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Sample records for oil sludge dispersant

  1. Dispersed plug flow model for upflow anaerobic sludge bed reactors with focus on granular sludge dynamics

    Kalyuzhnyi, S.V.; Fedorovich, V.V.; Lens, P.N.L.

    2006-01-01

    A new approach to model upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB)-reactors, referred to as a one-dimensional dispersed plug flow model, was developed. This model focusses on the granular sludge dynamics along the reactor height, based on the balance between dispersion, sedimentation and convection using

  2. Separation of oil and grease from oil sludge using surfactant

    Ainon Abdul Aziz; Syed Hakimi Sakuma Syed Ahmad; Zalina Laili

    2005-01-01

    The objective of the experiments was to observe the efficiency of the surfactant to remove oil and grease from oil sludges using various surfactant concentration ranging from 10 %, 15 %, 20 % and 30 %. The surfactant solution consists of two mixtures of Aqua 2000 and D Bond. The oil sludge were subjected to heating and surfactant treatment process. Remaining oil and grease concentration were observed on the oil sludges after treatment. Small scale experiments were conducted by heating process, without heating process and heating process with addition of sodium chloride. Surfactant solution was added in each process. Results shows that there is separation of oil and grease from the oil sludges. There were formation of mini emulsions (oil in water). The higher the concentration of surfactant used, the higher the concentrations of mini emulsion formed as observed. Solid remains after the treatment process were found to contain lesser oil concentration with presence of bitumen, sediment, organic and inorganic materials. After a washing process using distilled water, the solid was still black but less oily than before the treatment. There is no separation of oil occurred in aqueous solution for the control experiment. (Author)

  3. Sludge derived fuel technique of sewage sludge by oil vacuum evaporation drying

    Kim, Seokhwan; Lim, Byungran; Lee, Sookoo

    2010-01-01

    Sewage sludge contains high content of organic materials and its water content is also very high about 80% even after filtration process. Landfill as a sludge treatment methods can cause odor problem and leachate production which can derive the secondary contamination of soil and groundwater. The ocean dumping will be prohibited according to the London Convention and domestic stringent environmental regulation. Based on domestic agenda on organic sewage sludge treatment, the ocean disposal will be prohibited from 2012, thus alternative methods are demanded. Sludge derived fuel (SDF) technology can alleviate the emission of greenhouse gas and recover energy from sludge. For proper treatment and SDF production from sludge, the vacuum evaporation and immersion frying technology was adopted in this research. This technology dries moisture in sludge after mixing with oil such as Bunker C oil, waste oil or waste food oil etc. Mixing sludge and oil secures liquidity of organic sludge to facilitate handling throughout the drying process. The boiling temperature could be maintained low through vacuum condition in whole evaporation process. This study was performed to find the optimum operating temperature and pressure, the mixing ratio of sludge and oil. Finally, we could obtained SDF which moisture content was less than 5%, its heating value was over 4,500 kcal/ kg sludge. This heating value could satisfy the Korean Fuel Standard for the Recycle Products. Assessed from the perspective of energy balance and economic evaluation, this sludge drying system could be widely used for the effective sludge treatment and the production of SDF. (author)

  4. Factors of enzymatic biodiesel production from sludge palm oil (SPO ...

    ika

    2013-07-31

    Jul 31, 2013 ... Biodiesel is a non-toxic, renewable and environmental friendly fuel. This study ... of biodiesel from sludge palm oil (SPO), a low-cost waste oil via enzymatic catalysis. ... Increasing energy crisis and environmental concerns by.

  5. Microbial enhanced separation of oil from a petroleum refinery sludge.

    Joseph, P J; Joseph, Ammini

    2009-01-15

    Petroleum refineries around the world have adopted different technological options to manage the solid wastes generated during the refining process and stocking of crude oil. These include physical, chemical and biological treatment methods. In this investigation bacterial mediated oil separation is effected. Two strains of Bacillus were isolated from petroleum-contaminated soils, and inoculated into slurry of sludge, and sludge-sand combinations. The bacteria could effect the separation of oil so as to form a floating scum within 48h with an efficiency of 97% at < or =5% level of sludge in the sludge-sand mixture. The activity was traced to the production of biosurfactants by bacteria.

  6. Oil and coal from sewage sludge

    Naumann, H

    1981-01-01

    Under the leadership of professor Ernst Bayer a research group of Tuebingen succeeded in producing oil and coal from sewage sludge. The conversion of biomass into fossil fuels which in nature can only be calculated in historical periods of time is here brought about by the use of a catalyst on the basis of silicate and aluminium oxide, dopened with copper. First breakeven evaluations have given a real chance to be able to operate economically in a large scale plant the process being developed in laboratory tests.

  7. Effectiveness of dispersants on thick oil slicks

    Ross, S.; Belore, R.

    1993-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to determine the relationship between dispersant effectiveness and oil slick thickness, and thereby determine the optimum time for applying dispersant onto spilled oil at sea. Tests were completed at a lab-scale level by varying the three parameters of oil type, dispersant application, and oil thickness. The tests were intended to be comparative only. The primary oils used were Alberta sweet mix blend and Hibernia B-27 crude. The dispersant, Corexit 9527, was applied either premixed with the oil, dropwise in one application, or dropwise in multiple applications to simulate a multi-hit aircraft operation. The apparatus used in the experiment was an oscillating hoop tank, with oil-containing rings used to obtain and maintain uniform slick thickness. The results indicate that the effectiveness potential of a chemical dispersant does not decrease as slick thickness increases. In fact, results of the tests involving Hibernia oil suggest that oils that tend to herd easily would be treated more effectively if dispersant were applied when the oil was relatively thick (1 mm or greater) to avoid herding problems. The oil slicks premixed with dispersant did not disperse well in the thick oil tests, not because of dispersant-oil interaction problems but because of reduced mixing energy. 6 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  8. Biodegradation studies of oil sludge containing high hydrocarbons concentration

    Olguin-Lora, P.; Munoz-Colunga, A.; Castorena-Cortes, G.; Roldan-Carrillo, T.; Quej Ake, L.; Reyes-Avila, J.; Zapata-Penasco, I.; Marin-Cruz, J.

    2009-01-01

    Oil industry has a significant impact on environment due to the emission of, dust, gases, waste water and solids generated during oil production all the way to basic petrochemical product manufacturing stages. the aim of this work was to evaluate the biodegradation of sludge containing high hydrocarbon concentration originated by a petroleum facility. A sludge sampling was done at the oil residuals pool (ORP) on a gas processing center. (Author)

  9. Enzymatic biodiesel production from sludge palm oil (SPO) using ...

    Biodiesel is a non-toxic, renewable and environmental friendly fuel. This study involved the production of biodiesel from sludge palm oil (SPO), a low-cost waste oil via enzymatic catalysis. The enzyme catalyst was a Candida cylindracea lipase, locally-produced using palm oil mill effluent as the low cost based medium.

  10. Biological degradation of oil sludge: A review of the current state of ...

    The adverse effects of oil sludge on soil ecology and fertility have been of ... of contaminated land, with a view to making such land available for further use. Oil ... on the biological remediation technologies employed in the treatment oil sludge.

  11. Review on innovative techniques in oil sludge bioremediation

    Mahdi, Abdullah M. El; Aziz, Hamidi Abdul; Eqab, Eqab Sanoosi

    2017-10-01

    Petroleum hydrocarbon waste is produced in worldwide refineries in significant amount. In Libya, approximately 10,000 tons of oil sludge is generated in oil refineries (hydrocarbon waste mixtures) annually. Insufficient treatment of those wastes can threaten the human health and safety as well as our environment. One of the major challenges faced by petroleum refineries is the safe disposal of oil sludge generated during the cleaning and refining process stages of crude storage facilities. This paper reviews the hydrocarbon sludge characteristics and conventional methods for remediation of oil hydrocarbon from sludge. This study intensively focuses on earlier literature to describe the recently selected innovation technology in oily hydrocarbon sludge bioremediation process. Conventional characterization parameters or measurable factors can be gathered in chemical, physical, and biological parameters: (1) Chemical parameters are consequently necessary in the case of utilization of topsoil environment when they become relevant to the presence of nutrients and toxic compounds; (2) Physical parameters provide general data on sludge process and hand ability; (3) Biological parameters provide data on microbial activity and organic matter presence, which will be used to evaluate the safety of the facilities. The objective of this research is to promote the bioremediating oil sludge feasibility from Marsa El Hariga Terminal and Refinery (Tobruk).

  12. Radioactivity partitioning of oil sludge undergoing incineration process

    Muhamat Omar; Suhaimi Hamzah; Muhd Noor Muhd Yunus

    1997-01-01

    Oil sludge waste is a controlled item under the Atomic Energy Act (Act 304) 1984 of which the radioactivity content shall be subjected to analysis. Apart from that the treatment method also shall be approved by Atomic Energy Licensing Board (AELB). Thus, an analysis of the oil sludge for MSE fluidized incinerator was conducted to comply with above requirements using various techniques. Further screening analysis of fly ash as well as bed material were done to study the effect of incinerating the sludge. This paper highlights the analysis techniques and discusses the results with respect to the radioactivity level and the fate of radionuclides subjected to the processing of the waste

  13. Do oil dispersants make spilled oil more toxic to fish?

    Hodson, P.

    2010-01-01

    The Deepwater Horizon blowout in the Gulf of Mexico was the world's largest oil spill in terms of duration and volume spilled. Clean-up operations, which involved the continuous and wide-spread use of oil dispersant at the surface and at the seabed discharge point at 1500 metres depth, gave rise to public concern about dispersant toxicity. Reports from the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) claimed little difference in acute toxicity to marine fish and invertebrate species among commonly available dispersants and between dispersed and non-dispersed Louisiana Sweet Crude. Technically, the toxicity of waterborne hydrocarbons does not vary with chemical dispersion. However, the EPA omitted any consideration of loading, and misled the public about the risks of dispersant use in oil clean-up. This study examined the chronic toxicity of dispersed oil to fish embryos. The study revealed that toxicity expressed as oil loading increases by a factor of 10 to 1000 times with dispersion, largely because 10 to 1000 times more oil enters the water column. Since the action of dispersant is on the exposure component of the risk equation, not on the potency of the toxic components of oil, then the risk of oil toxicity to fish increases an equivalent amount.

  14. Improved waste-activated sludge dewatering using sludge/oil ...

    2014-10-07

    Oct 7, 2014 ... 2Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Hanyang University, 222 Wangsimni-Ro, Seongdong-Gu, Seoul 133-791, ... conventional heating methods in chemical reactions is becom- ... the dewaterability of sludge and reduces the organic matter ..... It is unlikely that this technique will be applied in.

  15. The evaporative drying of sludge by immersion in hot oil: Effects of oil type and temperature

    Ohm, Tae-In, E-mail: tiohm1@hanbat.ac.kr [Department of Environmental Engineering, Hanbat National University, San 16-1 Duckmyung-dong, Yusung-gu, Daejeon 305-719 (Korea, Republic of); Chae, Jong-Seong; Lim, Kwang-Soo [Department of Environmental Engineering, Hanbat National University, San 16-1 Duckmyung-dong, Yusung-gu, Daejeon 305-719 (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Seung-Hyun [Waste Energy Research Center, Korea Institute of Energy Research, Jang-dong Yusung-gu, Daejeon 305-343 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-06-15

    We investigated the evaporative drying by immersion in hot oil (EDIHO) method for drying sludge. This involved heating oil to a temperature higher than that needed for moisture to be evaporated from the sludge by turbulent heat and mass transfer. We fry-dried sewage and leather plant sludge for 10 min in each of four different oils (waste engine, waste cooking, refined waste, and B-C heavy) and three different temperatures (140 deg. C, 150 deg. C, and 160 deg. C). Drying efficiency was found to be greater for higher temperatures. However, giving consideration to energy efficiency we suggest that the optimal temperature for fry-drying sludge is 150 deg. C. At 150 deg. C, the water content of sewage sludge reduced from 78.9% to between 1.5% (with waste cooking oil) and 3.8% (with waste engine oil). The reduction in water content for leather plant sludge fry-dried at 150 deg. C was from 81.6% to between 1% (with waste cooking oil) and 6.5% (with refined waste oil). The duration of the constant rate-drying period was also influenced by the type of oil used: refined waste oil > waste engine oil > B-C heavy oil > waste cooking oil. The duration at 150 deg. C with waste cooking oil was 3 min for sewage sludge and 2 min for leather plant sludge. It is likely that the drying characteristics of oil are influenced by its thermal properties, including its specific heat, and molecular weight.

  16. The evaporative drying of sludge by immersion in hot oil: Effects of oil type and temperature

    Ohm, Tae-In; Chae, Jong-Seong; Lim, Kwang-Soo; Moon, Seung-Hyun

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the evaporative drying by immersion in hot oil (EDIHO) method for drying sludge. This involved heating oil to a temperature higher than that needed for moisture to be evaporated from the sludge by turbulent heat and mass transfer. We fry-dried sewage and leather plant sludge for 10 min in each of four different oils (waste engine, waste cooking, refined waste, and B-C heavy) and three different temperatures (140 deg. C, 150 deg. C, and 160 deg. C). Drying efficiency was found to be greater for higher temperatures. However, giving consideration to energy efficiency we suggest that the optimal temperature for fry-drying sludge is 150 deg. C. At 150 deg. C, the water content of sewage sludge reduced from 78.9% to between 1.5% (with waste cooking oil) and 3.8% (with waste engine oil). The reduction in water content for leather plant sludge fry-dried at 150 deg. C was from 81.6% to between 1% (with waste cooking oil) and 6.5% (with refined waste oil). The duration of the constant rate-drying period was also influenced by the type of oil used: refined waste oil > waste engine oil > B-C heavy oil > waste cooking oil. The duration at 150 deg. C with waste cooking oil was 3 min for sewage sludge and 2 min for leather plant sludge. It is likely that the drying characteristics of oil are influenced by its thermal properties, including its specific heat, and molecular weight.

  17. Characterization of oily sludge from a Tehran oil refinery.

    Heidarzadeh, Nima; Gitipour, Saeid; Abdoli, Mohammad Ali

    2010-10-01

    In this study, oily sludge samples generated from a Tehran oil refinery (Pond I) were evaluated for their contamination levels and to propose an adequate remediation technique for the wastes. A simple, random, sampling method was used to collect the samples. The samples were analyzed to measure Total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH), polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and heavy metal concentrations in the sludge. Statistical analysis showed that seven samples were adequate to assess the sludge with respect to TPH analyses. The mean concentration of TPHs in the samples was 265,600 mg kg⁻¹. A composite sample prepared from a mix of the seven samples was used to determine the sludge's additional characteristics. Composite sample analysis showed that there were no detectable amounts of PAHs in the sludge. In addition, mean concentrations of the selected heavy metals Ni, Pb, Cd and Zn were 2700, 850, 100, 6100 mg kg⁻¹, respectively. To assess the sludge contamination level, the results from the analysis above were compared with soil clean-up levels. Due to a lack of national standards for soil clean-up levels in Iran, sludge pollutant concentrations were compared with standards set in developed countries. According to these standards, the sludge was highly polluted with petroleum hydrocarbons. The results indicated that incineration, biological treatment and solidification/stabilization treatments would be the most appropriate methods for treatment of the sludges. In the case of solidification/stabilization, due to the high organic content of the sludge, it is recommended to use organophilic clays prior to treatment of the wastes.

  18. Treatment of petroleum industry oil sludge by Rhodotorula sp

    Shailubhai, K.; Rao, N.N.; Modi, V.V.

    1984-06-01

    A Rhodotorula sp., isolated from soil, which showed a versatile capacity to degrade various aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons, was used to treat oil sludge. As a result of treatment, there was significant decrease in BOD, COD and contents of various petroleum fractions. The susceptibility to degradation was in the following order: saturate fraction >aromatic fraction> asphaltic fraction.

  19. Studies on sludge from waxy crude oil storage tank. II. Solvent fractionation

    Fazal, S.A.; Zarapkar, S.S.; Joshi, G.C. [D.G. Ruparel College, Bombay (India). Dept. of Chemistry

    1995-12-31

    The sludge formed from crude oil (Bombay Hindu Crude oil) dump storage has been analysed by solvent extraction with a series of solvents of increasing polarity. The extract fractions so obtained have been analysed extensively. The nature of the sludge is compared with the similar sludges reported by other workers. 9 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Bioavailability of chemically-dispersed crude oil

    Harris, B.C.; Bonner, J.S.; McDonald, T.J.; Fuller, C.B.; Page, C.A.; Dimitriou-Christidis, P.; Sterling, M.C.; Autenrieth, R.L.

    2002-01-01

    Oil spills can be treated with surfactant compounds to disperse them. This method enables the hydrophobic compounds to overcome their repulsion for water, enter the water phase and be diluted. Once in the water, the biodegradation fraction of the oil biodegrades over time and the residual fraction is deposited over a large area. One major issue which is not fully understood is whether oil compounds pass through the water phase to free floating cells or directly enter oil-attached microbial cells from the oil particle. In this study, crude oil was placed in a swirling flask with Corpus Christi Bay water and was then chemically dispersed with Corexit 9500. The biodegradation was then monitored and assessed. First order rate coefficients were determined based on the disappearance of specific compounds. The rate coefficients for total target PAHs were consistent for all tests. Napthalene, phenanthrene, dibenzothiophene and their alkylated homologs were among the target compounds. The trend was also observed for total target analytes and for total target saturates. The results indicate that the biodegradation rate coefficient was not dependent on the bulk concentration of oil in the water column. It was concluded that biodegradation rates was controlled by partitioning of the compounds between the two phases, and other factors such as particle size distribution and the capability of the microbial culture, temperature and nutrients. 13 refs., 1 tab., 6 figs

  1. Improved surfactants formulation for remediation of oil sludge recovery

    Syed Hakimi Sakuma Syed Ahmad; Shahidan Radiman

    2000-01-01

    Surfactant enhanced remediation based on mobilisation of the residual NAPLs (oil sludge) which is radioactive depends on the tendency of the surfactants to lower interfacial tension. Mobilisation has greater potential than solubilisation to increase the rate of remediation. Optimised surfactants formulation was determined with concentration of Aqua 2000 and D Bond of 1% wt respectively, sodium chloride concentration of 2 gmL -1 and addition of 3% wt butanol as cosolvent. The formulation was of benefit not only able to decrease further the interfacial tension of aqueous solution containing oil emulsion, but also to make possible to be more mobile and destruction of mixed liquid crystals that formed. Formation of liquid crystals can hinders significantly recovery efficiency of aqueous solution containing oil emulsion in field remediation work. In a 100 litres soil column experiment conducted containing oil emulsion in field sludge soil and using the surfactants formulation for flushing, miniemulsion formed sizes maintained at average size between 125 nm and 280 nm before and after remediation. Total oil and grease concentration removed from the soil were significant due to the decreased in oil emulsion sizes, increase mobility and solubility. (Author)

  2. Oil Dispersion with Abamectin as Active Ingredient

    Slavica Gašić

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abamectin was developed as an insecticide, nematocide and acaricide for use on a varietyof agricultural and horticultural crops. The products with this active ingredient can befound on the market mostly formulated as emulsifiable concentrate (EC. Usually producersrecommend using the EC formulation of abamectin together with some kind of adjuvants(natural oils to improve efficacy of the active ingredient. To overcome the efficacy problemwe tried to formulate the active ingredient abamectin as oil dispersion (OD. Oil dispersion,preferably based on naturally derived oils could improve pesticide efficacy. This type of pesticideformulation contains oil instead of water as in classical suspension concentrate andtypically has better retention and coverage. In the case of abamectin, in this investigationsoybean oil was used with the mixture of different nonionic emulsifiers. Content of abamecetinin formulation was 1.8 %. The developed formulation was tested for few importantparameters. The obtained physicochemical properties for the above mentioned formulationhave shown that it is stable and could be used in plant protection.

  3. Isolation of Asphaltene-Degrading Bacteria from Sludge Oil

    Pingkan Aditiawati

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Sludge oil contains 30%–50% hydrocarbon fractions that comprise saturated fractions, aromatics, resins, and asphaltene. Asphaltene fraction is the most persistent fraction. In this research, the indigenous bacteria that can degrade asphaltene fractions from a sludge oil sample from Balikpapan that was isolated using BHMS medium (Bushnell-Hass Mineral Salt with 0.01% (w/v yeast extract, 2% (w/v asphaltene extract, and 2% (w/v sludge oil. The ability of the four isolates to degrade asphaltene fractions was conducted by the biodegradation asphaltene fractions test using liquid cultures in a BHMS medium with 0.01% (w/v yeast extract and 2% (w/v asphaltene extract as a carbon source. The parameters measured during the process of biodegradation of asphaltene fractions include the quantification of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon (g, log total number of bacteria (CFU/ml, and pH. There are four bacteria (isolates 1, 2, 3, and 4 that have been characterized to degrade asphaltic fraction and have been identified as Bacillus sp. Lysinibacillus fusiformes, Acinetobacter sp., and Mycobacterium sp., respectively. The results showed that the highest ability to degrade asphaltene fractions is that of Bacillus sp. (isolate 1 and Lysinibacillus fusiformes (Isolate 2, with biodegradation percentages of asphaltene fractions being 50% and 55%, respectively, and growth rate at the exponential phase is 7.17x107 CFU/mL.days and 4.21x107 CFU/mL.days, respectively.

  4. Recycling of radioactive oil sludge waste into pavement brick

    Meor Yusoff Meor Sulaiman; Hishamuddin Hussein; Choo Thye Foo; Nurul Wahida Ahmad Khairuddin; MAsliana MUslimin; Wilfred Sylvester Paulus

    2010-01-01

    Malaysia produces about 1450 tons of radioactive oil sludge waste per year and there is an urgent need to find a permanent solution to the storage and disposal of this radioactive waste problem. Several treatment methods such bacteria farming, ultracentrifuge, steam reforming and incineration are currently being used but the core issue of the radioactive material in the oil sludge had not been solved. The paper relates a study on utilizing the radioactive component of the oil sludge and turning them into pavement brick. Characteristic study of this radioactive component by XRD and XRF show that it mainly comprised of quartz and anorthite minerals. While the radioactivity analysis by gamma technique shows that more than 90 % of this radioactivity comes from this soil component with Ra-226 and Ra-228 as the main radionuclides. A vitrified brick was then produced from this sediment by mixing it with low radioactive local red clay. The result also shows that the formation of the vitrified layer may be due high content of K in the red clay. Tensile test on the brick shows that it has more than four times the strength of commercial clay brick. Long duration leaching test on the brick also shows that there is no dissolution of radionuclide from the brick. (author)

  5. Effects of palm oil mill effluent (POME) anaerobic sludge from 500 m ...

    In this study, co-composting of pressed-shredded empty fruit bunches (EFB) and palm oil mill effluent (POME) anaerobic sludge from 500 m3 closed anaerobic methane digested tank was carried out. High nitrogen and nutrients content were observed in the POME anaerobic sludge. The sludge was subjected to the ...

  6. Combustion of crude oil sludge containing naturally occurring radioactive material

    Mohamad Puad Abu; Muhd Noor Muhd Yunus; Shamsuddin, A.H.; Sopian, K.

    2000-01-01

    The characteristics of crude oil sludge fi-om the crude oil terminal are very unique because it contains both heavy metals and also Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (NORM). As a result, the Department of Environmental (DOE) and the Atomic Energy Licensing Board (AELB) considered it as Scheduled Wastes and Low Level Radioactive Waste (LLRW) respectively. As a Scheduled Wastes, there is no problem in dealing with the disposal of it since there already exist a National Center in Bukit Nanas to deal with this type of waste. However, the Center could not manage this waste due to the presence of NORM by which the policy regarding the disposal of this kind of waste has not been well established. This situation is unclear to certain parties, especially with respect to the relevant authorities having final jurisdiction over the issue as well as the best practical method of disposal of this kind of waste. Existing methods of treatment viewed both from literature and current practice include that of land farming, storing in plastic drum, re-injection into abandoned oil well, recovery, etc., found some problems. Due to its organic nature, very low level in radioactivity and the existence of a Scheduled Waste incineration facility in Bukit Nanas, there is a potential to treat this sludge by using thermal treatment technology. However, prior to having this suggestion to be put into practice, there are issues that need to be addressed. This paper attempts to discuss the potentials and the related issues of combusting crude oil sludge based on existing experimental data as well as mathematical modeling

  7. Oil spill dispersants induce formation of marine snow by phytoplankton-associated bacteria.

    van Eenennaam, Justine S; Wei, Yuzhu; Grolle, Katja C F; Foekema, Edwin M; Murk, AlberTinka J

    2016-03-15

    Unusually large amounts of marine snow, including Extracellular Polymeric Substances (EPS), were formed during the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill. The marine snow settled with oil and clay minerals as an oily sludge layer on the deep sea floor. This study tested the hypothesis that the unprecedented amount of chemical dispersants applied during high phytoplankton densities in the Gulf of Mexico induced high EPS formation. Two marine phytoplankton species (Dunaliella tertiolecta and Phaeodactylum tricornutum) produced EPS within days when exposed to the dispersant Corexit 9500. Phytoplankton-associated bacteria were shown to be responsible for the formation. The EPS consisted of proteins and to lesser extent polysaccharides. This study reveals an unexpected consequence of the presence of phytoplankton. This emphasizes the need to test the action of dispersants under realistic field conditions, which may seriously alter the fate of oil in the environment via increased marine snow formation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of oil palm sludge on cowpea nodulation and weed control in ...

    A field trial was conducted at the Rivers State University of Science and Technology Research and Training farm Port Harcourt to test the effect of oil palm sludge on cowpea nodulation and weed control. The cultivars of cowpea used were Dan Kano, Bornu local and Sokoto local while the oil palm sludge levels applied ...

  9. Effects of chemical dispersants on oil physical properties and dispersion. Volume 1

    Khelifa, A.; Fingas, M.; Hollebone, B.P.; Brown, C.E.; Pjontek, D.

    2007-01-01

    Laboratory and field testing have shown that the dispersion of oil spilled in water is influenced by chemical dispersants via the modification of the interfacial properties of the oil, such as oil-brine interfacial tension (IFT). This study focused on new laboratory experiments that measured the effects on the physical properties and dispersion of oil, with particular reference to the effects of chemical dispersants on IFT and oil viscosity and the subsequent effects on oil droplet formation. Experiments were conducted at 15 degrees C using Arabian Medium, Alaska North Slope and South Louisiana crude and Corexit 9500 and Corexit 9527 chemical dispersants. The dispersants were denser than the 3 oils. The effect of IFT reduction on oil dispersion was measured and showed substantial reduction in the size and enhancement of the concentration of oil droplets in the water column. It was shown that the brine-oil IFT associated with the 3 crudes reduced to less than 3.6 mN/m with the application of the chemical dispersants, even at a low dispersant-to-oil ratio (DOR) value of 1:200. The use of chemical dispersants increased the viscosity of the dispersant-oil mixture up to 40 per cent over the neat crude oil. It was shown that for each mixing condition, an optimum value of DOR exists that provides for maximal dispersant effectiveness. The IFT reaches maximum reduction at optimum DOR. It was suggested that oil spill modelling can be improved with further study of IFT reduction with DOR and variations of critical micelle concentration with the type and solubility of chemical dispersant, oil type and oil to water ratio. 13 refs., 3 tabs., 7 figs

  10. Oil sludge treatment using thermal and ash vitrification technology

    Rohyiza Baan; Sharifah Aishah, S.A.K.; Mohamad Puad Abu; Mohd Abdul Wahab Yusof

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, an experimental study of crude oil sludge terminal for volume reduction and radionuclide stability was treated by using integrated thermal treatment system. The pre-thermal treatment of oil sludge was carried out in fluidized bed combustor at temperature 500 degree Celsius, and then the ash produced from that process was vitrified in high temperature furnace at temperature above 1000 degree Celsius. The main contents of oil sludge are composed of 80% carbon, 11% sulphur, 50% volatile matter and 30% ash. The high heating value was 35,722 kJ/ kg. Analysis by gamma spectrometer was showed the radionuclide as Ra-226 (52.23 Bq/ kg), Ra-228 (47.48 Bq/ kg), K-40 (172.55 Bq/ kg), whereas analysis by neutron activation analysis (NAA) for U (0.5 μg/ g) and Th (0.5 μg/ g) was present in low concentration. Trace elements as Ba, Cd, Cr, Hg, As, Pb, Al, Zn, Ni was determine by using ICPMS. Thermal analysis has shown loss of mass and residual decomposition in the TG and DTA curves. The concentration of radionuclide in ash from fluidized bed combustor process was increased for Ra-226 (264.27 Bq/ kg) and Ra-228 (253.77 Bq/ kg). The slag was produced from ash vitrification process was characterized by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and showed that silica oxide and potassium oxide were found. The slag characterization by X-ray diffraction (XRD) showed that slag composed of crystalline. The toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) test showed that the slag resulted in very low leachability of heavy metals. Most of the toxic metals are fixed in the vitrification process and the leachate values meet the standard level of Malaysian Department of Environmental (DOE) of hazardous materials. The average concentration of each element varied between 1.5-14.0 mg/ kg. (author)

  11. Options for reducing oil content of sludge from a petroleum wastewater treatment plant.

    Kwon, Tae-Soon; Lee, Jae-Young

    2015-10-01

    Wastewater treatment plants at petroleum refineries often produce substantial quantities of sludge with relatively high concentrations of oil. Disposal of this waste is costly, in part because the high oil content requires use of secure disposal methods akin to handling of hazardous wastes. This article examines the properties of oily sludge and evaluates optional methods for reducing the oil content of this sludge to enable use of lower cost disposal methods. To reduce the oil content or break the structure of oily sludge, preliminary lab-scale experiments involving mechanical treatment, surfactant extraction, and oxidation are conducted. By applying surfactants, approximately 36% to 45% of oils are extracted from oily sludge. Of this, about 33% of oils are rapidly oxidised via radiation by an electron beam within 10 s of exposure. The Fenton reaction is effective for destruction of oily sludge. It is also found that 56% of oils were removed by reacting oily sludge with water containing ozone of 0.5 mg l(-1) over a period of 24 h. Oxidation using ozone thus can also be effectively used as a pretreatment for oily sludge. © The Author(s) 2015.

  12. Improving the biogas production performance of municipal waste activated sludge via disperser induced microwave disintegration.

    Kavitha, S; Rajesh Banu, J; Vinoth Kumar, J; Rajkumar, M

    2016-10-01

    In this study, the influence of disperser induced microwave pretreatment was investigated to analyze the proficiency of floc disruption on subsequent disintegration and biodegradability process. Initially, the flocs in the sludge was disrupted through disperser at a specific energy input of 25.3kJ/kgTS. The upshot of the microwave disintegration presents that the solids reduction and solubilization of floc disrupted (disperser induced microwave pretreated) sludge was found to be 17.33% and 22% relatively greater than that achieved in microwave pretreated (9.3% and 16%) sludge alone. The biodegradability analysis, affords an evaluation of parameter confidence and correlation determination. The eventual biodegradability of microwave pretreated, and floc disrupted sludges were computed to be 0.15(gCOD/gCOD) and 0.28(gCOD/gCOD), respectively. An economic assessment of this study offers a positive net profit of about 104.8USD/ton of sludge in floc disrupted sample. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Bioremediation of petrochemical sludge from oil refining operations

    Prince, M.J.; Sambasivam, Yasodha

    1991-01-01

    Petroleum refineries have historically produced large quantities of hydrocarbon sludge as a waste product. A common past practice for disposal of this material was to deposit it in open pits. These hazardous waste sites now require remediation to meet current environmental regulations. This report will present data from a feasibility study on bioremediation for one such site. Data will be presented on the characteristics and composition of the crude sludge including organic analysis by GC/MS techniques, loss on ignition, TOC pH, oil and grease levels, metals content by atomic adsorption and bacteria plate counts. The effectiveness of bioremediation will be examined using data from shaker flask studies with indigenous and other bacteria sources. Key parameters being monitored will include toxicity using a Microtox assay, oil and grease levels, and the concentration of individual chemical species using GC/MS analysis. Biological data such as bacteria growth rates and nutrient uptake rates will also be presented and compared to biodegradation rates

  14. ESTERIFICATION OF FATTY ACID FROM PALM OIL WASTE (SLUDGE OIL BY USING ALUM CATALYST

    Thamrin Usman

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Esterification of fatty acids from palm oil waste (sludge oil as biodiesel liquid base has been done by using alum [Al2(SO43.14H2O] catalyst. Some reaction variables like reaction time, catalyst quantity, and molar ratio of sample-reactant was applied for optimal reaction. Yield of 94.66% was obtained at reaction condition 65 °C, 5 h, sample-reactant ratio 1:20, and catalyst quantity 3% (w/w. GC-MS analysis request showed that composition of methyl esters biodiesel are methyl caproic (0.67%, methyl lauric (0.21%, methyl miristic (1.96%, methyl palmitic (49.52%, methyl oleic (41.51%, and methyl stearic (6.13%. Physical properties of synthesized product (viscosity, refraction index and density are similar with those of commercial product.   Keywords: alum, biodiesel, esterification, sludge oil

  15. The physiological effects of oil, dispersant and dispersed oil on the bay mussel, Mytilus trossulus, in Arctic/Subarctic conditions.

    Counihan, Katrina L

    2018-06-01

    Increasing oil development around Alaska and other Arctic regions elevates the risk for another oil spill. Dispersants are used to mitigate the impact of an oil spill by accelerating natural degradation processes, but the reduced hydrophobicity of dispersed oil may increase its bioavailability to marine organisms. There is limited research on the effect of dispersed oil on cold water species and ecosystems. Therefore, spiked exposure tests were conducted with bay mussels (Mytilus trossulus) in seawater with non-dispersed oil, Corexit 9500 and oil dispersed with different concentrations of Corexit 9500. After three weeks of exposure, acute and chronic physiological impacts were determined. The majority of physiological responses occurred during the first seven days of exposure, with mussels exhibiting significant cytochrome P450 activity, superoxide dismutase activity and heat shock protein levels. Mussels exposed to non-dispersed oil also experienced immune suppression, reduced transcription and higher levels of mortality. After 21 days, mussels in all treatments exhibited evidence of genetic damage, tissue loss and a continued stress response. Bay mussels are useful as indicators of ecosystem health and recovery, and this study was an important step in understanding how non-dispersed oil, dispersant and dispersed oil affect the physiology of this sentinel species in Arctic/subarctic conditions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Chemical dispersibility testing of fresh and weathered oils

    Brandvik, P.J.; Daling, P.S.; Aareskjold, K.

    1991-05-01

    This activity in the DIspersants on Weathered Oils-project (DIWO) is a continuation and an extended study of the dispersibility study described in DIWO report No. 3. The main objective has been to study the chemical dispersibility of fresh and weathered oils produced or transported in Norwegian waters. Other important aims of this study have been: To correlate the effectiveness results obtained by three different laboratory methods; to determine the relationship between the dispersant effectiveness and the change in the oils' physico-chemical properties due to weathering (topping, photo-oxidation and w/o-emulsification). This study has been performed with 8 different oil types and 12 different weathering degrees of each oil type. The work performed clearly demonstrates that the oil type and especially the weathering properties are essential for the performance of dispersants at sea. 41 figs., 5 tabs., 16 refs

  17. Dispersant effectiveness in the field on fresh oils and emulsions

    Lunel, T.; Davies, L.

    1996-01-01

    A detailed data set on the effectiveness of dispersants on fresh oils and emulsions, was presented. The data set could be used to calibrate laboratory dispersant tests and dispersion models so that oil spill response teams would have accurate information to make decisions regarding remediation processes. AEA Technology developed steady state continuous release experiments to provide a data set with quantitative measures of dispersant effectiveness in the field. The Sea Empress incident was closely monitored in order to compare the quantification obtained through field trials. It was noted that the prediction of the percentage of oil dispersed chemically is not the only indication of whether or not to use a dispersant. The important determinant to consider should be the extent to which the natural dispersion process would be enhanced by dispersant application. 17 refs., 5 tabs., 18 figs

  18. Codigestion of olive oil mill wastewaters with manure, household waste or sewage sludge

    Angelidaki, I.; Ahring, B.K.

    1997-01-01

    Combined anaerobic digestion of oil mill effluent (OME) together with manure, household waste (HHW) or sewage sludge was investigated. In batch experiments it was shown that OME could be degraded into biogas when codigested with manure. In codigestion with HHW or sewage sludge, OME dilution...

  19. Ultrasonic techniques for the in situ characterisation of 'legacy' Waste sludges and dispersions - 59111

    Hunter, Timothy; Biggs, Simon; Young, James; Fairweather, Michael; Peakall, Jeff

    2012-01-01

    Research being undertaken at the University of Leeds, as part of the DIAMOND university consortium, is exploring the effectiveness of various ultrasonic technologies as in situ probes to characterize and monitor nuclear waste slurries, such as the 'Legacy' Magnesium hydroxide sludges found in Sellafield, U.K. Through use of a commercial Acoustic Backscatter Sensor (ABS) with 1 - 5 MHz transducers, various properties of free-settling oxide simulant sludges were determined. Work was focused upon characterizing essentially 'static' sludges (to give prospective use as tools for the wastes in current deposits); although, the sensors also have potential as dispersion monitors during any future processing and storage of the Legacy wastes, as well as many other storage, clarifier or thickener systems across a wide range of industrial processing operations. ABS data of mixed glass powder dispersions was analysed and compared to scattering theory, to understand the correlations between acoustic attenuation and particulate concentration. The ABS was also calibrated to measure changes in average particulate concentration within a settling suspension over time, and showed the depth-wise segregation of the dispersion through the settling column at different particular time intervals. It was found that observed hindered settling also led to an increase in particulate concentration over the sludge zone and significant segregation occurred at moderate time intervals, due to the broad size distribution of the aggregates measured. It is hoped in future that these sensors may be able to be fitted to robotic handlers that have been installed onsite (and previously used for sampling), allowing fully automatic in situ sludge analysis. (authors)

  20. Oil spill dispersants. Risk assessment for Swedish waters

    Lindgren, C.; Lager, H.; Fejes, J.

    2001-12-01

    IVL has compiled a list of the international usage of oil spill dispersants and presents the technical limitations with the use of such agents as well as the biological effects of these chemical products. IVL, has also conducted an analysis of the pros and cons to using dispersants against oil spills in waters and has applied this with a risk assessment of chemical methods to combat oil spills in the Kattegat and Skagerrak and the Baltic Sea

  1. Evaluation of three oil spill laboratory dispersant effectiveness tests

    Sullivan, D.; Farlow, J.; Sahatjian, K.A.

    1993-01-01

    Chemical dispersants can be used to reduce the interfacial tension of floating oil slicks so that the oils disperse more rapidly into the water column and thus pose less of a threat to shorelines, birds, and marine mammals. The laboratory test currently specified in federal regulations to measure dispersant effectiveness is not especially easy or inexpensive, and generates a rather large quantity of oily waste water. This paper describes the results of an effort by the EPA to identify a more suitable laboratory dispersant effectiveness test. EPA evaluated three laboratory methods: the Revised Standard Dispersant Effectiveness Test currently used (and required by regulation) in the United States, the swirling flask test (developed by Environment Canada), and the IFP-dilution test (used in france and other European countries). Six test oils and three dispersants were evaluated; dispersants were applied to the oil at an average 1:10 ratio (dispersant to oil) for each of the three laboratory methods. Screening efforts were used to focus on the most appropriate oil/dispersant combination for detailed study. A screening criterion was established that required a combination that gave at least 20% effectiveness results. The selected combination turned out to be Prudhoe Bay crude oil and the dispersant Corexit 9527. This combination was also most likely to be encountered in US coastal waters. The EPA evaluation concluded that the three tests gave similar precision results, but that the swirling flask test was fastest, cheapest, simplest, and required least operator skill. Further, EPA is considering conducting the dispersant effectiveness test itself, rather than having data submitted by a dispersant manufacturer, and establishing an acceptability criterion (45% efficiency) which would have to be met before a dispersant could be placed on the Product Schedule of the National Contingency Plan (NCP)

  2. Effect of deflocculation on the efficiency of disperser induced dairy waste activated sludge disintegration and treatment cost.

    Devi, T Poornima; Ebenezer, A Vimala; Kumar, S Adish; Kaliappan, S; Banu, J Rajesh

    2014-09-01

    Excess sludge disintegration by energy intensive processes like mechanical pretreatment is considered to be high in cost. In this study, an attempt has been made to disintegrate excess sludge by disperser in a cost effective manner by deflocculating the sludge using sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) at a concentration of 0.04 g/g SS. The disperser pretreatment was effective at a specific energy input of 5013 kJ/kg TS where deflocculated sludge showed higher chemical oxygen demand solubilisation and suspended solids reduction of 26% and 22.9% than flocculated sludge and was found to be 18.8% and 18.6% for former and latter respectively. Higher accumulation of volatile fatty acid (700 mg/L) in deflocculated sludge indicates better hydrolysis of sludge by proposed method. The anaerobic biodegradability resulted in higher biogas production potential of 0.522 L/(g VS) for deflocculated sludge. Cost analysis of the study showed 43% net energy saving in deflocculated sludge. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Essential oil production of lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus under organic compost containing sewage sludge

    Júlia V. d'Ávila

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT One of the main urban polluting agents are the sewers, which even with proper treatment end up generating a polluting waste, the sewage sludge. One of the options for the disposal of this sludge is the use in agriculture, due to its high content of organic matter and nutrients. This study aimed to use urban sewage sludge for lemongrass cultivation and essential oil production. The plants were grown in soil containing different organic compost doses (0, 5, 10, 20, 40 and 60 t ha-1, formed from the sewage sludge composting process and waste of urban vegetation pruning. At harvest, plants were analyzed for the concentration of nutrients, chlorophyll content, number of tillers, biomass production, essential oil content and the microbiological quality of the leaves. The results showed that the addition of the compost increased the levels of nutrients in the plants, mainly nitrogen, positively influencing the production of tillers, biomass, chlorophyll contents, yield and essential oil content.

  4. Microbial degradation of waste hydrocarbons in oily sludge from some Romanian oil fields

    Lazar, I.; Dobrota, S.; Voicu, A.; Stefanescu, M.; Sandulescu, L.; Petrisor, I.G.

    1999-01-01

    During oil production and processing activities, significant quantities of oily sludge are produced. The sludge represents not only an environmental pollution source but also occupies big spaces in storage tanks. Romania, an experienced European oil-producing and processing country, is faced with environmental problems generated by oily sludge accumulations. Many such accumulations are to be submitted to bioremediation processes based on the hydrocarbon degradation activity of naturally occurring, selectively isolated bacteria. In this paper the results concerning a laboratory screening of several natural bacterial consortia and laboratory tests to establish the performance in degradation of hydrocarbons contained in oily sludges from Otesti oil field area, are presented. As a result of the laboratory screening, we selected six natural bacterial consortia (BCSl-I 1 to BCSl-I 6 ) with high ability in degradation of hydrocarbons from paraffinic and non-paraffinic asphaltic oils (between 25.53%-64.30% for non-paraffinic asphaltic oil and between 50.25%-72.97% for paraffinic oil). The laboratory tests proved that microbial degradation of hydrocarbons contained in oily sludge from Otesti oil field area varied from 16.75% to 95.85% in moving conditions (Erlenmeyers of 750 ml on rotary shaker at 200 rpm) and from 16.85% to 51.85% in static conditions (Petri dishes Oe 10 cm or vessels of 500 ml)

  5. Regulatory policies for using oil dispersants in the Barents Sea

    Natalia Belkina

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Use of dispersants requires assessment of which environmental values are at stake. In the Barents Sea this issue is of high concern as large oil spills can cause transboundary pollution, affecting the interests of two neighbouring countries. The Joint Contingency Plan in the Barents Sea does not set any specific requirements for use of dispersants and lets Norway and Russia follow their national procedures. The Plan emphasizes that in case of transboundary pollution the decision to use dispersants shall only be undertaken upon common agreement. The paper presents a comparison of the national regulatory approaches of Norway and Russia to using dispersants. The research is based on the analysis of legislative documents and interviews with oil companies, oil spill responders and relevant national authorities. The research reveals that in both countries use of dispersants requires preliminary authorization of the national agencies. In Norway the pre-approval procedure and the algorithm of dispersants involvement in response to a real accident are clearly documented and are regularly tested. This has made the process of approval for using dispersants more efficient. In Russia the lack of practical experience in using dispersants and well-established approval procedures can result in a long and unclear permitting process for each oil spill case. This could seriously hinder the use of dispersants to combat transboundary pollution in the Barents Sea, even if it is considered to be beneficial. We conclude that the development of a harmonized approach for dispersants use in the Barents Sea should be thoroughly assessed.

  6. Dispersed oil disrupts microbial pathways in pelagic food webs.

    Alice C Ortmann

    Full Text Available Most of the studies of microbial processes in response to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill focused on the deep water plume, and not on the surface communities. The effects of the crude oil and the application of dispersants on the coastal microbial food web in the northern Gulf of Mexico have not been well characterized even though these regions support much of the fisheries production in the Gulf. A mesocosm experiment was carried out to determine how the microbial community off the coast of Alabama may have responded to the influx of surface oil and dispersants. While the addition of glucose or oil alone resulted in an increase in the biomass of ciliates, suggesting transfer of carbon to higher trophic levels was likely; a different effect was seen in the presence of dispersant. The addition of dispersant or dispersed oil resulted in an increase in the biomass of heterotrophic prokaryotes, but a significant inhibition of ciliates, suggesting a reduction in grazing and decrease in transfer of carbon to higher trophic levels. Similar patterns were observed in two separate experiments with different starting nutrient regimes and microbial communities suggesting that the addition of dispersant and dispersed oil to the northern Gulf of Mexico waters in 2010 may have reduced the flow of carbon to higher trophic levels, leading to a decrease in the production of zooplankton and fish on the Alabama shelf.

  7. Dispersed oil disrupts microbial pathways in pelagic food webs.

    Ortmann, Alice C; Anders, Jennifer; Shelton, Naomi; Gong, Limin; Moss, Anthony G; Condon, Robert H

    2012-01-01

    Most of the studies of microbial processes in response to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill focused on the deep water plume, and not on the surface communities. The effects of the crude oil and the application of dispersants on the coastal microbial food web in the northern Gulf of Mexico have not been well characterized even though these regions support much of the fisheries production in the Gulf. A mesocosm experiment was carried out to determine how the microbial community off the coast of Alabama may have responded to the influx of surface oil and dispersants. While the addition of glucose or oil alone resulted in an increase in the biomass of ciliates, suggesting transfer of carbon to higher trophic levels was likely; a different effect was seen in the presence of dispersant. The addition of dispersant or dispersed oil resulted in an increase in the biomass of heterotrophic prokaryotes, but a significant inhibition of ciliates, suggesting a reduction in grazing and decrease in transfer of carbon to higher trophic levels. Similar patterns were observed in two separate experiments with different starting nutrient regimes and microbial communities suggesting that the addition of dispersant and dispersed oil to the northern Gulf of Mexico waters in 2010 may have reduced the flow of carbon to higher trophic levels, leading to a decrease in the production of zooplankton and fish on the Alabama shelf.

  8. The impact of oil dispersant solvent on performance

    Fiocco, R.J.; Lessard, R.R.; Canevari, G.P.; Becker, K.W.; Daling, P.S.

    1995-01-01

    Modern oil spill dispersant formulations are concentrated blends of surface active agents (surfactants) in a solvent carrier system. The surfactants are effective for lowering the interfacial tension of the oil slick and promoting and stabilizing oil-in-water dispersions. The solvent system has 2 key functions: (1) reduce viscosity of the surfactant blend to allow efficient dispersant application, and (2) promote mixing and diffusion of the surfactant blend into the oil film. A more detailed description than previously given in the literature is proposed to explain the mechanism of chemical dispersion and illustrate how the surfactant is delivered by the solvent to the oil-water interface. Laboratory data are presented which demonstrate the variability in dispersing effectiveness due to different solvent composition, particularly for viscous and emulsified test oils with viscosities up to 20,500 mPa·s. Other advantages of improved solvent components can include reduced evaporative losses during spraying, lower marine toxicity and reduced protective equipment requirements. Through this improved understanding of the role of the solvent, dispersants which are more effective over a wider range of oil types are being developed

  9. Assessing the potential of brachiaria decumbens as remediation agent for soil contaminated wit oil sludge

    Latiffah Norddin; Ahmad Nazrul Abd Wahid; Hazlina Abdullah; Abdul Razak Ruslan

    2005-01-01

    Bioremediation is a method of treatment of soil or water contaminated with toxic materials, involving the use of living organisms. Oil or petroleum sludge is a waste product of the petroleum refining industry, and is now accumulating at a fast rate at petroleum refinery sites in the country. Common components of oil sludge are mud and sand, containing toxic materials from hydrocarbons, heavy metals and radioactive elements from the seabed. In the present study, the oil sludge samples were obtained from barrels of the materials stored at the Radioactive Waste Treatment Centre, MINT. The samples were analysed of their compounds, elemental and radioactive contents. Trials on microbial degradation of the sludge materials were ongoing. This paper discusses the potential of a grass to remediate soils contaminated with petroleum sludge. Remediation of soils contaminated with organic compounds and heavy metals using plants, including grasses, including Vetiver, Lolium and Agrostis have been carried out in many countries. A greenhouse pot trial was conducted to assess the suitability of the pasture grass Brachiaria decumbens Stapf. and its mutant Brachiaria decumbens KLUANG Comel as a remediation agent for oil sludge contaminated soil. Samples of grasses and soils before planting, during growth stage and at end of experiment were analysed for the different toxicity. Although the grasses were promoted for use in pasture, and KLUANG Comel has good potential as an ornamental plant, too, their other potentials, including as phytoremediation agents need to be explored. (Author)

  10. The effect of animal feed from irradiated palm oil sludge on antibody forming of mice

    Suharni Sadi; Umar, Hasibuan; Jenny, M.; Adria, P.M.; Murni Indrawatmi

    1998-01-01

    In this experiment, 3 kinds of animal feed were, e.q. control (commercial product), non irradiated and irradiated palm oil sludge by using 6 0Co source with a 4 kGy dose. BALB-C mice of 3 months old were used, each group contains 5 animals. Before conducting the experiment the animals were injected with antibiotic to free them from Enterobacteriaceae. The animals were observed every 2 weeks by weighting them, blood were analyzed and after 10 weeks their antibody were analyzed. Animal feed were in the form of pellets and each animal was feed 5 g of pellets. The results were as follows, antibody formed by C (control), N (non irradiated sludge) and, R (irradiated sludge) were 37; 36.5; and 36.2 mg/nl, respectively. Apparently pellets which were made of palm oil sludge and commercial product produced not significantly different level of antibody. (author)

  11. Comparative toxicity test of water-accommodated fractions of oils and oil dispersants to marine organisms

    1989-01-01

    This reference method describes a simple procedure for comparing the toxicity of oil, oil dispersants, and mixtures thereof, to marine animals. It allows the toxicity of different dispersants to be rapidly compared to that of oil, or of a mixture of oil an oil dispersant. It is designed for routine monitoring and screening purposes and is not appropriate as a research method. The physical and chemical properties of oil dispersants create many difficulties in the measurements of their toxicity to marine organisms. Strictly speaking, their toxicity can only be accurately estimated using complex procedures and apparatus. (A relatively simple apparatus for preparing oil/water or oil/water/oil dispersant emulsions is described in Appendix B). Simpler methods can provide useful information, provided their limitations are clearly understood and taken into consideration in the assessment and application of their results. Some of the special considerations relating to the measurement of the toxicity of oil and oil dispersants are described in Appendix A. The Appendix also explains the rationale and limitations of the method described here. 3 refs, 4 figs, 2 tabs

  12. Effects of three types of oil dispersants on biodegradation of dispersed crude oil in water surrounding two Persian gulf provinces.

    Zolfaghari-Baghbaderani, Azadeh; Emtyazjoo, Mozhgan; Poursafa, Parinaz; Mehrabian, Sedigheh; Bijani, Samira; Farkhani, Daryoush; Mirmoghtadaee, Parisa

    2012-01-01

    To determine the most effective and biodegradable dispersant of spilled oil in water surrounding two Persian Gulf provinces. This study compared the effects of three dispersants, Pars 1, Pars 2, and Gamlen OD4000 on removal of oil in two Persian Gulf provinces' water. Overall, 16 stations were selected. Using the Well method, the growth rate of isolated bacteria and fungi was identified. To specify the growth rate of microorganisms and their usage of oil in the presence of the above-mentioned dispersants, as exclusive sources of carbon, the bacteria were grown in culture medium for 28 days at 120 rpm, 30°C, and their optical density was measured by spectrophotometry. Then, we tested biological oxygen demand (BOD) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) in microorganisms. The highest growth rate was documented for the growth of microorganisms on either Pars 1 or Pars 2 dispersants or their mixtures with oil. However, the culture having microorganisms grown on Pars 1 had higher BOD and COD than the other two dispersants (9200 and 16800 versus 500 and 960, P microorganisms grown on Pars 2 had maximum amount of BOD and COD in comparison with Pars 1 and Gamlen dispersants (7100 and 15200 versus 6000 and 10560, P < 0.05). Pars 1 and Pars 2 were the most effective dispersants with highest degradability comparing Gamlen. In each region, the most suitable compound for removing oil spill from offshores with least secondary contamination should be investigated.

  13. Effects of Three Types of Oil Dispersants on Biodegradation of Dispersed Crude Oil in Water Surrounding Two Persian Gulf Provinces

    Azadeh Zolfaghari-Baghbaderani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine the most effective and biodegradable dispersant of spilled oil in water surrounding two Persian Gulf provinces. Methods. This study compared the effects of three dispersants, Pars 1, Pars 2, and Gamlen OD4000 on removal of oil in two Persian Gulf provinces' water. Overall, 16 stations were selected. Using the Well method, the growth rate of isolated bacteria and fungi was identified. To specify the growth rate of microorganisms and their usage of oil in the presence of the above-mentioned dispersants, as exclusive sources of carbon, the bacteria were grown in culture medium for 28 days at 120 rpm, 30∘C, and their optical density was measured by spectrophotometry. Then, we tested biological oxygen demand (BOD and chemical oxygen demand (COD in microorganisms. Results. The highest growth rate was documented for the growth of microorganisms on either Pars 1 or Pars 2 dispersants or their mixtures with oil. However, the culture having microorganisms grown on Pars 1 had higher BOD and COD than the other two dispersants (9200 and 16800 versus 500 and 960, P<0.05. Mixture of oil and Pars 2 as well as oil and Pars 1 dispersants showed the highest BODs and CODs, respectively. In the Bahregan province, microorganisms grown on Pars 2 had maximum amount of BOD and COD in comparison with Pars 1 and Gamlen dispersants (7100 and 15200 versus 6000 and 10560, P<0.05. Conclusion. Pars 1 and Pars 2 were the most effective dispersants with highest degradability comparing Gamlen. In each region, the most suitable compound for removing oil spill from offshores with least secondary contamination should be investigated.

  14. Effects of Three Types of Oil Dispersants on Biodegradation of Dispersed Crude Oil in Water Surrounding Two Persian Gulf Provinces

    Zolfaghari-Baghbaderani, A.; Bijani, S.; Zolfaghari-Baghbaderani, A.; Bijani, S.; Emtyazjoo, M.; Emtyazjoo, M.; Poursafa, P.; Mehrabian, S.; Farkhani, D.; Mirmoghtadaee, P.

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To determine the most effective and biodegradable dispersant of spilled oil in water surrounding two Persian Gulf provinces. Methods. This study compared the effects of three dispersants, Pars 1, Pars 2, and Gamlen OD4000 on removal of oil in two Persian Gulf provinces' water. Overall, 16 stations were selected. Using the Well method, the growth rate of isolated bacteria and fungi was identified. To specify the growth rate of microorganisms and their usage of oil in the presence of the above-mentioned dispersants, as exclusive sources of carbon, the bacteria were grown in culture medium for 28 days at 120 rpm, 30 C, and their optical density was measured by spectrophotometry. Then, we tested biological oxygen demand (BOD) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) in microorganisms. Results. The highest growth rate was documented for the growth of microorganisms on either Pars 1 or Pars 2 dispersants or their mixtures with oil. However, the culture having microorganisms grown on Pars 1 had higher BOD and COD than the other two dispersants (9200 and 16800 versus 500 and 960, P<0.05). Mixture of oil and Pars 2 as well as oil and Pars 1 dispersants showed the highest BODs and CODs, respectively. In the Bahregan province, microorganisms grown on Pars 2 had maximum amount of BOD and COD in comparison with Pars 1 and Gamlen dispersants (7100 and 15200 versus 6000 and 10560, P<0.05). Conclusion. Pars 1 and Pars 2 were the most effective dispersants with highest degradability comparing Gamlen. In each region, the most suitable compound for removing oil spill from off shores with least secondary contamination should be investigated.

  15. Partitioning of fresh crude oil between floating, dispersed and sediment phases: Effect of exposure order to dispersant and granular materials.

    Boglaienko, Daria; Tansel, Berrin

    2016-06-15

    When three or more high and low energy substrates are mixed, wetting order can significantly affect the behavior of the mixture. We analyzed the phase distribution of fresh floating Louisiana crude oil into dispersed, settled and floating phases depending on the exposure sequence to Corexit 9500A (dispersant) and granular materials. In the experiments artificial sea water at salinity 34‰ was used. Limestone (2.00-0.300 mm) and quartz sand (0.300-0.075 mm) were used as the natural granular materials. Dispersant Corexit 9500A increased the amount of dispersed oil up to 33.76 ± 7.04%. Addition of granular materials after the dispersant increased dispersion of oil to 47.96 ± 1.96%. When solid particles were applied on the floating oil before the dispersant, oil was captured as oil-particle aggregates and removed from the floating layer. However, dispersant addition led to partial release of the captured oil, removing it from the aggregated form to the dispersed and floating phases. There was no visible oil aggregation with the granular materials when quartz or limestone was at the bottom of the flask before the addition of oil and dispersant. The results show that granular materials can be effective when applied from the surface for aggregating or dispersing oil. However, the granular materials in the sediments are not effective neither for aggregating nor dispersing floating oil. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Devolatilization of oil sludge in a lab-scale bubbling fluidized bed.

    Liu, Jianguo; Jiang, Xiumin; Han, Xiangxin

    2011-01-30

    Devolatilization of oil sludge pellets was investigated in nitrogen and air atmosphere in a lab-scale bubbling fluidized bed (BFB). Devolatilization times were measured by the degree of completion of the evolution of the volatiles for individual oil sludge pellets in the 5-15 mm diameter range. The influences of pellet size, bed temperature and superficial fluidization velocity on devolatilization time were evaluated. The variation of devolatilization time with particle diameter was expressed by the correlation, τ(d) = Ad(p)(N). The devolatilization time to pellet diameter curve shows nearly a linear increase in nitrogen, whereas an exponential increase in air. No noticeable effect of superficial fluidization velocity on devolatilization time in air atmosphere was observed. The behavior of the sludge pellets in the BFB was also focused during combustion experiments, primary fragmentation (a micro-explosive combustion phenomenon) was observed for bigger pellets (>10mm) at high bed temperatures (>700 °C), which occurred towards the end of combustion and remarkably reduce the devolatilization time of the oil sludge pellet. The size analysis of bed materials and fly ash showed that entire ash particle was entrained or elutriated out of the BFB furnace due to the fragile structure of oil sludge ash particles. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Coalescence kinetics of dispersed crude oil in a laboratory reactor

    Sterling, M.C. Jr.; Ojo, T.; Autenrieth, R.L.; Bonner, J.S.; Page, C.A.; Ernst, A.N.S.

    2002-01-01

    A study was conducted to examine the effects of salinity and mixing energy on the resurfacing and coalescence rates of chemically dispersed crude oil droplets. This kinetic study involved the use of mean shear rates to characterize the mixing energy in a laboratory reactor. Coagulation kinetics of dispersed crude oil were determined within a range of mean shear rates of 5, 10, 15, and 20 per second, and with salinity values of 10 and 30 per cent. Observed droplet distributions were fit to a transport-reaction model to estimate collision efficiency values and their dependence on salinity and mixing energy. Dispersant efficiencies were compared with those derived from other laboratory testing methods. Experimentally determined dispersant efficiencies were found to be 10 to 50 per cent lower than predicted using a non-interacting droplet model, but dispersant efficiencies were higher than those predicted using other testing methods. 24 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs

  18. Biodegradation of dispersants used in the treatment of oil spills

    Bergueiro Lopez, J.R.; Lalucat Jo, J.; Marti Moreno, A.; Morales Correas, N.

    1993-01-01

    The biodegradation of one of the most commonly used commercially available dispersants in the treatment of hydrocarbon out-flow was studied. The culture mediums employed were sea water, sterile sea water, and medium M19 (Merck). The latter two were inoculated with two kinds of microorganisms of the Pseudomona genus isolated from sludge from a waste treatment plant. The dispersants used is a commercial product made of anionic sulphated dispersants (1.710% by weight); anionic sulphonated dispersants (0.144%) and non-ionic dispersants (8.146%), both accompained by hidrocarbonated solvent (90%). The degradation processes occurred at differents temperatures (20, 30 and 37). The greatest degradation was obtained at 30 degree centigree. The degradation percentages obtained with the miscroorganisms were 40% of the anionic total and 70% of the non-ionic total after 56 hours for the 5:2 strain and 40% of the anionic total and 9.3% of the non-ionic total after 186 hours for the 1:3 strain. The sulphonated anionic dispersant fraction showed practically no degradation under these experimental conditions. The DBO, for a simple containing (Sterile) sea water and dispersant and inoculated with Pseudomonas was also determined. The value obtained was 595 mg. of O 2 /l. Sea water and medium M9 were used as a control. (Author)

  19. The reduction of oil pollutants of petroleum products storage-tanks sludge using low-cost adsorbents

    Mokhtari-Hosseini Zahra Beagom

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Disposal of storage tank sludge in oil depots is a major environmental concern due to the high concentration of hydrocarbons involved. This paper investigates the reduction of the sludge oil pollutants with initial oil and grease concentration of about 50 mass% using low cost adsorbents. Among the examined adsorbents, sawdust indicated the maximum removal of oil and grease. The screening and optimizing of process parameters were evaluated employing Plackett-Burman design and response surface method. For the optimized conditions, more than 60 mass% of oil and grease from the sludge was removed. Moreover, it was found that sawdust adsorption of the oil and grease approximately followed the Freundlich isotherm. The results indicated that oil pollutants of sludge could be reduced using sawdust as a low-cost, available and flammable adsorbent so that thus saturated adsorbents could be used as fuel in certain industries.

  20. Characterization and migration of oil and solids in oily sludge during centrifugation.

    Wang, Jun; Han, Xu; Huang, Qunxing; Ma, Zengyi; Chi, Yong; Yan, Jianhua

    2018-05-01

    The migration behaviors of oil, water and solids in sludge during centrifugation were elaborated. Size distribution, surface topography and lypohydrophilic properties were studied in detail. The average size of solids was 61 μm in original sludge, 31 μm in upper layer and 235 μm in bottom layer. The result shows that solvent is essential to separate oil phase into molecular light and weight fractions during centrifugation. With solvent/oil ratio increases from 1:2, 1:1, 2:1 to 5:1, molecular weight in upper layer decreases from 1044, 1043, 1020 to 846 combined with that in bottom layer increases. A model was proposed to calculate the oil residue content in solid phases after sedimentation. The findings of this paper provide information for optimizing the oil recovery and clean treatment.

  1. Irradiated Sewage Sludge for Production of Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare L.) Plants in Sandy Soil 2- Seed production, oil content, oil constituents and heavy metals in seeds

    El-Motaium, R. A.; Abo-El-Seoud, M. A.

    2007-01-01

    Field experiment was conducted to study the impact of irradiated and non-irradiated sewage sludge applied to sandy soil on fennel plants (Foeniculum vulgare L.) productivity. In this regards, four rates of sewage sludge application were used (20, 40, 60 and 80 ton/ha) in addition to the mineral fertilizer treatment (control). Sandy soil amended with sewage sludge showed a promising effect on fennel seed yield. A linear gradual increase in seeds yield was observed as the sludge application rate increases. Seeds production increased by 41% to 308% over the control at 80 t /ha application rate, for non-irradiated and irradiated sewage sludge treatments, respectively. Irradiated sewage sludge treatments showed higher fennel seed yield than non-irradiated sewage sludge treatments.Volatile oil percent exhibited no observable variation due to the use of sewage sludge. A few and limited fluctuations could be observed. However, total oil content (cc/plot) increased due to the increase in seeds yield. The magnitude of increase in volatile oil production in response to the sewage sludge application was parallel to the increase in seeds yield. The GLC measurements of the fennel volatile oil reveal that, the t-anethole is the predominant fraction. However, fenchone was detected in relatively moderate concentration. The applied sewage sludge treatment induced some variations in fennel volatile oil constituents. The t.anethole is relatively higher in volatile oil obtained from plants grown on sandy soil fertilized with non-irradiated sewage sludge than the one fertilized with irradiated sewage sludge or chemical fertilizer. In the meantime, the obtained increase in t.anethole was accompanied by a decline in fenchone content. Seeds heavy metals (Zn, Fe, Pb, Cd) were determined. Under all sludge application rates iron and zinc concentrations were in the normal plant concentration range whereas, Cd concentrations were traces.

  2. k0-INAA measurement of levels of toxic elements in oil sludge and their leachability

    Syazwani Mohd Fadzil; Kok Siong Khoo; Sukiman Sarmani; Majid, A.A.; Ainon Hamzah

    2011-01-01

    Development of the petroleum industry has resulted in increasing production of oil sludge, the disposal of which risks introducing hazardous elements into the environment. In the frames of these studies the presence of the toxic metals arsenic, chromium and zinc in oil sludge and the leachability of those toxins. Samples were obtained from a refinery plant in Sg Udang, Melaka and from the Miri Crude Oil Terminal, Sarawak, both in Malaysia. k 0 -Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis was used to measure mass fractions of elements. The samples were packed and irradiated in a TRIGA Mark II reactor. Mass fraction of arsenic in the oil sludge samples were found to be higher than the EPA pollutant mass fraction limit; mass fractions of chromium and zinc were below of this limit. Samples were also tested for leachability, which was found to be contributed to by controlled diffusion. Slow leachability of arsenic was found to be higher than the EPA limit in these oil sludge samples, influenced by such factors as redox condition. It was found however, that the most leachable of these elements in all samples from both sites was zinc, followed by arsenic and chromium, indicating that zinc may present a more serious threat of environmental contamination than the other two. (author)

  3. Microbe assisted phyto remediation of oil sludge and role of amendments: a mesocosm study

    Nanekar, S; Dhote, M.; Kashyap, S.; Singh, S. K.; Juwarkar, A. A.

    2015-01-01

    A mescosom study was evaluated to the influence of amendments such as microbial consortium, plant (Vetiveria zizanioides), bulking agent (wheat husk) and nutrients on remediation of oil sludge over a period of 90 days. The experiment was conducted in a 15 m2 plot which was divided into eight units comprising of soil sludge mixture (1:1) at CSIR-NEERI premises. During the experiment, oil degradation was estimated gravimetrically and poly aromatic hydrocarbons were quantified on GC-MS. Additionally, dehydrogenase activity was also monitored. The treatment integrated with bulking agent, nutrients, consortium and plant resulted in 28-fold increased dehydrogenase activity and complete mineralization of higher poly aromatic hydrocarbons. Furthermore, 72.8 % total petroleum hydrocarbons degradation was observed in bulked treatment with plant, nutrients and consortium followed by 69.6 and 65.4 % in bioaugmented treatments with and without nutrients, respectively, as compared to control (33.4 %). A lysimeter study was also conducted simultaneously using Vetiver and consortium to monitor groundwater contamination by heavy metals in oil sludge which showed a marked decrease in the concentrations of metals such as lead and cadmium in leachates. This study validates a holistic approach for remediation of oil sludge contaminated soils/sites which is a burning issue since decades by the use of microbe assisted phyto remediation technology which not only solves the problem of oil contamination but also takes care of heavy metal contamination.

  4. Research on a dispersing solution for burnt crude oils: Aegean Sea oil spill

    Bergueiro, J.R.; Morales, N.; Dominguez, F.

    1993-01-01

    The oil tanker Aegean Sea spilled oil when it grounded during severe storm conditions near La Coruna, Spain. Much of the oil burned after an explosion was caused by the hull breaking apart. Oil which contaminated several beaches was affected by both combustion and weathering. Experiments were conducted on oil sampled from the beaches to investigate dispersion of the oil using Beep Enersperse 1990 at different shaking speeds. Biodegradation experiments were also conducted in the presence of Beep Enersperse 1990 but with seawater absent. Although emulsification of the burnt and weathered oil was very difficult, good dispersion and biodegradation were obtained. After 42 d in a stirred reactor, biodegradation of the oil reached at least 80%. 3 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs

  5. Effects of chemical dispersants on oil-brine interfacial tension and droplet formation

    Khelifa, A.; So, L.L.C.

    2009-01-01

    The dispersion of oil spilled in water is influenced by chemical dispersants via the modification of the interfacial properties of the oil, such as oil-brine interfacial tension (IFT). In this study, the physical properties and dispersion of oil were measured in order to determine the effects of chemical dispersants on IFT and oil viscosity and the effects on oil droplet formation. In theory, the maximum size of oil droplet that forms under turbulent mixing increases with IFT. Therefore, a reduction in IFT reduces the size distribution of oil droplets. This paper presented the results of an ongoing project aimed at providing quantitative understanding the influence that chemical dispersants have on the size distribution of oil droplets and oil dispersion. Findings showed that a valid approach is to separate the direct effects of chemical dispersants on oil properties, specifically oil-brine IFT and the effects of mixing on dispersion of chemically treated oil. Under constant mixing conditions, the reduction of the maximum oil droplet size that overcomes the breakage process is determined by the effects of chemical dispersant on oil properties. This correlates well with the dispersant-to-oil ratio (DOR) up to the critical micelle concentration (CMC). This good agreement can be attributed to the reduction of IFT with DOR. It was concluded that the reduction of IFT with dispersant concentration is an additional signature of oil composition on droplet formation, while mixing energy is an external parameter that is independent of oil properties. 17 refs., 3 tabs., 9 figs

  6. Fate of dispersants associated with the deepwater horizon oil spill.

    Kujawinski, Elizabeth B; Kido Soule, Melissa C; Valentine, David L; Boysen, Angela K; Longnecker, Krista; Redmond, Molly C

    2011-02-15

    Response actions to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill included the injection of ∼771,000 gallons (2,900,000 L) of chemical dispersant into the flow of oil near the seafloor. Prior to this incident, no deepwater applications of dispersant had been conducted, and thus no data exist on the environmental fate of dispersants in deepwater. We used ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) to identify and quantify one key ingredient of the dispersant, the anionic surfactant DOSS (dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate), in the Gulf of Mexico deepwater during active flow and again after flow had ceased. Here we show that DOSS was sequestered in deepwater hydrocarbon plumes at 1000-1200 m water depth and did not intermingle with surface dispersant applications. Further, its concentration distribution was consistent with conservative transport and dilution at depth and it persisted up to 300 km from the well, 64 days after deepwater dispersant applications ceased. We conclude that DOSS was selectively associated with the oil and gas phases in the deepwater plume, yet underwent negligible, or slow, rates of biodegradation in the affected waters. These results provide important constraints on accurate modeling of the deepwater plume and critical geochemical contexts for future toxicological studies.

  7. Effect of oil palm sludge on cowpea nodulation and weed control in ...

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-08-18

    Aug 18, 2008 ... weed control in the humid forest zone of Nigeria ... tropics, where rainfall is scanty and soils are sandy with ... Impact of oil palm sludge on 3 cultivars of cowpea length or roots at 6 and 8 WAP in wet and dry season. 6 WAP.

  8. Norm in soil and sludge samples in Dukhan oil Field, Qatar state

    Al-Kinani, A.T.; Hushari, M.; Al-Sulaiti, Huda; Alsadig, I.A., E-mail: mmhushari@moe.gov.qa [Radiation and Chemical Protection Department, Ministry of Environment, Doha (Qatar)

    2015-07-01

    The main objective of this work is to measure the activity concentrations of Naturally Occurring radioactive Materials (NORM) produced as a buy products in oil production. The analyses of NORM give available information for guidelines concerning radiation protection. Recently NORM subjected to restricted regulation issued by high legal authority at Qatar state. Twenty five samples of soil from Dukhan onshore oil field and 10 sludge samples collected from 2 offshore fields at Qatar state. High resolution low-level gamma-ray spectrometry used to measure gamma emitters of NORM. The activity concentrations of natural radionuclide in 22 samples from Dukhan oil field, were with average worldwide values . Only three soil samples have high activity concentration of Ra-226 which is more than 185 Bq/kg the exempted level for NORM in the Quatrain regulation. The natural radionuclide activity concentrations of 10 sludge samples from offshore oil fields was greater than 1100Bq/kg the exempted values of NORM set by Quatrain regulation so the sludge need special treatments. The average hazards indices (H{sub ex} , D , and Ra{sub eq}), for the 22 samples were below the word permissible values .This means that the human exposure to such material not impose any radiation risk. The average hazards indices (H{sub ex} , D , and Ra{sub eq}), for 3 soil samples and sludge samples are higher than the published maximal permissible. Thus human exposure to such material impose radiation risk. (author)

  9. Norm in soil and sludge samples in Dukhan oil Field, Qatar state

    Al-Kinani, A.T.; Hushari, M.; Al-Sulaiti, Huda; Alsadig, I.A.

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of this work is to measure the activity concentrations of Naturally Occurring radioactive Materials (NORM) produced as a buy products in oil production. The analyses of NORM give available information for guidelines concerning radiation protection. Recently NORM subjected to restricted regulation issued by high legal authority at Qatar state. Twenty five samples of soil from Dukhan onshore oil field and 10 sludge samples collected from 2 offshore fields at Qatar state. High resolution low-level gamma-ray spectrometry used to measure gamma emitters of NORM. The activity concentrations of natural radionuclide in 22 samples from Dukhan oil field, were with average worldwide values . Only three soil samples have high activity concentration of Ra-226 which is more than 185 Bq/kg the exempted level for NORM in the Quatrain regulation. The natural radionuclide activity concentrations of 10 sludge samples from offshore oil fields was greater than 1100Bq/kg the exempted values of NORM set by Quatrain regulation so the sludge need special treatments. The average hazards indices (H ex , D , and Ra eq ), for the 22 samples were below the word permissible values .This means that the human exposure to such material not impose any radiation risk. The average hazards indices (H ex , D , and Ra eq ), for 3 soil samples and sludge samples are higher than the published maximal permissible. Thus human exposure to such material impose radiation risk. (author)

  10. Oil recovery from refinery oily sludge via ultrasound and freeze/thaw.

    Zhang, Ju; Li, Jianbing; Thring, Ronald W; Hu, Xuan; Song, Xinyuan

    2012-02-15

    The effective disposal of oily sludge generated from the petroleum industry has received increasing concerns, and oil recovery from such waste was considered as one feasible option. In this study, three different approaches for oil recovery were investigated, including ultrasonic treatment alone, freeze/thaw alone and combined ultrasonic and freeze/thaw treatment. The results revealed that the combined process could achieve satisfactory performance by considering the oil recovery rate and the total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) concentrations in the recovered oil and wastewater. The individual impacts of five different factors on the combined process were further examined, including ultrasonic power, ultrasonic treatment duration, sludge/water ratio in the slurry, as well as bio-surfactant (rhamnolipids) and salt (NaCl) concentrations. An oil recovery rate of up to 80.0% was observed with an ultrasonic power of 66 W and an ultrasonic treatment duration of 10 min when the sludge/water ratio was 1:2 without the addition of bio-surfactant and salt. The examination of individual factors revealed that the addition of low concentration of rhamnolipids (treatment process. The experimental results also indicated that ultrasound and freeze/thaw could promote the efficiency of each other, and the main mechanism of oil recovery enhancement using ultrasound was through enhanced desorption of petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs) from solid particles. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. The Logistics of Oil Spill Dispersant Application. Volume I. Logistics-Related Properties of Oil Spill Dispersants.

    1982-11-01

    time of application. Such designs were probably influenced by the ready availabilit " 51 of fire-fighting hoses on ships and tugs; the water stream not...8217 I I1 ---- i . . .. . IIII . . . I I PREFACE The use of chemicals for the dispersal of oil spilled on water has been the subject of discussion (and of...20 Oil Type, Weathering and Emulsification.. 20 Slick Thickness .......................... 28 Water Temperature

  12. Electrochemical masstransfer of oil hydrocarbons in dispersed soils

    Nekrasova, M.A.; Zvolinsky, V.P.; Kanev, M.V. [Russian Friendship Peoples Univ., Dept. of Eecological Monitoring and Forecasting, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2001-07-01

    A large-scale pollution of the geological environment is a result of imperfect processes of mining, refining, haul of oil and irrational use of petroleum. The processes of masstransfer of hydrocarbons in dispersed soils and the problems of forming of a dual electric layer (DEL) on the demarcations 'water-oil' and 'mineral-water' are still insufficiently studied. Therefore, one of the most important problems in the field of the ecological geology is the analysis of ways of cleaning of soils from hydrocarbons. The kaolinitic clay from the Tirlianskoye deposit (K{sub 2}, st. Jabik, Bashkiria) and average polymineral loam (prlllkl, Moscow region, the south-east of town Zvenigorod) was chosen as the objects of the experimental study. The mixture of West Siberian oils was used for model pollution. The experimental laboratory researches of electrochemical migration of hydrocarbons were carried out on dispersiblis clayey soils. (orig.)

  13. The comparative effects of oil dispersants and oil/dispersant conjugates on germination of the marine macroalga Phyllospora comosa (Fucales: Phaeophyta)

    Burridge, T.R.; Shir, M.-A.

    1995-01-01

    Germination inhibition of the marine macrophyte Phyllospora comosa was utilized as a sub-lethal end-point to assess and compare the effects of four oil dispersants and dispersed diesel fuel and crude oil combinations. Inhibition of germination by the water-soluble fraction of diesel fuel increased following the addition of each of the dispersants; the nominal 48-h EC 50 concentration of diesel fuel declined from 6800 to approximately 400 μl 1 -1 nominal for each dispersed combination. This contrasted with crude oil, where the addition of two dispersants resulted in an enhanced germination rate and an increase in nominal EC 50 concentrations from 130 μl 1 -1 for the undispersed crude to 4000 and 2500 μl 1 -1 . The results indicate that, while germination inhibition of P. comosa may be enhanced by the chemical dispersal of oil response varies with type of both oil and oil dispersant. (author)

  14. Imperata cylindrica sp as Novel Silica-Based Heterogeneous Catalysts for Transesterification of Palm Oil Mill Sludge.

    Ngaini, Zainab; Shahrom, Farra Diana; Jamil, Nurfarahen; Wahi, Rafeah; Ahmad, Zainal Abiddin

    2016-06-01

    Biodiesel from palm oil mill sludge (POMS) was prepared in the presence of novel silica-based heterogeneous catalysts derived from Imperata cylindrica sp. Imperatacid and Imperatabase are two types of heterogeneous catalysts derived from Imperata cylindrica sp and characterized using scanning electron microscopy, Energy Dispersive X-ray, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area and pore size measurement. Imperatacid has particle size of 43.1-83.9 µm while Imperatabase in the range of 89-193 µm. Imperatacid was conveniently applied in esterification step to afford > 90 wt% oil in 1:3 (oil/methanol) and 10 wt% catalyst, followed by transesterification with 1 wt% Imperatabase and 1:1 (oil/methanol) for 1 h at 65°C to afford 80% biodiesel with higher percentage of methyl palmitate (48.97%) and methyl oleate (34.14%) compare to conventional homogeneous catalyst. Reusability of the catalyst up to three times afforded biodiesel ranging from 78-80% w/w. The biodiesel was demonstrated onto alternative diesel engine (Megatech(®)-Mark III) and showed proportional increased of torque (ɽ) to biodiesel loading.

  15. Effect of pyrolysis temperature on the composition of the oils obtained from sewage sludge

    Sanchez, M.E.; Menendez, J.A.; Dominguez, A.; Pis, J.J.; Martinez, O.; Calvo, L.F.; Bernad, P.L.

    2009-01-01

    Sewage sludge was pyrolysed in a quartz reactor at 350, 450, 550 and 950 o C. The pyrolysis oils from the sewage sludge were characterized in detail by means of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Changes in the composition of the oils related to the process conditions were assessed by normalizing the areas of the peaks. It was demonstrated that, as the temperature of pyrolysis increased from 350 to 950 o C, the concentration of mono-aromatic hydrocarbons in the oils also increased. Conversely, phenol and its alkyl derivatives showed a strong decrease in their concentration as temperature rose. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) with two to three rings passed through a maximum at a pyrolysis temperature of 450 o C. PAHs with 4-5 rings also presented a major increase as temperature increased up to 450 o C, the concentration at 950 o C being slightly higher than that at 450 o C. Quantification of the main compounds showed that sewage sludge pyrolysis oils contain significant quantities of potentially high-value hydrocarbons such as mono-aromatic hydrocarbons and phenolic compounds. The oils also contain substantial concentrations of PAHs, even at the lowest temperature of 350 o C. The pathway to PAH formation is believed to be via the Diels-Alder reaction and also via secondary reactions of oxygenated compounds such as phenols.

  16. Irradiated Palm Oil Waste (Sludge) As Feed Supplement For Nila Gift Fish (Oreochromis niloticus)

    MU, Jenny; PM, Adria

    2002-01-01

    The objective of the experiment was to study the fish weight development after being fed with irradiated palm oil waste pellet. Irradiated Palm oil waste pellet was produced from palm oil waste (sludge) with some additional materials, i.e. rice bran, fish powder, soybean powder, tapioca powder. The mixture was then irradiated with a dose of 4 kGy to decontaminate pathogen microbe and other contaminant microbes, the experiment have been carried out in 4 treatments. Treatment A was male fish which was being fed with irradiated sludge palm oil waste pellet and commercial pelletized feed (2:1), treatment C was female with the same feed as A, treatment B was male fish feed with commercial pelletized, treatment D was female fish with the same feed as B. Each treatment was placed in a pond. The feed with the amount of 3% of total body weight was given to the fishes 2 times per day. The result of this experiment showed that the male fish weight receiving treatment A and B were 195.37 g and 175.12 g. The female fish weight at treatments C and D were 170.28 g and 160.15 g, respectively. Data obtained from this experiment showed that the treatment of irradiated sludge palm oil waste pellet and commercial pelletized (2:1) were more efficient as fish feeding compared to commercial pellets

  17. Influence of the Pyrolysis Temperature on Sewage Sludge Product Distribution, Bio-Oil, and Char Properties

    Trinh, Ngoc Trung; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Dam-Johansen, Kim

    2013-01-01

    Fast pyrolysis may be used for sewage sludge treatment with the advantages of a significant reduction of solid waste volume and production of a bio-oil that can be used as fuel. A study of the influence of the reaction temperature on sewage sludge pyrolysis has been carried out using a pyrolysis...... of 392 g/mol, and metal concentrations lower than 0.14 wt % on a dry basis (db). Less optimal oil properties with respect to industrial applications were observed for oil samples obtained at 475 and 625 °C. Char properties of the 575 °C sample were an ash content of 81 wt % and a HHV of 6.1 MJ/kg db...

  18. Effect of Sewage-Sludge on Bioremediation of a Crude-Oil Polluted Soil

    Sara Sharifi Hosseini

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Khuzestan Province accommodates the largest oil-fields with huge petroleum production in Iran. During the Persian Gulf war in 1991, more than 6-8 million gallons of oil was spilt in the Persian Gulf, the greatest amount of which was transported into Khuzestan soil. Thus, oil removal from contaminated soil by advanced technologies such as bioremediation seems to be of vital necessity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of sewage-sludge application on bioremediation of oil-contaminated soil. Soil samples (5kg were artificially contaminated with crude oil to a level of 1000 mg/kg. Sewage sludge treatments were applied at the 3 levels of 0, 100, and 200 gr/5kg soil in 3 replicates. The soils were kept in the normal moisture aerobic environment for 5 and 10 weeks. The soils were then analyzed for Hydrocarbon-degrading heterotrophic bacterial count. Oil extraction from the samples was accomplished using the oil Soxhlet extraction method and oil degradation was measured by GC chromatography. The results showed that the hydrocarbon-degrading and heterotrophic bacterial counts in all the treatments increased with time. Results indicate that heterotrophic bacterial population increased from 6×103 cfu/gr soil to  2×1010  cfu/gr soil. Also, C/N ratio decreased from 6 to 3. GC results indicated that all normal Alkanes and Isopernoids, i.e. Phytane and Pristane, decreased by 50-90 percent in all the treatments. It was also found that the application of sewage sludge at 100 gr/5kg soil to oil-contaminated soil leads to greater rates of biodegradation after 5 weeks

  19. The removal of fatty acids from edible oil : removal of the dispersed phase of a water-in-oil dispersion by a hydrophilic membrane

    Keurentjes, J.T.F.; Doornbusch, G.I.; Riet, van 't K.

    1991-01-01

    Fatty acids can be extracted from an oil phase by forming a dispersed phase of saponified fatty acids/water/isopropanol in oil. This dispersion can be separated in the two phases by two membranes of opposite polarity in series. In this study the separation of the water phase from the dispersion by a

  20. Sludge dewatering in a decanter centrifuge aided by cationic flocculant Praestol 855BS and essential oil of waste orange peels

    Kowalczyk Anna

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In the study the comparative analysis of test results of drainage of municipal wastewater sludge was conducted with the use of flocculant Praestol 855BS and the mixture of flocculant Praestol 855BS 50% + orange essential oil 50%, as the reagents supporting this process. It was also attempted to reduce unpleasant smells exuding from the drained sludge.

  1. Isolation, identification and characterization of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens BZ-6, a bacterial isolate for enhancing oil recovery from oily sludge.

    Liu, Wuxing; Wang, Xiaobing; Wu, Longhua; Chen, Mengfang; Tu, Chen; Luo, Yongming; Christie, Peter

    2012-06-01

    Over 100 biosurfactant-producing microorganisms were isolated from oily sludge and petroleum-contaminated soil from Shengli oil field in north China. Sixteen of the bacterial isolates produced biosurfactants and reduced the surface tension of the growth medium from 71 to treat oily sludge and the recovery efficiencies of oil from oily sludge were determined. The oil recovery efficiencies of different isolates ranged from 39% to 88%. Bacterial isolate BZ-6 was found to be the most efficient strain and the three phases (oil, water and sediment) were separated automatically after the sludge was treated with the culture medium of BZ-6. Based on morphological, physiological characteristics and molecular identification, isolate BZ-6 was identified as Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. The biosurfactant produced by isolate BZ-6 was purified and analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. There were four ion peaks representing four different fengycin A homologues. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Coalescence in dense water/oil dispersions

    Thunem, H

    1993-06-01

    This project has been divided into three parts. The first part has been to review a large amount of literature to obtain models describing separate stages of the coalescence of a single drop at an interface. These stages include the drop deformation, the film thinning, the critical film thickness, and the drop breakup. The second part has been to evaluate the different models and select which to use in the development of the OneDrop program. The models describing drop deformation and film thinning were supplied by Charles and Mason, however the film thinning model has been slightly enhanced in this project. The models and the enhancements made have been compared to experimental data from the literature and from work done by undergraduate students at our department. The third part of the project has been to implement the models to drop-drop coalescence, and to write the SIM program to simulate the coalescence in a system of many drops. We use the same equations as in the OneDrop case, except for the film thinning. But by using a similar derivation as for the OneDrop case, an equation for the SIM case has been developed. We have made the assumption that the physical phenomena regarding drop deformation, film thinning and critical film thickness are the same in the OneDrop and SIM cases, so the experimental validation of OneDrop also apply to SIM. By using the results from the SIM program, we can obtain some information about how different physical parameters will affect the collision frequency and collision efficiency. We may use this information to derive empirical equations describing these parameters effect on the coalescence probability in a dispersion. 207 refs., 83 figs., 21 tabs.

  3. Bioproducts for Sludge Reduction in Activated Sludge Systems Treating Oil Refinery Wastewater

    Alexandre V.M.F.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of bioproducts that change the cellular metabolism and reduce microbial growth without affecting the organic matter removal is very promising for reducing the amount of sludge in wastewater treatment systems. In this study, two bioproducts were evaluated and compared with a well-known chemical (2,4-DiNitroPhenol – DNP in activated sludge treating petroleum refinery wastewater. In batch experiments, 10 mg/L of DNP, 0.8 mg/L of a bioproduct based on Folic Acid (FA and 10 mg/L of a bioproduct based on Stress Proteins (SP led to 30.6%, 43.2% and 29.8% lower disposal of total solids, respectively. Operating on a continuous regimen, the addition of 10 mg/L of the bioproduct based on SP led to 45.7% lower disposal for 50 days. In all cases, no loss of efficiency in the Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD removal was observed.

  4. Concentrations of viable oil-degrading microorganisms are increased in feces from Calanus finmarchicus feeding in petroleum oil dispersions.

    Størdal, Ingvild Fladvad; Olsen, Anders Johny; Jenssen, Bjørn Munro; Netzer, Roman; Hansen, Bjørn Henrik; Altin, Dag; Brakstad, Odd Gunnar

    2015-09-15

    Zooplankton are suggested to be biotic contributors to the transport and weathering of oil in marine environments due to their ingestion of oil. In the present experiment, feeding activity and microbial communities in feces from Calanus finmarchicus feeding in oil dispersions were characterized. Feeding activity was significantly reduced in oil dispersions. The microbial communities in clean and oil-containing copepod feces were dominated by Rhodobacteraceae family bacteria (Lesingera, Phaeobacter, Rugeria, and Sulfitobacter), which were suggested to be indigenous to copepod feces. The results also indicated that these bacteria were metabolizing oil compounds, as a significant increase in the concentrations of viable oil degrading microorganisms was observed in oil-containing feces. This study shows that bacteria in feces from copepods feeding in dilute oil dispersions have capacity for degradation of oil. Zooplankton may therefore contribute to weathering of oil by excreting feces with microbial communities already adapted to degradation of oil. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Uptake of heavy metals by Brachiaria Decumbens and its mutant as a remediation agent for soil contaminated with oil sludge

    Ahmad Nazrul Abd Wahid; Latiffah Noordin; Abdul Razak Ruslan; Hazlina Abdullah; Khairuddin Abdul Rahim

    2006-01-01

    The Malaysian petroleum industry produces thousands of tonnes of oil sludge per year. Oil sludge is the residue accumulated during processing of petroleum at petroleum processing plants. Besides soil, mud and sand, oil sludge is often rich in radioactive substances, heavy metals and other toxic materials from hydrocarbon group which could contaminate and environment. In the present study the pasture grass Brachiaria decumbens and its mutant B. decumbens Kluang Comel were evaluated on their effectiveness as remediation agents for contaminated soils. The contaminating agent tested was the oil sludge with its hydrocarbons vaporised, obtained from the Waste Management Centre, MINT. Amongst the indicators for an effective remediation agent is the ability to accumulate heavy metals in their tissues without affecting their growth. This trial was conducted at MINT glasshouse, whereby the test plants were planted in pots in soil added with vaporised oil sludge. Analysis of heavy metals was through Inductive Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICPMS) and Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA). This paper discusses the accumulation of heavy metals by B. decumbens and its mutant Kluang Comel and their growth performance, hence assessing their suitability as remediation agent in soil contaminated with oil sludge. (Author)

  6. Effect of dispersants on the growth of indigenous bacterial population and biodegradation of crude oil

    Bhosle, N.B.; Row, A.

    Oil dispersants (5 from Castrol Ltd., Bombay and 2 from British Petroleum, London) were studied individually and in combination with Saudi Arabian crude oil for their effect on the growth of indigenous bacteria and on the biodegradation of oil. None...

  7. Studies on sludge from storage tank of waxy crude oil. Part I: structure and composition of distillate fractions

    Fazal, S.A.; Zarapkar, S.S.; Joshi, G.C. [D.G. Ruparel College, Bombay (India). Dept. of Chemistry

    1995-08-01

    Tank bottom sludge from storage tanks of Bombay High crude oil deposited during ten years have been studied. The yield of the sludge is approximately 0.1% wt. of the crude oil through-put. The residue boiling above 500{degree}C amounts to over 50%. The distillate fractions collected at 50{degree}C intervals have been analyzed extensively and compared to fractions from whole crude of same boiling range. The sludge distillate are distinctly more paraffinic in nature. 15 refs., 7 tabs.

  8. Research results of sewage sludge and waste oil disposal by entrained bed gasification

    Schingnitz, M.; Goehler, P.; Wenzel, W.; Seidel, W. (Noell-DBI Energie- und Entsorgungstechnik GmbH, Freiberg (Germany))

    1992-01-01

    Presents results of gasifying sewage sludge and waste oil with the GSP technology, developed by the Freiberg Fuel Institute (FRG). The GSP reactor was developed in 1976 for gasification of pulverized brown coal. An industrial reactor of this design operated for over 5 years with a total coal throughput of more than 300,000 t. The design of the gasification generator and the flowsheet of a 3 MW experimental pilot plant for waste gasification are presented. The PCB content in the gasification sludge is 6.14 mg/kg, in waste oil - 160 mg/kg. Gasification takes place at high temperatures of more than 1,400 C for complete destruction of toxic pollutants. Gasification results compare composition of raw gas produced by gasification of brown coal, sewage sludge and waste oil. A detailed list of content of pollutants (PCDD, PCDF, PAH, dioxin and furan) in the gasification gas, in process waters and in solid residue of the process water is provided. It is concluded that the GSP gasification process is suitable for safe disposal of waste with toxic content. 3 refs.

  9. Characteristics of oil sludge from crude oil terminal and behaviors of the naturally occurring radioactive materials and heavy metals on combustion of the sludge

    Mohamad Puad Abu

    2001-01-01

    The study on the characteristics and behaviors of Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM) and heavy metals (HM) in the oil sludge from the crude oil terminal were performed using Gamma Spectroscopy (GM), Neutron Activation Analysis Instrumental (NAAI) and Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy (ICP-MS). GM and NAAI were used to analyze the concentrations of radionuclides whereas NAAI as well as ICP-MS techniques were applied for HM. The samples were then combusted at temperature ranging from 100 degree Celsius - 800 degree Celsius for a period of 30-150 minutes. The ashes produced were then analyzed again for the various elemental concentrations by the above techniques. The percentage of volatilization was then derived mathematically. The concentration of Ra-226 (123 Bq/ kg) and Ra-228 (117 Bq/ kg) in the oil sludge are higher compared with their parent U-238 (32.12 Bq/ kg) and Th-232 (35.36 Bq/ kg). The concentration of HM such as As (13.30 ppm), Cr (46 ppm) and Zn (4287 ppm) in the oil sludge are also higher compared with As (7.5 ppm), Cr (43 ppm) and Zn (36 ppm) contain in the Malaysian normal soil. The heating value for crude oil sludge is 9000 kJ/ kg which is below the value for self-sustaining combustion (11000 kJ/ kg). The percentage of volatilization varies from 2-70 % depends on the elements, temperature and period of combustion. Uranium was found to volatile more than other elements. Higher temperatures (>500 degree Celsius) and longer exposure time (>90 minutes) promoted metal and radionuclide volatilization significantly more than 20 %. Based on the first order kinetic reaction, a new global mathematical model was developed (Q e =1-e -k e t ). This model can predict the percentage of volatilization for the various elements contain in the sludge if the temperature and time of combustion are known. With this known percentage of volatilization, the concentration of various elements present in the bottom and fly ashes can be deduced. From

  10. Acute toxicities of crude oils and oil-dispersant mixtures to Red sea fishes and invertebrates

    Eisler, R.

    1975-11-01

    Crude oil from fields in the Persian Gulf and in the Sinai plus a chemical oil dispersant were tested, using static bioassay procedures, for toxicity to adults or juveniles of ten marine species: Heteroxenia fuscescens, a soft coral; Nerita forskali and Drupa granulata, gastropod molluscs; Mytilus variabilis, a mussel; Acanthopleura haddoni, a chiton (mollusc); Echinometra mathaei, sea urchin; Calcinus latens, a hermit crab; Palaemon pacificus, a shrimp; Parupeneus barberinus, goatfish; and Siganus rivulatus, rabbitfish. Concentrations fatal to 50 percent of individual test species in 168 hours, LC-50 (168 h), ranged from 0.74 to more than 30.0 ml/liter for Persian Gulf crude, from 14.5 to more than 30.0 ml/liter for Sinai crude, and from 0.006 to 0.064 ml/liter for the dispersant. In general, fishes and crustaceans were the most sensitive groups assayed and molluscs the most resistant. LC-50 (168 h) values for oil-dispersant mixtures of 10 parts oil to 1 part dispersant (v/v) for selected species ranged from 0.047 to 0.152 ml/liter which appears to reflect the biocidal properties of the dispersant. Some individuals that survived immersion in high concentrations of the test compounds for 168 h were adversely affected during treatment and afterwards.

  11. Bio-oil production from dry sewage sludge by fast pyrolysis in an electrically-heated fluidized bed reactor

    Renato O. Arazo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The optimization of bio-oil produced from sewage sludge using fast pyrolysis in a fluidized bed reactor was investigated. Effects of temperature, sludge particle size and vapor residence time on bio-oil properties, such as yield, high heating value (HHV and moisture content were evaluated through experimental and statistical analyses. Characterization of the pyrolysis products (bio-oil and biogas was also done. Optimum conditions produced a bio-oil product with an HHV that is nearly twice as much as lignocellulosic-derived bio-oil, and with properties comparable to heavy fuel oil. Contrary to generally acidic bio-oil, the sludge-derived bio-oil has almost neutral pH which could minimize the pipeline and engine corrosions. The Fourier Transform Infrared and gas-chromatography and mass spectrometry analyses of bio-oil showed a dominant presence of gasoline-like compounds. These results demonstrate that fast pyrolysis of sewage sludge from domestic wastewater treatment plant is a favorable technology to produce biofuels for various applications.

  12. Modeling of cumulative release on long term leaching behaviour of selected oil sludge from crude oil terminal and petroleum refining plant

    Mohd Fadzil, S.; Khoo, K.S.; Sarmani, S.; Majid, A.Ab.; Hamzah, A.

    2013-01-01

    Management of oil sludge containing environmentally toxic elements is a major problem in crude oil processing industry. Oil sludge samples from the petroleum refinery plant in Melaka and crude oil terminal in Sarawak were analysed. The aim of present work is to study long term leaching behaviour of arsenic (As), cobalt (Co), chromium (Cr) and zinc (Zn) from oil sludge. Tank leaching test was carried out and the samples were analysed using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The results were studied using LeachXS software to plot the graphs of elements concentration in order to study the leaching behaviour of toxic elements in oil sludge. The long term leaching (100 years) modeling was calculated using equations referred to National Institute of Public Health and the Environment Bilthoven (RIVM) and the results were plotted for cumulative release in different areas of oil sludge. Tank leaching test of the oil sludge samples from petroleum refinery plant in Melaka showed concentrations of As, Co, Cr and Zn ranging from 0.205 to 1.102, 0.031-0.454, 0.016-0.086 and 0.409-8.238 mg/l, respectively while the concentrations of As, Co, Cr and Zn in oil sludge samples from crude oil terminal in Sarawak were in the range of 0.002-0.089, 0.001-0.033, 0.006-1.016 and 0.100-2.744 mg/l, respectively. On the other hand, results on cumulative release from the modeling of long term leaching (100 years) showed that As, Co, Cr and Zn concentrations were proportional to the quantity of oil sludge. In conclusion, during extrapolation of release of toxic elements using the data in the laboratory, several other factors were taken into account to suit environmental conditions such as soil moisture, the negative logarithm of the effective diffusion coefficient (pD e ) and temperature, while the long-term behaviour of As, Co, Cr and Zn was proportional to the quantity of oil sludge to be disposed off. (author)

  13. Biostimulatory Effect Of Processed Sewage Sludge In Bioremediation Of Engine Oil Contaminated Soils

    Kamaluddeen

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to evaluate the influence of sewage sludge on biodegradation of engine oil in contaminated soil. Soil samples were collected from a mechanics workshop in Sokoto metropolis. The Soil samples were taken to the laboratory for isolation of engine oil degrading bacteria. About 1 g of soil sample was used to inoculate 9 ml of trypticase soy broth and incubated at 28oC for 24 h. The growth obtained was sub-cultured in mineral salt medium overlaid with crude oil and allowed to stand at 28oC for 72 h. The culture obtained was then maintained on tryticase soy agar plates at 28oC for 48 h. A combination of microscopy and biochemical tests was carried out to identify the colonies. The sewage sludge was obtained from sewage collection point located behind Jibril Aminu Hall of Usmanu Danfodiyo University Sokoto and processed i.e. dried grounded and sterilized. A portion of land obtained in a botanical garden was divided into small portions 30 X 30 cm and the soil was excavated in-situ and sterilized in the laboratory. A polythene bag was subsequently used to demarcate between the sterilized soil and the garden soil. The sterilized soil plots were artificially contaminated with equal amount of used engine oil to represent a typical farmland oil spill. The plots were amended with various amount of processed sewage sludge i.e. 200 g 300 g and 400 g respectively. A pure culture of the bacteria was maintained on trypticase soy broth and was introduced into the sterile amended soil. The plots were watered twice daily for ten days. The degree of biodegradation and heavy metal content were assessed using standard procedures and the results obtained indicate a remarkable reduction in poly aromatic hydrocarbons PAHs total petroleum hydrocarbon TPH and heavy metal content.

  14. Oil spill dispersants induce formation of marine snow by phytoplankton-associated bacteria

    Eenennaam, van J.S.; Wei, Yuzhu; Grolle, K.C.F.; Foekema, E.M.; Murk, A.J.

    2016-01-01

    Unusually large amounts of marine snow, including Extracellular Polymeric Substances (EPS), were formed during the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill. The marine snow settled with oil and clay minerals as an oily sludge layer on the deep sea floor. This study tested the hypothesis that the

  15. Response of Palm Oil Sludge on Sexual Reproductive Biology and ...

    doris

    They also reported that in Malaysia, Palm Oil and Rubber industries are sources of ... discharged to arable land. Most of the food items being produced in Nigeria today are by ... The choice of these crops was attributed to their wide utilization ...

  16. Influence of physical and chemical dispersion on the biodegradation of oil under simulated marine conditions

    Swannell, R. P. J.; Daniel, F.; Croft, B. C.; Engelhardt, M. A.; Wilson, S.; Mitchell, D. J.; Lunel, T.

    1997-01-01

    Dispersion and biodegradation of oil was studied in marine microcosms designed to simulate oil dispersion at sea. Dispersion was studied using both Phase Doppler Particle Analyser and a Chamber Slide technique. In both natural and artificial seawater, oil addition was observed to encourage the growth of hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria in the presence of sufficient nitrogen and phosphorus. Results showed that microorganisms enhanced oil dispersion by colonizing physically-dispersed oil droplets and preventing re-coalescence with the surface slick. The addition of dispersants increased the rate of colonization as well as the number of degraded droplets. These results suggest that stimulation of physical dispersion by chemical means increase the rate of oil biodegradation under natural conditions. 25 refs., 3 tabs., 14 figs

  17. Fate of dispersed marine fuel oil in sediment under pre-spill application strategy

    Jian Hua

    2004-01-01

    A comparison of the movement of dispersed oil in marine sediment under two dispersant application scenarios, applied prior to and after oil being spilled overboard, was examined. The pre-spill application scenario caused much less oil to be retained in the top sediment than post-spill scenario. The difference in oil retention in the top sediment between pre- and post-spill application scenario increased with increase in fuel oil temperature. For fuel oil above 40 o C, the difference in the effect of pre-spill application strategy under various water temperatures was negligible. When soap water was used as replacement for chemical dispersant, almost one-half as much oil was retained in the top sediment as that when using chemical dispersant. The adsorption of dispersed oil to the top sediment was almost proportionally decreased with doubling of soap dosage. (Author)

  18. Effect of Recycle Sludge on Anaerobic Digestion of Palm Oil Mill Effluent in A Thermophilic Continuous Digester

    Irvan; Trisakti, B.; Tomiuchi, Y.; Harahap, U.; Daimon, H.

    2017-06-01

    The objective of this research is to maintain short retention time and high degradation of palm oil mill effluent (POME) to biogas by applying recycle sludge. Fresh POME from Rambutan Mill without further treatment was used as feed. Two lab-scale digesters supported from Metawater Co. Ltd. have been applied to treat POME at thermophilic (55°C) condition. Both digesters were operated under intermittent operation mode. Experiments were performed in two methods: with and without recycle sludge. Hydraulic retention time (HRT) of both methods was maintained at 6 days, while sludge retention time (SRT) was maintained at various days. The result showed that by extending SRT in return sludge process where 25% of digested slurry recycled to the digester, improvement of volatile solid (VS) decomposition was obtained around 84% at HRT of 6 days and SRT of 21 days. Then, chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency could be reached until 85% by using recycle sludge.

  19. Oil Spills and Dispersants Can Cause the Initiation of Potentially Harmful Dinoflagellate Blooms ("Red Tides")

    Almeda, Rodrigo; Cosgrove, Sarah; Buskey, Edward J.

    2018-01-01

    After oil spills and dispersant applications the formation of red tides or harmful algal blooms (HABs) has been observed, which can cause additional negative impacts in areas affected by oil spills. However, the link between oil spills and HABs is still unknown. Here, we present experimental...... evidence that demonstrates a connection between oil spills and HABs. We determined the effects of oil, dispersant-treated oil, and dispersant alone on the structure of natural plankton assemblages in the Northern Gulf of Mexico. In coastal waters, large tintinnids and oligotrich ciliates, major grazers...

  20. Potential and optimization of two-phase anaerobic digestion of oil refinery waste activated sludge and microbial community study

    Wang, Qinghong; Liang, Ying; Zhao, Peng; Li, Qing X.; Guo, Shaohui; Chen, Chunmao

    2016-01-01

    Oil refinery waste activated sludge produced from oil wastewater biological treatment is a major industrial sludge. Two-phase anaerobic digestion of oil refinery waste activated sludge was studied for the first time. Thermal pretreatment under 170 °C is effective on sludge solubilization. At the optimum hydrolytic-acidogenic condition which was pH of 6.5, temperature of 55 °C and HRT of 2 days, 2754 mg/L volatile fatty acids (VFAs) were produced and acetic acid and butyric acid were the key components. Comparative studies of single-phase and two-phase anaerobic digestion in terms of organic removal, biogas production and methane concentration were conducted. The cumulative methane production and soluble COD (SCOD) removal efficiency in the two-phase system were 228 mL/g COD added and 77.8%, respectively, which were 1.6 and 2.1 times higher than those in single-phase anaerobic digestion. Such improved performance is attributed to intensification of dominant microbial population in separated reactors. Caloramator, Ureibacillus, Dechloromonas, Petrobacter, and T78 played important roles in hydrolytic-acidification and oil-organics degradation. Syntrophic bacteria in the family Porphyromonadaceae and the genus Anaerobranca provide acetate for methanogen. The results demonstrated the potential and operating condition of two-phase anaerobic digestion in treatment of oil refinery waste activated sludge. PMID:27905538

  1. Production of oil and coke from sludges containing organic pollutants; Gewinnung von Oel und Koks aus organisch belasteten Schlaemmen

    Steger, M [Martin Steger GmbH, Eggenfelden (Germany); Meissner, W; Herold, R [Max Aicher Umwelttechnik GmbH, Freilassing (Germany)

    1998-09-01

    Since the mid-eighties, Messrs. Max Aicher Umwelttechnik GmbH at Hammerau, Germany have been investigating sewage sludge pyrolysis. Laboratory experiments and semi-industrial investigations led to the construction of a combined sludge drying and conversion plant (``Aicher sludge recycling process``), in which the organic sludge fraction is converted into recyclable or combustible oils. Carbon is obtained as a by-product in solid form as conversion coke which can be utilized. Apart from sewage sludge, also industrial sludges with high organic fractions can be processed, e.g. sludges and sewage sludges from petroleum processing. (orig.) [Deutsch] In der Bundesrepublik Deutschland beschaeftigt sich die Max Aicher Umwelttechnik GmbH in Hammerau seit Mitte der Achtzigerjahre mit der Niedertemperaturkonvertierung (Pyrolyse) von Klaerschlamm. Versuche im Labor- und im halbtechnischen Massstab fuehrten zur Realisierung einer betriebstechnischen Anlage mit den Komponenten Schlammtrocknung und Konvertierung. Ziel des Aicher-Schlamm-Recycling-Verfahrens ist die Umwandlung der organischen Schlammfraktion in stofflich und energetisch verwertbare Oele. Bei der Umwandlung entsteht fixer Kohlenstoff, der im festen Rueckstand (Konversionskoks) angereichert wird. Neben dem gewonnenen Oel ist auch der produzierte Koks verwertbar. Einsatzstoffe fuer das Verfahren sind neben Klaerschlamm aus der kommunalen Abwasserreinigung vor allem industrielle Schlaemme mit hohen organischen Anteilen z.B. Schlaemme und Klaerschlaemme aus der Erdoelverarbeitung. (orig.)

  2. Sensitivity of the deep-sea amphipod Eurythenes gryllus to chemically dispersed oil.

    Olsen, Gro Harlaug; Coquillé, Nathalie; Le Floch, Stephane; Geraudie, Perrine; Dussauze, Matthieu; Lemaire, Philippe; Camus, Lionel

    2016-04-01

    In the context of an oil spill accident and the following oil spill response, much attention is given to the use of dispersants. Dispersants are used to disperse an oil slick from the sea surface into the water column generating a cloud of dispersed oil droplets. The main consequence is an increasing of the sea water-oil interface which induces an increase of the oil biodegradation. Hence, the use of dispersants can be effective in preventing oiling of sensitive coastal environments. Also, in case of an oil blowout from the seabed, subsea injection of dispersants may offer some benefits compared to containment and recovery of the oil or in situ burning operation at the sea surface. However, biological effects of dispersed oil are poorly understood for deep-sea species. Most effects studies on dispersed oil and also other oil-related compounds have been focusing on more shallow water species. This is the first approach to assess the sensitivity of a macro-benthic deep-sea organism to dispersed oil. This paper describes a toxicity test which was performed on the macro-benthic deep-sea amphipod (Eurythenes gryllus) to determine the concentration causing lethality to 50% of test individuals (LC50) after an exposure to dispersed Brut Arabian Light (BAL) oil. The LC50 (24 h) was 101 and 24 mg L(-1) after 72 h and 12 mg L(-1) at 96 h. Based on EPA scale of toxicity categories to aquatic organisms, an LC50 (96 h) of 12 mg L(-1) indicates that the dispersed oil was slightly to moderately toxic to E. gryllus. As an attempt to compare our results to others, a literature study was performed. Due to limited amount of data available for dispersed oil and amphipods, information on other crustacean species and other oil-related compounds was also collected. Only one study on dispersed oil and amphipods was found, the LC50 value in this study was similar to the LC50 value of E. gryllus in our study. Since toxicity data are important input to risk assessment and net environmental

  3. Experience in the transfer of oil sludge from Kemaman supply base (KSB) Terengganu

    Bustami Abu; Ibrahim Martibi; Mazlan Mohamad; Nik Marzukee

    2005-01-01

    EPMI and MINT had signed a contract for transferring 2400 drums containing oil sludge waste from Kemaman Supply Base (KSB), Terengganu to MINT, Bangi with a cost of RM 2.5 million. The work was done in two stages; the first stage involved 800 drums and the second stage involved 1600 drums. The preparation and implementation work involved application to obtain approval from the Atomic Energy Licensing Board (AELB) and Department of Environment (DOE) as the transportation has to comply with transport regulations for radioactive and toxic waste, appointing transport company, providing information and briefing to supervisors / workers regarding radiation as well as other safety aspects during transfer of waste. (Author)

  4. Optimisation of Oil Spill Dispersants on Weathered Oils. A New Approach Using Experimental Design and Multivariate Data Analysis

    Brandvik, Per Johan

    1997-12-31

    This thesis describes how laboratory experiments combined with numerical modelling were used to predict weathering of an oil slick at different environmental conditions (temperature, wind etc.). It also applies laboratory test methods to screen dispersant effectiveness under different temperatures and salinities. A new approach is developed for dispersant optimization based on statistical design and multivariate analysis; this resulted in a new dispersant with low toxicity and high effectiveness on a broad selection of oil types. The thesis illustrates the potential of dispersant used as an operational response method on oil spills by discussing three different oil spill scenarios and compares the effect of using dispersants to using mechanical recovery and to doing nothing. Some recommendations that may increase the effectiveness of the Norwegian oil spill contingency are also given. 172 refs., 65 figs., 9 tabs.

  5. Response surface analysis to improve dispersed crude oil biodegradation

    Zahed, Mohammad A.; Aziz, Hamidi A.; Mohajeri, Leila [School of Civil Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia); Isa, Mohamed H. [Civil Engineering Department, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia)

    2012-03-15

    In this research, the bioremediation of dispersed crude oil, based on the amount of nitrogen and phosphorus supplementation in the closed system, was optimized by the application of response surface methodology and central composite design. Correlation analysis of the mathematical-regression model demonstrated that a quadratic polynomial model could be used to optimize the hydrocarbon bioremediation (R{sup 2} = 0.9256). Statistical significance was checked by analysis of variance and residual analysis. Natural attenuation was removed by 22.1% of crude oil in 28 days. The highest removal on un-optimized condition of 68.1% were observed by using nitrogen of 20.00 mg/L and phosphorus of 2.00 mg/L in 28 days while optimization process exhibited a crude oil removal of 69.5% via nitrogen of 16.05 mg/L and phosphorus 1.34 mg/L in 27 days therefore optimization can improve biodegradation in shorter time with less nutrient consumption. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  6. Tests for oil/dispersant toxicity: In situ laboratory assays

    Wright, D.A.; Coelho, G.M.; Aurand, D.V.

    1995-01-01

    As part of its readiness program in oil spill response, the Marine Pollution Control Unit (MPCU), Department of Transport, U.K. conducts annual field trials in the North Sea, approximately 30 nautical miles from the southeast coast of England. The trials take the form of controlled releases of crude oil or Medium Fuel/Gas Oil mix (MFO), with and without the application of Corexit 9527 dispersant. In 1994 and 1995 the authors conducted a series of in situ toxicity bioassays in association with these spills with included 48h LC50 tests for turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) and oyster (Crassostrea gigas) larvae, a 48 h oyster (C. gigas) embryonic development test and two full life-cycle assays using the copepods Acartia tonsa and Tisbe battagliai. Tests were also conducted in the Chesapeake Bay laboratory using estuarine species including the copepod Eurytemora affinis and the inland silverside Menidia beryllina. Here, the authors report on the results of these assays, together with 1996 in situ toxicity data resulting from Norwegian field trials in the northern North Sea

  7. Proposal of a sequential treatment methodology for the safe reuse of oil sludge-contaminated soil.

    Mater, L; Sperb, R M; Madureira, L A S; Rosin, A P; Correa, A X R; Radetski, C M

    2006-08-25

    In this study sequential steps were used to treat and immobilize oil constituents of an oil sludge-contaminated soil. Initially, the contaminated soil was oxidized by a Fenton type reaction (13 wt% for H(2)O(2); 10mM for Fe(2+)). The oxidative treatment period of 80 h was carried out under three different pH conditions: 20 h at pH 6.5, 20 h at pH 4.5, and 40 h at pH 3.0. The oxidized contaminated sample (3 kg) was stabilized and solidified for 2h with clay (1 kg) and lime (2 kg). Finally, this mixture was solidified by sand (2 kg) and Portland cement (4 kg). In order to evaluate the efficiency of different processes to treat and immobilize oil contaminants of the oil sludge-contaminated soil, leachability and solubility tests were performed and extracts were analyzed according to the current Brazilian waste regulations. Results showed that the Fenton oxidative process was partially efficient in degrading the oil contaminants in the soil, since residual concentrations were found for the PAH and BTEX compounds. Leachability tests showed that clay-lime stabilization/solidification followed by Portland cement stabilization/solidification was efficient in immobilizing the recalcitrant and hazardous constituents of the contaminated soil. These two steps stabilization/solidification processes are necessary to enhance environmental protection (minimal leachability) and to render final product economically profitable. The treated waste is safe enough to be used on environmental applications, like roadbeds blocks.

  8. Oil-Sludge Extended Asphalt Mastic Filled with Heavy Oil Fly Ash and Cement Waste for Waterproofing

    H.I. Al-Abdul Wahhab

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Recycling as an economic disposal process for many hazardous waste materials has become a popular means of conserving our planet’s scarce and diminishing natural resources. This paper is a study of the influence of oil sludge (OS on the physical behavior and performance of asphalt filled with heavy oil fly ash (HOFA, cement kiln dust (CKD and limestone dust (LMD. Conventional asphalt consistency tests in addition to a new bond strength (BS test were conducted on the modified asphalt mastics. The results were statistically analyzed and assessed in accordance with American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM D 332 and ASTM D 449 specifications. Too much OS resulted in strength deterioration of the asphalt mastic, which can be compensated for by filling the mastic with HOFA. OS interacts constructively with the fillers to improve their effectiveness in raising the softening point (SP and viscosity of the asphalt, and also in reducing its penetration and ductility. Even though sludge mastics hold promise as suitable composites for damp proofing and waterproofing, the resulting low flash point (FP and SP of some of these mastics make their suitability for roofing applications questionable.

  9. How much crude oil can zooplankton ingest? Estimating the quantity of dispersed crude oil defecated by planktonic copepods

    Almeda, Rodrigo; Connelly, Tara L.; Buskey, Edward J.

    2016-01-01

    % of the analyzed fecal pellets from three species of copepods and a natural copepod assemblage exposed for 48 h to physically or chemically dispersed light crude oil contained crude oil droplets. Crude oil droplets inside fecal pellets were smaller (median diameter: 2.4-3.5 mu m) than droplets in the physically...

  10. Oil Spills and Dispersants Can Cause the Initiation of Potentially Harmful Dinoflagellate Blooms ("Red Tides").

    Almeda, Rodrigo; Cosgrove, Sarah; Buskey, Edward J

    2018-04-25

    After oil spills and dispersant applications the formation of red tides or harmful algal blooms (HABs) has been observed, which can cause additional negative impacts in areas affected by oil spills. However, the link between oil spills and HABs is still unknown. Here, we present experimental evidence that demonstrates a connection between oil spills and HABs. We determined the effects of oil, dispersant-treated oil, and dispersant alone on the structure of natural plankton assemblages in the Northern Gulf of Mexico. In coastal waters, large tintinnids and oligotrich ciliates, major grazers of phytoplankton, were negatively affected by the exposure to oil and dispersant, whereas bloom-forming dinoflagellates ( Prorocentrum texanum, P. triestinum, and Scrippsiella trochoidea) notably increased their concentration. The removal of key grazers due to oil and dispersant disrupts the predator-prey controls ("top-down controls") that normally function in plankton food webs. This disruption of grazing pressure opens a "loophole" that allows certain dinoflagellates with higher tolerance to oil and dispersants than their grazers to grow and form blooms when there are no growth limiting factors (e.g., nutrients). Therefore, oil spills and dispersants can act as disrupters of predator-prey controls in plankton food webs and as indirect inducers of potentially harmful dinoflagellate blooms.

  11. A laboratory approach for determining the effect of oils and dispersants on mangroves

    Baca, B.J.

    1982-10-01

    An experimental approach was developed and applied to testing the effects of oil and dispersant combinations on the growth of mangrove seedlings (trees of the intertidal tropics). A controlled growth chamber was employed to test the effects of different oils and dispersed oils in an array of dosages applied to different parts of the plants. Preliminary test results are reported for two species of mangroves collected from five localities, including both oiled and unoiled estuaries. Differences occurred between species, substances, dosages, the part of the plant dosed, and the presence of chronic oil pollution at localities from which the stocks were collected. Avicennia germinans (L.) L. (black mangrove) was more sensitive than Rhizophora mangle L. (red mangrove) when exposed to almost all substances tested. Light Arabian crude oil (LA) and light Arabian crude oil dispersed (LAD) were the most toxic substances tested. No. 2 fuel oil (N2) and No. 2 fuel oil dispersed (N2D) were as toxic as LA and LAD, except for an increase (an enhancement effect) in foliage and stem growth in Avicennia at lower dosages. Bunker C oil (BC) was the least toxic of the oils tested, resulting in the reduction of foliage and stem growth only at the highest dosage tested in Avicennia. Bunker C oil dispersed (BCD) failed to show effects in either species at any dosage tested. The leaves of Rhizophora were the most sensitive part of the plant tested.

  12. Anomalous dispersion of magnetic spiky particles for enhanced oil emulsions/water separation.

    Chen, Hui-Jiuan; Hang, Tian; Yang, Chengduan; Liu, Guishi; Lin, Di-An; Wu, Jiangming; Pan, Shuolin; Yang, Bo-Ru; Tao, Jun; Xie, Xi

    2018-01-25

    In situ effective separation of oil pollutants including oil spills and oil emulsions from water is an emerging technology yet remains challenging. Hydrophobic micro- or nano-materials with ferromagnetism have been explored for oil removal, yet the separation efficiency of an oil emulsion was compromised due to the limited dispersion of hydrophobic materials in water. A surfactant coating on microparticles prevented particle aggregation, but reduced oil absorption and emulsion cleaning ability. Recently, polystyrene microbeads covered with nanospikes have been reported to display anomalous dispersion in phobic media without surfactants. Inspired by this phenomenon, here magnetic microparticles attached with nanospikes were fabricated for enhanced separation of oil emulsions from water. In this design, the particle surfaces were functionalized to be superhydrophobic/superoleophilic for oil absorption, while the surface of the nanospikes prevented particle aggregation in water without compromising surface hydrophobicity. The magnetic spiky particles effectively absorbed oil spills on the water surface, and readily dispersed in water and offered facile cleaning of the oil emulsion. In contrast, hydrophobic microparticles without nanospikes aggregated in water limiting the particle-oil contact, while surfactant coating severely reduced particle hydrophobicity and oil absorption ability. Our work provides a unique application scope for the anomalous dispersity of microparticles and their potential opportunities in effective oil-water separation.

  13. Exposure to Crude Oil and Chemical Dispersant May Impact Marine Microbial Biofilm Composition and Steel Corrosion

    Jennifer L. Salerno

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The release of hydrocarbons and chemical dispersant in marine environments may disrupt benthic ecosystems, including artificial reefs, formed by historic steel shipwrecks, and their associated organisms. Experiments were performed to determine the impacts of crude oil, dispersed crude oil, and dispersant on the community structure and function of microorganisms in seawater (SW and biofilms formed on carbon steel, a common ship hull construction material. Steel corrosion was also monitored to illustrate how oil spills may impact preservation of steel shipwrecks. Microcosms were filled with seawater (SW and incubated at 4°C. Carbon steel disks (CSDs were placed in each tank, and tanks were amended with crude oil and/or dispersant or no treatment. SW and CSD biofilms were sampled biweekly for genetic analysis using Illumina sequencing of 16S ribosomal RNA gene amplicons. Predicted and sequenced bacterial metagenomes were analyzed to examine impacts of oil and dispersant on metabolic function. Gammaproteobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, and Flavobacteriia dominated SW and biofilms. Bacterial community structure differed significantly between treatments for SW and biofilms. OTUs affiliated with known (Pseudomonas and potential (Marinomonas hydrocarbon-degraders were roughly twice as abundant in biofilms treated with oil and dispersed oil, and steel corrosion of CSDs in these treatments was higher compared to control and dispersant treatments. OTUs affiliated with the Rhodobacteraceae family (biofilm formers and potential oil degraders were less abundant in the dispersant treatment compared to other treatments in biofilm and SW samples, but OTUs affiliated with the Pseudoalteromonas genus (biofilm formers and proposed hydrocarbon degraders were more abundant in dispersant-treated biofilms. Overall, functional gene analyses revealed a decrease in genes (predicted using PICRUSt and observed in sequenced metagenomes associated with hydrocarbon degradation

  14. Partitioning of naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) and heavy metal in terminal crude oil sludge when undergoing thermal treatment

    Mohd Fuad, H.A.; Muhd Noor Muhd Yunus; Shamsuddin, A.H.; Sopian, K.

    2000-01-01

    In Malaysia currently more than one hundred oil rigs in operation extracting the crude oil, offshore the state of Terengganu, Sabah and Sarawak. Crude oil sludge are generated during the extraction of crude oil from the underground oil reservoir to the oil rigs, the separation process at the oil rigs and its storage at the crude oil terminal. These sludge are considered as Scheduled Waste (contains heavy metals) by Department of Environmental (DOE) and Low Level Radioactive Waste (contain NORM) by the Atomic Energy Licensing Board (AELB), thus cannot be disposed freely without proper control. The current method of disposal, such as land farming is not recommended and will have long term impact to the environment, whereas storage practices in plastic drums does not warrant an ultimate solution. Due to its organic nature, there is a move to treat this sludge by using thermal treatment technology but prior to this, a study has to be carried out to determine the partitioning of the various elements present in the sludge. Gamma spectroscopy and Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) were used to analyze the concentrations of radionuclides whereas NAA as well as ICP-MS techniques were applied for heavy metal analysis in the sludge samples. The samples were then heated at temperature ranging from 100 degree C - 800 degree C for a period of 30 - 150 minutes. The ash produced at that temperature and duration were then analyzed again for the various elemental concentrations using the above mentioned techniques. The percent volatilization was then derived mathematically. From this study, it was found that the percentage of volatilization varies from 2-70%, which is a function of the elements of concerned, temperature and time. Uranium seems to volatilized much more than the rest of radionuclides. Higher temperature (>500 degree C) and longer exposure time (>60 minutes) promoted metal and radionuclide volatilization significantly. Typical to incinerator operating environment i

  15. How much crude oil can zooplankton ingest? Estimating the quantity of dispersed crude oil defecated by planktonic copepods

    Almeda, Rodrigo; Connelly, Tara L.; Buskey, Edward J.

    2016-01-01

    We investigated and quantified defecation rates of crude oil by 3 species of marine planktonic copepods (Temora turbinata, Acartia tonsa, and Parvocalanus crassirostris) and a natural copepod assemblage after exposure to mechanically or chemically dispersed crude oil. Between 88 and 100% of the analyzed fecal pellets from three species of copepods and a natural copepod assemblage exposed for 48 h to physically or chemically dispersed light crude oil contained crude oil droplets. Crude oil droplets inside fecal pellets were smaller (median diameter: 2.4–3.5 μm) than droplets in the physically and chemically dispersed oil emulsions (median diameter: 6.6 and 8.0 μm, respectively). This suggests that copepods can reject large crude oil droplets or that crude oil droplets are broken into smaller oil droplets before or during ingestion. Depending on the species and experimental treatments, crude oil defecation rates ranged from 5.3 to 245 ng-oil copepod"−"1 d"−"1, which represent a mean weight-specific defecation rate of 0.026 μg-oil μg-C_c_o_p_e_p_o_d"1 d"−"1. Considering a dispersed crude oil concentration commonly found in the water column after oil spills (1 μl L"−"1) and copepod abundances in high productive coastal areas, copepods may defecate ∼1.3–2.6 mg-oil m"−"3 d"−"1, which would represent ∼0.15%–0.30% of the total dispersed oil per day. Our results indicate that ingestion and subsequent defecation of crude oil by planktonic copepods has a small influence on the overall mass of oil spills in the short term, but may be quantitatively important in the flux of oil from surface water to sediments and in the transfer of low-solubility, toxic petroleum hydrocarbons into food webs after crude oil spills in the sea. - Highlights: • Copepods exposed to dispersed crude oil produced fecal pellets contained numerous small oil droplets (2.4 to 3.5 µm). • Copepods could reject large oil droplets or oil droplets are broken into

  16. Esterification free fatty acid in sludge palm oil using ZrO2/SO42- - rice husk ash catalyst

    Hidayat, Arif; Sutrisno, Bachrun

    2017-05-01

    Indonesia, as one of the biggest palm oil producers and exporters in the world, is producing large amounts of low-grade oil such as sludge palm oil (SPO) from palm oil industries. The use of SPO can lower the cost of biodiesel production significantly, which makes SPO a highly potential alternative feedstock for biodiesel production. In this paper, the esterification of free fatty acid on sludge palm oil was studied using rice husk ash as heterogeneous solid catalysts. Heterogeneous solid catalysts offer significant advantages of eliminating separation, corrosion, toxicity and environmental problems. In this paper the esterification of SPO, a by-product from palm oil industry, in the presence of modified rice husk ash catalysts was studied. The rice husk ash catalysts were synthesized by impregnating of Zirconia (Zr) on rice husk ash followed by sulfonation. The rice husk ash catalysts were characterized by using different techniques, such as FT-IR, XRD, and porous analysis. The effects of the mass ratio of catalyst to oil (1 - 10%), the molar ratio of methanol to oil (4:1 - 10:1), and the reaction temperature (40 - 60°C) were studied for the conversion of free fatty acids (FFAs) to optimize the reaction conditions. The results showed that the optimal conditions were an methanol to oil molar ratio of 10:1, the amount of catalyst of 10%w, and reaction temperature of 60°C.

  17. Management of toxic and hazardous contents of oil sludge in Siri Island

    M. Pazoki

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Sirri Island is one of the most important islands in Iran where contains massive amounts of crude oil reservoirs and is a crude oil exporting and storage spot. Petroleum sludge wastes produced by the refineries are deposited in outdoor 2-ha open pits. 30 sludge samples from different depot locations were conducted in 3-time intervals and mixed with each other to form one homogenized sample. The sample was treated by solvent extraction method using methyl ethyl ketone as an efficient polar solvent in order to recover the valuable hydrocarbon and oil. About 99.8% of the oil was recovered and determined to reach almost the same quality as the exportable crude oil of Sirri Island. The sediments were also tested for size distribution range and titled as fine-grained soil. Toxicity characteristics leaching procedure test was conducted on the residuals to determine whether the waste is categorized as toxic and hazardous. The industrial waste evaluation model used in the current work suggested different leachate concentrations (10%, 30%, 50%, 70% and 90% of total leachate based on toxicity characteristics leaching procedure for different probable leaching scenarios. The surface and subsurface regional conditions such as depth to underground water table, climate condition, subsurface pH, soil texture and material were defined to the model as well. Then, the model simulated 10000 possible runs considering the leaching procedure, contaminant concentrations, maximum contaminant limits and surface and sub-surface conditions. The final outcomes regarding heavy metals results showed that nickel, chromium and vanadium were protective under composite liner while cobalt and lead were not safe under such liner and need proper treatment before landfilling. As the final step, the size and details of landfill were designed. The landfill was selected as a square with side and depth of 55m and 3m respectively. The composite liner consisted of 1.5mm high density

  18. Effects of pollution by oil and oil-dispersants on the common intertidal polychaetes, Cirriformia tentaculata and Cirratulus cirratus

    George, J D

    1971-08-01

    An oil spill occurred from the Marine terminal of the Esso refinery at Fawley, England, where oil-polluted mudflats at the Hamble River mouth contained populations of Cirriformia tentaculata and Cirratulus cirratus. Quantitative studies on Cirriformia tentaculata and semi-quantitative studies of Cirratulus cirratus showed that spawning, growth, and mortality were unaffected by the oil. Reasons for the oil's ineffectiveness in disrupting life processes were discussed. On mudflats where Essolvene dispersant was used to remove oil from boats and shore installtions, number of both species decreased. Toxicity tests using Essolvene and BP 1002 showed that both species were killed by low concentrations of dispersant: C. cirratus was more tolerant, BP 1002 was most toxic. These populations showed recovery signs 2 yr after pollution. Tests showed a new dispersant, Corexit 7664, was less toxic than Essolvene and BP 1002, although all prevented gamete formation in C. cirratus at concentrations approaching the lethal level.

  19. Co-firing of oil sludge with coal-water slurry in an industrial internal circulating fluidized bed boiler.

    Liu, Jianguo; Jiang, Xiumin; Zhou, Lingsheng; Wang, Hui; Han, Xiangxin

    2009-08-15

    Incineration has been proven to be an alternative for disposal of sludge with its unique characteristics to minimize the volume and recover energy. In this paper, a new fluidized bed (FB) incineration system for treating oil sludge is presented. Co-firing of oil sludge with coal-water slurry (CWS) was investigated in the new incineration system to study combustion characteristics, gaseous pollutant emissions and ash management. The study results show the co-firing of oil sludge with CWS in FB has good operating characteristic. CWS as an auxiliary fuel can flexibly control the dense bed temperatures by adjusting its feeding rate. All emissions met the local environmental requirements. The CO emission was less than 1 ppm or essentially zero; the emissions of SO(2) and NO(x) were 120-220 and 120-160 mg/Nm(3), respectively. The heavy metal analyses of the bottom ash and the fly ash by ICP/AES show that the combustion ashes could be recycled as soil for farming.

  20. Bioremediation of oil sludge contaminated soil using bulking agent mixture enriched consortia of microbial inoculants based by irradiated compost

    Tri Retno, D.L.; Mulyana, N.

    2013-01-01

    Bulking agent mixture enriched consortia of microbial inoculants based by irradiated compost was used on bioremediation of microcosm scale contaminated by hydrocarbon soil. Bioremediation composting was carried out for 42 days. Composting was done with a mixture of bulking agent (sawdust, residual sludge biogas and compost) by 30%, mud petroleum (oil sludge) by 20% and 50% of soil. Mixture of 80% soil and 20% oil sludge was used as a control. Irradiated compost was used as a carrier for consortia of microbial inoculants (F + B) which biodegradable hydrocarbons. Treatment variations include A1, A2, B1, B2, C1, C2, D1 and D2. Process parameters were observed to determine the optimal conditions include: temperature, pH, water content, TPC (Total Plate Count) and degradation of % TPH (Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon). Optimal conditions were achieved in the remediation of oil sludge contamination of 20% using the B2 treatment with the addition consortia of microbial inoculants based by irradiated compost of sawdust (bulking agentby 30% at concentrations of soil by 50% with TPH degradation optimal efficiency of 81.32%. The result of GC-MS analysis showed that bioremediation for 42 days by using a sawdust as a mixture of bulking agents which enriched consortia of microbial inoculants based by irradiated compost is biodegradeable, so initial hydrocarbons with the distribution of the carbon chain C-7 to C-54 into final hydrocarbons with the distribution of carbon chain C-6 to C-8. (author)

  1. Steam reforming as an alternative technique for treatment of oil sludge containing naturally occurring radioactive material

    Norasalwa Zakaria; Muhd Noor Muhd Yunus; Mohd Khairi Muhd Said; Mohamad Azman Che Mat Isa; Mohd Puad Abu

    2004-01-01

    Steam reforming treatment system is an innovative technology that holds a potential to treat mixed waste containing radioactive material. The system is utilizing the thermal heat of the superheated steam at 500 degree C to produce combustible gases and integrates it with ash melting at 1400 degree C for final destruction. In this system, liquids are evaporated, organics are converted into a hydrogen-rich gas, chlorinated compounds are converted in hydrochloric acid, and reactive chemicals in the waste containing radionuclide and heavy metals are converted into the stable product through ash melting dioxins and furans are not formed, but instead are destroyed in the reducing environment of the system. No secondary pollutants are produced from the system that requires subsequent treatment. The system is divided into three development stages, and currently the project is progressing at development stage 1. This project is an entailment of a concentrated effort to solve oil sludge containing radioactive material treatment issue. (Author)

  2. Effects of oil dispersants on settling of marine sediment particles and particle-facilitated distribution and transport of oil components.

    Cai, Zhengqing; Fu, Jie; Liu, Wen; Fu, Kunming; O'Reilly, S E; Zhao, Dongye

    2017-01-15

    This work investigated effects of three model oil dispersants (Corexit EC9527A, Corexit EC9500A and SPC1000) on settling of fine sediment particles and particle-facilitated distribution and transport of oil components in sediment-seawater systems. All three dispersants enhanced settling of sediment particles. The nonionic surfactants (Tween 80 and Tween 85) play key roles in promoting particle aggregation. Yet, the effects varied with environmental factors (pH, salinity, DOM, and temperature). Strongest dispersant effect was observed at neutral or alkaline pH and in salinity range of 0-3.5wt%. The presence of water accommodated oil and dispersed oil accelerated settling of the particles. Total petroleum hydrocarbons in the sediment phase were increased from 6.9% to 90.1% in the presence of Corexit EC9527A, and from 11.4% to 86.7% for PAHs. The information is useful for understanding roles of oil dispersants in formation of oil-sediment aggregates and in sediment-facilitated transport of oil and PAHs in marine eco-systems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Incorporating different vegetable oils into an aqueous dispersion of hybrid organic nanoparticles

    Samyn, Pieter, E-mail: Pieter.Samyn@fobawi.uni-freiburg.de [Albert-Luedwigs-University Freiburg, Institute for Forest Utilization (Germany); Schoukens, Gustaaf [Ghent University, Department of Textiles (Belgium); Stanssens, Dirk; Vonck, Leo; Van den Abbeele, Henk [Topchim N.V. (Belgium)

    2012-08-15

    Different vegetable oils including soy oil, high-oleic sunflower oil, corn oil, castor oil (CO), rapeseed oil, and hydrogenated CO were added to the imidization reaction of poly(styrene-maleic anhydride) or SMA, with ammonium hydroxide in aqueous medium. The oils favorably reduce viscosity during ammonolysis of the anhydride moieties and increase the maximum solid content of the dispersed imidized SMA to at least 50 wt%, compared to a maximum of 35 wt% for pure imidized SMA. The viscosity of imidized SMA with polyunsaturated oils was generally larger than for monosaturated oils, but it was highest for COs due to high contents of hydroxyl groups. Depending on the oil reactivity, homogeneous or core-shell nanoparticles with 20-60 nm diameters formed. The interactions of oil and organic phase were studied by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, indicating qualitative variances between different oils, the fraction imidized SMA and remaining fraction of ammonolyzed SMA without leakage of oil upon diluting the dispersion and precipitation at low pH. A quantitative analysis with calculation of imide contents, amounts of reacted oil and chemical interactions was made by Fourier-transform-Raman spectroscopy suggesting that most interactions take place around the unsaturated oil moieties and ammonolyzed anhydride.

  4. Measuring the aerial application of oil dispersant from very large aircraft at moderate altitude

    Fay, R.R.; Giammona, C.P.; Binkley, K.; Engelhardt, F.R.

    1993-01-01

    As part of a study of various aspects of oil dispersant application technology, a comparison study was conducted employing the Airborne Dispersant Delivery System (ADDS) pack and the Modular Aerial Spray System (MASS) in C-130 Hercules aircraft at altitudes of 50-150 ft above ground and at speeds up to 200 knots. Dyed Corexit 9527 was applied at a target dose rate of 5 gal/acre over a collection grid composed of metal trays, Kromekote cards, oil-sensitive cards, a continuous trough, and a WRK string collector. Analysis of the collected dispersant was done by colorimetry, fluorometry, and image analysis. Correlations through the different methodologies demonstrated that high speed, moderate altitude application of oil dispersant could be successful in delivering dispersant to the surface at effective concentration and drop size. Environmental studies of the test area showed no residual dispersant in the soil following cessation of spraying. 1 ref

  5. Latent effects of Iranian crude oil and a chemical oil dispersant on red sea molluscs

    Eisler, R

    1973-01-01

    Predation rate of the gastropod drill, Drupa granulata, on the mussel, Mytilus variabilis, was measured over a period of 28 days after adults from both species had been immersed for 168 h in seawater solutions containing high sublethal concentrations (10 ml/liter) of Iranian crude oil. Predation rate was three times higher in controls than in the group where both predator and prey had been exposed initially; intermediate values were determined among groups where only one species had been treated initially. Fecundity of drills, as evidenced by number of egg cases deposited, was directly related to mussel consumption. In a similar study with a chemical oil dispersant, exposure to high (0.003 ml/liter) sublethal levels for 168 h did not affect markedly the rate at which mussels were destroyed and consumed during post-treatment. However, the fecundity of untreated drills feeding on untreated mussels (controls) was 3 to 10 times greater than among groups in which one or bothsc species had been exposed initially to dispersant. Except for mussels consumed by drills, there were no deaths during the post-treatment period in either study, and all organisms appeared normal.

  6. Assessment of the use of dispersants on oil spills in California marine waters

    Trudel, K.; Ross, S.; Belore, R.; Buffington, S.; Ogawa, C.; Panzer, D.

    2002-01-01

    The technical issues regarding the use of dispersants to clean up oil spills from offshore production sources and transportation sources in California were assessed in this study which examined both operational and environmental issues. The operational issues included the dispersibility of produced and imported oils, along with the capabilities of California response resources to deal with typical spills and limiting environmental impacts to offshore environments. The environmental issues include the risks associated with typical spills and potential net environmental benefit of chemically dispersing oil spills. Most crude oils produced offshore California are heavy and border on the undispersable range, but the imported crudes are somewhat lighter. Modeling has shown that most produced oils and some imported oils emulsify quickly and weather more quickly to the point where they are no longer dispersible. There is a very narrow window of time for chemical dispersions to be used effectively. The net environmental benefit analysis demonstrates that the use of dispersants lessens the total environmental impact of spill scenarios. It was emphasized that it is necessary to act quickly if chemical dispersion is to be effective. Rapid response strategies are needed, including locally based vessel and helicopter spraying systems. 19 refs., 8 tabs., 1 fig

  7. Generation of shrimp waste-based dispersant for oil spill response.

    Zhang, Kedong; Zhang, Baiyu; Song, Xing; Liu, Bo; Jing, Liang; Chen, Bing

    2018-04-01

    In this study, shrimp waste was enzymatically hydrolyzed to generate a green dispersant and the product was tested for crude oil dispersion in seawater. The hydrolysis process was first optimized based on the dispersant effectiveness (DE) of the product. The functional properties of the product were identified including stability, critical micelle concentration, and emulsification activity. Water was confirmed as a good solvent for dispersant generation when compared with three chemical solvents. The effects of salinity, mixing energy, and temperature on the dispersion of the Alaska North Slope (ANS) crude oil were examined. Microtox acute toxicity test was also conducted to evaluate the toxicity of the produced dispersant. In addition, DE of the product on three different types of crude oil, including ANS crude oil, Prudhoe Bay crude oil (PBC), and Arabian Light crude oil (ALC) was compared with that of the Corexit 9500, respectively. The research output could lead to a promising green solution to the oil spill problem and might result in many other environmental applications.

  8. Dispersed oil decreases the ability of a model fish (Dicentrarchus labrax) to cope with hydrostatic pressure.

    Dussauze, Matthieu; Pichavant-Rafini, Karine; Belhomme, Marc; Buzzacott, Peter; Privat, Killian; Le Floch, Stéphane; Lemaire, Philippe; Theron, Michaël

    2017-01-01

    Data on the biological impact of oil dispersion in deep-sea environment are scarce. Hence, the aim of this study was to evaluate the potential interest of a pressure challenge as a new experimental approach for the assessment of consequences of chemically dispersed oil, followed by a high hydrostatic pressure challenge. This work was conducted on a model fish: juvenile Dicentrarchus labrax. Seabass were exposed for 48 h to dispersant alone (nominal concentration (NC) = 4 mg L -1 ), mechanically dispersed oil (NC = 80 mg L -1 ), two chemically dispersed types of oil (NC = 50 and 80 mg L -1 with a dispersant/oil ratio of 1/20), or kept in clean seawater. Fish were then exposed for 30 min at a simulated depth of 1350 m, corresponding to pressure of 136 absolute atmospheres (ATA). The probability of fish exhibiting normal activity after the pressure challenge significantly increased from 0.40 to 0.55 when they were exposed to the dispersant but decreased to 0.26 and 0.11 in the case of chemical dispersion of oil (at 50 and 80 mg L -1 , respectively). The chemical dispersion at 80 mg L -1 also induced an increase in probability of death after the pressure challenge (from 0.08 to 0.26). This study clearly demonstrates the ability of a pressure challenge test to give evidence of the effects of a contaminant on the capacity of fish to face hydrostatic pressure. It opens new perspectives on the analysis of the biological impact of chemical dispersion of oil at depth, especially on marine species performing vertical migrations.

  9. Changes in cardiac activity, oxygen uptake and perfusion indices in Carcinus maenas (L. ) exposed to crude oil and dispersant

    Depledge, M.H.

    1984-01-01

    Cardiac activity and oxygen consumption increased when C. maenas were exposed to a 20% solution of the water-soluble fraction of Fortes crude oil, a 10% solution of the dispersant BP1100WD or a combination of both. Normal feeding behaviour was disrupted. Perfusion indices (Q/VO2) decreased as locomotor activity increased following exposure to crude oil. However, exposure to dispersant or dispersant + crude oil resulted in elevation of perfusion index despite crabs becoming active. All test animals survived for at least 6 weeks following exposure to the pollutants. The acute, sublethal effects of dispersant and dispersant + crude oil were more severe than the effects of crude oil alone.

  10. Effects of oil dispersants on photodegradation of pyrene in marine water

    Gong, Yanyan [Environmental Engineering Program, Department of Civil Engineering, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849 (United States); College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Fu, Jie [Environmental Engineering Program, Department of Civil Engineering, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849 (United States); O’Reilly, S.E. [U.S. Department of the Interior, Gulf of Mexico OCS, Office of Environment, New Orleans, LA 70123 (United States); Zhao, Dongye, E-mail: zhaodon@auburn.edu [Environmental Engineering Program, Department of Civil Engineering, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849 (United States)

    2015-04-28

    Highlights: • Oil dispersant enhances pyrene photodegradation in seawater. • Oil dispersant increases formation of superoxide radicals. • Pyrene photodegradation shows a two-stage kinetics and follows first-order rate law. • Pyrene is degraded mainly through electron transfer from excited pyrene to oxygen. • Higher ionic strength and temperature and lower HA favor pyrene photodegradation. - Abstract: This work investigated effects of a popular oil dispersant (Corexit EC9500A) on UV- or sunlight-mediated photodegradation of pyrene (a model polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon) in seawater. The presence of 18 and 180 mg/L of the dispersant increased the first-order photodegradation rate by 5.5% and 16.7%, respectively, and reduced or ceased pyrene volatilization. By combining individual first-order rate laws for volatilization and photodegradation, we proposed an integrated kinetic model that can adequately predict the overall dissipation of pyrene from seawater. Mechanistic studies indicated that superoxide radicals played a predominant role in pyrene photodegradation, and the dispersant enhanced formation of superoxide radicals. 1-Hydroxypyrene was the main intermediate regardless of the dispersant, suggesting that electrons were transferred from excited pyrene to oxygen. In the presence of 18 mg/L of the dispersant, the photodegradation rate increased with increasing ionic strength and temperature, but decreased with increasing HA concentration, and remained independent of solution pH. The results are important in understanding roles of oil dispersants on environmental fate of persistent oil components in natural and engineered systems.

  11. Application of ultraviolet fluorometry and excitation-emission matrix spectroscopy (EEMS) to fingerprint oil and chemically dispersed oil in seawater.

    Bugden, J B C; Yeung, C W; Kepkay, P E; Lee, K

    2008-04-01

    Excitation-emission matrix spectroscopy (EEMS) was used to characterize the ultra violet fluorescence fingerprints of eight crude oils (with a 14,470-fold range of dynamic viscosity) in seawater. When the chemical dispersant Corexit 9500 was mixed with the oils prior to their dispersion in seawater, the fingerprints of each oil changed primarily as an increase in fluorescence over an emission band centered on 445 nm. In order to simplify the wealth of information available in the excitation-emission matrix spectra (EEMs), two ratios were calculated. A 66-90% decrease in the slope ratio was observed with the addition of Corexit. When the slope ratios were reduced in complexity to intensity ratios, similar trends were apparent. As a result either of the ratios could be used as a simple and rapid means of identifying and monitoring chemically dispersed oil in the open ocean.

  12. Chemically dispersed oil is cytotoxic and genotoxic to sperm whale skin cells.

    Wise, Catherine F; Wise, James T F; Wise, Sandra S; Wise, John Pierce

    2018-06-01

    Two major oil crises in United States history, the 1989 Exxon-Valdez oil spill in Alaska and the 2010 Deepwater Horizon Oil Rig explosion in the Gulf of Mexico, drew attention to the need for toxicological experiments on oil and chemically dispersed oil. We are still learning the effects these spills had on wildlife. However, little data is known about the toxicity of these substances in marine mammals. The objective of this study is to determine the toxicity of Alaskan oil, as well as chemically dispersed oil. Oil experiments were performed using the water accommodated fraction of Alaskan oil (WAF) and the chemically enhanced water accommodated fraction of Alaskan oil (CEWAF). The Alaskan WAF is not cytotoxic to sperm whale skin cells though it did induce chromosome damage; S9-mediated metabolism did not affect the cytotoxicity of WAF but did increase the levels of chromosome damage. Alaskan CEWAF is more cytotoxic and genotoxic than the WAF; S9 mediated metabolism increased both cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of CEWAF. Analysis of the PAH content of Alaskan WAF and CEWAF revealed a forty-fold increase in the total levels of PAHs in CEWAF compared to WAF. These findings show that chemically dispersed oil leads to higher levels of PAH exposure which are more toxic and likely to lead to longer and more persistent health effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Enhanced treatment of waste frying oil in an activated sludge system by addition of crude rhamnolipid solution.

    Zhang, Hongzi; Xiang, Hai; Zhang, Guoliang; Cao, Xia; Meng, Qing

    2009-08-15

    The presence of high-strength oil and grease (O&G) in wastewater poses serious challenges for environment. Addition of surfactant into the activated sludge bioreactor is feasible in reducing high concentrations of O&G via enhancing its bioavailability. In this paper, an aqueous biosurfactant solution of rhamnolipid as a cell-free culture broth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa zju.um1 was added into a batch of aerobic activated sludge system for treatment of the waste frying oil. This treatment was conducted on both bench and pilot-scales, whereas the removal efficiency of frying oil was determined by analyzing the residue concentration of O&G and chemical oxygen demand (COD). In the presence of varying concentrations of rhamnolipid from 22.5 mg/L to 90 mg/L, aerobic treatment for 30 h was enough to remove over 93% of O&G while this biodegradability was only 10% in the control system with the absence of rhamnolipids. The equivalent biodegradability was similarly obtained on COD under addition of rhamnolipid. Compared with bench studies, a higher treatment efficiency with the presence of rhamnolipids was achieved on a pilot-scale of activated sludge system, in which a short time of 12h was required for removing approximately 95% of O&G while the control treatment attained a low efficiency of 17%. Finally, foaming and biodegradability of rhamnolipids in activated sludge system were further examined in the whole treatment process. It seems that the addition of rhamnolipid-containing culture broth showed great potential for treatment of oily wastewater by activated sludge.

  14. Enhanced treatment of waste frying oil in an activated sludge system by addition of crude rhamnolipid solution

    Zhang Hongzi; Xiang Hai; Zhang Guoliang; Cao Xia; Meng Qing

    2009-01-01

    The presence of high-strength oil and grease (O and G) in wastewater poses serious challenges for environment. Addition of surfactant into the activated sludge bioreactor is feasible in reducing high concentrations of O and G via enhancing its bioavailability. In this paper, an aqueous biosurfactant solution of rhamnolipid as a cell-free culture broth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa zju.um1 was added into a batch of aerobic activated sludge system for treatment of the waste frying oil. This treatment was conducted on both bench and pilot-scales, whereas the removal efficiency of frying oil was determined by analyzing the residue concentration of O and G and chemical oxygen demand (COD). In the presence of varying concentrations of rhamnolipid from 22.5 mg/L to 90 mg/L, aerobic treatment for 30 h was enough to remove over 93% of O and G while this biodegradability was only 10% in the control system with the absence of rhamnolipids. The equivalent biodegradability was similarly obtained on COD under addition of rhamnolipid. Compared with bench studies, a higher treatment efficiency with the presence of rhamnolipids was achieved on a pilot-scale of activated sludge system, in which a short time of 12 h was required for removing approximately 95% of O and G while the control treatment attained a low efficiency of 17%. Finally, foaming and biodegradability of rhamnolipids in activated sludge system were further examined in the whole treatment process. It seems that the addition of rhamnolipid-containing culture broth showed great potential for treatment of oily wastewater by activated sludge.

  15. Utilization of sludge palm oil as a novel substrate for biosurfactant production.

    Wan Nawawi, Wan Mohd Fazli; Jamal, Parveen; Alam, Md Zahangir

    2010-12-01

    This paper introduces sludge palm oil (SPO) as a novel substrate for biosurfactant production by liquid state fermentation. Potential strains of microorganism were isolated from various hydrocarbon-based sources at palm oil mill and screened for biosurfactant production with the help of drop collapse method and surface tension activity. Out of 22 isolates of microorganism, the strain S02 showed the highest bacterial growth with a surface tension of 36.2 mN/m and was therefore, selected as a potential biosurfactant producing microorganism. Plackett-Burman experimental design was employed to determine the important nutritional requirement for biosurfactant production by the selected strain under controlled conditions. Six out of 11 factors of the production medium were found to significantly affect the biosurfactant production. K(2)HPO(4) had a direct proportional correlation with the biosurfactant production while sucrose, glucose, FeSO(4), MgSO(4), and NaNO(3) showed inversely proportional relationship with biosurfactant production in the selected experimental range. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. In-situ production of biosurfactants: An alternative method for dispersing and bioremediating marine oil spills

    Josefsen, K.; Sveum, P.; Ramstad, S.; Markussen, S.; Folkvord, K.; Krigsvoll, S.; Aune, R.; Storroe, I.

    1995-01-01

    A study of surfactant producing bacteria for the dispersion of oil spills was conducted. Isolation procedures, shoreline experiments, flume basin experiments, and simulated open sea meso-scale experiments and results were described. Bacteria strains were obtained from several locations world-wide, though more success was experienced with strains from colder regions. Two strains were used in the meso-scale experiment. A rapid reduction in the aliphatic fraction of the dispersed oil was observed. Most strains were found to be capable of dispersing crude oils with differing compositions. Efforts to emulsify oil-in-water on an artificial shoreline with biosurfactants producing bacteria showed only limited success in mobilizing the oil. 8 figs., 2 tabs., 14 refs

  17. Stress response of the black coral Leiopathes glaberrima when exposed to sub-lethal amounts of crude oil and dispersant

    Dannise V. Ruiz-Ramos

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The 2010 Deep Water Horizon oil well failure released billions of gallons of crude oil into the deep Gulf of Mexico, and, combined with chemical dispersants, this oil caused significant coral mortality. However, the mechanisms by which oil and dispersed oil impact deep marine fauna are not well understood. Here, we investigate the effects of oil and dispersed oil on a black coral common in the deep Gulf of Mexico, 'Leiopathes glaberrima. 'This coral occurs in several color morphs that show ecological and genetic differences. We hypothesized that dispersed oil would be more detrimental to coral health than oil alone and that this difference would be detectable in the gene expression response of the colonies even at sub-lethal concentrations. In two experiments, four and six colonies of red and white color morphs were exposed to oil, dispersant, and dispersed oil for a minimum of 96 hours. Visual assessment indicated that indeed dispersant and dispersed oil treatments were more damaging than oil alone, for target concentrations of 25 mg L–1. Decline in health was observed for all treatments, independently of color morphotype, but the decline was faster in the white colonies exposed to dispersant. The responses to the treatments were also investigated by monitoring gene expression after 24 hours of sub-lethal chemical exposure. Coral gene expression differed by chemical stressor. Interestingly, the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon biomarker gene, cytochrome P450, was only up-regulated in dispersed oil but not oil alone, suggesting that the dispersant increased the availability of such hydrocarbons in the tissue. The gene expression response was apparent at 24 hours when visual impacts were not (yet detectable. The use of chemical dispersants in oil-spill remediation may cause health declines in deep-water corals and deserves further study.

  18. Reuse of drinking water treatment sludge for olive oil mill wastewater treatment.

    Fragoso, R A; Duarte, E A

    2012-01-01

    Olive mill wastewater (OMW) results from the production of olive oil, which is an important traditional agro-industry in Mediterranean countries. In continuous three-phase centrifugation 1.0-1.2 m(3) of OMW are produced per ton of processed olives. Discharge of OMW is of serious environmental concern due to its high content of organic matter with phytotoxic properties, namely phenolic compounds. Meanwhile, drinking water treatment sludge (DWTS) is produced in high amounts and has long been considered as a waste for landfill. The aim of this work was the assessment of reusing DWTS for OMW treatment. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis was carried out to determine the phenolic compounds present and to evaluate if they are recalcitrant. Treatability assays were performed using a dosage of DWTS from 50 to 300 g L(-1). Treatment efficiency was evaluated based on the removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), total solids (TS), total suspended solids (TSS), total volatile solids (TVS), oil and grease (OG), phenols (total phosphorous (TP) and HPLC fraction). Results from OMW HPLC characterization identified a total of 13 compounds; the major ones were hydroxytyrosol, tyrosol, caffeic acid, p-cumaric acid and oleuropein. Treatability assays led to a maximum reduction of about 90% of some of the phenolic compounds determined by HPLC. Addition of 200-300 g L(-1) of DWTS reduced 40-50% of COD, 45-50% of TP, a maximum of nearly 70% TSS and 45% for TS and TVS. The OG fraction showed a reduction of about 90%, achieved adding 300 g L(-1) od DWTS. This study points out the possibility of establishing an integrated management of OMW and DWTS, contributing to a decrease in the environmental impact of two industrial activities, olive oil production and drinking water treatment.

  19. Relative toxicity of oil dispersants to Mytilus viridis and Macrobrachium idella

    DeSilva, C.; Row, A.

    ) was almost identical for both the species tested, although there was a significant shift in the range of LC sub(50) values, indicating that one species is less sensitive than the other. Oil dispersant mixtures were less toxic than the dispersants alone...

  20. Determination of uptake of dispersed oil in the copepod Calanus finmarchicus

    Melbye, A.G.; Altin, D.; Frost, T.

    2001-01-01

    Many research programs in Norway have focused on the acute toxic effects of oils on zooplankton. Oil companies and those responsible for pollution control strive to develop predictive models for the fate and behaviour of seawater discharges from offshore activities. The models include transport, acute toxic effects, uptake and biodegradation, and accumulation in the food chain. Exposure studies have been conducted using both static tests and continuous flow tests. This paper presented a study in which the biological uptake of dispersed oil in the copepod Calanus finmarchicus was examined using a specially designed flow-through system with an oil dispersion generator. The oil used in the exposure studies was a base oil product from TotalFina that had a very low concentration of water-soluble components, and had very low acute toxicity towards the test organism. The oil was dispersed to a size range of 1 to 10μm. The test species actively filters water for particles in the size range less than 10 to 50 μm. Exposure of the oil dispersion at an average concentration of 600 μg/L gave increasing bioaccumulation from 7 to 14 days, and the calculated bioaccumulation factor was found to be in the range of 200-800. Solvent washing of a duplicate sample of zooplankton at 14 days indicated that a significant portion of the hydrocarbon is absorbed to the surface of the organisms. 14 refs., 4 tabs., 5 figs

  1. Toxicity of crude oils and a dispersant to the stony coral Madracis mirabilis

    Elgershuizen, J H.B.W.; De Kruijf, H A.M.

    1976-02-01

    Coral reefs play a crucial role in the ecology of coastal tropical waters. In many areas they are now exposed to pollution hazards which have sometimes caused severe damage. Increasingly they are exposed to oil and, where clean-up methods are used, to dispersants. The report shows that the clean-up may be more damaging than the oil. (auth)

  2. Spill-of-opportunity testing of dispersant effectiveness at the Mega Borg oil spill

    Payne, J.R.; Martrano, R.J.; Reilly, T.J.; Lindblom, G.P.; Kennicutt, M.C. II; Brooks, J.M.

    1993-01-01

    The release of 3.9 million gallons of Angola Planca crude oil from the stricken tanker Mega Borg 57 miles offshore of Galveston, Texas in June 1990 provided a valuable opportunity to document dispersant effectiveness under field conditions. Aerial application of Corexit 9527 (968 gallons total in four adjacent passes) onto an identified test portion of the slick was evaluated by concurrent observations from a command-and-control aircraft and surface vessels (with videotape and 35-mm photographic documentation) and ground truth measurements, including continuous 4-meter-depth ultraviolet/fluorescence and a discrete water sampling program. Using the study plan outlined by Payne and colleagues, target and control areas were designated before dispersant application by deployment of smoke bombs and coded three-meter drogues. Postdispersant surface vessel placement and 30 liter water sampling activities from the Texas A ampersand M research vessel HOS Citation were aided by the smoke bombs, the free-drifting drogues, and directions from the command-and-control aircraft. Subsequent FID GC and GC/MS analyses of water sample extracts allowed quantitation of the dispersed oil concentrations under both treated and control areas. Although the spilled oil was extremely light (API gravity 39.0) and subject to significant natural dispersion, the field observations, filmed documentation, and water column data clearly demonstrated an increase in dispersed oil concentrations beneath the treated slick. The distribution of dispersed oil droplets was very heterogeneous and reflected the patchy distribution of oil on the water surface before dispersant application. Maximum concentrations of dispersed hydrocarbons in the center of the treated zone were 22,000 μg/L (22 ppm) for total aliphatic and 5.6 μg/L (5.6 ppb) for total aromatics 60 to 90 minutes after dispersant application. Elevated levels were generally limited to the upper 1 to 3 meters of the water column

  3. Weathering of hydrocarbons in mangrove sediments: testing the effects of using dispersants to treat oil spills

    Burns, K.A.; Codi, S.; Pratt, C.; Duke, N.C.

    1999-01-01

    This field study was a combined chemical and biological investigation of the relative effects of using dispersants to treat oil spills impacting mangrove habitats. The aim of the chemistry was to determine whether dispersant affected the short- or long-term composition of a medium range crude oil (Gippsland) stranded in a tropical mangrove environment in Queensland, Australia. Sediment cores from three replicate plots of each treatment (oil only and oil plus dispersant) were analyzed for total hydrocarbons and for individual molecular markers (alkanes, aromatics, triterpanes, and steranes). Sediments were collected at 2 days, then 1, 7, 13 and 22 months post-spill. Over this time, oil in the six treated plots decreased exponentially from 36.6 ± 16.5 to 1.2 ± 0.8 mg/g dry wt. There was no statistical difference in initial oil concentrations, penetration of oil to depth, or in the rates of oil dissipation between oiled or dispersed oil plots. At 13 months, alkanes were > 50% degraded, aromatics were ∼30% degraded based upon ratios of labile to resistant markers. However, there was no change in the triterpane or sterane biomarker signatures of the retained oil. This is of general forensic interest for pollution events. The predominant removal processes were evaporation (≤27%) and dissolution (≥56%), with a lag-phase of 1 month before the start of significant microbial degradation (≤17%). The most resistant fraction of the oil that remained after 7 months (the higher molecular weight hydrocarbons) correlated with the initial total organic carbon content of the soil. Removal rate in the Queensland mangroves was significantly faster than that observed in the Caribbean and was related to tidal flushing. (author)

  4. Analysis of Heavy Metal in Electrocoagulated Metal Hydroxide Sludge (EMHS from the Textile Industry by Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF

    Tanveer Mehedi Adyel

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Environmental pollution due to discharges of heavy metal containing sludge from textile industries is a common nuisance in Bangladesh, where no treatment of sludge is carried out before final disposals. Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (EDXRF was employed in the present study to analyze the heavy metal content of Electrocoagulated Metal Hydroxide Sludge (EMHS collected from a composite textile industry. Thirteen heavy metals, viz., Mn, Ti, Cu, Zn, Ni, Sr, V, Cr, Zr, Hg, Cd, Nb and Ga, were detected. Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn and Cd exceeded the permissible limit to apply the EMHS in agricultural land. Cr, Ni, Cu and Zn were compared to the values of the European legislation to evaluate the environmental risk and to classify the wastes as inert wastes or as wastes that have to be control landfilled. EMHS was categorized as class I and needs to be deposited in controlled landfills.

  5. Biotransformation of petroleum hydrocarbons and microbial communities in seawater with oil dispersions and copepod feces.

    Størdal, Ingvild Fladvad; Olsen, Anders Johny; Jenssen, Bjørn Munro; Netzer, Roman; Altin, Dag; Brakstad, Odd Gunnar

    2015-12-30

    To determine biotransformation of components in crude oil dispersions in the presence of feces from marine copepods, dispersed oil was incubated alone, with the addition of clean or oil-containing feces. We hypothesized that the feces would contribute with nutrients to bacteria, and higher concentrations of oil-degrading bacteria, respectively. Presence of clean feces resulted in higher degradation of aromatic oil compounds, but lower degradation of n-alkanes. Presence of oil-containing feces resulted in higher degradation of n-alkanes. The effect of clean feces on aromatic compounds are suggested to be due to higher concentrations of nutrients in the seawater where aromatic degradation takes place, while the lower degradation of n-alkanes are suggested to be due to a preference by bacteria for feces over these compounds. Large aggregates were observed in oil dispersions with clean feces, which may cause sedimentation of un-weathered lipophilic oil compounds towards the seafloor if formed during oil spills. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Behavioural response of pink salmon Fry Oncorhynchus gorbuscha to fresh, weathered, and dispersed crude oil

    Moles, A.

    2009-01-01

    Very little is known about fish behaviour in relation to oil spill contamination. In this study, out-migrant pink salmon fry Oncorhynchus gorbuscha were subjected to varying concentrations of oil and sea water solutions, or uncontaminated sea water at a temperature of 7 degrees C. Fresh oil, artificially weathered oil, and dispersed oil samples were used. Twenty trials were run for concentrations of 48 aromatic and 30alkane hydrocarbons. The number of minutes spent in the uncontaminated water was significantly higher than sample areas. Fry avoided water-accommodated mixtures of Alaska North Slope crude oil in sea water at concentrations of 960 mg/L total aromatic hydrocarbon fresh oil and 873 mg/L total aromatic hydrocarbon dispersed oil. Concentrations corresponded to 75 per cent and 68 per cent of the median lethal concentration level. However, the fry did not avoid the weathered oil, which indicated that the fry may be sensitive to monoaromatic hydrocarbon components in the oil. It was concluded that oil pollution may alter pink salmon migration behaviour. 28 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs

  7. Induction of hsp60 in the rotifer, Brachionus plicatilis exposed to dispersed and undispersed crude oil

    Wheelock, C.; Tjeerdema, R.; Wolfe, M.

    1995-01-01

    The use of chemical dispersants to treat oil spills remains a controversial area. Questions arise as to whether the dispersed oil is in fact more toxic than the original spill, potentially increasing the exposure of organisms in the water column to the dispersed components. Stress proteins, including hsp60, are a group of highly conserved proteins that are induced in response to a wide variety of environmental agents, including UV light, heavy metals, and xenobiotics. They are constitutively expressed, but Brachionus plicatilis has been used to document increased hsp60 levels in response to different environmental stresses. Hsp60 was therefore selected as a sublethal endpoint for B. plicatilis exposed to a range of concentrations of a water accommodated fraction (WAF) of Prudhoe Bay Crude Oil (PBCO), a PCBO/dispersant (Corexit 9527) fraction and a mixture of Corexit 9527 alone. All exposures were done at concentrations below the no observable effect level (NOEL) and at two different salinities, 22 ppt and 34 ppt. Laemmli SDS-PAGE techniques followed by Western Blotting using hsp60 specific antibodies and chemiluminescent detection were used to isolate, identify and measure induced hsp60 as a percentage of control values. Hsp60 induction exhibited a biphasic response with maximal induction occurring at lower concentrations of all three different mixtures, WAF, PBCO/Corexit 9527, and Corexit 9527 alone. Preliminary data found that the dispersed oil is indeed more toxic in terms of hsp60 induction than both the undispersed oil and the dispersing agent alone

  8. Induction of hsp60 in the rotifer, Brachionus plicatilis exposed to dispersed and undispersed crude oil

    Wheelock, C.; Tjeerdema, R.; Wolfe, M. [Univ. of California, Santa Cruz, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry and Biochemistry

    1995-12-31

    The use of chemical dispersants to treat oil spills remains a controversial area. Questions arise as to whether the dispersed oil is in fact more toxic than the original spill, potentially increasing the exposure of organisms in the water column to the dispersed components. Stress proteins, including hsp60, are a group of highly conserved proteins that are induced in response to a wide variety of environmental agents, including UV light, heavy metals, and xenobiotics. They are constitutively expressed, but Brachionus plicatilis has been used to document increased hsp60 levels in response to different environmental stresses. Hsp60 was therefore selected as a sublethal endpoint for B. plicatilis exposed to a range of concentrations of a water accommodated fraction (WAF) of Prudhoe Bay Crude Oil (PBCO), a PCBO/dispersant (Corexit 9527) fraction and a mixture of Corexit 9527 alone. All exposures were done at concentrations below the no observable effect level (NOEL) and at two different salinities, 22 ppt and 34 ppt. Laemmli SDS-PAGE techniques followed by Western Blotting using hsp60 specific antibodies and chemiluminescent detection were used to isolate, identify and measure induced hsp60 as a percentage of control values. Hsp60 induction exhibited a biphasic response with maximal induction occurring at lower concentrations of all three different mixtures, WAF, PBCO/Corexit 9527, and Corexit 9527 alone. Preliminary data found that the dispersed oil is indeed more toxic in terms of hsp60 induction than both the undispersed oil and the dispersing agent alone.

  9. Enhancing the functional and economical efficiency of a novel combined thermo chemical disperser disintegration of waste activated sludge for biogas production.

    Kavitha, S; Jayashree, C; Adish Kumar, S; Kaliappan, S; Rajesh Banu, J

    2014-12-01

    In this investigation, an effort was made to pretreat surplus waste activated sludge (WAS) inexpensively by a novel combined process involving thermo chemical disperser pretreatment. This pretreatment was found to be efficient at a specific energy (SE) consumption of 3360.94 kJ/kg TS, with the chemical oxygen demand (COD) solubilization of 20%. This was comparatively higher than thermo chemically treated sludge where the solubilization was found to be 15.5% at a specific energy consumption of 10,330 kJ/kg TS respectively. Higher production of volatile fatty acids (VFA) (675 mg/L) in anaerobic fermentation of pretreated WAS indicates better hydrolysis performance. The biogas production potential of sludge pretreated through this combined technique was found to be 0.455 (L/gVS) and comparatively higher than thermo chemically pretreated sludge. Economic investigation provides 90% net energy savings in this combined pretreatment. Therefore, this combined process was considered to be potentially effective and economical in sludge disintegration. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The oil-dispersion bath in anthroposophic medicine--an integrative review.

    Büssing, Arndt; Cysarz, Dirk; Edelhäuser, Friedrich; Bornhöft, Gudrun; Matthiessen, Peter F; Ostermann, Thomas

    2008-12-04

    Anthroposophic medicine offers a variety of treatments, among others the oil-dispersion bath, developed in the 1930s by Werner Junge. Based on the phenomenon that oil and water do not mix and on recommendations of Rudolf Steiner, Junge developed a vortex mechanism which churns water and essential oils into a fine mist. The oil-covered droplets empty into a tub, where the patient immerses for 15-30 minutes. We review the current literature on oil-dispersion baths. The following databases were searched: Medline, Pubmed, Embase, AMED and CAMbase. The search terms were 'oil-dispersion bath' and 'oil bath', and their translations in German and French. An Internet search was also performed using Google Scholar, adding the search terms 'study' and 'case report' to the search terms above. Finally, we asked several experts for gray literature not listed in the above-mentioned databases. We included only articles which met the criterion of a clinical study or case report, and excluded theoretical contributions. Among several articles found in books, journals and other publications, we identified 1 prospective clinical study, 3 experimental studies (enrolling healthy individuals), 5 case reports, and 3 field-reports. In almost all cases, the studies described beneficial effects - although the methodological quality of most studies was weak. Main indications were internal/metabolic diseases and psychiatric/neurological disorders. Beyond the obvious beneficial effects of warm bathes on the subjective well-being, it remains to be clarified what the unique contribution of the distinct essential oils dispersed in the water can be. There is a lack of clinical studies exploring the efficacy of oil-dispersion baths. Such studies are recommended for the future.

  11. The oil-dispersion bath in anthroposophic medicine – an integrative review

    Büssing, Arndt; Cysarz, Dirk; Edelhäuser, Friedrich; Bornhöft, Gudrun; Matthiessen, Peter F; Ostermann, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Background Anthroposophic medicine offers a variety of treatments, among others the oil-dispersion bath, developed in the 1930s by Werner Junge. Based on the phenomenon that oil and water do not mix and on recommendations of Rudolf Steiner, Junge developed a vortex mechanism which churns water and essential oils into a fine mist. The oil-covered droplets empty into a tub, where the patient immerses for 15–30 minutes. We review the current literature on oil-dispersion baths. Methods The following databases were searched: Medline, Pubmed, Embase, AMED and CAMbase. The search terms were 'oil-dispersion bath' and 'oil bath', and their translations in German and French. An Internet search was also performed using Google Scholar, adding the search terms 'study' and 'case report' to the search terms above. Finally, we asked several experts for gray literature not listed in the above-mentioned databases. We included only articles which met the criterion of a clinical study or case report, and excluded theoretical contributions. Results Among several articles found in books, journals and other publications, we identified 1 prospective clinical study, 3 experimental studies (enrolling healthy individuals), 5 case reports, and 3 field-reports. In almost all cases, the studies described beneficial effects – although the methodological quality of most studies was weak. Main indications were internal/metabolic diseases and psychiatric/neurological disorders. Conclusion Beyond the obvious beneficial effects of warm bathes on the subjective well-being, it remains to be clarified what the unique contribution of the distinct essential oils dispersed in the water can be. There is a lack of clinical studies exploring the efficacy of oil-dispersion baths. Such studies are recommended for the future. PMID:19055811

  12. The oil-dispersion bath in anthroposophic medicine – an integrative review

    Bornhöft Gudrun

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anthroposophic medicine offers a variety of treatments, among others the oil-dispersion bath, developed in the 1930s by Werner Junge. Based on the phenomenon that oil and water do not mix and on recommendations of Rudolf Steiner, Junge developed a vortex mechanism which churns water and essential oils into a fine mist. The oil-covered droplets empty into a tub, where the patient immerses for 15–30 minutes. We review the current literature on oil-dispersion baths. Methods The following databases were searched: Medline, Pubmed, Embase, AMED and CAMbase. The search terms were 'oil-dispersion bath' and 'oil bath', and their translations in German and French. An Internet search was also performed using Google Scholar, adding the search terms 'study' and 'case report' to the search terms above. Finally, we asked several experts for gray literature not listed in the above-mentioned databases. We included only articles which met the criterion of a clinical study or case report, and excluded theoretical contributions. Results Among several articles found in books, journals and other publications, we identified 1 prospective clinical study, 3 experimental studies (enrolling healthy individuals, 5 case reports, and 3 field-reports. In almost all cases, the studies described beneficial effects – although the methodological quality of most studies was weak. Main indications were internal/metabolic diseases and psychiatric/neurological disorders. Conclusion Beyond the obvious beneficial effects of warm bathes on the subjective well-being, it remains to be clarified what the unique contribution of the distinct essential oils dispersed in the water can be. There is a lack of clinical studies exploring the efficacy of oil-dispersion baths. Such studies are recommended for the future.

  13. Kinetic modeling and half life study on bioremediation of crude oil dispersed by Corexit 9500

    Zahed, Mohammad Ali; Aziz, Hamidi Abdul; Isa, Mohamed Hasnain; Mohajeri, Leila; Mohajeri, Soraya; Kutty, Shamsul Rahman Mohamed

    2011-01-01

    Hydrocarbon pollution in marine ecosystems occurs mainly by accidental oil spills, deliberate discharge of ballast waters from oil tankers and bilge waste discharges; causing site pollution and serious adverse effects on aquatic environments as well as human health. A large number of petroleum hydrocarbons are biodegradable, thus bioremediation has become an important method for the restoration of oil polluted areas. In this research, a series of natural attenuation, crude oil (CO) and dispersed crude oil (DCO) bioremediation experiments of artificially crude oil contaminated seawater was carried out. Bacterial consortiums were identified as Acinetobacter, Alcaligenes, Bacillus, Pseudomonas and Vibrio. First order kinetics described the biodegradation of crude oil. Under abiotic conditions, oil removal was 19.9% while a maximum of 31.8% total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) removal was obtained in natural attenuation experiment. All DCO bioreactors demonstrated higher and faster removal than CO bioreactors. Half life times were 28, 32, 38 and 58 days for DCO and 31, 40, 50 and 75 days for CO with oil concentrations of 100, 500, 1000 and 2000 mg/L, respectively. The effectiveness of Corexit 9500 dispersant was monitored in the 45 day study; the results indicated that it improved the crude oil biodegradation rate.

  14. Fuel oil and dispersant toxicity to the Antarctic sea urchin (Sterechinus neumayeri).

    Alexander, Frances J; King, Catherine K; Reichelt-Brushett, Amanda J; Harrison, Peter L

    2017-06-01

    The risk of a major marine fuel spill in Antarctic waters is increasing, yet there are currently no standard or suitable response methods under extreme Antarctic conditions. Fuel dispersants may present a possible solution; however, little data exist on the toxicity of dispersants or fuels to Antarctic species, thereby preventing informed management decisions. Larval development toxicity tests using 3 life history stages of the Antarctic sea urchin (Sterechinus neumayeri) were completed to assess the toxicity of physically dispersed, chemically dispersed, and dispersant-only water-accommodated fractions (WAFs) of an intermediate fuel oil (IFO 180, BP) and the chemical dispersant Slickgone NS (Dasic International). Despite much lower total petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations, physically dispersed fuels contained higher proportions of low-to-intermediate weight carbon compounds and were generally at least an order of magnitude more toxic than chemically dispersed fuels. Based on concentrations that caused 50% abnormality (EC50) values, the embryonic unhatched blastula life stage was the least affected by fuels and dispersants, whereas the larval 4-armed pluteus stage was the most sensitive. The present study is the first to investigate the possible implications of the use of fuel dispersants for fuel spill response in Antarctica. The results indicate that the use of a fuel dispersant did not increase the hydrocarbon toxicity of IFO 180 to the early life stages of Antarctic sea urchins, relative to physical dispersal. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:1563-1571. © 2016 SETAC. © 2016 SETAC.

  15. Analysis of As, Cr and Hg in crude oil sludge by using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA)

    Syazwani Mohd Fadzil; Khoo Kok Sionga, Amran Ab Majid; Sukiman Sarmani

    2009-01-01

    Environment are carrying toxic elements. The aim of this study was to determine As, Cr and Hg elements in crude oil sludge. In this study, crude oil sludge samples from a refining plant at Kerteh, Terengganu was carried out using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). The samples were packed and irradiated at the Malaysian Nuclear Agency reactor TRIGA Mark II. Later, the samples were counted using a HPGe detector and were analyzed using the SAMPO 90 software. The certified reference material (CRM) namely NBS Coal Fly Ash 1633a was used as a standard to obtain the concentration average using a comparative method. A total of 11 elements (i.e. As, Co, Cr, Fe, Ga, Hg, Mn, Na, Sc, Se and Sr) were determined in all samples. The concentrations of As, Cr and Hg were found to be in the range of 0-18.8, 98.2-124 and 52.8-57.9 μg.g -1 respectively. From the concentration of these elements, the results showed that the value for total As element is low but the values for the total Cr and Hg are considerable higher than the permissible value. However, almost all the potential environmental impacts can be controlled by sludge disposal options such as well-designed, carefully, efficiently and continuously managed, by following accepted guidelines and regulations. (Author)

  16. The influence of diffusion and dispersion on heavy oil recovery by VAPEX

    Alkindi, A. [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom); Muggeridge, A. [Society of Petroleum Engineers, London (United Kingdom)]|[Imperial College, London (United Kingdom); Al-Wahaibi, Y. [Society of Petroleum Engineers, Dubai (United Arab Emirates)]|[Sultan Qaboos Univ., Muscat (Oman)

    2008-10-15

    Heavy oil recovery using vapour extraction (VAPEX) is a promising improved oil recovery technique. However, field application of this process has been limited due to concerns that favourable laboratory recoveries may not scale up to the field level. Previous laboratory studies of VAPEX in porous media have obtained much higher production rates than predicted either by analytic models derived from Hele-Shaw experiments or numerical simulation. The difference between experimental and simulation models has been explained by assuming greater mixing between vapour and oil than would be expected from molecular diffusion. Convective dispersion is a plausible justification for this increase. This paper investigated the role of convective dispersion on oil recovery by VAPEX using a combination of well characterized laboratory experiments and numerical simulation. So that all mechanisms contributing to increased-mixing apart from convective dispersion were eliminated, a first contact miscible fluid system was used. Longitudinal and transverse dispersion coefficients were experimentally measured as a function of flow-rate and viscosity ratio. VAPEX drainage experiments were then conducted over a range of injection rates. The paper also discussed the comparison of laboratory measurements of oil drainage rates with those predicted by the Butler-Mokrys analytical model and numerical simulation using either molecular diffusion or convective dispersion. Last, the paper discussed the use of the numerical model in investigating the impact of rate, well separation, and reservoir geometry on recovery. 21 refs., 4 tabs., 12 figs.

  17. Distribution of dispersed oil phase in hydrocarbon fermentations

    Ho, C S; Erickson, L E

    1978-04-01

    Recent experimental results show that the spreading coefficient frequently becomes positive when Candida lipolytica is cultivated on n-hexadecane. The effects of oil spreading at the surface of air bubbles in an airlift fermentor are examined using a mathematical model. The distribution of the oil phase with position and among the phases is determined using computer simulation. The simulation results qualitatively explain some of the experimental observations which have been previously reported.

  18. Influence of UVB radiation on the lethal and sublethal toxicity of dispersed crude oil to planktonic copepod nauplii.

    Almeda, Rodrigo; Harvey, Tracy E; Connelly, Tara L; Baca, Sarah; Buskey, Edward J

    2016-06-01

    Toxic effects of petroleum to marine zooplankton have been generally investigated using dissolved petroleum hydrocarbons and in the absence of sunlight. In this study, we determined the influence of natural ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation on the lethal and sublethal toxicity of dispersed crude oil to naupliar stages of the planktonic copepods Acartia tonsa, Temora turbinata and Pseudodiaptomus pelagicus. Low concentrations of dispersed crude oil (1 μL L(-1)) caused a significant reduction in survival, growth and swimming activity of copepod nauplii after 48 h of exposure. UVB radiation increased toxicity of dispersed crude oil by 1.3-3.8 times, depending on the experiment and measured variables. Ingestion of crude oil droplets may increase photoenhanced toxicity of crude oil to copepod nauplii by enhancing photosensitization. Photoenhanced sublethal toxicity was significantly higher when T. turbinata nauplii were exposed to dispersant-treated oil than crude oil alone, suggesting that chemical dispersion of crude oil may promote photoenhanced toxicity to marine zooplankton. Our results demonstrate that acute exposure to concentrations of dispersed crude oil and dispersant (Corexit 9500) commonly found in the sea after oil spills are highly toxic to copepod nauplii and that natural levels of UVB radiation substantially increase the toxicity of crude oil to these planktonic organisms. Overall, this study emphasizes the importance of considering sunlight in petroleum toxicological studies and models to better estimate the impact of crude oil spills on marine zooplankton. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. Dispersion of Louisiana crude oil in salt water environment by Corexit 9500A in the presence of natural coastal materials

    Tansel, Berrin; Lee, Mengshan; Berbakov, Jillian; Tansel, Derya Z.; Koklonis, Urpiana

    2014-04-01

    Effectiveness of Corexit 9500A for dispersing Louisiana crude oil was evaluated in salt water solutions containing natural materials in relation to salinity and dispersant-to-oil ratio (DOR). Experimental results showed that both salinity and DOR had significant effects on dispersion of Louisiana crude oil in the presence of different natural materials. The natural materials added to the salt water solutions included sea sand (South Beach, Miami, Florida), red mangrove leaves (Rhizophora mangle), seaweed (Sargassum natans), and sea grass (Halodule wrightii). Dispersant effectiveness (amount of oil dispersed into the water) was reduced significantly with increasing salinity with the minimum effectiveness observed in the salinity range between 30 and 50 ppt in all aqueous samples containing natural materials. When significant amounts of floating oil were present, the partially submerged natural materials enhanced the transfer of oil into the water column, which improved the dispersion effectiveness. However, dispersant effectiveness was significantly reduced when the amount of floating oil was relatively small and could not be released back to the water column. Surface tension may not be an adequate parameter for monitoring the effectiveness of dispersants in salt water environment. When distilled water was used (i.e., zero salinity), surface tension was significantly reduced with increasing dispersant concentration. However, there was no clear trend in the surface tension of the salt water solutions (17-51 ppt) containing crude oil and natural materials with increasing dispersant concentration.

  20. Speciation and environmental risk assessment of heavy metal in bio-oil from liquefaction/pyrolysis of sewage sludge.

    Yuan, Xingzhong; Leng, Lijian; Huang, Huajun; Chen, Xiaohong; Wang, Hou; Xiao, Zhihua; Zhai, Yunbo; Chen, Hongmei; Zeng, Guangming

    2015-02-01

    Liquefaction bio-oil (LBO) produced with ethanol (or acetone) as the solvent and pyrolysis bio-oil (PBO) produced at 550°C (or 850°C) from sewage sludge (SS) were produced, and were characterized and evaluated in terms of their heavy metal (HM) composition. The total concentration, speciation and leaching characteristic of HMs (Cu, Cr, Pb, Zn, Cd, and Ni) in both LBO and PBO were investigated. The total concentration and exchangeable fraction of Zn and Ni in bio-oils were at surprisingly high levels. Quantitative risk assessment of HM in bio-oils was performed by the method of risk assessment code (RAC), potential ecological risk index (PERI) and geo-accumulation index (GAI). Ni in bio-oil produced by pyrolysis at 850°C (PBO850) and Zn in bio-oil by liquefaction at 360°C with ethanol as solvent (LBO-360E) were evaluated to possess very high risk to the environment according to RAC. Additionally, Cd in PBO850 and LBO-360E were evaluated by PERI to have very high risk and high risk, respectively, while Cd in all bio-oils was assessed moderately contaminated according to GAI. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Beneficial synergistic effect on bio-oil production from co-liquefaction of sewage sludge and lignocellulosic biomass.

    Leng, Lijian; Li, Jun; Yuan, Xingzhong; Li, Jingjing; Han, Pei; Hong, Yuchun; Wei, Feng; Zhou, Wenguang

    2018-03-01

    Co-liquefaction of municipal sewage sludge (MSS) and lignocellulosic biomass such as rice straw or wood sawdust at different mixing ratios and the characterization of the obtained bio-oil and bio-char were investigated. Synergistic effects were found during co-processing of MSS with biomass for production of bio-oil with higher yield and better fuel properties than those from individual feedstock. The co-liquefaction of MSS/rice straw (4/4, wt) increased the bio-oil yield from 22.74% (bio-oil yield from liquefaction of MSS individually) or 23.67% (rice straw) to 32.45%. Comparable increase on bio-oil yield was also observed for MSS/wood sawdust mixtures (2/6, wt). The bio-oils produced from MSS/biomass mixtures were mainly composed of esters and phenols with lower boiling points (degradation temperatures) than those from individual feedstock (identified with higher heavy bio-oil fractions). These synergistic effects were probably resulted from the interactions between the intermittent products of MSS and those of biomass during processing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Recycling of oil sludge through of the incorporation in bricks; Reciclagem de borra oleosa atraves de incorporacao em blocos ceramicos de vedacao

    Alves, Mara R.F.V. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Holanda, Francisco S.R. [Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFS), Aracaju, SE (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    The oil industry in Sergipe State generates a waste hard to treat or dispose of, called oil sludge, basically consisting of oil, solids and water. The final disposition, treatment and recycling of this waste is considered a high priority of the oil companies in the discussion of the policies related to its sustainable management. The objective of this work was to study an alternative of recycling the oil sludge as one component in the mixture of ceramic blocks producing for the civil construction industry. A characterization of the oil sludge was carried out to define the best treatment related to the addition of the residue mixtures with clay and water to make the ceramic blocks in rates ranging from 0 to 25% in weight. The quality of the ceramic blocks was evaluated based on mechanical resistance, water absorption, efflorescence, total soluble salts and retention capacity of heavy metals, which are measured by leaching and solubilization tests. A better mixture was achieved with the addition of oil sludge until the rate of 10% to 20% in weight to make the ceramic blocks, with maintenance of the desirable characteristics related to this type of construction supply, besides no negative effects to the environment. (author)

  3. Dispersed catalysts for transforming extra heavy crude oil into transportable upgraded crude: phase identification

    Martinez, S.; Canizales, E.; Machin, I. [Gerencia Depttal de Investigacion Estrategica en Refinacion PDVSA Intevep (Venezuela); Segovia, X.; Rivas, A.; Lopez, E.; Pena, J.P.; Rojas, J.D.; Sardella, R. [Gerencia Depttal de Infraestructura y Mejoramiento en Faja Petrolifera PDVSA Intevep (Venezuela)

    2011-07-01

    A new technology to convert extra heavy crude oil into transportable upgraded crude has been developed. A water/oil emulsion composed of steam and catalyst precursors is introduced in the feed which then generates unsupported dispersed catalyst in situ under thermal decomposition. The aim of this paper is to characterize the particles. The study was conducted in a laboratory and on a pilot scale on three different vacuum residues using high resolution transmission electron microscopy and a transmission electron microscope. Results showed that the particles were formed by oxides and inorganic sulphur based in transition metals and their sizes ranged between 5 and 120 nm; in addition, good dispersion was observed. This study demonstrated that the process involved in the generation of dispersed catalyst is extremely complex and showed that further work with heavy crude oils and its residua is required to understand the mechanisms involved.

  4. Dispersion of Waxy Gas Oil by Some Nonionic Surfactants

    Khidr, T.T.; Mahmoud, S.A.

    2004-01-01

    Straight chain fatty alcohols having the following number of carbon atoms C 12 , C 14 , C 18 and C 21 each alcohol was ethoxylated to the same of ethylene oxide content, characterized through average molecular weight and elemental analysis. The surface properties of these compounds were studied through surface tension measurements. The synthesized additives were tested as flow improvers for improving the cold flow properties of two waxy gas oils through pour point test. The results show the right efficiency of these compounds in improving the flow ability. Comparative evaluation of the synthesized products with available commercial additive (com) showed their efficiency and suitability to use in gas oils. Wax modification was assisted through photo analysis. Correlation between wax modification and flow improvement in term of pour point depression appeared to be merely qualitative in such heterogeneous gas oil systems

  5. A role for analytical chemistry in advancing our understanding of the occurrence, fate, and effects of Corexit Oil Dispersants

    Place, Ben; Anderson, Brian; Mekebri, Abdou; Furlong, Edward T.; Gray, James L.; Tjeerdema, Ron; Field, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    On April 24, 2010, the sinking of the Deepwater Horizon oil rig resulted in the release of oil into the Gulf of Mexico. As of July 19, 2010, the federal government's Deepwater Horizon Incident Joint Information Center estimates the cumulative range of oil released is 3,067,000 to 5,258,000 barrels, with a relief well to be completed in early August. By comparison, the Exxon Valdez oil spill released a total of 260,000 barrels of crude oil into the environment. As of June 9, BP has used over 1 million gallons of Corexit oil dispersants to solubilize oil and help prevent the development of a surface oil slick. Oil dispersants are mixtures containing solvents and surfactants that can exhibit toxicity toward aquatic life and may enhance the toxicity of components of weathered crude oil. Detailed knowledge of the composition of both Corexit formulations and other dispersants applied in the Gulf will facilitate comprehensive monitoring programs for determining the occurrence, fate, and biological effects of the dispersant chemicals. The lack of information on the potential impacts of oil dispersants has caught industry, federal, and state officials off guard. Until compositions of Corexit 9500 and 9527 were released by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency online, the only information available consisted of Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS), patent documentation, and a National Research Council report on oil dispersants. Several trade and common names are used for the components of the Corexits. For example, Tween 80 and Tween 85 are oligomeric mixtures.

  6. Effects of oil dispersant on solubilization, sorption and desorption of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in sediment–seawater systems

    Zhao, Xiao; Gong, Yanyan; O’Reilly, S.E.; Zhao, Dongye

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Oil dispersant enhances solubilization of PAHs more effectively than surfactants. • Dispersant and dispersed oil enhance sediment sorption of PAHs and induce hysteresis. • Partitioning to sediment-sorbed dispersant is the mechanism for enhanced PAH uptake. • Dual-mode models well simulate dispersant-facilitated sorption of PAHs on sediment. • Deepwater conditions reduce solubilization of PAHs and lessen dispersant effects. - Abstract: This work investigated effects of a prototype oil dispersant on solubilization, sorption and desorption of three model PAHs in sediment–seawater systems. Increasing dispersant dosage linearly enhanced solubility for all PAHs. Conversely, the dispersant enhanced the sediment uptake of the PAHs, and induced significant desorption hysteresis. Such contrasting effects (adsolubilization vs. solubilization) of dispersant were found dependent of the dispersant concentration and PAH hydrophobicity. The dual-mode models adequately simulated the sorption kinetics and isotherms, and quantified dispersant-enhanced PAH uptake. Sorption of naphthalene and 1-methylnaphthalene by sediment positively correlated with uptake of the dispersant, while sorption of pyrene dropped sharply when the dispersant exceeded its critical micelle concentration (CMC). The deepwater conditions diminished the dispersant effects on solubilization, but enhanced uptake of the PAHs, albeit sorption of the dispersant was lowered. The information may aid in understanding roles of dispersants on distribution, fate and transport of petroleum PAHs in marine systems

  7. Evaluation of field-collected data measuring fluorescein dye movements and dispersion for dispersed oil transport modeling

    French McCay, D.; Mueller, C.; Jayko, K.; Longval, B.; Schroeder, M. [Applied Science Associates Inc., Narragansett, RI (United States); Terrill, E.; Carter, M.; Otero, M.; Kim, S.Y. [Scripps Inst. of Oceanography, La Jolla, CA (United States); Nordhausen, W.; Lampinen, M. [California Dept. of Fish and Game, San Diego, CA (United States). Office of Spill Prevention and Response; Payne, J.R. [Payne Environmental Consultants Inc., Encinitas, CA (United States); Ohlmann, C. [California Univ., Santa Barbara, CA (United States)

    2007-07-01

    In the event of on oil spill at sea, the concentration of hydrocarbons in the water column can be evaluated using oil spill fate and transport modeling. Such modeling can also determine the potential exposure to zooplankton, and the impacts of oil spills with and without the use of dispersants. This paper reported on fluorescein dye studies that were conducted off Sand Diego, California to evaluate the ability of transport models to hindcast movement and dispersion of dye using data such as surface currents calculated from high-frequency radar; near surface currents from drifter measurements drogued at several depths; dye concentrations measured by fluorescence; spreading and dye intensity measurements based on aerial photography; and, water density profiles from conductivity-temperature-depth (CTD) casts. This paper presented modeling issues that remain to be addressed, such as the need to resolve small-scale transport processes in order to evaluate effects on water column biota. Since these processes determining current velocities are complex, it is not feasible to include most of the complexities at appropriately small scales in oil spill modeling applications. The difficulty in predicting currents that transport oil components and organisms with a hydrodynamic model application that does not include temporal details in the forcing function was also discussed. This paper demonstrated that the SIMAP spill trajectory model, using the drifter velocities as current input, successfully reproduced trajectories of the dye. The effect of wind drift transporting the surface material faster than the subsurface materials was identified as a spreading mechanism. Therefore, subtraction of the wind drift from the shallower drifter velocities, and inclusion of wind drift in SIMAP would allow those velocities to be used for depths other than those tracked by the drifters. 57 refs., 8 tabs., 17 figs.

  8. Biodegradation of dispersed marine fuel oil in sediment under engineered pre-spill application strategy

    Hua, J.

    2006-01-01

    Biodegradation of marine fuel oil was studied by monitoring changes in residual oil and populations of microorganisms in marine sediments. Biodegradation rates for dispersant and soap water were 2.09 and 2.27 g/kg per day, respectively, under pre-application strategy, suggesting that the strategy may promote MFO dispersion and provide with sufficient source of food. The effect of temperature on the effectiveness of pre-application strategy is particularly obvious for the growth of fungi and Pseudomonas maltophilia. The effect of pre-application of soap water on the tolerance of aerobic bacteria, Escherichia coli, and P. maltophilia, was gradually diminished within 25-33 days. (author)

  9. Production of bio diesel from sludge palm oil by esterification using p-toluenesulfonic acid

    Adeeb Hayyan; Mohd Zahangir Alam; Mirghani, M.E.S.; Kabbashi, N.A.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: Sludge palm oil (SPO) is an attractive feedstock and a significant raw material for bio diesel production. The use of SPO as feedstock for bio diesel production requires additional pretreatment step to transesterification process, which is an esterification process. The most commonly preferred catalysts used in this process are sulfuric, sulphonic, hydrochloric and P-toluenesulfonic acid (PTSA). In this study bio diesel fuel was produced from SPO using PTSA as acid catalyst in different dosages in presence of alcohol to convert free fatty acid (FFA) to fatty acid methyl ester (FAME). Batch esterification process of SPO was carried out to study the influence of PTSA dosage (0.25-10 % wt/wt), molar ratio of methanol to SPO (6:1-20:1), temperature (40-80 degree Celsius), reaction time (30-120 min). The effects of those parameters on FFA content, yield of treated SPO and conversion of FFA to FAME were monitored. The study showed that the FFA content of SPO reduced from 22 % to less than 0.15 % using ratio of 0.5, 0.75, 1, 1.5, and 2 % wt/wt PTSA to SPO. After esterification process dosage of PTSA at 0.75 % wt/wt shows the highest conversion of FFA to FAME as well as yield of treated SPO. The optimum condition for batch esterification process was 10:1 molar ratio, temperature 60 degree Celsius and 60 minutes reaction time. The highest yield of bio diesel after transesterification process was 76.62 % with 0.06 % FFA and 93 % ester content. (author)

  10. Synthesis and membrane performance characterization of self-emulsified waterborne nitrocellulose dispersion modified with castor oil

    Su, Xiuxia; Zhao, Qingxiao, E-mail: 934481965@qq.com; Zhang, Dan; Dong, Wei

    2015-11-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Waterborne nitrocellulose dispersion modified with castor oil (CWNC) was synthesized successfully. • It is a kind of environment-friendly coatings, in which volatile organic content (VOC) is near zero. • Castor oil used as an internal crosslinking agent for WNC improved the properties of the coating. • When the mass fraction of castor oil to total reactants is 7%, emulsion and the coating are of the best comprehensive performance. - Abstract: Waterborne nitrocellulose dispersion modified with castor oil (CWNC) was designed and successfully synthesized by self emulsification and reaction among isophorone diisocyanate (IPDI) trimer, dimethylol propionic acid (DMPA), nitrocellulose (NC) and castor oil (C.O.). The CWNC was characterized by transmission electron microscope (TEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), etc. The particle size of CWNC increased with the increase of mass fraction of castor oil to total reactants, ω (C.O.). The morphology of particles is an approximate core–shell structure indicated by TEM. FTIR confirmed that the reactions (i.e. IPDI trimer and castor oil, IPDI trimer and NC) occurred, the NCO groups of IPDI trimer were consumed totally and the backbone of NC was retained. The water contact angle measurements confirmed that introduced castor oil increased hydrophobicity of the film, thereby increasing the contact angle. TGA revealed that the CWNC film had better thermal resistance.

  11. Synthesis and membrane performance characterization of self-emulsified waterborne nitrocellulose dispersion modified with castor oil

    Su, Xiuxia; Zhao, Qingxiao; Zhang, Dan; Dong, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Waterborne nitrocellulose dispersion modified with castor oil (CWNC) was synthesized successfully. • It is a kind of environment-friendly coatings, in which volatile organic content (VOC) is near zero. • Castor oil used as an internal crosslinking agent for WNC improved the properties of the coating. • When the mass fraction of castor oil to total reactants is 7%, emulsion and the coating are of the best comprehensive performance. - Abstract: Waterborne nitrocellulose dispersion modified with castor oil (CWNC) was designed and successfully synthesized by self emulsification and reaction among isophorone diisocyanate (IPDI) trimer, dimethylol propionic acid (DMPA), nitrocellulose (NC) and castor oil (C.O.). The CWNC was characterized by transmission electron microscope (TEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), etc. The particle size of CWNC increased with the increase of mass fraction of castor oil to total reactants, ω (C.O.). The morphology of particles is an approximate core–shell structure indicated by TEM. FTIR confirmed that the reactions (i.e. IPDI trimer and castor oil, IPDI trimer and NC) occurred, the NCO groups of IPDI trimer were consumed totally and the backbone of NC was retained. The water contact angle measurements confirmed that introduced castor oil increased hydrophobicity of the film, thereby increasing the contact angle. TGA revealed that the CWNC film had better thermal resistance.

  12. Dispersive solid-phase extraction followed by vortex-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction based on the solidification of a floating organic droplet for the determination of benzoylurea insecticides in soil and sewage sludge.

    Peng, Guilong; He, Qiang; Mmereki, Daniel; Lu, Ying; Zhong, Zhihui; Liu, Hanyang; Pan, Weiliang; Zhou, Guangming; Chen, Junhua

    2016-04-01

    A novel dispersive solid-phase extraction combined with vortex-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction based on solidification of floating organic droplet was developed for the determination of eight benzoylurea insecticides in soil and sewage sludge samples before high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection. The analytes were first extracted from the soil and sludge samples into acetone under optimized pretreatment conditions. Clean-up of the extract was conducted by dispersive solid-phase extraction using activated carbon as the sorbent. The vortex-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction based on solidification of floating organic droplet procedure was performed by using 1-undecanol with lower density than water as the extraction solvent, and the acetone contained in the solution also acted as dispersive solvent. Under the optimum conditions, the linearity of the method was in the range 2-500 ng/g with correlation coefficients (r) of 0.9993-0.9999. The limits of detection were in the range of 0.08-0.56 ng/g. The relative standard deviations varied from 2.16 to 6.26% (n = 5). The enrichment factors ranged from 104 to 118. The extraction recoveries ranged from 81.05 to 97.82% for all of the analytes. The good performance has demonstrated that the proposed methodology has a strong potential for application in the multiresidue analysis of complex matrices. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Depuration of olive oil mill wastewater by an activated sludge system; Depuracion de alpechin mediante us sistema de fangos activados

    Beltran de Heredia, J.; Torregrosa Anton, J.; Ramos Viscas, M. P.; Garcia Rodriguez, J.; Dominguez Vargas, R. [Universidad de Extremadura. Badajoz (Spain)

    1999-07-01

    In the present work, the degradation of alpechin (olive oil mill wastewaters) have been studied by an activated sludge treatment. The substrate evolution (based on COD and BOD{sub 5}), nitrogen Kjeldahl, phosphorus, biomass, aromaticity and total polyphenolic contents was followed during each experiment. A kinetic study is performed by using the Contois model, which applied to the experimental data, provides the specific kinetic parameters of this model. Moreover, others interesting biological parameters like the cellular yield and the kinetics of endogenous metabolism were determined. (Author) 17 refs.

  14. Size Distribution and Dispersion of Droplets Generated by Impingement of Breaking Waves on Oil Slicks

    Li, C.; Miller, J.; Wang, J.; Koley, S. S.; Katz, J.

    2017-10-01

    This laboratory experimental study investigates the temporal evolution of the size distribution of subsurface oil droplets generated as breaking waves entrain oil slicks. The measurements are performed for varying wave energy, as well as large variations in oil viscosity and oil-water interfacial tension, the latter achieved by premixing the oil with dispersant. In situ measurements using digital inline holography at two magnifications are applied for measuring the droplet sizes and Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) for determining the temporal evolution of turbulence after wave breaking. All early (2-10 s) size distributions have two distinct size ranges with different slopes. For low dispersant to oil ratios (DOR), the transition between them could be predicted based on a turbulent Weber (We) number in the 2-4 range, suggesting that turbulence plays an important role. For smaller droplets, all the number size distributions have power of about -2.1, and for larger droplets, the power decreases well below -3. The measured steepening of the size distribution over time is predicted by a simple model involving buoyant rise and turbulence dispersion. Conversely, for DOR 1:100 and 1:25 oils, the diameter of slope transition decreases from ˜1 mm to 46 and 14 µm, respectively, much faster than the We-based prediction, and the size distribution steepens with increasing DOR. Furthermore, the concentration of micron-sized droplets of DOR 1:25 oil increases for the first 10 min after entrainment. These phenomena are presumably caused by the observed formation and breakup oil microthreads associated with tip streaming.

  15. Bacterial community shift for monitoring the co-composting of oil palm empty fruit bunch and palm oil mill effluent anaerobic sludge.

    Zainudin, Mohd Huzairi Mohd; Ramli, Norhayati; Hassan, Mohd Ali; Shirai, Yoshihito; Tashiro, Kosuke; Sakai, Kenji; Tashiro, Yukihiro

    2017-06-01

    A recently developed rapid co-composting of oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) and palm oil mill effluent (POME) anaerobic sludge is beginning to attract attention from the palm oil industry in managing the disposal of these wastes. However, a deeper understanding of microbial diversity is required for the sustainable practice of the co-compositing process. In this study, an in-depth assessment of bacterial community succession at different stages of the pilot scale co-composting of OPEFB-POME anaerobic sludge was performed using 454-pyrosequencing, which was then correlated with the changes of physicochemical properties including temperature, oxygen level and moisture content. Approximately 58,122 of 16S rRNA gene amplicons with more than 500 operational taxonomy units (OTUs) were obtained. Alpha diversity and principal component analysis (PCoA) indicated that bacterial diversity and distributions were most influenced by the physicochemical properties of the co-composting stages, which showed remarkable shifts of dominant species throughout the process. Species related to Devosia yakushimensis and Desemzia incerta are shown to emerge as dominant bacteria in the thermophilic stage, while Planococcus rifietoensis correlated best with the later stage of co-composting. This study proved the bacterial community shifts in the co-composting stages corresponded with the changes of the physicochemical properties, and may, therefore, be useful in monitoring the progress of co-composting and compost maturity.

  16. Chemical oil-spill dispersants: evaluation of three laboratory procedures for estimating performance

    Clayton, J.R.; Marsden, P.

    1992-09-01

    The report presents data from studies designed to evaluate characteristics of selected bench-scale test methods for estimating performance of chemical agents for dispersing oil from surface slicks into an underlying water column. In order to mitigate the effect of surface slicks with chemical dispersant agents, however, an on-scene coordinator must have information and an understanding of performance characteristics for available dispersant agents. Performance of candidate dispersant agents can be estimated on the basis of laboratory testing procedures that are designed to evaluate performance of different agents. Data presented in the report assist in the evaluation of candidate test methods for estimating performance of candidate dispersant agents. Three test methods were selected for evaluating performance: the currently accepted Revised Standard EPA test, Environmental Canada's Swirling Flask test, and the IFP-Dilution test

  17. Synthesis and membrane performance characterization of self-emulsified waterborne nitrocellulose dispersion modified with castor oil

    Su, Xiuxia; Zhao, Qingxiao; Zhang, Dan; Dong, Wei

    2015-11-01

    Waterborne nitrocellulose dispersion modified with castor oil (CWNC) was designed and successfully synthesized by self emulsification and reaction among isophorone diisocyanate (IPDI) trimer, dimethylol propionic acid (DMPA), nitrocellulose (NC) and castor oil (C.O.). The CWNC was characterized by transmission electron microscope (TEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), etc. The particle size of CWNC increased with the increase of mass fraction of castor oil to total reactants, ω (C.O.). The morphology of particles is an approximate core-shell structure indicated by TEM. FTIR confirmed that the reactions (i.e. IPDI trimer and castor oil, IPDI trimer and NC) occurred, the NCO groups of IPDI trimer were consumed totally and the backbone of NC was retained. The water contact angle measurements confirmed that introduced castor oil increased hydrophobicity of the film, thereby increasing the contact angle. TGA revealed that the CWNC film had better thermal resistance.

  18. Enhanced Gravitational Drainage of Crude Oil Through Alabama Beach Sand Caused by the Dispersant Corexit 9500A

    Steffy, D. A.; Nichols, A.; Hobbs, K.

    2017-12-01

    Oil spill material released by the 2010 Deepwater Horizon accident contaminated a majority of the 60 miles of Alabama coastline. In response to the oil spill, BP sprayed a dispersant, Corexit 9500A, as an initial remediation effort. An unforeseen impact of the saltwater-dispersant mixture includes the mobilization of oil-spilled material into the underlying beach sand. This study investigated the effect of the dispersant to promote gravitational drainage by measuring the physical characteristics of the sand, saltwater, crude oil, and the dispersant solution. The saltwater-dispersant mixture promoted the downward movement of oil mass 20 times greater extent than just saltwater. These tests are meant to simulate spill material on the beach being exposed to a low-energy, 1-meter mixed tide occurring along the Alabama coastline. A separate test simulated oilwet sand exposed to saltwater and a saltwater-dispersant mixture. The oil-wet sand impeded the vertical movement of saltwater, but allowed a saltwater-dispersant solution to mobilize the oil to migrate downward. The mobilization of oil in this three phase system of saltwater, oil, and air is controlled by: the pressure-saturation profile of the sand; interfacial tension with saltwater; and its surface tension with air.

  19. Effects of dispersants on microbial growth and biodegradation of crude oils

    Bhosle, N.B.; Mavinkurve, S.

    Four oil spill dispersants when used along (0.1% V/V) or in combination with Saudi Arabian Crude (0.5% V/V) were non-toxic to Arthrobacter simplex and Candida tropicalis. At a higher concentration of 0.6% (V/V) only D2 was found to be toxic to both...

  20. New sorbent in the dispersive solid phase extraction step of quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe for the extraction of organic contaminants in drinking water treatment sludge.

    Cerqueira, Maristela B R; Caldas, Sergiane S; Primel, Ednei G

    2014-04-04

    Recent studies have shown a decrease in the concentration of pesticides, pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PCPs) in water after treatment. A possible explanation for this phenomenon is that these compounds may adhere to the sludge; however, investigation of these compounds in drinking water treatment sludge has been scarce. The sludge generated by drinking water treatment plants during flocculation and decantation steps should get some special attention not only because it has been classified as non-inert waste but also because it is a very complex matrix, consisting essentially of inorganic (sand, argil and silt) and organic (humic substances) compounds. In the first step of this study, three QuEChERS methods were used, and then compared, for the extraction of pesticides (atrazine, simazine, clomazone and tebuconazole), pharmaceuticals (amitriptyline, caffeine, diclofenac and ibuprofen) and PCPs (methylparaben, propylparaben, triclocarban and bisphenol A) from drinking water treatment sludge. Afterwards, the study of different sorbents in the dispersive solid phase extraction (d-SPE) step was evaluated. Finally, a new QuEChERS method employing chitin, obtained from shrimp shell waste, was performed in the d-SPE step. After having been optimized, the method showed limits of quantification (LOQ) between 1 and 50 μg kg(-1) and the analytical curves showed r values higher than 0.98, when liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry was employed. Recoveries ranged between 50 and 120% with RSD≤15%. The matrix effect was evaluated and compensated with matrix-matched calibration. The method was applied to drinking water treatment sludge samples and methylparaben and tebuconazole were found in concentration

  1. Onset of entrainment and degree of dispersion in dual continuous horizontal oil-water flows

    Al-Wahaibi, Talal [Department of Petroleum and Chemical Engineering, Sultan Qaboos University, P.O. Box 33, Al-Khoud, P.C. 123 (Oman); Angeli, Panagiota [Department of Chemical Engineering, University College London, Torrington Place, London WC1E 7JE (United Kingdom)

    2009-04-15

    The transition from stratified to dual continuous oil-water flow (where each phase retains its continuity but there is dispersion of one phase into the other) as well as the dispersed phase fractions in the layers of the dual continuous pattern, were studied experimentally. Transition to this pattern from stratified flow occurs when drops of one phase appear into the other (onset of entrainment). The studies were carried out in a 38 mm ID horizontal stainless steel test section using two different inlet geometries, a T- and a Y-junction. The patterns were visualized through a transparent acrylic section located at 7 m from the inlet using a high speed video camera. Phase distribution measurements in a pipe cross section were obtained just before the acrylic section with a local impedance probe and the results were used to calculate the volume fraction of each phase entrained into the other. The onset of entrainment was found to occur at lower superficial water velocities as the oil superficial velocities increased. However, the inlet geometry did not affect significantly the transition line. During dual continuous flow, the dispersion of one phase into the opposite was found to extend further away from the interface with increasing water superficial velocity for a certain oil superficial velocity. An increase in the superficial water velocity increased the entrained fraction of water in oil (E{sub w/o}) but there was no trend with the oil velocity. Similarly, an increase in the superficial oil velocity increased the fraction of oil drops in water (E{sub o/w}) but the water velocity had no clear effect. The entrainment fractions were affected by the inlet geometry, with the T-inlet resulting in higher entrainment than the Y-inlet, perhaps because of the increased mixing induced by the T-inlet. The difference between the two inlets increased as the oil and water velocities increased. (author)

  2. Stable dispersion of nanodiamonds in oil and their tribological properties as lubricant additives

    Lee, Gyoung-Ja; Park, Jin-Ju; Lee, Min-Ku; Rhee, Chang Kyu

    2017-09-01

    Nanodiamonds (NDs) are innovative additives when a combination of mechanical, thermal, tribological, and dielectric properties are required. In this study, a surface modification with oleic acid (OA) is developed for the deaggregation and prolonged dispersion of NDs in oil, and the effect of the NDs as lubricant additives on the tribological properties of a steel substrate is investigated. The OA renders the ND surface hydrophobic and decreases the average particle size from 268.6 to 20.1 nm. The OA-treated NDs exhibit very stable dispersion in oil even after more than 10 days, compared with the untreated NDs. From the analyses of the friction coefficient, wear loss, and worn surfaces using a ball-on-disk wear test, it is concluded that a 0.05 wt% addition of OA-treated NDs in oil lubricant provides excellent friction and anti-wear properties with the friction coefficient being reduced by 23%.

  3. Bioaccumulation and subacute toxicity of mechanically and chemically dispersed heavy fuel oil in sea urchin (Glyptocidaris crenulari

    Bailin Yang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Oil spills have a disastrous ecological impact on ecosystems but few data are available for the effects of dispersed oil on benthic marine organisms. In order to provide information for assessment, we analysed the hydrocarbon compositions of the mechanically dispersed water accommodated fraction (MDWAF and the chemically dispersed water accommodated fraction (CDWAF of No. 120 fuel oil, their bioaccumulation, and DNA damage related to oil exposure, using the sea urchin as a sentinel organism. The results show that the concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon in the tissues of sea urchin exposed to the CDWAF is higher than that of those exposed to the MDWAF. The single cell gel electrophoresis assay results also indicated higher DNA damage from exposure to the CDWAF of oil. Thus, dispersants should be applied with caution in oil spill accidents.

  4. Characterization of bio-oil from induction-heating pyrolysis of food-processing sewage sludges using chromatographic analysis.

    Tsai, Wen-Tien; Lee, Mei-Kuei; Chang, Jeng-Hung; Su, Ting-Yi; Chang, Yuan-Ming

    2009-05-01

    In this study, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used to analyze the pyrolytic bio-oils and gas fractions derived from the pyrolysis of industrial sewage sludges using induction-heating technique. The liquid products were obtained from the cryogenic condensation of the devolatilization fraction in a nitrogen atmosphere using a heating rate of 300 degrees C/min ranging from 25 to 500 degrees C. The analytical results showed that the pyrolysis bio-oils were very complex mixtures of organic compounds and contained a lot of nitrogenated and/or oxygenated compounds such as aliphatic hydrocarbons, phenols, pyridines, pyrroles, amines, ketones, and so on. These organic hydrocarbons containing nitrogen and/or oxygen should originate from the protein and nucleic acid textures of the microbial organisms present in the sewage sludge. The non-condensable devolatilization fractions were also composed of nitrogenated and oxygenated compounds, but contained small fractions of phenols, 1H-indoles, and fatty carboxylic acids. On the other hand, the compositions in the non-condensable gas products were principally carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide and methane analyzed by gas chromatography-thermal conductivity detector (GC-TCD).

  5. Semi-continuous anaerobic co-digestion of thickened waste activated sludge and fat, oil and grease

    Wan Caixia; Zhou Quancheng; Fu Guiming; Li Yebo

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Co-digestion of thickened waste activated sludge (TWAS) with fat, oil and grease (FOG). → Co-digestion of TWAS and FOG at 64% VS increased biogas production by 137%. → FOG addition ratio at 74% of total VS caused inhibition of the anaerobic digestion process. → Micronutrients addition did not significantly improve the biogas production and digestion stabilization. - Abstract: Co-digestion of thickened waste activated sludge (TWAS) and fat, oil and grease (FOG) was conducted semi-continuously under mesophilic conditions. The results showed that daily methane yield at the steady state was 598 L/kg VS added when TWAS and FOG (64% of total VS) were co-digested, which was 137% higher than that obtained from digestion of TWAS alone. The biogas composition was stabilized at a CH 4 and CO 2 content of 66.8% and 29.5%, respectively. Micronutrients added to co-digestion did not improve the biogas production and digestion stabilization. With a higher addition of FOG (74% of total VS), the digester initially failed but was slowly self-recovered; however, the methane yield was only about 50% of a healthy reactor with the same organic loading rate.

  6. Effect of Two Oil Dispersants on Larval Grass Shrimp (Palaemonetes pugio) Development.

    Betancourt, P.; Key, P. B.; Chung, K. W.; DeLorenzo, M. E.

    2015-12-01

    The study focused on the effects that two oil dispersants, Corexit® EC9500A and Finasol® OSR52, have on the development of larval grass shrimp, (Palaemonetes pugio). The hypothesis was that Finasol would have a greater effect on larval grass shrimp development than Corexit. The experiment was conducted using 300 grass shrimp larvae that were 24 hours old. Each larva was exposed individually. In total, five sub-lethal concentrations were tested for each dispersant (control, 1.25, 2.50, 5.0,10.0 mg/L). The larvae were exposed for five days then transferred to clean seawater until metamorphosis into the juvenile stage. Key data measurements recorded included number of days to become juveniles, number of instars, length, dry weight, and mortality. Data from exposed shrimp was compared to the results of the control for each dispersant concentration. Corexit and Finasol exposure treatments of 5 mg/L and 10 mg/L showed significantly higher values for number of days and number of instars to reach juvenile status than values obtained from unexposed, control shrimp. Overall, mortality was higher in the Finasol treatments but the two dispersants did not respond significantly different from one another. Future studies are needed to determine the long term effects of dispersant exposure on all grass shrimp life stages and how any dispersant exposure impacts grass shrimp populations. Grass shrimp serve as excellent toxicity indicators of estuaries, and further studies will help to develop better oil spill mitigation techniques.

  7. The case for using vessel-based systems to apply oil-spill dispersants

    Ross, S.

    1998-01-01

    Most emergency plans for dealing with marine oil spills include the use of chemical dispersants. This paper presents a comparison between the capabilities of aircraft-based dispersant application systems and vessel-based systems. The comparison was presented in terms of the logistics of treating offshore spills. Vessel-based systems have certain advantages in terms of their availability and cost. They have better spray control and accuracy and can dose thick slicks in one pass. However, this advantage is lost if the dispersant payload on the vessel is relatively small and the spill is located very far from the base of operations. Under certain conditions, vessel-based dispersant application systems can treat spills as quickly as aircraft-based systems. Most marine spills tend to occur in restricted waters near ports where dispersant stockpiles could be stored for ready use by vessels in the area. Development of a modern vessel-based, fire-monitor system for applying chemical dispersant onto marine oil spills was one of the recommendations emerging from the study. 32 refs., 6 tabs., 1 fig

  8. Co-production of activated carbon, fuel-gas, and oil from the pyrolysis of corncob mixtures with wet and dried sewage sludge.

    Shao, Linlin; Jiang, Wenbo; Feng, Li; Zhang, Liqiu

    2014-06-01

    This study explored the amount and composition of pyrolysis gas and oil derived from wet material or dried material during the preparation of sludge-corncob activated carbon, and evaluated the physicochemical and surface properties of the obtained two types of sludge-corncob-activated carbons. For wet material, owing to the presence of water, the yields of sludge-corncob activated carbon and the oil fraction slightly decreased while the yield of gases increased. The main pyrolysis gas compounds were H2 and CO2, and more H2 was released from wet material than dried material, whereas the opposite holds for CO2 Heterocyclics, nitriles, organic acids, and steroids were the major components of pyrolysis oil. Furthermore, the presence of water in wet material reduced the yield of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from 6.76% to 5.43%. The yield of furfural, one of heterocyclics, increased sharply from 3.51% to 21.4%, which could be explained by the enhanced hydrolysis of corncob. In addition, the surface or chemical properties of the two sludge-corncob activated carbons were almost not affected by the moisture content of the raw material, although their mesopore volume and diameter were different. In addition, the adsorption capacities of the two sludge-corncob activated carbons towards Pb and nitrobenzene were nearly identical. © The Author(s) 2014.

  9. Nutritive value of palm oil sludge fermented with Aspergillus niger after therma1 drying process

    T Purwadaria

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Solid substrate fermentation by Aspergillus niger has been carried out to improve the nutritive value of palm oil sludge (POS. POS was fermented aerobically for four days in a fermentor chambers (28°C, RH 80%, with 60% moisture content Some of the product was further incubated anaerobically for 2 days at 28°C. Both products from aerobic and anaerobic fermentation processes were dried by various methods, i.e. sunlight, oven at 60°C, oven with blower at 40°C, at the moisture content less than 11%. Results of the drying methods were also compared with the fresh fermented product. Statistic analysis using factorial design (2 x 4 showed that there was no interaction between kind of fermentation processes (aerobic and anaerobic and drying methods (fresh, sunlight, oven 60°C, and blower 40°C for almost all parameters except total a-amino acid content Significant results (p<0.05 were obtained on the drying methods for parameters of crude protein, true protein, in vitro dry matter and protein digestibilities, and mannanase and cellulase activities. There were no significant results between treatments in the crude fiber analysis and soluble nitrogen content Significant results also did not occur between treatment of aerob and anaerob fermentation processes for almost all parameters except for dry matter digestibilities. Results from true protein and in vitro digestibilities show that the fresh fermented product has the best nutritive value, while product dried by sunlight was best among other drying processes. Results from in vivo of protein and energy digestibilities show that there were better metabolizable energy and protein for product with aerobic process and dried with oven and blower treatments, while sunlight drying was best for product processed in anaerobic condition. Although fresh fermented product gave better result from in vitro digestibilities and enzyme activity analyses, for some reasons (easy handling and preservation sunlight

  10. Valorisation of used cooking oil sludge by codigestion with swine manure

    Fierro, J.; Martínez, E.J.; Morán, A.; Gómez, X., E-mail: xagomb@unileon.es

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • Anaerobic codigestion of UCO sludge and swine manure was successful at 50 d HRT. • VFA build-up was present during the reactor start-up but were reduced after 50 d. • CH{sub 4} yield was 326 l/kg VS{sub feed}, decreasing HRT to 30 d resulted in poor performance. • Digestate at 50 d HRT was unstable although the load applied to the reactor was low. - Abstract: The addition of lipid wastes to the digestion of swine manure was studied as a means of increasing biogas production. Lipid waste was obtained from a biodiesel plant where used cooking oil is the feedstock. Digestion of this co-substrate was proposed as a way of valorising residual streams from the process of biodiesel production and to integrate the digestion process into the biorefinery concept. Batch digestion tests were performed at different co-digesting proportions obtaining as a result an increase in biogas production with the increase in the amount of co-substrate added to the mixture. Semi-continuous digestion was studied at a 7% (w/w) mass fraction of total solids. Co-digestion was successful at a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 50 d but a decrease to 30 d resulted in a decrease in specific gas production and accumulation of volatile and long chain fatty acids. The CH{sub 4} yield obtained was 326 ± 46 l/kg VS{sub feed} at an HRT of 50 d, while this value was reduced to 274 ± 43 l/kg VS{sub feed} when evaluated at an HRT of 30 d. However these values were higher than the one obtained under batch conditions (266 ± 40 l/kg VS{sub feed}), thus indicating the need of acclimation to the co-substrate. Despite of operating at low organic loading rate (OLR), measurements from respirometry assays of digestate samples (at an HRT of 50 d) suggested that the effluent could not be directly applied to the soil as fertiliser and might have a negative effect over soil or crops.

  11. Valorisation of used cooking oil sludge by codigestion with swine manure

    Fierro, J.; Martínez, E.J.; Morán, A.; Gómez, X.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Anaerobic codigestion of UCO sludge and swine manure was successful at 50 d HRT. • VFA build-up was present during the reactor start-up but were reduced after 50 d. • CH 4 yield was 326 l/kg VS feed , decreasing HRT to 30 d resulted in poor performance. • Digestate at 50 d HRT was unstable although the load applied to the reactor was low. - Abstract: The addition of lipid wastes to the digestion of swine manure was studied as a means of increasing biogas production. Lipid waste was obtained from a biodiesel plant where used cooking oil is the feedstock. Digestion of this co-substrate was proposed as a way of valorising residual streams from the process of biodiesel production and to integrate the digestion process into the biorefinery concept. Batch digestion tests were performed at different co-digesting proportions obtaining as a result an increase in biogas production with the increase in the amount of co-substrate added to the mixture. Semi-continuous digestion was studied at a 7% (w/w) mass fraction of total solids. Co-digestion was successful at a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 50 d but a decrease to 30 d resulted in a decrease in specific gas production and accumulation of volatile and long chain fatty acids. The CH 4 yield obtained was 326 ± 46 l/kg VS feed at an HRT of 50 d, while this value was reduced to 274 ± 43 l/kg VS feed when evaluated at an HRT of 30 d. However these values were higher than the one obtained under batch conditions (266 ± 40 l/kg VS feed ), thus indicating the need of acclimation to the co-substrate. Despite of operating at low organic loading rate (OLR), measurements from respirometry assays of digestate samples (at an HRT of 50 d) suggested that the effluent could not be directly applied to the soil as fertiliser and might have a negative effect over soil or crops

  12. CHEMICAL OIL SPILL DISPERSANTS: UPDATE STATE-OF-THE- ART ON MECHANISM OF ACTION AND LABORATORY TESTING FOR PERFORMANCE

    Chemical dispersants are formulations designed to facilitate dispersion of an oil slick into small droplets that disperse to non-problematic concentrations in an underlying water column. This project had two primary objectives: (1) update information on mechanisms of action of ...

  13. In situ production of bio-surfactants: An alternative method for dispersing and bioremediating marine oil spills

    Josefsen, K.D.; Sveum, P.; Ramstad, P.; Markussen, S.; Folkvord, K.; Krigsvoll, K.; Aune, R.; Storroe, I.

    1995-01-01

    Some oil degrading bacteria are able to produce surfactants. These biosurfactants enhance dispersion of oil droplets into the water column. A large number of surfactant producing bacterial strains have been isolated from seawater samples collected at different sites around the world. Strains isolated from seawater samples collected in cold regions generally had better properties than strains isolated from warm seawater. Many of the isolated strains were able to disperse crude oils with a large variation of composition, as well as the water-in-emulsion (chocolate mousse) formed during weathering of crude oil in the sea. The results show that in situ application of surfactant producing bacteria can be a viable tool in future oil spill contingency, and that dispersion of oil may increase the biodegradation rate. Work is in progress to examine the use of such bacteria in the bioremediation of oil contaminated shorelines. 10 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  14. Rapid Formation of Microbe-Oil Aggregates and Changes in Community Composition in Coastal Surface Water Following Exposure to Oil and the Dispersant Corexit

    Shawn M. Doyle

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available During the Deepwater Horizon (DWH oil spill, massive quantities of oil were deposited on the seafloor via a large-scale marine oil-snow sedimentation and flocculent accumulation (MOSSFA event. The role of chemical dispersants (e.g., Corexit applied during the DWH oil spill clean-up in helping or hindering the formation of this MOSSFA event are not well-understood. Here, we present the first experiment related to the DWH oil spill to specifically investigate the relationship between microbial community structure, oil and Corexit®, and marine oil-snow in coastal surface waters. We observed the formation of micron-scale aggregates of microbial cells around droplets of oil and dispersant and found that their rate of formation was directly related to the concentration of oil within the water column. These micro-aggregates are potentially important precursors to the formation of larger marine oil-snow particles. Therefore, our observation that Corexit® significantly enhanced their formation suggests dispersant application may play a role in the development of MOSSFA events. We also observed that microbial communities in marine surface waters respond to oil and oil plus Corexit® differently and much more rapidly than previously measured, with major shifts in community composition occurring within only a few hours of experiment initiation. In the oil-amended treatments without Corexit®, this manifested as an increase in community diversity due to the outgrowth of several putative aliphatic- and aromatic-hydrocarbon degrading genera, including phytoplankton-associated taxa. In contrast, microbial community diversity was reduced in mesocosms containing chemically dispersed oil. Importantly, different consortia of hydrocarbon degrading bacteria responded to oil and chemically dispersed oil, indicating that functional redundancy in the pre-spill community likely results in hydrocarbon consumption in both undispersed and dispersed oils, but by different

  15. Rapid Formation of Microbe-Oil Aggregates and Changes in Community Composition in Coastal Surface Water Following Exposure to Oil and the Dispersant Corexit.

    Doyle, Shawn M; Whitaker, Emily A; De Pascuale, Veronica; Wade, Terry L; Knap, Anthony H; Santschi, Peter H; Quigg, Antonietta; Sylvan, Jason B

    2018-01-01

    During the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill, massive quantities of oil were deposited on the seafloor via a large-scale marine oil-snow sedimentation and flocculent accumulation (MOSSFA) event. The role of chemical dispersants (e.g., Corexit) applied during the DWH oil spill clean-up in helping or hindering the formation of this MOSSFA event are not well-understood. Here, we present the first experiment related to the DWH oil spill to specifically investigate the relationship between microbial community structure, oil and Corexit®, and marine oil-snow in coastal surface waters. We observed the formation of micron-scale aggregates of microbial cells around droplets of oil and dispersant and found that their rate of formation was directly related to the concentration of oil within the water column. These micro-aggregates are potentially important precursors to the formation of larger marine oil-snow particles. Therefore, our observation that Corexit® significantly enhanced their formation suggests dispersant application may play a role in the development of MOSSFA events. We also observed that microbial communities in marine surface waters respond to oil and oil plus Corexit® differently and much more rapidly than previously measured, with major shifts in community composition occurring within only a few hours of experiment initiation. In the oil-amended treatments without Corexit®, this manifested as an increase in community diversity due to the outgrowth of several putative aliphatic- and aromatic-hydrocarbon degrading genera, including phytoplankton-associated taxa. In contrast, microbial community diversity was reduced in mesocosms containing chemically dispersed oil. Importantly, different consortia of hydrocarbon degrading bacteria responded to oil and chemically dispersed oil, indicating that functional redundancy in the pre-spill community likely results in hydrocarbon consumption in both undispersed and dispersed oils, but by different bacterial taxa

  16. Magnetorheology of submicron diameter iron microwires dispersed in silicone oil

    Bell, R C; Karli, J O; Vavreck, A N; Zimmerman, D T; Ngatu, G T; Wereley, N M

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the magnetorheological (MR) properties of suspensions containing iron microwires with 260 nm diameter and two distinct length distributions of 5.4 ± 5.2 µm and 7.6 ± 5.1 µm suspended in silicone oil (0.45 Pa s). The rheological properties of these fluids were determined using a parallel plate rheometer equipped with a variable strength electromagnet. The shear stress was measured as a function of shear rate for increasing applied magnetic fields. These results were modeled using the Bingham-plastic constitutive model to determine the apparent yield stress and viscosity as a function of increasing volume fraction and length of microwires. At a saturated magnetic flux density, the yield stress using the 5.4 µm microwires was found to be 0.65, 2.23, and 4.76 kPa for the 2, 4, and 6 vol% suspensions, respectively. For the 7.6 µm wires, the yield stress increases to 8.2 kPa for the 6 vol% suspension. Compared with conventional MR fluids employing spherical particles, the degree of settling is markedly decreased in the microwire-based fluids. At 6 vol%, conventional fluids display appreciable settling whereas the microwire-based fluids display no discernable settling. Moreover, the rod-shaped microwires are shown to increase the yield stress of the fluids and enhance the MR performance

  17. Low-shear rheology and sedimentation stability of coal-oil dispersions

    Rutter, P. R.; Davies, J. M.; Jones, T. E.R.

    1984-10-15

    Stable coal-oil mixtures can be prepared by grinding coal particles in fuel oil. These products have been prepared by the British Petroleum Company plc and are referred to as Coal-Oil Dispersions (COD). One of the major problems associated with the production of DOD is the rapid assessment of the length of time the coal particles are likely to remain in suspension under a particular set of storage conditions. This paper describes a number of measurements of the low-shear rheology and sedimentation stability of a series of CODs prepared by grinding two types of coal in two different fuel oils. The results suggest that two types of COD are possible. One type exhibits complex rheological properties at low shear rates and does not produce a coal sediment, even after prolonged storage at 80/sup 0/C under dynamic conditions. The other exhibits near Newtonian behaviour and appears to form a sedimented layer of coal during storage.

  18. A new perspective of particle adsorption: Dispersed oil and granular materials interactions in simulated coastal environment.

    Meng, Long; Bao, Mutai; Sun, Peiyan

    2017-09-15

    This study, adsorption behaviors of dispersed oil in seawaters by granular materials were explored in simulation environment. We quantitatively demonstrated the dispersed oil adsorbed by granular materials were both dissolved petroleum hydrocarbons (DPHs) and oil droplets. Furthermore, DPHs were accounted for 42.5%, 63.4%, and 85.2% (35.5% was emulsion adsorption) in the adsorption of dispersed oil by coastal rocks, sediments, and bacterial strain particles respectively. Effects of controlling parameters, such as temperature, particle size and concentration on adsorption of petroleum hydrocarbons were described in detail. Most strikingly, adsorption concentration was followed a decreasing order of bacterial strain (0.5-2μm)>sediments (0.005-0.625mm)>coastal rocks (0.2-1cm). With particle concentration or temperature increased, adsorption concentration increased for coastal rocks particle but decreased for sediments particle. Besides, particle adsorption rate of petroleum hydrocarbons (n-alkanes and PAHs) was different among granular materials during 60 days. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Anaerobic co-digestion of cork based oil sorbent and cow manure or sludge

    Cavaleiro, A.J.; Neves, T.M.; Guedes, A.P.; Alves, M.M.; Pinto, P.; Silva, S.P.; Machado de Sousa, Diana

    2015-01-01

    Cork, a material with great economic, social and environmental importance in Portugal, is also a good oil sorbent that can be used in the remediation of oil spills. The oil-impregnated cork can be easily removed, but requires further treatment. In the case of vegetable oil spills, anaerobic

  20. Self-dispersed crumpled graphene balls in oil for friction and wear reduction.

    Dou, Xuan; Koltonow, Andrew R; He, Xingliang; Jang, Hee Dong; Wang, Qian; Chung, Yip-Wah; Huang, Jiaxing

    2016-02-09

    Ultrafine particles are often used as lubricant additives because they are capable of entering tribological contacts to reduce friction and protect surfaces from wear. They tend to be more stable than molecular additives under high thermal and mechanical stresses during rubbing. It is highly desirable for these particles to remain well dispersed in oil without relying on molecular ligands. Borrowing from the analogy that pieces of paper that are crumpled do not readily stick to each other (unlike flat sheets), we expect that ultrafine particles resembling miniaturized crumpled paper balls should self-disperse in oil and could act like nanoscale ball bearings to reduce friction and wear. Here we report the use of crumpled graphene balls as a high-performance additive that can significantly improve the lubrication properties of polyalphaolefin base oil. The tribological performance of crumpled graphene balls is only weakly dependent on their concentration in oil and readily exceeds that of other carbon additives such as graphite, reduced graphene oxide, and carbon black. Notably, polyalphaolefin base oil with only 0.01-0.1 wt % of crumpled graphene balls outperforms a fully formulated commercial lubricant in terms of friction and wear reduction.

  1. Evolution of the Macondo well blowout: simulating the effects of the circulation and synthetic dispersants on the subsea oil transport.

    Paris, Claire B; Hénaff, Matthieu Le; Aman, Zachary M; Subramaniam, Ajit; Helgers, Judith; Wang, Dong-Ping; Kourafalou, Vassiliki H; Srinivasan, Ashwanth

    2012-12-18

    During the Deepwater Horizon incident, crude oil flowed into the Gulf of Mexico from 1522 m underwater. In an effort to prevent the oil from rising to the surface, synthetic dispersants were applied at the wellhead. However, uncertainties in the formation of oil droplets and difficulties in measuring their size in the water column, complicated further assessment of the potential effect of the dispersant on the subsea-to-surface oil partition. We adapted a coupled hydrodynamic and stochastic buoyant particle-tracking model to the transport and fate of hydrocarbon fractions and simulated the far-field transport of the oil from the intrusion depth. The evaluated model represented a baseline for numerical experiments where we varied the distributions of particle sizes and thus oil mass. The experiments allowed to quantify the relative effects of chemical dispersion, vertical currents, and inertial buoyancy motion on oil rise velocities. We present a plausible model scenario, where some oil is trapped at depth through shear emulsification due to the particular conditions of the Macondo blowout. Assuming effective mixing of the synthetic dispersants at the wellhead, the model indicates that the submerged oil mass is shifted deeper, decreasing only marginally the amount of oil surfacing. In this scenario, the oil rises slowly to the surface or stays immersed. This suggests that other mechanisms may have contributed to the rapid surfacing of oil-gas mixture observed initially. The study also reveals local topographic and hydrodynamic processes that influence the oil transport in eddies and multiple layers. This numerical approach provides novel insights on oil transport mechanisms from deep blowouts and on gauging the subsea use of synthetic dispersant in mitigating coastal damage.

  2. Sequential chemical treatment of radium species in TENORM waste sludge produced from oil and natural gas production

    El Afifi, E.M.; Awwad, N.S.; Hilal, M.A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper is dedicated to the treatment of sludge occurring in frame of the Egyptian produced from oil and gas production. The activity levels of three radium isotopes: Ra-226 (of U-series), Ra-228 and Ra-224 (of Th-series) in the solid TENORM waste (sludge) were first evaluated and followed by a sequential treatment for all radium species (fractions) presented in TENORM. The sequential treatment was carried out based on two approaches 'A' and 'B' using different chemical solutions. The results obtained indicate that the activity levels of all radium isotopes (Ra-226, Ra-228 and Ra-224) of the environmental interest in the TENORM waste sludge were elevated with regard to exemption levels established by IAEA [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), International basic safety standards for the protection against ionizing radiation and for the safety of radiation sources. GOV/2715/Vienna, 1994]. Each approach of the sequential treatment was performed through four steps using different chemical solutions to reduce the activity concentration of radium in a large extent. Most of the leached radium was found as an oxidizable Ra species. The actual removal % leached using approach B was relatively efficient compared to A. It is observed that the actual removal percentages (%) of Ra-226, Ra-228 and Ra-224 using approach A are 78 ± 2.8, 64.8 ± 4.1 and 76.4 ± 5.2%, respectively. Whereas in approach A, the overall removal % of Ra-226, Ra-228 and Ra-228 was increased to ∼91 ± 3.5, 87 ± 4.1 and 90 ± 6.2%, respectively

  3. Bioremediation of oil sludge using a type of nitrogen source and the consortium of bacteria with composting method

    Fitri, Inayah; Ni'matuzahroh, Surtiningsih, Tini

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this research are to know the effect of addition of different nitrogen source, consortium of bacteria, incubation time and the interaction between those variables to the total number of bacteria (CFU/g-soil) and the percentage of degradation (%) in the bioremediation of oil sludge contaminated soil; as well as degraded hydrocarbon components at the best treatment on 6th week. The experiments carried out by mixing the materials and placed them in each bath with and without adding different nitrogen source and bacterial consortium. pH and moisture were measured for every week. An increase in total number of bacteria and percent of maximum degradation recorded at treatment with the addition of NPK+Azotobacter+bacteria consortium; with the TPC value was 14.24 log CFU/g, percent degradation was 77.8%, organic C content was 10.91%, total N was 0.12% and organic matter content was 18.87%, respectively.

  4. First discovery of acetone extract from cottonseed oil sludge as a novel antiviral agent against plant viruses.

    Zhao, Lei; Feng, Chaohong; Hou, Caiting; Hu, Lingyun; Wang, Qiaochun; Wu, Yunfeng

    2015-01-01

    A novel acetone extract from cottonseed oil sludge was firstly discovered against plant viruses including Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), Rice stripe virus (RSV) and Southern rice black streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV). Gossypol and β-sitosterol separated from the acetone extract were tested for their effects on anti-TMV and analysed by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) assay. In vivo and field trials in different geographic distributions and different host varieties declared that this extract mixture was more efficient than the commercial agent Ningnanmycin with a broad spectrum of anti-plant-viruses activity. No phytotoxic activity was observed in the treated plants and environmental toxicology showed that this new acetone extract was environmentally friendly, indicating that this acetone extract has potential application in the control of plant virus in the future.

  5. Non-Dispersive Infrared Sensor for Online Condition Monitoring of Gearbox Oil

    Markus S. Rauscher

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The condition of lubricating oil used in automotive and industrial gearboxes must be controlled in order to guarantee optimum performance and prevent damage to machinery parts. In normal practice, this is done by regular oil change intervals and routine laboratory analysis, both of which involve considerable operating costs. In this paper, we present a compact and robust optical sensor that can be installed in the lubrication circuit to provide quasi-continuous information about the condition of the oil. The measuring principle is based on non-dispersive infrared spectroscopy. The implemented sensor setup consists of an optical measurement cell, two thin-film infrared emitters, and two four-channel pyroelectric detectors equipped with optical bandpass filters. We present a method based on multivariate partial least squares regression to select appropriate optical bandpass filters for monitoring the oxidation, water content, and acid number of the oil. We perform a ray tracing analysis to analyze and correct the influence of the light path in the optical setup on the optical parameters of the bandpass filters. The measurement values acquired with the sensor for three different gearbox oil types show high correlation with laboratory reference data for the oxidation, water content, and acid number. The presented sensor can thus be a useful supplementary tool for the online condition monitoring of lubricants when integrated into a gearbox oil circuit.

  6. A laboratory study of particulate and gaseous emissions from crude oil and crude oil-dispersant contaminated seawater due to breaking waves

    Afshar-Mohajer, Nima; Li, Cheng; Rule, Ana M.; Katz, Joseph; Koehler, Kirsten

    2018-04-01

    Crude oil spill incidents occur frequently causing a verity of occupational, ecological and environmental problems. Dispersants are applied to enhance the dispersion rate of crude oil slicks into the water column. In this study, the aerosol size distribution from 10 nm to 20 μm, total particle-bound aromatic hydrocarbons (pPAH) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are measured in a 6 x 0.3 x 0.6 m tank as plunging breaking waves entrain oil slicks. The experiments are performed for seawater with slicks of crude oil, crude oil-dispersant mixture and dispersant only. The measurements investigate the effects of wave energy and slick properties on the temporal evolution of the emissions. The total number concentrations of particles originating from the oil-dispersant mixture are 1-2 orders of magnitude higher than those of crude oil across the entire nano-scale range, reaching 100x for 20 nm particles. Conversely, the differences in concentration are small in the micron range. The average concentrations of pPAH are variable but similar (150-270 ng/m3). The VOC concentrations for crude oil-dispersant mixtures are 2-3 times lower than those of crude oil, presumably due to the surfactant effect on mass diffusion. The drastic increase in ultrafine particle concentrations may raise concerns about effects of inhalation by cleanup workers and downstream communities though VOC emissions reduce. Findings through this study provide insight into how the spray of dispersant may change the ratio of airborne particulate matter and VOC emissions from seawater due to natural processes.

  7. Role of calcium oxide in sludge granulation and methanogenesis for the treatment of palm oil mill effluent using UASB reactor

    Ahmad, Anwar; Ghufran, Rumana; Wahid, Zularisam Abd.

    2011-01-01

    Graphical abstract: SEM micrograph of granules; Outer surface of the granule; Scanning electron micrographs of the granule: Archaea (Methanosarcina sp.) showing the arrangement of bacterial cells in granule surrounded by extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), the seed sludge and granules sampled on day 150. Highlights: ► Examine the treatability of POME and effects of CaO–CKD on the granulation process in UASB reactors. ► The main objective was to determine the influent CaO–CKD concentration and the relationship between the CaO concentration in the feed and biomass accumulation, specific granulation, methanogenic activity, and the density and composition of granules. ► The biomass concentration profiles along the reactors and the size distribution of granules were also measured to track and to assess granulation, methanogenesis, and COD removal on levels at the industrial scale. ► SEM micrograph are showing smooth surface of granule with a large opening cavities likely for biogas escape. - Abstract: The granulation process in palm oil mill effluent using calcium oxide-cement kiln dust (CaO–CKD) provides an attractive and cost effective treatment option. In this study the efficiency of CaO–CKD at doses of 1.5–20 g/l was tested in batch experiments and found that 10 g of CaO/l caused the greatest degradation of VFA, butyrate and acetate. An upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor was operated continuously at 35 °C for 150 days to investigate the effect of CaO–CKD on sludge granulation and methanogenesis during start-up. The treatment of POME emphasized the influence of varying organic loading rates (OLR). Up to 94.9% of COD was removed when the reactor was fed with the 15.5–65.5 g-COD g/l at an OLR of 4.5–12.5 kg-COD/m 3 d, suggesting the feasibility of using CaO in an UASB process to treat POME. The ratio of volatile solids/total solids (VS/TS) and volatile fatty acids in the anaerobic sludge in the UASB reactor decreased

  8. Role of calcium oxide in sludge granulation and methanogenesis for the treatment of palm oil mill effluent using UASB reactor

    Ahmad, Anwar, E-mail: anwarak218@yahoo.co.uk [Faculty of Civil Engineering and Earth Resources, University Malaysia Pahang (UMP), Lebuhraya Tun Razak, 26300 Gambang, Kuantan, Pahang (Malaysia); Ghufran, Rumana; Wahid, Zularisam Abd. [Faculty of Civil Engineering and Earth Resources, University Malaysia Pahang (UMP), Lebuhraya Tun Razak, 26300 Gambang, Kuantan, Pahang (Malaysia)

    2011-12-30

    Graphical abstract: SEM micrograph of granules; Outer surface of the granule; Scanning electron micrographs of the granule: Archaea (Methanosarcina sp.) showing the arrangement of bacterial cells in granule surrounded by extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), the seed sludge and granules sampled on day 150. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Examine the treatability of POME and effects of CaO-CKD on the granulation process in UASB reactors. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The main objective was to determine the influent CaO-CKD concentration and the relationship between the CaO concentration in the feed and biomass accumulation, specific granulation, methanogenic activity, and the density and composition of granules. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The biomass concentration profiles along the reactors and the size distribution of granules were also measured to track and to assess granulation, methanogenesis, and COD removal on levels at the industrial scale. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SEM micrograph are showing smooth surface of granule with a large opening cavities likely for biogas escape. - Abstract: The granulation process in palm oil mill effluent using calcium oxide-cement kiln dust (CaO-CKD) provides an attractive and cost effective treatment option. In this study the efficiency of CaO-CKD at doses of 1.5-20 g/l was tested in batch experiments and found that 10 g of CaO/l caused the greatest degradation of VFA, butyrate and acetate. An upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor was operated continuously at 35 Degree-Sign C for 150 days to investigate the effect of CaO-CKD on sludge granulation and methanogenesis during start-up. The treatment of POME emphasized the influence of varying organic loading rates (OLR). Up to 94.9% of COD was removed when the reactor was fed with the 15.5-65.5 g-COD g/l at an OLR of 4.5-12.5 kg-COD/m{sup 3} d, suggesting the feasibility of using CaO in an UASB process to treat POME. The ratio of volatile solids

  9. Estimating sub-surface dispersed oil concentration using acoustic backscatter response.

    Fuller, Christopher B; Bonner, James S; Islam, Mohammad S; Page, Cheryl; Ojo, Temitope; Kirkey, William

    2013-05-15

    The recent Deepwater Horizon disaster resulted in a dispersed oil plume at an approximate depth of 1000 m. Several methods were used to characterize this plume with respect to concentration and spatial extent including surface supported sampling and autonomous underwater vehicles with in situ instrument payloads. Additionally, echo sounders were used to track the plume location, demonstrating the potential for remote detection using acoustic backscatter (ABS). This study evaluated use of an Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) to quantitatively detect oil-droplet suspensions from the ABS response in a controlled laboratory setting. Results from this study showed log-linear ABS responses to oil-droplet volume concentration. However, the inability to reproduce ABS response factors suggests the difficultly in developing meaningful calibration factors for quantitative field analysis. Evaluation of theoretical ABS intensity derived from the particle size distribution provided insight regarding method sensitivity in the presence of interfering ambient particles. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of biostimulation using sewage sludge, soybean meal and wheat straw on oil degradation and bacterial community composition in a contaminated desert soil

    Sumaiya eAl-Kindi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Waste materials have a strong potential in the bioremediation of oil-contaminated sites, because of their richness in nutrients and their economical feasibility. We used sewage sludge, soybean meal and wheat straw to biostimulate oil degradation in a heavily contaminated desert soil. While oil degradation was assessed by following the produced CO2 and by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS, shifts in bacterial community composition were monitored using illumina MiSeq. The addition of sewage sludge and wheat straw to the desert soil stimulated the respiration activities more than the addition of soybean meal. GC-MS analysis revealed that the addition of addition of sewage sludge and wheat straw resulted in 1.7 to 1.8 fold increase in the degraded C14 to C30 alkanes, compared to only 1.3 fold increase in the case of soybean meal addition. The degradation of ≥ 90% of the C14 to C30 alkanes were measured in the soils treated with sewage sludge and wheat straw. MiSeq sequencing revealed that the majority (76.5-86.4% of total sequences of acquired sequences from the original soil belonged to Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria and Firmicutes. Multivariate analysis of operational taxonomic units (OTUs placed the bacterial communities of the soils after the treatments in separate clusters (ANOSIM R=0.66, P=0.0001. The most remarkable shift in bacterial communities was in the wheat straw treatment, where 95-98% of the total sequences belonging to Bacilli. We conclude that sewage sludge and wheat straw are useful biostimulating agents for the cleanup of oil-contaminated desert soils.

  11. Effect of Biostimulation Using Sewage Sludge, Soybean Meal, and Wheat Straw on Oil Degradation and Bacterial Community Composition in a Contaminated Desert Soil

    Al-Kindi, Sumaiya; Abed, Raeid M. M.

    2016-01-01

    Waste materials have a strong potential in the bioremediation of oil-contaminated sites, because of their richness in nutrients and their economical feasibility. We used sewage sludge, soybean meal, and wheat straw to biostimulate oil degradation in a heavily contaminated desert soil. While oil degradation was assessed by following the produced CO2 and by using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS), shifts in bacterial community composition were monitored using illumina MiSeq. The addition of sewage sludge and wheat straw to the desert soil stimulated the respiration activities to reach 3.2–3.4 times higher than in the untreated soil, whereas the addition of soybean meal resulted in an insignificant change in the produced CO2, given the high respiration activities of the soybean meal alone. GC–MS analysis revealed that the addition of sewage sludge and wheat straw resulted in 1.7–1.8 fold increase in the degraded C14 to C30 alkanes, compared to only 1.3 fold increase in the case of soybean meal addition. The degradation of ≥90% of the C14 to C30 alkanes was measured in the soils treated with sewage sludge and wheat straw. MiSeq sequencing revealed that the majority (76.5–86.4% of total sequences) of acquired sequences from the untreated soil belonged to Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, and Firmicutes. Multivariate analysis of operational taxonomic units placed the bacterial communities of the soils after the treatments in separate clusters (ANOSIM R = 0.66, P = 0.0001). The most remarkable shift in bacterial communities was in the wheat straw treatment, where 95–98% of the total sequences were affiliated to Bacilli. We conclude that sewage sludge and wheat straw are useful biostimulating agents for the cleanup of oil-contaminated desert soils. PMID:26973618

  12. Simulating oil droplet dispersal from the Deepwater Horizon spill with a Lagrangian approach

    North, Elizabeth W.; Schlag, Zachary; Adams, E. Eric; Sherwood, Christopher R.; He, Ruoying; Hyun, Hoon; Socolofsky, Scott A.

    2011-01-01

    An analytical multiphase plume model, combined with time-varying flow and hydrographic fields generated by the 3-D South Atlantic Bight and Gulf of Mexico model (SABGOM) hydrodynamic model, were used as input to a Lagrangian transport model (LTRANS), to simulate transport of oil droplets dispersed at depth from the recent Deepwater Horizon MC 252 oil spill. The plume model predicts a stratification-dominated near field, in which small oil droplets detrain from the central plume containing faster rising large oil droplets and gas bubbles and become trapped by density stratification. Simulated intrusion (trap) heights of ∼ 310–370 m agree well with the midrange of conductivity-temperature-depth observations, though the simulated variation in trap height was lower than observed, presumably in part due to unresolved variability in source composition (percentage oil versus gas) and location (multiple leaks during first half of spill). Simulated droplet trajectories by the SABGOM-LTRANS modeling system showed that droplets with diameters between 10 and 50 μm formed a distinct subsurface plume, which was transported horizontally and remained in the subsurface for >1 month. In contrast, droplets with diameters ≥90 μm rose rapidly to the surface. Simulated trajectories of droplets ≤50 μm in diameter were found to be consistent with field observations of a southwest-tending subsurface plume in late June 2010 reported by Camilli et al. [2010]. Model results suggest that the subsurface plume looped around to the east, with potential subsurface oil transport to the northeast and southeast. Ongoing work is focusing on adding degradation processes to the model to constrain droplet dispersal.

  13. In-Situ Microprobe Observations of Dispersed Oil with Low-Temperature Low-Vacuum Scanning Electron Microscope

    Mohsen, H.T.

    2010-01-01

    A low cost cryostat stage from high heat capacity material is designed and constructed, in attempt to apply size distribution techniques for examination of oil dispersions. Different materials were tested according to their heat capacity to keep the liquid under investigation in frozen state as long as possible during the introduction of the cryostat stage to the low-vacuum scanning electron microscope. Different concentrations of non ionic surfactant were added to artificially contaminated with 10000 ppm Balayeam base oil in 3.5 % saline water, where oil and dispersing liquid have been added and shacked well to be investigated under the microscope as fine frozen droplets. The efficiency of dispersion was examined using low temperature low-vacuum scanning electron microscope. The shape and size distributions of freeze oil droplets were studied by digital imaging processing technique in conjunction with scanning electron microscope counting method. Also elemental concentration of oil droplets was analyzed.

  14. One step transesterification process of sludge palm oil (SPO) by using deep eutectic solvent (DES) in biodiesel production

    Manurung, Renita; Ramadhani, Debbie Aditia; Maisarah, Siti

    2017-06-01

    Biodiesel production by using sludge palm oil (SPO) as raw material is generally synthesized in two step reactions, namely esterification and transesterification, because the free fatty acid (FFA) content of SPO is relatively high. However, the presence of choline chloride (ChCl), glycerol based deep eutectic solvent (DES), in transesterification may produce biodiesel from SPO in just one step. In this study, DES was produced by the mixture of ChCl and glycerol at molar ratio of 1:2 at a temperature of 80°C and stirring speed of 400 rpm for 1 hour. DES was characterized by its density and viscosity. The transesterification process was performed at reaction temperature of 70 °C, ethanol to oil molar with ratio of 9:1, sodium hydroxide as catalyst concentration of 1 % wt, DES as cosolvent with concentration of 0 to 5 % wt, stirring speed of 400 rpm, and one hour reaction time. The obtained biodiesel was then assessed with density, viscosity, and ester content as the parameters. FFA content of SPO as the raw material was 7.5290 %. In this case, DES as cosolvent in one step transesterification process of low feedstock could reduce the side reaction (saponification), decrease the time reaction, decrease the surface tension between ethanol and oil, and increase the mass transfer that simultaneously simplified the purification process and obtained the highest yield. The esters properties met the international standards of ASTM D 6751, with the highest yield obtained was 83.19% with 99.55% of ester content and the ratio of ethanol:oil of 9:1, concentration of DES of 4%, catalyst amount of 1%, temperature of reaction at 70°C and stirring speed of 400 rpm.

  15. Comparative Toxicity of Louisiana Sweet Crude Oil (LSC) and Chemically Dispersed LSC to Two Gulf of Mexico Aquatic Test Species.

    Environmental Protection Agency released peer reviewed results from the second phase of its independent toxicity testing on mixtures of eight oil dispersants with Louisiana Sweet Crude Oil. EPA conducted the tests as part of an effort to ensure that EPA decisions remain grounded ...

  16. Low Frequency Dispersion Mechanism of Dielectric Response for Oil-paper Insulation Diagnosis

    ZHOU Lijun; LI Xianlang; WU Guangning

    2013-01-01

    Both the real part and imaginary part of complex permittivity approximately have a log-linear frequency dependency at low frequencies,especially at ultra-low frequencies under conditions of different moisture concentrations and temperatures,which is recognized as the low frequency dispersion (LFD).In order to explain this dispersion,a new mechanism of dielectric response of LFD of oil-paper insulation is proposed.A simplified one-dimensional mathematical model of concentration polarization carrier caused by slow migration is developed and solved,which indicates that ion mobility is closely related to the size of gap and the adsorption capacity of cellulose molecular chains to ions.A stochastic statistical model of the carrier mobility induced LFD is also developed.Moreover,actual tests under 50 ℃and 2% moisture content were put forward,as well as simulations with according current waveforms.The simulation results agreed well with the experimental data in that concentration polarization of carriers caused by slow migration is the probable cause of low frequency dispersion ofdielectric response for oil-paper insulation diagnosis.

  17. Biodegradation of dispersed Macondo crude oil by indigenous Gulf of Mexico microbial communities

    Wang, Jian; Sandoval, Kathia; Ding, Yan [Southeaest Environmental Research Center, Florida International University, North Miami Beach, FL 33181 (United States); Stoeckel, Donald; Minard-Smith, Angela [Battelle 505 King Ave, Columbus, OH 43201 (United States); Andersen, Gary; Dubinsky, Eric A. [Earth Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Atlas, Ronald [Department of Biology, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY 40292 (United States); Gardinali, Piero, E-mail: gardinal@fiu.edu [Southeaest Environmental Research Center, Florida International University, North Miami Beach, FL 33181 (United States); Department of Chemistry & Biochemistry, Florida International University, Miami, FL 33199 (United States)

    2016-07-01

    Because of the extreme conditions of the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) release (turbulent flow at 1500 m depth and 5 °C water temperature) and the sub-surface application of dispersant, small but neutrally buoyant oil droplets < 70 μm were formed, remained in the water column and were subjected to in-situ biodegradation processes. In order to investigate the biodegradation of Macondo oil components during the release, we designed and performed an experiment to evaluate the interactions of the indigenous microbial communities present in the deep waters of the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) with oil droplets of two representative sizes (10 μm and 30 μm median volume diameter) created with Macondo source oil in the presence of Corexit 9500 using natural seawater collected at the depth of 1100–1300 m in the vicinity of the DWH wellhead. The evolution of the oil was followed in the dark and at 5 °C for 64 days by collecting sacrificial water samples at fixed intervals and analyzing them for a wide range of chemical and biological parameters including volatile components, saturated and aromatic hydrocarbons, dispersant markers, dissolved oxygen, nutrients, microbial cell counts and microbial population dynamics. A one phase exponential decay from a plateau model was used to calculate degradation rates and lag times for more than 150 individual oil components. Calculations were normalized to a conserved petroleum biomarker (30αβ-hopane). Half-lives ranged from about 3 days for easily degradable compounds to about 60 days for higher molecular weight aromatics. Rapid degradation was observed for BTEX, 2–3 ring PAHs, and n-alkanes below n-C23. The results in this experimental study showed good agreement with the n-alkane (n-C13 to n-C26) half-lives (0.6–9.5 days) previously reported for the Deepwater Horizon plume samples and other laboratory studies with chemically dispersed Macondo oil conducted at low temperatures (< 8 °C). The responses of the microbial populations also

  18. Effect of Sludge Concentration and Crude Glycerol Matrix as a Substrate on the Production of Single-Cell Oil by Oleaginous Yeast Yarrowia lipolytica SKY7

    Saurabh Kumar Ram

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The disposal of excess crude glycerol produced by the booming biodiesel industry and wastewater sludge solid waste has become a severe problem, and alternate routes of use and valorization of these waste byproducts are needed. The use of cheaply available wastewater sludge solids in fermentation media is very much desirable to reduce the cost of production. The strains of Yarrowia lipolytica can assimilate a wide array of waste substrates, such as crude glycerol, waste cooking oil, starch wastewater, and cellulosic. This study optimized the concentration of wastewater sludge solids (5–35 g/L to be used with crude glycerol in fermentation media to produce microbial oil as feedstock for biodiesel production. The results indicated that 20 g/L of sludge solids with 40 g/L of crude glycerol resulted in highest lipid content of 29.35% in 96 h. Further, assuming wet extraction of lipids, it was found that at least 11.2% or higher lipid content is required for this process to have an overall positive net solid waste reduction. Insignificant inhibition was observed by the crude glycerol used in this study as compared to pure glycerol, which proves it to be an adequate source of carbon substrate for lipid production.

  19. An insight into spore dispersal of Ganoderma boninense on oil palm.

    Sanderson, F R

    2005-01-01

    The disease of oil palm caused by Ganoderma boninense, although universally referred to as Ganoderma basal stem rot, occurs in three very distinct phases, with basal stem rot only part of the disease cycle. G. boninense also causes a seedling disease and an upper stem rot. An understanding of spore dispersal provides an insight into where spores of G. boninense have a role in the infection process. This role will be discussed in relation to each of these three infection phases. This understanding is a critical component of developing a successful disease control strategy.

  20. Synthesis of colloids based on gold nanoparticles dispersed in castor oil

    Silva, E. C. da; Silva, M. G. A. da; Meneghetti, S. M. P.; Machado, G.; Alencar, M. A. R. C.; Hickmann, J. M.; Meneghetti, M. R.

    2008-01-01

    New colloidal solutions of gold nanoparticles (AuNP), using castor oil as a nontoxic organic dispersant agent, were prepared via three different methods. In all three cases, tetrachloroauric(III) acid was employed as the gold source. The colloids were characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The AuNP produced by the three methods were quasispherical in shape, however with different average sizes. The individual characteristics of the nanoparticles presented in each colloidal system were also confirmed by observation of absorption maxima at different wavelengths of visible light. Each method of synthesis leads to colloids with different grades of stability with respect to particle agglomeration.

  1. Toxicity of oil and dispersant on the deep water gorgonian octocoral Swiftia exserta, with implications for the effects of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill.

    Frometa, Janessy; DeLorenzo, Marie E; Pisarski, Emily C; Etnoyer, Peter J

    2017-09-15

    Benthic surveys of mesophotic reefs in the Gulf of Mexico post Deepwater Horizon (DWH) showed that Swiftia exserta octocorals exhibited significantly more injury than in years before the spill. To determine the vulnerability of S. exserta to oil and dispersants, 96h toxicity assays of surrogate DWH oil water-accommodated fractions (WAF), Corexit® 9500 dispersant, and the combination of both (CEWAF) were conducted in the laboratory. Fragment mortality occurred within 48h for some fragments in the dispersant-alone and oil-dispersant treatments, while the WAF group remained relatively unaffected. The 96h LC 50 values were 70.27mg/L for Corexit-alone and 41.04mg/L for Corexit in CEWAF. This study provides new information on octocoral sensitivity to toxins, and indicates that combinations of oil and dispersants are more toxic to octocorals than exposure to oil alone. These results have important implications for the assessment of effects of the DWH spill on deep-water organisms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Microbial inhibitory and radical scavenging activities of cold-pressed terpeneless Valencia orange (Citrus sinensis) oil in different dispersing agents.

    Chalova, Vesela I; Crandall, Philip G; Ricke, Steven C

    2010-04-15

    Due to their low solubility in water, oil-based bioactive compounds require dispersion in a surface-active agent or appropriate solvents to ensure maximum contact with microorganisms. These combinations, however, may change their physical and/or chemical characteristics and consequently alter the desired functionality. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of selected dispersing agents, ethanol, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), and Tween-80, on cold-pressed terpeneless (CPT) Valencia orange oil to function as a free radical scavenger and an antimicrobial food additive. When dissolved in ethanol or DMSO, the orange oil fraction had similar minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) for Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 19 115 (0.3% and 0.25% v/v respectively), which were significantly lower (P orange oil (up to 3%) in an aqueous solution of 0.1% Tween-80 yielded no inhibitory activities against any of the test bacteria. However, the 1% natural orange oil dispersed in Tween-80 exhibited 56.86% 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical inhibition versus 18.37% and 16.60% when the same level of orange oil was dissolved in DMSO or ethanol, respectively. At the same orange oil concentration, the oil/Tween-80 suspension yielded 57.92% neutralization of hydroxyl radicals. This represents 71.37% of the mannitol antioxidant activity, which was used as a positive control. These findings suggest that Tween-80 is an appropriate dispersing agent only if the antioxidant functionality is desired. If both antimicrobial and antioxidant properties are needed, the CPT Valencia orange oil should be dispersed in either DMSO or ethanol. (c) 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Toxicity of Chevron Escravos crude oil and chemical dispersant on guinea pig testicular function.

    Afonne, Onyenmechi Johnson; Onyiaorah, Igwebuike Victor; Orisakwe, Orish Ebere

    2013-01-01

    Chemical contaminants have been found to affect reproductive functions in mammals. This study investigated the effect of Chevron Escravos crude oil and Emulsol L.W. dispersant on the testicular functions of guinea pig. Eight groups of seven sexually mature male guinea pigs each were given 1250, 2500, or 5000 mg/kg of crude oil and dispersant for 7 days. The fluid and food intake and body weight of the animals were measured daily throughout the study. After the exposure period, sperm quality analysis was carried out, and fructose and lactate dehydrogenase were analyzed in tissue homogenate, while testosterone and estradiol were assayed in blood. The right testis was also processed for histological analysis. The epididymal sperm number and fructose level of treated animals showed a significant dose-dependent decrease (pguinea pigs. The possible mechanism of toxicity is suggested to be by stimulation of hormone production from the adrenal cortex, causing a negative feedback on gonadotropin-releasing hormone in the pituitary gland to suppress spermatogenesis.

  4. Entropy Production in Pipeline Flow of Dispersions of Water in Oil

    Rajinder Pal

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Entropy production in pipeline adiabatic flow of water-in-oil emulsions is investigated experimentally in three different diameter pipes. The dispersed-phase (water droplets concentration of emulsion is varied from 0 to 41% vol. The entropy production rates in emulsion flow are compared with the values expected in single-phase flow of Newtonian fluids with the same properties (viscosity and density. While in the laminar regime the entropy production rates in emulsion flow can be described adequately by the single-phase Newtonian equations, a significant deviation from single-phase flow behavior is observed in the turbulent regime. In the turbulent regime, the entropy production rates in emulsion flow are found to be substantially smaller than those expected on the basis of single-phase equations. For example, the entropy production rate in water-in-oil emulsion flow at a dispersed-phase volume fraction of 0.41 is only 38.4% of that observed in flow of a single-phase Newtonian fluid with the same viscosity and density, when comparison is made at a Reynolds number of 4000. Thus emulsion flow in pipelines is more efficient thermodynamically than single-phase Newtonian flow.

  5. Potential of glycerol and soybean oil for bioremediation of weathered oily-sludge contaminated soil

    Nascimento, T.C.F.; Franca, F.P. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Escola de Quimica], E-mail: fpfranca@eq.ufrj.br; Oliveira, F.J.S. [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-04-15

    The bioremediation of petroleum-contaminated soil was investigated on laboratory scale. This work evaluated the effect of co-substrate addition in tropical climate soil highly contaminated with oily residue. Glycerol and soybean oil were used as auxiliary co-substrates for contaminant degradation. Three different concentrations of co-substrate were tested, and the experiments were carried out over 60 days. The following parameters were monitored: humidity, pH, total heterotrophic bacteria, total fungi, total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH), and the concentrations of benzo[a]pyrene and chrysene. The soil supplementation with renewable co-substrates improved the efficiency of the biodegradation TPH, with removals of 85% and 83% for glycerol and soybean oil, respectively, compared to a 55% removal yielded by the biodegradation process without supplementation. The use of glycerol increased Chrysene and Benzo[a]pyrene biodegradation by 50%, while soybean oil supplementation increased their removal by 36%. (author)

  6. The particulate matter dispersion studies from a local palm oil mill

    Abdullah, L.C.; Wong, L. L.; Amnorzahira, A.; Sa'ari, M.; Abdul Rashid, M. S.; Salmiaton Ali

    2006-01-01

    The appearance of industrial emissions and the degradation of scenic vistas are two characteristics of air pollution that humans object. Reduction in visibility suggests worsening pollution levels. The emissions from mobile source and stationary source are the major source of air pollutions contribution in Malaysia. Suspended particulate matter (SPM). The consequence of increasing the particulate concentrations, the particulate matter dissolves with vapour and grows into droplets when the humidity exceeds approximately 70% and causing opaque situation know as haze. This work focuses on the dispersion particulate matter from palm oil mill. The data obtained serves the purpose of modeling the transport of particulate matter for obtaining permits and prevention of significant deterioration (PSD) to the environment. Gaussian Plume Model from a point source, subject to various atmospheric conditions is used to calculate particulate matter concentration then display the distribution of plume dispersion using geographic information system (GIS). The calculated particulate matter concentration is evaluated using Transilient Matrice function. Atmospheric Stability, mixing height, wind direction, wind speed, natural and artificial features play an important role in dispersion process. High concentration area exhibits immediately under prevailing wind direction. (Author)

  7. Grand LAgrangian Deployment (GLAD): Surface Dispersion Characteristics Near the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill Site

    Ozgokmen, Tamay; Poje, Andrew; Lipphardt, Bruce, Jr.; Haza, Angelique; Haus, Brian; Jacobs, Gregg; Reniers, Ad; Olascoaga, Josefina; Ryan, Edward; Novelli, Guillaume; Kirwan, Albert, Jr.; Griffa, Annalisa; Chen, Shuyi; Hogan, Pat

    2013-04-01

    Initial dispersion, residence time, and advective pathway results obtained from the nearly simultaneous deployment of some 300 surface drifters in the vicinity of the DwH oil spill in the DeSoto Canyon are reported. The goal of the GLAD experiment was to characterize, with unprecedented statistical significance, multi-point and multi-scale dispersion properties of the flow in the region of the DwH spill site including demarcation of the advective pathways between the Canyon and larger-scale flow features in the Gulf. Both the absolute and relative dispersion of surface drifters was quite slow for those drifters initialized within the Missippippi River Outflow. For the initial time period considered, drifter motion was characterized by large amplitude inertial motions, overall strong topographic control, and significant indications of interior control by frontal dynamics on 1-5 km scales. Very limited exchange, either across-shelf or with nearby mesoscale features, was observed and residence times in the Canyon typically exceeded one week with many drifters remaining there for more than 21 days.

  8. Pyritic waste from precombustion coal cleaning: Amelioration with oil shale retort waste and sewage sludge for growth of soya beans

    Lewis, B.G.; Gnanapragasam, N.; Stevens, M.L.

    1994-01-01

    Solid residue from fossil fuel mining and utilization generally present little hazard to human health. However, because of the high volumes generated, they do pose unique disposal problems in terms of land use and potential degradation of soil and water. In the specific case of wastes from precombustion coal cleaning, the materials include sulfur compounds that undergo oxidation when exposed to normal atmospheric conditions and microbial action and then produce sulfuric acid. The wastes also contain compounds of metals and nonmetals at concentrations many times those present in the original raw coal. Additionally, the residues often contain coal particles and fragments that combust spontaneously if left exposed to the air, thus contributing to the air pollution that the coal cleaning process was designed to prevent. Federal and state efforts in the United States to ameliorate the thousands of hectares covered with these wastes have focused on neutralizing the acidity with limestone and covering the material with soil. The latter procedure creates additional degraded areas, which were originally farmland or wildlife habitat. It would seem preferable to reclaim the coal refuse areas without earth moving. The authors describe here experiments with neutralization of coal waste acidity using an alkaline waste derived from the extraction of oil from oil shale to grow soya beans (Glycine max. [L]) on a mixture of wastes and sewage sludge. Yield of plant material and content of nutrients an potentially toxic elements in the vegetation and in the growth mixtures were determined; results were compared with those for plants grown on an agricultural soil, with particular focus on boron

  9. The correlation between mannanase and cellulase activities towards fibre content of palm oil sludge fermented with Aspergillus niger

    T. Purwadaria

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Enzyme (mannanase and cellulase activities and fibre (hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin contents were determined during the fermentation course of palm oil sludge with Aspergillus niger TL (wild type and A. niger ES I (an asporogenous mutant. The analyses were carried out at the incubation time of 3 and 4 days of aerobic fennentation and at 2 days of anaerobic fermentation afterward. The correlations between mamlanase activity with hemicellulose content and cellulose activity with cellulose content were calculated by linear regression . The activities of matutanase and cellulase are increasing during the aerobic fennentation, while in the anaerobic fennentation the enzyme activities are decreasing due to instability of the enzymes. The enzyme activities of ESI are higher than the TL. The regression coefficient is highly significant for correlation between mamlanase and hemicellulose content of fermented product by ESI (r = 0.83; P0 .05 . Marutanase and cellulase activities were also detected after the fermented product dried at 60°C which indicated the enzymes are quite stable .

  10. Increased mineral oil bioavailability in slurries by monovalent cation-induced dispersion

    Jonge, H. de; Verstraten, J.M.

    1995-01-01

    Bioavailability of apolar contaminants is an important limiting factor for microbial reclamation of polluted soils. This paper describes a laboratory study of the relation between microaggregate stability and bioavailability of mineral oil in soil-water slurries. The stability of microaggregates in slurries is regulated by the valence and surface affinity of the cations in the system, and by the complexing anion P 2 O 7 4- (metaphosphate). A silt loam, contaminated with a weathered gas oil, was collected from an oil refinery site. Degradation rates were monitored in small-scale incubations at solid:liquid ratios of 1:5 (w/w). The solution contained Ca, Na, or K as the dominant cation. The levels of nutrients and metaphosphate were varied. Biodegradation rates increased with the sequence Ca 2 treatment. Measurements of the particle size distribution the slurry showed that an increase in the finer fractions qualitatively correlated with enhanced biodegradation. This is a strong indication that dispersion of the microaggregates increased bioavailability of the contaminant

  11. Phototoxic potential of undispersed and dispersed fresh and weathered Macondo crude oils to Gulf of Mexico Marine Organisms.

    Finch, Bryson E; Marzooghi, Solmaz; Di Toro, Dominic M; Stubblefield, William A

    2017-10-01

    Crude oils contain a mixture of hydrocarbons, including phototoxic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) that have the ability to absorb ultraviolet (UV) light. Absorption of UV light by PAHs can substantially increase their toxicity to marine organisms. The objective of the present study was to examine the potential for phototoxicity of fresh and naturally weathered Macondo crude oils alone and in combination with the dispersant Corexit 9500 to mysid shrimp (Americamysis bahia), inland silverside (Menidia beryllina), sheepshead minnow (Cyprinodon variegatus), and Gulf killifish (Fundulus grandis). Acute toxicity tests were conducted using combinations of natural or artificial sunlight and low-energy water-accommodated fractions (WAFs) of fresh and weathered Macondo crude oils collected from the Gulf of Mexico. Studies were also conducted to compare the phototoxicity resulting from natural and artificial sunlight. Fresh Macondo crude oil was more phototoxic than weathered crude oils, both in the presence and in the absence of UV light. Differences in toxicity between fresh and weathered crude oils were likely attributed to lighter-ringed PAHs in fresh crude oils. Phototoxic PAHs were relatively resistant to weathering compared with lighter-ringed PAHs. The addition of Corexit 9500 to crude oil increased toxicity compared with tests with crude oil alone, by increasing phototoxic PAH concentrations in WAFs. Macondo crude oils had the potential to be phototoxic to Gulf of Mexico marine organisms if specific light conditions and PAH concentrations were present during the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:2640-2650. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  12. Assessing the hydrocarbon degrading potential of indigenous bacteria isolated from crude oil tank bottom sludge and hydrocarbon-contaminated soil of Azzawiya oil refinery, Libya.

    Mansur, Abdulatif A; Adetutu, Eric M; Kadali, Krishna K; Morrison, Paul D; Nurulita, Yuana; Ball, Andrew S

    2014-09-01

    The disposal of hazardous crude oil tank bottom sludge (COTBS) represents a significant waste management burden for South Mediterranean countries. Currently, the application of biological systems (bioremediation) for the treatment of COTBS is not widely practiced in these countries. Therefore, this study aims to develop the potential for bioremediation in this region through assessment of the abilities of indigenous hydrocarbonoclastic microorganisms from Libyan Hamada COTBS for the biotreatment of Libyan COTBS-contaminated environments. Bacteria were isolated from COTBS, COTBS-contaminated soil, treated COTBS-contaminated soil, and uncontaminated soil using Bushnell Hass medium amended with Hamada crude oil (1 %) as the main carbon source. Overall, 49 bacterial phenotypes were detected, and their individual abilities to degrade Hamada crude and selected COBTS fractions (naphthalene, phenanthrene, eicosane, octadecane and hexane) were evaluated using MT2 Biolog plates. Analyses using average well colour development showed that ~90 % of bacterial isolates were capable of utilizing representative aromatic fractions compared to 51 % utilization of representative aliphatics. Interestingly, more hydrocarbonoclastic isolates were obtained from treated contaminated soils (42.9 %) than from COTBS (26.5 %) or COTBS-contaminated (30.6 %) and control (0 %) soils. Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) separated the isolates into two clusters with microorganisms in cluster 2 being 1.7- to 5-fold better at hydrocarbon degradation than those in cluster 1. Cluster 2 isolates belonged to the putative hydrocarbon-degrading genera; Pseudomonas, Bacillus, Arthrobacter and Brevundimonas with 57 % of these isolates being obtained from treated COTBS-contaminated soil. Overall, this study demonstrates that the potential for PAH degradation exists for the bioremediation of Hamada COTBS-contaminated environments in Libya. This represents the first report on the isolation of

  13. Development of a dispersant-use decision-making system for oil spills in the U. S. Gulf of Mexico

    Trudel, B K; Ross, S L; Belore, R C; Jessiman, B J

    1987-12-01

    A computerized system to aid in making real-time dispersant-use decisions for oil spills in the U.S. Gulf of Mexico is due for completion in early 1988. The system can predict the impact of an oil spill in the Gulf if it is either treated with dispersants or left untreated. The method works as follows. A computerized map of the untreated spill is produced showing the predicted location and concentration of the spilled oil as a function of time after the initial discharge. This map is then compared with a series of computerized maps of 70 important Gulf resources that might suffer from the effects of the spill. A geographical information system with extensive spatial analytical capabilities is then used to calculate the proportion of each resource that is affected by the spill at specified levels of oil concentration. Using a series of resource-specific impact assessment algorithms that link information on oil concentration and resource sensitivity, estimates of impact are then computed for each resource. The entire procedure is repeated for the same spill if chemically dispersed. The result is a list of resource-specific impacts from the untreated spill and a similar list for the treated decision is made by comparing the lists. Preliminary indications are that the computer will take less than one hour to derive a dispersant-use decision for the most complex case involving all 70 resources included in the system. 3 figs. 1 tab.

  14. Evaluation of the dispersion of oil refinery liquid effluent; Avaliacao da dispersao de efluente liquido de refinaria de petroleo

    Mariano, Adriano Pinto; Silva, Ariovaldo Jose da; Oliveira, Valdenilson Jose Alves de; Angelis, Dejanira de Franceschi de [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Rio Claro, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Bioquimica e Microbiologia. Inst. de Biociencias], e-mail: adrianomariano@yahoo.com.br

    2010-07-15

    In this paper, two techniques to evaluate the dispersion of the effluent of an oil refinery are presented. Thus, the dispersion plume was characterized by field measurements of electrical conductivity and by computational simulation (Cormix simulator). An oil refinery whose effluent is discharged on the Atibaia river (Paulinia/SP) is taken as study case. The behavior of the effluent was evaluated until 1000 m after the discharge. The results show that the measurement of electrical conductivity is a suitable technique to evaluate the dispersion of oil refinery wastewaters, since they have high conductivity and for this reason there is a strong contrast between the values of the wastewater and the ambient background. Furthermore, other water quality parameters had a dispersion behavior similar to that shown by the conductivity. The dispersion plume generated by the computational simulator showed high concordance with the field data. In this manner, computational simulation can be a useful tool to evaluate the dispersion of discharges considering hypothetical scenarios, as well as to design the discharge channel. (author)

  15. Air Pollution Dispersion Modeling of Abadan oil Refinery Using SCREEN3

    Hedayati Rad, F.; Salman-Mahini, A.; Mirkarimi, H.

    2016-01-01

    Air pollution is a major problem that has been recognized throughout the world. Refineriers normally create environmental pollution through emissions of pollutants gaseous from a variety of sources. Analysing air pollution distribution and dispersion can help in reducing the negative effects. In this study NO_X and SO_2 emissions and distributions were investigated for Abadan oil refinery using SCREEN3 software. In this softweare, wind speed and direction, air temperature, location and physical characteristics of chimnies and atmospheric stability were taken into consideration.The concentration of pollutants in different distances from the stacks in the range 25 km were predicted and mapped in Idrisi software. The output from software SCREEN3 for emissions from stacks were also examined and compared with the standard output of the refineries. According to our results, the concentration of pollutants in summer and autumn seasons exceeds of the environmental standards.

  16. Production of Polyhydroxyalkanoates from Sludge Palm Oil Using Pseudomonas putida S12.

    Kang, Du-Kyeong; Lee, Cho-Ryong; Lee, Sun Hee; Bae, Jung-Hoon; Park, Young-Kwon; Rhee, Young Ha; Sung, Bong Hyun; Sohn, Jung-Hoon

    2017-05-28

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are biodegradable plastics produced by bacteria, but their use in diverse applications is prohibited by high production costs. To reduce these costs, the conversion by Pseudomonas strains of P HAs from crude s ludge p alm oil ( SPO) a s an inexpensive renewable raw material was tested. Pseudomonas putida S12 was found to produce the highest yield (~41%) of elastomeric medium-chain-length (MCL)-PHAs from SPO. The MCL-PHA characteristics were analyzed by gas-chromatography/mass spectrometry, gel permeation chromatography, and differential scanning calorimetry. These findings may contribute to more widespread use of PHAs by reducing PHA production costs.

  17. Radioactivity in sludge: tank cleaning procedures and sludge disposal

    Bradley, D.A.

    1995-01-01

    In the oil and gas industry management of alpha-active sludge is made more complex by the presence of hydrocarbons and heavy metals. This presentation discusses the origin of radioactivity in sludge, management of risk in terms of safe working procedures, storage and possible disposal options. The several options will generally involve aspects of dilution or of concentration; issues to be discussed will include sludge farming, bioremediation and incineration. (author)

  18. Microbial community adaptation influences long-chain fatty acid conversion during anaerobic codigestion of fats, oils, and grease with municipal sludge.

    Ziels, Ryan M; Karlsson, Anna; Beck, David A C; Ejlertsson, Jörgen; Yekta, Sepehr Shakeri; Bjorn, Annika; Stensel, H David; Svensson, Bo H

    2016-10-15

    Codigesting fats, oils, and greases with municipal wastewater sludge can greatly improve biomethane recovery at wastewater treatment facilities. Process loading rates of fats, oils, and greases have been previously tested with little knowledge of the digester microbial community structure, and high transient fat loadings have led to long chain fatty acid (LCFA) accumulation and digester upsets. This study utilized recently-developed quantitative PCR assays for syntrophic LCFA-degrading bacteria along with 16S amplicon sequencing to relate changes in microbial community structure to LCFA accumulation during transient loading increases to an anaerobic codigester receiving waste restaurant oil and municipal wastewater sludge. The 16S rRNA gene concentration of the syntrophic β-oxidizing genus Syntrophomonas increased to ∼15% of the Bacteria community in the codigester, but stayed below 3% in the control digester that was fed only wastewater sludge. Methanosaeta and Methanospirillum were the dominant methanogenic genera enriched in the codigester, and together comprised over 80% of the Archaea community by the end of the experimental period. Constrained ordination showed that changes in the codigester Bacteria and Archaea community structures were related to measures of digester performance. Notably, the effluent LCFA concentration in the codigester was positively correlated to the specific loading rate of waste oil normalized to the Syntrophomonas 16S rRNA concentration. Specific loading rates of 0-1.5 × 10(-12) g VS oil/16S gene copies-day resulted in LCFA concentrations below 30 mg/g TS, whereas LCFA accumulated up to 104 mg/g TS at higher transient loading rates. Based on the community-dependent loading limitations found, enhanced biomethane production from high loadings of fats, oils and greases can be achieved by promoting a higher biomass of slow-growing syntrophic consortia, such as with longer digester solids retention times. This work also

  19. Aquatic toxicity of petroleum products and dispersant agents determined under the U.S. EPA Oil Spill Research Program

    The U.S. EPA Office of Research and Development has developed baseline data on the ecotoxicity of selected petroleum products and several chemical dispersants as part of its oil spills research program. Two diluted bitumens (dilbits) from the Alberta Tar Sands were tested for acu...

  20. Bioconversion of oil sludge into biomass of lipid metabolites for use as a source of biofuel

    Shchemelinina, T. N.; Matistov, N. V.; Markarova, M. Yu; Anchugova, E. M.

    2018-01-01

    The possibilities for the generation of biofuel from the results of the accumulation of lipids in oil-contaminated environments were studied. This type of accumulation occurs in the biomass of yeast strains Rhodotorula sp. VKM Y-2993D; in bacteria like Pseudomonas libanensis B-3041D and in consortia of microalgal strains such as Acutodesmus obliquus Syko-A Ch-055-12, Chlorella sp. SYKO A Ch-011-10, Monoraphidium sp., and Anabaena sp. The most promising of these for processing petroleum hydrocarbons into biofuels was found to be the consortium of microalgal strains, the content of palmitic acid of which reached 49.0 %, thereby achieving a mid-range cetane number.

  1. Evaluation of alternative environmentally friendly matrix solid phase dispersion solid supports for the simultaneous extraction of 15 pesticides of different chemical classes from drinking water treatment sludge.

    Soares, Karina Lotz; Cerqueira, Maristela Barnes Rodrigues; Caldas, Sergiane Souza; Primel, Ednei Gilberto

    2017-09-01

    This study describes the development, optimization and validation of a method for the extraction of 15 pesticides of different chemical classes in drinking water treatment sludge (DWTS) by vortex-assisted Matrix Solid Phase Dispersion (MSPD) with determination by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. It focused on the application of alternative and different solid supports to the extraction step of the MSPD. The main parameters that influenced the extraction were studied in order to obtain better recovery responses. Recoveries ranged from 70 to 120% with RSD below 20% for all analytes. Limits of quantification (LOQ) of the method ranged from 5 to 500 μg kg -1 whereas the analytical curves showed correlation coefficients above 0.997. The method under investigation used low volume of solvent (5 mL), low sample mass (1.5 g) and low mass of chitin (0.5 g), an environmentally friendly support. It has advantages, such as speed, simplicity and low cost material, over other methods. When the method was applied, 4 out of 15 pesticides were detected in the DWTS samples in concentrations below the LOQ. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Novel concept of recycling sludge and dust to BOF converter through dispersed in-situ phase induced by composite ball explosive reaction

    Tang, Fu-ping; Yu, Shu-juan; Fei, Peng; Hou, Hou-yu; Qian, Feng; Wang, Xiao-feng

    2017-08-01

    Recycling of iron and steelmaking dusts is a key issue in environmental protection efforts and to ensure efficient utilization. In this investigation, we developed a novel recovery process that uses a dispersed in-situ phase induced by an explosive reaction of composite balls of iron and steelmaking dusts. We designed and prepared composite balls for this function using a laboratory model batch-type balling disc (at 12 r/min) and optimized the feeding modes in 180-t and 260-t basic oxygen furnace (BOF) converters. The results indicate that feeding composite balls into BOF converters is an effective novel technology for recovering iron and steelmaking dusts. The period after hot metal charging and prior to the oxygen-blowing process is the most reasonable time to feed composite balls. Composite ball treatment is not appropriate for steel production with sulfur requirements lower than 80 ppm. The maximum composite ball feeding amount is 40 kg/t and the iron yield rate is better than 95%. Compared with the conventional recycling process of sludge and dust, this novel technology is more convenient and efficient, saving up to 309 RMB per ton of steel. Further investigation of this novel recycling technology is merited.

  3. Water-dispersible clay in soils treated with sewage sludge Argila dispersa em água em solos tratados com lodo de esgoto

    João Tavares Filho

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available A by-product of Wastewater Treatment Stations is sewage sludge. By treatment and processing, the sludge is made suitable for rational and environmentally safe use in agriculture. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of different doses of limed sewage sludge (50 % on clay dispersion in soil samples with different textures (clayey and medium. The study was conducted with soil samples collected from native forest, on a Red Latosol (Brazilian classification: Latossolo Vermelho distroférrico loamy soil in Londrina (PR and a Red-Yellow Latosol (BC: Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo distrófico medium texture soil in Jaguapitã (PR. Pots were filled with 3 kg of air-dried fine earth and kept in greenhouse. The experiment was arranged in a randomized block design with six treatments: T1 control, and treatments with limed sewage sludge (50 % as follows: T2 (3 t ha-1, T3 (6 t ha-1, T4 (12 t ha-1, T5 (24 t ha-1 and T6 (48 t ha-1 and five replications. The incubation time was 180 days. At the end of this period, the pots were opened and two sub-samples per treatment collected to determine pH-H2O, pH KCl (1 mol L-1, organic matter content, water-dispersible clay, ΔpH (pH KCl - pH-H2O and estimated PZC (point of zero charge: PZC = 2 pH KCl - pH-H2O, as well as the mineralogy of the clay fraction, determined by X ray diffraction. The results showed no significant difference in the average values for water-dispersible clay between the control and the other treatments for the two soil samples studied and ΔpH was the variable that correlated best with water-dispersible clay in both soils.As Estações de Tratamento de Esgoto Sanitário (ETES geram um subproduto (lodo de esgoto que, quando tratado e processado, adquire características que permitem sua utilização agrícola de maneira racional e ambientalmente segura. Este trabalho objetivou avaliar a influência de diferentes doses de lodo de esgoto caleado (50 % na dispersão de argilas em amostras de

  4. Study of chemical composition of sludges and scales from the oil production activities and correlation with natural radioactivity - case study: Campos Basin, Brazil

    Cruz, Rosana Petinatti da

    2002-01-01

    This work intended to study general aspects related to natural radioactivity, focusing on its occurrence in the oil industry and on sludge and scales samples taken from the Oil E and P region from Campos's Basin. The physical and chemical analysis and the statistical treatment were carried out with the objective of determine the samples composition checking the differences between the sludges and the scales. Third six representative samples were obtained from the Radioprotection and Dosimetry Institute (IRD/CNEN), Brazil, taking into account factors such as activity concentration, physical and chemical aspects and origin. After the oil extraction, samples were classified by aspects as color and granulometry. Ali the studied samples were analyzed by X-rays diffraction being identified the presence of barite, calcite, quartz among others. The results supplied a base for the elaboration of a successive determination scheme which comprehended residual organic material, carbonate, sulfate, silica, chloride and metals as the alkaline, earthy alkaline, aluminum, etc. The sludges presented a highly variable chemical composition, being rich in silica and carbonates. The main components analysis showed a statistical valid relationship among the radium isotopes and the carbonates presence. On the other hand, the scales are made of barium and strontium sulfates (75%), presenting a minor variation on its chemical composition and in the existing radium content. Due to this low variability of the barium, sulfate and radium contents, it has not been possible to consider valid a relationship that could exist among them in the application of the main component analysis. (author)

  5. Effect of a Dispersant Agent in Fine Coal Recovery from Washery Tailings by Oil Agglomeration (Preliminary Study)

    Yasar, Özüm; Uslu, Tuncay

    2017-12-01

    Among the fine coal cleaning methods, the oil agglomeration process has important advantages such as high process recovery, more clean product, simple dewatering stage. Several coal agglomeration studies have been undertaken recently and effects of different variables on the process performance have been investigated. However, unlike flotation studies, most of the previous agglomeration studies have not used dispersing agents to minimize slime coating effects of clays. In this study, agglomeration process was applied for recovery of fine coals from coal washery tailings containing remarkable amount of fine coal. Negative effect of fine clays during recovery was tried to be eliminated by using dispersing agent instead of de-sliming. Although ash reductions over 90 % were achieved, performance remained below expectations in terms of combustible matter recovery. However, this study is a preliminary one. It is considered that more satisfied results will be obtained in the next studies by changing the variables such as solid ratio, oil dosage, dispersant type and dosage.

  6. Study on demetalization of sewage sludge by sequential extraction before liquefaction for the production of cleaner bio-oil and bio-char.

    Leng, Lijian; Yuan, Xingzhong; Shao, Jianguang; Huang, Huajun; Wang, Hou; Li, Hui; Chen, Xiaohong; Zeng, Guangming

    2016-01-01

    Demetalization of sewage sludge (SS) by sequential extraction before liquefaction was implemented to produce cleaner bio-char and bio-oil. Demetalization steps 1 and 2 did not cause much organic matter loss on SS, and thus the bio-oil and bio-char yields and the compositions of bio-oils were also not affected significantly. However, the demetalization procedures resulted in the production of cleaner bio-chars and bio-oils. The total concentrations and the acid soluble/exchangeable fraction (F1 fraction, the most toxic heavy metal fraction) of heavy metals (Cu, Cr, Pb, Zn, and Cd) in these products were significantly reduced and the environmental risks of these products were also relived considerably compared with those produced from raw SS, respectively. Additionally, these bio-oils had less heavy fractions. Demetalization processes with removal of F1 and F2 fractions of heavy metals would benefit the production of cleaner bio-char and bio-oil by liquefaction of heavy metal abundant biomass like SS. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Evaluating the biodegradability and effects of dispersed oil using Arctic test species and conditions: phase 2 activities

    MacFarlin, Kelly M.; Perkins, Robert A. [University of Alaska Fairbanks (United States)], email: raperkins@alaska.edu; Gardiner, William W.; Word, Jack D. [NewFields NorthWest (United States)

    2011-07-01

    In the event of a marine oil spill, managers have to make correct and rapid decisions, weighing a number of possibilities, which include natural attenuation, mechanical recovery, in situ burning, and/or chemical dispersion. To do this, the relative toxicity of physically and chemically dispersed fresh oil and the rates of biodegradation for fresh and weathered oil need to be understood in advance. A joint industry program was established in 2008 to research and discuss these areas. Phase 1 activities included determining the species relevant to the Beaufort and Chukchi Sea ecosystems, creating and setting up a toxicity and biodegradation laboratory with a cold room in Barrow, Alaska, developing collection and culture methods for test organisms, and developing toxicity and biodegradation test protocols. The second phase of this now completed research is discussed in this paper. It consisted of toxicity testing of the local environmentally significant species, the copepod (C. glacialis), Arctic cod (B. saida), and larval sculpin (Myoxocephalus sp.).

  8. Effects of temperature and wave conditions on chemical dispersion efficacy of heavy fuel oil in an experimental flow-through wave tank.

    Li, Zhengkai; Lee, Kenneth; King, Thomas; Boufadel, Michel C; Venosa, Albert D

    2010-09-01

    The effectiveness of chemical dispersants (Corexit 9500 and SPC 1000) on heavy fuel oil (IFO180 as test oil) has been evaluated under different wave conditions in a flow-through wave tank. The dispersant effectiveness was determined by measuring oil concentrations and droplet size distributions. An analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) model indicated that wave type and temperature significantly (p or = 400 microm). Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Microbial communities related to biodegradation of dispersed Macondo oil at low seawater temperature with Norwegian coastal seawater

    Brakstad, Odd G; Throne-Holst, Mimmi; Netzer, Roman; Stoeckel, Donald M; Atlas, Ronald M

    2015-01-01

    The Deepwater Horizon (DWH) accident in 2010 created a deepwater plume of small oil droplets from a deepwater well in the Mississippi Canyon lease block 252 (‘Macondo oil’). A novel laboratory system was used in the current study to investigate biodegradation of Macondo oil dispersions (10 μm or 30 μm median droplet sizes) at low oil concentrations (2 mg l−1) in coastal Norwegian seawater at a temperature of 4–5°C. Whole metagenome analyses showed that oil biodegradation was associated with the successive increased abundances of Gammaproteobacteria, while Alphaproteobacteria (Pelagibacter) became dominant at the end of the experiment. Colwellia and Oceanospirillales were related to n-alkane biodegradation, while particularly Cycloclasticus and Marinobacter were associated with degradation of aromatic hydrocarbons (HCs). The larger oil droplet dispersions resulted in delayed sequential changes of Oceanospirillales and Cycloclasticus, related with slower degradation of alkanes and aromatic HCs. The bacterial successions associated with oil biodegradation showed both similarities and differences when compared with the results from DWH field samples and laboratory studies performed with deepwater from the Gulf of Mexico. PMID:26485443

  10. Valorisation of used cooking oil sludge by codigestion with swine manure.

    Fierro, J; Martínez, E J; Morán, A; Gómez, X

    2014-08-01

    The addition of lipid wastes to the digestion of swine manure was studied as a means of increasing biogas production. Lipid waste was obtained from a biodiesel plant where used cooking oil is the feedstock. Digestion of this co-substrate was proposed as a way of valorising residual streams from the process of biodiesel production and to integrate the digestion process into the biorefinery concept. Batch digestion tests were performed at different co-digesting proportions obtaining as a result an increase in biogas production with the increase in the amount of co-substrate added to the mixture. Semi-continuous digestion was studied at a 7% (w/w) mass fraction of total solids. Co-digestion was successful at a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 50 d but a decrease to 30 d resulted in a decrease in specific gas production and accumulation of volatile and long chain fatty acids. The CH4 yield obtained was 326 ± 46 l/kg VSfeed at an HRT of 50 d, while this value was reduced to 274 ± 43 l/kg VSfeed when evaluated at an HRT of 30 d. However these values were higher than the one obtained under batch conditions (266 ± 40 l/kg VSfeed), thus indicating the need of acclimation to the co-substrate. Despite of operating at low organic loading rate (OLR), measurements from respirometry assays of digestate samples (at an HRT of 50 d) suggested that the effluent could not be directly applied to the soil as fertiliser and might have a negative effect over soil or crops. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Microbial Communities and Their Performances in Anaerobic Hybrid Sludge Bed-Fixed Film Reactor for Treatment of Palm Oil Mill Effluent under Various Organic Pollutant Concentrations

    Kanlayanee Meesap

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The anaerobic hybrid reactor consisting of sludge and packed zones was operated with organic pollutant loading rates from 6.2 to 8.2 g COD/L day, composed mainly of suspended solids (SS and oil and grease (O&G concentrations between 5.2 to 10.2 and 0.9 to 1.9 g/L, respectively. The overall process performance in terms of chemical oxygen demands (COD, SS, and O&G removals was 73, 63, and 56%, respectively. When the organic pollutant concentrations were increased, the resultant methane potentials were higher, and the methane yield increased to 0.30 L CH4/g CODremoved. It was observed these effects on the microbial population and activity in the sludge and packed zones. The eubacterial population and activity in the sludge zone increased to 6.4 × 109 copies rDNA/g VSS and 1.65 g COD/g VSS day, respectively, whereas those in the packed zone were lower. The predominant hydrolytic and fermentative bacteria were Pseudomonas, Clostridium, and Bacteroidetes. In addition, the archaeal population and activity in the packed zone were increased from to 9.1 × 107 copies rDNA/g VSS and 0.34 g COD-CH4/g VSS day, respectively, whereas those in the sludge zone were not much changed. The most represented species of methanogens were the acetoclastic Methanosaeta, the hydrogenotrophic Methanobacterium sp., and the hydrogenotrophic Methanomicrobiaceae.

  12. Optimization of combined in-vessel composting process and chemical oxidation for remediation of bottom sludge of crude oil storage tanks.

    Koolivand, Ali; Naddafi, Kazem; Nabizadeh, Ramin; Saeedi, Reza

    2017-07-31

    In this research, removal of petroleum hydrocarbons from oily sludge of crude oil storage tanks was investigated under the optimized conditions of in-vessel composting process and chemical oxidation with H 2 O 2 and Fenton. After determining the optimum conditions, the sludge was pre-treated with the optimum state of the oxidation process. Then, the determined optimum ratios of the sludge to immature compost were composted at a C:N:P ratio of 100:5:1 and moisture content of 55% for a period of 10 weeks. Finally, both pre-treated and composted mixtures were again oxidized with the optimum conditions of the oxidants. Results showed that total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) removal of the 1:8 and 1:10 composting reactors which were pre-treated with H 2 O 2 were 88.34% and 90.4%, respectively. In addition, reduction of TPH in 1:8 and 1:10 composting reactors which were pre-treated with Fenton were 83.90% and 84.40%, respectively. Without applying the pre-treatment step, the composting reactors had a removal rate of about 80%. Therefore, pre-treatment of the reactors increased the TPH removal. However, post-oxidation of both pre-treated and composted mixtures reduced only 13-16% of TPH. Based on the results, remarkable overall removal of TPH (about 99%) was achieved by using chemical oxidation and subsequent composting process. The study showed that chemical oxidation with H 2 O 2 followed by in-vessel composting is a viable choice for the remediation of the sludge.

  13. Numerical 3D modelling of oil dispersion in the sea due to different accident scenarios

    Guandalini, Roberto; Agate, Giordano; Moia, Fabio

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of the study has been the development of a methodology, based on a numerical 3D approach, for the analysis of oil dispersion in the sea, in order to simulate with a high level of accuracy the dynamic behavior of the oil plume and its displacement in the environment. As a matter of fact, the numerical simulation is the only approach currently able to analyse in detail possible accident scenarios, even with an high degree of complexity, of different type and intensity, allowing to follow their evolution both in time and space, and to evaluate the effectiveness of suggested prevention or recovery actions. The software for these calculations is therefore an essential tool in order to simulate the impact effects in the short, medium and long period, able to account for the complexity of the sea system involved in the dispersion process and its dependency on the meteorological, marine and morphological local conditions. This software, generally based on fluid dynamic 3D simulators and modellers, is therefore extremely specialized and requires expertise for an appropriate usage, but at the same time it allows detailed scenario analyses and design verifications. It takes into account different parameters as the sea current field and its turbulence, the wind acting on the sea surface, the salinity and temperature gradients, the local coastal morphology, the seabed bathymetry and the tide. The applied methodology is based on the Integrated Fluid Dynamic Simulation System HyperSuite developed by RSE. This simulation system includes the consideration of all the parameters previously listed, in the frame of a 3D Eulerian finite element fluid dynamic model, which accuracy is guaranteed by a very detailed spatial mesh and by an automatically optimized time step management. In order to assess the methodology features, an area of more than 2500 km2 and depth of 200 m located in the middle Adriatic Sea has been modelled. The information required for the simulation in

  14. Synergistic toxicity of Macondo crude oil and dispersant Corexit 9500A® to the Brachionus plicatilis species complex (Rotifera)

    Rico-Martínez, Roberto; Snell, Terry W.; Shearer, Tonya L.

    2013-01-01

    Using the marine rotifer Brachionus plicatilis acute toxicity tests, we estimated the toxicity of Corexit 9500A ® , propylene glycol, and Macondo oil. Ratios of 1:10, 1:50 and 1:130 for Corexit 9500A ® :Macondo oil mixture represent: maximum exposure concentrations, recommended ratios for deploying Corexit (1:10–1:50), 1:130 the actual dispersant:oil ratio used in the Deep Water Horizon spill. Corexit 9500A ® and oil are similar in their toxicity. However, when Corexit 9500A ® and oil are mixed, toxicity to B. manjavacas increases up to 52-fold. Extrapolating these results to the oil released by the Macondo well, suggests underestimation of increased toxicity from Corexit application. We found small differences in sensitivity among species of the B. plicatilis species complex, likely reflecting phylogenetic similarity. Just 2.6% of the water-accommodated fraction of oil inhibited rotifer cyst hatching by 50%, an ecologically significant result because rotifer cyst in sediments are critical resources for the recolonization of populations each Spring. - Highlights: ► We determined LC50's of Corexit 9500A ® , propylene glycol, and oil to B. plicatilis. ► Corexit 9500A ® and oil are equivalent in toxicity. ► When Corexit 9500A ® and oil are mixed, toxicity increases 52-fold to B. plicatilis. ► Results suggest underestimation of increased toxicity due to Corexit application. ► Sensitivity differences are small among species of the B. plicatilis species complex. - Using Brachionus plicatilis acute toxicity tests we estimated Corexit 9500A ® and oil toxicity. When these compounds are mixed a 52-fold increase in toxicity was observed.

  15. Pulmonary effects after acute inhalation of oil dispersant (COREXIT EC9500A) in rats.

    Roberts, Jenny R; Reynolds, Jeffrey S; Thompson, Janet A; Zaccone, Eric J; Shimko, Michael J; Goldsmith, William T; Jackson, Mark; McKinney, Walter; Frazer, David G; Kenyon, Allison; Kashon, Michael L; Piedimonte, Giovanni; Castranova, Vincent; Fedan, Jeffrey S

    2011-01-01

    COREXIT EC9500A (COREXIT) was used to disperse crude oil during the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill. While the environmental impact of COREXIT has been examined, the pulmonary effects are unknown. Investigations were undertaken to determine whether inhaled COREXIT elicits airway inflammation, alters pulmonary function or airway reactivity, or exerts pharmacological effects. Male rats were exposed to COREXIT (mean 27 mg/m(3), 5 h). Bronchoalveolar lavage was performed on d 1 and 7 postexposure. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and albumin were measured as indices of lung injury; macrophages, neutrophils, lymphocytes, and eosinophils were quantified to evaluate inflammation; and oxidant production by macrophages and neutrophils was measured. There were no significant effects of COREXIT on LDH, albumin, inflammatory cell levels or oxidant production at either time point. In conscious animals, neither breathing frequency nor specific airway resistance were altered at 1 hr, 1 d and 7 d postexposure. Airway resistance responses to methacholine (MCh) aerosol in anesthetized animals were unaffected at 1 and 7 d postexposure, while dynamic compliance responses were decreased after 1 d but not 7 d. In tracheal strips, in the presence or absence of MCh, low concentrations of COREXIT (0.001% v/v) elicited relaxation; contraction occurred at 0.003-0.1% v/v. In isolated, perfused trachea, intraluminally applied COREXIT produced similar effects but at higher concentrations. COREXIT inhibited neurogenic contractile responses of strips to electrical field stimulation. Our findings suggest that COREXIT inhalation did not initiate lung inflammation, but may transiently increase the difficulty of breathing.

  16. Shoreline clean up during the Sea Empress incident: the role of surf washing (clay-oil flocculation), dispersants and bioremediation

    Lunel, T.; Lee, K.

    1996-01-01

    An outline of the at sea operations which took place in response to the Sea Empress oil spill, was presented. The grounding of the Sea Empress resulted in the release of 70,000 tonnes of blended crude oil into the environment. A qualitative account of the events which followed the incident were described. The early mobilization of a monitoring team has demonstrated the importance of scientific measurements to identify and maximize the efficiency of various cleanup operations. One of the important responses to this incident was the application of dispersants which by inducing flocculation, thereby reducing contact of oil directly with the substrate, and by reducing adhesion of the oil to the shoreline, contributed greatly to minimizing shoreline impact. 19 refs., 7 figs

  17. Effect of carbon black composition with sludge palm oil on the curing characteristic and mechanical properties of natural rubber/styrene butadiene rubber compound

    Mohamed, R.; Nurazzi, N. Mohd; Huzaifah, M.

    2017-07-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the possibility of utilizing sludge palm oil (SPO) as processing oil, with various amount of carbon black as its reinforcing filler, and its effects on the curing characteristics and mechanical properties of natural rubber/styrene butadiene rubber (NR/SBR) compound. Rubber compound with fixed 15 pphr of SPO loading, and different carbon black loading from 20 to 50 pphr, was prepared using two roll mills. The cure characteristics and mechanical tests that have been conducted are the scorch and cure time analysis, tensile strength and tear strength. Scorch time (ts5) and cure time (t90) of the compound increases with the increasing carbon black loading. The mechanical properties of NR/SBR compound viz. the tensile strength, modulus at 300% strain and tear strength were also improved by the increasing carbon black loading.

  18. Influence of metals on essential oil content and composition of lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus (D.C.) Stapf.) grown under different levels of red mud in sewage sludge amended soil.

    Gautam, Meenu; Agrawal, Madhoolika

    2017-05-01

    Lemongrass is a commercially important perennial herb with medicinal value and ability to tolerate high alkaline and saline conditions. Essential oil bearing plants can grow safely in soil contaminated with heavy metals without severe effects on morphology and oil yield. The present study was aimed to assess the essential oil content and composition in lemongrass in response to elevated metals in above-ground plant parts. Pot experiment was conducted for six months using sewage sludge as soil amendment (soil: sludge: 2:1 w/w) followed by red mud treatments (0, 5, 10 and 15% w/w). Garden soil without sludge and red mud was control and there were ten replicates of each treatment. Oil content in leaves was differently affected due to presence of metals in soil under different treatments. Oil content under S RM5 (5% red mud) treatment was raised by 42.9 and 11.5% compared to the control and S RM0 treatment, respectively. Among identified compounds in oil under red mud treatments, 17 compounds contributed more than 90% of total volatiles (citral contributing approximately 70%). Under S RM10 treatment, essential oil showed maximum citral content (75.3%). Contents of Fe, Zn, Cu, Cd, Ni and Pb in above-ground plant parts exceeded, whereas Mn was detected within WHO permissible limits for medicinal plants. However, metal contents in essential oil were well within FSSAI limits for food. The study suggests utilization of 5 and 10% red mud in sludge amended soil for lemongrass cultivation to have better oil yield and quality, without metal contamination. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Synergistic toxicity of Macondo crude oil and dispersant Corexit 9500A(®) to the Brachionus plicatilis species complex (Rotifera).

    Rico-Martínez, Roberto; Snell, Terry W; Shearer, Tonya L

    2013-02-01

    Using the marine rotifer Brachionus plicatilis acute toxicity tests, we estimated the toxicity of Corexit 9500A(®), propylene glycol, and Macondo oil. Ratios of 1:10, 1:50 and 1:130 for Corexit 9500A(®):Macondo oil mixture represent: maximum exposure concentrations, recommended ratios for deploying Corexit (1:10-1:50), 1:130 the actual dispersant:oil ratio used in the Deep Water Horizon spill. Corexit 9500A(®) and oil are similar in their toxicity. However, when Corexit 9500A(®) and oil are mixed, toxicity to B. manjavacas increases up to 52-fold. Extrapolating these results to the oil released by the Macondo well, suggests underestimation of increased toxicity from Corexit application. We found small differences in sensitivity among species of the B. plicatilis species complex, likely reflecting phylogenetic similarity. Just 2.6% of the water-accommodated fraction of oil inhibited rotifer cyst hatching by 50%, an ecologically significant result because rotifer cyst in sediments are critical resources for the recolonization of populations each Spring. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Ferrofluid synthesis using oleic acid coated Fe3O4 nanoparticles dispersed in mineral oil for heat transfer applications

    Imran, Mohd; Rahman Ansari, Akhalakur; Hussain Shaik, Aabid; Abdulaziz; Hussain, Shahir; Khan, Afzal; Rehaan Chandan, Mohammed

    2018-03-01

    Ferrofluids are stable dispersion of iron oxide nanoparticles in a carrier fluid which find potential applications in heat transfer. Fe3O4 nanoparticles of mean size in the range of 5–10 nm were synthesized using conventional co-precipitation method. This work deals with the synthesis of ferrofluids using mineral oil as a carrier fluid and oleic acid coated Fe3O4 nanoparticles as dispersed phase. Morphology (shape and size) and crystallinity of the synthesized nanoparticle is captured using TEM and XRD. Oleic acid coating on nanoparticle is probed using FTIR for confirming the stability of ferrofluid. Thermal properties of mineral oil based ferrofluid with varying concentration of nanoparticles are evaluated in terms of thermal conductivity. It was found that the thermal conductivity of ferrofluid increases upto 2.5% (w/v) nanoparticle loading, where a maximum enhancement of ∼51% in thermal conductivity was recorded as compared to the base fluid.

  1. A biodegradation and treatment of palm oil mill effluent (POME) using a hybrid up-flow anaerobic sludge bed (HUASB) Reactor

    Habeeb, S.A.; Latiff, AB. Aziz Abdul; Daud, Zawawi; Ahmad, Zulkifli [Faculty of Civil and Enviromental Engineering, University Tun Hussein Onn (Malaysia)

    2011-07-01

    Generally, anaerobic treatment has become a viable alternative in support of industrial wastewater treatment. Particularly, it is used in common to treat the palm oil mill effluent (POME). This study was carried out to assess the start-up performance of a bioreactor hybrid up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (HUASB). Whereby, three identical reactors of 7.85-l capacity R1, R2, and R3 were operated for 57 days in order to provide two alienated comparisons. Identical operation conditions of organic loading rate (OLR) and hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 1.85 kg.m-3.day-1, and 2.6 day, respectively. R1 was operated in room temperature of 28{+-}2 C, and packed with palm oil shell as filter medium support. R2 was set with room temperature but packed with course gravel. R3 was provided with water bath system to adjust its temperature at 37{+-}1 C mesophilic, while its filter material had to be palm oil shell. During the whole operation period R3 was more efficient for organic materials, where a chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency of 82% was registered, while R1 and R2 were relatively less efficient of 78%, and 76%, respectively. Furthermore, TSS removal of R3 was also higher than R1, and R2 as registered 80%, 77% and 76%, respectively. On the other hand, turbidity and colour removal were not efficient and needed a post treatment. The seeded sludge was developed in each reactor as illustrated in this paper. Therefore, all reactors show favorable performance of anaerobic treatability of POME as well as good response of microbial species development.

  2. Selective pyrolysis of paper mill sludge by using pretreatment processes to enhance the quality of bio-oil and biochar products

    Reckamp, Joseph M.; Garrido, Rene A.; Satrio, Justinus A.

    2014-01-01

    Paper mill sludge (PMS) is a residual biomass that is generated at paper mills in large quantities. Currently, PMS is commonly disposed in landfills, which causes environmental issues through chemical leaching and greenhouse gas production. In this research, we are exploring the potential of fast pyrolysis process for converting PMS into useful bio-oil and biochar products. We demonstrate that by subjecting PMS to a combination of acid hydrolysis and torrefaction pre-treatment processes it is possible to alter the physicochemical properties and composition of the feedstock material. Fast pyrolysis of pretreated PMS produced bio-oil with significantly higher selectivity to levoglucosenone and significantly reduced the amount of ketone, aldehyde, and organic acid components. Pretreatment of PMS with combined 4% mass fraction phosphoric acid hydrolysis and 220 °C torrefaction processed prior to fast pyrolysis resulted in a 17 times increase of relative selectivity towards levoglucosenone in bio-oil product along with a reduction of acids, ketones, and aldehydes combined from 21 % to 11 %. Biochar, produced in higher yield, has characteristics that potentially make the solid byproduct ideal for soil amendment agent or sorbent material. This work reveals a promising process system to convert PMS waste into useful bio-based products. More in-depth research is required to gather more data information for assessing the economic and sustainability aspects of the process. - Highlights: • Acid hydrolysis and torrefaction reduce bio-oil yield, but improve quality. • Dilute acid conditions provide optimal treatment for bio-oil quality and yield. • Pyrolysis of treated PMS produces high selectivity to levoglucosenone formation. • Treated PMS produces bio-oil with reduced acid, ketone, and aldehyde content. • Pyrolysis of treated PMS produces biochar with low volatile matter in high yield

  3. Chemical dispersants

    Rahsepar, Shokouhalsadat; Smit, Martijn P.J.; Murk, Albertinka J.; Rijnaarts, Huub H.M.; Langenhoff, Alette A.M.

    2016-01-01

    Chemical dispersants were used in response to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico, both at the sea surface and the wellhead. Their effect on oil biodegradation is unclear, as studies showed both inhibition and enhancement. This study addresses the effect of Corexit on oil

  4. Evaluation of nano emulsion containing asphaltenes dispersant additive in dehydration of oil; Avaliacao de nanoemulsoes contendo aditivo dispersante de asfaltenos na desidratacao de petroleo

    Oliveira, Priscila F. de; Rodrigues, Jessica S.; Mansur, Claudia R.E. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro/ Instituto de Macromoleculas/ Laboratorio de Macromoleculas e Coloides na Industria de Petroleo, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], e-mail: prisfrias@hotmail.com

    2011-07-01

    Due to the problem of the formation of emulsions type water-oil during oil production, new alternatives of the breakdown of these emulsions have been proposed over the years. Several polymers have been used to destabilize these emulsions and among them are those based on polyphenylene ether. The aim of this study was to develop nanoemulsions type oil / water, where an asphaltenes dispersant additive was dissolved in dispersed phase in order to evaluate them as a new alternative in the breakdown of oil emulsions. The nanoemulsions were prepared in the presence of surfactant based on polyoxide using a high pressure homogenizer (HPH). We obtained stable nanoemulsions for more than 30 days in the presence or absence of additive. These nanoemulsions were effective in water /oil phase separation, and the nanoemulsion containing the dispersant additive provided a faster separation of these phases. (author)

  5. Preliminary experimental results of Sewage Sludge (SS) Co-digestion with Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) for Enhanced Biogas Production in Laboratory Scale Anaerobic Digester

    Sivasankari, R; Kumaran, P; Normanbhay, Saifuddin; Shamsuddin, Abd Halim

    2013-01-01

    An investigation on the feasibility of co-digesting Sewage Sludge with Palm Oil Mill Effluent for enhancing the biogas production and the corresponding effect of the co-digestion substrate ratio on the biogas production has been evaluated. Anaerobic co-digestion of POME with SS was performed at ratios of 100:0, 70:30, 60:40 and 0:100 to find the optimum blend required for enhanced waste digestion and biogas production. Single stage batch digestion was carried out for 12 days in a laboratory scale anaerobic digester. Co-digestion of sludge's at the 70:30 proportion resulted in optimal COD and C: N ratio which subsequently recorded the highest performance with regards to biogas production at 28.1 L's compared to the 1.98 L's of biogas produced from digestion of SS alone. From the results obtained, it is evident that co-digestion of POME and SS is an attractive option to be explored for enhancement of biogas production in anaerobic digesters.

  6. Comparative toxicity of two oil dispersants, superdispersant-25 and corexit 9527, to a range of coastal species.

    Scarlett, Alan; Galloway, Tamara S; Canty, Martin; Smith, Emma L; Nilsson, Johanna; Rowland, Steven J

    2005-05-01

    The acute toxicity of the oil dispersant Corexit 9527 reported in the literature is highly variable. No peer-reviewed data exist for Superdispersant-25 (SD-25). This study compares the toxicity of the two dispersants to a range of marine species representing different phyla occupying a wide range of niches: The marine sediment-dwelling amphipod Corophium volutator (Pallas), the common mussel Mytilus edulis (L.), the symbiotic snakelocks anemone Anemonia viridis (Forskål), and the seagrass Zostera marina (L.). Organisms were exposed to static dispersant concentrations for 48-h and median lethal concentration (LC50), median effect concentration (EC50), and lowest-observable-effect concentration (LOEC) values obtained. The sublethal effects of 48-h exposures and the ability of species to recover for up to 72 h after exposure were quantified relative to the 48-h endpoints. Results indicated that the anemone lethality test was the most sensitive with LOECs of 20 ppm followed by mussel feeding rate, seagrass photosynthetic index and amphipod lethality, with mussel lethality being the least sensitive with LOECs of 250 ppm for both dispersants. The results were consistent with current theory that dispersants act physically and irreversibly on the respiratory organs and reversibly, depending on exposure time, on the nervous system. Superdispersant-25 was found overall to be less toxic than Corexit 9527 and its sublethal effects more likely to be reversible following short-term exposure.

  7. Evaluation of field-collected drifter and subsurface fluorescein dye concentration data and comparisons to high frequency radar surface current mapping data for dispersed oil transport modeling

    Payne, J.R. [Payne Environmental Consultants Inc., Encinitas, CA (United States); Terrill, E.; Carter, M.; Otero, M.; Middleton, W.; Chen, A. [Scripps Inst. of Oceanography, La Jolla, CA (United States); French McCay, D.; Mueller, C.; Jayko, K. [Applied Science Associates Inc., Narragansett, RI (United States); Nordhausen, W.; Lewis, R.; Lampinen, M.; Evans, T. [California Dept. of Fish and Game, San Diego, CA (United States). Office of Spill Prevention and Response; Ohlmann, C. [California Univ., Santa Barbara, CA (United States); Via, G.L.; Ruiz-Santana, H.; Maly, M.; Willoughby, B.; Varela, C. [United States Coast Guard Pacific Strike Team, Novato, CA (United States); Lynch, P.; Sanchez, P. [Marine Spill Response Corp., San Diego, CA (United States)

    2007-07-01

    Extensive coastal areas in the United States have been designated as pre-approved zones for dispersant applications in the event of an oil spill. Although the use of dispersants may reduce impacts to wildlife and shoreline habitats, it is recognized that the dispersed oil may cause impacts to organisms in the water column. The State of California Department of Fish and Game Office of Spill Prevention and Response is currently using oil spill fate and transport modeling to address this issue. The purpose is to develop the time and spatial scales, and equipment needs for a formal dispersed oil monitoring plan (DOMP) to document hydrocarbon water column concentrations, potentially exposed zooplankton, and the impact of the oil spills with and without dispersant use. A series of 7 fluorescein dye releases were completed off the coast of San Diego, California in order to test the operational framework for repeated sampling of dispersed oil plumes as outlined in the DOMP. The ability of high-frequency radar to provide surface current input data to oil spill models was also evaluated. The dye concentrations were measured over three spatial dimensions and time in order to verify the model-predicted movement of subsurface dye. Surface current fields at varying depths were also measured and the subsurface dye plume structure was mapped using a GPS coupled towed-fluorometer equipped with pressure sensors. Measurements were compared with data from traditional special monitoring of applied response technology (SMART). The database acquired through this program represents a technical resource that can help physical and chemical oceanographers, modelers, spill response and contingency planners involved in the debate of whether or not to use dispersants to mitigate near shore and open ocean marine oil spills. 14 refs., 2 tabs., 14 figs.

  8. Emergence, growth, and dispersal of Chironomidae in reclaimed wetlands in the Athabasca oil sands region of Alberta

    Kennedy, K.; Ciborowski, J. [Windsor Univ., ON (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Concerns over the environmental impacts of oil sands extraction in northeastern Alberta has increased as the industry continues to expand. This study examined if the emergence, growth, and dispersal of Chironomidae differ in reclaimed wetlands constructed with oil sands process materials (OSPM) when compared with growth in reference wetlands. Five floating 30 cm diameter halo traps were deployed in various wetlands for a 24 hour period. Exuviae trapped in the surface water film were then collected, identified, and counted. Chironomids grown in laboratories from egg masses collected from 2 OSPM-affected wetlands and 2 reference wetlands were paired according to geographic proximity under controlled conditions for 1 generation. Chironomid larval growth was quantified in situ in the wetlands by reciprocally transferring second instar, second generation culture larva. The dispersal of the larvae was quantified by tabulating the number of adults caught in sticky insect traps located along 3 radially-arranged transects in each wetland. A preliminary analysis has suggested that fewer chironomids emerged from the OSPM-affected wetlands. No differences in dispersal distance between the OSPM-affected and reference wetlands were observed.

  9. Emergence, growth, and dispersal of Chironomidae in reclaimed wetlands in the Athabasca oil sands region of Alberta

    Kennedy, K.; Ciborowski, J.

    2010-01-01

    Concerns over the environmental impacts of oil sands extraction in northeastern Alberta has increased as the industry continues to expand. This study examined if the emergence, growth, and dispersal of Chironomidae differ in reclaimed wetlands constructed with oil sands process materials (OSPM) when compared with growth in reference wetlands. Five floating 30 cm diameter halo traps were deployed in various wetlands for a 24 hour period. Exuviae trapped in the surface water film were then collected, identified, and counted. Chironomids grown in laboratories from egg masses collected from 2 OSPM-affected wetlands and 2 reference wetlands were paired according to geographic proximity under controlled conditions for 1 generation. Chironomid larval growth was quantified in situ in the wetlands by reciprocally transferring second instar, second generation culture larva. The dispersal of the larvae was quantified by tabulating the number of adults caught in sticky insect traps located along 3 radially-arranged transects in each wetland. A preliminary analysis has suggested that fewer chironomids emerged from the OSPM-affected wetlands. No differences in dispersal distance between the OSPM-affected and reference wetlands were observed.

  10. Saving oiled mangroves using a new non-dispersing shoreline cleaner

    Teas, H.J.; Lessard, R.R.; Canevari, G.P.; Brown, C.D.; Glenn, R.

    1993-01-01

    Mangroves are ranked as one of the most sensitive marine environments. If mangroves are oiled and no further action is taken, the probability of mortality to the trees is high. One of the ways that viscous spilled oil can kill mangroves is by covering the breathing ports, called lenticels (red mangroves) and pneumatophores (black mangroves), and asphyxiating them by preventing flow of oxygen from the atmosphere into the roots. Mangroves can also be killed by continuous inundation of their prop roots or pneumatophores for a period of ten days to two weeks, but they can survive lenticel covering by water for a few hours at high tide - so there appears to be some grace period during which lenticels can be nonfunctional and the plant can still survive once lenticel function is restored. This suggests that if oil is removed from the breathing ports during the early days after a spill, the lenticels may be able to restore oxygen delivery to the roots and spare the mangroves. Such oils are poorly removed by the washing of tidal waters or by water sprays alone. So a new shoreline cleaner (Corexit 9580), which was specially developed during the cleanup of the Valdez spill in Alaska, was tested to determine its ability to help loosen the oil so it can be washed away with water. Laboratory experiments using excised prop roots of red mangrove (Rhizophora mangle) were initially conducted to determine the feasibility of the approach. Subsequently experiments were carried out using about a hundred potted red mangroves at a test site in Florida. The prop roots, including the lenticels, were coated with a heavy oil (bunker C). After various periods of time, groups of oiled trees were treated with the shoreline cleaner to loosen and remove the oil deposit and then washed with seawater. The results showed that oiled trees could be saved by cleaning within seven days after oiling, indicating that the grace period after oiling extends for about one week

  11. Pentachlorophenol (PCP) sludge recycling unit

    1994-08-01

    The Guelph Utility Pole Company treats utility poles by immersion in pentachlorophenol (PCP) or by pressure treatment with chromated copper arsenate (CCA). The PCP treatment process involves a number of steps, each producing a certain amount of sludge and other wastes. In a plant upgrading program to improve processing and treatment of poles and to reduce and recycle waste, a PCP recovery unit was developed, first as an experimental pilot-scale unit and then as a full-scale unit. The PCP recovery unit is modular in design and can be modified to suit different requirements. In a recycling operation, the sludge is pumped through a preheat system (preheated by waste heat) and suspended solids are removed by a strainer. The sludge is then heated in a tank and at a predetermined temperature it begins to separate into its component parts: oil, steam, and solids. The steam condenses to water containing low amounts of light oil, and this water is pumped through an oil/water separator. The recovered oil is reused in the wood treatment process and the water is used in the CCA plant. The oil remaining in the tank is reused in PCP treatment and the solid waste, which includes small stones and wood particles, is removed and stored. By the third quarter of operation, the recovery unit was operating as designed, processing ca 10,000 gal of sludge. This sludge yielded 6,500 gal of water, 3,500 gal of oil, and ca 30 gal of solids. Introduction of the PCP sludge recycling system has eliminated long-term storage of PCP sludge and minimized costs of hazardous waste disposal. 4 figs

  12. Model description of dibenzothiophene mass transfer in oil/water dispersions with respect to biodesulfurization

    Marcelis, C.L.M.; Leeuwen, van M.; Polderman, H.G.; Janssen, A.J.H.; Lettinga, G.

    2003-01-01

    A mathematical model was developed in order to describe the mass transfer rate of dibenzothiophene within the oil droplet to the oil/water interface of droplets created in a stirred tank reactor. The mass transfer rate of dibenzothiophene was calculated for various complex hydrocarbon distillates

  13. Soybean-oil-based waterborne polyurethane dispersions: effects of polyol functionality and hard segment content on properties.

    Lu, Yongshang; Larock, Richard C

    2008-11-01

    The environmentally friendly vegetable-oil-based waterborne polyurethane dispersions with very promising properties have been successfully synthesized without difficulty from a series of methoxylated soybean oil polyols (MSOLs) with different hydroxyl functionalities ranging from 2.4 to as high as 4.0. The resulting soybean-oil-based waterborne polyurethane (SPU) dispersions exhibit a uniform particle size, which increases from about 12 to 130 nm diameter with an increase in the OH functionality of the MSOL from 2.4 to 4.0 and decreases with increasing content of the hard segments. The structure and thermophysical and mechanical properties of the resulting SPU films, which contain 50-60 wt % MSOL as renewable resources, have been studied by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, dynamic mechanical analysis, thermogravimetric analysis, transmission electron microscopy, and mechanical testing. The experimental results reveal that the functionality of the MSOLs and the hard segment content play a key role in controlling the structure and the thermophysical and mechanical properties of the SPU films. These novel films exhibit tensile stress-strain behavior ranging from elastomeric polymers to rigid plastics and possess Young's moduli ranging from 8 to 720 MPa, ultimate tensile strengths ranging from 4.2 to 21.5 MPa, and percent elongation at break values ranging from 16 to 280%. This work has addressed concerns regarding gelation and higher cross-linking caused by the high functionality of vegetable-oil-based polyols. This article reports novel environmentally friendly biobased SPU materials with promising applications as decorative and protective coatings.

  14. Evaluation of Pulmonary and Systemic Toxicity of Oil Dispersant (COREXIT EC9500A(®)) Following Acute Repeated Inhalation Exposure.

    Roberts, Jenny R; Anderson, Stacey E; Kan, Hong; Krajnak, Kristine; Thompson, Janet A; Kenyon, Allison; Goldsmith, William T; McKinney, Walter; Frazer, David G; Jackson, Mark; Fedan, Jeffrey S

    2014-01-01

    Oil spill cleanup workers come into contact with numerous potentially hazardous chemicals derived from the oil spills, as well as chemicals applied for mitigation of the spill, including oil dispersants. In response to the Deepwater Horizon Macondo well oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico in 2010, a record volume of the oil dispersant, COREXIT EC9500A, was delivered via aerial applications, raising concern regarding potential health effects that may result from pulmonary exposure to the dispersant. The current study examined the effects on pulmonary functions, cardiovascular functions, and systemic immune responses in rats to acute repeated inhalation exposure of COREXIT EC9500A at 25 mg/m(3), five hours per day, over nine work days, or filtered air (control). At one and seven days following the last exposure, a battery of parameters was measured to evaluate lung function, injury, and inflammation; cardiovascular function; peripheral vascular responses; and systemic immune responses. No significant alterations in airway reactivity were observed at one or seven days after exposure either in baseline values or following methacholine (MCh) inhalation challenge. Although there was a trend for an increase in lung neutrophils and phagocyte oxidant production at one-day post exposure, there were no significant differences in parameters of lung inflammation. In addition, increased blood monocytes and neutrophils, and decreased lymphocyte numbers at one-day post exposure also did not differ significantly from air controls, and no alterations in splenocyte populations, or serum or spleen immunoglobulin M (IgM) to antigen were observed. There were no significant differences in peripheral vascular responsiveness to vasoconstrictor and vasodilator agonists or in blood pressure (BP) responses to these agents; however, the baseline heart rate (HR) and HR responses to isoproterenol (ISO) were significantly elevated at one-day post exposure, with resolution by day 7. In summary, acute

  15. Evaluation of Pulmonary and Systemic Toxicity of Oil Dispersant (COREXIT EC9500A following Acute Repeated Inhalation Exposure

    Jenny R. Roberts

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Oil spill cleanup workers come into contact with numerous potentially hazardous chemicals derived from the oil spills, as well as chemicals applied for mitigation of the spill, including oil dispersants. In response to the Deepwater Horizon Macondo well oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico in 2010, a record volume of the oil dispersant, COREXIT EC9500A, was delivered via aerial applications, raising concern regarding potential health effects that may result from pulmonary exposure to the dispersant. Methods The current study examined the effects on pulmonary functions, cardiovascular functions, and systemic immune responses in rats to acute repeated inhalation exposure of COREXIT EC9500A at 25 mg/m 3 , five hours per day, over nine work days, or filtered air (control. At one and seven days following the last exposure, a battery of parameters was measured to evaluate lung function, injury, and inflammation; cardiovascular function; peripheral vascular responses; and systemic immune responses. Results No significant alterations in airway reactivity were observed at one or seven days after exposure either in baseline values or following metha-choline (MCh inhalation challenge. Although there was a trend for an increase in lung neutrophils and phagocyte oxidant production at one-day post exposure, there were no significant differences in parameters of lung inflammation. In addition, increased blood monocytes and neutrophils, and decreased lymphocyte numbers at one-day post exposure also did not differ significantly from air controls, and no alterations in splenocyte populations, or serum or spleen immunoglobulin M (IgM to antigen were observed. There were no significant differences in peripheral vascular responsiveness to vasoconstrictor and vasodilator agonists or in blood pressure (BP responses to these agents; however, the baseline heart rate (HR and HR responses to isoproterenol (ISO were significantly elevated at one-day post exposure

  16. New test for oil soluble/water dispersible gas pipeline inhibitors

    Stegmann, D.W.; Asperger, R.G.

    1987-01-01

    The wheel test provides good mixing of the condensate and water phases, the coupons are exposed to both phases. Therefore, the wheel test cannot distinguish between inhibitors that need continuous mixing of the these phases to maintain a water dispersion of the inhibitor and inhibitors that will self disperse into the water. This concept becomes important for pipelines in stratified flow where the water can settle out. In these cases with low turbulence, the inhibitor must self disperse into the water to be effective. The paper describes a test method to measure the effectiveness of an inhibitor and its ability to self disperse. The effectiveness of several inhibitors as predicted by the new test method is discussed relative to data from the wheel test and breaker tests. Field performance of these inhibitors in a gas gathering line, with liquids in stratified flow, are cities and compared with the results of the various laboratory tests.

  17. Kaolinite and Silica Dispersions in Low-Salinity Environments: Impact on a Water-in-Crude Oil Emulsion Stability

    Vladimir Alvarado

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This research aims at providing evidence of particle suspension contributions to emulsion stability, which has been cited as a contributing factor in crude oil recovery by low-salinity waterflooding. Kaolinite and silica particle dispersions were characterized as functions of brine salinity. A reference aqueous phase, representing reservoir brine, was used and then diluted with distilled water to obtain brines at 10 and 100 times lower Total Dissolved Solid (TDS. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM and X-ray Diffraction (XRD were used to examine at the morphology and composition of clays. The zeta potential and particle size distribution were also measured. Emulsions were prepared by mixing a crude oil with brine, with and without dispersed particles to investigate emulsion stability. The clay zeta potential as a function of pH was used to investigate the effect of particle charge on emulsion stability. The stability was determined through bottle tests and optical microscopy. Results show that both kaolinite and silica promote emulsion stability. Also, kaolinite, roughly 1 mm in size, stabilizes emulsions better than larger clay particles. Silica particles of larger size (5 µm yielded more stable emulsions than smaller silica particles do. Test results show that clay particles with zero point of charge (ZPC at low pH become less effective at stabilizing emulsions, while silica stabilizes emulsions better at ZPC. These result shed light on emulsion stabilization in low-salinity waterflooding.

  18. Evaluation, au laboratoire, du pouvoir dispersant d'une huile pour moteurs à essence et relation avec les résultats obtenus dans la séquence VE Laboratory Evaluation of the Dispersive Power of Gazoline Engines Oils and Relation with Sequence Ve Test Results

    Hipeaux J. C.

    2006-11-01

    200°C, à l'aide de boues provenant d'une huile ayant été préalablement vieillie sur moteur Ford Pinto 2,3 l et d'eau (tableaux 4 et 6, fig. 3. On trace alors la courbe Mérite dispersant résiduel(MDR en fonction du temps d'oxydation (fig. 5 et 12. Cette courbe a la même allure que celle décrite dans la séquence VE (fig. 1. Le tracé des courbes MDR en fonction de la cotation moteur moyenne en boues VE (Average Engine Sludge Deposit (AES permet de discriminer clairement les huiles bonnes ou mauvaises en Séquence VE. À partir de 96 h d'oxydation, dans l'essai OXYDISP (fig. 9 et de 48 h dans l'essai POTDISP (fig. 14, nous sommes en présence de deux familles de produits : les produits qui conservent leur MDR et qui obtiennent un mérite boueségal ou supérieur à 9, dans la Séquence VE et les produits qui perdent leur MDR et qui ont tous des mérites inférieurs à 9 dans la même séquence. Les méthodes OXYDISP et POTDISP permettent également de différencier des huiles de niveaux API différents (niveaux SE, SF et SG (fig. 16 et 17. Evaluating the dispersive power of an oil for gasoline engines is included in international specifications such as the ones issued by the Committee of Common Market Automobile Constructors (CCMC and the American Petroleum Institute (API. This evaluation is the result of lengthy, severe and costly testing in engines on a test bench. These tests are performed in Mercedes M102E (CCMC levels G4 and G5 and Ford Pinto 2. 31 (API levels SG and SH engines. The cost of these tests requires the laboratory use of reliable preselection tests. The more often used test for evaluating the dispersive power of a motor oil is the spottest. It is performed in the presence of pollutants coming from an used Diesel motor oil (Tables 1 and 4, Fig. 2. However, some additive technologies that give good results for this test give poor results during engine testing (Table 2. During the VE Sequence lasting for 288 hr, the oil is subjected to different

  19. Treatment of oil spill fire hazards with chemical dispersants: a case history

    Kaufmann, S.

    1982-10-01

    Federal contingency plans include the use of chemical dispersants to ameliorate hazardous situations caused by spills of flammable or explosive petroleum products. The closing of the Williamsburg Bridge in New York City, when a gasoline tanker exploded and sank under it, was nearly overshadowed by the leakage of 7 750 000 L (2 000 000 gal) of gasoline from a storage facility in Boston. The threat to a densely populated neighborhood of six-family tenement houses and a large racetrack that stabled hundreds of Thoroughbred horses led to the use of a chemical dispersant to neutralize the fire hazard. Favorable results by fire departments in recent years, as a result of training, have established dispersants as the method of choice to handle nonburning spill incidents. Even though the teams that responded to several such emergencies of course held the protection of life and property as paramount, no toxicological environmental effects were noted during subsequent observations.

  20. Hydrodeoxygenation of water-insoluble bio-oil to alkanes using a highly dispersed Pd-Mo catalyst.

    Duan, Haohong; Dong, Juncai; Gu, Xianrui; Peng, Yung-Kang; Chen, Wenxing; Issariyakul, Titipong; Myers, William K; Li, Meng-Jung; Yi, Ni; Kilpatrick, Alexander F R; Wang, Yu; Zheng, Xusheng; Ji, Shufang; Wang, Qian; Feng, Junting; Chen, Dongliang; Li, Yadong; Buffet, Jean-Charles; Liu, Haichao; Tsang, Shik Chi Edman; O'Hare, Dermot

    2017-09-19

    Bio-oil, produced by the destructive distillation of cheap and renewable lignocellulosic biomass, contains high energy density oligomers in the water-insoluble fraction that can be utilized for diesel and valuable fine chemicals productions. Here, we show an efficient hydrodeoxygenation catalyst that combines highly dispersed palladium and ultrafine molybdenum phosphate nanoparticles on silica. Using phenol as a model substrate this catalyst is 100% effective and 97.5% selective for hydrodeoxygenation to cyclohexane under mild conditions in a batch reaction; this catalyst also demonstrates regeneration ability in long-term continuous flow tests. Detailed investigations into the nature of the catalyst show that it combines hydrogenation activity of Pd and high density of both Brønsted and Lewis acid sites; we believe these are key features for efficient catalytic hydrodeoxygenation behavior. Using a wood and bark-derived feedstock, this catalyst performs hydrodeoxygenation of lignin, cellulose, and hemicellulose-derived oligomers into liquid alkanes with high efficiency and yield.Bio-oil is a potential major source of renewable fuels and chemicals. Here, the authors report a palladium-molybdenum mixed catalyst for the selective hydrodeoxygenation of water-insoluble bio-oil to mixtures of alkanes with high carbon yield.

  1. Liposomes incorporating essential oil of Brazilian cherry (Eugenia uniflora L.): characterization of aqueous dispersions and lyophilized formulations.

    Yoshida, P A; Yokota, D; Foglio, M A; Rodrigues, R A F; Pinho, S C

    2010-01-01

    Multilamellar liposomes incorporating essential oil of Brazilian cherry (Eugenia uniflora L.) leaves were produced by dry film hydration. Gas chromatography demonstrated the compounds found in the essential oil were effectively incorporated in the aqueous dispersions of liposomes. Differential scanning calorimetry analyses revealed the incorporation of the essential oil did not cause phase separation in the membrane structure; the gel-liquid crystalline transition temperature (main transition) remained the same despite the higher heterogeneity indicated by the transition peak broadening. Different cryoprotectors (sucrose and trehalose) were added to the liposomal formulations to be tested in their ability to protect the liposomal structure during the lyophilization. The morphological aspect of the lyophilized powders analysed by scanning electron microscopy showed significant differences among the samples with and without cryoprotectors. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy indicated the cryoprotectors interacted effectively with the polar heads of phospholipids in the bilayer. In terms of water absorption, trehalose was identified as a much more effective protector agent against it than sucrose. The cryoprotectors showed different degrees of effectiveness of preservation of the liposomal structure when the rehydration assays of lyophilized liposomes were carried out, as particle size measurements indicated a moderate process of fusion when the formulations with sucrose were rehydrated.

  2. Geochemical dispersion associated with uranium deposits in sandstone roll front type and its relationship to the Orinoco Oil Belt, Venezuela

    Manrique, J.

    2014-01-01

    In Venezuela, there is a potential for the formation of uranium deposits in areas such as the Guiana Shield, the south of the Eastern Basin, the Andes and the massif of Baúl, among other areas. Especially great interest is the exploration of uranium redox interface type (roll front), in areas such as the southern part of the Orinoco Oil Belt, north and northwest of the Guiana Shield, where groundwater uranium collecting the weathering shield flowing northward in the sandstones and mudstones of the Cretaceous to Quaternary formations, which constitute the southern boundary of the Eastern basin Venezuela. The presence of gas, extra-heavy crude oil, bitumen and lignite of the Orinoco Oil Belt can be an effective barrier for uranium in solution, which may have precipitated at the redox interface of this groundwater. This process certainly was more effective before the Orinoco river take its course to the east and the waters of small rivers and large draining shield contributed to uranium aquifers became more deep north. This work was based on a qualitative model describing geochemical dispersion associated with uranium deposits in sandstone, roll front type, which indicates that the daughter isotopes "2"3"8U, which can migrate extensively are: "2"2"2Rn, "4He, and in a smaller proportion: "2"2"6Ra and "2"2"2Rn daughters ("2"1"4Bi, "2"1"0Pb). The main exploration methods were established, which can be applied in areas of the Orinoco Oil Belt, north of the Guiana Shield, and areas west of this, among the most important are: soil measurements of radon and helium near faults, sampling soils with gamma spectrometry analysis, log interpretation of oil wells in the area of interest to establish gamma – lithological anomalies, ground water analysis of uranium, radon, radium, helium, vanadium, selenium, molybdenum, analysis of samples oil drilling cores to locate anomalous stratigraphic levels. This research will provide the basis to establish methodologies for uraniferous

  3. Choice of test organisms for determination of oil dispersant toxicity in marine waters. Auswahl von Testorganismen zur Bestimmung der Toxizitaet von Dispergatoren bei der Oelbekaempfung in marinen Gewaessern

    Henke, G.A.

    1987-06-01

    Several marine organisms were investigated regarding their qualification for oil dispersant toxicity determination. Appropriate organisms were chosen for two different test procedures: Using mortality as a test criterion an acute toxicity test can be carried out very easy with larvae of the brine shrimp Artemia sp. The sensitivity for different dispersants ranges over several orders of magnitude. Another test indicator is the cell multiplication-inhibition test, conducted with the microalga Scrippsiella trochoidea, a representative of phytoplankton. The sensitivity for a common dispersant ranges a hundredfold higher than the acute toxicity test. Both test procedures are also practicable for other water-soluble substances, as well. One oil-spill dispersant efficiency test is proposed provisionally. (orig.) With 62 refs., 20 tabs., 11 figs.

  4. Transition from Spherical to Irregular Dispersed Phase in Water/Oil Emulsions

    Schmitt, M.; Limage, S.; Grigoriev, D.O.; Krägel, J.; Dutschk, Victoria; Vincent-Bonnieu, S.; Miller, R.; Antoni, M.

    2014-01-01

    Bulk properties of transparent and dilute water in paraffin oil emulsions stabilized with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) are analyzed by optical scanning tomography. Each scanning shot of the considered emulsions has a precision of 1 mu m. The influence of aluminum oxide nanoparticles in the structure

  5. Remote sensing of coastal fronts and their effects on oil dispersion

    Klemas, V

    1980-01-01

    The use of remote sensing techniques to determine the properties of coastal and estuarine fronts, which represent regions of discontinuities and high gradients in ocean physical parameters such as velocity and density, and to assess the influence of such fronts on oil pollutants is discussed. Results of an aircraft and boat verification study of an oil drift and spread model in Delaware Bay are indicated which illustrate the tendency of oil slicks to be attracted to frontal regions, where a denser fluid underlies a lighter fluid giving rise to an inclined interface with convergence zones. Landsat imagery of the bay acquired in order to incorporate frontal information into the interactive computer model is then presented which allows the locations of coastal fronts to be charted throughout a tidal cycle. It is noted that satellite observations of flood-associated fronts on the New Jersey side of the bay and ebb-associated fronts on the Delaware side agree with boat measurements and model predictions, and that the remote tracking of fronts by aircraft and satellites will aid in oil slick clean-up operations.

  6. Optimization of fermentative hydrogen production from palm oil mill effluent in an up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket fixed film bioreactor

    Parviz Mohammadi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Response surface methodology with a central composite design was applied to optimize fermentative hydrogen production from palm oil mill effluent (POME in an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket fixed film reactor. In this study, the concurrent effects of up-flow velocity (Vup and feed flow rate (QF as independent operating variables on biological hydrogen production were investigated. A broad range of organic loading rate between 10 and 60 g COD L−1 d−1 was used as the operating variables. The dependent parameters as multiple responses were evaluated. Experimental results showed the highest value of yield at 0.31 L H2 g−1 COD was obtained at Vup and QF of 0.5 m h−1 and 1.7 L d−1, respectively. The optimum conditions for the fermentative hydrogen production using pre-settled POME were QF = 2.0–3.7 L d−1 and Vup = 1.5–2.3 m h−1. The experimental results agreed very well with the model prediction.

  7. Impact of salinity and dispersed oil on adsorption of dissolved aromatic hydrocarbons by activated carbon and organoclay

    Younker, Jessica M.; Walsh, Margaret E., E-mail: mwalsh2@dal.ca

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • Powdered activated carbon (PAC) outperformed organoclay for dissolved aromatics removal • Dispersed oil reduced the adsorption capacity of PAC but not organoclay • Salinity did not affect phenol or naphthalene removal by PAC or BTMA-organoclay • Commercial organoclay had reduced adsorption capacity in saline water due to aggregation • PAC performed better in single solute systems than multi-solute systems - Abstract: Adsorption capacity of phenol and naphthalene by powdered activated carbon (PAC), a commercial organoclay (OC) and a lab synthesized organoclay (BTMA) was studied using batch adsorption experiments under variable feed water quality conditions including single- and multi- solute conditions, fresh water, saline water and oily-and-saline water. Increasing salinity levels was found to reduce adsorption capacity of OC, likely due to destabilization, aggregation and subsequent removal of organoclay from the water column, but did not negatively impact adsorption capacity of PAC or BTMA. Increased dispersed oil concentrations were found to reduce the surface area of all adsorbents. This decreased the adsorption capacity of PAC for both phenol and naphthalene, and reduced BTMA adsorption of phenol, but did not negatively affect naphthalene removals by either organoclay. The presence of naphthalene as a co-solute significantly reduced phenol adsorption by PAC, but had no impact on organoclay adsorption. These results indicated that adsorption by PAC occurred via a surface adsorption mechanism, while organoclay adsorption occurred by hydrophobic or pi electron interactions. In general, PAC was more sensitive to changes in water quality than either of the organoclays evaluated in this study. However, PAC exhibited a higher adsorption capacity for phenol and naphthalene compared to both organoclays even in adverse water quality conditions.

  8. Impact of salinity and dispersed oil on adsorption of dissolved aromatic hydrocarbons by activated carbon and organoclay

    Younker, Jessica M.; Walsh, Margaret E.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Powdered activated carbon (PAC) outperformed organoclay for dissolved aromatics removal • Dispersed oil reduced the adsorption capacity of PAC but not organoclay • Salinity did not affect phenol or naphthalene removal by PAC or BTMA-organoclay • Commercial organoclay had reduced adsorption capacity in saline water due to aggregation • PAC performed better in single solute systems than multi-solute systems - Abstract: Adsorption capacity of phenol and naphthalene by powdered activated carbon (PAC), a commercial organoclay (OC) and a lab synthesized organoclay (BTMA) was studied using batch adsorption experiments under variable feed water quality conditions including single- and multi- solute conditions, fresh water, saline water and oily-and-saline water. Increasing salinity levels was found to reduce adsorption capacity of OC, likely due to destabilization, aggregation and subsequent removal of organoclay from the water column, but did not negatively impact adsorption capacity of PAC or BTMA. Increased dispersed oil concentrations were found to reduce the surface area of all adsorbents. This decreased the adsorption capacity of PAC for both phenol and naphthalene, and reduced BTMA adsorption of phenol, but did not negatively affect naphthalene removals by either organoclay. The presence of naphthalene as a co-solute significantly reduced phenol adsorption by PAC, but had no impact on organoclay adsorption. These results indicated that adsorption by PAC occurred via a surface adsorption mechanism, while organoclay adsorption occurred by hydrophobic or pi electron interactions. In general, PAC was more sensitive to changes in water quality than either of the organoclays evaluated in this study. However, PAC exhibited a higher adsorption capacity for phenol and naphthalene compared to both organoclays even in adverse water quality conditions.

  9. The effects of oil and dispersant on the blue mussel (Mytilus edulis L.) of the Quark region in the Gulf on Bothnia

    Lehtonen, K.

    1989-01-01

    The ecute toxic effects of heavy fuel oil (POR 180) and a dispersant (FinaSol OSR-5) were studied by static aquarium esposures, using the blue mussel (Mytilus edulis L.) as a test animal. The work was partially associated with the studies of the impact of the M/S Eira oil spill(1984) on the ecosystem of the Quark region in the Gulf of Bothnia. Test animals were collected from an area where the hydrologic condtions are very similar to those at the oil spill area. Different concentrations of oil and dispersant alone and their mixtures were used in the tests. Exposure time was 24 h, after which the animals were removed into clean water for a few weeks. Mortality and reduced byssal attachment ability were recorded as toxic effects. Surviving individuals were prepared for histological examination. POR 180's solubility into brackish water was poor. Test concentrations were not lethal to mussels, but the ability to attach was reduced in the highest concentrations. The 24 h LC 5 0-value for FinaSol OSR-5 was high (app. 2200 mg/l). The toxicity of oil/dispersant mixtures was high in the lower test concentrations. Histological examination revealed significant acute inflammatory reactions in the gastrointestinal track in some test groups

  10. Comparison of the phytoremediation potentials of Medicago falcata L. And Medicago sativa L. in aged oil-sludge-contaminated soil.

    Panchenko, Leonid; Muratova, Anna; Turkovskaya, Olga

    2017-01-01

    Thirteen-year monitoring of the vegetation growing in the industrial and adjacent areas of an oil refinery showed the prevalence of yellow medick (Medicago falcata L.) over other plant species, including alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.). A comparative field study of the two Medicago species established that yellow medick and alfalfa exhibited similar resistance to soil petroleum hydrocarbons and that the pollutant concentration in their rhizosphere was 30% lower than that in the surrounding bulk soil. In laboratory pot experiments, yellow medick reduced the contaminant content by 18% owing to the degradation of the major heavy oil fractions, such as paraffins, naphthenes, and alcohol and benzene tars; and it was more successful than alfalfa. Both species were equally effective in stimulating the total number of soil microorganisms, but the number of hydrocarbon-oxidizing microorganisms, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon degraders, was larger in the root zone of alfalfa. In turn, yellow medick provided a favorable balance of available nitrogen. Both Medicago species equally stimulated the dehydrogenase and peroxidase activities of the soil, and yellow medick increased the activity of soil polyphenol oxidase but reduced the activity of catalase. The root tissue activity of catalase, ascorbate oxidase, and tyrosinase was grater in alfalfa than in yellow medick. The peroxidase activity of plant roots was similar in both species, but nondenaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed some differences in the peroxidase profiles of the root extracts of alfalfa and yellow medick. Overall, this study suggests that the phytoremediation potentials of yellow medick and alfalfa are similar, with some differences.

  11. About Ganoderma boninense in oil palm plantations of Sumatra and peninsular Malaysia: Ancient population expansion, extensive gene flow and large scale dispersion ability.

    Mercière, Maxime; Boulord, Romain; Carasco-Lacombe, Catherine; Klopp, Christophe; Lee, Yang-Ping; Tan, Joon-Sheong; Syed Alwee, Sharifah S R; Zaremski, Alba; De Franqueville, Hubert; Breton, Frédéric; Camus-Kulandaivelu, Létizia

    Wood rot fungi form one of the main classes of phytopathogenic fungus. The group includes many species, but has remained poorly studied. Many species belonging to the Ganoderma genus are well known for causing decay in a wide range of tree species around the world. Ganoderma boninense, causal agent of oil palm basal stem rot, is responsible for considerable yield losses in Southeast Asian oil palm plantations. In a large-scale sampling operation, 357 sporophores were collected from oil palm plantations spread over peninsular Malaysia and Sumatra and genotyped using 11 SSR markers. The genotyping of these samples made it possible to investigate the population structure and demographic history of G. boninense across the oldest known area of interaction between oil palm and G. boninense. Results show that G. boninense possesses a high degree of genetic diversity and no detectable genetic structure at the scale of Sumatra and peninsular Malaysia. The fact that few duplicate genotypes were found in several studies including this one supports the hypothesis of spore dispersal in the spread of G. boninense. Meanwhile, spatial autocorrelation analysis shows that G. boninense is able to disperse across both short and long distances. These results bring new insight into mechanisms by which G. boninense spreads in oil palm plantations. Finally, the use of approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) modelling indicates that G. boninense has undergone a demographic expansion in the past, probably before the oil palm was introduced into Southeast Asia. Copyright © 2017 British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Upflow anaerobic sludge blanket-hollow centered packed bed (UASB-HCPB) reactor for thermophilic palm oil mill effluent (POME) treatment

    Poh, P.E.; Chong, M.F.

    2014-01-01

    Upflow anaerobic sludge blanket-hollow centered packed bed (UASB-HCPB) reactor was developed with the aim to minimize operational problems in the anaerobic treatment of Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) under thermophilic conditions. The performance of UASB-HCPB reactor on POME treatment was investigated at 55 °C. Subsequent to start-up, the performance of the UASB-HCPB reactor was evaluated in terms of i) effect of hydraulic retention time (HRT); ii) effect of organic loading rate (OLR); and iii) effect of mixed liquor volatile suspended solid (MLVSS) concentration on thermophilic POME treatment. Start-up up of the UASB-HCPB reactor was completed in 36 days, removing 88% COD and 90% BOD respectively at an OLR of 28.12 g L −1  d −1 , producing biogas with 52% of methane. Results from the performance study of the UASB-HCPB reactor on thermophilic POME treatment indicated that HRT of 2 days, OLR of 27.65 g L −1  d −1 and MLVSS concentration of 14.7 g L −1 was required to remove 90% of COD and BOD, 80% of suspended solid and at the same time produce 60% of methane. - Highlights: • UASB-HCPB was proposed for POME treatment under thermophilic conditions. • Start-up up of the UASB-HCPB reactor was completed in 36 days. • 88% COD and 90% BOD were removed at an OLR of 28.12 g COD/L.day during start-up. • HRT of 2 days and OLR of 27.65 g COD/L.day was required to produce 60% methane. • Methanosarcina sp. forms the majority of microbial population in the UASB section

  13. Evaluation of ensemble atmospheric simulations in oil dispersion models at Itaguai Port region; Avaliacao do uso de resultados numericos de previsao atmosferica por conjunto na modelagem da dispersao de oleo na regiao do Porto de Itaguai

    Santos, Renato Goncalves dos; Silva, Mariana P.R.; Silva, Ricardo Marcelo da; Torres Junior, Audalio R. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Modelagem de Processos Marinhos e Atmosfericos (LAMMA); Landau, Luiz [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Metodos Computacinais em Engenharia (LAMCE); Sa, Reginaldo Ventura de; Hochleitner, Fabio; Correa, Eduardo Barbosa [AQUAMET Meteorologia e Projeto de Sistemas, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    This work discusses the use of numerical prediction using ensemble as boundary condition in pollutants dispersion models, applied in a hypothetical case of an oil spill occurrence in Itaguai Port. The Princeton Ocean Model (POM) has been used to simulate hydrodynamics and NICOIL Eulerian model to forecast oil spill dispersion, and ensemble wind forecast from Global Forecast System (GFS), aiming to assess the importance of this parameter variability in oil dispersion at sea. The wind scenarios using ensemble members has showed significant dispersion when compared to control simulation, demonstrating that the uncertainty in the atmospheric modeling can generate considerable variations in the placement of the final spot of oil. The region of interest was the Sepetiba Bay, located on the southern coast of the Rio de Janeiro state; because of port operations carried out around the Port of Itaguai where they can, eventually, oil leaks occur. (author)

  14. Cost and effectiveness comparisons of various types of sludge irradiation and sludge pasteurization treatments

    Morris, M.E.

    1976-01-01

    The radiation from 137 Cs, a major constituent of nuclear fuel reprocessing waste, can be used to sterilize sewage sludge. This paper compares the effectiveness and cost of heat pasteurization, irradiation, and thermoradiation (simultaneous heating/irradiation), three competing methods of sludge disinfection. The cost of irradiation and thermoradiation is slightly higher than heat pasteurization costs for liquid sludges, although minor changes in oil availability or prices could change this. If the viral destruction could be done easily by other means, a 500-kilorad irradiation dose would be effective and less costly. For dry sewage sludges, irradiation is as effective and much less costly than any of the liquid sludge disinfection processes. Irradiation of compost appears to be cheaper and more practical than any heat pasteurization process for the dry sludge (the insulating property of the compost makes heating difficult). 6 tables, 2 fig

  15. Sludge busters

    Pichon, Max

    2010-01-01

    Full text: A few years ago, For Earth developed low energy sub-surface aeration systems to increase the biological activity in the wastewater sludge ponds. Then came the idea to introduce probiotic bacteria to really ramp up the process, which promises massive time and cost savings in sludge management. Increasing the volumes of specific bacteria reactivates the sludge, accelerating biological nutrient removal in general and, by tailoring the bacteria, targeting specific organic waste types. The technology is already running at more than 30 councils across NSW and in some commercial settings, such as dairy farms. Shane McKibbin, GM of For Earth, said the 'Probiotic, Low Energy Aeration System' offers considerable upside. “The cost savings have been enormous with some councils, including the work done at Woolgoolga Water Reclamation Plant at Coffs Harbour,” he said. Sludge settling in wastewater treatment plant lagoons is typically pumped out, centrifuged to remove water and then landfilled. In Woolgoolga's case that process was costing Coffs Harbour Water $150 a cubic metre; McKibbin said they've slashed that to a measly $5 a cubic metre. An array of 'industrial air stones' is dropped 1m below the surface to create an oxygenated blanket across the surface, overcoming the tendency of sludge ponds to stagnate. The key though is floating probiotic dosing lines across the surface, which kick-starts the probiotics process. “Previously, some operators just wanted to throw it on with a bucket, so the bacteria would get thrown into one corner of the pond. But since we introduced the dosing system it has really improved the overall performance,” said McKibbin.The dosing pump system automatically applies the bacteria into the dosing line according to a specified program, ensuring the probiotics are spread out across the pond and across the week. “I would say it improves and accelerates the result by 30 per cent,” he adds. “The biggest problem was that

  16. Sludge busters

    Pichon, Max

    2010-07-15

    Full text: A few years ago, For Earth developed low energy sub-surface aeration systems to increase the biological activity in the wastewater sludge ponds. Then came the idea to introduce probiotic bacteria to really ramp up the process, which promises massive time and cost savings in sludge management. Increasing the volumes of specific bacteria reactivates the sludge, accelerating biological nutrient removal in general and, by tailoring the bacteria, targeting specific organic waste types. The technology is already running at more than 30 councils across NSW and in some commercial settings, such as dairy farms. Shane McKibbin, GM of For Earth, said the 'Probiotic, Low Energy Aeration System' offers considerable upside. “The cost savings have been enormous with some councils, including the work done at Woolgoolga Water Reclamation Plant at Coffs Harbour,” he said. Sludge settling in wastewater treatment plant lagoons is typically pumped out, centrifuged to remove water and then landfilled. In Woolgoolga's case that process was costing Coffs Harbour Water $150 a cubic metre; McKibbin said they've slashed that to a measly $5 a cubic metre. An array of 'industrial air stones' is dropped 1m below the surface to create an oxygenated blanket across the surface, overcoming the tendency of sludge ponds to stagnate. The key though is floating probiotic dosing lines across the surface, which kick-starts the probiotics process. “Previously, some operators just wanted to throw it on with a bucket, so the bacteria would get thrown into one corner of the pond. But since we introduced the dosing system it has really improved the overall performance,” said McKibbin.The dosing pump system automatically applies the bacteria into the dosing line according to a specified program, ensuring the probiotics are spread out across the pond and across the week. “I would say it improves and accelerates the result by 30 per cent,” he adds. “The biggest problem was that

  17. Rapid determination of hydrophilic phenols in olive oil by vortex-assisted reversed-phase dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction and screen-printed carbon electrodes.

    Fernández, Elena; Vidal, Lorena; Canals, Antonio

    2018-05-01

    A novel approach is presented to determine hydrophilic phenols in olive oil samples, employing vortex-assisted reversed-phase dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (RP-DLLME) for sample preparation and screen-printed carbon electrodes for voltammetric analysis. The oxidation of oleuropein, hydroxytyrosol, caffeic acid, ferulic acid and tyrosol was investigated, being caffeic acid and tyrosol selected for quantification. A matrix-matching calibration using sunflower oil as analyte-free sample diluted with hexane was employed to compensate matrix effects. Samples were analyzed under optimized RP-DLLME conditions, i.e., extractant phase, 1M HCl; extractant volume, 100µL; extraction time, 2min; centrifugation time, 10min; centrifugation speed, 4000rpm. The working range showed a good linearity between 0.075 and 2.5mgL -1 (r = 0.998, N = 7) for caffeic acid, and between 0.075 and 3mgL -1 (r = 0.999, N = 8) for tyrosol. The methodological limit of detection was empirically established at 0.022mgL -1 for both analytes, which is significantly lower than average contents found in olive oil samples. The repeatability was evaluated at two different spiking levels (i.e., 0.5mgL -1 and 2mgL -1 ) and coefficients of variation ranged from 8% to 11% (n = 5). The applicability of the proposed method was tested in olive oil samples of different quality (i.e., refined olive oil, virgin olive oil and extra virgin olive oil). Relative recoveries varied between 83% and 108% showing negligible matrix effects. Finally, fifteen samples were analyzed by the proposed method and a high correlation with the traditional Folin-Ciocalteu spectrophotometric method was obtained. Thereafter, the concentrations of the fifteen oil samples were employed as input variables in linear discriminant analysis in order to distinguish between olive oils of different quality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Acute and chronic toxicity study of the water accommodated fraction (WAF), chemically enhanced WAF (CEWAF) of crude oil and dispersant in the rock pool copepod Tigriopus japonicus.

    Lee, Kyun-Woo; Shim, Won Joon; Yim, Un Hyuk; Kang, Jung-Hoon

    2013-08-01

    We determined the toxicity of the water accommodated hydrocarbon fraction (WAF), two chemically enhanced WAFs (CEWAFs; CEWAF-C, Crude oil+Corexit 9500 and CEWAF-H, Crude oil+Hiclean) of crude oil and two dispersants (Corexit 9500 and Hiclean) to the rock pool copepod Tigriopus japonicus. In the acute toxicity test, Corexit 9500 was the most toxic of all the chemicals studied. The nauplius stage of T. japonicus was more susceptible to the toxic chemicals studied than the adult female. The toxicity data using the nauplius stage was then considered as baseline to determine the spiking concentration of chemicals for chronic toxicity tests on the copepod. As the endpoints in the chronic toxicity test, survival, sex ratio, developmental time and fecundity of the copepod were used. All chemicals used in this study resulted in increased toxicity in the F1 generation. The lowest-observed-adverse-effect (LOAE) concentrations of WAF, CEWAF-H, CEWAF-C, Hiclean and Corexit 9500 were observed to be 50%, 10%, 0.1%, 1% and 1%, respectively. The results in present study imply that copepods in marine may be negatively influenced by spilled oil and dispersant. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Modélisation de la combustion de fuels lourds prenant en compte la dispersion des asphaltènes Modeling Heavy Fuel-Oil Combustion (While Considering Or Including Asphaltene Dispersion

    Audibert F.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Divers modèles, ayant pour but de prédire le taux d'imbrûlés solides lors de la combustion du fuel lourd, ont été mis au point dans le passé. Les paramètres entrant en ligne de compte sont le plus souvent les teneurs en résidus lourds hydrocarbonés (asphaltènes précipités au pentane ou à l'heptane et carbone Conradson et en métaux : c'est le cas des modèles Exxon et Shell développés respectivement en 1979 et 1981. D'autres modèles tiennent compte, en plus de la composition du fuel, de son mode d'atomisation, de son mode de diffusion dans le foyer et de la cinétique de combustion : on peut citer les travaux du Laboratoire Energie du MIT publiés en 1986. Néanmoins, ces facteurs ne sont pas les seuls à intervenir : l'expérience a montré que l'état de dispersion des asphaltènes peut jouer également un grand rôle, notamment dans le cas d'installations de combustion à injection mécanique, pour lesquelles la dispersion des gouttelettes n'est pas aussi fine que pour des installations munies d'une injection assistée par la vapeur. Cette influence de la dispersion des asphaltènes sur la combustion a été mise en évidence dans le passé par l'utilisation d'additifs dispersants et également par la combustion de fuels lourds constitués par dilution d'asphaltes précipités au pentane avec un gas-oil de cracking catalytique de raffinerie (LCO. Ce sont ces fuels que l'on a considérés dans la présente étude. L'effet de ce facteur dispersion n'a pas été quantifié jusqu'alors, la difficulté étant de définir une grandeur mesurable représentant la répartition des agglomérats d'asphaltènes. Dans cette étude, on a essayé en un premier temps de faire une approche fractale de la répartition des asphaltènes à partir de clichés (préparés par la société Total, cette méthode ayant déjà été utilisée avec succès pour décrire des structures d'aspects comparables. Malheureusement, on s'est heurté à des

  20. Conserving archaeological sites as biological and historical resources in the Gulf of Mexico: the effects of crude oil and dispersant on the biodiversity and corrosion potential of shipwreck bacterial biofilms

    Salerno, J. L.; Little, B.; Lee, J.; Ray, R.; Hamdan, L. J.

    2016-02-01

    There are more than 2,000 documented shipwrecks in the Gulf of Mexico. Historic shipwrecks are invaluable cultural resources, but also serve as artificial reefs, enhancing biodiversity in the deep sea. Oil and gas-related activities have the potential to impact shipwreck sites. An estimated 30% of the oil from the Deepwater Horizon spill was deposited in the deep-sea, in areas that contain shipwrecks. We conducted field and laboratory experiments to determine if crude oil, dispersed oil, and/or dispersant affect the community composition, metabolic function, and/or corrosion potential of microorganisms inhabiting shipwrecks. Platforms containing carbon steel coupons (CSC) (n = 34 per platform) were placed at impacted and non-impacted shipwrecks or into four experimental microcosm tanks. After a 2-week acclimation period, tanks were treated with crude oil and/or dispersant or received no treatment. CSC and seawater (SW) samples for bacterial genetic analysis were collected bi-weekly (at 16 wks for field samples). Proteobacteria dominated field and lab CSC bacterial communities (77-97% of sequences). Field CSC bacterial communities differed at each wreck site (P = 0.001), with oil-impacted sites differing from control sites. Lab CSC bacterial communities differed between all treatment groups (P = 0.005) and changed over the course of the experiment (P = 0.001). CSC bacterial species richness, diversity, and dominance increased with time across all treatments indicating the recruitment and establishment of microbial biofilms on CSCs. SW bacterial communities differed between treatment groups (P = 0.001), with the dispersant treatment being most dissimilar from all other treatments (P < 0.01), and changed over time (P = 0.001). Oil- and oil/dispersant-treated CSCs exhibited higher corrosion compared to dispersant and control treatments. These findings indicate that exposure to oil and/or dispersant may alter bacterial community composition and corrosion potential.

  1. Treatment and disposal of refinery sludges: Indian scenario.

    Bhattacharyya, J K; Shekdar, A V

    2003-06-01

    Crude oil is a major source of energy and feedstock for petrochemicals. Oily sludge, bio-sludge and chemical sludge are the major sludges generated from the processes and effluent treatment plants of the refineries engaged in crude oil refining operations. Refineries in India generate about 28,220 tons of sludge per annum. Various types of pollutants like phenols, heavy metals, etc. are present in the sludges and they are treated as hazardous waste. Oily sludge, which is generated in much higher amount compared to other sludges, contains phenol (90-100 mg/kg), nickel (17-25 mg/kg), chromium (27-80 mg/kg), zinc (7-80 mg/kg), manganese (19-24 mg/kg), cadmium (0.8-2 mg/kg), copper (32-120 mg/kg) and lead (0.001-0.12 mg/ kg). Uncontrolled disposal practices of sludges in India cause degradation of environmental and depreciation of aesthetic quality. Environmental impact due to improper sludge management has also been identified. Salient features of various treatment and disposal practices have been discussed. Findings of a case study undertaken by the authors for Numaligarh Refinery in India have been presented. Various system alternatives have been identified for waste management in Numaligarh Refinery. A ranking exercise has been carried out to evaluate the alternatives and select the appropriate one. A detailed design of the selected waste management system has been presented.

  2. Sludge recovery apparatus

    Marmo, A.R.

    1979-01-01

    Sludge recovery machine comprising a hollow centrifuge, a vertical pipe for feeding in a liquid containing sludge and a sliding rake pressing against the internal wall of the centrifuge to dislodge and move the sludge, a power drive for spinning the centrifuge at high speed and a rotating drying table to take the sludge and dry it [fr

  3. Evaluation of activated sludge treatment and settleability in ...

    Wastewater discharged from the edible oil industry contains a very concentrated amalgamation of organic and inorganic materials making it a problematic effluent to treat. The aim of this study was to evaluate the activated sludge treatment of edible oil effluent from a sunflower oil processing company in KwaZulu-Natal.

  4. Evaluation of activated sludge treatment and settleability in ...

    DRINIE

    2003-07-03

    Jul 3, 2003 ... separation, on-site applications of such processes (especially fat traps) are often ... edible oil effluent treatment on sludge settleability, floc structure and activity of .... Poor FOG removal was noted in the MLE system as just 7%.

  5. Coal as a supplemental heat source in sludge incineration

    Swanson, G J; Bergstedt, D C

    1979-07-01

    The use of coal as a supplemental fuel in multiple hearth sludge incineration was investigated; how sulphur lump coal was added to dewatered sludge being fed to the furnace, reducing incinerator oil requirements by 70%. With full-scale retrofit of the treatment plant total annual costs for coal supplemental feeding would be 161,000 dollars, but oil savings would be 240,000 dollars.

  6. Simultaneous determination of six synthetic phenolic antioxidants in edible oils using dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction followed by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection.

    Xu, Shuangjiao; Liu, Liangliang; Wang, Yanqin; Zhou, Dayun; Kuang, Meng; Fang, Dan; Yang, Weihua; Wei, Shoujun; Xiao, Aiping; Ma, Lei

    2016-08-01

    A simple, rapid, organic-solvent- and sample-saving pretreatment technique, called dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction, was developed for the determination of six synthetic phenolic antioxidants from edible oils before high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection. The entire procedure was composed of a two-step microextraction and a centrifugal process and could be finished in about 5 min, only consuming only 25 mg of sample and 1 mL of the organic solvent for each extraction. The influences of several important parameters on the microextraction efficiency were thoroughly investigated. Recovery assays for oil samples were spiked at three concentration levels, 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg, and provided recoveries in the 86.3-102.5% range with a relative standard deviation below 3.5%. The intra-day and inter-day precisions for the analysis were less than 3.8%. The proposed method was successfully applied for the determination of synthetic phenolic antioxidants in different oil samples, and satisfactory results were obtained. Thus, the developed method represents a viable alternative for the quality control of synthetic phenolic antioxidant concentrations in edible oils. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Application of microemulsion in oil production operations; Emprego de microemulsao na producao de petroleo

    Oliveira, Marcia Cristina K. de; Gonzalez, Gaspar [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas

    2008-07-01

    Microemulsions are thermodynamically stable liquid-liquid dispersions that present a wide range of potential applications in the Petroleum Industry due to their high stability, ultralow interfacial tension and capacity to modify the wettability of the solids eventually present in the system. In this work some specific application such as removal of deposits from solid surfaces, oily sludge separation, heavy oil recovery from consolidated porous media and oil mobilization from limestone cores, currently under examination at PETROBRAS, are reviewed. It has been found that heavy oil fraction strongly attached to solid surfaces can be removed up to above 90% in the case solids contaminated with oil previously treated by thermal desorption or for sand contaminated with crude oil. Tests with field samples of oily sludge showed that these contaminants can readily be resolved into oil, water and free loose solid particles. In fluid injection tests using consolidated porous media it was observed that the injection of microemulsion after secondary oil removal with sea water conduced to an additional recovery of 59%. Qualitative tests carried out with consolidated limestone cores impregnated with crude oil showed that the oil was efficiently displaced by microemulsion. This effect has been ascribed to the rock matrix wettability inversion caused by the microemulsion. (author)

  8. Comparison of the relative sensitivity of Arctic species to dispersed oil using total petroleum and PAH measures of toxicity

    Extended periods of open water have expanded the potential opportunities for petroleum and gas exploration and production in the Arctic, increasing the focus on understanding the potential impacts of released oil on aquatic organisms. However, information regarding the toxicity o...

  9. Rate of biodegradation of crude oil by microorganisms isolated from ...

    The rate of biodegradation of crude oil by micro-organisms isolated from crude oil sludge environment in Eket, Akwa Ibom State of Nigeria was studied. Mineral salt medium supplemented with crude oil was used and three most abundant species isolated from a crude oil sludged soil - Micrococcus varians, Bacillus subtilis ...

  10. Dispersion Stability of O/W Emulsions with Different Oil Contents Under Various Freezing and Thawing Conditions.

    Katsuki, Kazutaka; Miyagawa, Yayoi; Nakagawa, Kyuya; Adachi, Shuji

    2017-07-01

    Freezing and thawing of oil-in-water (O/W) emulsion-type foods bring about oil-water separation and deterioration; hence, the effects of freezing and thawing conditions on the destabilization of O/W emulsions were examined. The freezing rate and thawing temperature hardly affected the stability of the O/W emulsion. O/W emulsions having different oil fractions were stored at temperatures ranging from -30 to -20 °C and then thawed. The stability after thawing depended on the storage temperature, irrespective of the oil fraction of the emulsion. A good correlation was found between the time at which the stability began to decrease and the time taken for the oil to crystalize. These results indicated that the dominant cause for the destabilization of the O/W emulsion during freezing and thawing is the crystallization of the oil phase and that the effects of the freezing and thawing rates on the stability are insignificant. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  11. Utilization of heavy metal-rich tannery sludge for sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) cultivation.

    Chand, Sukhmal; Singh, Shweta; Singh, Vinay Kumar; Patra, D D

    2015-05-01

    Unlike food crops, essential oil-bearing crops in which the oil is extracted through hydro-distillation can be a suitable crop to be grown in heavy metal-polluted soils as the oil does not carry any heavy metal. In a field experiment conducted at CIMAP, Lucknow, India during 2011 and 2012, influence of six doses of tannery sludge viz 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 t ha(-1) were tested, taking sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum) as the test crop. Maximum herb yield was obtained with the application of sludge at 20 t ha(-1). While in root, accumulation of Cd and Pb increased significantly up to 20 t ha(-1), Cr accumulation increased with increasing the dose of tannery sludge reaching maximum at 50 t ha(-1). Essential oil yield of basil (Ocimum basilicum) was significantly affected due to sludge application. Quality of essential oil, in term of chemical constituents, however, was marginally influenced due to tannery sludge application.

  12. Simultaneous Determination of Perfluorinated Compounds in Edible Oil by Gel-Permeation Chromatography Combined with Dispersive Solid-Phase Extraction and Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry.

    Yang, Lili; Jin, Fen; Zhang, Peng; Zhang, Yanxin; Wang, Jian; Shao, Hua; Jin, Maojun; Wang, Shanshan; Zheng, Lufei; Wang, Jing

    2015-09-30

    A simple analytical method was developed for the simultaneous analysis of 18 perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in edible oil. The target compounds were extracted by acetonitrile, purified by gel permeation chromatography (GPC) and dispersive solid-phase extraction (DSPE) using graphitized carbon black (GCB) and octadecyl (C18), and analyzed by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ES-MS/MS) in negative ion mode. Recovery studies were performed at three fortification levels. The average recoveries of all target PFCs ranged from 60 to 129%, with an acceptable relative standard deviation (RSD) (1-20%, n = 3). The method detection limits (MDLs) ranged from 0.004 to 0.4 μg/kg, which was significantly improved compared with the existing liquid-liquid extraction and cleanup method. The method was successfully applied for the analysis of all target PFCs in edible oil samples collected from markets in Beijing, China, and the results revealed that C6-C10 perfluorocarboxylic acid (PFCAs) and C7 perfluorosulfonic acid PFSAs were the major PFCs detected in oil samples.

  13. Research on Treatment Technology and Device of Oily Sludge

    Wang, J. Q.; Shui, F. S.; Li, Q. F.

    2017-12-01

    Oily sludge is a solid oily waste, which is produced during the process of oil exploitation, transportation, refining and treatment of oily sewage. It contains a great number of hazardous substance, and is difficult to handle with. To solve the problem of waste resources of oil sludge with high oil content and usually not easy to aggregate during the preparation of profile control agent, a new oily sludge treatment device was developed. This device consists of heat supply unit, flush and filter unit, oil removal unit and dehydration unit. It can effectively clean and filter out the waste from oily sludge, recycle the oil resources and reduce the water content of the residue. In the process of operation, the water and chemical agent are recycled in the device, eventually producing little sewage. The device is small, easy to move and has high degree of automation control. The experimental application shows that the oil removal rate of the oily sludge is up to 70%, and the higher the oil content rate the better the treatment.

  14. Biodegradation of total petroleum hydrocarbons from acidic sludge produced by re-refinery industries of waste oil using in-vessel composting.

    Asgari, Alireza; Nabizadeh, Ramin; Mahvi, Amir Hossein; Nasseri, Simin; Dehghani, Mohammad Hadi; Nazmara, Shahrokh; Yaghmaeian, Kamyar

    2017-01-01

    In Iran, re-refinery industry has been developed many years ago based on the acid-clay treatment. Acidic sludge with high concentration of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) is the final products of some facilities. In this study removal of TPH by aerated in-vessel composting was investigated. In order to microorganisms seeding and nutrient providing, urban immature compost was added as an amendment to acidic sludge. The ratios of acidic sludge (AS) to compost were, 1:0 (as control), 1:5, 1:8, 1:10, 1:15, 1:20, 1:30, 1:40, 1:50, 1:75 and 1:100 (as dry basis) at a C: N: P ratio of 100:5:1 and 45-65% moisture content for 70 days. The removal efficiency in all reactors was more than 48%. The highest and lowest TPH removal was observed in 1:5 (71.56%) and 1:100 (48.53%) mixing ratios, respectively. The results of the control reactors showed that biological treatment was the main mechanism for TPH removal. Experimental data was fitted second order kinetic model ( R 2  > 0.8006). Degradation of TPH in 1:5 mixing ratio (k 2  = 0.0038 gmg -1 d -1 ; half-life = 3.08d) was nearly three times faster than 1:100 mixing ratio (k 2  = 0.0238; half-life = 8.96d). The results of the control reactors showed that biological treatment was the main mechanism for TPH removal. The results of this study revealed in-vessel composting with immature urban compost as the amendment maybe recommended as an effective method for TPH remediation.

  15. Sludge storage lagoon biogas recovery and use

    Muller, D.; Norville, C. (Memphis and Shelby County Div. of Planning and Development, TN (United States))

    1991-07-01

    The City of Memphis has two wastewater treatment plants. The SWTP employs two large anaerobic digestion sludge lagoons as part of the overall sludge treatment system. Although these lagoons are effective in concentrating and digesting sludge, they can generate offensive odors. The SWTP uses aerobic digesters to partially stabilize the sludge and help reduce objectionable odors before it enters the lagoons. The anaerobic digestion of sludge in the lagoons results in the dispersion of a large quantity of biogas into the atmosphere. The City realized that if the lagoons could be covered, the odor problem could be resolved, and at the same, time, biogas could be recovered and utilized as a source of energy. In 1987, the City commissioned ADI International to conduct a feasibility study to evaluate alternative methods of covering the lagoons and recovering and utilizing the biogas. The study recommended that the project be developed in two phases: (1) recovery of the biogas and (2) utilization of the biogas. Phase 1 consists of covering the two lagoons with an insulated membrane to control odor and temperature and collect the biogas. Phase 1 was found to be economically feasible and offered a unique opportunity for the City to save substantial operating costs at the treatment facility. The Memphis biogas recovery project is the only application in the world where a membrane cover has been used on a municipal wastewater sludge lagoon. It is also the largest lagoon cover system in the world.

  16. Analysis of petroleum oily sludge producing in petroleum field of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil

    Lima, Cicero de Souza; Lima, Regineide Oliveira; Silva, Edjane Fabiula Buriti da; Castro, Kesia Kelly Vieira de; Chiavone Filho, Osvaldo; Araujo, Antonio Souza de [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), RN (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    In exploration and production of petroleum is generated solid waste different and components other. The petroleum oily sludge is a complex mix of components different (water, oil and solid). The petroleum oily sludge generally has other residues and is formed during production and operations, transport, storage and petroleum refining (atmospheric residue, vacuum residue and catalytic cracking residue). However, according to its origin, the compositions can be found quite varied for sludge. Observing the process steps production and refining is possible to locate its main sources and percentage contributions in terms of waste generation. The elemental analysis was performed with oily sludge from region and it showed different composition. For carbon element and hydrogen, small differences was observed, but for was observed greater differences for Oxygen element. The sludge has different inorganic and organic composition. The sludge from oil water separator (OWS) 2 showed a greater amount of oil (94.88%), this may indicate a residue of aggregate high for petroleum industry. In analysis of Saturates, Aromatics, Resins and Asphaltenes (SARA), the sludge from unloading showed amount high of saturates. The inorganic material separated from sludge was characterized and sludge from OWS 2 had high amount sulfur (41.57%). The sludge analyzed showed organic components high values, so it can be treated and reprocessed in process units petroleum industry. The analysis thermal degradation had a better setting for treated oily sludge. (author)

  17. Improved new generation dispersants

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    The use of dispersants to combat oil spills has attracted controversy over the years, and there has been a number of accusations of the chemicals involved doing more harm than good. A new study by the International Petroleum Industry Environmental Conservation Association discusses the positive and the negatives of dispersant use to be considered when drawing up spill contingency plans. (author)

  18. Studying oily sludge treatment by thermo chemistry

    Jing Guolin

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays surfactants were used to wash oily sludge and reclaim oil. This paper presents the optimum conditions for washing oily sludge with surfactant solutions using the single factor experiment. The agents tested are AEO-9, Peregal O, TritonX-100, sodium metasilicate and sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate (DBS. In the experiments, four factors affecting residual oil rate are investigated which include liquid/solid mass rate, reaction temperature, reaction time and eluent mass fraction. Results obtained through experimental runs were compared and used to select a kind of agent, in order to get the best cleaning effect. The optimum parameters of these agents are different from others, and under the optimum conditions their treatment effects are better. And the washing effect of Na2SiO3·9H2O is best and its residual oil rate is only about 1.6%.

  19. Energy and resource utilization of deinking sludge pyrolysis

    Lou, Rui; Wu, Shubin; Lv, Gaojin; Yang, Qing

    2012-01-01

    The thermochemical conversion technique was applied in deinking sludge from the pulp and papermaking industrial to indagate the utilization of sludge biomass to energy, and the pyrolysis characteristics and pyrolytic products of deinking sludge were studied with thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and pyrolysis coupled with gas chromatograph–mass spectrometer (Py-GC/MS). The static tubular furnace as an applied industrial research was used to study deinking sludge pyrolysis. The solid, gas and liquid of products was characterized by electron probe microanalysis (EPMA), gas chromatograph (GC) and gas chromatograph–mass (GC/MS), respectively. The results revealed that the weight-loss process of deinking sludge was a non-isothermal reaction and composed of four stages, i.e. dewater stage, volatile releasing stage, carbon burnout stage and some calcium carbonate decomposition. Pyrolytic products from deinking sludge in the static tubular furnace were comprised of the gaseous (29.78%), condensed liquid (bio-oil, 24.41%) and solid residues (45.81%). The volatiles from deinking sludge pyrolyzing were almost aromatic hydrocarbons, i.e. styrene, toluene and benzene and few acids and the solid was calcium carbonate (CaCO 3 ) that can be reused as paper filler. Deinking sludge was converted into high-grade fuel and chemicals by means of thermochemical conversion techniques, hence, pyrolysis of paper deinking sludge had a promising development on the comprehensive utilization.

  20. Three-dimensional ionic liquid functionalized magnetic graphene oxide nanocomposite for the magnetic dispersive solid phase extraction of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in vegetable oils.

    Zhang, Yun; Zhou, Hua; Zhang, Zhe-Hua; Wu, Xiang-Lun; Chen, Wei-Guo; Zhu, Yan; Fang, Chun-Fu; Zhao, Yong-Gang

    2017-03-17

    In this paper, a novel three-dimensional ionic liquid functionalized magnetic graphene oxide nanocomposite (3D-IL@mGO) was prepared, and used as an effective adsorbent for the magnetic dispersive solid phase extraction (MSPE) of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in vegetable oil prior to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The properties of 3D-IL@mGO were characterized by scanning electron micrographs (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The 3D-IL@mGO, functionalized by ionic liquid, exhibited high adsorption toward PAHs. Compared to molecularly imprinted solid phase extraction (MISPE), the MSPE method based on 3D-IL@mGO had less solvent consumption and low cost, and was more efficent to light PAHs in quantitative analysis. Furthermore, the rapid and accurate GC-MS method coupled with 3D-IL@mGO MSPE procedure was successfully applied for the analysis of 16 PAHs in eleven vegetable oil samples from supermarket in Zhejiang Province. The results showed that the concentrations of BaP in 3 out of 11 samples were higher than the legal limit (2.0μg/kg, Commission Regulation 835/2011a), the sum of 8 heavy PAHs (BaA, CHR, BbF, BkF, BaP, IcP, DaA, BgP) in 11 samples was between 3.03μg/kg and 229.5μg/kg. Validation results on linearity, specificity, accuracy, precision and stability, as well as on application to the analysis of PAHs in oil samples demonstrated the applicability to food safety risk monitoring in China. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Oils

    Fabbri, S

    1909-11-29

    Mineral, shale, and like oils are treated successively with sulfuric acid, milk of lime, and a mixture of calcium oxide, sodium chloride, and water, and finally a solution of naphthalene in toluene is added. The product is suitable for lighting, and for use as a motor fuel; for the latter purpose, it is mixed with a light spirit.

  2. Assessing potential health effects from municipal sludge incinerators: screening methodology

    Fradkin, L.; Bruins, J.F.; Lutkenhoff, S.D.; Stara, J.F.; Lomnitz, E.; Rubin, A.

    1987-04-01

    This paper describes a risk assessment methodology for preliminary assessment of municipal sludge incineration. The methodology is a valuable tool in that it can be used for determining the hazard indices of chemical contaminants that might be present in sewage sludge used in incineration. The paper examines source characteristics (i.e., facility design), atmospheric dispersion of emission, and resulting human exposure and risk from sludge incinerators. Seven of the ten organics were screened for further investigation. An example of the calculations are presented for cadmium.

  3. Determination of pollutant elements and heavy metals in petroleum sludge and scale at Heglig field Sudan

    Amir, N. T.

    2012-02-01

    The release of pollutant metals from petroleum industry in to ecosystems represents a serious hazard for the biosphere, because of their toxicity. The objective of this study was to determine the levels of some elements in petroleum sludge and scales collected from petroleum production area in Heglig oil field located in South Kordofan State. The concentration of Ca, Fe, V, Mn,Ni, Cu, Zn, Cs, Sr, Zr, Y and Pb in sludge and scale samples have been determined using energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) equipped with a point source of 1 09C d. The concentration of Ca and Fe in scale samples were found to fall in range of 15,49-23.28% and 0.98-5.13%, respectively. The a verge elemental concentrations of Ti, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, Sr,Y, and Pb in scale samples were 2917.8, 567.74, 23.21, 23.05, 101.67, 31.38, 177.06 and 24.12 (mg/kg), respectively. The concentrations of Ca and Fe in sludge samples ranged from 1.98-8.82% and 0.71-5.19%, respectively and the a verge elemental concentrations of Cs, V, Mn,Cu, Zn, Pb, Sr, Y and Zr were 7.44, 92,59, 557.36, 7.67, 162.72,28.67, 65.02, 45.64 and 52.15 (mg/kg), respectively. Correlation analysis revealed lock of any significant correlation between elemental concentrations in sludge and scales. (Author)

  4. Extremely fast increase in the organic loading rate during the co-digestion of rapeseed oil and sewage sludge in a CSTR--characterization of granules formed due to CaO addition to maintain process stability.

    Kasina, M; Kleyböcker, A; Michalik, M; Würdemann, H

    2015-01-01

    In a co-digestion system running with rapeseed oil and sewage sludge, an extremely fast increase in the organic loading rate was studied to develop a procedure to allow for flexible and demand-driven energy production. The over-acidification of the digestate was successfully prevented by calcium oxide dosage, which resulted in granule formation. Mineralogical analyses revealed that the granules were composed of insoluble salts of long chain fatty acids and calcium and had a porous structure. Long chain fatty acids and calcium formed the outer cover of granules and offered interfaces on the inside thereby enhancing the growth of biofilms. With granule size and age, the pore size increased and indicated degradation of granular interfaces. A stable biogas production up to the organic loading rate of 10.4 kg volatile solids m(-3) d(-1) was achieved although the hydrogen concentration was not favorable for propionic acid degradation. However, at higher organic loading rates, unbalanced granule formation and degradation were observed. Obviously, the adaption time for biofilm growth was too short to maintain the balance, thereby resulting in a low methane yield.

  5. Sludge recovery apparatus

    Marmo, A.R.

    1979-01-01

    An improved design of a sludge recovery apparatus used in the fabrication of nuclear fuel is described. This apparatus provides for automatic separation of sludge from the grinder coolant, drying of the sludge into a flowable powder and transfer of the dry powder to a salvage container. It can be constructed to comply with criticality-safe-geometry requirements and to obviate need for operating personnel in its immediate vicinity. (UK)

  6. Effects of ultrasonic disintegration of excess sewage sludge.

    Zielewicz, Ewa

    2016-10-01

    Breaking down sludge floc (sonodyspergation effect) and destruction of the cell membranes of microorganisms forming floc is a direct effect of ultrasonic disintegration of sludge excess. This results in release of organic material by liquid sludge (the sonolysis effect). Desired technological effects of the disintegration are: to shorten the hydrolytic phase of fermentation, to increase the production of biogas (source of renewable energy) and an increased mineralization (stability) of fermented sludge. The presented study demonstrates research covering thickened excess sludge of various physicochemical properties, collected from nine municipal sewage treatment plants. The sludge was subjected to ultrasonic disintegration using three differently constructed disintegrators and different proportions of sonification area. Direct effects of disintegration were monitored and recorded using selected indicators describing changes in the properties of sludge and increase of substance dispersed and dissolved in the supernatant liquid to be filtered. Studies have demonstrated that those (direct) effects of ultrasonic disintegration depend on the physicochemical properties of the sludge (foremost the concentration of dry solids) that determine their variable susceptibility to the disintegration methods. The direct effects also depend on optimal process conditions (which consist of the construction of the ultrasonic disintegrator), the geometric proportions of the sonication area and the operating parameters of disintegration (which could be appropriately matched to the characteristics of sludge). The most preferable results were obtained for ultrasonic disintegration of sludge with a dry matter concentration C 0 < 4.2 %. The highest effect of sonolysis-an almost 30-fold increase in the COD dissolved in the supernatant-was obtained for the sludge of lowest dry matter (C 0 = 2.0 %), which was sonicated in a reactor with a short transducer of the largest radiating surface

  7. Treatment of oil refinery effluent in a continuous reactor using Powdered Activated Carbon (PAC) in the activated sludge process; Tratamento de efluente de refinaria de petroleo em um reator continuo utilizando carvao ativado em po (CAP) no sistema de lodo ativado

    Yokoyama, Lidia; Campos, Juacyara C.; Valle, Alexandre Ornellas do; Souza, Andre Lopes de [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Escola de Quimica

    2008-07-01

    The process of oil refining generates effluent containing toxic substances as high molecular weight hydrocarbons which have toxicity or are recalcitrant to biological degradation. This study examined the introduction of powdered activated carbon (PAC) in the system of activated sludge used to treat of oil refinery effluent. The process was conducted in two bioreactors continued, with a capacity of 2L: one to monitoring the performance of the activated sludge system without the addition of PAC and another to monitoring the performance of biological treatment using 2,0 g/L of PAC. The degradation of organic matter through activated sludge turned to physical adsorption associated with the addition of CAP promoted the values of COD reduction of 360 to 36 mg / L, which corresponds to an average of 90% of removal. It was also observed the reduction of the values of total organic carbon (TOC) of 285 to 86mg / L, which represents an increase of TOC removal of around 10 percentage points, which, probably, can be the portion of persistent organic matter that is not degraded by the biological system without CAP. (author)

  8. A study on the dewatering of industrial waste sludge by fry-drying technology

    Ohm, Tae-In; Chae, Jong-Seong; Kim, Jeong-Eun; Kim, Hee-kyum; Moon, Seung-Hyun

    2009-01-01

    In sludge treatment, drying sludge using typical technology with high water content to a water content of approximately 10% is always difficult because of adhesive characteristics of sludge. Many methods have been applied, including direct and indirect heat drying, but these approaches of reducing water content to below 40% after drying is very inefficient in energy utilization of drying sludge. In this study, fry-drying technology with a high heat transfer coefficient of approximately 500 W/m 2 deg. C was used to dry industrial wastewater sludge. Also waste oil was used in the fry-drying process, and because the oil's boiling point is between 240 and 340 deg. C and the specific heat is approximately 60% of that of water. In the fry-drying system, the sludge is input by molding it into a designated form after heating the waste oil at temperatures between 120 and 170 deg. C. At these temperatures, the heated oil rapidly evaporates the water contained in the sludge, leaving the oil itself. After approximately 10 min, the water content of the sludge was less than 10%, and its heating value surpassed 5300 kcal/kg. Indeed, this makes the organic sludge appropriate for use as a solid fuel. The wastewater sludge used in this study was the designated waste discharged from chemical, leather and plating plants. These samples varied in characteristics, especially with regard to heavy metal concentration. After drying the three kinds of wastewater sludge at oil temperatures 160 deg. C for 10 min, it was found that the water content in the sludge from the chemical, leather, and plating plants reduced from 80.0 to 5.5%, 81.6 to 1.0%, and 65.4 to 0.8%, respectively. Furthermore, the heat values of the sludge from the chemical, leather, and plating plants prior to fry-drying were 217, 264, and 428 kcal/kg, respectively. After drying, these values of sludge increased to 5317, 5983 and 6031 kcal/kg, respectively. The heavy metals detected in the sludge after drying were aluminum

  9. The carbonaceous sorbent based on the secondary silica-containing material from oil extraction industry

    Starostina, I. V.; Stolyarov, D. V.; Anichina, Ya N.; Porozhnyuk, E. V.

    2018-01-01

    The object of research in this work is the silica-containing waste of oil extraction industry - the waste kieselghur (diatomite) sludge from precoat filtering units, used for the purification of vegetable oils from organic impurities. As a result of the thermal modification of the sludge, which contains up to 70% of organic impurities, a finely-dispersed low-porous carbonaceous mineral sorption material is formed. The modification of the sludge particles surface causes the substantial alteration of its physical, chemical, adsorption and structural properties - the organic matter is charred, the particle size is reduced, and on the surface of diatomite particles a carbon layer is formed, which deposits in macropores and partially occludes them. The amount of mesopores is increased, along with the specific surface of the obtained product. The optimal temperature of sludge modification is 500°C. The synthesized carbonaceous material can be used as an adsorbing agent for the purification of wastewater from heavy metal ions. The sorption capacity of Cu2+ ions amounted to 14.2 mg·g-1 and for Ni2+ ions - 17.0 mg·g-1. The obtained values exceed the sorption capacity values of the initial kieselghur, used as a filtering charge, for the researched metal ions.

  10. Improving the sludge conditioning potential of moringa seed

    Ademiluyi, Joel O.; Eze, Romanus M.

    1990-01-01

    In the search for a cheaper material to effectively condition sludge, oil-free moringa seed was prepared and tested. A Soxhlet apparatus was used to extract the oil from moringa seed ( Moringa oleifera). The oil-free seed (marc) has been found to have higher conditioning potential than the ordinary moringa seed. However, the traditional ferric chloride is still a better sludge conditioner than moringa seed marc. For the digested domestic sludge used, optimum conditioning dosages were found to be 0.6, 0.80, and 1.10% of the total solids for ferric chloride, marc of the moringa seed, and ordinary moringa seed, respectively. Since little or no operational material is lost in the extraction process, the moringa seed marc is a promising conditioner in place of the ordinary seed.

  11. Oils

    Cobbett, G T.B.

    1907-07-08

    Crude petroleum having a density of 850 to 900 is purified with sulfuric acid, decanted, mixed with benzine or petrol, and again treated with sulfuric acid and decanted. The remaining acid and coloring-matter are removed by washing with water, or treating with oxalic acid, zinc carbonate, lead carbonate, calcium carbonate, or oxide of zinc. The product is used as a fuel for internal-combustion engines. Specifications No. 28,104, A.D. 1906, and No. 12,606, A.D. 1907, are referred to. According to the Provisional Specification, the process is applicable to shale or schist oil.

  12. K basins sludge removal sludge pretreatment system

    Chang, H.L.

    1997-01-01

    The Spent Nuclear Fuels Program is in the process of planning activities to remove spent nuclear fuel and other materials from the 100-K Basins as a remediation effort for clean closure. The 105 K- East and K-West Basins store spent fuel, sludge, and debris. Sludge has accumulated in the 1 00 K Basins as a result of fuel oxidation and a slight amount of general debris being deposited, by settling, in the basin water. The ultimate intent in removing the sludge and fuel is to eliminate the environmental risk posed by storing fuel at the K Basins. The task for this project is to disposition specific constituents of sludge (metallic fuel) to produce a product stream through a pretreatment process that will meet the requirements, including a final particle size acceptable to the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS). The purpose of this task is to develop a preconceptual design package for the K Basin sludge pretreatment system. The process equipment/system is at a preconceptual stage, as shown in sketch ES-SNF-01 , while a more refined process system and material/energy balances are ongoing (all sketches are shown in Appendix C). Thus, the overall process and 0535 associated equipment have been conservatively selected and sized, respectively, to establish the cost basis and equipment layout as shown in sketches ES- SNF-02 through 08

  13. Respirometry in activated sludge

    Spanjers, H.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of the study was (1) to develop a respiration meter capable of continuously measuring, using different procedures, the oxygen uptake rate of activated sludge and (2) to expand knowledge about respiration related characteristics of wastewater and activated sludge.

    A

  14. Carbon-14 in sludge

    Fowler, J.R.; Coleman, C.J.

    1983-01-01

    The level of C-14 in high-level waste is needed to establish the amount of C-14 that will be released to the environment either as off-gas from the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) or as a component of saltstone. Available experimental data confirmed a low level of C-14 in soluble waste, but no data was available for sludge. Based on the processes used in each area, Purex LAW sludge in F-area and HM HAW sludge in H-area will contain the bulk of any sludge produced by the cladding. Accordingly, samples from Tank 8F containing Purex LAW and Tank 15H containing HM HAW were obtained and analyzed for C-14. These two waste types constitute approximately 70% of the total sludge inventory now stored in the waste tanks. Results from analyses of these two sludge types show: the total C-14 inventory in sludge now stored in the waste tanks is 6.8 Ci; C-14 releases to the atmosphere from the DWPF will average approximately 0.6 Ci annually at the projected sludge processing rate in the DWPF. 4 references, 2 tables

  15. Fast pyrolysis of lignin, macroalgae and sewage sludge

    Trinh, N.T.

    2013-04-15

    Non-conventional biomass feedstock may also be applicable for fast pyrolysis processes. Among the forms of non-conventional biomasses, macroalgae, lignin (industrial residue) and sewage sludge may be attractive materials due to their low price, non-competitiveness with food crops and the possible utilization of solid wastes. Besides, a fast pyrolysis process can be used as a process to densify the biomass and produce bioslurry, a mixture of bio-oil and pyrolytic char. The bioslurry is found to be a possible feedstock for pressurized gasification plants. Thus, the aims of this project are to investigate fast pyrolysis properties of lignin, sewage sludge and macroalgae on a lab scale PCR and characterize their bio-oil properties. Bioslurry properties with respect to use as a feedstock for pressurized gasification is also investigated. Lignin and sewage sludge PCR pyrolysis provided bio-oil yields of 47 and 54 wt% daf, and oil energy recovery of 45 and 50 %, respectively. While the macroalgae PCR pyrolysis showed promising results with an organic oil yield of 65 wt% daf and an oil energy recovery of 76 %. The HHV of the lignin, sewage sludge and macroalgae oils were 29.7, 25.7 and 25.5 MJ/kg db respectively, and that are higher than that of typical bioiv oil from conventional biomasses (23-24 MJ/kg db). Almost all metals feedstock contents were contained in the chars at temperatures of 550 - 575 deg. C for lignin, sewage sludge and macroalgae PCR pyrolysis. Due to high feedstock nitrogen and sulfur contents, also a high level of nitrogen and sulfur of macroalgae and sewage sludge oils were observed compared to conventional bio-oil and this may limit their further industrial applications. The lignin char had a high proportion of small size particles, a HHV of 21 MJ/kg db and were almost free of chloride and sulfur, thus it is considered as a promising fuel for gasification or combustion; whereas macroalgae and sewage sludge chars containing high amounts of

  16. Properties of An Oral Nanoformulation of A Molecularly Dispersed Amphotericin B Comprising A Composite Matrix of Theobroma Oil and Bee’S Wax

    Chloe See Wei Tan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available An amphotericin B-containing (AmB solid lipid nanoparticulate drug delivery system intended for oral administration, comprised of bee’s wax and theobroma oil as lipid components was formulated with the aim to ascertain the location of AmB within the lipid matrix: (a a homogenous matrix; (b a drug-enriched shell; or (c a drug enriched core. Both the drug-loaded and drug-free nanoparticles were spherical with AmB contributing to an increase in both the z-average diameter (169 ± 1 to 222 ± 2 nm and zeta potential (40.8 ± 0.9 to 50.3 ± 1.0 mV of the nanoparticles. A maximum encapsulation efficiency of 21.4% ± 3.0%, corresponding to 10.7 ± 0.4 mg encapsulated AmB within the lipid matrix was observed. Surface analysis and electron microscopic imaging indicated that AmB was dispersed uniformly within the lipid matrix (option (a above and, therefore, this is the most suitable of the three models with regard to modeling the propensity for uptake by epithelia and release of AmB in lymph.

  17. Activated sludge model No. 3

    Gujer, W.; Henze, M.; Mino, T.

    1999-01-01

    The Activated Sludge Model No. 3 (ASM3) can predict oxygen consumption, sludge production, nitrification and denitrification of activated sludge systems. It relates to the Activated Sludge Model No. 1 (ASM1) and corrects for some defects of ASM I. In addition to ASM1, ASM3 includes storage of org...

  18. Enhanced dewaterability of textile dyeing sludge using micro-electrolysis pretreatment.

    Ning, Xun-An; Wen, Weibin; Zhang, Yaping; Li, Ruijing; Sun, Jian; Wang, Yujie; Yang, Zuoyi; Liu, Jingyong

    2015-09-15

    The effects of micro-electrolysis treatment on textile dyeing sludge dewatering and its mechanisms were investigated in this study. Capillary suction time (CST) and settling velocity (SV) were used to evaluate sludge dewaterability. Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) concentration and sludge disintegration degree (DDSCOD) were determined to explain the observed changes in sludge dewaterability. The results demonstrated that the micro-electrolysis could significantly improve sludge dewaterability by disrupting the sludge floc structure. The optimal conditions of sludge dewatering were the reaction time of 20 min, initial pH of 2.5, Fe/C mass ratio of 1/1, and the iron powder dosage of 2.50 g/L, which achieved good CST (from 34.1 to 27.8 s) and SV (from 75 to 60%) reduction efficiency. In addition, the scanning electron microscope (SEM) images revealed that the treated sludge floc clusters are broken up and that the dispersion degree is better than that of a raw sludge sample. The optimal EPS concentration and DDSCOD to obtain maximum sludge dewaterability was 43-46 mg/L and 4.2-4.9%, respectively. The destruction of EPS was one of the primary reasons for the improvement of sludge dewaterability during micro-electrolysis treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Sludge minimization technologies - an overview

    Oedegaard, Hallvard

    2003-07-01

    The management of wastewater sludge from wastewater treatment plants represents one of the major challenges in wastewater treatment today. The cost of the sludge treatment amounts to more that the cost of the liquid in many cases. Therefore the focus on and interest in sludge minimization is steadily increasing. In the paper an overview is given for sludge minimization (sludge mass reduction) options. It is demonstrated that sludge minimization may be a result of reduced production of sludge and/or disintegration processes that may take place both in the wastewater treatment stage and in the sludge stage. Various sludge disintegration technologies for sludge minimization are discussed, including mechanical methods (focusing on stirred ball-mill, high-pressure homogenizer, ultrasonic disintegrator), chemical methods (focusing on the use of ozone), physical methods (focusing on thermal and thermal/chemical hydrolysis) and biological methods (focusing on enzymatic processes). (author)

  20. Experimental study on combustion and slagging characteristics of tannery sludge

    Li, Chunyu; Jiang, Xuguang; Fei, Zhenwei; Chi, Yong; Yan, Jianhua

    2010-01-01

    Incineration is the most reasonable technique for tannery sludge disposal. The combustion and gaseous products emission characteristics of tannery sludge were investigated in this study. Tendency of slagging for combustion residue was also investigated based on the composition and microscopic scanning analysis. The high content of volatile matters and ash in tannery sludge was discovered. It was shown that the thermal decomposition and combustion of tannery sludge mainly occurs in a temperature frame between 150 degree Celsius and 780 degree Celsius. Organic acid was determined as the most important gaseous pollutant at low temperature combustion. The combustion residue from a specially designed furnace was analyzed by X-ray diffractometer (XRD) and energy dispersion spectroscopy (EDS) microprobe coupled in a scanning electron micro-scope (SEM). There is large amount of Ca in the combustion residue, and CaO was the main inorganic composition in these residues. The tannery sludge studied in this paper has a strong tendency of slagging, and the fusion of the residue began at 900 degree Celsius in combustion. It was further discovered that almost all the zinc (Zn) in tannery sludge is volatilized at 900 degree Celsius. The degree of volatilization for heavy metals at 900 degree Celsius followed the order of Zn > Cd >Cu > Mn > Pb > Cr. Most of Cr in tannery sludge is enriched in the residue during combustion. The present study reveals that it is critical to control the combustion temperature for optimal combustion efficiency and minimization of pollutants emission. (author)

  1. Dewatering of sludges

    Bode, P.

    1984-01-01

    A filter rig has been designed and built. Simulated magnox and alumino ferric hydroxide sludges have been successfully filtered on this equipment and both types of sludge produced a clear filtrate and a cake. The flow rates were low. The cake often partially remained adhered to the filter membrane instead of dropping clear during the filter cleaning cycle. This filtration technique can only be used on sludges which form a non-binding cake. Permeability of the membrane can be altered by stretching. Irradiation of the membrane showed that it should withstand 20 to 50 M.rads. (author)

  2. Radiological Impact Assessment in Disposal of Treated Sludge

    Khairuddin Mohamad Kontol; Ismail Sulaiman; Faizal Azrin Abdul Razalim

    2015-01-01

    Sludge and scales produced during oil and gas production contain enhanced naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). Sludge and scales are under the jurisdiction of Department of Environment (DOE) and also Atomic Energy Licensing Board (AELB). AELB has issued a guideline regarding the disposal of sludge and scales as in its guideline (LEM/TEK/30 SEM.2, 1996). In this guideline, Radiological Impact Assessment (RIA) should be carried out on all proposed disposals and has to demonstrate that no member of public will be exposed to more than 1 mSv/y. This paper presented RIA analysis using RESRAD computer code for the disposal of treated sludge. RESRAD (RESidual RADioactive) developed by Argonne National Laboratory is to estimate radiation doses and risks from residual radioactive materials. The dose received by the member of public is found to be well below the stipulated limit. (author)

  3. Continues treatment of oily sludge at Colombian refineries

    Echeverria, Victor; Monsalve, Gladys; Vidales, Humberto

    2002-01-01

    The Colombian Petroleum institute - ICP, the research and development branch of Ecopetrol has developed a unique technological package used to treat oily sludge in a continuous way. The sludge comes from a refinery with 220000 barrels of crude per day load, located in the Middle Madgalena River Valley in Colombia. The technological package allows for a) the recovery of the hydrocarbon contained in oily wastes (up to 50%) b) the elimination of the oil contained in solid using a biodegradation process and, c) the availability economically and technically feasible solution to handle oily sludge generated in the refinery. The oily treated in this process come from maintenance of refinery's equipment and also from the physical chemical separation process at the industrial wastewater treatment plant. Oily sludge is a complex system where light and heavy oils, contaminated water and contaminated solids coexist in the form of direct, inverse and multiple emulsions. The comprehensive technological package allows the treatment of oily sludge in a cost effective way. ICP technological package developed includes technologies combining mechanical, thermal, chemical and electrostatic dehydration techniques and stimulated and intensive bioremediation to decontamination of solids saturated with residual oil. This technological package brings a solution to old environmental problem caused by the inappropriate final disposal of oily wastes such as storage in ponds, marshes and open pits: Nowadays wastes generated are treated in a continuous process that is environmentally friendly and economically profitable

  4. Assessment of sludges and tank bottoms treatment processes

    Bhutto, A.W.; Bazmi, A.A.

    2005-01-01

    The petroleum refining industries generate considerable amounts of sludge and tank bottoms as waste. Petroleum refinery receives crude oil containing emulsified water and solids. As the crude oil storage tanks are repeatedly filled and emptied, the water and solids settle towards the bottom as sludge. For tanks that have been in service for several years, the sludge accumulation becomes several feet deep, results in a loss of ullage in refinery crude storage tanks. The accumulation of crude storage tank bottoms is a serious problem experienced by local refineries. The refinery sludge waste is categorized as hazardous waste, which is at present buried in the tankform ground. Since the no hazardous material land filling option available, the disposal of these hazardous materials has become a major problem because of the ISO-14000 certification requirements and expectation of stakeholder. To maximize the waste oil recovery from sludge and tank bottoms and to minimize the volume of the hazardous waste, a number of waste recovery and treatment processes are available. The process designs and unit operations of each process are different and each has its own merits, in terms of the technical complexity, operation friendliness, and costs and economics. A study on each of these technologies and the subsequent tide-up to the existing unit operations is conducted, and the associated technical comparisons are made. (author)

  5. The location and nature of accumulated phosphorus in seven sludges from activated sludge plants which exhibited enhanced phosphorus removal

    Buchan, L.

    1981-01-01

    Electron microscopy combined with the energy dispersive analysis of X-rays (EDX) has been used to examine the nature of the phosphorus accumulated in sludges from seven activated sludge plants exhibiting enhanced phosphorus removal. Large phosphorus accumulations were located in identical structures in the sludges examined. The phosphorus was located in large electron-dense bodies, within large bacterial cells which were characteristically grouped in clusters. The calcium:phosphorus ratio of these electron-dense bodies precluded them from being any form of calcium phosphate precipitate. Quantitative analysis indicated that the electron-dense bodies contained in excess of 30% phosphorus. The results obtained are supportive of a biological mechanism of enhanced phosphorus uptake in activated sludge

  6. A green deep eutectic solvent dispersive liquid-liquid micro-extraction (DES-DLLME) for the UHPLC-PDA determination of oxyprenylated phenylpropanoids in olive, soy, peanuts, corn, and sunflower oil.

    Ferrone, Vincenzo; Genovese, Salvatore; Carlucci, Maura; Tiecco, Matteo; Germani, Raimondo; Preziuso, Francesca; Epifano, Francesco; Carlucci, Giuseppe; Taddeo, Vito Alessandro

    2018-04-15

    A green dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) using deep eutectic solvent (DES) as the extracting solvent has been developed and applied for the simultaneous quantification of ferulic acid, umbelliferone, boropinic acid, 7-isopentenyloxycoumarin, 4'-geranyloxyferulic acid (GOFA), and auraptene in some vegetable oils using ultra high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) with photodiode array detection (PDA). All parameters in the extraction step, including selection and loading of both extracting and dispersing solvents, amount of both extractant and disperser solvent were investigated and optimized. PhAA/TMG DES achieved higher recovery and enrichment factor compared to other DESs. The validated method showed good linearity with correlation coefficients, r 2 >0.9990 for all the analytes. Furthermore, this is the first time that eco-friendly solvents are used for the extraction of oxyprenylated phenylpropanoids and the corresponding extract analyzed with ultra high performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Dispersant effectiveness: Studies into the causes of effectiveness variations

    Fingas, M.F.; Kyle, D.; Tennyson, E.

    1995-01-01

    Effectiveness, a key issue of using dispersants, is affected by many interrelated factors. The principal factors involved are the oil composition, dispersant formulation, sea surface turbulence and dispersant quantity. Oil composition is a very strong determinant. Current dispersant formulation effectiveness correlates strongly with the amount of saturate component in the oil. The other components of the oil, the asphaltenes, resins or polars and aromatic fractions show a negative correlation with the dispersant effectiveness. Viscosity is also a predictor of dispersant effectiveness and may have an effect because it is in turn determined by oil composition. Dispersant composition is significant and interacts with oil composition. Dispersants show high effectiveness at HLB values near 10. Sea turbulence strongly affects dispersant effectiveness.Effectiveness rises with increasing turbulence to a maximum value. Effectiveness for current commercial dispersants is gaussian around a peak salinity value. Peak effectiveness is achieved at very high dispersant quantities--at a ratio of 1:5, dispersant-to-oil volume. Dispersant effectiveness for those oils tested and under the conditions measured, is approximately logarithmic with dispersant quantity and will reach about 50% of its peak value at a dispersant to oil ratio of about 1:20 and near zero at a ratio of about 1:50

  8. Ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activity and fixed wavelength fluorescence detection of PAHs metabolites in bile in turbot (Scophthalmus maximus L.) exposed to a dispersed topped crude oil in a continuous flow system

    Camus, L.; Aas, E.; Borseth, J.F.

    1998-01-01

    Long term effects of sublethal concentrations of oil on the marine environment have become of general concern. Cytochrome P4501A activity (EROD) in liver and fixed wavelength fluorescence detection of PAHs metabolites (FF) have in this study been used as biomarkers for dispersed oil exposure on a long term period of juvenile turbot (Scophthalmus maximus L.). A Continuous Flow System was used to carry out the study. The fish were continuously exposed to 0.125, 0.5 or 2.0 mg litre -1 dispersed topped crude oil for 6, 15, 24h 4 and 21 days followed by a 9 day recovery period in clean seawater. No induction of the cytochrome P4501A was measured. A maximum level in bile metabolites (4- to 5-fold) was recorded after 24h of exposure revealing thereby a detoxification process, but a decline occurred from day 4 to day 21. This study demonstrated that FF detection of PAHs metabolites in bile could be a more sensitive biomarker than EROD activity in a long term exposure to sublethal concentration of oil. (author)

  9. Recent development in the treatment of oily sludge from petroleum industry: a review.

    Hu, Guangji; Li, Jianbing; Zeng, Guangming

    2013-10-15

    Oily sludge is one of the most significant solid wastes generated in the petroleum industry. It is a complex emulsion of various petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs), water, heavy metals, and solid particles. Due to its hazardous nature and increased generation quantities around the world, the effective treatment of oily sludge has attracted widespread attention. In this review, the origin, characteristics, and environmental impacts of oily sludge were introduced. Many methods have been investigated for dealing with PHCs in oily sludge either through oil recovery or sludge disposal, but little attention has been paid to handle its various heavy metals. These methods were discussed by dividing them into oil recovery and sludge disposal approaches. It was recognized that no single specific process can be considered as a panacea since each method is associated with different advantages and limitations. Future efforts should focus on the improvement of current technologies and the combination of oil recovery with sludge disposal in order to comply with both resource reuse recommendations and environmental regulations. The comprehensive examination of oily sludge treatment methods will help researchers and practitioners to have a good understanding of both recent developments and future research directions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Near-Inertial Surface Currents and their influence on Surface Dispersion in the Northeastern Gulf of Mexico near the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill

    Gough, M.; Reniers, A.; MacMahan, J. H.; Howden, S. D.

    2014-12-01

    The continental shelf along the northeastern Gulf of Mexico is transected by the critical latitude (30°N) for inertial motions. At this latitude the inertial period is 24 hours and diurnal surface current oscillations can amplify due to resonance with diurnal wind and tidal forcing. Tidal amplitudes are relatively small in this region although K1 tidal currents can be strong over the shelf west of the DeSoto Canyon where the K1 tide propagates onshore as a Sverdrup wave. Other sources of diurnal motions include internal tidal currents, Poincaré waves, and basin resonance. It is therefore very difficult to separate inertial wind-driven motions from other diurnal motions. Spatiotemporal surface currents were measured using hourly 6 km resolution HF radar data collected in June 2010 during the Deepwater Horizon oil spill and July 2012 during the Grand Lagrangian Deployment (GLAD). Surface currents were also measured using GLAD GPS-tracked drifters. NDBC buoy wind data were used to determine wind-forcing, and OSU Tidal Inversion Software (OTIS) were used to predict tidal currents. The relative spatiotemporal influence of diurnal wind and tidal forcing on diurnal surface current oscillations is determined through a series of comparative analyses: phase and amplitude of bandpassed timeseries, wavelet analyses, wind-driven inertial oscillation calculations, and tidal current predictions. The wind-driven inertial ocean response is calculated by applying a simple "slab" model where wind-forcing is allowed to excite a layer of low-density water riding over high density water. The spatial variance of diurnal motions are found to be correlated with satellite turbidity imagery indicating that stratification influences the sea surface inertial response to wind-forcing. Surface dispersion is found to be minimized in regions of high diurnal variance suggesting that mean surface transport is restricted in regions of inertial motions associated with stratification.

  11. Sewage sludges disinfection

    Alexandre, D.; Gevaudan, P.P.

    1977-01-01

    There is a hygienic risk in using biological sewage sludges for agriculture. Systematic analyses carried out on sludge samples obtained from purification plants in the Eastern and Southern part of France, show the almost uniform presence of pathogenic microorganisms. Some of them survive more than nine months after application to the soil. Conventional processes for disinfection, liming and heat, make the sludge unsuitable for agricultural use. On the other hand, irradiation involves no modification of structure and composition of sludges. Radiation doses required for disinfection vary according to the type of microorganism. Some of them are eliminated at rather low doses (200 krad), but mycobacteria, viruses and eggs of worms resist to more important doses. The security dose is estimated to be approx. 1000 krad

  12. Applicability and trends of anaerobic granular sludge treatment processes

    Lim, Seung Joo; Kim, Tak-Hyun

    2014-01-01

    Anaerobic granular sludge treatment processes have been continuously developed, although the anaerobic sludge granulation process was not clearly understood. In this review, an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB), an expanded granule sludge blanket (EGSB), and a static granular bed reactor (SGBR) were introduced as components of a representative anaerobic granular sludge treatment processes. The characteristics and application trends of each reactor were presented. The UASB reactor was developed in the late 1970s and its use has been rapidly widespread due to the excellent performance. With the active granules, this reactor is able to treat various high-strength wastewaters as well as municipal wastewater. Most soluble industrial wastewaters can be efficiently applied using a UASB. The EGSB reactor was developed owing to give more chance to contact between wastewater and the granules. Dispersed sludge is separated from mature granules using the rapid upward velocity in this reactor. The EGSB reactor shows the excellent performance in treating low-strength and/or high-strength wastewater, especially under low temperatures. The SGBR, developed at Iowa State University, is one of anaerobic granular sludge treatment processes. Although the configuration of the SGBR is very simple, the performance of this system is similar to that of the UASB or EGSB reactor. The anaerobic sludge granulation processes showed excellent performance for various wastewaters at a broad range of organic loading rate in lab-, pilot-scale tests. This leads to erect thousands of full-scale granular processes, which has been widely operated around the world. -- Highlights: • Anaerobic sludge granulation is a key parameter for maintaining granular processes. • Anaerobic granular digestion processes are applicable for various wastewaters. • The UASB is an economic high-rate anaerobic granular process. • The EGSB can treat high-strength wastewater using expanding granules. • The SGBR is

  13. Sludge technology assessment

    Krause, T.R.; Cunnane, J.C.; Helt, J.E.

    1994-12-01

    The retrieval, processing, and generation of final waste forms from radioactive tank waste sludges present some of the most challenging technical problems confronting scientists and engineers responsible for the waste management programs at the various Department of Energy laboratories and production facilities. Currently, the Department of Energy is developing a strategy to retrieve, process, and generate a final waste form for the sludge that meets the acceptance criteria for the final disposition. An integral part of this strategy will be use of separation processes that treat the sludge; the goal is to meet feed criteria for the various processes that will generate the final waste form, such as vitrification or grouting. This document is intended to (1) identify separation technologies which are being considered for sludge treatment at various DOE sites, (2) define the current state of sludge treatment technology, (3) identify what research and development is required, (4) identify current research programs within either DOE or academia developing sludge treatment technology, and (5) identify commercial separation technologies which may be applicable. Due to the limited scope of this document, technical evaluations regarding the need for a particular separations technology, the current state of development, or the research required for implementation, are not provided

  14. From municipal/industrial wastewater sludge and FOG to fertilizer: A proposal for economic sustainable sludge management.

    Bratina, Božidar; Šorgo, Andrej; Kramberger, Janez; Ajdnik, Urban; Zemljič, Lidija Fras; Ekart, Janez; Šafarič, Riko

    2016-12-01

    After a ban on the depositing of untreated sludge in landfills, the sludge from municipal and industrial water-treatment plants can be regarded as a problem. Waste products of the water treatment process can be a problem or an opportunity - a source for obtaining raw materials. In the European Union, raw sludge and fats, oil and grease (FOG) from municipal and industrial wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) cannot be deposited in any natural or controlled environment. For this reason, it must be processed (stabilized, dried) to be used later as a fertilizer, building material, or alternative fuel source suitable for co-incineration in high temperature furnaces (power plants or concrete plants). The processes of drying sludge, where heat and electricity are used, are energy consuming and economically unattractive. Beside energy efficiency, the main problem of sludge drying is in its variability of quality as a raw material. In addition to this, sludge can be contaminated by a number of organic and inorganic pollutants and organisms. Due to the presence or absence of pollutants, different end products can be economically interesting. For example, if the dried sludge contains coliform bacteria, viruses, helminths eggs or smaller quantities of heavy metals, it cannot be used as a fertilizer but can still be used as a fuel. The objectives of the current article is to present a batch-processing pilot device of sludge or digestate that allows the following: (1) low pressure and low temperature energy effective drying of from 10 to 40% remaining water content, (2) disinfection of pathogen (micro)organisms, (3) heavy metal reduction, (4) production of products of predetermined quality (e.g. containing different quantities of water; it can be used as a fertilizer, or if the percentage of water in the dry sludge is decreased to 10%, then the dried sludge can be used as a fuel with a calorific value similar to coal). An important feature is also the utilization of low

  15. Sludge Stabilization Campaign blend plan

    De Vries, M.L.

    1994-01-01

    This sludge stabilization blend plan documents the material to be processed and the order of processing for the FY95 Sludge Stabilization Campaign. The primary mission of this process is to reduce the inventory of unstable plutonium bearing sludge. The source of the sludge is residual and glovebox floor sweepings from the production of material at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). The reactive sludge is currently being stored in various gloveboxes at PFP. There are two types of the plutonium bearing material that will be thermally stabilized in the muffle furnace: Plutonium Reclamation Facility (PRF) sludge and Remote Mechanical C (RMC) Line material

  16. Environmentally compatible sewage sludge disposal; Umweltgerechte Klaerschlammentsorgung

    Mueller, J. [Technische Univ. Braunschweig (Germany). Inst. fuer Mechanische Verfahrenstechnik; Schwedes, J. [Technische Univ. Braunschweig (Germany). Inst. fuer Mechanische Verfahrenstechnik

    1997-09-01

    Cleaning of municipal and industrial waste water is done by means of biological processes: micro-organisms degrade pollutants. The resulting products are, besides cleaned waste water, sewage sludge and surplus sludge. Their disposal involves ecological and economic problems. One approach to their partial disposal is their degradation in a digester. Approximately one half of the organic substance is converted by anaerobic bacteria into energy-rich biogas. Optimization of this digestion process accelerates the anaerobic degradation process, increases the accruing amount of digester gas and reduces the volume of digested sludge to be disposed of. With these objectives, the Institute fuer Mechanische Verfahrenstechnik is conducting research into the mechanical treatment of micro-organisms remaining in surplus sludge by means of different treatment devices. The project is sponsored under the programme of the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft DFG ``Biological processes with dispersive solids``. Mechanical treatment renders the cell constituents exploitable to anaerobic bacteria; the resulting sludge degradation is more rapid and more complete. (orig./ABI) [Deutsch] Zur Reinigung haeuslicher und industrieller Abwaesser werden biologische Prozesse eingesetzt. Dabei sorgen Mikroorganismen fuer den Abbau der Verunreinigungen. Neben dem gereinigten Abwasser fallen Primaer- und Ueberschussschlamm an, deren Entsorgung oekologische und oekonomische Probleme verursacht. Ein Weg zur partiellen Beseitigung dieser Klaerschlaemme ist ihr Abbau in einem Faulbehaelter. Dabei wird etwa die Haelfe der organischen Substanz durch anaerobe Bakterien zu einem energiereichen Biogas umgewandelt. Eine Optimierung dieses Faulprozesses beinhaltet: 1. Beschleunigung des anaeroben Abbauprozesses, 2. Erhoehung der anfallenden Faulgasmenge und 3. Reduzierung der zu entsorgenden Faulschlammenge. Mit diesen Zielsetzungen wird am Institut fuer Mechanische Verfahrenstechnik im Rahmen der DFG

  17. Test plan, sludge retrieval, sludge packaging

    Feigenbutz, L.V.

    1994-01-01

    This document provides direction for the cold testing of tools, equipment and systems which will be installed and operated in K-East (KE) Basin in support of the sludge retrieval and packaging project. The technical uncertainties related to the effectiveness of sludge retrieval procedures and equipment require that cold testing be completed before installation in KE Basin to identify and resolve existing problems, and to optimize the efficiency of all equipment and systems used. This plan establishes the responsibilities, test requirements, and documentation requirements necessary to complete cold tests of: (1) equipment with no potential for plant use; (2) prototype equipment and systems which may be upgraded for use in K-Basin; and (3) plant equipment and systems requiring cold acceptance testing prior to plant use. Some equipment and systems may have been subject to a formal design review and safety assessment; the results of which will be included as supporting documents to the operational readiness review (ORR)

  18. Improving biogas production from anaerobic co-digestion of Thickened Waste Activated Sludge (TWAS) and fat, oil and grease (FOG) using a dual-stage hyper-thermophilic/thermophilic semi-continuous reactor.

    Alqaralleh, Rania Mona; Kennedy, Kevin; Delatolla, Robert

    2018-07-01

    This paper investigates the feasibility and advantages of using a dual-stage hyper-thermophilic/thermophilic semi-continuous reactor system for the co-digestion of Thickened Waste Activated Sludge (TWAS) and Fat, Oil and Grease (FOG) to produce biogas in high quantity and quality. The performance of the dual-stage hyper-thermophilic (70°C)/thermophilic (55°C) anaerobic co-digestion system is evaluated and compared to the performance of a single-stage thermophilic (55°C) reactor that was used to co-digest the same FOG-TWAS mixtures. Both co-digestion reactors were compared to a control reactor (the control reactor was a single-stage thermophilic reactor that only digested TWAS). The effect of FOG% in the co-digestion mixture (based on total volatile solids) and the reactor hydraulic retention time (HRT) on the biogas/methane production and the reactors' performance were thoroughly investigated. The FOG% that led to the maximum methane yield with a stable reactor performance was determined for both reactors. The maximum FOG% obtained for the single-stage thermophilic reactor at 15 days HRT was found to be 65%. This 65% FOG resulted in 88.3% higher methane yield compared to the control reactor. However, the dual-stage hyper-thermophilic/thermophilic co-digestion reactor proved to be more efficient than the single-stage thermophilic co-digestion reactor, as it was able to digest up to 70% FOG with a stable reactor performance. The 70% FOG in the co-digestion mixture resulted in 148.2% higher methane yield compared to the control at 15 days HRT. 70% FOG (based on total volatile solids) is so far the highest FOG% that has been proved to be useful and safe for semi-continuous reactor application in the open literature. Finally, the dual-stage hyper-thermophilic/thermophilic co-digestion reactor also proved to be efficient and stable in co-digesting 40% FOG mixtures at lower HRTs (i.e., 9 and 12 days) and still produce high methane yields and Class A effluents

  19. Processing of sump sludges at the Commonwealth Edison Byron Nuclear Generating Station

    Herrmann, D.; Gardner, D.A.; Taylor, E.R. Jr.

    1990-01-01

    A basic criterion for the disposal of radioactive waste by shallow land burial is that the material must not contain free liquids. In addition burial sites' requirements regarding radioactive waste containing oils, even though solidified, are restrictive. At Commonwealth Edison Byron Nuclear Generating Station a methodology for processing treated waste sludges, originating form the turbine building's floor drains was developed and implemented. As a result of this effort, 322 drums of oil and water sludge were processed. A dry cake, i.e., no free liquids, was produced, packaged, and readied for disposal. The dry cake contained less than 2% oil. The liquid phases resulting from the processing of the treated waste sludge were oil (that was to be processed for disposal as non-radioactive) and filtrate containing less than 5 ppm total suspended solids (TSS) and oil/grease. The filtrate TSS was below the Station's National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit release limits. 4 figs

  20. Toxicity of dispersant application: Biomarkers responses in gills of juvenile golden grey mullet (Liza aurata)

    Milinkovitch, Thomas; Godefroy, Joachim; Theron, Michael; Thomas-Guyon, Helene

    2011-01-01

    Dispersant use in nearshore areas is likely to increase the exposure of aquatic organisms to petroleum. To measure the toxicity of this controversial response technique, golden grey mullets (Liza aurata) were exposed to mechanically dispersed oil, chemically dispersed oil, dispersant alone in seawater, water-soluble fraction of oil and to seawater as a control treatment. Several biomarkers were assessed in the gills (enzymatic antioxidant activities, glutathione content, lipid peroxidation) and in the gallbladder (polycylic aromatic hydrocarbons metabolites). The significant differences between chemically dispersed oil and water soluble fraction of oil highlight the environmental risk to disperse an oil slick when containment and recovery can be conducted. The lack of significance between chemically and mechanically dispersed oil suggests that dispersant application is no more toxic than the natural dispersion of the oil slick. The results of this study are of interest in order to establish dispersant use policies in nearshore areas. - Highlights: → This study simulates and evaluates the toxicity of dispersant use in nearshore area. → Dispersant use toxicity is assessed through biomarkers measurement in a fish species. → Chemical dispersion of an oil slick increases the petroleum toxicity. → Dispersant use does not enhance the toxicity of a mechanically dispersed oil slick. → This work leads to conclusions concerning dispersant use policies in nearshore area. - When the meteorological conditions induce the dispersion of the oil slick (e.g. wave), the application of dispersant does not increase the toxicity of petroleum.

  1. Sludge storage lagoon biogas recovery and use. Volume 2

    Muller, D.; Norville, C. [Memphis and Shelby County Div. of Planning and Development, TN (United States)

    1991-07-01

    The City of Memphis has two wastewater treatment plants. The SWTP employs two large anaerobic digestion sludge lagoons as part of the overall sludge treatment system. Although these lagoons are effective in concentrating and digesting sludge, they can generate offensive odors. The SWTP uses aerobic digesters to partially stabilize the sludge and help reduce objectionable odors before it enters the lagoons. The anaerobic digestion of sludge in the lagoons results in the dispersion of a large quantity of biogas into the atmosphere. The City realized that if the lagoons could be covered, the odor problem could be resolved, and at the same, time, biogas could be recovered and utilized as a source of energy. In 1987, the City commissioned ADI International to conduct a feasibility study to evaluate alternative methods of covering the lagoons and recovering and utilizing the biogas. The study recommended that the project be developed in two phases: (1) recovery of the biogas and (2) utilization of the biogas. Phase 1 consists of covering the two lagoons with an insulated membrane to control odor and temperature and collect the biogas. Phase 1 was found to be economically feasible and offered a unique opportunity for the City to save substantial operating costs at the treatment facility. The Memphis biogas recovery project is the only application in the world where a membrane cover has been used on a municipal wastewater sludge lagoon. It is also the largest lagoon cover system in the world.

  2. Sludge pumping in water treatment

    Solar Manuel, M. A.

    2010-01-01

    In water treatment processes is frequent to separate residual solids, with sludge shape, and minimize its volume in a later management. the technologies to applicate include pumping across pipelines, even to long distance. In wastewater treatment plants (WWTP), the management of these sludges is very important because their characteristics affect load losses calculation. Pumping sludge can modify its behavior and pumping frequency can concern treatment process. This paper explains advantages and disadvantages of different pumps to realize transportation sludge operations. (Author) 11 refs.

  3. A laboratory dispersant effectiveness test which reflects dispersant efficiency in the field

    Lunel, T.; Wood, P.

    1996-01-01

    Oil dispersion efficiencies of surfactants, from laboratory dispersion tests and field data were compared and calibrated. Data from an oil spill, where dispersants were used as a major part of the response, was analysed. The data was accumulated through the monitoring of the dispersant operation of the Sea Empress spill incident, in which Forties Blend oil was spilled at sea. This detailed data set was used to calibrate existing laboratory dispersant tests, and to devise a new International Dispersant Effectiveness Test. The objective was to create a comprehensive guide to decision making on whether and when to start a dispersant spraying operation. The dispersion efficiencies obtained from the laboratory dispersant tests were compared with field data. Flume tests produced the highest percentage of dispersed oil for all the dispersal tests. However, it was emphasised that the total percentage of oil dispersed should not be the only measure of dispersant effectiveness, since it does not distinguish between the contribution of natural and chemically enhanced dispersion. 9 refs., 1 tab., 9 figs

  4. Membranes as separators of dispersed emulsion phases

    Lefferts, A.G.

    1997-01-01

    The reuse or discharge of industrial waste waters, containing small fractions of dispersed oil, requires a purification treatment for which membranes can be used. If only little oil is present, removal of the dispersed phase might be preferable to the more commonly applied removal of the

  5. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SLUDGE DEWATERABILITY NUMBER ...

    A representative of a sludge sample collected from the same source was filtered under the same environmental condition and the result analysed with two different concepts. One method of analysis uses Sludge Dewaterability Number, while the second employed the Carman's Specific resistance concept in sludge ...

  6. Oxidizing oils, etc. [British patent

    Penniman, W B.D.

    1926-03-02

    The oxidation of crude petroleum and its distillates, shale oils and tars, waxes, sludges, petroleum residues, asphaltic oils, asphalt, malthas, cracked oils and residues from cracking stills, wood tar oils and wood tar, peat and lignite distillates, coal tar oils and coal tar, and oils containing powdered coal, coke or peat, sulphur in suspension, is effected by passing air or other oxygen-containig gas through a layer of the material of a depth sufficient substantially to deoxygenate the air, the pressure being at or below atmospheric pressure.

  7. Toxicity of dispersant application: Biomarkers responses in gills of juvenile golden grey mullet (Liza aurata).

    Milinkovitch, Thomas; Godefroy, Joachim; Théron, Michaël; Thomas-Guyon, Hélène

    2011-10-01

    Dispersant use in nearshore areas is likely to increase the exposure of aquatic organisms to petroleum. To measure the toxicity of this controversial response technique, golden grey mullets (Liza aurata) were exposed to mechanically dispersed oil, chemically dispersed oil, dispersant alone in seawater, water-soluble fraction of oil and to seawater as a control treatment. Several biomarkers were assessed in the gills (enzymatic antioxidant activities, glutathione content, lipid peroxidation) and in the gallbladder (polycylic aromatic hydrocarbons metabolites). The significant differences between chemically dispersed oil and water soluble fraction of oil highlight the environmental risk to disperse an oil slick when containment and recovery can be conducted. The lack of significance between chemically and mechanically dispersed oil suggests that dispersant application is no more toxic than the natural dispersion of the oil slick. The results of this study are of interest in order to establish dispersant use policies in nearshore areas. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Sewage sludges disinfection

    Alexandre, D.

    1977-01-01

    There is an hygienic risk in using biological sewage sludges for agriculture. Systematic analysis carried out on sludges samples obtained from purification plants in East and South part of France, show the almost uniform presence of pathogenic microorganisms. Some of it survive more than 9 months after soil application. Conventional process for disinfection: liming and heat are not suitable for agricultural use. On the other hand, irradiation involves no modification in structure and composition of sludges. Radiation doses required for disinfection vary according to microorganisms. If some of them are eliminated with rather light doses (200 krad) mycobacteria, viruses and eggs of worms resist to more important doses. Security dose is estimated around 1000 krad

  9. [Using Excess Activated Sludge Treated 4-Chlorophenol Contained Waste Water to Cultivate Chlorella vulgaris].

    Wang, Lu; Chen, Xiu-rong; Yan, Long; He, Yi-xuan; Shi, Zhen-dong

    2015-04-01

    Using different rations of sludge extracts and supernate from 4-Chlorophenol (4-CP) simulated wastewater's excess sludge after centrifugation to cultivate the Chlorella vulgaris to achieve the goal of excess sludge utilization together with chlorella cultivating. The experiments were performed in 500 mL flasks with different rations of sludge extracts & BG-11 and supernate & BG-11 in a light growth chamber respectively. Number of algal cells, Chlorophyll, enzyme activity, oil and water total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), total organic carbon (TOC), toxicity index were investigated. Result showed that the nutrition supplies and toxicity in the excess sludge were removed efficiently via Chlorella vulgaris, the removal rates of TN and TP were at least 40% and 90% respectively; After 10 days cultivation, the density growth of 50% sludge extracts was 20 times higher of the beginning while its chlorophyll content was lower than that of the blank group. Sludge extracts could promote the proliferation of algae, but were not conducive to the synthesis of chlorophyll. The quantity of SOD in per cell showed Chlorella vulgaris gave a positive response via stimulation from toxicant in sludge extracts and supernate. The best time for collecting chlorella vulgaris was the fifth day of cultivation, taking neutral oil accumulation as the evaluating indicator for its utilization combined with the removal of supplies and toxicity.

  10. Charcoal from paper sludge

    Kobayashi, M

    1980-03-06

    Paper sludge containing less than or equal to 50% water is mixed with coffee shells and greater than or equal to 1 almond shells, orange skin, walnut shells, or bean jam waste, compacted, and dry distilled at 300-600 degrees to prepare charcoal. Thus, 1 ton of paper sludge was mixed with 100 kg each of coffee shells, almond shells, orange skin, and walnut shells; compacted and dry distilled 24 hours at approximately 450 degrees. The calorific value of the charcoal produced was approximately 7300 kcal/kg.

  11. Study of factors governing oil-water separation process using TiO₂ films prepared by spray deposition of nanoparticle dispersions.

    Gondal, Mohammed A; Sadullah, Muhammad S; Dastageer, Mohamed A; McKinley, Gareth H; Panchanathan, Divya; Varanasi, Kripa K

    2014-08-27

    Surfaces which possess extraordinary water attraction or repellency depend on surface energy, surface chemistry, and nano- and microscale surface roughness. Synergistic superhydrophilic-underwater superoleophobic surfaces were fabricated by spray deposition of nanostructured TiO2 on stainless steel mesh substrates. The coated meshes were then used to study gravity driven oil-water separation, where only the water from the oil-water mixture is allowed to permeate through the mesh. Oil-water separation efficiencies of up to 99% could be achieved through the coated mesh of pore sizes 50 and 100 μm, compared to no separation at all, that was observed in the case of uncoated meshes of the same material and pore sizes. An adsorbed water on the TiO2 coated surface, formation of a water-film between the wires that form the mesh and the underwater superoleophobicity of the structured surface are the key factors that contribute to the enhanced efficiency observed in oil-water separation. The nature of the oil-water separation process using this coated mesh (in which the mesh allows water to pass through the porous structure but resists wetting by the oil phase) minimizes the fouling of mesh so that the need for frequent replacement of the separating medium is reduced. The fabrication approach presented here can be applied for coating large surface areas and to develop a large-scale oil-water separation facility for oil-field applications and petroleum industries.

  12. Poland petroleum refinery sludge lagoon demonstration project

    Altman, D.J.

    2000-01-01

    The US Department of Energy and the Institute for Ecology of Industrial Area have been working together to develop mutually beneficial, cost-effective environmental remediation technologies such as the demonstration of bioremediation techniques for the clean up of acidic petroleum sludge impacted soils at an oil refinery in southern Poland. After an expedited site characterization, treatability study, and a risk assessment study, a remediation strategy was devised. The waste material was composed primarily of high molecular weight paraffinic and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons. A biopile design which employed a combination of passive and active aeration in conjunction with nutrient and surfactant application as used to increase the biodegradation of the contaminants of concern

  13. The drying of sewage sludge by immersion frying

    D. P. Silva

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to dry sewage sludge using a fry-drying process. The frying experiments were carried out in commercial fryers modified by adding thermocouples to the setup. During frying, typical drying curves were obtained and it was verified that, in relation to the parameters: oil temperature, oil type and shape of the sample, the shape factor the most effect on the drying rate, at least within the range chosen for the variables studied. Oil uptake and calorific value were also analyzed. The calorific value of the samples increased with frying time, reaching values around 24MJ/kg after 600s of frying (comparable to biocombustibles such as wood and sugarcane bagasse. The process of immersion frying showed great potential for drying materials, especially sewage sludge, obtaining a product with a high energy content, thereby increasing its value as a combustible.

  14. Dispersion stability of thermal nanofluids

    Fan Yu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Thermal nanofluids, the engineered fluids with dispersed functional nanoparticles, have exhibited extraordinary thermophysical properties and added functionalities, and thus have enabled a broad range of important applications. The poor dispersion stability of thermal nanofluids, however, has been considered as a long-existing issue that limits their further development and practical application. This review overviews the recent efforts and progresses in improving the dispersion stability of thermal nanofluids such as mechanistic understanding of dispersion behavior of nanofluids, examples of both water-based and oil-based nanofluids, strategies to stabilize nanofluids, and characterization techniques for dispersion behavior of nanofluids. Finally, on-going research needs, and possible solutions to research challenges and future research directions in exploring stably dispersed thermal nanofluids are discussed. Keywords: Thermal nanofluids, Dispersion, Aggregation, Electrostatic stabilization, Steric stabilization

  15. Membranes as separators of dispersed emulsion phases

    Lefferts, A.G.

    1997-01-01

    The reuse or discharge of industrial waste waters, containing small fractions of dispersed oil, requires a purification treatment for which membranes can be used. If only little oil is present, removal of the dispersed phase might be preferable to the more commonly applied removal of the continuous phase. For this purpose dispersed phase separators can be applied, which combine the features of conventional coalescers and membrane filtration. The membrane surface promotes coalescence ...

  16. Dispersion behaviour of rape oil methyl ester and rape-oil-based hydraulic oils in soils and on soil surfaces with due consideration to the technical performance capabilities of the hydraulic oils. Part-project 1: studies on model ecosystems. Part-project 2: provision of oils with defined degrees of ageing. Final report; Ausbreitungsverhalten von Rapsoelmethylester und Hydraulikoelen auf Rapsoelbasis im Boden und auf Bodenoberflaechen unter Beruecksichtigung der technischen Leistungsfaehigkeit der Hydraulikoele. Teilvorhaben 1: Untersuchungen an Modelloekosystemen. Teilvorhaben 2: Bereitstellung definiert gealterter Hydraulikoele. Abschlussbericht

    Paul, W.; Schuett, C.; Roemer, A.; Foelster, N.; Lemke, M.

    2001-07-01

    The purpose of the present cooperative research project is to study the toxicity, the degradation and in particular the dispersion behaviour of biologically rapidly degradable hydraulic oils and rape oil methyl esters (RME) in soils and waters with a special focus on hydraulic oils. This is to serve as a basis for developing guidelines for action in the event of accidents involving biologically rapidly degradable hydraulic fluids that ensure proper accident reporting and handling. The outcome of the cooperative research project is to permit a first risk assessment for the soil and water compartments in the event of accidents involving hydraulic oils and RME. Another task is to clarify to what extent it is permissible to deviate from the usual measures prescribed for oil accidents involving crude oil when biologically rapidly degradable hydraulic oils or RME are involved instead. [German] Ziel des Verbundvorhabens ist es, die Toxizitaet, den Abbau und insbesondere das Ausbreitungsverhalten von biologisch schnell abbaubaren Hydraulikoelen und Rapsoelmethylester (RME) in Boden und Wasser zu untersuchen, wobei der Schwerpunkt der Arbeiten bei den Hydraulikoelen liegt. Damit sollen Verfahrensrichtlinien angegeben werden, die im Falle von Unfaellen mit biologisch schnell abbaubaren Hydraulikfluessigkeiten oder Biodiesel eine angemessene Unfallaufnahme und -abwicklung sicherstellen. Als Ergebnis des Verbundvorhabens soll eine erste Risikoabschaetzung fuer die Kompartimente Boden und Wasser bei Unfaellen mit Hydraulikoelen und RME moeglich sein. Darueber hinaus soll geklaert werden, inwieweit Abweichungen von den ueblichen Massnahmen bei Oelunfaellen mit Mineraloelprodukten im Vergleich zu biologisch schnell abbaubaren Hydraulikoelen oder RME moeglich sind. (orig.)

  17. Ultrasonic reduction of excess sludge from the activated sludge system

    Zhang Guangming; Zhang Panyue; Yang Jinmei; Chen Yanming

    2007-01-01

    Sludge treatment has long become the most challenging problem in wastewater treatment plants. Previous studies showed that ozone or chlorine effectively liquefies sludge into substrates for bio-degradation in the aeration tank, and thus reduces the excess sludge. This paper employs ultrasound to reduce the excess sludge from the sequential batch reactor (SBR) system. Partial sludge was disintegrated into dissolved substrates by ultrasound in an external sono-tank and was then returned to the SBR for bio-degradation. The results showed that ultrasound (25 kHz) effectively liquefied the sludge. The most effective conditions for sludge reduction were as following: sludge sonication ratio of 3/14, ultrasound intensity of 120 kW/kgDS, and sonication duration of 15 min. The amount of excess sludge was reduced by 91.1% to 17.8 mg/(L d); the organic content and settleability of sludge in the SBR were not impacted. The chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency was 81.1%, the total nitrogen (TN) removal efficiency was 17-66%, and high phosphorus concentration in the effluent was observed

  18. Bacteriology of activated sludge

    Gils, van H.W.

    1964-01-01

    The bacteriology and biochemistry of activated sludge grown in domestic waste water or fed with synthetic media were studied. The nature of the flocs was investigated by determining morphological and physiological characteristics of many strains isolated.

    Predominant bacteria were

  19. Composting sewage sludge

    Epstein, E.

    1979-01-01

    Sewage sludge is predominantly organic matter containing domestic and industrial wastes. The inefficiency of the waste water treatment to destroy pathogens and stabilization of odor-producing volatile organic compounds necessitates further treatment before sludge can be used as a soil amendment or fertilizer. Composting, which is the rapid biological decomposition of the sludge organic matter is an excellent method of sludge stabilization. During the process, volatile organics are decomposed and many of the pathogens destoyed. The low cost of the process and its flexibility with respect to labor and capital makes the system highly attractive to municipalities. A major problem facing large urban waste water treatment facilities is the distribution or marketing. The light weight of the material, expensive hauling costs, and low fertilizer value reduce its attractiveness to the agricultural sector. Thus, the greatest market is for horticultural purposes, sod, nurseries, greenhouses, parks, and reclamation areas. The major potential benefits of irradiating compost as a means of further disinfection are: (1) elimination of any health hazard; (2) increase of market potential, i.e., providing more market outlets to distribute the material; (3) compliance with state and federal health regulations; and (4) enhancement of the economics of composting as a result of utilizing compost in speciality products commanding a higher value

  20. Activated Sludge Rheology

    Ratkovich, Nicolas Rios; Horn, Willi; Helmus, Frank

    2013-01-01

    Rheological behaviour is an important fluid property that severely impacts its flow behaviour and many aspects related to this. In the case of activated sludge, the apparent viscosity has an influence on e.g. pumping, hydrodynamics, mass transfer rates, sludge-water separation (settling and filtr...... rheological measurements. Moreover, the rheological models are not very trustworthy and remain very “black box”. More insight in the physical background needs 30 to be gained. A model-based approach with dedicated experimental data collection is the key to address this.......Rheological behaviour is an important fluid property that severely impacts its flow behaviour and many aspects related to this. In the case of activated sludge, the apparent viscosity has an influence on e.g. pumping, hydrodynamics, mass transfer rates, sludge-water separation (settling......, leading to varying results and conclusions. In this paper, a vast amount of papers are critically reviewed with respect to this and important flaws are highlighted with respect to rheometer choice, rheometer settings and measurement protocol. The obtained rheograms from experimental efforts have...

  1. Studies on the co-treatment of the municipal sewage sludge and oil wastes by using microorganism from the land farming of the PETROBRAS President Getulio Vargas refinery - REPAR; Estudos sobre o co-tratamento de lodo de esgoto domestico e residuos oleosos com microorganismos do landfarming da refinaria Presidente Getulio Vargas, PETROBRAS/REPAR

    Castro, Rodrigo Azevedo; Goncalves, Claudia Martins; Krenczynski, Michele Cristine; Nascimento Neto, Durval [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba (Brazil). Curso de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencia do Solo; Carvalho, Francisco Jose Pereira de Campos [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba (Brazil). Dept. de Solos; Grube, Karl; Coelho, Ibirajara Jorge Evangelhista [PETROBRAS, PR (Brazil). REPAR

    1998-07-01

    In the present work a set of results from the evaluation of the use of oily substrate for biodegration of municipal sewage sludge, with microorganisms from the landfaming are presented. The treatments of contaminated soil with sewage sludge, were: inoculum plus oily substrate, landfarming plus inoculum and only municipal sludge. In all treatments the municipal sewage sludge was varied. The obtained results indicate possible treatment of municipal sewage sludge with landfarming microorganisms plus oily substrates. (author)

  2. Recycle of valuable products from oily cold rolling mill sludge

    Liu, Bo; Zhang, Shen-gen; Tian, Jian-jun; Pan, De-an; Liu, Yang; Volinsky, Alex A.

    2013-10-01

    Oily cold rolling mill (CRM) sludge contains lots of iron and alloying elements along with plenty of hazardous organic components, which makes it as an attractive secondary source and an environmental contaminant at the same time. The compound methods of "vacuum distillation + oxidizing roasting" and "vacuum distillation + hydrogen reduction" were employed for the recycle of oily cold rolling mill sludge. First, the sludge was dynamically vacuum distilled in a rotating furnace at 50 r/min and 600°C for 3 h, which removed almost hazardous organic components, obtaining 89.2wt% ferrous resultant. Then, high purity ferric oxide powders (99.2wt%) and reduced iron powders (98.9wt%) were obtained when the distillation residues were oxidized and reduced, respectively. The distillation oil can be used for fuel or chemical feedstock, and the distillation gases can be collected and reused as a fuel.

  3. The determination of PCBs in Rocky Flats Type IV waste sludge by gas chromatography/electron capture detection. Part 2

    Parish, K.J.; Applegate, D.V.; Postlethwait, P.D.; Boparai, A.S.; Reedy, G.T.

    1994-12-01

    Before disposal, radioactive sludge (Type IV) from Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) must be evaluated for polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) content. The Type IV sludge consists of organic solvents, degreasers, cutting oils, and transuranic (TRU) waste mixed with calcium silicate (MicroCel E reg-sign and Oil Dri reg-sign to form a grease or paste-like material. For laboratory testing, a nonradioactive simulated Type 17V RFP sludge was prepared at Argonne National Laboratory-East (ANL-E). This sludge has a composition similar to that expected from field samples. In an earlier effort, a simplified method was developed for extraction, cleanup of extract, and determination of PCBs in samples of simulated sludge spiked with Aroclors 1254 and 1260. The simplified method has now been used to determine the presence and quantities of other Aroclors in the simulated sludge, namely, Aroclors 10 1 6, 1221, 1232, 1242, and 1248. The accuracy and precision of the data for these Aroclors were found to be similar to the data for sludges spiked with Aroclors 1254 and 1260. Since actual sludges may vary in composition, the method was also verified by analyzing another source of Type IV simulated sludge, prepared by Argonne National Laboratory-West (ANL-W)

  4. Screening methodology for assessing potential health effects from municipal sludge incinerators

    Fradkin, L.; Bruins, R.J.F.; Lutkenhoff, S.D.; Stara, J.F.; Lomnitz, E.

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes a risk assessment methodology for preliminary assessment of municipal sludge incineration. The methodology is a valuable tool in that it can be used for determining the hazard indices of chemical contaminants that might be present in sewage sludge used in incineration. The paper examines source characteristics (i.e., facility design), atmospheric dispersion of emission, and resulting human exposure and risk from sludge incinerators. Seven of the ten organics were screened for further investigation. An example of the calculations are presented for cadmium.

  5. Screening methodology for assessing potential health effects from municipal sludge incinerators

    Fradkin, L.; Bruins, R.J.F.; Lutkenhoff, S.D.; Stara, J.F.; Lomnitz, E.; Rubin, A.

    1987-04-01

    This paper describes a risk assessment of methodology for preliminary assessment of municipal sludge incineration. The methodology is a valuable tool in that it can be used for determining the hazard indices of chemical contaminants that might be present in sewage sludge used in incineration. The paper examines source characteristics (i.e. facility design), atmospheric dispersion of emission, and resulting human exposure and risk from sludge incinerators. Seven of the ten organics were screened for further investigation. An example of the calculations are presented for cadmium. (Refs. 5).

  6. Transformation of Silver Nanoparticles in Sewage Sludge during Incineration.

    Meier, Christoph; Voegelin, Andreas; Pradas del Real, Ana; Sarret, Geraldine; Mueller, Christoph R; Kaegi, Ralf

    2016-04-05

    Silver nanoparticles (Ag-NP) discharged into the municipal sewer system largely accumulate in the sewage sludge. Incineration and agricultural use are currently the most important strategies for sewage sludge management. Thus, the behavior of Ag-NP during sewage sludge incineration is essential for a comprehensive life cycle analysis and a more complete understanding of the fate of Ag-NP in the (urban) environment. To address the transformation of Ag-NP during sewage sludge incineration, we spiked metallic Ag(0)-NP to a pilot wastewater treatment plant and digested the sludge anaerobically. The sludge was then incinerated on a bench-scale fluidized bed reactor in a series of experiments under variable conditions. Complementary results from X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray (EM-EDX) analysis revealed that Ag(0)-NP transformed into Ag2S-NP during the wastewater treatment, in agreement with previous studies. On the basis of a principal component analysis and subsequent target testing of the XAS spectra, Ag(0) was identified as a major Ag component in the ashes, and Ag2S was clearly absent. The reformation of Ag(0)-NP was confirmed by EM-EDX. The fraction of Ag(0) of the total Ag in the ashes was quantified by linear combination fitting (LCF) of XAS spectra, and values as high as 0.8 were found for sewage sludge incinerated at 800 °C in a synthetic flue gas atmosphere. Low LCF totals (72% to 94%) indicated that at least one relevant reference spectrum was missing in the LCF analysis. The presence of spherical Ag-NP with a diameter of incineration, as demonstrated in this study, needs to be considered in the life cycle assessment of engineered Ag-NP.

  7. Minimization of Excess Sludge in Activated Sludge Systems

    Sayed Ali Reza Momeni

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The disposal of excess sludge from wastewater treatment plant represents a rising challenge in activated sludge processes. Hence, the minimization of excess sludge production was investigated by increasing the dissolved oxygen in aeration basin. Units of the pilot include: Primary sedimentation tank, aeration basin, secondary sedimentation tank, and return sludge tank. Volume of aeration basin is 360 l and influent flow rate is 90 L/h. Influent of pilot is taken from effluent of grit chamber of Isfahan's North Wastewater treatment plant. The experiments were done on different parts of pilot during the 5 month of study. Results show that increase of dissolved oxygen in aeration tank affect on decrease of excess sludge. Increase of dissolved oxygen from 0.5 to 4.5 mg/L resulted in 25% decrease of excess sludge. Variation of dissolved oxygen affect on settleability of sludge too. By increase of dissolved oxygen, SVI decreased and then increased. Value of 1-3 mg/L was the adequate range of dissolved oxygen by settleability of sludge and optimum range was 2-2.5 mg/L. It could be concluded by increasing of dissolved oxygen up to of 3 mg/L, sludge settleability significant decreased.

  8. Agricultural yields of irradiated sewage sludge

    Magnavacca, Cecilia; Miranda, E.; Sanchez, M.

    1999-01-01

    Lettuce, radish and ryegrass have been used to study the nitrogen fertilization of soil by sewage sludge. The results show that the irradiated sludge improve by 15 - 30 % the production yield, compared to the non-irradiated sludge. (author)

  9. Washing and caustic leaching of Hanford tank sludges

    Lumetta, G.J.; Rapko, B.M.; Colton, N.G.

    1994-01-01

    Methods are being developed to treat and dispose of large volumes of radioactive wastes stored in underground tanks at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site. The wastes will be partitioned into high-level waste (HLW) and low-level waste (LLW) fractions. The HLW will be vitrified into borosilicate glass and disposed of in a geologic repository, while the LLW will be immobilized in a glass matrix and will likely be disposed of by shallow burial at the Hanford Site. The wastes must be pretreated to reduce the volume of the HLW fraction, so that vitrification and disposal costs can be minimized. The current baseline process for pretreating Hanford tank sludges is to leach the sludge under caustic conditions, then remove the solubilized components of the sludge by water washing. Tests of this method have been performed with samples taken from several different tanks at Hanford. The results of these tests are presented in terms of the composition of the sludge before and after leaching. X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy coupled with electron dispersive x-ray techniques have been used to identify the phases in the untreated and treated sludges

  10. The Braer incident: Dispersion in action

    Thomas, D.

    1993-01-01

    In January 1993, the tanker Braer foundered in the Shetland Islands and pollution from the cargo of 85,000 tonnes of Gullfaks crude oil was reported almost immediately. The tanker was battered by storm winds and finally broke up, spilling the remainder of its cargo into the bay at Garth's Ness. Dispersants were applied to the oil plumes, assisting the significant natural dispersion. Shoreline protection and cleanup activities included construction of spade dams and sorbent barriers. Oil concentrations in water, air, sediment, and fish were monitored. The sampling program undertaken during the spill period is described. Measured hydrocarbon concentrations in salmon farm areas were not observed to rise above 4 ppM. The high rates of dispersion make the Braer incident worthy of detailed study both in terms of understanding the mechanism of the dispersion process and also in assessing the environmental effects following high dispersed oil concentrations. Estimates of the spill's mass balance are provided for the bay at Garth's Ness, where the highest oil concentrations were observed, and along the 26 km of coastline which received the most significant concentrations of dispersed oil. Contrary to laboratory experiments which showed that the Gullfaks crude would emulsify at the high sea states prevailing at the time, the Braer spill did not emulsify and most of the oil released was dispersed naturally into the water column. It appears that it is most appropriate to model the Braer spill as a spillage of floating or dissolved chemical. 4 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs

  11. A new electrokinetic technology for revitalization of oily sludge

    Habibi, S.

    2004-07-01

    Oily sludge is a mixture of hydrocarbons, water, metals and suspended fine solids. The petroleum industry is faced with the challenge of handling large volumes of such sludge whose properties depend on the nature of the crude oil, the processing capacity, the down-stream capacities and the design of effluent treatment plants. The management of oily sludge is both complicated and costly due to its complex composition. For that reason, this study developed a method to improve the separation of phases to allow for greater reuse of oily sludge. The study focused on the use of electrokinetic phenomena for the remediation of oily sludge. An amphoteric surfactant was used to evaluate the effect of surfactant on the electrokinetic mobilization or organic contaminants in oily sludge. A series of electrokinetic cell tests were conducted with varying electrical potentials for a 32 day period. Electrical parameters were measured on a daily basis and samples were collected at specific time intervals for UV/VIS and FTIR analysis. The study involved a range of electrokinetic processes such as electrocoagulation, electro-coalescence, desorption, electrophoresis and electro-osmosis. Study results were used to evaluate the thermodynamics of the proposed process and new theories on the behaviour of colloidal components of oily sludge were derived. The study indicated that there is an excellent separation of water, hydrocarbon and solid phases. Since the recovered solid phase has a high hydrocarbon content, it can be recycled for other processes. Some of the volatile hydrocarbons that were released during the process can also be captured and burned as a fuel. The separated water had a low concentration of hydrocarbon and could be sent to wastewater treatment plants.

  12. Mobile unit for treatment of oil emulsions (taladrines); Unidad movil de tratamiento de taladrinas

    Ortiz, S.

    1995-06-01

    The environmental problems of water in oil emulsions (taladrines), produced because of an uncontrolled pouring in the sewage system, is the problem caused for the sewage sludge water treatment plants because they have oils, emulgents and heavy metals. (Author)

  13. Liquid-Liquid Extraction/Low-Temperature Purification (LLE/LTP Followed by Dispersive Solid-Phase Extraction (d-SPE Cleanup for Multiresidue Analysis in Palm Oil by LC-QTOF-MS

    Elham Sobhanzadeh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An evaluation of the extraction of multiresidue pesticides from palm oil by liquid-liquid extraction/low-temperature purification (LLE/LTP coupled with dispersive solid-phase extraction (d-SPE as the cleanup procedure with the determination by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry using electrospray as the ionization source (LC-ESI-MS was carried out. Optimization approaches were studied in terms of d-SPE to select efficiency of type and mass of adsorbents to obtain the highest recovery yield of pesticides and the lowest coextract fat residues in the final extract. The optimal conditions of d-SPE were obtained using 3 g of palm oil, 4 g anhydrous MgSO4, 150 mg of PSA, and 50 mg of GCB (PSA: GCB (3 : 1 w/w. Recovery study was performed at three concentration levels (25, 50, and 100 ng kg−1, yielding recovery rates between 71.8 and 112.4% except diuron with relative standard deviations of 3.2–15.1%. Detection and quantification limits were lower than 2.7 and 8.2 ng kg−1, respectively. The proposed method was successfully applied to the analysis of market-purchased palm oil samples from two different brands collected in Kuala Lumpur, showing its potential applicability and revealing the presence of some of the target species in the ng g−1 range.

  14. Sewage sludge irradiation with electrons

    Tauber, M.

    1976-01-01

    The disinfection of sewage sludge by irradiation has been discussed very intensively in the last few months. Powerful electron accelerators are now available and the main features of the irradiation of sewage sludge with fast electrons are discussed and the design parameters of such installations described. AEG-Telefunken is building an irradiation plant with a 1.5 MeV, 25 mA electron accelerator, to study the main features of electron irradiation of sewage sludge. (author)

  15. Sewage sludge additive

    Kalvinskas, J. J.; Mueller, W. A.; Ingham, J. D. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    The additive is for a raw sewage treatment process of the type where settling tanks are used for the purpose of permitting the suspended matter in the raw sewage to be settled as well as to permit adsorption of the dissolved contaminants in the water of the sewage. The sludge, which settles down to the bottom of the settling tank is extracted, pyrolyzed and activated to form activated carbon and ash which is mixed with the sewage prior to its introduction into the settling tank. The sludge does not provide all of the activated carbon and ash required for adequate treatment of the raw sewage. It is necessary to add carbon to the process and instead of expensive commercial carbon, coal is used to provide the carbon supplement.

  16. Composting of sewage sludge irradiated

    Hashimoto, Shoji; Watanabe, Hiromasa; Nishimura, Koichi; Kawakami, Waichiro

    1981-01-01

    Recently, the development of the techniques to return sewage sludge to forests and farm lands has been actively made, but it is necessary to assure its hygienic condition lest the sludge is contaminated by pathogenic bacteria. The research to treat sewage sludge by irradiation and utilize it as fertilizer or soil-improving material has been carried out from early on in Europe and America. The effects of the irradiation of sludge are sterilization, to kill parasites and their eggs, the inactivation of weed seeds and the improvement of dehydration. In Japan, agriculture is carried out in the vicinity of cities, therefore it is not realistic to use irradiated sludge for farm lands as it is. The composting treatment of sludge by aerobic fermentation is noticed to eliminate the harms when the sludge is returned to forests and farm lands. It is desirable to treat sludge as quickly as possible from the standpoint of sewage treatment, accordingly, the speed of composting is a problem. The isothermal fermentation experiment on irradiated sludge was carried out using a small-scale fermentation tank and strictly controlling fermentation conditions, and the effects of various factors on the fermentation speed were studied. The experimental setup and method are described. The speed of composting reached the maximum at 50 deg C and at neutral or weak alkaline pH. The speed increased with the increase of irradiation dose up to 30 Mrad. (Kako, I.)

  17. Radioactive contamination of sewage sludge

    Soeder, C.J.; Zanders, E.; Raphael, T.

    1986-01-01

    Because of the radioactivity released through the explosion of the nuclear reactor near Chernobyl radionuclides have been accumulated to a significant extent in sewage sludge in the Federal Republic of Germany. This is demonstrated for samples from four activated sludge plants according to a recent recommendation of the German Commission for Radiation Protection, there is until now no reason to deviate from the common practices of sludge disposal or incineration. The degree of radioactive contamination of plant materials produced on farm lands on which sewage sludge is being spread cannot be estimated with sufficient certainty yet. Additional information is required. (orig.) [de

  18. Sewage sludge disposal in Austria

    Koch, F.

    1997-01-01

    Sewage systems serve about 70% of the Austrian population, producing 6 million m 3 of sewage sludge per year with a dry matter content of 4-5%. At present about 52% of this sludge is disposed of in land fills, 33% is incinerated, and only about 15 % is used in agriculture. Although agricultural utilization is becoming increasingly important, several problems, especially those related to public opinion, need to be resolved before increased use will be possible. In this paper, wastewater treatment and sewage-sludge production in Austria, and problems associated with sludge disposal are discussed. (author)

  19. Recovery of energy and iron from oily sludge pyrolysis in a fluidized bed reactor.

    Qin, Linbo; Han, Jun; He, Xiang; Zhan, Yiqiu; Yu, Fei

    2015-05-01

    In the steel industry, about 0.86 ton of oily sludge is produced for every 1000 tons of rolling steel. Due to the adverse impact on human health and the environment, oily sludge is designated as a hazardous waste in the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRT). In this paper, the pyrolysis treatment of oily sludge is studied in a fluidized bed reactor at a temperature range of 400-600 °C. During oily sludge pyrolysis, a maximum oil yield of 59.2% and a minimum energy loss of 19.0% are achieved at 500 °C. The energy consumption of treating 1 kg oily sludge is only 2.4-2.9 MJ. At the same time, the energy of produced oil, gas and solid residue are 20.8, 6.32, and 0.83 MJ, respectively. In particular, it is found that the solid residue contains more than 42% iron oxide, which can be used as the raw material for iron production. Thus, the simultaneous recovery of energy and iron from oil sludge by pyrolysis is feasible. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Transformer oil maintenance

    White, J. [A.F. White Ltd., Brantford, ON (Canada)

    2002-08-01

    Proactive treatment is required in the case of transformer oil, since the oil degrades over time, which could result in the potential failure of the transformer or costly repairs. A mineral-based oil is used for transformers because of its chemical properties and dielectric strength. Water and particulate are the main contaminants found in transformer oil, affecting the quality of the oil through reduced insulation. Acid that forms in the oil when reacting with oxygen is called oxidization. It reduces the heat dissipation of the transformer as the acid forms sludge which settles on the windings of the transformer. The first step in the preventive maintenance program associated with transformer oil is the testing of the oil. The base line is established through initial testing, and subsequent annual testing identifies any changes. The minimal requirements are: (1) dielectric breakdown, a measure of the voltage conducted by the oil; (2) neutralization/acid number, which detects the level of acid present in the oil; (3) interfacial tension, which identifies the presence of polar compounds; (4) colour, which displays quality, aging and the presence of contaminants; and (5) water, which decreases the dielectric breakdown voltage. The analysis of the gases present in the oil is another useful tool in a maintenance program for the determination of a possible fault such as arcing, corona or overheated connections and is accomplished through Dissolved Gas Analysis (DGA). Remediation treatment includes upgrading the oil. Ideally, reclamation should be performed in the early stages of the acid buildup before sludging occurs. Onsite reclamation includes Fuller's earth processing and degasification, a process briefly described by the author.

  1. Dewatering properties of differently treated sewage sludge

    Zehnder, H.J.

    1977-01-01

    A study on dewatering properties of radiosterilized sewage sludge of different type and origin was carried out. For comparison, also heat-treated (pasteurized) sludge was investigated. The specific filtration resistance of irradiated sewage sludge was lowered in all types of sludge examined. In general, pasteurization increased this parameter. The settling properties of irradiated digested sewage sludge was slightly improved, mainly in the first hours after treatment. Microbial effects may mask the real sedimentation relations especcially in aerobically stabilized sludges. A pasteurization treatment of sewage sludge caused an increased content of soluble substances and suspended particles in the supernatant water. The supernatant water from irradiated sludge showed a smaller increase

  2. Reduction of heavy metals in refinery waste sludge using em treatment

    Ahmad, J.; Ahmad, F.; Saleemi, A.R.; Ahmad, I.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the efforts of National Cleaner Production Center (NCPC) and Attock Refinery Limited (ARL) Rawalpindi, to address the problem of refinery solid waste. A trial project was designed to treat and convert 1.7 m ton to oil sludge into environmental friendly residue (compost) under anaerobic conditions. The residue can be treated as bio fertilizer for agricultural purpose. The trial on bio remediation (anaerobic) of oily sludge of ARL, Rawalpindi within its premises using EM technology was successfully completed with the collaboration of effective microorganism research organization (EMRO), NCPC and ARL between 29th October to 10th December, 2002. The effective microorganisms transformed the undiluted oily sludge from ARL into bioactive sludge; which may be called as bio sludge. For heavy metal breakdown the trial data shows that Ba has been reduced by 85% in the EM. Treated oily sludge as compared to original ARL sludge, and Pb, Fe, Zn and Ni have been reduced by about 50% in the treated bio sludge. The contents of As, Cr, Cu and Mn showed no change. The residue obtained can be used as a bio fertilizer. (author)

  3. Hydrodynamic disperser

    Bulatov, A.I.; Chernov, V.S.; Prokopov, L.I.; Proselkov, Yu.M.; Tikhonov, Yu.P.

    1980-01-15

    A hydrodynamic disperser is suggested which contains a housing, slit nozzles installed on a circular base arranged opposite from each other, resonators secured opposite the nozzle and outlet sleeve. In order to improve the effectiveness of dispersion by throttling the flow, each resonator is made in the form of a crimped plate with crimpings that decrease in height in a direction towards the nozzle.

  4. In Situ Monitoring of Dispersion in the Water Column, Final Product for the Detection and Mitigation of Oil within the Water Column Project

    2018-01-31

    Applied Response Technologies (SMART) protocol in remote locations. RDC started with market research of commercially available monitoring technologies...SLDMB), which can begin collecting data immediately after impact with the water surface. It transmits data to users via satellite communication ...frequently used as a platform to detect submerged oil. RDC performed a market research of commercially available unmanned vehicles. They come in

  5. Influence sur les imbrûlés solides de composés métalliques particuliers et du taux de dispersion des asphaltènes dans les fuels lourds Influence of Unburned Solids Made of Unusual Metal Compounds and of the Asphaltene Dispersion Rate in Heavy Fuel Oils

    Audibert F.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available La diversité croissante des origines de bruts a conduit, en combustion, a prendre en considération dans les modèles la teneur en métaux en plus du carbone Conradson ou des asphaltènes au C7 dans les fuels lourds. De tels modèles ont été développés par Exxon (1979 et Shell (1981 notamment. Des travaux récents faits à l'Institut Français du Pétrole (IFP sur une chaudière de 2 MW ont montré l'influence de composés métalliques particuliers présents dans le fuel oil sous forme de sulfures imprégnant des particules de carbone poreux. Ces microparticules peuvent être générées lorsque l'on applique des conditions opératoires sévères à la viscoréduction de fuels résiduaires en présence d'hydrogène et d'un catalyseur approprié. Ces microparticules se sont révélées très actives en combustion et ont montré que la concentration du métal n'était pas le seul facteur à prendre en considération mais que la manière dont il était combiné pouvait être prépondérante. Pour étendre le domaine d'application des modèles, d'autres paramètres comme les conditions de fonctionnement de la chaudière et l'atomisation du fuel ont été pris en compte en plus des paramètres d'influence propres au fuel (travaux du Laboratoire Énergie du MIT publications 1986. En ce qui concerne la prédiction d'émissions particulaires une méthode complémentaire aux tests de résidu de Conradson et d'insolubilité à l'heptane normal a été appliquée à I'IFP dans le cadre d'un programme de valorisation des huiles lourdes en association avec les compagnies pétrolières Elf et Total France. Cette méthode consiste à évaluer à la microscopie électronique par transmission le taux de dispersion des asphaltènes, selon une méthode développée par Total France (M. Peyrot. Il existe une relation entre ce taux de dispersion et l'émission particulaire. Ce phénomène a été nettement observé dans le cas de fuels lourds constitués par

  6. Evaluating Chemical Dispersant Efficacy In An Experimental Wave Tank: 1, Dispersant Effectiveness As A Function Of Energy Dissipation Rate

    Numerous laboratory test systems have been developed for the comparison of efficacy between various chemical oil dispersant formulations. However, for the assessment of chemical dispersant effectiveness under realistic sea state, test protocols are required to produce hydrodynam...

  7. Sludge Digestion Manual; Handboek Slibgisting

    NONE

    2011-09-15

    This manual offers a guideline for developing, designing, optimizing and operating sludge digestion installations based on sewage sludge. It also offers tools for solving operation problems [Dutch] Het Handboek is een leidraad voor het ontwikkelen, ontwerpen, optimaliseren en bedrijven van slibgistingsinstallaties voor zuiveringsslib. Ook geeft het handvatten voor het oplossen van operationele problemen.

  8. Dispersant field testing : a review of procedures and considerations

    Fingas, M.F.

    2004-01-01

    The effectiveness of a dispersant is defined by the amount of oil that the dispersant puts into the water column compared to the amount of oil that was initially spilled. Effectiveness is generally determined visually in plumes of dispersed oil that are visible from ships and aircraft. This paper describes 25 specific issues and technical concerns regarding field testing of dispersant effectiveness. Recent field tests were reviewed and literature that relates to testing procedures was sited. The 25 factors that are important for the appropriate outcome of dispersant field experiments include: mass balance; proper controls; analytical method; differential plume movement; time lag and length of time followed; mathematics of calculation and integration; lower and upper limits of analytical methods; use of remote sensing; thickness measurement; behaviour of oil with surfactant content; surfactant stripping; tracking surface oil and dispersed oil; recovering surface oil; visibility of oil from the surface; background levels of hydrocarbons; fluorescence of dispersant; herding; emulsion breaking; application success; heterogeneity of slick and plume; deposition measurements; true analytical standards; effect of wind on dispersant and slick; dispersant run-off; and weathering of the oil. It was concluded that the most important factors are the ability to determine mass balance, use proper controls, analytical methods and to avoid procedures that give incorrect results. 34 refs., 4 tabs., 1 fig

  9. Effect of SnO2/SiO2 nano particle dispersant on the performance characteristic of complex multi-doped composite coating produced through electrodeposition on oil and gas storage tap

    P.A.L. Anawe

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of SnO2/SiO2 nano particle dispersant on the performance characteristic of complex zinc multi-doped composite coating produced through electrodeposition is studied. The degradation behaviour in term of wear and chemical corrosion activities were considered as a major factor in service. The wear mass loss was carried out with the help of reciprocating tester. The electrochemical corrosion characteristics were investigated using linear polarization technique in 3.5% simulated sodium chloride media. The outcome of the analysis shows that the developed coating was seen to provide a sound anti wear characteristics in its multidoped state. The corrosion resistance properties were observed to be massive compared to the binary based sample. It is expected that this characteristic will impact on the performance life span of storage tap in oil and gas. Keywords: Zn-SnO2-SiO2, Nanocomposite, Electrodeposition, Coatings and corrosion resistance

  10. Effect of SnO2/SiO2 nano particle dispersant on the performance characteristic of complex multi-doped composite coating produced through electrodeposition on oil and gas storage tap

    Anawe, P. A. L.; Fayomi, O. S. I.; Ayoola, A. A.; Popoola, A. P. I.

    2018-06-01

    The effect of SnO2/SiO2 nano particle dispersant on the performance characteristic of complex zinc multi-doped composite coating produced through electrodeposition is studied. The degradation behaviour in term of wear and chemical corrosion activities were considered as a major factor in service. The wear mass loss was carried out with the help of reciprocating tester. The electrochemical corrosion characteristics were investigated using linear polarization technique in 3.5% simulated sodium chloride media. The outcome of the analysis shows that the developed coating was seen to provide a sound anti wear characteristics in its multidoped state. The corrosion resistance properties were observed to be massive compared to the binary based sample. It is expected that this characteristic will impact on the performance life span of storage tap in oil and gas.

  11. The legacy of sewage sludge disposal in New York bight

    Buchholtz ten Brink, M.; Casso, M.A. [Geological Survey, Woods Hole, MA (United States); Allison, M.A. [Texas A and M Univ., Galveston, TX (United States); Schleel, J.S.

    1995-12-31

    From 1924 until 1987, New York City disposed of sewage sludge by dumping at the 12-mile dumpsite in 20 m of water off the New York-New Jersey coast. Approximately 125 {times} 10{sup 6} m{sup 3} was deposited, peaking in the early 1980`s. The dumpsite is at the head of the Hudson Shelf Valley, a submerged river channel crossing the continental shelf, in a region of sandy sediments that are regularly reworked by wave action. The introduction of the chemically and texturally distinct `sludge` sediment provides a tracer to study how accumulated anthropogenic deposits are dispersed throughout the region or transferred off the shelf. This work, begun in 1992, focuses on the fate of the material in the valley, ``downstream`` from the dumpsite. Geophysical, chemical, and radiological tools were used to delineate the sedimentary processes, the extent of contaminant dispersal, and the longterm fate of the dump spoils. Sediment derived from the sewage sludge has preferentially deposited on the valley floor relative to the surrounding shelf, resulting in unnaturally high accumulation rates in the upper valley. Dark, sludge-derived sediment is being covered by cleaner deposits from 0 to 26 km downvalley from the dumpsite, but ongoing resuspension and transport of the sediment results in a sewage signal in the uppermost sediments up to 80 km from the dumpsite. Both buried and surface ``sludge`` is subject to biological mixing. The patchy occurrence of the black sediment and interbedded sand layers observed downvalley suggest that resuspension and transport occur episodically, probably during major storm events.

  12. Dispersive microextraction based on water-coated Fe₃O₄ followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for determination of 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol in edible oils.

    Zhao, Qin; Wei, Fang; Xiao, Neng; Yu, Qiong-Wei; Yuan, Bi-Feng; Feng, Yu-Qi

    2012-06-01

    In the present work, we developed a novel dispersive microextraction technique by combining the advantages of liquid-phase microextraction (LPME) and magnetic solid-phase extraction (MSPE). In this method, trace amount of water directly absorbed on bare Fe₃O₄ to form water-coated Fe₃O₄ (W-Fe₃O₄) and rapid extraction can be achieved while W-Fe₃O₄ dispersed in the sample solution. The analyte adsorbed W-Fe₃O₄ can be easily collected and isolated from sample solution by application of a magnet. It was worth noting that in the proposed method water was used as extractant and Fe₃O₄ served as the supporter and retriever of water. The performance of the method was evaluated by extraction of 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD) from edible oils. The extracted 3-MCPD was then derived by a silylanization reagent (1-trimethylsilylimidazole) before gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. Several parameters that affected the extraction and derivatization efficiency were investigated. Our results showed that the limit of detection for 3-MCPD was 1.1 ng/g. The recoveries in spiked oil samples were in the range of 70.0-104.9% with the RSDs less than 5.6% (intra-day) and 6.4% (inter-day). Taken together, the simple, rapid and cost-effective method developed in current study, offers a potential application for the extraction and preconcentration of hydrophilic analytes from complex fatty samples. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Ultrasonic sludge pretreatment under pressure.

    Le, Ngoc Tuan; Julcour-Lebigue, Carine; Delmas, Henri

    2013-09-01

    The objective of this work was to optimize the ultrasound (US) pretreatment of sludge. Three types of sewage sludge were examined: mixed, secondary and secondary after partial methanisation ("digested" sludge). Thereby, several main process parameters were varied separately or simultaneously: stirrer speed, total solid content of sludge (TS), thermal operating conditions (adiabatic vs. isothermal), ultrasonic power input (PUS), specific energy input (ES), and for the first time external pressure. This parametric study was mainly performed for the mixed sludge. Five different TS concentrations of sludge (12-36 g/L) were tested for different values of ES (7000-75,000 kJ/kgTS) and 28 g/L was found as the optimum value according to the solubilized chemical oxygen demand in the liquid phase (SCOD). PUS of 75-150 W was investigated under controlled temperature and the "high power input - short duration" procedure was the most effective at a given ES. The temperature increase in adiabatic US application significantly improved SCOD compared to isothermal conditions. With PUS of 150 W, the effect of external pressure was investigated in the range of 1-16 bar under isothermal and adiabatic conditions for two types of sludge: an optimum pressure of about 2 bar was found regardless of temperature conditions and ES values. Under isothermal conditions, the resulting improvement of sludge disintegration efficacy as compared to atmospheric pressure was by 22-67% and 26-37% for mixed and secondary sludge, respectively. Besides, mean particle diameter (D[4,3]) of the three sludge types decreased respectively from 408, 117, and 110 μm to about 94-97, 37-42, and 36-40 μm regardless of sonication conditions, and the size reduction process was much faster than COD extraction. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Lipid profiling in sewage sludge.

    Zhu, Fenfen; Wu, Xuemin; Zhao, Luyao; Liu, Xiaohui; Qi, Juanjuan; Wang, Xueying; Wang, Jiawei

    2017-06-01

    High value-added reutilization of sewage sludge from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is essential in sustainable development in WWTPs. However, despite the advantage of high value reutilization, this process must be based on a detailed study of organics in sludge. We used the methods employed in life sciences to determine the profile of lipids (cellular lipids, free fatty acids (FFAs), and wax/gum) in five sludge samples obtained from three typical WWTPs in Beijing; these samples include one sludge sample from a primary sedimentation tank, two activated sludge samples from two Anaerobic-Anoxic-Oxic (A2/O) tanks, and two activated sludge samples from two membrane bioreactor tanks. The percentage of total raw lipids varied from 2.90% to 12.3%. Sludge from the primary sedimentation tank showed the highest concentrations of lipid, FFA, and wax/gum and the second highest concentration of cellular lipids. All activated sludge contained an abundance of cellular lipids (>54%). Cells in sludge can from plants, animals, microbes and so on in wastewater. Approximately 14 species of cellular lipids were identified, including considerable high value-potential ceramide (9567-38774 mg/kg), coenzyme (937-3897 mg/kg), and some phosphatidylcholine (75-548 mg/kg). The presence of those lipid constituents would thus require a wider range of recovery methods for sludge. Both cellular lipids and FFAs contain an abundance of C16-C18 lipids at high saturation level, and they serve as good resources for biodiesel production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Dispersion Forces

    Buhmann, Stefan Yoshi

    2012-01-01

    In this book, a modern unified theory of dispersion forces on atoms and bodies is presented which covers a broad range of advanced aspects and scenarios. Macroscopic quantum electrodynamics is shown to provide a powerful framework for dispersion forces which allows for discussing general properties like their non-additivity and the relation between microscopic and macroscopic interactions. It is demonstrated how the general results can be used to obtain dispersion forces on atoms in the presence of bodies of various shapes and materials. Starting with a brief recapitulation of volume I, this volume II deals especially with bodies of irregular shapes, universal scaling laws, dynamical forces on excited atoms, enhanced forces in cavity quantum electrodynamics, non-equilibrium forces in thermal environments and quantum friction. The book gives both the specialist and those new to the field a thorough overview over recent results in the field. It provides a toolbox for studying dispersion forces in various contex...

  16. PETROLEUM-COLLECTING AND DISPERSING CHEMICALS FOR ...

    Preferred Customer

    Films of petroleum origin reflecting sunlight rays hinder absorption of energy by water necessary for life ... Dispersing chemicals like mechanical clean-up methods have their own place in fighting oil spills. They are ... yellow color, and filtered.

  17. Vegetable oil spills : oil properties and behaviour

    Fingas, M.; Fieldhouse, B.; Jokuty, P.

    2001-01-01

    In 1997, the United States Environmental Protection Agency conducted a thorough review of the issue regarding vegetable oil spills. Recent attention has refocused on this issue as a result of an incident where 20 tons of canola oil was spilled in the Vancouver Harbour in 2000. In the past, vegetable oils were suggested to be a useful test material because they were thought to be innocuous. It was even suggested they be used to remove petroleum oil residues from beaches. However, recent studies have shown that spills of vegetable oils can have major environmental consequences, equivalent to those of petroleum oil spills. The spills have devastating effects on birds and intertidal organisms. This paper presented a summary of historical vegetable spills from around the world. In this study, specific behaviour tests were examined for several oils including canola, soy bean, olive, castor and corn oils. Evaporation, water-in-oil emulsification and chemical dispersion were measured and were found to be nearly zero, suggesting that vegetable oil spills are not very soluble in water. The aquatic toxicity of vegetable oil is low, but their fate is quite different from petroleum. Vegetable oils do not evaporate to a significant degree, they do not form water-in-oil emulsions, nor do they disperse in water. The physical properties of vegetable oils were also measured, including density and viscosity. This paper presented the aquatic toxicity of several vegetable oils along with other environmental data including the degradation rates noted in the literature. Most environmental damage reported in the literature is by contact with birds feathers resulting in hypothermia and secondly by smothering of intertidal organisms. The effect of vegetable oil on fish has not been well studied, but it is expected that there will be little destructive effect except where smothering can occur. 35 refs., 3 tabs

  18. Vegetable oil spills : oil properties and behaviour

    Fingas, M.; Fieldhouse, B.; Jokuty, P. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Emergencies Science Div

    2001-07-01

    In 1997, the United States Environmental Protection Agency conducted a thorough review of the issue regarding vegetable oil spills. Recent attention has refocused on this issue as a result of an incident where 20 tons of canola oil was spilled in the Vancouver Harbour in 2000. In the past, vegetable oils were suggested to be a useful test material because they were thought to be innocuous. It was even suggested they be used to remove petroleum oil residues from beaches. However, recent studies have shown that spills of vegetable oils can have major environmental consequences, equivalent to those of petroleum oil spills. The spills have devastating effects on birds and intertidal organisms. This paper presented a summary of historical vegetable spills from around the world. In this study, specific behaviour tests were examined for several oils including canola, soy bean, olive, castor and corn oils. Evaporation, water-in-oil emulsification and chemical dispersion were measured and were found to be nearly zero, suggesting that vegetable oil spills are not very soluble in water. The aquatic toxicity of vegetable oil is low, but their fate is quite different from petroleum. Vegetable oils do not evaporate to a significant degree, they do not form water-in-oil emulsions, nor do they disperse in water. The physical properties of vegetable oils were also measured, including density and viscosity. This paper presented the aquatic toxicity of several vegetable oils along with other environmental data including the degradation rates noted in the literature. Most environmental damage reported in the literature is by contact with birds feathers resulting in hypothermia and secondly by smothering of intertidal organisms. The effect of vegetable oil on fish has not been well studied, but it is expected that there will be little destructive effect except where smothering can occur. 35 refs., 3 tabs.

  19. Treatment of radioactive sludge

    Allison, W.; Payne, B.J.; Pegler, G.E.

    1979-01-01

    Radioactive sludge e.g. that which may accumulate in irradiated nuclear fuel element storage ponds, is treated by pumping it from a settling tank to a particle separator, conveniently a hydrocyclone and a sloping plate separator, the liquid being returned to the settling tank and the solids being metered into a drum pre-lined with dry cement. The drums are in a containment box in which they are transferred to a mixing station where the particles and cement are mixed and thence to a curing station. After curing the drums are embedded in cement in outer containers for transport to a long-term storage site. (author)

  20. Physical and chemical factors affecting sludge consolidation

    Turner, C.W.; Blimkie, M.E.; Lavoie, P.A

    1997-09-01

    Chemical reactions between sludge components and precipitation reactions within the pores of the existing sludge are shown to contribute to the consolidation of sludge under steam generator operating conditions. Simulations of sludge representative of plants with a mixed iron/copper feedtrain suggest that as the conditions in the feedtrain become more oxidizing the sludge will become harder with a higher nickel ferrite content. The precipitation of feedwater impurities introduced by condenser leaks and of zinc silicate, which is produced in plants with brass condenser tubes and silica in the makeup water, contribute significantly to sludge consolidation. Sodium phosphate is also shown to be an agent of sludge consolidation. (author)

  1. Characterization of oily sludge from a refinery and biodegradability assessment using various hydrocarbon degrading strains and reconstituted consortia.

    Jasmine, Jublee; Mukherji, Suparna

    2015-02-01

    Oily sludge obtained from a refinery in India contained 10-11% oil associated with fine particulates. Along with Fe, Ca and Mg various toxic elements were associated with the sludge solids (Pb, Mn, Cu, Zn, As, Bi, Cd, Cr, Co, Ni and V). The oil contained 41-56% asphaltenes and the maltenes comprised of 49 ± 4%, 42 ± 2% and 4 ± 2%, aliphatic, aromatic and polar fractions, respectively. Biodegradation studies with the maltene fraction of oil provided as sole substrate revealed higher degradation by various 3-5 membered reconstituted consortia compared to pure bacterial strains and up to 42 ± 8% degradation could be achieved over 30 days. In contrast, over the same period up to 71.5 ± 2% oil degradation could be achieved using dried oily sludge (15% w/v) as sole substrate. Significant biodegradation observed in the un-inoculated controls indicated the presence of indigenous microorganisms in oily sludge. However, large variability in oil degradation was observed in the un-inoculated controls. Greater biodegradation of the maltene fraction led to significant enrichment of asphaltenes in residual oil associated with the sludge. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Development of a Lipid Particle for β-Carotene Encapsulation Using a Blend of Tristearin and Sunflower Oil: Choice of Lipid Matrix and Evaluation of Shelf Life of Dispersions

    Graziela V. L. Gomes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Solid lipid particles are colloidal carriers that have been studied for almost 20 years in the pharmaceutical field and recently have been investigated by food researchers due to their capacity to enhance the incorporation of lipophilic bioactives and their bioavailability in aqueous formulations. The aims of this study are to choose a suitable lipid matrix to produce solid lipid particles, which would be used to encapsulate β-carotene, and to evaluate the capacity of dispersions to protect the incorporated carotenoid. Bulk lipid mixtures of tristearin and sunflower oil were analysed by differential scanning calorimetry and wide angle X-ray diffraction, and the mixture with the highest degree of structural disorganisation was chosen. β-Carotene was then encapsulated in solid lipid particles produced with this mixture, composed of 70 % tristearin and 30 % sunflower oil (6 % total lipid and stabilised with hydrogenated soy lecithin and Tween 80 (3 % total surfactant by hot pressure homogenisation. Two types of particles were produced, using one or two passages in the homogenisation step. Average particle size, zeta potential, thermal behaviour, crystallinity and β-carotene concentration were monitored over 4 months of storage (under refrigerated conditions. The results showed minor differences between the systems in terms of size distribution, although the particles produced with one passage through the homogeniser were slightly more efficient at protecting the β-carotene from degradation and also suffered few microstructural alterations after 4 months.

  3. Thermal degradation analysis of pongamia pinnata oil as alternative ...

    T Mariprasath

    water content analysis are performed to without catalytic added PPO ... Also, the water content of PPO ... and sludge which have effectively reduced breakdown strength [9]. ..... tion of non-edible oil plant in uncultivable waste lands in. India.

  4. Emissions databases for polycyclic aromatic compounds in the Canadian Athabasca oil sands region - development using current knowledge and evaluation with passive sampling and air dispersion modelling data

    Qiu, Xin; Cheng, Irene; Yang, Fuquan; Horb, Erin; Zhang, Leiming; Harner, Tom

    2018-03-01

    Two speciated and spatially resolved emissions databases for polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) in the Athabasca oil sands region (AOSR) were developed. The first database was derived from volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions data provided by the Cumulative Environmental Management Association (CEMA) and the second database was derived from additional data collected within the Joint Canada-Alberta Oil Sands Monitoring (JOSM) program. CALPUFF modelling results for atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), alkylated PAHs, and dibenzothiophenes (DBTs), obtained using each of the emissions databases, are presented and compared with measurements from a passive air monitoring network. The JOSM-derived emissions resulted in better model-measurement agreement in the total PAH concentrations and for most PAH species concentrations compared to results using CEMA-derived emissions. At local sites near oil sands mines, the percent error of the model compared to observations decreased from 30 % using the CEMA-derived emissions to 17 % using the JOSM-derived emissions. The improvement at local sites was likely attributed to the inclusion of updated tailings pond emissions estimated from JOSM activities. In either the CEMA-derived or JOSM-derived emissions scenario, the model underestimated PAH concentrations by a factor of 3 at remote locations. Potential reasons for the disagreement include forest fire emissions, re-emissions of previously deposited PAHs, and long-range transport not considered in the model. Alkylated PAH and DBT concentrations were also significantly underestimated. The CALPUFF model is expected to predict higher concentrations because of the limited chemistry and deposition modelling. Thus the model underestimation of PACs is likely due to gaps in the emissions database for these compounds and uncertainties in the methodology for estimating the emissions. Future work is required that focuses on improving the PAC emissions estimation and

  5. Emissions databases for polycyclic aromatic compounds in the Canadian Athabasca oil sands region – development using current knowledge and evaluation with passive sampling and air dispersion modelling data

    X. Qiu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Two speciated and spatially resolved emissions databases for polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs in the Athabasca oil sands region (AOSR were developed. The first database was derived from volatile organic compound (VOC emissions data provided by the Cumulative Environmental Management Association (CEMA and the second database was derived from additional data collected within the Joint Canada–Alberta Oil Sands Monitoring (JOSM program. CALPUFF modelling results for atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, alkylated PAHs, and dibenzothiophenes (DBTs, obtained using each of the emissions databases, are presented and compared with measurements from a passive air monitoring network. The JOSM-derived emissions resulted in better model–measurement agreement in the total PAH concentrations and for most PAH species concentrations compared to results using CEMA-derived emissions. At local sites near oil sands mines, the percent error of the model compared to observations decreased from 30 % using the CEMA-derived emissions to 17 % using the JOSM-derived emissions. The improvement at local sites was likely attributed to the inclusion of updated tailings pond emissions estimated from JOSM activities. In either the CEMA-derived or JOSM-derived emissions scenario, the model underestimated PAH concentrations by a factor of 3 at remote locations. Potential reasons for the disagreement include forest fire emissions, re-emissions of previously deposited PAHs, and long-range transport not considered in the model. Alkylated PAH and DBT concentrations were also significantly underestimated. The CALPUFF model is expected to predict higher concentrations because of the limited chemistry and deposition modelling. Thus the model underestimation of PACs is likely due to gaps in the emissions database for these compounds and uncertainties in the methodology for estimating the emissions. Future work is required that focuses on improving the PAC

  6. Wasting Away: To Sludge or Not to Sludge?

    L Nicolle

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Following a century of high standards of sanitation, food and water safety in North America are often taken for granted. Recent outbreaks of illness attributed to food and water contamination, however, have challenged this complacency. Now, sludge is added to the list of concerns. Sewage sludge is the muddy substance that remains after the treatment of municipal sewage. This material includes not only human waste, but also household and industrial toxic wastes disposed of in local sewers. Federal and provincial Canadian regulations support the use of this material as fertilizer, within acceptable guidelines, as does the Environmental Protection Agency in the United States. The safety of sludge, however, is questioned by some individuals and groups. Specifically, the risk of infectious agents and toxins to workers or other exposed individuals, and the potential for heavy metals and organic chemicals to be transferred from sludge-treated fields into crops are concerns.

  7. Sludge pretreatment chemistry evaluation: Enhanced sludge washing separation factors

    Colton, N.G.

    1995-03-01

    This report presents the work conducted in Fiscal Year 1994 by the Sludge Pretreatment Chemistry Evaluation Subtask for the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Tank Waste Treatment Science Task. The main purpose of this task, is to provide the technical basis and scientific understanding to support TWRS baseline decisions and actions, such as the development of an enhanced sludge washing process to reduce the volume of waste that will require high-level waste (HLW) vitrification. One objective within the Sludge Pretreatment Chemistry Evaluation Subtask was to establish wash factors for various SST (single-shell tank) sludges. First, analytical data were compiled from existing tank waste characterization reports. These data were summarized on tank-specific worksheets that provided a uniform format for reviewing and comparing data, as well as the means to verify whether the data set for each tank was complete. Worksheets were completed for 27 SST wastes. The analytical water wash data provided tank-specific information about the fraction of each component that dissolves with water, i.e., an estimate of tank-specific wash factors for evaluating tank-by-tank processing. These wash data were then used collectively to evaluate some of the wash factors that are assumed for the overall SST waste inventory; specifically, wash factors for elements that would be found primarily in sludges. The final step in this study was to incorporate the characterization and wash factor data into a spreadsheet that provides insight into the effect of enhanced sludge washing on individual tank sludges as well as for groups of sludges that may be representative of different waste types. Spreadsheet results include the estimated mass and percentage of each element that would be removed with washing and leaching. Furthermore, estimated compositions are given of the final wash and leach streams and residual solids, in terms of both concentration and dry weight percent

  8. Co-conditioning and dewatering of chemical sludge and waste activated sludge.

    Chang, G R; Liu, J C; Lee, D J

    2001-03-01

    The conditioning and dewatering behaviors of chemical and waste activated sludges from a tannery were studied. Capillary suction time (CST), specific resistance to filtration (SRF), and bound water content were used to evaluate the sludge dewatering behaviors. Zeta potentials were also measured. Experiments were conducted on each sludge conditioned and dewatered separately, and on the sludge mixed at various ratios. Results indicate that the chemical sludge was relatively difficult to be dewatered, even in the presence of polyelectrolyte. When the waste activated sludge was mixed with the chemical sludge at ratios of 1:1 and 2:1, respectively, the dewaterability of chemical sludge improved remarkably while the relatively better dewaterability of the waste activated sludge deteriorated only to a limited extent. As the mixing ratios became 4:1 and 8:1, the dewaterability of the mixed sludge was equal to that of the waste activated sludge. The optimal polyelectrolyte dosage for the mixed sludge was equal to or less than that of the waste activated sludge. It is proposed that the chemical sludges act as skeleton builders that reduce the compressibility of the mixed sludge whose dewaterability is enhanced. Bound water contents of sludge decreased at low polyelectrolyte dosage and were not significantly affected as polyelectrolyte dosage increased. Advantages and disadvantages of co-conditioning and dewatering chemical sludge and waste activated sludge were discussed.

  9. Steam generator sludge removal apparatus

    Schafer, B.W.; Werner, C.E.; Klahn, F.C.

    1992-01-01

    The present invention relates to equipment for cleaning steam generators and in particular to a high pressure fluid lance for cleaning sludge off the steam generator tubes away from an open tube lane. 6 figs

  10. Processing method for radioactive sludge

    Shoji, Yuichi; Kaneko, Masaaki.

    1993-01-01

    The concentration of radioactive sludges contained in a storage tank is controlled, thereafter, a filter is charged into a processing vessel to continuously conduct dewatering. Then, the radioactive sludges and an oxidizer are mixed by stirring using a stirring impeller and by vibrations using a vibrator. At the same time, thermic rays are irradiated by using infrared ray lamps to heat and decompose them. Since thermic rays reach the center of the radioactive sludges by the infrared ray lamps, ion exchange resins are sufficiently decomposed and carbonized into inorganic material. Then, a filling hardener such as mortar cement having a good flowability is charged to solidify the wastes. With such procedures, radioactive sludges can be stored under a stable condition for a long period of time by decomposing organic materials into inorganic materials and solidifying them. Further, an operator's radiation exposure dose can remarkably be reduced by applying a predetermined and a stabilization treatment in an identical processing vessel. (N.H.)

  11. Municipal sludge disposal economics

    Jones, J L [SRI International, Menlo Park, CA; Bomberger, Jr, D C; Lewis, F M

    1977-10-01

    Costs for disposal of sludges from a municipal wastewater treatment plant normally represents greater than or equal to 25% of the total plant operating cost. The following 5 sludge handling options are considered: chemical conditioning followed by vacuum filtration, and incineration; high-pressure wet-air oxidation and vacuum filtration or filter press prior to incineration; thermal conditioning, vacuum filtraton, and incineration; high-pressure wet-air oxidation and vacuum filtration, with ash to landfill; aerobic or anaerobic digestion, followed by chemical conditioning, vacuum filtration, and disposal on land; and chemical conditioning, followed by a filter press, flash dryer, and sale as fertilizer. The 1st 2 options result in the ultimate disposal of small amounts of ash in a landfill; the digestion options require a significant landfill; the fertilizer option requires a successful marketing and sales effort. To compare the economies of scale for the options, analyses were performed for 3 plant capacities - 10, 100, and 500 mgd; as plant size increases, the economies of scale for incineration system are quite favorable. The anaerobic digestion system has a poorer capital cost-scaling factor. The incinerator options which start with chemical conditioning consume much less electrical power at all treatment plant sizes; incinerator after thermal conditioning uses more electricity but less fuel. Digestion requires no direct external fossil fuel input. The relative use of fuel is constant at all plant sizes for other options. The incinerator options can produce a significant amount of steam which may be used. The anaerobic digestion process can be a significant net producer of fuel gas.

  12. Influence of copper nanoparticles on the physical-chemical properties of activated sludge.

    Hong Chen

    Full Text Available The physical-chemical properties of activated sludge, such as flocculating ability, hydrophobicity, surface charge, settleability, dewaterability and bacteria extracellular polymer substances (EPS, play vital roles in the normal operation of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs. The nanoparticles released from commercial products will enter WWTPs and can induce potential adverse effects on activated sludge. This paper focused on the effects of copper nanoparticles (CuNPs on these specific physical-chemical properties of activated sludge. It was found that most of these properties were unaffected by the exposure to lower CuNPs concentration (5 ppm, but different observation were made at higher CuNPs concentrations (30 and 50 ppm. At the higher CuNPs concentrations, the sludge surface charge increased and the hydrophobicity decreased, which were attributed to more Cu2+ ions released from the CuNPs. The carbohydrate content of EPS was enhanced to defense the toxicity of CuNPs. The flocculating ability was found to be deteriorated due to the increased cell surface charge, the decreased hydrophobicity, and the damaged cell membrane. The worsened flocculating ability made the sludge flocs more dispersed, which further increased the toxicity of the CuNPs by increasing the availability of the CuNPs to the bacteria present in the sludge. Further investigation indicated that the phosphorus removal efficiency decreased at higher CuNPs concentrations, which was consistent with the deteriorated physical-chemical properties of activated sludge. It seems that the physical-chemical properties can be used as an indicator for determining CuNPs toxicity to the bacteria in activated sludge. This work is important because bacteria toxicity effects to the activated sludge caused by nanoparticles may lead to the deteriorated treatment efficiency of wastewater treatment, and it is therefore necessary to find an easy way to indicate this toxicity.

  13. Sodium thiosulphate induced immobilized bacterial disintegration of sludge: An energy efficient and cost effective platform for sludge management and biomethanation.

    Ushani, U; Kavitha, S; Yukesh Kannah, R; Gunasekaran, M; Kumar, Gopalakrishnan; Nguyen, Dinh Duc; Chang, Soon Woong; Rajesh Banu, J

    2018-07-01

    The present study aimed to gain better insights into profitable biomethanation through sodium thiosulphate induced immobilized protease secreting bacterial disintegration (STS-IPBD) of sludge. STS disperse the flocs at 0.08 g/g SS of dosage and assists the subsequent bacterial disintegration. Immobilization of bacteria increases the hydrolytic activity of cells towards effective liquefaction of sludge. A higher liquefaction of 22% was accomplished for STS-IPBD when compared to immobilized protease secreting bacterial disintegration (IPBD alone). The kinetic parameters of Line Weaver Burk plot analysis revealed a maximal specific growth rate (µmax) of 0.320 h -1 for immobilized cells when compared to suspended free cells showing the benefit of immobilization. Floc dispersion and immobilization of bacteria imparts a major role in biomethanation as the methane generation (0.32 gCOD/g COD) was higher in STS-IPBD sample. The cost analysis showed that STS - IPBD was a feasible process with net profit of 2.6 USD/Ton of sludge. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Hydrogenizing oils, asphalts, etc

    1925-03-14

    The hydrogenation of carbonaceous solids in presence of combined sulfur, e.g., sulfides as described in the parent specification is applied to the treatment of rock oils, shale oils, resins, ozokerite, asphalt, and the like, or fractions, residues, or acid sludge or other conversion products thereof, alone or mixed. Preferably the hydrogen or other reducing gas is in excess and under pressure, and is either circuited or led through a series of treatment vessels, hydrogen being added for that used. In an example, residues from American crude oil are passed continuously with hydrogen at 200 atmospheres and 450 to 500/sup 0/C over pressed precipitated cobalt sulfide, the issuing gases being cooled to condense the light oil produced.

  15. Enhanced sludge washing evaluation plan

    Jensen, R.D.

    1994-09-01

    The Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Program mission is to store, treat, and immobilize highly radioactive Hanford Site waste (current and future tank waste and the strontium/cesium capsules) in an environmentally sound, safe, and cost-effective manner. The scope of the TWRS Waste Pretreatment Program is to treat tank waste and separate that waste into HLW and LLW fractions and provide additional treatment as required to feed LLW and HLW immobilization facilities. Enhanced sludge washing was chosen as the baseline process for separating Hanford tank waste sludge. Section 1.0 briefly discusses the purpose of the evaluation plan and provides the background that led to the choice of enhanced sludge washing as the baseline process. Section 2.0 provides a brief summary of the evaluation plan details. Section 3.0 discusses, in some detail, the technical work planned to support the evaluation of enhanced sludge washing. Section 4.0 briefly discusses the potential important of policy issues to the evaluation. Section 5.0 discusses the methodology to be used in the evaluation process. Section 6.0 summarizes the milestones that have been defined to complete the enhanced sludge washing evaluation and provides a summary schedule to evaluate the performance of enhanced sludge washing. References are identified in Section 7.0, and additional schedule and milestone information is provided in the appendices.

  16. Enhanced sludge washing evaluation plan

    Jensen, R.D.

    1994-09-01

    The Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Program mission is to store, treat, and immobilize highly radioactive Hanford Site waste (current and future tank waste and the strontium/cesium capsules) in an environmentally sound, safe, and cost-effective manner. The scope of the TWRS Waste Pretreatment Program is to treat tank waste and separate that waste into HLW and LLW fractions and provide additional treatment as required to feed LLW and HLW immobilization facilities. Enhanced sludge washing was chosen as the baseline process for separating Hanford tank waste sludge. Section 1.0 briefly discusses the purpose of the evaluation plan and provides the background that led to the choice of enhanced sludge washing as the baseline process. Section 2.0 provides a brief summary of the evaluation plan details. Section 3.0 discusses, in some detail, the technical work planned to support the evaluation of enhanced sludge washing. Section 4.0 briefly discusses the potential important of policy issues to the evaluation. Section 5.0 discusses the methodology to be used in the evaluation process. Section 6.0 summarizes the milestones that have been defined to complete the enhanced sludge washing evaluation and provides a summary schedule to evaluate the performance of enhanced sludge washing. References are identified in Section 7.0, and additional schedule and milestone information is provided in the appendices

  17. Effect of biologically treated petroleum sludge on seed germination and seedling growth of Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. (Fabaceae

    Jeyabalan Sangeetha

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation was carried out to study the response of different concentrations of treated petroleum sludge on seed germination, root and shoot length and tolerance of Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. The biologically treated petroleum sludge with bacterial consortium showed 54.8% reduction in total petroleum hydrocarbons. Treated sludge was utilized with agricultural soil in known concentration for the assessment of growth of V. unguiculata. A remarkable absence of seed germination was observed at higher sludge concentration. The different concentrations of treated petroleum sludge showed severe decline on the length, weight and vigour index of the tested seedlings with increasing sludge concentrations. The results showed that the difference in rate of seed germination was significant among various concentrations. Under environmental stress condition, germination is the most critical phase of life cycle in crop plants. In this present study, the high oil content found to alter the osmotic relation between seed and water and thus reduce the amount of water absorbed. It was concluded that the concentration of nutrients and oil present in the treated sludge were toxic to the plant.

  18. Simultaneous determination of pesticide residues and antioxidants in blended oil using a liquid-liquid extraction combined with dispersive solid phase extraction method.

    Fang, Yong; Tian, Wen; Pei, Fei; Li, Peng; Shao, XiaoLong; Fan, Yan; Hu, Qiuhui

    2017-08-15

    This article developed a method to detect two antioxidants (butylated hydroxyl anisole (BHA), butylated hydroxyl toluene (BHT)) and twelve pesticides (dichlorvos, pirimicarb, prothiofos, fenitrothion, ethoprophos, malathion, beta-Cypermethrin, profenofos, diazinon, propoxur, procymidon, captan) in blended oil samples after their extraction simultaneously. The establishment of the method was based on two-step process of screening and optimization experiment design. With a Plackett-Burman (PB) design, significant parameters were found by screening experiment and single factor experiment accompanied by a central composite design (CCD) experiment were used to make important parameters optimal. The coefficients of determination (r 2 ) was between 0.9931 and 0.9996 while the limits of quantification (LOQs) and limits of detection (LODs) were found in scope of 0.002-0.04mg·kg -1 and 0.0006-0.0012mg·kg -1 . Recovery values of analytes were above 74%, at the same time the relative standard deviations (RSDs) under 10% at the concentrations ranging from 0.05mg·kg -1 to 0.20mg·kg -1 . To sum up, this method with shorter time and fewer consumption of reagents could be employed in various occasions to detect antioxidants and pesticides. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A novel task specific magnetic polymeric ionic liquid for selective preconcentration of potassium in oil samples using centrifuge-less dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction technique and its determination by flame atomic emission spectroscopy.

    Beiraghi, Asadollah; Shokri, Masood

    2018-02-01

    In the present study a new centrifuge-less dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction technique based on application of a new task specific magnetic polymeric ionic liquid (TSMPIL) as a chelating and extraction solvent for selective preconcentration of trace amounts of potassium from oil samples is developed, for the first time. After extraction, the fine droplets of TSMPIL were transferred into an eppendorf tube and diluted to 500µL using distilled water. Then, the enriched analyte was determined by flame atomic emission spectroscopy (FAES). Several important factors affecting both the complexation and extraction efficiency including extraction time, rate of vortex agitator, amount of carbonyl iron powder, pH of sample solution, volume of ionic liquid as well as effects of interfering species were investigated and optimized. Under the optimal conditions, the limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) were 0.5 and 1.6µgL -1 respectively with the preconcentration factor of 128. The precision (RSD %) for seven replicate determinations at 10µgL -1 of potassium was better than 3.9%. The relative recoveries for the spiked samples were in the acceptable range of 95-104%. The results demonstrated that no remarkable interferences are created by other various ions in the determination of potassium, so that the tolerance limits (W Ion /W K ) of major cations and anions were in the range of 2500-10,000. The purposed method was successfully applied for the analysis of potassium in some oil samples. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Chemical countermeasures: Dispersants overview of dispersant use (including application) and research issues

    Butler, J.N.

    1992-01-01

    I will attempt in twenty minutes to summarize the state of research on oil spill dispersants as I perceive it. The expertise I bring to this task includes 20 years of experience with the fate and effects of petroleum in the marine environment, including participation in the 1973 and 1981 NRC studies and three years as chairman of the NRC committee on oil spill dispersants. I More recently I served on a committee of the International Maritime Organization which reviewed the open-quotes Impact of oil and related chemicals and wastes on the marine environment.close quotes That report will be published this year. However, my statements in this paper are not made as a representative of either NRC or IMO. They are my own interpretation of scientific literature cited in the above reviews. Dispersants are chemical formulations, which include surface active agents, designed to decrease the interfacial tension between oil and water. Because the first attempts to disperse oil on a large scale, at the Torrey Canyon spill of 1967, used highly toxic degreasing agents, dispersants have an undeserved reputation for toxicity. In fact, for twenty years dispersant formulations have been developed with an emphasis on reducing their toxicity to marine life. The dispersal of oil in water has been documented in the laboratory by dozens of papers (see references in NRC 1989, pp 70-79), and in the field by dozens of studies (NRC 1989, pp 165- 193). The toxicity of commercial dispersant formulations (NRC 1989, pp 81-123) and dispersed oil (NRC 1989, pp 123-147) has been tested on a wide variety of marine organisms ranging from algae to salmonid fishes. The NRC review has been updated by the IMO/GESAMP (1992) study, but the conclusions remain unchanged

  1. Low-temperature pyrolysis of oily sludge: roles of Fe/Al-pillared bentonites

    Jia Hanzhong

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Pyrolysis is potentially an effective treatment of oily sludge for oil recovery, and the addition of a catalyst is expected to affect its pyrolysis behavior. In the present study, Fe/Al-pillared bentonite with various Fe/Al ratios as pyrolysis catalyst is prepared and characterized by XRD, N2 adsorption, and NH3-TPD. The integration of Al and Fe in the bentonite interlayers to form pillared clay is evidenced by increase in the basal spacing. As a result, a critical ratio of Fe/Al exists in the Fe/Al-pillared bentonite catalytic pyrolysis for oil recovery from the sludge. The oil yield increases with respect to increase in Fe/Al ratio of catalysts, then decreases with further increasing of Fe/Al ratio. The optimum oil yield using 2.0 wt% of Fe/Al 0.5-pillared bentonite as catalyst attains to 52.46% compared to 29.23% without catalyst addition in the present study. In addition, the addition of Fe/Al-pillared bentonite catalyst also improves the quality of pyrolysis-produced oil and promotes the formation of CH4. Fe/Al-pillared bentonite provides acid center in the inner surface, which is beneficial to the cracking reaction of oil molecules in pyrolysis process. The present work implies that Fe/Al-pillared bentonite as addictive holds great potential in industrial pyrolysis of oily sludge.

  2. Heating value characteristics of sewage sludge: a comparative study of different sludge types

    Kim, Young-JU.; Kang, Hae-Ok.; Qureshi, T.I.

    2005-01-01

    Heating value characteristics of three different types of sludge, i.e. domestic sewage sludge, industrial sludge, and industrial + domestic sewage sludge were investigated. Industrial + domestic sewage sludge (thickened) showed the highest heating value (5040 kcal/kg) than other sludge types. This may be due to increased amount of organic matter presents in thickened sludge than de-watered sludge. A gradual increase in organic matter of the sludge was observed with the increase of the moisture contents. Heating value of the sludge having 60% moisture contents was found in the range between 924-1656 kcal/kg and this amount was higher than the minimum heating value (800 kcal/kg) required sustaining auto thermal combustion in sludge incineration process. Energy consumption requirement for pre drying sludge operations revealed that industrial sludge (de-watered) required the minimum cost (13 $/ton of sludge) to make it a sludge of fuel grade (60% W), while mixed sludge cost the highest amount for its pre-drying operations. (author)

  3. Dispersion, sorption and photodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in dispersant-seawater-sediment systems.

    Zhao, Xiao; Liu, Wen; Fu, Jie; Cai, Zhengqing; O'Reilly, S E; Zhao, Dongye

    2016-08-15

    This work examined effects of model oil dispersants on dispersion, sorption and photodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in simulated marine systems. Three dispersants (Corexit 9500A, Corexit 9527A and SPC 1000) were used to prepare dispersed water accommodated oil (DWAO). While higher doses of dispersants dispersed more n-alkanes and PAHs, Corexit 9500A preferentially dispersed C11-C20 n-alkanes, whereas Corexit 9527A was more favorable for smaller alkanes (C10-C16), and SPC 1000 for C12-C28 n-alkanes. Sorption of petroleum hydrocarbons on sediment was proportional to TPH types/fractions in the DWAOs. Addition of 18mg/L of Corexit 9500A increased sediment uptake of 2-3 ring PAHs, while higher dispersant doses reduced the uptake, due to micelle-enhanced solubilization effects. Both dispersed n-alkanes and PAHs were susceptible to photodegradation under simulated sunlight. For PAHs, both photodegradation and photo-facilitated alkylation were concurrently taking place. The information can facilitate sounder assessment of fate and distribution of dispersed oil hydrocarbons in marine systems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Fast pyrolysis of lignin, macroalgae and sewage sludge

    Trinh, Ngoc Trung

    effect on the product distributions of the lignin and sewage sludge PCR pyrolysis, as well as their bio-oil properties with respect to molecular mass distribution, identified GC-MS component compositions, water-insoluble fraction, viscosity, and HHV. A maximum of organic oil yields of lignin and sewage...... samples of wood, char and grinded char with respect to phase transitions, rheological properties, elemental composition, and energy density were investigated. Also pumping properties were investigated at temperatures of 25, 40 and 60 ºC and the solids loading of 0 - 20 wt%. The bioslurries obtained...... of the condenser nozzle and high rotor speed for obtaining high bio-oil. The recognized limitations lead to that the old PCR set-up cannot be safely scaled up and perform well in a continuous mode. Thus a new set-up with significant modifications of reactor and bio-condenser has been manufactured to overcome...

  5. The hydraulic transportation of thickened sludges

    driniev

    non-Newtonian sludges (Xu et al., 1993; Spinosa and Lotita, 2001; .... [11]. Analysis and typical applications. Laminar/turbulent transition. For most sewage sludges the ... on Transport and Sedimentation of Solid Particles - Ghent, September.

  6. Microbiological aspects of granular methanogenic sludge

    Dolfing, J.

    1987-01-01

    The settling characteristics of anaerobic sludge are enhanced by the formation of microbial conglomerates. Various types of conglomerates having different structures, were distinguished in the present study, viz. granules, pellets and flocs (chapter 1). Granular methanogenic sludge, often

  7. Radiation hygienization of raw sewage sludge

    Shah, M.R.; Lavale, D.S.; Rawat, P.; Benny, P.G.; Sharma, A.K.; Dey, G.R.; Bhave, V.

    2001-01-01

    'Radiation treatment of municipal sewage sludge can achieve resource conservation and recovery objectives. The liquid sludge irradiator of Sludge Hygienization Research Irradiator at Baroda (India) was operated for generating data on treatment of raw sludge containing 3-4 % solids. The plant system was modified for irradiating raw sludge without affecting basic irradiator initially designed to treat digested sludge. Hourly samples were analysed for estimation of disinfection dose requirement. Sand separated from the sludge was used as in-situ dosimeter by making use of its thermoluminescence property. Investigations are being carried out for regrowth of Total Coliforms in the sludge samples from this irradiator. Possibility of inadequate treatment due to geometric configuration of irradiator is being checked. (author)

  8. Biological sludge solubilisation for reduction of excess sludge production in wastewater treatment process.

    Yamaguchi, T; Yao, Y; Kihara, Y

    2006-01-01

    A novel sludge disintegration system (JFE-SD system) was developed for the reduction of excess sludge production in wastewater treatment plants. Chemical and biological treatments were applied to disintegrate excess sludge. At the first step, to enhance biological disintegration, the sludge was pretreated with alkali. At the second step, the sludge was disintegrated by biological treatment. Many kinds of sludge degrading microorganisms integrated the sludge. The efficiency of the new sludge disintegration system was confirmed in a full-scale experiment. The JFE-SD system reduced excess sludge production by approximately 50% during the experimental period. The quality of effluent was kept at quite a good level. Economic analysis revealed that this system could significantly decrease the excess sludge treatment cost.

  9. The role and control of sludge age in biological nutrient removal activated sludge systems.

    Ekama, G A

    2010-01-01

    The sludge age is the most fundamental and important parameter in the design, operation and control of biological nutrient removal (BNR) activated sludge (AS) systems. Generally, the better the effluent and waste sludge quality required from the system, the longer the sludge age, the larger the biological reactor and the more wastewater characteristics need to be known. Controlling the reactor concentration does not control sludge age, only the mass of sludge in the system. When nitrification is a requirement, sludge age control becomes a requirement and the secondary settling tanks can no longer serve the dual purpose of clarifier and waste activated sludge thickeners. The easiest and most practical way to control sludge age is with hydraulic control by wasting a defined proportion of the reactor volume daily. In AS plants with reactor concentration control, nitrification fails first. With hydraulic control of sludge age, nitrification will not fail, rather the plant fails by shedding solids over the secondary settling tank effluent weirs.

  10. Radiochemical determination of 210 Pb and 226Ra in petroleum sludges and scales

    Araujo, Andressa Arruda de

    2005-01-01

    The oil extraction and production, both onshore and offshore, can generate different types of residues, such as sludge, that is deposited in the water/oil separators, valves and storage tanks and scales, which form i the inner surface of ducts and equipment. Analyses already carried out through gamma spectrometry indicated the existence of high radioisotope concentration. However, radionuclides emitting low-energy gamma-rays, such as 210 Pb, are hardly detected by that technique. Consequently, there is a need to test alternative techniques to determine this and other radionuclides from the 238 U series. This work, therefore, focuses on the radiochemical determination of the concentration of 210 Pb, and 226 Ra in samples of sludge and scale from the oil processing stations of the UN-SEAL, a PETROBRAS unit responsible for the exploration and production of petroleum in Sergipe and Alagoas. The sludge and scale samples went through a preliminary process of extraction of oil, in order to separate the solid phase, where the largest fraction of the radioactivity is concentrated. After oil removal, the samples were digested using alkaline fusion as an option for dissolution. Finally, their activity concentration was determined for the samples of sludge and scales, using and alternative radiochemical method, which is based on ionic exchange. The activity concentration found for 210 Pb varied from 1,14 to 507,3 kBq kg -1 . The values for 226 Ra were higher, varying from 4,36 to 3.445 kBq kg -1 . The results for 226 Ra were then compared with the ones found for the same samples of sludge and scales using gamma spectrometry. The results of the comparison confirm the efficiency of the methodology used int hi work, that is, radiochemical determination by means of ionic exchange. (author)

  11. Morphological Characterization of Photosynthetic Microbial Granule from Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME)

    Najib, M.Z.M.

    2013-01-01

    Presently, global warming is the most highlighted subjects in the environmental issues which relates closely to greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions. In 2007, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) assigns only methane (CH 4 ) emissions to wastewater treatment rather than GHG emissions specifically carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) gas from the aerobic treatment processes. Focusing on the palm oil industry in Malaysia, the most commonly used treatment of palm oil mill effluent (POME) which is the conventional pounding system, has caused excessive generation of GHG such as CH 4 and CO 2 gases. To develop a novel, innovative and environmental-friendly mitigation method, this study explores into the possibility of growing the photosynthetic bacteria in the form of granules via the aerobic granulation process with potential applications in reducing CO 2 gases. The cultivation of photosynthetic microbial granules was investigated using POME as the substrate in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) system via the sequencing cycle of feeding, reacting, settling and decanting. Evidence of the formation of granule was based on microscopic examination of the morphological changes during the development of the granule in the SBR system over a period of 90 days. It shows changes from dispersed loose structure of the sludge merging into small flocs of irregular shapes and finally into dense and compact granular form. The granule was formed by applying an organic loading rate (OLR) at 2.75 kg COD/ m 3 .day, hydraulic retention time (HRT) at 4 h and superficial air velocity of 2.07 cm/ s. The biomass concentration began to decreased first (initial sludge biomass = 16750 mg/ L) and then increased steadily to a constant value of 32000 mg/ L after 90 days. Besides, the results also demonstrated a good accumulation of biomass as the settleability between raw sludge and granule increased from 0.03 cm/ s to 0.94 cm/ s. The maximum settling velocity obtained in the reactor was approximately 2

  12. Liquid agents for dispersion of hard alloys

    Putintseva, M.N.

    2006-01-01

    Effects of dispersant properties on granulometric, chemical, and phase composition of the products of WC hard alloy electroerosion are considered. It is established that an increase of liquid dispersant permittivity results in enhanced powder dispersity, and an increase of boiling temperature and kinematic viscosity of a hydrocarbon liquid promotes a carbon loss from WC and intensifies pyrolysis of the liquid.On electroerosion of WC base hard alloy in oil a powder particle consists of b-WC+W 2 C phases, in kerosine - of a-WC+b-WC, in distilled water - of W+W 2 C. The viscosity of liquid dispersants practically has no effect on powder particle size [ru

  13. Integral study of sewage sludges

    1994-01-01

    Sewage sludges are the by-product generated during the treatment process of waste water, and they are conformed by a solid phase which origin is the accumulation of pollutant materials which has been added to water during natural and anthropogenic activities. Its handling is one of the most serious problems faced by water treatment plants which involve the production, gathering, transportation, re utilization and final disposal of sewage sludges. The main purpose of this project is to perform a technical evaluation of the process of sewage sludge irradiation for its possible application as a choice for treatment and final disposal. Irradiation with gammas from Cobalt-60 shows effectiveness in disinfestation of sewage sludges, since they reduce six times the microbial population with a 7 KGy dose. In like manners with doses of 10 KGy is possible to bring down in 70 % the concentration of organic compounds, as well as to eliminate the presence of 6 to 22 organic compounds on samples of sewage sludges. The whole content of this work is presented in six sections: Introduction, Antecedents, Methodology, Conclusions, Suggestions and Bibliography. (Author)

  14. Excess sludge reduction in activated sludge processes by integrating ultrasound treatment

    Perez-Elvira, S.; Fdz-Polanco, M.; Plaza, F. I.; Garralon, G.; Fdz-Polanco, F.

    2009-01-01

    Biological sludge produced in the activated sludge process can be minimised modifying the water line, the sludge line or the final disposal strategy. Selecting the water line the general idea is to reduce the sludge producing the yield coefficient by means of the called lysis cryptic growth process. The main techniques referenced in literature are onization, chlorination and chemical and heat treatment. Ultrasounds are widely used to increase anaerobic biodegradability but are not reported as system to control excess sludge production. (Author)

  15. Supplementary information on K-Basin sludges

    MAKENAS, B.J.

    1999-01-01

    Three previous documents in this series have been published covering the analysis of: K East Basin Floor and Pit Sludge, K East Basin Canister Sludge, and K West Basin Canister Sludge. Since their publication, additional data have been acquired and analyses performed. It is the purpose of this volume to summarize the additional insights gained in the interim time period

  16. 40 CFR 61.54 - Sludge sampling.

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sludge sampling. 61.54 Section 61.54... sampling. (a) As an alternative means for demonstrating compliance with § 61.52(b), an owner or operator... days prior to a sludge sampling test, so that he may at his option observe the test. (c) Sludge shall...

  17. Heavy metals precipitation in sewage sludge

    Marchioretto, M.M.; Rulkens, W.H.; Bruning, H.

    2005-01-01

    There is a great need for heavy metal removal from strongly metal-polluted sewage sludges. One of the advantages of heavy metal removal from this type of sludge is the possibility of the sludge disposal to landfill with reduced risk of metals being leached to the surface and groundwater. Another

  18. Feasibility of using Ohmsett for dispersant testing and research

    Ross, S.L.; Buist, I.A.; Potter, S.G.; Belore, R.C.

    2000-01-01

    Laboratory dispersant testing proved to be of limited value for the prediction of actual dispersant effectiveness in spill situations. Variables such as oil type, weathered state, dispersant type, dispersant-to-oil ratio application method etc. were difficult to reproduce. A feasibility study was conducted at the Ohmsett facility in Leonardo, New Jersey to determine if the site was suitable for dispersant effectiveness testing. The study consisted of four phases: (1) interfacial tension laboratory tests, (2) turbidity tests, (3) the determination of the efficiency of filtering materials at the facility and alternative filtering materials, and (3) full-scale testing. Results indicated that dispersant in the water after the tests affected the interfacial tension of oils used in other tests following this one. Noticeable dispersion of floating oil occurred only after the concentration of dispersant in the water reached 400 ppm, making it possible to conduct consecutive experiments without having to worry about residual dispersant in the tank. The filtering of water to remove the dispersed oil was only required after several experiments had taken place on a given day. Evidently, it was only possible to have an underwater view of the dispersant testing during the first test of a series. The use of cellulose to aid the filtering at the facility removed most of the dispersed oil. The use of activated carbon resulted in a high degree of efficiency for the removal of dissolved dispersant. The testing of dispersant at Ohmsett proved possible as long as the design and implementation phases of the testing program respected the limitations stipulated above. 3 refs., 3 tabs., 3 figs

  19. Mud-farming of fine oil sands tailings

    Yao, Y.; Tol van, F.; Paassen van, L.; Everts, B.; Mulder, A. [Delft Univ. of Technology, Delft (Netherlands). Dept. of Geotechnology

    2010-07-01

    This PowerPoint presentation discussed an experimental mud-farming technique for fine oil sands tailings. The technique was based on a sub-areal drying technique for dredging sludge developed in the Netherlands for Rotterdam harbour sediments. Between 1960 and 1985, the sludge was deposited in confined disposal sites on land. The sludge was converted to usable clay between 1970 and 1980. The polluted portion of the sludge is stored in a man-made disposal site. The sludge was deposited in thin layers. Stagnant water was then removed. The mud was then dewatered and reused. The sludge was furrowed with amphirol and disc wheels in order to accelerate the ripening process. The dredged material was re-used in a clay factory. The technique was applied to oil sands tailings in order to understand the suction behaviour, sedimentation behaviour, and precipitation deficit of the tailings. State changes of the sludge were monitored. No clear sedimentation phase was identified prior to consolidation. A comparison of material properties showed that the total amount of water to be extracted was more than the Rotterdam sludge, but the suction behaviour was similar. The precipitation deficit from mid-April until September will require a customized deposition strategy. Details and photographs of the experimental studies were included. tabs., figs.

  20. Examination of sewage sludge for specific organic pollutants and their effect on the agriculture usage of sewage sludge; Untersuchung von Klaerschlamm auf ausgewaehlte Schadstoffe und ihr Verhalten bei der landwirtschaftlichen Klaerschlammverwertung

    Hartmann, E.; Bischoff, W.A.; Kaupenjohann, M.; Bundschuh, R.; Koehler, S.; Schmidt, B.; Kleiner, M.; Schraitle, T.

    2001-12-01

    In this research report, 50 different kinds of sewage sludges appropriate for the utilization in agriculture were tested for the organic pollutants that are not regulated in the official sewage sludge directive: organo tin compounds, mineral oil hydrocarbons, the tensides LAS and nonylphenol, as well as chlorinated paraffins. The analysis of mineral oil hydrocarbons was performed using the gaschromatografic method, which is based on DIN-proposal H 53. The analysis data was evaluated according to the size of the waste water treatment plant, its degree of usage to full capacity, the employed cleaning and sewage treatment methods and the industrial discharges. Investigations of sewer slime were conducted in the duct systems of two selected waste water treatment plants and tested for organo tin compounds. The dependence from domestic as well as from certain industrial and commercial sources was examined. In the second part of this research project, organo tin compounds and mineral oil hydrocarbons were tested in field trials and laboratory column experiments for the effects of the distribution of sewage sludge into agriculture. For the column experiments, ground soil samples were taken from two selected areas with muddy and sandy ground. The samples were then compounded with wet sludge and exposed to rain under strictly defined conditions. At the same time, the selected areas were exposed to the maximum amount of sewage sludge permitted and then planted with carrots. After a vegetation period, the carrots were harvested, adsorption bodies (SIA-system-method) were brought into the soil before the sewage sludge fertilization was examined, and several soil samples were taken and analysed for the selected parameters. In these examinations, a minor shift of organo tin compounds from the sewage sludge deeper into the ground can be detected and a shift of mineral oil hydrocarbons cannot be detected. (orig.)

  1. 40 CFR Appendix C to Part 300 - Swirling Flask Dispersant Effectiveness Test, Revised Standard Dispersant Toxicity Test, and...

    2010-07-01

    ... the test oil (i.e., a dispersant-to-oil ratio of 1:10). This ratio is used in the test tank with... minutes for oil droplet “settling.” 7. At the conclusion of the 10-minute settling period, carefully...

  2. Monitoring of biopile composting of oily sludge.

    Kriipsalu, Mait; Nammari, Diauddin

    2010-05-01

    This paper describes a bioreactor set-up used to simulate degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in a static biopile. The large-scale test was performed in a 28 m(3) custom-designed reactor. Oily sludge (40% by weight, having 7% dry matter [DM], and hydrocarbons C(10)-C(40) 160,000 mg kg(-1) DM) was mixed with organic-rich amendments - mature oil-compost (40%) and garden waste compost (20%). Within the reactor, the temperature and soil gases were monitored continuously during 370 days via 24 measurement points. Also, moisture content was continuously recorded and airflow through compost mix occasionally measured. Three-dimensional ordinary kriging spatial models were created to describe the dynamic variations of temperature, air distribution, and hydrocarbon concentration. There were large temperature differences in horizontal and vertical sections during initial months of composting only. Water content of the mixture was uneven by layers, referring on relocation of moisture due to aeration and condensation. The air distribution through the whole reactor varied largely despite of continuous aeration, while the concentration of O(2) was never reduced less than 1-2% on average. The results showed that composting of sludge using force-aerated static biopile technology was justified during the first 3-4 months, after which the masses could be re-mixed and heaped for further maturation in low-tech compost windrows. After 370 days of treatment, the content of hydrocarbons (C( 10)-C(40)) in the compost mixture was reduced by 68.7%.

  3. Chemical modeling of waste sludges

    Weber, C.F.; Beahm, E.C.

    1996-10-01

    The processing of waste from underground storage tanks at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and other facilities will require an understanding of the chemical interactions of the waste with process chemicals. Two aspects of sludge treatment should be well delineated and predictable: (1) the distribution of chemical species between aqueous solutions and solids, and (2) potential problems due to chemical interactions that could result in process difficulties or safety concerns. It is likely that the treatment of waste tank sludge will begin with washing, followed by basic or acidic leaching. The dissolved materials will be in a solution that has a high ionic strength where activity coefficients are far from unity. Activity coefficients are needed in order to calculate solubilities. Several techniques are available for calculating these values, and each technique has its advantages and disadvantages. The techniques adopted and described here is the Pitzer method. Like any of the methods, prudent use of this approach requires that it be applied within concentration ranges where the experimental data were fit, and its use in large systems should be preceded by evaluating subsystems. While much attention must be given to the development of activity coefficients, other factors such as coprecipitation of species and Ostwald ripening must also be considered when one aims to interpret results of sludge tests or to predict results of treatment strategies. An understanding of sludge treatment processes begins with the sludge tests themselves and proceeds to a general interpretation with the aid of modeling. One could stop with only data from the sludge tests, in which case the table of data would become an implicit model. However, this would be a perilous approach in situations where processing difficulties could be costly or result in concerns for the environment or health and safety

  4. Critical operational parameters for zero sludge production in biological wastewater treatment processes combined with sludge disintegration.

    Yoon, Seong-Hoon; Lee, Sangho

    2005-09-01

    Mathematical models were developed to elucidate the relationships among process control parameters and the effect of these parameters on the performance of anoxic/oxic biological wastewater processes combined with sludge disintegrators (A/O-SD). The model equations were also applied for analyses of activated sludge processes hybrid with sludge disintegrators (AS-SD). Solubilization ratio of sludge in the sludge disintegrator, alpha, hardly affected sludge reduction efficiencies if the biomass was completely destructed to smaller particulates. On the other hand, conversion efficiency of non-biodegradable particulates to biodegradable particulates, beta, significantly affected sludge reduction efficiencies because beta was directly related to the accumulation of non-biodegradable particulates in bioreactors. When 30% of sludge in the oxic tank was disintegrated everyday and beta was 0.5, sludge reduction was expected to be 78% and 69% for the A/O-SD and AS-SD processes, respectively. Under this condition, the sludge disintegration number (SDN), which is the amount of sludge disintegrated divided by the reduced sludge, was calculated to be around 4. Due to the sludge disintegration, live biomass concentration decreased while other non-biodegradable particulates concentration increased. As a consequence, the real F/M ratio was expected to be much higher than the apparent F/M. The effluent COD was maintained almost constant for the range of sludge disintegration rate considered in this study. Nitrogen removal efficiencies of the A/O-SD process was hardly affected by the sludge disintegration until daily sludge disintegration reaches 40% of sludge in the oxic tank. Above this level of sludge disintegration, autotrophic biomass concentration decreases overly and TKN in the effluent increases abruptly in both the A/O-SD and AS-SD processes. Overall, the trends of sludge reduction and effluent quality according to operation parameters matched well with experimental results

  5. Anaerobic digestion of industrial activated aerobic sludge

    Goodloe, J.G.; Roberts, R.S.

    1990-04-01

    The Tennessee Eastman Company manufactures a variety of organic chemicals, plastics and fibers at their Kingsport Tennessee Facility. The wastewater generated during the manufacture of these compounds is currently treated using an activated sludge process. The objective of the project is to evaluate the economic potential of an anaerobic digestion process to convert industrial sludge at the Tennessee Eastman Company into biogas. The evaluation will require collection and analysis of experimental data on the anaerobic digestion of industrial sludge obtained from Kingsport. Although the experiments will be conducted using Tennessee Eastman sludge, these results should be also generally applicable to similar industrial sludge

  6. Sludge cleaning in the steam generators: sludge Lancing e IBL

    Montoro, E.; Gonzalez, S.; Calderon, N.

    2013-01-01

    IBERDROLA Engineering and Construction has echoed the need for plants to remove oxide deposits (sludge) located on the secondary side, on the bottom plate and into the tube bundle steam steam generators. Therefore, and with its partner SAVAC SRA has developed a specific system consisting of applying a capillary water at very high pressure applied directly to the location of these oxides. (Author)

  7. Dispersion strengthening

    Scattergood, R.O.; Das, E.S.P.

    1976-01-01

    Using digital computer-based methods, models for dispersion strengthening can now be developed which take into account many of the important effects that have been neglected in the past. In particular, the self interaction of a dislocation can be treated, and a computer simulation method was developed to determine the flow stress of a random distribution of circular, impenetrable obstacles, taking into account all such interactions. The flow stress values depended on the obstacle sizes and spacings, over and above the usual 1/L dependence where L is the average obstacle spacing. From an analysis of the results, it was found that the main effects of the self interactions can be captured in a line tension analogue in which the obstacles appear to be penetrable

  8. Filterability of membrane bioreactor (MBR) sludge: impacts of polyelectrolytes and mixing with conventional activated sludge.

    Yigit, Nevzat O; Civelekoglu, Gokhan; Cinar, Ozer; Kitis, Mehmet

    2010-01-01

    The main objective of this work was to investigate the filterability of MBR sludge and its mixture with conventional activated sludge (CAS). In addition, the impacts of type and dose of various polyelectrolytes, filter type and sludge properties on the filterability of both MBR and Mixed sludges were determined. Specific cake resistance (SCR) measured by the Buchner funnel filtration test apparatus and the solids content of the resulting sludge cake were used to assess the dewaterability of tested sludges. The type of filter paper used in Buchner tests affected the results of filterability for MBR, CAS and Mixed sludges. SCR values and optimum polyelectrolyte doses increased with increasing MLSS concentrations in the MBR, which suggested that increase in MLSS concentrations accompanied by increases in EPS and SMP concentrations and a shift toward smaller particles caused poorer dewaterability of the MBR sludge. The significant differences observed among the filterability of CAS and MBR sludges suggested that MLSS alone is not a good predictor of sludge dewaterability. Combining CAS and MBR sludges at different proportions generally improved their dewaterability. Combining MBR sludges having typically high MLSS and EPS concentrations with CAS having much lower MLSS concentrations may be an option for full-scale treatment plants experiencing sludge dewaterability problems. Better filterability and higher cake dry solids were achieved with cationic polyelectrolytes compared to anionic and non-ionic ones for all sludge types tested.

  9. Electrodialytic removal of cadmium from wastewater sludge

    Jakobsen, M. R.; Fritt-Rasmussen, Janne; Nielsen, S.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents for the first time laboratory results demonstrating electrodialytic removal of Cd from wastewater sludge, which is a method originally developed for soil remediation. During the remediation a stirred suspension of wastewater sludge was exposed to an electric dc field. The liquid....../solid (ml/g fresh sludge) ratio was between 1.4 and 2. Three experiments were performed where the sludge was suspended in distilled water, citric acid or HNO"3. The experimental conditions were otherwise identical. The Cd removal in the three experiments was 69, 70 and 67%, respectively, thus the removal...... was approximately the same. Chemical extraction experiments with acidic solutions showed that 5-10 times more Cd could be extracted from decomposed sludge than from fresh sludge. It is likely that the mobilization of Cd during decomposition of the sludge contributes to the efficient removal of Cd...

  10. 76 FR 76314 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    2011-12-07

    ... that addressed the source materials stored on-site. Removal activities included waste removal, water treatment, oil/water separation, and sludge stabilization. Approximately 250,000 gallons of water were... sludge and other residual material by pressure steaming the vessel holds, engines and boilers. Engines...

  11. Solidification process for sludge residue

    Pearce, K.L.

    1998-01-01

    This report investigates the solidification process used at 100-N Basin to solidify the N Basin sediment and assesses the N Basin process for application to the K Basin sludge residue material. This report also includes a discussion of a solidification process for stabilizing filters. The solidified matrix must be compatible with the Environmental Remediation Disposal Facility acceptance criteria

  12. Sludge stabilization operability test report

    Lewis, W.S.

    1994-01-01

    Document provides the results of the Operability Test Procedure performed to test the operability of the HC-21C thermal stabilization process for sludge. The OTP assured all equipment functioned properly and established the baseline temperature profile for glovebox HC-21C

  13. Thermal analysis of kieselguhr sludge

    S. T. Antipov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available It’s currently necessary to clarify the mechanisms of thermodynamic and mass transfer processes in capillary porous media. In this paper we obtain the thermogravimetric curves of evaporation drying kieselguhr sludge. It is also an analysis of the curves, allowing to choose the optimum conditions of drying.

  14. Fluidization of Dried Wastewater Sludge.

    Hartman, Miloslav; Pohořelý, Michael; Trnka, Otakar

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 178, 3 (2007) , s. 166-172 ISSN 0032-5910 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA4072201 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : fluidization characteristics * multiphase reactors * dried stabilized wastewater sludge Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 1.130, year: 2007

  15. Fermentation and chemical treatment of pulp and paper mill sludge

    Lee, Yoon Y; Wang, Wei; Kang, Li

    2014-12-02

    A method of chemically treating partially de-ashed pulp and/or paper mill sludge to obtain products of value comprising taking a sample of primary sludge from a Kraft paper mill process, partially de-ashing the primary sludge by physical means, and further treating the primary sludge to obtain the products of value, including further treating the resulting sludge and using the resulting sludge as a substrate to produce cellulase in an efficient manner using the resulting sludge as the only carbon source and mixtures of inorganic salts as the primary nitrogen source, and including further treating the resulting sludge and using the resulting sludge to produce ethanol.

  16. Radiation disinfection of sewage sludge and composting of the irradiated sludge

    Hashimoto, Shoji; Nishimura, Koichi; Watanabe, Hiromasa; Kawakami, Waichiro

    1985-01-01

    In the radiation disinfected sewage sludge, its stabilization is necessary with the composting. In this disinfected sludge, there is no need of keeping it at high temperature at the cost of fermentation velocity. The fermentation velocity can thus be set to obtain its maximum value. In sewage sludge utilization of farm land, to prevent the contamination with pathogenic bacteria and the secondary pollution, the radiation disinfection of dehydrated sludge and the composting of the disinfected sludge have been studied. The disinfection effect when an electron accelerator is used for the radiation source is described. Then, the composting of the disinfected sludge is described in chemical kinetics of the microorganisms. (Mori, K.)

  17. Effects of Sludge-amendment on Mineralization of Pyrene and Microorganisms in Sludge and Soil

    Klinge, C; Gejlsbjerg, B; Ekelund, Flemming

    2001-01-01

    . Sludge-amendment enhanced the mineralization of pyrene in the soil compared to soil without sludge, and the most extensive mineralization was observed when the sludge was kept in a lump. The number of protozoa, heterotrophic bacteria and pyrene-mineralizing bacteria was much higher in the sludge compared...... to the soil. The amendment of sludge did not affect the number of protozoa and bacteria in the surrounding soil, which indicated that organic contaminants in the sludge had a little effect on the number of protozoa and bacteria in the surrounding soil...

  18. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF PALM OIL MILL EFFLUENT AND OIL PALM FROND WASTE MIXTURE AS AN ALTERNATIVE BIOMASS FUEL

    S. HASSAN, L. S. KEE

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Palm oil mill effluent (POME sludge generated from palm oil mill industry and oil palm frond (OPF from oil palm plantation are considered biomass wastes that can be fully utilized as a renewable energy sources. In this study, an attempt has been made to convert these residues into solid biomass fuel. The study was conducted by developing experimental testing on the POME and OPF mixture. The performance of each sample with different weight percentage was investigated using standard tests. The biomass mixture was converted into compressed form of briquette through a simple process. The properties of the briquettes were observed and compared at different weight percentage following standard testing methods included ultimate and proximate analyses, burning characteristics, dimensional stability and crack analysis. Experimental results showed that POME sludge and OPF mixture is feasible as an alternative biomass fuel, with briquette of 90:10 POME sludge to OPF ratio has a good combination of properties as an overall.

  19. Hexavalent chromium removal using aerobic activated sludge batch ...

    The following Cr(VI) removal systems were tested: activated sludge alone; activated sludge with an external electron donor (5 g/. of lactose); activated sludge with PAC addition (4 g/.); activated sludge with both PAC and lactose; and PAC alone. The results reported here showed that activated sludges are capable of ...

  20. Comamonas sp. EB172 isolated from digester treating palm oil mill ...

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-11-19

    Nov 19, 2008 ... palm oil mill effluent as potential polyhydroxyalkanoate. (PHA) producer ... modifications to old ones to reduce the environmental impact of ... In this study, sludge was obtained from open digester tank (ODT) treating POME at ...

  1. Optimization of joint recycling process of drilling sludge and phosphogypsum

    I. Yu. Ablieieva

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Joint recycling of drilling sludge and phosphogypsum with obtaining a building material is environmentally appropriate and cost-effective, as it helps not only to prevent environmental pollution, but also to solve the problem of rational nature management. Drilling sludge is a waste formed during drilling oil wells, and phosphogypsum is a waste of the chemical industry, formed as a result of the production of concentrational phosphoric acid. However, technogenic raw materials contain heavy metals that can be transformed into a finished product and leached out of it. The problem of minimizing the negative impact of pollutants is very important to reduce the risk to human health. The author's idea is to optimize ecological characteristics of drilling waste and phosphogypsum recycling process. The concentration of heavy metals in the extract of gypsum concrete was determined as the function of the target which depends primarily on structural and technological parameters. The purpose of the article is solution to mathematical programming task, i.e., finding optimal solutions for the factors values of drilling sludge and phosphogypsum recycling process. Mathematical programming solution to optimization problem of the gypsum concrete environmental characteristics (to minimize concentration of heavy metals in the extract was performed by the method of simple random search in the Borland C ++ programming environment using C programming language. It is necessary to observe the values of such factors to minimize concentration of heavy metals in the extract of gypsum concrete. The mass ratio of gypsum binder and drilling sludge is 2.93 units, the mass ratio of quick lime and gypsum binder is 0.09 units, the age of gypsum concrete is above 19 days, exposure time is 28 days.

  2. When oil spills emulsify

    Bobra, M.; Fingas, M.; Tennyson, E.

    1992-01-01

    Cleanup operations of oil spills must take into account the numerous detrimental effects attributable to the emulsification of spilled oil into a stable water-in-oil mousse. The incorporation of water greatly increases the volume of the polluted material. The viscous nature of mousse impedes the efficient operation of most mechanical recovery equipment and results in a cohesive slick that resists dispersion, both natural and artificial. The rate at which spilled oil emulsifies determines the effective window of opportunity for specific countermeasures. Much has been learned from previous studies on petroleum emulsification, but is still remain a poorly understood phenomenon. Although most crude oils can be emulsified, not all spills result in the formation of stable mousse. The formation of mousse results from a complex series of processes. Whether an oil will form mousse or not, and if so, at what rate, depends on an array of different factors including the properties of the oil and the prevailing environmental conditions. We need a greater understanding of the emulsification process to better predict the emulsification behavior of oil spills and utilize the most appropriate countermeasures available. In this paper, the authors report on work to elucidate the role that physicochemical factors play in determining an oil's tendency to emulsify. The authors studied the emulsification behavior of oils of known composition to examine the importance of oil chemistry in the emulsification process

  3. Hydrodynamic dispersion

    Pryce, M.H.L.

    1985-01-01

    A dominant mechanism contributing to hydrodynamic dispersion in fluid flow through rocks is variation of travel speeds within the channels carrying the fluid, whether these be interstices between grains, in granular rocks, or cracks in fractured crystalline rocks. The complex interconnections of the channels ensure a mixing of those parts of the fluid which travel more slowly and those which travel faster. On a macroscopic scale this can be treated statistically in terms of the distribution of times taken by a particle of fluid to move from one surface of constant hydraulic potential to another, lower, potential. The distributions in the individual channels are such that very long travel times make a very important contribution. Indeed, while the mean travel time is related to distance by a well-defined transport speed, the mean square is effectively infinite. This results in an asymmetrical plume which differs markedly from a gaussian shape. The distribution of microscopic travel times is related to the distribution of apertures in the interstices, or in the microcracks, which in turn are affected in a complex way by the stresses acting on the rock matrix

  4. Bats of the Colorado oil shale region

    Finley, R.B. Jr.; Caire, W.; Wilhelm, D.E.

    1984-10-31

    New records for Myotis californicus, M. evotis, M. leibii, M. lucifugus, M. thysanodes, M. volans, M. yumanensis, Lasionycteris noctivagans, Pipistrellus hesperus, Eptesicus fuscus, Lasiurus cinereus, Plecotus townsendii, and Antrozous pallidus and their habitat occurrence in northwestern Colorado are reported. Mortality of 27 bats of six species trapped in an oil sludge pit is described. 7 references.

  5. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 503 - Procedure To Determine the Annual Whole Sludge Application Rate for a Sewage Sludge

    2010-07-01

    ... Whole Sludge Application Rate for a Sewage Sludge A Appendix A to Part 503 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SEWAGE SLUDGE STANDARDS FOR THE USE OR DISPOSAL OF SEWAGE SLUDGE Pt... a Sewage Sludge Section 503.13(a)(4)(ii) requires that the product of the concentration for each...

  6. Characteristics of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) in the oil and gas industries: an overview

    Mohamad Puad Abu; Mohd Noor Mohd Yunus; Sopian, K.; Amran Abd Majid

    1999-01-01

    Activities and work practices in which radiation exposure of workers and members of the public is increased due to the presence of NORM are receiving increased attention from regulatory agencies and, to lesser extent, from the general public. In Malaysia the main sources of NORM are from the technological activities of tin mining, ore and heavy mineral processing, combustion of coal to generate power, and oil and gas extraction. The crude oil sludge that contains NORM arising from the oil and gas extraction activities lately has received special attention by the Malaysian regulatory authorities. These crude oil sludge are considered as Scheduled Waste (contains heavy metals) by Department of Environmental (DOE) and very low level radioactive waste which contains NORM by the Atomic Energy Licensing Board (AELB), and its cannot be disposed without permission and proper control. This paper reviewed the radiological behaviour and characteristic o NORM in the crude oil sludge from the oil and gas production activities in Malaysia. (Author)

  7. Textile wastewater treatment: aerobic granular sludge vs activated sludge systems.

    Lotito, Adriana Maria; De Sanctis, Marco; Di Iaconi, Claudio; Bergna, Giovanni

    2014-05-01

    Textile effluents are characterised by high content of recalcitrant compounds and are often discharged (together with municipal wastewater to increase their treatability) into centralized wastewater treatment plants with a complex treatment scheme. This paper reports the results achieved adopting a granular sludge system (sequencing batch biofilter granular reactor - SBBGR) to treat mixed municipal-textile wastewater. Thanks to high average removals in SBBGR (82.1% chemical oxygen demand, 94.7% total suspended solids, 87.5% total Kjeldahl nitrogen, 77.1% surfactants), the Italian limits for discharge into a water receiver can be complied with the biological stage alone. The comparison with the performance of the centralized plant treating the same wastewater has showed that SBBGR system is able to produce an effluent of comparable quality with a simpler treatment scheme, a much lower hydraulic residence time (11 h against 30 h) and a lower sludge production. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Investigation of waste biomass co-pyrolysis with petroleum sludge using a response surface methodology.

    Hu, Guangji; Li, Jianbing; Zhang, Xinying; Li, Yubao

    2017-05-01

    The treatment of waste biomass (sawdust) through co-pyrolysis with refinery oily sludge was carried out in a fixed-bed reactor. Response surface method was applied to evaluate the main and interaction effects of three experimental factors (sawdust percentage in feedstock, temperature, and heating rate) on pyrolysis oil and char yields. It was found that the oil and char yields increased with sawdust percentage in feedstock. The interaction between heating rate and sawdust percentage as well as between heating rate and temperature was significant on the pyrolysis oil yield. The higher heating value of oil originated from sawdust during co-pyrolysis at a sawdust/oily sludge ratio of 3:1 increased by 5 MJ/kg as compared to that during sawdust pyrolysis alone, indicating a synergistic effect of co-pyrolysis. As a result, petroleum sludge can be used as an effective additive in the pyrolysis of waste biomass for improving its energy recovery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Phase behavior and phase inversion for dispersant systems

    Solheim, A.; Brandvik, P.J.

    1991-06-01

    This report describes some preliminary phase behavior studies and phase inversion temperature measurements in seawater, bunker oil and dispersant. The objectives have been to find new ways of characterizing dispersants for dispersing oil spill at sea and, perhaps, to throw new lights on the mechanism of dispersion formation (oil-in-water emulsification). The work has been focussed on the relation to phase behavior and the existence of microemulsion in equilibrium with excess oil and water phases. The dispersing process is also compared to the recommended conditions for emulsion formation. When forming an oil-in-water emulsion in an industrial process, it is recommended to choose an emulsifier which gives a phase inversion temperature (PIT) which is 20 - 60 o C higher than the actual temperature for use. The emulsification process must take place close to the PIT which is the temperature at which the emulsion change from oil-in-water emulsion to water-in-oil emulsion when the system is stirred. This condition corresponds to the temperature where the phase behavior change character. The purpose has been to find out if the composition of the dispersants corresponds to the recommendations for oil-in-water emulsification. The amount of experimental work has been limited. Two kinds of experiments have been carried out. Phase behavior studies have been done for seawater, bunker oil and four different dispersants where one had an optimal composition. The phase behavior was hard to interpret and is not recommended for standard dispersants test. The other experimental technique was PIT-measurements by conductivity measurements versus temperature. 4 figs., 1 tab., 4 refs

  10. K Basin sludge dissolution engineering study

    Westra, A.G.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this engineering study is to investigate the available technology related to dissolution of the K Basin sludge in nitric acid. The conclusion of this study along with laboratory and hot cell tests with actual sludge samples will provide the basis for beginning conceptual design of the sludge dissolver. The K Basin sludge contains uranium oxides, fragments of metallic U, and some U hydride as well as ferric oxyhydroxide, aluminum oxides and hydroxides, windblown sand that infiltrated the basin enclosure, ion exchange resin, and miscellaneous materials. The decision has been made to dispose of this sludge separate from the fuel elements stored in the basins. The sludge will be conditioned so that it meets Tank Waste Remediation System waste acceptance criteria and can be sent to one of the underground storage tanks. Sludge conditioning will be done by dissolving the fuel constituents in nitric acid, separating the insoluble material, adding neutron absorbers for criticality safety, and then reacting the solution with caustic to co-precipitate the uranium and plutonium. There will be five distinct feed streams to the sludge conditioning process two from the K East (KE) Basin and three from the K West (KW) Basin. The composition of the floor and pit sludges which contain more iron oxides and sand than uranium is much different than the canister sludges which are composed of mostly uranium oxides. The sludge conditioning equipment will be designed to process all of the sludge streams, but some of the operating parameters will be adjusted as necessary to handle the different sludge stream compositions. The volume of chemical additions and the amount of undissolved solids will be much different for floor and pit sludge than for canister sludge. Dissolution of uranium metal and uranium dioxide has been studied quite thoroughly and much information is available. Both uranium metal and uranium dioxide have been dissolved on a large scale in nuclear fuel

  11. Starved air combustion-solidification/stabilization of primary chemical sludge from a tannery

    Swarnalatha, S. [Department of Environmental Technology, Central Leather Research Institute, Adyar, Chennai-600 020, Tamil Nadu (India); Ramani, K. [Department of Environmental Technology, Central Leather Research Institute, Adyar, Chennai-600 020, Tamil Nadu (India); Karthi, A. Geetha [Department of Environmental Technology, Central Leather Research Institute, Adyar, Chennai-600 020, Tamil Nadu (India); Sekaran, G. [Department of Environmental Technology, Central Leather Research Institute, Adyar, Chennai-600 020, Tamil Nadu (India)]. E-mail: ganesansekaran@hotmail.com

    2006-09-01

    The high concentration of trivalent chromium along with organic/inorganic compounds in tannery sludge causes severe ground water contamination in the case of land disposal and chronic air pollution during incineration. In the present investigation, the sludge was subjected to flow-through column test to evaluate the concentration of leachable organics (tannin, COD and TOC) and heavy metal ions (Cr{sup 3+}, Fe{sup 2+}) present in it. The dried sludge was incinerated at 800 deg. C in an incinerator under starved oxygen supply (starved-air combustion) to prevent the conversion of Cr{sup 3+} to Cr{sup 6+}. The efficiency of starved air combustion was studied under different loading rates of sludge. The calcined sludge was solidified/stabilized using fly ash and Portland cement/gypsum. The solidified bricks were tested for unconfined compressive strength and heavy metal leaching. Unconfined compressive strength of the blocks was in the range of 83-156 kg/cm{sup 2}. The stabilization of chromium (III) in the cement gel matrix was confirmed with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDX). Leachability studies on solidified bricks were carried out to determine the metal fixation and dissolved organic (as COD) concentration in the leachate.

  12. STUDY ON MAXIMUM SPECIFIC SLUDGE ACIVITY OF DIFFERENT ANAEROBIC GRANULAR SLUDGE BY BATCH TESTS

    2001-01-01

    The maximum specific sludge activity of granular sludge from large-scale UASB, IC and Biobed anaerobic reactors were investigated by batch tests. The limitation factors related to maximum specific sludge activity (diffusion, substrate sort, substrate concentration and granular size) were studied. The general principle and procedure for the precise measurement of maximum specific sludge activity were suggested. The potential capacity