S.

    1998-09-01

    Enhanced Sludge Washing (ESW) has been selected to reduce the amount of sludge-based underground storage tank (UST) high-level waste at the Hanford site. During the past several years, studies have been conducted to determine the cost savings derived from the implementation of ESW. The tank waste inventory and ESW performance continues to be revised as characterization and development efforts advance. This study provides a new cost savings estimate based upon the most recent inventory and ESW performance revisions, and includes an estimate of the associated cost uncertainty. Whereas the author`s previous cost savings estimates for ESW were compared against no sludge washing, this study assumes the baseline to be simple water washing which more accurately reflects the retrieval activity along. The revised ESW cost savings estimate for all UST waste at Hanford is $6.1 B {+-} $1.3 B within 95% confidence. This is based upon capital and operating cost savings, but does not include development costs. The development costs are assumed negligible since they should be at least an order of magnitude less than the savings. The overall cost savings uncertainty was derived from process performance uncertainties and baseline remediation cost uncertainties, as determined by the author`s engineering judgment.

  19. Self-pressurization of a flightweight liquid hydrogen storage tank subjected to low heat flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, M. M.; Lin, C. S.; Vandresar, N. T.

    1991-01-01

    Results are presented for an experimental investigation of self-pressurization and thermal stratification of a 4.89 cu m liquid hydrogen (LH2) storage tank subjected to low heat flux (0.35, 2.0, and 3.5 W/sq m) under normal gravity conditions. Tests were performed at fill levels of 83 to 84 percent (by volume). The LH2 tank was representative of future spacecraft tankage, having a low mass-to-volume ratio and high performance multilayer thermal insulation. Results show that the pressure rise rate and thermal stratification increase with increasing heat flux. At the lowest heat flux, the pressure rise rate is comparable to the homogenous rate, while at the highest heat flux, the rate is more than three times the homogeneous rate. It was found that initial conditions have a significant impact on the initial pressure rise rate. The quasi-steady pressure rise rates are nearly independent of the initial condition after an initial transient period has passed.

  20. Consequence modeling of fire on Methane storage tanks in a gas refinery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Shahedi ali abadi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: using fossil fuels, some hazards such as explosion and fire are probable. This study was aimed to consequence modeling of fire on Methane storage tanks in a gas refinery using analyzing the risk, and modeling and evaluating the related consequences. Method: Hazard analysis by PHA was used to choosing the worst-case scenario. Then, causes of the scenario were determined by FTA. After that, consequence modeling by the PHAST software was applied for the consequence analysis. Results: Based on some criteria, the fire of methane gas tank (V-100 was selected as the worst-case scenario at the refinery. The qualitative fault tree showed three factors including mechanical, process, and human failures contribute in gas leakage. The leakage size and weather conditions were effective on the distance of radiation. Using consequence modeling, thermal radiation was considered as the major outcome of the incident. Finally, for outcome evaluating, probit equations were used to quantify losses and the percentage of fatalities due to the methane gas leakage and fire occurrence. The maximum number of fatalities caused by fire was obtained 23 persons. Conclusions: In conclusion, the methane gas vessel in the refinery can be considered as the main center of hazard, therefore the implementation of the safety rules, eliminating mechanical failures, personal protection and education, and Effective measures to prevent and fighting of fire are proposed for decreasing the probable losses and fatalities.

  1. Aging mechanisms for concrete components of High-Level Waste storage tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kassir, M.; Bandyopadhyay, K.; Bush, S.; Mather, B.; Shewmon, P.; Streicher, M.; Thompson, B.; van Rooyen, D.; Weeks, J.

    1995-05-01

    The age-related degradation mechanisms which affect the concrete and the reinforcing steel in the high-level waste (HLW) storage tanks art evaluated with respect to their potential significance to the continued performance of the concrete, and am classified into non-significant and potentially significant. The identified potentially significant degradation mechanisms include the effects of elevated temperature, freezing and thawing, leaching of calcium hydroxide, aggressive chemical attack, and corrosion of the reinforcing steel. To the extent that available knowledge permits, these mechanisms are generically evaluated and quantified so that site-specific plans may be developed to verify whether significant degradation has occurred in the concrete, and, if so, to formulate mitigating measures to avoid further deterioration and possibly repair the degradation or pursue other management options.

  2. Corrosion damage at storage tanks for salt brine; Korrosionsschaeden an Lagertanks fuer Salzlake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burkert, A.; Mietz, J. [Bundesanstalt fuer Materialforschung und -pruefung (BAM) Unter den Eichen 87, D-12205 Berlin (Germany)

    2003-02-01

    A tank made of stainless steel type X2CrNiMo17-12-2 for intermediate storage of salt brine for cheese production revealed significant pitting corrosion effects shortly after commissioning although comparable units have shown positive long-term behaviour. By means of electrochemical laboratory tests it could be demonstrated that the observed pitting corrosion was caused by the use of an oxidizing agent for desinfection purposes. (Abstract Copyright [2003], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.) [German] An einem Tankbehaelter aus dem Werkstoff X2CrNiMo17-12-2, der zur Zwischenlagerung von Salzlake fuer die Kaeseherstellung dient, wurden trotz langjaehriger positiver Erfahrungen an vergleichbaren Anlagen bereits kurze Zeit nach der Inbetriebnahme Lochkorrosionserscheinungen festgestellt. Durch entsprechende elektrochemische Laboruntersuchungen konnte gezeigt werden, dass die vorgefundene Lochkorrosion durch den Einsatz eines Oxidationsmittels zu Desinfektionszwecken verursacht wurde. (Abstract Copyright [2003], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  3. Leak prevention in underground storage tanks: A state-of-the-art survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangadharan, A. C.; Narayanan, T. V.; Raghavan, R.; Amoruso, G.

    1987-05-01

    The overall objectives were to examine the structural design and operational practices associated with underground storage tank (UST) systems in the context of preventing leaks from such systems and identify areas for further research and development to advance the technology. Recommendations derived include: establishing a nations data base to provide information on failure rates and mechanisms and their correlation to design, engineering, installation, and operation practices and corrective actions; assessing the effectiveness of cathodic protection methods, their interaction with the environment, and the performance of retrofitting existing USTs; developing compatibility protocols for the selection of appropriate materials of construction and long-term protection; and developing methods to assess the life expectancy of both new and existing systems and to extend their useful life.

  4. Baseline study of methane emission from open digesting tanks of palm oil mill effluent treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yacob, Shahrakbah; Hassan, Mohd Ali; Shirai, Yoshihito; Wakisaka, Minato; Subash, Sunderaj

    2005-06-01

    Anthropogenic release of greenhouse gases, especially CO2 and CH4 has been recognized as one of the main causes of global warming. Several measures under the Kyoto Protocol 1997 have been drawn up to reduce the greenhouse gases emission. One of the measures is Clean Development Mechanisms (CDM) that was created to enable developed countries to cooperate with developing countries in emission reduction activities. In Malaysia, palm oil industry particularly from palm oil mill effluent (POME) anaerobic treatment has been identified as an important source of CH4. However, there is no study to quantify the actual CH4 emission from the commercial scale wastewater treatment facility. Hence, this paper shall address the CH4 emission from the open digesting tanks in Felda Serting Hilir Palm Oil Mill. CH4 emission pattern was recorded for 52 weeks from 3600 m3 open digesting tanks. The findings indicated that the CH4 content was between 13.5% and 49.0% which was lower than the value of 65% reported earlier. The biogas flow rate ranged between 0.8l min(-1)m(-2) and 9.8l min(-1)m(-2). Total CH4 emission per open digesting tank was 518.9 kgday(-1). Relationships between CH4 emission and total carbon removal and POME discharged were also discussed. Fluctuation of biogas production was observed throughout the studies as a result of seasonal oil palm cropping, mill activities, variation of POME quality and quantity discharged from the mill. Thus only through long-term field measurement CH4 emission can be accurately estimated.

  5. High-level waste storage tank farms/242-A evaporator Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-01

    The High-Level Waste Storage Tank Farms/242-A Evaporator Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID) is contained in multiple volumes. This document (Volume 3) presents the standards and requirements for the following sections: Safeguards and Security, Engineering Design, and Maintenance.

  6. High-level waste storage tank farms/242-A evaporator Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID), Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-01

    The High-Level Waste Storage Tank Farms/242-A Evaporator Standards/Requirements Document (S/RID) is contained in multiple volumes. This document (Volume 2) presents the standards and requirements for the following sections: Quality Assurance, Training and Qualification, Emergency Planning and Preparedness, and Construction.

  7. High-level waste storage tank farms/242-A evaporator Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID), Volume 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-01

    The High-Level Waste Storage Tank Farms/242-A Evaporator Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID) is contained in multiple volumes. This document (Volume 5) outlines the standards and requirements for the Fire Protection and Packaging and Transportation sections.

  8. High level waste storage tank farms/242-A evaporator Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID), Volume 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-01

    The High-Level Waste Storage Tank Farms/242-A Evaporator Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID) is contained in multiple volumes. This document (Volume 6) outlines the standards and requirements for the sections on: Environmental Restoration and Waste Management, Research and Development and Experimental Activities, and Nuclear Safety.

  9. High-level waste storage tank farms/242-A evaporator Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID), Volume 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-01

    The High-Level Waste Storage Tank Farms/242-A Evaporator Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID) is contained in multiple volumes. This document (Volume 4) presents the standards and requirements for the following sections: Radiation Protection and Operations.

  10. High-level waste storage tank farms/242-A evaporator standards/requirements identification document (S/RID), Vol. 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-01

    Radiation protection of personnel and the public is accomplished by establishing a well defined Radiation Protection Organization to ensure that appropriate controls on radioactive materials and radiation sources are implemented and documented. This Requirements Identification Document (RID) applies to the activities, personnel, structures, systems, components, and programs involved in executing the mission of the Tank Farms. The physical boundaries within which the requirements of this RID apply are the Single Shell Tank Farms, Double Shell Tank Farms, 242-A Evaporator-Crystallizer, 242-S, T Evaporators, Liquid Effluent Retention Facility (LERF), Purgewater Storage Facility (PWSF), and all interconnecting piping, valves, instrumentation, and controls. Also included is all piping, valves, instrumentation, and controls up to and including the most remote valve under Tank Farms control at any other Hanford Facility having an interconnection with Tank Farms. The boundary of the structures, systems, components, and programs to which this RID applies, is defined by those that are dedicated to and/or under the control of the Tank Farms Operations Department and are specifically implemented at the Tank Farms.

  11. The socio-ecohydrology of rainwater harvesting in India: understanding water storage and release dynamics at tank and catchment scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Meter, K. J.; Basu, N. B.; McLaughlin, D. L.; Steiff, M.

    2015-11-01

    Rainwater harvesting (RWH), the small-scale collection and storage of runoff for irrigated agriculture, is recognized as a sustainable strategy for ensuring food security, especially in monsoonal landscapes in the developing world. In south India, these strategies have been used for millennia to mitigate problems of water scarcity. However, in the past 100 years many traditional RWH systems have fallen into disrepair due to increasing dependence on groundwater. This dependence has contributed to an accelerated decline in groundwater resources, which has in turn led to increased efforts at the state and national levels to revive older RWH systems. Critical to the success of such efforts is an improved understanding of how these ancient systems function in contemporary landscapes with extensive groundwater pumping and shifted climatic regimes. Knowledge is especially lacking regarding the water-exchange dynamics of these RWH "tanks" at tank and catchment scales, and how these exchanges regulate tank performance and catchment water balances. Here, we use fine-scale water-level variation to quantify daily fluxes of groundwater, evapotranspiration (ET), and sluice outflows in four tanks over the 2013 northeast monsoon season in a tank cascade that covers a catchment area of 28 km2. At the tank scale, our results indicate that groundwater recharge and irrigation outflows comprise the largest fractions of the tank water budget, with ET accounting for only 13-22 % of the outflows. At the scale of the cascade, we observe a distinct spatial pattern in groundwater-exchange dynamics, with the frequency and magnitude of groundwater inflows increasing down the cascade of tanks. The significant magnitude of return flows along the tank cascade leads to the most downgradient tank in the cascade having an outflow-to capacity ratio greater than 2. The presence of tanks in the landscape dramatically alters the catchment water balance, with runoff decreasing by nearly 75 %, and

  12. The socio-ecohydrology of rainwater harvesting in India: understanding water storage and release dynamics at tank and catchment scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. J. Van Meter

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Rainwater harvesting (RWH, the small-scale collection and storage of runoff for irrigated agriculture, is recognized as a sustainable strategy for ensuring food security, especially in monsoonal landscapes in the developing world. In south India, these strategies have been used for millennia to mitigate problems of water scarcity. However, in the past 100 years many traditional RWH systems have fallen into disrepair due to increasing dependence on groundwater. This dependence has contributed to an accelerated decline in groundwater resources, which has in turn led to increased efforts at the state and national levels to revive older RWH systems. Critical to the success of such efforts is an improved understanding of how these ancient systems function in contemporary landscapes with extensive groundwater pumping and shifted climatic regimes. Knowledge is especially lacking regarding the water-exchange dynamics of these RWH "tanks" at tank and catchment scales, and how these exchanges regulate tank performance and catchment water balances. Here, we use fine-scale water-level variation to quantify daily fluxes of groundwater, evapotranspiration (ET, and sluice outflows in four tanks over the 2013 northeast monsoon season in a tank cascade that covers a catchment area of 28 km2. At the tank scale, our results indicate that groundwater recharge and irrigation outflows comprise the largest fractions of the tank water budget, with ET accounting for only 13–22 % of the outflows. At the scale of the cascade, we observe a distinct spatial pattern in groundwater-exchange dynamics, with the frequency and magnitude of groundwater inflows increasing down the cascade of tanks. The significant magnitude of return flows along the tank cascade leads to the most downgradient tank in the cascade having an outflow-to capacity ratio greater than 2. The presence of tanks in the landscape dramatically alters the catchment water balance, with runoff decreasing by

  13. Design and analysis of a multi-cell subscale tank for liquid hydrogen storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tapeinos, I.; Koussios, S.; Groves, R.M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper outlines the structural performance of a conformable pressurizable tank consisting of intersecting spherical shells (multi-cell tank). Multi-cell tanks outrival conventional multiple cylindrical tanks in volumetric efficiency when required to fit in a rectangular envelope in the

  14. Stabilization of soybean oil during accelerated storage by essential oil of ferulago angulata boiss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Ehsan; Mahtabani, Aidin; Etminan, Alireza; Karami, Farahnaz

    2016-02-01

    This study has been considered effect of Ferulago angulata essential oil on stabilizing soybean oil during accelerated storage. The essential oil was extracted by Clevenger-type apparatus. For analysis of the essential oil, GC/MS was used. Main components of the essential oil were monoterpene and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons. The essential oil of F. angulata at four concentrations, i.e. 125 (SBO-125), 250 (SBO-250), 500 (SBO-500) and SBO-Mixture (60 ppm TBHQ +60 ppm essential oil) were added to preheated refined soybean oil. TBHQ was used at 120 ppm as standard besides the control. Antioxidant activity index (AAI), free fatty acid (FFA) content, peroxide value (PV) and p-anisidine value (p-AnV) were served for appreciation of efficacy of F. angulata in stabilization of soybean oil. Results from different tests showed that SBO-mixture had highest effect and followed by SBO-TBHQ, SBO-250, SBO-125, SBO-500 and Ctrl. These results reveal F. angulata is a strong antioxidant and can be used instead of synthetic antioxidant.

  15. 大型油罐区火灾风险严重度指数评价%Fire risk severity index assessment of large oil tank farm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任常兴; 李晋; 王婕; 毛星; 张欣; 王璐

    2012-01-01

    Against the high fire risk and extinguishing difficulty of large oil tank farm, the typical fire accident scenarios and accident frequency were analyzed and identified, and fire risk severity index was introduced to assess the relative fire risk level and rank. Moreover, estimation methods of specific risk severity index for pool-fire, tank-fire and VCE (vapor cloud explosion) were illustrated and described, and the example was assessed. This research provided a basis for oil storage tank area planning, management, accident prevention and emergency rescue.%针对大型油罐区火灾风险高、扑救难度大的特点,分析典型火灾事故场景及发生频率,引入火灾风险严重度指数来评价罐区火灾风险的相对影响水平和等级,给出池火、油罐火和蒸气云爆炸场景的火灾风险严重度指数评价方法,并以实例剖析.该研究可为大型油罐区火灾风险防范、消防规划和应急救援提供依据.

  16. Comparison of biofilm formation and water quality when water from different sources was stored in large commercial water storage tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Merwe, Venessa; Duvenage, Stacey; Korsten, Lise

    2013-03-01

    Rain-, ground- and municipal potable water were stored in low density polyethylene storage tanks for a period of 90 days to determine the effects of long-term storage on the deterioration in the microbial quality of the water. Total viable bacteria present in the stored water and the resultant biofilms were enumerated using heterotrophic plate counts. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Colilert-18(®) tests were performed to determine if the faecal indicator bacteria Escherichia coli was present in the water and in the biofilm samples collected throughout the study. The municipal potable water at the start of the study was the only water source that conformed to the South African Water Quality Guidelines for Domestic Use. After 15 days of storage, this water source had deteriorated microbiologically to levels considered unfit for human consumption. E. coli was detected in the ground- and potable water and ground- and potable biofilms periodically, whereas it was detected in the rainwater and associated biofilms at every sampling point. Imperfections in the UV resistant inner lining of the tanks were shown to be ecological niches for microbial colonisation and biofilm development. The results from the current study confirmed that long-term storage can influence water quality and increase the number of microbial cells associated with biofilms on the interior surfaces of water storage tanks.

  17. Investigation and optimisation of heat storage tanks for low-flow SDHW systems[Solar Domestic Hot Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knudsen, Soeren

    2004-07-01

    This thesis, 'Investigation and optimisation of heat storage tanks for low-flow SDHW systems', describes a study of the heat transfer and flow structure in vertical mantle heat exchangers for low-flow Solar Domestic Hot Water (SDHW) systems. The heat storage is a key component in SDHW systems and the vertical mantle heat exchanger is one of the most promising heat storage designs for low-flow SDHW systems. The study was carried out using a combination of experimental and numerical methods. Thermal experiments of mantle heat exchangers with different mantle inlet designs showed that the mantle inlet port with advantage can be located a distance from the top of the mantle. Consequently, the mantle heat exchangers marketed today can be improved by changing the mantle inlet position. The heat transfer and flow structure in mantle heat exchangers are rather complex and the thermal experiments were followed by investigations by means of advanced experimental and numerical techniques such as Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). Using a transparent glass mantle tank, experimental flow visualisation was carried out with a PIV system. The flow structures inside the mantle and inside the tank were visualised and then compared with the flow structures predicted by CFD-models. The investigations showed that the CFD-models were able to model the flow in the mantle and in the tank correctly. The CFD-models were also validated by means of thermal experiments with a steel mantle tank. With the verified CFD-models, a parameter analysis was carried out for differently designed mantle heat exchangers for different typical conditions to reveal how the mantle tank parameters influence the flow structure and heat transfer in mantle heat exchangers. The heat transfer in the mantle near the mantle inlet port showed to be in the mixed convection regime, and as the distance from the inlet increased, natural convection started to dominate. The

  18. Sampling and analysis of radioactive liquid wastes and sludges in the Melton Valley and evaporator facility storage tanks at ORNL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sears, M.B.; Botts, J.L.; Ceo, R.N.; Ferrada, J.J.; Griest, W.H.; Keller, J.M.; Schenley, R.L.

    1990-09-01

    The sampling and analysis of the radioactive liquid wastes and sludges in the Melton Valley Storage Tanks (MVSTs), as well as two of the evaporator service facility storage tanks at ORNL, are described. Aqueous samples of the supernatant liquid and composite samples of the sludges were analyzed for major constituents, radionuclides, total organic carbon, and metals listed as hazardous under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Liquid samples from five tanks and sludge samples from three tanks were analyzed for organic compounds on the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Target Compound List. Estimates were made of the inventory of liquid and sludge phases in the tanks. Descriptions of the sampling and analytical activities and tabulations of the results are included. The report provides data in support of the design of the proposed Waste Handling and Packaging Plant, the Liquid Low-Level Waste Solidification Project, and research and development activities (R D) activities in developing waste management alternatives. 7 refs., 8 figs., 16 tabs.

  19. Finite Element Analysis of High Pressure Storage Tank%高压储气罐有限元分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡毅; 田东兴; 马秋生

    2012-01-01

    本文以ANSYS软件为基础,对高压长圆柱形天然气储运罐进行变形分析、应力分析,得到了储气罐的应力分布状态,分析了在壁厚方向及沿着罐壁方向上的应力变化。所得结果和理论结果吻合。此基础上,完成了气罐模态分析,得到了气罐的各阶固有频率及振型。计算结果表明计算方法有效,为进一步设计高压气罐提供了理论依据。%In this paper, based on Ansys the deformation and stress for high pressure long cylindrical natural gas storage tank are anal- ysed. And obtain the stress distribution of the storage tank. The changes of stress are analysed in thickness direction and along the rigid wall. The results and theoretical results are accordance. On this basis, the modal analysis of tank is completed too. Obtained the tank various order natural frequency and vibration mode. The calculation results show that the method is effective and provide the theoreti- cal basis for high pressure tank design.

  20. Grapefruit gland oil composition is affected by wax application, storage temperature, and storage time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, D; Petracek, P D

    1999-05-01

    The effect of wax application, storage temperature (4 or 21 degrees C), and storage time (14 or 28 days after wax application) on grapefruit gland oil composition was examined by capillary gas chromatography. Wax application decreases nonanal and nootkatone levels. beta-Pinene, alpha-phellandrene, 3-carene, ocimene, octanol, trans-linalool oxide, and cis-p-mentha-2,8-dien-1-ol levels increase, but limonene levels decrease, with temperature. Levels of alpha-pinene, limonene, linalool, citronellal, alpha-terpineol, neral, dodecanal, and alpha-humulene decrease with time. Levels of alpha-phellandrene, 3-carene, ocimene, and trans-linalool oxide increase with time. No compound level was affected by the interactive action of temperature and wax application, suggesting that these two factors cause grapefruit oil gland collapse (postharvest pitting) through means other than changing gland oil composition. Compounds that are toxic to the Caribbean fruit fly (alpha-pinene, limonene, alpha-terpineol, and some aldehydes) decrease with time, thus suggesting grapefruit becomes increasingly susceptible to the fly during storage.

  1. Prediction of thermal hydraulic characteristics inside the storage tank of a horizontal condensation heat exchanger using MARS-KS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Byung Soo; Seul, Kwang Won; Do, Kyu Sik; Reactor system evaluation Team

    2012-11-01

    The performance of a horizontal condensation heat exchanger is determined by the condensation heat transfer inside the heat exchanger tubes, convective or boiling heat transfer outside the tubes and flow characteristics in the storage tank. The flow characteristics in the tank are important factors to determine the heat transfer rate outside the tubes. The objective of this work is to develop the method to predict the heat transfer rate outside the tubes properly using MARS-KS code. Two different results from MARS-KS were compared with simplified experimental results in other works to estimate the capacity of MARS-KS. One was by a typical 1D nodalization but another was by a 3D nodalization considering natural circulation in the storage tank. Then, to eliminate the effect of condensation heat transfer inside the tubes, the experimental results on temperature profiles were applied to the inside wall of tubes as boundary conditions. As the result, the 3-D nodalization model had good predictions with experimental results in regard of wall temperature, heat flux and heat transfer coefficients. It was also confirmed that the natural circulation flow was developed inside the storage tank.

  2. Effects of Material Choice on Biocide Loss in Orion Water Storage Tanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, William T.; Castro-Wallace, Sarah L.; Kuo, C. K. Mike; Loh, Leslie J.; Hudson, Edgar; Gazda, Daniel B.; Lewis, John F.

    2016-01-01

    additional challenges when used in water storage tanks with ionic silver biocide.

  3. Effects of Material Choice on Biocide Loss in Orion Water Storage Tanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, W. T.; Wallace, S. L.; Gazda, D. B.; Lewis, J. F.

    2016-01-01

    When preparing for long-duration spaceflight missions, maintaining a safe supply of potable water is of the utmost importance. One major aspect of that is ensuring that microbial growth is minimized. Historically, this challenge has been addressed through the use of biocides. When using biocides, the choice of materials for the storage containers is important, because surface reactions can reduce biocide concentrations below their effective range. In the water storage system baselined for the Orion vehicle, the primary wetted materials are stainless steel (316 L) and a titanium alloy (Ti6Al4V). Previous testing with these materials has shown that the biocide selected for use in the system (ionic silver) will plate out rapidly upon initial wetting of the system. One potential approach for maintaining an adequate biocide concentration is to spike the water supply with high levels of biocide in an attempt to passivate the surface. To evaluate this hypothesis, samples of the wetted materials were tested individually and together to determine the relative loss of biocide under representative surface area-to-volume ratios after 24 hours. Additionally, we have analyzed the efficacy of disinfecting a system containing these materials by measuring reductions in bacterial counts in the same test conditions. Preliminary results indicate that the use of titanium, either individually or in combination with stainless steel, can result in over 95% loss of biocide, while less than 5% is lost when using stainless steel. In bacterial testing, viable organisms were recovered from samples exposed to the titanium coupons after 24 hours. By comparison, no organisms were recovered from the test vessels containing only stainless steel. These results indicate that titanium, while possessing some favorable attributes, may pose additional challenges when used in water storage tanks with ionic silver biocide.

  4. Request for closure, underground storage tank 2130-U: Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, Facility ID {number_sign}0-010117

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-01

    This document presents a summary of the activities and analytical data related to the removal of underground storage tank (UST) 2130-U, previously located at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. Removal of this tank was conducted in accordance with Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) regulation 1200-1-15 (1992). A completed copy of the State of Tennessee, Division of Underground Storage Tanks, Permanent Closure Report Form is included as Appendix A of this document Based on the information and data presented herein, the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant requests permanent closure for the tank 2130-U site.

  5. Underground Storage Tanks, The dataset contains the locations of sites where Underground/Abovegroumd Storge Tanks are/were located., Published in 2011, 1:12000 (1in=1000ft) scale, Alabama Department of Environmental Management.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Underground Storage Tanks dataset, published at 1:12000 (1in=1000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Field Survey/GPS information as of 2011. It is...

  6. Design Essentials of 80 m3 Diluted Acetaldehyde Storage Tank%浅谈80 m3稀乙醛储槽设计要点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白春山; 刘文元

    2009-01-01

    Combination 80 m3 thin acetaldehyde tank design, the paper focused on low-pressure tank-top cans bearing ring, tank walls, tank top and anchor set design and the method of calculating and comparing the general design of storage tanks were introduced.%结合80 m3稀乙醛储槽的设计,着重介绍低压储罐罐顶承压环、罐壁、罐顶以及锚栓设置的设计及其计算方法,并与一般储罐设计进行比较.

  7. Hydrodynamically induced loads on components submerged in high-level waste-storage tanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, E. O.; Julyk, J. L.; Rezvani, M. A.

    1994-06-01

    This paper addresses the effects of added mass on components submerged in fluids. In particular, as new equipment is designed for installation in the double-shell waste-storage tanks at the Hanford Site near Richland, Washington, the equipment and the tank must be evaluated for the anticipated loads. Seismically induced loads combined with loadings from other sources must be considered during this evaluation. A literature review shows that, for components in fluids confined to a narrow annulus or without a free surface, drastic reductions in response to seismic excitation are predicted by two-dimensional analysis. This phenomenon has been supported by testing. The reductions are explained in terms of mass coupling and buoyancy effects. For equipment submerged in fluids having a free surface and large annulus, practice suggest that it is appropriate to lump the added-mass terms with the component to address the hydrodynamic effects adequately. As in the case of a narrow annulus, this practice will reduce the natural frequency of the submerged component, but generally will increase the loads. This paper presents the structural evaluations of submerged components using computer models that employ mock fluid elements that determine the appropriateness of considering fluid added-mass and buoyancy effects. The results indicate that if a free surface exists and the submerged component has a wide fluid annulus about it, then the added mass should be lumped with the model, and buoyancy effects are not significant. The component then may be considered to be in an air environment, and the stresses are calculated from the application of standard response spectrum procedures.

  8. Corrosion Mechanism of Corrosion-Resistant Steel Developed for Bottom Plate of Cargo Oil Tanks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feilong SUN; Xiaogang LI; Fan ZHANG; Xuequn CHENG; Cheng ZHOU; Nianchun WU; Yuqun YIN

    2013-01-01

    A new type of corrosion-resistant steel consisting of ferrite and bainite phases was developed for cargo oil tanks of crude oil tankers.The corrosion rate of this new steel was 0.22 mm/a,which was equivalent to ca.1/5 of the criterion (≤ 1 mm/a) for corrosion-resistant steels.The composition and element distribution of the corrosion products were investigated by micro-Raman spectrometry and energy dispersive spectrometer.The results demonstrated that the corrosion product was composed of α-FeOOH,Fe3O4 and a continuous Cu enrichment layer.This kind of corrosion product was protective to the steel matrix and accounted for the enhancement of the corrosion resistance of the new developed steel.

  9. Storage of Residual Fuel Oil in Underground Unlined Rock Caverns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-12-01

    Francaise des Petroles BP, Elf Union, Shell Francaise, and Compagnie Francaise de Raffinage (Total). The company and its subsidiaries were formed with...DEC 80 D C BANKS UNCLASSIFIED WES/NP/S4.-8O-19 ti. LE VEL MISCELLANEOUS PAPER GL-80-19 31 STORAGE OF RESIDUAL FUEL OIL IN UNDERGROUND UNLINED ROCK...Ruimaia.~ indl a riiirI( le ol Air in1 wi r’ hve en coIit’Icted to enc1ouraige muiliriershnpl I[I the i 5kRM. 1) By Innf t-Ii .fi’ I ’I.]%- I "W

  10. 倾斜油罐储油量的测定与变位识别%Oil capacity determination and displacement recognition of tilt oil tank

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄剑; 岑仲迪; 李浩

    2013-01-01

    Quasi-Monte Carlo algorithms are used to carry out oil capacity determination, displacements recognition and tilt angle calculation of tilt oil tank, and four algorithms are designed for different situations. Uniformly distributed random points are produced in the space of oil tank. The number of random points below the oil level is calculated to estimate oil capacity at the current oil level height. Oil tank spatial location after displacements is determined using changes in the spatial coordinates, thus estimating the oil capacity reflected by the oil level at current position. Taking measured oil filling data in some oil tank as an example, it determines whether the tank body is displaced according to oil level height, theoretical oil capacity, measured oil capacity and oil pump capacity and obtains the tilt angle using the least square method and grid traversing search algorithm. The results show that the calculation model has certain feasibility and reliability.%采用拟蒙特卡罗模拟算法对倾斜储油罐进行储油量测定、变位识别及倾斜角度计算,并针对不同情况设计4种算法.在储油罐空间内产生均匀分布随机点,并通过统计油平面位置以下随机点个数,估算当前油面高度的储油量,利用空间坐标变化确定变位后储油罐的空间位置,估算当前位置下油面所反映的储油量.以某油罐加油实测数据为例,根据油面高度、理论储油量、测量储油量、出油量判断罐体是否变位,并利用最小二乘法,采用网格遍历搜索计算得到倾斜角度,结果表明计算模型具有一定的可行性和可靠性.

  11. 33 CFR 155.350 - Oily mixture (bilge slops)/fuel oil tank ballast water discharges on oceangoing ships of less...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... oil tank ballast water discharges on oceangoing ships of less than 400 gross tons. 155.350 Section 155... mixture (bilge slops)/fuel oil tank ballast water discharges on oceangoing ships of less than 400 gross tons. (a) No person may operate an oceangoing ship of less than 400 gross tons, unless it either:...

  12. 低温丙烯储罐的自动控制%Automatic Control for Cryogenic Propylene Storage Tank

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张伟; 方留安

    2013-01-01

    Large cryogenic tank pressure is close to atmospheric pressure.The change of external environment easily causes change of tank pressure,and influences the safe operation of storage tank negatively.The storage tank is equipped with a set of DCS and a set of ESD.DCS and ESD are fully independent.Precision servo liquid level meter and tuning fork liquid level switch are used for tank level measurement,control and interlock.Flow balance method is used to detect leakage of propylene conveying pipeline.Temperature detection is uniformly distributed on the ceiling inner surface of tank,bottom inner surface and inner surface.Three pressure transmitters are used for tank pressure measurement,control and interlock.The results show the safe and reliable control and interlock system can not only guarantee safe operation of storage tank,but also can achieve good economie benefit.%大型低温储罐压力接近常压,环境变化极易引起储罐压力的变化,造成安全隐患.储罐装置控制系统和联锁系统采用独立的DCS和紧急停车系统(ESD);精度伺服液位计和音叉式液位开关用于储罐液位的测量、控制和联锁;采用流量平衡法检测丙烯输送管线的泄漏,温度检测均匀分布在储罐吊顶内表面、罐底内表面、罐壁内表面;采用3台压力变送器对储罐的压力进行测量、控制和联锁.应用表明:安全可靠的控制系统和联锁系统,既保障了储罐的安全运行又取得了良好的经济效益.

  13. The Study of The Oil- contained Mud Automatic Treatment System of Oil Tank%罐体油泥自动清理系统研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张军; 郭军; 祝金奎; 汪建敏

    2000-01-01

    油田罐体内易沉积泥砂,这些含油泥砂的自动清理及无污排放难题长期无法解决。本文通过介绍一个工程应用,给出了一套解决此问题的工艺流程。%The mud is easy to sedimentate in the big oil tank. It is difficult to automatically clean the tank and make the oil- contained mud pollution less. In this paper, we will describe an engineering application. A technological process will be given to solve the problem.

  14. Seismic design and evaluation guidelines for the Department of Energy High-Level Waste Storage Tanks and Appurtenances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bandyopadhyay, K.; Cornell, A.; Costantino, C.; Kennedy, R.; Miller, C.; Veletsos, A.

    1995-10-01

    This document provides seismic design and evaluation guidelines for underground high-level waste storage tanks. The guidelines reflect the knowledge acquired in the last two decades in defining seismic ground motion and calculating hydrodynamic loads, dynamic soil pressures and other loads for underground tank structures, piping and equipment. The application of the guidelines is illustrated with examples. The guidelines are developed for a specific design of underground storage tanks, namely double-shell structures. However, the methodology discussed is applicable for other types of tank structures as well. The application of these and of suitably adjusted versions of these concepts to other structural types will be addressed in a future version of this document. The original version of this document was published in January 1993. Since then, additional studies have been performed in several areas and the results are included in this revision. Comments received from the users are also addressed. Fundamental concepts supporting the basic seismic criteria contained in the original version have since then been incorporated and published in DOE-STD-1020-94 and its technical basis documents. This information has been deleted in the current revision.

  15. Effect of interfacial turbulence and accommodation coefficient on CFD predictions of pressurization and pressure control in cryogenic storage tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassemi, Mohammad; Kartuzova, Olga

    2016-03-01

    Pressurization and pressure control in cryogenic storage tanks are to a large extent affected by heat and mass transport across the liquid-vapor interface. These mechanisms are, in turn, controlled by the kinetics of the phase change process and the dynamics of the turbulent recirculating flows in the liquid and vapor phases. In this paper, the effects of accommodation coefficient and interfacial turbulence on tank pressurization and pressure control simulations are examined. Comparison between numerical predictions and ground-based measurements in two large liquid hydrogen tank experiments, performed in the K-site facility at NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) and the Multi-purpose Hydrogen Test Bed (MHTB) facility at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), are used to show the impact of accommodation coefficient and interfacial and vapor phase turbulence on evolution of pressure and temperatures in the cryogenic storage tanks. In particular, the self-pressurization comparisons indicate that: (1) numerical predictions are essentially independent of the magnitude of the accommodation coefficient; and (2) surprisingly, laminar models sometimes provide results that are in better agreement with experimental self-pressurization rates, even in parametric ranges where the bulk flow is deemed fully turbulent. In this light, shortcomings of the present CFD models, especially, numerical treatments of interfacial mass transfer and turbulence, as coupled to the Volume-of-Fluid (VOF) interface capturing scheme, are underscored and discussed.

  16. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 124, Storage Tanks, Nevada Test Site, Nevada with Errata Sheet, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alfred Wickline

    2008-01-01

    This Closure Report (CR) presents information supporting closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 124, Storage Tanks, Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nevada. This report complies with the requirements of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) that was agreed to by the State of Nevada; U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Environmental Management; U.S. Department of Defense; and DOE, Legacy Management (FFACO, 1996; as amended January 2007). This CR provides documentation and justification for the closure of CAU 124 without further corrective action. This justification is based on process knowledge and the results of the investigative activities conducted in accordance with the Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan for Corrective Action Unit 124: Storage Tanks, Nevada Test Site, Nevada (NNSA/NSO, 2007). The SAFER Plan provides information relating to site history as well as the scope and planning of the investigation. Therefore, this information will not be repeated in this CR.

  17. Underground storage tank management plan, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    The Underground Storage Tank (UST) Program at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant was established to locate UST systems at the facility and to ensure that all operating UST systems are free of leaks. UST systems have been removed or upgraded in accordance with Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) regulations and guidance. With the closure of a significant portion of the USTs, the continuing mission of the UST Management Program is to manage the remaining active UST systems and continue corrective actions in a safe regulatory compliant manner. This Program outlines the compliance issues that must be addressed, reviews the current UST inventory and compliance approach, and presents the status and planned activities associated with each UST system. The UST Program provides guidance for implementing TDEC regulations and guidelines for petroleum UST systems. The plan is divided into three major sections: (1) regulatory requirements, (2) active UST sites, and (3) out-of-service UST sites. These sections describe in detail the applicable regulatory drivers, the UST sites addressed under the Program, and the procedures and guidance for compliance.

  18. Cesium removal demonstration utilizing crystalline silicotitanate sorbent for processing Melton Valley Storage Tank supernate: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, J.F. Jr.; Taylor, P.A.; Cummins, R.L. [and others

    1998-03-01

    This report provides details of the Cesium Removal Demonstration (CsRD), which was conducted at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) on radioactive waste from the Melton Valley Storage Tanks. The CsRD was the first large-scale use of state-of-the-art sorbents being developed by private industry for the selective removal of cesium and other radionuclides from liquid wastes stored across the DOE complex. The crystalline silicotitanate sorbent used in the demonstration was chosen because of its effectiveness in laboratory tests using bench-scale columns. The demonstration showed that the cesium could be removed from the supernate and concentrated on a small-volume, solid waste form that would meet the waste acceptance criteria for the Nevada Test Site. During this project, the CsRD system processed > 115,000 L (30,000 gal) of radioactive supernate with minimal operational problems. Sluicing, drying, and remote transportation of the sorbent, which could not be done on a bench scale, were successfully demonstrated. The system was then decontaminated to the extent that it could be contact maintained with the use of localized shielding only. By utilizing a modular, transportable design and placement within existing facilities, the system can be transferred to different sites for reuse. The initial unit has now been removed from the process building and is presently being reinstalled for use in baseline operations at ORNL.

  19. Investigation of methods to transfer heat from solar liquid-heating collectors to heat storage tanks. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horel, J. D.; de Winter, F.

    1978-04-20

    A study was made of the methods available to transfer heat from the collector to the water storage tank in water heating systems. In counterflow heat exchangers used in double loop water heating systems, it was found to be more important to use a high water flowrate than a high heat transfer fluid flowrate. It was earlier thought to be best to have matched WC/sub p/ (mass flowrate-specific heat) products in the loops. It was shown in this study that the water WC/sub p/ product should be about twice as large as that of the heat transfer fluid. It was found that neither the heat exchanger type nor the size was very critical, so that very simple criteria were adequate in determining optimum heat exchanger size. It was found that there is a definite system size below which one should use a traced tank or a coil in a tank. Equations and optimization criteria were developed for traced tanks or tanks with coils. At present, there is no quantitative understanding of liquid to liquid (direct contact) heat exchangers, though they are clearly quite effective. Draindown systems are discussed, and several appendices are included on heat transfer and other characteristics of fluid and of equipment.

  20. Corrosion Verification Test for the Welds of CEFR Sodium Storage Tank and Sodium Drainage Under the First-Grade Accident

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The main purpose of this test is to observe and analyze the compatibility between the welds and hightemperature sodium at the simulated realistic working conditions of CEFR sodium storage tank andsodium drainage under the first-grade accident. The observation and analysis are focused on theintergranular corrosion at the weld and its heat affection region, in order to provide the test basis for thesafe operation and analysis of CEFR.

  1. Nitrogen bubbling in expansion vessels and storage tanks for makeup water; Kvaevgasbubbling i expansionskaerl och lagertankar foer spaedvatten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilgotson, Fredrik; Hansson, Helen [Carl Bro Energikonsult AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2004-03-01

    Oxygen and carbon dioxide induced corrosion and biological growth are two problems associated with storage tanks for demineralised water as well as with atmospheric expansion vessels. The aim of this project was to investigate if it is possible to reduce or perhaps even eliminate those problems by bubbling nitrogen through the water. The investigation shows that the nitrogen flow is of great importance for the result.

  2. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan for Corrective Action Unit 134: Aboveground Storage Tanks, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2008-05-31

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan identifies the activities required for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 134, Aboveground Storage Tanks. CAU 134 is currently listed in Appendix III of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) (FFACO, 1996; as amended February 2008) and consists of four Corrective Action Sites (CASs) located in Areas 3, 15, and 29 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) (Figure 1): (1) CAS 03-01-03, Aboveground Storage Tank; (2) CAS 03-01-04, Tank; (3) CAS 15-01-05, Aboveground Storage Tank; and (4) CAS 29-01-01, Hydrocarbon Stain. CAS 03-01-03 consists of a mud tank that is located at the intersection of the 3-07 and the 3-12 Roads in Area 3 of the NTS. The tank and its contents are uncontaminated and will be dispositioned in accordance with applicable federal, state, and local regulations. This CAS will be closed by taking no further action. CAS 03-01-04 consists of a potable water tank that is located at the Core Complex in Area 3 of the NTS. The tank will be closed by taking no further action. CAS 15-01-05 consists of an aboveground storage tank (AST) and associated impacted soil, if any. This CAS is located on a steep slope near the Climax Mine in Area 15 of the NTS. The AST is empty and will be dispositioned in accordance with applicable federal, state, and local regulations. Soil below the AST will be sampled to identify whether it has been impacted by chemicals at concentrations exceeding the action levels. It appears that the tank is not at its original location. Soil will also be sampled at the original tank location, if it can be found. If soil at either location has been impacted at concentrations that exceed the action levels, then the extent of contamination will be identified and a use restriction (UR) will be implemented. The site may be clean closed if contamination is less than one cubic yard in extent and can be readily excavated. If action levels are not exceeded, then no

  3. Storage oil breakdown during embryo development of Brassica napus (L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chia, Tansy Y P; Pike, Marilyn J; Rawsthorne, Stephen

    2005-05-01

    In this study it is shown that at least 10% of the major storage product of developing embryos of Brassica napus (L.), triacylglycerol, is lost during the desiccation phase of seed development. The metabolism of this lipid was studied by measurements of the fate of label from [1-(14)C]decanoate supplied to isolated embryos, and by measurements of the activities of enzymes of fatty acid catabolism. Measurements on desiccating embryos have been compared with those made on embryos during lipid accumulation and on germinating seedlings. Enzymes of beta-oxidation and the glyoxylate cycle, and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase were present in embryos during oil accumulation, and increased in activity and abundance as the seeds matured and became desiccated. Although the activities were less than those measured during germination, they were at least comparable to the in vivo rate of fatty acid synthesis in the embryo during development. The pattern of labelling, following metabolism of decanoate by isolated embryos, indicated a much greater involvement of the glyoxylate cycle during desiccation than earlier in oil accumulation, and showed that much of the (14)C-label from decanoate was released as CO(2) at both stages. Sucrose was not a product of decanoate metabolism during embryo development, and therefore lipid degradation was not associated with net gluconeogenic activity. These observations are discussed in the context of seed development, oil yield, and the synthesis of novel fatty acids in plants.

  4. Underground Storage Tanks, haz mat data set attribute, Published in 2006, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Washoe County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Underground Storage Tanks dataset, published at 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Published Reports/Deeds information as of 2006. It is...

  5. Quality Assurance Project Plan for the HWMA/RCRA Closure Certification of the TRA-731 Caustic and Acid Storage Tank System - 1997 Notice of Violation Consent Order

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, Susan Kay; Orchard, B. J.

    2002-01-01

    This Quality Assurance Project Plan for the HWMA/RCRA Closure Certification of the TRA-731 Caustic and Acid Storage Tank System is one of two documents that comprise the Sampling and Analysis Plan for the HWMA/RCRA closure certification of the TRA-731 caustic and acid storage tank system at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. This plan, which provides information about the project description, project organization, and quality assurance and quality control procedures, is to be used in conjunction with the Field Sampling Plan for the HWMA/RCRA Closure Certification of the TRA-731 Caustic and Acid Storage Tank System. This Quality Assurance Project Plan specifies the procedures for obtaining the data of known quality required by the closure activities for the TRA-731 caustic and acid storage tank system.

  6. Quality Assurance Project Plan for the HWMA/RCRA Closure Certification of the TRA-731 Caustic and Acid Storage Tank System - 1997 Notice of Violation Consent Order

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, S.K.

    2002-01-31

    This Quality Assurance Project Plan for the HWMA/RCRA Closure Certification of the TRA- 731 Caustic and Acid Storage Tank System is one of two documents that comprise the Sampling and Analysis Plan for the HWMA/RCRA closure certification of the TRA-731 caustic and acid storage tank system at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. This plan, which provides information about the project description, project organization, and quality assurance and quality control procedures, is to be used in conjunction with the Field Sampling Plan for the HWMA/RCRA Closure Certification of the TRA-731 Caustic and Acid Storage Tank System. This Quality Assurance Project Plan specifies the procedures for obtaining the data of known quality required by the closure activities for the TRA-731 caustic and acid storage tank system.

  7. Risk analysis of fire explosion of refinery storage tanks and prevention%炼油厂储罐火灾爆炸事故风险分析与防范

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘永斌

    2011-01-01

    The risk analysis is performed on six types of typical fire explosion accidents of refinery oil storage tanks caused by tank flooding, lightning, static-electricity, auto-ignition of ferrous sulfide, construction with fire and inappropriate unit operation, and effective measure have been proposed. It is pointed out that, to prevent big fire explosion accidents of oil storage tanks, the safety management shall be strengthened, the safety awareness of operation personnel be enhanced, the regulations be strictly followed, the inappropriate operations be prevented, the fire sources of tank farms be properly controlled, the safety facilities be properly examined and maintained to eliminate potential fire hazards in addition to various safety measures designed based upon new applicable codes and standards for intrinsic safety of tanks.%对炼化企业油品储罐因冒罐、雷击、静电、硫化亚铁自燃、用火施工作业、与生产运行装置协调不当等引发的6类典型火灾爆炸事故案例进行了风险分析,提出了有效的防范措施.指出为避免油品储罐发生重大火灾爆炸事故,除了按照新的标准规范不断完善油品储罐及罐区的各种安全措施,实现油罐的本质安全外,还应加强安全管理,提高操作人员的安全意识及素质,严格执行纪律,防止违规操作,加强对油品罐区各种火源的管理,加强各种安全设施的检查及维护,消除事故隐患.

  8. Temperature Calculation in Respect of Basic Elements of Power Oil Transformer on the Basis of Its Tank Surface Temperature Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Zalizny

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes a real-time calculation algorithm of oil, winding and magnetic core temperature of power transformer on the basis of measured values of tank surface temperature and air temperature without measuring current. The algorithm is based on the calculation of the equivalent load factor of the transformer. Imitation simulation has confirmed efficiency of the algorithm. After tests on functioning transformers the algorithm can be used in thermal protection devices and diagnostic devices for power oil transformers.

  9. Potential evaluation of CO2 storage and enhanced oil recovery of tight oil reservoir in the Ordos Basin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Xiaofeng; Cheng, Linsong; Cao, Renyi; Zhang, Miaoyi; Guo, Qiang; Wang, Yimin; Zhang, Jian; Cui, Yu

    2015-07-01

    Carbon -di-oxide (CO2) is regarded as the most important greenhouse gas to accelerate climate change and ocean acidification. The Chinese government is seeking methods to reduce anthropogenic CO2 gas emission. CO2 capture and geological storage is one of the main methods. In addition, injecting CO2 is also an effective method to replenish formation energy in developing tight oil reservoirs. However, exiting methods to estimate CO2 storage capacity are all based on the material balance theory. This was absolutely correct for normal reservoirs. However, as natural fractures widely exist in tight oil reservoirs and majority of them are vertical ones, tight oil reservoirs are not close. Therefore, material balance theory is not adaptive. In the present study, a new method to calculate CO2 storage capacity is presented. The CO2 effective storage capacity, in this new method, consisted of free CO2, CO2 dissolved in oil and CO2 dissolved in water. Case studies of tight oil reservoir from Ordos Basin was conducted and it was found that due to far lower viscosity of CO2 and larger solubility in oil, CO2 could flow in tight oil reservoirs more easily. As a result, injecting CO2 in tight oil reservoirs could obviously enhance sweep efficiency by 24.5% and oil recovery efficiency by 7.5%. CO2 effective storage capacity of Chang 7 tight oil reservoir in Longdong area was 1.88 x 10(7) t. The Chang 7 tight oil reservoir in Ordos Basin was estimated to be 6.38 x 10(11) t. As tight oil reservoirs were widely distributed in Songliao Basin, Sichuan Basin and so on, geological storage capacity of CO2 in China is potential.

  10. Techno-economic performance evaluation of solar tower plants with integrated multi-layered PCM thermocline thermal energy storage - A comparative study to conventional two-tank storage systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guedéz, Rafael; Ferruzza, Davide; Arnaudo, Monica; Rodríguez, Ivette; Perez-Segarra, Carlos D.; Hassar, Zhor; Laumert, Björn

    2016-05-01

    Solar Tower Power Plants with thermal energy storage are a promising technology for dispatchable renewable energy in the near future. Storage integration makes possible to shift the electricity production to more profitable peak hours. Usually two tanks are used to store cold and hot fluids, but this means both higher investment costs and difficulties during the operation of the variable volume tanks. Instead, another solution can be a single tank thermocline storage in a multi-layered configuration. In such tank both latent and sensible fillers are employed to decrease the related cost up to 30% and maintain high efficiencies. This paper analyses a multi-layered solid PCM storage tank concept for solar tower applications, and describes a comprehensive methodology to determine under which market structures such devices can outperform the more conventional two tank storage systems. A detail model of the tank has been developed and introduced in an existing techno-economic tool developed by the authors (DYESOPT). The results show that under current cost estimates and technical limitations the multi-layered solid PCM storage concept is a better solution when peaking operating strategies are desired, as it is the case for the two-tier South African tariff scheme.

  11. Numerical Modeling of the Effect of Thawing of Soil in the Area of Placing Tanks for Storage Fuel of Thermal Power Plants and Boiler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polovnikov V.Yu.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the numerical modeling of heat transfer in the area placing of the tank for storage fuel of thermal power plant and boiler with considering the influence of thawing of the soil. We have established that the thawing of the soil in the area of placing of the tank for storage fuel of thermal power plant and boiler have little effect on the change of heat loss.

  12. Thermal Mode of Tanks for Storage Fuel of Thermal Power Plants and Boiler with the Influence of Engineering Facilities in the Area of their Placement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polovnikov, V. Yu.; Makhsutbek, F. T.; Ozhikenova, Zh. F.

    2016-02-01

    This paper describes the numerical modeling of heat transfer in the area placing of the tank for storage fuel of thermal power plant and boiler with the influence of engineering construction. We have established that the presence of engineering structures in the area of placing of the tank for storage fuel of thermal power plant and boiler have little effect on the change of heat loss.

  13. Basic and Acidic Leaching of Sludge from Melton Valley Storage Tank W-25

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, J.L., Egan, B.Z., Beahm, E.C., Chase, C.W., Anderson, K.K.

    1997-10-01

    Bench-scale leaching tests were conducted with samples of tank waste sludge from the Melton Valley Storage Tank (MVST) Facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to evaluate separation technology processes for use in concentrating the radionuclides and reducing the volume of waste for final disposal. This paper discusses the hot cell apparatus, the characterization of the sludge, the leaching methodology, and the results obtained from a variety of basic and acidic leaching tests of samples of sludge at ambient temperature. Basic leaching tests were also conducted at 75 and 95 deg C. The major alpha-,gamma., and beta-emitting radionuclides in the centrifuged, wet sludge solids were {sup 137}Cs, {sup 60}Co, {sup 154}Eu, {sup 241}Am, {sup 244}Cm {sup 90}Sr, Pu, U, and Th. The other major metals (in addition to the U and Th) and anions were Na, Ca, Al, K, Mg, NO{sub 3}{sup -},CO{sub 3}{sup 2-}, OH{sup -}, and O{sup 2-} organic carbon content was 3.0 +/- 1.0%. The pH was 13. A surprising result was that about 93% of the {sup 137}Cs in the centrifuged, wet sludge solids was bound in the solids and could not be solubilized by basic leaching at ambient temperature and 75 deg C. However, the solubility of the {sup 137}Cs was enhanced by heating the sludge to 95 deg C. In one of the tests,about 42% of the {sup 137}Cs was removed by leaching with 6.3 M NaOH at 95 deg C.Removing {sup 137}Cs from the W-25 sludge with nitric acid was a slow process. About 13% of the {sup 137}Cs was removed in 16 h with 3.0 M HNO{sub 3}. Only 22% of the {sup 137}Cs was removed in 117 h usi 6.0 M HNO{sub 3}. Successive leaching of sludge solids with 0.5 M, 3.0 M, 3.0 M; and 6.0 M HNO{sub 3} for a total mixing time of 558 h removed 84% of the {sup 137}Cs. The use of caustic leaching prior to HNO{sub 3} leaching, and the use of HF with HNO{sub 3} in acidic leaching, increased the rate of {sup 137}Cs dissolution. Gel formation proved to be one of the biggest problems associated with HNO{sub 3

  14. A thermodynamic tank model for studying the effect of higher hydrocarbons on natural gas storage in metal-organic frameworks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, HD; Deria, P; Farha, OK; Hupp, JT; Snurr, RQ

    2015-01-01

    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are promising materials for storing natural gas in vehicular applications. Evaluation of these materials has focused on adsorption of pure methane, although commercial natural gas also contains small amounts of higher hydrocarbons such as ethane and propane, which adsorb more strongly than methane. There is, thus, a possibility that these higher hydrocarbons will accumulate in the MOF after multiple operating (adsorption/desorption) cycles, and reduce the storage capacity. To study the net effect of ethane and propane on the performance of an adsorbed natural gas (ANG) tank, we developed a mathematical model based on thermodynamics and mass balance equations that describes the state of the tank at any instant. The required inputs are the pure-component isotherms, and mixture adsorption data are calculated using the Ideal Adsorbed Solution Theory (IAST). We focused on how the "deliverable energy'' provided by the ANG tank to the engine changed over 200 operating cycles for a sample of 120 MOF structures. We found that, with any MOF, the ANG tank performance monotonically declines during early operating cycles until a "cyclic steady state'' is reached. We determined that the best materials when the fuel is 100% methane are not necessarily the best when the fuel includes ethane and propane. Among the materials tested, some top MOFs are MOF-143 > NU-800 > IRMOF-14 > IRMOF-20 > MIL-100 > NU-125 > IRMOF-1 > NU-111. MOF-143 is predicted to deliver 5.43 MJ L-1 of tank to the engine once the cyclic steady state is reached. The model also provided insights that can assist in future work to discover more promising adsorbent materials for natural gas storage.

  15. Assessment of soil-gas contamination at building 310 underground storage tank area, Fort Gordon, Georgia, 2010-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimaraes, Wladmir B.; Falls, W. Fred; Caldwell, Andral W.; Ratliff, W. Hagan; Wellborn, John B.; Landmeyer, James E.

    2012-01-01

    Soil gas was assessed for contaminants in the building 310 underground storage tank area adjacent to the Dwight D. Eisenhower Army Medical Center at Ft. Gordon, Georgia, from October 2010 to September 2011. The assessment, which also included the detection of organic compounds in soil gas, provides environmental contamination data to Fort Gordon personnel pursuant to requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Part B Hazardous Waste Permit process. The study was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of the Army Environmental and Natural Resources Management Office of the U.S. Army Signal Center and Fort Gordon. Soil-gas samplers were deployed below land surface at 37 locations in the building 310 underground storage tank area. Soil-gas samplers were deployed in a grid pattern near the storage tank area as well as downslope of the tank area in the direction of groundwater flow toward an unnamed tributary to Butler Creek. Total petroleum hydrocarbons were detected in 35 of the 37 soil-gas samplers at levels above the method detection level, and the combined mass of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and total xylenes were detected above their detection levels in 8 of the 37 samplers. In addition, the combined masses of undecane, tridecane, and pentadecane were detected at or above their method detection levels in 9 of the 37 samplers. Other volatile organic compounds detected above their respective method detection levels were chloroform, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, and perchloroethylene. In addition, naphthalene, 2-methyl naphthalene, and 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene were detected below the method detection levels, but above the nondetection level.

  16. Study of thermocline development inside a dual-media storage tank at the beginning of dynamic processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esence, Thibaut; Bayón, Rocío; Bruch, Arnaud; Rojas, Esther

    2017-06-01

    This work presents some of the experimental results obtained during a test campaign performed at the STONE facility of CEA-Grenoble in collaboration with CIEMAT-PSA supported by both the SFERA-II and the STAGE-STE project. This installation consists of a thermocline tank with thermal oil and rock/sand filler and the tests aimed to study the development of the temperature profile inside the tank at the beginning of charge/discharge processes. The investigation of how this profile is created and which is its dependence on the experimental parameters is crucial for predicting the behavior of a dual-media thermocline tank. Tests have been performed for dynamic processes from initial states with constant uniform temperature or with a thermal gradient already present due to a partial thermocline zone extraction in the former process. Tests at different fluid velocities and temperatures have been carried out as well, in order to evaluate the influence of operating conditions. When a dynamic process of charge or discharge is started, the development of the thermal front is very sharp and localized at tank top or bottom if initial tank temperature is uniform, whereas it is less pronounced if the test begins from a non-thermally uniform initial state. In terms of operating conditions, it has been observed that the development of the thermocline thermal front is independent not only of the fluid velocity but also of its temperatures, within the working ranges here considered. Due to these experimental results, it will be possible to improve simulation models for thermocline tanks and hence to predict their behavior more accurately, especially when they are implemented in annual simulations of CSP plants.

  17. Structural acceptance criteria for the evaulation of existing double-shell waste storage tanks located at the Hanford site, Richland, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Julyk, L.J.; Day, A.D.; Dyrness, A.D.; Moore, C.J.; Peterson, W.S.; Scott, M.A.; Shrivastava, H.P.; Sholman, J.S.; Watts, T.N.

    1995-09-01

    The structural acceptance criteria contained herein for the evaluation of existing underground double-shell waste storage tanks located at the Hanford Site is part of the Life Management/Aging Management Program of the Tank Waste Remediation System. The purpose of the overall life management program is to ensure that confinement of the waste is maintained over the required service life of the tanks. Characterization of the present condition of the tanks, understanding and characterization of potential degradation mechanisms, and development of tank structural acceptance criteria based on previous service and projected use are prerequisites to assessing tank integrity, to projecting the length of tank service, and to developing and applying prudent fixes or repairs. The criteria provided herein summarize the requirements for the analysis and structural qualification of the existing double-shell tanks for continued operation. Code reconciliation issues and material degradation under aging conditions are addressed. Although the criteria were developed for double-shell tanks, many of the provisions are equally applicable to single-shell tanks. However, the criteria do not apply to the evaluation of tank appurtenances and buried piping.

  18. Physicochemical Properties and Fungitoxicity of the Essential Oil of Citrus medica L. against Groundnut Storage Fungi

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    The in vitro antifungal effect of the essential oil of Citrus medica L. on storage fungi of Arachis hypogea L. stored for 6 months was evaluated using the disc diffusion agar method. The oil exhibited a wide spectrum of fungitoxicity, inhibiting all 14 fungus species tested. Thus, the oil can be exploited as a fumigant against storage fungi for the preservation of stored legume seeds due to its wide range of activity, non-phytotoxicity, and long-term persistence of fungitoxicity.

  19. Estimation of the proximity of private domestic wells to underground storage tanks: Oklahoma pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, James W; Murray, Andrew R; Kremer, Fran V

    2017-12-31

    For protecting drinking water supplies, the locations of areas with reliance on private domestic wells (hereafter referred to as "wells") and their relationship to contaminant sources need to be determined. A key resource in the U.S. was the 1990 Census where the source of domestic drinking water was a survey question. Two methods are developed to update estimates of the areal density of well use using readily accessible data. The first uses well logs reported to the states and the addition of housing units reported to the Census Bureau at the county, census tract and census block group scales. The second uses housing units reported to the Census and an estimated well use fraction. To limit the scope and because of abundant data, Oklahoma was used for a pilot project. The resulting well density estimates were consistent among spatial scales, and were statistically similar. High rates of well use were identified to the north and east of Oklahoma City, primarily in expanding cities located over a productive aquifer. In contrast, low rates of well use were identified in rural areas without public water systems and in Oklahoma's second largest city, Tulsa, each attributable to lack of suitable ground water. High densities of well use may be expected in rural areas without public water systems, expanding cities and suburbs, and legacy areas of well usage. The completeness of reported well logs was tested by counts from neighborhoods with known reliance on wells which showed reporting rates of 20% to 98%. Well densities in these neighborhoods were higher than the larger-scale estimates indicating that locally high densities typically exist within analysis units. A Monte Carlo procedure was used to determine that 27% of underground storage tanks that had at least one well within a typical distance of concern of 300m (1000ft). Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Fusibacter bizertensis sp. nov., isolated from a corroded kerosene storage tank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smii, Latifa; Ben Hania, Wajdi; Cayol, Jean-Luc; Joseph, Manon; Hamdi, Moktar; Ollivier, Bernard; Fardeau, Marie-Laure

    2015-01-01

    Strain LTF Kr01(T), a novel mesophilic, anaerobic, halotolerant, rod-shaped bacterium, was isolated from a drain at the bottom of a corroded kerosene storage tank of the Société Tunisienne des Industries de Raffinage (STIR), Bizerte, northern Tunisia. Cells were Gram-positive-staining rods, occurred singly or in pairs, and were motile by one lateral flagellum. Strain LTF Kr01(T) grew at temperatures between 15 and 40 °C (optimum 30 °C), between pH 5.5 and 8.2 (optimum pH 7.2) and at NaCl concentrations between 0 and 50 g l(-1) (optimum 5 g l(-1)). It reduced thiosulfate and elemental sulfur into sulfide, but did not reduce sulfate or sulfite. It utilized a wide range of carbohydrates (cellobiose, d-glucose, d-fructose, d-mannitol, d-ribose, sucrose, d-xylose, maltose, d-galactose, starch and trehalose) and produced acetate, CO2 and H2 as end products from glucose fermentation. The DNA G+C content was 37.4 mol%. The predominant cellular fatty acids were C14:0 and C16:0. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence suggested that Fusibacter tunisiensis was the closest relative of strain LTF Kr01(T) (gene sequence similarity of 94.6%). Based on phenotypic, phylogenetic and genotypic taxonomic characteristics, strain LTF Kr01(T) is proposed to represent a novel species of the genus Fusibacter, order Clostridiales, for which the name Fusibacter bizertensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is LTF Kr01(T) ( = DSM 28034(T) = JCM 19376(T)). © 2015 IUMS.

  1. Use of the Modified Light Duty Utility Arm to Perform Nuclear Waste Cleanup of Underground Waste Storage Tanks at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blank, J.A.; Burks, B.L.; DePew, R.E.; Falter, D.D.; Glassell, R.L.; Glover, W.H.; Killough, S.M.; Lloyd, P.D.; Love, L.J.; Randolph, J.D.; Van Hoesen, S.D.; Vesco, D.P.

    1999-04-01

    The Modified Light Duty Utility Arm (MLDUA) is a selectable seven or eight degree-of-freedom robot arm with a 16.5 ft (5.03 m) reach and a payload capacity of 200 lb. (90.72 kg). The utility arm is controlled in either joystick-based telerobotic mode or auto sequence robotics mode. The MLDUA deployment system deploys the utility arm vertically into underground radioactive waste storage tanks located at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. These tanks are constructed of gunite material and consist of two 25 ft (7.62 m) diameter tanks in the North Tank Farm and six 50 ft (15.24 m) diameter tanks in the South Tank Farm. After deployment inside a tank, the utility arm reaches and grasps the confined sluicing end effecter (CSEE) which is attached to the hose management arm (HMA). The utility arm positions the CSEE within the tank to allow the HMA to sluice the tank's liquid and solid waste from the tank. The MLDUA is used to deploy the characterization end effecter (CEE) and gunite scarifying end effecter (GSEE) into the tank. The CEE is used to survey the tank wall's radiation levels and the physical condition of the walls. The GSEE is used to scarify the tank walls with high-pressure water to remove the wall scale buildup and a thin layer of gunite which reduces the radioactive contamination that is embedded into the gunite walls. The MLDUA is also used to support waste sampling and wall core-sampling operations. Other tools that have been developed for use by the MLDUA include a pipe-plugging end effecter, pipe-cutting end effecter, and pipe-cleaning end effecter. Washington University developed advance robotics path control algorithms for use in the tanks. The MLDUA was first deployed in June 1997 and has operated continuously since then. Operational experience in the first four tanks remediated is presented in this paper.

  2. Structural Integrity Program for the 300,000-Gallon Radioactive Liquid Waste Storage Tanks at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryant, J.W.; Nenni, J.A.; Yoder, T.S.

    2003-04-22

    This report provides a record of the Structural Integrity Program for the 300,000-gal liquid waste storage tanks and associated equipment at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center, as required by U.S. Department of Energy M 435.1-1, ''Radioactive Waste Management Manual.'' This equipment is known collectively as the Tank Farm Facility. The conclusion of this report is that the Tank Farm Facility tanks, vaults, and transfer systems that remain in service for storage are structurally adequate, and are expected to remain structurally adequate over the remainder of their planned service life through 2012. Recommendations are provided for continued monitoring of the Tank Farm Facility.

  3. High efficient heat pump system using storage tanks to increase COP by means of the ISEC concept - Part 1: Model validation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rothuizen, Erasmus; Elmegaard, Brian; Markussen, Wiebke B.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the ISEC concept is to provide a high-efficient heat pump system for hot water production.The ISEC concept uses two storage tanks for the water, one discharged and one charged. Hot water for theindustrial process is tapped from the charged tank, while the other tank is charging....... Charging is done bycirculating the water in the tank through the condenser of a heat pump several times and thereby graduallyheating the water. The charging is done with a higher mass flow rate than the discharging to reach severalcirculations of the water during the time frame of one discharging....... This result in a lower condensingtemperature than if the water was heated in one step. Two test setups were built, one to test the performanceof the heat pump gradually heating the water and one to investigate the stratification in the storage tanks.Furthermore, a dynamic model of the system was implemented...

  4. Structural Integrity Program for the 300,000-Gallon Radioactive Liquid Waste Storage Tanks at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryant, Jeffrey W.

    2010-08-12

    This report provides a record of the Structural Integrity Program for the 300,000-gal liquid waste storage tanks and associated equipment at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center, as required by U.S. Department of Energy M 435.1-1, “Radioactive Waste Management Manual.” This equipment is known collectively as the Tank Farm Facility. This report is an update, and replaces the previous report by the same title issued April 2003. The conclusion of this report is that the Tank Farm Facility tanks, vaults, and transfer systems that remain in service for storage are structurally adequate, and are expected to remain structurally adequate over the remainder of their planned service life through 2012. Recommendations are provided for continued monitoring of the Tank Farm Facility.

  5. Determining Fuel Losses in Storage Tanks Based on Factual Saturation Pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitin, R. E.; Tryascin, R. A.

    2016-10-01

    At present, evaluation of fuel evaporative losses is based on a number of indirect parameters. Accuracy of such methods leaves much to be desired. The paper presents a method developed following the author's laboratory tests. An effective operation range of pressure vent valves in various tanks is provided, as well as low A92 gasoline losses for horizontal steel tanks at all operation temperatures.

  6. Isolation and identification of oil sludge degrading bacteria from production tank Number 9 Masjed Soleiman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yalda Sheyni

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available   Introduction: “Bioremediation” is one of the most effective methods to remove petroleum contaminants. The aim of the present study is to isolate the indigenous bacteria from the waste petroleum in the Masjed Soleiman No. 9 production tank and to examine the effect of their application on the elimination of petroleum heavy chain hydrocarbons and converting them into light compounds .   Materials and methods: Two percent of petroleum sludge was inoculated to the mineral basal medium and after proliferation of its indigenous bacteria, they were inoculated into the mixture of oil sludge and sand at level of 5%, and the amount of total hydrocarbons and residual oil were measured and compared. The isolates were identified based on biochemical tests and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Optimization of nitrogen and phosphate sources was done based on growth curves of selected isolates. Gas chromatography was used to determine degradation of sludge hydrocarbons.   Results: In this study, 10 bacterial isolates were isolated from petroleum sludge . Measurement of petroleum total hydrocarbons, using Soxhlet-extraction method, showed that two isolates named MIS1 and MIS2 are able to decompose oil sludge hydrocarbons within 7 days, with the yields of 62% and 72%, respectively. Furthermore, the two isolates reach the end of the logarithmic phase at 48 and 120 hrs, respectively. The best source of nitrogen and phosphate for both isolates was ammonium nitrate and potassium di ­hydrogen phosphate, respectively. The isolates were identified as Arthrobacter aurescens and Pseudomonas aeruginosa , respectively. In gas chromatography analysis it was revealed that Pseudomonas aeruginosa was more potent in degradation of heavy chain hydrocarbons and their conversion to light chain compounds.   Discussion and conclusion: Resident bacteria are present in the oil sludge and are able to degrade the heavy petroleum compounds and convert them into light compounds. These

  7. Oil Biosynthesis in Underground Oil-Rich Storage Vegetative Tissue: Comparison of Cyperus esculentus Tuber with Oil Seeds and Fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhenle; Ji, Hongying; Liu, Dantong

    2016-12-01

    Cyperus esculentus is unique in that it can accumulate rich oil in its tubers. However, the underlying mechanism of tuber oil biosynthesis is still unclear. Our transcriptional analyses of the pathways from pyruvate production up to triacylglycerol (TAG) accumulation in tubers revealed many distinct species-specific lipid expression patterns from oil seeds and fruits, indicating that in C. esculentus tuber: (i) carbon flux from sucrose toward plastid pyruvate could be produced mostly through the cytosolic glycolytic pathway; (ii) acetyl-CoA synthetase might be an important contributor to acetyl-CoA formation for plastid fatty acid biosynthesis; (iii) the expression pattern for stearoyl-ACP desaturase was associated with high oleic acid composition; (iv) it was most likely that endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated acyl-CoA synthetase played a significant role in the export of fatty acids between the plastid and ER; (v) lipid phosphate phosphatase (LPP)-δ was most probably related to the formation of the diacylglycerol (DAG) pool in the Kennedy pathway; and (vi) diacylglyceroltransacylase 2 (DGAT2) and phospholipid:diacylglycerolacyltransferase 1 (PDAT1) might play crucial roles in tuber oil biosynthesis. In contrast to oil-rich fruits, there existed many oleosins, caleosins and steroleosins with very high transcripts in tubers. Surprisingly, only a single ortholog of WRINKLED1 (WRI1)-like transcription factor was identified and it was poorly expressed during tuber development. Our study not only provides insights into lipid metabolism in tuber tissues, but also broadens our understanding of TAG synthesis in oil plants. Such knowledge is of significance in exploiting this oil-rich species and manipulating other non-seed tissues to enhance storage oil production.

  8. Leaking Underground Storage Tanks and Environmental Injustice: Is There a Hidden and Unequal Threat to Public Health in South Carolina?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Sacoby; Zhang, Hongmei; Burwell, Kristen; Samantapudi, Ashok; Dalemarre, Laura; Jiang, Chengsheng; Rice, Lashanta; Williams, Edith; Naney, Charles

    2013-10-01

    There are approximately 590,000 underground storage tanks (USTs) nationwide that store petroleum or hazardous substances. Many of these tanks are leaking, which may increase the risk of exposure to contaminants that promote health problems in host neighborhoods. Within this study, we assessed disparities in the spatial distribution of leaking underground storage tanks (LUSTs) based on socioeconomic status (SES) and race/ethnicity in South Carolina (SC). Chi-square tests were used to evaluate the difference in the proportion of populations who host a LUST compared to those not hosting a LUST for all sociodemographic factors. Linear regression models were applied to examine the association of distance to the nearest LUST with relevant sociodemographic measures. As percent black increased, the distance (both in kilometers and miles) to the nearest LUST decreased. Similar results were observed for percent poverty, unemployment, persons with less than a high school education, blacks in poverty, and whites in poverty. Furthermore, chi-square tests indicated that blacks or non-whites or people with low SES were more likely to live in LUST host areas than in non-host areas. As buffer distance increased, percent black and non-white decreased. SES variables demonstrated a similar inverse relationship. Overall, burden disparities exist in the distribution of LUSTs based on race/ethnicity and SES in SC.

  9. Leaking Underground Storage Tanks and Environmental Injustice: Is There a Hidden and Unequal Threat to Public Health in South Carolina?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Sacoby; Zhang, Hongmei; Burwell, Kristen; Samantapudi, Ashok; Dalemarre, Laura; Jiang, Chengsheng; Rice, LaShanta; Williams, Edith; Naney, Charles

    2014-01-01

    There are approximately 590,000 underground storage tanks (USTs) nationwide that store petroleum or hazardous substances. Many of these tanks are leaking, which may increase the risk of exposure to contaminants that promote health problems in host neighborhoods. Within this study, we assessed disparities in the spatial distribution of leaking underground storage tanks (LUSTs) based on socioeconomic status (SES) and race/ethnicity in South Carolina (SC). Chi-square tests were used to evaluate the difference in the proportion of populations who host a LUST compared to those not hosting a LUST for all sociodemographic factors. Linear regression models were applied to examine the association of distance to the nearest LUST with relevant sociodemographic measures. As percent black increased, the distance (both in kilometers and miles) to the nearest LUST decreased. Similar results were observed for percent poverty, unemployment, persons with less than a high school education, blacks in poverty, and whites in poverty. Furthermore, chi-square tests indicated that blacks or non-whites or people with low SES were more likely to live in LUST host areas than in non-host areas. As buffer distance increased, percent black and non-white decreased. SES variables demonstrated a similar inverse relationship. Overall, burden disparities exist in the distribution of LUSTs based on race/ethnicity and SES in SC. PMID:24729829

  10. Study on computation of optimal depth increase of embossed panels of stainless water tank for energy storage system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dae-Hung Kang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compute the optimal depth increase of the embossed panels of a stainless water tank used for an energy storage system. The pressing used to emboss the panels of the stainless water tank decreases their thickness. By assuming that the panels had the same volume before ( V o and after the change ( V c , we found an equation that computed how much the thickness of the panels decreased. According to the obtained thickness equation, the thickness of arch-embossed panels decreased by 50% relative to flat panels, and that of pyramid-embossed panels decreased by up to 30%. We also performed finite element method analyses of four flat panels, four arch-embossed panels, and four pyramid-embossed panels by applying the thickness equation for different depth increase. As a result, the optimal depth increase of the arch-embossed panels was 70–90 mm, and that of the pyramid-embossed panels was 150–200 mm. We concluded that these computed optimal depth increase could be useful in the economic design of a stainless water tank for an energy storage system.

  11. 大豆油在储存过程中的变化%Change of soybean oil during storage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    左青; 申晓刚; 陈元平

    2012-01-01

    The acid value and peroxide value of the crude soybean oil in oil tank were determined and the change law of the crude oil during storage was analyzed. The results showed that the change law of the acid value and peroxide value of crude soybean oil was the same, the acid value increased with the increase of the storage time and 0. 2 -0.4 mg/g was increased every year, but the peroxide value slowly increased as the storage time increased, and changed more by environment temperature change. The peroxide value increased rapidly when the temperature and oxygen concentration increased suddenly, but when the peroxide value reached a certain degree, it would decreased.%收集储备大豆原油在储存过程中酸值和过氧化值的数据,分析其在储存过程中的变化规律.结果表明:大豆原油的酸值和过氧化值变化规律相同,酸值随着储存时间的延长呈缓慢线性增长,年变化值在0.2~0.4 mg/g,过氧化值随着储存时间延长呈平稳慢慢上升趋势,其变化值受环境温度影响较大,在外部温度和氧气突然增加时过氧化值迅速上升,当达到一定值后分解下降.

  12. Evaluation of environmental hazards of oil vapor emissions during operation of light oil storage tanks

    OpenAIRE

    Гарбуз, Сергей Викторович; Ковалёв, Александр Александрович; Титаренко, Андрей Викторович

    2016-01-01

    Рассмотрены причины и показана экологическая опасность «больших» и «малых» дыханий резервуаров хранения светлых нефтепродуктов. Представлены результаты теоретических расчетов количественной оценки выбросов паров нефтепродуктов, через дыхательную арматуру резервуара, а также данные натурного эксперимента по оценке концентраций паров бензина и дизельного топлива в приземном слое атмосферы при «большом дыхании» резервуара РВС-5000. Обоснованы организационно-технические меры, направленные на сниж...

  13. Discussion on effectiveness of oil tank foam system%浅议石油储罐泡沫系统有效性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岑积良

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the characteristics of the oil storage tank to point out the limitations of the fire extinguishing system within.It uses the experience of the system in developed countries to reduce the probability of fire accidents.%通过对石油储罐的特点进行分析和介绍,指出石油储罐灭火系统的局限性.通过借鉴发达国家的石油储罐灭火系统来提高自身的泡沫系统灭火性能,降低重大火灾事故的发生概率.

  14. Subsoil TPH and other petroleum fractions-contamination levels in an oil storage and distribution station in north-central Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iturbe, Rosario; Flores, Carlos; Flores, Rosa Ma; Torres, Luis G

    2005-12-01

    Many oil industry related sites have become contaminated due to the activities characteristic of this industry, such as oil exploration and production, refining, and petro-chemistry. In Mexico, reported hydrocarbon spills for the year 2000 amounted to 185203, equivalent to 6252 tons (PEMEX, 2000). The first step for the remediation of these polluted sites is to assess the size and intensity of the oil contamination affecting the subsoil and groundwater, followed by a health risk assessment to establish clean up levels. The aim of this work was to characterize the soil and water in a north-central Mexico Oil Storage and Distribution Station (ODSS), in terms of TPHs, gasoline and diesel fractions, BTEX, PAHs, MTBE, and some metals. Besides, measurements of the explosivity index along the ODSS were made and we describe and discuss the risk health assessment analysis performed at the ODSS, as well as the recommendations arising from it. Considering soils with TPH concentrations higher than 2000 mg kg(-1), the contaminated areas corresponding to the railway zone is about 12776.5 m2, to the south of the storage tanks is about 6558 m2, and to the south of the filling tanks is about 783 m2. Total area to be treated is about 20107 m2 (volume of 20107 m3), considering 1m depth.

  15. Dynamic modelling of an adsorption storage tank using a hybrid approach combining computational fluid dynamics and process simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota, J.P.B.; Esteves, I.A.A.C.; Rostam-Abadi, M.

    2004-01-01

    A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software package has been coupled with the dynamic process simulator of an adsorption storage tank for methane fuelled vehicles. The two solvers run as independent processes and handle non-overlapping portions of the computational domain. The codes exchange data on the boundary interface of the two domains to ensure continuity of the solution and of its gradient. A software interface was developed to dynamically suspend and activate each process as necessary, and be responsible for data exchange and process synchronization. This hybrid computational tool has been successfully employed to accurately simulate the discharge of a new tank design and evaluate its performance. The case study presented here shows that CFD and process simulation are highly complementary computational tools, and that there are clear benefits to be gained from a close integration of the two. ?? 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Hazid and Risk Assessment on Ultra -large Crude Oil Tank%大型原油储罐危险性分析及评价方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹法波; 吕长军; 洪胜; 赵志强

    2012-01-01

    According to the mechanism and characteristics of the ultra - large crude oil storage tank fire in China, the paper focused on four kinds of accidents including the fire of seal ring, the fire of the whole area, floating roof sunk and corrosion leakage, which may occur in ultra - large crude oil storage tank. For each kind of accident, the paper analyzed the cause of the accident, the main features and the control measures, and on the base of that put forward risk assessment methods which were suitable for ultra - large crude oil storage tank, which were Safety Check List, Fuzzy Comprehensive Evaluation based on AHP and the Tank Integrity Assessment. On the basis of the important points checked in Safety Check List and the characteristics of risk management of ultra - large crude oil storage tank, the paper established a comprehensive risk assessment system for ultra - large crude oil storage tank, and then used the fuzzy comprehensive evaluation to do the judgment. At last, the paper proposed that the integrity management and assessment for ultra - large crude oil storage tank should be conducted throughout the life cycle, and the dangerous and hazardous factors that may cause accidents should be in the range of effective control.%针对我国目前大型原油储罐火灾发生机理及特点,重点分析了大型原油储罐可能发生的四种主要危险事故形式,即密封圈火灾、全面积火灾、浮盘沉船和腐蚀泄漏,针对每一种事故形式分析了其形成的原因,主要特点及控制的主要措施,在此基础上提出了适宜对大型原油储罐进行风险评价的方法,即安全检查表、基于AHP-模糊综合评价以及储罐的完整性评价,针对安全检查表中检查的重点以及大型原油储罐的风险管理的特点,建立了大型原油储罐的综合风险评价体系,采用模糊综合评价对其进行评判,并提出对于大型原油储罐,在整个生命周期中

  17. Systems engineering study: tank 241-C-103 organic skimming,storage, treatment and disposal options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klem, M.J.

    1996-10-23

    This report evaluates alternatives for pumping, storing, treating and disposing of the separable phase organic layer in Hanford Site Tank 241-C-103. The report provides safety and technology based preferences and recommendations. Two major options and several varations of these options were identified. The major options were: 1) transfer both the organic and pumpable aqueous layers to a double-shell tank as part of interim stabilization using existing salt well pumping equipment or 2) skim the organic to an above ground before interim stabilization of Tank 241-C-103. Other options to remove the organic were considered but rejected following preliminary evaluation.

  18. INVESTIGATIONS OF THE FLOW INTO A STORAGE TANK BY MEANS OF ADVANCED EXPERIMENTAL AND THEORETICAL METHODS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jordan, Ulrike; Shah, Louise Jivan; Furbo, Simon

    2003-01-01

    Advanced experimental methods were applied to study flow structures of a water jet entering a tank from the bottom. A squared experimental glass tank with a volume of about 140 l was used. Above the inlet pipe a flat plate was installed, as shown in the figure. The goal of the investigations...... is to study the influence of the inlet device geometry and of the operating conditions (the flow rate, draw-off volume, and temperatures) on the thermal stratification in the tank. Measurements of the flow and temperature fields were carried out with two visualization techniques: - To visualize the flow field...

  19. Simulation model of stratified thermal energy storage tank using finite difference method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waluyo, Joko

    2016-06-01

    Stratified TES tank is normally used in the cogeneration plant. The stratified TES tanks are simple, low cost, and equal or superior in thermal performance. The advantage of TES tank is that it enables shifting of energy usage from off-peak demand for on-peak demand requirement. To increase energy utilization in a stratified TES tank, it is required to build a simulation model which capable to simulate the charging phenomenon in the stratified TES tank precisely. This paper is aimed to develop a novel model in addressing the aforementioned problem. The model incorporated chiller into the charging of stratified TES tank system in a closed system. The model was developed in one-dimensional type involve with heat transfer aspect. The model covers the main factors affect to degradation of temperature distribution namely conduction through the tank wall, conduction between cool and warm water, mixing effect on the initial flow of the charging as well as heat loss to surrounding. The simulation model is developed based on finite difference method utilizing buffer concept theory and solved in explicit method. Validation of the simulation model is carried out using observed data obtained from operating stratified TES tank in cogeneration plant. The temperature distribution of the model capable of representing S-curve pattern as well as simulating decreased charging temperature after reaching full condition. The coefficient of determination values between the observed data and model obtained higher than 0.88. Meaning that the model has capability in simulating the charging phenomenon in the stratified TES tank. The model is not only capable of generating temperature distribution but also can be enhanced for representing transient condition during the charging of stratified TES tank. This successful model can be addressed for solving the limitation temperature occurs in charging of the stratified TES tank with the absorption chiller. Further, the stratified TES tank can be

  20. Corrosion Control Measures For Liquid Radioactive Waste Storage Tanks At The Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiersma, B. J.; Subramanian, K. H.

    2012-11-27

    The Savannah River Site has stored radioactive wastes in large, underground, carbon steel tanks for approximately 60 years. An assessment of potential degradation mechanisms determined that the tanks may be vulnerable to nitrate- induced pitting corrosion and stress corrosion cracking. Controls on the solution chemistry and temperature of the wastes are in place to mitigate these mechanisms. These controls are based upon a series of experiments performed using simulated solutions on materials used for construction of the tanks. The technical bases and evolution of these controls is presented in this paper.

  1. Highlighting metabolic indicators of olive oil during storage by the AComDim method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korifi, R; Plard, J; Le Dréau, Y; Rébufa, C; Rutledge, D N; Dupuy, N

    2016-07-15

    Lipid oxidation during olive oil storage induces changes in the metabolite content of the oil, which can be measured using so-called quality indices. High values indicate poor quality oils that should be labeled accordingly or removed from the market. Based on quality indices measured over two years for two olive oils, the AComDim method was used to highlight the influence of five factors (olive oil type, oxygen, light, temperature and storage time) on oxidative stability during storage. To identify the significant factors, two full factorial experimental designs were built, each containing four of the five factors examined. The results showed that all five factors, as well as some two-factor interactions, were significant. Phenols and hydroperoxides were identified as being the most sensitive to these factors, and potential markers for the ageing of olive oil.

  2. Carbon dioxide enhanced oil recovery, offshore North Sea: carbon accounting, residual oil zones and CO2 storage security

    OpenAIRE

    Stewart, Robert Jamie

    2016-01-01

    Carbon dioxide enhanced oil recovery (CO2EOR) is a proven and available technology used to produce incremental oil from depleted fields. Although this technology has been used successfully onshore in North America and Europe, projects have maximised oil recovery and not CO2 storage. While the majority of onshore CO2EOR projects to date have used CO2 from natural sources, CO2EOR is now more and more being considered as a storage option for captured anthropogenic CO2. In the N...

  3. Carbon dioxide enhanced oil recovery, offshore North Sea: carbon accounting, residual oil zones and CO2 storage security

    OpenAIRE

    Stewart, Robert Jamie

    2016-01-01

    Carbon dioxide enhanced oil recovery (CO2EOR) is a proven and available technology used to produce incremental oil from depleted fields. Although this technology has been used successfully onshore in North America and Europe, projects have maximised oil recovery and not CO2 storage. While the majority of onshore CO2EOR projects to date have used CO2 from natural sources, CO2EOR is now more and more being considered as a storage option for captured anthropogenic CO2. In the N...

  4. Workbook for predicting pressure wave and fragment effects of exploding propellant tanks and gas storage vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, W. E.; Kulesz, J. J.; Ricker, R. E.; Bessey, R. L.; Westine, P. S.; Parr, V. B.; Oldham, G. A.

    1975-01-01

    Technology needed to predict damage and hazards from explosions of propellant tanks and bursts of pressure vessels, both near and far from these explosions is introduced. Data are summarized in graphs, tables, and nomographs.

  5. Dramatic inspection cost reduction of spherical storage tanks; Reduction importante des couts d'inspection des reservoires de stockage spheriques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiyoyuki, Ohkawa [Osaka Gas Co., Ltd (Japan)

    2000-07-01

    To ensure the safety of spherical gas holders and LPG storage tanks (hereafter called spherical storage tanks), both daily and periodic inspections are performed after the tanks become operational. One such periodic inspection involves opening the tank to check the integrity of weld lines on the inner and outer walls, but this is a costly and time-consuming task. A more suitable and efficient alternative is prescribed by standards like the Guidelines for Spherical Gas Holders published by the Japan Gas Association (hereafter called JGA Guidelines) which stipulate operational tank inspections that are conducted on the weld lines of inner and outer walls from outside the tank (i.e., external defect detection) without actually opening the tank. External defect detection technologies are widely available today, but Osaka Gas, Tokyo Gas and Toho Gas have jointly developed a high-speed TOFD (time of flight diffraction) mode that is quite different from the pulse reflection mode of ultrasonic defect detection testing prescribed by JGA Guidelines. Along these same lines, Osaka Gas also developed an inspection robot that travels along the weld line in an effort to reduce the cost of inspections still further. This paper will show that applying this newly developed inspection mode and robot to operational tank inspections will significantly reduce inspection costs, cut inspection time and improve the work environment. (authors)

  6. A REVIEW: THE EFFECT OF OPERATING CONDITIONS AND THERMAL MANAGEMENT ON THE PERFORMANCES OF METAL HYDRIDE HYDROGEN STORAGE TANK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taurista Perdana Syawitri

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available For safety and operability concerns, the use of metal hydrides to store hydrogen appears to be particularly promising option for alternative energy at present. However, the process of adding, removing and distributing heat during the hydrogen charging/ discharging process is problematic due to the poor effective thermal conductivity of the metal hydride porous bed and the high enthalpies of H2 adsorption/desorption. Therefore, heat transfer is a critical factor affecting the performance of metal hydride hydrogen (MHR storage tanks. Over decade, many researches focused on MHR’s operating conditions and its thermal management to improve its performance.

  7. Improved Criteria for Increasing CO2 Storage Potential with CO2 Enhanced Oil Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauman, J.; Pawar, R.

    2013-12-01

    In recent years it has been found that deployment of CO2 capture and storage technology at large scales will be difficult without significant incentives. One of the technologies that has been a focus in recent years is CO2 enhanced oil/gas recovery, where additional hydrocarbon recovery provides an economic incentive for deployment. The way CO2 EOR is currently deployed, maximization of additional oil production does not necessarily lead to maximization of stored CO2, though significant amounts of CO2 are stored regardless of the objective. To determine the potential of large-scale CO2 storage through CO2 EOR, it is necessary to determine the feasibility of deploying this technology over a wide range of oil/gas field characteristics. In addition it is also necessary to accurately estimate the ultimate CO2 storage potential and develop approaches that optimize oil recovery along with long-term CO2 storage. This study uses compositional reservoir simulations to further develop technical screening criteria that not only improve oil recovery, but maximize CO2 storage during enhanced oil recovery operations. Minimum miscibility pressure, maximum oil/ CO2 contact without the need of significant waterflooding, and CO2 breakthrough prevention are a few key parameters specific to the technical aspects of CO2 enhanced oil recovery that maximize CO2 storage. We have developed reduced order models based on simulation results to determine the ultimate oil recovery and CO2 storage potential in these formations. Our goal is to develop and demonstrate a methodology that can be used to determine feasibility and long-term CO2 storage potential of CO2 EOR technology.

  8. 基于CFD的油罐群风环境数值模拟%Numerical Simulation on Wind Environment of Oil Tank Group Based on CFD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾明岩

    2011-01-01

    Through adopting RNG k-εturbulence model,wind environment model of tank group is established.and simulated wind environment of oil tank group by using the CFD software FLUENT6.3.Resarch results show that, 1) The flow field of oil tank group is symmetric distribution, at the windward side of the distance between tank group is smaller, the wind speed gradually decreases.While at the sides of oil tank group, the wind speed increases and at the back of tank group is negative pressure area, the wind speed decreases.2 ) The change of surface temperature around tanks is larger, but the effect on the atmosphere thermal environment of oil tank group is less.%采用 RNG k-ε湍流模型,建立油罐群风环境模型.利用CFD软件FLUENT6.3对油罐群风环境进行模拟.研究结果表明:1)油罐群的流场呈对称分布,在迎风面,距离油罐群越近,风速逐渐减小;而在油罐群的两侧,风速增加;在油罐群的正后方形成了负压区,风速减小.2)油罐表面周围温度变化较大,但油罐群对周围大气热环境影响较小.

  9. Analysis of Thermal Energy Storage Tank by ANSYS and Comparison with Experimental Results to Improve its Thermal Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beemkumar, N.; Karthikeyan, A.; Shiva Keshava Reddy, Kota; Rajesh, Kona; Anderson, A.

    2017-05-01

    The discontinuous temperament of the solar power forces to consider about the energy storage. This work is to analyze the tank, amount of energy stored and its storage time. The thermal and flow analysis has been done by ANSYS with different set temperature values. The experimentation is done for various encapsulating materials with different phase change material (PCM). Findings: The results obtained from experimental work are compared with ANSYS output. The competence of the TES is calculated and further improvements are made to enhance its performance. During charging process the temperature distribution from heat transfer fluid (HTF) to PCM is maximum in copper encapsulations followed by aluminium encapsulations and brass encapsulations. The comparison shows only when the electrical power as an input source. The efficient way of captivating solar energy could be a better replacement for electrical input.

  10. Modeling and analysis of chill and fill processes for the cryogenic storage and transfer engineering development unit tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedayat, A.; Cartagena, W.; Majumdar, A. K.; LeClair, A. C.

    2016-03-01

    NASA's future missions may require long-term storage and transfer of cryogenic propellants. The Engineering Development Unit (EDU), a NASA in-house effort supported by both Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and Glenn Research Center, is a cryogenic fluid management (CFM) test article that primarily serves as a manufacturing pathfinder and a risk reduction task for a future CFM payload. The EDU test article comprises a flight-like tank, internal components, insulation, and attachment struts. The EDU is designed to perform integrated passive thermal control performance testing with liquid hydrogen (LH2) in a test-like vacuum environment. A series of tests, with LH2 as a testing fluid, was conducted at Test Stand 300 at MSFC during the summer of 2014. The objective of this effort was to develop a thermal/fluid model for evaluating the thermodynamic behavior of the EDU tank during the chill and fill processes. The Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program, an MSFC in-house general-purpose computer program for flow network analysis, was utilized to model and simulate the chill and fill portion of the testing. The model contained the LH2 supply source, feed system, EDU tank, and vent system. The test setup, modeling description, and comparison of model predictions with the test data are presented.

  11. LABORATORY TESTING TO SIMULATE VAPOR SPACE CORROSION IN RADIOACTIVE WASTE STORAGE TANKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiersma, B.; Garcia-Diaz, B.; Gray, J.

    2013-08-30

    Radioactive liquid waste has been stored in underground carbon steel tanks for nearly 70 years at the Hanford nuclear facility. Vapor space corrosion of the tank walls has emerged as an ongoing challenge to overcome in maintaining the structural integrity of these tanks. The interaction between corrosive and inhibitor species in condensates/supernates on the tank wall above the liquid level, and their interaction with vapor phase constituents as the liquid evaporates from the tank wall influences the formation of corrosion products and the corrosion of the carbon steel. An effort is underway to gain an understanding of the mechanism of vapor space corrosion. Localized corrosion, in the form of pitting, is of particular interest in the vapor space. CPP testing was utilized to determine the susceptibility of the steel in a simulated vapor space environment. The tests also investigated the impact of ammonia gas in the vapor space area on the corrosion of the steel. Vapor space coupon tests were also performed to investigate the evolution of the corrosion products during longer term exposures. These tests were also conducted at vapor space ammonia levels of 50 and 550 ppm NH{sub 3} (0.005, and 0.055 vol.%) in air. Ammonia was shown to mitigate vapor space corrosion.

  12. Processing Methode Effect to Virgin Coconut Oil (VCO Quality After Storaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mimi Harni

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Virgin Coconut Oil (VCO is extracted from coconut milk cream by breaking up the coconut milk emulsion in some ways like heat using, centrifugation, fermentation, inducement and acid using.  The difference of oil extraction ways will influence produced oil quality and oil storage capacity then.  Low quality oil will be boosting earlier damage process while storage time.  Therefore, it had been done a research in Chemical Laboratory of Agricultural Polytechnic state of Payakumbuh. The design used in this research was Complete Random Design (CRD by 5 (five actions and 3 (Three repetitions. For the advance test would be done by Duncan’s New Multiple Rang Test (DNMRT at about 5 % real level.  The Observations that had been done in this research were free fat acid, peroxide number and saponification number in storaged dark glass bottle VCO. The result of research showed the VCO oil that had the best quality after storaging  was the oil made by centrifugation process with 0,68% free fat acid value, 5,49 % meq/Kg oil peroxide number and 205,05 mg KOH/g oil saponification number.

  13. Impact of packaging material and storage time on olive oil quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Impact of packaging material and storage time on olive oil quality. ... appreciated for its characteristic flavor and its biological and nutritional value which are strongly related to the quality. ... EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  14. New cleaning machinery equipment for oil tank%新型油罐机械清洗设备

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐锋; 彭祥林

    2012-01-01

    介绍了新型油罐机械清洗设备的抽吸、撇油和正压过滤功能。与传统同类设备进行了比较。指出了传统同类设备的不足和新型油罐机械清洗设备的优点。%To introduced the key features of pumping, oil skimming and barotropic filtering of the new cleaning machinery equipment for oil tank. It points out the advantages of the new machinery equipment as well as the disadvantages of transitional one after side by side comparison.

  15. A Review of Common Problems in Design and Installation of Water Spray Cooling and Low Expansion Foam System to Protect Storage Tanks Containing Hydrocarbons Against Fires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iraj Alimohammadi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Tank fires are rare but carry significant potential risk to life and property. For this reason fire protection of tanks is critical. Fixed Low expansion foam and water spray cooling systems are one of the most effective and economical ways to reduce damages to a tank from fire. Such systems are currently installed in many companies but are not effective enough and require involvement of firefighters which in turn threaten their lives. This paper studies in a systematic way the problems of foam and cooling systems currently installed in a few domestic companies which operate storage tanks with focus on floating and fixed roof atmospheric tanks containing hydrocarbons and offers possible solutions for more efficient installation, design and operation of such systems.

  16. A Review of Common Problems in Design and Installation of Water Spray Cooling and Low Expansion Foam System to Protect Storage Tanks Containing Hydrocarbons Against Fires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Alimohammadi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Tank fires are rare but carry significant potential risk to life and property. For this reason fire protection of tanks is critical. Fixed Low expansion foam and water spray cooling systems are one of the most effective and economical ways to reduce damages to a tank from fire. Such systems are currently installed in many companies but are not effective enough and require involvement of firefighters which in turn threaten their lives. This paper studies in a systematic way the problems of foam and cooling systems currently installed in a few domestic companies which operate storage tanks with focus on floating and fixed roof atmospheric tanks containing hydrocarbons and offers possible solutions for more efficient installation, design and operation of such systems.

  17. Development of Hydrogen Storage Tank Systems Based on Complex Metal Hydrides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morten B. Ley

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This review describes recent research in the development of tank systems based on complex metal hydrides for thermolysis and hydrolysis. Commercial applications using complex metal hydrides are limited, especially for thermolysis-based systems where so far only demonstration projects have been performed. Hydrolysis-based systems find their way in space, naval, military and defense applications due to their compatibility with proton exchange membrane (PEM fuel cells. Tank design, modeling, and development for thermolysis and hydrolysis systems as well as commercial applications of hydrolysis systems are described in more detail in this review. For thermolysis, mostly sodium aluminum hydride containing tanks were developed, and only a few examples with nitrides, ammonia borane and alane. For hydrolysis, sodium borohydride was the preferred material whereas ammonia borane found less popularity. Recycling of the sodium borohydride spent fuel remains an important part for their commercial viability.

  18. Simulation for the Thermal Response of Crude Oil in Large Floating Roof Tank Subjected to Fire Environmen%火灾环境下大型浮顶罐内原油热响应行为的仿真模拟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋文华; 李庆功; 冯莉莉; 陈阵

    2012-01-01

    采用FLUENT软件对设定罐壁接受辐射值为25 kW/m2情况下的原油储罐进行模拟.模拟的主要结果包括油罐受热后罐内流体的温度、流速、压力的分布情况.在火灾作用下,罐内原油由于热量传递的不均匀而发生对流,靠近罐壁的流体流速较大,最大流速为0.026 439 17 m/s;油罐内罐壁附近处油温最高,可达150℃,并随指向轴线的方向逐渐降低.罐内原油受热挥发迅速,罐内压力增大,会导致罐体浮盘掀开或罐体坍塌,形成蒸气云爆炸事故与防火堤内池火灾事故,同时还伴随着发生原油沸扬事故的危险.%The safety of large floating roof tank is always the focus of safety work. Once the tank area occurs fire accident, the main way of the disaster spread is heat radiation and heat shock, so the thermal response of crude oil tank which near the accident site is very important. FLUENT software was used to simulate crude oil storage tank, setting thermal radiation strength value to 25 kW/m2. The main simulation results include the temperature, flow rate and pressure distribution of the fluid in the heating oil tank. Under the action of the fire, the crude oil in tank occurs convection because of the uneven heat transfer, the fluid near the tank wall has a larger flow rate, the maximum flow rate is 0. 026 439 17 m/s. The oil near the inner wall has the highest temperature which can reach about 150 ℃ , and gradually decreases with the pointing direction of the axis. The crude oil in tank volatilize quickly and the pressure in tank increases. This can cause the tank floating tray open or tank collapse and it maybe form vapor cloud explosion and pool fire accident in fire embankment, and it also has a crude oil sweeping accident risk.

  19. INHIBITION OF STRESS CORROSION CRACKING OF CARBON STEEL STORAGE TANKS AT HANFORD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BOOMER, K.D.

    2007-01-31

    The stress corrosion cracking (SCC) behavior of A537 tank steel was investigated in a series of environments designed to simulate the chemistry of legacy nuclear weapons production waste. Tests consisted of both slow strain rate tests using tensile specimens and constant load tests using compact tension specimens. Based on the tests conducted, nitrite was found to be a strong SCC inhibitor. Based on the test performed and the tank waste chemistry changes that are predicted to occur over time, the risk for SCC appears to be decreasing since the concentration of nitrate will decrease and nitrite will increase.

  20. 国内储罐清洗作业及对策%Domestic Storage Tank Cleaning Operations and Countermeasures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋生奎; 张永国; 王杰辉; 徐克明; 王文娟

    2014-01-01

    Storage tank cleaning was a regular work activity in the petrochemical industry and manual cleaning operation forms were still used for cleaning many domestic tanks.Manual cleaning methods and the main problems existing in the cleaning process were analyzed and the necessity of using automatic mechanical cleaning system and the advantages of its overall efficiency and no environmental pollution were pointed out.To narrow the gap with foreign countries , it recommended that a mobile , vehicle-mounted and integrated tank cleaning system should be developed to clean all kinds of medium and small tanks , which had broad market prospects and good social and economic benefits.%储罐清洗是石化行业一项经常性的作业活动,国内许多储罐依然采用人工清洗的作业形式,分析了人工清洗方式及其清洗过程中存在的主要问题,指出储罐采用自动机械清洗系统的必要性及其综合效益显著、无环境污染等优点;为缩小与国外的差距,建议开发研制机动性、车载式、集成化的油罐清洗系统以清洗各种中、小型的储油罐,其市场前景广阔并有良好的社会效益与经济效益。

  1. Biodegradation of international jet A-1 aviation fuel by microorganisms isolated from aircraft tank and joint hydrant storage systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itah, A Y; Brooks, A A; Ogar, B O; Okure, A B

    2009-09-01

    Microorganisms contaminating international Jet A-1 aircraft fuel and fuel preserved in Joint Hydrant Storage Tank (JHST) were isolated, characterized and identified. The isolates were Bacillus subtillis, Bacillus megaterium, Flavobacterium oderatum, Sarcina flava, Micrococcus varians, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus licheniformis, Bacillus cereus and Bacillus brevis. Others included Candida tropicalis, Candida albicans, Saccharomyces estuari, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus fumigatus, Cladosporium resinae, Penicillium citrinum and Penicillium frequentans. The viable plate count of microorganisms in the Aircraft Tank ranged from 1.3 (+/-0.01) x 104 cfu/mL to 2.2 (+/-1.6) x 104 cfu/mL for bacteria and 102 cfu/mL to 1.68 (+/-0.32) x 103 cfu/mL for fungi. Total bacterial counts of 1.79 (+/-0.2) x 104 cfu/mL to 2.58 (+/-0.04) x 104 cfu/mL and total fungal count of 2.1 (+/-0.1) x 103 cfu/mL to 2.28 (+/-0.5) x 103 cfu/mL were obtained for JHST. Selected isolates were re-inoculated into filter sterilized aircraft fuels and biodegradation studies carried out. After 14 days incubation, Cladosporium resinae exhibited the highest degradation rate with a percentage weight loss of 66 followed by Candida albicans (60.6) while Penicillium citrinum was the least degrader with a weight loss of 41.6%. The ability of the isolates to utilize the fuel as their sole source of carbon and energy was examined and found to vary in growth profile between the isolates. The results imply that aviation fuel could be biodegraded by hydrocarbonoclastic microorganisms. To avert a possible deterioration of fuel quality during storage, fuel pipe clogging and failure, engine component damage, wing tank corrosion and aircraft disaster, efficient routine monitoring of aircraft fuel systems is advocated.

  2. Think Tanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    A new inspection robot from Solex Robotics Systems was designed to eliminate hazardous inspections of petroleum and chemical storage tanks. The submersible robot, named Maverick, is used to inspect the bottoms of tanks, keeping the tanks operational during inspection. Maverick is able to provide services that will make manual tank inspections obsolete. While the inspection is conducted, Maverick's remote human operators remain safe outside of the tank. The risk to human health and life is now virtually eliminated. The risk to the environment is also minimal because there is a reduced chance of spillage from emptying and cleaning the tanks, where previously, tons of pollutants were released through the process of draining and refilling.

  3. Pressure and Vacuum Relief Devices of Storage Tank at LNG Receiving Terminal%LNG接收站储罐压力和真空泄放装置

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张林松; 邢贵柱

    2009-01-01

    The basic technological process of LNG receiving terminal and the basic requirement for LNG storage tank are introduced. The contents of LNG storage tank pressure test are analyzed. The facili- ties for overpressure protection and negative pressure protection of LNG storage tank,the parameter set- ting and the selection considerations,key points of design and installation of pressure and vacuum relief devices are discussed.%介绍了LNG接收站的基本工艺和LNG储罐的基本要求,分析了LNG储罐压力检测内容,论述了LNG储罐超压保护和负压保护的设施、设定参数、压力和真空泄放装置的选择依据与设计安装要点.

  4. Geological Feasibility of Underground Oil Storage in Jintan Salt Mine of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xilin Shi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A number of large underground oil storage spaces will be constructed in deep salt mines in China in the coming years. According to the general geological survey, the first salt cavern oil storage base of China is planned to be built in Jintan salt mine. In this research, the geological feasibility of the salt mine for oil storage is identified in detail as follows. (1 The characteristics of regional structure, strata sediment, and impermeable layer distribution of Jintan salt mine were evaluated and analyzed. (2 The tightness of cap rock was evaluated in reviews of macroscopic geology and microscopic measuring. (3 According to the geological characteristics of Jintan salt mine, the specific targeted formation for building underground oil storage was chosen, and the sealing of nonsalt interlayers was evaluated. (4 Based on the sonar measuring results of the salt caverns, the characteristics of solution mining salt caverns were analyzed. In addition, the preferred way of underground oil storage construction was determined. (5 Finally, the results of closed well observation in solution mining salt caverns were assessed. The research results indicated that Jintan salt mine has the basic geological conditions for building large-scale underground oil storage.

  5. RESEARCH ON THE FLOATING OIL STORAGE SYSTEM FOR STRATEGIC PETROLEUM RESERVE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Wen-long

    2004-01-01

    The problem of petroleum safety is closely related to national politics and economics security and becomes one of key for discussion in China. The floating oil storage system has been proposed as a new facility for Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) in our country. There are some differences in solving this problem. Although many of domestic research institutions are studying the project of SPR, the research is separate, and lack of comprehensive consideration, and fails to make a complete and scientific demonstration in many aspects, such as oil storage capacity, selection of storage sites, storage facilities, technologic and economic feasibility, risk assessment, etc. Therefore, no mature and systematic petroleum reserve theories have been formed up to now. Peoples argue the issue of objective of SPR, function, mode, cost, effect, etc. There are still many bifurcations, so, it is necessary to make more detailed demonstration, and provide some scientific decision-making strategy for the governments. In this paper, several significant problems are solved, for instance, the option of SPR facilities, the research on the principal characteristics of floating oil storage vessels, the analysis of mooring system for oil storage vessels, the design of breakwater and the calculation of failure probability, the risk assessment of floating oil storage system, etc.

  6. Influence of Storage Condition on Seed Oil Content of Maize, Soybean and Sunflower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branimir Šimić

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The study was aimed to examine the changes in seed oil content in different genotypes of maize, soybean and sunflower from 2002 to 2006, in two types of storage conditions which differ in air temperature and humidity: 25°C/75% and 12°C/60%, respectively. Aff ected by storage longevity, in average, seed oil content decreased by 0.82% in maize, 2.19% in soybean and 8.53% in sunflower. Differences in oil content affected by storage longevity were significant among tested crops and genotypes within crops. Storage longevity was negatively associated with oil content. At storage conditions at 12°C/60%, decreasing of seed oil content was less by 0.55% (maize, 1.30% (soybean and 1.75% (sunflower than in storage conditions at 25°C/75%. In summary, the lowest seed quality losses were in maize, then in soybean and the highest losses were in sunflower. Decreasing of seed quality losses is possible with suitable storage conditions, particularly for soybean and sunflower.

  7. An Analysis of the Distribution and Economics of Oil Fields for Enhanced Oil Recovery-Carbon Capture and Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Kristyn Ann

    The rising carbon dioxide emissions contributing to climate change has lead to the examination of potential ways to mitigate the environmental impact. One such method is through the geological sequestration of carbon (CCS). Although there are several different forms of geological sequestration (i.e. Saline Aquifers, Oil and Gas Reservoirs, Unminable Coal Seams) the current projects are just initiating the large scale-testing phase. The lead entry point into CCS projects is to combine the sequestration with enhanced oil recovery (EOR) due to the improved economic model as a result of the oil recovery and the pre-existing knowledge of the geological structures. The potential scope of CCS-EOR projects throughout the continental United States in terms of a systematic examination of individual reservoir storage potential has not been examined. Instead the majority of the research completed has centered on either estimating the total United States storage potential or the potential of a single specific reservoir. The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between oil recovery, carbon dioxide storage and cost during CCS-EOR. The characteristics of the oil and gas reservoirs examined in this study from the Nehring Oil and Gas Database were used in the CCS-EOR model developed by Sean McCoy to estimate the lifting and storage costs of the different reservoirs throughout the continental United States. This allows for an examination of both technical and financial viability of CCS-EOR as an intermediate step for future CCS projects in other geological formations. One option for mitigating climate change is to store industrial CO2 emissions in geologic reservoirs as part of a process known as carbon capture and storage (CCS). There is general consensus that large-scale deployment of CCS would best be initiated by combining geologic sequestration with enhanced oil recovery (EOR), which can use CO2 to improve production from declining oil fields. Revenues from the

  8. Prolonging storage time of baby ginger by using a sand-based storage medium and essential oil treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ji; Sui, Guoliang; He, Yongzhou; Liu, Dongjie; Yan, Jing; Liu, Shuxiang; Qin, Wen

    2014-04-01

    Wilt and rot occur readily during storage of baby ginger because of its tender skin and high moisture content (MC). A storage medium, which consisted of sand, 20% water, and 3.75% super absorbent polymers delayed weight loss and loss of firmness at 12 °C and 90% relative humidity. Microorganisms were isolated and purified from decayed rhizomes; among these, 3 fungi were identified as pathogens. The results of 18S rDNA sequence analysis showed that these fungi belonged to Penicillium, Fusarium, and Mortierella genera. The use of essential oil for controlling these pathogens was then investigated in vitro. Essential oils extracted from Cinnamomum zeylanicum (cinnamon) and Thymus vulgaris (thyme) completely inhibited the growth of all of the above pathogens at a concentration of 2000 ppm. Cinnamon oil showed higher antifungal activity in the drug sensitivity test with minimal fungicidal concentration (oil fumigation combined with medium storage at 12 °C as an integrated approach to baby ginger storage. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  9. 立式钢制油罐吸瘪和修复试验%Experimentation on Vertical Steel Oil Tank Being Bucked and Repaired

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常向东; 刘丽川; 舒丹; 袁崇高; 刘海洋

    2012-01-01

      In order to study the process of vertical steel oil tank being bucked and make sure the repair condition of the bucked tank,the bucking and repairing experimentation is carried out on a 300 m3 vertical metal oil tank three times. During the first circle experiment,the oil tank shell begins to be bucked to form a dent without crease after drains from the oil tank for 5 min⁃utes,then the tank is repaired completely. During the second circle experiment,dents are formed within the oil tank shell with crease,however,the tank shell is distorted and broken when the oil tank is repaired. During the last circle experiment,the oil tank is broken and impossible to be repaired. The result shows that the vertical steel oil tank can be bucked easily,the bucked degrees in⁃clude that dents without crease,dents with crease but no crazing,and dents with breach. The repair degree of each kind of bucked tank is different,and other accident is probable to occur during the repair.%  为研究立式钢制油罐吸瘪过程,确定修复条件,对300 m3地面立式钢制油罐进行3种不同程度吸瘪和修复试验。首先,试验油罐排水5 min时开始吸瘪,吸瘪处没有产生折痕,修复后油罐完全恢复。其次,试验油罐吸瘪处产生折痕,修复后油罐变形并已破裂。最后,试验油罐吸瘪处破裂,无法恢复。根据试验得出立式钢制油罐极易吸瘪的结论。油罐吸瘪程度可划分为吸瘪无折痕、吸瘪有折痕但未开裂和吸瘪开裂3种,每种可修复程度均不同。油罐修复过程中可能伴随其他事故的产生。

  10. Study on Thermal Storage Process of Solar Energy in Molten Salt Thermal Storage Tank%太阳能熔盐蓄热罐蓄热过程的性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王兴; 靳智平; 刘宏丽

    2015-01-01

    By using numerical simulation method, the melting and thermal storage process of molten salt in the thermal storage tank was studied. The results showed that tubes pitches have important influence on the melting process of molten salt in the same thermal storage tank. The tank with 200 mm tubes pitches is of better storage ability than that with 120 mm, and the temperature distribution in molten salt tank is more uniform. The results will provide a reference to the structural design and optimization of the thermal storage tank.%对太阳能熔盐蓄热罐的熔化和蓄热过程进行了数值模拟研究,结果表明相同蓄热罐不同的加热内管间距对熔化和蓄热过程有着显著影响.其中,200 mm管间距的蓄热罐熔化和蓄热过程较管间距为120 mm的蓄热快,并且温度分布比较均匀.研究结论对蓄热罐的结构设计和优化运行具有一定的参考价值.

  11. Managing Underground Storage Tank Data Using dBASE III PLUS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-06-01

    indicate Name of Principal CERCLA Substance CASNO= Chemical Abstract Service (CAS) No. M = Mixture UNKNOWN I lul 1 U = Unknown *Codes are taken from... Chemical Abstract Service (CAS) No Mark box 3 of tank stores a .xture of substances UNKNOWN d. Unknown -- , -- ’ , 9. Addltional Information (for lanks

  12. Prevention of stress-corrosion cracking in nuclear waste storage tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ondrejcin, R S

    1984-01-01

    Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) has occurred in the early versions of carbon steel primaries of nuclear waste tanks at the Savannah River Plant. (Secondary containment was provided by a vessel surrounding the lower portion of the primary tank.) Evaporated alkaline nitrate wastes in the form of crystallized salts are being dissolved from some of these tanks for transfer to new tanks of a different design. To prevent the SCC sequence from occurring during salt dissolution, the levels of inhibitors required to prevent cracking at yield stresses were determined. Special statistically designed experiments were performed to evaluate the probability of cracking under the combined influences of nitrate, nitrite, hydroxide, and temperature. Experimentlly, samples were tested by a potentially controlled constant extension rate test and by wedge opening loaded samples. Two equations were derived by multivariable regression analyses that correlated probability of cracking as the dependent variable to nitrate, nitrite, and hydroxide concentrations and temperature as the independent variables. From these equations, simple operating standards were developed by setting the probability of cracking equal to zero and solving for the four independent variables. 15 references, 15 figures, 8 tables.

  13. Proteomic analysis of the oil palm fruit mesocarp reveals elevated oxidative phosphorylation activity is critical for increased storage oil production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loei, Hendrick; Lim, Justin; Tan, Melvin; Lim, Teck Kwang; Lin, Qing Song; Chew, Fook Tim; Kulaveerasingam, Harikrishna; Chung, Maxey C M

    2013-11-01

    Palm oil is a highly versatile commodity with wide applications in the food, cosmetics, and biofuel industries. Storage oil in the oil palm mesocarp can make up a remarkable 80% of its dry mass, making it the oil crop with the richest oil content in the world. As such, there has been an ongoing interest in understanding the mechanism of oil production in oil palm fruits. To identify the proteome changes during oil palm fruit maturation and factors affecting oil yield in oil palm fruits, we examined the proteomic profiles of oil palm mesocarps at four developing stages--12, 16, 18, and 22 weeks after pollination--by 8-plex iTRAQ labeling coupled to 2D-LC and MALDI-TOF/TOF MS. It was found that proteins from several important metabolic processes, including starch and sucrose metabolism, glycolysis, pentose phosphate shunt, fatty acid biosynthesis, and oxidative phosphorylation, were differentially expressed in a concerted manner. These increases led to an increase in carbon flux and a diversion of resources such as ATP and NADH that are required for lipid biosynthesis. The temporal proteome profiles between the high-oil-yielding (HY) and low-oil-yielding (LY) fruits also showed significant differences in the levels of proteins involved in the regulation of the TCA cycle and oxidative phosphorylation. In particular, the expression level of the β subunit of the ATP synthase complex (complex IV of the electron transport chain) was found to be increased during fruit maturation in HY but decreased in the LY during the fruit maturation. These results suggested that increased energy supply is necessary for augmented oil yield in the HY oil palm trees.

  14. Evolution of oxidation during storage of crisps and french fries prepared with sunflower oil and high oleic sunflower oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín-Polvillo, M.

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available Storage studies were carried out to define the behaviour of both conventional and high oleic sunflower oils in the industrial preparation of crisps and prefried french fries. Samples of crisps and prefried french fries were stored during 6 and 21 months, respectively, and evolution of oxidation was compared with that of the more saturated fats normally used for the preparation of both products, i.e., palm olein and hydrogenated rapeseed/palm oil mixture. Total oxidation compounds, α-tocopherol content, as well as monomeric and dimeric triglycerides, were quantitated in lipids from fried products after different time periods. Results obtained for crisps at room temperature indicated that only conventional sunflower oil underwent significant oxidation after 6 months. In the case of prefried french fries, maintained at freezer temperatures, no appreciable changes were found after 21 months storage, thus indicating that both sunflower oils can be good alternatives to saturated fats.

  15. Dismantlement and removal of Old Hydrofracture Facility bulk storage bins and water tank, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The Old Hydrofracture Facility (OHF), located at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), was constructed in 1963 to allow experimentation and operations with an integrated solid storage, mixing, and grout injection facility. During its operation, OHF blended liquid low-level waste with grout and used a hydrofracture process to pump the waste into a deep low-permeable shale formation. Since the OHF Facility was taken out of service in 1980, the four bulk storage bins located adjacent to Building 7852 had deteriorated to the point that they were a serious safety hazard. The ORNL Surveillance and Maintenance Program requested and received permission from the US Department of Energy to dismantle the bins as a maintenance action and send the free-released metal to an approved scrap metal vendor. A 25,000-gal stainless steel water tank located at the OHF site was included in the scope. A fixed-price subcontract was signed with Allied Technology Group, Inc., to remove the four bulk storage bins and water tank to a staging area where certified Health Physics personnel could survey, segregate, package, and send the radiologically clean scrap metal to an approved scrap metal vendor. All radiologically contaminated metal and metal that could not be surveyed was packaged and staged for later disposal. Permissible personnel exposure limits were not exceeded, no injuries were incurred, and no health and safety violations occurred throughout the duration of the project. Upon completion of the dismantlement, the project had generated 53,660 lb of clean scrap metal (see Appendix D). This resulted in $3,410 of revenue generated and a cost avoidance of an estimated $100,000 in waste disposal fees.

  16. Effects of some oil-born yeasts on the sensory characteristics of Italian virgin olive oil during its storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zullo, B A; Cioccia, G; Ciafardini, G

    2013-10-01

    The olive oil microbiota, mainly composed of yeasts, is associated with the suspended fraction of freshly produced olive oils. Some olive oil yeasts are considered useful as they are able to hydrolyse the bitter tasting secoiridoid compound of the oil, whereas others are considered harmful as they can damage the quality of the oil. Present research demonstrated the influence of some yeast strains belonging to Candida adriatica, Candida diddensiae and Candida wickerhamii species on the olive oil sensory characteristics during its storage. All the tested yeasts survived in the inoculated extra virgin olive oil and, after four months of storage, the suspended yeast cells recovered from the olive oil varied between 50% and 80% of the initial total yeasts, according to their sedimentation capacity. The mean of five analytical indices (free fatty acids, peroxide value, K232, K270 and ΔK) were quite similar and about 60% of the treated samples analysed after four months of storage, on the basis of these indices, were still classed as extra virgin. Completely different results were obtained from the analyses of volatile and non volatile carbonyl compounds according to the yeast used. In the samples of oil treated with C. adriatica and C. wickerhamii, instead of some strains of C. diddensiae, a lower concentration of C6 volatile carbonyl compounds and polyphenols, responsible for positive oil attributes, were found. The sensory attributes of the treated olive oils varied according to the composition of the volatile and non volatile carbonyl compounds produced with the treatments. "Muddy-sediment", "rancid" or both defects were found in olive oil samples treated with C. adriatica DAPES 1933, C. wickerhamii DAPES 1885 and C. diddensiae DAPES 1912 and 1913 strains, whereas olive oil samples treated with C. diddensiae DAPES 1918 and 1922 after four months of storage were defect-free, and still categorized as extra virgin, according to the requirements of both chemical

  17. 人工清洗储油罐HSE风险防控%HSE risk control in manual cleaning of oil tanks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾朝新

    2015-01-01

    The oil sludge such as sand deposits in oil tanks increase during the production of an oil-field, which is not good at the operation of a facility and need to be removed regularly. However, the risks such as fire, exploration, choking intoxication, pol ution of leak exist in most cleaning work. Protection measures that meet the HSE management should be established to control the risks and realize the healthy, safety, environmental friendly working. The paper presents the HSE risks and related control ing measures during manual cleaning of oil tanks.%油田生产过程中,各类储油罐底部沉积泥沙等含油淤渣会逐渐增多,不利于生产系统的平稳运行,需定期进行清污。然而,大部分清罐作业存在火灾、爆炸、人员中毒窒息、泄漏污染等风险,需要制定符合HSE管理要求的防范措施来控制作业风险,实现健康、安全、环保作业,本文介绍了人工清洗常见储油罐过程中HSE风险及管控措施。

  18. Persistency of larvicidal effects of plant oil extracts under different storage conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amer, Abdelkrim; Mehlhorn, Heinz

    2006-09-01

    The persistency of larvicidal effects of 13 oils (camphor, thyme, amyris, lemon, cedarwood, frankincense, dill, myrtle, juniper, black pepper, verbena, helichrysum, and sandalwood) was examined by storage of 50-ppm solutions under different conditions (open, closed, in the light, and in the dark) for 1 month after the preparation of the solutions. The stored solutions were tested against Aedes aegypti larvae for four times during the storage period. Some oils under some conditions stayed effective until the last test, while some solutions had lost their toxicity during a short time after preparation. Thus, the mode of storage is absolutely important for the larvicidal effects. The fresh preparations were always the best.

  19. Tank designs for combined high pressure gas and solid state hydrogen storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mazzucco, Andrea

    for each storage solution investigated in this work. Attention is given to solutions that involve high-pressure solid-state and gas hydrogen storage with an integrated passive cooling system. A set of libraries is implemented in the modeling platform to select among different material compositions, kinetic......Many challenges have still to be overcome in order to establish a solid ground for significant market penetration of fuel cell hydrogen vehicles. The development of an effective solution for on-board hydrogen storage is one of the main technical tasks that need to be tackled. The present thesis...... deals with the development of a simulation tool to design and compare different vehicular storage options with respect to targets based upon storage and fueling efficiencies. The set targets represent performance improvements with regard to the state-of-the-art technology and are separately defined...

  20. Foundation design of vertical steel storage tank%立式钢制储罐基础设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨文武

    2014-01-01

    以某罐区立式钢制储罐基础设计为例,探讨预制桩、灌注桩和浅基础应用于储罐基础的设计方法。储罐基础设计可比拟为"板-柱结构"体系,借助pkpm结构软件分析两种桩型承载力、浅基础设计、场地条件影响及桩-土共同作用。储罐桩基设计应对水平承载力、竖向承载力和配筋量三控制设计,对于端承型桩基,一般情况下单桩水平承载力起控制作用。相同桩数时,采用方形布桩的边桩配筋比环形布桩的更易产生突变。应用于软土场地的砼预制桩不仅应进行桩基承载力计算,还应加强桩基配筋验算。%Based on a foundation design of vertical steel storage tank in a tank farm , the application of precast piles , pile and shallow foun-dation design method on the basis of the tank were discussed .Tank foundation design can be compared to "plate -column structure"sys-tem, by using PKPM structure software , analysis of bearing capacity , shallow foundation design , site condition and pile -soil interaction of two kinds of pile type were carried out .The horizontal bearing capacity , vertical bearing capacity and reinforcement amount should be controlled in the tank design .For end bearing type piles , single pile horizontal bearing capacity plays a general controlling role .The edge pile reinforcement ratio of square pile arrangement produces mutation more likely than annular arrangement under same number of pile .It is necessary to calculate not only foundation bearing capacity of pile but also foundation reinforcement when precast concrete piles are ap -plied in the soft soil ground .

  1. Complex Protection of Vertical Stainless Steel Tanks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fakhrislamov Radik Zakievich

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The authors consider the problem of fail-safe oil and oil products storage in stainless steel tanks and present the patented tank inner side protection technology. The latter provides process, ecological and fire safety and reducing soil evaporation of oil products, which is a specific problem. The above-mentioned technology includes corrosion protection and heat insulation protection providing increase of cover durability and RVS service life in general. The offered technological protection scheme is a collaboration of the author, Steel Paint GmbH firm and JSC “Koksokhimmontazhproyekt”. PU foam unicomponent materials of Steel Paint GmbH firm provide the protection of tank inner side and cover.

  2. Numerical Simulation of Enhanced Oil-Water Separation in a Three-Stage Double-Stirring Extraction Tank

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    L Chao; Zhang Zimu; Zhao Qiuyue; Wang Shuchan; Zhang Tingan; Liu Yan

    2015-01-01

    Numerical simulation of enhanced lfuid lfow characteristics in a three-stage double-stirring extraction tank was conducted with the coupling of an Eulerian multiphase lfow model and a Morsi-Alexander interphase drag force model. Results show that the addition of a stirring device into the settler can efifciently reduce the volume fraction of out-of-phase impurity in the outlet, and accelerate the settling separation of oil-water mixture. Such addition can also effectively break down the oil-water-wrapped liquid droplets coming from the mixer, inhibit relfux from the outlet, and improve the oil-water separation. The addition of a stirring device induces ignorable power consumption compared with that by the mixer, and can thus facilitate the commercialized promotion of this novel equipment.

  3. Effects of inlet momentum and orientation on the hydraulic performance of water storage tanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xavier, Manoel Lucas Machado; Janzen, Johannes Gérson

    2017-09-01

    The influence of inlet momentum and inlet orientation on hydraulic performance of cylindrical water process tanks were investigated using a factorial design strategy. The hydraulic performance of the tanks was assessed with a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model, which calculated the flow fields and the residence time distribution (RTD). RTDs were used to quantify the tanks hydraulic performance using hydraulic indexes that represent short-circuiting, mixing, and moment. These indexes were later associated with the effluent fraction of disinfectant (inlet and outlet disinfectant ratio). For small depth-to-diameter ratios, the inlet orientation and the inlet momentum were the most important factors regarding the hydraulic indexes and the effluent fraction of disinfectant, respectively. A poor correlation was obtained between the hydraulic indexes and the effluent fraction of disinfectant, indicating that they are not good predictors for water quality. For large depth-to-diameter ratios, the inlet orientation had the most significant effect on both the hydraulic indexes and effluent fraction of disinfectant. The short-circuiting and mixing indexes presented a good correlation with water quality for this case.

  4. Gas Station Oil Tank Explosion Accident Tree Analysis%加油站油罐区爆炸事故树分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱晋宇; 曹雄; 谷明朝; 韩苗苗; 王悦

    2013-01-01

      对油罐区爆炸的原因进行了详细的分类,绘制了油罐区爆炸事故树。通过结构重要度和最小割集分析得出,除达到爆炸极限外,油气积聚和油罐区通风不良是引发事故的重要因素,并提出防止油罐爆炸事故的有效可行方法评价的结果对加油站进行安全决策、减少事故隐患,具有积极的指导意义。%For oil tank area, the cause of the explosion carried on the detailed classification, on the basis of drawing the oil tank explosion ac⁃cident tree. Through the structure important degree, the minimum cut set analysis, reach the explosion limit, causing accumulation of oil and gas and oil tank area, poor ventilation is an important factor to cause an accident, and to prevent the oil tank explosion accident, effective and feasible method to improve the level of the oil tank area safety work, the results of the evaluation to the gas station for safety decision-making, reduce accidents, has a positive guiding significance.

  5. 关于静载作用下大型储罐罐壁的合理设计%On the Reasonable Design of Tank Wall of Large Storage Tank under Static Loads

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卜凡; 钱才富

    2013-01-01

    罐壁是大型储罐的重要部件,其设计是否合理决定着整个储罐是否安全和经济。目前各国大型储罐的设计准则不同,设计结果也有差异。分别根据中国标准GB 50341-2003的设计方法与美国标准API 650-2007中的“变设计点法”,对容积为1×105 m3与2×105 m3的2个受静载作用的大型储罐进行设计,并比较两种设计方法的差异,同时通过有限元软件ANSYS对罐壁进行优化设计,以期得到更经济可行的设计方案。%Tank wall is the most important component in a large storage tank .Reasonable design of the tank wall determines the safety and economy of the whole tank .Different countries have different design criterias for the design of large storage tanks , and as a result , giving different results .Two large storage tanks with the capacity of 1 ×105 m3 and 2 ×105 m3 under the static loads were designed based on the de-sign criteria in China standard GB 50341-2003 and the Variable-Design-Point Method in USA stand-ard API 650-2007 and compared for the wall thickness .At the same time , the optimization design was performed with the finite element software ANSYS in order to obtain a more economic and feasible design approach .

  6. 33 CFR 157.15 - Slop tanks in tank vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Slop tanks in tank vessels. 157... (CONTINUED) POLLUTION RULES FOR THE PROTECTION OF THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Design, Equipment, and Installation § 157.15 Slop tanks in tank vessels. (a) Number....

  7. Analysis of Underground Storage Tanks System Materials to Increased Leak Potential Associated with E15 Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kass, Michael D [ORNL; Theiss, Timothy J [ORNL; Janke, Christopher James [ORNL; Pawel, Steven J [ORNL

    2012-07-01

    include model year 2001 light-duty vehicles, but specifically prohibited use in motorcycles and off-road vehicles and equipment. UST stakeholders generally consider fueling infrastructure materials designed for use with E0 to be adequate for use with E10, and there are no known instances of major leaks or failures directly attributable to ethanol use. It is conceivable that many compatibility issues, including accelerated corrosion, do arise and are corrected onsite and, therefore do not lead to a release. However, there is some concern that higher ethanol concentrations, such as E15 or E20, may be incompatible with current materials used in standard gasoline fueling hardware. In the summer of 2008, DOE recognized the need to assess the impact of intermediate blends of ethanol on the fueling infrastructure, specifically located at the fueling station. This includes the dispenser and hanging hardware, the underground storage tank, and associated piping. The DOE program has been co-led and funded by the Office of the Biomass Program and Vehicle Technologies Program with technical expertise from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). The infrastructure material compatibility work has been supported through strong collaborations and testing at Underwriters Laboratories (UL). ORNL performed a compatibility study investigating the compatibility of fuel infrastructure materials to gasoline containing intermediate levels of ethanol. These results can be found in the ORNL report entitled Intermediate Ethanol Blends Infrastructure Materials Compatibility Study: Elastomers, Metals and Sealants (hereafter referred to as the ORNL intermediate blends material compatibility study). These materials included elastomers, plastics, metals and sealants typically found in fuel dispenser infrastructure. The test fuels evaluated in the ORNL study were SAE standard test fuel formulations used to assess material-fuel compatibility within a

  8. Analysis of Underground Storage Tanks System Materials to Increased Leak Potential Associated with E15 Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kass, Michael D [ORNL; Theiss, Timothy J [ORNL; Janke, Christopher James [ORNL; Pawel, Steven J [ORNL

    2012-07-01

    include model year 2001 light-duty vehicles, but specifically prohibited use in motorcycles and off-road vehicles and equipment. UST stakeholders generally consider fueling infrastructure materials designed for use with E0 to be adequate for use with E10, and there are no known instances of major leaks or failures directly attributable to ethanol use. It is conceivable that many compatibility issues, including accelerated corrosion, do arise and are corrected onsite and, therefore do not lead to a release. However, there is some concern that higher ethanol concentrations, such as E15 or E20, may be incompatible with current materials used in standard gasoline fueling hardware. In the summer of 2008, DOE recognized the need to assess the impact of intermediate blends of ethanol on the fueling infrastructure, specifically located at the fueling station. This includes the dispenser and hanging hardware, the underground storage tank, and associated piping. The DOE program has been co-led and funded by the Office of the Biomass Program and Vehicle Technologies Program with technical expertise from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). The infrastructure material compatibility work has been supported through strong collaborations and testing at Underwriters Laboratories (UL). ORNL performed a compatibility study investigating the compatibility of fuel infrastructure materials to gasoline containing intermediate levels of ethanol. These results can be found in the ORNL report entitled Intermediate Ethanol Blends Infrastructure Materials Compatibility Study: Elastomers, Metals and Sealants (hereafter referred to as the ORNL intermediate blends material compatibility study). These materials included elastomers, plastics, metals and sealants typically found in fuel dispenser infrastructure. The test fuels evaluated in the ORNL study were SAE standard test fuel formulations used to assess material-fuel compatibility within a

  9. 苯乙烯储罐防聚合控制措施及效果%INHIBITION MEASURES AND EFFECT ON STYRENE STORAGE TANK

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    成英刚; 翟士刚

    2014-01-01

    针对齐鲁储运厂苯乙烯储存过程中出现的聚合现象,以142#储罐为例,采用联合研发的延缓苯乙烯聚合的新型储罐内防腐涂料及施工工艺,同时对原氮封系统进行了改造。4 a 多的实际运行结果表明,142#储罐罐体及储罐的死角(透光孔)等部位均未发现聚合物,阻聚效果明显;142#储罐内苯乙烯产品的质量达到指标要求,且延长了苯乙烯储罐清罐周期,具有良好的经济和环境效益。%Aimed at polymerization phenomenon existing storage course of styrene in Qilu Storage & Transportation Complex, taken No.142 storage tank as an example, the original nitro-gen sealing system was reformed by combined technologies of adopting new type anticorrosive coating in the storage tank and construction process.The practical running results in more than 4 yeas showed that no polymer was found in shell and dead space (light hole) of the No.142 stor-age tank, inhibition was obviously obtained.Product quality of styrene in the No.142 storage tank met index requirements, and tank clean period was prolonged.Good economic and envi-ronmental profits were obtained.

  10. 苯乙烯储罐防聚合控制措施及效果%INHIBITION MEASURES AND EFFECT ON STYRENE STORAGE TANK

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    成英刚; 翟士刚

    2015-01-01

    Aimed at polymerization phenomenon existing storage course of styrene in Qilu Storage &Transportation Complex, taken No.142 storage tank as an example, the original nitro-gen sealing system was reformed by combined technologies of adopting new type anticorrosive coating in the storage tank and construction process.The practical running results in more than 4 yeas showed that no polymer was found in shell and dead space ( light hole) of the No.142 stor-age tank, inhibition was obviously obtained.Product quality of styrene in the No.142 storage tank met index requirements, and tank clean period was prolonged.Good economic and envi-ronmental profits were obtained.%针对齐鲁储运厂苯乙烯储存过程中出现的聚合现象,以142#储罐为例,采用联合研发的延缓苯乙烯聚合的新型储罐内防腐涂料及施工工艺,同时对原氮封系统进行了改造。4 a多的实际运行结果表明,142#储罐罐体及储罐的死角(透光孔)等部位均未发现聚合物,阻聚效果明显;142#储罐内苯乙烯产品的质量达到指标要求,且延长了苯乙烯储罐清罐周期,具有良好的经济和环境效益。

  11. Passive Capillary Pumped Cryocooling System for Zero-Boil-Off Cryogen Storage Tanks Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Significant cost and weight savings of a space mission can be achieved by improving the cryogenic storage technology. Added cryogen mass due to the cryogen boil-off,...

  12. Performance Analysis and Application of Three Different Computational Methods for Solar Heating System with Seasonal Water Tank Heat Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongliang Sun

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We analyze and compare three different computational methods for a solar heating system with seasonal water tank heat storage (SHS-SWTHS. These methods are accurate numerical method, temperature stratification method, and uniform temperature method. The accurate numerical method can accurately predict the performance of the system, but it takes about 4 to 5 weeks, which is too long and hard for the performance analysis of this system. The temperature stratification method obtains relatively accurate computation results and takes a relatively short computation time, which is about 2 to 3 hours. Therefore, this method is most suitable for the performance analysis of this system. The deviation of the computational results of the uniform temperature method is great, and the time consumed is similar to that of the temperature stratification method. Therefore, this method is not recommended herein. Based on the above analyses, the temperature stratification method is applied to analyze the influence of the embedded depth of water tank, the thickness of thermal insulation material, and the collection area on the performance of this system. The results will provide a design basis for the related demonstration projects.

  13. Issues associated with manipulator-based waste retrieval from Hanford underground storage tanks with a preliminary review of commercial concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berglin, E.J.

    1996-09-17

    Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) is exploring commercial methods for retrieving waste from the underground storage tanks at the Hanford site in south central Washington state. WHC needs data on commercial retrieval systems equipment in order to make programmatic decisions for waste retrieval. Full system testing of retrieval processes is to be demonstrated in phases through September 1997 in support of programs aimed to Acquire Commercial Technology for Retrieval (ACTR) and at the Hanford Tanks Initiative (HTI). One of the important parts of the integrated testing will be the deployment of retrieval tools using manipulator-based systems. WHC requires an assessment of a number of commercial deployment systems that have been identified by the ACTR program as good candidates to be included in an integrated testing effort. Included in this assessment should be an independent evaluation of manipulator tests performed to date, so that WHC can construct an integrated test based on these systems. The objectives of this document are to provide a description of the need, requirements, and constraints for a manipulator-based retrieval system; to evaluate manipulator-based concepts and testing performed to date by a number of commercial organizations; and to identify issues to be resolved through testing and/or analysis for each concept.

  14. High-level waste storage tank farms/242-A evaporator standards/requirements identification document (S/RID), Vol. 7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-01

    This Requirements Identification Document (RID) describes an Occupational Health and Safety Program as defined through the Relevant DOE Orders, regulations, industry codes/standards, industry guidance documents and, as appropriate, good industry practice. The definition of an Occupational Health and Safety Program as specified by this document is intended to address Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board Recommendations 90-2 and 91-1, which call for the strengthening of DOE complex activities through the identification and application of relevant standards which supplement or exceed requirements mandated by DOE Orders. This RID applies to the activities, personnel, structures, systems, components, and programs involved in maintaining the facility and executing the mission of the High-Level Waste Storage Tank Farms.

  15. Sanitary evaluation of domestic water supply facilities with storage tanks and detection of Aeromonas, enteric and related bacteria in domestic water facilities in Okinawa Prefecture of Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyagi, Kazufumi; Sano, Kouichi; Hirai, Itaru

    2017-08-01

    To provide for temporary restrictions of the public water supply system, storage tanks are commonly installed in the domestic water systems of houses and apartment buildings in Okinawa Prefecture of Japan. To learn more about the sanitary condition and management of these water supply facilities with storage tanks (hereafter called "storage tank water systems") and the extent of bacterial contamination of water from these facilities, we investigated their usage and the existence of Aeromonas, enteric and related bacteria. Verbal interviews concerning the use and management of the storage tank water systems were carried out in each randomly sampled household. A total of 54 water samples were collected for bacteriological and physicochemical examinations. Conventional methods were used for total viable count, fecal coliforms, identification of bacteria such as Aeromonas, Enterobacteriaceae and non-fermentative Gram-negative rods (NF-GNR), and measurement of residual chlorine. On Aeromonas species, tests for putative virulence factor and an identification using 16S rRNA and rpoB genes were also performed. Water from the water storage systems was reported to be consumed directly without boiling in 22 of the 54 houses (40.7%). 31 of the sampled houses had installed water storage tanks of more than 1 cubic meter (m(3)) per inhabitant, and in 21 of the sampled houses, the tank had never been cleaned. In all samples, the total viable count and fecal coliforms did not exceed quality levels prescribed by Japanese waterworks law. Although the quantity of bacteria detected was not high, 23 NF-GNR, 14 Enterobacteriaceae and 5 Aeromonas were isolated in 42.6%, 7.4% and 3.7% of samples respectively. One isolated A. hydrophila and four A. caviae possessed various putative virulence factors, especially A. hydrophila which had diverse putative pathogenic genes such as aer, hlyA, act, alt, ast, ser, and dam. Many bacteria were isolated when the concentration of residual chlorine

  16. High-level waste storage tank farms/242-A evaporator Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID), Volume 7. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burt, D.L.

    1994-04-01

    The High-Level Waste Storage Tank Farms/242-A Evaporator Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID) is contained in multiple volumes. This document (Volume 7) presents the standards and requirements for the following sections: Occupational Safety and Health, and Environmental Protection.

  17. HANFORD TANK CLEANUP UPDATE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BERRIOCHOA MV

    2011-04-07

    Access to Hanford's single-shell radioactive waste storage tank C-107 was significantly improved when workers completed the cut of a 55-inch diameter hole in the top of the tank. The core and its associated cutting equipment were removed from the tank and encased in a plastic sleeve to prevent any potential spread of contamination. The larger tank opening allows use of a new more efficient robotic arm to complete tank retrieval.

  18. Geo-enviromental monitoring system of the oil storages on petrol stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimenkova Anastasiya Anatol'evna

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In large cities, fuel consumption is growing rapidly, and therefore the number of filling stations. And they are a source of anthropogenic impact on the environment and represent current scientific and practical task, because recently no research was conducted into the optimization of monitoring systems in the construction of gas station storage tanks, and no activity on replacing the obsolete design with new storage tanks. In this regard, much attention should be paid to the creation of geo-environmental systems integrated assessment of the environment, as well as modeling and forecasting various negative situations. In the modern world, the creation of such systems is possible with the help of modern computer tools such as geographic information systems.

  19. Diversity and abundance of bacteria in an underground oil-storage cavity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kodama Yumiko

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microorganisms inhabiting subterranean oil fields have recently attracted much attention. Since intact groundwater can easily be obtained from the bottom of underground oil-storage cavities without contamination by surface water, studies on such oil-storage cavities are expected to provide valuable information to understand microbial ecology of subterranean oil fields. Results DNA was extracted from the groundwater obtained from an oil-storage cavity situated at Kuji in Iwate, Japan, and 16S rRNA gene (16S rDNA fragments were amplified by PCR using combinations of universal and Bacteria-specific primers. The sequence analysis of 154 clones produced 31 different bacterial sequence types (a unique clone or group of clones with sequence similarity of > 98. Major sequence types were related to Desulfotomaculum, Acetobacterium, Desulfovibrio, Desulfobacula, Zoogloea and Thiomicrospira denitrificans. The abundance in the groundwater of bacterial populations represented by these major sequence types was assessed by quantitative competitive PCR using specific primers, showing that five rDNA types except for that related to Desulfobacula shared significant proportions (more than 1% of the total bacterial rDNA. Conclusions Bacteria inhabiting the oil-storage cavity were unexpectedly diverse. A phylogenetic affiliation of cloned 16S rDNA sequences suggests that bacteria exhibiting different types of energy metabolism coexist in the cavity.

  20. Comparison between models for the simulation of hot water storage tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveski, R.D.C. [Universidade do Vale do Rio dos Sinos, Sao Leopoldo, RS (Brazil). Centro de Ciencas Exatas e Tecnologicas, Engenharia Mecanica; Krenzinger, A. [Universiade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia de Materiais; Vielmo, H.A. [Universiade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Mecanica

    2003-08-01

    Numerical and experimental analyses of velocity and temperature fields inside a tank submitted to internal natural and mixed convection are presented in this paper. The numerical analyses were performed with two approaches: one using a two-dimensional model in cylindrical coordinates through the finite volume method and another using a one-dimensional model. A turbulence model for low Reynolds numbers was added to the two--dimensional model in mixed convection regime. The two-dimensional model was experimentally validated and then adopted as reference. Its results were compared to those obtained with one-dimensional models (combined with certain computational artifices described in this work) with a good agreement. (author)

  1. A Novel Transporting System Model for Oil Refinery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razman M. Tahar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Oil refineries are widely used to store various liquids and gases. Petroleum products are in high demand. Oil companies have abundant resources of petroleum products in pipelines and storage tanks. Approach: Included are storage tanks at retail gasoline station, home heating oil tanks, lubricant storage at automotive service facilities, propane tanks in all sorts of application, and oil company terminals across the world. The aim of this study is to present a model by which a decision maker should be able to choose the optimal number of tanks, tank size and truck arrival rate to maximize average total profit per week for an oil terminal operation. Results: In this study, oil terminal modeled by using a discrete event simulation program Arena for AL-Dura refinery, Baghdad, Iraq. Multifactor variance analysis is used to determine different levels of the three factors and their interactions significantly affect the terminal profit including the optimal number of tanks, size of tanks and trucks of the arrival rate to maximize total revenue on average per week. Conclusion/Recommendations: The result showed minimum cost of oil at the terminal and tanker truck fill rates and price and income structure, also predict with 90% confidence levels, a number of factors, which gives highest average total income per week.

  2. Microbial growth in Acrocomia aculeata pulp oil, Jatropha curcas oil, and their respective biodiesels under simulated storage conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juciana Clarice Cazarolli

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available With increasing demands for biodiesel in Brazil, diverse oil feedstocks have been investigated for their potentials for biodiesel production. Due to the high biodegradability of natural oils and their respective biodiesels, microbial growths and consequent deterioration of final product quality are generally observed during storage. This study was aimed at evaluating the susceptibility of Acrocomia aculeata pulp oil and Jatropha curcas oil as well as their respective biodiesels to biodeterioration during a simulated storage period. The experiment was conducted in microcosms containing oil/biodiesel and an aqueous phase over 30 d. The levels of microbial contamination included biodiesel and oil as received, inoculated with fungi, and sterile. Samples were collected every 7 d to measure pH, surface tension, acidity index, and microbial biomass. The initial and final ester contents of the biodiesels were also determined by gas chromatography. The major microbial biomass was detected in A. aculeata pulp and J. curcas biodiesels. Significant reductions in pH values were observed for treatments with A. aculeata pulp biodiesel as a carbon source (p

  3. Comparison between Chinese and American design standards of anti-seismic calculation for large-scale storage tank%中美大型储罐设计标准抗震计算对比

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘佳; 袁玲; 唐悦影; 卢向红

    2013-01-01

    基于石油储罐设计日益大型化和浮放式的现状,对比分析了现行中美大型储罐设计标准GB 50341-2003和API 650-2012关于抗震计算的相关规定,总结了其在抗震设防基准、设计准则、数学模型及其参数和计算方法等方面的差异.依据两国标准规定的方法,对某项目5 000 m3内浮顶罐的抗震计算不同,尤其是罐壁临界许用应力,两标准的计算结果相差近3倍,是所有计算结果中差别最大的参数,也是两者设防目标不同在数值上的表现.GB 50341-2003规定储罐上部自由空间即为晃动波高,而API 650-2012规定储罐上部自由空间的确定需要充分考虑储罐地震用途组别等因素,更有针对性地定义了储罐上部自由空间与晃动波高的关系.%Based on the status quo of increasingly upsizing and free standing oil tank, contrastive analysis is conducted for relevant regulations of Chinese and American design standards (GB 50341 -2003 and API 650-2012) for large-scale storage tank on the seismic calculation to summarize the differences in the seismic fortification basis, design criteria, mathematical model as well as its parameters and calculation methods. The methods specified in Chinese and American standards produce different seismic calculations for the 5 000 m3 covered floating roof tank in the project. Especially with respect to the critical allowable stress of the tank wall, the difference in calculation results of both standards can be nearly 3 times as large. It is the parameter with the biggest difference of calculation results but also the numerical reflection of different fortification objectives in both standards. GB 50341-2003 specifies the top free space of the storage tank as the sloshing wave height, while API 650-2012 specifies that the top free space of the storage tank shall be determined in full consideration of tank seismic purpose, group and other factors to more accurately define the relationship between the top

  4. 立式钢制拱顶储罐瓜皮板预制方案%Prefabrication Method for Melon Peel Shaped Plates of Vertical Steel Dome Storage Tanks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王勇; 周思柱; 袁新梅; 程文佳

    2013-01-01

    The methods for making melon peel shaped plates of vertical steel dome storage tanks are miscellaneous, for which reason factors influencing the size of a melon peel shaped plate were analyzed, computation formulas were summarized and transformed to computer programs, then a simple computing method was brought forward. The melon peel shaped plates of ordinary storage tanks in some oil depots and metering stations were calculated by this method, which provides convenience for petrochemical engineering construction.%针对拱顶储罐瓜皮板预制下料方法繁杂的问题,分析影响瓜皮板下料尺寸因素,总结计算公式并编制计算机程序,提出了一种较为简便的计算方法.用此方法计算出油库、计量站常用拱顶储罐的瓜皮板尺寸,可为石油化工工程设计提供便利.

  5. Tank Lay-Up Information Package and List of Questions for US Department of Energy High-Level Waste Tank Storage Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elmore, Monte R.; Henderson, Colin

    2002-06-21

    This document provides background information and a list of questions to be addressed during an information-gathering visit by Jacobs Engineering Group Inc personnel. Jacobs has been funded by the Tanks Focus Area to complete a task "Pre-closure Interim Tanks Maintenance." The overall objective of this task is to develop a central informaion center of site conditions, site requirements, alternative technical and other approaches, closure plans and activities, regulatory drivers and methodolgies for decision-making to assist site decisdion-makers in teh evaluation of alternative high-level waste (HLW) tank lay-up configureations. Lay-up is the term used for the period between intial decontamination and decommissioning of the tanks and final closure. Successful lay-up will place the tanks in a safe, stable, and minimum-maintenance mode until final closure.

  6. ACID VALUE OF VEGETABLE OILS AND POULTRY FEED AS AFECTED BY STORAGE PERIOD AND ANTIOXIDANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohail Hassan Khan, Bashir Mahmood Bhatti and Rozina Sardar

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available A study to assess acid values in soyabean, cotton seed and sunflower oil commonly used in poultry ration was conducted. It was observed that mean acid value of oils ~ept in open were significantly high (7.67 than oil kept in sealed form (1.296. The mean acid value was higher in soyabean oil (P<0.01 than the values in cotton seed oil and sunflower oil. While determining the effect of Santaquin, BHT and Oxistat as antioxidant, in the ration stored at 40 °C for 2 months, it was observed that the acid values in untreated control ration was 18.20 while with the added antioxidants were 4.88, 4.85 and 4.83, respectively showing a significant increase with each week of the storage.

  7. Inerting ballast tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baes, Gabriel L.; Bronneberg, Jos [SBM Offshore, AA Schiedam (Netherlands); Barros, Maria A.S.D. de [Universidade Estadual de Maringa (UEM), PR (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    This report expands upon the work conducted by SBM Offshore to develop a tank preservation treatment, which is intended to achieve a service life of 30 years. This work focuses on the corrosion problems, in the ballast tanks, based on new built hulls, both for the Gas Exploration Market, the FLNG - Floating Liquefied Natural Gas, and for the Oil Exploration market - FPSO's - Floating Production Storage and offloading Units. Herein, the corrosion rate input comes from the various references related to the process of nitrogen injection, which is expected to extend the vessel's time life. The essential elements of this solution comprise the deoxygenation process, corrosion models, coating effects, tests from laboratory, shipboard tests, corrosion institutes and regulations applicable to the operation. The best corrosion protection system for ballast tanks area combines a coating system and an inert gas system. The condition of the tanks will be dependent upon the level of protection applied to the steel structure, including, but not limited to coating, cathodic protection, etc. There is a need for products which extend the life time. It is not sufficient, only have good theoretical base for the corrosion and an excellent treatment system. In addition, the design of the ships structure must also eliminate the presence of local stress concentrations which can result in fatigue cracking and rupture of the protective coating barrier starting the corrosion. As a direct result of this, more problems in corrosion can be mitigated, vessels can have a better corrosion performance with less maintenance and repairs to coating systems in ballast tanks. Furthermore ships will be positively impacted operationally due to less frequent dry docking. There is a huge potential in the application of inert gas to combat the corrosion rate inside the ballast tanks, one of the most corrosive environments on earth. This application can have a direct impact on vessel structure

  8. Energy saving by improvement in heat storage tank. Complex building `Sun Pedeck` management by CBS; Chikunetsuso kairyonado de shoene. Sogo tatemono `Sun Pedeck` (kabushiki kaisha CBS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    An example in which energy was considerably saved by improving the underground heat storage tank in complex building `Sun Pedeck` in front of Tsudanuma Station is introduced as the interview of an excellent business. Many speciality shops and restaurants move into this complex building, and the building consists of three buildings containing offices and cultural facilities. Therefore, the complicated management that the complex building is in the open state throughout the year and variously limited in equipment replacement is required. Since a cold-water tank of 450 tons under the ground is an initial heat storage tank, cold water is accumulated only at the bottom. This was very low in efficiency. A weir was thus installed in the cool-water tank to improve so that the water flow meanders up and down. At 10:00 p.m. to 8:00 a.m. that is the midnight time zone of power, a turbo-refrigerating machine for regenerative heat storage operates between 7:00 and 8:00 in the early morning so as to produce cool water. The annual power rate could be reduced 6,000,000 yen by circulating the heat-reserved cool water between 2:30 p.m. and 3:30 p.m. 6 figs.

  9. Performance of electric forklift with low-temperature polymer exchange membrane fuel cell power module and metal hydride hydrogen storage extension tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lototskyy, Mykhaylo V.; Tolj, Ivan; Parsons, Adrian; Smith, Fahmida; Sita, Cordellia; Linkov, Vladimir

    2016-06-01

    We present test results of a commercial 3-tonne electric forklift (STILL) equipped with a commercial fuel cell power module (Plug Power) and a MH hydrogen storage tank (HySA Systems and TF Design). The tests included: (i) performance evaluation of "hybrid" hydrogen storage system during refuelling at low (pressures; (ii) comparison of the forklift performances during heavy-duty operation when changing the powering in the series: standard battery - fuel cell power module (alone) - power module with integrated MH tank; and (iii) performance tests of the forklift during its operation under working conditions. It was found that (a) the forklift with power module and MH tank can achieve 83% of maximum hydrogen storage capacity during 6 min refuelling (for full capacity 12-15 min); (b) heavy-duty operation of the forklift is characterised by 25% increase in energy consumption, and during system operation more uniform power distribution occurs when operating in the fuel cell powering mode with MH, in comparison to the battery powering mode; (c) use of the fully refuelled fuel cell power module with the MH extension tank allows for uninterrupted operation for 3 h 6 min and 7 h 15 min, for heavy- and light-duty operation, respectively.

  10. Thermo-mechanical Analysis of Cold Helium Injection into Gas Storage Tanks made of Carbon Steel Following Resistive Transition of the LHC Magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Chorowski, M

    1998-01-01

    A resistive transition (quench) of the LHC sector magnets will be followed by cold helium venting to a quench buffer volume of 2000 m3 at ambient temperature. The volume will be composed of eight medi um-pressure (2 MPa) gas storage tanks made of carbon steel, which constrains the temperature of the wall to be higher than -50oC (223 K). The aim of the analysis is the assessment of a possible spot c ooling intensity and thermo-mechanical stresses in the tank wall following helium injection.

  11. Sensory properties during storage of crisps and French fries prepared with sunflower oil and high oleic sunflower oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Gemert, L. J.

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available A selected and trained descriptive sensory panel has assessed samples of crisps and French fries prepared on an industrial scale with either sunflower oil (SO or high oleic sunflower oil (HOBO. Furthermore, crisps have been fried in these oils with or without dimethyl polysiloxane (DMPS. Reference samples were prepared using palm olein (PO or hydrogenated rapeseed/palm oil mixture (RP. Crisps were stored at ambient temperature for six months and French fries at -20°C for 12 months. At regular intervals the samples were assessed. Crisps prepared in SO have a lower sensory quality than those prepared in PO. Frying in HOSO resulted in crips comparable with those fried in PO. The differences found in this study concerning the mouthfeel or texture were thought not to be caused by the application of different oils. The addition of DMPS did not have any positive effect on the storage quality of crisps fried in SO or HOSO. Frying of French fries in HOSO and especially in SO, in comparison with RP, resulted in a product with a typical sweet fruits odour and flavour. During storage these sensory attributes decreased in intensity. As this finding might be an artefact of this study, further research is needed.

  12. Technical Assessment of Cryo-Compressed Hydrogen Storage Tank Systems for Automotive Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahluwalia, Rajesh [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Hua, T. Q. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Peng, J. -K. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Lasher, S. [TIAX LLC, Lexington, MA (United States); McKenney, Kurtis [TIAX LLC, Lexington, MA (United States); Sinha, J. [TIAX LLC, Lexington, MA (United States)

    2009-12-01

    Technical report describing DOE's second assessment report on a third generation (Gen3) system capable of storing hydrogen at cryogenic temperatures within a pressure vessel on-board a vehicle. The report includes an overview of technical progress to date, including the potential to meet DOE onboard storage targets, as well as independent reviews of system cost and energy analyses of the technology paired with delivery costs.

  13. Numerical Investigation of Stratified Thermal Storage Tank Applied in Adsorption Heat Pump Cycle

    OpenAIRE

    Taheri, Hadi

    2014-01-01

    With the aid of the TES (Thermal Energy Storage) in the adsorption heat pump cycle, the COP of the system can be improved. Different geometrical variations of the TES with stratification device, have been investigated numerically. Furthermore,The effective thermal conductivity has been analyzed. The simulation results of a reference CFD model have been compared with experimental results. Additionally, the porous medium impact on the mixing process and turbulence has been studied numerically.

  14. Impact of the seed storage time on the quality of cold-pressed sunflower oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Premović Tamara Đ.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of seed storage time on the quality of cold-pressed sunflower oil. The quality and oxidative stability of oil was determined in samples of domestic varieties of sunflower hybrid, linoleic type seeds, obtained from fresh seeds and from seeds stored in silo cell for 6 and 12 months at temperature below 30oC and in good ventilation conditions. It was found that the longer storage time of seeds had a negative impact on many quality aspects of the oil, such as flavor, odor and aroma, primarily on the sensory profile. Chemical characteristics and oxidative stability of oil were also influenced by the storage time, which was confirmed by increased values of the acid value (AV and peroxide value (PV of the oil samples. Fresh seed oil had an AV of 0.49±0.01 mgKOH/g, while oils that were obtained from one-year old seeds had an AV of 1.95±0.02 mgKOH/g. Content of the primary oxidation products in the oil obtained by cold-pressing of the fresh seeds was 1.73±0.02 mmol/kg (measured as PV, and 2.22±0.07 mmol/kg in that from the seeds stored for 12 months. The anisidine value for the oil obtained from the seeds stored for 12 months was 0.86±0.04 (100A1% 350nm.[ Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31014

  15. Oil spill cleanup method and apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayes, F.M.

    1980-06-24

    A method for removing oil from the surface of water where an oil spill has occurred, particularly in obstructed or shallow areas, which comprises partially surrounding a hovercraft with a floating oil-collecting barrier, there being no barrier at the front of the hovercraft, moving the oil-barrier-surrounded-hovercraft into oil contaminated water, and collecting oil gathered within the barrier behind the hovercraft through a suction line which carries the oil to a storage tank aboard the hovercraft. The invention also embodies the hovercraft adapted to effect an oil spill cleanup.

  16. A review of the chemical and physical mechanisms of the storage stability of fast pyrolysis bio-oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diebold, J.P.

    1999-01-27

    Understanding the fundamental chemical and physical aging mechanisms is necessary to learn how to produce a bio-oil that is more stable during shipping and storage. This review provides a basis for this understanding and identifies possible future research paths to produce bio-oils with better storage stability.

  17. 离心压缩机高位油箱喷油事故的原因分析%Analysis for cause of oil spray accident of elevated oil tank of centrifugal compressor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王娟; 郭孝武

    2012-01-01

    Unreasonable installation position of U-bend beneath the aspiration of oil return pipe of elevated oil tank results in oil spray from elevated oil tank during trial run of air compressor and oxygen compressor,which threatens safe run of the compressor.Here,the work principle of elevated oil tank is briefed,the causes for oil spray of elevated oil tank are analyzed,and the corresponding corrective measures are described.%由于高位油箱回油管呼吸孔下方的U形弯安装位置不合理,造成空压机和氧压机高位油箱在试运行过程中出现了喷油现象,威胁到压缩机的安全运行。介绍高位油箱的工作原理,分析高位油箱喷油的原因和相应整改措施。

  18. 油田用小型脱硫罐设计%Design of Minitype Desulfurization Tank of Oil Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毕建成

    2014-01-01

    针对目前我国含硫化氢天然气和高含硫化氢天然气的开采情况,介绍了一种新型油田用小型脱硫罐的设计,对其工作原理、结构及材料进行了阐述。采用该脱硫罐解决了油田分散采油区块天然气硫化氢污染问题,保护了采油区块周边的环境和操作人员的人身安全。%In view of the situation of natural gas in our country natural gas containing hydrogen sulfide and high H2 S content mining ,the design of a kind of new minitype desulfurization tank used in oil fields is introduced ,the working principle ,structure and material are described .The technology is used to solve the oil dispersed oil block natural gas hydrogen sulfide pollution ,and protect the oil block surrounding environment and personal safety of operators .

  19. Microfluidic and micro-core methods for enhanced oil recovery and carbon storage applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Phong

    Injection of CO2 into the subsurface, for both storage and oil recovery, is an emerging strategy to mitigate atmospheric CO2 emissions and associated climate change. In this thesis microfluidic and micro-core methods were developed to inform combined CO2-storage and oil recovery operations and determine relevant fluid properties. Pore scale studies of nanoparticle stabilized CO2-in-water foam and its application in oil recovery to show significant improvement in oil recovery rate with different oils from around the world (light, medium, and heavy). The CO2 nanoparticle-stabilized CO2 foams generate a three-fold increase in oil recovery (an additional 15% of initial oil in place) as compared to an otherwise similar CO2 gas flood. Nanoparticle-stabilized CO2 foam flooding also results in significantly smaller oil-in-water emulsion sizes. All three oils show substantial additional oil recovery and a positive reservoir homogenization effect. A supporting microfluidic approach is developed to quantify the minimum miscibility pressure (MMP) -- a critical parameter for combined CO 2 storage and enhanced oil recovery. The method leverages the inherent fluorescence of crude oils, is faster than conventional technologies, and provides quantitative, operator-independent measurements. In terms of speed, a pressure scan for a single minimum miscibility pressure measurement required less than 30 min, in stark contrast to days or weeks with existing rising bubble and slimtube methods. In practice, subsurface geology also interacts with injected CO 2. Commonly carbonate dissolution results in pore structure, porosity, and permeability changes. These changes are measured by x-ray microtomography (micro-CT), liquid permeability measurements, and chemical analysis. Chemical composition of the produced liquid analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometer (ICP-AES) shows concentrations of magnesium and calcium. This work leverages established advantages of

  20. Storage stability of rapeseed oil%菜籽油储存稳定性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱正友; 杨帆; 魏冰

    2009-01-01

    In the case of 4 types of rapeseed oil(low-temperature pressed crude rapeseed oil,high-temperature pressed crude rapeseed oil,1st grade solvent extraction rapeseed oil,1st grade pressed rapeseed oil),3 containers(colorless and transparent PET bottle,iron cans,pottery) and 3 types of lighting environment(dark,natural light,direct lighting),the storage stability of rapeseed oil was studied.The acid value and peroxide value of samples at room temperature(10-30 ℃) were detected at interval storage days(10-15 d).The results showed that lighting was a key factor to affect oil storage stability,opaque packaging material should be used as far as possible,and the oil should be stored in dark environment;iron cans could be used to store crude oil and refined oil,but the increase rate of peroxide value of the crude oil was lower than that of the refined oil;the opaque ceramic material for small package of refined oil was an ideal choice.%研究了4种不同品质的菜籽油(冷榨菜籽毛油、热榨菜籽毛油、浸出一级菜籽油、压榨一级菜籽油)、3种容器(无色透明聚酯瓶、铁罐和陶罐)及3种光照条件(避光、自然光、直射灯光)下菜籽油的储存稳定性情况.室温条件(10~30℃)下间隔一定储存天数(10~15 d)测定样品的酸值和过氧化值,结果显示,光照是影响油脂储存稳定性的关键因素,油脂包装及储存要尽量采用不透光材料或避光储存;铁罐可用于储存毛油及精炼油,储存毛油时过氧化值升高幅度较精炼油要小;对成品小包装油,采用性质稳定的不透光的陶瓷材料包装是理想的选择.

  1. OPTIMIZATION OF INTERNAL HEAT EXCHANGERS FOR HYDROGEN STORAGE TANKS UTILIZING METAL HYDRIDES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrison, S.; Tamburello, D.; Hardy, B.; Anton, D.; Gorbounov, M.; Cognale, C.; van Hassel, B.; Mosher, D.

    2011-07-14

    Two detailed, unit-cell models, a transverse fin design and a longitudinal fin design, of a combined hydride bed and heat exchanger are developed in COMSOL{reg_sign} Multiphysics incorporating and accounting for heat transfer and reaction kinetic limitations. MatLab{reg_sign} scripts for autonomous model generation are developed and incorporated into (1) a grid-based and (2) a systematic optimization routine based on the Nelder-Mead downhill simplex method to determine the geometrical parameters that lead to the optimal structure for each fin design that maximizes the hydrogen stored within the hydride. The optimal designs for both the transverse and longitudinal fin designs point toward closely-spaced, small cooling fluid tubes. Under the hydrogen feed conditions studied (50 bar), a 25 times improvement or better in the hydrogen storage kinetics will be required to simultaneously meet the Department of Energy technical targets for gravimetric capacity and fill time. These models and methodology can be rapidly applied to other hydrogen storage materials, such as other metal hydrides or to cryoadsorbents, in future work.

  2. 接管腐蚀与贮罐风险防范%Risk Prevention of Storage Tank Caused by Pipe Corrosion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵家福

    2016-01-01

    This paper introduced the regular inspection of the carbon dioxide storage tank. During the veriifcation of pressure gauge calibration, we found pipe corrosion and expansion of the pressure gauge on the top of the tank inadvertently. This article analyzed the status, the causes and dangers of the corrosion, and put forward the preventive measures. Our aim was to avoid nasty accidents on the tanks in our district, caused by small pipe.%本文介绍了在定期检验中发现二氧化碳贮罐罐顶压力表接管腐蚀膨胀,对该腐蚀的现状和产生的原因及危害性做了分析,提出了今后的防范措施,以避免小接管引发大事故。

  3. 液化烃储罐水喷雾冷却系统设计%Designing of Water-Spray Cooling System for Liquefied Hydrocarbon Storage Tanks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵彦永

    2000-01-01

    通过对液化烃储罐火灾特点及水喷雾冷却系统灭火机理的分析,对液化烃储罐水喷雾消防冷却系统的设计方法加以探讨。提出了"罐上喷头工作压力为定值"的假设,从而简化了设计计算。%Discussions are made on the methods for designing water-spray cooling system for liquefied hydrocarbonstorage tanks through analyzing the characteristics of the fire hazards with liquefied hydrocarbon storage tanks and the fireextinguishing mechanism of water-spray cooling system, with the hypothesis of "The working pressure of the spray nozzleson the tanks is a set value." advanced,so that design calculations are simplified.

  4. Evolution of minor polar compounds and antioxidant capacity during storage of bottled extra virgin olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romani, Annalisa; Lapucci, Chiara; Cantini, Claudio; Ieri, Francesca; Mulinacci, Nadia; Visioli, Francesco

    2007-02-21

    We characterized "Olivastra Seggianese" extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) and evaluated its chemical and sensory characteristics and antioxidant and antiradical activities during storage under novel conditions. Two oils (A and B) were analyzed for the commodity characteristics at blending (t0) and after 9, 12, and 18 months; panel tests were performed and minor polar compounds (MPC) content was assessed at blending (t0) and after 6, 9, 12, and 18 months. Antioxidant and antiradical activities in vitro were evaluated at t0 and after 12 months, by human low density lipoprotein (LDL) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazil radical (DPPH*) tests. Oil A, which had an initially higher MPC content, possessed "harder" organoleptic characteristics than oil B, which had a lower MPC content and was endowed with a "smoother" taste profile. Statistical analyses showed that secoiridoids, particularly deacetoxy-oleuropein aglycone, should be quantified to evaluate EVOO stability during storage. The antioxidant activity toward human LDL was linked to MPC content and to storage time. The tests on the stable free radical DPPH* confirmed the results on human LDL. We propose this as an additional parameter to evaluate olive oil quality and stability over time.

  5. Seismic Fragility Analysis of a Condensate Storage Tank with Age-Related Degradations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nie, J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Braverman, J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Hofmayer, C [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Choun, Y-S [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Kim, MK [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Choi, I-K [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2011-04-01

    The Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) is conducting a five-year research project to develop a realistic seismic risk evaluation system which includes the consideration of aging of structures and components in nuclear power plants (NPPs). The KAERI research project includes three specific areas that are essential to seismic probabilistic risk assessment (PRA): (1) probabilistic seismic hazard analysis, (2) seismic fragility analysis including the effects of aging, and (3) a plant seismic risk analysis. Since 2007, Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has entered into a collaboration agreement with KAERI to support its development of seismic capability evaluation technology for degraded structures and components. The collaborative research effort is intended to continue over a five year period. The goal of this collaboration endeavor is to assist KAERI to develop seismic fragility analysis methods that consider the potential effects of age-related degradation of structures, systems, and components (SSCs). The research results of this multi-year collaboration will be utilized as input to seismic PRAs. This report describes the research effort performed by BNL for the Year 4 scope of work. This report was developed as an update to the Year 3 report by incorporating a major supplement to the Year 3 fragility analysis. In the Year 4 research scope, an additional study was carried out to consider an additional degradation scenario, in which the three basic degradation scenarios, i.e., degraded tank shell, degraded anchor bolts, and cracked anchorage concrete, are combined in a non-perfect correlation manner. A representative operational water level is used for this effort. Building on the same CDFM procedure implemented for the Year 3 Tasks, a simulation method was applied using optimum Latin Hypercube samples to characterize the deterioration behavior of the fragility capacity as a function of age-related degradations. The results are summarized in Section 5

  6. Effects of Preheating and Storage Temperatures on Aroma Profile and Physical Properties of Citrus-Oil Emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ying; Zhao, Chengying; Tian, Guifang; Lu, Chang; Zhao, Shaojie; Bao, Yuming; McClements, David Julian; Xiao, Hang; Zheng, Jinkai

    2017-09-06

    Citrus oils are used as good carrier oil for emulsion fabrication due to their special flavor and various health-promoting functions. In this study, the effects of preheating temperature (30, 40, 50, 60, and 70 °C) and storage temperature (4, 25, and 37 °C) on aroma profiles and physical properties of three citrus-oil (i.e., mandarin, sweet orange, and bergamot oils) emulsions were systematically investigated for the first time. The results demonstrated the significant impact of temperature on aroma profile and physical properties. The abundance of d-limonene was found to be the main factor determining the aroma of the three citrus-oil emulsions at different preheating and storage temperatures, while β-linalool and linalyl acetate were important for the aroma of bergamot oil emulsion. Preheating temperature showed a profound impact on the aroma of citrus-oil emulsions, and the aroma of different citrus oil emulsions showed different sensitivity to preheating temperature. Storage temperature was also able to alter the properties of citrus oil emulsions. The higher was the storage temperature, the more alteration of aroma and more instability of the emulsions there was, which could be attributed to the alteration of the oil components and the properties of emulsions. Among all three emulsions, bergamot-oil emulsion was the most stable and exhibited the most potent ability to preserve the aroma against high temperature. Our results would facilitate the application of citrus-oil emulsions in functional foods and beverages.

  7. 大型原油储罐构件预制方法%Method on Units Prefabrication for Large Crude Oil Tanks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁继彪

    2016-01-01

    对构件进行预制可以提高施工效率、缩短工期,是目前大型原油储罐建造的常用方法。对照阿布扎比原油管道项目16×104 m3浮顶储罐建造案例,以大型原油储罐的构件预制过程为基础,对清扫孔和有罐嘴的罐壁板的预制方法、检验步骤和热处理过程进行详细分析,大型储罐底板、壁板等主要构件需要按照合理的工作流程进行预制,并进行适当的热处理和检测,以提高制造精度。采用构件预制方法,可以保证大型浮顶储罐的构件预制深度,提高大型储罐的建造效率,节约时间成本和施工成本。%Prefabrication of units is one of the most commonly used construction method for large storage tanks because of high efficiency and short construction duration. The key pro-cesses of the crude oil tank units prefabrication were discussed based on the construction of 16×104 m3 tank in Abu Dhabi pipeline main terminal station. The prefabrication, testing pro-cedure and heat-treating process of cleanout door and shell plate shall follow the normal pro-cedures with high accuracy, before the PWHT and inspection. The optimized procedures can ensure the units prefabrication quality,provide comprehensive and detailed technique in-struction, improve the construction efficiency, and shorten the time costs and construction costs.

  8. 地震激励下的储罐动压力理论分析%Theoretical Analysis of Storage Tanks' Dynamic Pressure under Earthquake Excitation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李敏; 张霖; 李洪明

    2013-01-01

    Both research findings and methods for the tanks' seismic design were summarized, then the tanks' dynamic pressure under horizontal and vertical earthquake excitation at the same time was analyzed theoretically, i. e. assuming the liquid in the tank is inviscid, irrotational and incompressible, and then to solve Laplace equation under given boundary conditions and make the tank wall' s pressure meet the Bernoulli equation; having the inertial force, uncoupling pulse pressure caused by storage tank vibration and the convection pressure from the liquid shaking respectively considered and the superposition principle based to get analytic e-quation of the dynamic pressure storage tank.%概述了储罐在抗震设计问题上已经取得的研究成果和方法.继此研究成果之后,对同时受到水平和竖直地震激励作用下的储罐动压力进行理论分析.即假定储罐内的液体为无粘、无旋、不可压缩的理想液体,在给定的边界条件下求解拉普拉斯方程,并使得罐壁压力满足线性贝努力方程.分别考虑储罐惯性力、罐液藕连振动产生的脉冲压力以及液面晃动产生的对流压力等各部分产生的压力,最后由叠加原理得到储罐动压力的解析表达式.

  9. Compared Ageing of Oil from Curcubitea Pepo in Two Different Storage Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.H.W. Nakavoua

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the oil pumkin seeds of Curcubitea pepo from Congo- Brazzaville. The ageing of oil extracted from the seeds of the pumpkin Curcubitea pepo stored at two temperatures (6 and 30ºC was monitored during storage for 11 months by comparison of physical and chemical characteristics correlated with spectroscopic data. Medium infrared spectroscopy confirmed saponification index data. Ultraviolet absorption confirmed peroxide index data. Antioxidant behaviour was monitored by fluorescence and the effect of ageing on the two major fatty acid families was analysed by a study of chemical composition correlated with differential scanning calorimetry measurements. This study showed an overall lengthening of the fatty acid carbon chains and allowed preferential storage conditions to be specified for this oil.

  10. Short communication: effect of storage and preservation on total bacterial counts determined by automated flow cytometry in bulk tank goat milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierra, D; Sánchez, A; Contreras, A; Luengo, C; Corrales, J C; de la Fe, C; Guirao, I; Morales, C T; Gonzalo, C

    2009-10-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the effects of different storage conditions on total bacterial count (TBC) determinations made in goat bulk tank milk using an automated flow cytometry method. The storage conditions tested were storage temperature (refrigeration at 4 and 10 degrees C or freezing at -20 degrees C), the use of a preservative (no preservative, NP; azidiol, AZ; or bronopol, BR), and the age of the milk samples for each analytical condition (storage times at 4 degrees C: from 0 h to 5 d for NP; and from 0 h to 22 d for AZ and BR; storage times at 10 degrees C: from 24 h to 2 d for NP and from 24 h to 22 for AZ and BR; storage times at -20 degrees C: from 24 h to 22 d for NP, AZ, and BR). Significant effects on individual bacterial count (IBC) variation were shown by the bulk tank milk sample, preservative, storage temperature, interaction preservative x storage temperature, and milk age within the interaction preservative x storage temperature. In preserved samples, the highest IBC were obtained for AZ and the lowest counts were obtained in samples preserved with BR. Because of the variation in IBC recorded in BR-preserved samples, we recommend that BR should not be used for TBC determinations using the automated flow cytometry method. The NP samples stored at 4 and 10 degrees C showed significantly higher IBC at 24 h postcollection, also invalidating these analytical conditions for TBC analyses. The practical implications of our findings are that goat milk samples preserved with AZ and stored at 10 or 4 degrees C are appropriate for TBC by the BactoScan flow cytometry method for up to 24 h and 11 d postcollection, respectively.

  11. Seed storage oil catabolism: a story of give and take.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodoulou, Frederica L; Eastmond, Peter J

    2012-06-01

    The transition from seed to seedling is an important step in the life cycle of plants, which is fuelled primarily by the breakdown of triacylglycerol (TAG) in 'oilseed' species. TAG is stored within cytosolic oil bodies, while the pathway for fatty acid β-oxidation resides in the peroxisome. Although the enzymology of fatty acid β-oxidation has been relatively well characterised, the processes by which fatty acids are liberated from oil bodies and enter the peroxisome are less well understood and, together with metabolite, cofactor and co-substrate transporters, represent key targets for future research in order to understand co-ordination of peroxisomal metabolism with that of other subcellular compartments.

  12. 论油气储运设施安全的重要性%On the Importance of safety of oil & gas storage and transportation facilities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱建华

    2012-01-01

    油气储运设施是连接石油工业产、运、销各环节的纽带,其安全重要性日益凸显.介绍了油气储存和运输设施的分类依据及主要类型;从储运介质的易燃易爆和毒害性、油气储运设施易构成重大危险源两个方面论述了油气储运设施安全的重要性;通过总结近年发生的大连"7.16"爆炸事故、大型储罐火灾事故及油气管道泄漏事故的教训,指出第三方破坏是导致管道发生泄漏事故的主要原因,而打孔盗油又是其中的重要因素:提出了在工程立项、设计、施工及运行管理的各个阶段加强安全管理的具体措施.%Facilities in the field of oil & gas storage and transportation is a link to connect production, transportation and marketing of petroleum industry, and its significant has become more and more obvious. This paper introduces the classification basis and main types of oil & gas storage and transportation facilities and discusses the importance of safety in oil & gas storage and transportation facilities from two aspects, that is, flammable, explosive and poisonous for the medium stored and transported, and the dangerous source formed easily from the facilities of oil & gas storage and transportation. Lessons from research and investigation on the 7.16 Explosion of Dalian Oil tankfarm, fires of large-scale tanks and leakage of oil and gas pipelines in recent years reveal that the third-party damage is the main reason of leakage of pipelines, in which oil stealing is an important factor. Based on the results, special measures in strengthening safety management in different phases of project approval, design, construction and operation management are proposed.

  13. Safety in Operation and Management of Dimethyl Ether Storage Tanks%二甲醚储罐的安全运行及管理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王峰

    2011-01-01

    对二甲醚储罐区进行危险辨识及事故后果模拟分析.从安全风险和运行管理的角度,进一步阐述了加强管理、确保二甲醚储罐安全运行与管理的具体措施.%A simulation analysis is carried out of hazard identification and accident consequences in a dimethyl ether storage tank farm. From the point of safety risks and operation management further explanation is given of specific measures for intensification of management and assurance of safety operation and management of the dimethyl ether storage tanks.

  14. Bahia Las Minas, Panama Oil Spill Assessment, 1986-1991 (NODC Accession 9400033)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In April 1986 a major oil spill from a ruptured storage tank at a local refinery just east of the Caribbean entrance to the Panama Canal polluted an area of coral...

  15. Bahia Las Minas, Panama Oil Spill Assessment 1986-1991, (NODC Accession 9400033)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In April 1986 a major oil spill from a ruptured storage tank at a local refinery just east of the Caribbean entrance to the Panama Canal polluted an area of coral...

  16. Effect of Heat Treatment Process on Mechanical Properties and Microstructure of a 9% Ni Steel for Large LNG Storage Tanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J. M.; Li, H.; Yang, F.; Chi, Q.; Ji, L. K.; Feng, Y. R.

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, two different heat treatment processes of a 9% Ni steel for large liquefied natural gas storage tanks were performed in an industrial heating furnace. The former was a special heat treatment process consisting of quenching and intercritical quenching and tempering (Q-IQ-T). The latter was a heat treatment process only consisting of quenching and tempering. Mechanical properties were measured by tensile testing and charpy impact testing, and the microstructure was analyzed by optical microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and x-ray diffraction. The results showed that outstanding mechanical properties were obtained from the Q-IQ-T process in comparison with the Q-T process, and a cryogenic toughness with charpy impact energy value of 201 J was achieved at 77 K. Microstructure analysis revealed that samples of the Q-IQ-T process had about 9.8% of austenite in needle-like martensite, while samples of the Q-T process only had about 0.9% of austenite retained in tempered martensite.

  17. 2000 m3大型钢制球罐的应力分析%Stress Analysis of 2000m3 Large Steel Storage Tank

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李建奎; 刘峰; 刘娟; 付路路

    2015-01-01

    The static load stress analysis of steel storage tank was carried out with the finite element software, the cloud of stress and strain overall structure of the tank were obtained after applying static load and displacement constraints, and the strength assessment was carried out according to JB 4732-1995 steel pressure vessel analysis and design standards and GB12337-1998 steel spherical tanks. The results show that the overall structure of the tank is reliable. The available databases provide reliable academic value for the optimization and design of the subsequent large tank.%应用有限元软件对钢制球罐进行了静载应力分析,施加位移约束和静载荷之后,得到了球罐整体结构的应力及应变云图,并依据JB 4732-1995《钢制压力容器分析设计标准》,参照GB12337—1998《钢制球形储罐》对其进行了强度评定,结果表明该结构是可靠的。分析出的数据库为以后球罐的优化设计提供了可靠的理论价值。

  18. 中低压储罐疲劳分析的免除%Exemption from Fatigue Analysis for Low- & Medium-Pressure Storage Tanks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓敏

    2014-01-01

    以承受压力波动幅值0.4 MPa的充液罐为例,探讨采用整体补强和补强圈补强两种结构时免除疲劳分析的条件,并按照载荷分析、结构分析、应力分析和强度判定的设计过程,从经济性和安全性两方面,对比两种结构的优缺点及适用范围,为此类承受压力循环载荷的中低压储罐疲劳分析的免除提供参考。%The paper takes a filling tank with pressure fluctuation of 0.4 MPa for example to discuss the exemption condition of fatigue analysis for both the tank with integral reinforcement and the tank with reinforceing pad. The advantage and disadvantage as well as application range of the two type tanks are compared from the aspects of economy and safety on the basis of load analysis, structural analysis, stress analysis and strength determination to provide the reference for the fatigue analysis exemption for low-and medium-pressure storage tanks that bear cyclic pressure load.

  19. Impact of Refrigerated Storage on Quality of Oil from Freshwater Jarko (Wallago attu Fish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nusrat N. Memon

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of refrigerated storage on the quality of freshwater fish oil Jarko (Wallago attu was evaluated by measuring fatty acid profile, free fatty acids (FFA, peroxide value (PV, acid value (AV, sponification value (SV, iodine value (IV and poylene index (PI up to the time period of 120 days. After 120 days storage, mono unsaturated fatty acids (MUFA and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA contents were decreased by 24.89% and 33.70%, respectively. While, saturated fatty acids (SFA content was found to be increased by 26.82%, against the actual value. The change in polyunsaturated fatty acids during refrigerated storage was measured by the PI value. The PI decreased during storage due to lipid oxidation, but remained nearly constant after 90th day of storage. The results of PV, AV and FFA demonstrates that Wallago attu fish oil remained acceptable for consumption for 60 days but eventually exceeded the recommended values after 60 days of refrigerated storage.

  20. Deformation Control of Liquefied Natural Gas Storage Tank%液化天然气储罐制造中的变形控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾乃刚

    2012-01-01

    论述了液化天然气储罐制造中引起变形的因素,对预制阶段和焊接过程中的变形及防变形控制进行了简要介绍.%The factors that cause deformation in the liquefied natural gas storage tank manufacturing are discussed, deformation in prefabricated stage and welding process and anti-distortion control are introduced briefly.

  1. Addendum to the Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan for Corrective Action Unit 134: Aboveground Storage Tanks, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2008-09-01

    The following is an addendum to the Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan for Corrective Action Unit 134: Aboveground Storage Tanks, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, DOE/NV--1275, dated May 2008. This addendum expands upon information provided in the May 2008 plan. It provides specific details regarding samples to be collected at Corrective Action Sites 15-01-05 and 29-01-01. It also provides discussion and rationale for establishing the spatial boundaries of Corrective Action Sites.

  2. Changes in chemical quality indices during long-term storage of palm-olein oil under heated storage and transport-type conditions

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van der Merwe, GH

    2004-01-15

    Full Text Available -term storage trial of 52 weeks at 50degreesC of palm-olein, a monounsaturated oil. Three concentrations of copper (0.035, 0.17 and 0.69 mg kg (-1)) were added. FFA values for all the sample treatments increased slightly over the storage period but remained...

  3. Analysis on a cracking accident of hydrochloric acid storage tank caused by vacuum%稀盐酸储槽抽裂事故的分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王欣荣

    2012-01-01

    分析了盐酸脱吸工序中稀盐酸储槽抽裂事故产生的原因;通过稀盐酸储槽的压力式液位计DCS历史曲线记录来间接分析稀盐酸储槽内压力变化情况,剖析负压的形成过程。结果表明:脱吸塔产生较大的负压是因为系统急停、温度下降后在略低于盐酸溶液恒沸点时发生冷凝相变而引起的。%Reasons for a cracking accident of hydrochloric acid storage tank caused by vacuum in hydrochloric acid desorption process were analyzed. Pressure changes inside dilute hydrochloric acid storage tank were indirectly analyzed according to DCS historical graph record of the pressure type level meter for the hydrochloric acid storage tank, and the negative pressure formation process was also discussed. The results showed that the formation of large negative pressure in desorption col- umn was caused by phase transition of condensation occurred whlie the temperature of system was a little less than the constant boiling point of hydrochloric acid solution, which was caused by emer- gency shutdown of system and temperature falling.

  4. Research and Design on a New Robot on Plant Oil Tank%一种新型植物油罐机器人的设计与研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁夫彩; 韩海敏; 程海燕

    2014-01-01

    为了实现自动检测和清理大型植物油罐,减轻工人的劳动强度,设计了一种新型的植物油罐机器人。介绍了目前国内外植物油罐的概况,综述了该类机器人国内外的研究进展,分析了该机器人对植物油罐进行维护和清理的实际意义;制定了该机器人设计的技术指标和技术路线,分析和设计了该机器人机械本体和控制等系统。%In order to realize automatic detection and clean of the large plant oil tank,reduce the labor intensity of workers,a new type of robot on the plant oil tank was designed.The present situation of plant oil tank was introduced,this kind of robot of recent advance in study in domestic and abroad was reviewed,and the significance of this robot on the plant oil tank to maintain and clean was analyzed.Finally,the technical index and route for design of the robot are made,and its system of basic machine and control are de-signed and analyzed.

  5. Modeling validation to structural flaws in the foundations of oil tanks; Validacao de modelagem para estudo de alteracoes estruturais em fundacoes de tanques de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Couto, Larissa Goncalves; Leite, Sandro Passos, E-mail: leite_sp@ig.com.br [Fundacao Tecnico-Educacional Souza Marques, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia; Pereira, Walsan Wagner [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria, (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    This paper presents the modeling of an experiment used to study the application of backscattered neutrons in the identification of structural flaws in the foundations of oil tanks. This modeling was a preliminary validation procedure of the method of calculation, performed with the radiation transport code MCNP, to study the application of backscattered neutrons as inspection tool. (author)

  6. 变压器油箱焊接质量的探讨%Discussion on Welding Quality of Oil Tank in Transformer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    耿久红

    2011-01-01

    The structural design and manufacture technology to guarantee welding quality of oil tank in transformer are discussed.%从结构设计和制造工艺方面对保证油箱焊接质量进行了探讨。

  7. Dry-fermented chicken sausage produced with inulin and corn oil: physicochemical, microbiological, and textural characteristics and acceptability during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menegas, Léia Zenaide; Pimentel, Tatiana Colombo; Garcia, Sandra; Prudencio, Sandra Helena

    2013-03-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of oil content reduction and the addition of inulin as a partial oil substitute on the physicochemical, microbiological, and textural characteristics and acceptability during the storage (4 °C for 45 days) of dry-fermented chicken sausage produced with corn oil. Reducing the oil content did not influence the characteristics evaluated but tended to produce sausage with a dark reddish coloration. The addition of inulin did not change the physicochemical and microbiological parameters or the acceptability of the products, but resulted in an altered texture profile and a tendency toward lighter and less reddish coloration, similar to products with standard oil content. Fermented chicken sausages produced with standard amounts of corn oil, reduced amounts of corn oil, and inulin as a partial oil replacement remained stable without a significant loss of physical, chemical, microbiological, or sensory attributes during storage at 4 °C for 45 days.

  8. Environmental assessment for the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Big Hill facility storage of commercial crude oil project, Jefferson County, Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    The Big Hill SPR facility located in Jefferson County, Texas has been a permitted operating crude oil storage site since 1986 with benign environmental impacts. However, Congress has not authorized crude oil purchases for the SPR since 1990, and six storage caverns at Big Hill are underutilized with 70 million barrels of available storage capacity. On February 17, 1999, the Secretary of Energy offered the 70 million barrels of available storage at Big Hill for commercial use. Interested commercial users would enter into storage contracts with DOE, and DOE would receive crude oil in lieu of dollars as rental fees. The site could potentially began to receive commercial oil in May 1999. This Environmental Assessment identified environmental changes that potentially would affect water usage, power usage, and air emissions. However, as the assessment indicates, changes would not occur to a major degree affecting the environment and no long-term short-term, cumulative or irreversible impacts have been identified.

  9. Efficacy and insecticidal properties of some essential oils against Caryedon serratus (Oliver)—a storage pest of groundnut

    OpenAIRE

    Harish, G.; Nataraja, M. V.; Holajjer, Prasanna; Thirumalaisamy, P. P; Jadon, K. S.; Savaliya, S. D.; Padavi, R. D.; Koradia, V. G.; Gedia, M. V.

    2012-01-01

    During storage groundnut is attacked by number of stored grain pest and management of these insect pests particularly bruchid beetle, Caryedon serratus (Oliver) is of prime importance as they directly damage the pod and kernels. Hence, some essential oils were tested for their insecticidal and fungicidal properties. Highest total bruchid mortality was recorded with the application of neem oil and pongamia oil at 10% (v/w) concentration and lowest in eucalyptus oil at 5% (v/w). Number of eggs ...

  10. Marine Lipids (Omega-3 Oil) - Stability of Oil and Enriched Products During Production and Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Nina Skall

    2015-01-01

    The awareness of health benefits of marine lipids with a high content of omega-3 poly unsaturated fatty acids from fish and algae oil has led to an increased intake as oil and in products. However, these lipids are highly susceptible to lipid oxidation, which results in the formation of undesirab...

  11. The economics of carbon dioxide transport by pipeline and storage in saline aquifers and oil reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Sean T.

    Large reductions in carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions are needed to mitigate the impacts of climate change. One method of achieving such reductions is CO2 capture and storage (CCS). CCS requires the capture of carbon dioxide (CO2) at a large industrial facility, such as a power plant, and its transport to a geological storage site where CO2 is sequestered, if implemented, CCS could allow fossil fuels to be used with little or no CO2 emissions until alternative energy sources are more widely deployed. Large volumes of CO2 are most efficiently transported by pipeline and stored either in deep saline aquifers or in oil reservoirs, where CO2 is used for enhanced oil recovery (EOR). This thesis describes a suite of models developed to estimate the project-specific cost of CO2 transport and storage. Engineering-economic models of pipeline CO2 transport, CO2flood EOR, and aquifer storage were developed for this purpose. The models incorporate a probabilistic analysis capability that is used to quantify the sensitivity of transport and storage cost to variability and uncertainty in the model input parameters. The cost of CO2 pipeline transport is shown to be sensitive to the region of construction, in addition to factors such as the length and design capacity of the pipeline. The cost of CO2 storage in saline aquifers is shown to be most sensitive to factors affecting site characterization cost. For EOR projects, CO2 storage has traditionally been a secondary effect of oil recovery; thus, a levelized cost of CO2 storage cannot be defined. Instead EOR projects were evaluated based on the breakeven price of CO2 (i.e., the price of CO2 at which the project net present value is zero). The breakeven CO2 price is shown to be most sensitive to oil prices, losses of CO2 outside the productive zone of the reservoir, and reservoir pressure. Future research should include collection and aggregation of more specific data characterizing possible sites for aquifer storage and applications

  12. Performance Analysis and Parametric Study of a Natural Convection Solar Air Heater With In-built Oil Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhote, Yogesh; Thombre, Shashikant

    2016-10-01

    This paper presents the thermal performance of the proposed double flow natural convection solar air heater with in-built liquid (oil) sensible heat storage. Unused engine oil was used as thermal energy storage medium due to its good heat retaining capacity even at high temperatures without evaporation. The performance evaluation was carried out for a day of the month March for the climatic conditions of Nagpur (India). A self reliant computational model was developed using computational tool as C++. The program developed was self reliant and compute the performance parameters for any day of the year and would be used for major cities in India. The effect of change in storage oil quantity and the inclination (tilt angle) on the overall efficiency of the solar air heater was studied. The performance was tested initially at different storage oil quantities as 25, 50, 75 and 100 l for a plate spacing of 0.04 m with an inclination of 36o. It has been found that the solar air heater gives the best performance at a storage oil quantity of 50 l. The performance of the proposed solar air heater is further tested for various combinations of storage oil quantity (50, 75 and 100 l) and the inclination (0o, 15o, 30o, 45o, 60o, 75o, 90o). It has been found that the proposed solar air heater with in-built oil storage shows its best performance for the combination of 50 l storage oil quantity and 60o inclination. Finally the results of the parametric study was also presented in the form of graphs carried out for a fixed storage oil quantity of 25 l, plate spacing of 0.03 m and at an inclination of 36o to study the behaviour of various heat transfer and fluid flow parameters of the solar air heater.

  13. Effect of temperature and storage time of wheat germ on the oil tocopherol concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Capitani

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Wheat germ represents approximately 3% of the grain and it contains 8-14% oil, which is a rich source of tocopherols (vitamin E and polyunsaturated fatty acids, mainly linoleic acid. The present work shows the influence of temperature (27ºC and 45ºC and storage time (maximum 35 days of the wheat germ on the concentration of tocopherol in the oil. Their effect on other quality parameters was also investigated. Results indicated that oil oxidation and free fatty acid formation increased markedly with temperature and storage time. The initial sample contained 3134 µg/g total tocopherol, of which 67% was α-tocopherol and, in a lower proportions, β-tocopherol and Γ-tocopherol (30.5% and 2.4%, respectively. In the temperature range studied, tocopherols decreased as a function of storage time following first-order kinetics. The rate constant k for β-tocopherol increased with temperature. The fatty acid composition was not affected by the storage conditions applied.

  14. Antioxidant effcacy of unripe banana (Musa acuminata Colla peel extracts in sunflower oil during accelerated storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella Sye Chee Ling

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Sunflower oil is prone to oxidation during storage time, leading to production of toxic com- pounds that might affect human health. Synthetic antioxidants are used to prevent lipid oxidation. Spreading interest in the replacement of synthetic food antioxidants by natural ones has fostered research on fruit and vegetables for new antioxidants. Material and methods. In this study, the efficacy of unripe banana peel extracts (100, 200 and 300 ppm  in stabilizing sunflower oil was tested under accelerated storage (65°C for a period of 24 days. BHA and α-tocopherol served as comparative standards besides the control. Established parameters such as peroxide value (PV, iodine value (IV, p-anisidine value (p-AnV, total oxidation value (TOTOX, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS and free fatty acid (FFA content were used to assess the extent of oil deterioration. Results. After 24 days storage at 65°C, sunflower oil containing 200 and 300 ppm extract of unripe banana peel showed significantly lower PV and TOTOX compared to BHA and α-tocopherol. TBARS, p-AnV and FFA values of sunflower oil containing 200 and 300 ppm of unripe banana peel extract exhibited comparable inhibitory effects with BHA. Unripe banana peel extract at 200 and 300 ppm demonstrated inhibitory effect against both primary and secondary oxidation up to 24 days under accelerated storage conditions. Conclusions. Unripe banana peel extract may be used as a potential source of natural antioxidants in the ap- plication of food industry to suppress lipid oxidation.

  15. Nutritional value of cold-pressed rapeseed oil during long term storage as influenced by the type of packaging material, exposure to light & oxygen and storage temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wroniak, Małgorzata; Rękas, Agnieszka

    2016-02-01

    The effect of various conditions (storage temperature, exposure to light, access of oxygen) and different packaging material (amber glass, amber polyethylene terephthalate) on the nutritional value of cold-pressed rapeseed oil during 12 months of storage was investigated. Quantified quality parameters included: acidity, peroxide value, spectrophotometric indices (K 232 , K 268 ), fatty acid composition, tocopherols and sterols. Storage of oil at 4 °C was found to be most appropriate for maintaining the quality of cold-pressed rapeseed oil. Exposure of oil samples stored at room temperature to light in combination with the access of oxygen caused the most pronounced losses in the total tocopherols (ca. 90-91 % of α-T, and ca. 80-81 % of γ-T), total phytosterols (ca. 15-16 %) and substantial deterioration in oil qualitative properties. Although storage at room temperature is common for use in households, storage of at low temperatures (4 °C) significantly increases the possibility of prolonged shelf life of cold-pressed rapeseed oil.

  16. Influence of storage temperature on quality parameters, phenols and volatile compounds of Croatian virgin olive oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brkić Bubola, K.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The influence of low storage temperature (+4 °C and -20 °C and conventional storage room temperature on the quality parameters, phenolic contents and volatile profiles of Buža, Črna and Rosinjola monovarietal virgin olive oils after 12 months of storage was investigated in this study. Virgin olive oils stored at low temperatures maintained better quality parameters than oils stored at room temperature. A negligible decrease in the total phenols was detected after 12 months of storage at all investigated temperatures. The total volatile compounds, aldehydes, alcohols and esters in almost all stored samples were unchanged compared to fresh oils. Total ketones increased after storage, although at a lower temperature these changes were less notable. An increase in the oxidation indicators hexanal and hexanal/E-2-hexenal ratio was the lowest in oils stored at +4 °C.Storage at temperatures lower than room temperature could help to prolong the shelf-life of extra virgin olive oil by maintaining high quality parameters and preserving the fresh oil’s volatile profile.Se ha estudiado la influencia, durante 12 meses, de temperaturas bajas (+4 °C y −20 °C y convencional (ambiente, sobre los parámetros de calidad, contenido fenólico y perfil de volátiles de aceites de oliva vírgenes monovarietales Buža, Črna y Rosinjola. Los aceites de oliva vírgenes almacenados a bajas temperaturas mantienen mejores propiedades de calidad que los aceites almacenados a temperatura ambiente. Se encontró una disminución no significativa de los fenoles totales después de 12 meses de almacenamiento a todas las temperaturas estudiadas. Los compuestos volátiles totales, aldehídos, alcoholes y ésteres, en casi todas las muestras almacenadas, se mantuvieron sin cambios en comparación con los aceites frescos. Las cetonas totales incrementaron tras el almacenamiento, aunque a temperaturasmas bajas estos cambios fueron menos notables. El incremento de los

  17. 33 CFR 157.208 - Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations Manual for foreign tank vessels: Submission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks... MARINE ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks on Tank Vessels General § 157.208 Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations Manual for foreign tank...

  18. 加油站埋地罐区土壤中油气含量检测方法研究%Research on detection methon of TPH (Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons) in soil of UST (Underground Storage Tank) in gas station

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙晓英; 肖安山; 魏新明; 胡绪尧; 马明

    2014-01-01

    以某加油站埋地罐区为例,针对探地雷达法验证实验的需要,建立了以手动钻孔取样,以有机溶剂二氯甲烷进行萃取,采用气相色谱法进行定量的土壤中油气含量分析方法,并对方法的线性、检出限、加标回收率等进行了研究。气相色谱分析结果表明用二氯甲烷替代四氯化碳作为土壤中油气含量测定的萃取剂,萃取结果良好;探地雷达法测得的1号罐和3号罐泄漏区域土壤中油气含量高达856.4mg/kg和772.3mg/kg,证明探底雷达法可以迅速检测到埋地罐区泄漏区域。%In order to validate the ground penetrating radar ( GPR) method , the gas chromatography test was done . Based on the rule of similarity , the organic solvent methylene dichloride was used for extracting the sample of soil a -round underground storage tank in the gas station .The contents of TPH ( Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons ) in soil was detected by gas chromatography , and the parameters about limit of detection and recovery rate were checked .The result showed that the extraction results was better when carbon tetrachloride was replaced by methylene chloride as extracting agent for the determination of oil and gas content in the soil .The concert of TPH in soil around tank 1 and tank 3 were up to 856.4mg/kg and 772.3mg/kg respectively, and GPR method could quickly detect the leaked area of underground storage tank .

  19. Monitoring endogenous enzymes during olive fruit ripening and storage: correlation with virgin olive oil phenolic profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hachicha Hbaieb, Rim; Kotti, Faten; García-Rodríguez, Rosa; Gargouri, Mohamed; Sanz, Carlos; Pérez, Ana G

    2015-05-01

    The ability of olive endogenous enzymes β-glucosidase, polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POX), to determine the phenolic profile of virgin olive oil was investigated. Olives used for oil production were stored for one month at 20 °C and 4 °C and their phenolic content and enzymatic activities were compared to those of ripening olive fruits. Phenolic and volatile profiles of the corresponding oils were also analysed. Oils obtained from fruits stored at 4 °C show similar characteristics to that of freshly harvested fruits. However, the oils obtained from fruits stored at 20 °C presented the lowest phenolic content. Concerning the enzymatic activities, results show that the β-glucosidase enzyme is the key enzyme responsible for the determination of virgin olive oil phenolic profile as the decrease in this enzyme activity after 3 weeks of storage at 20 °C was parallel to a dramatic decrease in the phenolic content of the oils. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Numerical modeling of heat transfer in the fuel oil storage tank at thermal power plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuznetsova Svetlana A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Presents results of mathematical modeling of convection of a viscous incompressible fluid in a rectangular cavity with conducting walls of finite thickness in the presence of a local source of heat in the bottom of the field in terms of convective heat exchange with the environment. A mathematical model is formulated in terms of dimensionless variables “stream function – vorticity vector speed – temperature” in the Cartesian coordinate system. As the results show the distributions of hydrodynamic parameters and temperatures using different boundary conditions on the local heat source.

  1. Activated carbons from African oil palm waste shells and fibre for hydrogen storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Giraldo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We prepared a series of activated carbons by chemical activation with two strong bases in-group that few use, and I with waste from shell and fibers and oil-palm African. Activated carbons are obtained with relatively high surface areas (1605 m2/g. We study the textural and chemical properties and its effect on hydrogen storage. The activated carbons obtained from fibrous wastes exhibit a high hydrogen storage capacity of 6.0 wt % at 77 K and 12 bar.

  2. Effect of olive storage conditions on Chemlali olive oil quality and the effective role of fatty acids alkyl esters in checking olive oils authenticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabeur, Hazem; Zribi, Akram; Abdelhedi, Ridha; Bouaziz, Mohamed

    2015-02-15

    The present paper accounts for the study of the storage of Chemlali olive fruits at two conditions of limited aerobiosis: in closed plastic bags and in open perforated plastic boxes for different periods before oil extraction. The ultimate objective is to investigate the effect of the container type of the postharvest fruit storage on the deterioration of the olive oil quality. The results have shown that the oil quality of Chemlali olives deteriorated more rapidly during fruit storage in closed plastic bags than in perforated plastic boxes. Therefore, the use of perforated plastic boxes is recommended for keeping the olives for longer periods of storage. The repeated measures analysis of variance of all parameters analyzed indicated that the olive oil quality is mainly affected by the olives storage conditions (containers type and storage periods). Finally, blends of extra-virgin olive oil and mildly deodorized low-quality olive oils can be detected by their alkyl esters concentrations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. AX Tank Farm tank removal study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SKELLY, W.A.

    1998-10-14

    This report considers the feasibility of exposing, demolishing, and removing underground storage tanks from the 241-AX Tank Farm at the Hanford Site. For the study, it was assumed that the tanks would each contain 360 ft{sup 3} of residual waste (corresponding to the one percent residual Inventory target cited in the Tri-Party Agreement) at the time of demolition. The 241-AX Tank Farm is being employed as a ''strawman'' in engineering studies evaluating clean and landfill closure options for Hanford single-shell tank farms. The report is one of several reports being prepared for use by the Hanford Tanks Initiative Project to explore potential closure options and to develop retrieval performance evaluation criteria for tank farms.

  4. AX Tank Farm tank removal study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SKELLY, W.A.

    1998-10-14

    This report considers the feasibility of exposing, demolishing, and removing underground storage tanks from the 241-AX Tank Farm at the Hanford Site. For the study, it was assumed that the tanks would each contain 360 ft{sup 3} of residual waste (corresponding to the one percent residual Inventory target cited in the Tri-Party Agreement) at the time of demolition. The 241-AX Tank Farm is being employed as a ''strawman'' in engineering studies evaluating clean and landfill closure options for Hanford single-shell tank farms. The report is one of several reports being prepared for use by the Hanford Tanks Initiative Project to explore potential closure options and to develop retrieval performance evaluation criteria for tank farms.

  5. Energy fluxes in oil palm plantations as affected by water storage in the trunk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijide, Ana; Röll, Alexander; Fan, Yuanchao; Herbst, Mathias; Niu, Furong; Tiedemann, Frank; June, Tania; Rauf, Abdul; Hölscher, Dirk; Knohl, Alexander

    2017-04-01

    between GPP and T in the morning and the early decreases of both fluxes at midday suggest the existence of internal water storage mechanisms in oil palms both in the leaves and in the stem, which delayed the detection of water movement at the leaf petioles. The combination of our measured data with the model simulations suggest the existence of both external and internal trunk water storage mechanisms in mature oil palms contributing to ecosystem water fluxes. Oil palm plantations can lead to surface warming at early stages of development, but further assessments should be performed at landscape level to understand the climatic feedbacks of oil palm expansion.

  6. Model of the identification of oil tank’s position and the calibration of tank capacity table%储油罐的变位识别与罐容表标定模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    窦霁虹; 梅钰; 陈振勋; 王莉莉

    2011-01-01

    The identification of oil tank’s position and the calibration of tank capacity table were studied.First,the functions of the oil storage and the oil height were inferred when the oil tank position was not changed and was tilted,and two remedy methods of the error were devised.Second,by using remedy methods,the cubic polynomial of the oil height was fitted when the oil’s volume and the systematic error were seen as a whole,then the non-linear optimization model with tilt and deflection was found by using the least squares.Last,according to the real date,the parameters of tilt and deflection were obtained by using searching algorithm,those were α = 4.4,β = 4.9.The tank capacity table was given when the interval was 10 cm,and the part of data was examined.%用数学建模方法试图研究解决储油罐变位识别与罐容表标定问题.首先精确推导了无变位以及纵向倾斜时罐内储油量与油位高度的函数关系,且设计了两种系统误差补偿方法.一种是基于等效思想的δ值法,另一种拟合法.其次,确定变位参数时依然使用补偿思想,将球冠体部分的储油体积和系统误差统一为整体拟合成油位高度h的三次多项式,并应用最小二乘原理建立了同时具有纵向倾斜和横向偏转变位参数的非线性优化模型.最后利用搜索算法得到由实际储油罐的实测数据确定的变位参数α=4.4,β=4.9,将其代入建立的罐容表标定模型,给定油位间隔10 cm,得到了所需罐容表标定值,并利用相关文献中的部分数据进行了检验.

  7. Efficacy and insecticidal properties of some essential oils against Caryedon serratus (Oliver)-a storage pest of groundnut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harish, G; Nataraja, M V; Holajjer, Prasanna; Thirumalaisamy, P P; Jadon, K S; Savaliya, S D; Padavi, R D; Koradia, V G; Gedia, M V

    2014-11-01

    During storage groundnut is attacked by number of stored grain pest and management of these insect pests particularly bruchid beetle, Caryedon serratus (Oliver) is of prime importance as they directly damage the pod and kernels. Hence, some essential oils were tested for their insecticidal and fungicidal properties. Highest total bruchid mortality was recorded with the application of neem oil and pongamia oil at 10% (v/w) concentration and lowest in eucalyptus oil at 5% (v/w). Number of eggs laid was recorded 2.3 in neem oil 10% (v/w) which was lowest and significantly superior over untreated control and was at par with castor oil 10% (v/w) which recorded 2.5 eggs per 100 g of groundnut pods. There was no adult emergence in the groundnut pods treated with castor oil, eucalyptus oil, neem oil and pongamia oil at 10% (v/w) concentration. Groundnut pods treated with castor oil, eucalyptus oil, neem oil and pongamia oil at 10% (v/w) and neem oil at 5% (v/w) concentrations recorded no damage to pods and kernels and also zero per cent weight loss. These oils effectively influenced groundnut bruchid establishment and reduce damage besides reduction in aflatoxin contamination.

  8. A Calculation Method for the Sloshing Impact Pressure Imposed on the Roof of a Passive Water Storage Tank of AP1000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daogang Lu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a large water storage tank installed at the top of containment of AP1000, which can supply the passive cooling. In the extreme condition, sloshing of the free surface in the tank may impact on the roof under long-period earthquake. For the safety assessment of structure, it is necessary to calculate the impact pressure caused by water sloshing. Since the behavior of sloshing impacted on the roof is involved into a strong nonlinear phenomenon, it is a little difficult to calculate such pressure by theoretical or numerical method currently. But it is applicable to calculate the height of sloshing in a tank without roof. In the present paper, a simplified method was proposed to calculate the impact pressure using the sloshing wave height, in which we first marked the position of the height of roof, then produced sloshing in the tank without roof and recorded the maximum wave height, and finally regarded approximately the difference between maximum wave height and roof height as the impact pressure head. We also designed an experiment to verify this method. The experimental result showed that this method overpredicted the impact pressure with a certain error of no more than 35%. By the experiment, we conclude that this method is conservative and applicable for the engineering design.

  9. Design and operation of an aluminium alloy tank using doped Na3AlH6 in kg scale for hydrogen storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbanczyk, R.; Peinecke, K.; Meggouh, M.; Minne, P.; Peil, S.; Bathen, D.; Felderhoff, M.

    2016-08-01

    In this publication the authors present an aluminium alloy tank for hydrogen storage using 1921 g of Na3AlH6 doped with 4 mol% of TiCl3 and 8 mol% of activated carbon. The tank and the heat exchangers are manufactured by extrusion moulding of Al-Mg-Si based alloys. EN AW 6082 T6 alloy is used for the tank and a specifically developed alloy with a composition similar to EN AW 6060 T6 is used for the heat exchangers. The three heat exchangers have a corrugated profile to enhance the surface area for heat transfer. The doped complex hydride Na3AlH6 is densified to a powder density of 0.62 g cm-3. The hydrogenation experiments are carried out at 2.5 MPa. During one of the dehydrogenation experiments approximately 38 g of hydrogen is released, accounting for gravimetric hydrogen density of 2.0 mass-%. With this tank 15 hydrogenation and 16 dehydrogenation tests are carried out.

  10. REPAIR SUMMARY OF LARGE LIQUID AMMONIA STORAGE TANK%大型液氨储罐检修过程综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李大伟

    2012-01-01

    large liquid ammonia storage tank is of a special equipment with highly source of danger and big safety risk existed during the repair, The company has successfully conducted the repair work of theammonia tank with a series of measures including careful organization, draw-up of scheme, risk evaluation and safety management and control and a safe running of the tank is ensured.This complete set of operation regulations and work criteria for the tank repair has formulated and provided valuable experiences for the like.%大型液氨储罐是高危险源特种设备,检修安全风险大。经过周密组织、方案编写、风险评估、安全管控等一系列措施,成功进行了氨罐检修工作,保障了氨罐的安全运行,形成一套完整的氨罐检修操作规程及工作标准。

  11. Corrosion Resistant FBG-Based Quasi-Distributed Sensor for Crude Oil Tank Dynamic Temperature Profile Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério da Silva Marques

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a corrosion resistant, maneuverable, and intrinsically safe fiber Bragg grating (FBG-based temperature optical sensor. Temperature monitoring is a critical activity for the oil and gas industry. It typically involves acquiring the desired parameters in a hazardous and corrosive environment. The use of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE was proposed as a means of simultaneously isolating the optical fiber from the corrosive environment and avoiding undesirable mechanical tensions on the FBGs. The presented sensor head is based on multiple FBGs inscribed in a lengthy single mode fiber. The sensor presents an average thermal sensitivity of 8.82 ± 0.09 pm/°C, resulting in a typical temperature resolution of ~0.1 °C and an average time constant value of 6.25 ± 0.08 s. Corrosion and degradation resistance were verified by infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy during 90 days exposure to high salinity crude oil samples. The developed sensor was tested in a field pilot test, mimicking the operation of an inland crude tank, demonstrating its abilities to dynamically monitor temperature profile.

  12. Production of bioethanol by direct bioconversion of oil-palm industrial effluent in a stirred-tank bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Md Zahangir; Kabbashi, Nassereldeen A; Hussin, S Nahdatul I S

    2009-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of producing bioethanol from palm-oil mill effluent generated by the oil-palm industries through direct bioconversion process. The bioethanol production was carried out through the treatment of compatible mixed cultures such as Thrichoderma harzianum, Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Mucor hiemalis, and yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Simultaneous inoculation of T. harzianum and S. cerevisiae was found to be the mixed culture that yielded the highest ethanol production (4% v/v or 31.6 g/l). Statistical optimization was carried out to determine the operating conditions of the stirred-tank bioreactor for maximum bioethanol production by a two-level fractional factorial design with a single central point. The factors involved were oxygen saturation level (pO(2)%), temperature, and pH. A polynomial regression model was developed using the experimental data including the linear, quadratic, and interaction effects. Statistical analysis showed that the maximum ethanol production of 4.6% (v/v) or 36.3 g/l was achieved at a temperature of 32 degrees C, pH of 6, and pO(2) of 30%. The results of the model validation test under the developed optimum process conditions indicated that the maximum production was increased from 4.6% (v/v) to 6.5% (v/v) or 51.3 g/l with 89.1% chemical-oxygen-demand removal.

  13. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 120: Areas 5 and 6 Aboveground Storage Tanks, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allison Urban

    1999-06-01

    This Closure Report provides documentation for the closure of Corrective Action Unit 120. CAU 120 consists of two Corrective Action Sites located in Areas 5 and 6 of the Nevada Test Site. CAS 05-01-01 is located in Area 5 and consists of three 45,800-liter aboveground storage tanks, piping, and debris associated with Well RNM-1. CAS 06-01-01 in Area 6 consists of two aboveground storage tanks and two tanker trailers All the CAU 120 items have been used to convey or contain radiologically contaminated fluid from post-nuclear event activities at the NTS> Closure of this CAU was completed by collecting samples to identify the appropriate method of disposal for tanks, piping, debris, and tankers in each CAS. Placing low-level radioactive waste into the appropriate containers and disposing of waste in the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site, the Area 9 10C Landfill, and the Area 3 Radioactive Waste Management Site.

  14. Work plan and health and safety plan for Building 3019B underground storage tank at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burman, S.N.; Brown, K.S.; Landguth, D.C.

    1992-08-01

    As part of the Underground Storage Tank Program at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, this Health and Safety Plan has been developed for removal of the 110-gal leaded fuel underground storage tank (UST) located in the Building 3019B area at ORNL This Health and Safety Plan was developed by the Measurement Applications and Development Group of the Health and Safety Research Division at ORNL The major components of the plan follow: (1) A project description that gives the scope and objectives of the 110-gal tank removal project and assigns responsibilities, in addition to providing emergency information for situations occurring during field operations; (2) a health and safety plan in Sect. 15 for the Building 3019B UST activities, which describes general site hazards and particular hazards associated with specific tasks, personnel protection requirements and mandatory safety procedures; and (3) discussion of the proper form completion and reporting requirements during removal of the UST. This document addresses Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) requirements in 29 CFR 1910.120 with respect to all aspects of health and safety involved in a UST removal. In addition, the plan follows the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) QAMS 005/80 (1980) format with the inclusion of the health and safety section (Sect. 15).

  15. Work plan and health and safety plan for Building 3019B underground storage tank at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burman, S.N.; Brown, K.S.; Landguth, D.C.

    1992-08-01

    As part of the Underground Storage Tank Program at the Department of Energy`s Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, this Health and Safety Plan has been developed for removal of the 110-gal leaded fuel underground storage tank (UST) located in the Building 3019B area at ORNL This Health and Safety Plan was developed by the Measurement Applications and Development Group of the Health and Safety Research Division at ORNL The major components of the plan follow: (1) A project description that gives the scope and objectives of the 110-gal tank removal project and assigns responsibilities, in addition to providing emergency information for situations occurring during field operations; (2) a health and safety plan in Sect. 15 for the Building 3019B UST activities, which describes general site hazards and particular hazards associated with specific tasks, personnel protection requirements and mandatory safety procedures; and (3) discussion of the proper form completion and reporting requirements during removal of the UST. This document addresses Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) requirements in 29 CFR 1910.120 with respect to all aspects of health and safety involved in a UST removal. In addition, the plan follows the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) QAMS 005/80 (1980) format with the inclusion of the health and safety section (Sect. 15).

  16. Glutathione preservation during storage of rat lenses in optisol-GS and castor oil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Holm

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Glutathione concentration in the lens decreases in aging and cataractous lenses, providing a marker for tissue condition. Experimental procedures requiring unfrozen lenses from donor banks rely on transportation in storage medium, affecting lens homeostasis and alterations in glutathione levels. The aim of the study was to examine the effects of Optisol-GS and castor oil on lens condition, determined from their ability to maintain glutathione concentrations. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Rat lenses were stored in the two types of storage media at varying time intervals up to 3 days. Glutathione concentration was afterwards determined in an enzymatic detection assay, specific for both reduced and oxidized forms. Lenses removed immediately after death exhibited a glutathione concentration of 4.70±0.29 mM. In vitro stored lenses in Optisol-GS lost glutathione quickly, ending with a concentration of 0.60±0.34 mM after 3 days while castor oil stored lenses exhibited a slower decline and ended at 3 times the concentration. A group of lenses were additionally stored under post mortem conditions within the host for 6 hours before its removal. Total glutathione after 6 hours was similar to that of lenses removed immediately after death, but with altered GSH and GSSG concentrations. Subsequent storage of these lenses in media showed changes similar to those in the first series of experiments, albeit to a lesser degree. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: It was determined that storage in Optisol-GS resulted in a higher loss of glutathione than lenses stored in castor oil. Storage for more than 12 hours reduced glutathione to half its original concentration, and was considered unusable after 24 hours.

  17. Glutathione Preservation during Storage of Rat Lenses in Optisol-GS and Castor Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Thomas; Brøgger-Jensen, Martin Rocho; Johnson, Leif; Kessel, Line

    2013-01-01

    Background Glutathione concentration in the lens decreases in aging and cataractous lenses, providing a marker for tissue condition. Experimental procedures requiring unfrozen lenses from donor banks rely on transportation in storage medium, affecting lens homeostasis and alterations in glutathione levels. The aim of the study was to examine the effects of Optisol-GS and castor oil on lens condition, determined from their ability to maintain glutathione concentrations. Methodology/Principal Findings Rat lenses were stored in the two types of storage media at varying time intervals up to 3 days. Glutathione concentration was afterwards determined in an enzymatic detection assay, specific for both reduced and oxidized forms. Lenses removed immediately after death exhibited a glutathione concentration of 4.70±0.29 mM. In vitro stored lenses in Optisol-GS lost glutathione quickly, ending with a concentration of 0.60±0.34 mM after 3 days while castor oil stored lenses exhibited a slower decline and ended at 3 times the concentration. A group of lenses were additionally stored under post mortem conditions within the host for 6 hours before its removal. Total glutathione after 6 hours was similar to that of lenses removed immediately after death, but with altered GSH and GSSG concentrations. Subsequent storage of these lenses in media showed changes similar to those in the first series of experiments, albeit to a lesser degree. Conclusions/Significance It was determined that storage in Optisol-GS resulted in a higher loss of glutathione than lenses stored in castor oil. Storage for more than 12 hours reduced glutathione to half its original concentration, and was considered unusable after 24 hours. PMID:24260265

  18. 内罐泄漏条件下LNG储罐外罐地震响应分析%Seismic Response Analysis on Outer Wall of LNG Storage Tank under the Inner Tank Leakage Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周利剑; 黄兢; 王向英; 范远刚

    2012-01-01

    针对内罐泄漏条件下LNG(液化天然气)储罐混凝土外罐,采用不同场地、不同方向地震波对其进行地震响应分析,得出地震波波形及方向对储罐外罐的地震响应的影响.结果表明:坚硬场地垂直向地震波对外罐加速度的影响较小,其他场地垂直向地震波对外罐的加速度影响较大,特别是软弱场地的影响最大;垂直向地震波对外罐有效应力的影响很小.%Seismic response analysis on outer wall of LNG storage tank under the inner tank leakage conditions is performed. Influence of different earthquake waveforms and the directions on tank's seismic respond is discussed. The results show that the vertical seismic wave in hard field has less influence on acceleration distribution, specially, the however vertical seismic wave in other locations has great influence on acceleration distribution specially, the impact is greatest in the soft location. The vertical seismic wave has very small effect on effective stress of the outer wall.

  19. Chinese and Foreign Experts Interested in Underground Gas Storage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    @@ To promote the oil technological exchange between China and the international community, the China-Canada Alberta Petroleum Center sponsored a three-day workshop on natural gas storage technology at PetroChina Dagang Oil Field Company from August 26 to 28.A total of more than 70 Chinese and foreign experts exchanged views and opinions on design,construction, operation and management of natural gas storage tanks.

  20. Calculation and analysis on safe distance of pool fire from storage tank%储罐池火安全距离计算分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李果

    2015-01-01

    The thermal radiation of pool fire of storage tank is calculated by software simulation,which is based on Mudan calculation.The safe distance of equipment and personnel are established in accordance with damage criteria of thermal radiation, which will be helpful for accidents rescue and layout of tanks and other facilities.%基于Mudan计算法,运用软件模拟计算储罐池火灾的热辐射影响范围,根据热辐射破坏准则得出设备和人员的安全距离,为站场储罐与其他工艺装置设备间距布置、事故救援提供参考依据.